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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1945]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
THIRTY-NINTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1944
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1944.  To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1944.
K. C. MacDONALD,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 3rd, 19^5.  CONTENTS.
Page.
Department of Agriculture Officers 1       6
Eeport of Deputy Minister       7
Report of Statistician     20
Report of Markets Branch     24
Report of Horticultural Branch     28
Report of Field Crops Branch ..     53
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist     57
Report of Provincial Entomologist     65
Report of Provincial Apiarist     71
Report of Live Stock Branch     75
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector .'_     87
Report of Recorder of Brands     89
Report of Dairy Branch '. i     90
Report of Poultry Branch     94
Report of Soil Survey Branch     96
Report of Women's Institutes     97
Report of Boys' and Girls' Clubs .     99
Reports of District Agriculturists—
Peace River District  104
Bulkley and Skeena Districts  106
Nechako and Prince George Districts ..  113
Cariboo and Lillooet Districts  119
Kamloops and Nicola Districts  125
Shuswap and Revelstoke Districts  130
East Kootenay District  133
Grand Forks District  137
Lower Mainland District  140
Report of Dominion-Provincial Farm Labour Service  144
Appendices—
No. 1. Feed-grain Statement  157
No. 2. Movement of Grain Screenings  157
No. 3.  Coast Vegetable Marketing Board, Sales of Potatoes and Vegetables  158
No. 4. Interior Vegetable Marketing Board, Sales of Current Season's Crop.... 159
No. 5. Dairy-farms inspected and graded  159
No. 6. Dairy Cattle T.B.-tested  160
No. 7. Estimate of Honey-crop  160
No. 8. Exported Nursery Stock and Seeds  161
No. 9. Threshermen's Returns  162
No. 10. Average Prices for Cattle  163
No. 11. Average Prices for Hogs  163
No. 12. Average Prices for Lambs  164
No. 13. Cariboo Feeder and Fat Stock Show and Sale  165
No. 14. Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock  166
No. 15. Boys' and Girls' Clubs  168
No. 16. Milk-testers' Licences  171
No. 17. Slaughter-house Licences  173
No. 18. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1944  175
No. 19. Canadian Agricultural Programme, 1945  176 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICERS.
Honourable K. C. MacBonald, Minister.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A., Deputy Minister.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Assistant Deputy Minister and Provincial Horticulturist.
Ernest MacGinnis, Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Thornborrow, Chief Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
C. P. L. Pearson, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.    (On military leave.)
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
A. H. Shotbolt, Exhibition Specialist, Victoria, B.C.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Survey, Kelowna, B.C.
T. Menzies, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
James S. Wells, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.    (On military leave.)
John E. Porter, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.    (On military leave;  missing in action.)
Daryl Anderson, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.    (On military leave.)
E. W. White, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
J. L. Webster, Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
C. B. Twigg, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Creston, B.C.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm, B.C.
John Tait, District Field Inspector, Summerland, B.C.
W. Baverstock, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
John A. Smith, B.S.A., Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.    (On military leave.)
G. L. Foulkes, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
V. Tonks, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Vernon, B.C.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Foster, M.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
I. J. Ward, B.Sc, Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist, New Westminster, B.C.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.    (Deceased.)
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Walter Sandall, District Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.Sc, Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
F. Overland, Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Assistant  (Milk Records), Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. M. Sparrow, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. J. D. Macdonald, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. K. H. Thompson, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
George Pilmer, Brand Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
R. Cahilty, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District" Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
James Travis, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
Shirley G. Preston, M.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
H. E. WABY, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
T. S. CRACK, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C.
C. F. Cornwall, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
J. E. Manning, District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.   REPORT of the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.
The Honourable K. C. MacDonald,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1944.
NEW LEGISLATION.
At the third session of the Twentieth Legislature several amendments to existing
legislation were passed. These included an Act to amend the " Fraser Valley Fibre
Flax Loan Act" and an Act to amend the " Milk Act."
There were other amendments to legislation which may be of direct concern to the
farmer, such as an amendment to the "Game Act" regarding bears and pheasants;
amendments to the " Motor-vehicle Act," the " Land Act," the " Motor Carrier Act,"
the " Municipal Act," " Taxation Act," and " Public Utilities Act." These amendments came into operation by Proclamation.
SOIL SURVEY, 1942, 1943, AND 1944.
The soil survey for the above-mentioned periods was carried out in Central British
Columbia between Soda Creek on the south and Moricetown Falls on the north. L. Tod-
hunter reports as follows:—
" In 1942 a survey was made of the area between Clucluz Lake and Fort Fraser,
a total of 1,102,770 acres being examined. Of this 397,260 are arable, 108,910 acres
fair grazing, and 596,600 is definitely forest land.
" The 1943 survey covered the area between Fraser Lake and Moricetown Falls,
including the Francois and Ootsa Lake Districts. In the area examined and mapped
were 549,020 acres, of which 181,500 were found to be arable, 211,420 acres although
heavily timbered at present and is not arable there is good grazing under the forest-
cover, the remaining 156,100 acres are forest land.
" During the past year—1944—survey-work was carried between Soda Creek south
of Quesnel to Woodpecker on the north of Quesnel, east as far as Beaver on the Quesnel
River, and west to Nazko, the place being 65 miles west of Quesnel. In this area a total
of 544,340 acres was mapped, of which 158,195 were found to be arable land and
386,145 acres non-arable, but fairly good grazing, although at the time of the survey
much of it had a forest-cover.
" The grand total surveyed in the three years was 2,196,340 acres, 736,955 acres
being arable, 706,475 acres grazing land, and 752,700 acres of forest land. This total
does not include lakes, rivers, or mountains."
In reporting on the soil survey of the south-eastern portion of Vancouver Island,
R. H. Spilsbury, of the Forestry Branch, states that a total of 626,000 acres extending
from the Salmon River valley in the north to the southern tip of the Island has been
examined. He has prepared for publication in his Branch of the Department of Lands
a report covering this area of which the arable portion is 153,399 acres, non-arable is
383,035 acres, and partially arable is 90,049 acres. S 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In conducting this survey the British Columbia Forestry Branch of the Department of Lands was assisted by the Provincial Department of Agriculture, Soil Survey
staff, as well as by officials of the Federal Experimental Farms Service.
AGRICULTURAL LIME.
Again the Federal Government has contributed a subsidy to manufacturers of
crushed lime to enable them to make it available to farmers at a reduced cost. The
cost would be rather prohibitive under ordinary conditions on account of the high price
for labour.
The Provincial Government has continued the payment of a subsidy of $1 per ton
on lime used as a soil amendment. This subsidy since April 1st, 1944, has totalled
$3,028.70 on more than 3,000 tons of lime.
In addition to subsidizing agricultural lime, assistance has been given in reserving
lime deposits for the farms in the Malakwa and McBride Districts.
The Lime Committee, consisting of Dr. D. G. Laird, Cecil Tapp, and G. L. Landon,
reported on the business of the 1943-44 fiscal year, as follows:—
" For the first time since 1938-39 there has been a marked increase in the amount
of lime used. This is very gratifying in view of the fact that the production of lime
has been seriously handicapped due to labour conditions and other factors. The following statistical table gives the data for the past nine years:—
Fiscal Year.
1935-36.
1936-37 .
1937-38.
1938-39.
1939-40 .
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43 .
1943-44._
Total No. of
Applications
approved.
277
394
416
529
352
259
208
205
327
Total Amount
of Subsidy
paid out.
$1,110.30
1,208.37
1,411.79
2,355.50
1,390.91
1,440.86
1,259.49
1,393.24
3,435.50
Total
Tonnage used.
Tons.
2,220.00
2,416.74
2,823.58
4,711.00
2,781.83
2,881.73
2,519.00
2,510.75
4,287.64
" The increase in the amount of lime used is largely due to the increased acreages
of cannery peas, beans, and other crops. The contracts for these crops stipulate that
lime must be used. More sources of supply are being developed in the Interior at
Princeton, Malakwa, and other points, and shipments are being made to the Fraser
Valley.
" Lime is being supplied from Texada Island, Blubber Bay, and other coast island
points and from the Agassiz lime-quarry. Marlime from Lake Cheam and different
grades of marlime from Princeton and other points in the Interior. Gypsum was used
entirely in Salmon Arm and Okanagan Valley points and is produced at the Falkland
quarry.
" Owing to the various products being produced at so many different points it will
be necessary for the committee to secure samples and analyses of each product from
time to time.
" Summary.—Total number of applications received, 327. Applications approved,
327. These 327 applications represent a total tonnage of 4,287.64 tons or an average
of 13.14 tons per application. The total amount of subsidy paid out of $3,435.50 is
$2,042.26 more than in 1942-43. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 9
" The following districts used lime in various forms as follows:—   Tons.
(1.)   Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands      147.50
(2.)   Okanagan and Interior       160.00
(3.)   Fraser Valley  '_:  3,980.14
" Of the 4,287.64 tons used, a total of 1,370 tons was ground limestone, 1,157.05
tons was hydrated lime, 1,708.59 tons was marlime, and 52 tons was gypsum.
" There seems to be an increase in the use of lime and gypsum in the Okanagan
Valley, although the benefits from the use of lime there are doubtful. Most beneficial
results are to be expected on the coastal regions with heavier precipitation and more
acid soils.
" The price for ground limestone is $3 per ton at Agassiz lime-quarry and varied
up to as high as $27 for a ton at Boswell on Kootenay Lake. Hydrated lime averaged
probably about $12 per ton. Marlime is $3 per ton at Lake Cheam, and the price varies
in the Fraser Valley according to transportation charges."
FEED-GRAIN CERTIFICATES.
In line with the report for 1942 we are this year giving the total tonnages of each
of the grains transported under C.F.A. Tariff 145. The number of certificates issued
by this Department for 1944 indicates that for the twelve-month period, December 1st,
1943, to November 30th, 1944, there was carried a total of 99,941 tons of wheat, 40,203
tons of oats, 32,064 tons of barley, 12,512 tons of mill-feeds, 1,527 tons of corn, 394 tons
of mixed grains, and 93 tons of rye—a total of 186,744 tons in all.
The existing subsidies contributed by the Dominion Department of Agriculture
for the assistance of live-stock feeders in British Columbia was maintained throughout
the year and, in addition to the initial payment of a subsidy to grain-growers in the
Prairie Provinces, British Columbia farmers benefit by the freight subsidy. This
freight subsidy is paid by the Federal Government on car-loads of feed-grains and is
on the basis of the actual freight from Edmonton or Calgary to the destination in-
British Columbia.
Federal Government assistance on feed-grain purchases is given by the payment
to the producer on the Prairies of a fluctuating rate per bushel for " Manitoba No. 4
Northern " and grades of equal or lower value. This payment which was originally
provided on November 15th, 1943, provides for 25 cents a bushel and replaces the
former payment of 8 cents per bushel for wheat. The bushel rate paid by the Dominion
Government is subject to change and the above is given only for purposes of record.
In Eastern Canada farmers were paid a special bonus for the purchase of feed-
grains. These special payments were on a descending scale and were intended to pay
storage charges. This was fully reported last year and so far we have no indication
that any change has been made.
As in former years, applications for feed-grain certificates which entitled the
buyer to the reduced freight rate on minimum car-loads of grain from Prairie points
to British Columbia coast districts are made by purchasers who send in their Dominion
grain inspection certificates and freight bills. These individuals are given the special
feed-grain certificate issued under C.F.A. Tariff 145. This entitles them to the reduced
freight rate of approximately $6 per ton on grain shipments.
Details will be found in Appendix No. 1.
STAFF CHANGES.
On December 20th, 1944, Cecil Tice, Field Crops Commissioner, passed away
suddenly at his office in the Department of Agriculture. Mr. Tice, who for many
years had been Field Crops Commissioner, was born in Surrey, England, on November S 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
17th, 1893. He was educated in England and was a graduate of the Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph, Ontario, where he specialized in agronomy.
Flight-Lieut. John Edward Porter, who joined the staff of the Department of
Agriculture as Clerk in September, 1939, and later enlisted in the R.C.A.F., was
reported missing in action over Europe in August, 1944. He was born in Victoria on
March 26th, 1921, and educated in Victoria schools.
Resignations.—Mrs. D. E. Johnston, Stenographer, January 22nd; Miss M. K.
McGannon; Stenographer, November 15th; K. H. Thompson, Veterinary Inspector,
November 30th.
Appointments.—Mrs. S. M. Dickson, Stenographer, February 1st; Miss E. W.
Foster, Stenographer, March 30th; Miss G. Camsell, Stenographer, November 16th;
J. E. Bennett, Veterinary Inspector, November 1st.
Superannuated.—Miss A. P. Woodward, Stenographer, May 1st.
FALL FAIRS.
The year 1944, owing to war conditions, labour shortage, and incidental troubles,
showed the lowest total of exhibitions and fairs held for many years.
Chilliwack and Armstrong "B" class exhibitions carried on successfully; while
" A " class events at Victoria and Vancouver were again not possible owing to the use
of buildings by Federal authorities.
Fall fairs in the rural districts totalled twenty-one as against a pre-war average of
forty-eight; however, those associations that carried on did quite well, to mention
a few: Saanichton and Courtenay on Vancouver Island; Mission and Cloverdale in
the Lower Fraser Valley; Invermere and Golden in East Kootenay; and Prince George
in Central British Columbia. Good attendance and much interest were noted at
the fairs held, while Junior Club work was a feature at many events.
On October 11th, D. E. McKenzie, President of the British Columbia Fairs Association, died. His name will long be remembered as manager of the Exhibitions of
the Royal Agricultural and Industrial Society at New Westminster and for his long
connection with co-operative and farming interests in the Fraser Valley.
GOPHER ERADICATION.
The applications of Farmers' Institutes for, the payment of rebates covering purchases of Cyanogas and other poisons indicates that a smaller amount of these materials
have been used in 1944 than in preceding years. An effort has been made through
the Game Department to secure badgers for release in gopher infested areas. However,
Game Wardens report that they find it difficult to secure these animals because farmers
that have already been assisted by these wild animals are reluctant to see the badgers
removed to new areas.
In 1944 an attempt has been made to popularize the use of ferrets. In August of
this year a pair of mature ferrets was taken into the Salmon Arm District and was
turned loose on an abandoned farm in which both gophers and marmots had established
themselves. The ferrets proved very advantageous in driving out the marmots, which
were easily dispatched.    The ferrets were retrieved.
Requests from Farmers' Institutes for ferrets have been received and the Dunster
Farmers' Institute has now in its possession a pair which will again be given the opportunity of working on gophers and other burrowing rodents next spring. Another pair
of ferrets has been supplied to a farmer in the vicinity of Nanaimo for use in ridding
the district of rats. The rats which occupy the abandoned coal mines are becoming
very troublesome in this section of Vancouver Island. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 11
PUBLICATIONS.
The following report has been submitted by Thomas Menzies, Clerk in charge of
publications:—
" The interest of the public has been steadily growing in this Branch of the Department of Agriculture during the year 1944. Publications have been sent to all the Provinces of the Dominion, the British Empire, the United States, and also to prisoners of
war in Germany.
" During the year this Branch has distributed 40,000 copies of bulletins and circulars. Mimeographed stencils to the number of 120,763 were run off, in addition to
the above-mentioned publications.
" The following is a list of new publications and revised circulars:—
Thirty-eighth Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture.
Climate of British Columbia, 1943.
Agricultural "Statistics Report, 1943.
Seed Production Series (new) No. 11:  Vine Seed Crops.
Seed Production Series (new) No. 12:  General Information on Growing Seed.
Seed Production Series (new) No. 13:  Pea and Bean Seed Production.
Bulb Production Series (new) No. 1:  Tulip Culture.
Horticultural Circular No. 73:  Diseases of Fruit-trees.
Horticultural Circular No. 42:  Top-working of Fruit-trees and Propagation.
Horticultural Circular No. 56:  Currant and Gooseberry Culture.
Spray Calendar—Field Crop and Garden.
Spray Calendar—Fruit.
Poultry Circular No. 11:  Poultry-keeping on a City Lot.
Poultry Circular No. 36:  Green Feed Deficiency Disease in Fowls.
Poultry Bulletin No. 39:  Incubation and Breeding, Natural and Artificial.
" A list of publications may be had upon request to this Branch."
CORONATION OAKS.
Of the 300 oak seedlings sent out in the spring of 1937 to Farmers' and Women's
Institutes we have this year received reports that about fifty of them are still flourishing, approximately one dozen have succumbed to drought, lack of care, or rodent injury.
The majority of Farmers' and Women's Institutes have not sent in official word regarding these trees; however, many secretaries state that the trees are thriving well and
in some cases they have reached a height of more than 20 feet.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
The usual practice of the Minister and the Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes
attending the annual district meetings was not possible in every case. The pressure
of other departmental duties necessitated a rather drastic change from former years
and in many instances the Department of Agriculture had to be represented by local
officials. There are 218 Farmers' Institutes in the Province of which ten are reported
as being inactive during the war period. There were no new incorporations during the
year.
The place and date of each of the ten annual district meetings, together with the
departmental representative in attendance and the Advisory Board member elected for
the year, is shown in the following table:— S 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Annual District Meetings.
District.
Place of Meeting.
Date of Meeting.
Departmental
Representative.
Advisory Board Member elected.
"A'
Nanaimo..
Francois Lake-
November 15th
June 22nd.
" C "_
"D"...
" E."_
" F "...
" G "_
" H "..
" I
" J "...
McBride..
Kamloops —
New Westminster
Robson.—	
Revelstoke 	
Lone Butte __
Cranbrook.	
Sunrise Valley	
June 19th, 20th
June 17th	
June 17th.	
June 10th _
June 3rd	
June 27th...„.	
June 19th..—	
July 13th	
J.  B.  Munro  _
J. E. Manning 	
S. G. Preston   __
Hon. H. G. Perry  _
J. B. Munro	
J. E. Manning 	
Hon. K. C MacDonald.
J. B. Munro	
G. A. Luyat  	
G. L. Landon —	
G. E. W. Clarke 	
E. C. Hunt  	
James Travis  —
H. E. Waby  	
F. C. Wasson  	
W. Turnbull 	
J. B. Munro  :._	
C. F. Cornwall 	
G. Patchett  	
S. Allin 	
. S. Crack 	
E.   Balo   (President)   or  S.   Pickles
(Vice-President).
George Brandon, Telkwa.
R. Blackburn, Prince George.
Wm. Harrison, Pritchard.
D. E. MeKenzie.
O. B. Appleton.
J. Woodburn, Salmon Arm.
E. Greenlee, Canim Lake.
J. Aye.
T. Jamieson, Pouce Coupe.
It will be noted in the above tabulated information that there are several changes
made in the Advisory Board members. Mr. Brandon, of Telkwa, is replacing C. J.
Killer, who expressed his wish to retire after having served his district faithfully for
the past fifteen years. In the Cariboo, E. Greenlee was elected in the place of Walter
Hogg, who has moved from Australian. Mr. Hogg was present at the district meeting
held at Lone Butte and he expressed the wish to retire. He had represented the district
for the past six years.   At Cranbrook, J. Aye was elected in place of T. Cameron.
It is with regret that we record the death of the late D. E. MeKenzie, of New Westminster, who for the past five years had been Advisory Board member for District " E."
On occasion he had sat as alternate member for the Fraser Valley and alway he brought
to the meetings dependable recommendations and sound advice. He will be very much
missed at the deliberations in the future. The alternate for District " E " is A. H.
Pepper, of loco.
Referring to the late D. E. MeKenzie, he was well known to farmers and departmental officials alike. He had come to British Columbia as a boy in 1884 and had
spent most of his life in the Lower Fraser Valley. He will be remembered best for his
work as secretary-manager of the New Westminster Exhibition Association.
The meeting of the Advisory Board was held at Victoria during the second week
of January, 1944. In addition to discussing agricultural matters and conferring with
departmental officials, the Board named a committee to meet with the Select Standing
Committee on Agriculture and present to it problems that might require legislative
action. Following this meeting the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture presented to the House the following report:—
"Your Committee—authorized by Resolution of the Legislative Assembly 'to
consider such matters affecting the agricultural industry as may be laid before it by
the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes, to call members of the British Columbia
Agricultural Production Committee, the Interdepartmental Committee on Farm Labour,
and such Department officials as may be representatives on other agricultural bodies
with a view to securing information on matters affecting the agricultural welfare of
the Province, and to report its findings to this House '—held three sittings. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 13
" At one of these sittings the Farmers' Institute Advisory Board presented a total
of thirteen resolutions dealing with the following matters:—
A. Predatory-animal bounties.
B. Farmer-member on Game Board.
C. Export on eggs assistance.
D. Agricultural lime bonus increase.
E. Grain-growers' assistance.
F. Bonus to feed-grain growers.
G. Starch factories.
H. Farmers' taxes.
I. School taxes.
•    J. Tractors used by farmers.
K. Farm-labour organization.
L. Drain-tile.
M. Old-age pensions.
" Four of the above resolutions—namely, C, E, F, and L—were tabled pending
the securing of further information regarding representations. Six resolutions—
namely, G, H, I, J, K, and M—are deserving of consideration by the respective Departments of Government to which they are directed.
" Your Committee recognizes the fact that Resolutions A, B, and D involve
the revenues of the Crown. However, they are of immediate importance and are passed
on to the Departments concerned with the recommendation of this Committee that they
be implemented in so far as possible. At the same time, your Committee recommends
that in view of the importance of the agricultural industry the appropriations for
agriculture ought to be sufficiently increased to permit of the extension and expansion
of such policies as that dealing with the subsidy on agricultural lime.
" Resolution A, referring to predatory-animal bounties, is of paramount importance
in all sections where predatory animals are decimating farm herds and flocks.
We recommend, therefore, that a bounty of $5 on coyotes, $20 on wolves, and $30 on
cougars be paid from Provincial funds and that restrictions respecting the destruction
of birds damaging farm property be relaxed.
" It is further suggested by this Committee that, upon request, farmers be given
permission to destroy pheasants when they are found doing damage to crops.
" This Committee regrets to note that, while the appropriation for predatory-
animal bounties is considerably decreased in the Estimates for the coming year, there
is provided a large appropriation to be used in the distribution of pheasants and other
game birds that are frequently detrimental to farm crops.
" Resolution B, advocating a farmer-member on the Game Board, is endorsed with
the recommendation that this suggestion receive the immediate attention of the Hon.
the Attorney-General, under whose Department game administration comes.
" Resolution D, asking for the lime bonus increase from 50 cents to $1 a ton on
lime used for soil improvement, is approved. In this connection your Committee points
out that the appropriation for agriculture is entirely inadequate to take care of extension and expansion, imperative for the sound establishment of farming as a primary
industry of a large number of our people.
" The Select Standing Committee on Agriculture has carefully studied the matters
laid before it by the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes, and it concurs in the opinion
that an increase in the Estimates for the Department of Agriculture is essential.
" With reference to Resolution K, it is the opinion of this Committee that leadership must be given by the Government in the organizing and making available of suitable and adequate labour to assist in agricultural operations during the current year. S 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture called in the Agricultural Production Committee in order to ascertain what further action had been taken with a view
to informing and advising farmers respecting their agricultural pursuits. We express
complete satisfaction with the findings resulting from the questioning of this Committee. Since the outbreak of war in 1939 they have issued forty-six separate circulars
to agricultural organizations and the farm press dealing with pertinent farm topics and
advising on production matters of the greatest importance.
" The Agricultural Production Committee recognizes its responsibility and is fully
aware of the seriousness of the existing situation and the necessity for continued
vigilance and diligence in maintaining the agricultural efficiency of British Columbia.
" All of which is respectfully submitted. ' „„„-,, ~,   .
" E. C. Carson, Chairman."
MEETINGS AND CONFERENCES.
In January we had the privilege of hearing Lord de la Warr speak before the Canadian Club and other organizations. During his visit to Victoria the Farmers' Institute
Advisory Board and the officials of the Provincial Department of Agriculture were
present and heard him speak on British agriculture. Lord de la Warr gave a graphic
description of the place that Britain has taken in the agricultural effort during the war
years and also alluded to the proper developments in world trade after the war.
A Poultry Conference was called for January at Ottawa and British Columbia was
represented by the Markets Commissioner, Ernest MacGinnis. Following this conference a further meeting was held at Edmonton when Mr. John Peacock, of the British
Ministry of Foods, spoke on Britain's needs. The information given by Mr. Peacock
on the probable imports of eggs and egg-powder into Britain during the war years and
for some time thereafter was of great interest to the poultrymen of British Columbia.
In April a meeting of veterinarians and administrative heads of the four Western
Provinces was called for Calgary to consider a unified policy with respect to veterinary
matters. The Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister, accompanied by the Deputy
Minister and Live Stock Commissioner, were in attendance and participated in the
discussions. Immediately following this meeting the Live Stock Commissioner visited
some of the areas in Alberta where artificial insemination has been adopted by
dairymen.
At Winnipeg in May the Poultry Committee met for three days to discuss the Provincial policies with respect to flock approval and recommendations from that convention
were sent on to Ottawa. The Federal Government later approved of blood test of
poultry flocks by either of two methods—namely, the tube method and the rapid test.
These two types of test were made available to British Columbia poultrymen this year
and it is expected that a total of 400,000 birds will have been tested by the end of
the calendar year.
According to information compiled at Ottawa there were 6,378,335 approved chicks
hatched in British Columbia in 1944. Of these, 2,546,335 chicks were exported from
the Province and 3,917,550 chicks remained in our flocks, together with 85,550 chicks
which were imported into British Columbia. This indicates an increase of 17.53 per
cent, in the chicks hatched in 1944 over the 1943 production. The actual figures are:
6,378,335 chicks hatched in 1944 and 5,426,950 hatched in 1943.
This represents an increase of 951,385 approved chicks hatched.
It is estimated that there were 637,833 non-approved chicks hatched in British
Columbia in 1944 as compared with 542,695 the preceding year.
DOMINION-PROVINCIAL CONFERENCE.
The Dominion-Provincial Agricultural Conference to arrange agricultural objectives for 1945 was held December 4th, 5th, and 6th at the Chateau Laurier, in Ottawa. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 15
Delegates from British Columbia included the Minister of Agriculture, the Markets
Commissioner, and the Director of Dominion-Provincial Emergency Farm Labour
Service. At this conference many matters connected with agricultural production
were discussed and the Canadian statistical picture was presented. This year Canada
has reached her objective in many commodities, and particularly in the matter of tree-
fruit production, seed-growing, dairy, and meats British Columbia has fulfilled her
responsibility.
The objective for 1945 will be shown in a report to Farmers' Institutes, Women's
Institutes, and Agricultural Associations early in the new year but, for the purpose of
this record, the 1944 production and the recommended production for 1945 covering
the Dominion as a whole is shown in Appendix No. 19 in this report.
It will be noticed that wheat production is now higher than is required. It will
be reduced by approximately 2,000,000 acres and coarse grains will be increased to take
the place of wheat. Hog production should remain at the same level for 1945 as for
the present year. It is hoped that creamery butter production will be increased while
condensed whole milk may not be required to the same extent as was anticipated this
year.    The egg production for export will be very materially increased.
Of particular interest to British Columbia is the seed requirements. Alfalfa, alsike
clover, and red clover, particularly, together with timothy and other grass-seeds are
required greatly in excess of present production. This is also true of vegetable and
field root seeds for which there appears to be a ready market which will continue as
long as the European sources of supply are not available.
IMPORTED EGGS.
In accordance with the " Eggs Marks Act," chapter 82, R.S.B.C. 1936, and amendments thereto, imported eggs and egg products entering British Columbia by the Pacific
Coast ports are examined upon arrival. If found to comply with the regulations as
set out in the above Act, they are released to the importer or otherwise held until the
requirements have been fulfilled.
During the past ten months six cases of hatching-eggs arriving into the port of
Victoria from U.S.A. were reported through the courtesy of John Noble, Federal
District Inspector. There are no arrivals of eggs or egg products reported at the port
of Vancouver.
POUND DISTRICTS.
Under the provisions of the " Pound District Act," the following Pound Districts
have been constituted since those listed in the report for the year 1942: Alces, Beaver
Falls, Driftwood, Fruitvale, McLeod-Willow Valley, Riverside, Sunrise Valley, and
West Nicomen.
The boundaries of the Kootenay Reclamation Pound District have been extended.
EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS.
In the report of 1939 information regarding regulations governing the problem of
equine encephalomyelitis was given. The regulations, which prevent the importation
into British Columbia of horses from outside points except under .permit issued over
the signature of the Minister of Agriculture for British Columbia, have been strictly
observed during 1944. In the past twelve months 300 permits have been issued providing for approximately 2,000 horses to enter British Columbia. In all, there have
been more than 13,000 permits issued during the past five years. Through the cooperation of horse-owners vaccinating many thousands of farm animals in the Southern
Interior and the Peace River Districts, this Province has remained practically free from
any outbreak of sleeping sickness of horses. S 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
KOCH TREATMENT INVESTIGATION.
As a result of correspondence between this Department and Dr. D. H. Arnott, of
London, Ontario, during the past summer, arrangements were made by the Minister
of Agriculture for representatives of the British Columbia Veterinary Association, the
University of British Columbia, and the Department of Agriculture to meet in the
Court-house, Vancouver, on September 25th, when Dr. Arnott visited British Columbia
and outlined to those present the Koch method of treating dairy cattle for acute infectious mastitis and related diseases of cattle. Most of the veterinarians present
appeared to be hostile to the Koch method of treatment of cattle in which 5 c.c. of
glyoxilide solution is administered subcutaneously by hypodermic injection. However,
the Minister stated that he wished to have a further meeting of veterinarians and the
owners of dairy cattle and this was called for October 4th in the afternoon in the
Vancouver Court-house.
At this second meeting, attended by the veterinarians, Government and University
officials, the Minister of Agriculture and Dr. Arnott, there were many dairymen present
who made astounding claims for the Koch treatment. In practically all cases the
dairymen claimed that their cows responded almost immediately to the single injection
of glyoxilide. These cattle-owners were emphatic in their request that no action be
taken which would prevent their obtaining Koch treatments when required. In addition to the dairymen present a number of letters had been received from cattle-owners
prior to the meeting. The Minister stated that it was his desire to form an opinion
based upon accurate investigations and he named a committee to undertake this investigation. On the committee the British Columbia Veterinary Association, the University of British Columbia, the Provincial Department of Agriculture, and representatives of the several breed associations were included, together with Dr. D. H. Arnott,
who represents the Dr. Wm. F. Koch Laboratories.
This committee held its first meeting on the evening of October 4th and outlined
suggestions to be laid before the Minister with respect to undertaking the work.
Acting upon these suggestion's the Minister appointed J. E. Bennett, B.V.Sc, Secretary
of the British Columbia Veterinary Association, as a Provincial Inspector to work with
G. F. R. Barton, B.V.Sc, of Chilliwack, who was named to represent Dr. Arnott.
-   Together these men have reported on thirty individual cases secured in seventeen
herds.    Their preliminary report submitted on December 15th states that:-—
" This work is not being done for the purpose of investigating the cause of the
disease but solely to determine the value of a treatment which it is claimed will alleviate, cure, or prevent certain diseases, among which are contagious abortion, infertility,
and mastitis in cattle.
" Mastitis being exceedingly prevalent and offering a ready means of progress of
this treatment through the bacteriological examination of milk samples it was therefore decided to conduct a limited investigation as to the merits or demerits of the Koch
treatment."
Milk specimens were taken from each quarter of the udder of the affected animal
by the veterinarians at the time each animal was injected. Altogether, sixty-one
initial samples of milk were taken from infected udders. A bacteriological examination was made and noted. Then forty duplicate samples were taken a week later,
examined and compared bacteriologically with the first. A second physical examination was made at this time and compared with the first and any improvement or otherwise was accurately recorded.
A further veterinarian's report on the progress of the Koch treatment investigation was submitted on December 30th. As previously stated, there have been thirty
distinct cases of mastitis treated, of which twenty show improvement according to
the bacterial count.    One showed decided improvement following the second injection DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.
S 17
and examination; two cases were doubtful; six showed no bacterial reduction but, of
these, four showed improvement in milk and udder condition and one animal died
during the period.    This was an emergency treatment for a severe teat injury.
The remarkable reduction in bacteria is of interest, particularly in view of the
fact that bacterial reduction was not claimed for the treatment which was simply that
dairy cows could be brought back by means of a glyoxilide injection to the condition
that would permit them to produce market milk.
The following table shows a favourable reduction in bacterial count in the majority
of cases as between the first test and the second test made seven days later:—
Name of Cow. First Bacterial Count.       Second Bacterial Count.
Diane
472,000
Pearl   25,000,000
Edna      2,580,000
Lily   88,000
Molly _.  18,000,000
No. 10   57,000
No. 11         110,000
Nancy   10,000
Polly         215,000
6351         414,000
Beauty   24,000,000
Flossie   5,000
Mary      2,000,000
icl-2v	
Star	
7601 	
X33140 	
5051 	
Hole  :	
Mona  	
Mar j ory	
No. 13 	
No. 14	
ely-4p 	
Nigger 	
Jeannette 	
Vera 	
23,000
483,000
203,000
2,000
228,000
45,000
3,300,000
10,000
3,000
4,000
20,000
1,000
8,000
3,000
165,000
95,000
6,000
4,000
25,000
26,000
1,000
1,000
172,000
6,000
18,600,000
4,000
700,000
2,400
82,800
78,000
1,100
5,500
10,000
16,700
35,000
13,000
14,000
12,500,000
5,000
15,000
16,000
It may be noted that cow No. 13 shown above is reported on as drying up with
mastitis and ely-4p is shown as improving in udder condition in spite of the high
bacterial content. The last-mentioned cow, Vera, had a severe accident to the udder
between treatments which doubtless accounts for the increase in bacteria. However
she was making satisfactory recovery when last reported on.
It is realized that this report is incomplete and that sufficient time has not yet
elapsed for a definite statement of the efficacy of the glyoxilide treatment to be made.
However, the veterinarians conducting the tests have thus far been encouraged by the
general reactions among treated animals and they report that it deserves further
investigation.
In all, 100 diseased animals were to be included in the Koch investigation by the
Department of Agriculture. This means that another fifty animals must yet be examined, injected, and reported upon. To date, in addition to the thirty cows reported
upon, there have been twenty animals treated for a variety of diseases.    Reports on
2 S 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
all of these animals will be made from time to time during 1945 to the Minister of
Agriculture.
PLANT INSPECTION SERVICE.
The following report for the year 1944 has been prepared by G. V. Wilby, M.Sc.
It covers activities now under Federal jurisdiction but of interest to the Province:—
There has been an appreciable increase in the total number of imports during the
last year. Approximately three times the number of shipments were inspected and
almost twice the total quantity of plants, etc. The increase was chiefly in ornamental
stock, fruit seedlings, ornamental seedlings, plants and scions. On the other hand
there was a considerable decrease in the numbers of fruit-trees, small fruits, roots,
and bulbs.    The total value of the shipments remained approximately the same.
Exports of nursery stock for the past year have increased greatly; the numbers
of plants, trees, bulbs, etc., being approximately three times greater than the year
before. The quantity of vegetable-seed exported to Mexico and Russia was about
twenty-one times that of the year previous. The total number of shipments has
increased about 50 per cent, and the total values are approximately thirteen times
greater.
Interprovincial shipments from points east of Manitoba have dropped off in number of consignees and the greatest single decrease has been in the numbers of forced
bulbs from Ontario for planting out in British Columbia. There have been slight
gains in the quantities of small fruits, roses, fruit, and ornamental seedlings, plants
and roots. In spite of the rather sharp drop in total imports the total value is over
twice that of last year.
Surveys.
The pear psylla (Psylla pyricola Foerst) survey, which was started in 1940, is still
continuing in the Okanagan area. The project is under the combined authorities of
the United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, and the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture.
The survey portion of the project has been extended northward on both sides of
Okanagan Lake this year, which necessitated a considerable increase in the trapping
programme.
In July, the Provincial Government supplied 1,200 new traps to supplement those
already in use.
The Dominion Government's share of the survey was under the direction of L. L.
Reed, who was assisted for the greater part of the summer by W. D. Touzeau from the
Vancouver office.
Studies are being made this year of the San Jose scale in Oliver, Osoyoos, Kere-
meos, and Kelowna by H. F. Olds, of this office, in connection with the apple export
trade.
Inspection of grain elevators and grain storage warehouses was repeated during
the past season in New Westminster, Vancouver, and Victoria. In most cases very
little insect-life of any importance was found.
Items of Interest.
In September of this year one of the largest shipments of peanuts ever to arrive
in British Columbia was landed at Vancouver. These peanuts were from India and
from knowledge gained from previous shipments arriving at eastern ports, it was
expected that insect infestation might be heavy. H. A. U. Monro therefore came from
Montreal to supervise the fumigation of the peanuts in steel refrigerator cars, the
fumigant used being methyl bromide. The results were extremely satisfactory and
the kill was probably 100 per cent.    The whole shipment, consisting of ninety-seven DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 19
cars, went east to Fort William to be put in storage until needed. All of the peanuts
are to be used for feed purposes.
During the past year numerous requests have been dealt with in this office regarding insect pests in gardens and households. The most common household insects were
carpet-beetles, grain-weevils, and silverfish.
In July an outbreak of spider-beetles in a warehouse at Mission was reported and
dealt with by our inspectors.
In August a shipment of sharks' fins for consumption by the local Chinese trade
was discovered in the Customs examining warehouse to be heavily infested with larder-
beetles. This shipment was fumigated. Apparently these sharks' fins, which originally came from Mexico, had been kept in storage in San Francisco for some time, and
were reduced in some instances to hollow pouches.
The first known shipment of ginger-root from Tahiti arrived here in October for
the Chinese trade.    This was of excellent quality.
The shipments of vegetable-seeds to Mexico and Russia were much larger than
during last year.    The seeds were sent to Russia for the Russian War Relief.
A new market for British Columbia flax-seed was found this year in Peru. The
shipment was in excess of 64 tons.
Shipping News.
For the year ending November 30th, 1944, 1,154 deep-sea and coastwise vessels
docked at Vancouver. Of this number, one brought nursery stock and eighteen brought
plant products as part of their cargo. This represents a drop from the totals of last
year.
Passengers' baggage included three via Great Northern Railway, consisting of
eight carnation plants, two palm trees, and seven lily-bulbs.    All shipments were released
after inspection. .
Imported Nursery Stock.
The following table covers the period from December 1st, 1943, to November 30th,
1944:—
Fruit-trees      21,072
Small fruits     110,187
Ornamental trees and shrubs         3,778
Roses   5
Fruit seedlings      160,792
Ornamental seedlings          2,476
Plants  2,526,582
Roots          9,836
Bulbs        25,524 and % pt.
Scions        74,342
Total 2,934,594 and % pt.
Miscellaneous.
Peach-pits  784,866
Aquatic plants  1 bU- 2 qt.
Aquatic seed  150 lb. and V/2 bu.
Cherry-pits  81b.
Blueberry-cuttings       1,056 lb.
Peppermint-roots    16,410 lb.
Sweet potato seed  59 15.
Inspections  937
Containers       1,680
Value  $24,847.04 S 20 .       BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The countries of origin for the impoxtations were: Australia, Costa Rica, Eire,
England, Ireland, Newfoundland, and the United States of America.
Interprovincial Nursery Stock.
The following table includes shipments from Canadian growers in the Provinces
east of Manitoba. The shipments from the Prairie Provinces have been handled by
the inspection staff of the Provincial Department of Agriculture.
