Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1945

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0319204.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0319204.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0319204-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0319204-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0319204-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0319204-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0319204-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0319204-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0319204-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0319204.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. C. D. Orchard, Chief Forester.
REPORT
OF
THE FOEEST BRANCH
FOR THE
TEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
"   1944
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chaeles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1945.    Victoria, B.C., March 1st, 1945.
To His Honour W. C. WOODWARD,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of
the Department of Lands for the year 1944.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch
during the calendar year 1944.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Chief Forester.  CONTENTS.      .
Item. Page.
1. Introductory.     7
2. Organization and Personnel—
Enlistments     8
Distribution of Personnel  12
3. Forest Economics  12
Air and Forest Surveys  13
Provincial Forests  13
List of Forests  13
Forest Resources Reconnaissance and Inventory  14
Northern British Columbia Region  16
Forest Research  17
Mensuration  17
Silviculture Studies  17
Applied Management Studies  18
Soil Surveys and Research  21
Reforestation  22
Forest Nurseries  22
Planting  23
Provincial Parks  24
Forest Branch Library  25
4. Forest Management  25
Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M.B.M.)  26
The Forest Industries—
Estimated Value of Production .  27
Paper (in Tons)  27
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years
1943-44 (in F.B.M.)  27
Species cut (in F.B.M.), all Products  28
Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status, all Products.. 29
Timber scaled in British Columbia in 1944 (by Months and Districts).... 31
Logging Inspection, 1944  33
Trespasses, 1944  33
Pre-emption Inspection  34
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of " Land Act," 1944  34
Classification of Areas examined, 1944  34
Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1944  35
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1944  36
Average Stumpage Prices as bid per M.B.F. Log-scale, by Species and
Forest Districts, on Saw-timber cruised on Timber-sales in 1944.... 37
Average Stumpage Prices received per M.B.F. Log-scale, by Species and
Forest Districts, on Saw-timber scaled from Timber-sales in 1944__ 38
Timber cut from Timber-sales as charged during 1944  39
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1944  40
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1944  41
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.,
1944  42
Summary for Province, 1944  42
Timber-marking, Timber-marks issued  43
Draughting Office, Forest Branch, 1944  43
Forest Insect Survey, 1944         43
5. Forest Finance—
Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax  44
Extent and Value of Timber Lands by Assessment Districts  44
Average Assessed Values of Crown-granted Timber Land paying Forest
Protection Tax, as compiled from Taxation Records  45 DD 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Item. Page.
5. Forest Finance—Continued.
Forest Revenue  46
Amounts charged against Logging Operations, 1944  47
Amounts charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1943-44  48
Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1943-44 .  49
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1943-44  50
Scaling Fund  50
Forest Reserve Account  51
Grazing Range Improvement Fund  51
Standing of Forest Protection Fund, December 31st, 1944  52
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by other Agencies,
1944  52
Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1944  53
6. Forest Protection—
Weather  53
Fires—
Occurrence and Causes  53
Cost of Fire-fighting  54
Damage  55
Forest-protection Education  56
Fire-control Planning  56
Fire-suppression Crews  57
Mechanical Equipment  60
Fraser River Repair-station  60
Launches  61
Building and Construction  61
Radio  62
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  62
Forest Closures  65
Fire Law Enforcement  67
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1944  67
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1944  67
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  68
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1944  68
Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1944 68-69
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1944  69
Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1944  69
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  70
Fires classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of
Fire-fighting, 1944  71
Prosecutions, 1944  72
Burning Permits, 1944  73
7. Grazing—
General Conditions  74
Markets and Prices  74
Live-stock Losses  75
Range Reconnaissance  75
Co-operation        75
Grazing Permits  76
Grazing Permits issued  76
Collections    76
Grazing Fees billed and collected  76
Range Improvement ._  76
8. Personnel Directory, January 1st, 1945  77 REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
The outstanding event of the year was the appointment of the Honourable Mr.
Justice Gordon McG. Sloan as Royal Commissioner to inquire into all phases of the
forest industry of the Province. The inquiry started in March and continued throughout the year, with hearings at Coast and Interior centres. With the Commission's
terms of reference sufficiently broad to cover all possible values and influences of the
forests of the Province, opinions have been elicited from every one who wished to
present their views. These included lumber, live stock, forestry, farming, and recreation associations, as well as experts, both of British Columbia and the United States.
The inquiry has gone into the year 1945 and is expected to finish early in the
spring. The findings and report will be of vast importance to the Province, where a
third of our total livelihood comes from forest areas. As we gradually diminish our
virgin forests, the need for better management and protection are more clearly seen
and new policies are required for the growth and perpetuation of the second-growth
stands. Advice to the Commissioner has been thoughtful, enlightened and reasonable,
and the results may be looked to with confidence.
In the meantime the ordinary administration has been carried on with a staff
badly depleted by the war. Many activities have been curtailed and field-work necessarily lessened. In spite of the handicaps, a respectable volume of work has been
accomplished, as will be shown in the tabulations and text to follow.
Notable among the activities formerly carried on but now dropped were forest
surveys, range reconnaissance, and several branches of research. The apparent
approach of the war's end in Europe has resulted in the discharge from the forces of
several younger foresters who have now returned to duty. Some increase in surveys
and research may be expected in 1945.
The fire season was without particular event. Blessed with well scattered rains,
fires were less frequent and more easily controlled. At the same time, the effect of
organization, or rather the lack of it, was again shown in the comparatively high costs
and damage to forests in the thinly developed areas north of Prince George and along
the Alaska Highway. This is a well-forested country, as shown elsewhere in this
report. The forests are largely young and thrifty. Though at present they are too
far from markets to be merchantable, the advent of the proposed highway to connect
the Provincial road system to the Alaska Highway and the possibility of railway connection will have a beneficial effect. Add to this the technological advances in the
refining of wood into more diversified and highly priced commodities, and one may
easily see a great future for those northern forests. They well warrant study and
protection in the interest of the Province's future.
A notable experiment that proved successful was the use of high school students
as fire-suppression crews. The results are tabulated and discussed elsewhere. A continuation of this policy is planned for 1945. No small benefit will be derived from the
educational value of the work.
The lumber industry passed another successful year. Their contribution to the
war effort in products was notable in view of the many difficulties experienced. Labour
and supply conditions were necessarily abnormal, but the persistent hard work of all
concerned produced results.    Production figures are tabulated later.
The Forest Service wishes to acknowledge the co-operation generally extended to
it by the forest-using industries. In all the trying conditions of the past year, this
has been most helpful and heartening. DD 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
The following valuable members of the Forest Service have given their lives in the
service of their country:—
J. H. Benton, Surveys, Victoria.
A. J. Leighton, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
L. A. Bland, Junior Draughtsman, Victoria.
N. H. Boss, Draughtsman, Nelson.
H. E. Elsey, Research Assistant, Victoria.
As at the end of 1944, records available show the following roster of enlistments:—
1939—
L. F. Swannell, Assistant District Forester, Prince George.
W. Hall, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
H. Casilio, Draughtsman, Victoria.
N. G. Wharf, Clerk, Victoria.
C. V. Smith, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
L. N. W. Woods, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
C. R. Sandey, Launch Engineer, Vancouver.
1940—
W. Murray, Draughtsman, Prince Rupert.
T. Hunter, Launch Engineer, Victoria.
G. S. Andrews, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
V. C. Smith, Launch Engineer, Vancouver.
E. G. Oldham, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
G. A. Playfair, Radio Engineer, Victoria.
D. J. McKay, Junior Clerk, Victoria.
C. R. Lee, Draughtsman, Kamloops.
F. J. G. Johnson, Ranger, Nelson.
I. J. Burkitt, Ranger Assistant, Nelson.
A. E. Parlow, District Forester, Kamloops.
J. Boydell, Ranger, Kamloops.
C. L. Armstrong, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
0. V. Maude-Roxby, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
A. C. Kinnear, Air Surveys Division, Victoria.
L. S. Hope, Assistant District Forester, Prince Rupert.
A. Gordon, Supervisor, Victoria.
W. D. Hay, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
A. J. Kirk, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
W. E. Jansen, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
H. G. Mayson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
E. F. Taggart, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
A. Smith, Patrolman, Prince George.
A. B. Ritchie, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
J. H. Wilcox, Lookout-man, Kamloops.
J. C. Wright, Look-out man, Kamloops.
C. W. Mizon, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
W. J. Owen, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
R. R. Douglas, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
L. A. Willington, Assistant Ranger, Prince George.
F. V. Webber, Assistant Ranger, Nelson. FOREST BRANCH REPORT. 1944. DD 9
1941—
H. Stevenson, Ranger, Vancouver.
S. Benwell, Clerk, Victoria.
W. H. Ozard, Grazing Assistant, Kamloops.
J. H. Benton, Air Surveys, Victoria.
Howard Elsey, Research Assistant, Victoria.
H. I. Barwell, Draughtsman, Kamloops.
H. T. Barbour, Acting Ranger, Nelson.
I. C. MacQueen, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
H. A. Ivarson, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
D. R. Monk, Draughtsman, Victoria.
F. W. Crouch, Compiler, Victoria.
A. B. Anderson, Cruiser, Victoria.
N. F. M. Pope, Parks, Victoria.
D. L. McMurchie, Parks, Victoria.
A. J. Nash, Student Assistant, Nelson.
C. W. Walker, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
J. D. LeMare, Cruiser, Victoria.
G. A. Cahilty, Clerk, Kamloops.
W. S. Hepher, Assistant Forester, Vancouver.
C. E. Bennett, Cruiser, Victoria.
J. S. Stokes, Chief of Party, Victoria.
J. Robinson, Acting Ranger, Prince Rupert.
J. Eselmont, Lookout-man, Nelson.
G. H. Fewtrell, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
S. Lockard, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
E. L. Scott, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
G. J. Ballard, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
W. E. Walker, Patrolman, Vancouver.
E. G. Marples, Lookout-man, Nelson.
A. M. Byers, Surveys, Victoria.
1942—
G. W. Minns, Ranger, Prince Rupert.
C. L. Botham, Ranger, Prince Rupert.
L. A. Chase, Acting Ranger, Kamloops.
D. A. Sims, Clerk, Vancouver.
A. J. Leighton, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
A. R. McLeod, Clerk, Vancouver.
D. Gillies, Clerk, Vancouver.
W. V. Hicks, Clerk, Victoria.
P. N. A. Smith, Draughtsman, Vancouver.
C. J. T. Rhodes, Draughtsman, Victoria.
Miss K. Robinson, Stenographer, Victoria.
G. Levy, Clerk, Victoria.
Miss G. M. MacAfee, Stenographer, Victoria.
Miss L. A. Edwards, Stenographer, Nelson.
I. T. Cameron, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
P. M. Monckton, Draughtsman, Victoria.
J. R. Johnston, Acting Ranger, Nelson.
J. H. Templeman, Ranger, Kamloops.
H. M. Pogue, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
A. H. Dixon, Ranger, Vancouver. DD 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
1942—Continued.
G. R. W. Nixon, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
M. A. Johnson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
H. K. DeBeck, Grazing Assistant, Kamloops.
L. E. Bland, Junior Draughtsman, Victoria.
W. W. Stevens, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
A. G. McNeil, Clerk, Vancouver.
W. D. Grainger, Research Assistant, Victoria.
A. E. Rhodes, Clerk, Victoria.
C. P. Harrison, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
K. A. MeKenzie, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
R. E. Crellin, Dispatcher, Nelson.
G. M. Riste, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
W. A. Conder, Lookout-man, Vancouver.
W. M. Patterson, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
H. G. M. Colbeck, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
A. W. Slater, Helper, Vancouver.
D. E. Stephens, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
A. C. Letcher, Patrolman, Vancouver.
R. Bradshaw, Lookout-man, Nelson.
L. E. Croft, Dispatcher, Nelson.
R. R. Flynn, Lookout-man, Nelson.
E. J. Hamling, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
A. E. Hesketh, Patrolman, Nelson.
J. C. Payne, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
I. C. Robinson, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
D. W. Speers, Lookout-man, Nelson.
G. Crommett, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
H. L. Couling, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
D. Lamont, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
D. A. Kittson, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
C. W. J. Castley, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
Geo. Baldwin, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
N. H. Boss, Draughtsman, Nelson.
R. A. Damstrom, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
W. J. Wright, Dispatcher, Nelson.
N. T. McPhedran, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
A. Dixon, Patrolman, Vancouver.
J. H. Ellis, Dispatcher, Kamloops.
C. J. Wagner, Patrolman, Vancouver.
A. Sirvio, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
E. A. Nelson, Patrolman, Kamloops.
W. E. Thacker, Lookout-man, Nelson.
E. L. Collett, Helper, Vancouver.
R. G. Bullen, Lookout-man, Vancouver.
C. S. Stubbs, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
A. H. Bamford, Research Assistant, Victoria.
Alex. Corbett, Acting Ranger, Kamloops.
D. E. Dyson, Student Assistant, Vancouver.
A. L. Lyttle, Scaler, Vancouver.
A. G. Ritchie, Patrolman, Kamloops.
A. A. Antilla, Assistant Ranger, Prince Rupert. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 11
1943—
S. G. Watson, Clerk, Victoria.
W. C. Pendray, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
Miss G. P. Holden, Stenographer, Vancouver.
E. R. Offin, Dispatcher, Nelson.
C. H. Cameron, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
W. R. Garcin, Clerk, Victoria.
H. W. Campbell, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
I. Hanson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
G. E. Shook, Patrolman, Kamloops.
W. C. Stevens, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
J. D. Creighton, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
A. K. McKirdy, Patrolman, Kamloops.
W. L. Downey, Patrolman, Kamloops.
V. Reed, Dispatcher, Kamloops.
R. W. Colmer, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
F. Tannock, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
C. J. C. Slade, Mechanic, Vancouver.
R. W. Foreman, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
G. Seymour, Patrolman, Prince George.
H. C. Cliff, Research Assistant, Victoria.
1944—
Miss U. D. Anderson, Junior Clerk, Vancouver.
Miss E. S. Dobson, Stenographer, Vancouver.
Miss A. B. M. Frasier, Stenographer, Victoria.
Miss M. B. Roberts, Junior Clerk, Vancouver.
Miss M. E. Key, Stenographer, Vancouver. DD 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Distribution of Personnel, 1944.
Forest District.
Personnel.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Victoria.
Total.
Permanent.
Chief   Forester,   Assistant   Chief   Forester,   and
Division Foresters _   	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters -
2
{ •■
2
f    17
|      4*
2
f   26
1
1  ••
j    26
J
10
2
1
6
2*
5
5*
3
2
1
9
6
1*
2
3
1*
14
2*
1
1*
1*
7
2*
2
4
2
9
2*
1
9
2*
5
11
4*
1
4
5*
8*
4
4*
32
17*
4*
1*
5
10
24
6*
5
55
10*
3
26
1*
2
Mechanical—Radio and Engineering Supervisory.—
Surveys and Reconnaissance Assistants 	
4
5*
8*
6
6*
85
34*
5
Launch Crewmen   __	
4*
13
1*
Total, permanent personnel..	
\   97
(   13*
17
7*
18
1*
27
7*
27
4*
57
43*
243
75*
Seasonal.
29
11
15
14
65
22
8
7
8
2
19
4
11
1
8
5
23
19
15
14
24
9
32
7
25
12
32
7
5
111
48
74
43
Fire Suppression Crewmen   	
129
5
Miscellaneous ____ _
43
156
25
48
104
115
5
453
Total, all personnel-  ...
\ 253
|    13*
1
42
7*
66
1*
I
131
7*
142
4*
62
43*
696
75*
" Permanent " is a tabulation of positions occupied for at least part of the year under voted salaries. Total
number of permanent positions actually occupied December 31st, 1944, was 226.
* Continuously employed but no specific position or voted salary for the purpose; includes war replacements
for enlisted personnel.
FOREST ECONOMICS.
Activities of the Division have continued to be seriously hampered by a lack of
technical personnel; however, some former members of the staff are now being released
by the Royal Canadian Air Force and it is anticipated that the situation will be eased
somewhat during the coming year. At the same time, the loss of the Alternative Service Workers will be fully felt and unless there is a marked improvement in the labour
market there will be only a very small planting programme, if any, during the coming
spring. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 13
AIR AND FOREST SURVEYS.
Air survey operations and field survey activities continued to be suspended,
although office-work has proceeded on a restricted scale. The maps for the Juan de
Fuca region were completed and prints have been made available for both departmental
and public use. Currently, some of the maps for the Sayward Forest are being revised
and redraughted as a result of an incomplete revision survey in 1942.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
One new Provincial Forest was created during the year—namely, the Vancouver
Island Plantations, of 148 square miles; and the Aleza Lake Forest Reserve was
increased to 28 square miles. This brings the total number of forests to fifty-three,
with an area of 31,134 square miles. The following schedule shows all Provincial
Forests created to date by name, locality, and area:—
I. Interior Forests.
Name of Forest.
Locality.
Area.
Sq. Miles.
83
2,032
532
Elk
2,426
Flathead - - -	
Fly Hill                                       	
Flathead River	
532
254
Mabel Lake (Vernon)	
593
321
Kettle River   	
1,263
291
Salmon Arm...- _,_	
51
52
88
1,566
Monte Hills          „        _    	
Westwold	
348
907
1,105
339
447
982
361
750
Tranquille _	
Yahk
295
976
Upper Arrow	
1,865
752
Total (26)                                  	
19,211 DD 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
II. Coast Forests.
Name of Forest.
Locality.
Area.
Island between Vancouver Island and mainland -
Island between Vancouver Island and mainland _
Island between Vancouver Island and mainland
Island between Vancouver Island and mainland
Island between Vancouver Island and mainland.
Island between Vancouver Island and mainland
Island between Vancouver Island and mainland
Island between Vancouver Island and mainland -
North Campbell River, V.I.      	
Sq. Miles.
67
Gilford _ -  -     ' 	
175
109
28
61
31
East Thurlow . -	
41
67
616
696
Powell   	
679
933
Sechelt _	
Sechelt and Jervis Inlets  - _ _— _
1,195
1,386
Toba  	
Toba Inlet      -     _	
1,194
Seymour  ,    	
Seymour Inlet    	
908
710
Queen Charlotte Islands	
Queen Charlotte Islands _	
1,331
Graham  -  -	
1,283
148
Total (20)  _  _	
11,658
30,869
III. Scenic Forests.
Sq. Miles.
106
Yoho       -     	
127
Total (2)      	
233
IV. Forest Research Stations.
Sq. Miles.
28
2
1
1
Total (5)  	
32
Total of all Forests (53)	
31,134
FOREST RESOURCES RECONNAISSANCE AND INVENTORY.
Early in 1943 the Joint Economic Committee of Canada and the United States
announced their sponsorship of a project which would involve systematic study of the
economic possibilities in the North Pacific region. This region was defined as including Alaska, the Yukon, and Mackenzie Districts of the Northwest Territories, and certain portions of Northern British Columbia and Alberta. The project was to be known
as the North Pacific Planning Project and the first step to be taken was the collection
of basic data on the natural resources of the region. The Forest Branch was requested
for information concerning the forest resources of the most northerly portion of the CttQD ftWCft V/ALL£V -
•outr oKwmi or annim
ASPCM POPLAR, AGCO
55 yCARS, MCLSOH
RtVCR VALLCy
COTTOWWOOO
AGEO 90 yCARS, flOSKWA
P(V/CR UALLCy
5PftUC£ LOGGING, C1CL50N RIVCR
■  .;
nuncwo lakc, trout r.ugr
VALLGy
5PRUCC LOGS AT DILL, ALASKA
WtGMWAV  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD IB
Province, and in view of certain new information available since the last inventory, as
well as improved accessibility for reconnaissance purposes, it was decided to undertake
a revision of the forest inventory. The accompanying key-map illustrates the territory
over which the revision was made, and of this vast area of land an extensive reconnaissance was made during the summer of 1944, covering about 25 million acres in the
north-east corner of the Province tributary to the Alaska Highway and the Liard River
drainage. Of the total area examined and covered by ground and aerial mapping,
productive forest land was found to constitute only about 4 million acres or 16 per
cent, of the whole. The productive area is restricted to narrow valley-bottoms with
the balance of the land being muskeg, highland barrens, or carrying scrub timber not
suitable for commercial use. The revision of the resources in regions B, C, and D
(see key-map) is based on more reliable information than was previously available in
the form of aerial, photo-topographic, and road surveys, and local knowledge.
The revised estimates are as follows:—
Summary by Regions.
(Acres.)
Volumes.
(Estimate in thousand board-feet.)
Classification.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Total
Acres.
Per
Cent.
54,770
135,040
166,300
181,120
536,230
0.8
Immature—■
1-20 years	
124,140
191,090
293,280
558,600
174,000
159,450
275,560
476,830
102,550
115,530
145,430
175,030
69,180
202,780
183,550
158,210
92,900
601,900
795,630
1,103,350
823,230
174,000
1,341,110
1,014,390
605,170
637,440
3,498,110
5 5
Non-commercial cover.	
2,145,020
375,340
709,760
340,350
480,010
432,810
113,880
89,390
3,448,670
1,237,890
5.4
1.9
3,916,240
2,199,540
1,583,290
1,021,830
8,720,900
13.6
2,360,990
15,252,910
594,810
2,317,610
176,840
3,666,110
873,740
4,593,280
145,920
309,120
5,833,970
442,260
4,157,720
89,410
240,940
8,102,970
379,260
3,468,870
117,730
480,000
19,964,040
16,948,170
12,814,680
2,670,670
1,206,900
31.4
26.5
Alpine scrub..- —- -
20.2
4.2
Water     	
1.9
20,703,160
9,588,170
10,764,300
12,548,830
53,604,460
84.2
263,800
305,730
46,720
605,590
43,940
128,420
8,440
1,303,540
99,100
Total       '
263,800
24,883,200
352,450
12,140,160
649,530
12,997,120
136,860
13,707,520
1,402,640
63,728,000
2.2
Total regions 	
100.0
Species.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Total
(M.B.M.).
Per
Cent.
511,800
67,800
150,200
801,900
139,100
2,400
814,600
113,300
57,000
836,400
190,100
280,100
48,400
8,200
239,000
47,400
2,408,400
368,600
217,800
1,075,400
245,100
55.8
8.5
5.1
24.9
7,600
5.7
Total regions _ -	
737,400
943,400
2,011,400
623,100
4,315,300
100.0 DD 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 17
Merchantable volumes have been estimated to minimum diameters as follows:
Mature Coast types in Regions C and D are estimated to a minimum of 11 inches D.B.H.
Other areas, covering Interior stands in Regions B, C, and D are estimated to a minimum of 9 inches D.B.H. Merchantable volumes within Region A are estimated to a
minimum of 11 inches D.B.H. It is estimated that within this region a further
merchantable volume of timber suitable for local use in trees 9 inches and 10 inches
D.B.H. occurs as an understory to mature growth, and that an additional area of
174,000 acres, shown in the classification of areas summary under the immature
81-100-year age-class carries a volume of 512,300 M.B.M., 82 per cent, of which is
white spruce and 18 per cent, lodgepole pine.
It has been found that the more productive forest land in this northern territory
is confined for the most part to the Coast watersheds of Regions C and D, to the
westerly drainages at the northern boundary, and to the area east of the Rocky Mountains, tributary to the Nelson and Liard Rivers. In the latter area the site index for
white spruce was found to be between 80 and 90 at 100 years, which is comparable to
the better lowland sites of the Upper Fraser River valley, east of Prince George.
The reserves of standing timber are relatively large and the productive forest
sites have a fairly high potential yield; however, the prospects for greatly increased
exploitation are not bright. The stands of timber are located in long narrow fringes
along the rivers, streams, and watercourses, and not only will the transportation of the
products to any market be a major item of cost but the logging operation itself will
probably be more expensive than if the timber were located in more compact blocks.
Production costs by comparison with other timber-producing regions are also high;
therefore it is evident that forest products manufactured in these northern regions will
have to be marketed locally or await the possibility of refinement into products that can
stand the cost of transportation to markets. The final conclusion then is that the size
of the forest industry in these northern territories will be directly dependent on local
demand.
The current revision of the forest atlas has been completed at the Kamloops, Nelson, Fort George, and Vancouver District offices in addition to the Victoria Headquarters. A total of 948 maps has been revised for current logging and fires and an
additional 82 maps have been replaced by new copies to make a grand total of 1,030
maps brought up to date. Instruction was given in cover-mapping to various Rangers
and standard draughting equipment installed at two Ranger headquarters in the Kamloops District and two in the Fort George District. The fire atlas has also been
maintained.
FOREST RESEARCH.
Mensuration.
Due to a lack of suitable boat transportation, it was not possible to make the
current field examinations of permanent yield plots. However, an extensive programme
of office compilation has been carried on and the yield tables are being checked against
the data collected over the past twenty years as a result of the periodic remeasurement
of individual stands.
SlLVICULTURAL STUDIES.
The 1944 seed-crop on the Lower Coast was a failure for all species except for a
light crop on a small area of Douglas fir in the vicinity of Mission. About 100 bushels
of cones were collected at that point but the yield was very poor, being only 0.16 lb. of
seed per bushel of cones. The spruce-cone crop in the Queen Charlotte Islands was
also a failure.
Annual examinations were made of the study areas established in connection with
the various long-term projects such as rate of natural regeneration of cut-over areas, DD 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
survival of natural seedlings, survival of disseminated seed, seed production by individual trees and groups of trees of various ages, and the effect of various cultural
operations.
Further analysis of the Alouette Lake history map data indicates that satisfactory
stocking is most extensive when the seed supply is from mature trees and uphill in
direction of the prevailing wind. Other factors being equal, a fifty-year stand seeds
one-third as far as mature timber. On a moderate slope when satisfactory restocking
extended 10 chains down-hill the restocked distance up-hill was 8 chains. The amount
of hemlock and cedar is so much higher in the new stand than in the stand that was
cut, it is likely to change the type from cedar-fir to a cedar-hemlock type on single
burns, and a hemlock-cedar type on twice-burned sites.
Analysis of the Cowichan Lake history map data shows that aspect has a marked
effect on composition of young stands. Douglas fir was the most common species on the
south and west slopes, and hemlock and cedar characterized the regeneration on north
and east slopes. Also, in the vicinity of marginal timber, the north slope hemlock and
cedar stands were denser than south slope Douglas fir stands.
Applied Management Studies.
Cutting Plans in Douglas Fir.—In connection with the studies of cutting plans in
the Douglas fir Coast forests, the Ash River operation of the Alberni Pacific Lumber
Company at Alberni has been under observation since 1938. The objective has been to
find means whereby logging and slash-disposal can be conducted so that, as far as
economically practicable, natural regeneration will follow logging, and a minimum
amount of damage will be done to the productivity of the area.
Company officials were most interested and co-operative and, up until the time
labour difficulties were encountered as a result of war conditions, the size of the openings was kept to a minimum. Consequently it has been possible to obtain a good
measure of the effect staggered settings will have on the natural regeneration of an
operation. Full application of the method of cutting was prevented by the fact that
the operation under study uses a railroad for transportation and it may be safely
anticipated that better results could be obtained on a truck operation using a system
of permanent forest roads.
To the end of 1943 there had been logged a total of 10,720 acres; however, it was
considered that the 1943 slash-burned areas had not been given an opportunity to
restock. Therefore these areas were not included in the summaries and the findings
are based on an acreage of 9,240 acres.
In 1941 and 1942, 1,200 staked sample plots were established on the cut-over areas
and for each plot notes were made on the percentage of the surface in slash, duff, or
exposed mineral soil. A record was made of the species of vegetative cover, average
shade conditions, number of seedlings by species, soil conditions, and degree of slash-
burn. During 1944 these sample plots were re-examined and an additional sixty-seven
plots established.
Of the 9,240 acres logged and burned up to the end of 1942, approximately 2,895
acres are now satisfactorily stocked. It is considered that an additional 1,629 acres
will restock within the next few years, thus giving a total of 4,524 acres of young
growth. This represents about 49 per cent, of the total. The remaining 4,716 acres
will require planting if fully stocked forests are to be obtained within a reasonable
time. In other words, as a result of cutting by staggered settings, the area reproducing satisfactorily represents about one-half of the total area logged. These results
are encouraging as it is found on operations in the Douglas fir types, which are logged
without any particular regard to regeneration, that less than 25 per cent, of the area
is restocking naturally. still (o "mc cxpeftfrnee/TAc stages, salvagco
stASH,or<uzeo in cspcc<au_v aoaptjco sAWPMCtifmSSufe
to ,6c Art (nPo«TA(ir eorcfte source oe shall toneee. am>
POLPW00O.
