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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY FOR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1946

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
OF THE
PEOVINCIAL MUSEUM
OF
NATURAL HISTORY
AND
ANTHROPOLOGY
FOR THE YEAR 1944
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
T'linled hy Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1945.  To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provin-
.cial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1944.
H. G. T. PERRY,
Minister of Education.
Office of the Minister of Education,
Victoria, B.C. Provincial Museum of Natural History
and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., March 15, 1945.
The Honourable H. G. T. Perry,
Minister of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report of the activities of
the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1944.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
G. CLIFFORD CARL,
Director. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
The Honourable H. G. T. Perry, Minister.
Dr. S. J. Willis, Superintendent.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY.
Staff:
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
George A. Hardy, Botanist.
A. E. Pickford, Assistant in Anthropology (from May 15th).
Lillian C. Sweeney, Assistant Preparator (Artist).
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Clerk-Stenographer.
Frank L. Beebe, Laboratory Assistant and Illustrator (to May 10th).
H. H. Pegler, Attendant.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY.
OBJECTS.
(a.) To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the
Province.
' (6.)  To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
Province.
(c.) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly to
the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge regarding
the same.
(Section 4, " Provincial Museum Act," R.S.B.C. 1936, c. 231.)
ADMISSION.
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, week-days, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.;
and on Sunday afternoons, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Director  7
Exhibition and Preparation ,   7
Special Exhibitions    7
Field-work  8
Publications  8
Motion-pictures  9
Education  9
Museum Lectures  9
Other Lectures and Activities  10
Research  10
Staff Changes  10
Building Maintenance  10
Attendance  11
Report of Botanist  12
Report of Entomologist  13
Report of Anthropologist  13
Accessions to the Museum  14
Report:   " Flora and Fauna of the Paradise Mine Area, British Columbia," by
G. Clifford Carl and George A. Hardy  18 REPORT of the PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
FOR THE YEAR 1944.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
The Provincial Museum has again experienced a busy year from the standpoint of
both attendance and activities of the various staff members. The following report
contains accounts of the services rendered and the progress made in the work of the
Museum during the year 1944.
EXHIBITION AND PREPARATION.
Living animals and plants have again been featured in the natural history displays
on the main floor of the building. Of greatest interest in this section is a demonstration hive of honey-bees, prepared and loaned by the Department of Agriculture through
Mr. J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister. The hive is glass-encased so that all the activities
of the insects are open to view. A glass tube leading from the hive to the outside via
a hole through the window-frame permits the workers to enter and leave at will. This
exhibit has been a source of great interest to both children and adults.
Among the insects, an enlarged model of the mosquito has been completed and
placed on display. Among the fishes, a series of wax replicas of introduced fresh-water
species has been placed on exhibit along with recently prepared models of certain other
salt-water species. Other models prepared by Mrs. Sweeney during the year are as
follows: goldfish, pickerel, wolf-eel (juvenile), fringed greenling, white sturgeon, and
Spanish flag (rock-fish).
In the palffiontological section, small-scale models of the Wood bison {Bison bison
athabascas) and Columbian horse (Equus columbianus) have been sculptured by Mrs.
Sweeney and placed on display.
In addition to the preparation of the above Mrs. Sweeney has been engaged in the
painting of a number of panels depicting various phases in the life of the native tribes
of this Province just prior to the coming of the white man. Material upon which these
scenes are based has been supplied by the researches of Mr. A. E. Pickford, a new
member of the staff. The following units have been prepared: Haida—Village on
Queen Charlotte Islands (prepared in part by F. L. Beebe); Tsimshian—Eulachon
Fishery on the Nass; Kwakiutl—Wolf Dance; Interior Salish—Winter Scene; Interior
Salish—Summer Scene; Coast Salish—Salmon-fishing on the Fraser; Coast Salish—
Potlatch on the Cowichan.
A display case on the main floor has featured several subjects during the year, such
as " Sea-shore Life," arranged by Mr. Hardy; "Aleutian Baskets " and " Recent Accessions," both arranged by Mr. Pickford.
SPECIAL EXHIBITIONS.
During the period of May 15th to 31st an exhibition of Indian art work and
handicrafts was held in the Museum under the auspices of the Society for the Furtherance of British Columbia Indian Arts and Crafts. Outstanding was the work of
George C. Clutesi, of Alberni, a member of the Seshart Tribe, whose entries included
water colours, pastels, and oils featuring the dances, costumes, and legends of his
people. Many beautiful baskets, some of extremely fine workmanship, were also
entered by West Coast natives. Schools contributing to the exhibition included: St.
Catherine's School  (Duncan), Christie Indian School   (Kakawis), Indian Residential
7 C 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
School  (Kuper Island), Penticton Indian Day School, and Songhees School  (Craig-
flower).
Commencing December 6th a display of art work prepared by men of the Casualty
Conditioning Centre, Gordon Head, was featured on the main floor. Entries consisted
of oils, water colours, pencil, pen and ink sketches, and soap carvings, part of the
creative work carried on by the Canadian Legion War Services under the direction of
Mr. Anthony Walsh. The exhibition was opened by Mrs. Ina D. D. Uhthoff, Vice-
Chairman of the newly formed Vancouver Island Division of the Federation of Canadian
Artists.
FIELD-WORK.
The major activity under this heading during the past season was a collecting trip
through Southern British Columbia to the Paradise Mine area near Windermere during
the period August 14th to September 5th, inclusive. The party consisted of the Director and the Botanist; at Kamloops we were joined by Mr. George P. Holland, of the
Dominion Livestock Insect Laboratory, who accompanied us for most of the time in the
field. Our route took us south through Vernon to Keremeos; thence east to Osoyoos,
through Trail, Nelson, and Creston to Cranbrook, where we met and were entertained
by Mr. and Mrs. Walter B. Johnstone. Accompanied by Mr. Johnstone we turned north
to Invermere and then west up a mountain road to Paradise Mine, where we spent the
greater part of our time. The Museum staff members returned to the coast via the
Monashee Pass to Vernon, Mr. Holland having returned to Kamloops by train some
days previous to our departure from the mine.
While camping out en route we collected specimens wherever possible, particularly
plants and small mammals. Among the latter we were fortunate in trapping at
Osoyoos two specimens of harvest mice (Reithrodontomys meglotis nigrescens Howell),
a mouse but lately added to the list of species known to occur in the Province (see
Holland, George P., Murrelet, Vol. 23, No. 2, p. 60, 1942). A detailed account of the
field-work carried out at Paradise Mine will be found elsewhere in this report.
At several points in our trip we were entertained and otherwise assisted by several
friends whom we wish to thank here. These include Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Gregson and
Mr. and Mrs. George P. Holland, of Kamloops; Major and Mrs. Allan Brooks, of Okanagan Landing; Mr. H. H. Currie, of Nelson; and Mr. and Mrs. Walter B. Johnstone,
of Cranbrook.
During the period September 11th to 15th Mr. Pickford carried on an investigation
into the structure and contents of a prehistoric mound at Duncan, of which further
details are given in a later section.
PUBLICATIONS.
The following articles and publications have originated from the Museum during
the past twelve months:—
" The Reptiles of British Columbia."    G. Clifford Carl.    Handbook Number 3,
British Columbia Provincial Museum, pp. 1-60, April, 1944.
" The Natural History of the Forbidden Plateau Area, Vancouver Island, British
Columbia."    G. Clifford Carl.    Report of the Provincial Museum for 1943, pp.
18-40, 1 plate, 1 map, 1944.
" Some Slugs of British Columbia."    G. Clifford Carl.    Canadian Nature, Volume
6, Number 1, pp. 5 and 6, 1944.
"Wildlife and Man."    G. Clifford Carl.    Victoria Naturalist, Volume 1, Number
1, pp. 5-6, 1944.
" Fairy Shrimps, Harbingers of Spring."    G. Clifford Carl.    Victoria Naturalist,
Volume 1, Number 2, p. 19, 1944. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944.
C 9
G. Clifford Carl.    Victoria Naturalist, Volume
Victoria Naturalist, Volume 1, Number 3,
George A. Hardy.    Canadian Nature,
" The Vancouver Island Marmot."
1, Number 6, pp. 77-78, 1944.
" Pacific Salmon."   G. Clifford Carl,
pp. 36-38, 1944.
" Bracket Fungus—The Dryad's Saddle."
Volume 5, Number 3, pp. 80-81, 1944.
" Mushroom Time." George A. Hardy. Victoria Naturalist, Volume 1, Number
5, pp. 60-64, 1944.
" Further Notes on the Cerambycidse of Vancouver Island (Coleoptera)." George
A. Hardy. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia,
Volume 41, pp. 15-18, 1944.
" Northern Bald Eagle." Frank L. Beebe. Victoria Naturalist, Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 20-21, 1944.
" A Corner Stone of Canadian Culture." Alice Ravenhill. Occasional Paper Number 5, Provincial Museum, pp. 1-103, 20 plates, March, 1944.
The Occasional Paper by Miss Alice Ravenhill, which presents a brief outline of
the arts, crafts, and legends of the native tribes, has been in such demand since its
appearance that the supply of copies has become exhausted; a second issue is planned
for 1945. The reptile handbook has also been well received. These two contributions
have done much to publicize the work of the Museum.
MOTION-PICTURES.
A motion-picture film in colour, entitled " Nature's Amphibians " and featuring
salamanders, frogs, and toads of the Province, has been completed through the co-operation of Mr. C. R. D. Ferris, of the British Columbia Travel Bureau. Copies of the film
have already been shown to many groups and have been well received.
From time to time during the year other material has been recorded on film for
possible future use.
EDUCATION.
Museum Lectures.
A series of illustrated lectures was again presented at the Museum for school
children of the Greater Victoria area during February and March. The following table
summarizes the programme and the attendance:—
Date.
Subject.
Speaker.
Dr. J. A. Pearce, Director, Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, B.C.
February 26.	
March 4	
" The Game of Life M	
" Merry-go-round of Plant Life ".
Dr. G. Clifford Carl, Provincial Museum.
Mr. George A. Hardy, Provincial Museum.
Mr. Eric H. Garman, Forest Branch, Department of Lands.
March 18    —
Dr. G. Clifford Carl, Provincial Museum.
March 25
of Fisheries.
Total attendance, 2,533.
We are again indebted to Mr. A. T. Goward, Vice-President of the British Columbia Electric Railway Company, for granting special travelling privileges to school
children attending the lectures. We wish to thank also Dr. Joseph A. Pearce, Director
of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory; Mr. Eric H. Garman, of the B.C. Forest
Branch; and Mr. George J. Alexander, Assistant Commissioner of Fisheries, for their
contribution to the programme; and Mr. Clarence Ferris, of the Department of Trade
and Industry, for providing and operating the sound motion-picture projector. C 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Other Lectures and Activities.
Illustrated lectures were given to the following schools during the spring term:
Burnside, George Jay, Margaret Jenkins, North Ward, Oaklands, Quadra, Sir James
Douglas, South Park, and Victoria West (Victoria City); Royal Oak, McKenzie Avenue,
Strawberry Vale, Gordon Head, Tillicum, Cedar Hill, Cloverdale, Tolmie, and Craig-
flower (Saanich); Songhees Indian Day School, St. Margaret's, Mount Douglas High
School, St. Michael's School, and Central Junior High School.