Total shipments to British Columbia for the year December 1st, 1943, to November 30th, 1944:—
Fruit-trees          1,565
Small fruits         7,406
Ornamental trees and shrubs         2,161
Rose-bushes   604
Fruit seedlings   292
Ornamental seedlings   174
Plants          8,577
Roots          3,599
Bulbs  1,369,578
Scions   12
Blueberry-cuttings          2,018
Artichoke-eyes   225
Onion sets   800
Total 1,397,011
Total shipments          1,327
Containers          3,494
Value     $18,121.83
Interceptions included fifteen raspberry-canes condemned for girdler {Agrilus
sp.), anthracnose, and tree-cricket eggs; five pine-trees for pine-shoot moth, and two
gladiolus corms for soft-rot.
Prohibited entry into British Columbia: Regulation No. 3, Domestic, one five-
needle pine.    Regulation No. 6, Domestic, five peach-trees.
Interceptions, Nursery Stock, 19 U.—One apricot-tree, four cherry-trees, three
peach-trees, and seventeen pear-trees intercepted for root-gall, and one cactus plant
for Diaspis sp. scale.
One shipment of strawberry plants arrived at the Vancouver airport by plane
from Washington. The plants were all infected by red stele disease. They were confiscated and destroyed.
REPORT OF STATISTICIAN.
G. H. Stewart, Agricultural Statistician.
The total gross value of agricultural production in British Columbia in 1943 was
the highest on record. Estimated at $86,917,546, the 1943 total is $13,062,311 or 17.7
per cent, above the 1942 estimate.
Increases are recorded in the revenue from farm animals, poultry and eggs, dairy
products, fruits and vegetables, grains, fodders, wool, hops and seeds. Decreases are
shown in the revenue from honey and tobacco.
The total value of imports is placed at $36,854,623, as compared with $29,768,618
in 1942, an increase of $7,086,005 or 23.8 per cent. The gain in imports was particularly marked in the case of live stock and feed-grains. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 21
Imports from other Provinces are valued at $34,553,856, compared with $27,976,058
in 1942, while imports from foreign points increased from $1,792,560 in 1942 to
$2,300,767 in 1943.
The total value of exports is estimated at $16,866,173 in 1943, as compared with
$14,683,041 in 1942, an increase of $2,183,132 or 14.8 per cent.    The 1943 values are
the highest ever recorded.
FRUITS.
Low winter temperatures were recorded in many of the fruit-growing sections
of the Province. In some areas the thermometer dropped to well below zero, with
resultant injury to many of the fruit-trees, particularly peaches and apricots. The
spring was late, while generally cool weather prevailed during the summer period.
The fall was mild with little frost and, on the whole, most satisfactory for harvesting
fruits and vegetables.
Extreme temperatures and unfavourable spring conditions were, to a certain
extent, accountable to the comparatively short crop of practically all tree-fruits.
Apples, pears, crab-apples, peaches, and apricots showed a marked reduction over the
1942 crop, while prunes and cherries were slightly larger. There was little rain during
the cherry season, with the result that split cherries were reduced to a minimum.
Raspberries showed a considerable increase in production over that of the previous
year. On the other hand, the strawberry-crop was lower. The reduction in strawberry production can, no doubt, be accounted for by a reduction in acreage following
the movement of Japanese from the Coastal areas. Loganberries were also a short
crop, due to a certain extent to comparatively dry weather just before and during the
harvesting period.
The other small fruits show a slightly lower trend but are not of outstanding
importance.
The total production of all fruits in 1943 amounted to 244,208,000 lb., valued at
$13,148,737, as compared with 321,484,000 lb., valued at $12,209,696, in 1942, indicating a decrease of 77,276,000 lb. or 24 per cent, in volume but an increase of $939,041
or 7.7 per cent, in value.
The total production of commercial apples for 1943 is estimated at 186,196,000 lb.,
of a value of $7,800,479, as compared with 243,950,000 lb., value $7,637,384, in 1942.
Of the other fruits, the estimated commercial production and value for 1943 are
as follows, with corresponding figures for 1942 within brackets: Crab-apples, 3,326,000
lb., $113,109 (6,082,000, $152,326) ; pears, 14,142,000 lb., $741,621 (15,958,000, $809,-
040) ; plums, 2,570,000 lb., $145,829 (2,924,000, $121,206) ; prunes, 8,522,000 lb.,
$594,464 (6,028,000, $289,439) ; peaches, 9,650,000 lb., $680,233 (19,156,000, $876,286) ;
apricots, 1,244,000 lb., $101,738 (4,876,000, $226,744) ; cherries, 5,226,000 lb., $941,462
(4,578,000, $525,563) ; strawberries, 3,492,000 lb., $735,063 (7,352,000, $693,089) ;
raspberries, 5,238,000 lb., $870,483 (3,998,000, $441,435) ; blackberries, 966,000 lb.,
$111,471 (826,000, $57,955) ; loganberries, 1,312,000 lb., $153,391 (1,950,000, $154,268) ;
bush-fruits, 2,158,000 lb., $138,923 (3,618,000, $205,824).
VEGETABLES.
The commercial production of vegetables was, on the whole, larger than that of
last year. The shortage of potatoes during the past spring led to the planting of
a larger acreage than in 1942. The result was the production of a tonnage sufficient
to meet domestic requirements with very few potatoes being imported. The tomato
acreage was smaller than that of 1942 and there was a heavy demand for semi-ripes
which, it appeared, might shorten the cannery-crop. However, shipments were curtailed and with favourable fall weather a fairly satisfactory pack was secured.
The onion acreage was smaller than in 1942. Harvesting conditions were good,
with the result that the crop marketed was  of excellent quality.    There was an increased acreage as well as tonnage of such crops as carrots, cabbage, etc., which
were largely used for dehydration for military supplies.
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for the year 1943 was 94,854 tons, of a value
of $6,385,245, as compared with 84,265 tons, of a value of $4,476,393, produced in 1942,
indicating an increase of 10,589 tons or 12.5 per cent, in volume and $1,908,852 or
42.6 per cent, in value.
The total production of field and forced rhubarb in 1943 amounted to 1,742 tons,
of a value of $130,583, as compared with 1,603 tons, of a value of $100,554, in 1942;
an increase of 139 tons in quantity and $30,029 in value.
The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1943 amounted to 1,757 tons, as compared with 1,333 tons in 1942, an increase of 424 tons or 31.8 per cent.
The production of hothouse cucumbers is estimated at 223 tons, of a value of
$56,386, as compared with 306 tons, value $45,236, in 1942.
Field tomatoes produced in 1943 amounted to 21,443 tons, valued at $1,292,410,
as compared with 23,564 tons, valued at $915,226, in 1942, a decrease in quantity of
2,131 tons.
Hothouse tomatoes produced in 1943 amounted to 1,930 tons, as against 1,944 tons
in 1942, a decrease of 14 tons.
Other vegetables produced in 1943 amounted to 67,769 tons, valued at $4,017,346,
as compared with a production of 55,515 tons, valued at $2,779,640, in 1942.
GRAINS, FODDERS, AND ROOTS.
The winter temperatures experienced in all districts were the lowest recorded for
a number of years. As a result there was considerable winter-killing of legumes,
grasses, and winter wheat. The cold weather was followed by a cool late spring.
Summer temperatures were not as high as usual, but in practically all sections there
was a satisfactory supply of moisture. The fall was dry and climatic conditions generally were excellent for harvesting all crops. Grasshoppers were very bad in some districts and were responsible for much loss of crop. Acreages were down in most of
the grain-crops but yields were just slightly below those of 1942, and the outturn of
crops was fairly satisfactory. Pastures held out for a longer period due to more
moisture.
The total area devoted to the principal field crops in 1943 was 534,900 acres, as
compared with 545,300 acres in 1942, a decrease of 10,400 acres.
The production of all grains amounted to 6,926,000 bushels, valued at $4,922,000,
as compared with a production of 7,743,000 bushels, valued at $4,797,000, in 1942.
Wheat production in 1943 is estimated at 2,059,000 bushels from 79,200 acres,
a yield per acre of 26 bushels, as compared with 2,579,000 bushels from 90,500 acres,
or 28.5 bushels per acre, in 1942. Oats yielded 3,627,000 bushels from 72,400 acres,
as compared with 3,819,000 bushels from 73,300 acres in 1942, yields per acre of 50.1
bushels and 52.1 bushels respectively. Barley production is estimated at 693,000
bushels from 20,100 acres, or 34.5 bushels per acre, as compared with 854,000 bushels
from 22,900 acres, or 37.3 bushels per acre, in 1942. Rye is estimated to have yielded
29,000 bushels from 1,400 acres, as compared with 45,000 bushels from 2,000 acres in
1942, yields per acre of 20.8 and 22.3 bushels.
The production of mixed grains is estimated at 270,000 bushels from 6,700 acres,
or 40.3 bushels per acre, as compared with 253,000 bushels from 6,200 acres, or 40.8
bushels per acre, in 1942. The production of other grain-crops, in bushels, are as
follows, with the 1942 figures within brackets: Peas, 159,000 (148,000); beans, 13,000
(15,000);   flax-seed, 76,000 (30,000).
Fodder-crops aggregating a total of 681,000 tons, valued at $12,922,000, were produced as against the 1942 production of 820,000 tons, valued at $9,452,000. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 23
Hay and clover production in 1943 amounted to 393,000 tons from 213,800 acres,
or 1.84 tons per acre, as compared with 484,000 tons from 218,000 acres, or 2.22 tons
per acre, in 1942. Alfalfa yielded 179,000 tons from 71,400 acres, or 2.50 tons per
acre, as compared with 221,000 tons from 69,800 acres, or 3.16 tons per acre, in 1942.
Fodder corn yielded 50,000 tons from 4,500 acres, or 11.12 tons per acre, as compared
with 47,000 tons from 4,400 acres, or 10.65 tons per acre, in 1942. Grain-hay is
estimated to have yielded 59,000 tons from 29,500 acres, as compared with 68,000 tons
from 30,000 acres in 1942, yields per acre of 2.00 tons and 2.25 tons respectively.
The total yield of potatoes in 1943 was 108,100 tons from 18,800 acres, as compared with 75,500 tons from 15,100 acres in 1942, yields per acre of 5.75 and 5.00 tons.
Turnips, etc., yielded 34,900 tons from 3,200 -acres, or 10.90 tons per acre, as
compared with 39,800 tons from 3,900 acres, or 10.20 tons per acre, in 1942.
The average prices up to December 31st received by growers at the point of
production for the 1943 crops are estimated as follows, with the prices for 1942 crops
within brackets: Cents per bushel—wheat, 96 (80) ; oats, 50 (45) ; barley, 66 (62) ;
rye, 72 (65); peas, 190 (160) ; beans, 200 (190) ; flax-seed, 210 (195) ; mixed grains,
61 (52). Dollars per ton—hay and clover, 20 (12); alfalfa, 21 (12.50); fodder corn,
6 (5) ;   potatoes, 35 (45) ;   turnips, etc., 18 (15).
The aggregate value of all field crops in the Province in 1943 is estimated at
$22,256,000, as compared with $18,244,000 in 1942, an increase of $4,012,000.
DAIRY PRODUCTS.
From a dairying standpoint, climatic conditions were none too favourable. The
season was not an advanced one and pastures and green crops became available later
than usual. Fall sown crops yielded fairly well, but other dairy feeds suffered from
general dryness of summer. The demand for fluid milk continued to impinge on the
output of manufactured products, and butter made on farms has declined.
The production of milk on farms in 1943 is estimated at 574,856,000 lb., as compared with 567,722,000 lb. in 1942.
The 1943 creamery butter make amounted to 4,874,787 lb., as compared with
5,357,027 lb. in 1942, a decrease of 482,240 lb. or 9 per cent.
Factory cheese is estimated at 718,063 lb. in 1943, as compared with the final
estimate of 879,787 lb. in 1942, representing a decrease of 161,724 lb. or 18.2 per cent.
The production of ice-cream reached an all-time high. The combined output of
ice-cream and ice-cream mix totalled 1,669,659 gallons in 1943, as against 1,412,705
gallons in 1942, indicating an increase of 256,954 gallons or 18.1 per cent.
The production of evaporated milk is estimated at 549,733 cases in 1943, in comparison with 603,467 cases in 1942, a decrease of 53,734 cases.
The quantity of fresh milk consumed in 1943 is estimated at 26,100,000 gallons,
as compared with 23,525,000 gallons in 1942, which represents an increase of 2,575,000
gallons.
The aggregate value of all dairy products in 1943 is estimated at $18,438,111, as
compared with the 1942 production amounting to $17,662,371, an increase of $775,740
or 4.2 per cent.
LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY.
The live-stock situation in British Columbia during 1943 was quite good. Marketings of live stock were heavier than during the previous year and prices obtained were
fairly satisfactory. A further substantial increase of 14.3 per cent, in numbers of
cattle on farms is shown in the results of the June 1st, 1943, survey as compared with
a year previously. Sheep and swine numbers increased by 5.2 per cent, and 9.5 per
cent, respectively. Hens and chickens on farms recorded an increase of 20 per cent,
in numbers. S 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total numbers and values of farm live stock in British Columbia at June 1st,
1943, are estimated as follows, with the corresponding figures for 1942 within brackets:
Horses, 62,170, $6,428,000 (62,000, $5,022,000) ; milk cows, 93,700, $8,058,000 (92,500,
$7,215,000) ; other cattle, 282,300, $15,203,000 (236,500, $12,061,000) ; total cattle,
376,000, $23,261,000 (329,000, $19,276,000) ; sheep, 132,000, $1,475,000 (125,500, $1,162,-
000);   hogs, 89,800, $1,439,000  (82,000, $1,550,000).
The total value of all these descriptions of farm live stock in 1943 amounted to
$32,603,000, as compared with $27,010,000 in 1942, an increase of $5,593,000 or 20.7
per cent.
The total numbers and values of farm poultry in 1943 are estimated as follows,
with the 1942 figures within brackets: Hens and chickens, 3,561,600, $4,452,000
(2,968,000, $2,820,000) ; turkeys, 46,300, $155,000 (53,300, $165,000) ; geese, 8,500,
$24,000  (7,000, $16,000);   ducks, 10,300, $14,400 (18,600, $19,000).
The production of farm eggs in 1943 is estimated at 24,041,000 dozens, compared
with 22,376,000 dozens in 1942, an increase of 1,665,000 dozens.
MISCELLANEOUS.
The production of honey in 1943 is estimated at 1,275,760 lb., of a value of $197,743,
as against 1,333,600 lb., of a value of $280,100, in 1942, representing a decrease in
quantity of 57,840 lb. Although numbers of bee-keepers and colonies were the highest
on record, average yields were disappointingly low, the average for 1943 being only
48.8 lb. per hive, as compared with 58.5 lb. per hive in 1942.
Wool production in 1943 amounted to 548,000 lb., valued at $141,000, as compared
with the 1942 production of 507,000 lb., valued at $130,000. A minor decrease in the
average weight of wool per fleece was more than offset by a considerable increase in
the numbers of sheep shorn.
Hops yielded 1,554,800 lb. from 1,544 acres, as compared with 1,202,700 lb. from
1,564 acres in 1942, yields per acre of 1,007 lb. and 769 lb. respectively. The 1943
hop-crop was valued at $1,088,360. Prices were higher than in the previous year, the
crop averaging 70 cents per lb. as compared with 55 cents in 1942.
The yield of tobacco in 1943 is estimated at 267,100 lb. from 220 acres, or 1,214 lb.
per acre, as compared with 373,000 lb. from 360 acres, or 1,036 lb. per acre, in 1942.
All lines of seed production show an increase both in quantity and value. The
number of growers interested in seed production is increasing and while it is realized
that a major portion of the seed produced is used to meet the requirements that were
originally supplied by Europe, it is hoped that a portion of this market will be held by
our producers when peace is declared. The total value of flower, vegetable, and field-
crop seed production for the year 1943 amounted to $1,297,965, as compared with the
1942 production of $901,515, an increase of $396,450 or 44 per cent.
The value of floricultural and ornamental nursery stock, etc., sold during 1943 is
placed at $542,600, an increase of $49,132 over the year previous.
The value of bulb production in the Province for 1943 is estimated at $212,400.
The revenue derived from fur-farming increased from $294,000 in 1942 to $309,000
in 1943.
REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH.
Ernest MacGinnis,  Commissioner.
Purchasing power continued firm during the year and surpluses, except in certain
varieties of a record apple-crop, were virtually unknown in the marketing of agricultural products. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 25
In January your Commissioner attended a meeting in Ottawa of the National
Poultry Conference, at which representatives of all Provincial Departments of Agriculture, poultry producers, and the trade were present. Out of this conference evolved
the idea of a central body which would have to do with research into the food value
of eggs and poultry, and other plans, in preparation for post-war business.
The western section of the National Poultry Conference met at Edmonton in March,
with Mr. John Peacock, London provision merchant, and at present in charge of egg
and poultry products for the British Ministry of Foods. Your Commissioner attended
this conference and, accompanied by representatives of the trade and inspection service,
interviewed Mr, Peacock and demonstrated how, by the use of refrigerated shipping
from Vancouver, it would be possible to land fresh British Columbia eggs on the British
breakfast table at the conclusion of the war. The proposal interested Mr. Peacock who
with his wide experience in the produce business was able to state that the London
market is normally bare of fresh eggs from October to January.
In this connection it might be noted that Mr. Peacock expressed himself as being
very pleased with the quality of dried eggs supplied from Canada, as, subject to
priorities, plans are well advanced for the establishment of an egg-drying plant in
Vancouver, where a small breaking plant is now operating.
It was not convenient to officially attend any other conference during the year.
The dates of the annual meeting of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association
usually attended by the Markets Branch officials conflicted with the Poultry meeting
in Ottawa above referred to.
As was the case last year, the services of the Commissioner have been loaned to the
Dominion-Provincial Emergency Farm Labour Service office in Vancouver, from which
point—with occasional trips to Victoria—it has been possible to keep in touch with
major marketing movements.
APPLES.
Some indication of the comparative returns for apples may be found in the following average shipping-point values, including package and packing charges for the five
seasons 1939-43: Nova Scotia, 70 cents; Ontario, 73 cents; New Brunswick, $1.08;
Quebec, $1.09;   and British Columbia, $1.16.
Reports from Prairie points received during the soft-fruits season confirm that the
shortage of sugar proved a deterring factor in the marketing of crab-apples, prunes,
and plums. This condition was reported from two points during the first half of
September.
A recent progressive marketing move to be noted was the acquisition by Tree
Fruits, Limited, of Canadian Fruit Distributors, Limited, from the Associated Growers
of B.C., Limited. Through this action last year the grower-owned, one-desk selling
agency of the fruit and vegetable men of the Interior of the Province controls this
string of brokerage houses, which has branches at Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton,
Saskatoon, Regina, and Winnipeg. These direct outlets to the natural markets for
Okanagan and Kootenay fruit and produce have been operating very successfully for
many years.
During the season a delegation from Nova Scotia, comprising Government officials,
growers and packers, visited the Okanagan with a view to investigating cold-storage
arrangements in the West. The machinery which has been evolved here during the
past ten years and under which its fruit-crop is so successfully marketed through the
close association of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, the British
Columbia Fruit Board (which operates under the powers given it by the " Natural
Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act"), and Tree Fruits, Limited, its designated agency, was also studied. S 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A record crop was harvested in stone-fruits and marketing problems enhanced
when extremely favourable weather conditions ripened peaches, pears, and plums all
at the same time. Prunes overran their estimate to the extent of 150,000 and peaches
hit an all-time high of 1,200,000.
Transcendent crab-apples with a heavy crop and sugar shortage went into consumption slowly towards the end of the deal. Hyslops came on a loaded market and
about 50 per cent, of this latter variety were put into cans. By underwriting this
canning activity Tree Fruits avoided what would otherwise have been a heavy wastage
and conserved food.
The cherry-crop overran estimates by about 40 per cent., but the apple-crop
constituted the principal problem. Originally estimated to be a 6,500,000-box crop,
unusual weather conditions favourable to late accelerated growth increased this to
7,500,000, or 2,000,000 more than the former high. Shipment to the United Kingdom,
which formerly ran from much smaller crops as high as 2,000,000 boxed, is expected
to absorb about 25 per cent, of this amount. Limited shipping space is a controlling
factor in all exports except to the United States, where a record crop has been harvested.
The increased crop had direct repercussions on the box-shook situation which
because of labour shortage already constituted a serious problem. The shipment of
approximately 500,000 boxes of Jonathan in bulk to the United States had an effect of
partially disposing of this variety, the firmness of which will adapt it to bulk shipment
and the conservation of 500,000 boxes with which to handle later varieties.
The distribution of labour between the picking of extraordinarily large crops,
box-shook mills, and packing-houses already glutted provided a serious problem. A considerable quantity of late apples was stored in orchards and outbuildings on the ranches
due to the shortage of packing-house space. There is accommodation for about 3,250,-
000 boxes in cold storage.
It is interesting to note that at the end of October over 2,500,000 boxes had been sold
and shipped as compared with 1,750,000 boxes on the same date in 1942. As 1943 was
a light crop, comparative figures with regard to that year are not so valuable. An
advertising campaign fortunately had been maintained throughout 1943, and this was
intensified with good effect.
POTATOES.
Coast Board.
Another interesting forward movement in the control by growers of their marketing operations was the organization of the new grower-owned selling agency of the
British Columbia Coast Vegetable Marketing Board. This new agency in its first ten
months of operation marketed potatoes and vegetables to the value of $1,241,659.49
during that period with an overhead of $19,837.86, of which $6,392.33 was surplus.
The Board points out that this excellent showing was made notwithstanding that the
handling charge on early potatoes was reduced from $3 to $2 per ton.
In November,. 1943, a growers' meeting at Mission declared that in that and the
Abbotsford and Matsqui areas there were 2,000 tons of marketable potatoes going to
waste because of lack of marketing machinery. Arrangements were made with the
Secretary of the British Columbia Certified Seed-growers' Association to survey these
areas, which disclosed considerable damage from pests and less than 300 tons of
potatoes of marketable quality available, that most of these were in pits and not being
offered for sale until later in the season.
It is noted that the volume of potatoes handled by the British Columbia Coast
Vegetable Marketing Board had doubled in the past seven years and that the sales
value has shown a healthy increase; the over-all average price of potatoes and other
vegetables having increased from $26 to $44 a ton in the last four years.    This may be DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.
S 27
partly explained by the larger acreage in earlies, which this year shows an increase
of 108 per cent, over 1940 compared with a decrease of 25 per cent, in late varieties in
1944. During the 1944 crop season a market for ninety cars of early potatoes was
found in Minnesota, relieving what would otherwise have been very heavy surpluses of
a commodity which had to go into consumption at once. Of the late varieties grown
in 1943, over 200 car-loads were purchased by the Wartime Food Board for distribution
in Eastern Canada.
The yield of potatoes and vegetables on the lower mainland is down considerably
compared with 1943 tonnage. Netted Gem potatoes about 20 per cent., earlies 30 per
cent., while second earlies were about the same as the previous year on a total acreage
of commercials reduced about 30 per cent, under 1943.
Turnips with an increased acreage were down about 50 per cent, in quantity.
Beets, carrots, and cabbage were in reduced acreage, with beets only appearing in
surplus amounts.
Interior Board.
From the 1943 crop there were diverted to dehydration 2,000 tons of potatoes,
900 tons of onions, 4,000 tons of carrots,, and 3,400 tons of cabbage.
During the year, the Pemberton area was transferred by Order in Council from
the British Columbia Coast Vegetable Marketing Board to the British Columbia
Interior Vegetable Marketing Board.
The decision to establish mature greens in lugs as a standard tomato package met
with very gratifying results from both the producers and purchasers. The basic prices
to growers for canning tomatoes were $18 per ton for No. 1, $13 for No. 2, and $14
for juice. In addition to this, producers were subsidized to the extent of $3 per ton.
About 15,000 tons were canned.
Cabbage acreage increased 100 per cent, over the preceding year and carrots at
576 acres in 1943 showed an increase of over 100 per cent.
Appendices Nos. 3 and 4 show the total sales value of potatoes and vegetables sold
during the period April 1st, 1943, to March 31st, 1944.
STRAWBERRIES.
It is noted that strawberry production for all Canada in 1944 is estimated, to be
40 per cent, for the five-year average, 1938-42; Ontario, 53 per cent.; Quebec, 36 per
cent.; and British Columbia, 21 per cent. In Quebec the 1944 crop was estimated to
be 37 per cent, of 1943, 71 per cent, in Ontario, and 81 per cent, in British Columbia.
The movement of strawberries to the Prairies during the season was in very
limited quantity due to a number of unusual factors, the primary one being a considerably reduced tonnage, attributable to a variety of causes. The imposition of
a ceiling, at a price to which the growers objected strenuously, resulted in their decision
to pick only for preservation in S02. Two full cars and some express shipments to
the Prairies, in addition to Vancouver sales, 100 tons to the British Ministry of Food,
and the balance to local jam-factories, made up the destinations of this year's crop,
which was estimated to be about 1,500 tons.
The following is the car-lot berry movement to Prairie points in 1943:—
Crates.                                  '
Alberta.
Saskatchewan.
Manitoba.
10,157
706
2,415
13,988
588
14,931
12,838
Loganberries  -   	
334
11,617 LOGANBERRIES.
The 1943 loganberry movement was:— Lb.
6,734 crates (18-lb.)  :  121,212
Manufacturing  _'.  431,360
Total   552,572  (276 tons)
Of this manufacturing total is included 404 barrels of berries in S02.
RASPBERRIES.
A crop of about 2,400 tons was harvested, 700 tons of which were included in overseas allocations to the United Kingdom Ministry of Food and shipped in S02 solution.
At this date no figures have been released on the general movement to domestic
channels.
SEEDS.
In 1943 the product from almost 1,500 acres of seeds, of which onion, carrot, cauliflower, radish, lettuce, mangel, beet, swede, and parsnip predominated, was marketed
by the growers' organization, B.C. Seeds, Limited, with a grower value of over $450,000.
For 1944 the acreage has been stepped up to 2,100 acres of which 25 per cent, is peas;
onion-seed, however, having the highest value. It is expected that the 1944 crop yield
will approximate 1,300,000 lb. and due to this heavy business the B.C. Co-operative Seed
Association has under construction a suitable warehouse.
Of the 1944 British Columbia grown crop, upwards of 750,000 lb. of vegetable-
garden seeds are to the order of the British Food Mission.
CERTIFIED SEED POTATOES. )
British Columbia Certified Seed Potatoes are finding a ready market in Oregon,
Idaho, Washington, and California. Upwards of 1,500,000 lb. were shipped last year
by the co-operative and orders received to date indicate that there will be a similarly
large movement in 1944.
Excellent and appreciated co-operation has been again extended by the Dominion
Fruit Inspection staff at Coast and Prairie points. Bryson Whyte, Supervisor for
the Western Division of this service, severed his connection with it during the year
after upwards of a quarter of a century in that work.
Marketing Boards, some of them now in their tenth year, continue to demonstrate
that the grower is competent to market his own product economically and efficiently.
Board officials are watching with more than ordinary interest two movements with
direct bearing on their activities; the setting of floor prices and a Dominion Marketing
Act covering a wide range of primary products now being discussed by farmer groups.
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist.
In the horticultural districts of the Province the past season has been, on the whole,
extremely mild and well suited to the production of all fruit and vegetable crops. At
no point were low winter temperatures, such as prevailed during the past season,
recorded.    Snowfall was light in all.sections, which was viewed with alarm, particularly DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.
S 29
in those sections where irrigation is essential to plant-growth. Spring growth started
at about the same time as in 1943, but it was considerably drier than is usual at that
time of year, with the result that some seeded crops were slow in germinating. Late
spring rains improved the moisture-supply and occasional summer rains materially
helped the general growing conditions. The moisture-supply was, however, on the
whole short until the latter part of August. The rains continued through the fall in
sufficient quantity to meet the needs of the maturing crops without greatly interfering
with harvesting. This also definitely increased the size of the apple-crop, which would
have been large even under drier conditions. On the whole, the soil moisture at the
present time is slightly less than might be expected at this time of the year. Up to
the present no extreme frosts have occurred. There has been moderate rainfall in the
Coast sections and rain and light snows in the Interior districts.
Tree and Small Fruits.
While there has been a general increase in the production of all fruits during the
past season, it is in the production of tree-fruits that the, increase is most outstanding.
The following table shows the production of all fruits in British Columbia for 1943
with the estimated production for 1944:—
Kind.
Year.
Production.
Kind.
Year.
Production.
Apples 	
Crab-apples  \ . 	
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
Boxes.
4,433,238
7,546,700
92,413   ,
206,250
336,704
587,000
Crates.
128,485
214,500
501,319
746,500
261,246
320,500
482,501
1,365,000
62,164
288,600
Strawberries	
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
1943
1944
Crates.
193,998
256,278
291,045
314,100
53,701
Plums  - ....
Loganberries 	
50,227
Lb.
1,312,867
1,401,080
88,603
138,490
253,445
332,060
53,171
93,860
1,762,890
2,895,100
The price returns per box or crate for tree-fruits, while lower than the 1943,
have on the whole been satisfactory and the marketing of all fruit has, up to the date
of writing, been proceeding in an orderly manner. The apple-crop was the heaviest
ever recorded and already over 5,000,000 boxes have been sold.
In the 1943 report for this Branch it was pointed out that tree-fruit production,
and particularly apples, was a long-period investment. Furthermore, that if production was to be maintained consideration should be given by the grower to the question
of replacement of trees that had passed their maximum production. In that report
certain facts supporting this statement were quoted from the report of B. Hoy, District
Field Inspector for Kelowna. As the information which Mr. Hoy submitted was typical
of other fruit-growing sections, it seems advisable to again refer to this situation and to
quote from Mr. Hoy's report for this year in which he further discusses the matter.
The following is from Mr. Hoy's report for 1944:—
" The apple-crop this year is estimated to be the largest in the history of the
district.    When all returns are in it will in all probability be greater than the estimates.
" This has been an extremely favourable year for the growth of fruit-trees,
especially apples.    The increased crop is due chiefly to the size of the fruit.    This S 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
increased size of fruit is explained by some to be due to the increased use of fertilizer
during the past few years. While this is undoubtedly a factor in many orchards, there
are other orchards where the methods have not been changed and the increase in size
of apples over the past two or three years was apparent. Favourable growing conditions was perhaps the chief factor in producing the larger sizes this year.
" In last year's report the falling-off in yield was discussed. The record yield of
this year would indicate that perhaps the figures quoted were misleading or that the
reduction was only temporary. However, considering the number of young trees
coming into bearing over the past ten-year period, the crop in a favourable year should
have shown an even larger increase than this year's figures will show. Many individual
blocks of orchards produced the largest crop in their history, but many between the
ages of thirty and forty years—while producing larger crops than during the past
three years—did not approach the yields produced when they were at the peak of
production. More and more growers are becoming convinced that our older and larger
trees are declining and becoming less profitable to handle. Costs of all orchard operations on these trees are increasing and production declining. Just how long it will be
before production costs are higher than the value of the fruit cannot be estimated.
This will depend on prices of fruit, care of orchard, and weather conditions."
Small fruits, such as strawberries, raspberries, loganberries, etc., show an increase
over the production of 1943. Seasonal conditions were satisfactory from a harvesting
standpoint, and while the W.P.B. established prices to the producers that were lower
than in 1943 this was offset by the fact that growers and growers' organizations sold
direct in many cases to the retailer and consumer, thus improving their actual cash
return.
This year the officials of this Branch completed a small-fruit survey of the
Province. The last survey was made in 1940. As shown in the table given below, the
total acreage of all small fruits for 1944 is the lowest recorded by any survey since
1920:—
Small-fruit and Rhubarb Acreage, 1920 to 1944.
Kind.
1920.
1922.
1924.
1926.
1928.
1930.
1,796
967
209
210
23
62
56
91
2,886
2,105
506
329
42
138
85
111
2,331
2,387
764
252
58
239
96
183
2,042
1,641
802
178
34
192
68
244
3,005
1,258
713
170
42
179
69
320
2,198
1,060
Blackberries- -    ,. 	
120
22
149
60
382
3,414
6,202
6,310
5,201
5,756
4,813
Kind.
1932.
1934.
1936.
1938.
1940.
1944.
2,264
1,077
844
158
20
159
71
396
2,944>
1,371
697
156
36
272
112
571
3,312
1,438
628
140
42
326
112
685
3,338
1,424
648
133
36
255
57
572
3,292
1,194
703
74
24
248
53
395
1,570
1,520
467
85
Raspberries...       -	
141
Totals.. —	
4,989
6,159
6,683
6,463
5,983
4,010
Note.—Surveys as made by officials  of the Horticultural and Statistical  Branches  of the  British  Columbia
Department of Agriculture. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.
S 31
VEGETABLES.
While the vegetable production of Victory Gardens may not have been as large as
that of the previous year, there will undoubtedly be sufficient produce to take care of
at least a portion of the local demands. The commercial production of vegetables as
instanced by the following table shows that the acreage was larger than in 1943:—
Kind.
Tomatoes
Onions ._
Lettuce _
Celery ___.
Cucumbers _
Cabbage 	
Cantaloupes
Estimated
Acreage,
1943.
_ 2,507
_ 1,006
.. 631
._ 421
._ 179
._ 578
_  224
Estimated
Acreage,
1944.
3,592
1,399
731
496
241
1,009
295
Harvesting conditions on the whole were satisfactory and the general production
of all crops met the demands of the fresh market as well as the requirements of
the dehydrators and canning factories. In the case of tomatoes, some difficulty was
experienced early in the season with the shipments of mature green and semi-ripes
from certain sections. Blight was in evidence in some celery patches, but where
the crop was dusted little loss resulted. On the whole, onions were a satisfactory crop,
although there was some loss in the early part of the season due to maggot and
wireworm.
Asparagus shows a considerable reduction in acreage. The following table indicates the acreage devoted to this crop in the different sections of the Province from
1930 to 1944, inclusive:—
District.      .
1930.
1932.
1934.
1936.
1938.
1940.
1944.
22
56
28
5
22
136
9
171
5
30
106
13
1
204
10
35
163
25
1
237
14
32
208  .
34
1
222
18
40
210
53
2
221
22
24
Totals  	
111
343
364
475
515
548
366
It will be noted that the acreage according to the 1944 survey is comparable in total
acreage with the plantings of 1934. One of the reasons for the marked reduction is
the fact that in the Coast sections a large acreage of this crop was operated by
the Japanese. Since their removal from the Coast this acreage has been practically
abandoned.    Some Interior acreages have also been ploughed up due to poor plantings.
Cantaloupes, while somewhat more heavily planted than in 1943, made a rather
unfavourable start due to unsatisfactory spring conditions. The summer temperatures,
however, were satisfactory, the demand was good and a large crop was shipped and
marketed at good prices.
GRAPES.
The grape plantings, when compared with similar plantings in the East, are not
extensive. In the Coast districts the plantings are for the most part scattered.
The main plantings are in the Okanagan, where American varieties form the bulk of
the acreage, with a few small acreages of European varieties. The total Provincial
acreage is 476 acres in 1944 as compared with 363 acres in 1940.
LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B. C. S 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
BLUEBERRIES.
The growing of cultivated blueberries is a comparatively new venture in British
Columbia. The main plantings are in the Fraser Valley, where soil and climatic conditions seem to be favourable. G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, in his annual
report makes the following comments regarding this crop:—
" The commercial plantings of high-bush varieties of blueberries are increasing.
This fruit has become very popular and there is a demand in excess of the present
supply. Production is increasing each year and from now on there will be a marked
increase in the annual crop production. Yields on present producing plantings have
been very satisfactory and prices have been well maintained."
NUT-CULTURE.
Plantings of walnuts throughout the Province are principally as scattered trees
only, there being no definite acreage. On the other hand, the plantings of filberts are
increasing. The 1940 survey shows the acreage to be 116 acres, while the survey made
this year shows the plantings to be 313 acres—an increase of approximately 197 per
cent, in four years.
The principal filbert plantings are in the Fraser Valley. Reporting on this crop,
G. E. W. Clarke has the following to say:—
" The planting and growing of filberts, walnuts, almonds, and sweet chestnuts on
many old and new farms throughout the district is attracting considerable publicity and
gives rise to numerous questions as to the future possibilities and prospects on a commercial basis. During the past few years rather large plantings of filberts have been
made. Production from older plantings is increasing and the progress and development
of this comparatively new commercial crop is being followed with interest. During the
past year a start has been made to have some organization of growers formed through
which contact with the numerous growers could be maintained.
" Prices for nuts during the past few years have been high, consequently crops of
this nature attract a great deal of attention."
TOBACCO.
There is little change in the tobacco situation from that of the previous year.
All of the Provincial acreage is centred in the Fraser Valley. With regard to this
crop, G. E. W. Clarke reports as follows:—
" The Sumas Tobacco-growers' Association is a co-operative growers' association
and handles most of the flue-cured Virginia leaf tobacco-crop grown in this district.
There was a little less acreage in crop this year but yields have been fairly good and
it is expected that the graded crop when marketed will average nearly 1,000 lb. an acre.
" Buyers are expected to visit the area and purchase the crop during December.
Growers at the present time are bailing the crop."
HOPS.
The hop acreage is principally in the Fraser Valley in the vicinity of Agassiz and
Sardis, where the total acreage is 1,550 acres. A comparatively new planting of
approximately 50 acres has been made within recent years in the Kamloops District.
The yield this year according to reports was most satisfactory and favourable weather
prevailed during the harvesting period. The average yield is about 1,000 lb. per acre
and is valued at over $1,000,000.
SEED PRODUCTION.
Vegetable-seed production still continues to increase, both in acreage and value.
In 1939 the value of seed production was $72,130, in 1943 the value of this crop was DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 33
$920,722. In 1944 the estimated value is $1,194,585 from a producing acreage of
4,276 acres. Flower-seed also shows an increase in value from $26,456 in 1939 to
an estimated value of $135,000 for 1944.
The question of seed production in the Province is dealt with in detail by J. L.
Webster, Horticulturist who is in charge of this work, and who reports as follows:—
" Number of Seed-growers still increasing.—The number of growers has again
shown an increase over the previous year. A list of growers recently compiled shows
that there are in the neighbourhood of 450 farmers producing seed. Approximately
400 are growing for the British Columbia Seed-growers' Co-operative Association,
the balance for independent firms. It should be pointed out that of the approximate
total of 450 farmers growing seed, possibly 200 are new growers having little special
equipment in the way of seeders, cultivators, threshers, cleaners, seed-barns, etc. When
prices are reduced many will probably be unable to continue producing seed.
" Increase in Seed-growers' Equipment.—Seed-growers in the Province for the
most part have taken full advantage of the period of comparative prosperity and have
added to their farm machinery and other essential seed-growers' equipment, such as
seed-barns, driers, special row crop cultivators, seeders and tractors, combines,
threshers and cleaners. It has been estimated that to date over $500,000 has been
invested in seed-growers' equipment in this Province. This is apart from the investment in standard farm machinery, buildings and land. It is interesting to recall as
recently as five years ago only a few growers had special equipment for handling seed
and at that time their investment probably only totalled a few thousand dollars.