I RIGHT!
t«ock coao-
£0 W(TM a
eurtOLG oe
LOGS  5AL-
vag€0 rfton
A SLASH AftCA.
i%wf#
(LEFT*
TOUCH 0UrtP(f1G
SACVAGCO LOGS
AT LAoysntrw.
(RIGHT)
RAr reo oun-
oces oe 5al-
l/AGCO   LOGS.  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 19
Utilization.—Reference was made in the 1943 Annual Report to the study of closer
utilization of our Coast forest, which has since become generally known as the " Ladysmith Pulp-wood Salvage Experiment." Entered into on a co-operative basis by the
Government, the Powell River Company, Limited, and the Comox Logging and Railway
Company, the project has been directed to finding a means of economically utilizing the
sound wood which constitutes part of normal logging waste. If this objective can be
successfully reached, the use of these materials will assist the development of sustained
yield forestry plans by conserving present reserves of merchantable timber.
Previously cutting and yarding operations and recovery per acre were described.
Since then the first phase of the experiment has been completed with the delivery and
conversion to newsprint paper, at Powell River, of the equivalent of 2,000,000 F.B.M.,
British Columbia log-scale. Composition was hemlock, 68 per cent.; Douglas fir, 26
per cent.; white pine, 3 per cent.;  and red cedar, 3 per cent.
Following the yarding operation, and after trials of conventional methods, a special
loader incorporating the conveyer principle was constructed. Roadside cold decks were
swung (roaded) to the loading landing with RD-8 tractors equipped with arches. On
the landing the material was limbed and long pieces (up to 90 feet) were reduced to
lengths not greater than 50 feet long. Logs were then elevated and dropped on logging
truck-trailer units equipped with a bed and side-stakes, which were necessary in order
to build up reasonable loads, due to the great variety of lengths and to the loading
method. Each load was made into a bundle by tying with three wrappers and in subsequent operations—dumping, booming, and towing—it was treated as a unit. The wood
was stowed in conventional 7-section flat rafts. With bundles containing from 60 to
100 pieces, construction of the rafts was accomplished with a minimum of handling.
Cutting and yarding presented no unusual difficulties, but loading proved to be a
hard problem due to the wide range of log sizes. Bundling was probably the most
successful development and resulted in cheap booming and safe towing.
The following costs, expressed as man-days per 100* cubic feet, were obtained
after the initial breaking-in period, and during the time when a fairly high degree of
operating efficiency was maintained:— Man-days.
Cutting  0.0622
Scaling .  0.0159
Yarding   0.2795
Additional branch roads  0.0109
Loading—
Roading (swinging)   0.0760
Loading   0.1142
Landings   0.0092
  0.1994
Hauling   0.0391
Booming—
Unloading   0.0072
Making rafts  0.0130
Making wrappers   0.0092
  0.0294
Total, based on woods scale   0.6364
Although nearly nine pieces of salvage had to be handled to recover a volume of
wood equivalent to one normal pulp-log, a production of 157 cubic feet per man-day
was obtained, which is not very much below normal log output.
* 186 cubic feet is the approximate equivalent of 1,000 F.B.M. of normal hemlock-balsam pulp-logs. DD 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The experiment, and in particular the loading operation, has demonstrated the
desirability of a uniform product. Further cutting and yarding has been undertaken
with logs cut to lengths not greater than 40 feet and limbed.
Limited tests were made with the wood in the form of short bolts. After yarding
in long random lengths the wood was reduced to standard 8-foot bolts and piled by
hand. Using a gas-electric shovel as a crane, bundles of approximately thirty pieces
were loaded as units. It was demonstrated that wood could be cheaply loaded and
hauled in this form. As cutting and piling by hand was costly it would be necessary
to develop a portable sawing and bundling unit in order to make the method practical.
At Powell River the salvage material by-passed the regular break-down sawmill
and entered a small temporary mill which was specially designed for the experiment
to handle the logging waste. Logs were reduced to blocks, 32 inches long, by twin trim
saws, and if over 10 inches in diameter they were split by a steam splitter. The
salvage wood then mixed with normal supplies going through the regular barking and
processing stages.
Lacking sorting facilities, almost all the salvage was converted to ground-wood
pulp. Pulping by the sulphite process was not feasible due to the mixture of species,
but a small quantity was chipped for testing.
The use of Douglas fir for newsprint ground-wood was an innovation. It would
appear that it can be used to the extent of 15 per cent, without undue difficulty.
The strength of ground-wood from the salvage hemlock was slightly below average
hemlock logs; that from Douglas fir was less than poor hemlock. This condition may
have been related to the low moisture content of the wood, which in turn may have been
due to the long period in which the material lay in the woods. The wood appeared to
have three times the dirt-making properties of normal pulp-logs, but this could be
greatly reduced by elimination of the " very knotty " logs, which amounted to about
7 per cent, of the material.
Wood density and hence pulp yield of both hemlock and Douglas fir was higher
than normal hemlock pulp-logs.
Salvage wood appears to have the best opportunity for competition with normal
supplies in the ground-wood process. With the present type of wood preparation plant,
involving log break-down in a standard sawmill and barking with drum and knife
barkers, costs of producing equivalent units of prepared wood are less from salvage
than from normal sources. Very significant economies in wood losses and labour costs
have been realized by the recent development of hydraulic barkers and whole log
chippers. When this type of equipment is installed the competitive position of small
salvage logs will be reduced due to the savings which will be realized with normal logs.
In this set-up costs from the two classes of logs will be about the same for ground-wood,
but the cost of producing chips for the sulphite process will be less from large logs.
Because of the small size of much of the salvage, the experiment has emphasized:—
(1.) That a board-measure scale fails to give an adequate measure of the wood
which may be recovered.    This is due to the disparity which exists between the board-foot contents of small logs and their actual solid wood
content.    Cubic measure scaling was adopted for the experiment for this
reason.
(2.) The necessity of handling the material with a minimum of operations.
This is true both in the initial recovery and in the subsequent conversion.
(3.)  That machinery,  both  in  the  woods and conversion  plants,  must  be
specially designed or adapted.
Whether closer utilization is obtained by prelogging, relogging, or by taking off
more material in the first operation must be determined by the peculiarities of each
logging chance.    Conditions vary from operation to operation so that even in normal FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 21
logging a great variety of methods have evolved and are in practice.   It may be expected
that this will be true of salvaging.
Areas where the waste material runs heavily to Douglas fir or cedar are best suited
for the production of pulp-wood for wrapping-paper, container board, or wall-board.
With the limited capacity in British Columbia for the manufacture of sulphate (kraft)
pulp it is probable that there is more of these species than can presently be absorbed
by the pulp industry. Some fir slash could probably be utilized in portable tie-mills,
or cedar slash in portable shingle-mills. The use of the so-called Swedish gang-saws
together with the Northern European practice of sawing and log sorting to size appears
to offer a means of economically converting small material to lumber. Generally it
would seem that pulping offers the best opportunity for fullest utilization.
SOIL SURVEYS AND RESEARCH.
In 1941 there was initiated a study of the factors which influence the productive
capacity of different soils for forest use. One of the objectives of this study was to
outline a method of site classification for forest land. As a result of the first season's
work it seemed possible that the composition of the ground vegetation might be used
as an index of site, so with this in mind a more detailed study of ground cover was
carried out in 1944.
One hundred and sixty-five plots were examined in all age-groups of second-growth
Douglas fir, representative of a range of sites from good to poor. An analysis of the
ground-cover data shows a regular sequence of plant communities with change in
environment from excessively moist to excessively dry conditions. Each of these communities appears to be in equilibrium with the environments and, therefore, representative of a site. The following outline indicates the dominant or otherwise characteristic plants of the communities:—
Spirsea (swamp). Sword fern—salal.
Yellow arum (bog). Salal sword fern.
Salmonberry—Devil's-club. Salal—Oregon grape.
May leaf. Salal.
May leaf-salal. Lichen.
Sword fern.
This outline is very tentative because it must be realized that there is a continuous
transition from the wet spiraea swamp type to the dry lichen type and, thus, the plant
communities as outlined are somewhat arbitrary. It is also likely that there are other
communities that have not been recognized as such. For instance, it is probable that
the lichen type will be broken down into two or three plant communities. DD 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
In this preliminary study the plots were classified as to site by the age-height
growth relationship of the dominant trees. After the plots had been grouped according
to plant communities, the correlation between the communities and age-height growth
data was examined.    The following graph shows the relationship found:—
-is w-
AGC     IN    YEARS
There are insufficient data to warrant drawing any definite conclusions except that
the ground cover does indicate site if age-height growth is an index of site. Whether
or not there are as many sites as are indicated by the graph requires further study.
It is also of interest to note that from the shape of the curves each site appears to have
its own age-height growth relationship.
Soil studies have been carried along on all the plots used in the foregoing project.
Physical data such as volume weight, pore space, moisture-holding capacity, degree of
stoniness, and texture have been determined. Soil colours have also received special
attention. Chemical analysis for calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, potash, and organic
matter have been run. All of these data will be studied in relation to site quality before
the next field season.
REFORESTATION.
Forest Nurseries.
Development at the new nursery at Duncan has been carried out as labour was
available and considerable progress has been made toward cleaning up brushy corners
preparatory to cultivation. At the same time about 12 acres have been kept in black
fallow throughout the summer so as to kill out thistles and couch-grass.
At the Green Timbers and Campbell River nurseries the volume of production was
maintained at about 10,000,000 trees per year.    Weather during the winter was quite Lidk±r
r\& <~^-
NCW STYCC R€G- Y
(STRATCOCM QOOTB
Jk ^XW^!i      l\
4f  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 23
mild; however, during the latter part of February and in March there was a period
of five weeks during which there was frost almost every night. This weather would
not have damaged the stock under ordinary circumstances, but in order to take advantage of labour that was available only in March, the curbing and shade frames were
taken off the seed-beds earlier than usual. Some top-damage from frost resulted but
growth during the summer was good and by fall the stock had fully recovered. As in
1943, the spring and summer temperatures were below normal and rainfall was lighter
than average. The fall weather was quite mild and growth persisted on into late
September; however, absence of frost to the end of the year permitted all the stock
to harden off satisfactorily.
The failure of the cone-crop resulted in only 100 bushels of Douglas fir cones being
collected. The quality of these cones reflected the poor crop and yielded only 16 lb.
of seed. Seed stocks as a result of the poor crops of the past three years are at a very
low ebb and are insufficient for a normal season's requirements.
Planting.
All planting operations were conducted during February and March, when a total
of 7,889,542 trees was planted on 10,232 acres. Forest Branch projects were located
at the Robertson River valley, near Cowichan Lake; at Hill 60, near Duncan; adjacent
to the Nanaimo Lakes road; at Loveland Lake, Mohun Lake, and Lower Campbell Lake,
near Campbell River; and at the experimental plantations adjacent to the Green
Timbers nursery. Private companies planted 600,000 trees on 914 acres and the Vancouver Water Board, Vancouver Parks Board, and the City of Victoria conducted community projects to the extent of 102,000 trees on 132 acres.
Losses by fire amounted to 132 acres, to bring the total for such losses to date to
621 acres.
The following table summarizes the planting to date:—
Status.
Previously planted.
Trees (in
Thousands)
Acres.
Planted, 1944.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Totals to Date.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Crown lands—
Production	
Experimental...
Logging companies .
Community forests...
Private planting (includes farm woodlots).
Totals  _ —
25,869.8
642.3
1,290.1
197.0
56.0
31,910.0
547.7
1,387.3
185.0
54.0
7,108.2
68.0
600.0
102.0
11.4
9,175.0
70.0
914.0
132.0
11.0
32,978.0
710.3
1,890.1
299.0
67.4
28,055.2
34,084.0
7,8
10,302.0
35,944.8
I
41,085.0
617.7
2,301.3
317.0
65.0
44,386.0
The planting on Crown lands was all done by Alternative Service Workers; but,
unfortunately, the Dominion Government saw fit to withdraw these men from the Forest
Branch projects at the end of March. The labour situation has not eased to any extent
and it is extremely doubtful whether any labour will be available for planting operations in the spring of 1945. It would require about 500 men full time for six weeks to
two months to complete the programme, and there is little indication that such numbers
of men can be drawn from the open labour market.
A small crew of snag-fallers and road-construction men was maintained throughout the year and, considering the man-power involved, good progress can be reported
toward preparing new areas for planting. A new planting camp was erected, 41 miles
of truck-road opened up, and 25,590 snags were felled on 2,620 acres. DD 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
PROVINCIAL PARKS.
An important feature of park administration—namely, that of acquainting the
public with the soundness and purpose of park planning by meeting with members of
sports and outdoor clubs and similar interested parties—has met with enthusiastic
response. Meetings were organized where plans were presented and discussed to the
mutual benefit of all. In July, a trail-riding party of men interested in tourist trade
was shown through Manning Park and plans have since been laid to make the exploration of one of the Provincial parks an annual feature.
Three new parks were created during the year. Two of these are Summit Lake
Park, near Prince George, and Liard River Park, along the Alaska Highway, of 7,200
acres and 1,802,240 acres respectively, and created under section 94 of the " Land Act."
The third is Kitty Coleman Beach, near Merville, Vancouver Island, of 21.4 acres,
a Class " C " park with an appointed Park Board to manage its affairs.
A deletion of 10,105 acres was made from Garibaldi Park for the purpose of
establishing an experimental forest for the School of Forestry at the University of
British Columbia.
The following table summarizes the Provincial Parks in British Columbia to
December 31st, 1944:—
Classification. No. of Parks. Acres.
Class " A "  16 2,720,866.2
Class " B "  3 4,622,246.0
Class " C "  29 4,139.5
Administered under separate Park Acts 5 3,465,895.0
Totals  53 10,813,146.7
or        16,895.5 sq. miles.
The five Vancouver Island parks—Elk Falls, Stamp Falls, Little Qualicum Falls,
Englishman River Falls, and John Dean—continued to be popular with visitors. Records
kept by the park attendants who were on duty during the summer months showed
a total of 27,954 visitors, a slight increase over 1943. The year 1944 was the second
year that detailed records of visitors' activities were made and these data have substantiated the first year's findings as to the proportion of people who register, the
number of picnic parties, and which tables and trails are most used.
Improvement-work on the Vancouver Island parks consisted of replacing the old
fence at the Stamp Falls parking lot with a sturdy and attractive railing, further improvements to all park attendants' buildings, a new sign system for Little Qualicum,
and a start on a system of new signs for Elk Falls Park.
A six weeks' reconnaissance was made of Tweedsmuir Park and enough information obtained to formulate an administration policy and development plan. A set of
Kodachrome slides and a 16 m.m. colour movie were taken to help publicize the
attractions.
Further mapping and gathering of information continued on Mount Seymour along
with trail-construction and work on the administration building. In Wells Gray Park
a small programme of trail and pasture maintenance was carried out under the supervision of the Park Ranger; unfortunately lack of suitable personnel did not permit
construction of any new improvements.
Peace Arch Park, situated on the International Boundary between Canada and
the United States, continues to be visited and admired by the heavy traffic over the
King George V. Highway leading to Vancouver. The lay-out of the lawns, flower-beds,
and ornamental trees or shrubs has become stabilized and will probably remain in its
present pattern for some time.    In connection with the flower-beds it is of interest to   FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 25
note that it requires 10,000 plants to restock them each spring. The building-site
adjoining the park was graded and three small permanent buildings erected from
material already on hand. These buildings include a tool-storage shed, a two-car
garage, and a combination office and workshop.
FOREST BRANCH LIBRARY.
Classification.
Items received and catalogued.
Up to 1942.
1943.
1944.
Totals.
343
3,183
831
10
85
32
12
49
63
365
3,317
Pamphlets, etc _ ___ _.
926
Totals	
4,357
127
124
4,608
30,119
45
1,170
50
1,175
32,464
FOREST MANAGEMENT.
The year 1944 shows the total estimated value of production $28,000,000 in advance
of that of the preceding year. This represents an increase of nearly 24 per cent, and
reflects the higher sale value of forest products to a greater extent than the accelerated
total production.
Ply-wood has assumed an importance which warrants its mention as an individual
item in the forest industry. The prospects are that this product will be manufactured
in larger volume in the years ahead, by reason of its adaptability to many varied uses,
improved methods of manufacture, and quality of adhesive binder.
All forest products reduced to the common factor of feet board-measure give
a gross total scale of 3,096,333 million feet or one-quarter of 1 per cent, increase for
the year in comparison with 1943. The loss in scale for the Lower Coast and Prince
George regions is more than offset by gains elsewhere throughout the Province. This
showing is a tribute to the industry in the all-out war production drive despite the
many handicaps of labour, supply, and equipment problems common to a country in
the world-war struggle.
The details of production in tabulated form follow and outstanding features are
briefly mentioned.
As in previous war years, water-borne lumber trade figures are withheld from
publication.
Pulp and paper products gained slightly in volume production despite log supply
problems.
Douglas fir still leads the cut by species by a wide margin, with hemlock and cedar
following in order given. Spruce is gaining slightly with increased scale throughout
the Interior, especially where the plateau type is coming into larger production in the
southern portions of the Province. It is of interest to note the so-called hardwoods
(cottonwood, birch, alder, maple, and aspen) account for some nineteen million feet
of the gross scale.
The cut by land status is presented in expanded form. Timber berths, pulp
leases, pulp licences, and pulp timber-sales have been added to former classification of
timber holdings. Timber from Crown grants prior to 1887 maintains first place in
volume with timber-sales a close second and special timber licences slightly below
timber-sales. As indicated in last year's report, timber-sales have supplanted timber
licences as a source of timber cut. The scale in cubic feet is converted to board-feet
in the gross volume of cut but shown separately for statistical record purposes and
marks the advent of relogging for pulp in the interest of closer utilization. DD 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The scale of minor products declined in all but hewn ties.
With an increase in the number of operations, mainly on timber-sales, the field
staff found it impossible to maintain the frequency of inspection desirable, but under
the circumstances came within five hundred of last year's inspections, despite the
handicaps imposed by war conditions.
Trespass cases increased in number but reduced in acreage, reflecting the entry
of a large number of inexperienced operators into the logging field but a quick pick-up
on the part of the ranger staff of unauthorized cutting.
Pre-emption inspection work continued to fall off with the decline in new preemptions.    Land classification work maintained the former level.
Sales of Crown timber fell off by some three hundred but saw timber applied for
gained over the previous year by reason of the demand for lumber and sawn ties.
Average stumpage prices bid on sales of Crown stumpage held to the same level
as 1943 with some decrease in the major volumes—fir and cedar.
Sawmilling activity showed a marked increase in the number of mills operating,
mainly of the portable or semi-portable type, the reason being the insistent demand
for lumber and railroad-tie production at attractive prices.
Log export increased with allowable quotas to the United States under the lend-
lease programme. Minor products shipped out of the Province, many of which supply
neighbouring Provinces, increased in volume and value.
Head office routine work volume in timber-marks and draughting is in keeping
with increasing activity in the field.
Forest insect survey and collection of insects was well maintained in recognition
of the importance of this phase of forest conservation carried on in co-operation with
the Federal authorities.
Forest revenue reached a total in advance of the banner year of 1941. The main
items consist of timber royalty, timber-sale stumpage, and timber-licence rentals.
Water-borne Lumber Trade
(IN M.B.M.).
Destination.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
128,141
2,957
1,620
108,128
80,279
455,695
25,276
431
28,735
129,492
3,793
4,017
91,232
43,080
455,862
28,350
3,415
62,013
125,448
6,072
6,328
102,743
33,123
666,272
61,133
1,897
159,904
136
9,823
10,129
2,821
8,040
5,691
724
746
1,212
335
24
64
329
158,400
5,415
10,632
47,635
30,677
648,364
49,015
2,781
107,933
743
9,487
12,904
3,748
8,279
4,578
29
875
2,836
1,669
1,023
113
141,465
7,805
9,946
43,457
9,194
741,631
41,614
1,174
154,038
1,780
13,584
5,745
2,271
5,315
5,468
144,534
6,142
5,560
34,775
6,116
964,693
80,120
7,225
123,733
862
12,828
11,523
2,024
1,828
1,976
210
592
3,090
1,098
703
5
3
402
72,797
2,584
1,795
6,347
Japan  	
United Kingdom and Continent-
South Africa	
India and Straits Settlements	
United States and Atlantic Coast
835
971,594
84,708
139
70,726
13,467
4,475
2,410
4,348
2,997
5
48
105
9
330
5
7,133
4,556
4,870
4,216
6,265
2
425
846
1,870
1,869
8
457
208
15,309
7,187
5
17,326
Mexico and Central America	
120
653
3,383
3,332
73
41
4,938
•Holland                    .          	
•Italy    .- -
•Norway and Sweden	
686
4
241
226
821
Totals.— 	
859,465
853,979
1,202,994
1,107,377
1,192,195
1,409,052
1,257,917
* Previously included with United Kingdom.
Figures for 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, and ten-year average, 1934-44, not available
for publication. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 27
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
Estimated Value of Product on, including Loading and Freight
within the Province.
Product.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
Ten-year
Average,
1935-44.
$36,296,000
$50,379,000
$55,514,000
$64,596,000
$67,150,000
$66,520,000
$81,495,000
$51,581,800
Pulp and paper.	
11,066,000
16,191,000
22,971,000
27,723,000
27,457,000
26,597,000
30,391,000
20,476,800
6,875,000
8,560,000
9,620,000
11,550,000
12,822,000
8,332,000
10,006,000
8,963,100
Boxes _	
1,964,000
2,039,000
4,779,000
4,707,000
5,397,000
4,697,000
7,218,000
3,573,600
Doors	
1,353,000
737,000
740,000
*
*
*
*
1,021,000
6,100,000
610,000
Piles,   poles,   and
1,615,000
1,556,000
1,759,000
1,723,000
2,576,000
2,387,000
2,088,000
1,858,100
Cordwood,    fence-
posts andlagging
1,455,000
1,495,000
1,399,000
1,522,000
2,165,000
4,485,000
3,303,000
2,046,800
560,000
360,000
258,000
204,000
221,000
268,000
484,000
430,900
Additional     value
contributed    by
the    wood-using
industry	
1,400,000
1,500,000
1,600,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
2,800,000
1,600,000
1,724,000
Laths   and   other
miscellaneous
1,300,000
1,400,000
1,400,000
1,500,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,600,000
1,538,000
Logs exported _   -
3,238,000
3,852,000
2,684,000
4,212,000
2,618,000
1,555,000
2,065,000
2,926,400
Pulp-wood   ex-
11,000
8,000
7,000
2,000
16,000
35,000
9,900
Christmas trees	
	
141,000
72,000
176,000
162,000
227,000
236,000
101,400
150,000
150,000
90,000
39,000
Totals
$67,122,000
$88,221,000
$102,804,000
$119,920,000
$124,720,000
$118,434,000
$146,611,000
$96,900,800
* Included in wood-using industry value.
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
Ten-year
Average,
1935-44.
Newsprint.—    	
179,639
39,348
216,542
50,870
262,144
68,428
275,788
75,453
252,559
74,915
211,696
63,026
236,696
74,038
238,567
57,110
In addition to 295,595 tons of pulp manufactured into paper in the Province
170,192 tons were shipped out of the Province during the year.
Total Amount op Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1943-44
(IN F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1943.
1944.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Gain.
2,302,157,546
223,073,748
2,284,466,824
234,700,631
11,626,883
17,690,722
2,525,231,294
2,519,167,455
32,846,607
193,041,865
148,800,054
178,846,964
43,142,632
127,269,560
173,374,910
233,378,527
10,296,025
65,772,305
24,574,856
54,531,563
553,535,490
577,165,629
89,402,444
3,078,766,784
3,096,333,084
101,029,327
83,463,027
17,566,300 DD 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
tn
Eh
O
1=1
a
©
5*
h oa
B^
CQ
w
w
m
"tf «h
IO
Ol   O   O   fc"
as
"^
"tf
OJ
"*
to
ee
00
o
^tf
IO
,_,
OJ   CO
us
eo  to 1-4 oi
Ol
00
CO
fc-
IO
ee
OJ
"i<
Cl
CJ
oo  to
"tf
eo   io  os  io
CO
o
tr
rH
IO
t-
lO
OJ
eo
x-4
CO
CJ
ra
to o
r-
«   ffl   ^   00
IO
eo
ee
O
t-
Ttf
lO
CO
IO
eo
00
IO
*3
to o
-tf    CO    t-    t-
eo
CO
eo
io
IO
CJ
CO
t>
00
lO
"#  t-
H  oi eo eo
CO
tr-
to
c-
CO
o
Cl
tr-
CM
co
o
«* "tf*
Ol"
eo" t-* co* co"
t-"
eo"
00
oi"
0»
CO*
"tf*
as
t-H
O*
OJ*
to
H
00   CO
"tf    OJ    t-   CO
tr
oi
fc-
t-
t-
CJ
IO
"tf
CM
"tf
OJ   CM
IO
rH    _H    OJ
io
*%
o_
eo
to
CO
tr-
CM
O
eo
of
OJ*
CO*
eo*
eo*
eo*
CO*
CO*
Ol*
eo*
eo"
Ol*
CO
tr- o
tr-
CO    O    OJ    CO
to
Ol
OJ
,_,
00
o
CO
eo
•tf
IO
■^f
o
CO  o
co
H    H   Ol   t-
Ol
CO
OJ
CO
eo
Cl
fc-
00
ee
00
CO_  IO
00
O OS -*p o
CO
OJ
IO
IO
CO
to
CO
"*
0J
to
te
o> P
o o
&? t>*
Cl"
SO    H    t~"  H
eo*
to
t>
rt"
fc-*
CO*
o*
IO*
00*
o"
"tf*
CO*
W   CJ
o oq
OJ
i-H    CO    IO    rH
"tf
t-
"tf
"tf
CO
"tf
CO
tr
ee
01
sS
i-H    CO
"*
rH    Cl   OJ    rH
CO    IO*   tr*   LO
"tf
o"
°°-
eo"
CO*
CO
ee
ee"
•*
io
Cl
"*"
IO
o*
fc-
"0*
"tf
eo*
CO
CO
H    H    M
c-
o
eo
eo
IO
"tf
"#
■*
"tf
LO
"tf
eo
r-C
1-1
o
o
eO       !   tH   "Cfl
^
TH-
■*r
eo
o
o'
IO
CJ
"^H~~
to
o
CO
P
CO
CO
IO
o   IO
"*
t-
tr
Cl
O
o
CO
CM
fc-
tr-
*
OJ
o
Ol   IO
IO
"tf
ee
eo
X-4
CO
IO
CM
00
"tf
as
OJ
tr-"
eo* ^P*
oo"
00
eo"
,3
IO
of
te"
o"
tjT
eo*
00*
rH
o
o
Ol   •*
00
as
OJ
CJ
IO
Ol
«
eo
iO
o
CO
-tf
"*
t- t-
"tf_
°°_.
t-
00
Bp
fc-
°i
iH
00
^
o
to
CO
CO
1    OJ
co"
to
CO*
oa"
Ol*
r-t
ef
eo    |   eo
IO
CO*
CO*
I "tf t-
rH
_
o
Ol
to
O
tr
"tf
tr
o
tr-
IO
"*   os
"tf
■01
eo
"*
to
CO
ee
IO
io
Ol
co
CJ
o
IO    IO
t-
CO
eo
to
CO
CJ
0>
te
i-H    CO*
IO
IO*
"*
N
tf
o*
-rf*
Ol"
o"
of
co"
iO*
tf
eo  io
OO
00
io
tr-
"tf
CO
oo
CO
eo
"tf
OJ
t-
t-H
Ol    Ol
"-*
«"*
o
eo
CO
IO
rt
o
o
CJ
tr
0»
o* eo
t-
tr
00*
co"
to
IO
Cl
o*
o
ee"
o"
i-< "*
lO
io
■*
"tf
CO
Ol
Ol
**
"tf
"tf
"*
"tf
tO
jU
as ■*# eo o
Ol
Ol
eo
CO
CJ
to
IO
IO
,_,
00
IO
o   O   OJ   tH
"tf
"tf
o
CO
Cl
IO
OJ
IO
CO
iH
00
co oi eo tr
00
00
•-*
OJ
IO
"tf
CJ
CO
o
'I
""?.
"*
&3
io t-h oj" o*
Ol*
Ol
o
IO*
Ol
"tf"
to
IO
CJ
to
oo"
IO   Ol   CO   CO
IO
io
iO
CO
CO
IO
00
OJ
o
o
fr-
o
"afc
io as ■*# "tf
•*f
"tf
o
CO
"tf
Ol
te
te
CO
•H
t-
tr
o
I-H
t-   CO             i-H
CO
CO
Ol
Ol
CO
*H
eo
t-
"tf
ee
1-1
i-H
1-1
*"<
1-1
IH
i-H
Ol
Ol
Ol
eo
iH
tr
tr-
1   Ol   t-
eo
CO
Ol
•«tf
eo
CO
oa
o
t-
IO
"Th
t-
ee
to
tr-   iO
CO
o
OJ
o
t-
IO
CO
te
^f
OJ
to
tr-
<U     .