Other lectures were given during the year to the following organizations: Rotary
Club, Outdoor Club, Esquimalt Dock Yard Y.M.C.A. Hut, Victoria Natural History
Society, Hard of Hearing Club, Lions Club, Capital City Commercial Club, Pacific North
West Bird and Mammal Society, Macaulay Point Y.M.C.A. Hut, Association of Radio
Technicians, Victoria Horticultural Society, Comitas Club, Lions Auxiliary, and St.
Mary's Men's Guild.
The Botanist and Director also contributed to the Playground programmes presented during the summer at Beacon Hill Park, Central Park, Willows Park, and
Windsor Park.
RESEARCH.
As opportunity and time allow a certain amount of research is carried on by staff
members in addition to the regular duties. For example the Director has been engaged
at intervals in compiling a complete list of literature references concerning the freshwater fishes of the Province. Other material referring to the occurrence and distribution of the various species is also being gathered for use in the preparation of a proposed handbook to this group.
During the year Mr. Hardy has been engaged in gathering information concerning
the identification and ecology of local fungi, which also is being prepared for publication. In addition, he has been able to devote a little time to the study of the life-
histories of certain insects occurring in the vicinity of Victoria.
Since joining the staff in May, Mr. Pickford has spent much time in research in
connection with the preparation of the series of panels already mentioned depicting
Indian life. He was also engaged in the study of a prehistoric mound at Duncan which
was opened during September.
STAFF CHANGES.
On May 10th Mr. F. L. Beebe left the Museum staff after a twelve-month association. During this period he prepared several sets of illustrations featuring reptiles,
amphibians, fishes, crustaceans, fungi, and other animal and'plant groups, some of
which have already appeared in Museum publications. He was also of assistance in
gathering, preparing, and caring for natural history specimens, both in the field and
in the Museum.    The remaining staff members wish him well in his new venture.
On May 15th Mr. A. E. Pickford severed his connection with the Forest Branch,
Department of Lands, with whom he had been associated for over twenty-four years,
to join the staff of the Provincial Museum, where he has taken on the responsibilities
connected with the Museum's anthropological activities. His long interest in the study
of anthropology and his wide experience in the field in various parts of the Province
enable him to be of great assistance in this important work.
During the spring months Mrs. H. Burt assisted on a part-time basis, in mounting,
labelling, and cataloguing plant specimens in the herbarium under the direction of
Mr. Hardy.
BUILDING MAINTENANCE.
In May painters from the Department of Public Works redecorated the stairway
leading to the basement and also painted the basement hallways and  rest-rooms. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 11
In December the old-style metal letters on three of the windows were removed and
replaced by gold-leaf.
ATTENDANCE.
The number of visitors registering at the Museum during 1944 and the estimated
attendance based on counts during certain periods is as follows:—
Registered. Estimated.
January     2,127 3,146
February       2,064 3,192
March      2,399 3,621
April      3,597 5,684
May      3,490 5,574
June     4,800 6,834
July      6,223 10,112
August      8,005 11,850
September      4,842 6,140
October       3,254 4,800
November     2,433 3,250
December      1,735 3,220
Totals   45,569 67,423
To these figures are to be added 2,533 school children who attended the lecture
series in February and March and in addition thirty-six school classes, four British
Columbia Police classes, and four other organizations who visited during the year.
Also to be included are eight groups of Canadian Army men and officers who were
conducted through the Museum under the guidance of Mr. Pickford. Some of the
latter groups were French-Canadians; these Mr. Pickford was able to address in their
own language.
Compared with the 1943 attendance record the total number of visitors in 1944
showed an increase of 4,296 or over 9 per cent., the largest registration recorded by
the Museum.    The estimated attendance is also one of the largest on record.
The attendance record for the month of July, as shown by the Visitors' Register,
has been analysed by Mr. Pegler as follows:—
Residence. Registration. Residence. Registration.
British Columbia  2,117 Washington   2,010
Alberta   353 Oregon  189
Saskatchewan   316 Other States   617
Manitoba   220 Yukon Territory  3
Ontario   226 Newfoundland   2
Quebec   51 United Kingdom   49
New Brunswick  9 Other countries  31
Nova Scotia  16 Country not stated  8
Prince Edward Island _ 6
Total   3,314 Total   2,909
Grand total  6,223
Compared with a similar analysis of the July attendance in 1943 the number of
registered visitors in 1944 is greater by 495. It is interesting to note, however, that
the number of British Columbians is less by 1,071 (33-per-cent. decrease) possibly as a
result of war conditions. On the other hand, the number of Washington visitors has
increased from 476 to 2,010, probably due to the fact that travelling in other directions
has been discouraged by crowded conditions prevailing during these abnormal times. REPORT OF THE BOTANIST.
ACTIVITIES.
The season of 1944 has been a very successful one from the accessions' view-point,
the total from all sources comprising 3,032 entries.
Sheets filed and shelved in the classified series amount to 1,361. This work was
greatly facilitated by the help of Mrs. H. Burt, who was engaged for this purpose in
the early part of the year; in addition to filing, 700 of these were mounted on the
standard herbarium sheets by her, while the balance was done by Mrs. L. C. Sweeney,
of the Museum staff.    Fifty species were filed as new to the herbarium.
Plant identification and the dissemination of information concerning them continues to be an important feature of this office, some 578 specimens being thus dealt with.
As in past years the seasonal wild-flower exhibit is a perennial attraction and is
well worth the effort expended. The salient floral objects of the countryside pass in
living review throughout the twelve-month period, inspiring and informing a constant
succession of visitors.    An average of twenty-five plants is always on view.
A certain amount of time has been devoted to the continuation of studies on the
higher fungi, in line with the objective already expressed elsewhere.
A museum field-trip to the Paradise Mine area in the Windermere district of
British Columbia yielded some 500 sheets of specimens, including material taken en
route both going and returning.    Details of the former are given in the special report.
In addition to checking and recording current additions, time has been spent in
maintaining the herbarium in good order as regards preservation and storage, and to
the preparation and delivery of lectures and demonstrations to the schools listed in
another part of this report.
Among the recent donations is the fine collection of southern Vancouver Island
plants from Mr. V. E. L. Goddard, comprising approximately 1,000 specimens, all well
mounted on standard sheets and accompanied by full data and notes of occurrence.
Mr. J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, has further enriched
our herbarium with the addition of over 150 specimens from the north-central part of
the Province, including many rare and uncommon species.
Mr. Eastham has also been instrumental in acquiring for the herbarium a small
collection of fifty plants from Kiska and Great Sitkin Islands in the Aleutians. These
were obtained by Lieutenant H. R. McCarthy and Corporal N. Kellas in September and
October, 1943. They were identified by Mr. A. E. Porsild, National Museum of Canada,
Ottawa, who recently published the list in the Canadian Field-Naturalist, July-August,
1944.
These plants are of very great interest to British Columbia botanists as nearly
half of them occur in our Province while the remainder are closely related to British
Columbia species.
Mr. N. C. Stewart, of the Topographic Surveys Branch, has maintained his interest
and willingness to collect plants for the Museum as in former years. His efforts have
resulted in eighty examples of very desirable specimens from the Arrow Lakes area.
Mr. D. M. Trew, of the Forest Branch, went to the trouble of gathering a nice
series of forty-five specimens from Tweedsmuir Park.
Mr. J. R. Shenstone, of Saanich, contributed an extensive collection from the
Comox district and other points on Vancouver Island.
Mr. A. H. Brinkman, Craigmyle, Alberta, has kindly supplied us with valuable
material appertaining to British Columbia and adjacent territory comprising in all 208
specimens.
Dr. W. A. Weber, Pullman, Washington, through the good offices of Mr. J. W.
Eastham, has been most co-operative in providing us with duplicates of material col- lected by him when in British Columbia some years ago. This material, including
plants from adjacent areas, amounts to 235 species.
Dr. Leon Kelso, Washington, D.C, has generously contributed 112 plants from
eastern America, forming an interesting basis for comparison with our western flora.
Mr. W. M. Tildesley, Plant Products Division, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa,
has very kindly augmented our seed collection by 487 named samples, neatly packaged
and labelled.
This brings our wild-flower seed collection up to 600 species and varieties and now
includes many of economic importance. It is also a convenient reference in connection
with biological surveys as to food plants of birds or as a final criterion in the placing of
closely related plant species.
A complete list of contributors to the herbarium will be found under Accessions.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT.
We have great pleasure in conveying our sincere thanks and appreciation to all
those who have contributed specimens and to the specialists mentioned below for their
willingness to co-operate in unravelling the many problems involved in identification
and confirmation of specimens.
Dr. Carleton R. Ball, Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C.    Willows.
Mr. J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver. Grasses, sedges,
and rushes.
Mr. A. E. Porsild, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa.    General
Dr. J. Walton Groves, Dominion Experimental Farm, Ottawa.    Fungi.
Dr. C. L. Hitchcock, University of Washington, Seattle.    Draba.
REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST.
A percentage of the Botanist's time is taken up with checking over the collections
to ensure their continued preservation.
As in past years, insects have aroused considerable popular interest as is evinced
by the numbers brought in for identification. Many of these are large or otherwise
conspicuous species such as the Electric-light bug, large Long-horn beetles, Hawk and
Silkworm moths, and so forth. These specimens of special interest are in addition to
specimens retained for the Museum collection which are listed under Accessions.
George Forbes, of Lac la Hache, sent in a very interesting collection of butterflies,
moths, and beetles from his district. Local collections of this type are invaluable for
distributional studies of our British Columbia insects.
A trip to Vancouver was made in February, where a paper was read to the British
Columbia Entomological Society.
Our cordial thanks are extended to Mr. George R. Hopping and Mr. Hugh B. Leech,
of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory, Vernon, B.C., for their ready willingness
to assist in the identification and confirmation of many of the difficult genera.
REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOLOGIST.
The anthropological division has come in for its full share of the interest shown by
visitors, and particularly by visiting schools. In several instances school teachers have
brought their classes to the Museum for the direct purpose of studying the Indian
material under the direction of the newly appointed Anthropologist.
It is some years since personnel was assigned to take charge of this division.
While there has been no lapse in recordings or in the care of the specimens during that C 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
period, yet the burden of keeping pace with the growing interest in the Indian culture
of the North-west has made necessary the new appointment above mentioned. With
this additional help some reorganization of records and an expansion in school education have now been made possible. Several new projects entailing considerable
research are under way;   particulars of these will appear in subsequent reports.
Field-work in this division was confined to the excavation of a prehistoric mound
in the vicinity of Duncan. This mound long antedates the present tribes, belonging to
an era which is now past native memory; it is a relic of a culture in which the remains
of persons of importance were cremated and their ashes enclosed in a stone cyst over
which a large mound of earth or rocks was heaped. A full report of this and of similar
mounds which have been investigated on the south end of Vancouver Island and
adjacent mainland will be published shortly.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT.