" Need for Seed-driers in the Province.—In spite of the very excellent equipment
in the hands of seed-growers and seed firms, there is an acute need for several large
seed-driers in the Province. Although a number of growers have small driers of
various types suitable for drying tomato, cucumber, and leek seed in small quantities,
there is a need for a larger type of drier which will quickly handle reasonably large
quantities of threshed seed of various kinds. In 1944 the loss of 5,000 to 7,000 lb. of
.onion-seed and 10,000 to 15,000 lb. of turnip-seed would have been avoided if adequate
drying arrangements had been available. In addition, there were many other instances
at various seed-cleaning plants where numerous lots of damp or tough seed could have
been quickly dried and a great deal of money saved for the growers. In the Fraser
Valley much red-clover seed comes in a damp or tough condition. After being shipped
this seed shows heavy shrinkage and frequently a loss of germination. We have
constantly stressed the need for a drier as part of a large seed-growers' equipment and
have supplied diagrams of several types which would prove suitable. Some time was
spent at a large grain elevator in Vancouver studying the construction and obtaining
diagrams of a large elevator drier. At present two seed firms, are working on plans
for driers and another firm has just had completed a revolving cylinder drier at a cost
of over $2,000.
" Diagrams of the Wisconsin corn-drier have been supplied to three prospective
growers of corn. Without a drier of this type it is virtually impossible to produce high
quality seed corn in British Columbia in order to compete with established growers in
Manitoba and south-west Ontario. It is hoped that one or more of these driers will
be constructed in the near future.
" Stock-seed Problems.—The problems connected with the maintenance and distribution of elite and foundation seed used as the basis for establishing registered and
certified seed-crops are increasing rather than decreasing.
" The need for proven stock seed of various strains and varieties is becoming more
pressing as it becomes evident that competition in the seed markets of the world is
increasing. Quality of seed is more vital than ever before in the matter of securing
markets.
3 S 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" In British Columbia a small number of dependable and experienced seed-growers
are being selected and will be given the responsibility of maintaining a number of
stocks under direction of a stock-seed supervisor. This work is to be done in close
co-operation with the Canadian Seed Growers' Association and is to supplement
the work of the various experimental stations in Canada who are also planning an expanded programme for producing elite and foundation seed.
" Increase in Trial Ground Work in British Columbia.—The two main trial grounds
—namely, at U.B.C. and Experimental Station, Summerland—continue to operate and
have been of great value to the seed-growing industry in British Columbia. These two
trials have had the task of testing samples of seed representing all the main stocks of
registered and certified seed grown in the Province. They operate in close co-operation
with the Canadian Seed Growers' Association, the Plant Products Division, the Provincial Department of Agriculture, and seed-growers throughout the Province.
" The British Columbia Co-operative Seed Association this year embarked on
an extended programme of testing and operated three additional trials. These were
located at East Delta (near Ladner), Vernon, and Grand Forks. The results of
the comparisons made under these different soil and climatic conditions has proved very
valuable in ascertaining the true values of the various stocks of seed tried out.
" Buckerfield's, Ltd., also operate a small trial ground on Vancouver Island.
" Purchase of Neiv Stocks of Seed.—As in the past, we have endeavoured to obtain
a quantity of seed of new strains and varieties which appear to be promising. Also a few
new stocks of standard varieties were secured.
" Among the new varieties was a strain of rust-resistant Kentucky Wonder bean
which has proved resistant according to reports from Messrs. Eastham and Clarke,
who examined the crops in the field. This bean may have a real value in the Fraser
Valley in areas where rust is a factor.
" Cross-pollination in Vegetable-seed Crops.—A few instances of harmful crossing
in vegetable-seed crops through carelessness and lack of knowledge have been reported
in the 1944 crops.
" A few growers of swede turnip either grew this crop near fields infested with
wild turnip (Brassica campestris) or failed to rogue wild turnip plants which came up
in the rows. As a consequence, some crossing similar to that reported last year is
suspected in a few crops. Wild turnip is indeed a menace to turnip-seed growing in
the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island but can be guarded against by planting on
clean fields and away from land infested with the weed. Grain land appears to be
the most common source of infestation.
" Seeding squash, cucumbers, pumpkin or vegetable marrow on land which has
grown similar crops the year before has caused a good deal of trouble. The seed from
a few fruits of the vine-crop left on the ground the year before can volunteer profusely.
In one case as high as 15 per cent, volunteers of a different variety of vegetable marrow
appeared in the current year's crop, causing a large percentage of crossing.
" Radish is another crop of which volunteers are causing much concern. The zoning regulations as carried on in the Grand Forks District have been of tremendous
value in the safeguarding of an annual production of almost 100,000 lb. of this crop.
" A great deal of information has now been assembled on the possibilities of intercrossing in all vegetable-crops. It is being set forth in a pamphlet to be published
shortly.
" Acid Treatment to eliminate Fermenting of Tomato-seed.—This fall a number
of growers were late in harvesting and fermenting their tomatoes for seed and as a consequence ran into cold weather during which fermentation (necessary to enable separation of the seed from the pulp) was exceedingly slow, if not impossible.
" Accordingly we advised a number of growers to try the new acid treatment
recently worked out by E. M. Hutton, of Australia. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 35
" Briefly, this method consists of adding about 2 gallons of hydrochloric acid or
% gallon of sulphuric acid to the ton of tomatoes, which acts on the pulp and enables
the washing of the seed.
" There was difficulty in obtaining sufficient quantities of acid on short notice
because of the need for shipping the acid in a lead carboy in a special car.
" R. G. Thomson, of Armstrong, reported that the acid treatment was very satisfactory and saved him a great deal of time and expense. He found during the cold
weather that a longer time was required for the acid to take effect. He reports in
part in a letter dated October 28th:—
" ' I used sulphuric and had no trouble, but any one trying it should get something to take acid out of the carboy and have some measuring device.
" ' I don't know whether it was a matter of temperature or not, but I found that
the acid was not effective unless left at least six hours or more. I adopted the practice
of putting the acid in last thing at night and washing in the morning.
" ' Just before I finished I found out that if tomatoes were crushed and rubbed
through a screen right from the field at least 99 per cent, of seed could be got out of
tomato and collected with juice in barrel. This meant that at least 50 per cent, of
fleshy part and the skin were got rid of and far less acid was required for this reason.'
" Plans are being made for the use of acid on many more vine and tomato seed
crops in 1945. We hope also to enlist the co-operation of the Summerland Experimental
Station on experiments with cucumber which is difficult to separate after acid treatment.
" Storage of Roots.—The new type of non-ventilated pit first conceived and recommended by our Department is now past the experimental stage and is being used by
practically all growers of beet-seed and the greater number of carrot and mangel seed
growers. The highest yields of beet and carrot were secured as the result of using
this type of pit.
" The optimum depth of roots is from 14 to 17 inches, followed by a coverage of
soil (10 to 12 inches in the Interior and 6 to 8 inches at the Coast) and finally a light
coating of straw or refuse material if a severe sub-zero spell occurs without snow
coverage. The width of the pit does not seem important although 2% feet appears
to be more easily excavated and handled.
" This new pit has been fully described under the various seed-crops covered in the
Seed Production Series and in various articles.
" Reports, Bulletins, Papers, etc.—Following a request from the Directors of the
British Columbia Seed Co-operation Association, a report entitled ' Some Suggestions
for a Stock-seed Programme ' was prepared in co-operation with A. N. L. Butler,
Senior Inspector for the Plant Products Division.
" The Seed Production Series was continued. To date the following pamphlets
have been completed in this series:—
8. Turnip.
of
1.
Cabbage.
8.
Turnip.
2.
Spinach.
9.
Threshing   and   Cleaning
3.
Cauliflower.
Vegetable-seed Crops.
4.
Parsnip.
10.
Onion,
5.
Control of Diseases of
11.
Vine-seed Crops.
Vegetable-seed Crops.
12.
General Information on S
6.
Garden Beet.
growing.
7.
Carrot.
13.
Peas and Beans.
" Addresses were given at locals of the British Columbia Seed-growers' Association meetings during the year in the Fraser Valley, Vancouver Island, and the
Okanagan. In addition a review of seed-growers' problems was given at the annual
meetings of the Association held at Vernon in July. Several articles have been prepared for various periodicals." S 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FIRE-BLIGHT INSPECTION.
The results of the fire-blight inspection-work as carried out in the past year are
given in the following table:—
t.- j. +                                                                  '   Total Acres
District.                                                                      ,           ,  j
inspected.
Inspected
and passed.
Not
passed.
195
6,000
4,800
9 877
192
5,950
4,750
9,9.19.
3
50
50
5
No inspections made.
Totals. _    	
13.872          I          13.7G4
108
NURSERY STOCK INSPECTION.
The following table indicates briefly the results of the nursery stock inspections
as made by officials of the Horticultural Branch during the 1944 season:—
Number
inspected.
Number
passed.
Number
condemned.
52,801
35,407
22,466
18,726
51,425
4,161
52,010
35,103
21,905
18,379
50,145
4,152
791
304
561
347
1,280
9
Totals              	
184,986
181,694
3,292
Thirty-eight inspections made;   1.8 per cent, of inspected stock condemned.
BACTERIAL RING-ROT CONTROL.
In 1942 potato bacterial ring-rot was reported in the Salmon Arm District.
Measures were immediately taken to eradicate this trouble. These measures were
apparently successful as up to the present no further outbreak of this disease has been
detected in this area.
Other outbreaks were reported in the Ladner District and on Saltspring Island
in 1943. The infected crops were immediately quarantined and up to the present no
further indications of the disease have been reported.
PEAR PSYLLA CONTROL.
The control-work for pear psylla as started in 1943 by the United States Department of Agriculture officials was continued and further extended in 1944. Spraying,
in addition to being done in areas where psylla was originally found, was also undertaken in the Penticton, Keremeos-Cawston, and Summerland sections. Scouting for
the insect was continued as far north as Salmon Arm.
A very satisfactory review of the situation is given in the following statement
taken from the annual report of M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist, Vernon :■—
" Work in the control or possible eradication of this pest has again been carried
out this season by the United States Bureau of Entomology officials with our men
co-operating when and wherever possible. This work in pear psylla control has been
enlarging each year since the first discovery of the presence of the insect in British
Columbia, so that it might be' well at this time to report on the progress which has been DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.
S 37
made. The presence of the insect in the border States of Washington and Idaho
decided the United States Department of Agriculture through their Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine to undertake control measures in the hopes of eradicating
the pest in these States. Surveys and inspections were made of all pear plantings in
these States and realizing that it might be present on pears in British Columbia,
arrangements were made whereby a joint survey by the United States Department of
Agriculture, Dominion and Provincial officials was started in the South Okanagan in
1940, but no discoveries of the presence of the pest resulted. In 1941 and 1942 more
extensive surveys were made and in 1942 the pest was located in several orchards in the
Oliver-Osoyoos sections. In 1943 it was agreed by the United States Department of
Agriculture in order to protect the work they were doing south of the border, that they
would bear the expense of spraying all the pear-trees in the Oliver-Osoyoos area. By
this time spot infestations had been located at Okanagan Falls, Penticton, and
Keremeos. Infested orchards were sprayed by the growers with the United States
Department of Agriculture furnishing the material—nicotine sulphate and oil—for one
or two sprays. Three sprays of nicotine sulphate and oil were applied in all orchards
from the International Boundary to and including the Oliver area, two in June and
July and one in October. Before these sprays were applied all growers were interviewed and asked to agree to the United States Department of Agriculture officials
doing this work in their orchards. This same procedure has been carried out with
respect to any further spraying work by the United States Department of Agriculture
in other areas. All growers were agreeable to the work being carried out in their
orchards and they furnished every assistance to the men doing the work. On the
other hand, the United States Department of Agriculture operators were extremely
careful and painstaking in all their operations and in only one case was there some
damage done by the trucks, but this was adjusted to the satisfaction of the grower.
" Scouting was done by the United States Department of Agriculture men in the
other areas from Penticton to Salmon Arm, but no infestations were found here in
1943. By the use of pear psylla traps (boards treated with dead lime, a sticky
material) it has been found much easier to make determinations and discover the
presence of psylla. Thousands of these traps have been put out by the United States
Department of Agriculture and Dominion officials all through the Valley north to and
including Salmon Arm. Further infestations have been discovered in 1944, including
the Penticton and Summerland areas. All the properties upon which the new discoveries were made were given a fall spray by the United States Department of Agriculture officials. No fall sprays were applied this year in the Oliver, Osoyoos, Keremeos, and Cawston areas.
" The same summer spraying programme was carried out in Oliver-Osoyoos this
year as in 1943. The following list shows the number of properties sprayed in 1944
with the number of trees and gallons of spray used as supplied by L. L. Reed, who
has been delegated to work on pear psylla work control by the Dominion Department
of Agriculture for the last two years.
Area.
No. of
Properties.
No. of
Trees.
No. of
Gallons.
Summerland.
Penticton	
Keremeos-Cawston..
Oliver-Osoyoos	
Okanagan Falls	
Penticton—Indian Reserve..
37
80
193
495
7
16
5,334
16,000
11,007
48,126
1,770
141
30,600
49,600
134,125
488,690
7,900
1,500 S 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" There has been no final decision as to the carrying-out of the work next year.
The examination of the psylla traps which have been placed in every pear-orchard
from the boundary to Salmon Arm will prove whether or not the insect is present in
any orchard north of the Summerland area. It is hoped not, but even as it stands at
present the infested area will represent a large spraying programme if it is decided
to continue on the same plan as heretofore."
MEALY-BUG CONTROL.
While mealy bugs are found to a very limited extent in the Okanagan Horticultural
District, they are one of the major insect pests in the Kootenay District. In order
to ascertain the best methods of control, spraying work has been carried out for a
number of years in that area by this Branch in co-operation with the Dominion Department of Agriculture. The Provincial work has been supervised by E. C. Hunt, District
Horticulturist, Nelson, who herewith submits a detailed report on this project:—
" The control of the mealy bug in the Kootenay orchards is one of the most important items that the grower has to deal with in producing fruit in this district. The
insect appears on most all varieties of the different kinds of fruit-trees; also on bush-
fruits and a number of ornamental trees and shrubs. The insect builds up very fast
in an orchard unless control sprays are very thoroughly applied. It is estimated that
each female mealy bug produces at least 500 eggs, so it is easy to see that a light
infestation can become a very heavy one in a very short time.
" To develop or to find out a reasonably priced spray mixture in the control of this
insect a number of materials have been tested out in this district for a number of
years. Further work along this line was again undertaken this year in co-operation
with the Dominion Entomologists, Dr. Marshall and Mr. Andison, of Vernon, also
J. M. McArthur, Dominion Division of Chemistry, located at Summerland, B.C. The
main purpose this year was to test out our recommended 6-per-cent. distillate oil spray,
which requires very thorough application for control, against one of a reasonably priced
spray mixture that might be more effective than the 6-per-cent. distillate oil spray, so
that growers, particularly those with old spray equipment, might obtain better results
with lighter applications. Attree's orchard at Queens Bay was selected as one orchard
to carry out the work. A duplication of the work was also carried out at Sunshine
Bay in Appleton Bros.' orchard. The results and remarks dealing with the control
sprays will apply to the Queens Bay work only. There were nine sprayed plots of nine
trees in each in the experiment. Variety, Cox's Orange, trees about 35 years old and
very heavily infested. Individual check-trees, five in all, located throughout the experimental block were left and not sprayed.
" The following is a detailed report and summary of the results:—
Average Egg-masses per 10 Pieces of Spur
Wood 1 Foot long.
Plot. Material per 100 Gallons of Water. Ex. Plot.        Nearest Check.
1. Distillate oil, 6 gals.;  lignin pitch, 8 oz. 20.4       300 and 521
2. Distillate oil, 3 gals.; Dinitro Dry 50%,
2.2 lb.;   oxalic acid, 4 oz.;   sodium
lauryl sulphate, 8 oz    3.8        521, 309, and 265
3. Distillate oil, 3 gals.;   Dinitro Dry 50%,
1.1  lb.;    oxalic  acid,  4  oz.;   sodium
lauryl sulphate, 8 oz    4.6        309 and 265
4. Distillate oil, 3 gals.;  Dinitro Dry 50%,
1.1   lb.;    oxalic   acid,   4   oz.;    lignin
pitch, 8 oz    4.8        521 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 39
Average Egg-masses per 10 Pieces of Spur
Wood 1 Foot long.
Plot. Material per 100 Gallons of Water. Ex. Plot.        Nearest Check.
5. Distillate oil, 3 gals.;  Dinitro Dry 50%,
1.1 lb.;   oxalic acid, 4 oz.;   Vatsol K,
8 oz.     2.0        300 and 521
6. Distillate oil, 3 gals.;  dinitrocresol 95%
or better, 0.56 lb. dissolved in hot oil;
oxalic acid, 4 oz.; sodium lauryl sulphate, 8 oz.     6.2        300, 521, and 175
7. Ammonium   dinitrocresolate,    0.6   lb.;
sodium lauryl sulphate, 2 oz 11.0        521 and 175
8. Ammonium   dinitrocresolate,   0.6   lb.;
Vatsol K, 2 oz    9.0       309, 265, and 175
9. Sodium dinitrocylohexylphenate, 0.6 lb.;
sodium lauryl sulphate, 2 oz    2.8        300 and 175
Owners sprayed—Elgetol, 1%  43.6        No check.
" Agitation of the spray-machine used was rather on the weak side for good
emulsification of the distillate-oil mixtures used. With weak agitation 8 oz. of lignin
pitch seemed insufficient to emulsify properly distillate oil containing dinitrocresol in
solution. However, quite satisfactory when distillate oil 6 per cent, is used alone, or
when the dinitrocresol is added as Dinitro Dry, which contains about 50 per cent, finely
divided carrier, probably bentonite. On the whole, however, lignin pitch 8 oz., sodium
lauryl sulphate 8 oz., or Vatsol K 8 oz. all seem reasonably satisfactory emulsifiers in the
oil-DN mixtures. It is doubtful if the casein-lime would be desirable in these mixtures,
but quite satisfactory when used as an emulsifier with distillate oil 6 per cent, alone.
" Three per cent, distillate oil in conjunction with a relatively small amount of
dinitrocresol more effective than 6 per cent, without dinitrocresol.
" The addition of the dinitrocresol to the oil emulsion in the spray-tank as Dinitro
Dry quite as effective per unit of dinitrocresol as adding a solution of commercial
dinitrocresol in the hot oil prior to emulsification in the spray-tank.
" When dinitrocresol is used in conjunction with 3 per cent, distillate oil it is
advisable to use not more than 0.6 lb. This would be about 1.5 lb. of Dinitro Dry 40
per cent, or a little over 1 lb. of Dinitro Dry 50 per cent.
" Water soluble salt of dinitrocresol (ammonium dinitrocresolate) is apparently
slightly less effective than parent compound used in equal amounts in conjunction with
the distillate oil 3 per cent.
" Water soluble salt of dinitrocyclohexylphenol is apparently somewhat more effective than water soluble salt of dinitrocresol.
"In all spray mixtures used thoroughness of the application was most important
in the control of the mealy bugs.
" If the dinitrocresol or the dinitrocyclohexylphenol can be had in commercial
quantities and at a price that compares favourably to the 6-per-cent. distillate oil cost,
then the Kootenay growers are advised to use one of these materials. If obtained at
comparable cost, dinitrocyclohexylphenol or one of its soluble salts is preferable to the
dinitrocresol. These compounds had better be used at 1 lb. of active ingredient per
100 gallons of water than at, say, 2 lb. Thoroughness of application at 1 lb. will give
you better control than the 2 lb. if only half as much material is used per tree.
" If distillate oil-dinitrocresol or distillate oil-dinitrocyclohexylphenol mixture is
used, the parent compound should be employed, not a water soluble salt such as
ammonium or sodium one, e.g., Elgetol. It is doubtful, however, if the additional cost
of the oil is justified as it adds to the bother of mixing the spray. S 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" If the DN compound contains insufficient wetting agent to cause it to wet the
mealy bugs rapidly, then sodium lauryl sulphate 2 oz. per 100 gallons should be added.
Too much wetting agent will do more harm than too little—excessive run-off of the
spray material. Growers should be careful not to inhale DN compounds of dust or
spray.    Respirators sufficient for the purpose are not expensive."
LITTLE-CHERRY CONTROL.
Little cherry is found only in the Kootenay cherry-orchards. Up to the present
there is no definite knowledge as to the nature of the trouble. A full report on the
present situation and the work being done is given in the report of E. C. Hunt, District
Horticulturist.    The report in question follows:—
" Work in connection with the cause of the ' little cherry' trouble is still going
on and after another year's work the investigators are now quite sure that the trouble
is a virus. The trouble during the past year may have also spread to other commercial
producing areas not known to have been infested with the trouble before. However,
with such satisfactory prices received for processed cherries (S02) put up at Harrop,
little if any loss to the growers has been experienced due to this trouble for the past
three years. Most all the tonnage produced in the areas affected with the ' little
cherry' is processed at the Harrop plant, around 157 tons being put up this year.
A fifty-cherry-tree orchard at Kootenay Bay has been the location of the experimental
work for the past two years in connection with the ' little cherry' trouble. The trees,
principally Lambert, have been well fertilized each year and another application of
a 16-20-0 fertilizer was put on this fall at the rate of about 5 to 10 lb. per tree,
depending on the size of tree. Budding done in the summer of 1943 turned out much
better than previously reported. This work was done by men from the Summerland
Experimental Station, Division of Plant Pathology. The men from the same Division
check the budding results this summer and no doubt will have a report in detail made
of their findings.
" Another block of cherries, Lambert mostly, forty-six trees in all, in the Creston
area, were also treated with a 16-20-0 fertilizer this fall. Application made on November 9th at the rate of about 10 lb. per tree. This is to act as a check on small cherries
in this orchard last year, thought due to the heavy crop on the trees, but may have
been partly due to the ' little cherry ' trouble. The idea is to have the trees in question
well fertilized so if small cherries are produced on the trees next year it will not be
due to lack of fertility."
APPLE-SCAB CONTROL.
The control of apple-scab is of vital importance, particularly in the Northern
Okanagan and Kootenay sections. While there are recommended controls, each succeeding year brings on the market new sprays which have to be tried as well as new
methods in spray application.
During the past season control-work for scab has been carried out at Salmon
Arm and in the Kootenay. On the material used and methods employed in the Salmon
Arm district C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, reports as follows:—
"(a.) Control of Apple-scab ivith an Eradicant Ground Spray.—This completes the
fourth season in which a ground spray has been used at Salmon Arm for apple-scab
control. A 1-per-cent. solution of Elgetol (a sodium salt of dinitro-ortho-cresol) was
applied, as formerly, at the ' green tip ' stage, in the same orchard that had been used
in previous seasons. The orchard was again divided into two parts and one received
a single lime-sulphur spray (1-40) in the pink, and the other two lime-sulphur sprays
1-40 in the pink and 1-60 in the calyx stages. The orchard consists of several varieties
of apples, but only Mcintosh Red were used in computing the results. These were compared with the development of scab on Mcintosh trees growing in a neglected, unsprayed
orchard situated about one-quarter mile distant. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 41
" A small 3-acre orchard on the Broadview Road, about 3 miles from the above
orchard, and fairly well isolated, was used this season for a test on the possible efficiency
of Niagara Brand Dinitro Dry (dinitro-ortho-cresol) as an eradicant ground spray.
Since this chemical, in contrast to Elgetol, is only very slightly soluble in water, it was
used as a solution in an oil emulsion prepared in the following proportions: 10 gallons
of 75-per-cent. dormant oil emulsion were diluted in 400 gallons of water and then
5 lb. of Dinitro Dry were added to the spray-tank. The emulsion was applied to the
orchard floor in the ' green tip ' stage at the rate of 500 gallons per acre, in the same
way as the Elgetol was applied—namely, one-half in one direction and the other at
right angles to this. The whole orchard subsequently received two applications of
lime-sulphur—namely, 1-40 in the pink and 1-60 in the calyx stages. This orchard
also consisted of several apple varieties, but only Mcintosh Red was used for computing scab-control results. These were compared with those obtained in near-by orchards,
where the recommended apple-scab spray schedule was followed and applied by the
owner.
" Residts.—The average percentage of fruit free from scab in each of the plots
treated with Elgetol ground spray was as follows: Ground spray plus pink, 90.3;
ground spray plus pink and calyx, 87.0. And for the Dinitro Dry: Ground spray plus
pink and calyx, 60.4. On the unsprayed check-trees 49.7 of the fruit was free from
scab, and in the three orchards that received the regular sprays—namely, lime-sulphur
at pink 1-40, at calyx 1-60, and two to three weeks later 1-60—the percentages were:
Hanna orchard, 76.1;   Petersen orchard, 89.5;   and Turner orchard, 77.0.
" The results obtained with the Elgetol ground spray are very similar to those
obtained in 1943, and they again indicate that the use of this material as a ground
spray may have a definite place in the scab-control schedule for the Salmon Arm
District. The Elgetol, followed by either one or two lime-sulphur sprays gave control
at least equally as effective as that of the three lime-sulphur sprays as applied by the
grower. Although the season was not a bad scab year, as is indicated by the amount
of infection on the unsprayed checks, the comparison with the regular lime-sulphur
schedule again suggests a definite recommendation for the use of this spray. By being
able to eliminate the later lime-sulphur sprays much of the foliage-injury attendant
on their application would be avoided.
" The results with Dinitro Dry, which varies slightly in chemical composition from
Elgetol, indicates that this is not an effective eradicant fungicide and that it is not
likely to have a place in a scab-spray schedule. When used with two regular lime-
sulphur sprays (pink and calyx) control was much inferior to that obtained by the
three regular lime-sulphur sprays. This appears to indicate that the Dinitro Dry
ground spray controlled apple-scab very little, if at all, and that such control as was
obtained was provided largely, at least, by the two lime-sulphur sprays.
" There was in every plot, with the exception of the unsprayed check-trees, less
than 1 per cent, cull fruit due to scab infection. From the type of scab that was mostly
encountered, it is obvious that there was comparatively little early spring scab infection and that a high percentage of it occurred in the early part of September during
rains, to produce infection of the ' pin-point' type.
"(&.) Control of Apple-scab with Fermate.—Experimental scab-control sprays
using Fermate (ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate) were initiated at Salmon Arm in
1943. Although the results showed that control was not so efficient as with lime-
sulphur, it was indicated that Fermate probably could eventually have a place in
a spray schedule where used as a combination spray. This year a block of mature
Mcintosh Red trees bearing a heavy crop was sprayed three times (pink, calyx, and
cover), with the following combinations:—
Plot 1:  Fermate, 1 lb.;  Grasselli S S Spreader, 2% A. oz.;  water, 50 gals. S 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Plot 2:  Fermate, 1 lb.;   Grasselli S S Spreader, 2% fl. oz.;  lime-sulphur, y2
gal.;  water, 50 gals.
Plot 3:  Fermate, 10 oz.;   Grasselli S S Spreader, 5 fl. oz.;   wettable sulphur
(Sulforon), 3 lb. 12 oz.;   water, 100 gals.
" Other Mcintosh trees in the same orchard that had been sprayed by the owner
with three standard lime-sulphur sprays (1-40 in the pink, 1-60 in the calyx, and cover)
were used as a basis of comparison.
" The Fermate spray handles nicely during application and is much less disagreeable to use than lime-sulphur. One disadvantage, however, is that it does not readily
go into an aqueous suspension in its present form—that is, as a finely divided powder-—■
but this could probably be overcome if it was prepared as a thick paste, ready for addition to the spray-tank.
" The Fermate spray, either alone or in combination with a wettable sulphur or
weak lime-sulphur, did not produce any visible foliage-injury. Throughout the season
the leaves remained large and a deep green colour, while the trees on which the three
standard lime-sulphur sprays were used showed very marked injury, in the form of
dwarfing and crinkling of the foliage, and a decidedly lighter colour in the leaves.
At the end of the growing season the general appearance of the trees sprayed with
Fermate was decidedly better than of those sprayed with the three regular lime-sulphur
sprays.
" The crop from representative trees in each plot was examined at harvest.    The
percentage of clean fruit in the three Fermate plots was much higher than in the same
orchard where lime-sulphur was used.    These percentages were:—■
Plot 1:   Fermate only, 91.1.
Plot 2:   Fermate plus lime-sulphur (1-100), 95.9.
Plot 3:   Fermate plus a wettable sulphur, 97.6.
Plot 4:   Lime-sulphur only, 77.0.
" The poorer control shown on Plot 4 (lime-sulphur) was mainly due to the fact
that pin-point type of infection developed early in September in apples sprayed with
this material, but not a single pin-point infection was found on any of the plots on
which Fermate was used. Fermate, when used alone (Plot 1) was not quite so effective as when used in combination with weak lime-sulphur or a wettable sulphur (Plots
1 and 2). The results suggest that Fermate in combination with either of these
chemicals may take a definite place in the spray schedule for this district, but it would
seem advisable, before specific recommendations are made to the growers, that this
experiment be repeated in the coming year."
As to the scab-control work in the Kootenay area, E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, submits the following report:—
" Apple-scab was not as prevalent this year as in 1943, although some trouble was
had from the late pin-head infestation of this disease. However, where good spraying
was carried out with the recommended control sprays quite a good clean crop of fruit
was harvested this fall. Weather conditions throughout the season were on the whole
quite unfavourable for the spread and development of the disease as compared with
the past two years. It would seem that growers who make their own concentrated
lime-sulphur are having the most trouble in controlling apple-scab in their orchards.
It would pay such growers to pay more attention to the making of their home-made
lime-sulphur so they will have a product quite similar in test and colour to the commercial made lime-sulphur.
"The spray recommended for the control of apple-scab in the West Kootenay
Horticultural District is lime-sulphur, 1% gallons; calcium arsenate, 4 lb.; and water,
100 gallons. Four applications are necessary in most sections on the susceptible
varieties for the control of the disease.    The first spray should be applied in the pink DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 43
and then followed up every two weeks until the four sprays have been applied. Growers
with large acreage and where short on spray equipment should start with the pre-pink
in order to get over their orchards before the trees are in full bloom and also to prevent
early infestation to the young foliage and bloom. The calcium arsenate may be left
out of the pre-pink or pink spray, then use lime-sulphur 1 gallon to 40 gallons of water.
As much as 3 lb. of hydrated lime to the 100 gallons when using the combination spray
of lime-sulphur and calcium arsenate will reduce foliage-injury to some extent and
usually more than pays for the extra cost."
CODLING-MOTH CONTROL.
Codling-moth is found in all of the fruit-growing sections of the Province. Its
satisfactory control is a factor in successful orchard management. New sprays that
it is hoped will be more satisfactory than those at present in use are continually being
tried. The report which follows and which was prepared by B. Hoy, District Field
Inspector, Kelowna, indicates the work that is being done along this line, not only in
that section but in other sections as well:—
" Last year was a light crop and the percentage of codling-moth was heavy, but
owing to the demand for apples the crop was all harvested and practically all apples,
including culls, were hauled out of the orchards. As the harvest was cleaned up early
in the fall there were fewer overwintering worms left in the orchards. Because of
the small number of overwintering worms and the large number of apples the percentage of wormy apples this year was lower than average.
" The spray schedule for codling-moth was the same this year as in 1943. There
was considerable windy and showery weather during first-brood sprays and larger
growers found it difficult to keep up with the schedule.
" Radio bulletins dealing with codling-moth control were broadcast over CKOV
throughout the spraying season. This year they were sponsored by the British
Columbia Fruit-growers' Association.
" This office co-operated with the Dominion Entomological Branch in their codling-
moth investigations. In the Kelowna District trunk sprays were applied last spring
in Apex orchard in South Kelowna and in the Keloka orchards at East Kelowna.
Assistance was also given in applying trunk sprays at Osoyoos, Penticton, and Summerland. The results of this work this year indicate that trunk sprays of 15 per
cent. Diesel oil with 3 lb. of dinitrocresol per 100 gallons will kill 80 to 85 per cent,
of the overwintering worms. In heavy infestations this will, when followed up with
the regular codling-moth spray schedule, reduce the infestation at harvest over summer sprays alone by as much as 50 per cent. It is essential though, if good results
are expected, to examine the trunks in the dormant season and only use the trunk
treatment if overwintering worms are numerous. It cannot kill worms that are not
there. Also, only orchards where it is difficult to control worms with ordinary sprays
should be treated. Where the infestation runs over 10 per cent, trunk treatments
should be valuable in bringing down the infestation and repay the grower for the extra
expense involved.
" The addition of dinitrocresol, nicotine sulphate, and Visko to ordinary summer
sprays to control the moth was tried out under the supervision of the Dominion Entomological Branch at Keloka orchards on three large blocks of orchards. Of the material
used, nicotine sulphate was the most promising and the results this year look promising enough to continue with the work. The reduction in worms where nicotine sulphate
was used was about 5 per cent.-8.5 per cent, wormy compared with 13.5 in the check-
plot.    Dinitrocresol plots all showed increase in size of fruit over check-plots.
" At the Hart orchard in East Kelowna further experiments were conducted by
the Dominion Entomological Branch.    This office co-operated in this work, assisting S 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
in application of sprays and checking apples in the fall. The work as last year consisted chiefly of testing various types of oils in conjunction with fixed nicotine.
Mississippi bentonite plus nicotine sulphate and oil again gave results equal to the
checks.
" D.D.T. was applied to three trees. This new insecticide gave promising results
and warrants extended trials next year. Though codling-moth control was good,
European red-mite infestation was actually more severe on the D.D.T. plots than the
checks. If used where red-mite is a menace to the crop it is probable that a companion
insecticide will have to be introduced into the spray mixture.
" The codling-moth demonstration plots of this Department were located in the
Keloka orchards property again this year. Mr. Andison, of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory in Vernon, assisted in applying the sprays and members of the
Dominion Branch assisted in checking the apples. This year Phenothiazine was applied
at % lb. with 1 pint of stove oil emulsified with casein-lime spreader, and at 1 lb. with
1 quart of stove oil to 100 gallons water emulsified in the same manner. These mixtures were used in the first-brood sprays only and the second-brood spray on all Phenothiazine plots was Mississippi bentonite 5 lb. andnicotine sulphate % pint and oil %
gallon per 100 gallons of water. The results of this year's work backed by previous
work and the experiments in the Hart orchard this year would indicate that 1 lb. of
phenothiazine per 100 gallons of water will give good codling-moth control. As with
D.D.T. plots in the Hart orchard, European red-mite infestation was more severe on
the plots sprayed with phenothiazine than on those sprayed with cryolite. It will be
noted that in this year's work that oil was used in the cryolite at % gallon per hundred
in two sprays and % gallon per hundred in the balance. This quantity of oil may
have reduced the infestation of red-mite to some extent. The showing of the phenothiazine against this oil-cryolite combination indicates phenothiazine to be an excellent
insecticide for codling-moth control.
" One-half ton of Mississippi bentonite was imported by our Department and distributed between Penticton and Vernon by members of your Branch. Growers who
received this material and used it in conjunction with nicotine sulphate and oil were
all satisfied with the control. These grower results backed by two years' work by the
Dominion and Provincial Departments justify its recommendation in late colding-moth
sprays where heavy spraying is needed and heavy residues of arsenate of lead or
cryolite may be produced. The above mixture is as good or better than standard
arsenical or cryolite sprays, leaves no undesirable residue, and because of the oil in the
mixture may retard the development of European red-mite. Where necessary because
of heavy red-mite infestation the oil content could be increased. In all probability, if
nicotine sulphate is available next year, there will be considerable of this nicotine bentonite mixture used."
TARNISHED PLANT BUG CONTROL.
As the work undertaken by R. P. Murray in the control of this pest is fairly
indicative of the work generally undertaken, his report is herewith submitted:—
" In November of 1943 a block of pears and peaches were selected for spraying and
dusting trials for the control of tarnished plant bug. The pear block consisted of
1 acre of mature Bartletts with a heavy cover-crop of buckwheat and weeds. Five per
cent. Diesel oil plus 2 lb. of dinitrocresol per 100 gallons was used at the rate of 500
gallons per acre. Although an excellent kill was obtained on the tarnished plant bug
in the cover-crop there was no difference observed between the sprayed and unsprayed
portions in the orchard.
" Observations were made this spring when the tarnished plant bug was active on
the swelling pear-buds.    About the same number of damaged buds were observed on DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 45
the sprayed and unsprayed portions of the orchard. In the dusting trials, 3 acres of
Rochester peaches with a heavy cover-crop of weeds was used in the trial and dust
was applied at the same time as the oil spray and gave a slightly higher kill than the
oil. However, in comparing the number of cat-faced peaches between the dusted and
undusted parts of the orchard no real difference was observed."
CONTROL OF MEALY PLUM-APHIS.
The control-work for this insect was undertaken by R. P. Murray, District Field
Inspector.    His report follows:—
" During the season of 1943 mealy plum-aphis was quite a serious pest in many
prune orchards. Control measures applied during the growing season were only
partially effective. Since the dormant oil-dinitro spray for black cherry-aphis has
proved so successful it was decided to spray a block of prunes that was badly affected in
1943 with this same material. A block of thirty-five trees was sprayed April 3rd,
using 2 gallons oil emulsified with casein-lime spreader plus IV2 lb. of dinitrocresol
per 100 gallons. This block remained free from attack during the entire summer.
As a check the remainder of the block, approximately 100 trees, was sprayed with lime-
sulphur 1-40 plus % pint of nicotine sulphate just before the blossoms opened. This
plot also remained free of aphis during the season. From observation throughout the
district the mealy plum-aphis gave only light infestations where no spraying had been
done. Apparently the season was not favourable for its development and this work
should be repeated next season."
APPLE-BOX FUMIGATION.
This is another factor in codling-moth control which is of outstanding importance
to the grower who is attempting to produce clean fruit. The following was taken from
Mr. Murray's report:—
" Every season there is a large carry-over of codling-moth larvae in apple-boxes
and boxes should be held in the packing-houses until the larvas have emerged as adults
before the boxes go to the orchards. This means that the boxes are held until well
into the summer before it is safe to release them. Artificial heat has been used to
induce early emergence with good success and at a reasonable cost.
" In order to allow the early movement of apple-boxes to the orchard without
danger of increased codling-moth infestation, a trial was made with methyl bromide to
determine its effectiveness in controlling overwintering worms in apple-boxes. Accordingly, a block of 90,000 apple-boxes were treated with methyl bromide at the rate of
1 lb. per 1,000 cubic feet. The building was carefully sealed before the gas was
admitted and the temperature raised to 65° F., using stoves and electric fans to
distribute the heat to all parts of the building. After the gas was released the building was kept closed for three days. All adults that had emerged during the heating
process were killed and some larva?, showing the material to be effective. However,
the expense of methyl bromide does not seem to be justified since it is necessary to
raise the temperature of the building to not less than 65° F. for effective use of the
gas. It would seem that it would be just as easy to continue the heating over a slightly
longer period and save the expense and danger of using a poison gas."
DEBLOSSOMING SPRAYS.
This is a continuation of similar work started in 1943 in the Vernon District and
in charge of H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector for that area:—
" This project commenced in 1943 was continued in 1944 through the excellent
co-operation of T. P. Hill, manager of the Coldstream Ranch.    The work was continued S 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
on the same block used in 1943, containing 100 mature Wealthy trees. Practically all
trees carried a full blossom. This feature was interesting in that the previous season
many trees in the block had carried full blossom. Normally, Wealthies carrying a full
crop one year are off-bearing the following season. Indications are that blossom-
thinning of this variety may tend to induce annual bearing.
" Materials used were dinitro-ortho-cresol and ammoniated dinitro-ortho-cresolate
with sodium lauryl sulphate as a wetting agent. Spraying was done by W. Baver-
stock of the Vernon office, assisted by H. Andison, of the Dominion Entomological staff.