°l
as
IO    t-
CO
eo
CO
eo
N
as
as
CO
Cl
ee
?.s
to
eo
eo 01
as
to
IO
CO
IO
iH
ee
00
CJ
Ol
o
00
00
i-H   io
to
io
Ol
Cl
CJ
-ef
CO
to
00
CO
00
pp.
t-
fc-
00   "tf
Ol
o
eo
CM
t-
Ol
CO
eo
tr-
CJ
o_
00       |
CO
CO*  l>
o"
C-*
o"
CJ*
00
"1*
of
»o
V
tr-"
of
i-h    :
rH      |
"-,
eo
Ol
CO
».
eo
CO
CO
CO
Ol
Ol
CO
!      !  (C  t-
CO
CO
o
eo
o
CO
«ef
o
o
00
o
te
Is!
!   00   Oi
00
00
o
Ol
OJ
00
OJ
CM
to
j    OJ    i-H
■^
o
OJ
eo
eo
eo
t-
00
"tr»
00
o
jS c
i as t4
o
o
w
t-
CO*
OJ
to
00
tr
te
eo
"j"
tS^
\   OJ   00
CO
CO
CO
lO
eo
Ol
c-
OJ
ee
eo
Ol
!   CO  Ol
eo
eo
t-
t-
IO
tr-
M
eo
t-
00
CM
o
J    rH    Co"
"tf
**
Ol
CO
o
ee
eo
eo*
CO
OJ
!   OJ    rH
CO
CO
CO
•O"
eo
"tf
ttf
"*
^
CO
CO
CO
as to
IO
00   -a*   CD   OJ
tr-
Ol
__,
oo
■«*
CO
H
t-
t-
01
"tf
Ol
tr-    OS
t-
iO  "tf   eo  io
Ol
o
IO
IO
Ol
IO
"tf
"tf
CJ
CO
CJ
as
OI   "tf
t-
io  eo co  "tf
Ol
o
rH
IO
eo
IO
to
T*
t-
t-
eo
CO
US    tf
OJ
tr-   O   rH   CO
CO
CO
"<*
00
M
•H
eo
CO
o
o
C-"
-_r
as t-
to
tr-   rH   CO   OJ
■^
OJ
IO
t-
t-
tr-
o
ee
""J"
OJ
<3
-tf    rH
to
1-4    O    I>    O
Ol
ec
CJ
Ol
CJ
O)
00
"*
CJ
Ol
ee
iO
Cl    Tf
CO
Ol           Ol
-<tf
00
•O"
Ol
•*
00
Ol
eo
Oi
CO
CO
"f
"tf
CO
eo
eo
IO
00
te
OJ
t-
00
tH
,H
rH
iH
Ol   00
o
t-   lO   Cl   t-
00
00
o
CO
Ol
s
o
,_,
CO
o
CJ
00
to  t-
-tf
i-h  eo  eo  oi
-*J"
00
■V
IO
s
ee
IO
00
IO
to
t-H    t-
c»
o eo   io  .-t
rH
o^
CO
CO
IO
CJ
CO
o
to
to
00
00
o
oo" O
CO
o" r-" io" eo
CO
Ol"
"tf
CO
-d"
Cl
CO
"tf
1
-tf    (M
to
t-         m t-
CO
IO
eo
CO
CO
us
eo
00
oo
Oi    IO
"tf
"f             rH    CO
Ol
"tf
eo
Ol
o
01
CO
IO
io
to
to
CO
w
-tf    Ol
t-
■W             OJ    00
OJ
as
as
00
eo
CO
IO
CO
CO   eo
OJ
Ol
Ol
CO
00
tr
"tf
o
tr
to
OJ
eo
IO
iO
eo
IO
IO
ee
t-
IO
"tf
io
"tf
"*     1    IO
c- as
to
CO   CO  >o   ^J*
IQ
rH
"tf
as
00
eo
eo
o
tr-
o
tr-
Ol
O   00
as
o   tO  CO  ■>*
OJ
OJ
IO
CO
"tf
CO
eo
o
o
IO
c-
tr-
4j
0
!      3
to  tf
o
IO    t-   O    i-H
"tf
IO
-e»«
CO
IO
CO
OJ
CM
OJ
co
OJ
o  tr-  oo io
o
"tf
cn
"tf*
t-
a
Ol
CO   to
OJ
Ol    CO    rH    eO
l-H
o
o
Ol
eo
CO
co
eo
Ol
a
to   CO
to
tr-   rH    00    -tf
01
OJ
IO
CO
00_
eo
h
cn
CO
o
O
o
do
as oo
t-"
rH*   O*  O*  rH
eo
CO*
CJ
eo
eo
as'
CJ
IO
CO   CO
t-
01   OJ   Ol   CO
eo
"tf
CO
00
eo
eo
ee
"tf
c-
"tf
Ol
Ol
rH
rH
i-H
CO
CO
Ol
N
Ol
Ol
ol Ol
Tf     1     O   CO   CO   Ol
eo    1   t>
fc-
,H
te
"*
00
IH
t-
"*
to
eo
Ol   -tf
tO
Ol     lO    -*    rH
co
OJ
eo
CO
Cl
t-
"tf
CO
IO
t-
OJ
Ih'
IO   tjt
OJ
O  00  fc-  Ol
io
■*
"tf_
Ol
00
C0
CO
**
c-
iH
00
"*
3
co" to
of
o* oi oo" oi*
^_J"
,_r
IO
eo
Ol*
Ol
as
00*
t>*
CO
of
Ol"
tj
IO   o
IO
O    Ol    CO    TJ"
t-
CO
tr
"tf
tf
IO
CO
s
to
v
CP
o" IO
«_r
CT1    OJ    Ol    CO
eo" oi" eo" of
t-
tr*
00
eo
**
IO
Ol
ee
eo*
IO
te*
CJ
tr"
Ir-
N
eo
CO
00
-*   Ol
eo
1-H    CO
io
Ol
00
CM
eo
OJ
CO
CO
IO
t-
00
«*
Tf
IO
IO
IO
t-
eo
B
IO
lO
IO
■^i
IO
o to
to
eO    CO   Ol    IT-
^
tr
H
eo
lO
l-H
CO
00
to
OJ
Ol
rt
OJ   Ol
"tf
IO    rH    rH    Ol
io
t-
w
tr
CO
IO
eo
as
CM
"tf
to
o as
OJ
Hr.NO!
tf
CO
fc-
T4
ee
CJ
"tf
to
OJ
CO
Ol
tr-
u
Cl   CO
OJ
eo t-  eo  rH
*■*
00*
to
O
"tf
to
00
IO
ee
t>
eo o
"tf
H   M   00   t)(
00
OJ
CO
OJ
"tf
eo
o
"tf
"tf
Ol
■^f
x%
c£ as
IO
i-H    Ol    IO   TH
c»
CO
o_
fc-
03
00
Ol
**
t-
*~1
o
o
to  CO*
o"
t^ t-" "tf*
o?
o"
00
CO*
CO*
of
t>
o
OJ*
"J*
t>
00
t- ■**
Ol
Ol
CO
IO
CJ
■tf
H
CJ
CO
o
o
I-H
OJ
CO
ee
c-
ee
"tf
ee
IO
eo
i-H
T*
IH
■H
t-i
H
-•
TH
x~*
r*
«-"
«
rH
+3
i
j
"tf
"f
lO
CO
Cl
o
-^
ed
Ol
f-C
OJ
rH
o
A
00        t-
to
IT
'C
Ttf
"tf
"tf
"tf
eo
eo        eo
eo
&
-W
u         «*
OJ
CJ
as
OJ             0J
Ol
cr
w
o      "-1
rH
rH           rH
rH
IH              CO
4   >
fl
«
O
0)
n
5             -M
OJ
V         "2
4-i            03
£     o
H_i
13
o
HJ
4~>
o
4->
3
O
4~>
3
o
01
4->
O
03              CO
-2     h5
CQ
1
H->
fc  9        m         9 W
> 03        _S        K   0   P
_    rM               .+J               F-H      -j      -,
to         T3
*     5
H->              CQ
a
a
1?
c
a
a
u
O
a
S
a
fl     1
u   «        H         « w ~   o        EH        O
« .5            .5 £ £ $
tf   t__                       ti   o   tf   O
in
CD
u
O
u
O
U            V
CS        H
>
("-
&
fo
K
%
>
o
<
Q O
t-H
Eh  ">
S    II
m il
fe *_
o &.
M    -
P
O
o
p
IH
m
0
<
o
fe
P
H
Z
o
<
tn
ti
H
V
P
>
u
a
n
l-l
<
o
ca
w
H
<
M
3,234,046
OJ
03
00
i-H
T-l
iH
OJ
00
OJ
Ol
M
of
o
IO
Ol
Cl
tr-
"tf
o
Cl
Ol
00
u
m
>
3
o
C DD 29
Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status, all Products.
Forest District.
Timber
Licences.
Timber
Berths.
Timber
Leases.
Pulp
Leases.
Pulp
Licences.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Dominion
Lands.
Timber
Sales.
Pre-emp-
Pulp-timber     tions, S.R.,
Sales.       j  and Miscel-
|     laneous.
Crown Grants.
Totals.
To 1887.
1887-1906.
1906-1914.
1914
to Date.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert, Coast	
567,310,718
82,009,573
1,511,374
4,298,784
8,932,111
17,249,247
129,600,204
184,735,030
26,903,568
108,755
25,826,269
71,960,743
32,495
747,644
15,264,523
1,766,530
299,095,312
62,674,589
34,090,469
89,484,355
101,443,744
126,278,534
2,257,093   l     24,828,762
4,190,609           3,062,715
1,580,344
888,706,132
2,360,464
57,376,441
1,612,187
298,210
96,388
6,617,624
38,018,518
35,986,865
3,738,638
2,551,937
2,385,520
9,876,042
10,754,882
26,543,865
468,184
3,110,298
15,502,991
15,663,414
8,376,514
2,284,466,824
234,700,631
Prince Rupert, Interior	
43,142,632
Fort George  ...
        ,     15,501,522
127,269,560
Kamloops  	
12,080,706
7,119,579
1,624,982
6.012,560
3,631,829
13,504,458
49,195
173,374,910
Nelson 	
5,462,681
    !     14,056,817
233,378,527
Totals, 1944	
681,311,807
148,800,489
190,197,711
27,012,323
97 787 01 9.   I            780 1 SQ
24,668,595
713,067,003
6,447,702   1     62,661,989
904,620,249
104,019,368
65,293,884
69,664,813
3,096,333,084
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of this Province is included under the various land status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian Reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government is  shown under the heading " Dominion Lands."
Total Scale of Material in Cubic Feet included above, segregated, showing
Land Status, all Products.
(Conversion Factor—1 Cu. Ft. = 5 Bd. Ft.)
Forest District.
Timber
Sales.
Crown Grants,
to 1887.
Totals.
Vancouver      . 	
4,420
3,229,626
3,234,046 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 31
to
©
!  eo
: o
'S.S.J
1    j
1      1
|    rH
■e*° 9
00
'• co"
O p «
1    1
f
i
;    }
|   t-
i °
1 ©
: co"
rt £ w
oi    :
!  eo
t-
!   OJ
^
.
!   CO
1        !    Ol        !
us    i
OJ
"J<
o
oo
1    CO
: co
b;    ,;
!    rH
eo
CO
rH
OS
©
; oo
O 0J--
HBEh
O      !
I    US
of
o
co"
tr^
!   00"
1 o"
co      !
!   "
OJ
■*
OI
CO
|   OJ
|    IO
CJ
!
us      !
eo
eo     !
O       !       !
CC
IO
: io    i
Ho
09
!
oo    ;
OJ
as    i
t-      !
c
©
io     !
t"
o
!
co    :
00*     |
IO
o"
CO      j
CO        !
IO      !
Cr
©
rH
©_   ;
CD       !
C*
- i
CO
Ol        !
rH        j
1-1
c:
e^
■^
IO
00
ir
CC
c
«
c
tr-
c
CO
3Jl5
01
01
a
tr-_
eo
cc
eo
i
o
t
t-
j
io"
eo"
o
oj"
|
O C  0)
t"
(X
OI
c
OJ
CT
©
HSfc
TT
c-
IT
a
eo
"*
fc-
IO
i
rH
1-1
ec
OC
IO
!   eo
t-
o
i    i e
w
cr
as
ec
1 c
Cf
"S
IO
r-t
' OC
t>
aS
ec
!   ir
IC
o"
CO
cc
ec
(   t~
t-
t-
o
cr
on
OC
'
1   "*
1
'
ec
o^
.
IO
e
o
!   O.
m
-*
"S"
IO
eo"
ec
o
1   *"
Cr
OC
eo
CO
T
i
OI
CM
Ol
eo
Ol
OJ
cr
-4
cc
O
er
0
i-t   oo
CC
ec
a
IO
oa
"j
IO   IO
o
cr
t- eo
ec
Ol   CC
00
CN
■*
as t~
CC
eo  co  eo     !
c
t£
o.
OJ
o-
Ol     rH
0
c^
o.
oi-
c
CC
CO   o
o.
CC
as  o
•^f
eo ic
eo
K
ee
Ol    "C
rH    CO    CM
a
e-
tJ<
c
T*
ir
cz
O    O
00
.  IO
r-l
o  eo
cz
CO    CO
cr
oo   ec
fc"
OJ
Cl    CO
"*
iO  eo  h'
o
Ol
CC
o
eo
c
to as
fc-
C
o.
eo
Ol
O    Tf
xxt
-tf  o
N
to   IC
t-
-Tf
Ol
. Tp    rH
OC
io t- o
.3
0)
OC
OC
c
(N
OC
o.
i-
OC
C3
ec
c
OJ
rH
ir
cz
fc"
CO           OJ
OI
ir
Cr
a"
CO
CN
1. w
9
eo
t-
Tf
CO
fc
OC
o
M
<5
fc-
cc
fc-
01
t-
ot
TI
CM
c-
CD   "tf
ft-
0)
a
t-
Ol
C
IO    CO
"*
OJ
t-   Cl
fc-
CO    r-
t-
<=
ec
©    --f
IC
eo  Tf  eo
03
Ol
IC
a
IO
If
oi
IO    CO
cr
ec
ec
o
ec
X
IO   o
"?
V
o   CC
Ol
cz
CO    OJ
ec
IO    H    t-
A
c
CC
\r
US        1    «
ec
"I1    IO
OC
<r
eo  o
cc
CO   o
O   tr
IO
t-
CM
IO    CO
cr
O     OJ     Tf
O
0
OI
t|
as      !   r-
T*
OJ   01
OJ
IC
CO
fc-
OI
IO   00
"*   io
oc
ee   Ol
©
cc
o
r4   00
Ol
IO   Ol   CO
©
o-
BS
O
m-
OC
CO
CC
C
Ol
(C
TC
OI
■q
©           OI
1
tf
T*
e
OJ
i>
OC
01
CO
c
cc
CN
CC
o
c
c
t-
fc-
V:
CM
1
I".
OC
c;
ta
c
fc-
as eo
- r-
IC
01
o
eo   OI
CN
ir
co     !
«d
IO    i—
IO      '   ©
©
IO  oo
©
"tf       !
OJ
rl
«
CO     i-H
Cv"
cc
or
a
IO   o
ir
t-     !
CC
00    OJ
OS
•^p
CO     TI"
fc"
IO       j
_£ ©
fc cu
O
IC
5
00
in
c
CO   "tf
cc
OC
O
x-
OJ   ©
fc
IO        i
IC
rH    O
ir
T]
as  to
T#
CN
«
O
tr
IO    CO
c-
*•
t>
^
io" oj"
o
t-
t>" r-
tf
0!
cr-
OC
iO
c
C)
OJ
cc
c-
u
CC
OC
0
0C
fc-
u
0C
cc
OC
o
o
IC
ec
Ol           r-
u^
00   00
c
If
t-
CO
o
Ol
O   iH
d
CT
CM A     ! ec
lO   o
eo
t-
O
CO   t-
ec
IO   "tf   ©      !
OJ
00
cr
t-
o
rH    TP
eg
tr
a
IO
CQ
oo  eo
OC
t-
eo  o      !  t-
rH    00
T*
OJ
t-    OJ
O   tJ<   o       !
o +» jj
CO
OC
CO
Cl
u
ee
ec
o
to
o
OJ    Ol
_r
Ol    rH        j    CC
■^   <4
OJ
fc-
IC
rH    O
t-
OO           ©
cj )-. o
C & 5?
J* 3+5
Oi
cc
co"
e
e
0C
ec
eo
o
OC
Ol
cr
o
OS             r-
©*
o
o
t-"
oc
eo"        eo     !
o
e
c
09
o
Ol
! oi
rH
o
00
CM
o
OI
a
cc
o
o
o
ir
j   OI
"
IO
i
cc
«
<r
c
C
rH
ir
1  c
c
IC
!   IO
■<*
tr
H
"tf
c
cr
cr
e
to
!    U
OC
0C
IC
ee
CO
4) +*   .
tr
cc
X
01
o
ec
cc
CM
C
CM
c ® 2
G a 0
ee
fr
cc
' o
<^j
o
i I
X—
j
IC
01
o
CO
cc
et
cc
O!
',    O-
OC
Ol
■B
in
c
fc-
i  c"
«
CC
o.
c
er
I  t>
i
<J
CM
CC
i  ]
!
i
OJ
ec
ec
c
tc
ec
ec
ec
S3
t-
OJ
as
cc
O   H
OC
o
r4    OS
cc
00    i-<
00        1    "*
H
Oi  o   ec
t-
OJ    t-    O    OS
I.!
er
tc
oj    !
CR
w
-«
t-
00
0G
c
CN
OS   to
t-
co  tr-
tr-          r-
ec
Cl    ©    CO
co
tr-  t-  oo  o
u
o
cr-
0
ff
■*f      !
c:
OI
OJ
cc
ec
eo  "J"
c
IC
as  eo
fc-
cm  ec
IO
OO
Tl-
CO                  Tf
ec
o   os   eo  i-h
>
ti
et
c
■«
"5
"j"    1
ec
t-
t-
CO
t-
OC
Ol   CO
OJ
0C
ie
oi  ec
"C
©
eo         oc
Oi
©    CO             CO
c
-cr
O.
U
u,
o
o
ec
•«
r-
"*
Cr-
CC
t-
OC
Ol                   o
o
ti
tf
c
"d
OC
Ol
u
OC
IC
IC
c
O
t-
OC
as
e<
TJ.                          0
fr-
C:
"ti
«
o
1-
CC
co"
OC
er
OC
ec
cc
t-
Csl
CN
:   Ol
w
CO
tfi
n
v_
cn
n
co
IS
$
'•&   *H  Xm
ti     V   1*
W «h-w
to   c    o F
*
43 * a
ti     O   F
xt
I    4J
+*    <H    ^
4-
-C
*» «h %
£   (3   a *
4
+3 <n a
ti    0  *
*
43  If,
ss
0)
«
a.
1
a
K
1
c
ti
11
CJ
E
i2   ti   c.
13 JS   ti   cj
d
t
* 3 co
f § 2 pa
1
& S CQ
S & S cc
^rSffl
& x ca
•2^2
«
fe
C
c
t
4)
&
c
0
a.
3
fc
c
0
&H
0
4=
ti
ti
fc
0
|
fc
ti
o
u
rti      C
1
fc
C
ti
01
X
ti
ti
Ph
i-
O    CJ
cj X
3
U
4
o
]
a
>
|
i
i
h
0
ti
6
6
1-5
Q
£
a.
u
E
<
tf
*
QJ
ti
ti
>
c
1-3
<1
H
b
l-H
Oh
EH
DQ
CO
H
O
>H
s
p
►J
o
BJ
a
w
o
w
M
H
P5 DD 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
-a
s
s
s
o
O
<
CO
n
Eh
O
m
Tf
n
S
D
o
O
w
02
►H
H
5
M
Q
w
<!
D
m
OS
H
«
__,
CO
tr-      !      !
: tc
■_.•§■*_
Tf        1        }
1
; ©^
J3,q a
fc-      i      i
os,'
"tf      !      !
i
!    CO
HOft
i-f     |
i i
i
1    CM
! eo"
~&t i
__,
i    i    : ©
rH
eo
tr-
CO
©
j
cs
II*
tr-
CO
CD
0 «•'-'
of
eo
IO
tr-"
lO
[    j    j to
t-
tr-
CO
IO
cc
CO
,'    CM
fc"      !
IO
CZ
!   t-
j
©    I
OI
Ho
u
fc-
i
i   "*
00        j
OI
t-
CM*
! io
1-1
as
1-1
: ""*•
1-4        !
©
CM
fc-
"tf
CM
CM
Tl
Ttf
©
©
tr
O  C  QJ
00
Oj"
"*
tr-
O
oo"
io
00*
00
CO
Ol
00
t"
HSh
OI
t-
eo
CM
a
!    Ol
Ol
oi*
of
o
'
l
1
CC
:     : oo
IC
: oo
©
00
: oo
cz
IO
00
|        I    CO
i
0
! oo
IO
3^
oo"
i       t-
|
u
i     Tf
CO*
"tf
!      1   fc-
;
Ol
1 ©
Cl
t-
I    CD
OC
i   o
offl
©"
!  O
cr
'<    Cl
©
IO
i      i   °°
tr-
'•   OI
o
Ol
01
:
0J
!   Ol
Cl
1   1
!
CM*
CO   rH   O
CD
CD   IO    fc-   rH
Ol
ci oi oi     : t- eo ©
"tf
CM    CM
eo  io
CO    CC    OC
to
Tf     t-    ©    IO
eo  io   cm         t- co   cr
O     Tf
IO   Cl
c
O    rH    CC
Tf
IO    rH    IO    CD
Cl   ©    IO
Tf    IO    r-
OI
00     Tf
CD    CO
o
"tf   CO   c
CO
©    OJ    IO    IO
a
O    00    rH
00   IO   IC
CM
O  ec
00   ©
eg
r4    CO
OJ    IO             rH
ec
CC             rH
tr- ©
to cc
00   OJ
«
TC    ©
IO   t-
o
IO
©  00
©    IO
1-4
fc
©"
lO
cr
"tf*
1-4    Ui
fc-
IO   Tf   CC
o
O    ©    rH   ©
ec
co  co  tr-     !  io  -tf  oc
OJ
tr-   ©
OI   rH
to
io  eo  t-
fr
OJ    rH    00    Tf
CC
Tf cd oi     : "tf co c
CO
rH    O
CO    00
tic
O     Tf     ©
-tf   IO    CO   IO
OJ
oo oi o     : "tf io cc
CM
rH   0C
CO    IO
O
O
o oo ec
eo  t-  i-h  ec
t-
OJ    CM    IO        I    1-4    CO    H
CO
IO    CD
t-    rH
"tf  cn
rH    t-             OJ
IC
CO             rH        1    Tf    CD
Cl    CO
CC     Tf
1
tf
w
00    CO
Ol   IO
ec
t-                  |  eo  iq
tO  o
r4
Tf"
CO*
e*
1  °*
tr-* Tf
rt
1-4                                    |    i-^
CO
1-4
ic
ee
-tf    O    CO    CO        !    CC
© co oj    : "tf o cd
tr-  Tf
Tf     IO
CO
ec
©
t~   >-i   ,h   t-      ;   c
CM    CO    t-        !    OJ    tr-    0C
00
CO     rH
O    CD
a)
CO
Ol
c- co  oo  oi     !  oj
rH    CO    Tf         !    "tf     i-H    CC
ec
CM    O
IO     -tf
■eg
fc    CJ
IO
Ol
rH
©    eo    rH    rH        !    CC
Tf    i-H    CO        !    Cl    CO    iH
Cl
CO   oo
00   t-
CO
CO   rH                       !   ec
cm       co    ; oj ©
lO
•-H    ©
Ol     Tf
io                      ! a-
!   Tf    rH
tr- cc
a
Ol
tr-"
I    i-
o
1-1
CO   00   ©
Ol
"tf "tf CO   io
c
lO   ©   "tf      !   O   00   o-
00   rH
©  "tf      !
as to to
00
eo © o ©
©  Tf   oi     !   cm   ci  ec
i-H    O
O  CO      i
8 £ o
*!"  r* QJ
_r ti-P
OJ    CO    OJ
rH
rH    rH    CO    rH
tT
cd  io  Tf     :  co  t-
OJ   oc
eo o     j
io* oo"
to
1-4    CO             ©
cr
©             CM        !    eO    rH
oi tr-
"tf" oi     j
Ol    00
CM
Ol    CO
OC
CM           rH       !   00   Tf
eo   cc
O        !
rH
00    "tf
oj                 : Tf oi
(0   OC
PUflfl ti
"t-H
io"
"*
ec
i   eM*
CM    rH
CO
j
Ol    IO    IO
as  co
Tf
o
!   00
IC
Cl     Tf
IO
co as t-
00    t-H
C
Ol
ec
OO    ^4
IO
CD -P    •
Ol    Cl    i—
IO    IO      •
ir
!   I>
Tf      O
CD
c » 2
E   h °
IO*  00*
:
io" Ol"
c
CM*
i     Tf*
IO    Ol
CO
c-
: o
CM    Tf
CO
CD
u
!   eo
oo"
j
Tf"
a
1 t-"
Tf
Ol
Ol
o
;     ;                       i
CM
© cs  cc
rH   IO    CO    Tf    O
©
©  CM  co     !  Tf  tr- ©
co     ;
co   tr-
Cl   CM   CO
h
Ir-   IO   Tf
tr-   OJ   eo   Tf   co
Tf
Cl    fc-    Ol        1    Cl    O    CS
tr
Cl    Cl
CO    Cl    Tf
0
i-H    CO    Tf
"tf  ©  "tf  rH  CO
t-
t-   rH    rH        !    CO    tr-   rH
eo  o
CM    0_  0_
>
3
o
CJ
oo" co" o
t-" co" os co* eo"
o
as   Ol   Tf"     !   t-" Tf   cr.
io"
r4    O
cT tr-* tc
Tf      US
O                          !    W    H
Tf     rH
Tf  oj  eo
IO    00
rH    rH    ©
o
00                          !    CO    IO
o  o
CM
ti
tr-"
"S
i  cm"
oi oc
CO
tf
fc"
rH
©
!   00
Ol
>
1-1
CM
rH
1 ***
Ol
oi
w                           xji
tn
co
Vi
H->
0>                 ^J           v     •
'^Bj5       t3 3h „
C   ti^rt"   ti   cj "^
^               .2     4J               -ri
"3    J&      6    -2         "      fi    rS
fi  C  & -Q CQ   * X
fc ja   CQ   «
■S *_
H-S   tfH
«   ti   cj
^
O
ti
•a
3 r-r' .5
O    QJ    p
o X   c
fc
_f
c
ti
OJ    p
fc
ts
o
ti
ti
ti
fc
e
0
u
01
X
ti
e
j
+j
0
o
a
1     !
t
tf
53
1    j
1
>>
*H
0J
-C3
s
CJ
a
: x
41
-O
2
CD
X
£
o
HJ
°                     _»
V
CO
a
o
-1-1
CJ                             C
QJ
o
t/2
C
Z
Q
H FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 33
Logging Inspection, 1944.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
704
545
432
1,091
601
1
3
1,011
99
162
720
548
1,716
647
594
1,811
1,149
3,619
2,368
930
Kamloops.   _	
3,019
1,712
Totals, 1944  	
3,373
4
2,540
5,917
11,648
Totals, 1943	
3,259
11
2,519
5,789
12,110
Totals, 1942  	
3,086
18
2,569
5,673
13,753
Totals, 1941
3,207
18
2,833
6.058
11,438
Totals, 1940 _	
2,864
12
2,272
5,148
10,968
Totals, 1939    	
2,770
10
2,068
4,848
11,295
Totals, 1938           ..         	
2,674
23
1,804
4,501
10,828
Totals, 1937	
2,404
46
1,932
4,382
11,507
Totals, 1936. _	
2,354
35
1,883
4,272
11,138
Totals, 1935	
2,074
59
1,660
3,793
10,081
Ten-year average, 1935-44	
2,807
23
2,208
5,038
11,477
Trespasses, 1944.
m
V
CS
O
«w
O
6
Z
>
o
-»_  .
« »
Ol  O
a f!
Quantity cut.
_»
a
"43
3
w
<u   .