Thanks are again tendered to Commissioner T. W. S. Parsons, of the Provincial
Police, for his continued interest in our anthropological work, and particularly for
assistance rendered in connection with the J. P. Drewett collection from Lytton, B.C.;
also for information and sketches placed on file in regard to pictographs on Stein
Creek, B.C.
A similar acknowledgment and thanks are due to The Okanagan Society for the
Revival of Indian Arts and Crafts, of Oliver, B.C., for photographs and accompanying
paper entitled " The Artifacts of the Okanagan Indians in British Columbia and
Washington State," as presented to the Society by Mr. Reginald N. Atkinson, of
Penticton, B.C.
ACCESSIONS.
During 1944 the following numbers of specimens were added to the catalogued
collections (figures in parentheses denote the total number on December 31st, 1944) :
Indian material, 774 (5,901) ; plants, 676 (17,192) ; mammals, 82 (5,106) ; birds, 94
(9,104);   reptiles, 6 (262);  amphibians, 8 (533);   fishes, 34 (639).
The year saw considerable acceleration in the number of accessions to the anthropological collection in particular. Valuable additions were made to the Salishan material in the following collections:—
The F. J. Barrow Collection.—On the demise of Mr. F. J. Barrow, of Sidney, B.C.,
his will was found to contain a clause passing to the Museum an archaeological collection
containing about 550 pieces from various shell-mounds in the Gulf Islands which had
been under the investigation of the collector over a long period of years. This collection is left in the custody of Mrs. Barrow during her life-time.
In addition to the above Mrs. Barrow has passed over to the Museum a valuable
series of nearly 200 photographs of petroglyphs and pictographs including many newly
discovered by Mr. Barrow. These are all carefully listed as to location. The plates,
films, and records are on file in the Museum.
The J. P. Drewett Collection.—This collection of archaeological material from
Lytton, B.C., was purchased during the year; it comprises several hundred specimens,
principally of stone and bone, including some interesting examples of primitive incised
decoration.
The Mrs. Herbert Corfield Donation.—On her retirement from business at Koksi-
lah, B.C., Mrs. Corfield generously donated to the Museum five large house pillars with
typical Salishan carvings in high relief. These had been removed, under permission of
the Indian Department, from the Quamichan Indian Reserve at Duncan, B.C., after the
collapse of an old house. These items are much valued since the Museum was short of
carvings of this nature.
In addition to the above, Mrs. Corfield donated an interesting series of three canoes
with Indians and equipment carved in miniature by Simon Charlie, a native craftsman. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 15
The Mrs. G. S. McTavish Donation.—This collection comprises some six pieces
gathered by Mr. McTavish while in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. It
includes some interesting pieces of Kwakiutl origin.
The following list includes the names of other contributors and the number and
type of specimens contributed in 1944.
ANTHROPOLOGICAL ACCESSIONS.
Haidan.
By gift-
Two silver bracelets, engraved.     (Anonymous donor.)
Nootkan.
By gift-
Fish toaster, wood.    R. B. Inverarity, Seattle, Washington.
By purchase—
Modern basketwork button (example of fine workmanship).
Circular basket and lid (examples of fine workmanship).
Dance-mask, bird design, painted.
Kwakiutl.
By gift-
Large war canoe, carved and painted with native designs.    H. S. Howard,
C.P.R. Freight Office, Victoria, B.C.
Salishan.
By gift—
Jadeite chisel.    C. A. Gibbard, Victoria.
Jadeite chisel.    G. S. Tilley, Saltspring Island.
Jadeite chisel.    A. Colquhoun, Duncan.
Eight spear-heads and jadeite chisel.    J. F. Bledsoe, Victoria.
Sandstone knife.    Miss D. Holmes, Victoria.
Sinker stone, grooved.    Bill Parker, Victoria.
Hammer stone and associated human remains.    Mrs. V. M. Aitken, Victoria.
Human skull.    Arthur Peake, Duncan.
By purchase—
Soapstone mat-creaser, engraved.
Beaver-shaped concretion.
Nephrite gouge.
Totem-pole, model, painted.
Cedar-bark matting.
Large (coiled) basket, rainstorm pattern.
Athapascan.
By gift-
Beaded fire-bag, tobacco-bag, and moccasins.    J. F. Bledsoe, Victoria.
BOTANICAL ACCESSIONS.
T. Astley, Victoria, one; A. M. Bolton, Metchosin, one; G. C. Boyd, Cowichan
Lake, nine; A. H. Brinkman, Craigmyle, Alberta, 210; Mrs. H. Burt, Victoria, two;
C. Christianson, Saanich, one; A. Dendoff, Victoria, one; W. Downes, Victoria, one;
J. W. Eastham, Vancouver, 194; A. Frayne, Victoria, one; 0. C. Furniss, Alberni,
three; V. E. L. Goddard, Victoria, collection of Vancouver Island plants; E. R. Hall,
Sidney, one; Dr. J. D. Hunter, Victoria, 172; Mrs. Janke, Sidney, one; W. B. Johnstone, Cranbrook, four; Dr. Leon Kelso, Washington, D.C, 112; Marilyn and Allan
King, Victoria, one; Mrs. A. Lane, Victoria, two; Dr. M. D. McKichin, Saanich, twelve; C 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
H. B. Neaves, Victoria, one; A. Nicholls, Duncan, six; S. 0. Norwood, Quesnel, one;
Mrs. A. E. Planta, Nanaimo, one; Patsy Ritchie, Victoria, eight; F. M. Shillaker, Redstone P.O., eleven; Veronica Stevens, Rainbow Beach, one; N. C Stewart, Victoria,
collection of plants from Arrow Lakes; W. Tildesley, Ottawa, collection of 487 samples
of seeds; D. M. Trew, plants from Tweedsmuir Park; W. A. Weber, Pullman, Washington, 236.
ZOOLOGICAL ACCESSIONS.
Mammals.
By gift-
Mrs. Arbuckle, Victoria.    One pair whale's ear-drums.
G. C. Boyd, Lake Cowichan.    One lump-nosed bat.
J. Grant, Trinity Valley.    One lynx skull.
Chris Hansen, Paradise Mine.    One wood rat.
G. P. Holland, Kamloops.    Thirty-five mammal specimens.
W. B. Johnstone, Cranbrook.    One weasel, one flying squirrel.
Keith Notte, Victoria.    Vertebrae of cat.
Leon Notte, Victoria.    One hoary bat.
Constable J. Blakiston-Gray, Lytton, per Commissioner T. W. S. Parsons,
Victoria.    One Tahltan Indian bear dog.
J. Sowerby, Ta Ta Creek.    Two bobcat skulls, one coyote skull.
By the staff     39
Birds.
By gift—
L. J. Clark, Victoria.    One Virginia rail, one shrike.
Olive Cleghyn, Victoria.    One winter wren.
J. A. Flett, Duncan.    One goshawk.
Don McAllister, Victoria.    Bird's-nest.
G. W. Lake, Victoria.    One golden eagle.
Mrs. R. P. Rithet, Victoria, per Mrs. L. A. Genge.    Three mounted specimens
(bob-white and quail).
Mrs. P. Stout, Victoria.    One surf scoter.
By the staff       3
Amphibians and Reptiles.
By gift—
G. C. Boyd, Lake Cowichan.    One salamander.
Major Allan Brooks, Okanagan Landing.    One gopher snake, one salamander.
H. H. Currie, Nelson.    Two garter snakes, one alligator lizard.
H. C. Dalziel, Okanagan Landing.    One garter snake, one gopher snake.
Jack Elliot, Jordan River.    One salamander.
George Jay School, per Miss Jean Roberts, Victoria.    One garter snake.
Miss F. Hepburn, Fulford Harbour, B.C.    One alligator lizard.
R. C W. Lett, Gordon Head.    Two garter snakes.
F. H. Martin, Cultus Lake.    Tailed toad tadpoles.    (Received in 1943.)
Mrs. H. C Northcote, Cracroft.    Three salamanders.
Paul Parizeau, Victoria.    One salamander larva.
Arthur Peake, Duncan.    Dessicated body of salamander.
Patsy Ritchie, Victoria.    Three salamanders.
Norman F. Robb, Princeton.    One rubber snake.
Dr. R. C. Shaw, per H. H. Currie, Nelson.    One skink.
R. B. Smith, per H. H. Currie, Nelson.    One skink.
By the staff         2 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 17
n     ... Fish.
By gift—
B.C. Packers, per W. A. Ashby, Victoria.    One electric ray.
Dick, Harry, and Ed. George, per Wilson & Lenfesty, Victoria.    One handsaw
fish.
L. W. Patmore, Victoria.    Two rock trout.
H. H. Pegler, per Askey's Fish Market, Victoria.    One Spanish flag.
Patsy Ritchie, Victoria.    One fish.
Miss M. E. Scholfield, Cadboro Bay P.O.    One wolf-eel.
G. H. Smith, R.R. 3, Victoria.    Two alligator fish, two cabezon, one eel-pout,
sixteen sculpins, two wolf-eels, one rat-fish egg-case, cluster of eggs of
squid.
W. Tompkinson, New Westminster.    One sturgeon.
By gift— Invertebrates.
Mrs. G. Ballantyne, Redonda Bay.    One electric-light bug.
Beacon Hill School, Victoria.    One electric-light bug.
W. Belobara, Victoria.    Polyphemus moth and sawfly.
Mrs. Boyd, Victoria.    Chrysalis of butterfly.
Dr. V. C. Brink, Vancouver.    Collection of ice-worms.
A. Burns, Victoria.    One polyphemus moth.
George Church, Marigold P.O.    One ichneumon fly.
Miss D. Cox, Victoria.    Collection of shells.
W. W. Deans, Duncan.    One electric-light bug.
Miss Doris Duke, Victoria.    Goose barnacles on glass float.
Gordon Eye, Crofton.    One leaf-cutter bee.
George Forbes, Lac la Hache.    Collection of butterflies, moths, and beetles.
V. E. L. Goddard, Royal Oak.    One teredo.
R. Guppy, Wellington.    One dobson fly.
J. D. Gregson, Kamloops.    Four long-horn beetles.
E.  G. Hart, Victoria.    Specimen showing damage of teredos, one serpulid
worm tube.
G. A. Lyon, Victoria.    One sawfly.
John McKinnon, Victoria.    One moth.
G. T. Mercer, Victoria.    One garden spider.
Darling Newing, Victoria.    One bumble-bee.
Mrs. H. C Northcote, Cracroft.    One hermit crab.
Dorita Palin, Victoria.    Caterpillar of White Admiral butterfly.
Paul Parizeau, Victoria.    Two leeches, collection of teredos, one horse-clam
shell.
Richard Phillips, R.R. 4, Victoria.    One Aranea spider.
J. F. Piper, Munro, Jamaica.    Two scorpions.
M. L. Prebble, Victoria., Two long-horn beetles.
W. H. A. Preece, Saanich.    One moth, one long-horn beetle.
S. W. Raven, Victoria.    One black widow spider.
Bill Richards, Robert Day, and Gerald Stark, Victoria.    One starfish.
Patsy Ritchie, Victoria.    Cluster of slug's eggs, five centipedes.