" Spray application:   Pre-pink, May 10th.    Weather clear and cold.
" Spray application:   Full blossom, May 16th.    Weather clear and warm.
" Spray materials in the formulae are reduced to the per cent, of active salt. In
the full-blossom spray the dilution strength was reduced on two plots, as at this stage
blossom is more susceptible to the materials toxication.
" Foliage-injury check made May 26th.
" Checked for thinning results, July 11th and 27th and August 25th.
" Pre-blossom Sprays.
" Plot 1:   Dinitro Dry UO per Cent, at 0.15 per Cent. Dilution.
Foliage-injury light.    Crop too heavy and bunchy.    Fruit small to medium
size.    Thinning results poor to fair.
" Plot 2:  Ammoniated Dinitrocresolate 50 per Cent, at 0.15 per Cent. Dilution.
Foliage-injury very slight.    Crop too heavy and bunchy.    Fruit small to
medium.    Thinning results fair, slightly better than Plot 1.
" Plot 3:  Ammoniated Dinitrocresolate 50 per Cent, at 0.2 per Cent. Dilution.
Foliage-injury light to medium.    Fruit medium to large.    Thinning results
slightly too severe but very good.    Crop light to medium.
"Plot If:  Dinitro Dry UO per Cent, at 0.2 per Cent. Dilution.
Foliage-injury light.    Crop light to medium.    Fruit medium to large.    Thinning results good but too severe.
" Full-blossom Sprays.
" Plot 5':  Dinitro Dry UO per Cent, at 0.1 per Cent. Dilution.
Foliage-injury very slight.    Crop medium to heavy.    Fruit medium to large.
Thinning results fairly uniform.    Very slight bunching.     (Very good.)
" Plot 6: Ammoniated Dinitrocresolate 50 per Cent, at 0.1 per Cent. Dilution.
Foliage-injury almost nil.    Crop medium to heavy.    Fruit medium to large.
Thinning results more uniform than Plot 5.     (Excellent.)
" Plot 7:  Ammoniated Dinitrocresolate 50 per Cent, at 0.15 per Cent. Dilution.
Foliage-injury light.    Crop medium to light.    Fruit large.    Thinning results
fairly uniform but too severe.    No bunching.    (Good.)
" Plot 8: Dinitro Dry UO per Cent, at 0.15 per Cent. Dilution.
Foliage-injury almost nil.    Crop medium to light.    Fruit large.    Thinning
results fairly uniform with very slight bunching.     (Very good.)
" Plot 9:  Check—unsprayed.
This plot of three trees set very heavily.    Trees thinned in late July.    Crop
heavy.    Fruit small, much fruit below marketable size.
" NOTES.—The complete results of the spray tests were disrupted somewhat in that
a thinning crew, between July 11th and 27th, by mistake had thinned any bunchy and
heavily set trees.    This interfered with a true reading of fruit sizing on the various
plots from spraying only. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 47
" All sprayed plots made rapid recovery from spray-injury to the foliage. By the
end of July sprayed trees showed active terminal growth, large foliage of good green
colour.
" Check-trees showed restricted growth, smaller leaves and pale in colour.
" It was again emphasized in 1944 that quiet weather conditions at time of spraying and careful application are two necessary factors in obtaining good results.
" The work has not advanced sufficiently to make recommendations to growers,
as it is observable that not only conditions of weather and application but also condition
of the individual tree influences the results obtained. At least one more year's work
will be required to obtain further facts.
" With no previous experience on the reaction of pear-trees to the action of dinitro
compounds, a small test was made on three Anjou pear-trees in full bloom to check the
influence of partial blossom kill on set of crop. The ammoniated salt of dinitrocresol
was used at 0.2 per cent dilution. Results obtained were very severe, as all active
•growth and blossom were completely destroyed.
" These trees recovered and made excellent growth during the season. It is hoped
to conduct further work on the Anjou pear in blossom thinning by sprays."
BEE-REPELLENT SPRAYS.
Bee-repellent sprays have been tried out for the past three years with a view to
ascertaining if possible whether a repellent could be added to commercial sprays that
might overcome the heavy mortality of bees in the fruit-growing sections. H. H. Evans,
District Field Inspector, has been in charge of this work and reports as follows:—
" The past season constituted the third season's work on this project. The work
was again conducted in co-operation with H. Hayes, orchard owner, W. H. Turnbull,
District Apiary Inspector, and the North Okanagan Bee-keepers' Association through
the good services of F. Bettschen, of Vernon, who supplied bee colonies for the test.
" In the 1944 work cresote as a repellent was dropped from the programme owing
to its instability. Crude carbolic was used throughout in combination with lead
arsenate and cryolite as the toxic materials.
" First-brood sprays:  Delayed calyx and three cover-sprays.
" Second-brood sprays:   Two covers.
" The block consists of 3 acres of old trees in the Hayes orchard at Larkin. The
programme was altered in the past season to include cryolite on a portion of the block
throughout the season. In the second-brood period one complete spray of this material
was used without repellent in order to check on possible poisoning of bees from cryolite.
" In all cover-spray applications one tank of lead arsenate was applied with double
normal strength of the repellent. This was done with the object of inducing burning
if possible and as a check on the safety range of the repellent material. The emulsifiers
used were lignum pitch and one of the Fluxit type spreaders.
Varieties of apples included in the experiment were: Wealthy, Mcintosh, Yellow
Transparent, Jonathan, Alexander, Golden Russet, Transcendent Crab, and an unknown
pear variety.
" Weather Conditions.—During the spray periods all types of conditions prevailed
from humid cold to humid heat and dry heat.
" Injury.—There was no visible injury from the repellent in any plot to either
foliage or fruit.
" Poisoning.—Over the six-spray period, no evidence of bee poisoning was observed.
The apiary increased in strength throughout the season. S 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Materials and Labour Costs.
Lead arsenate, 128 lb., $17;  cryolite, 160 lb., $20.16     $37.16
Crude carbolic, 9 pt., $1.60;  spreader, 18 lb., $3         4.60
Labour and machine, 36 hours at $3     108.00
Total cost   $149.76
" Total spray used, 7,200 gallons.
" Cost of repellent per 100 gallons of spray, 2.2 cents.
" Total cost per 100 gallons of spray, $2.08.
," Summary for Three-year Period.—In briefly summarizing this project for the
three-year period 1942-44, some definite features of the work can be outlined.
"(1.) Creosote as a repellent is satisfactory, but dangerous for general recommendation owing to the unstable nature of the material and its propensity to cause
injury to foliage and fruit under certain climatic conditions. (2.) Crude carbolic acid
has proven its efficiency as a repellent, also its freedom from injurious effects to foliage
or fruit. Also in its favour is the low additional cost of approximately 2 cents per
100 gallons of spray as against 8 cents for creosote. A sufficient number of varieties of
fruit-trees were included in the tests to suggest to your official that crude carbolic can
be safely recommended as a repellent in all sprays for apple and pear over the full
spray period for North Okanagan. This statement was verified at Westbank and
Greta Ranch, Peachland, Central Okanagan, in 1944, wherein this material was included
in grower applied sprays over a considerable acreage.
" The number of applications required is not so well defined. (1.) From our
observations during the period under review it would appear that the danger period of
spray poisoning to bees is from the application of the calyx spray to completion of the
first-brood spray period for codling-moth control. This would approximate the period
from June 1st to July 15th. The most severe poisoning noted has been in the month
from June 15th to July 15th.
(2.) Another point for consideration is the need of emulsification of these oily
types of materials to ensure proper absorption in the spray materials. Such extra
effort is often an objectionable feature for the spraying crew using raw materials such
as crude carbolic.
(3.) The value of these repellent sprays will be only in proportion to the number
of growers willing to adopt the full spray programme over a given area.
" In carrying through this project your official desires to express appreciation for
the assistance given by W. Baverstock, Assistant Field Inspector, also for the complete
co-operation of H. Hayes, of Larkin, W. H. Turnbull, Provincial Apiary Inspector, and
F. Bettschen of Vernon."
SWEET CORN TRIALS.
The sweet corn project has been under the supervision of H. H. Evans, District
Field Inspector, whose report on this work for 1944 is submitted:—
" This project continues several years' work in testing varieties and hybrids of
sweet corn. For valuable assistance and co-operation in the work appreciation is
extended to T. P. Hill, manager of the Coldstream Ranch, and T. F. Ritchie, Horticulturist, Dominion Experimental Station, Ottawa.
" Seeding was delayed this season owing to unfavourable soil conditions. Cultural
care of the plots was excellent. Pheasants were again the cause of considerable loss
in low-cobbing varieties. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.
S 49
" Sweet Corn Comparison Table.
Variety.
Height.
Type, Colour, and Condition.
Yield in
Cobs
Ready for
Fresh
Quality.
10.
Rating.
10.
per Hill.
Market.
10-12 rowed,
6 ft. 10 in.
Cob medium high set; large, long core med.
large; cob well filled and uniform ; grain
4.0
Aug. 21
9.0
9.5
Dorick
O.D. 530
golden, large, med. depth, rich, sweet, and
tender
8-rowed,
Cob medium low set; small medium length,
4.7
Aug.   7
9.0
10.0
Dorinny
well filled and uniform; core small, grain
O.D. 529
golden,  medium large,  good depth,  sweet,
rich, tender
8-rowed,
3 ft. 10 in	
Cob low set;   small, medium long, fair filling ;
4.0
Aug. 11
8.0
7.0
Pickaninny
core small, grain mottled, sweet, not rich,
O.E. 520
medium size arid depth ;   skin slightly tough
8-rowed,
5 ft. 10 in	
Cob medium high set; small, medium length,
4.0
Aug.   9
10.0
10.0
Goldban
well filled and uniform ; core small, grain
Str. C
golden, large, deep, rich, sweet, tender
10-12 rowed,
6 ft. 7 in	
Cob high set; large, long, well filled and uni
3.9
Aug. 29
9.0
9.5
Topcross
form ;   core   small,   grain   yellow,   medium
Bantam,
size, deep, medium sweet, rich, tender
No. 6721
10-12 rowed,
7 ft	
Cob  high  set;  large,  long,   well  filled,  uni
3.5
Aug. 29
9.0
9.0
Sachem,
form ;   core   small,   grain   yellow,   medium
No. 83791
large, medium depth, rich, sweet, tender
12-rowed,
5 ft. 4 in	
Cob medium high set; large, long, well filled,
3.1
Aug. 11
8.5
8.5
Golden
uniform ; core medium large ; grain golden,
Early
large, medium depth, sweet, medium rich ;
Market
skin slightly tough
" Plots were %00 acre.    The variety Dorking failed to germinate.
" Over the extended period of testing sweet corn varieties and hybrids in the
Vernon District considerable useful information has been recorded. The varieties
recorded in the above table (with the exception of Pickaninny) have consistently
acquired a high performance rating.
" As indicated by the extended period of maturity with consistent and general
high quality, an excellent selection of varieties is now available for the commercial
producer."
LETTUCE VARIETY TRIALS.
The results of the lettuce trials in the Armstrong District are as reported by H. H.
Evans, District Field Inspector:—
" This was a field performance test of two new lettuce varieties. The varieties
were Great Lakes and New York No. 456. Spring, summer, and fall plantings were
made for seasonal performance. The plantings were checked against standard varieties
of the district for maturity range as follows: Spring crop: New York No. 12 and No.
515;  summer crop:   Imperial No. 44;   fall crop:   Imperial No. 44 and No. 152.
" The Great Lakes is a large spreading type, with large, medium coarse, heavy
textured outer leaves; heads round flat, large, very solid, small core, medium fine
texture, brittle, good flavour, high quality;  colour light green, matured very evenly.
" New York No. 456, large spreading type with large, dark green, heavy frilled,
coarse outer leaves. Variety not set, containing both pointed and round headed types,
also colour variation. Head large, solid, small core, medium fine texture, good flavour,
uneven maturity.
" Observations on performance were as follows: Two plots were on the peat-muck
soils with two on the sandy silt muck. It was noted that the heads averaged larger
and that the spring and summer crops matured earlier on the peat-muck as compared
to plantings on the silts. S 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Spring Crop.—Depending on soil type, the new varieties mature from nine to
sixteen days later than No. 12 and No. 515, and over 90 per cent, made cutting-heads.
Very slight tip-burn in the Great Lakes when heads reached overmaturity.
" Summer Crop.—Checking against Imperial No. 44, it was observed that the new
varieties were only two to five days later in maturing. Reaching maturity at the end
of July, the Great Lakes was severely affected with basal rot and No. 456 slightly so.
Tip-burn was prevalent but not serious in Great Lakes and very slight in No. 456.
Heads well filled and fairly solid.
" Fall Crop.—Only two plots of the Great Lakes variety were planted for this crop,
all seed of No. 456 having been used up in the earlier crops.
" On peat muck the crop was field seeded July 17th and first cutting-heads ready
September 22nd. Heads solid, brittle, well formed, slight basal rot. No. 44 slightly
more advanced in maturity.    No. 152 filling well but very slack heads.
" On sandy silt muck, crop frame seeded July 13th. Transplanted to field August
7th. First cutting ready September 16th. Heads solid, brittle, well formed, slight
basal rot.    No. 44 heads much smaller and slightly more advanced in maturity.
" Both plots of Great Lakes developed more evenly than either No. 44 or No. 152
and the cut out was around 85 to 90 per cent. The district had no frost period to the
end of cutting so information on frost resistance is not available.
" Both varieties appear well worthy of more extensive planting in the future, for
extending the cutting period of the spring crop. Also for the fall crop Great Lakes
appears to have excellent qualities."
STRAWBERRY PLANT SELECTION.
Strawberry plant selection as carried out on Vancouver Island is a continuation
of the work instituted by E. W. White, District Horticulturist, in co-operation with
officials of the Dominion Experimental Station, Sidney. Mr. White reports on this
season's work as follows:—
" As reported in previous years this work was started in 1937 in conjunction with
E. C. Reid, of the Dominion Experimental Station, Saanichton. After the original
selections were made from growers' plantings the subsequent stock has been grown at
the Dominion Experimental Station. When Mr. Reid left for overseas in 1941 the
work was taken over by E. R. Hall, Assistant Superintendent.
" This spring about 5,000 plants were sold to growers from the plot planted out
in 1943. This plot was also used as a fertilizer test-plot, using different methods of
application. During harvesting this year very little difference could be observed in
the different fertilizer plots.
" During the fruiting season the individual plants were carefully observed and the
best plants were marked. After harvesting was completed all the poor plants were
rogued out, amounting to about 50 per cent, of the total planting. The selected plants
were then cleaned up and the runners were allowed to grow. These runners will provide stock for planting out in 1945 when the parent plants will be removed. During
the rogueing it was observed that there appeared to be two types of plants—one fairly
compact grower and the other much taller in its habit of growth. The compact type
was the one selected but plants were taken from the tall type and propagated in the
cold frame before the tall type plants were rogued out. These will be kept separate
and tested next year.
" A new plot of about 2,000 plants was set out this spring for fruiting in 1945.
" This work is now carried out in conjunction with the Station programme of
variety testing, fertilizer tests, and breeding work, and our interest is due to the fact
that we assisted in making the original selections." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S" 51
SMALL-FRUIT VARIETY TRIALS.
Variety trials with various small fruits are continuously being made in order to
ascertain whether any of the new introductions are superior to the standard varieties
at present being grown commercially. Trials of this kind are being undertaken with
strawberries, raspberries, loganberries, and other small fruits, and in all districts.
These trials have been of value to growers as, for instance, the work done with the
Washington raspberry. This variety introduced from the State of Washington was
widely distributed and favourable reports have been received from all areas, both as
to its quality and hardiness.
COVER-CROPS AND FERTILIZERS.
It is impossible in a report of this nature to give in detail the work that is being
done in the various sections relative to the use of cover-crops and fertilizers. In some
cases trials are being made to ascertain the best type of cover-crop, both from an annual
and perennial standpoint, as compared with clean cultivation. Cover-crops are also
being used in conjunction with fertilizers. On the work done up to the present recommendations can be made but in many cases the condition of the orchard requires specific
rather than general advice. Any grower wishing assistance in a matter of this kind
would be well advised to discuss such a matter with the local agricultural official.
THE USE OF MULCHING MATERIAL.
Orchard mulching has been tried in the Salmon Arm District and has been commented on in previous reports. In his report for 1944, C. R. Barlow, District Field
Inspector, deals with the results during the current season:—
" The object and details of this work which was commenced in 1941 are explained
in your Inspector's annual reports for 1941 and 1942. In 1943 the fruit on the mulched
plot showed a noticeable deterioration in colour over that produced in previous years
and in comparison with the crop on the clean cultivated plot. It was thought that this
might be due to an excess of available nitrogen and it was deemed advisable to suspend
the application of the alfalfa mulch for one and possibly more years. Accordingly no
mulch was applied this year, and the plot received a thorough disking, both ways, in the
spring and was not cultivated again during the season. Again this year the colour
of the fruit on the south half of the mulched plot did not compare favourably with
that on the check-plot, and it may be advisable to forego the use of the mulch again next
year. However, the average yield per tree on the mulched plot has, as in the two
former years, been considerably heavier than that on the check, and the general vigour
of the trees markedly superior. Records and data have again been kept relative to
terminal growth, yields per tree, quality of fruit, etc.; it will be necessary, however,
to continue observations of the behaviour and response of the trees to the different
treatments for several seasons yet in order to reach definite conclusions. The orchard
in which this experiment is being conducted will be under new management next year,
but it is expected that satisfactory arrangements can be made for the carrying-on of
the work."
Further consideration has been given to the value of mulching as a means of improving soil and moisture conditions for the production of crops other than tree-fruits.
While no experimental or demonstration work has as yet been done which might supply
data, the following observations reported by E. W. White, District Horticulturist for
Vancouver Island, should prove of interest and value to producers:—
" One of the first reports received concerning the use of a mulch was from a
grower in Gordon Head, who had taken over the care of % acre of Latham raspberries.
When taken in hand six years ago this patch produced approximately fifteen crates S 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of fruit. Mulching was adopted and during the six-year period production has
gradually increased until this year approximately 150 crates were harvested. The
practice followed here is to make one cultivation in the spring and then put down
4- to 6-inch mulch of old straw or hay and no more cultivation is done until the next
annual cultivation.    Poultry have the run of the patch after the crop is harvested.
" Another grower at Duncan has used mulch more extensively than any one else
on raspberries, loganberries, boysenberries, blackberries, strawberries, and asparagus.
This grower uses straw and hay when available but also spends considerable time and
money in cutting and collecting bracken in the fall. He also uses old packing material
and cartons. Some plantings have been under mulch for three years now with no
cultivation and results are very promising. When pruning out the old raspberry-
canes these are left in the rows to be tramped down and eventually they form added
vegetable-matter. This spring a piece of land was prepared and put in good tilth and
then mulched to a depth of about 4 inches and everbearing strawberries were planted
right through the mulch. An excellent crop was harvested this fall, no weeds were in
evidence and no cultivation had been carried on.
" A grower in Saanich has been using a modified mulching system on strawberries
for some time. It is the general practice of growers in Saanich to straw their strawberry patches just before fruiting commences. This straw mulch helps to keep the
fruit clean, helps to conserve soil-moisture, and makes conditions generally more
cleanly for pickers. Oat-straw is preferred but wheat-straw is also used. An application of about 2 tons per acre is made. With straw at $20 to $25 per ton this is a
considerable investment. After the fruiting season is over it has been the practice
of some growers to clean up the patch by burning. This destroys all the mulch and
most of the leaves of the strawberry plants. Other growers adopt a practice of trimming down the plants, cutting off any runners, raking up the mulch, and hauling it
off to be used for bedding or stacked and used again the following year for strawing.
" The grower referred to above trims down the plants, but instead of removing the
mulch he places it in every fourth row, after cultivating these rows, and it remains
there permanently. These rows are not cultivated again and the next season it may
be necessary to add a little more straw. By this method the grower has not destroyed
valuable vegetable-matter and he has approximately 25 per cent, of his patch strawed
for the next year. If the mulch is heavy enough it will keep down practically all
weed-growth."
PRUNING DEMONSTRATIONS.
Pruning demonstrations were undertaken in the various districts. Details are
given in the following table:—
No. of No. of
District. Demonstrations.       Pupils.
Vancouver Island   15 427
Lower Mainland     7 268
Okanagan    :     9 206
Kootenay      2 41
Totals    33 942
"FRUIT, VEGETABLE, AND HONEY GRADES ACT."
While no changes were made in the Act, the regulations under the Act were
reprinted and brought up to date.    This Act and regulations are now available for
distribution. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 53
DOMINION-PROVINCIAL EMERGENCY FARM LABOUR SERVICE.
While the above service covers all farm operations in so far as supplying farm
labour is concerned, it has been of outstanding value to the horticultural industry.
First instituted in 1943 as a measure to assist producers, it has, during its two years
of operation, met that need most satisfactorily. Appreciation of this service has been
expressed to your officials by numerous growers engaged in the production of horticultural crops.
PUBLICATIONS.
All publications covering matters dealing with horticultural production have been
revised and reissued as required. The series dealing with seed production has been
extended so that now there are thirteen booklets in this collection. The number will
be increased as time permits in order that all phases of the seed production in the
Province will be fully covered.
With the assistance of officials of the Dominion Department of Agriculture a
monthly news letter dealing with bulb production has been issued. This is greatly
appreciated by all growers and at the present time there is a mailing-list of over 250
growers. In order to furnish more detailed information to bulb-growers stencils on
tulip and narcissus production, and allied subjects, have been prepared.
The Horticultural News Letter was issued under the supervision of M. S. Middle-
ton, District Horticulturist, from the Vernon office.    Mr. Middletons report follows:—
" The Horticultural News Letter as in past years was issued from the Vernon office
during the 1944 season.    This was issued every two weeks from May 13th to September 16th, a total of ten issues.    Approximately 280 copies of each issue were sent out.
The following crop estimates were compiled and issued with the News Letter:—
Small-fruit Estimates, May 27th.
Vegetable Acreages, June 10th.
Stone-fruit Estimates, June 24th.
Tree-fruit Estimates, July 8th.
Revised Tree-fruit Estimates, August 19th."
Fruit estimates have been prepared each month during the summer and fall and
sent out to all interested parties. Your officials are also responsible for the securing
of final figures on horticultural crop production which are supplied to the Departmental
Statistician and used by him in compiling the agricultural statistics for the year.
REPORT OF FIELD CROPS BRANCH.
C. Tice, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner.
The winter was an extremely mild one. As a result fall-sown crops came through
in good condition and the amount of winter-killing in legumes was at a minimum.
This was quite a contrast to the conditions prevailing in the winter of 1942-43, when
there was a very high percentage of winter-killing as a result of the severe weather.
In view of this it was rather expected that, providing moisture and soil conditions
were satisfactory, crops would be heavy this year. However, many areas suffered
rather badly due to lack of moisture during the growing season, and added to this
was the very bad infestation of grasshoppers in many parts of the Interior which
caused heavy crop losses.
The reports of the District Agriculturists contain information relative to crop
conditions in the various areas of the Province. S 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SEED PRODUCTION.
The year 1944 was on the whole a satisfactory one for the production of all field-
crop seeds. The Interior districts where the alfalfa-seed is produced were, however,
badly infested with grasshoppers, which ruined many crops. As a result the production of alfalfa-seed was very disappointing. Prolonged dry weather also resulted in
a small crop of timothy-seed. The following is a statement of the quantities of field-
crop seeds produced in 1943 and estimated production for 1944:—
Estimated
Production, 1943. Production, 1944.
Lb. Lb.
Alfalfa   125,000 65,000
Red clover   210,000 437,000
Alsike clover      90,000 140,000
White clover        1,000 300
Ladino clover  600 	
Sweet clover      72,000 65,000
Alsike clover and timothy (mixture)   120,000 210,000
Timothy   597,000 190,000
Orchard-grass        4,500 30,000
Brome-grass      10,000 90,000
Meadow-fescue grass       4,500 5,000
Kentucky blue-grass        1,000 	
Reed canary-grass  .       2,000 	
Mangel       73,374 126,700
Sugar-beet   370,000 502,000
Field corn      10,740 10,180
Fibre flax  448,000 144,000
Soy-beans     60,000 	
Crested wheat       15,000
Creeping red fescue      1,000
Efforts have also been made to create interest in the production of such seeds as
wild white clover, perennial rye-grass and orchard-grass. Some progress has been
made in the production of wild white clover seed in the North Thompson Valley through
the efforts of the District Agriculturist at Kamloops. On the other hand little progress
hafc been made in the production of perennial rye and orchard grass seeds, but the
matter is being followed up as it is felt that these seeds should be produced in this
Province.    At the present time most of our requirements are imported.
Some attention has been given by Mr. John L. Webster, District Field Inspector,
to the production of hybrid field corn seed.
STOCK SEED OF CEREALS AND ROOTS.
The following quantities of stock seed of cereals and roots were produced by the
Agronomy Department of the University and made available to this office through the
co-operative arrangement between the University and the Department of Agriculture :  Lb.
Victory oats  3,786
Eagle oats   1,314
Prolific rye      900
Olli barley       752
Alaska oats       354
Chancellor peas       382
Liral fibre flax      165 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 55
Lb.
Red Wing oil flax  305
Yellow intermediate mangel  18
Bangholm swede turnip seed   30
Dawson's Golden Chaff wheat  876
Kharkov wheat   631
Jones fife wheat  :  750
Ridit wheat   551
Storm rye   885
This seed is disposed of to the farmers of the Province at a special price.
HYBRID FIELD CORN TESTS.
The tests with hybrid and standard varieties of field corn were continued during
the year in co-operation with Dr. S. E. Clarke, of the Federal Forage Crops Division.
The following is a list of the corns that were made available for testing purposes:
Wisconsin 531, Wisconsin 625, Wisconsin 645, Rainbow Flint, NK-D, Wisconsin 275,
Wisconsin 525, KY-55, Wisconsin 355, Wisconsin 696.
Altogether ten tests were conducted in different parts of the Province. Green
weights were taken as far as time permitted and samples have been forwarded to the
Dominion Laboratory at Swift Current, Saskatchewan, for dry-matter test.
In general it might be stated that hybrid field corn is showing up very well. In
fact, a number of farmers are using hybrid field corn seed for planting.
WEED-CONTROL.
Two seasonal Weed Inspectors were appointed by the Minister for the Peace River
Block. H. D. Mclvor, of Fort St. John, was reappointed Weed Inspector for the north
side of the Peace River, and E. H. Parsons, of Rolla, for the south side of the Peace
River.
Several complaints regarding weeds have received attention. Where necessary
these have been referred to the Provincial Police. In addition to this, where time has
permitted, personal visits have been made to farms by officials of this Department and
suggestions for controlling weeds have been made. Close watch is also being made of
new weed infestations.
LIME.
Considerable attention continues to be given to the lime situation in the Province.
In this connection it is gratifying to be able to report that increased supplies of lime
are available this year.    However, lack of labour still limits production.
The Provincial Government is giving a subsidy of $1 to bona-fide consumers of
lime who use the lime for soil amendment purposes and the Federal Government is
giving a subsidy of 75 cents per ton to manufacturers of ground lime-stone and of $1
per ton to manufacturers of agricultural hydrated lime. This office is handling the
work in connection with the administration of the subsidy to manufacturers of lime.
FIELD CROPS UNION.
The membership in the B.C. Field Crops Union for 1944 was 104 members.
Twenty-six tests, covering various forage-crops, cereals, and roots, were available
to the members and 102 tests were conducted altogether.
The distribution of the membership was as follows: Vancouver Island, 18 members; Interior, 19 members; Central British Columbia, 28 members; Northern British
Columbia, 2 members; Kootenays, 12 members; Lower Mainland, 5 members; Cariboo,
12 members;   Boundary, 4 members;   Peace River, 4 members. S 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FERTILIZER BOARD.
Four meetings of the B.C. Fertilizer Board were held and attended by your Commissioner during the year. Many matters affecting the fertilizer industry of the
Province were discussed.
The mixes recommended by the Board for the 1944-45 season are as follows:
4-12-8, 0-24-20, 10-20-10, 6-7-6, 8-10-5, 6-30-15, 2-16-6, 0-12-20, 6-18-12, 6-24-12,
2-12-10 (tobacco).
During the month of October Grant S. Peart, Federal Fertilizers Administrator,
visited the Province and met members of the B.C. Fertilizer Board and the Fertilizer
Division of the B.C. Branch of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association.
SOIL ANALYSIS.
As usual a large number of soil samples have been submitted to the office and
analysed by S. S. Phillips by means of the Spurway method. Two hundred and sixty-
four samples were analysed altogether, which compares favourably with last year.
SCREENINGS.
Walter Sandall, District Inspector, Provincial Department of Agriculture, Vancouver, reports as follows regarding grain screenings:—
" Reports of elevator managers show that for the ten months ended October 31st
3,308 tons of screenings including all grades had been used for local consumption.
This quantity is 2,537 tons more than for the corresponding period last year, mainly
due to the fact that screenings have become more available on account of the increased
movement of wheat from British Columbia elevators. A total of 5,397 tons of screenings has been exported to the U.S.A., of which 956 tons were ' oat screenings ' and
the balance ' refuse.'
" In the interests of weed-control and to ascertain that the Screenings Regulations are being complied with, occasional visits are made to dealers in stock feeds
who are purchasers of screenings in Vancouver, New Westminster, and Fraser Valley
points.    Observational visits are made to the local grain elevators when necessary."
Appendix No. 2 shows the quantity of screenings of each grade removed from
British Columbia grain elevators each month from January to October (inclusive)
for 1944 as compiled from the manager's reports.
It will be seen from a perusal of the summary that the higher grades of screenings have been used this year by dealers for grinding and processing for local consumption, whilst the local grades are being exported.
LOGGED-OFF LAND SEEDING.
(a.) Campbell River Area.—On October 30th and 31st, 1944, an inspection was
made by L. Todhunter of this area which in the spring of 1939 was seeded to timothy
and alsike clover, sweet clover, white Dutch clover, and subterranean clover. The
seeding was carried out immediately after the fire which occurred in the fall of 1938.
The following is Mr. Todhunter's report:—
" Regardless of the fact that the past summer had been exceedingly dry all the
areas with the exception of that which is known as the football field at Elk Falls Park
showed an excellent growth.
" The timothy and alsike appear now to be firmly established and there is much
evidence of natural reproduction. Seed-pods which were very numerous were shattered and much of the seed had germinated, new growth being extremely rank,
particularly the timothy. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 57
" The sweet clover is making much better progress than at the time of the
previous inspection, and, whilst some plants were still in bloom, a great many had
scattered their seed. Numerous new plants were noted, ranging in height from, 2 to
6 inches. In all areas seeded to subterranean clover the growth is good, and the
plants are spreading as evidenced by the larger and more numerous clumps.
" The white Dutch clover seeded on the better type of soil is making more growth
than was apparent at any previous inspection.
" A plot of the white Dutch clover seeded on an inferior type of soil, which made
good growth the first and second year and then disappeared, was treated with artificial
fertilizer in the fall of 1942. At the time of inspection this showed little, if any,
response to the treatment, although in the fall of 1943 the comeback of these plants
was extremely good. It is quite possible that the lack of moisture during the summer
was responsible for the lack of growth in these plots. It was noted, however, that a
good stand of native grasses had become established, especially in the plot on which
6-10-10 fertilizer had been applied.
" There were signs that numerous cattle had been grazing over the seeded areas."
(&.) North West Logging Company.—Mr. Todhunter reports that "A plot of
approximately 10 acres situated on the North West Logging Company road No. 155,
about 3.2 miles from the main highway, which was seeded in January, 1944, to mixed
grasses and clover, and a plot of reed canary-grass (dryland strain), produced excellent
results. There being a good catch of mixed grasses and clover and an exceptionally
good catch of reed canary-grass;   the plants are decidedly vigorous and healthy."
THRESHERMEN'S RETURNS.
Appendix No. 9 shows the amount of grain threshed in the various districts of the
Province as submitted by the various district agricultural officials.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
J. W. Eastham.-B.Sc, Plant Pathologist.
Special delivery tags to the number of 983 were issued, and returns have been
received for 677 of them. Of these orders, 291 contained ornamentals (including
shrubs and herbaceous perennials), 182 small fruits, 71 fruit-trees, 58 grape-vines,
and 87 bulbs.
In addition 98 shipments without tags were inspected at Vancouver, 55 of which
contained ornamentals, 44 small fruits (chiefly strawberries), and 15 fruit-trees
(including seedlings and native stone-fruits).
Private shipments of potatoes from the Prairies, from grower to consumer, were
unimportant this year, consisting of one shipment of three sacks and four of one sack
each; also three lots of about 30 pounds each presumably to be used for seed. No
indications of bacterial ring-rot were found.
BEAN RUST  (Uromyces appendicidatus).
In the Annual Report for 1943, a severe outbreak of this disease was reported
in the Matsqui District on Kentucky Wonder beans grown for canning. This disease,
although not so destructive as last year, was again quite severe in the same district,
although the variety chiefly grown had been changed to Blue Lake. Small quantities
of seed of two rust-resistant varieties procured from the United States, however, gave
plants practically rust-free, although growing contiguous to quite badly rusted plant- S 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ings, and in one case, on land which bore a very badly affected crop last year. The two
resistant strains seemed satisfactory from a crop standpoint but the canners' report
on canning quality has not yet been received. If this proves satisfactory the problem
of rust-control would seem well on the way to solution, and adequate supplies of seed
of the rust-resistant varieties can probably be raised in the Province in the course of
a year or two. STOCK-POISONING PLANTS.
Six weeks were spent in the Cariboo and Central British Columbia areas investigating the subjects of stock-poisoning plants and weeds. Green Lake, Williams Lake,
Soda Creek, Quesnel and Prince George, as well as some intermediate points were
visited; Vanderhoof, Burns Lake and Smithers, Francois and Ootsa Lakes, and on the
return a trip was made from Williams Lake across the Chilcotin to Chelquoit and Chilko
Lakes.    Much of the trip was made in company with Dr. Knight, Chief Veterinarian.
The following well-recognized poisonous plants were found in sufficient amount
to be of importance: Water Hemlock or Poison Parsnip (Cicuta Douglasii); Larkspurs
(Delphinium sp.) ; Timber Milk-vetch (Astragalus serotinus) ; Choke-cherry (Primus
demissa) ; Arrow-grass (Triglochin sp.) ;   Poison or Death Camass (Zygadenus vene-
Water Hemlock (Cicuta Douglasii (D.C.) C. & R.).
This was found to be the most generally distributed of the above, being found
in boggy or marshy grounds and along lakes, streams, and ditches, almost everywhere
if searched for carefully. Also, inquiry at most places showed that the loss of an
occasional animal, or sometimes two or three together, usually cattle, had occurred in
recent years from eating the roots of this plant. Most stockmen appear to know it in
a general way and every opportunity was taken to point out the characters which
distinguish it from closely related but harmless plants. Paradoxically, in the places
where the plant is most abundant there seems to be little trouble. These are mostly
swampy areas of some extent and stock are not turned on them in early spring. The
same thing occurs in Southern British Columbia, the plant being found by thousands
on the Creston flood-meadows and in certain low-lying meadows at Windermere, on
which stock, however, are not allowed to run in the spring.
The roots are the most poisonous part of the plant and it is stated that a piece
the size of a walnut will kill a full-grown cow. In the spring these tuberous roots,
which are not deep in the ground at any time, are brought to the surface, or loosened
by frost or wet, and are liable to be dragged out and eaten, especially if other feed
is scarce. Apparently, considerable amounts of the foliage can be eaten, either green
or in hay, without injury, when mixed with other feed.
A closely allied plant, the Water Parsnip (Sium cicutaefolium) is very abundant
all through the Cariboo and northern country, more so than the above, but is non-
poisonous. Specimens of both were gathered for, or by, the District Agriculturists
and pressed and mounted for reference.
Prevention of losses from Water Hemlock consists mainly in keeping the cattle in
and feeding them until other green feed is available. As one farmer put it: " Formerly
I used to keep more stock than I could feed properly so they had to be turned out to
scrounge as soon as possible and I used to get them poisoned. Since I cut the number
down to what I can care for, and in fact, have usually hay to spare, I have had no
losses from poisoning." However, plants adjacent to the farm-yard should be grubbed
out. They are not deep-rooted and not usually numerous enough in such places to
require much work to get rid of.
Larkspurs (Delphinium sp.).
On the ranges of the Dry Belt the dwarf species D. bicolor and D. Menziesii occur,
both of which are poisonous.    The former was noticed occasionally in the Flying U DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 59
area but not in any quantity. These species die down early. No cases of poisoning in
which these plants were suspected were reported to us, although inquiries were made.
Going north, at Quesnel the first plants were seen of the tall larkspur D. Brownii,
a species later found in great abundance at Vanderhoof, Ootsa Lake, and west as far
as Smithers. This plant reaches a height of 6 feet, often with many flowering stems
to a root, forming clumps comparable to those of a garden Delphinium. It has thick
woody roots and flowers of a dark violet blue. The poisonous nature of the plant seems
to be well recognized by the ranchers and we heard of many cases of poisoning.
Fortunately, recovery is more frequent than with Water Hemlock. In this case, also,
poisoning takes place chiefly in spring for two reasons. Firstly, it has been shown
experimentally that the leaves (the part usually eaten) contain a much higher proportion of the poisonous principles in spring. " Leaves from plants in flower are from
one-third to one-fourth as poisonous as are leaves from very young plants, and leaves
from plants in fruit are only about one-sixteenth as poisonous " (Sampson and Malm-
sten, " Stock-poisoning plants of California," 1942). While the above refers to a species
not found in British Columbia it probably holds good for others. Secondly, there was
much evidence that stock do not eat larkspur if other green feed is available. In the
Ootsa Lake country the spring had been unusually dry, and the pastures were eaten
almost into the ground, but the spires of larkspur could be seen everywhere, and
examination showed the basal leaves untouched although the grass had been eaten
closely around them.
While the poisonous principle is not destroyed by the drying of the leaves for hay,
the plants (unless the very poisonous seeds are present) are, as above mentioned, much
less poisonous at this stage and we heard of no cases of poisoning due to hay. As in
the case of Water Hemlock, avoidance of trouble is largely a matter of not allowing
stock to run outside until other green feed is available. We were informed that the
larkspur is the earliest new growth to appear in spring and this makes it attractive
to stock after their winter diet. In considerable sections of the country the plant is
so abundant that measures to eradicate it seem impracticable, but perhaps a little more
care might be taken around the farm buildings. An unfenced shelter-belt around one
farm-yard appeared to contain about one tall larkspur plant to the square yard which
seems to be inviting trouble.
Timber Milk-VETCH  (Astragalus serotinus Gray).
(This is the plant named A. campestris Gray in Henry's Flora and other British
Columbia publications. It seems doubtful if A. campestris occurs in British Columbia.
All specimens in Provincial herbaria appear to be A. serotinus. Rydberg, " Flora of
the Rocky Mountains," 1922, gives the range of A. campestris as Wyoming, Colorado,
and Utah.)
This plant is very common throughout the Dry Belt to the Rocky Mountains. On
this trip it was found as far north as Narcosli Creek (post-office), where it was plentiful. It was also found to be abundant from Williams Lake across the Chilcotin to
Chelquoit Lake and the northern end of Chilko Lake, where serious losses had occurred
on the summer ranges. On the other hand, in a trip made from Williams Lake to
Horsefly, numerous examinations of the woodland near the road were made without
finding any specimens east of the Cariboo Highway.