*H   OJ
VI h
O 3
.  N
Zm
Forest District.
M
o
V
QJ
s
"5
QJ
g
3
m
13
U
O
O
V
B .
.2SS
)H   QJ
OH
3
J!
CJ
C
3
O
s
<
47
33
33
52
45
267
866
488
312
534
5,521,412
4,103,576
671,849
1,105,350
914,879
8,347
31,222
70
1,001
2,021
26
277
1,813
751
1,667
1
1
3
$14,679.51
Prince Rupert   	
3,071.91
2,155.20
Kamloops 	
Nelson    ...
20,054
119,596
1,465
2,316
4,160.75
5,125.79
Totals, 1944 	
210
2,467
12,317,066
179,219
3,369
4,231
3,781
5
$29,193.16
Totals, 1943 _	
167
3,058
9,744,957
129,409
6,873
552
7,923
7
$23,725.29
Totals, 1942 ...
180
1,159
4,413,906
365,861
4,757
490
1,512
15
$14,391.61
Totals, 1941	
236
1,788
7,627,990
526,391
2,887
1,365
4,150
17
$24,253.10
Totals, 1940 	
194
877
5,206,829
94,444
1,573
4,279
9,854
13
$14,088.24
Totals, 1939 _	
209*
571
6,905,268
94,818
3,147
5,206
46,729
26
$17,725.00
Totals, 1938 	
149
816
4,309,030
203,195
3,014
1,185
7,530
10
$9,653.86
Totals, 1937	
156
1,147
8,239,813
143,860
1,607
2,132
35,017
7
$17,439.52
Totals, 1936            	
153
501
2,067,130
75,272
1,632
2,452
13
$5,243.00
Totals, 1935
121
555
3,043,486
50,965
1,283
14,078
3
$6,077.58
Ten-year average, 1935-44
178
1,294
6,387,548
186,343
3,014
3,597
11
$16,179.03
* Christmas-tree cutting largely responsible for increase. DD 34
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
Pre-emption Inspection, 1944.
Pre-emption records examined by district are:—                ,„_, Averf^f_TfrYrs-
1944. 1935-44.
Vancouver  112 253
Prince Rupert     96 143
Fort George  190 456
Kamloops   303 618
Nelson      84 121
Total  785 1,591
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1944.
Forest District.
Applications for
Hay and Grazing
Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Vancouver	
No.
4
5
69
3
Acres.
640
750
12,910
398
No.
1
2
4
14
Acres.
40
320
545
1,858
No.
61
14
12
81
27
Acres.
5,899
1,203
1,970
6,631
2,655
No.
8
3
2
13
3
Acres.
145
207
57
955
128
No.
70
23
23
177
33
Acres.
6,084
2,370
3,322
Kamloops  	
22,354
3,181
Totals
81
14,698
21
2,763
195
18,358
29
1,492
326
37,311
Classification of Areas examined, 1944.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
6,084
2,370
3,322
22,354
3,181
Acres.
652
563
1,353
2,116
381
Acres.
5,432
1,807
1,969
20,238
2,800
Acres.
224
79
278
48
3
M.B.M.
400
3,665
Totals _	
37,311
5,065
32,246
632
7,845 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 35
Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1944.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-
timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-ties
(No-).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
310
327
214
367
258
50,901
63,555
56,647
86,423
77,203
481,494
285,516
109,764
165,709
162,825
284,232
1,550,690
386,250
3,217,022
2,728,635
9,938
23,004
39,171
53,597
12,027
■     :    800
136,505
148,611
87,598
109,849
128,489
112,600
1,104,350
Totals, 1944	
1,476
334,729
1,205,308
8,166,829
137,737
483,363
1,345,439
Totals, 1943	
1,771
590,953
907,768
10,720,729
259,741
454,767
816,544
Totals, 1942 	
1,469
305,222
794,676
8,562,739
100,232
381,106
743,500
Totals, 1941 _
1,611
321,220
689,595
15,794,246
126,463
199,174
263,480
Totals, 1940	
1,620
800,480
572,562
11,309,288
72,157
314,644
612,042
Totals, 1939 	
1,324
212,594
470,660
6,016,945
68,078
339,866
261,100
Totals, 1938-	
1,486
325,403
482,680
5,747,765
126,329
804,240
169,900
Totals, 1937	
1,471      1      278,386
633,216
9,658,000
140,820
753,408
160,450
Totals, 1936	
1,415      1      252,035
464,402
8,535,045
148,606
1,083,746
63,200
Totals, 1935 _	
1,319
238,952
398,884
5,674,908
114,753
1,164,454
74,700
Ten-year average,
1935-44	
1,496
315,997
661,975
8,918,650
129,492
697,877
441,035 DD 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
T*
T.
O-
rH
TO
£h
O
tH
«
Eh
03
M
o
W
Q
«
to
w
1-1
<:
w
I
tf
H
CQ
a
IS
01
Ol
ui
us
oc
00"
©
tr-
«*♦
Tf
Tf
T|
d
CM
Tf
0
rH
OS
O
OO
00
O
CO
CD
CO
O'
Ol
fc-;
co"
CO
10
©
ec
cs
©
Tf
Tt>
CC
oi
10
a
oi
free
01
eo
0
CN
W
10
Oi
Tf
to
O
CO
«
eo
0
CM
US
as'
CO
CO
CM
to
tr
a
to
«
lO
Ci
«
tc
O
©
10
M
t-H
tr-
IO*
CO
CM,
09
00
CM
to
co
id
00
06
CO*
0
CM
to
O
CM
t£
fc"
Tf
t-
Ol
fc-
O0
CO
©
tr-^
CM*
CO
O
to
Tf
O
tr^
CM
Tf
oi
eo
fc-
to
Tf
O
oi
CO
©
©"
eo
c-
to
«H    1       •
o c ffl
.5.2
o 3 o
©      !
S    !
©- i
0
0
0
0"
i
•Hi  ■
|     i
©
©
©
©
©
©
o^ C.S
i
0
0
0
0"
CD
0
0
0
0"
©
©
0
©*
©
co
0
0
©"
©
1
j
1  Ol
1
©
OI
©
©
©
CO
©
OI
Tf
Tf
©
©
eo
10
©
©
trio
©
©
CM
t-
i
OftS
mi
[
1
©
0
©_
0*
OI
©
©
©
CM
©
0
0
CM*
O
©
IO
co"
zxy
O
10
CS*
OI
10
CO
0>
tr~*
rH
CM
IO
CD
O
tr-*
©
*M
0 _>
.  QJ
IS
©    t-H    ©    00    O
O  Ol  OO   tr-   O
oi 10 10 as 1-4
H    IO   CO   O"
CO     t-     Tt<     CO
trio
00
CO
10
01
CO
CO
CO
©
0
©
©"
0
OI
©
Tf
US
00*
©
i-H
00
eo
©"
©
CO
CO
tree
0"
E-
co
©
CO
t>
Tf
©
CO
Ol
OI
Tf"
Tf
©
00
rH
CO*
Ol
CO
CM
00
10
©*
©
CM
rH
us
©
01
©
^4
Tf    CO    ©    IO   CO
to  tf   tf   1-4   as
t-    IT-   OI    rH    i-H
o> ©* © 10 10
rH             Ol    Ol    1-4
CO
IO
0
co"
©
t-
co
Tf"
OI
OI
00
0*
©
CM
CM
CO
©
us
CO
10*
0
00
t-
Tf
©
CO
us
00
©*
OI
eo
Tf
rH
Ol"
01
©
t-
©
CM
CM
©
CO
©
O
10
©
CO*
rH
*H  -I
0 s
> tn
0 0
O    IO    O   CO   ©
0 rH    O    rH    IO
01 O   Ol    CD    t-
CM   ©   O   O)   tf
CO   0   00
1-4    tf    O
CO
00
trio
CO
©
OI
00
co"
Tf
OS
IO
Tf
CO
©
IO
t-H
O
©"
CO
to
cs
©
©
t-
Tf
Tf
0
eo
©
©
Tf
00
©
©
r4
©
OI
©
lO
©
eo
©
CO
O
O
©
us
CO
CM
IO
CM
00
00
0
CO
©
CM
CM
Tf
©
S "^
OJ^i  f_
■3(i.~
(H    6
O   O   IO    rH    IO
O   00   OI    Ol    t-
Tf    tf     C-    Ol    TJ-
©   ©   t-    ©   ©
CQ    H   IO   Tf    H
t- t-        as tf
rH             Ol"  Co"
0
©
eo
00
©
eo
©
0
©
00
©
00
10
Tf
Tf
©
rH
T*
CO
©
Tf
r4
Tf
Ir-
lO
CO
t-
0
0
t-
O
eo
CO
©
Tf
CO
CO
Tf
Tf
CO
©
10
eo
c-
CS
Tf
eo
CO
©
OI
Tf
IO
CM
CO
00
tr-
03
00
0
Tf
©
CM
eo
©
as
00
00
CJ —'
W
©   ©    ©   ©    ©
OOOOO
O    O    O    ©   ©
0" 10 as co" 10"
CO   0   0   IO   IO
©   CM   CO   00   C-
00*  CO    ©    Tj"  CO
©   CO   CO   t-   Tf
CO   rH             rH   rH
0
0
CO
tr-*
00
l-H
IO
©
CO
©
0
0
0
00
10
00"
00
00
0
©
©
10
rH
IO
fc-
©
O
©
CM
CO*
CM
to
©
0
0
CO*
OS
00
00*
Tf
us
O
O
©
eo
Ir-
tr-
cm"
Tf
Tf
©
©
0
Tf
trio"
Tf
©
©
©_
co"
©
©"
10
Tf
0
0
0
0
00
00"
©
CO
0
0
0
CO
00
©"
©
CM
0
0
CO
CO*
CO
©*
©
us
M
3
3
CJ
©   ©   lO    O   t-
©    t-    T-H    CO    rH
Tf    ©    00    ©    Tf
OI     Tf     Ol"    1~"    Tj""
©   IO   Tf   OS   ©
OI
CO
to
Tf
CO
#
00
©
Tf*
CT_
co
eo
©
eo*
CD
CO
t-
O
CS
OI*
eo
CO
©
IO
CO
Tf"
CO
CO
10
©
10
©
Tf
OI
xf
Tf"
tr-
OI
00
00
©
00"
tr-
CM
Tf
CM
©
Ol"
10
OI
O0
US
©
1-4
CO
OI
1-4
©
Tf
t-"
CO
O*  Rl
Z<°
©     ©     Tf     Ol     t-
00  -H eo cj ti<
CO  CO  CM   IO   CO
CO
©
CO
©
O
OI
0
i-H
fc-
CO
©
CO
Tf
CO
tr-
0
CM
IO
0
10
©
Tf
Tf
eo
Tf
Tf
x~x
trio
CO
1-4
tr-
Tf
©
O
•_-»
.2
ft
SQ
1
1
(
t
<
F
e
>
t
1
c
J
c
d
c
1
1
P
>
■
1     'J
!i
£
1
c
j
*
■
■
TJ
T
a
D
I
1
fc
0.
Tj
0
1
c
t
fc
1
:
1
0
c
1
1
1
fc
i
1
1
1
!
A
Ti
c
1
1
fc
1
>
A
1
•
i
C
t;
G
I
A
1
fc
1
r
1
i
A
a
V
0
t
c
<
E-
0
0
0
1
1
1
fc
)
3
s
1
1
t
c
a
c
H
1
fc
1
1
1
j
1
A
tj
0
a
*
fc
1
4
.
S
4
u
e»
a
e
1
fc
1
)
t
4
j
1
A
Tf
Tf
1
IO
CO
©
a"
So
2
>
a
u
a
CJ
>.
a
a
E- FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 37
tf
H
pa
S
m
•z,
o
Eh
o
IH
tf
H
CQ
Ol
W
tf
O
Ph
Q
< -*
Is
JH    "
H 5
Ph   i-i
CC   gg
W
5!
«    tf
m
o h
o
o
fe a
m. a
§ f3
^ os
« u
0
Ph
a
3
CQ
*.
CQ
W
u
«
Ph
H
O
Hi
Ph
S
P
H
OQ
s
o
P
>
H
CJ
<y   ft
c
IO  ©   ©   c
©
H
0)
QJ   Pi
1
IO   CM   tr-   O   IO   CO
1
•8 *iJ
C u3
CO    rH    t-H    CM    rH    rH
I        I        I        I        I        I
IO   IO   ©   o   o   ©
:
Ph C
tr-   t-   tr-   O   ©   CM
Ph
:
s
H
"B
•J
-<
O                      l-H    rH   rH
to
i
1
Ph
<
1
oj
•r- _w
f ft"
Tf   CO   CM   tr-   IO   CM
CD
c-
o
8b .
rH    Tf    OS    i-H    CO    O
©
tr-
H
©    r4    CD    CO    CO    CO
IO
co
o
Tf eo to cm  t- oo
oi  oi  ri  OI  ri  ri
ci
rH
oi
to
W
Ph
to
*»
to
to
Ph
to
«©■
to
to
Ph
CO   CM   OI   CO   ©   OI
© Tf -rf  t- in co
CM   rH   CO   Tf   CM   tr-
©
Tf
OI
©
CM
©
00
Tf
©
fe
Ol  ©  o  io   eo  io
cs   cm   tr-   tr-  Tf   t-
©   CD   CM   CM   IO   00
©
00
©
CO
©
CD
tr-
eo
M
IO*  CM                   ■*   H
CM
Tf
CO
Tf
©*
iO
Ol
p.
©* tr-* co* ©* oi  fc-
©   t4   tf   tr-   tr-   Tf
©"
t-
CO
©
to*
OI
S
s
C0   rH                      rl    rl
00
tr-
©"
fa
QJ
OJ A
.SaJJ
E __K
O   IO   ©
© ©
h
©©oooo
IO   CM   t-
IO   CM
OJ  Pi
tH    bfl^
©    IO    ©    CM    O    O
M   ri   rl
rH    CM
IO   t-H   CO   CM   Tf   IO
©   IO    ©
©    O
O          O   IO   ©   o
^5
t-    t-   fc-
O    CO
9_i
fc 5
US           OS   CM   rH   o
Ph
©
t-H   1-4
tf
ri                 '   rH   ri   ri
M
u
to
to
i
Q
a      *
00   CD   CM
rl   rH
t-
CM
©
d)
OI   ©   O   00   CM   ©
Tf
00
00
IO    i-4   CM
CO    US
Tf
©
CJ    »H       ,
CM  io  tr-  tr-  © ©
tr-
Tf
CO
s
n
rH    rH    rH
t-H    rH
r-i
r4
©
1
5
Eh
o
N   H   ri   ri   ri   ri
^3
CO
ri
Ph
to
to
to
to
Ph
to
to
to
to
tr-  co io
Tf   CM
Tf
©
CM
Tf   io   CO   ©   ©   CM
la
tr-
OI
&;
©   CM   ©
©     Tf
CM
CO
Ph
Tf             Tf    00   OI    lO
©
t-
CM
IO   00   ©
Tf      QS_
Tf
1-4
©
©             CO    IO    CO    ©
CM
O
00
M
Tf* 00* _o"
CD
to
IO
00
n
t-H             CO*  OO"  rH*  rH
o
CM
tr-^
©    rH
©
us
CM
CO
CM
a
-H             t-
g
Fh
©   O    O   ©   ©   ©
CJ
a> P
: © ©
v ft
Ph  MS
IO   IO   ©   ©   ©   IO
; t- r~t
CO   CO   CO   CO   CM   CO
!    CO    CO
1     1     1     1     1     !
©   IO   ©    ©    ©   IO
2
'    1
: o o
*S
IO    t-   ©   t-   IO    t-
ftn C
|    rH    CM
tf
rH                           1-4
to
3
cd
M
!    r-1    ri
: to-
M
0
3
s
H
_H
CJ    *H        .
2^
CO   tr-   CM   OI   CS   O
CO
CO
CM
3? ,
'.     Tf     Tf
Tf
Tf
Tf
CO   OI   CO   CO   00   O
Tf
Tf
tr-
!   to   to
©
CO
1-*
1
oi eo ri oi ri ci
oi
oi
ri
to
to
to
to
Ph
' to
e«-
to
to
n
u
3
1-1
co Tf   tr- co ol  os
Tf
tr-
rH
©
tr
CO
©
00
CI
h
CM   ©   CO   00   ©   Tf
rH   Tf   t-   CM   CO   ©
cs
OI
©
Tf
©
Ph
1    CO   CO
CO
tr-^
m
IO    tr-*  ©    CO*   Tf   rH
tr-  CM   ©  CO  CO
Tf
IO
CM*
©
M
i o" co"
:  cm Tf
ee?
to
cs*
Tf
Tf"
t-
s
OI
Ol
s
OI
u
oj A
.a »j
E 6fS
OOO       !   ©   iO
CJ
a) p
"   QJ     ■
©
!      !   O  ©
IO   IO   lO
Tf    OI    rH
IO   CM
oi oi
z
iO
oi
io tr-
CO    IO
1        1
O   IO   o
1     1
O    O
J? £P«
o
1     1
o o
Ph C
O    t-    IO
O    CO
£
tf B
us
©    IO
-J
Ph
to
riri
is
o
t-
-3
cd
tf
to
ri    ri
«
H
8fe .
©     O     Tf
CM   Tf
CI
^1
t-
O  Ih     .
t>
: co o
Tf
CD
t-H
©    tr-    CO
CM    rl    rH
Tf     Tf
©
oi
t-
oi
tr-
ri
>«
Tf
i w "^
i ri oi
o
oi
tr
©
Ph
to                  '
to
to
to
g
1
to-     '      '      '
to
ee-
to
©   00   CO
TH     ©
CO
Tf
Co
CO
!     OI     Tf
Tf
©
©
Bh"
Tf    00    CO
Tf     Tf
us
us
to
Ph
!   tr-  OI
CM
eo
<__s   o   co
CO     IO
CO
eo
to
!   io   io
CM
CD
CM
Ph
CM cs ci
r* IO*
T-H
1-4
ol
M
!     Tf     Tf
OS
as'
O
©   rH
OI
OI
cs
s
!   rl
o
s
t-
CM
QJ
QJ  ft
.2 « j
O   IO    ©   ©   IO   ©
CJ
a P
in tj;g
tf s
cd
tf
o
o o
©   CM   ©   CM   OI   i-4
©
00    IO
Tf   OI    t-H    CM   Tf    co
IO
CO   Tf
1    1    1    1    1    1
O   O   ©   IO   IO   o
I
IO    ©
Ph 5
CD   o   IO   Ol   CM   CM
CS
00    IO
1
d
PS
to
6i
1
Ph
Eq
Eh
ci
to
ri   CN
t-   rH    t-   ©    rH   CO
©
t-H
CM
U  rH     .
'£S.B
©
!      ©    Tf
__,
CO
__,
©   t-    IO   Tf    CO    CD
©
CM
©
t>
1    O    OI
CM
rH
CO
o
N   rl   ri   ri   ri   H
oi
oi
ri
co
! co eo
oi
a
Ph
to
to
to
^■
3
Ph
to     '
to
to
to
o
ft
^
Ol      —      IO     ©     Tf     Tf
rH    ^   Tf    CO    rH    OS
fc- ^ oo a\ Tf c-
US
CO
o
©
©     Tf
es
lr-
Em
©
fc"
tr-
Tf
oo
Ph
IO    IO
to  CO
CM
©
to
OS
©
rl
P3
©                   CO*  O   CO*
CM                           ©   Tf
OS
IO
to*
©
b*
Ph
rH        I
1
Tf     fc-"
eo"
©*
cm"
o
s
1-1
CM
CM
00
s
Tf
Tf
Tf
Tf
1
I
u
CJ
w
oj
US
■"*• .°
CJ
CO
o
CO
4->
O
H->
In  %
*>
©
5|
fl
">
©
§«
2
-a"
o
4->
ID
o£
2            1
(5
tn
<u
U
o
fa
b    h    a
w     -a      rt
p
"^ "^
*    9    1
oj   oj   a
a ft j
D
BE
43
09
CU
u
o
a
t      r
O    d    j,
ft ft 5o
fc      6      2
o       g       ft
*    5    fa
19'!
5«« 3 i
!       5       £2        >■
c      °      ©      ©
O             fc-1             r(             rH
fe
>
tf W   °   ft
8 S8«| |
s .s .s t i -
a s s
§ £ 3 t £
*
ci    l_    l,    n    c.
*3
cd   C   h   o   =d .a
>
ft
tf  r
H
*
>
ft
ft
Pt
X
z DD 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
M
H
s
m
"A
o
CQ
Eh
O
i—t
tf
M
Eh
CQ
Ph
tf
O
Eh
2    -Hi
CQ   Cl
a
o
pq
tf
CC    CQ
M
w"
hj:
o
CQ
tf
H
Ph
Q
H
>
W
O
tf
tf
«_
tf
o
►H
tf
Cm
H
O
h!
Ph
s
p
H
03
K
C9
«
gg
cc
^
o
CM
en
IO
eo
p.*
rH    O
IO      T-H     ©     Tf      OS
CM   CM
to
rl   CM   rl   rl   rl
Ph
©   CM   O   US   CM
d
M
CO   CO
©    CO    IO   Tf    rl
<
8
LO   CC
CO    CC
CM    C-    00    O    Tf
OI
rl    ©
gs
CO
co  cm  oo  tr- Tf
tr
©   as  cm   co   tr-
3  ~
Ph ®
W  ft
ac
r!   rl   rH    rl    rl
K  O
Ph
es
o   co  o  io  tr-
CO
CM    IO   IO   O    rl
CQ
CO
tO    CM    rH     l-H     IO
s
eo
CO    ©    rl    rH    Tf
T-H
-~
gs
I    00    Tf    to
«
S3
w ft
to
Ph
!    CM    rH    CO
Ir-   io   ol
H
O   ©   tr
E-i
s
io   Tf   os
w
'             CO    CO
in.
gsi
eo n o
Ol    00    i-H
oi ri oi
to
II
Ph
!    t-    rH    00
-3
Ph
as co oi
a
j   rH   IO   fc-
gs
to
oo  »o  CO
g
IO
IO   tr-   eo
£
Ph 2
w ft
CM
to
Ol    CM    CM
H
Ph
CO
!   O   CO   CD
B
P5
CO
1-4    00    IO
fc
s
w
rH    CO   CD
ss
T-H     Tj
00   CM   rH   eo   tr
E
w ft
CM   IT
rH
io    O    rl    rl    rH
rl    rl   rH    rl
H
H
n
fe
tr-   e£
Tf    CO   ©    rl    rl
t-h  Ir
m
Tf    r
rH   Tf   tr-   o   O
S
CM
gs
IO   r
rH    O    IO    rl    CO
Oh  ®
W  ft
46-
rH    rl    rH    rl    rH
3
fa
©   0
W
M
CO   IT
©             rl   CD    CM
S
©     r
rl    ©
gs
Tf    (£
CO    rl    OS   CO   O
1-4   ei
IO    Ol    IO    eO    rl
o
S
S
CQ
OI  o
to
rl    (M    rH    rl    OI
Ph
00    t>
tr-    ©    Tf    IO    rl
tr-  Ir
Ph
es c
t-h  © as  to t-
CM* 0
00  CM   Ir-   tr-   tr-
S
C
rH    CO    rl    t-H    IO
gs
Ol     Ti
O    O    Tf    CO    rl
'E *.
W ft
CM    r
to
rl    rl    rl    rl    CM
Q
pa
u
Ph
©    t£
CO   o
CM   Ol   lO   O   t-
«
oi a
cs          tr-   to  Tf
IS
eo t-
-ef   tr-
00
K
gs
Tf  ec
eo  os  Tf  oi Tf
IO    Tf    Tf    eo   o
Ph
H
£§
CM    r
to
rH    rH    rH    rl   Ol
E.
Ph
tf  c
tO   Tf    rH   ©    rH
o
n
m
Tf     C
l-H    CO    ©    ©    ©
O    r
s
CM
Tf    CM    ©
+J
e
c
>  c
"E
L
1 M    i
CD
VI
Q
«    r.       :
">
H    ft   »      i    t*
u
> 03 tf T-  O   P
3   ^   "     t4     O     O
n    CJ    OJ    O   CT    o    C
Ah
QJ
•s i t a I
c .f=
•£
cd
C
P
&
A  tf
ft
iz
Z
U- FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 39
... ra
o
©
©
©
©
o
■CJ3
CD        '        '        '
CD*
COM
o
|
©
3
©
P.
rt
io .
Is
©
©
CM
©
11
*■*
o
cd -g
eo
CM
CO
tf
1
fl
!   CO
CO
o
tr-
tr-
eo
eo
Tf
M
i    CO
CO
©   CO
as
©
©
Tf
r4
Jh  OJ
©    CM
CO
CM
us
©
CO
©
rl   CS
©
©
CO
c-
eo
03
r4
IO
cm"
rH
1-1
©    t    :
©
1
CU
CO     !
CO
"    i
00
cd
CO      j
CO*
H-»
©      !
CD
T*
CQ
CO      '      '
CO
-o
tJ
Cl
fl 1   .
cd fl «
i   pj
ft S o
Tf
Tf
CM
us
IO
©
IO
OI
OI
Tf
CO
eo
CO
tr-
o
©
o
00
IO
tH
Cs"
©"
©*
©"
OI*
r4
offl &
tf
eo
CO
©
as
i
g
CM
Tf     CO
©
tr-
CO
oo
CM
CM
Tf
tf
.2 3^
C 5 oj
o o
t-
©
©
Cl
©
©
p
i
O     Tf
Tf
Ol
»"i
©
o
©
eo
I
1
1
I
Q
O    E*
cs cT
CO
CM
©"
©*
CO
IO    ©
©
Tf
CM
IO
©
CO
us
1   rl   CM
CO
CO
©
CM
CQ
W
tf
OI   CO   CO   tO   Tf
CO
Tf
o
©
tr
©
©
o
©
rH
co cm   tr-  ©  ©
©
©
CO
CO
00
io
©
©
eo
us
CO
to
CO   lO   O   00   ©
CM
CM
eo
©
Tf
CO
CO
©
©
IO
CQ
l
cm cs o io t-
©"
Tf*
rH
-.H*
OS
uS
iO*
tr-"
Tf"
©"
fc*
fc-           t-   Cl   o
©
©
©
us
tr-
©
US
Tf
00
tf
tf
rl    rl    ©
eo
©
Tf
CO
OI
CM
rH
CO
W
p_4
tf
CM   ©   tr-  Tf   Tf
CM
©
CO
©
00
1-1
©
CO
Tf
OI
©
l-H
Tf  as oo  tr- eo
CO
©
CO
Tf
00
©
Tf
IO
H
ai
OJ
©    CM    Tf    ©    O
cm" ©  tr-* tr-" ©"
00
IO
co"
©
OS
00
©
Tf*
©
to
©
CO*
Tf
Tf
fc-
co
CO
t-
00*
S
H
tr-  ©  io   c.