J. Sandercock, Victoria.    One crab spider.
G. H. Smith, R.R. 3, Victoria.    One chiton, two sand-dollars, one octopus,
one shrimp, one sea-worm, one sea-slug, one sea-lily.
M. Tate, Esquimalt.    One cicada.
„     .,-. Palaeontology.
By gift—
N. A. McDowell, Victoria.    Three agates.
John Zarelli, Oliver.    One fossil plant.
2 C 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE PARADISE MINE AREA,
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By G. Clifford Carl and George A. Hardy, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
CONTENTS.
Page.
Introduction  18
Description of the Area—
Location and Size  18
Geology  18
Climate  19
Biotic Areas and Habitats  19
Plants  20
Birds ,  31
Mammals  32
Miscellaneous Invertebrates  35
Acknowledgment  38
Bibliography  38
INTRODUCTION.
One of the very few places where it is possible to reach elevations above timber-
line by a good road is to be found in the vicinity of Windermere, in the Columbia
Valley. Here there is an excellent mountain-road to Paradise Mine at an elevation of
7,800 feet in an area hitherto relatively unknown biologically. For this reason, when
we received an invitation from Mr. Walter B. Johnstone, of Cranbrook, to accompany
him on a visit to this area we accepted with alacrity and planned our season's collecting
trip with this objective in mind. Accordingly, accompanied by Mr. George P. Holland,
of the Dominion Livestock Insect Laboratory, Kamloops, we met Mr. Johnstone in
Cranbrook and proceeded to Paradise Mine, where we spent the period of August 24th
to 31st intensively collecting specimens and studying the natural history of that area.
The following account is based on the specimens collected and the information gathered
during this period.
DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA.
Location and Size.
The Paradise Mine is located near the source of Spring Creek, a tributary of
Toby Creek, which rises near the summit of the Purcell Range and flows eastward to
empty into the Columbia River near Wilmer. The mine is reached by a road from
Wilmer up Toby Creek and Spring Creek Valley, a distance of 19 miles.
The valley in which the mine is located and where our collections were made is of
typical cirque formation facing toward the east. The floor of the valley in the vicinity
of the mine buildings is about 7,800 feet elevation J the mine itself, which is on the
north side of the basin, is at the 8,000-foot level, while the ridge which surmounts
the valley on three sides rises to about 9,000 feet in elevation. The region roughly
enclosed by the surrounding ridge is about 1,000 acres in area and includes habitats
of several different types, as noted in a section to follow.
Geology.
In general terms the Paradise Mine area is made up of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of Precambrian age divisible into two series known as the Purcell and
Windermere series (Walker, 1926).    The Purcell series includes magnesian limestone Spring Creek Valley;   ravine in background.    Paradise Mine.
M:/j;*-V*y. ■ /„.- '*-. ;.>.:, }::.-,■: ':^Fr«S
*    ■■"■': '■■-.' ''■■'.•^,i:''^~,/?.fv;::
Tree and shrub association at timber-line.    Paradise Mine.  REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 19
quartsite and slate; overlying these are formations of the Windermere series made
up of slate, quartzite, and pebble conglomerate containing thin interbeds of crystalline
limestone.
Much of the area toward the head of the valley above the mine buildings is composed of crystalline limestone which renders the water of the Spring Creek and its
tributaries extremely hard. Where it is weathered and broken the limestone forms
small crevices and rock-piles where conies or rock rabbits find habitats to their liking.
On the south side of the valley are large rock-slides consisting of boulders, blocks, and
slabs of quartzite and limestone of many sizes and shapes. To the north the ridge
above the mine is composed largely of loose, weathered shale providing poor support
for life of any kind.
The ore produced by the mine consists mainly of lead carbonate containing some
galena, sphalerite, and pyrite in association. It occurs in isolated pockets in the
limestone and must be located by exploratory drilling.
Climate.
Little is known about the climate in this area as no precise data are available.
Mr. Ed. Barbour, an employee who has spent several seasons at the mine, informs us
that light snowfalls may occur at any time, even in summer, but that permanent snow
is not usually present until October 15th. Drifts 7 to 8 feet in depth are common and
snow usually persists until the end of June. On June 15th of the year of our visit,
snow was just clear of the eaves of the mine buildings.
Winter temperatures of 10 degrees below zero are common, but in general the
climate is not as severe as experienced in the Columbia Valley several thousand feet
below.
Biotic Areas and Habitats.
In a report on the birds and mammals of Kootenay National Park, Munro and
Cowan (1944) recognize three biotic areas as being present in the area studied, namely,
Southern Alplands, Sub-alpine Forest, and an "area of transition between Sub-alpine
and Dry Forest. Two of these areas or life zones may be identified in the region of
Paradise Mine as follows:—
Sub-alpine Forest.—According to the above authors this biotic area occupies a
zone approximately between 4,000 and 6,500 feet. In the protection of the ravine below
the mine this zone appears to extend some distance above this elevation, the upper
limit being about 7,800 feet. In this area the dominant trees are Alpine fir (Abies
lasiocarpa), Lyall's larch (Larix Lyallii), and White-barked pine (Pinus albicaulis)
with an occasional Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Englemann's spruce (Picea
englemanni).
In these wooded tracts occurred Vaccinium scoparium, Phyllodoce glanduliflora,
Leptarrhenia amplexifolia, Fragaria bracteosa, Arnica cordifolia, A. latifolia, Erigeron
salsuginosus, and Aster aprica. Castilleja rhexifolia occurred sparingly and Rhododendron albifolia, Vaccinium m,em,branaceum, Stenanthes occidentalis, and Silene doug-
lasii found their upper limits.
Southern Alplands.—This life zone consists of the high meadows and summit
country above timber-line. All the region from the level of the mine buildings (7,800
feet) and upwards falls within this zone and several widely differing types of habitats
are found here.
Along the streams and over portions of the meadows, willows of various species
were a feature of the shrub flora. Here, Salix barrattiana formed dense thickets in
moist places along with S. anglorum var. araioclada. Near the source of the spring
mats of Salix nivalis grew between the rocks.    On the banks of the stream such plants C 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
as Senecio triangularis, Epilobium Hornmannii, and Arnica chamissonis occurred, while
on the moist muddy or gravelly flats Draba prsealta, Sagina saginoides, and Rhodiola
integrifolia could be seen.
Rock outcrops supported Saxifraga austromontana, S. cespitosa, and the ferns
Cystopteris fragilis and more rarely Cryptogramma acrostichoides.
On the slopes rising up from the meadow-land were Pentstemon confertus, Poten-
tilla fruticosa, Aquilegia flavescens, Saxifraga Lyallii, S. occidentalis, Achillea borealis,
and the ubiquitous Epilobium angustifolium.
Patches of Dry as octopetala occupied well-drained slopes and knolls in. company
with Eriogonum subalpinum and Cassiope Mertensiana.
On the summit of the north ridge, at an elevation of close on 9,000 feet, the characteristic plants noted growing in a small basin included the following:—
Oxyria digyna, Potentilla nivea, Draba paysonii var. treleasii, D. nivalis, Saussurea
densa, Aplopappus lyallii, Phacelia ciliosa, Androsace subumbellata, Erigeron aureus,
E. lanatus, Physaria didymocarpa, Salix nivalis.
Both of these biotic areas, the Sub-alpine Forest and the Alplands, have the following plants in common: Sibaldia procumbens, Aster Richardsonii, Erigeron debilis,
Antennaria m,edia and A. lanata, Valeriana sitchensis, Pentstemon fruticosa, Arenaria
nardifolia, and many others.
The two zones thus arbitrarily defined by no means give a clear picture of the
flora complex as a clear line of demarcation is non-existent; only at the opposite
extremes of each zone are the separate associations discernible. Much depends on the
nature of soil, exposure, and drainage as to the extent of commingling.
Fuller details will be found in the annotated list.
PLANTS.
The following annotated list includes the records of the late W. B. Anderson, of
Victoria, B.C., who collected here during the years 1923, 1925, and 1927, and those of
Mr. W. B. Johnstone, of Cranbrook, B.C., who visited the region in 1943 and again in
1944 and to whom we are indebted for our own opportunity to visit the district.
The arrangement closely follows that of J. K. Henry in his Flora of Southern
British Columbia (1915).
All material mentioned is accessible for reference in the herbarium of the Provincial Museum unless otherwise stated.
OpHIOGLOSSACEjE.
Botrychium lunaria (L.)  Sw.    Grape Fern.
A small, scattered colony was found growing in company with Agoseris pubescens
above timber-line on the north ridge.
POLYPODIACEjE.
Cryptogramma acrostichoides R. Br.    Parsley Fern.
Very scarce.    In rock crevices on wooded slope east of basin.
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.    Bladder Fern.
Abundant in rock crevices.
Equisetaceje.
Equisetum variegatum Schleich.    Northern Scouring Rush.
Locally common. It was the dominating plant on a water-logged flat by the
stream. SELAGINELLACE.E.
Selaginella scopulorum Maxon.
Forming ground-cover at all elevations, conspicuously so above timber-line.
Conifers.
Juniperus communis L. var. montana Ait.    Juniper.
Scattered bushes in woods below timber-line.
Pinus contorta Dougl.    Lodgepole Pine.
A few dwarfed and scrubby specimens.    A small example about 8 inches in height
was found on the summit far above the average timber-line.
Pinus albicaulis Engelm.    White-barked Pine.
Of frequent occurrence, occasionally attaining considerable size in girth but not
proportionately in height.    The tops are muchx deformed by severities of the climate.
As with the preceding, small specimens were seen at the summit in rock crevices.
Larix Lyallii (Pari.).    Lyall's Larch.
Quite common in the basin where it formed pure stands or intermixed with the
Alpine Fir. It attained considerable size; some trees were approximately 3 feet in
diameter at the base. The spirally twisted growth of the trunk was very noticeable.
The exit holes of Cerambycid beetles were evident on dead or dying parts of the trunk.
Their holes were noticeably more numerous on the southern side of trees. The Columbian ground-squirrels were occasionally seen some 12 or 15 feet up among the branches,
where one was observed to nibble at the needles.
It was found with the Alpine Fir to near timber-line.
Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.    Alpine Fir.
The dominant tree of the area. It was the last to disappear at timber-line, where
it dwindled to small wind-pruned shrubby growths, characteristically occurring in
park-like formations of clumps of several closely associated individuals with open
meadow-like spaces between clumps.
Porcupines had paid destructive attention to a group in which one tree some 12
inches in diameter and about 40 feet in height had been completely debarked, while
others near-by were not much better off.
Picea Engelmanni Engelm.    Engelmann's Spruce.
Fine stands exist in the wood just east of the mine basin where it drops to lower
levels.
In the basin itself it was not evident. One small seedling 6 inches in height was
found on the summit of the south ridge at 8,500 feet.
Gramine^e.
Phleum alpinum L.    Alpine Timothy.
Calamagrostis purpurascens R. Br.    Purple Reed-grass.
Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv.    Blue-joint.
Agrostis humilis Vasey.    Mountain Bent-grass.
Deschampsia atropurpurea (Wahl.)  Scheele.    Mountain Hair-grass.
Poa arctica R. Br.    Arctic Blue-grass.