The type of poisoning produced by this plant was studied and reproduced experimentally by Dr. E. A. Bruce, and the results recorded in Dominion Department of
Agriculture Bulletin 88 (1927), now unfortunately out of print. Both types of disease
as given by Dr. Bruce appear to be frequent in the Chilcotin; namely, (1) progressive
emaciation and lack of muscular co-ordination—the so-called "Knock-heel disease";
(2) the animal appears in good condition but drops dead almost without any warning
symptoms on making any extra exertion as when being rounded up or driven. S 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
At Flying U Ranch and Narcosli Creek, both places where the plant was abundant,
no ill effects had been observed, probably because other forage was abundant and the
range not overstocked. There was much evidence to show that animals do not eat it
unless other food is scarce, but when once forced to they may acquire the habit and
cannot be stopped unless removed from access to it.
It seems probable, as in the case of other poisonous plants, that the availability
or otherwise of more wholesome food is an important factor in losses. The lower
ranges, so far as visible from the road, all the way from Williams Lake to Chilco, have
been seriously depleted of the bunch-grasses and other valuable forage plants through
overgrazing and sustain a plant population mainly of " weeds " such as needle grasses
(stipa sp.), Pasture Wormwood (Artemisia frigida), Flax (Linum Lewisii), etc. The
regeneration of these ranges, if possible, would seem to be a matter of primary
importance.
The trip to the Chelquoit-Chilko area was made partly on account of complaints
of heavy losses in cattle and also by the report of the presence there of other " loco-
weeds." Several species of this type were found (Astragalus alpinus, A. americanus,
A. eucosmos, A. Macounii, A. tenellus, Oxytropis gracilis, O. deflexa), some being fairly
abundant, but none of these particular species have been incriminated as causing loco-
disease, and the abundance of A. serotinus would seem to account sufficiently well for
the losses sustained.
Choke-cherry (Prunus demissa Nutt.).
This was the only species of cherry found on the trip. P. emarginata, which is
so abundant right across the southern part of the Province, was not observed. The
ripe fruit of the choke-cherry is often made into jelly, and probably contains little of
the poison (prussic or hydrocyanic acid) or it is destroyed or driven off in cooking.
The leaves and young shoots, however, are poisonous, containing, or developing, much
hydrocyanic acid. Two cases of fatal poisoning apparently due to this plant were given
us, one being that of a valuable ram on loan from the Dominion Department of Agriculture, at Fort Fraser, and the other of two head of cattle at Narcosli Creek. In the
latter case the animals had been browsing on Snowberry bushes (Symphoricarpos)
intermixed with choke-cherry and had presumably eaten the latter inadvertently.
Arrow-grasses (Triglochin sp.).
T. maritima L., the Large or Salt-marsh Arrow-grass, is found in salt marshes
all along the Coast and in alkali spots in the Interior. At the Coast it appears to be
eaten freely by both horses and cattle without ill-effects. The writer also observed
the same thing around Cranbrook slough, where it grows vigorously. Under hot, arid
conditions, however, it may develop a considerable amount of hydrocyanic (prussic)
acid with fatal results to stock. Authorities differ as to the poisonous qualities of
hay containing it. Some consider that the poison is largely destroyed in the curing
process but others report fatal poisoning from hay containing it.
Large beds of this plant were noticed bordering Green Lake, Lac la Hache, and
Williams Lake, but no recent cases of poisoning were reported to us. Dr. Carlyle has
noted stock losses at Dog Creek in which this plant was suspected (Annual Report for
1941).
T. palustris L., the Small or Marsh Arrow-grass, has a wider range, since it is
not confined to saline situations. It has the same properties as the last, but being
usually a small and slender plant, and occurring in a scattered manner is less likely to
be eaten in serious amounts. However, in a swampy spot at Alexis Creek, Chilcotin,
it was found forming a thick bed with plants 16 inches high. In such a case it might
prove dangerous. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 61
Poison OR Death Camass (Zygadenus venenosus S. Wats.).
This was found to be extremely abundant on the range at Flying U and along the
Cariboo Highway to just south of Williams Lake. Later, it was noticed dried up and
the seed shed, at Hanceville in Chilcotin. It is probably abundant in most of the Dry
Belt, but no cases of poisoning by it were reported. Although cattle and horses are
susceptible sheep are chiefly affected, Dr. Bruce stating that all cases in British
Columbia known to him have been in sheep.
Photosensitization.
Three factors are involved in this condition: The animal must have an unpig-
mented skin—e.g., white or roan cattle; it must eat enough of certain photodynamic
plants to further sensitize the skin; and it must then be exposed to bright sunlight.
This trouble has been reported from the west end of Ootsa Lake and Horsefly (Dr.
Knight, Annual Report, 1941). Inquiry in the Ootsa Lake District showed that the
incidence of the disease is very erratic. No cases had appeared this year, although
the weather had been sunny and hot. We were told, however, of cases in previous
years in which 6 square feet of skin had peeled off, the pain making the animal so
unmanageable and dangerous that it had to be shot. Less seriously affected animals
recover if kept in the shade, the raw skin treated and food given free from any of the
exciting plants.
The following photodynamic plants are known to occur in British Columbia:
Bracken (Pteris aquilina lanuginosa) ; St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) ;
Lady's-thumb Polygonum Persicaria) ; Rabbit Bush (Tetradymia canescens). Alsike
clover has also been considered, by some European authorities, to have photosensitizing
properties. As regards the above it may be noted that not a plant of bracken was
seen from Lytton north and west to Smithers, or on the return journey until reaching
D'Arcy on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, after which it was seen quite often.
The introduced St. John's Wort, though now becoming abundant between Vancouver
and Chilliwack, was not seen afterwards, nor were the two small native species.
Lady's-thumb, although a common weed in Southern British Columbia was not noticed.
Tetradymia is common in the Okanagan and probably extends farther north in the Dry
Belt, but was not seen in the Ootsa District. Buckwheat had not been used in any
form as feed according to the information given us. It hardly seems possible that
alsike can be responsible as this is much more abundant in the Vanderhoof and Prince
George areas, where no cases have been reported, although the intensity of sunlight
must be much the same
A rather detailed survey was made up to about 4,000 feet altitude on one range
at the west end of Ootsa Lake where cases had occurred in previous years. No plants
were found that might be regarded as suspect on account of close relationship to those
known to be photodynamic nor was the flora apparently different from that of the
general area.
On the return trip a visit was made to a ranch about 16 miles east of Horsefly,
where a case had been reported to the District Agriculturist. Only one animal, a white
one, had been affected. When found, it was thought to have been attacked by a cougar,
the skin hanging from it in large flaps. This animal was brought in and recovered.
Here again, none of the recognized causal plants were found. Either other plants
than those so far recorded are capable of producing this sensitization or certain animals are constitutionally so susceptible to sunburn that they may suffer severely
without being further sensitized. S 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PERENNIAL WEEDS.
With two exceptions, the situation with regard to perennial weeds is good. One
of these is the Ox-eye Daisy which has taken possession to an astonishing degree, of
the road-sides and adjacent grass land from north of Soda Creek to Prince George.
In other parts of the northern area the common Dandelion has become similarly
abundant. Some meadows in the Vanderhoof area were seen in which grass had been
almost entirely displaced by Dandelions. Dry conditions have, no doubt, given the
strong-rooted dandelion an advantage.
Perennial Sow-thistle was not noticed in any great amount except in the railway
yards at Smithers. Credit is due to the District Agriculturists in checking early
infestation in the agricultural areas.
The only large infestation of Canada Thistle seen was at Fort St. James, where
it is said to have been introduced with hay used for packing purposes.
A scattered infestation of Bladder-campion was found at Telkwa, the seed of which
had been reported in clover-seed from this district.
ANNUAL WEEDS.
Most of the annual weeds of importance appear to be Crucifers. The most serious
of these as yet is Stink-weed (Thlaspi arvense), which is becoming very prevalent in
the Vanderhoof District. It can be found around most barnyards there and is quite
plentiful in some grain-crops. Negligence is undoubtedly a contributory cause of its
spread, patches of plants being allowed to go to seed in and around the barnyards, from
which the seeds are distributed over the farm. As each plant is stated to be able to
produce 20,000 seeds, a patch which could be hand-pulled in ten minutes or so may
produce several million seeds.
Of the mustard tribe the common Charlock (Brassica arvensis) was only noticed
in one field, at Quesnel. The Wild Turnip (Brassica campestris) was not noticed at
all, a fact which may have a bearing on the production of swede-seed. This weed has
become so abundant at the Coast that there is considerable risk of crossing with swedes
grown for seed with worthless progeny as a result. Flixweed (Sisymbrium Sophia)
has become perhaps the most widely distributed of all the crucifers being found at
even the farthest outlying places, Topley Landing, Babine Lake; Chilko Lake; and
Summit Lake, 33 miles north of Prince George, as well as throughout the area. It is
not,  however,  usually considered  a serious weed.
Worm-seed Mustard (Erysimum Cheiranthoides) was particularly abundant in
the Vanderhoof area, some fields being quite yellow with it.
Ball Mustard was noticed only occasionally.
It is worthy of note that no plant of any species of Ragweed (Ambrosia) was
observed anywhere on this trip. As this is in keeping with observations in other
parts of the Province it seems safe to say that, for practical purposes, the Province
is free from this curse of the individual who is susceptible to hay-fever. Inquiries
on this subject are received every year from sufferers from ragweed hay-fever in
Eastern Canada.
NEW OR LOCAL WEEDS.
Russian Pigweed (Axyris amarantoides L.). This has been established in the
Prairie Provinces since 1886 and may be a serious weed in grain-fields. In this
Province it seems to occur chiefly in the Cariboo and Chilcotin. It was found in some
abundance along the road and in adjacent fields and farm precincts at Alexandria
and at Marguerite. It was found sparingly at Williams Lake and Redstone and quite
plentiful at one place near Hanceville. We have also a specimen collected by Mr. Tice
at Forest Grove and there is one in the Provincial Museum from Stuart Lake. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 63
The plants seen on this trip were mostly small, few exceeding 18 inches, although
it is said to reach a height of 3 to 4 feet. Dry-land conditions probably account for
this. Although it is undoubtedly spreading along roadsides, probably due to being
carried on tires, it does not seem, from the information given us, to be a very aggressive weed under local conditions.
Crepis tectorum L. This plant, which is a native of Europe and Siberia, does not
seem to have any English name. It is an annual, reaching a height of 3 feet, with
long linear leaves and deep yellow heads of flowers. It appears to be of comparatively
recent introduction but spreading rapidly by wind-blown seeds. The only reference
to it found by the writer is in Babcock and Stebbins " The American Species of
Crepis," 1938, as follows: " The only records of this species known to us from our
area are the collections of McCabe in 1934, near Marguerite, on the Fraser River
between Soda Creek and Quesnel, British Columbia, and Brinkman No. 2534 at Bashaw,
Stettler district, Alberta." It is now very abundant along the road and in adjoining
waste ground and hay and grain fields at Soda Creek and intermittently from there
to north of Quesnel. It was also found to be very abundant in some places in the
Narcosli District, west of the Fraser River. It seems probable, also, that it has
spread across the Chilcotin from Williams Lake to Redstone, but at the date this
area was visited the plants had gone to seed and dried up, so that there is an element
of uncertainty in their identification. It seems chiefly a weed of roadside or waste
ground but occasional fields of hay and grain were a solid yellow with its flowers.
Field Scabious (Scabiosa arvensis L.) was reported sent in from Sinkut Lake,
Indian Reserve, Vanderhoof, in Annual Report, 1942. On this trip it was found growing plentifully in a meadow east of Fort Fraser. It was said by the farmer to be
spreading rapidly. It is a native of Europe, including Britain, and is probably only
of minor importance as a weed.
Silvery Cinquefoil (Potentilla argentea L.) was found abundant on waste ground
at Quesnel. Only two other records in the Province are known to the writer, St.
Mary's Prairie, Cranbrook, where it is said to be abundant (W. B. Johnstone), and a
solitary plant collected by the writer on the railway siding at Winlaw, Slocan Valley.
It is a strong-rooted perennial, 6 to 18 inches high, native of Europe and Asia and
probably of eastern North America, but, like the last, is probably of only minor importance as a weed.
HERBARIUM.
About 900 sheets were added to the Herbarium from the above trip. There
appear to be several species which are new records for the Province, though most of
them have not yet been fully identified, while a number of interesting extensions of
range of other plants have been recorded. Specimens of the more important poisonous
plants, weeds, and grasses in their respective districts were collected with the District
Agriculturists or are being mounted for them to be used for local reference purposes.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
W. R. Foster, Assistant Plant Pathologist, has added the following observations
on some important diseases of plants:—
Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes.
Potatoes grown in British Columbia in 1944 appear to be free of bacterial ring-
rot, a serious disease which has spread rapidly in recent years in many areas in
Canada and the United States. Successful preyention of the establishment of this
destructive disease appears to be due to: Inspection of imported potatoes, including
those from other Provinces; the sending of infected shipments to lumber camps, the
services, the gluecose factory, etc.;   the prompt notification of the few outbreaks in S 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
1942 and 1943, followed by clean-up measures; the common use of certified seed in
British Columbia;  and publicity.
In an attempt to protect potato-growers and the industry, the Provincial Government passed regulations for imported and domestic potatoes. Under the " Plant
Protection Act " the Bacterial Ring-rot Regulations for imported potatoes and the
Domestic Bacterial Ring-rot Regulations were passed in 1942 and 1943 respectively.
In an attempt to acquaint the potato-growers and industry with the seriousness
of the menace of bacterial ring-rot, its identification and the importance of not allowing it to become established, the following programme was carried out: (1) a coloured
illustrated chart of disease, details re control, and a letter, were forwarded to all
potato receiving centres and Farmers' Institutes; (2) an article, "Potato Ring-rot
Menace Serious," was forwarded to all newspapers and Country Life; (3) information was given over the radio; (4) a film in colour, " Diseases and Pests of Potatoes,"
in which bacterial ring-rot is featured, was purchased from the Dominion Department of Agriculture and shown at a number of meetings.
Little-cherry Disease in the Kootenays.
A report giving the result of the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory investigation of " little cherry " substantiates our preliminary findings that it is caused by a
virus. Lambert and Bings on Stockton Morello root-stock were added to the project
on the effect of different varieties on different stocks.
Crown Blight of Strawberry.
G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley, directed our attention to a blight of strawberry plants which appears to be causing considerable losses
in some areas.    An attempt is being made to determine the causal organism and to
find a means of prevention.    Plots have been laid out in three fields:-—
(1.)  H. Aish's, planted 1943, 16 plots.
(2.)  H. Aish's, planted 1944, 8 plots.
(3.)   N. R. Redman's, planted 1944, 8 plots.
The most characteristic symptom is the dying of all or most of the foliage in the
spring.    Many of these plants which appear to be dead may revive in July.    In one
field of about 4y2 acres, 50 per cent, of the plants had crown blight, but about 80 per
cent, of the diseased plants revived in July and in many cases could hardly be distinguished from healthy plants.    The estimated loss by the grower of the crops was
25 to 30 per cent.
Infection appears to take place on the above-ground parts. Sometimes the crown
is completely killed.
Poor air-drainage seems to increase amount of disease. Young plants, particularly of the first crop-year, appear to be more susceptible than older plants.
Bulb Diseases.
In general the bulbs grown in British Columbia appear to be in a healthy condition. The prevention of disease in forced bulbs, however, does not appear to be
adequate.
Some losses have occurred from the bulb eel-worm (Ditylenchus dipsaci) in forced
narcissi stock, particularly in plantings left down for two years. R. J. Hastings, bulb
specialist at the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory, Saanichton, recommends that
growers of forced stock lift early following one season's growth and apply the three-
hour hot water formalin treatment to eliminate eel-worms.
Much more primary tulip fire (Botrytis tidipss) seems to develop in forced planting stock than in field grown. The dip or hot water formalin treatment is suggested
as a preventive measure. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 65
Although most of the plantations are free of tulip breaking, there are still a number of growers who would be wise to attempt to eradicate it.
Mosaic (virus) of irises is common and varies in severity from a trace to nearly
100 per cent.
The following publications were prepared and issued in 1944:—
Diseases of Fruit-trees.    Horticultural Circular No. 73.
Diseases of Vegetable-seed Crops.    Seed Production Series No. 5.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST.
I. J. Ward, B.Sc, Entomologist.
The year was one of insect abundance, necessitating increased grower-assistance
by the Provincial Entomological Branch. A peak grasshopper outbreak occurred
throughout the Dry Belt area of British Columbia. Many pests of ground crops
required concerted control efforts to minimize crop-loss. New areas of potato-beetle
infestation were located. This involved surveying of potato acreages to determine the
extent of infestation and the adoption of immediate control measures. An infestation
of the potato flea-beetle (Epitrix tuberis), was located in the Similkameen Valley.
Previously this pest had not been reported beyond the Lower Fraser Valley.
Information on the control of injurious insects was provided growers through the
distribution of bulletins, by means of articles prepared for the press, and by talks
given at agricultural meetings. An article on grasshopper-control was mimeographed
in the Chinese language to assist growers of that race. A circular dealing with the
control of pests of seed crops was prepared for distribution to the seed growers.
Due to the pressure of work in the Interior it was not possible to visit the Coast
area until early in October. This visit provided an opportunity to discuss briefly
control problems confronting Agriculturists in their respective districts. Several
field trips were made in the Fraser Valley and I was able to gain some idea of the
extensive scope of agriculture in this district.
FIELD CROPS INSECT PESTS.
Grasshoppers.
A peak outbreak of grasshoppers occurred in practically all parts of the Interior
Dry Belt during the year. The species involved was Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus.
This is considered the most destructive grasshopper in North America and is a
difficult species to control with poisoned bait, unless dry, hot weather prevails.
From records available it seemed definite that British Columbia had never before
been faced with such a widespread outbreak in which this species alone was involved.
In most outbreaks two destructive species were present—namely, Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus and Camnula pellucida—and generally the latter species was predominant.    Due to different habits, C. pellucida is more easily controlled.
In many districts hatching of eggs started early in May; more than a month earlier
than the normal hatching date for Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus. Grasshoppers
were not confined to open range-land areas only. A heavy emergence of nymphs
occurred in many cultivated areas. This constituted a serious threat to ground crops
early in the growing season. Widespread control measures were required to prevent
heavy crop-loss.
Practically all organized control zones were in operation during the year and
extensive private control measures were undertaken.    A supply of sodium arsenite S 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
held in reserve by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture supplemented
the serious shortage of poison. Virtually all poison stocks were exhausted by late
summer.
(a.) East Kootenay District.—Although this is not considered an area suited to
frequent grasshopper outbreaks, a peak infestation occurred during early summer
over limited areas. Damage was confined to small gardens, small areas of range-land,
and to the second crop of alfalfa. Early use of poisoned bait was generally effective.
Frequent showers offset the possibility of migrations from range-land areas to cultivated crops. Parasites reduced the grasshopper population noticeably by midsummer
and heavy crop-loss was averted.
(b.) Boundary Area.—Grasshoppers were present in outbreak proportions at
Grand Forks, Midway, and Rock Creek. As the infestations were very " spotty " only
a- minimum amount of control was required. Wet weather was not favourable to the
grasshoppers and parasites increased during the summer to reduce the grasshopper
population.    As a result crop-damage was not heavy.
(c.) South Okanagan.—Heavy infestations occurred early in the season in several
districts from Osoyoos to Summerland. Control measures were adopted early. Inclement weather and the increase of parasites further reduced the population. Some
damage occurred to maturing stone-fruits although crop-loss averaged for the district
was light.    The Kelowna area was relatively free of grasshoppers.
(d.) North Okanagan.—Grasshoppers reached serious peak outbreak proportions
in this district. Emergence of nymphs early in May in many cultivated areas
threatened complete destruction of crops. Widespread control measures were adopted.
Repeated applications of poisoned bait were required to obtain satisfactory control.
Frequent showers kept range grasses green and prevented extensive migrations to
agricultural areas. The grasshopper population had thinned down appreciably by midsummer due to the prevalence of parasites. Poisoned baits alone would not have
sufficed to prevent major crop-losses.
Damage to commercial truck-crops was light to moderate, although in many districts small gardens were completely devastated. Range grasses were heavily eaten
down but frequent showers throughout the .season provided abundant growth which
offset loss of grasses to a considerable degree. Most serious damage was done to
alfalfa and oat crops. There was no commercial production of alfalfa-seed in the North
Okanagan. Very few growers harvested a second crop of alfalfa and in many instances
it was necessary to cut the first crop of alfalfa early to avoid complete loss. Several
large fields of green oats were stripped to the ground. Damage to other grains was
generally light. Practically all ground crops were damaged to some degree by the
grasshoppers, but the general crop-loss was by no means as severe as anticipated early
in the growing season.
(e.) Kamloops District.—Grasshoppers were present in outbreak proportions.
Early control measures were adopted and truck-crops were not damaged to any great
extent. The heaviest infestation was confined to range-land and grasses were heavily
eaten. Good fall growth offset this damage considerably. Parasites were building up
rapidly by midsummer.
(/.) Nicola Valley.—The infestation of M. m. mexicanus in the Nicola Valley was
severest ever known according to records available. In spite of every effort made to
control the outbreak, 70 to 80 per cent, of the grass on the open range-land was
destroyed.
Due to inclement weather early in the season poor results were obtained from
poisoned bait distributed. Added to this was the difficulty of obtaining suitable manpower to undertake a control problem of such magnitude. Much credit is due to those
in charge who made every effort to deal effectively with a very difficult problem. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 67
Good growing conditions during late summer and fall improved range conditions.
Considering the severity of the outbreak this factor only slightly offset damage done.
The loss of range grasses will undoubtedly mean a loss of several dollars per head for
cattle in the district.
Parasites were increasing in numbers by late summer but were not as prevalent
as in other districts.
(g.) Princeton-Similkameen.—Range-land, hay-crops, grain-crops, and gardens
were seriously damaged in the Princeton District. The infestation was extremely
intense although the area involved was relatively small. By late summer parasitism
was very pronounced.
(h.) Cariboo District.—Grasshoppers were present in outbreak numbers in all
range-land areas from Clinton to Quesnel. Heaviest infestations were on the lower
range-land levels. Good growing conditions offset to a large extent damage to range
grasses and losses cannot generally be considered severe.
(i.) Bulkley and Nechako Valleys.—In certain portions of both valleys grasshoppers reached outbreak proportions and control measures were required. Crop-
damage was not extensive. This portion of British Columbia is not considered a grasshopper area. The fact that grasshoppers were abundant in some parts of these
districts indicates the widespread nature of the outbreak in this Province during 1944.
Grasshoppers reduce Honey-crop.—It is estimated that the honey-crop in the North
Okanagan, Kamloops, and Nicola Districts was reduced by 60 per cent, as a result of
grasshopper damage to nectar-producing plants.
Acknowledgments.—The widespread grasshopper outbreak required the services
of many Department officials. All Agriculturists and Horticulturists throughout the
Interior assisted greatly in providing information on control in their respective
districts. Without this help the work could not have been adequately handled. Valuable
assistance was provided by E. R. Buckell, Dominion Division of Entomology, Kamloops,
who spent virtually the entire summer dealing with grasshopper problems.
Grasshopper Forecast.—In many areas parasites had increased in sufficient volume
by midsummer to substantially reduce the grasshopper population. The grasshopper
outbreak had therefore reached its peak and was on the decline. A continued decrease
in grasshopper intensity will occur as parasites become active in 1945. Predators that
feed on grasshopper egg-pods during the winter months were also prevalent this year.
Grasshoppers will be present during 1945, but outbreaks are likely to be " spotty "
and considerably reduced in intensity.
The outbreak in the Nicola Valley may continue severe as parasitism was observed
to be less than in most districts. The intensity of the outbreak should be lower than
during 1944 and under favourable conditions parasites should increase sufficiently by
midsummer to indicate a rapid decline in the outbreak cycle.
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).
(a.) East Kootenay District.—A. W. McMorran was in charge of control operations for the period June 1st to September 15th, The area of infestation was less than
during 1944. No beetles were found north of Sheep Creek in the Kootenay-Columbia
Valley.
Heavy infestations occurred at Cranbrook and the Grasmere-Roosville areas during
June, but control measures during the year proved very effective.
From an inspection of the potato-beetle district made in late August I feel certain
that control measures were the most effective obtained in recent years. The infestation
was reduced to a minimum in all areas and no crop-loss occurred. The thoroughness
of control operations this season should result in improved conditions during 1945.
Calcium arsenate dust used amounted to 7,153 lb. as compared to 7,103 lb. during
1943. S 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(6.) Boundary Area (Grand Forks, Greenwood, Midway, and Rock Creek).—
Several spot infestations occurred in these areas during 1943. Immediate control
measures were adopted. Potato acreages were inspected at Grand Forks during the
summer and no infestations were located.
No infestations were reported from Greenwood, Midway, or Rock Creek.
(c.) South Okanagan Valley.—There was no increase in area of infestation or the
intensity of outbreak this year. Inspections made during the year indicated that
growers were carrying out thorough control measures.
New Potato-beetle Infestations.—On July 6th a potato-beetle infestation was found
at Cawston in the Similkameen area. An immediate survey of the entire district was
carried out and ten properties were found to be infested. The area involved extended
from just above the U.S. Boundary at Nighthawk to Keremeos, a distance of 17 miles.
Control measures were adopted on all infested properties. Unfortunately, some
early potatoes had been harvested by this time from infested properties and control
measures were not considered complete. Careful survey of potato acreages and
thorough control measures will be required in 1945.
An effort was made to trace the source of the infestation and it was found that
a spot infestation occurred at Cawston in 1942 and was never reported. A report has
been received that the first infestation in the South Okanagan occurred at Osoyoos
in 1942.
On August 19th Mr. Wright, of the Dominion Potato Seed Inspection Service,
reported a spot infestation south of Rossland, 2 miles north of the U.S. Boundary.
This was checked on August 22nd and only one potato plant was found infested;
indicating the start of an infestation from one female beetle. Thorough control
measures were adopted and there is every chance that control was complete.
It is worthy of note that every infestation that has occurred in British Columbia
since the first beetle was found at Newgate in 1911 has had its origin in the vicinity
of the U.S. Boundary. Infestations are known to occur in Washington, Idaho, and
Montana.
Recommendations.—Thorough scouting of potato acreages and effective control
of infestations located in the South Okanagan and Similkameen is essential if a continued spread of the beetle is to be prevented. This work can only be done if some
one is appointed to take complete charge for a period of three months—namely, June,
July, and August.
From work undertaken in the East Kootenay and Grand Forks areas there is
abundant proof that infestations may be eradicated if adequate control measures are
adopted in time.
Cutworms.
The black army cutworm Agrotis fennica, present in outbreak proportions in some
alfalfa fields at Vernon, Armstrong, Enderby, Salmon Arm, and the North Thompson
River Valley during 1943, appeared again this year. The infestation was light and of
short duration.    No appreciable damage was done.
Cutworms in general increased noticeably over 1944. During the early growing
season crops were severely damaged in many areas of the Interior, necessitating
extensive control measures and a great deal of replanting.
Flea-beetles.
Brassica crops were heavily attacked by flea-beetles early in the growing season
and several applications of agricultural derris dust were required to provide adequate
control. In the Vernon District where a large acreage of cabbage was grown for
dehydration the infestation was extensive. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 69
New Potato Flea-beetle.—During September, potato tubers, severely damaged by
the new potato flea-beetle, apparently Epitrix tuberis, were received from Princeton.
A subsequent survey in the Similkameen showed this pest to be general on potato
acreages from Hedley to Princeton. A trace of the injury was also found in the
Keremeos area.
This is the first time this insect has been found in the Interior. The severity of
infestations located would indicate that the pest does well under Interior climatic
conditions, and a continued spread of the infestation is likely to occur.
The new potato flea-beetle first occurred in British Columbia during 1940 in the
lower Fraser Valley and since that time has spread rapidly.
Considerable investigational work to obtain more complete information regarding
this insect in the Interior will be required during 1945.
Onion-maggot (Hylemyia antiqua).—Injury to crops throughout the Interior was
heavier than during 1943. The calomel-hydrated lime dust recommended for control
proved effective when the first application was made prior to a sign of infestation and
two other applications were made at ten-day intervals.
Many growers adopted control measures too late with resulting failure. The
onion-maggot is now firmly established in all onion-growing areas and as yet adequate
control measures are not generally adopted.
Cabbage-maggot (Hylemyia brassicss).—Damage to cabbage by this pest was
moderate throughout the Interior with early cabbage showing the heaviest infestation.
Control measures were adopted more generally than in previous years. The use of
corrosive sublimate solution or calomel dust as recommended provided satisfactory
control.
Cabbage-worm (Pieris rapse).—This pest was of little importance this year. Most
large acreages of cabbage were dusted frequently with agricultural derris and nicotine
dust to control flea-beetles arid aphids. The use of these insecticidal dusts effectively
controlled the cabbage-worm.
White-grubs or June-beetles.—Several reports of white-grub injury to potatoes
and strawberries were received during the year. In general only small plots were
involved and no serious crop-loss occurred. This pest is responsible for a small annual
crop-loss as no satisfactory insecticidal control measures have yet been worked out.
Bait-traps may provide some measure of control, but usually it is advisable to plant
crops that are not readily attacked.
Parsnip Web-worm.—Two infestations occurred in the Armstrong area and damage
done reduced the parsnip-seed yield by approximately 50 per cent. This loss could have
been prevented if growers had adopted control measures when the infestation was first
observed. This insect is often abundant on the heads of wild parsnips and for this
reason the wild host plants should be destroyed in parsnip seed-growing areas.
Wireworms.—Wireworms cause damage to crops in many parts of British Columbia
yearly, and no effective control by the use of insecticides has yet been effective. Bait-
traps provide a measure of control, but due to the labour involved they are only feasible
where infestations are confined to small areas. It seems certain that the wireworm is
the most destructive pest of seed crops in the Grand Forks area. In some portions of
the Kelowna and Kamloops Districts ground crops are also heavily damaged.
Turnip-seed Weevil.—In recent years brassica seed crops in the North Okanagan
have been infested to varying degrees by the turnip-seed weevil. Turnip-seed crops in
the Armstrong area were heavily infested this year and seed yield in some fields was
reduced by 50 per cent. Damage to cabbage and broccoli seed has been generally light.
Parasites liberated in the Coast region are proving effective in controlling this pest
and investigations will be undertaken to ascertain if this parasite will do well under
Interior climatic conditions. S 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Wheat-midge.—Although the wheat-midge has been present in the North Okanagan District for many years it has seldom been responsible for heavy crop-loss. This
year damage to grain-crops from Armstrong to Grindrod was particularly severe. It
seems that climatic conditions were favourable for this insect to reach peak outbreak
proportions.    It is extremely unlikely that continued damage of this severity will occur.
Aphids.—Aphids attacking ground crops this year were extremely abundant.    The
cabbage-aphid was particularly destructive to the entire cabbage acreage in the North
Okanagan.    Frequent applications of a 4-per-cent. nicotine dust were required from
planting-out time to harvesting in order to produce a marketable product and to prevent
serious crop-loss.    It proved to be the most difficult problem of control facing growers
of ground crops in the district and all but discouraged many from ever attempting
to grow cabbage again.    Showery weather  favoured the  rapid  increase  of aphids,
resulting in a peak outbreak.    Infestations of this severity are not frequent in the
Interior.
ORCHARD PESTS.
Contact was maintained throughout the year with Dominion and Provincial staff
members to gain knowledge of research being carried out and assistance was given as
time permitted.
Several collections of material infested with San Jose scale were collected at various
points in the Okanagan Valley during the year and forwarded to the Dominion Parasite
Laboratory at Belleville, Ontario.    No study of the parasites native to the scale in the
Okanagan has yet been made and it is hoped that parasite-rearing will be possible from
the material forwarded.
HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.
Cockroaches.—Requests for control recommendations were received by several
owners of business premises and by a few householders during the year. A large garbage dump adjacent to a truck-crop area out of Vernon was infested and there was a
danger of cockroaches being transferred in boxes of produce.
Earwigs.—Earwigs caused annoyance to a few householders in the Vernon District
again this year. There is no evidence that this pest is likely to increase to any appreciable extent in the British Columbia Dry Belt area.
Wasps.—These are not generally considered as household pests, but during 1943
they caused considerable annoyance by building nests adjacent to dwellings. Very few
wasps were present this year in any part of British Columbia. Natural controlling
agencies apparently reduced the peak population of last year to below normal numbers.
Box-elder Bug (Leptocoris trivittatus).—These insects have been present in outbreak numbers in several parts of the North Okanagan for several years, and have
caused considerable annoyance to householders due to their habit of gathering around
and entering dwellings in the fall of the year. The outbreak has subsided somewhat in
the Vernon area during the past two years, but the bugs are still numerous enough
to be a nuisance. Heavy infestations were reported from the Kamloops and Ashcroft
Districts during 1944.
SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS.
All available time during the summer months was spent in the field in order to
gain as much information as possible regarding problems confronting growers of
ground crops. This work was undertaken primarily to check the effectiveness of
present control recommendations and to obtain further information to be used in
preparing new bulletins on control.
Field-work provided a great deal of information.
The production of truck-crops and seed-crops has increased greatly in recent years.
As a result certain pests have shown a corresponding increase and new insects have
become established in various districts. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 71
Growers must now face the fact that control measures have to be considered in
order to prevent heavy crop-loss.
Investigations made in recent years have shown that all major pests of ground
crops in the Interior may be satisfactorily controlled by the use of insecticidal dusts.
Dusts are also used effectively in the Coast area, although heavier rainfall and generally
lower temperatures may result in some limitation to their use.
Dusting has many advantages over spraying. The initial cost of dusts may be
a little higher than liquid sprays, but this is offset by the lower cost of machinery
required and the time saved in application.
Growers in general are amazingly short of equipment required for the control of
pests of truck-crops. It must be emphasized that a low-priced duster of the hand type
or one mounted on a wheel, having a capacity of 10 to 15 lb. of dust, will suffice to
carry out adequate control measures over a considerable acreage.
The calomel-hydrated lime dust recommended for the control of root-maggots
proved effective when the first application was made before any infestation was
observed, and two other applications were made at ten-day intervals. The adoption of
control measures for root-maggots has not been general because powdered calomel has
been too expensive. The only supplies that have been available have been the expensive
chemically pure pharmaceutical calomel. It seems that a commercial grade of powdered
calomel should be obtainable at a considerably reduced price.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL APIARIST.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist.
The winter of 1943-44 was very mild, and bees in the Interior districts, where
provided with sufficient stores, came through with very little loss. Winter losses on
the Lower Mainland and Coast districts were above normal, averaging 25 per cent.
A periodical cause of winter loss is starvation and, paradoxical as it may seem, our
bees require a greater amount of winter stores in the milder climate of our Coast districts than they do in the colder winters of the Interior. Our heavy winter losses on
the Coast this season were accelerated by the frequent opportunities for cleansing
flights during the warmer spells, resulting in greater activity and consequent heavier
consumption of stores. Many bee-keepers fail to realize this until confronted with
dead colonies the following spring. A 25-per-cent. loss, as reported by our Inspectors,
represents only the actual number of dead colonies and does not take into account the
greater number that are so weakened by starvation that they are unable to build up
to full storing strength in time for the main honey-flow in July. Such conditions have
prevailed for two years in succession in the Lower Mainland and, except in a few
favourable locations, this year's honey-crop in the Fraser Valley was about the lowest
on record. Some of the better bee-keeping locations in the Kamloops area also experienced a light crop, as the alfalfa was cut in the early-blossom stage owing to the
prevalence of grasshoppers.
A considerable increase in new bee-keepers was again registered this year from
all parts of the Province. As most of these started with package bees, and unfortunately were further handicapped by the late delivery of packages, they were unable
to make any appreciable increase in the total crop, but contributed to some extent in
the lower average surplus per colony. The heavy winter mortality in bee-life in the
Coast districts, together with unfavourable weather during the entire spring period,
was reflected in the deficiency in pollination of home-grown fruit, resulting in short
crops, especially in small and stone fruits. S 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Weather conditions in the Interior were somewhat better for building up colonies
in the spring and, although the season was late, experienced bee-keepers took advantage of this by judicious feeding. The difference in bee-keeping ability was never
more apparent than this season, when adjoining apiaries in the same district showed
a marked difference in crop production. At the close of the season, when our Inspectors were estimating the total honey-crop, their district reports were similar in that
the crop was very uneven. The better bee-keepers averaged as high as 150 lb. surplus
per colony, while others in their neighbourhood had less than winter stores. The educational work conducted by the Apiary Inspector in the Okanagan District for the past
few years was evident in the better honey-crops obtained in many of the apiaries in
his district.
A summary of the honey-crop reports, by districts, as appended herewith, estimates the total crop for the Province at 1,267,805 lb., being slightly less than that of
the previous season.
About 30,000 hives are estimated to be in operation throughout the Province,
equivalent to an average of six to each bee-keeper.
At least 4,000 packages of bees were imported this year from the United States.
These were principally used for establishing new apiaries and to replace winter losses.
Owing to the rapid increase in the price of package bees, due to the unusual
demand, the Dominion Government has granted a rebate of 50 cents per pound as
a subsidy to bee-keepers. The delivered cost of a 2-lb. package this season is $4.50,
which is almost double the pre-war price of $2.75.
FIELD-WORK.
Apiary Inspection for the control of bee diseases began as usual with the examination of colonies in March, the earliest field-work being confined principally to requests
for certificates of inspection for the purpose of moving bees. On days when the weather
was unfavourable for working with bees, our Inspectors examined apiaries for dead
colonies to ascertain the cause and to destroy the contents of diseased hives, this eliminating many that would have later become a source of infection.
Systematic inspection began in April with five authorized District Inspectors, and
continued throughout the season until the end of October. The work was intermittent
until almost midsummer, owing to cold and unfavourable weather, and was continued
a month longer than usual for similar reasons. The unusual number of new beekeepers that required information and instruction also impeded the primary work of
apiary inspection, but our Inspectors were encouraged to assist in this respect wherever
possible.
Bee-diseases have been kept under control to approximately 2 per cent., showing
a gradual improvement over previous years. The principal work of our Inspectors is
confined chiefly to districts where honey production is important and in areas where
disease is known or suspected to exist. Following is a summary of their work in this
respect:—
District.
Examined.
Disease
A.F.B.
Approximately,
Per Cent.
Inspector.
Apiaries.
Colonies.
425
87
181
210
438
2,229
507
808
616
4,427
119
4
18
28
117
5.34
.79
Upper Fraser Valley    	
2.22
4.54
W. H. Turnbull	
2.64
Totals	
1,336
8,587
1
286 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 73
A number of field-days were held during the summer by various branches of the
British Columbia Honey Producers' Association. These were attended, wherever possible, by the Apiary Inspector of the district in which they were held. Assistance
and instruction were given in the proper manipulation of bee-keeping equipment and
information on the control of disease, etc., which was very much appreciated. This
educational work was also carried on at a number of winter meetings in various parts
of the Province where bee-keeping problems were discussed, and lectures on beekeeping, illustrated by motion pictures, were given.
A coloured motion picture under the title of " The Bees' Workshop " has been
prepared by the Department of Agriculture and will be ready for release in January,
1945. This will not only be of educational value to bee-keepers in British Columbia,
but will be of considerable interest to fruit-growers, as it particularly shows the beneficial work of the bees in pollination of the fruit-blossoms, so necessary to the production of a bountiful fruit-crop.