CO
00
00
OI
tr-
CO
Tf
CM
us
©
n
Tf
CM
CO
Ol
Tf
©
t-
00
00
Tf
o
tf
tf
io © us us o
Tf
CM
00
IO
©
CM
o
rH
CM
©
CO
t-   rl    CM    CO   CM
tr-
©
CO
©
rl
tr-
©
00
eo
©
Eh
O
tr-   00    O    CO    rl
o
CO
-_4
rH
Ol
to
o
©
CM
00
©
p
©    CO    CO    CO    CO
00
©
Tf
Tf
©
Tf
00
©
00
CO   CO   CD   Tf   CM
o
CO
00
©
©
IO
CO
©
t-
Tf
©
O
U
CM    CO"   CM"   CO    rH
©
©*
©
OI
Ol
t-*
©
CM
00*
tr
'
tf
Ph
tf
CM             CM    rl    rl
tr
00
Tf
Tf
©
©
us
Tf
©
eo
io
s
"S
#
rH   CO    CO    CS   CO
io
fc-
rl
fc-
tr-
IO
o
OI
00
CD
o
OJ
©   CM    Ol    t-H    US
©
©
Tf
00
to
o
00
us
t-
OI
H
tf
©   Tf   o   ©   tr-
co  t-  eo  t-" r-T
fc-
Tf
©
LO
OS*
eo
CM
CM
IO
OS*
CO
IO
co"
to
rH
IO
o
OI
©*
7d
tr-   CO    fc-    CD    IO
©
00
©
00
©
CO
Ol
©
Tf
Tf
00
CU
fl
Tf    io    CO    O    CD
CO
oo
00
CM
©
OI
©
CM
IO
©
rl"     ]     CM*  Tf"
CO
CO
©
00
00
tr-
00
CO
©
CO
c-
13
eo
<M
rH    CD   CO    Tf    IO
©
Tf
Tf
CS
Tf
00
tr-
CO
■rf
00    CO   Tf    t-    rl
tr-
CM
t-
CO
IO
to
CO
CO
OJ
CJ
©    ©   CM    ©    ©
1-4
o
o
00
rl
CM
Tf
CM
Tf
CD
tr-
CO    CM    Tf    IO    IO
IO
us
t-
00
00
CO    ©    rl    rH    ©
©
CD
eo
IO
to
©
00
OI
o
CO
CM
OI    ©   Tf    rl    O
Tf
©
00
rH
©
©
as
©
©
t-
Tf
cd
IO   00    CO    CS    Tf
CO
CD
CS
CS
CD
Tf
Tf
©
co
CO
o
oo  cs   tr-  C-  o
Tf
Ol
©
©
Ir-
00
CO
CO
00
©
cq
tf
CM                               rH
©
IO
Tf
Tf
Tf
eo
CO
CO
CM
rH
Tf
}                 Tf
Tf
;      io
i      ©
n
CJ
I         bo
cd
•T
H-3
:       d
o
Tf        o-
OIrl©©00t-©_O              >
'£
Tf                   T«
TfTfTfCOCOCOCOCO                   cj
cs         o
CS©          cs          C.          OS          ©          cs          cs           ,
H        H         r.        r,        H        H        H •                    j
■fl
M
fl
OJ
5
tH
QJ    fl
tals,
tals,
tals,
talsr
tals
tals,
tals
tals;
tals;
tals.
n-ye
s
CO
p. gg   i
fl        <H        BQ
OOOOOOOOOOOJ
a
H.HlHEHE-iE-tE-'HE-i.HE-i
'5
<
> tf   £   ft
p  *^    OJ    o
o«jOO
#
fl   A T   £ £
a 'S3  o  «  v
>   fc   fe   M   ri DD 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1944.
Opekating.
Shut Down.
Forest District.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
No.
Estimated
Paily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
Vancouver..... —
233
116
141
150
167
9,388
989
1,455
1,288
1,854
43
1
4
3
6,543
5
72
45
27
19
35
21
8
292
121
144
84
61
10
3
3
459
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
77
45
Totals, 1944.
807
14,974
51
6,695
110
702
16
581
Totals, 1943	
614
13,623
54
7,411
120
646
19
829
Totals, 1942 	
551
13,197
70
8,874
149
1,206
11
135
Totals, 1941- 	
557
13,820
76
8,835
129
1,083
5
63
Totals, 1940
542
12,691
77
8,585
141
1,432
18
807
Totals, 1939..	
461
11,698
84
7,926
147
1,907
24
537
Totals, 1938	
481
12,159
88
8,184
126
1,406
19
315
Totals, 1937	
434
11,042
80
9,124
131
1,685
16
402
Totals, 1936	
410'
11,401
86
8,859
122
1,699
10
315
Totals, 1935	
384
9,822
93
8,492
96
1,962
16
1,231
Ten-year average,
1935-44 _ -
524
12,443
76
8,298
127
1,372
15
471 FOREST BRANCH REPORT. 1944.
DD 41
Export of.Logs (in F.B.M.), 1944.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir
119,419
6,566,278
9,624,857
18,980,355
7,427
560
8,779,593
24,490,531
389,657
105,652
18,523,869
Cedar
50,037,164
397,084
106,212
	
26,554,456
5,473,349
26,554,456
438,759
5,473,349
Whitp Pine
38,600
71,445
14,641
548,804
14,641
Totals, 1944	
6,724,297
29,051,958
33,851,519
32,027,805
101,655,579*
Totals, 1943. -.	
2,809,744
17,720,743
28,863,804
29,261,754
78,656,045
Totals, 1942	
2,639,167
18,960,886
27,618,347
106,793,550
156,011,950
Totals, 1941             	
8,549,320
63,485,278
43,165,973
191,879,335
307,079,906
Totals, 1940
4,697,188
37,567,582
24,865,886
150,396,702
217,527,358
Total*, 1939
6,383,398
111,165,799
66,870,882
128,323,383
312,733,462
TotalR, 1938
4,386,370
98,637,490
74,650,653
81,998,569
259,673,082
Totals, 1937             ..     	
4,924,298
114,991,217
66,611,218
83,947,361
270,474,094
Tnt«)«, 1936
4,028,567
107,007,342
49,061,362
58,731,564
218,828,835
Totals, 1935   ..
8,766,098
129,029,692
56,979,194
40,516,782
235,291,766
Ten-year average, 1935-44  -
5,390,845
72,760,798
47,253,884
90,387,681
215,793,208
* Of this total, 98,836,026 F.B.M. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege;   2,819,553
F.B.M. were exported under permit from other areas. DD 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Shipments of Poles,
Piling,
Mine-props, Fence-posts, Eailway-ties, etc
, 1944.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where makketed.
Forest District.
United States.
Canada.
Other
Countries.
Vancouver—
lin ft.
2,733,830
194,584
2,944
318,000
19,685
105,319
1,699,630
4,062
95,690
12,520
4,013
60,887
2,302
4,399,071
197,451
4,658
57
16,890
499,730
2,984,364
101,488
4,791
23,876
$464,751
36,971
35,328
4,770
3,937
10,532
210,678
1,015
7,655
2,003
24,078
48,400
230
545,739
187,578
69,872
743
16,890
59,444
298,436
6,089
38,328
191,008
2,537,162
46,339
2,944
318,000
10,817
105,319
1,213,340
196,668
142,365
 lin. ft.
5,880
Pulp-wood   --	
.cords
8,868
Prince Rupert—
. lin. ft.
........ties
486,290
Hewn railway-ties	
4,062
21,310
12,520
3,980
60,887
Fort George—
Hn. ft.
74,380
 lin. ft.
33
lin. ft.
.trees
-
2,302
1,693,730
197,451
4,178
57
16,890
144,635
97,674
4,791
19,671
Kamloops—■
lin. ft.
2,705,341
480
Mine-props 	
 cords
 lin. ft.
499,730
2,839,729
3,814
4,205
10
Nelson—
  lin. ft.
 lin ft.
 cords
733
118,960
1,106,020
3,299
59,480
166,000
723
118.960
66,885
 ties
 trees
Christmas trees-	
1,039,135
	
2,493,254
Total value. 1943  .
$1,751,321
Summary for Province, 1944.
Product.
Volume.
Value.
Per Cent, of
Total Value.
 lin. ft.
12,238,067
377,298
733
2,944
23,747
32,547
$1,589,212
295,458
3,299
35,328
4,952
284,958
39,071
4,770
236,206
63.74
Hewn railway-ties _	
Cordwood 	
Pulp-wood - - -	
Fence-posts..   	
Fence-posts _	
ties
r.nrds
 cords
posts
 cords
 _ lin. ft.
11.85
0.13
1.42
0.20
11.43
Mine-props _ _	
  cords
4,848
318,000
1,713,371
1.57
0.19
Christmas trees..  _.,.  	
trees
9.47
Totals   ...	
$2,493,254
100.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 43
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
198
272
211
160
190
280
Crown o-rnnts. 1RR7-19nfi           	
91
101
85
85
98
89
Crown grants, 1906-1914.	
10'3
99
101
92
104
81
259
275
282
250
283
234
61
58
64
79
72
51
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29
, " Land
AM."                          _
3
16
1
16
1
16
2
9
2
5
1
9
Indian reserves	
6
13
5
4
11
10
1,479
1,724
1,853
1,709
2,017
1,893
Hand-loggers     	
1
2
2
4
3
2
20
11
19
6
2
1
9
5
1
4
8
6
1
2
17
1
Totals  	
2,221
2,588
2,654
2,418
2,801
2,664
Transfers and changes of marks.—	
316
315
307
224
1
237
251
Draughting Office, Forest Branch, 1944.
Number op Drawings prepared or Tracings made for
No. op Blue-prints or Ditto-
prints MADE FROM
Draughting Office Drawings.
Month.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscellaneous
Matters.
Constructional
Works, etc:
Totals.
Blueprints.
Ditto-
prints.
Totals.
January 	
22
79
38
51
6
196
310
250
560
February	
39
77
34
27
3
180
186
312
498
March. — -
68
97
41
246
4
456
694
525
1,219
April —	
21
82
27
8
3
141
344
250
594
38
41
32
65
91
61
40
44
23
25
19
9.
2
3
5
170
198
130
297
372
257
400
375
500
697
747
July	
757
August  -
34
65
33
34
1
167
338
386
724
September	
31
71
52
30
4
188
281
530
811
October	
30
62
37
15
12
156
326               356
682
November	
35
44
48
60
1
188
411
540
951
December	
Totals -
51
95
42
20
2
210
343
559
902
442
889
459
544
46
2,380
4,159
4,983
9,142
Forest Insect Survey, 1944.
Forest District.
Insect-box
Collections            Negati
made.                Report
ve
3.
Vancouver
181               19
53                  5
74                    K
Prince Ru
Fnrt. Cip.nr
pert 	
re.
Kamloops 	
  157                  7
Ne
Ison .   . 	
146                 15
T
otals ...
611                 51 DD 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax.
Year.
1921..
1922..
1923..
1924..
1925..
1926_
1927_
1928.
1929_.
1930_.
1931..
1932-
1933-
1934_.
1935_.
1936_.
1937..
1938..
1939
1940-
1941-
1942..
1943-
1944-
Area (Acres).
__ 845,111
._ 887,980
.. 883,344
_ 654,668
.. 654,016
__ 688,372
._ 690,438
._ 671,131
._ 644,011
._ 629,156
._ 602,086
_ 552,007
._ 567,731
.. 557,481
_ 535,918
_ 515;924
._ 743,109
_ 754,348
._ 719,112
._ 549,250
.. 543,632
_ 527,995
_ 543,044
_ 571,308
Average Assessed
Value per Acre of
Timber Land.
$10.33
11.99
11.62
15.22
40.61
39.77
39.01
38.62
38.41
44.74
43.77
43.73
41.18
37.25
37.13
36.61
23.32*
23.05
22.73
27.70t
26.99
26.34
25.15
25.28±
* From 1937 forest protection tax has been charged on areas assessed as timber land in their entirety, in
accordance with section 119 of the " Forest Act " and section 33 of the " Taxation Act " ; previously the levy was
on the timbered portion only.
t Approximately 155,000 acres assessed as timber land reverted to the Crown in 1939.
t That is, 155,010 acres logged-off land at $1.75 per acre and 416,298 acres timber at $34.04 per acre.
The extent and assessed value of timber land in the various assessment districts
are shown in the following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1944.
Increase or
Decrease
over 1943.
Average Value
per Acre,
1944.
Change in
Value since
1943.
80,637
99,525
102,599
12,969
328
315
141,443
2,637
160
1,428
21,164
33,203
41,024
33,876
+ 3,774
—     521
+12,134
*
*
*
+ 11,699
*
*
*
*
+         1
4
+ 1,177
$34.32
22.06
34.94
5.66
15.00
10.37
27.58
5.83
4.15
14.95
17.18
10.57
2.57
29.46
—2.02t
— .29
+1.93J
— .23
Fort Steele                           _ _.	
+ -12
*
Kett'e River
— .63
Nelson	
*
*
*
*
Revelstoke _  	
— 3.62§
*
Victoria-     	
+1.41
571,308
+28,264
$25.28
* No change.
t Due to larger proportion of logged-off land.
t Due to increase in assessment value.
§ Due to drop in assessment value. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 45 DD 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
W
P
fc
w
>
H
tf
Eh
CO
w
tf
o
fa
0>-}i
%T
«!,.,
u eo
>. -
X*
ss
Oco
■-<Q
oco
N a;
C-H
o eo
al
5S
tn CT
e-<"
Oco
o
OS
X
rH
B
fc
5
P
t-T)<coC_Tj.C-cocOCOCOlOtOcM01lOCDOCO.-l
H O OO O) O rI IO (O i-lUSi-itr-tOtftftr-KStOeS
lOt-Mt--ONOOl»nWMmH<DOMN cm
Tj«iQooeoNcoi-.o-_-cj
tDO-OOWNCgoO-Wt-H^.
NcOOlNrH^iHlOOOCMlOlOCOCO-Oi—ICDtJ-tJICM
w        o        n        co" «• co" i-T to"
tO   CD
CM    O
«J   O
o ©
i> d
*>r us as eo i-.
CM1-.COC-TPCOOCM.-.COOCM
Wia«*Wt-Klt-MOOHfiNoO-3<BMO
i>NOCOlO'9ltBOO.<flVHlOHO)[-(B«
i   M   N   H H^lfiNt-MNOOlONiJlNW
I   00 H IO   N   C3   N   'J
tH IO N   CO   ■
IO   O
00
us
Oi
CO   O
r-
o
to
o
CM
1-1
CO
*H
Tf
o
Cl
00
o
to
00
CO
o
CO
IO
o
tr-
©
•H
t-
H
«#
Ol
CO
CM
CO
00
io
to
CO
Tf
to
o
o
IO
(0
ua
CM
0
o
(M
r-
Tf
IO
1—
on
cn
N
a.
(0
IO
on
l.O
l—
(*.
0)
1-
r—
r-
r-
r-
to
r-l
io
W
te
oo
©
CO
00
CM
co
CM
o
i-H
00
•w
us
us
CO
o
CO
o
CO
CM
rH
m
h-
CO
on
CO
i-i
C4
to
eJ
co"
to
cm
Oi
CO
to
as
©
t-
o
IO
to
CO
CO
Cl
o
ua
IO
in
«#
CO
CO
-f
o
co
tH
us
00
o
CO
•41
0
00
0
L-
0
Cl
Ol
Tf
0
CO
CO
CO
CM
CO
o
e
IN
o
r-
Ci
00
Tf
CO
on
t-
1-
?-4
IO
0-1
r-
-_
r-
o
IO
0)
OQ
to
IO
IO
IN
Tf
0
t-
on
1—1
CM
00
10
"*
Oi
b-
0
C-
O
CO
0
CO
to
CO
0
©
0»
•*
tr-
Tf
CO
LO
«o
00
o
US
CM
10
CM
CO
w
IO
CO
00
1—1
CM
CO
Ol
TC
10
CO*
to
©
0
CM
0
IO
t-
cd
to
coot-oc3eooc-.--.ot-
i-tCSCSOiCOOOCCCOCStf
OOOCOOOltOcOtr-COOCM
m-^ooo-^oc-oooeo
to  OJ
10
HQHUJHaOQtOn'V^1
eocoiocoiocitoiocgo
mo'J't-HNffltccCNoo
O   N   H   H   16           CM   t-   t-   CM   i-f
Tf  01 cj        00 us  c-              0
CM    O
CM
t-   CM   CO           US           ■*   H   IO   W   <D
eo tj.                  oj 0            h
Cl   0
CO
to
Tf
to
! >.  "M
! ^_    GJ
: fl  S
I S.S
I ?! -   K 6, 3
1 ?
f. _.'
s-a
0)   ri ■
! -5 _•
i   1  .S
,0
s
3 § Z B"S
'    CJ     6fl
a ho.
,2 ,Si x) X\   >> Sj
JH«tHQ)u_a'j.ftCuC,
I 3
a 1
i->    •*   u Jl   u    u    i*   U    ~    •-*
s s § § a
0)    QJ
• g s
1   _0   M   S
|_	
oj rf: p  _ ^
1 s I a s
B M © v «3
Cfl H cq O H . FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 47
t*
o.
xn
fc
o
<
tf
H
PM
O
O
fc
h-.
O
O
o
H
02
fc
I—.
<H
O
<J
P
H
O
tf
<J
H
o
02
fc
P
O
to
IO
t-
CM
OO
CM
0
CO
^
to
Cl
CO
CO
©
O   to   Tf   CO   CO
U3
o
CO
to
01
Tf
00
to
©
©
©
Cl   CO   O   CO   CM
Tf
Oi
eo
t-
0
©
rH
CM
©
Tf
©
"c.
OO  IO   CO  to   CO
fc-
©
CM
©
CO
CM
O
CM
©
eo
tr-
CM    Tf     IO    Tf    1-4
CO
CO
CM
CM
eo .
as
©
0
N   00   H   H   00
©
Tf
©
t^
lO
CJ
IO
CO
©
as
H
«   rt   O   N   »
©
CO
CO
to
Tf
CM
CM
as
m io co m co
CO
CM
CM
IO
x-4
©
CO
fc-
to
CO
as
of
eo
CO
CO
CO
eo
CM
CM
CM
CM
cm"
CM
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
69-
_J <_
O   CM   CM   »H   O
Tf
to
00
T)l
CM
cs
as
H
CM
CM
m &0.5 in
CO   Tf   CD   O   tr-
Tf
CJ
Oi
T-H
O
CO
CO
as
r4
CO
IO
■3.S
-. C _i
©   CM    CO    rH    t-
©
CO
Tf
CO
©
d
©
00
id
©
t-
'.£(.<_
eo © co  t- t-
CM
IO
00
t-
CM
10
0
t-
00
11
CJU'«
00    t-   rH    IO    CO
©
00
©
l>
t-_
Tf
10
os
Tf
•S-o
■**    rH    CO   CM    Ol
td
IO
1-4"
«"*
to
CO
00*
■*)"
t-*
©*
r4"
CM    CM             CM    rH
©
55
t-
©
CO
eo
CO
CO
CM
CM
IO
6"S
69-
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
69-
69-
IO  to   Tf   IO   IO
lO      1     i-4
Oi
CO
fc-
00
©
CM
Tf
©
O
4J
M
it
A
g
CM   CM   Cl   CM   CO
US             CO
©
iH
10
CM
©
Cl
Tf
l-H
©
00    O    CO    Cl    1-4
d       to
CO
©
CM
CM
©
CO
©
r4
IO
O   CO   O   Cl   IO
Tf                   tD
©
t-
<M
0
©
00
CO
IO
CO   C-   CO   Cl   CJ
©
Tf
Tf
ca
t-
IO
CO
t-
Cl    CO    CO    rH    Tf
»o
CM
Oi
CO
Tf
•xtji
CO
CM
Tf
t>
H
fl
CO   O   tr-   fc-   O
©
CO
Tf
CO
©
eo
IO
©
Tj*
4-
CO   CM    rH    rH    CM
CO
©
01
CO
t-
©
10
IO
Tf
CO
t-
W
»
69-
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
69
to
Ol     Tf
co
CO
tr
©
©
©
Tf
CO
cs
^
©
bo
l-H    rH
CO
to
io
Ol
CM
Tf
Tf
IO
CO
CM
s»
CO   1>
©
to
rH
^H
IO
©
©
id
d
id
as
t-   O
CO
©
CO
CO
©
tr
to
CO
CM
d
CO to
CO
CM
t-
*   Tf
Tf
CO
io
CO
tr-
Tf
©
i
.£-"*
CO*  CM*
00
CO
<N
fc-
10
t-
©
rH
©
Tf
00
0
CQ
l-H    i-4
CM
CM
Tf
CM
CM
CO
CM
CM
rH
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
6^
69-
to
69-
a
z
CM   CO
©
tf
as
as
cc
Tf
CC
Tf
©
CS
1
a.
oo a.
Cj to
t-   IO
CO
fc-
CO
Tf
©
00
as
as
co
Tf
Tf
d od
Cl
©
Tf
as
Tf
©
as
>H
CO
Tf
CO
CO    CD
CM
©
Tf
»o
Cl
CM
00
©
©
CO    i-i
©
CO
as
CO
©
lO
1-4
Tf
Tf
CO
©
CO*   i-H
©
CO
to
00
©
©
00
td
IO
y-4
rH
*fl
CO
Tf
CO
CO
CO
CO
eo
CM
CM
CM
CM
CO
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
66-
60^
69-
to
to
b_
60
0
tf
«*
N
to
eo
tr-
0
■_
10
■*
IO
©
CM
eo
©
CO
CO
09
J3 a.
■J'
_S*
00
ci
as
**
r_3
od
i>
-_H
as
to
as
■^
to
CM
CM
co
CO
CO
CM
CO
10
CO
IO
CJ
CM
CM
H
CQ
to
^
to
to
to
to
to
to
69
g
H
S
Z
H
S
O
O
 ,—
t_S
CO   O   CO   CO   ©
t-
CM
t-
©
tf
to
Tf
t-
t-
©
-#
B 2
CO   IO   t-   CO   o
t-
fc-
CM
CO
t>
t-
©
00
t-
©
11
1>    id    rH   CO    CM
d
Tf
t>
00
10
d
rH
ci
d
od
©
t-   Tf    rH    00    CO
to
t-
O0
at
to
t-
00
10
Tf
t-   CD   CO   CM   i-H
Tf
«
O
IO
M
CO
CM
to
to
to
©
•fl
l-H             r-T
Tf"
CO
rH
to
to
w»
to
rH
to
to
to
to
69-
si
3 C
'3 a
02 X
CO   ©   O   O   IO
CO
to
to
OO
©
eo
lO
Tf
©
Tf
*5f
©    O    IO    ©    CO
as
10
t-
IO
00
t-
Tf
as
©
©   ©   IO   ©   Cl
to
CO
r-4
rH
>H
CO
00
t-
CO
CO
O
i-H    i-H             1-4   tf
00
IO
CO
00
as
CM
CO
eo
Tf
Tf
t-
c-
CO
Tf
•«*•
00
©
as
to
69-
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
69
to
to
to  V
Oi   tf   tf   CO   00
X~A
N
00
tf
0
IO
10
rH
CO
©
10
co bo
co as tf o co
CM
Cl
to
CO
CM
as
CO
fc-
to
to
a. cfl
1ft
d co cd © eo
t^
as
d
■*f
^
IO
Ol
06
id
d
CM
co as tf oo ci
T*l
to
CO
CM
3*
IO
as
0
•*
8 £
t-   00   O   CM   CO
to
t-
T*
•^
00
rH
eo
CM
CM
as
to
-   p
CO   ©   CM   -^   Tf
Tf
©
©
CI
10
©
CO
Tf
to
0
1
H&
CO
IO
CO
CJ
to
09-
CJ
to
to
to
to
69-
to
to
to
to
69-
tr-   IO    CO    00   CO
as
©
©
■^f
CM
to
eo
©
t-
t-
CO   Tf    t-   i-4   CM
CO
©
CM
CO
t-
Tf
t-
©
00
co co d to d
00
CO
IO
M
tr
0
M
od
'rf
Tf
Tf
d
OS
IO
CM   O-
CO    CM
Tf     ©
CO
©
00
CM
^H
eo
t-
Tjl
CO
CM
OS
CO
tr-
©
CM
CO
©
LO
H
CO    IO                      CM
©
tr
O
CO
Ir-
©
*f
CO
OO
Tf
to
Y-H
to
io
©
CO
©
fc-
©
CO
10
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
t-to  to Oi  to
t-
tr-
CO
as
CM
iO
eo
rH
CJ
Tf
CJ
cm eo tj* ©  1-4
CM
CM
rH
as
as
t-
to
CO
©
00
t-
tf   Xr^    CO    00    t^
d
t^
tr
oi
d
Ol
t^
d
Tf
t^
ua
©   CM   0-
O   N   C
t-   O
Tf
CM
©
O
©
5*
©
as
to
00
t-_
10
TJ1
as
10
©
00   cc
ft
o
©   ©    CO    i-H    t-
as
o"
US
00*
TjT                 Tf
CO*
©*
CM
©
as
©    ©    rH    CM    IO
IO
©
tr-
©
©             CO
Tf
t-
©
00
eo   W    rH    rH    rH
as
CO
©
eo
1-4
t-
IO
01
00
10
00
r4
CM
CM
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
69-
69-
69-
T*
t:
]
tc
ec
o
r"1
to
oT
a
0)
*■_
Tf
cr
c
!__J       c
c
oc
tr-           tO           to
>
3
Ti
Tf
TI
Tf                 -^
cc
CC
CO             CO             CO
ci
W
er
o-
c
Cft        c
en
09
as        as        as
Li
o
V     fl)
fc
u B bo
to          to          m        ^m         oa          o
co           to           to           CO           S
Ci                     Cd                    Cj                    Cj                      '
H-J             H-»             -U             +_>              C
W     ^     rl     tn
_: « a _.
a      *      3     +j     iS      £
^(UrhXc            0             O             O            O            O             O            O            O            O            O            0*
8g"^gHB_HH_HBB_H_HEHH
g .s«1J
(8   C   o   (8   «
►
P-
Es
d-
2 DD 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
co
^f
c.
1-1
tf
<
>H
o
u
a_
co
fc
O
>—i
EH
«4
tf
H
tf
O
o
fc
I—I
o
o
o
Eh
m
fc
5!
cj
«.
p
H
CJ
tf
<j
w
o
CO
H
fc
P
O
t-
Tf    IO
Oi
CS
OC
Tf
CQ
to       c
CM                 ©
eo  as to cm ©
©
Tf
fc"
c
c
0              cs
td    CO    CO    rH    CM
d
CO
If
CT
od             ti*
cd
■M
cj th  as © ©
©
IO
CC
c
Tf
o              ©
fc-    IO    00    ©    OS
©
00
oc
io        ir
IO                               Tf
o
as © id" co" oo*
oo*
l>
o
te
t-           CM                   CM
H
©   ©   00   Ol   o
as
er
C
IO                   00
©_   Tf    CJ    CM    CO
**
as
ir
c^
0C
CO                   o
CM
eo
CO
ec
Cr
IN
Cs
CO
to
69-
to
to      to       to       to            to
.  14
CI     Tf      ©      ©     Tf
as
fc*
to
C
©
oc
©
_? u
rH    00    Tf    ©    rH
**
IT
©
tf
Cv
rH
%t
w B m
CO   O   ©   CM   CO
d
ir-"
fc
C
to
Tf
fag
IO    rH    ©    O    rH
00
CO
cr
Tj
CJ
Cv
CM
CM   tr-   ©   IO   ©
o
©
i—
cr
©
©             to
«HfL,
<§
t>   Ol   00*  Ol   ©"
CM
IO
IO
Tf
oc
as
CM    rH             iM    rH
©
c-
to
IT
cr
CO                   IO
69-
69-
69-
to       to      to       to            to
IO   00    ©    CJ    CO
Tf
co
CC
C
t-
as
cj
CO   CO   CM   to   00
eo
Tf
CT
©
CO
M
.CM    CM    rH    Tf    OS
d
CO
fc-
C"
a
c
Tf
3
CS    i-4   IO    Tf    ©
00
CO
g>
Tt
tc
O"
Tf
A
Tf     t-    O     l-H    CO
©
Tf
to
IO     .   oc
Cr
©
S
5
o
CQ
ih   cd ed t-" d
id"
id
a
cc
c
l>*
cm   tr- ©  Tf  io
IO
IO
t-
c
u
c-
16   H   H    H   H
as
0C
t-
to
IT
00
69-
j
to
to       to       to       to            to
69-
t- as     !     !     :
to
IO
cz
(N
Tf
iO
IO
bo
S »
ope.
fc-  so
*«*
IO
t-
c*-
Tf
Tt
t-  ©     ',     !
"■*
CO
es
©
IO
c
CM
d
oo ©    ;    :
©
Tf
oc
OC
«
c^
CO
Z
as co
t-
IO
©
Ttf
t-
©
a
CD   ©"     !
fc-
CO
CM
Tt
©
©
CO
CM
T*
CO
rH
r-
o
co-          !     :
69-
69
to       to       to       to            to
z
3
Q
.   S_
bo 0)
Tf      t-
to
T*
c
CC
Tf
©
©     ©
CO
©
ec
©
o
t-
©
S B
Tf     CO
00
t-
oc
t-
CT
CC
Tf
CM    CO
IO
CT
tr»
©
cc
00
gS
fc-   ©_
fc-
lO
C-
t—          tr
©
CM
Tf    rA
to
Tf
fc-
ie
e^
oc
Tf
CO
CO
c
e^
o-
Cv
CO
tO                1                 !
69
to
to       vi-       to       to             to
3
bo
eo
©
fc-
u
a
CM
B cn
©
o
"1
oc
cc
eo
3  0)
aft,
CQ
j
\
rH
c
a
es
fc-
d
o
CO
N
K
t-
IO
Cfl
H
Z
s
CM
Tf
T)
Tj
If
CO
to
«
6*=
r            V
1-      «
.                      69-
bo <-
B OT
•K B
rH    IO    ©    CM    rH
00
CC
tc
IC
t-
a
00
©   O   IO   ©   tr-
as
©
©
t-
tc
00
CM    CM    00    OS    CO
id
CM
cc
«
Tl
cc
>
§ A
Tf    ©     IO    O    ©
t-
©
ie
c
CT
©
CO
O
00    Tf    ©    CO
©
00
t-
C
5
Cv
i-H
O
.3 x
»      eJ
ed
r_J
«
tY
i-      v
.           V
.                      __*
«©
69-
69-
£s
©    ©    ©    ©    ©
to
©
oc
©
c
t£
00
H    CO
gg
y>   Pi
© © to ©  ©
Tf
IO
c
c.