Poa alpina L.    Alpine Blue-grass.
In pika hay.
Poa compressa L.
Poa gracillima Vasey.    Pacific Blue-grass.
Poa rupicola Nash.
Festuca ovina brachyphylla (Schult.) Piper.    Sheep Fescue. C 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Agropyron trachycaulon (Link.) Malte.    Wheat-grass.
In pika hay.
Trisetum spicatum (L.) Richt.    Downy Oat-grass.
In pika hay.    In scattered tufts on slopes and benches.
Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J. G. Smith.    Bottle-brush Squirrel-tail.
In widely scattered tufts on the open shaly slopes above timber-line.
CyPERACEjE.
Carex albo-nigra Mack.    Black- and White-scaled Sedge.
Carex festivella Mack.    Mountain Meadow Sedge.
In pika hay.
Carex Hepburnii Boott.    Hepburn's Sedge.
Carex Hoodii Boott.    Hood's Sedge.
Carex incurviformis Mack.    Curved Sedge.
Carex phseocephala Piper.    Mountain-hare Sedge.
Carex angara Steud. (C. Halleri Gunn.).
W. B. Johnstone.
JUNCACEjE.
Juncus balticus Willd.    Baltic Rush.
Juncus Drummondii Mey.    Drummond's Rush.
Juncus Parryi Englm.    Parry's Rush.
Luzula Piperi (Cov.) M. E. Jones.    Piper's Wood-rush.
Not uncommon in wooded sections.
LILIACEjE.
Zygadenus elegans Pursh.    Glaucous Zygadene.
Scarce.    A  small stand  at west end  of basin  and  another on  summit of  south
ridge on limestone soil.    In fruit.
Stenanthium occidentalis (Gray) Rydb.    Bronze Bells.
In wood below east end of basin, mostly in fruit.
Salicace^e.
We are indebted to Dr. Carleton R. Ball, of Washington, D.C, for the following
statement regarding the Willows of Paradise Valley and for the distributional data
included in the notes.
" That area of the Rocky-Selkirk Ranges, lying in south-eastern British Columbia,
is the meeting place for both eastern and western species and northern and southern
species of willows. This is true both for the species of the valleys at lower elevations
and for the alpine species of elevations from 7,000-9,000 feet as in Paradise Valley."
Salix anglorum var. araioclada Schn.    Smooth Alpine Willow.
Stream borders and shady slopes.    Matted growth 6 to 12 inches in height.    Much
affected by a rust fungus.    " Extends south and eastward but its northern range has
not been established."
Salix anglorum Chamisso.
Matted growth in open woods.    "...   nearing the southern limits of its extensive northern distribution."
Salix barrattiana var. angustifolia Ands.
A dense stand on flooded flat by stream. " Extends both north and south from
this area." , REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 23
Salix commutata Bebb.    Variable Willow.
Dense clumps 2-3 feet in height, wooded slope east of basin. " Extends north
and south of this area."
S. commutata var. denudata Bebb.    W. B. Anderson.
S. Eastwoodiae Cockerell.
" Farthest north of known range."    W. B. Anderson.
Salix Farrae Ball.    Farr's willow.
Stream-side border of wood;   rusted.    "Near the northern limits of the known
distribution."
Salix " glaucops " Ands.
Clumps among rocks on shaly slope north ridge 8,500 feet and south ridge 8,000-
9,000 feet.    Bank of stream 7,000 feet, east of basin.    " Extends both north and south
from this area."
Salix nivalis Hooker.    Snow Willow.
Low, dense mats or carpets on the ridges at 8,000-9,000 feet and among boulders
on margin of stream in basin. " Near the northern limits of the known distribution."
Salix pseudocordata var. aequalis Anders.
Dense growth near stream east end of basin.    " Near the northern limits of the
known distribution."
Salix stricta var. erecta Ands.
W. B. Anderson.
Salix vestita Pursh.    Rock Willow.
Among rocks on south ridge, where it was much dwarfed with tiny oboval leaves
% inch long; a bushy clump 2 feet in height at east end of basin on wooded slope.
" Extends eastward to the Atlantic area."
Polygonace^e.
Eriogonum ovalifolium Nutt.    Oval-leaved Eriogonum.
At and above timber-line, -north ridge, forming clumps and " islands " on the
loose shale.
Eriogonum subalpinum Greene.    Sub-alpine Eriogonum.
Common on lower slopes of basin.
Oxyria digyna (L.) Camptdera.    Mountain Sorrel.
At all levels.    The topmost plant on the north ridge.    One specimen, growing in
loose shaly soil, had a root 38 inches long.
Polygonum viviparum L.    Alpine Knotweed.
Banks of alpine stream.    W. B. Johnstone.
CARYOPHYLACEjE.
Sagina saginoides (L.) Brit.    Arctic Pearlwort.
Mud or gravel patches near stream-side not far from snow-bank at head of basin.
Arenaria formosa Fisch.    Mountain Sandwort.
Frequent at all levels.
Arenaria obtusiloba (Rydb.) Fern.    Blunt-leaved Sandwort.
Closely related to the Siberian A. sajanensis.    Tufts among rocks above timber-
line.
Arenaria verna L. var. propinqua (Rich.) Fern.    Alpine Sandwort.
Scarce.    In tufts among rocks above timber-line.
Cerastium Beeringianum C & S.   Beering's Chickweed.
South ridge on north face among loose rocks.    Not common. C 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cerastium alpinum L.    Alpine Chickweed.
Among rocks above timber-line.
Stellaria laeta Rich.    Glaucous Starwort.
Above timber-line among rocks on ridges and slopes.
Silene Douglasii Hook.    Douglas Catchfly.
In the woods east of basin.
RANUNCULACEjE.
Anemone occidentalis Freyn.    Mountain Pasque Flower.
Abundant  on  the  meadows  and  lower  slopes.    Its  fruiting  tassels  were  very
evident.
Anemone parviflora D.C    Northern Anemone.
East slope in open woodland.
Anemone Drummondii Wats.    Alpine Anemone.
Frequent, north and south ridges above timber-line.
Anemone multifida Poir.    Wind-flower.
Clumps at base of rocks.
Thalictrum occidentale Gray.    Western Meadow Rue.
In wood east of basin.
Ranunculus saxicola Rydb.    Mountain Buttercup.
Not common.    On moist flats in basin.
Ranunculus acris L.    Tall Buttercup.
One or two colonies near buildings in basin.    Possibly introduced with hay.
Ranunculus Eschscholtzii Schlect.    Eschscholtz's Buttercup.
W. B. Anderson.
Aquilegia flavescens Wats.    Yellow Columbine.
Common up to and above timber-line in sheltered places, especially on the shaly
slopes where they often form " islands " holding the soil about which other plants
tended to gather.
CRUCIFERjE.
Physaria didymocarpa Gray.    Mountain Bladder-pod.
On shaly slopes, summit of the north ridge.    It was growing as single plants,
dotting the area in widely scattered individuals.
Radicula obtusa (Nutt.)  Greene.    Blunt-leaved Yellow Cress.
Prostrate mats of it were growing luxuriantly in the vicinity of the camp buildings, possibly brought in by human agency as it was not seen elsewhere.
Draba incerta Pays.    Uncertain Whitlow-grass.
Scarce.    In the basin and on both north and south ridges among rocks.
Draba nivalis Lilj.    Snow Whitlow-grass.
Scarce.    South ridge, soil-pockets among rocks.
Draba nivalis var.. elongata Wats.
On talus above timber-line.    W. B. Johnstone.
Draba aligosperma Hook.    Few-seeded Whitlow-grass.
North and south ridges.
Draba Paysonii var. Treleasii Hitch.    Payson's Whitlow-grass.
Forming compact pincushion-like pads.    North and south ridges among rocks.
Draba praealta Greene.    Tall Whitlow-grass.
Open woods east of basin.   Rare. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 25
Arabis Lemmoni Wats.    Lemmon's Rock-cress.
Above timber-line.    North and south ridges.    Rare.
Arabis Lyallii Wats.    Lyall's Rock-cress.
W. B. Anderson.
CRASSULACEjE.
Sedum stenopetalum Pursh.    Narrow-petaled Stonecrop.
Frequent at all levels, occurring in open woods and on exposed summits.
Rhodiola integrifolia Raf.    Western Roseroot.
Gravel flats near stream and on shaly slope.
Saxifragace^e.
Ribes lacustre Poir.    Prickly Currant.
In woods and also at 8,000-foot level on steep slope at timber-line.
Parnassia fimbriata Banks.    Fringed Grass of Parnassus.
Common;  in full flower; moist slopes and levels in meadow or open woodland.
Mitella pentandra Hook.    Five-point Mitrewort.
In wood east of mine.
Heuchera ovalifolia Nutt.    Oval-leaved Heuchera.
Open woods and trail-sides.    In flower.
Leptarrhena amplexifolia (Sternb.) Ser.    Pear-leaf.
In dense mats in woods.    Not in flower.
Suksdorfia violacea A. Gray. (Abrams).
Rock crevices, 8,700 feet.   W. B. Johnstone.
Saxifraga oppositifolia L.    Purple Saxifrage.
Occasionally found on or near the summit of the ridges, in rock crevices or near-by
terraces and soil-pockets.    In fruiting stage only.
Saxifraga bronchialis L. var. austromontana (Wiegand)  Piper.
The most abundant Saxifrage wherever suitable rock crevices were to be found.
At all levels.    Conspicuously in flower.
Saxifraga caespitosa L.    Tufted Saxifrage.
Rock crevices in ravine.    In flower.    Not common.
Saxifraga delicatula.    Small Slender Saxifrage.
Sparingly in basin, flats, and crevices among rocks.    Flower and fruit.
Saxifraga occidentalis Wats.    Western Saxifrage.
Occasionally, on shaly slopes among rocks.    Mostly in fruiting stage.
Saxifraga Lyallii Engler.    Lyall's Saxifrage.
In fruit;  forming loose colonies on flats and slopes near stream.
Rosacea.
Fragaria bracteata Heller.    Strawberry.
Common, at all levels.    The berries just ripening, were greedily devoured by
chipmunks and Columbian ground-squirrels.
Potentilla fruticosa L.    Shrubby Cinquefoil.
Common on the slopes above basin.    In flower.
Potentilla nivea L.    Snow Cinquefoil.
Rock crevices on the summits of the ridges.
Potentilla dissecta Pursh.    Mountain Meadow Cinquefoil.
Occurs at all levels from the wooded ravine to the summits.    In flower at the
higher levels only.
3 C 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Dryas octopetala L.    White Mountain Avens.
Common, forming dense mats on well-drained slopes and ridges, more especially
at the higher levels.    Not in flower.
Geum macrophyllum Willd.    Large-leaved Avens.
Only in the vicinity of the camp building.
Sibbaldia procumbens L.    Sibbaldia.
Common to all levels and of frequent occurrence, banks and rock-pockets.
Leguminos^e.
Hedysarum sulphurescens Rydb.    Yellow Loments.
On summit of south ridge only.    In flower.
Oxytropis.    )
.. .        ,       >  Too withered for exact identification.    South ridge.
EMPETRACE.E.