REPELLENT SPRAY TEST.
Bee-keepers and fruit-growers alike were particularly interested in the results of
the repellent spray tests conducted by the Horticultural Branch of the Department of
Agriculture. These tests were started in 1942 and based on a formula recommended
by the Department of Conservation, State of Massachusetts, being a mixture of creosote with the usual lead arsenate used for spraying fruit-trees for codling-moth. The
first tests were made in an orchard completely isolated from any other that would be
sprayed with straight arsenate of lead. Ten colonies of bees were placed in the orchard
(nine packages and one wintered over colony). One-half of the orchard was sprayed
with arsenate of lead to which had been added 1 pint of creosote to 100 gallons of spray
mixture; on the other half, 2 oz. of crude carbolic was substituted for the creosote
as a bee repellent. The bees in the orchard were examined closely before and after
each spraying and no loss whatever was reported. There was no cover-crop in this
orchard. Four sprays were given at regular intervals during the season without
apparent injury to the foliage, and at no time were any dead bees found. The owner
of this abandoned orchard was able to gather a fair crop of clean apples, while the bees
produced over a ton of surplus honey. A check-up of an apiary in an orchard 7 miles
away that was sprayed without the repellent on the same day was made. Many dead
bees were on the ground in front of the hives. As much as a quart of poisoned bees
were found in a square yard before one hive, representing practically the whole field
force of that colony.
In 1943 the repellent tests were conducted on a larger scale in an orchard where
there was a good cover-crop of alfalfa, sweet clover, alsike clover, and several native
honey plants. As in the 1942 tests, complete cover-sprays of arsenate of lead, containing 1 pint of creosote to 100 gallons, were used. A second orchard adjacent to this
was under test with'the same number of sprays, but in this case the repellent was
crude carbolic acid. A close check-up of the thirty colonies of bees in the orchards
failed to show any loss of bees or damage to the foliage.
The formula with oil of creosote was given to several orchardists who were also
bee-keepers, to be tried out under the usual growers' conditions. In every case a burning of foliage was reported ranging from slight to severe. This seems to have been
caused by the incomplete mixing of the creosote. No loss of bees was reported in any
case.
In 1944 the officials conducting the tests decided to abandon the use of oil of creosote as being unsafe for use by growers and to continue with the more stable crude
carbolic acid as a repellent. The orchard used was the one in which the creosote was
tested the previous year.    Four complete sprays were put on using carbolic acid (2 oz. S 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to 100 gallons). Each examination of the thirty colonies of bees showed no noticeable
loss. Every condition of weather was encountered during these tests, from very moist
to very dry atmosphere. The cover-crop was a heavy one and was in full bloom during
at least two of the sprays applied.
The fourth spray varied from the others in that 4 oz. of 'crude carbolic acid was
used in place of the usual 2 oz. to determine if there would be any burning of foliage.
No burning whatever was noted.
At the Greata Orchards, Ltd., Peachland, a drum of crude carbolic acid was supplied, with the owners undertaking to apply it according to instructions of Department
officials. Greata Orchards supplied their own bees, which were placed midway in their
65-acre orchard. Four complete cover-sprays were applied and examination was made
by John Tait, of Summerland. No loss was noted, and although the colonies were
weak at the time the first spray was applied, they steadily built up to swarming
strength during the subsequent applications. There was no sign of any damage to
foliage. Another grower at Peachland carried out the test with carbolic as the repellent under official supervision and with equal success.
An unofficial test was made by a number of members of the Westbank Co-operative
Growers, who were also bee-keepers. They reported some slight loss of bees as some
of the orchards in the area were not protected by repellent in the sprays.
The bee-keepers as a whole were exceptionally well satisfied that the bee-keeping
industry can be carried on without loss from poisoned bees if the repellent is used.
Thanks are due to Fred Bettschen, who supplied the bees for each test and who,
at considerable trouble and expense, placed the bees where wanted; also to G. F. Pearcey,
of Kelowna, and W. McMullen, of Vernon, for making examinations of the bees during
the tests when the Inspector was unavoidably out of the district.
The greater part of the increased correspondence addressed to the Provincial
Apiarist, at New Westminster, was due to the Wartime Prices and Trade Board regulations concerning the registration of bee-keepers as Primary Producers of Honey, the
issuance of permits to purchase sugar for feeding bees, and providing the Wartime
Prices and Trade Board with lists of newly registered bee-keepers, etc.
Applications for registration, totalling 1,083, were received for registration of
apiaries and 118 cancellations were recorded for 1944. The registration of all beekeepers in the Province is now completed on the card-index system in alphabetical
order, replacing the old ledger system. This work has been somewhat delayed and
had to be proceeded with as opportunity permitted. The work of preparing a further
list of registered bee-keepers according to postal districts is now under way for the
benefit of district Apiary Inspectors. This was necessary in view of the increase of
new bee-keepers registered since 1941, when the number was 4,738. Since then 2,766
applications for registration of apiaries have been recorded, with 787 cancellations.
Unfortunately, many of our bee-keepers fail to notify this office to cancel their registrations when required, through such causes as change of ownership, death, etc., and
only approximate figures can therefore be given. At present we have 6,717 registered
bee-keepers, an incre'ase of about 42 per cent, in the past three years.
There were sixty-nine samples of brood-comb and smears of dead larva; sent in
for bacterial diagnosis. Microscopic examination showed thirty-four to be affected
with American foul-brood; three with European foul-brood; and thirty-two sterile.
Reports on same with instructions for treatment, as required, were sent out. Total
correspondence included the receipt of 3,536 letters and 3,706 sent out, including permits; 3,083 permits for purchase of sugar were forwarded to bee-keepers and duplicates returned to the Sugar Administration at Montreal.
Appendix No. 7 gives the estimated production of honey. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 75
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH.
Wallace R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, V.S., B.S.A., B.V.Sc.
Climatic conditions as they affected the live-stock industry could not be said to be
satisfactory. The 1943-44 winter fortunately was mild, but spring was late and cool.
Generally speaking the grass was soft and lacking in quality. This showed in the
quality of the production generally. Beef going off the ranges was soft in finish and
shrinkage was heavier than average.
HORSES.
Little change was noted in horse production. A shipment of fine registered Per-
cheron mares came in from Alberta to the Alkali Lake Ranch. These mares are to
be used in the development of quality saddle-horses for ranch-work. Several light
stallions and mares came in for the production of riding-horses. A young Arabian
stallion of fine breeding came in from Colorado to the Vernon District. A shipment
of Palominos came from the United States to Vancouver. Many new riding-clubs are
being formed and pleasure horses are becoming very popular. The usual importations of commercial horses came in during the year, chiefly from Alberta. A very fine
Clydesdale stallion came in from Manitoba to the Chilliwack District. These are
admitted under permit after vaccination against encephalomyelitis. No attempt is
being made to cull the horses of the country and breed only the better mares. Sooner or
later good quality draught horses will be in demand, yet farmers and ranchers will not'
make an attempt to prepare for that market. It is the considered opinion of your
Commissioner that as long as unsound mares are being bred, even to our best stallions,
little progress can be expected in the improvement of our horses. This, along with
the general lack of interest in draught-horse breeding and little attention being given
to the production and use of good stallions, can only result in a definite reduction in
quality. It is more than likely that we may reach the place where it will be very
costly and perhaps impossible to get back to even our present standard. Your Commissioner has tried to get farmers and ranchers organized into groups for the culling
of mares and the planning of breeding programmes. We need better horses not more
horses.
Classification of stallions under our " Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act "
shows the following enrolments for the year: "A," 21; " B," 10; " C," 5; " D," 7;
"E," 4;  "F," 3.
" A " and " B " classes include our two top groups of registered stallions found
sound and free from hereditary diseases and fit for premium under the Federal-
Provincial Premium Policy. In Class " C " are included all registered horses showing
slight unsoundness not felt to be hereditary in nature by the Inspectors, blemished
horses, and those individuals lacking somewhat in type, character, and size. Class
" D " includes all grade stallions. These must be up to size and must be sound.
Classes " E " and " F " are interim classifications for pure-bred and grade stallions
respectively.
BEEF CATTLE.
Prices for beef cattle generally were somewhat below the prices that obtained during 1943. At no time did prices for similar classes of stock exceed those paid in 1943.
During the spring months of 1944 prices paid for steers were about 25 cents per
hundredweight below those paid in 1943. This applied until about August when
prices came more nearly in line with the previous year, and this carried along well
through October when 1944 prices began to drop considerably below 1943, at times
over 50 cents per hundredweight. S 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Heifers and cows started off the year much weaker in price than 1943, as much
as 75 cents lower. Heifers came about in line during August through October and
then fell away about 25 cents. Cows were still about 75 cents below 1943 through
July, not coming into line until September. In November the cow market was better
than in 1943.
Marketings generally were quite well in line with previous years, but quality was
lower and the demand weaker for all but the better grades. This problem will be
dealt with later under cattle finishing.
It might be said that there was a general reduction in herds. This was largely
due to low hay reserves, an indifferent grass year, and a definite shortage in winter
feed supplies to carry over the winter. This situation is more in evidence in the
northern sections. Our oft-repeated suggestion that feed reserves must be built up
is still ignored by many.
The summarized reports of sales held in British Columbia throughout 1944 are
as follows:—
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 23rd.
Nine car-lots (fifteen) averaged $13.87 for a total of $18,655.78, with a high of
$16.10 paid.
Sixteen groups of five averaged $13.48 for a total of $10,751.42, with a high of
$16.25.      ■
The spare entries averaged $12.20, with a total of $2,037.40.
Forty-three individuals in the open classes averaged $16.33 for a total of $6,566.35.
The individual champion sold for $90 per hundredweight and brought $918; weighing
gross, 1,050 lb., and net, 1,020 lb.
Six boys' and girls' entries averaged $19.60 for a total of $928.67. A top price
of 35 cents per pound was paid for the winning calf. In all, two groups of fifteen,
one group of five, and seven individuals were culled by the culling committee as not
being exempt from the price ceiling of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board. The
final grading of carcasses of animals exempt showed all but six carcasses to have
passed the graders.
Three hundred and twenty-two head were sold for $42,725.65. At the 1943 sale,
431 head sold for $58,642.22.
Breeding Stock sold.
Animals.
No. of
Head.
Average Price
per Head.
Total.
6
103
2
25
20
9
$251.00
464.44
227.50
330.00
273.50
265.00
$1,255.00
47,837.00
8,250.00
5,470.00
2,385.00
Total number of bulls	
Total number of females.
Total sales of bulls	
1944.
139
25
$57,402
Grand total for fat stock and breeding stock $108,377
1943.
95
10
$52,980.00
$111,622.22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.
S 77
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Second Annual Feeder Sale,
Okanagan Falls, September 7th.
Animals.
1944.
1943.
No. of Head.
Total.
No. of Head.
Total.
Cattle    .	
446
3
$27,429.67
378.80
862
$61,047.79
Totals  	
449
$27,808.47
862
$61,047.79
Averages.
Groups (five steers)
Good steers 	
Good heifers 	
1944.
$10.70
9.93
9.27
(two-year-old)
(one-year-old)
All heifers
$9.92
8.57
6.98
Breeding bulls   (Herefords),  11;   average,  $256.36;   total,  $2,820.
Central British Columbia Live-stock Association Feeder Sale
(Fourth Annual), Kamloops, October 3rd.
No.
Kind.
Net
Weight,
Lb.
r Price Range
per Cwt.
Average
Price.
Gross
Returns.
28
Bulls	
33.465         S4.50_S5.2n
S4.91          SI.643.41
132
118,815
91,335
98,210
139,840
122,775
30,640
6.30-10.70
4.35- 9.75
5.25-10.00
2.00- 4.20
5.80- 8.75
4.50- 9.35
8.11
6.57
7.12
3.67
6.72
7.56
9,631.05
153
Yearlings	
5,997.15
147
6,997.64
144
109
91
Canners and cutters (cows)   	
Common and good cows _.	
Calves _ 	
5,138.09
8,251.12
2,316.32
804
636,070
$39,974.68
Average gross returns per animal, $49.72.
Marketing costs, $3,010.13 or 7.5 per cent,  (feed and reserve fund).
Freight, $3,552.56 or 8.9 per cent.
Note.—A considerable proportion of the animals sold at this sale were cows and
low-grade dairy-type yearling steers and heifers. Comparing an average of $49.72
per head for this stock to an average of $76 per head for sale run at Williams Lake,
gives a concrete picture and should convince any one of the folly of breeding inferior,
poorly-bred cattle.
Cariboo Stockmen's Association Seventh Feeder and Fat Stock Show and
Bull Sale, Williams Lake, October 9th to 13th.
In commercial cattle 2,199 head were sold for a total of $160,801.10. Seventy-five
Hereford bulls, four Hereford breeding females, and nine Shorthorn bulls sold for
$26,490, bringing the grand total to $187,291.10.
Average price for Hereford bulls was $327.77 per head with the champion bull
Baldwin Lad 2nd, an under eighteen-months-old entry by George W. D. Hyslop, Chase,
B.C., going to Alkali Lake Ranch for $1,050. Average price for Shorthorn bulls was
$223.33, with top of $400 for a bull contributed by Allan Jeffery; average for the Hereford females was $220.50, with a top of $275.
This is believed to be the largest commercial cattle sale in Canada again this year.
See Appendix No. 13 for manager's report on prices and weights. S 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Waldo Stock-breeders' Association Third Annual Sale op Fat and
Feeder Cattle, Elko, September 15th.
Five hundred and sixty-six head sold for $29,110.77. The 1943 sale saw 975 cattle
sell for $51,713.11. The top price of this year's sale was $12.60 per hundredweight
for the senior champion animal of the show, an Aberdeen Angus steer calf from the
boys' and girls' classes. A lot of light calves brought $10.10, which was the top, and
a lot of heifer calves and a lot of yearling steers brought $9.60.
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, Kamloops, November 29th and 30th.
Five car-lots (fifteen) averaged $14.30; total, $11,369.70; with a top of $16.50.
Twenty-four groups of five head averaged $12.35; total, $15,388.66; with a top of
$15.90. Spare entries averaged $10.90; total, $920.62. Forty-six individuals averaged
$13.60; total, $5,953.58; with a top of 65 cents per pound for the grand champion
from Douglas Lake Cattle Company, bought by Safeway Stores.
Armstrong " A " Boys' and Girls' Beef Calf Club had eleven entries; average price,
$14.96; total, $1,648.46; with the top price of 26 cents per pound for the entry of Bob
Johnston, bought by Woodward's, Limited.
Armstrong " B " Boys' and Girls' Beef Calf Club had twelve entries; average price,
$13.94; total, $1,575.36; with the top price of $15.50 per hundredweight being paid
by Commodore Cafe for entries from Murray Parker.
Barriere Boys' and Girls' Beef Calf Club had sixteen entries; average price, $13;
total, $1,379.95; top price paid was 16 cents per pound by David Spencer, Ltd., for
the entry of Ulrich Schilling.
Kamloops South Boys' and Girls' Beef Calf Club had seven entries; average price,
$13.83; total, $823.11; with the top of $15.50 per hundredweight paid by Pacific Meat
Company for the entry of Jessie Clapperton.
Westwold Boys' and Girls' Beef Calf Club had eight entries; average, $19.75;
total, $1,351.25; with top price of 65 cents per pound paid for the entry of Alastair
Turner, champion of the boys' and girls' classes and reserve grand champion of the
show.    This entry was purchased by Safeway Stores.
Lower North Thompson Boys' and Girls' Beef Calf Club had fourteen entries;
average price, $13.69; total, $1,823.38; with top price of $16.75 per hundredweight
paid by Woodward's, Limited, for the entry of Laura Donchi. There were seven entries
by new club members which averaged $12.39 for a total of $783.56.
The general average for boys' and girls' entries in 1944 at the Kamloops Christmas
Fat Stock Show was $14.46 for a total of $9,385.07. The 1943 average was $14.44,
with a total of $7,715.42. A total of one group of five lambs and three single lambs in
boys' and girls' entries brought $230. 1944 m3
Total cattle   325 400
Total cattle sales   $43,017.63 $51,374.82
Total sheep sales „:.         275.00 162.01
Totals    $43,292.63 $51,536.83
Breeding Stock Sale.—A sale of twenty-seven head of registered Hereford females
averaged $166.67 for a total of $4,500.    The sale grand total was $47,792.63.
Quesnel Cattlemen's Association First Annual Sale, Quesnel,
September 22nd.
Two hundred and seventy-five head of cattle were disposed of. Prices ranging
IOV2 cents for top steers, 9 cents for B grade, 8V2 cents for top heifers, 7% cents for
feeders, 6 cents to 6% cents for heavy cows and 5 cents for light cows; calves brought
8% cents to 10 cents.    The gross receipts of the sale were $15,568.03. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 79
Average Prices for Cattle.
Prices at Vancouver for good and choice steers carry on the average 50 cents per
hundredweight over Calgary prices. It is worth noting that common steers may
carry 50 cents lower on the Vancouver market and that obtains generally with the
plainer cattle. Vancouver as a result of beef grading shows a preference for the better
grades.
See Appendix No. 10 for average prices for cattle, January 1st to November 30th,
1944.
Organized Cattle Sales.
A study of the organized sales throughout the Province is rather enlightening.
The long-established sales, such as Kamloops and Williams Lake, show that they are
receiving the same loyal support in the way of quality and quantity of the contributions,
but in the case of the more recently established sales there is not the same loyal support.
It would seem as though the stockmen in these latter districts are being disturbed and
encouraged to break away. This short-sighted approach should not be taken. These
newer sales are doing a good work and the local people should get in and help to correct
any little weakness which may exist.    Too much cannot be expected in the beginning.
Cattle Marketing in British Columbia.
Your Commissioner has spent considerable time the last several years trying to
ascertain where the weakness exists in the marketing of cattle in this Province and,
if possible, to find a practical solution.
The year 1944 has given perhaps the best picture of our situation. Emphasis has
been directed to our chief weakness—namely, the irregularity of the marketings and
the particularly high percentage of unfinished cattle that is being shipped to the central
markets.
The year 1944 has been a soft-grass year with an unusually high percentage of
unfinished cattle being offered. This is very bad on a market like Vancouver, where
the consuming public is so quality conscious. The whole situation calls for a careful
and complete examination. It is very evident that in order to keep our British
Columbia market healthy and keen, some effort must be made to prevent these unfinished cattle going to the central markets. They only embarrass the packers and
depress the market, all of which means a loss to the producer. To any one familiar
with the cattle-raising business in British Columbia it is quite plain that all producers
.of cattle cannot finish all their own cattle. This means that provision must be made
for finishing these low-fleshed quality cattle. If the situation is left to drift along
there will be a certain amount of finishing done by smaller feeders and farmers with
surplus feed available.    This plan has many weaknesses:—
(1.)   It rarely takes care of even a small part of the available cattle.
(2.) A large percentage of our best feeders go outside and any profits from finishing are lost to the British Columbia industry.
(3.) Lack of experience in buying and feeding these cattle often causes disappointment and needless loss.
(4.) While it is an old and long-established practice to have cattle return to the
farms for feeding, I wish, as a veterinarian, to go on record as not approving of this
plan generally. It can only succeed under a very closely directed plan. Sound husbandry demands that cattle be produced on farms and moved to market whether that
market be a market for feeder cattle or finished cattle.
There are points all over this Province where cattle finishing can be carried on.
Work undertaken by your Commissioner extending over the last four or five years has
definitely shown the feasibility of such a practice.    Much material and information S 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
has been accumulated and is available for those interested. Such enterprises can take
two forms; namely, as a private endeavour or as a more or less association effort
centring around local stock associations or perhaps even the central cattle marketing
association. Both plans could be followed. Whatever form this endeavour takes,
I would like to say that the experience gained in this business in other parts of this
country should impress upon those undertaking the work here the necessity of avoiding
certain costly errors.    These mistakes can be avoided.
DAIRY CATTLE.
This branch of the live-stock industry had the usual war-time problem of being
unable to secure sufficient experienced labour. However, the dairy business has had
quite a successful year. Short feed supplies, especially roughage in some sections, will
result in the reduction of herds this autumn.
Two campaigns especially affecting the dairy industry are receiving strong support; namely, calfhood vaccination against "brucellosis" and the establishment of
artificial insemination centres. The " brucellosis " work will be dealt with in the
section " Nutrition and Health."
Four artificial insemination clubs are in process of organization. Very little can
be reported at the present time. The North Okanagan club is almost ready to operate;
in fact, most of the bulls are available and some insemination work has been done.
The Chilliwack club has most of its equipment ready and is just awaiting arrival of
bulls in order to get started. The South Vancouver Island club and the Lower Fraser
Valley club are not so far advanced, but should be ready to make a small start early in
the new year.
Sires for this work are being furnished by the Federal Department of Agriculture
and are selected from breeding and blood lines suggested and approved by a committee
from the club. W. Davies, Chief of the Cattle Division, Federal Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, is acting as technical adviser. Financial support is being given by the
Provincial Department of Agriculture and your Commissioner is co-operating with
Mr. Davies in the work of getting the clubs functioning.
There is an effort being made by the dairymen in several districts to include such
programmes as brucellosis control, cow-testing, and artificial insemination into one
completely rounded-out plan for the improvement of their dairy cattle.
SHEEP.
The sheep industry had a fairly successful year, but prices were generally somewhat lower than in 1943 during most of the year. See Appendix No. 12 for average
prices for lambs, January 1st to November 30th, 1944.
Predators and sheep-killing dogs have seriously affected the development of the
industry in many parts of the Province. The further establishment of more Provincial and National parks throughout the Province is resulting in the building-up of
breeding centres for predators, making it impossible for sheep to be raised in the
adjacent areas. In many instances sheep-raising should make up the major agricultural effort in these areas. There should be some interdepartmental discussion and
agreement before such reserves are established.
The following is a summary of live stock killed by dogs:—
Year.
Sheep.
Compensation.
Poultry.
Compensation.
1940                              	
191
109
74
111
179
$1,659.25
988.50
828.00
1,156.25
2,124.50
631
203
306
489
521
$396.14
440.16
243.48
484.77
1941	
1942  ...        ....
1943     	
1944      . :... . DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 81
SWINE.
Swine production has dropped back somewhat to that of 1943. No special programme for increased production was undertaken during the year, which may account
for the slightly lower production. Labour shortage on the farms has been a factor
also.
Your Commissioner has long been of the opinion that production programmes
which centre around the large-scale movement of breeding stock from distant points
is not the best method to follow. A survey of the work done along this plan a few
years ago has shown results to be unsatisfactory. Any plans for future increased
production should take another approach.
A small shipment of choice registered Yorkshire breeding stock was shipped to
Australia in September. This order came in from the Australian representative in
Canada to this office and was passed on to the British Columbia Swine-breeders' Association. Your Commissioner co-operated with a local representative of the Federal
Department of Agriculture and the Swine-breeders' Association in the filling of this
order. The shipment is being followed with interest and it is hoped that it will result
in future business. See Appendix No. 11 for average prices for hogs, January 1st
to November 30th, 1944.
NUTRITION AND ANIMAL HEALTH.
Great strides are being made in the field of animal nutrition. No branch of
science has made more revolutionary advancement in the last few years than has the
science of animal nutrition.
In order to make the best use of the information coming forward it is necessary
to present this to the farmers and stockmen in very practical form. Your Commissioner has devoted much time and thought to this work since as early as 1930.
The question of animal nutrition in the different parts of this Province for the
different classes of live stock is most complicated. Much modifying of basal informa-
' tion must be done in order to take care of local situations. Again it is a big undertaking to try to get interest awakened in the subject. Real progress is being made,
however. One of the most satisfying things is to find a very keen interest being taken
by several District Agriculturists. A survey undertaken by S. G. Preston, District
Agriculturist, Smithers, is already well under way. This type of work in which the
field service is working closely with this office is an ideal arrangement. Timely reports
and discussions are certain to result in valuable results being secured.
C. F. Cornwall, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, is co-operating and has
given considerable time to animal nutrition and its association with disease. It is
hoped a more systematic and detailed plan of work can be undertaken this coming year.
Your Commissioner realizes that most district officers have too many pieces of
work on hand to give sufficient time to such subjects. The field-work is becoming easier
each year, however, as a result of the preliminary work carried out over the years.
Mineral Deficiency.
The deficiency of certain trace minerals, the unbalance which obtains with the
different classes of live stock in the different parts of the Province is most complicated.
Much has been done to straighten out these errors. It is definitely a problem which
has to be dealt with from a local standpoint. This is the plan of approach which has
been taken by your Commissioner. Success will depend upon how closely the field
service works with this office—of course, dependent upon the time there is available for
such work.
The work of correcting mineral deficiencies has been seriously hindered by lack
of sufficient minerals and due to regulations hindering the manufacturing of certain S 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
mineral mixes known to be needed in parts of the Province. Work in the way of trials
with new natural mineral mixes has been encouraging. As a result of these trials it is
thought that perhaps there is a need for other trace elements not generally included in
commercial mineral mixes. It is also possible that high percentages of other elements
formerly thought necessary may not be needed. Further field-work will have to be
carried out before a definite conclusion can be arrived at. Cobalt deficient areas are
being plotted. This programme of work was started in widely scattered parts of the
Province some years ago. We now have certain areas marked off as definitely deficient
areas. This work is to be continued as time permits. Manganese deficiency is known
to exist in many sections. Iodine deficiency, of course, is known to exist quite extensively. The greatest problem is to ascertain the relationship which exists between
these different trace elements and the modifying effect each has on the other, and,
of course, the effect local nutritional pecularities have on the whole.
Vitamins and their place in the picture are not being appreciated as they should
be. Vitamin D is particularly important to British Columbia live-stock men in this
northern latitude. Lack of this vitamin results in great losses. The use of yeast and
certain fish-oils is being encouraged. Vitamin A, a most important element, can best
be provided by silage. Your Commissioner, co-operating with the Field Crops Commissioner and the field service, has been able to get large numbers of live-stock men,
both farmers and ranchers, interested in the use of the trench silo.
Calf Scours.—This disease has been taking a very heavy toll amongst calves on
both ranches and farms, especially the latter. Observations made in the field would
seem to indicate that the primary cause of this trouble is due to a lack of vitamins,
especially Vitamin A, with Vitamin D and some of the Vitamin B group contributing.
In the picture, as secondary invaders, are certain micro-organisms which are thought
to be responsible for a fatal pneumonia.
Where vitamins are definitely deficient in the diet of the dam where poor quality
hay is being fed, the calf may be born dead, weak, or blind.    Scours follow quickly
after birth, with death from pneumonia the final step.    Suggested modifications in the •
feeding programme of both dam and calf, especially the latter, have given excellent
results.
Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—More properly called " shipping fever " is almost
universally distributed. " Shipping fever " includes the hemorrhagic septicaemia microorganism as the primary offender along with one or more secondary invaders. It is
thought that perhaps there may be a virus in the picture in some instances. The virus
may even precede the hemorrhagic septicaemia organism in the picture.
" Shipping fever " up until recently was confined mostly to the ranches and farms,
but with the marked increase in the movement of cattle, especially through public
stockyards to feed-lots, there has been a very definite increase in the incidence of the
disease. Your Commissioner has done everything possible to acquaint the industry
with the dangers of " shipping fever." Steps have been taken to get an organized
approach to this problem. It is difficult to get cattle producers, cattle feeders, and
cattle organizations interested in the development of the cattle-feeding business to give
the proper consideration to this all-important factor. The usual thing is to find them
go forward with all the other arrangements and to have " shipping fever " gradually
enter and become firmly established. When this point is reached, it means a definite
loss of business, frequent severe losses to individuals, and the realization that there *is
a situation to be dealt with as a permanent future problem. It is gratifying, however,
to find at least one large organization in the Province prepared to take the proper
approach and accept our suggestions; namely, the Cariboo Stockmen's Association.
The problem at best is difficult, but it is hoped that a start can be made here in line with
modern scientific knowledge. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 83
Your Commissioner has been able to organize producers in many sections of the
Province to undertake systematic preventive control measures. A good number of
outbreaks were dealt with during the year.
Coccidiosis.—This disease still continues as one of the major ranch problems. As
a result of work instituted during the early " thirties," many of our better cattlemen
to-day have the disease under control. The plan developed by your Commissioner
includes proper protection of the feed and water from contamination by the infective
parasite; the closest attention to good nutrition; the use of warm water where possible,
with the water-supply protected from contaminated feces; the early diagnosis of the
disease, along with immediate isolation and suitable treatment, including the " antishock " treatment developed by your Commissioner.
Necrotic Stomatitis.—This disease made its appearance as usual in several widely
distributed sections. Educational work in the way of diagnosis and treatment under^
taken several years ago has given most satisfactory results. Circulars dealing with this •
and several other problems have been largely responsible for a better knowledge of the
disease. Work could be done in the way of prevention by means of encouraging better
methods of management and nutrition about ranches.
Blackleg.—This disease is gradually appearing in almost every part of the Province. Considerable educational work has been carried out during the year. A circular
is available dealing with diagnosis and prevention, and an outline is given of the regulations which apply to the disease.
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—This disease was reported in a very few instances and
only definitely diagnosed in one instance during the year. Usual pre-season instructions are given in the way of circulars sent to all committees. Associations were
organized by your Commissioner in 1939 in all sections of the Province considered
exposed territory. In these associations, committees act as standing bodies to disseminate timely information and deal with emergencies.
Caseous Lymphadenitis in Sheep.—Our active control campaign has resulted in
almost complete eradication of the disease. Only a very few cases were reported on
post-mortem and none appeared in any new flocks. The numbers reported in flocks
under observation are greatly reduced, and it is expected that the few quarantines
remaining may shortly be lifted.
It is most gratifying to be able to report this progress in face of reports coming
from other Dominions indicating that the disease is definitely on the increase in these
countries and in some cases out of control.
Johne's Disease.—This disease, uncovered independently by your Commissioner
in 1942, has since been found to have been lying dormant in a section of Vancouver
Island for several years with no attempt made to eradicate it.
An active programme was at once instituted by testing with Johnin supplied by
the Dominion Health of Animals Division. Post-mortem examinations on reactor
animals made by Dr. E. A. Bruce, Dominion Animal Pathologist, Saanichton, showed
positive in all instances. The disease has been almost entirely eliminated, and it is
expected that within a year the last centre of infection will be cleaned up.
Actinobacillosis.—This disease has become quite widely distributed in the range
country. One bad centre of the infection has been brought under control. A control
plan has been worked out which it is thought will prove effective.
Renal Calculi.—This disease in steer calves has not yet been reduced to any great
extent except on some of the larger ranches. The early work done by your Commissioner associating this condition with errors of nutrition, has since been proven correct
by research workers. It is only left to get the information out to all cattle-raisers and
get their co-operation by having the necessary changes made in management and
nutrition. S 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Tuberculosis.—As a routine programme of work coming under the direction of
your Commissioner, a great deal' of T.B. eradication-work in farm beef and range
cattle herds has been done.
This work is closely associated with the regular live-stock extension programmes
undertaken throughout the Province. Many bad foci of infection have been cleaned
up during the last few years. In some districts entire ranges, supporting thousands
of cattle, were found to have an incidence of the disease, in some cases as high as
almost 20 per cent. In such centres the incidence has been reduced in two or three
years to under 1 per cent. This work is not part of the programme of T.B.-testing
under the " Milk Act " and, as a consequence, calls for no compensation being paid.
One or two new centres are uncovered each year. In each instance action is
immediately undertaken. The cattlemen are most appreciative of the service. This
type of field-work has given us an excellent contact with ranch cattlemen and has
enabled us to begin other good pieces of work, such as improvement of bulls, culling of
herds, calfhood vaccination against brucellosis, and programmes in conjunction with
the Field Crops Branch for the improvement of feed-supplies.
Internal and External Parasites of Sheep.—A very fine programme for the eradication of the sheep-tick (" ked ") and for the elimination of internal parasites in sheep in
flocks on Saltspring Island has been under way for two years. The Saltspring Island
Sheep-breeders' Association—J. Fraser, President, and A. J. Hepburn, Secretary—and
the executive of this association have built a portable sheep-dip, with some financial
help from the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture, and are using a new rotenone
dip preparation supplied by the Department. The results have been particularly
satisfactory in the eradication of the " ked " and the cleaning-up of diseased fleeces.
Mr. Hepburn's reports did not show as complete coverage for 1944 as for 1943, but
it is hoped that the spring dipping will be complete. Within the area under control
there are 1,040 head of sheep; of these 780 were dipped in 1943 and about 500 in 1944.
The campaign for the elimination of internal parasites was only started this year.
In all, 800 sheep within the area were dosed with the phenothiazine bolus. This is to be
followed during the winter with a salt phenothiazine mix intended to neutralize any
worm-eggs and thus prevent reinfestation. It is hoped that another individual treatment with phenothiazine in the spring will be used, perhaps at the time the dipping is
being done.
Observations made on the results obtained show all dipped sheep entirely free of
" ked " and wool disease, and all lambs in flocks treated for parasites last spring weighing an average of about 3 lb. heavier, and the fleeces on ewes given worm treatment in
better condition and showing heavier. One of the biggest sheep-breeders reports that
since treating for worms and dipping, all lambs have gone off to market within a short
period and that no lambs will have to be carried over.
Calfhood Vaccination against Brucellosis.
This policy made its beginning on July 31st, 1941, with vaccine held under the
control of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture on permit from the Dominion
Department of Agriculture. A single depot for the Province is located in Vancouver
and vaccine is distributed to registered veterinary practitioners on signed requests from
stockmen for the vaccine. Under our agreement with the Federal Department, only
calves between the ages of four and eight months can be vaccinated.
The policy is being well received by the stockmen and more and more calves are
being vaccinated each year. The major part of the work up until this year has been
done in the Fraser Valley, but the work is extending to other dairying districts, such
as the Okanagan. This autumn a good start was made in a beef-raising section in
the lower North Thompson Valley and another in the Ashcroft District. It is expected
that there will be a very considerable extension in the work this coming year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 85
A tabulated statement on the work accomplished to date follows (our year begins
On July 31st) :  No. of Calves
vaccinated.
First year      3,098
Second year      5,778
Third year     7,022
Total for three years  15,898
July 31st, 1943, to November 30th, 1944     3,029
Total  calves  vaccinated  from  July  31st,   1941,  to
November 30th, 1944   18,927
All new findings in the field of brucellosis control are carefully followed by your
Commissioner and any new practices intended to insure better results are incorporated
in our policy. No fundamental change has been made in our policy but rather simple
changes in technique.
New Diseases.—The year 1944 saw very little to report here except the appearance
in one or two districts of cases of internal parasites in cattle. It is possible that these
may have come in from outside. Your Commissioner has learned of a high incidence
of stomach-worms in cattle immediately south of the International Boundary. This
offers a constant menace.
Your Commissioner recently learned of the existence of Anaplasmosis in cattle
in the United States directly adjacent to the International Boundary. This is a febrile,
infectious, protozoan disease; acute, sub-acute, or chronic; probably transmitted by
ticks, flies, and other biting-insects. It attacks mature cattle rather than young
animals. The mortality ranges from 30 to 50 per cent, in affected animals. According
to the information received, cattle from the area where the disease exists in the United
States can make direct contact with our cattle on some of the ranges. There has been
an agitation on both sides of the International Boundary to have suitable fences and
highway cattle-guards constructed so as to prevent cattle drifting back and forth.
A good lot of the Boundary has already been fenced by the cattlemen and by the Governments. Several miles of wire were provided some few years ago by this Department.
It would seem that some effort should be made immediately to complete these gaps in
the fences and to take care of highways by the erection of suitable guards so as to
prevent the establishment of Anaplasmosis in the herds of this Province.
Bull nose in swine has been making its appearance in a number of swine herds in
the Province. This is a type of infectious or contagious rhinitis. There has been
some considerable evidence of swine erysipelas at different points in the Province.
Experience with these diseases has shown that they seem to remain latent for some
years perhaps and then break out in active form.
It would seem that perhaps too little attention has been given to regulatory control
of swine diseases. As in the case of cattle, traffic in swine is a very important contributing factor in the spread of disease.
Warble-fly and Tick Control.
Warble-fly control-work now covers practically all parts of the Province. Some
most excellent work has been done and exceptionally fine results secured. There are,
however, some problems both in local management and in general supervision which
require attention.
Many districts that were free or almost free of warbles are being neglected and
allowed to become reinfested for lack of a final clean-up or as a result of permitting
highly infested cattle to enter the district. A little attention to final clean-ups and
the regular treating of additions is absolutely necessary, and unless this plan is adopted S 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
voluntarily some sort of regulatory measures, will have to be adopted. Outside markets
are calling for clean cattle and the interest of the many farmers who have co-operated
must be considered. Labour, of course, at the present time is a problem and one thing
which must be considered is temporary help in the field to co-operate with district
officers in getting the work done promptly and proper reports secured. Detailed reports,
unfortunately, have only come in for a part of the work done. Out of some 80,000 head
reported, the highest average number of warbles was in the Kootenay District and
the Boundary District, which included much new territory. Here the averages were
six warbles per animal. In the Okanagan territory reported on, an average of four
warbles per animal was found. In the Bulkley Valley the average was two warbles.
In the Prince George territory the average was one-half warble per animal. In the
Cariboo District reported on, only one-quarter warble was found. In the Kamloops-
Nicola area the average was four warbles per animal. On Vancouver Island an average
of three warbles was found. In the Peace River District the incidence was 0.03
warble per animal, and in the Fraser Valley the average was one-half warble per
animal.    These figures definitely show good progress is being made.
Some very good investigational work has been undertaken by the Federal Department of Agriculture under the direction of J. D. Gregson, of the Live-stock Insect
Laboratory, Kamloops. These field trials are worked out after consultation with and
in co-operation with this Department. This type of approach is most helpful and
useful and enables us as an extension Department to do our work more satisfactorily.
Work on the wood-tick (Dermacentor andersoni) is being undertaken in the same
manner. Some of our earlier suggestions in the use of standardized and activated
derris in the control of the wood-tick was commenced last year by Mr. Gregson and
will be continued this year. A recent report received by Mr. Gregson seems to support
the idea that this method of control has considerable worth. This is in line with our
own experience.
As far as cattlemen are concerned, tick-control resolves itself down to a matter of
dollars and cents. Last year was a bad year for ticks with losses heavy. Protective
pre-season treatment with derris would have been most valuable, but with these bad
seasons occurring one year in about ten years, it might not be profitable for cattlemen
to undertake yearly treating. In small herds regular, annual pre-season dusting on
the neck, shoulders, and back of the head is feasible and profitable.
Poisonous Plants.—No doubt our worst poisonous plant from an economic standpoint is the timber milk-vetch, considered up to the present to be Astragalus campestris,
now thought to be another species.
Observations made over a good many years and trials undertaken in the field by
your Commissioner would seem to indicate that the only practical plan of control is
to attempt, in as far as possible, to rotate ranges and give the closest attention to
the correction of nutritional errors. It would seem that trace mineral unbalance plays
a very important part. Where the phosphorus balance is well maintained our records
show a decided improvement. It would seem from later observations that perhaps
other trace mineral deficiencies and unbalance may play a part. The problem requires
very thorough investigation. This is beyond our field of work. We try simply as
extension workers to deal with emergencies until the research-workers find the real
answer. There has been no really big contribution made by research to the answering
of the problem of milk-vetch poisoning since Dr. E. A. Bruce, of the Dominion Health
of Animals Branch, proved that A. campestris was poisonous to live stock and was
responsible for such conditions as " knock-heel in cattle" and " Clinton disease of
horses." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.  . S 87
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR.