Cv
00
1Q   i>  od   -h!  to
ed
c
O.   IN             CM
co
CV
cc
oc
CT
t-
CM
eo
CO
TT
■ft
fc-
Tj
Tf
gl
69-
69-
to
«
tf
.             6.
.       tf
.                      69
IO <LJ
CM   00   O   t-   CO
o
IO
«
C
t-
oc
00
to bO
tr-   ©   ©   Tf   Tf
CM
00
fc-
ir
a d
CO   CO   ©   ©   t>
CM
CM
c
c
«
cc
id
g ft
tr-   ©   Tf   CM   tr-
as
IO
fc-
If
r-
Tj
IO
s s
Tf   co  co  co   as
•"*;
a
Tl
ie
CC
H  p
IO   t-   rH   Tf   CO
CM
C
Tl
t-
r-T
-t HJ
Cfl
CM
CM
Cv
1-
CM
69
69-
to
tf
r            6.
&
'      tf
►                     69-
CM   IO   t-   CJ   ©
to
IO
o
CS
t-
Cv
00
©    rH   ©    OS    "O
00
Tjl
©
Tl
C\
1-
CM
EH
ci as d ©  cm
id
as
©
ti*
a
T-
eo
CO    CO    CO    IO    t—
CM
CM
oc
CT
CT
CT
©
©    IO    rH    ©    ©
as
a
a
Tl
t-
io
rH    CO             CM    rH
00
IO
c
T)
Tj
Tj
eo
69-
69-
IO
c
a
t-
CC
©
to
V
.        v
1-                 tf
>■          6.
y           to
oo  oo eo © ©
©
«*
oc
Tj
Tj
©
io  Tf  oo  © as
CO
tf
c
©"
t£
CO
th
cj ed eo cd Tf
od
rH*
cr
t-
CT
a
ci
©    rH    rH    ©    ©
CJ
t_-
CT
t-
to
ti
t- ci  eo  ©  1-4
t-
©
a
fc-
e
Tf
K
rH    CO*  ©    ©    CD
cj"
Ol
e
c
c
c
ed
o
Tf    Tf    rH    CM    CO
IO
eo
t-
OC
CC
IO
K
CO    CM    rH    rH    rH'
as
CO
9
t-
oc
IC
0)
t>
c
1-
rH
to
to
to
«
f       tf
*■      tf
1-      V
►                  69
1
©
CO
\
CO
CO
©
rH
H-"
Tl
i
CO
CO
1-
c
CT
■U*
00
***.
T    T
Tf
1
TJ
J
•3
e-
2
-r»
CO           CM
c
CT
cx
s •*
t_i
Tf                  Td
Tt
Tt
e^
c^
>    T
fl
©           ©
0!
CT
CT
CT
09    |
a.
3   E   tr
,3     4
cr
tr
It
V
g« 8 8
$   s
o       o
I
C
E-
f
4-
c
E-
fl
c
E-
fl
•fc
c
Eh
Cfl
S -5 X 1 ^
a fi o a .<i
S>
Ph U-
u
z FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 49
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1943-44.
Timber-licence rentals 	
Timber-licence transfer fees
Timber-licence penalty fees .
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest...
Timber-sale rentals 	
Timber-sale stumpage 	
Timber-sale cruising 	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty 	
Timber tax 	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund).
Trespass stumpage	
Scalers' examination fees 	
Exchange 	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous 	
Timber-berth rentals, bonus and fees..
Interest on timber-berth rentals 	
Transfer fees on timber berths	
Grazing fees and interest	
$419,407.62
1,935.00
15,604.01
225.00
48,605.51
44.65
49,060.22
1,144,133.80
16,718.95
3,103.40
1,887,496.16
13,230.40
3,022.73
39,192.26
685.00
64.24
342.92
8,691.92
19,789.39
43.30
93.81
32,212.84
Ten-year Average.
$493,790.00
1,380.00
28,640.00
605.00
58,166.00
558.00
28,842.00
650,312.00
10,640.00
1,686.00
1,843,946.00
48,235.00
338.00
614.00
15,748.00
352.00
168.00
597.00
4,324.00
24,616.00
200.00
77.00
23,470.00
Taxation  from  Crown-granted   timber
lands 	
$3,703,703.13   $3,237,304.00
203,457.36        215,285.00
Totals ...
_ $3,907,160.49   $3,452,589.00 DD 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST EXPENDITURE, FISCAL YEAR 1943-44.
Forest District.
Salaries.
War Service,
Temporary
Assistance.
Temporary
Assistance.
Expenses.
Total.
$59,637.17
19,378.32
21,989.77
38,787.37
32,645.71
78,609.13
$7,170.93
4,449.29
$42,348.26
19,956.70
12,487.69
14,131.34
11,937.56
38,882.23
$109,156.36
Prince Rupert -	
$630.57
3,600.00
44,414.88
38,077.46
6,003.32
1,776.66
8,775.93
57,922.03
46,359.93
126,267.29
Totals -	
$251,047.47
$27,176.13
$4,230.57
$139,743.78
$422,197.95
4,000.00
6,042.87
10,748.51
96,787.21
19,196.08
554.38
Incidentals and Contingenc
Grazing Range Improvemer
1,496.98
ts*	
9,660.36
500,000.00
87,972.03
$1,158,656.37
* Contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
N.B.—The above figures do not include amounts paid as cost-of-living bonus, totalling $27,437.17, made up as
follows:—
Salaries     _ _  $16,050.63
Temporary  Assistance  —   _—   —  521.10
War Service, Temporary Assistance             3,236.45
Expense _.„. —       3,579.73
Reconnaissance   - - - —   470.18
Forest Research _ _ -  377.98
Reforestation    __   -       2,439.24
Provincial  Parks   - _ - -  761.86
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1943 (credit)	
Collections, fiscal year 1943-44     156,660.78
$27,437.17
$6,168.91
$162,829.69
Expenditures, fiscal year 1943-44     183,482.06
Balance, March 31st, 1944 (debit)     $20,652.37
Balance, April 1st, 1944 (debit)     $20,652.37
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1944     133,803.28
$113,150.91
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1944     111,566.85
Balance, December 31st, 1944 (credit)       $1,584.06 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 51
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1943  $215,366.19
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1943 (under
subsection  (2), section  (32), "Forest Act")       87,972.03
$303,338.22
Moneys received under subsection   (4),  section   (32),
" Forest Act"	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1943-44—
Administration   $18,703.55
Experimental slash-disposal       1,398.48
       20,102.03
Balance, March 31st, 1944 (credit)    $283,236.19
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1944 (under
subsection  (2), section  (32), "Forest Act")       92,181.55
$375,417.74
Expenditures, 9 months to December 31st, 1944       16,551.91
Balance, December 31st, 1944 (credit)  $358,865.83
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1943 (credit)     $16,144.99
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")..        9,660.36
$25,805.35
Expenditures, April 1st, 1943, to March 31st, 1944         2,286.66
Balance, March 31st, 1944 (credit)    $23,518.69
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")..      10,737.61
$34,256.30
Expenditures, April 1st, 1944, to December 31st, 1944.        2,905.93
Balance, December 31st, 1944  (credit)     $31,350.37 DD 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
STANDING OF FOREST PROTECTION FUND,
DECEMBER 31st, 1944.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1943       $349,273.58
Expenditure, Forest Protection Fund        579,148.44
Expenditure, Alternative Service Workers        371,218.21
Collections, tax   $235,795.34
Collections, miscellaneous  . 27,600.43
Refunds,    Alternative    Service    Workers
(1942)    7,018.06
Refunds,    Alternative    Service    Workers
(1943)    308,555.68
Refunds, Forest Protection Fund   40,725.99
Government contribution   500,000.00
$1,299,640.23
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1944
1,119,695.50
$179,944.73
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1944   $179,944.73
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1944, Forest
Protection Fund   554,807.36
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1944, Alternative Service Workers  3,630.24
Repayable to votes (approximately)   165,000.00
Collections, tax  $197,880.36
Collections, miscellaneous        52,760.22
Refunds of Expenditure, Forest Protection
Fund        21,137.60
Refunds of Expenditure, Alternative Service Workers 	
$903,382.33
         2,078.42
Government contribution     375,000.00
648,856.60
Estimated deficit, December 31st, 1944 .      $254,525.73
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection
by other Agencies, 1944.
Expenditures.
Forest District.
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$70,276.00
4,100.00
$75,788.00
3,215.00
$167,019.76
11,612.76
1,150.94
1,893.25
11,820.60
$2,950.00
1,290.00
$316,033.76
20,217.76
1,150.94
1,893.25
2,100.00
22,000.00
3,000.00
38,920.60
Totals	
$76,476.00
$101,003.00
$193,497.31             $7,240.00
$378,216.31
Ten-year average, 1935-44... 	
$62,152.00
$65,970.00
$106,035.00
$2,750.00
$236,907.00   FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 53
Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1944.
Districts.
Patrols.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
Vancouver  '	
$131,731.41
29,387.64
45,504.45
79,596.18
101,871.33
65,518.65
$16,503.89
3,280.12
14,374.60
9,688.40
15,529.44
11,319.85
$4,464.38
78.20
15,137.55
7,363.70
13,413.34
$4,121.77
424.91
1,537.31
4,844.01
3,457.31
$156,821.45
33,170.87
76,553.91
Kamloops   	
Nelson    	
101,492.29
134,271.42
76,838.50*
Totals    	
$453,609.66
$70,696.30
$40,457.17
$14,385.31
$579,148.44
* Included in the Victoria expenditure is the sum of
amount was refunded in full.
16,522.47 expended for the Fuel Control Board, and this
FOREST PROTECTION.
Weather.
From a forest-protection point of view, the weather over the Province generally
was about average. In the Interior, except for a portion of the Prince George District,
weather conditions were more favourable than usual. Precipitation during the fire
season was above average and in most localities was well distributed. This made up
for a light snowfall. In the northern part of the Province, the snowfall during the
winter 1943-44 was only about 50 per cent, of normal. Lightning is an important
factor in fire occurrence. The results of lightning become serious with dry lightning
storms. Fortunately, in 1944 most lightning storms were accompanied by fairly heavy
rain. While lightning may start a fire and accompanying rain may not extinguish it,
the high humidity conditions provide a chance for the fire-fighters to get control of it
before any serious spread takes place. Although lightning fires were reported much in
excess of those for 1943, they were still somewhat below average.
On the lower Coast and Vancouver Island, a dry fire season was experienced. The
Campbell River vicinity was an exception, precipitation being above normal there.
The fire situation was not so serious as the low figure of rainfall would indicate,
because there were no very extended periods of extremely low humidities. Lightning
on the Coast was not a factor in 1944.
Fires.
Occurrence and Causes.
From point of view of number of fires occurring throughout the Province, 1944
was an average year. The distribution of fires over a period of years is interesting.
It is as follows:—
Forest District.
Vancouver  4,155 25.8
Prince Rupert        657 •    4.0
Fires occurring
during Ten-year period,
1935-44, inclusive.
Percentage
of all B.C.
Prince George      1,413
Kamloops ...:. .'     4,689
• Nelson      5,218
29.2
32.2
Total.
16,132
The Nelson Forest District, occupying a comparatively smaller area in the southeast portion of the Province, consistently reports more fires than any of the other
districts. Lightning and railroads are relatively responsible for the high incidence in
fires.    From the northern portion of the Province an increase in the number of fires
PROVINC* * >    LIBRARY DD 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
reported is now in evidence and may be expected, due largely to the fact that before
this territory was made accessible by the Alaska Highway and by aircraft there was
little means of observing fires starting north of the settled areas. There are some
belts with a moderate to high lightning risk. Many such fires have been recorded in
the past few years and more are to be expected. These changed conditions add to the
number of fires recorded but not necessarily to the actual number of fires or to the
damage caused. Due to increased travel in this vast hinterland there will be more
fires, but as detection and suppression organizations are extended the damage should
decrease and suppression costs should be well within controllable limits.
Extraordinary features are:—
(a.) Lightning.—The only uncontrollable cause, was again less than average in
1944.    The Coast area was practically free from lightning fires.
(b.) Railways.—The increased use of coal in locomotives and the scarcity of
labour, coupled with continued capacity traffic, resulted in continued increase in fires
attributed to the operation of railroads. This condition has been intensified by the
type of coal used. More and more fires are causing more sparks to be emitted. Until
after the war, there appears to be no hope of an improvement. The average year
prior to war-time conditions recorded about eighty-five fires resulting from the operation of railroads. This has now quadrupled. The railroad organizations have striven
against these factors, which are beyond their control.
(c.) Smokers.—Despite the increased difficulties in restricted transportation,
smokers' fires continually increase.
(d.) Incendiary.—In spite of the fact that some enemies of the country may have
been at large, it is apparent they have not followed the policy of setting forest fires.
The number of incendiary fires remains negligible, being less than 1 per cent.
Cost of Fire-fighting.
(a.) To the Forest Branch.—This item as set out on page 69, in tabulation No. 3,
refers only to the expenditure in wages, food, and transportation for fire-fighting
crews. It does not include such items as forest-protection organization, consisting
of patrols, lookouts, and suppression crews hired for the season. Neither does it
include the cost of pay, rations, and transportation supplied by the army, which was
considerable. Over and above the exceptions mentioned, after all settlements have
been made, the Forest Branch will have spent approximately $160,000 in actual fire-
fighting. In addition to this, parties other than the Forest Branch spent an estimated
$193,000.
If all fires had been fought on which normally some suppression action should
have been taken, the cost to the Forest Branch would have been greater. As an
instance, in the northern area of the Fort George District, largely uninhabited, there
were reported thirteen fires which grew to large proportions on which no action was
taken, there being no men available. These fires burned over approximately one-
quarter of a million acres, about two-thirds of which was productive forest land.
Before we can consider ourselves as doing a complete job, we shall require the necessary equipment and organization to make man-power available to catch these fires in
their incipiency and extinguish them. For that area of the Province, aircraft is
required.
The accompanying tabulation refers to the Fort George Forest District only
because that portion of the Province is particularly adapted to the use of aircraft
and a large portion of it can be reached quickly by no other means. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 55
Fort George Forest District only.
Cost of Fire-fighting:
Year. to Forest Branch.
1938  $17,913.73
1939   5,346.97
1940   1,081.46
1941   16,181.43
1942   40,564.66
1943   15,137.55
1944 (subject to correction)     59,313.61
Average for past seven years    22,219.91
Although fire-fighting costs have been high, many fires have not been fought or
have been fought only partially, due to the fact that action has been retarded by distance and lack of transportation or it has been impossible to bring larger fire-fighting
crews to them. The fire-fighting costs have been high because the fires have not been
attacked while still of small dimensions. The attacks have been late for two reasons—
lack of detection coverage, and quick transportation has not been available. On many
occasions the fires have been reported and every effort has been made to obtain transportation for the fire crews, but as many as nine days have elapsed before an aircraft
has been made available and then it has been provided for only a few hours. Long
chances have been taken in transporting men to fires, not knowing for sure that there
would be any means of keeping them supplied or bringing them out. These chances
have been taken only of necessity. Had aircraft been on hand as required, it is quite
possible that many of the large fires resulting in great damage could have been extinguished by a small crew, and both the high cost and great damage avoided. The
problem of providing the necessary aircraft is receiving attention, but some of the
factors involved are at this date beyond the control of the Forest Service. It should be
understood that in attacking a large fire with a small air-borne crew, there can be no
hope of extinguishing it. All that can be accomplished is to flank the fire and protect
chosen locations of higher values.
(b.) To other Parties.—Cost to other parties in 1944 has been estimated at
$193,000. This includes estimates and actual figures obtained from private parties,
such as logging operators, but it does not include the expenditures made by the Department of National Defence in supplying soldiers as fire-fighters.
Damage.
From a damage point of view, 1944 was just about an average season. As was
pointed out in last year's annual report, the damage caused by fires in the Fort George
Forest District is out of all proportion, although not so predominantly so as in the
years 1941, 1942, and 1943, when 94 per cent, of the damage throughout the Province
was concentrated in the Fort George District. In 1944 this was reduced to 53 per
cent., but it is still much too high. Two factors in particular contributed to this
situation. Named in order of importance they are: (a) Lack of transportation, particularly aircraft; and (b) shortage of man-power, particularly the type of man which
makes an efficient fire-fighting crew. A Canadian Pacific Airlines transport plane
was stationed at Prince George. It was used extensively but, due to the vast area to
be covered, coupled with occasional enforced waits for the plane, fires could not be
attended to while still small. Early season fires in the Peace River area and in the
vicinity of the Alaska Highway received much publicity. Fire-fighters were transported by the regular C.P.A. passenger service to fires in the vicinity of Watson Lake.
Both the U.S.A.A.F. and the R.C.A.F. rendered valuable service without charge in
transporting fire-fighters and supplying them with food and equipment. This assistance is gratefully acknowledged. The crews used were mostly civilians. Both fire-
fighting cost and damage were relatively extremely high due to the expensive trans- DD 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
portation of fire-fighters and the rapid spread of the fires. Later in the season a
number of lightning fires gave trouble in a large forested area in the vicinity of the
Blackwater River. When these fires could not be handled by local crews, Pacific
Command co-operated by sending in approximately 450 soldiers, together with transportation and rations. This assistance is likewise gratefully acknowledged. These
groups of fires were mainly responsible for the greatest damage. The Peace River
country in particular sustained a great loss in that local stands of timber were
destroyed, which stands are of much value in opening up and maintaining a farming
country.
Forest-protection Education.
As is to be expected in war years, due to shortage of staff, difficulties of transportation, materials and equipment, only the necessary minimum of publicity activity
is to be recorded for 1944. These activities have followed along the lines established
in previous years. The following sub-headings briefly describe the various means
taken to reach the public and enlist their sympathy in the interests of forest protection.
Newspapers.—The usual forest-protection advertisements were run in forty-four
city daily and country weekly papers, that being the extent of funds allotted for that
purpose. Copy, including art work, was prepared by the Forest Branch. In individual
instances, due to increasing rate charges, decreased space was used. Grateful acknowledgment is made to those papers who have generously given of their space on the
editorial, magazine, and other pages in the interests of forest protection. The paper
shortage has become an acute factor, and in 1945 may result in decreased advertising.
Radio.—Local radio networks co-operated generously in giving the necessary immediate advertisement in the matter of forest closures. Also, a number of spot
announcements in the interest of forest protection were given free of charge. On
the suggestion of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, five 15-minute radio scripts
were prepared. As yet these have not found a place on the air, but it is hoped that
they will be broadcast early in the 1945 fire season.
Moving Pictures.—The existing library of movie films has been used not only by
Forest Service officers, but by many of the public, in schools, service clubs, and so
forth. Shortage of film and the difficulties of arranging for photographers and transportation have precluded the making of any new reels.
Forest Branch Calendar.—The usual calendar was distributed. The 1945 calendar
takes " Parks " as its subject.
"Forest and Outdoors."—As has been the custom for the last several years, all
Honorary Fire Wardens throughout the Province were given a complimentary subscription to " Forest and Outdoors."
Young Ranger Bands.—For the usual reasons in connection with the war, the
activities of the Young Ranger Bands have been restricted. The Forest Branch rendered assistance in promoting separate short-term summer camps for girls and boys
at Pinkut Lake. These camps were held under the supervision of adults appointed to
the positions of Camp Mother and Male Supervisor.
Fire-control Planning.
Lookout Visibility Mapping.—As reported since 1942, no further work has been
completed due to the fact that our field staff has been in the Royal Canadian Air Force.
The Assistant Forester in charge is rejoining the Forest Service at the beginning of
1945 and it is planned to resume this work, starting with the Kamloops Forest District.
Work is practically complete in the Vancouver and Nelson Forest Districts.
Panoramic Lookout Photographs.—On account of lack of staff, no further lookouts
were photographed in 1944.    Equipment is also a problem.    Work to date has been COOKO0T.T, LOCATCO
0« r)(Gr) MOOMWM-
topj- ocrecr n«cj
AdO GCPORT r«£M
FOR ACTtOft TO r«C
FOfieST RANGCR'S
Off (C£,  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 57
done with a borrowed camera which is not now available. A special camera is on
order from the National Research Council, the only possible supplier. Due to war
orders, work on our camera has been delayed but it is expected that this camera may
be received in time for 1945 field-work.
Fire Weather Records and Forecasts.—The usual hazard-stick and relative humidity records have been kept at the Ranger Stations throughout the Province in so far as
staff was available for taking the hazard-stick readings. Where a dispatcher or Ranger
assistant is not employed, a continuity of hazard-stick and sling psychrometer readings
cannot be maintained. For this reason, there are gaps in our own records. Efforts
have been continued to obtain weather records from a greater number of logging
operators, as widely distributed as possible throughout the hazard areas. More and
more of these are required. Forest closures, fire-suppression measures and general
forest-protection plans hinge on fire conditions throughout. The best available weather
forecasts have been obtained from the Department of Transport and the Royal Canadian Air Force. While these forecasts have been good, they are by no means perfect.
It is hoped that as soon as hostilities in the Pacific are over, these forecasts will be
improved with the receipt of data from ships at sea.
Fire-suppression Crews.
As the title indicates, these are crews of fire-fighters, employed for the more
critical months of the fire season, who stand ready to take the quickest possible action
on the outbreak of a forest fire. The organization, application, and results of suppression crews are just emerging from the experimental stage. Since they were first employed in 1942 by the Service, records have been kept which indicate that the expenditure on these crews is profitable in two ways—firstly and more important, in avoiding
fire destruction over wide forest areas; secondly, in eliminating many big forest fires
with their expenses running into thousands of dollars. Due to extraordinary circumstances resulting from the war, only an approximate measure of the value of suppression crews applicable to peace-time conditions of labour and rates of pay can be arrived
at from records compiled to date. The reasons for this will be apparent in the following paragraphs, which record some of the salient features of our experience with these
crews.
As recorded in the Annual Reports for 1942 and 1943, most of the experience
during those years with suppression crews resulted from the employment of Alternative Service Workers. These were Conscientious Objectors, assigned to British
Columbia to intensify forest protection against possible attacks by the Japanese, particularly a measure to offset the danger from nuisance aircraft raids. The Alternative Service Workers were not required to work with the idea of making good on the
job and continuing in the work to rise to positions of greater responsibility. Neither
was their 50-cents-per-day wage much encouragement in doing a job well.
The work performed under the circumstances was surprisingly satisfactory, but
we could not judge from it as to what might be expected from civilian crews paid at
going wages. Alternative Service Workers were employed only on the lower Coast
and Vancouver Island; none were in the Interior where fire conditions are often more
adapted to the efforts of the small crew. Thus it is obvious that while we had satisfactory experience with this type of labour, it can only be appreciated for what it
accomplished, and, as there appears no likelihood of further such crews, their records
are of only partial value in designing a permanent forest-protection organization.
These men were distributed in twenty-five-man crews.
During the years 1942 and 1943 when the Alternative Service Workers were
employed in the Coast areas, there were employed a very few more or less experimental
crews of civilians in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts.    As the man-power DD 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
situation left only the young boys and older men to be recruited and as these people
had to be paid high rates of pay for indifferent service, correspondingly little of their
record may be used as an indication of what is to be expected in normal times. In the
beginning, ten-man crews, including cook and foreman, were employed in the Interior.
It was considered later that better results were achieved by using eight-man crews,
including foreman and one man who was responsible for the cooking along with certain other duties. Due to our own short staff and the comparatively unsuitable type
of crew-man obtainable, little could be done in the matter of training.
In spite of all the extraordinary war-time handicaps to be overcome, the fire-
suppression record of the crews was remarkable. On receipt of the alarm of a fire
outbreak, the crews were aboard their trucks, fully equipped for fire-fighting, and on
the road to the fire in an average of two minutes—a big advantage over the hour or
more usually required to pick up the old type of crew even when man-power was plentiful.
The following tabulation shows clearly that the suppression crew, which for the
forest is the counterpart of the city's fire crew, achieve similar results. Even though
their numbers are few, they are remarkably efficient in extinguishing fires with negligible loss and small cost, providing they are brought to those fires while they are
still miniature. The record also indicates that their efforts approach zero value if a
fire is allowed to become a large one before being attacked. The lesson here taught
is the need for increased detection cover, quick communication, and immediate action by
a small crew. Quick detection indicates a more intensified co-operation with the rural
public, more lookouts, and over some areas aircraft patrol. Quick communication
involves more telephone-lines, radio sets, and again, ever intensified co-operation with
the public, particularly those accessible to telephone and telegraph. Immediate suppression action over our vast forest areas requires more suppression crews, carefully
trained and equipped, transportation equipment including trucks and sometimes aircraft, more forest-protection roads to reach the areas of high hazard, and, lastly, a
high degree of ambition and efficiency in the personnel employed for the work and
enthusiasm in those responsible for training and supervision.
Record of Accomplishment of all Suppression Crews during
19U and 19US.
Size of Fire when attacked.
Number
of Fires.
Average Spread between
Time of Attack and before being extinguished.
Acres.
Spot (up to ^4 acre)	
,„,    121
0.09
Over % acre and up to 1 acre	
.   _    42
0.51
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres	
......    38
5.10
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres	
.     27
85.50
Over 50 acres	
     10
901.50
238
The year 1944 brought a new set of conditions. The Alternative Service Workers
were withdrawn to Eastern Canada and the usual source of civilian man-power had
dried up. As " oldsters " are not at all well adapted to the work of quick get-away and
fast strenuous work for a short period, our attention was turned to the juveniles—the
high school students. While the schools were still in session, a canvass was made to
pick boys for sixteen crews, eight of which were employed on the Coast and eight in
the Interior: four in the Nelson Forest District, three in Kamloops, and one in Fort
George. Each crew consisted of a foreman and seven crew-men, one of whom was
responsible for cooking. At the outset, each crew was assigned a iy2- to 2-ton truck
for moving camp and heavy project work, and a light delivery for light running and
quick action on fires. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 59
The school boards, principals and teachers evinced a live interest, and their assistance and co-operation were greatly appreciated. Generally satisfactory crew-men were
obtained and an endeavour was made to employ only those who had reached the age of
17 years and who would be available to remain in camp until late September. The
obtaining of foremen and cooks was difficult, and an effort was made to make a careful
selection. A combination of man and wife for foreman and cook was found to be
satisfactory. In another instance, the cook was a juvenile from the Technical School
in Vancouver who is taking a course in cooking and expects to be a chef.
Inasmuch as the 1944 crew-men were totally inexperienced, special efforts were
made at early season training. Our own short staff was a handicap, but limited efforts
bore good results. In the Kamloops Forest District the personnel of all three crews
were assembled in a training camp at Paul Lake, where excellent results were achieved.
The experiment was most interesting and warrants further efforts along these lines.
Nelson and Vancouver Districts endeavoured to train men in their separated crews.
Where sufficient opportunity permitted, satisfaction was the result. Nelson in particular reported satisfaction with the boys. The following tabulation for 1944 similar
to that above is an indication of the efforts of the young students in fire suppression.
In general, the reports on them were satisfactory.
Record of Accomplishment of Suppression Crews in 19H.
Average Spread between
time of Attack and be-
Number fore being extinguished.
Size of Fire when attacked. of Fires. Acres.
Spot (up to Vi acre)  57 0.20*
Over % acre and up to 1 acre  28 0.56
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres  19 25.60f
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres  12 112.00
Over 50 acres  2 221.00
118
* There was one additional fire which escaped and spread to 24 acres.
t There was one additional fire which escaped and spread to 1,250 acres.
In addition to the actual suppression work done, much was accomplished in maintaining improvement projects and carrying on a limited amount of new construction.
In summary, our venture in suppression crews has been profitable. As soon as
labour and other conditions return to peace-time basis, the results will be much better.
While adult crew-men have their advantages and to a limited extent will be continued,
there are other distinctly good reasons for developing student crews. Our present
plans call for an organization of certain of the high schools throughout the Province,
from which crew-men will be recruited. The principal and teachers will know throughout the school-year how many may be expected from their classes, and their recommendations will be considered in our choice of boys. As the wages offered the students
are attractive in normal times, we feel that forest-protection education in the schools
will receive a great benefit by the lively competition expected in obtaining appointment
to a stand-by suppression crew. University students are highly acceptable, more especially those interested in forestry, but it cannot be expected that many will be obtainable.