Empetrum nigrum L.    Crowberry.
Recorded by Lady Byng for Paradise Mine (1937).
VIOLACEjE.
Viola adunca Smith.    Western Long-spurred Violet.
W. B. Anderson.
Onagrace^e.
Epilobium angustifolium L.    Fire-weed.
Common by trail-sides and moist places in the basin. A favourite food of the
pika.    In full flower.
Epilobium latifolium L.    Broad-leaved Willow-herb.
On moist slopes and by stream-sides.    Not in flower.    As with so many fruiting
species, the pods are much sought after by rodents as food.
Epilobium Hornemannii Reich.    Hornemann's Willow-herb.
Frequent along stream-sides and on sheltered benches and slopes among rocks.
ErICACEjE.
Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl.    Mountain Bilberry.
One or two specimens in the ravine. It appears to reach its upper limits here
as none was seen in the basin.
Vaccinium scoparium Leiberg.    Red Alpine Bilberry.
The predominant ground-cover in the open woods, both in the ravine and well up
towards timber-line.
Vaccinium oreophilum Rydb.
W. B, Anderson.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng.    Bearberry.
One specimen near summit of the south ridge, between 8,000 and 9,000 feet.
Cassiope Mertensiana Don.    Keeled Moss Heather.
Growing in patches in the Vaccinium scoparium association. In tufts among the
rocks at higher elevations.    Not in flower.
Cassiope tetragona (L.) Don.    Channeled Moss Heather.
One specimen collected near the top of the south ridge about 9,000 feet. Owing
to the absence of blooms it could easily have been overlooked elsewhere as it superficially resembles the commoner C. Mertensiana. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 27
Phyllodoce empetriformis Don.    Rose Heather.
In the open woodlands of the ravine, much less common than the following.    Not
in flower.
Phyllodoce glanduliflora (Hook.) Cov.    White Heather.
Most frequently seen in the Vaccinium scoparium association.    Abundant.
Kalmia polifolia Wang.    Swamp Laurel.
W. B. Anderson.    Also recorded by Lady Byng.
Rhododendron albiflorum Hook.   White-flowered Rhododendron.
Small specimens, 2 feet in height, evidently the extreme upper limit at this point.
In the ravine east of basin.
Primulace^e.
Androsace subumbellata (A. Nels.) Small.    Small Mountain Androsace.
One small group, summit of north ridge.    In fruit.    Growing in a soil-pocket
among rocks.
Gentianaceje.
Gentiana acuta Michx.    Northern Gentian.
Common, borders of trails, moist slopes, and in the meadow.    In full flower.
HYDROPHYLLACEjE.
Romanzoffia sitchensis Bong.    Mist Maidens.
Among rocks on south ridge, 8,500 feet.    Not in flower.
Phacelia ciliosa Rydb.    Ciliate Phacelia.
In the ravine and on summit of the north ridge where it was more common and
in flower.
SCROPHULARIACE./E.
Pentstemon fruticosus (Pursh.) Greene.    Shrubby Pentstemon.
Frequent on slopes, and among rocks, mostly in fruit.
Pentstemon confertus Dougl.    Yellow Pentstemon.
In the ravine and on the slopes bordering the basin.    In flower,
Pentstemon albertinus Greene.
W. B. Anderson, 6,000 feet.    From the altitude recorded it was possibly taken
lower down on the trail and not in the valley proper.
Castilleja angustifolia (Nutt.) G. Don.
" While apparently agreeing with the species var. Bradburyi Fernald, its low habit
and alpine habitat make it doubtful."    Dr. Leon Kelso.
Castilleja rhexifolia Rydb.    Narrow-leaved Paint-brush.
In the wooded ravine.
Castilleja occidentalis Torr.    Western Paint-brush.
W. B. Anderson, 8,000 feet.    W. B. Johnstone.    Alpine meadow.
Pedicularis bracteosa Benth.    Bracted Pedicularis.
Ravine east of basin.
VALERIANACEjE.
Valeriana sitchensis Bong.    Northern Valerian.
Common at all levels.    In flower. C 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Campanulace^e.
Campanula rotundifolia.   Bluebell.
One specimen in flower.    Wooded ravine east of basin.
Composite.
Aster Richardsonii Spreng.    Richardson's Aster.
In the ravine to summit of the north ridge, very sparingly.    In flower.
Aster occidentalis Nutt.    Western Aster.
Trail up to mine, 6,000 feet.    W. B. Johnstone.
Aster foliaceus Lindl.    Leafy Aster.
W. B. Anderson, 8,000 feet.
Aster foliaceus Lindl. var. apricus Gray.
In the ravine.
Aster modestus Lindl.
Trail up to mine, 6,000 feet.    W. B. Johnstone.
Erigeron acris L. var. debilis Gray.    Bitter Erigeron.
At all levels, among rocks.
Erigeron compositus Pursh.    Dwarf Mountain Erigeron.
One of the most representative and widely distributed of the erigerons in this
area.
Erigeron compositus var. discoideus Gray.    Rayless Mountain Erigeron.
Open rocky places in ravine.
Erigeron compositus var. trifidus (Hook.) Gray.
North ridge.
Erigeron aureus Greene.    Golden Erigeron.
In the basin and on the summits, rock-pockets and terraces.
Erigeron lanatus Hook.    Woolly Erigeron.
On the summits 8,500 feet to 9,000 feet, among rocks.
Erigeron salsuginosus (Rich.) Gray.    Aster Erigeron.
In the open woods of the ravine.
Erigeron uniflorus L.
Grassy talus above timber-line.    W. B. Johnstone.
Aplopappus Lyallii Gray.    Lyall's Aplopappus.
Summits and slopes above timber-line.
Solidago corymbosa Nutt.    Northern Goldenrod.
On the higher slopes above timber-line where it was most abundant.    In open
places in the ravine.
Achillea borealis Bong.    Northern Yarrow.
Common, especially by trail-sides.
Artemisia discolor Doug.
Paradise Basin, limestone cliffs above timber-line, could be located by the scent.
W. B. Johnstone.
Arnica cordifolia Hook.    Heart-leaved Arnica.
In the wooded ravine.
Arnica alpina (L.) Olm.    Alpine Arnica.
On the higher slopes.
Arnica Chamissonis Less.    Chamisson's Arnica.
Near stream in ravine. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 29
Arnica Rydbergii Greene.
W. B. Anderson, 8,000 feet.
Arnica latifolia Bong.    Broad-leaved Arnica.
In the ravine.
Senecio pauciflorus Pursh.    Few-flowered Senecio.
On the higher slopes.
Senecio triangularis Hook.    Spear-head Senecio.
In masses on margin of stream in ravine.
Senecio pseudaureus Rydb.    Golden Ragwort.
Open spaces in the ravine and along trail-side.
Senecio Fremontii T. & G.    Fremont's Senecio.
On the higher slopes above timber-line.
Senecio Balsamitae Muhl.
Alpine meadows.    W. B. Johnstone.
Antennaria racemosa Hook.    Slender Everlasting.
In the ravine.
Antennaria media Greene.    Alpine Everlasting.
Common, on flats and slopes at the higher levels; also in the ravine.
Antennaria rosea Greene.    Rosy Everlasting.
Sparingly in the basin, on flats among rocks.
Antennaria lanata Greene.    Woolly Everlasting.
On the summits among rocks.    West end of basin.
Anaphalis margaritacea var. subalpina Gray.    Pearly Everlasting.
Ravine and basin.
Saussurea densa (Hook.) Rydb.    Saw-wort.
On the higher slopes;  in shaly soil.
Agoseris pubescens Rydb.    Downy Agoseris.
On the shaly slopes above timber-line on the north ridge.
Crepis nana Rich.    Dwarf Hawksbeard.
On the summits, not common.    Flower and fruit.
Hieracium gracile Hook.    Alpine Hawkweed.
Open wood in ravine.
Fungi.
At the time of our visit rainfall was frequent, and previous to this 3 inches of snow
had covered the ground.    It was, however, comparatively warm.
The combination of moisture and warmth resulted in conditions conducive to the
development of any fungoid growth existing in the area.
Mushrooms sprang up everywhere, on or under logs, by trail-sides, and even on
the decaying debris at the base of such plants as Dryas octopetala at an altitude of close
on 9,000 feet.
The higher fungi were mostly in evidence and represented by the Agaricacese and
Boletacese. Their abundance in species and especially in individuals was comparable
to similar areas at sea-level. A difference, however, was noticeable in the habit of
growth of many individuals, in that the sporophores tended to develop close to the
edges of logs or, very often, in hollow spaces beneath, resulting in much distortion of
stem and cap as they endeavoured to expand in such cramped quarters. This could be
due to the wide-ranging temperature which at the altitude varied from 75° Fahrenheit
at noon to below freezing at night, discouraging a more open position. Those that did
develop in open situations had very short stems. C 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The mine tunnels furnished an ideal opportunity for mycelial growth; here the
timbers in places were covered with its soft woolly-like appearance. Several sporo-
phores arising from it were obtained.
From a small collection made in the vicinity of the mine the following genera of
fungi have been tentatively determined:—
Hypholoma, possibly fasicularis Huds.    Csespitose clump at base of old fir-stump.
Collybia.    The species growing in the mine seems to belong to this genus.
Russula.    Grassy places in open woods.
Tricholoma.    Under logs.
Hygrophorus.    Trail-sides.
Cortinarius.    At base of Dryas octopetala at 9,000 feet and other more sheltered places.
Laccaria.    Near logs and stumps.
Inocybe.    On decaying vegetable debris.
Flammula.    On decaying logs.
Clytocybe.    On ground in woods and under logs.
Boletus.   At least two species—open woods.
Lycoperdon.    Puffballs were frequently observed in open grassy places.
Lichens.
Evernia vulpina L.
Abundant on dead or dying branches of trees, particularly in the sheltered ravine.
Cladonia species.
Common on the ground on the summits and exposed rocky slopes. Closely associated with Selaginella and Bryophytes.
Mosses.
Bryum turbinatum (Hedw.) Schwaegr.
Bryum bimum Schreber.
Along margins of running stream.
Grimmia species.
Margin of stream; damp ground.
Hygrohypnum dilatatum Wils.
In running stream.
Philonotis fontana Brid.
Philonotis fontana (Mol.) var. tormentella.
Margin of alpine stream.
Pholia nutans Lindl.
Moist soil near alpine streams or spring seepage.
Polytrichum juniperinum Willd.
A feature of the ground-cover at high elevations in company with Selaginella and
Cladonia.
Polytrichum piliferum Schreb.
Rhacomitrium canescens Brid.
Very dwarf form.    South ridge 9,000 feet.
Schleropodium csespitosum (B. & S.).
Tortula ruralis Ehrh. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 31
BIRDS.
Birds were not particularly conspicuous in the vicinity of the mine at the time of
our visit.    The following notes are based mainly on observations made by the members
of our party and consequently can give only an incomplete picture of the bird life of
this area.
Accipiter velox velox (Wilson).    Sharp-shinned Hawk.
A lone individual was seen.
Aquila chryssetos canadensis (Linnaeus).    Golden Eagle.
A bird in juvenile plumage was seen near the mine buildings on several occasions.