Anson Knight, V.S., Chief Veterinarian.
Considerable ground has been covered by your veterinary staff during the past
year. There have been no wide outbreaks of disease (contagious or infectious diseases).
What small outbreaks occurred were confined to small herds in certain areas. Feed
conditions as a whole have been quite favourable, although in some sections throughout Central British Columbia the hay-crop was rather light. I believe that this would
have been more than made up by a fair-to-good grain-crop. The following diseases
were dealt with during the past year:—
FOOT-ROT.
Some 10,000 head of sheep were inspected before going on the range and no
evidence of foot-rot was noticed amongst these flocks. There is considerable danger,
however, of sheep becoming reinfected either on the range or on their home ground
unless special precautions are taken in safeguarding the sheep by changing their
bedding and feeding-grounds in the late fall and early spring on the home ranch. Also,
certain areas on the range should be guarded against as, owing to the heavy fall of
snow before the ground really freezes, the virus is not destroyed and sheep running
over such areas the following summer are liable to become reinfected. However, at
the present time the disease is under control.
STOMATITIS.
A few cases of stomatitis were brought to our notice in the vicinity of Williams
Lake. This disease is characterized by the formation of vesicles on the mucous
membrane of the mouth. It lends to treatment but it is essential that the feed be
changed and antiseptics used to swab out the mouth. This is often caused, too, by
animals feeding on coarse fodder where there is likelihood of lacerations of the membranes of the mouth.
ACTINOBACILLOSIS.
This disease is due to micro-organisms of the actinobacillosis lignieresi and the
lesions are confined to the soft tissues of the head and cervical regions and are
characterized by movable swellings under the skin. Lesions may also be found in
abscess formations in the regions of the pharynx and larynx, also the trachea. Several
animals may contract this disease from the same source, probably through an infectious agent found on fox-tail or sharp thorny feed or when young animals are shedding
their, teeth. Where abscesses are formed these can be treated by opening the abscess
and applying iodine.
COCCIDIOSIS.
This disease is more or less common and apparently is often confused by some
owners with hemorrhagic septicemia, due to the fact that most animals in the last
stages of coccidiosis will also come down with pneumonia. Stock-owners are well
advised to change their old feeding-ground to new quarters and feed from racks and
water-troughs. This disease also lends itself to treatment and if the owners would
take precaution this disease could largely be brought under control.
HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA.
Various outbreaks of this disease were seen during the past year. The largest
outbreak occurred at Nicola in a herd of about 1,000 head. In this case the herd was
immediately split up into small lots and vaccination carried out. S 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
INFECTIOUS ANEMIA  (SWAMP FEVER).
A few cases of this disease were brought to our attention occurring in the Peace
River Block. Some twelve horses had died previous to my visit. Two definite cases
were examined during my visit in the Peace River this past summer and by the description given by the owners I can only conclude that the animals that died were affected
with the same disease. Animals once contracting this disease are not relieved by
medication. There is no known medical cure where animals are once affected. The
infection, in so far as we are able to learn, occurs through contaminated feed and
water. The feed and water may be contaminated by a carrier, much the same as in
typhoid fever of humans. It is practically impossible to identify the carrier cases as
the animal looks well and is able to perform work and is usually in good spirits, but
I am satisfied that if the owners would take ordinary precautions in regards to sanitation of stables and thoroughly insist on animals being fed from racks so as to prevent
the feed from becoming contaminated and that there is a good water-supply, it would
obviate a good deal of this trouble.
No doubt you are conversant with the water-supply on the farms throughout the
Peace River Block, which are a long way from being of the best. The scoop-outs where
cattle and horses are obliged to water are often in such a situation as to contain the
drainage from their barnyards, but even where such is not the case, when the animals
are wading in the water there is certain to be contamination of the water-supply.
ENCEPHALOMYELITIS.
Two suspected cases were reported, but upon investigation one turned out to be
colic and the other acute indigestion. No genuine cases were encountered during the
past year.
BOVINE BRUCELLOSIS   (BANGS' DISEASE).
This disease is widespread throughout the Province. Not only is it noticed
amongst dairy cattle, but in several instances amongst the beef herds. Cattle were
blood-tested at Kamloops, Golden, Chase, Cranbrook, and Trail with positive findings.
Calfhood vaccination is being carried on more actively throughout the Lower Fraser
Valley and to some extent in the Okanagan and Vancouver Island. At the.time of
grading and inspection of the dairy premises this disease was taken into consideration
and owners advised not to ship milk from cows that have aborted. We find that there
are other factors causing abortion, but the picture is not the same as in genuine
Bangs' disease. In some cases that were brought under our observation poor feeding
may have been a factor in causing abortion.
MASTITIS.
This disease appears to be quite widespread and is not confined to any one section
of the Province. The majority of the dairymen are conversant with the character of
the disease and usually endeavour to treat such cases, but usually with very poor
success. The dairymen are cautioned against selling milk for human consumption
from such cows, and during grading of dairy premises freedom from this disease is
a requisite for a Grade A certificate. The dairymen are usually encouraged to get
rid of such animals when they show signs of this trouble.
A summary of the districts visited, giving the number of premises graded and
the number of cattle inspected on the dairy farms will be found in Appendices Nos.
^ and fi
THE SUDETEN COLONY.
During my work in the Peace River Block last August, I was requested by the
people of the Sudeten Colony to make a T.B. test of their cattle.    Eighty-seven farms DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 89
were visited; a total of 479 head were tested and out of these there were 303 milking-
cows. As a whole the cattle were in splendid shape with only one reactor, an animal
which I understood was brought in from Alberta some three or four years ago.
During the four years since my last visit to the Colony, I find a great improvement
has taken place. Considerable land has been brought under cultivation and is devoted
to the production of feed for their cattle and hogs, and the cream from milk cows is
sold to the creamery at Grand Prairie, Alberta. I was greatly impressed by the thrifti-
ness and the energy displayed by the people of the Colony. They own two threshing
outfits, two bulldozers, binders, and other farm implements. The larger machines are
held by the Colony and are maintained and run from the proceeds' derived in the way
of clearing land, threshing, etc., and they say that they have a system governing the
sale of goods produced on the farm as a Colony and are able to ship out in car-load
lots. Almost every farm keeps a few pigs and these I find to be in a very thrifty and
healthy condition.
A manager is elected by the people who conducts the business affairs of the Colony.
They have their own grocery store and goods are sold at cost price, plus expenses.
I was greatly impressed by the cleanliness and order of all things connected with the
Colony. The people appeared clean in person and well educated. Their standard of
education appeared to be much higher than some other classes of people from mid-
Europe. The younger people, girls and boys of school age, can speak the English
language very fluently.
Considering the handicap which these people were working under some four years
ago, I conclude that we can appreciate the progress they have made in establishing
their homes in the Peace River Block. Every year they have new land under cultivation. Last year there were some 400 acres which will be available for crop during
1945. A good proportion of the young men are now in war-work or are with the
Canadian Army. Thus, at the present time one sees quite a proportion of the older
men, women, and girls conducting the farm-work.
REPORT OF RECORDER OF BRANDS.
George Pilmer, Recorder of Brands.
Brand inspection work was carried on by the Provincial Police as usual at fifty-one
shipping-points in the following districts:—
Cariboo.—Quesnel, Alexis Creek, Bella Coola, Clinton, Bridge River, and Lillooet.
Kamloops-Nicola.—Lytton, Spences Bridge, Ashcroft, Blue River, and Chase.
Okanagan and Similkameen.—Salmon Arm, Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon, Lumby,
Revelstoke, Nakusp, Kelowna, Penticton, West Summerland, Princeton, Keremeos,
Oliver, Greenwood, and Grand Forks.
South-east British Columbia.—Rossland, Trail, Fruitvale, Castlegar, Salmo, Nelson, Kaslo, New Denver, Creston, Cranbrook, Kimberley, Fernie, Natal, Invermere, and
Golden.
Central British Columbia and Peace River.—Smithers, Hazelton, Terrace, Burns
Lake, Vanderhoof, Prince George, McBride, Red Pass, Pouce Coupe, and Fort St. John.
Inspectors paid by the Department attended to the work at thirteen shipping-
points, as follows: Kamloops, Williams Lake, Soda Creek, Lac la Hache, 100-Mile
House, Pavilion, Nicola, Kitwanga, Telkwa, Houston, Forestdale, Endako, and Dawson
Creek.
There were no new Inspectors appointed during the year. S 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In addition to brand inspection work the Department is greatly indebted to the
Police for a great deal of other work, such as checking on the use of unregistered
brands; on people operating without the necessary licences; on the importation under
permit of horses from the Prairie Provinces;   and many other ways.
Shipments.—Shipments of beef cattle inspected during 1944 reached a new high
total of 59,945 head, an increase of 3,764 or nearly 7 per cent, over the record of
56,181 head shipped in 1943.
As will be seen from the total figures in the Appendix, the Cariboo and Kamloops-
Nicola Districts were practically unchanged. Williams Lake was down 1,000 head,
and the near-by points up about 1,000 head. Clinton area was up about 150 head
and Ashcroft about 500 head. Kamloops figures were about the same, but Nicola was
down about 500 head. Okanagan and Similkameen, with a total of 8,258 head, showed
an increase of 30 per cent. South-east British Columbia shipped 300 more, Central
British Columbia 300 more, and Peace River about 300 more than in 1943.
Shipments to Prairie and Eastern Provinces were 5,001 head, about 300 more
than in the previous year.    No shipments were made to the United States.
The number of hides shipped was 23,154, as against 20,399 in 1943, being an
increase of 13 per cent., the chief increase being in the Okanagan with 1,400 more
hides, or 30 per cent, over last year. Central British Columbia and Peace River
showed a similar percentage increase, although on a smaller scale.
A detailed report is given in Appendix No. 18.
Range-riding.—Again this year the Clinton Ranchers' Association were able to
employ a rider to ride their ranges. They have found this to be well worth while and
ranchers in other districts might well follow their lead.
The following cases were prosecuted and convictions secured:—
Shipping Stock without Inspection—One each at Kamloops, Clinton, Spences
Bridge, Sicamous, Salmon Arm, and Vanderhoof;   two at Fernie.
Dealing in Stock without a Licence—One at Langley Prairie. In several other
cases the licence fee was paid to avoid prosecution.
Unlawful Slaughtering—Two at West Summerland.
The number issued during 1944 was as follows: Slaughter-house, forty-five; hide-
dealers, seventy-four; Stock-dealers, ninety-four; horse-slaughterers, seventeen; and
beef-peddlers, seven. A total of 237, being an increase of nineteen over last year,
chiefly in stock-dealers' and hide-dealers' licences.
A complete list of the licensees appears in Appendix No. 17.
REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner.
The period under report has not been ideal for dairy production. Early in the
season conditions were unfavourable to growth generally. Low temperatures in spring
and much rain in early summer were experienced on the Lower Mainland and on
Vancouver Island. The Interior suffered heat and drought at the commencement of
the season.
Dairy crops have yielded fairly. Hay gave moderate returns of passable quality
only in most areas. Drought, rain, and insects have in different localities done some
injury to growing crops. Labour difficulties have also interfered. There is on hand
for the winter probably rather less of farm-grown dairy feeds than is usually the
case, but the mildness of fall has been favourable to conservation of supplies. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 91
Total dairy production will be slightly higher than for the previous year, but
extent of distribution of fluid milk and cream supplies through the multitudinous outlets is very difficult to compute with precision.
Adjustments with subsidies effected last year have kept prices much as then
resulting.
DAIRY-FACTORIES.
Twenty-three butter-factories, two cheese-factories, two condenseries, one milk-
powder plant, and two casein plants have been in operation during the season. Several
other plants are devoted solely to ice-cream manufacture. Great difficulty has been
met in securing suitably trained factory-workers and a shortage still exists in spite
of the introduction of women and girls as helpers in many establishments'. Difficulties
arising through curtailment of raw milk or cream offerings for manufacture and factory equipment and supply shortage have also affected all factories. The increased
demand for fluid milk and cream has continued to take from supplies available for
manufacture.
All dairy plants have been visited periodically by the Provincial Dairy Inspectors
under this Branch. Methods in use, equipment and utensils, storage, and sanitation
have been inquired into and reported on. The grading and testing of milk and cream
supplied to dairy plants have at all times been the subject of close inspection.
Many check tests have been carried out for the benefit of producers supplying.
With particular regard to the relations between factory and dairy-farmer supplying
milk or cream for manufacture there exists a need for tightening of rules governing
ordinary factory practice.
Co-operation of officials of this Branch with those of the University of British
Columbia Dairy Department for an investigation into conditions at a factory in the
Interior took place during the summer. It is felt that much good may come of such
collaboration.
CREAMERIES.
In spite of curtailment of output, due to labour and fluid-milk difficulties, an
increase in manufacture of creamery butter for the year is anticipated. While nearly
all smaller factories have thus been adversely affected, yet, on the other hand, surpluses
available in the larger centres have resulted in increases in butter made during the
year.
The Federal subsidies for creamery butter have been continued, this Branch
being charged as heretofore with the task of forwarding to Ottawa the necessary
vouchers. In some country areas, nevertheless, dissatisfaction with prices for butter-
fat obtainable from creameries continues to be expressed and the trend in some localities appears to be away from dairying.
CHEESE.
Two cheese-factories have been in operation during the year at Armstrong and
at Edgewood. Both show increase in output for this season over the previous one to
the extent of approximately 15 per cent.
Much time has been spent by this Branch assisting the production of suitable
milk-supplies. At Armstrong an investigation of the University of British Columbia
dairy staff was participated in. This was primarily an examination of available milk,
but developed into a mastitis survey of the dairy farm area and considerable good is
likely to occur from the investigation findings.
The Federal subsidy for cheese manufactured has been continued to these factories.
It is much to be deplored that more cheese-factories have not been established
during the past decade as the years just elapsing have been highly favourable to new
cheese enterprises. S 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
CONDENSED PRODUCTS.
The evaporated milk total for the year will be much as for the last season. Skim-
milk powder output will no doubt be considerably higher.    Little casein has been made.
ICE-CREAM.
Fluctuation in total of ice-cream marketed during these years depends on manipulation of the armed forces more than on any other factor. For British Columbia there
is therefore to be anticipated little change in output for this season as compared with
the previous one.    The total in respect to civilian sales remains stable.
FLUID MILK AND CREAM.
In common with the rest of Canada, this Province is experiencing a greatly
increased demand for milk and cream for domestic use. This is apparent not merely
in places where the naval or military forces have been concentrated but in the cities
and towns throughout the country. Dealers of Vancouver and Victoria and elsewhere
have demanded greatly increased supplies for distribution, thereby causing much
rearrangement and readjustment of supplies resulting in loss of raw material to many
factories. Any increase in per capita consumption of milk by Canadians is to be
welcomed as conducive to the general good, but at the cessation of hostilities the dairy
industry will require to accommodate itself to changed conditions of supply. To illustrate what is occurring: Vernon requires milk of the factory district of the North
Okanagan; Victoria, having secured what supply it can from Vancouver Island, whose
factories have had to yield to the more remunerative outlets, has for many months
imported milk from the Lower Mainland at the rate of 2,000 to 3,000 gallons daily.
This outlet is the most remunerative of those ordinarily available to the dairy-
farmer. Using it, however, is exacting and expensive and as a large proportion of
to-day's producers of milk are elderly men, much change in producer personnel is to
be expected.
HERD-IMPROVEMENT.
This work has continued under even greater handicaps than experienced in previous years. The most severe of these is the shortage of suitable field supervisors,
but further adequate clerical assistance with the necessary compilations of this office
under this heading is badly needed. Eleven cow-testing associations employing eleven
supervisors remain in operation. To maintain these the extension (adopted last year)
of the thirty-day interval between tests to forty days has been continued. More
assistance for the promotion of this work is required by this Branch, as noted in last
year's report; a fieldman devoting seven months of each year or thereabouts to inspection of the work of supervisors and to extension service and the remaining months to
compilations in this office is urgently wanted to do justice to the project.
There are on test regularly at present 296 herds containing approximately 6,800
dairy cows which represents a decrease of about 10 per cent, from the previous years.
The average production shown by approximately 5,600 completed records for 1943 was
8,168 lb. milk with 4.38 per cent, butter-fat, a total of 358 lb. butter-fat.
Early in the year the compilation of the " Twelfth List of Dairy Sires " was completed and stencilled for distribution. The Thirteenth List is in course of preparation.
These lists offer much valuable information as to dairy sires of the four main dairy
breeds in British Columbia and are available and should be consulted by any dairy-
farmer contemplating the acquisition of a new dairy sire for the herd. It is not generally known or believed that a large proportion of properly registered pure-bred dairy
animals are without merit as dairy producers. To expect to effect improvement in
a herd by employing a sire because pure-bred and registered (even though handsome) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.     . S 93
is a most serious error barring the industry from progress in the improvement of dairy
qualities of the cows of the country.
A most valuable feature of the work, introduced more recently than the sire lists,
are the Parental Production Summaries which afford information as to dairy standing and merit just as the name indicates. These are available to any inquirer as to
the parental backing of particular individuals but require much preparation on the
part of our staff.    Several of these were prepared during the year.
Herd-improvement work has been in charge of G. H. Thornbery as for several
years past and his interest and devotion to his task have not lessened.
Artificial insemination is engaging the attention of many dairy-farmers and at
present three such projects are contemplated. Chilliwack and North Okanagan have
taken the first steps, while elsewhere in the Fraser Valley and on Southern Vancouver
Island interest is shown.
It is to be hoped that in the selection of sires enough attention be given to actually
proven dairy qualities on the part of near ancestors and relatives or the results may be
very disappointing.
To prepare applicants for positions as Cow-testing Association supervisors, a short
course in testing and keeping of records was held in Victoria, May 29th to June 10th,
inclusive. Three attended, two completing the course. One only passed the necessary
examinations and is now employed as a supervisor in the Fraser Valley.
CREAM-GRADER'S LICENCE EXAMINATION COURSE.
No cream-grader's licence examination course was held during 1944. The scarcity
of factory assistants precluded attendance and it was judged advisable to postpone the
holding of examinations for another year.
LICENCES ISSUED.
During the year, twenty applicants for testers' licences were examined. Sixty-
six testers' licences were issued and thirty-eight combined testers' and graders' licences.
To" fifty-eight persons, firms, companies, or associations creamery or dairy licences
were issued.    (See Appendix No. 16.)
VERIFICATION TESTS.
One verification test has been made during the year.
MEETINGS.
Meetings were attended and participated in by members of this Branch at Kelowna
(two), Enderby, Armstrong (two), Grindrod, Salmon Arm, Revelstoke, Saanichton,
Richmond, East Sumas, and Chilliwack (three).
PUBLICATIONS.
The Holstein section of Dairy Circular No. 48 (stencil) and the Jersey, Guernsey,
and Ayrshire sections of Dairy Circular No. 50 (stencil) were the publications of the
year.
OFFICE WORK.
The usual volume of inquiries and returns has been dealt with. Much time is
given monthly to the assembling of statistical matter in co-operation with the Federal
Bureau. S 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH.
J. R. Terry, Commissioner.
Despite the Federal Department's urging for poultry-breeders not to extend their
operations, statistics released recently show an increase of 15 per cent, over last year's
production figures. The increase has not come about by there being additional breeders,
but mainly because the well-established breeders have increased their flocks.
The Province's quota of eggs in dehydrated form for shipment to the British Isles
has gone forward. Next year a proportion of the eggs shipped to overseas points are
to be in shell. Reports seem to indicate that the British housewives prefer the eggs in
original covering, hence the experiment.
Prices paid producers per dozen for eggs for the past six years are as follows:
1939, 23 cents; 1940, 22 cents; 1941, 28 cents; 1942, 32 cents; 1943, 34 cents; 1944
(11 months), 34 cents.
In the spring, owing to mild weather and the tremendous increase in number of
fowls, production got ahead of consumption and for a time wholesalers and department
stores were unable to handle the surplus. The Federal authorities stepped in and the
surplus eggs were dehydrated and sent overseas. During this period many anxious
days were spent by producers.
Breeders have depended mostly on the general-purpose breeds for both meat and
eggs. The New Hampshire breed still seems to be as popular as ever. It is interesting
to note that at a recent Dominion Conference those present, representing all branches of
the poultry business, went so far as to recommend only the following breeds: New
Hampshire, Barred Rocks, White Leghorns, and Light Sussex for general use. No
reason was given for omitting the Rhode Island Reds. Crosses of the latter breed with
White Leghorn males are quite profitable with the leading hatcheries for egg
production.
With table produce an increase is again to be reported, although the ranks of
beginners has been thinned from last year. The demand for dressed poultry has been
insistent although at times, due to the volume of birds offered, the regular killing
establishments have been flooded and thus unable to supply the demand. To remedy
this matter the poultry-breeders themselves in some sections have organized fattening
and killing stations. These places are operated co-operatively. For the first time
large shipments of Province-grown birds have been exported to the United States under
Dominion auspices. Stations were opened in the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver
Island. Most of the breeders and f atteners operating broiler, roaster, and capon plants
have exceeded their usual number of birds produced.
For the past three years corn and corn products have been unobtainable, but there
has been no complaints concerning this. In fact, many breeders express the view that
they might do without this grain in future. Feedstuffs have been readily available,
although in some Provinces production has been restricted on account of lack of some
feedstuffs, particularly animal protein.
DEPARTMENTAL WORK.
Judging at fall fairs was again undertaken by the Branch. Despite the shortage
of labour, many worth-while exhibits of utility fowls were shown. Displays of eggs,
principally of dozen lots, were also on view.
Incoming and outgoing mail again eclipses all previous years. Many of the writers
were non-residents of the Province desirous of receiving information on prospects for
poultry-farming here. Quite a few letters were received from soldiers on active service. Advice to prospective settlers thinking of embarking into the poultry-raising
business included warnings as to the possible changes that may take place during the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 95
post-war period. Examples of past failures were cited, especially the common mistakes
of locating too far from market and of paying too much for farm and equipment. Many
letters dealing with questions of disease outbreaks in many parts of the Province were
also received.
Several bulletins and circulars were revised, and a new circular, " Sprouting of
Grain," was published. Breeders' directories of the following were published: List
of members of the Flock-approval Plan, Vancouver Rabbit Breeders' Association,
British Columbia Bantam Breeders' Association, lists of turkey and geese breeders were
stencilled and issued. The usual occasional notes and poultry items were supplied to
the announcer of the CBR Farm Broadcast at Vancouver.
With a total of sixty-one clubs, the Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs, whilst not reaching last year's total of seventy-three, showed a higher total of members per club, there
being more than ten members per club average. Many of the clubs purchased chicks,
and the rest used hatching-eggs. The most popular breeds chosen were New Hampshire, Barred Rocks, Rhode Island Reds, and White Leghorns, with a few Sussex.
The Department and Provincial breeders were represented at the Dominion Poultry
Conference held in Ottawa in January last. Copies of report of the conference were
distributed by the Department.
The Pacific Poultry Breeders' Protective Association has again to report a satisfactory year of progress. In several of the districts where branches have been
organized, members have co-operatively organized killing plants for members' surplus
stock. Poultry shows were held at Ladysmith, Vancouver, and Kamloops, and were
under the auspices of local Poultry Associations at these centres.
The usual cases of disease were reported by correspondents, and many carcasses
were sent to the Department for post-mortem. In most cases, due to distance and poor
packing, the samples sent were too far gone for successful diagnosis. The Division
again wishes to testify to the competent help and co-operation of Dr. E. Bruce, V.S.,
of the Federal Farm Laboratory, at Saanichton.
The incidence of leukemia was again heavy. There were, according to reports,
fewer outbreaks of coccidiosis. Infestations of worms—tapeworms ceca and round
worms—were investigated during the year. Leg paralysis, especially during the latter
part of the summer, was prevalent. As previously noted, many of these outbreaks were
found to be due to lack of greenstuff's in ration.
FLOCK-APPROVAL WORK.
In the districts covered by the writer—Vancouver and Gulf Islands—the number
of flocks inspected this season shows a very large increase. The breeders that have
again entered this year have also increased their flocks considerably. The number of
turkeys tested were double those of last year. The culling-work performed both by the
breeders and Inspectors has certainly had good results, there being far fewer birds
discarded. The percentage of reactors has also been reduced, both by the Department
and the culling.
Many of the members of the plan now ship eggs direct to hatcheries both here and
on the Prairies. The turkey members have all increased their entries of birds for the
test and most report excellent sales, both in the Province and eastwards. Some of the
turkey-breeders are this year experimenting with a new breed of bantam turkeys,
known as Kentucky Whites. These are small, white-plumaged birds, averaging about
8 lb. per hen and gobblers up to 10 lb. There should be a place for them. They are a
compact bird and should suit the small family's table.
Rabbit-culture has progressed, with the biggest increase in the Angora varieties.
Flemish Giants still forge ahead as the leading meat breed. The meat rabbit favourite,
the Belgian hare, during the early ' 20's has apparently vanished.    Just a few years S 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ago specimens were sold for as high as $100 each. Like the White Wyandotte fowl,
it is apparently doomed to extinction.
Angora wool fetched very remunerative prices during the year. As mentioned
last year, the wool is used for padding Air Force personnel uniform.
In conclusion, would like to express a word of caution to the post-war future of the
industry. The consumers now call for " ceiling " prices; take care that the producers
do not have to call for " floor " prices.
REPORT OF SOIL SURVEY BRANCH.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Officer in Charge.
In the spring and summer of 1944 your Soil Surveyor was occupied mainly with
land-drainage problems in the Okanagan Valley and with office-work on reports and
maps.
Since the economic position of growers has improved there is a greater tendency
to reclaim lands affected by excessive moisture. The grower can not solve a drainage
problem or hire expert advice; hence there is an increased demand on your Soil Surveyor to act in an advisory capacity. This demand has taken up a considerable amount
of time.
Chief among jobs undertaken is a drainage layout for the Trout Creek Irrigation
District, near Summerland, where seepage affects production in a large part of the community. In this area a subsoil survey is in progress for the purpose of separating
masses of subsoil sand and gravel and plotting these masses on a map. When this work
is complete the water-table can be lowered by draining the areas of subsoil gravel.
The drainage system will eventually require about 20,000 feet of tile. Since some of
the land-owners are without water rights, provision will be made to pump from
the drains and use the water for irrigation.
Drainage of this area will increase land value and productivity, and the crops will
make more efficient use of the seasonal heat. At the present time the crops are
two weeks or more behind adjoining well-drained acreage in the spring, owing to cold
and wet subsoils.
Information gained while working on drainage problems indicates an important
acreage in the Okanagan Valley that is not giving maximum yields. Much of this land
can be made more productive and more profitable to its owners by means of properly
installed drainage systems.
Office-work in spring and summer included completion of a paper on the land-
clearing problem in the Prince George District, which was submitted to the Bureau of
Post-war Rehabilitation and Reconstruction. This paper outlines the local experience
with land-clearing machinery and lists machinery that could be used for large-scale
operations.
The work of studying British Columbia climates and of defining their relationship
to one another was continued. Some of this information has found practical use for
determining the comparative climatic relationship of fruit-growing areas. At present
such comparisons are valuable in connection with the study of new lands in fruitgrowing areas that may be reclaimed as post-war projects.
In September a detailed soil survey of the Cawston Terraces in the Similkameen
Valley was undertaken. This survey came after the proposed site of a main water-
supply flume had been laid out by a party of engineers. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 97
The soil survey found 1,426 acres of highly productive silt loam soils that can be
supplied from the proposed flume. The climate compares favourably with the climate
at Oliver. The growing season is about the same length and the frost-free period is
about two weeks longer than at Oliver. This area is among the best in the Province
for the production of soft fruits, and its development would have a stimulating effect
in the Similkameen Valley.
During October a map of this area was drafted. This map shows the distribution
of the soils, the location of the proposed water-supply flume, and the location of land
owned by the Government. A report describing the Similkameen Valley, its climate,
and the soils of the classified area was prepared.
During the season talks were given before a number of organizations, which dealt
with problems of rehabilitation and with soils and climatic effects. Material was
prepared for use in the revision of a departmental bulletin which will describe the
Okanagan Valley. In the course of other field-work the sampling of domestic and
seepage water in each Okanagan community was started to determine the status of
fluorine. It is suspected that the supply of fluorine in Okanagan soils and waters may
be as scanty as the supply of iodine and boron, and that fluorine deficiency may have
a relationship to widespread dental caries in school children. When finally collected
the samples will be tested at the Summerland Experimental Station and the results will
be made known to the public health authorities.
A soil map of the Prince George area is almost ready for publication at Ottawa,
and preparation of a land class map of the same area has begun. The report on this
area is in the process of being brought up to date, and the resulting bulletin should be
ready for distribution by next spring.
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
Mrs. V. S. McLachlan, Superintendent.
The outstanding event of the year was the Seventh Biennial Conference held in
Vancouver, May 30th to June 2nd. Official delegates were sent by 130 Institutes, their
transportation being paid by the Department and the Institutes on a fifty-fifty basis.
Near-by Institutes also sent additional delegates, so that on an average about 175 women
attended the sessions and took part in discussions on matters of importance to women.
The interchange of ideas and experience between the women of widely differing parts
of the Province was undoubtedly valuable.
Speakers at the conference were the Honourable K. C. MacDonald, the Minister of
Agriculture, the Hon. H. G. T. Perry, and a number of others. The delegates greatly
appreciated a banquet as guests of the Provincial Government on the Wednesday
evening. To the great regret of all concerned, Mrs. B. F. Gummow, the able president
for the last four years, was compelled to refuse to stand for re-election, but Mrs. A. S.
Dennis is proving a most capable successor.
During the year I have visited Institutes as opportunity has arisen and also
attended the District Conferences at Salmon Arm, Oliver, Pitt Meadows, and Victoria. ,
WAR-WORK.
Institute activities increase as the war goes on. Last year 127 Institutes with
a total membership of 2,828 reported the following accomplishments for the war
effort:—
Jam made for the Red Cross (lb.)        15,750
Fruits and vegetables canned (cans)          6,323 S 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Fresh fruit donated (lb.)   740
Cash donations for sugar and cans  $236
Quilts and wool-filled comforters made for Britain  1,428
Articles   knitted   or   sewn   for   the   Red   Cross,   British
Bundles, etc.   28,800
Funds raised by the Institutes for war services, Red Cross,
etc.  .  $6,609.66
Donations to Women's Institute Queen Elizabeth Fund  $500
Parcels sent to men and women in the forces  2,390
Victory Bonds and War Savings Stamps  $3,228
Many Institutes report sending " bundles " of clothing to Russia, V. Bundles, etc.,
which are not included in the above figures. Eighteen layettes also were sent by Saltair,
Surrey, Victoria, and Langley Fort Institutes, while Poplar Manor adopted an English
family and sent it nine parcels, as well as sixty-three to men and women in the forces.
The Chilliwack Institute Hall is used as a depot for V. Bundles. All this work is
accomplished by farm-women, on whom much additional work has been thrown by
the labour shortage. For instance, Poplar Manor with only fifteen members, all on
chicken-farms or small-fruit farms, made 460 articles, mostly dresses for Britain last
year.
With the approach of the end of the war, interest in crafts is reviving. The Departmental Handicraft exhibit has been shown at Oliver, Peachland, Osoyoos, and Rutland, and an increasing number of inquiries are being received "in the office regarding
craft work, chiefly weaving and spinning. An Australian woman, visiting the Victoria
Women's Institute Handicraft exhibition, stated that she wished to join the Institute as
she was particularly interested in their wool-work. She stated that Canada was doing
so much more with wool than was being done in Australia, where they have active
Women's Institutes.
The welfare of the community is also a main objective of all Institutes. The new
Home for the Aged in Surrey receives much practical help from Institutes in the
municipality. An unusual piece of community work is reported by Ryder Lake
Women's Institute. They had a window made in the home of a woman bed-ridden for
twenty years so that she could see the neighbours and traffic passing her home.
Patricia Institute at Aldergrove provided seed potatoes and seeds for adults and
children and organized garden competitions. They also restarted the Fall Fair "to
create greater community spirit" and it proved an outstanding success in spite of
heavy rain. Five Institutes applied for the departmental books to be awarded as
prizes at their fairs and shows.
OTHOA SCOTT FUND.
Great efforts are being made to complete the $10,000 objective of this fund and
$1,000 was invested in the recent Victory Loan, making a total of $8,200 in bonds and
a balance of $263.33 in the bank. With the interest from this fund a little boy from
Burton is now being treated at the Vancouver General Hospital.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTE BROADCASTS.
A second series of ten broadcasts was given this year over CBR. Much of the script
was prepared in this office and then broadcast by members of the Provincial Board and
the Provincial Conveners. The talks were clear and informative and aroused considerable interest.
At the request of Mrs. Rayfuse, I have recently become a member of the Women's
Regional Advisory Committee of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board.    Institutes have DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.
S 99
liaison officers connected with this committee and take a keen interest in price control,
etc., while all Institutes helped in the distribution of ration books.
Two new Institutes have been organized—the Peace Arch Institute in the South
Fraser District and Dunster in the Bulkley Valley. Chilako, Aldergrove, and Penticton
Business Women's Institutes have been obliged to close down for lack of members.
The shifting of population continues to cause difficulty in some districts. There are
now 179 Institutes with a total membership of 3,709 at June 30th last. The By-laws
have been revised and reprinted and the Institute Handbook is now in process of
revision.
REPORT OF BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Supervisor.
The development of Boys' and Girls' Clubs continues to show progress and we now
have a higher membership than in any previous year. A considerable number of clubs
were organized in the Kootenay District this year for the first time and, in almost
every case, all the clubs organized in the Province completed their projects satisfactorily. The following table shows the number of clubs organized under departmental supervision in 1944 compared with 1943:—
Project.
Number of Clubs.
Membership.
1943.
1944.
1943.
1944.
Beef calf           	
11
33
16
1
73
15
6
12
46
11
1
61
11
2
115
312
136
9
674
137
68
466
Sheep   ...   	
Poultry  .....     	
8
626
Alfalfa  ...J	
Totals	
155
144
1,451
1,485
The method of paying out prize awards has been improved. Through arrangements made with the Dominion Department of Agriculture it is now possible for the
Provincial Department of Agriculture to advance the Dominion's share along with
their own, which means that the boys and girls can get their prize-money with very
little delay. If it is possible for the District Agriculturists to submit final club returns
from each district at an early date all the cheques should be issued and mailed out before
Christmas.
LITERATURE ON LIVE STOCK, POULTRY, AND FIELD
CROPS PROJECTS.
It appears that pamphlets covering the various club projects for the use of members, coaches, and instructors are not adequate for every project. The time that
coaches can give to this work is limited and in order to make their work more effective
it is my impression that literature should be supplied in a form understandable by boys
and girls of 10, 15, and 20 years old. The coaches would then be able to plan study
courses during winter months and the general membership would be better informed
on their projects which they would find useful when entering competitions. S 100
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
BEEF TEAM.
Left to right: Bernard Donchi, Bud Gessner, and Tommy Wilson (coach).
DAIRY TEAM.
Left to right: James Bailey, Fred Bryant (coach), and George Fleming. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 101
RULES AND REGULATIONS.
In general, these appear satisfactory and no change will be made for the coming
year, with the exception of the poultry project. At the present time some clubs have
all club chicks wing-banded in order to identify them from the regular farm flock. It
has been suggested that all club chicks should be wing-banded which would assist the
judges when the final awards are made.
FINAL ELIMINATION CONTESTS.
Elimination contests were held this year at Chilliwack and Armstrong Exhibitions.
In the district eliminations at Chilliwack on September 13th contests were conducted
in dairy, swine, poultry, and potato projects.
Dairy Contest.—This contest was won by James Bailey and George Fleming. The
contestants' names and scores are as follows:—
Contestant's Name. Individual Score.        Team Score.
Jim Bailey   466
George Fleming   503
Gordon Berry   471
Bill Millward  395
Charles Wilkinson   289
Gwen Beddoes  299
Bill Hugh   293
Jack Tarves  267
969
866
588
560
Stan. Keith   420
Jim Stevenson  389
C. S. Shaw  112
Harry Bryant   376
Jack Schenkel   156
Robt. McBlain   91
In this contest it is interesting to note that a team from Vancouver Island competed.
This team of Charles Wilkinson and Gwen Beddoes was coached by A. Motherwell, of
Cobble Hill. It is the first time a team from Cobble Hill has entered a district competition and they are to be congratulated in obtaining third place in this event which was
very strongly contested.
Swine Contest.—This contest was won by Peter Ewert and Erwin Schinkel. The
contestants' names and scores are as follows:—
Contestant's Name. Individual Score.        Team Score.
Peter Ewert   402
Erwin Schinkel   333
  735
Bob Nicholson   251
Wesley Muir   246
Bob Collins   134
Poultry Contest.—This contest was won by Thelma Tuey and Betty Slater. The
contestants' names and scores are as follows:—
Contestant's Name. Individual Score.        Team Score.
Thelma Tuey   350
Betty Slater  340
■  690
Doris Knowles  316
138057 S 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Potato Contest.—This contest was won by Joyce and Arthur Maddocks.    The contestants' names and scores are as follows:—
Contestant's Name. Individual Score.        Team Score.
Joyce Maddocks   560
Arthur Maddocks   522
Jim Ordog ,  499
Abram Pankratz  483
1,082
982
Ronald Tarves   180
Final Elimination Contests, Armstrong, September 19th, 1944.
Dairy Contest.—The Pure-bred Dairy Club from Chilliwack, James Bailey and
George Fleming, won this contest. The team was coached by Fred Bryant, of Langley.
The contestants' names and scores are as follows:—
Contestant's Name. Individual Score.        Team Score.
George Fleming   535
Jim Bailey   495
David Skidmore   434
Paul Teichman   434
1,030
868
Beef Contest.—The Kamloops North Beef team, Bud Gessner and Bernard Donchi,
won this contest. The team was coached by Tom Wilson, of Vinsulla. The contestants'
names and scores are as follows:—
Contestant's Name. Individual Score.        Team Score.
Bud Gessner   412
Bernard Donchi   417
John Olson   378
Dick Marshall   339
Lome Shannon   361
Tony Mikulosik  350
Calvert Stevens   348
Glen Wiley '_ 318
THE NATIONAL CONTEST.
829
717
711
666
British Columbia is permitted to enter four teams in these contests and this year
it was decided to enter teams in dairy, beef, swine, and poultry. We also had a potato
team eligible and it was a disappointment to both the team members and the coaches
when they were not permitted to compete.
The British Columbia team established new records at Toronto this year. The
beef team—Bernard Donchi, of Vinsulla, and Bud Gessner, of Heffley Creek—was
coached by Tom Wilson and took first place, with Bud Gessner making the highest
individual score.    Four Provinces competed in this contest.
The poultry team—Thelma Tuey and Betty Slater, of Langley Prairie—was
coached by W. L. Dence and took first place, with Betty Slater having the highest
individual score.    Three Provinces competed in this contest. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.
S 103
POULTRY TEAM.
Left to right: Thelma Tuey, W. L. Dence (coach), and Betty Slater.
SWINE TEAM.
Left to right: Erwin Schinkel, Fred Bryant (coach), and Peter Ewert. S 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The dairy team—Jim Bailey and George Fleming, of Chilliwack—was coached by
Fred Bryant and took fourth place in this competition in which every Province in
Canada competed.
The swine team—Erwin Schinkel, of Chilliwack, and Peter Ewert, of Yarrow—was
coached by Fred Bryant and took sixth place in this contest in which seven Provinces
competed.