The period of employment is too short and comes more than a month after most college
men have embarked on their summer's work. The summer life on a crew is healthful
and wholesome; it gives the crew-man an opportunity to see something of our great
timber industry, he learns life in camp with his fellows, how to handle certain tools,
how to fight a forest fire, operate internal-combustion engines and other mechanical
equipment. He has a responsibility on his shoulders of doing a job well, knowing that
his failure will be evinced by the escape of the fire, possibly to result in a fearful con- DD 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
flagration sweeping to destruction not only valuable forests but also homes, and maybe
human life. The discipline and associations of camp life are of inestimable value to
young men of impressionable age. It is felt that there are so many advantages that
the properly supervised expenditure of forest protection funds on stand-by suppression
crews is not only excellent business from a purely forest-protection angle but is so well
justified in these related features that increased funds should be made available.
Mechanical Equipment.
As the war continues year by year, the problem of making much-worn equipment
carry on for the duration becomes more and more difficult. It has been necessary to
eliminate the practice of disposing of cars and trucks at the end of their economic life.
Many units have had to carry on even in the face of unprecedented high repair and
maintenance charges.
Cars and Trucks.—Repair has been an increasing problem. Garage and repair-shop
staffs having been cut to a skeleton, the grade of work turned out has been inferior to
that of normal times.
The Forest Service, by fortunate circumstance, has found itself in possession of
sufficient extra units to carry on. In 1942, when some 740 Alternative Service Workers
were assigned on short notice to forest protection in British Columbia, some new, and
considerable second-hand, units were available and were purchased. With the withdrawal of the Alternative Service Workers, these extra units have filled most of the
gaps left when many of our units have reached the point of destruction.
In 1944 three new 1-ton express-type motor-vehicles were purchased, and delivery
finally taken late in the fire season. Steps have been taken to obtain a further twenty
in 1945. The permits to purchase are assured. Our only problem, then, is to find a
dealer who will take the permit and the money in exchange for a motor-vehicle. In
this type of equipment, the "pick-up delivery," there is no second-hand purchase
possible. Pick-up deliveries disappeared from the second-hand market a long time ago.
No new passenger cars have been purchased but favourable opportunities of secondhand units offering are examined, and purchase made where it is considered advisable,
all of which are at ceiling price.
Tractors.—There is no change to report for 1944. The fleet now consists of fourteen units—thirteen crawler tractors and one wheel tractor. By concentrating on
maintenance, all units are still in serviceable condition.
Fire-pumps and Outboard Motors.—By dint of a maximum effort at the Fraser
River Repair-station, repairing, making spare parts otherwise unobtainable, and salvaging of useful parts from broken-down units, a maximum number of pumps and
outboard motors have been kept in operation. Finally, after a long period of waiting,
fifteen new MacDonald pumps were delivered in August, 1944.
No new outboard motors are available. Four second-hand units were purchased,
all to replace other units which had gone beyond the repair stage.
Fraser River Repair-station.
Some much-needed equipment was purchased, such as a " Doall" contour saw, a
precision drilling machine, and various minor items to fill existing gaps in drilling and
grinding equipment. All sizes of cylinders, liners, valves, and seats can now be serviced at the station.
An electric hoist with y2-ton capacity was fabricated from materials at hand, and
is used for lifting and lowering materials and equipment arriving for or being shipped
out after repair, and operates between the ground and second floor. ■*w** '..
GIG PUC0P5
JOSTAfCw
oc (rem or fOftGjrsca
vie epmp/w
5C1ACC POHP5
wmm
AinABCAfiKcn,
SLCCKflG 8A05,
OffHCiCOflPAH- .;^   -rl !
fiA0(05
GA«SJftUCKS,R
ncoicflc sup
PUE5 MO PACK-'-
LABQftArofty cwncor
6U(_L0OZ£ftS, TRUCKS c^Jl TftAdGRS  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 61
Launches.
At the Fraser River Repair-station launch maintenance was carried out with minor
overhaul on a number of launches, a major rebuild of the launch " B.C. Forester " decks
and upperworks, and considerable work on the launch " Dogwood." No new construction was undertaken or is anticipated at this time. Shortage of materials is somewhat
alleviated and advantage has and is being taken in purchasing stocks surplus to war
requirements.
Due to age and deterioration several launches are due for discard, but none have
been sold out of the Service, and none purchased this past year. One launch was
chartered for a month to replace the launch " Wells Gray," temporarily out of commission due to a broken crank-shaft. A new engine has been purchased for this boat as a
replacement shaft has to be imported from England with no guarantee of delivery date.
In Prince Rupert the launch " Lillian D." engine was reconditioned, some changes
made to ship's piping and a new propellor fitted. The launch "White Cloud I." was
completely recaulked and some planking renewed. The engine also was overhauled
and a new rudder applied.
In Kamloops District a new engine was installed in the launch "White Pine IL,"
with new shafting, piping, and wiring. A winch was purchased and installed for the
marine ways at Sicamous.
In the Nelson District a winch has been acquired at nominal cost and is installed
for Kaslo marine ways.
Building and Construction.
The effect of war-time regulations and material shortage has slowed up the normal
tempo of new building activities. Other work has been along the lines of renewals,
repairs, or maintenance. The following is a summary of the comparatively large items
of construction in 1944:—
Combination   office   and   warehouse,
car-storage shed Chilliwack Ranger Station.
Mooring-floats, approach and gangway Alert Bay Ranger Station.
Mooring-float and warehouse Thurston Bay Ranger Station.
Mooring-float (constructed at Thurston Bay) Lund Ranger Station.
Renewing pump test-room floor Fraser River Repair-station.
Radio shielding pump test-room Fraser River Repair-station.
Insulation of garage Hazelton Ranger Station.
Renewal of water system Alexis Creek Ranger Station.
Relocation of Ranger office and house   Sicamous Ranger Station.
The following projects are under way and will be completed shortly:—■
Alterations and additions for increased storage and working
space; hanging gallery in carpenters' shop; partition; stock
room and bins; storage-racks Fraser River Repair-station.
Relocation and renewal of pipe-line Thurston Bay Ranger Station.
The following work is projected for immediate attention:—
Alteration and addition Alberni Ranger Station.
Alteration and addition Langford Ranger Station.
Piling and dredging Fraser River Repair-station.
Plans and specifications are now being prepared for Ranger Station buildings at
Qualicum. DD 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Radio.
Few changes occurred during the past year but we were able to secure ten new
sets and one 50-watt Headquarters set was built in Victoria. The availability of parts
showed some improvement as a whole, but many essentials are still difficult, if not
impossible, to obtain.
Slight modification of some SPF sets has been necessary due to parts shortage and,
as a result, the new sets are not interchangeable with our regular power supplies.
The launches of the Vancouver District were converted to a frequency of 1630
kcs. to facilitate the reporting of aircraft through the medium of the Dominion Government Coast stations. No other changes were made in the launch installations,
except a modification of Type NC-44 receivers to give increased sensitivity on 3430 kcs.
The use of a 25-watt set in the Prince Rupert District introduces an intermediate
power between our type PAC and our S-50 Headquarters set. A standard design will
be prepared using tubes common to the two latter types, and it is expected that the
resulting unit will be useful in difficult locations where the type PAC does not supply
sufficient power. The cost of a 25-watt set will not differ materially from that of
a PAC.
The existence of a very high noise-level in Prince George introduced an experiment
in remote control which will undoubtedly have a useful application in the future. A
receiver was placed 2% miles from the Prince George Court-house, in an area clear of
wires and man-made noise. Signals are carried into Prince George by a telephone-line
and the receiver is turned on and off by remote control. Although the receiver used is
not the best type for the work, noise-free reception was obtained and the experiment
can be called a success. When receivers are on the market again, a good crystal-
controlled unit will be installed.
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling.
A review of achievements in 1944 in connection with slash- and snag-disposal indicates satisfactory results in our effort to minimize the fire risk occasioned by logging
operations to mature and immature forest values and cut-over reproducing forest lands.
While this is not indicated by the actual acreage of slash burned in 1944, progress is
evidenced by the reduction in damage caused by slash-burning, improved methods and
policy in regard to management of the problem, and the general attitude of the logging
industry in respect to the necessity for abatement of slash-hazards and the noticeable
improvement in planning of logging operations in a manner that provides for annual
slash-disposal.
Concerning snag-disposal for the year 1943: From a total of 932 operators subject
to slash- and snag-disposal, only twenty-eight were dealt with for failure to comply.
Of this number, eleven were granted extension under section 113b of the Act and seventeen paid assessment under section 113a. Records are not yet complete for 1944, but
at this date indicate more satisfactory compliance than in the previous year.
From a forestry view-point, it seems essential to secure abatement of slash-fire
hazards within one year of creation. Burning once a year keeps the acreage of
unburned slash to a minimum, makes control of accidental fires less difficult, and
assures a more satisfactory regeneration of cut-over lands. Furthermore, we have
learned from eight years' intensive study and practice that burning within one year
makes for easier control of slash-fires. Disposal of slash within one year of accumulation has been proven to be immeasurably safer and to be more effective in the manner
of actual reduction of risk than is true of older date slash, due to the fact that it can
be consumed by fire more completely and under less hazardous weather conditions than FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 63
is required to effect disposal of old date slash which has been stripped of foliage and
partially bedded down. In view of this experience, we are increasing our efforts to
get logging operators to develop operations so that a greater portion of current year
slash may be burned.
From the operator's view-point, slash-disposal is an important problem, chiefly
because unburned slash represents a very acute hazard, increasing the risk to his
investment and log production. The risk of accidental fires is ever present during the
fire season and, as this risk is increased by the presence of slash, slash-disposal is of
vital concern to him. Many operators are concerned with the necessity of slash-
disposal as a factor affecting regeneration, but too often are found inclined to reduce
the effectiveness of slash-burning as a silvicultural measure by prolonging disposal to
the second and third year.
In our effort to prevent accumulation of large continuous areas of unburned slash,
we have not pursued a policy that demands burning of all slash. We are conscious of
the necessity for carrying unburned, considerable acreage of slash where silvicultural
and other factors demand we forego burning. In accepting the added risk involved in
carrying an extensive acreage of unburned slash, we must recognize the necessity for
provision of additional forest protection funds to provide for additional patrol, fire-
fighting costs, and fire-proofing measures.
At January 1st, 1944, we were carrying over into the new year a very extensive
and accumulating acreage of slash. No effort was spared during the year in an
endeavour to reduce the carry-over into 1945. Field officers established contact with
all operators on numerous occasions throughout the year in connection with slash-
disposal plans and all operators required to burn were so notified in writing well in
advance of slash-disposal time. As result of this work and carefully laid plans by
operators, we anticipated a record clean-up of slash. However, it is disappointing to
report this was not accomplished, due to a freakish change in weather on September
12th from extreme high hazard to the direct opposite. From September 12th to September 24th, usually the best period for slash-burning, rain was general. September
24th to 26th was fair but generally unfavourable for burning, while from this date to
October 6th rain was again general, being particularly heavy in the Campbell River
and Alberni Districts. During this extended wet period, slash absorbed so much
moisture that in spite of generally clear weather from October 6th to 20th it did not
dry sufficiently to permit a satisfactory slash-burning condition, excepting in such
portions of logging operations where slash lay on southerly or easterly and parts of
south-west exposures. This condition was most unfavourable for disposal of large
areas of slash on our major operations, but it did provide a safety factor in reduction
of slash-hazards on small operations where burning requirements were limited to spot-
burning heavy accumulations in the vicinity of spar-trees and adjacent to roads. In
the latter class of operation better results were accomplished in 1944 than in any other
previous year in that hazards were abated in accordance with requirements with an
absolute minimum loss to residual values.
The following summaries indicate the results obtained in slash- and snag-disposal
in the Vancouver Forest District in 1944. In respect to damage indicated, the decrease
over 1943 is notable. This is attributed to moist ground conditions at slash-burning
time which prevented spread of fires beyond boundaries of slash areas. The increase
in cost to operators is accounted for by the unusual expenditure in labour in an attempt
to force fires to spread and relighting several times, and to one particular slash-fire
which disposed of 1,038 acres of slash at a cost of $18,769.57. This fire was set out
at the end of May which, in our opinion, was an error and proved very costly. DD 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Summary Acreage logged, 19kh, and dealt with under Section 113k.
Acres. Acres.
Total area logged, Vancouver Forest District :___ 56,885
Total area logged in hazard area, Vancouver Forest District... 51,440
1944 slash covered by hazard reports  41,885.00
1944 slash logged after September 1st and carried
over to 1945 I .     9,555.00
.      51,440
1944 slash covered by hazard reports  41,885
1944 slash burned intentionally ".  13,179.62
1944 slash burned accidentally       1,338.90
1944 slash granted exemption from burning     9,683.60
1944 slash on which extension in writing has been
granted   12,633.00
1944 slash awaiting decision re compensation or
extension      4,964.88
1944 slash on which compensation has been assessed 85.00
■ • 41,885
Summary of Operations, Vancouver Forest District.
Total operations, hazard area, Vancouver Forest District        899
Number of operations conducting slash-burning  272
Number of operations on which slash was burned by
other slash-fires spreading to their areas or by lopping and scattering or clearing land  2
Number   of   operations   on   which   slash   accidentally
burned   38
Number of operations exempt from burning  188
Number of operations granted written extensions  130
Number of operations exempt as not considered necessary to deal with under section 113a  226
Number of operations on which assessment has been
assessed   1
Number of operations pending decision re assessments
or extension  98
Number of operations inactive in 1944  50
Number of operations, snag-falling area only  25
Number of operations not advanced to point requiring
slash-disposal  4
1,034*     899
* Difference noted above is accounted for by some operations disposing of slash by both
accidental and intentional means and extensions being granted over certain areas where only
partial disposal was accomplished.
Summary of Slash-hazard being carried for Disposal into 19%5.
Acres.
Slash created prior to 1944 :  20,362
Slash Created in 1944  27,238
Total slash at January 1st, 1945  47,600 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 65
Summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn.
Operations conducting slash-burn   272
Acres slash-burned in 1944—
Prior to 1943 '.     1,100
1943  12,998
1944   13,180
Total acres  27,278
Acres of forest-cover burned  502.00
Total acres of area burned  27,780.00
Net damage to forest-cover  $1,149.75
Net damage to property on operations and cut products  $3,715.00
Cost of slash-disposal—-
Operator  $49,364.74
Forest Branch  $2.00
Acreage hazard abated, 1944  27,278.00
Cost to operators I  $49,364.74
Cost to operator based on stand of 40 M. per acre  $0,045 per M.
Cost to operator per acre  $1.80
Total damage  $4,864.75
Summary Slash-disposal, 1934-44.
Acres Slash-bukned.
Year. Accidentally. Intentionally.
1934	
1935	
1936	
1937     3,015
1938	
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943 .	
1944	
Forest Closures.
In the Interior, notably in the Nelson Forest District, travel closures were again
placed on strategic watershed and industrially occupied areas. Only one complete
closure was placed in effect—namely, in the Upper Kootenay Valley area—-where a
succession of operation fires made same necessary as a proper measure in protection
of one of the best timber-growing sites in the Southern Interior region. It is worthwhile evidence that during an average closure period of approximately two months'
duration in the Nelson District, only one fire occurred in the whole eight areas covered
by closure orders. It is also notable in respect to Interior areas that during 1944 it
became necessary for the first time to invoke section 119 of the Act in the Fort
George Forest District. This involved a travel closure placed on all that portion of
that district east of the Rockies which comprised the Peace River Block and territory
to the north. The step was made necessary by a combination of unusually high spring
hazard and indiscriminate clearing fires.
On the Coast, in the Vancouver Forest District, with an intense hazard build-up
from the middle of June, it became necessary to take travel closure action on the
4,927
15,935
11,783
13,239
1,340
7,691
3,015
27,516
35,071
50,033
1,930
51,603
2,265
33,034
3,385
5,524
4,504.25
80,225.75
2,045.5
40,012.75
5,121
27,278 DD 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Sayward Forest area early in July, followed roughly a week later, on July 9th, by a
similar closure applicable to the entire district. With conditions continuing increasingly hazardous, shortly after mid-July a complete closure involving industrial shutdown was placed in effect, and, with some subsequent modifications as conditions gradually improved, this closure remained in force until August 7th when the weather broke.
This break, however, was of only temporary duration and by the beginning of September, conditions over most of the district were again extremely hazardous. On September 8th a complete closure was therefore again placed and retained effective for a
period of six days. This closure unfortunately coincided with the opening of the
hunting season and occasioned considerable inconvenience among the ranks of sportsmen, which is regretted, but was necessary.
It is becoming increasingly apparent as regards the placing and administration of
forest closures that far more intensive and localized records of weather and weather
forecasts are essential to intelligent application. With present weather information
facilities, comprising comparatively few weather recording stations in each of the very
extensive regions of the Province, actual forecasts received are, as is to be expected,
only an estimated average applicable to the whole region. Such forecasts obviously do
not give the localized information applicable to small portions of the region which would
in many cases allow of more intelligent drafting of closure orders. This is particularly
the case in the Vancouver Forest District where the region, due to topographical
features, is actually broken down into many varying shades of weather and rainfall.
A general closure on the whole district, indicated on the basis of a regional forecast,
together with too few current daily precipitation and relative humidity records, might
thus very well work a distinct hardship on localized areas where extraordinary and more
favourable conditions of moisture prevail. Parts of the west and north coasts of Vancouver Island are excellent examples of specific areas in the latter-mentioned category.
It also seems apparent that, on behalf of the tourist and holiday public, the time is
fast approaching when certain specified forest parks must remain open during periods
of general travel closure. Most holiday trips are planned long in advance, and it is not
always possible to change plans on short notice if a closure is invoked. If certain
designated areas remain open to the public, much disappointment and hardship may be
avoided. Such a policy involves intensive supervision in the form of temporarily
increased park attendant staff but with due precautions taken should alleviate to a
large extent a measure which on many occasions is a considerable inconvenience to
the travelling public.
Following is detail of 1944 closures:—
District.
Effective
Date.
Date
suspended.
B.C., east of Rockies (Peace River).
Lamb Creek  	
Sheep Creek—   	
Erie Creek	
Hidden Creek —. 	
Anderson and Five-mile Creeks..
Upper Kootenay River  	
Porcupine Creek -.	
Bear Creek „ 	
Sayward Forest 	
Vancouver Forest District (travel only)	
Vancouver Forest District (complete closure).
Vancouver Forest District (complete closure).
Fort George-
Nelson 	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson 	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Kamloops ..
Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver
May 17
May 23
July 17
July 17
July 21
July 24
July 27
July 27
July 7
July 3
July 9
July 19
Sept. 8
July 6
Sept 15
Sept. 15
Sept. 15
Sept. 15
Sept. 15
Sept. 15
Sept. 15
Sept. 18
Aug. 7
Aug. 7
Aug. 7
Sept. 14 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 67
Co-operation with Department of National Defence.
The Aircraft Detection Corps was disbanded. Warm appreciation was expressed
by the R.C.A.F. officials in charge for the constant co-operation extended by observers
in the Forest Service. These included principally our lookout-men. In the foregoing
paragraphs, mention has been made of the assistance rendered by the Services in forest
protection. These valuable services have been acknowledged. They were a valuable
contribution to forest protection at a time when our own man-power and equipment was
strained to the breaking-point.
Fire Law Enforcement.
Once again a satisfactory report is in order. The public shows a general sympathy
with fire law. There are infractions, of course. Sixty-six informations were laid
under various sections of the " Forest Act," resulting in forty-two fines, aggregating
$1,213. One jail sentence was served, sixteen suspended sentences, and six cases dismissed. These figures are about double the average for the past ten years, the reason
being that section 119 of the Act, " Forest Closures," is invoked considerably more
often than in former years. It would not be fair to say that the public is less law-
abiding—the reverse is more likely the case.
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1944.
Forest District.
March.
April,
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
Per
Cent.
Vancouver 	
1
6
5
12
6
55
56
18
65
73
45
87
14
37
50
22
161
10
43
150
199
91
6
12
65
162
78
8
12
50
63
1
.   4
481
61
181
394
550
28.85
3.66
10.86
Kamloops 	
Nelson   	
23.64
32.99
Totals 	
1
84
257
210
563
336
211
5
1,667
100.00
0.06
5.04
15.42
12.60
33.77
20.15
12.66
0.30
100.00
Ten-year average,
1935-44 	
58
189
200'
539
408
208
11
1,613
3.60
11.72
12.40
33.42
25.29
12.89
0.68
100.00
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1944.
"2 8 a
~
oi
Forest District.
bi.
s
to
fa
bl
cd
bi ,
o >>
•- Cl!
||
S
m
cd
w
CO  CO
0 CO
CJO
1 g
3
a
o
a
c
o m
. 9   .
BE. «
*" B
s
C3  P,
r-Pn B
te <v o
a 9
o
S
o
s
port
ti c cj
a
CJ
cj
B
la
c
S
ti
o> o u
J
o
(SO
m
ft"— 73
« §a
a=
P
tH
OhE-iO.
35
57
65
164
26
42
7
78
7
481
3
11
5
15
6
2
2
14
3
61
3 66
35
66
8
21
8
2
4
7
30
181
Kamloops  	
129
41
60
57
2
6
1
6
84
8
394
23.64
Nelson	
206
28
191
85
•
2
27
2
550
32.99
Totals 	
408
203
329
342
51
IP
51
13
210
50
1,667
100.00
24.47
12.18
19.73
20.52
3.06
0.60
3.06
0.78
12.60
3.00
1OO.00
Ten-year average, 1935-44...
568
238
119
320
90
10
42
46
153
27
1,613
35.21
14.76
7.38
19.84
5.58
0.62
2.60
2.85
9.49
1.67
100.00 DD 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
Total.
Lightning   -	
408
203
329
342
51
10
51
13
210
50
256
157
216
304
58
8
20
7
136
23
704
158
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
1,265
236
90
400
74
5
41
38
171
18
515
305
77
374
111
11
32
88
175
16
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
263
269
74
242
107
14
55
20
124
25
524
256
81
321
78
6
29
74
152
26
173
217
65
289
127
11
45
72
97
15
5,682
2,385
1,191
3,200
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
897
104
421
458
1,527
267
Totals   	
1,667
1,185
1,414
1,561
2,338
1,704
2,412
1,193
1,547
1,111
16,132
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1944.
Total Fiees.
Under Vi Acre.
Vi to 10 Acres.
Over 10 to 500
Acres.
Over 500 Acres
in Extent.
Damage.
Forest District.
u
3
.a
s
3
z
'3 cj'
•fJ o
o fi
*H   O
O i-,
fl fl
O m
«   «
u
V
A
E
3
z
'3   .
■8-8
In **
o.SS
^0
S.5
O to
x £
cj.B
fcfcc
■3 S
HO
<H   CO
s.s
O  CO
.    CJ
O .«
Pnfa
6
CJ
§
3
z
cu  .
O  CJ
H"B
o.a
B B
oj.-
O co
.    CJ
oj.B
kheh
HO
<H   CO
g.s
CJ co
OJ.B
u
Ol
a
3
z
■st;
*u +*
o.S
^O
g.S
O  CO
.    CJ
CJ.B
CO   CO
3 J
HO
<H   CO
8 3
C B
cj ...
O  CO
,   1)
X c
CJ.-
6
cu
.a
s
■8-8
"3.2
«o
g.S
O  CO
.    OJ
cj.«
"ca "
II
HO
tH   «
°s
g.s
O  CO
c 8
cj.B
©
o
c>
h
CD
13
B
0
TJ
s
a
o
o
«o
B
0)    .
cj o
-S©
0J ^
no
o
©
o
u
<u
>
O
Vancouver—	
481
61
181
394
550
28.85
3.66
10.86
23.64
32.99
266
22
64
202
333
55.30
36.06
35.36
51.27
60.56
29.99
2.48
7.22
22.77
37.54
155
21
32.22
34.43
31.57
4.28
9.78
23.62
30.75
45
16
32
71
63
9.36
26.23
17.68
18.02
11.45
19.82
7.05
14.10
31.28
27.75
15
2
37
5
3
3.12
3.28
20.44
1.27
0.55
24.19
3.23
59.68
8.06
4.84
441
56
141
377
537
21
3
15
14
12
19
2
48J26.52
116(29.44
151[27.45
25
3
1
Totals-      .   	
1,667
100.00
887
100.00
4911   100.00
227
100.00
62
100.00
1,552
65
50
100.00
53.21
- | 	
29.451 	
13.62
3.72
93.10
3.90
3.00
Ten-year average,
1935-44     	
1,613
827
506
247
33
1,489
82
42
100.00
51.27
31.371
15.31
2.05
92.31
5.08
2.61
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1944.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent,
of Total.
Vancouver -  	
$99,676.00
1,200.00
3,450.00
640.00
$18,255.00
$67,125.00
1,647.00
1,500.00
$1,248.00
70.00
$186,304.00
2,917.00
8,985.00
2,750.00
3,389.00
91.17
1.43
4,035.00
275.00
615.00
4.40
2,475.00
1,234.00
1.34
Nelson -   ...
900.00
1.66
Totals _     	
$104,966.00
$23,180.00
$71,172.00  |      $5,027.00
$204,345.00
51.37 |              11.34
34.83 |                2.46
100.00
Ten-year average, 1935-44 	
$90,293.00   |     $32,966.00
$82,870.00   |     $24,651.00
$230,780.00
Per cent  	
39.13   1               Id.28
35.91
10.68
100.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 69
Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1944—Part I.
Accessible
Merchantable Timber.
Inaccessible
Merchantable
Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Forest District.
. id
V
u
<■$
US
zz
CJ
H>,3
Salvable
Volume of
Timber
killed.
O
00
cd
p,
,,  £  CO
1st
Zaitl
a
CU
Zx
CU
3.51
° °B
H>5
cj
«
B
s
Q
8
H
+3   CJ
ZS
cu cu
II
C   CQ
Vancouver  _	
Acres.
1,918
251
13,218
90
403
M.B.M.
11,361
1,309
64,802
778
916
M.B.M.
8,159
889
1,632
185
72
$
10,371
1,277
97,420
735
1,162
Acres.
3,995
126
32
M.B.M.
18,794
$
31,130
90
280
Acres.
3,505
6
80,170
2,997
2,251
$
25,743
9
25
90
165,100
3,395
Nelson... 	
4,727
Totals ^ 	
15,880
79,166
10,937
110,965
4,153
18,909
31,500
88,929
198,974
3.14
80.72
13.82
24.76
0.82
19.28
7.03
17.57
44.40
51,680
53,679
184,860
Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1944—Part II.
Forest
Not satisfactorily
restocked.
Noncommercial
Cover.
Grazing or
Pasture
Land.
Nonproductive
Sites.
Grand Totals.
District.
T3
>>
V, G
V>   *v
Hi      t3
m
M
bo
t*
£.0 [*
§
s? fc
S
cc, e
i" fc
g
$ P
a
a
s
3 o %
5 8
i 3
h 3
J§
(J ax
WC,2
0
«!.S
a
<z
Q
<lja
p
<
a
p
Acres.
Acres.
Acres.
$
Acres.
$
Acres.
$
Acres.
$
Acres.
M.B.M.
$
Vancouver 	
4,644
3,684
887
10,371
9,205
9,987
148
4
3,085
743
31,071
30,155
88,349
Prince Rupert—	
135
108
198
111
560
151
497
26
6,575
44
8,330
1,309
1,618
Fort George	
1,092
1,958
66,076
17,262
158,962
40,083
29,663
1,483
90,345
22,586
441,610
64,827
344,024
Kamloops— —
547
80
575
381
5,567
1,692
3,527
175
1,808
449
15,223
868
7,107
Nelson 	
173
648
994
400
2,966
495
1,551
77
928
221
9,914
916
7,082
Totals	
6,591
6,478
68,730
28,525
177,260
52,408
35,386
1,765
102,741
24,043
506,148
98,075
448,180
1.30
1.28
13.58
6.37
35.02
11.69
6.99
0.39
20.30
5.36
100.00
100.00
100.00
Ten-year aver-
13,694
702
313,757
295,383
530,565
Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1944.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
408
203
329
342
51
10
51
13
210
50
24.47
12.18
19.73
20.52
3.06
0.60
3.06
0.78
12.60
3.00
$46,742.72
41,669.96
9,008.74
30,971.21
2,710.37
20.58
2,459.84
553.26
3,249.26
8,110.44
32.13
28.64
6.19
21.29
1.86
0.01
1.69
0.38
2.23
5.58
$105,066.97
66,551.39
5,247.39
52,298.07
9,655.31
80.25
148,502.01
31,406.83
36,158.95
197,658.02
16.11
10.20
0.80
8.01
1.47
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
0.01
22.76
4.81
Miscellaneous (known causes) -	
5.54
30.29
1,667
100.90'
$145,496.38
100.00
$652,525.19
100.00 DD 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
72
<
!*
fc
W
Eh
tn
<!