A mine-worker reported seeing an eagle perched on a dead snag overlooking a rock-
slide, apparently on the watch for marmots.
Circus hudsonius (Linnaeus).    Marsh Hawk.
An immature bird was seen flying low over the alpine meadows apparently searching for mice.    The bird paid no attention to pikas which were calling from the near-by
rock-slides.
Dendragapus obscurus richardsoni (Douglas).    Richardson's Grouse.
Common in the wooded area immediately below the mine buildings.
Lagopus leucurus altipetens Osgood.    Southern White-tailed Ptarmigan.
A flock of nine individuals, of which two were adults, was seen among the rocks at
the upper end of the valley on one occasion.    The crops of an adult and a juvenile taken
a few days previously by Mr. Johnstone were found to contain galls of Arctic willow
and leaves of Alpine buttercup, Ranunculus saxicola.
Surnia ulula caparoch (Muller).    American Hawk-owl.
According to Mr. Ed Barbour, an employee of the mine, a hawk-owl was seen almost
daily preying upon ptarmigan.
Colaptes cafer collaris Vigors.    Red-shafted Flicker.
Commonly seen and heard in the wooded area<
Dryobates villosus monticola Anthony.    Rocky Mountain Hairy Woodpecker.
A lone bird was seen.
Otocoris alpestris articola Oberholser.    Arctic Horned Lark.
A flock of six birds, presumedly of this subspecies, was seen near the summit of
the ridge overlooking the valley from the south.
Perisoreus canadensis capitalis Ridgway.    Rocky Mountain Jay;  Whiskey Jack.
Jays are said to be commonly seen later in the season; none was observed during
our stay at the mine.
Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson).    Clark's Nutcracker;  Clark's Crow.
A small flock of these birds was seen or heard almost daily in the vicinity of the
camp and occasionally high up the rock-slides.
Penthestes gambeli gambeli (Ridgway).    Mountain Chickadee.
Small flocks of chicadees, apparently of this subspecies, were seen on several
occasions.
Sitta canadensis Linnaeus.    Red-breasted Nuthatch.
Individuals probably of this species were occasionally seen and heard.
Cinclus mexicanus unicolor Bonaparte.    American Dipper; Water-ouzel.
A dipper was seen along the upper reaches of Spring Creek.
Corthylio calendula calendula (Linnaeus).    Eastern Ruby-crowned Kinglet.
Present in small numbers.
Dendroica auduboni auduboni (Townsend).    Audubon's Warbler.
A group of five was seen on one occasion.
. C 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Leucosticte tephrocotis (Swainson).    Rosy Finch;  Leucosticte.
A flock of about twenty-five of these birds was seen near the summit of the north
ridge on August 30th, but as no specimens were secured the subspecies could not be
determined.
Junco oreganus shufeldti Coale.    Shufeldt's Junco.
Several immature individuals, probably of this subspecies, were seen on a number
of occasions.
Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli (Nuttall).    Gambel's Sparrow.
Several immature birds were seen.
Passerella iliaca schistacea Baird.    Slate-coloured Fox Sparrow.
MAMMALS.
During the short time at our disposal an attempt was made to obtain as complete
a picture as possible of the mammals in the area under study. This was mainly accomplished by extensive and intensive trapping, aided by observation and information
supplied by some of the mine employees. The following list is based on the results of
these activities; while incomplete, it gives a measure of the variety and abundance of
the mammalian fauna of the region.
Sorex obscurus obscurus Merriam.    Dusky Shrew.
A few shrews were taken along the stream-banks in the same runs used by field
mice.
Sorex palustris navigator (Baird).    Rocky Mountain Water Shrew.
A pair of these large shrews was taken in traps set along the edge of Spring Creek
not far from the mine buildings.
Microtus longicaudus mordax (Merriam).    Long-tailed Meadow Mouse.
The meadow mouse seemed to be by far the most numerous rodent in the meadow
lands bordering Spring Creek and its tributaries.    A series of eighteen specimens was
taken; one-half were females and, of these, six were carrying young.    Individuals were
seen occasionally in broad daylight.
Microtus richardsoni richardsoni (De Kay).    Richardson Meadow Mouse.
Judging by the numerous runways this largest of meadow mice, attaining a length
of 9 inches, was apparently common in the Spring Creek area near the mine buildings,
but we succeeded in trapping two immature specimens only.
Peromyscus maniculatus artemisise (Rhoads).    Sage-brush White-footed Mouse.
White-footed mice were the most common  rodent  around  the mine buildings.
The greater proportion of those taken were juveniles.
Clethrionomys gapperi saturatus Rhoads.    British Columbia Red-backed Mouse.
Red-backed mice were found to be most commonly taken in the forested area immediately below the mine building.    One female contained well-developed embryos and
several of the males were in breeding condition.
Zapus princeps idahoensis Davis.    Idaho Jumping Mouse.
Jumping mice were taken in the open meadow-land where long-tailed voles were
also collected.    They did not appear to be common.
Phenacomys intermedins intermedins Merriam.    Rocky Mountain Phenacomys.
Specimens of this mouse-like rodent were taken in traps set in " runs " also used by
meadow mice.    They appeared to be fairly numerous.
Citellus columbianus columbianus (Ord).    Columbian Ground-squirrel.
Ground-squirrels, locally called " gophers," were exceedingly common in the mine
area. Although those of the main valley, 4,500 feet below, had gone into hibernation
about August 22nd  (date supplied by Mr. Johnstone)  those at timber-line were still REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 33
active up to the last day of our stay and showed no signs of retiring to their burrows
for the winter.
Individuals were occasionally seen 10 to 12 feet up trees, down which they
scampered at the least alarm. The trees ascended were mostly larch and the attraction
seemed to be cones and tender needles on new shoots. Three ground-squirrels were
seen in three separate trees at one time on one occasion.
This colony near the mine workings was also noteworthy for the fact that a number
of the members were albinos. At least three white individuals were observed; one,
collected as a specimen, possessed the pure white pelt and pink eyes characteristic of
complete albinism. The albinos also appeared to be more fearless than the normal
coloured individuals, permitting close approach for observation and photography.
Dr. John F. Walker, Deputy Minister of Mines, informs us that albino ground-
squirrels were observed by him in the same location in 1922.    It would appear that
albinistic individuals are not rapidly annihilated by their natural enemies, despite the
fact that their lack of pigment renders them comparatively conspicuous.
Callospermophilus lateralis tescorum Hollister.    Hollister's Mantled Ground-squirrel.
Mantled ground-squirrels were said to be numerous around the mine in 1943, but
at the time of our visit only one was observed.    This was an immature male taken
within a few yards of the office building.
Eutamius minimus oreocetes Merriam.    Timber-line Chipmunk.
This small chipmunk was fairly common in the vicinity of the mine buildings.
It is distributed from Glacier Park, Montana, through timber-line areas of the mountains to the Banff-Kootenay Park region.
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus streatori Allen.    Streator Red Squirrel.
Squirrels were fairly numerous in the ravine below the mine buildings. They
seemed to be engaged in removing cones from balsam fir, an activity which resulted in
their fur becoming much matted with pitch.
One of three specimens taken at the mine is referable to the subspecies richardsoni; the remaining two also have tendencies toward this subspecies, according to Dr.
Cowan.
Glaucomys sabrinus latipes Howell.    Broad-footed Flying Squirrel.
One pair of flying squirrels was taken in a trap baited with meat and set in the
wooded ravine below the camp.
Neotom.a cinerea occidentalis (Baird).    Western Bushy-tailed Wood Rat.
Wood rats or pack rats were apparently numerous around the mine buildings, as
indicated by droppings and the sickly odour peculiar to these animals.
An adult male was taken in a trap near the mine compressor; two others were seen
in broad daylight near the office building.
Dr. Cowan states that specimens examined show some trend to the subspecies
drummondi, which is found in Southern British Columbia and southward.
Ochotona princeps princeps (Richardson).    Rocky Mountain Pika;  Rock-rabbit;  Cony.
Pikas were abundant in rock-slides opposite the mine buildings and near the head
of the valley among rocky ledges. At least one individual frequented a rock embankment a few yards from the office and a juvenile was frequently seen seeking refuge
under the building itself.
Accumulations of cuttings were found in all suitable places and were often the only
signs of the presence of the animals themselves. A few of the larger " hay-stacks "
were examined and found to contain plant material identified as follows: Anemone
multifida, Antennaria media, A. lanata, Arnica alpina, Fragaria bracteata, Salix nivalis,
S. anglorum var. araioclada, Potentilla nivea, Pinus albicaulis, Valeriana sitchensis,
Aquilegia flavescens, Dryas octopetala, Epilobium latifolium, Phyllodoce glanduliflora,
Carex festivella, Agropyron trachycaulon, Trisetum spicatum. C 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Marmota caligata okanagana (King).    Okanagan Hoary Marmot; Whistler.
About a dozen marmots occupied the large rock-slide directly opposite the mine
buildings. One or two appeared to be of large size and particularly wary. A medium-
sized individual was shot but it disappeared beneath a large boulder before it died.
The following day its body was found on top of the boulder; the throat portion was
eaten away. We were unable to decide whether the animal climbed to the top of the
boulder to die or whether the body was dragged there by other marmots.
Grizzly bears and Golden eagles appear to be their chief enemies.
Erethizon epixanthum nigrescens Allen.    Dusky Porcupine.
A porcupine was seen in an abandoned building near the cook-house the day before
we arrived at the mine, but none was seen during our stay.    Several pine-trees in the
vicinity showed extensive damage by porcupine, the bark being almost entirely removed
in some cases.
Mustela frenata oribasa (Bangs).    Mountain Weasel.
An adult female was taken in the wooded ravine below the camp.
Mr. Barbour, an employee who has spent much time at the mine, told us that he had
often seen a weasel hunting ground-squirrels opposite the engine-house.
Mustela cicognani richardsonii (Bonaparte).    Richardson Weasel.
One individual, apparently of this subspecies, was observed a few yards from the
office building.
Martes americana ssp.    Marten.
Traps set in likely places for marten failed to catch a specimen during the period
of our stay. Nevertheless, it is known that marten visit the area at times since one
was seen almost weekly during the previous year near the engine-house of the mine.
Euarctos americanus americanus (Pallas).    American Black Bear.
An occasional bear is seen near the mine. A few days after our departure one was
observed near camp by Mr. Fred Reger, officer in charge of the mine.
Vrsus horribilis Ord.    Grizzly Bear.
No grizzlies were observed by us during our stay but fairly recent droppings and
diggings for ground-squirrels were present both near the mine and at the end of the
valley, indicating that these animals occasionally visit the valley.
Canis latrans ssp.    Coyote.
Coyotes are said to be commonly seen in the vicinity of the mine.    One was noted
shortly before our arrival;   tracks were observed in several places above the mine-
shafts.    A lone individual was seen on the road near Toby Creek on our way to the
highway.
Canis lupus ssp.    Timber Wolf.
A large-sized wolf is said to be a common visitor to the valley. According to Mr.
Barbour, a typical individual is black with white chest and grey on shoulders and
weighs about 150 lb.