72
H
03
73
W
ft3
O
fe
«
D
<;
o
w
o
<
<
Q
fa
o
fc
o
72
3
Oh
o
O
-E
CM   OC
*#
•-*
0 t-
tr
CO   to   CO
c
10 0
io
3$
l-H    IT
00
cc
to  CO
^
tC
t—    CO
co
10 t-
CO
0 0
Hs
CR
ic
CO    CO
to
0*
of
U9 oi
tr-"
to
to
CO
c-
as tf
CO
id
l>
uc
as tf
cc
CO
CO    i-4
10
as
t-
to
*4
00    rH
as
i-H
-T
CM
to   <M
69-   (N
00
CM
to
tr-   P"
t-
CO    OS
Oi
^t
*
CO
cc
t-   00
to
to*
m
-tf
c-
"^P    l-H
to
CO
fc-
00
cn to
te
as
M
00
CO
0 to
t-
^
cn
to
69-
c
ee
CO
IC
tf 0
"*
t~
CO
CT
■e
CO
to
CO    00
to
a
US
CO    CO
tr
cn
<*
GO
to cn
io*
ir
eo i-h
tO   t-X
10
CM   00   rH
t-
as  to
10
Tf
CM
tf  to
CO
-3
oc
IO
IC
00    rH
0
CO
C\
1-
t-
o
IO    IO
T-^
cn
0
10 tr
CO
i-H
t- 0
io to
CM
'H
to
CM*
to
^J
OC
IS
•4
00 to
tf
c
to
U3
IC
i-H    O
CM
as
t-
•t
fc"
0 t*
t-
CO
as
i-T W
* 06*
to
10* fc*
CM*
a-
*»
cn t~
tr-
r-A
co
to
6*
OC
%y
CM
OJ
tr-   OS
to
O
**
«
cz
cn
t-   i-t
cn
V
cz
10
0
us as
■*
as
N   O   N
tr-
tO    rH
00
cr
us
cc
CO   CO
■*
CM
"vf   CM
to
tr-
t»
,_
cc
to
CC
OJ   CO
10
t£
oc
CO
0
O   O
O
tf
IO   CC
to
O   CO
CO
as
iH    -vt
cc
CO   10
00
r4
u
00 to
Tf<
CO
to
to
-*
-s
0
I-H
tr-   as
to
T
cn
■d
CO  us
cn
ci
"<J
u
CO
cc
CO    tf
-*
-*
co
' 00
-st
cn t-"
to"
a*
T
CN
US   tr
CO
rH
■^
ee   tf
to
CO
r-T
W
Cv
CM
cn
l-H      (O
t-
OO    "*
CM
CO*
CC
to
fc-
fc-    rH
cn
as
rH
iO*
CM*
cr
to to
eo
to
to
t- a
us
t-
0 10
10
to -^
cc
00   tl<
tf
t£
©
0*
l-H     CO
10
t-f
tc
00
O
00    ■"*
CM
1-4
cz
cn
-*  0
lO
IC
-V    Cv]
to
to
to
S
m
■*i
$H
a
-0
6
to
rt
>>
£
u
a
OJ
T3
Ox
0
*
O
tH
P-
4>
a
»H
rS
O
a
s
«»-
S    g
9
6
0
01
S
1    1
tfl
a.
Ik
t
u
a
a
a
0
B
0>
X
a
4
,£}
ft X    »-j
»«
1
0 -p     rt
£
s
a-
^2
BQ
O    0)
bo 00
fl
bo
.5
'S
3
ti   a
3
4
-3
O
s
£ B
a
(
a   a
tH
«
w
<
Q
O FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 71
•ajijj jsd
to
rH
t*
CM
tJ
CO
OC
000'0T$ X3*0 »so0
O
o
•ajij jad OOO'OIS
CO   rH   M        1
rH
t-
CM
IO
i-H
CO
o? 000'S$ »ao }SOQ
°
©
CN
■3X\£ J9d 000'9$
I-H            T-H
-*
IO
eo
CO
w
£
1
o} OOO'U »ao »S00
CM
"
■ajij jad
CO t- ■* o IO
o
IO
o
Tf
Tjl
CO
en
B
H
O
H
fe!
OOO'I* °} 00T$ *soo
cn
CO
•aj]^ jiad
CO   CO   t-   00   CM
t-  CM   io   tr-  oo
CO
o
Ol
IO
CM
$5
o
001$ u*m SS3I }soO
rH                  i-H   CM
fc"
CO
co
©
Tf
H
•aoutAOJj UI SSJI^J
CM   00   (O   to   rH
^   O   t-   O   M
co
t*
O
[B}OX jo -juao jbj
US   rH   IO   CM   O
rH                     rH   CM
IO
IO
M   O   -*   N   t-
"^OIJ^SIQ UI SSJIjJ
Tf   rH   O   ©   CM
m<>x jo "V**Q *ad
CO    "tf    CO    rH    rH
US   US   US   io   to
i
t- co to i-h tr
tJ
Tf
©
•aaqum^i
io co en o co
CM                   CM   CO
CM
an
*f
lO
lO
CO
00
trio
•aouiAoJd ui saji^
CO   00   O   00   00
if    CO   H    lfl   t-
trio
SJ o
coo
[B^ox jo -i;u30 jo<j
CO    rH   IO    rH   CM
3
B K
m os os as t-
o B
W>X jo -}U33 jaj
tO   W!    <fl    00   00
Tf    -tf    "tf    "tf   CO
-
WS
CM                   rH   CM
fc"
T|l
c-
00
Tf
a i a g
W Q H S
O    1Q    IO    IO     H
CO
X
H Z »■£
1-4   t-   CO   CM   IO
«tf
i
IO
•SJEnprj
tr
1
CM   rH   rH    tO   rH
io
<HH§
00   rH   t-   00   tO
o
1
©
£h
•;uao J3J
rH   CM    O   CO   tO
o
a to
So
OJ          Tf          CM
o
hH
CO
•J S
t-   IO   CD   CM   CM
ee
o
9 >
N   H   CO   to   IO
CO
e»
© ^
•sj;b[[0(t
O     IO    i-H    r-4    rH
E-ira
rH co cn (M t-
IO
Til
en
1-1
H
•pun^ uoijpa^ojd
tr- io  00 tr- tr
Tj
CO
H
to
}*
sjo^j 03 Sui^nqij^uoo
ee                          rH
co
■"•
CO
CM
qou
SpUB^ UO pS^BUjSUQ
Tf
t-
CO
•punoi
uoi^oa^ojd ^sa-io^j 03
Tf    tO   CO   C-   CO
CO
CM
Tf
3urj,nqu'
UOD SpUBI pUB pUBq
cn
o
UAVO-I£) '
UBOBA UO p3^BU|3lJQ
lO
-1
to
rH    rH   rH   Tf   O
t-
o
CO
©
•SBJIjI [B?OX
Tf             rH   CO   IO
co
CO
o
©
Tf"
7
lO
CO
1-1
*i
bo
|
|
I
cd
n
c   3   c
I
t
4
A
to
3
8    &   H
y    ?»    o
t-i      C       Sh
s*
r
B bo
H   Ph   H   Oh
|
go j
H
a b t i
s
-   s-
C
e
CO   -fi
« Q
S H
pa ;
£ •§
> Ph fe M %
hf «■ S
0 -P   £
•a us
. w   OJ
*»    CO    cfl
1 .2
3 2°
^   ft  o
S qj i DD 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Prosecutions, 1944.
ii
ft c
HJ
Fines.
a
E
o»
Ph
cfl o
fe'-*3
^ g
.5 3
2£
CL,  ft
a g
n
43
QJ
O
0
OS
O
fl
flj
Forest District.
fl
o
si
|
H->
§
+->
_B
'3 M
S-2
SJ
.£c
if
bo »h
2 p.
h
o
P.
OJ
u
o
-t->
bo
fl
fa
cfl
bfl
a
0J
>cj
11
B bfl
gec
.5b
fl
fl
0>
fl
a>
xn
TJ
fl
CJ
+5
fl
V
13
QJ
13
OJ
TJ
0)
CO
tn
1
cn
•3
a
g
2
TJ
5 <"
0
a
QJ
OJ
B
B
CQ
d b
'3 S
a
fa
go
•sg
0
1
0)
tc
3
cc]
0
B
O
Vancouver 	
35
7
1
1
26
25
$700
1
5
4
4
4
1
25
3
Kamloops - 	
1
1
1
80
26
7
2
1
16
15
408
7
2
2
Total 	
66
19
1
1
2
27
16
42
$1,213
1
15
6
2
Ten-year average, 1935-44-__
33
	
—
—
	
22
$492
	 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 73
03
m
03
W
o
Z
r—I
2!
os
P
pq
r-
^
cn
eji
cc
r-
•^luuaj ^no
o
o
©
-vfriM. las sa-iiji
z
!        1
o
02
1-1
1
O
H
•[oxjuoo
6
%
>H
eo
©
to
©
padnosa ECU^
©
Q
rH
r-
CO
en io csi
©
©
©
3
•J9AO pauanq Bajy
u
ec
IO
tr-  ir-  cn
CM
en
**n
O
<A
CN
Tf
as  co  ©
CO
s
CO
Tl
c
Tf     ©     Tf
to
IO
•panssi B^xuija^
z
CO
CO
co © cn
©
t-
©
CO
c
t-
rH
1-1
■qiuijaj %uo
6
m
-qijAi ias saji^
z
5
o
u
1   Tf        ;
ic
lO
■[oa^uoo
en
©
padisosa saaj^
z
;        j
t>
CO
Ph
Tt
on
CM   CO   rH
eo
«
eo
CJ
g
nt
CO
Of
Tf
o
•jdao pauunq sajy
Kh
o
CC
CM
c-
rH
t-
Tf
3
B
Tf
in
t-   ©   i-H
fc-
r-
CM
CO
ec
CM
IO
cn
•panssi s^iuuaj
£
iH
*~l
rH
•^luuaj ^no
o
-v$\iA. q.as sa-ii^
'A
!
*i
C*
Tj
CO
or
CO
•jo-quoo
j
<$
pad-eosa saji^
A
|
K i
o
•
e'
co   co   tr-
o
in
t-
eo
er
CM   rH
Tf
cn
•aaAo pau^nq Ba-iy
ft
o
HI
cz:
or
CM
as
cr
xy
CO   CO   CO
CO
OJ
o
CM
in
oc
■panssi s^iuiaa^
CO
1-1
^
to
a
•^juijaj; ^no
o
i    i    :
-H^iay $as saai^j
&
j    ;
IO
<
m
—
1-
cO.
1    rH        1
00
ci
•Ioj^uoo
U3
cn
g
w
o
1-1
pad-eosa saa;^
13
CM
CM
t-
Tf
00
cr
T
CO   IO        1
00
tf
to
CO
CJ
Z
*J3A0 paujnq Bajy
m
c
<N   CM       j
IO
(V
°°
©
3
<!
c
CM
CM
■d
tc
cn ©     i
co
lO
t.
tx
O
•panest e^iuija j
&
C
tc
CO
Tf
CC
r-
rH        !
CO
cr
t-
Th
<
5
•^itaja^j rjno
o
oc
OC
-q^XAY q.as sajiji
'A
eh
IO
eo
to
5
u   .
S P
2
•[oj^uoo
»-t
CM
Tf
CO
padBoea sa.ii&
z
ci
to
e*
r-
cm cn Tf
Oi
c*
to
Tf    CO   CO
as
•aaAO pauanq sajy
rH
O
«
0.
CM   Tf   ©
t-
c-7
to
©
Tf
03
Eg
J
o
1
**
c^
1-1
CO
©   rH   rH
IO
as
CD   CO   rH
us
CM
•panssi s^iuijaj
&
ei-
ir
fc" os as
IO
US
e
C-"
CM
cn
bo
u
cfl
u
u
>
in
"     T*
q
H-J
m
O)
o
fa
r
(
CJ
k bo
4-
g  IO      |
3
C5 1  g
-£    *■
O     0
H   ft
fl    3        tH
H        fa
e
r
k E -a
>
P
&
t*
£ DD 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
•  GEAZING.
General Conditions.
The immediate condition of the open stock ranges of the Province is mainly due
to weather conditions, and over the great extent of the range country these may and
do vary greatly. The 1944 season was no exception with an early spring and abundant
rain in the Prince George District, an early dry spring in the Nelson District, and the
Kamloops District between having cool, backward conditions at the beginning. Plentiful rains brought the forage-growth along well in the midsummer and generally cattle
finished in good condition.
Snowfall was late in the Prince George country, allowing longer range use, but
the high, alpine sheep ranges farther south were snowed out early. Some losses
occurred in sheep bands that were caught out. The lower timbered ranges of the
Kamloops District were not frozen out until later than usual, which made a saving on
the critical open, bunch-grass ranges and the hay stocks.
There are factors other than the weather that affect range conditions and productive capacity.    They are largely controllable through range management.
One of the most troublesome of these factors is the prevalence of grasshoppers.
These insects have been more or less in evidence for thirty years but have become
epidemic periodically in various places. It appears that overgrazing of the range with
consequently greater areas without plant growth is conducive to increase of these pests.
Thus the overgrazed condition is accentuated by the depredations of the insects and
a vicious circle is set up.
Some attempt has been made at control throughout the range country, notably
in the Nicola Valley, but despite this the grasshoppers became epidemic in 1944. If
the ranges are to maintain their capacity it is imperative that good management be
instituted both to prevent overgrazing by stock and subsequent further damage by
insects.
The lower bunch-grass ranges are mostly held under Crown grant or lease, and
control is not as easy as on Crown range. The grazing on the latter can be controlled
at any time that a sufficient trained staff is available for reconnaissance and inspection.
Unfortunately, the war took all the young men of the staff and the single remaining
administrative officer could not possibly handle the situation. It is indicated that some
of the young men are returning soon from the armed forces and good range management may soon be a reality. However, the staff will have to be enlarged over the prewar standard if full control is to be secured.
In this connection it should be noted, and is shown in tables herewith, that there
are 1,320 individual permittees needing instruction. They use upwards of 5,000,000
acres of land, many miles back from roads, all of which should be inspected at least
once annually to see that it is being used properly. This can not be done with the
present staff.
It seems imperative that a review of the whole situation be made at an early date,
including leased lands, and strong action taken to control grazing in the public interest,
as well as that of the rancher. Fortunately, the ranchers are mostly organized in
associations through which co-operation may be secured. As a rule their approach to
such problems is open-minded and intelligent.
Markets and Prices.
A steady and heavy demand for live-stock products was maintained throughout
the year. This reflected on prices which held about the same as in 1943. Best steers
brought $10.50 to $12 per 100 lb. on the Vancouver market, which price did not vary
greatly during the year. Lambs sold from $12 to $14 per 100 lb. throughout the year,
which was a little lower than in 1943. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 75
A large part of the selling of Interior cattle is now handled by the stockmen themselves through their co-operative associations. They keep a close watch on market and
ranch conditions and arrange to feed the market as required. The year 1944 was the
first full year of operation of the B.C. Livestock Producers' Co-operative with 271
members, not including the Upper Cariboo areas. These latter have had their own
selling agency for some time. It appears that the results are working out satisfactorily
for the ranchers and meat-packers as well.
In order to encourage the breeding and development of good live stock the various
associations of stockmen hold shows and sales during the year. At these they show and
sell their prize stock, and buy and sell breeding stock. Good prices were secured in
1944 for fat stock and the ranchers paid good prices for bulls, an all-time high of
$1,750 being paid for a Hereford animal.
Such willingness to pay big prices for good stock is most commendable, but there
is little object in doing so if the animals produced are not fed adequately through their
growing period. This ties in directly to management of the range where the feed is
produced for the period of greatest growth. If the quantity and quality of feed
deteriorates through overgrazing, the quantity and quality of the products will also
deteriorate. It will be a prime requirement of the post-war period to see that good
management is carried out on Crown ranges. This will require increased staff for
reconnaissance, administration, and inspection, but will pay many times over in resultant conservation of our great forage resource.
Live-stock Losses.
No important losses of live stock on the range have been reported for 1944, which
may be due to improved care, fencing of mud-holes, or better forage-growth in a wet
year.
Some losses through foot-rot in sheep have been recorded and this disease broke
out again severely in some cases. Due to war conditions it has not been possible for
the Department of Agriculture and the Forest Service to keep up their inspection and
co-operation to control this disease. It is highly important that it be renewed at an
early date.
Range Reconnaissance.
It was not possible to carry out any reconnaissance on the range in 1944. Enlistments took all the grazing staff save one man, who was overtaxed to carry on the
routine administration.
Range management must be based on thorough information concerning all conditions on the range, both current and permanent. This requires base maps showing
all topography, permanent cover types and improvements. On these can be placed information on current conditions and from them developed plans for management.
Up to the start of the war over 2,750,000 acres of range land had been surveyed
and mapped, but there are still several million acres to be covered. In addition, the
range already mapped must be inspected regularly for current management. Such
reconnaissance would prove a most useful and productive form of rehabilitation work.
Co-operation.
Live-stock growers' co-operative associations are encouraged in order to give the
Department a close contact with the men using the range, and to ensure a concensus
of opinion on matters affecting all range-users. Such associations, when incorporated,
are given official recognition and often some authority in range management.
Frequent meetings with the associations are an important part of the joint effort
and in spite of staff shortage many such meetings were held in 1944. Every endeavour
must be made after the war to ensure continued close co-operation between the Forest
Service and the range-users. DD 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Grazing Permits.
Range use is secured by authority of grazing permits. These are issued for a
definite number of animals on a designated range area for a set period. Where any
special conditions of use are required they are inserted in the permit. Fees are
charged on a head per month basis as follows: Cattle, 5 cents per head per month;
horses, 6% cents; and sheep, l1/^ cents. This is a very moderate charge compared to
that collected on comparable range in other countries, and probably does not cover the
cost of administration. The Province is presumably recompensed elsewhere through
the development of the industry.
The issuance of grazing permits is a big undertaking, since each is based on an
individual application and must be individually inspected, checked, and issued. The
following tabulation shows the volume of business for 1944 and the past ten years:—
Grazing Permits issued.
District.
No. of
Permits
issued.
Number op Stock under Permit.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
Fort George.
Nelson- —
Kamloops	
Totals, 1944- -.
Totals, 1943	
Totals, 1942	
Totals, 1941	
Totals, 1940	
Totals, 1939	
Totals, 1938	
Totals, 1937 	
Totals, 1936  _
Totals, 1935 	
Ten-year average..
36
277
1,007
1,320
1,221
1,130
1,064
881
790
738
807
700
746
940
2,724
7,980
90,902
101,606
93,497
84,788
77,774
74,404
69,447
72,774
75,123
75,224
60,305
78,494
265
186
1,027
1,843
3,570
38,829
4,862
40,858
4,844
39,921
4,797
36,962
4,180
39,552
3,958
37,132
2,758
38,357
2,248
37,060
2,328
42,185
2,061
46,084
1,870
36,902
3,391
39,501
Collections.
The total billings during 1944 were greater than any year in the past, but collections, although greater than billings, did not equal some previous years. In this
connection it should be noted that the prosperous conditions of the industry enabled
permittees to pay current fees and some arrears as well. Outstanding grazing fees
which amounted to over $42,000 before the war are now down to about $7,000.
Grazing Fees billed and collected.
Year.
Fees billed.
Collections.
Outstanding.
1939       -	
1940              _	
$21,348.41
23,338.28
23,781.19
25,116.02
24,680.37
28,554.02
$22,027.05
38,146.48
29,348.22
30,802.33
31,148.36
31,000.34
$42,012.10
27,203.90
21,636.87
15,950.56
9,482.57
7,036.25
1941         	
1942	
1943	
Range Improvement.
War conditions have made it impossible to carry out all the range improvements
contemplated in 1944. Both labour and materials were scarce and consequently there
is a considerable carry-over of planned projects. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944.
DD 77
Elsewhere in this report is shown the standing of the Grazing Range Improvement
Fund. This is made up from the statutory contribution of one-third of all grazing fees
collected and is in excellent condition. Undoubtedly the post-war period will see a large
demand for completion of improvements that have had to be deferred and a considerable fund will be required. The proper use of the ranges will be impossible without
the projects that have been planned.
During the past year the following improvements have been completed: Three
breeding pastures; eight cattle-guards; eleven drift-fences, 5% miles; eight trails,
totalling 44 miles; eight holding-grounds repaired; one water development; and one
mud-hole fenced.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, JANUARY 1st, 1945.
Victoria Office.
C. D. Orchard Chief Forester Victoria, B.C.
G. P. Melrose Assistant Chief Forester Victoria, B.C.
E. E. Gregg Forester—Operation Victoria, B.C.
E. W. Bassett Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
I. C MacQueen Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
J. H. Blake Marine and Structural Engineer Victoria, B.C.
W. C. Spouse Mechanical  Superintendent Victoria, B.C.
G. A. Playfair Radio Engineer Victoria, B.C.
H. E. Ferguson Radio Engineer Victoria, B.C.
E. B. Prowd Forester—Management Victoria, B.C.
S. E. Marling Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
G. M. Abernethy Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
F. S. McKinnon Forester—Economics Victoria, B.C.
E. H. Garman Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
H. G. McWilliams Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
R. H. Spilsbury Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
G. S. Allen Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
A. P. MacBean Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
A. E. Collins Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
C. F. McBride Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
C. P. Lyons Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
R. C. Telford Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
H. M. Pogue Assistant Forester Victoria, B.C.
S. W. Barclay Royalty Inspector Victoria, B.C.
H. H. Smith Chief  Accountant Victoria, B.C.
A. E. Thompson Chief Draughtsman Victoria, B.C.
Districts.
Vancouver.
. J. Haddon District Forester -Vancouver, B.C.
C. C. Ternan Assistant District Forester Vancouver, B.C.
J. G. MacDonald Assistant Forester Vancouver, B.C.
D. B. Taylor Assistant Forester	
M. W. Gormely Assistant Forester	
C. L. Armstrong Assistant Forester	
W. Byers Supervisor of Scalers_
A. H. Waddington Assistant Forester	
J. A. Pedley Assistant Forester	
R. Murray Supervisor	
C. F. Holmes Supervisor	
J. A. Mahood Forest Ranger	
.Vancouver, B.C.
..Vancouver, B.C.
.Vancouver, B.C.
.Vancouver, B.C.
.Vancouver, B.C.
.Vancouver, B.C.
.Vancouver, B.C.
JManaimo, B.C.
..Chilliwack, B.C. DD 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Vancouver—Continued.
P. E. Sweatman Forest Ranger Duncan, B.C.
E. T. Calvert Forest Ranger Mission, B.C.
G. G. Armytage Forest Ranger North Vancouver, B.C.
W.  Black Forest Ranger Powell River, B.C.
J.  McNeill Forest Ranger Langford, B.C.
R. Little Forest Ranger Harrison Hot Springs, B.C.
E. W. Cowie Forest Ranger JNanaimo, B.C.
R. J. Glassford Forest Ranger Qualicum, B.C.
S.  Silke Forest Ranger Courtenay, B.C.
A. C. C. Langstroth Forest Ranger Campbell River, B.C.
J. P. Greenhouse Forest Ranger Sechelt, B.C.
T. J. W. Underwood...Forest Ranger Alberni, B.C.
C. S. Frampton Forest Ranger Thurston Bay, B.C.
H.  Stevenson Forest Ranger Alberni, B.C.
J. W. Ker Acting Forest Ranger Alert Bay, B.C.
C. M. Yingling Acting Forest Ranger Lund, B.C.
S. C. Frost Acting Forest Ranger Squamish, B.C.
R. W. Aylett Acting Forest Ranger Port Hardy, B.C.
K. M. Bell Acting Forest Ranger Pender Harbour, B.C.
R. C. Swan Foreman, Fraser River Repair-
station   . Vancouver, B.C.
E. P. Fox Chief Clerk Vancouver, B.C.
Kamloops.
A. E. Parlow District Forester JKamloops, B.C.
R. G. McKee Assistant District Forester JKamloops, B.C.
H. B. Forse Assistant Forester JKamloops, B.C.
G. V. Copley Assistant Forester JKamloops, B.C.
J. M. Fraser Assistant  Forester JKamloops, B.C.
W. W. Stevens Assistant Forester /...JKamloops, B.C.
E. A. Charlesworth Supervisor of Scalers Kamloops, B.C.
J. W. McCluskey Forest Ranger Vernon, B.C.
C. Williams Forest Ranger JKamloops, B.C.
R. B. W. Eden Forest Ranger JKelowna, B.C.
G. J. Mayson Forest Ranger Barriere, B.C.
C. E. Robertson Forest Ranger Clinton, B.C.
A. Chisholm Forest Ranger Salmon Arm, B.C.
C.  Perrin Forest Ranger Penticton, B.C.
J. W. Hayhurst Forest Ranger Vernon, B.C.
H. A. Ferguson Forest Ranger Chase, B.C.
C. D. S. Haddon Forest Ranger Revelstoke, B.C.
F. H. Nelson Acting Forest Ranger Williams Lake, B.C.
W. P. Cowan Acting Forest Ranger Clearwater, B.C.
R. C. Hewlett Acting Forest Ranger Birch Island, B.C.
J. H. Dearing Acting Forest Ranger Princeton, B.C.
J. A. Sim Acting Forest Ranger Sicamous, B.C.
T. L. Gibbs Acting Forest Ranger Alexis Creek, B.C.
H. J. Parker Chief Clerk JKamloops, B.C. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1944. DD 79
Nelson.
R. E. Allen. District  Forester Nelson, B.C.
K. C. McCannel Assistant District Forester Nelson, B.C.
W. C. Phillips Assistant Forester Nelson, B.C.
L. S. Hope Assistant Forester Nelson, B.C.
G. W. A. Holmgren..—Assistant Forester Nelson, B.C.
P. Young Assistant Forester Nelson, B.C.
T. W. Brewer Supervisor Nelson, B.C.
F. H. S. Pym Supervisor Cranbrook, B.C.
G. T. Schupe Forest Ranger Nelson, B.C.
G. C. Palethorpe Forest Ranger JNew Denver, B.C.
H. C. Nichols Forest Ranger Rossland, B.C.
H. J. Coles Forest Ranger Golden, B.C.
R. Cameron Forest Ranger Fernie, B.C.
J. P. MacDonald Forest Ranger , Creston, B.C.
G. T. Robinson Acting Forest Ranger Kaslo, B.C.
L. S. Ott Acting Forest Ranger Nakusp, B.C.
J. H. Holmberg Acting Forest Ranger Grand Forks, B.C.
J. H. A. Applewhaite  Acting Forest Ranger Invermere, B.C.
C. D. Grove-White ..... Acting Forest Ranger Nelson, B.C.
S. S. Simpson Chief Clerk Nelson, B.C.
Prince Rupert.
R. C. St. Clair District  Forester Prince Rupert, B.C.
J. E. Mathieson Assistant District Forester Prince Rupert, B.C.
M. 0. Kullander Assistant Forester Prince Rupert, B.C.
I.   Martin Forest Ranger Prince Rupert, B.C.
J. B. Scott Forest Ranger Queen Charlotte Isls., B.C.
S. G. Cooper Forest Ranger Terrace, B.C.
C. L. Gibson Forest Ranger Smithers, B.C.
D. R. Smith Forest Ranger Burns Lake, B.C.
S. T. Strimbold Acting Forest Ranger Southbank, B.C.
L. C. Chamberlin Acting Forest Ranger Port Clements, B.C.
L. G. Taft Acting Forest Ranger Hazelton, B.C.
A. M. Davies Chief Clerk Prince Rupert, B.C.
Fort George.
R. D. Greggor District  Forester Prince George, B.C.
D. L. McMullan Assistant District Forester Prince George, B.C.
W. G. Henning Supervisor  Prince George, B.C.
D. H. Ross Forest Ranger Pouce Coupe, B.C.
G. A. Forbes Forest Ranger Prince George, B.C.
W. N. Campbell Forest Ranger Fort Fraser, B.C.
H. R. Sansom Forest Ranger McBride, B.C.
E. W. Thomas Forest Ranger Penny, B.C.
W. Adamson Acting Forest Ranger Quesnel, B.C.
J. S. Macalister Acting Forest Ranger Aleza Lake, B.C.
A. V. O'Meara Acting Forest Ranger Vanderhoof, B.C.
A. B. Porter ... Acting Forest Ranger Prince George, B.C.
J. Jardine Chief Clerk Prince George, B.C.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1945.
1,305-145-4690   

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0319204/manifest

Comment

Related Items