A wolf of this description was seen by one of us on the hillside above the mine
workings. The animal trotted across the slope leaving 4-inch tracks in the loose shale
fragments.
Gulo luscus Linnaeus.   Wolverine.
Dr. and Mrs. I. A. Richards, of Cambridge, Mass., who used Paradise Mine as a
base camp for an ascent of Mount Nelson, report seeing a wolverine on the ridge behind
the mine.
Odocoileus hemionus hemionus (Rafinesque).    Mule Deer.
Deer were quite common and several were seen, particularly at a point not far
from the mine buildings where a quantity of old blasting-powder had been destroyed REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 35
by fire.    Here, the earth apparently contained a concentration of salts and mineral
matter which was attractive to game;   the ground was much pawed, trampled, and
browsed.
Alces americana (Clinton).    Moose.
Although the territory in the vicinity of the mine does not include typical moose
habitat, individuals occasionally ascend to this elevation.    A bull was shot not far
below the mine-site sometime previous to our visit.
Rangifer montanus Seton-Thompson.    Mountain Caribou.
Caribou are reported to be seen occasionally in the Spring Creek Valley during
periods of hot weather, when they apparently seek shelter from flies, according to Mr.
Barbour.
Oreamnos americanus americanus (Blainville).    Rocky Mountain Goat.
Mountain-goat are common in the Purcell Mountains in the higher altitudes.
A flock of three adults and two juveniles was seen on the north slope of the valley on
the first morning of our visit. Two other individuals were seen over the south ridge
a few days later.
MISCELLANEOUS INVERTEBRATES.
Spiders.
Several spiders obtained on the summit have been determined by Mr. T. B. Kurata,
of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology at Toronto.    They are listed below, together
with his comments.
Lycosa fumosa Emerton.
" This is a rather rare species."    North ridge, 9,000 feet.
Pardosa Mackenziana Keys.    North ridge, 9,000 feet.
Pardosa albomaculata Emerton.
" Pardosas are rather common right through northern Canada."
Gnaphosa brumalis Thorell.
North ridge, 9,000 feet.    " Distribution as in Pardosa but less common."
All the above spiders were found as they were running actively over the ground in
search of prey.
Insects.
Attention was chiefly centred on the Lepidoptera and Coleoptera among the insects,
more as an auxiliary to other pursuits than as the main purpose. The lateness of the
season and absence of sunshine over the greater part of the time spent in the area was
not conducive to insect activity; even annoying species such as mosquitoes and black-
flies were conspicuous by their absence.
Grylloblatta.
Grylloblatta campodeiformis Walker.
In rotten logs, both in the ravine and at the west end of basin; uncommon.
Ground Beetles.
Carabus taedatus Fab.
Under logs in ravine.
Nebria crassicornis VanD.
Frequent under logs and decaying debris.
Nebria labridorica Csy.
With the former; while not very common it was perhaps more often met with than
any other one species of beetle. C 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Pseudonomaretus relictus Horn.
Occasionally found under logs and stones.
Cymindis cribricollis Dej.
Among vegetable debris.
Ludius aeripennis Kby.
Click-beetles.
Ladybird Beetles.
Hippodamia 5-signata Kirby.
On rock at summit, 9,000 feet.
Long-horn Beetles.
Anoplodera canadensis (Oliv.) Swaine & Hopping.
One dead specimen of the form with red elytra was dug out of an old pupal cell in
the stump of Larix Lyallii. The stump was riddled with exit holes evidently of this
species. The larvae seemed to have reacted to the southern sunny side, for this aspect
of the stump or dead portions of living trees always bore more exit holes than any other,
wherever the affected trees were isolated or exposed. The species ranges across the
continent.
Criocephalus asperatus LeC
One was taken outside a building window, whither it had no doubt been attracted
by artificial light the preceding evening.    This is a species western in distribution.
Anoplodera chrysocoma (Kirby) Swaine & Hopping.
On flowers of Senecio pseudaureus.    Of wide distribution across the continent.
Anoplodera tibialis (LeC) Swaine & Hopping.
On flowers, Senecio pseudaureus and Achillea borealis.   A mountain species of wide
American distribution.
Butterflies.
Parnassius smintheus D. & Hew.
Flying on the high slopes above timber-line.    The flight was steadily maintained
2 or 3 feet above the ground;  occasionally the insect rested to sun itself on the shale
with outspread wings.    Three or four specimens were seen in addition to the one
captured.
Argynnis hydaspe race sakuntula Skin.
One newly emerged specimen was taken near camp as it flew along a trail.
Brenthis bischoffi race washingtonia B. & McD.
A worn individual was taken at rest on a log near camp.
Polygonia progne Cramer.
Flying about flowering banks;  or sunning themselves on the ground.
Eurymus eurytheme fr. amphidusa Bdv.    Boiduval's Sulphur.
One female was obtained.
Eurymus eurytheme fr. eriphyle Edw.    Yellow Sulphur.
Several specimens of this  species were taken,  including both yellow and  pale
females.
Moths.
Eustroma nubilata Pack.    Clouded Brown.
Flying about during the afternoon in open woods near timber-line.
Hepialus hyperboreus Mosch.    Northern Ghost Moth.
Several were seen.    Specimens were taken as they hovered about the woodland
vegetation in late afternoon or at dusk. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1944. C 37
Bees.
Br emus edwardsii (Cress.)
Br emus occidentalis (Greene).
Both of these bees were abundant on flowers of Senecio triangularis, where they
could be found resting during the evening or early morning, clinging half-numbed
until warmed by the sun.    On wet days some specimens could always be found under
the flower-heads or on the stems of the plant.
Psitherus insular is (Smith).
Taken with the former. Members of this genus have no worker. The female
deposits her eggs in the nest of a species of Br emus; the larvas are reared to maturity
by the workers of the host species.
Fleas.
In connection with his research on Canadian fleas, Mr. George P. Holland, of the
Dominion Livestock Insect Laboratory, Kamloops, made special efforts to collect all
available flea specimens from the mammals taken at Paradise Mine.    He has kindly
supplied the identification and notes presented in the following list.
Catallagian decipiens Rothschild.    Common on mice, especially at lower altitudes.
Host:   Long-tailed meadow mouse.
Ctenophyllus terribilis (Rothschild).    Regularly found on pikas.
Host: Rocky Mountain pika.
Delotelis telegoni (Rothschild).    Rarely found.
Host:   Long-tailed meadow mouse.
Megabothris abantis (Rothschild).    Fairly common on mice at high altitudes.
Hosts:    White-footed  mouse,  Red-backed  mouse,   Rocky  Mountain  phenacomys,
Rocky Mountain pika, Mountain weasel.
Megarthroglossus divisus exsecatus Wagner.    Rarely found.
Host:  Broad-footed flying squirrel.
Monopsyllus e. eumolpi (Rothschild).    Very commonly found.
Host:   Timber-line chipmunk.
Monopsyllus vison (Baker).    Common on red squirrels east of the Cascades.
Host:   Streator red squirrel.
Monopsyllus w. wagneri (Baker).    Common on mice, especially at lower altitudes.
Hosts:  White-footed mouse, Red-backed mouse.
Nearctopsylla brooksi (Rothschild).    Rarely collected.
Host:   Mountain weasel.
Orchopeas caedens durus (Jordan).
Host:   Streator red squirrel.
Orchopeas sexdentatus agilis (Rothschild).    The common flea of wood rats.
Host:   Bushy-tailed wood rat.
Oropsylla  idahoensis   (Baker).    The   common   flea   of  ground-squirrels   in   British
Columbia.
Hosts:  Columbian ground-squirrel, Mountain weasel (by predation), Rocky Mountain pika (by accident).
Peromyscopsylla selenis (Rothschild).    Fairly common on mice at high altitudes.
Hosts:   Long-tailed meadow mouse, Rocky Mountain phenacomys.
Peromyscopsylla ravalliensis (Dunn).    Rarely taken.
Host:  Bushy-tailed wood rat.
Rectofrontia fraterna (Baker).
Host:  Rocky Mountain phenacomys.
Tarsopsylla sp. [coloradensis (Baker)?].    Rarely collected.
Hosts: Streator red squirrel, Broad-footed flying squirrel.
Thrassis spenceri Wagner.
Host:  Okanagan hoary marmot. C 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Molluscs.
Vitrina alaskana Dall.
On two occasions a few of these small land snails were found creeping over mammal traps set in damp situations. Other specimens were found under forest debris in
the ravine below the road.
The species is generally distributed in the Rocky Mountains from New Mexico
northward.
Hemphillia camalus Pilsbry and Vanotta.
Several of these slugs were found in cavities beneath rotting logs in the ravine.
One was taken on a trap where it was apparently attracted by the nut and oatmeal bait.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT.
It was a great pleasure for us to have the company and assistance of Mr. Walter
B. Johnstone, of Cranbrook, who proposed the visit to Paradise Mine and made the
preliminary arrangements. We are much indebted to him for supplying information
concerning wild life and for his many courtesies and services rendered during our stay
in the Kootenay district. We wish also to thank Mrs. Johnstone for her generous hospitality while we were in Cranbrook. We are indebted also to Mr. Henry Doelle, Managing Director of Sheep Creek Gold Mines, Limited, and to Mr. Fred Reger, officer in
charge of Paradise Mine, for accommodations and courtesies extended to us during our
stay at the mine. To the various members of the staff who helped in many ways in
supplying information and in capturing specimens we also extend our thanks. To Mr.
W. Howard Cleland, Manager of the Invermere Contracting Company, Invermere, we
are grateful for the use of temporary storage-space and for other services rendered.
Certain specialists have been of invaluable service in identifying specimens for us.
We are pleased, therefore, to express our indebtedness to the following persons:   Dr.
C. R. Ball, Plant Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C, willows; Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan, Department of Zoology, University of
British Columbia, mammals; Mr. John P. Oughton, Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology,
Toronto, Ontario, molluscs; Mr. George Hopping, Dominion Entomological Laboratory,
Vernon, British Columbia, insects; Mrs. Hugh Mackenzie, Victoria, mosses; Dr. C. L.
Hitchcock, Department of Botany, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., Draba;
Mr. J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C., grasses; and Dr.
Leon Kelso, Washington, D.C, Castilleja.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Byng, Viscountess, of Vimy. 1937. Of some Canadian Wildings. Journal of Royal
Horticulture Society, Vol. 62, Pt. 6, pp. 239-248.
Henry, J. K. 1915. Flora of Southern British Columbia and Vancouver Island.
W. J. Gage & Co., Ltd., pp. 1-363.
Munro, J. A., and Cowan, I. McTaggart. 1944. Preliminary Report on the Birds
and Mammals of Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. Can. Field-Naturalist, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 34-51.
Ulke, Titus. 1935. List of Vascular Plants of the Horsethief Creek, Purcell Range,
B.C.    Can. Field-Naturalist, Vol. 49, Nos. 3 and 4, pp. 49-55, 71-76.
Walker, J. F. 1926. Geology and Mineral Deposits of Windermere Map-area, British
Columbia.    Can. Dept. of Mines, Memoir 148, pp. 1-65.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chabi.es F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1945.
1,305-345-5583   ~\

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