This is the first time we have been successful in winning the beef contest and
the second time we have won the poultry contest.
An examination of the scores made in each contest shows that all competitions
were close and in the swine contest our team, which scored in sixth place, was only 117
points behind the winning team.
The establishment of these records by our teams is the result of several years of
diligent work by both team members and coaches. We have been particularly fortunate
in that a large percentage of those who have taken part in the National Contest in past
years have undertaken the organization of clubs in their particular districts and the
coaching of team members for judging contest.
In reporting another successful year of club activities, I wish to acknowledge
assistance given by the Vancouver, Victoria, Chilliwack, Armstrong, and Kamloops
Exhibition Associations, the staff of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, the staff
of the University of British Columbia, the direction given by our District Agriculturists and, particularly, I wish to acknowledge the work done by the organizers and
coaches of all our Boys' and Girls' Live-stock and Field Crops Clubs.
Details of club organizations will be found in Appendix No. 15.
REPORTS OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS.
PEACE RIVER.
T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist.
On the south side of the Peace River crops were much lighter than those on the
north side, owing to the shortage of moisture.    The north  received plenty at the
proper time to give a heavy crop.    The weather for harvesting and threshing was
exceptionally good and the average grade for wheat has been No. 1, and for oats, 2 C.W.
This fall there has been very little frost up to date, the coldest being 10 degrees below
for one night only.    There has been a heavy snowfall in most sections which will give
plenty of moisture for next spring.    There will be ample commercial seed of all kinds
in the district for next year's seeding.    A report just received from J. Ardill, Farrell
Creek,  states  he has  threshed  2,300  lb.  of alfalfa-seed  off 4  acres.    This  is  very
exceptional.
Live Stock.
The following are the numbers of live stock shipped from Dawson Creek from
January 1st to November 25th, bringing a total value of $917,000 into the district:
Hogs, 28,800 (Grade A, 25 per cent., ,and Grade Bl, 46 per cent.) ; beef cattle, 1,400;
sheep, 369.
The following figures represent the number of live stock shipped from Tupper
Creek through the Tate Creek Co-operative Society (Sudetans), January, 1944, to
October 31st, 1944. This colony has improved their live stock considerably during the
past two years and all are doing much better than originally expected: Hogs shipped,
1,394 (Grade A, 429 or 32.2 per cent, and Grade Bl, 604 or 45.4 per cent.) ; paid to
shippers, $32,793.02. Cattle shipped: 18 steers, 28 cows, 4 heifers, 2 calves, 3 bulls;
paid to shippers, $3,587.62. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 105
Swine.
Several of our farmers close to the railway are either going out of pigs or are
drastically cutting down. This is due to the shortage of help, also the higher price
for wheat. During the year the grade of hogs has risen—namely, Grade A, 1 per cent.,
and Grade B, 5 per cent.—over 1943. The Brood Sow Policy is no doubt responsible
for helping to bring this about. One report of one hog being condemned for tuberculosis has been received from Edmonton.
Horses.
Horses, generally, are in good condition. Early this spring a few cases of sickness
were reported from north of the Peace River. These Dr. Knight investigated while
in the district. It proved to be swamp fever. All places visited were advised as to
water and clean premises.
There are not so many horses in the district now as in former years as more
farmers are using tractors.
Cattle.
During the year a number of registered bulls and females have been purchased
and brought into the district. There are some very good herds of cattle, which are
being improved each year. Dr. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, visited the district
in July and tested over 1,000 head of cattle for tuberculosis. He found only one
reactor.    This was on the Sudetan Colony.
Warble-fly Control.
In the fifteen districts that have treated their cattle for warbles during the past
seven years, there is a very marked improvement. Out of 1,694 head that were inspected
only fifty-one warbles were found.
Field Crops.
A large quantity of stock seed was shipped into the district last spring, and all
growers report far heavier yields than from commercial seed. Several tests of peas
were tried out and turned out exceptionally well, yielding fairly heavy considering the
dry season. Alfalfa, altaswede, and sweet clover were very good crops this season.
Already three car-loads of altaswede-clover seed have been shipped from Dawson Creek.
This seed was purchased by McCabe Brothers, of Edmonton, at a price of 23 cents per
pound plus bonus.
Farm Labour.
Help for harvest and threshing was harder to get this fall than ever before.
Most of the men that had been allowed exemption from the farms for other work
during the slack season after seeding failed to return this fall, consequently delaying
the harvest. Eventually all crops were harvested and threshed in good shape, but it
would have caused great difficulty if the weather had not been good.
Grasshoppers.
Several reports that there were a lot of grasshoppers in various sections north of
the Peace River have come into this office. Although very little damage was done
this year, it is feared that they are liable to be a pest next spring if we do not get
a cold, wet spring.
Weed-control.
During the past few years it has been hard to get a weed inspector for the south
side of the Peace River, throwing a considerable amount of extra work on me. This
fall the threshing-machines were not inspected as they should have been owing to lack S 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of time to do this work. All summer fallow and cultivated ground has been well
worked. Several plots of quack-grass and sow-thistle were treated with chemical
with very good success. The inspection work done on the north side of the Peace
River has been very satisfactory.
Threshers' Reports.
There are 130 threshing-machines and combines in the district but up to date only
fifty have turned in their report, which is as follows:— Bushels.
Spring wheat   336,830
Winter wheat     16,559
Oats     393,367
Barley     61,903
Pounds.
Alfalfa      6,500
Altaswede clover     41,290
The Sudeten Colony threshed:— Bushels.
Wheat  !  2,161
Oats -  37,186
Barley  19,099
Farmers' and Women's Institutes.
Some Farmers' Institutes are having a hard time to carry on owing to so many
men being in military service and others away from home oh war and other work.
Several are still carrying on and doing good work. The Women's Institutes are putting
most of their efforts into Red Cross and other charitable organizations. Most of these
have been visited during the year and addresses on agriculture given.
General.
Already there is a co-operative milk" pasturizing plant under construction in
Dawson Creek, and it is hoped that a cold-storage locker plant will be started there next
spring. Owing to the shortage of help it has been necessary for the dairy that supplied the town of Pouce Coupe to stop delivery. It is now shipped in from Grande
Prairie by train.
Hay-crops were very light this year owing to the dryness of the season but there
will be plenty of feed in the district to carry live stock through the winter. Cattle
and horses are in a good healthy condition.
Many investigations have been made on men asking exemptions from military
service on account of their agricultural activities.
The farmers throughout the whole district are in a very prosperous condition.
They are improving both their live stock and seed, also erecting better buildings.
BULKLEY AND SKEENA VALLEY.
S. G. Preston, M.S.A., District Agriculturist.
The total precipitation for the past twelve months has been 18.74 inches, which is
higher than usual. The yields of forage and cereal crops, however, have been much
lower than the average. This is no doubt due to the very low soil-moisture reserves
this past spring.    Hay-crops being very light, many farmers found it necessary to sell DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 107
off greater proportions than usual of their beef stock; thus it will take two or three
years to rebuild the herds. There has been ample fall rain, however, so the crop
prospects for 1945 are very promising.
Field Crops.
.Forage-crops.—The timothy-seed crop is estimated this year at 41,900 lb. for
the Lake District and 190,600 lb. for the Bulkley Valley; total, 232,500 lb. This
amount is approximately 16 per cent, of the average. Part of the reduction is due to
greater acreages of timothy being cut for hay, but, at the same time, the timothy
suffered from shortage of moisture more than any other crop.
There will be approximately 5,000 lb. of alsike clover, 2,000 lb. of red clover, and
12,000 lb. of timothy clover mixtures. Yields of these crops are also much reduced
and part of the clover-crop was lost after cutting from a prolonged rainy period.
The price of timothy-seed is expected to be in the neighbourhood of 10 cents per
pound f.o.b. shipping-point. No small seeds, however, have yet been marketed this
year. No reports have been received on alsike prices, but it is expected that No. 1 seed
will bring about 28 cents per pound f.o.b. shipping-point.
No reports have been received of creeping red fescue or crested wheat-grass being
threshed.    One grower has threshed 500 lb. of meadow-fescue.
Cereals.—Thresher returns are not yet completed, but the following estimates of
coarse grain yields have been made: Spring wheat, 6,500 bushels; fall wheat, 1,200
bushels; oats, 45,000 bushels; barley, 9,000 bushels; peas, 300 bushels; rye, 200
bushels.
This production is very little over half the expected yields, but, at the same time,
feed requirements can be secured at reasonable prices from Alberta. The quality and
germination of the local seed appears very good; so if the farmers will save their own
grain for seed, then there should be no great seed-supply problems next spring.
Considerable supplies of seed-grain for the current crop were obtained outside
the district. Sources were Vanderhoof, Prince George, and Edmonton. In all, the following approximate amounts were brought in: Oats, 1,600 bushels; spring wheat,
180 bushels; barley, 180 bushels. Practically all the seed was purchased through
information on sources and prices supplied by this office.
A few growers purchased registered and certified seed of oats and barley. Application for field inspection was made on 4 acres of Victory oats, 5 acres of Red Bobs
wheat, and 5 acres of Plush barley.
The popular varieties of grain produced in the district are, in the order shown:
Spring wheat—Red Bobs, Garnet, Reward, Marquis; fall wheat—Dawson's Golden
Chaff, Crail Fife; oats—Victory, Legacy; barley—O.A.C. 21, Olli, Plush. With the
oats, practically the whole production is from Victory; O.A.C. 21 is still the popular
barley, although Olli is the most satisfactory where an earlier variety is an advantage.
Plush barley is being tried out for the first time this year and appears quite satisfactory as to handling, yield, and strength of straw. The greatest disadvantage in Plush
barley is the tendency for the sheaves to slide apart or off the loads.
Small acreages of field peas and flax were grown this year. Growth was satisfactory in some cases but the dry season prevented a satisfactory test being made.
One hundred pounds of " Mummy " peas and two hundred pounds of " Canada Blue "
were supplied by the Field Crops Department for trial. The Mummy peas were seeded
without a nurse-crop. One plot was ploughed down because of weed infestation.
The Canada Blue planted with a nurse-crop of barley was not able to compete satisfactorily with the barley. The growers have saved sufficient seed for trial again and
are satisfied that these varieties have excellent possibilities under normal conditions
and when satisfactory methods of handling are worked out. S 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The flax is in the experimental stage yet. However, it is evident that some
varieties can be produced satisfactorily. Bison and Red Wing have both produced good
yields of seed at times.
Weeds.—The preparatory work has been done for the formation of a weed-control
area between Telkwa and Walcott on the east side of the Bulkley River. Assistance
was given the committee in determining boundaries, information on the prevalent
weeds, and discussing problems relating to the " Noxious Weeds Act." A weed survey
of that district was also made; the chief noxious weeds found were Canada thistle,
sow-thistle, and small-seeded false flax. None of these appear in great numbers, but it
is felt that if the district is to continue to produce high-quality timothy-seed, then these
weeds must be controlled. Other weeds found in small numbers were ox-eye daisy,
yellow mustard, white cockle, and bladder campion. Couch-grass is common, but most
farmers are making an effort at control.
The weed situation would be similar in other parts of the district. Ox-eye daisy
is more prominent around Evelyn, Barrett, and Francois Lake, while night-flowering
catch-fly and white cockle have not been observed except in the Woodmere area, immediately east of Telkwa.
In general, cultivation methods and farm practices have shown a general improvement during the past few years. The dry seasons, combined with the rapid increase
in dandelions, have made it essential that sod be ploughed more often. Quite a few
new tractors have been purchased as well as machinery to go with them. Various
types of rotations are being studied and tried out at the Smithers Experimental Substation. We have given every assistance possible in working out suitable schemes
as well as discussing with individual farmers the best possible systems for their
requirements.
Commercial Fertilizers.—A general interest is being taken in the use of commercial
fertilizers. With the freight assistance subsidy on fertilizers, it was possible to retail
this commodity for very little higher than in the Lower Mainland.
Car-load lots were brought in to Terrace and Smithers. The greater proportion
in the Bulkley Valley was used for truck-gardens and vegetable-seed crops. At Terrace
it is used on all crops, including hay and grain.
Several tests are being conducted this year of fall applications of 2-19-0 and
18 per cent, superphosphate on timothy for seed production. In addition, complete
fertilizers have been applied to portions of alfalfa and clover fields this fall and boron
tests are being made on alfalfa. Tests were conducted in the spring with complete
fertilizers on alfalfa and boron the previous fall, but with the extreme shortage of
moisture, there were no obvious results.
Live Stock.
Beef.—Cattle shipments for the twelve months ended October 31st from the district west of Endako were 2,304 head. In addition, there would be some 200 head that
have been slaughtered and shipped by the carcass to Prince Rupert. Shipments of
1,866 head were made from Burns Lake, Priestley, Endako, and Forestdale. The total
shipments are some 600 head greater than the previous year. The greatest increase is
from the Francois-Ootsa Lake District, where the winter feed situation was more acute
than in other areas. Of the total shipments, 1,314 head were shipped to Vancouver,
480 head to the Central B.C. Live-stock Association sale at Kamloops, and 510 head to
Edmonton. Prices have ranged from $11.50 for good steers to $1.75 for canner cows.
Prices at the Central B.C. sale at Kamloops were: Two-year steers, $6.30 to $10.70;
yearling steers, $4.35 to $9.75; heifers, $5.25 to $10; bulls, $4.50 to $5.25; canner
and thin cows, $2 to $4.20; common and good cows, $5.80 to $8.75; calves, $4.50
to $9.35.
The depletion of a number of the beef herds is unfortunate. Where whole herds
were not sold outright, at least the calves, yearling steers, and part of the cows went. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 109
It will take two or three years to build up again. It is to be hoped that some of
the ranchers will take our recommendation to keep " fewer " but " better" stock.
Clover and alfalfa are being slowly established on some farms, but this takes time, and
even on those places where it has been grown for a number of years the yield was too
low this season to greatly add to the supply of hay for winter feed.
Dairy.—For a couple of years the trend appeared to be to breed the dairy cows to
beef bulls so as to get more returns for the steers. However, most dairymen are
returning to the dairy type or dual purpose sires.
Dairying in the Bulkley Valley is showing some increase. The volume of butter-
fat to the Telkwa Creamery was somewhat reduced, but the volume for the district was
more than made up by increased shipments of whole milk to Prince Rupert.
The Telkwa Creamery this year purchased 69,924 lb. of butter-fat, which is about
6,000 lb. under the 1943 production. Approximately one-third of this is produced at
and south of Burns Lake.
Whole-milk producers this year shipped 87,400 gallons of whole milk and 595 gallons
of table cream to Prince Rupert. This is an increased sale of approximately 11,760 lb.
of butter-fat to the Prince Rupert market. The total production of butter-fat for
the district this year, other than for local consumption, is computed at 101,680 lb. and
a total value to the producers of $49,247.
Two new up-to-date farm dairies have been built this year. Further ice-houses
are planned this winter and improvements are being made to the barns. This is
an industry that pays the farmer for his trouble and can well be encouraged in the
district. A good deal of time has been spent at the various farms to help solve difficulties encountered in producing milk that will keep its quality until reaching the pasteurizing plant at Prince Rupert.
The whole-milk shippers are not altogether satisfied with the tests received for
their milk. However, they know that the British Columbia Dairy Department is making periodical checks and that the Prince Rupert Health Department wishes to see them
get a fair deal. Thus they are willing to await developments, and 72 cents per pound
for butter-fat f.o.b. shipping-point still pays good money on 3.5-per-cent. milk.
Sheep.—There is some reduction in lamb sales this year. Wolves and coyotes
proved such a menace in 1943 that flocks were, in some cases, reduced to a size that
could be pastured close to home. Three cars of sheep have been shipped from Burns
Lake, one-half car from Quick, and there is still one-half car to go from Burns Lake.
Most sheepmen were satisfied with prices which went as high as 12 cents per pound
for lambs. It was particularly noticeable that a large proportion of undersized and
poorly finished lambs are being marketed. This has been drawn to the attention of
all sheepmen in Districts " B " and " C," and suggestions made for improvements, such
as the use of high quality rams, legume feed and minerals for ewes, etc. Marketing
costs run very high for lambs shipped from this district, so it was felt that they should
be shown why it did not pay to produce low quality lambs.
Swine.—The swine production has also gone down to some extent. Six pooled cars
of hogs were shipped out during the past twelve months. This, however, would only
represent about 200 hogs from this district. It is estimated that another 200 have
found their way to the Prince Rupert market as dressed hogs.
No increase in hog production is in sight. Pooled cars will be made up when
possible; but these come at irregular intervals, so it is difficult for the producers to get
all their hogs to the market at the right weight and finish.
Diseases and Pests of Livestock.—An investigation was made in July by Dr. A.
Knight and J. W. Eastham in an attempt to determine the cause of " sunscald " and
hemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle near Francois and Ootsa Lakes. Nothing definite
was found with relation to the sunscald and it was recommended that stockmen keep
away from the light pigmented animals. S 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Dr. Knight was of the opinion that what appeared to be shipping fever was in
reality a nutritional disturbance brought about by the practice of keeping the calves
at home and only allowing them to suckle twice a day. This was too heavy a feeding
of milk for the calf at one time and digestive troubles resulted. The stock were mostly
dual purpose Shorthorns, thus the milk-supply was greater, in any case, than required
by the calves.
Similar difficulties were reported in the Bulkley Valley. It was explained as plant
poisoning at first, but in each case the calves were allowed all the milk they wanted
from dairy type cows.    Being hungry, they would take more than required at a feeding.
Quite a number of cattle were treated for warbles. Very few reports were
returned on the results. However, we were able to ascertain that some 640 head of
cattle were treated. The warbles are nearly eliminated in the Cheslatta District and
only a few were found this past spring. Stockmen in the Bulkley Valley do not report
any particular decrease. However, this year we were able to get a few herds treated
that may have been responsible for the infestation in other herds.
The dairy cows appear to carry the greatest number of warbles. This is to be
expected as they are near the buildings when the grubs are dropped and when the flies
emerge. The average appears to be two to three warbles per animal, with as high as
twenty on some. The higher numbers were found on those that were not treated
previously. It is believed that practically all cattle in Quick and Woodmere areas were
treated this year, and we are hoping for a considerable reduction in the number of
warbles this coming spring.
Mineral Deficiency.—The study of mineral deficiencies in the District has continued. Areas considered definitely short in essential minerals or trace minerals have
been mapped and stockmen within those areas have been advised to supply their stock
with mixtures suitable for their conditions.
Most of the mineral deficiency symptoms were found in the area south of Burns
Lake. The question was taken up with a merchant in Burns Lake who already handled
flour, feed, salt, etc. Methods were worked out to adapt ordinary commercial livestock mixtures to the requirements of the district. This merchant then put on an
advertising campaign to sell his products to the stockmen. This office is being informed
on the names of those purchasing the mineral supplements so calls can be made to
the farms from time to time to determine the value of the feeding of these supplements.
Poultry.
A slight increase in poultry is observed for the district. The quality also has
improved, so that it is now rare to see the varied coloured and sized farm flock, except
in the outlying sections.
The principal breeds are Leghorns, New Hampshires, Rhode Island Reds, and
Barred Rocks. The Rhode Island Reds and Hampshires are giving approximately
equal service. The Barred Rocks should be as satisfactory, but have never become
as popular as the red breeds. The Leghorns predominate in the larger poultry producing farms and appear quite able to withstand the cold weather without any appreciable
decrease in egg production.
The general scheme of feeding is dry mash (commercial 18 per cent, protein) in
a self-feeder and scratch grain night and morning. Artificial light is supplied by gaslight or electricity for part of the day during the winter months.
Ventilation and the use of heat in poultry-houses has received a good deal of
attention. It appears evident, that with an open ceiling, covered with straw and plenty
of window space, that the birds lay equally as well without heat. The chief advantage
of heat in many poultry-houses has been to dry off the moisture or frost which condenses on the tight ceilings. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 111
Most of the surplus egg production goes to Prince Rupert. This year approximately 300 cases have been shipped from egg-grading stations and farms to that
market.
In additipn, 5,100 lb. of dressed chickens have been shipped to Prince Rupert.
These range from fryers and small roasting fowl to fattened birds,
Horticulture.
Tree-fruits.—Most of the experimental apple and crab-apple plantings were inspected twice during the season. At the first inspection in the spring, advice and
assistance was given on pruning, care, and use of fertilizers. At the second inspection
in the fall a record was made of the relative development and production of the trees.
Of the commercial apples, the variety Blushed Calville is still outstanding for
hardiness, yield, and quality of fruit. This year the Transparents and Mcintosh also
produced very well on the trees that have survived. A few Melba were obtained on
one farm. However, the Melba and Hume that were supplied a few years ago arrived
in very poor condition. Only a few grew and most of these died the first winter, so
it was not a satisfactory test of these varieties.
Of the 1941 plantings, there is a good deal of variation in the development of
the trees on the different farms. On one farm only has there been really satisfactory
growth. The varieties Robin and Virginia are bearing now, with Dolga, Olga, Beauty,
and Tony just starting to bear. For the first time, the Haas had fruit this year.
The Antonovka were very small trees. While doing well, they have not set any fruit
yet.
Two farmers ordered fruit-trees last spring from the recommended varieties.
However, Blushed Calville was not available and MacDonald was substituted. We have
no record of the performance of this latter variety.
Observations were made at Terrace of the condition, yield, and variety of fruit
being grown in that area. Most orchards were found to be pretty well neglected, with
anthracnose and scab the common and only diseases.
In the orchards where proper attention is being given to pruning, cultivation, and
spraying the yield this year was heavy for all types. Excellent yields of Gravensteins,
Newtowns, Transparents, Mcintosh, and Duchess were observed.
No data were taken on plums, but all types showed considerable promise. It is
obvious that the Terrace District could produce a good deal of high-quality apples,
plums, and cherries, and possibly some of the hardier varieties of pears.
Small Fruits.—Since the heavy winter-killing in the spring of 1943, replacements
have been made of strawberries. An investigation was made this year of the suitable
varieties. It is found that British Sovereign is the most dependable main crop berry
from Terrace to Hazelton. Some Terrace growers specialize in Skeena Wonder, but
this variety evidently does not stand shipping as well as British Sovereign.
In the Bulkley Valley the Senator Dunlap and British Sovereign are both grown.
The latter does not always yield very well and the Dunlaps are unpopular by reason of
the heavy production of runners.
Of the everbearings, Empire All Red and, Gem are completely satisfactory.
The Mastadon produces well in some places but is generally considered a light yielder.
A few people are growing Rockhills (runnerless), but no report can yet be given on
yield and hardiness.
This year a considerable number of healthy raspberry canes were secured in
the district and distributed throughout the district to enable farmers to get a start in
good healthy varieties or to replace diseased stands.
Little interest is taken in currants and gooseberries. Most farms have more than
enough for their own use. Quite a few black currants are infested with currant-
maggots.
PROVINCIAL    LIBRARY" S 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Vegetables.—Despite a general shortage of moisture, vegetable production was
fair for the year. In the Lake District the yields were very low, but almost normal in
the Bulkley Valley.
The use of commercial fertilizers with or without manure is becoming more common for potato and field root growing. Observations and trials were made this year
with small applications of high nitrogen fertilizer to induce early spring growth of
roots and other garden produce. The soil is notably cold in this district until June.
Bacterial action thus is delayed and it is believed that plants suffer at first from
a shortage of readily available nitrogen. This work will be extended in 1945 when
supplies of ammonium nitrate and nitrate of soda will be available. Early growth this
past spring was certainly hastened by the use of 8-10-5 and 16-20.
Shipments of vegetables to Prince Rupert this year amounted to: Turnips, 1,240
cwt.; cabbage, 9 cwt.; carrots, 400 cwt.; beets, 13 cwt.; mixed vegetables, 3 cwt.;
potatoes, 274 tons.
Application was made this year for field inspection of 13 acres of potatoes for
certification. Varieties represented were: Wee McGregor, Chippewa, Gold Coin,
Columbia Russet, and Early Epicure. Assistance was given and, as usual, the second
inspection worked in during our other field duties.
Vegetable-seed Growing.—In the Houston area the following acreages were planted
for vegetable-seed production: Spinach, 30Vz acres; swede turnip, 10% acres; cabbage,
2% acres; total, 43% acres.
Approximately 8 acres of spinach were destroyed by cutworms and were reseeded.
However, the reseeded portion was too late to make good seed. Those areas of spinach
not affected by cutworms yielded from 700 to 1,200 lb. of seed per acre. Fair yields of
swede-turnip seed were obtained, but the total figures have not yet been received.
The cabbage-seed was a near failure and only a few pounds for reseeding were
recovered.
The spinach appears the most satisfactory seed producer and it is probable that
acreages will be increased in 1945. Practically all land devoted to vegetable-seed
production received application of 6-30-15 at 250 to 300 lb. per acre. Varieties of
spinach produced this year were Bloomsdale Longstanding and Bloomsdale Reselected.
The swede-turnip variety was U.B.C. Bangholm.
The inspection of the vegetable:seed crops was done by A. Hope, of the Dominion
Seed Branch. In accompanying Mr. Hope on these inspections, much valuable information was obtained on growing and inspection of vegetable-seed crops.
The production for the district has been quoted under the various departments.
These figures are briefly combined at this point, with approximate values of the products shown.    These figures do not include produce used for local consumption.
Product.
Amount.
Value.
Total.
Timothy seed (lb.) 	
Clover and mixtures (lb.)-
Vegetable-seeds 	
Hay (tons) _
Beef (head)	
Mutton (head).
Hogs (head)
Poultry (dressed)   (lb.).
Eggs (cases).— 	
Whole milk, 87,400 gals. (lb. butter-fat).
Table cream, 595 gals. (lb. butter-fat)	
Cream (to creameries)   (lb. butter-fat) ...
232,500
19,000
50
2,500
700
400
5,100
300
30,590
1,190
69,900
$23,250
3,870
5,100
1,250
137,500
5,500
10,000
1,950
2,520
22,024
773
26,450
$33,470
153,000
4,470
49,247
$240,187 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 113
War Services.
Reports have been made from this office from time to time for the Mobilization
Board on farmers or farm-workers requiring postponements. Reports were made also
on conscientious objectors.
For those asking for harvest or compassionate leave, we have tried to give assistance when help at home was actually required.
Transfers under the Selective Service from other industries to the farm have also
received attention. In most cases the transfers were settled by direct correspondence
with the nearest Selective Service offices.
Conclusion.
With reserves of soil moisture again built up, the crop prospects for 1945 are
encouraging. The surplus of beef cattle will likely be small, but there are signs of
an improvement in the quality of stock being kept for breeding purposes, both in
sheep and cattle. We can look for a further increase in the whole-milk trade to Prince
Rupert. Also, there appears to be a trend toward better understanding between the
Prince Rupert consumers and Central British Columbia producers.
NECHAKO AND PRINCE GEORGE.
James E. Manning, District Agriculturist.
From the viewpoint of a District Agriculturist, the year was a busy one for the
average farmer, who was found doing his best to meet the requirements of his country
without much outside assistance. That he did his job well is indicated by the way he
maintained production of essential crops and of all classes of live stock.
The weather was generally good over the whole year, but there was a drop in total
precipitation from the normal of 24.40 inches to 22.77 inches, which reduced the yields
of coarse grains because the shortage in rainfall occurred in July. This reduction was
especially to be noted in the Vanderhoof District, which normally produces considerable
grain over its own requirements.
The closing of the Pinchi Lake mercury mine in June took away a good market
from Vanderhoof, whose farmers supplied most of the settlement's poultry, eggs, fresh
meats, and all the whole milk that could be found.
The small plant at Prince George of the firm once known as the Central B.C. Packing Company closed its doors in May and no one knows what the future of the Company
will be. It was never of much service to the district farmers, having bought a total of
not more than sixty head of cattle during the time it was in operation. The hog-feeding operation that was commenced in March did hold promise at one time, but after
shipping out approximately three car-loads of finished hogs it went out of business.
The promoter moved all of his personal possessions from Prince George shortly afterwards, and has not been heard of since.
Although the yield of coarse grains is much below normal, it is pleasing to report
that possibly the largest crop of alsike-clover seed was produced this year. This is an
important cash crop and the returns will offset the loss sustained in the grain-crops.
The Vanderhoof egg pool, that has been such a useful organization to the poultry-
men of the entire district, has now become incorporated in the Vanderhoof Co-operative
Association. S 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Field Crops.
Little or no winter-killing was experienced last spring;   consequently, there were
fair yields of fall wheat and very good yields of alsike-clover seed.    At this time of
the year less than one-half of the threshermen's returns have reached this office;  therefore, only an estimate of total yields can be given in this report.
The most accurate estimate that can be given is that covering the alsike-clover
seed crop, as this has been followed through the year from early spring. Not less than
1,700 acres were harvested, and we expect to see in excess of 300,000 lb. leave the
district. Of this amount, from all reports and personal knowledge, at least 75 per cent,
will be seed of from 90 to 100 per cent. pure. The remainder should be 75-25 alsike-
timothy. Already 50 tons have been sent to Edmonton (McCabe Bros.), and almost
the same amount to New Westminster and Vancouver. The growers are expecting
the McCabe buyer in to pick up another considerable shipment which is expected to
reach a full 25-ton car-load. More seed will yet be sent to Vancouver and New Westminster. The Vanderhoof District has been unfortunate in having had wet weather
during the threshing season, and so over one-half of its alsike-seed will not be available
until next spring. This year's total crop should be worth well over $50,000, and if
the seed is as pure as it is now thought, another $10,000 might be added if the extra
5 cents per pound is paid the growers by the Dominion Special Products Board.
The reduced yields of coarse grains that are expected to be found when the final
figures are at hand were caused through drought, followed by intense heat in the Vanderhoof District in June and July. Where we have seen oats yield from 75 to 100
bushels per acre, 50 bushels will likely be the best we will find this year. There are
some high production figures to be found in the Prince George area, especially where
the land had been top-dressed with black muck taken from the airport when they were
preparing the runways. Seventy bushels of oats were grown on a piece of land which
was not " dressed," whereas a field that had been liberally dressed with the muck—
and this ploughed under—yielded 140 bushels per acre.
The seed-pea crop is disappointing, and low yields prevail in all but one instance
at Woodpecker. Something over 200 acres were planted for the Canadian Canners'
Company, and 30 acres for the B.C. Seed Growers. Early Surprise and Laxton were
the varieties, and a total of 50 tons is all that is expected from the crop. The dry
summer delayed germination and then heavy rain during early September spoiled the
harvesting. At the time of writing there are still several acres in the field which are
not likely to be threshed until the spring, if then. These peas were grown at Vanderhoof, Reid Lake, and Woodpecker. What seems to be required to make the growing of
peas a success, is dry weather at harvest-time.
The district's yield for the year is estimated as follows:— Bushels.
Winter wheat      10,000
Spring wheat      5,000
Oats      90,000
Peas       2,000
Barley  '.       8,500
Mixed grains  1       3,000
Lb.
Alsike seed   200,000
Alsike and timothy seed  110,000
Vegetables.—Besides the usual amounts grown in farm gardens, the following
acreages were planted for commercial vegetables:— Acres.
Potatoes  1  75
Turnips  „  20
Carrots   15
Cabbage   25 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 115
The yields for all these crops were very good and at least 80 acres of this total
of approximately 135 have been sold to the army camps at Terrace and Prince George
and to Prince Rupert. It is expected that the army camps will take the balance of the
crop by spring. The interest in Victory Gardens this year has resulted in a smaller
local market in most settlements, for most of these larger gardens produced good crops
which will give the owners vegetables for a longer period than usual. We can expect
to see a larger local demand early in the New Year. Cabbage was in demand, and sold
at Prince Rupert, the camps, and Vancouver. The freight charges to Vancouver were
too high for the growers to supply this market all that was requested. Around 50 tons
have been disposed of, with 20 tons still in storage.
At one time the army Supplies' Officer would accept tenders for small amounts
of any of the above-named vegetables, but this fall all accepted tenders had to be for
the total amount of the month's requirements. This office has assisted a number of
the smaller growers to group themselves for the purpose of taking a month's contract.
If this proves successful the plan will be repeated, and by this means we can expect
to see most of these classes of vegetables disposed of by spring. The prices for potatoes
and cabbage f.o.b. the Army Depot have averaged $40 per ton, and consumption is
expected to be maintained until spring, at the present rate of approximately 65 tons
monthly of all classes of vegetables. As soon as the early vegetables were ready this
summer, the Army took all the lettuce, onions, beets, carrots, and cabbage that could
be supplied. It seems that at this time of the year Supplies' Officers are empowered
to purchase small quantities of these fresh vegetables. Knowing this, the commercial
gardeners were able to plant for this market.
About 30 acres of Foundation A or certified seed were planted in 1944.
Fertilizer Experiments.
An interesting experiment with fertilizers was carried out at Salmon Valley
under the direction of the Field Crops Commissioner to see what reaction there would
be when lime, gypsum, powdered sulphur, and ammonium phosphate (11-48) were
applied to old clover land.    The results were rather remarkable, as the following table
Shows:— Per Acre Yield.
Lb.
Check-plot   1,800
Lime, at 1 ton per acre  2,400
Gypsum at 400 lb. per acre  4,425
11-48 at 300 lb. per acre  5,950
The land selected for this test was in grass for the fourth year, and normally
would have been ploughed the year of the test.
It is of interest to report that C.I.L. have arranged for fall applications of 2-19-0
and 18 per cent, superphosphate on two farms in the Prince George area to see how it
compares with spring applications. The purpose behind the experiment is to see if
this method will make for an earlier setting of clover-seed.
Seeding Burned-over Land.
A small acreage of orchard-grass, timothy, and alsike-clover seed was sown in the
Ferndale District, on land that had been burned over several years ago. There was
a light covering of bush, and it was noted that moss was starting to collect. When the
area was examined in October, no orchard-grass was visible and only a trace of timothy
and alsike was to be seen. The negative results incline one to believe that all burned-
over lands to be seeded should be done within two years of the fire. S 116
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Noxious Weeds.
The two worst weeds in the district are sow-thistle and Canada thistle, and the
former is believed to be the greater menace. Owing to the good results obtained
through demonstrations by the Department, most farmers are aware of the control
of Canada thistle by chemicals and are practising control in many cases. The Canadian National Railways' section of the line running through District " C " is polluted
with sow-thistle in most of the settled areas, and many complaints of the situation
reach the office of the District Agriculturist. The C.N.R. officials have been co-operative up to a certain point, and, moreover, they send over the line, usually once a year,
a weed-destroying unit that makes a good job of all the weeds it can reach, but the
area treated is usually not any wider than the width of the ties, and so in the late
summer a passenger can see sow-thistle growing up to 6 feet high in many places.
This weed can now be seen in many fields, especially those around Fort Fraser and
west of this point. Some come from dirty seed-grain, without a doubt, but many are
the result of the seed blowing from the right-of-way. Around the larger depot freight
yards, one man or more may be put to scything the thistles, but so often the plants
have past blooming and the results are almost negligible. The writer has had very
poor results in attempting to eradicate sow-thistle with Atlacide, the oily leaves seeming to repel the agent. Certainly, something quite serious will have to be done to
bring this weed under control, as it is taking charge of many fields that are not
regularly cultivated.
Live Stock.
In March of this year a report on hog production for 1943 was sent in to the
Department. The purpose was to show the manner the local producers reacted to
the request for greater production. These figures are now included, for comparison's
sake, in the following table, which gives the hog production for 1944:—
District.
Carcasses sold on Local Market.
Live Hogs shipped.
1944.
1943.
1944.
1943.
Vanderhoof  - 	
230
500
150
295
558
150
240
175
35
400
50
41
Totals   	
880
1,003
450
491
Totals:   1943, 1,494 hogs;   1944,  1,330 hogs.     (Neither of these totals include
the production of hogs for home consumption by the producer.)
Total live-stock production for 1944:  Hogs, 1,330;   sheep, 600;  cattle, 1,925 (same
Shipments by Train (C.N.R.).
Destination.
Car-loads.
Cattle.
Hogs.
Sheep.
32
14
3
5
3
49
5
3
A total of 57 car-loads was shipped compared with 81 car-loads in 1943.
There were many more young calves and yearlings shipped out this year than last
year, owing to serious feed shortage, and there were fewer sheep shipped. It is
expected to see one or more car-loads of sheep shipped in December. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 117
Kamloops Stock Sale.
This sale received 374 head of cattle and 417 sheep from District " C." The
organization of the sale was very good and the settlements were sent out by the secretary within ten days. The prices obtained compare very favourably with other Provincial sales for the type of animal shipped. It is to be hoped that more attention
will be paid by the producer to the better fitting of his stock so that a greater percentage of market cattle and sheep reaches Kamloops, and less of the feeder type.
Again, it was the feed shortage that forced the sale of many of the poorer cattle this
year.
New Beep Sires.
Three very fine Hereford bulls were sent this spring to the Frontier Cattle Company at Vanderhoof. In October, G. Streigler, of Vanderhoof, brought in seven Hereford bulls and one Angus. It is understood that most of this latter shipment came
from the dispersal sale of the Trite's Estate. The producer's preference in this district
is for Hereford stock, but there has been the occasional inquiry for beef Shorthorn
sires, and, quite recently, for a milking Shorthorn, which was shipped to Prince George
from the Experimental Station at Smithers.
Warble-fly Control.
This work was greatly extended this year, when the following districts were
treated for the first time:— Head.
Fraser Lake        96
Vanderhoof  1,081
Beaverley  .      259
Salmon Valley       297
Including McBride and Pineview Districts, which have been treating their cattle
for some years, a total of 2,234 head of cattle was treated on 183 farms. Of these
farms, thirty-nine were found to have warble-infested cattle, with a total of 1,639
warbles. Maps of the treated areas were sent to the Live Stock Commissioner with
the reports.
It is believed all these districts will again treat next year, and every assistance
will be given these groups who organize themselves.
Milk-supply.
The milk-supply has, at the time of writing, undergone its seasonal reduction, but
most of the localities are able to get a fair amount of fluid milk. The situation in
Prince George, where the Army order forbids the troops from drinking raw milk, is
normal, with three vendors supplying the city and one other dairyman supplying South
Fort George and some of the restaurants. Quite recently the Canadian Army Medical
Corps made an investigation into the Prince George and district milk-supply, when
following up a rumour of some cases of septic sore throat. At the end of the inquiry,
they admitted they were satisfied with the condition of the dairies, but they did order
certain cafes to put their premises in order.
Bees.
About 150 packages of bees were brought in this year, but many more were ordered
and not received. The honey yield was low in most cases where new bees were brought
in, but good in many of the wintered colonies. It is estimated the average per colony
amounts to 30 lb., whereas some of the wintered colonies produced up to 120 lb. each.
We expect to have a visit from Mr. Turnbull next spring and feel much good will come
from the visit. S 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Fairs.
Very well organized fall fairs were held at Fort Fraser, Woodpecker, Prince
George, and McBride. The writer judged at Woodpecker and McBride, and gave
assistance in the organizing and the running of the Prince George fair.
This latter fair has come ahead very well in the last two years, thanks, chiefly, to
having an excellent secretary. It would be difficult to adversely criticize the management of this organization, so well is the fair managed. For the past two years it has
combined with the Prince George Horticultural Society and this had tended to attract
all the lovers of flowers.
The other three fairs are much smaller, but are very ably run by the executive
committees, and it is always a pleasure to visit any of them in the capacity of judge.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
There are eleven regular Boys' and Girls' Clubs organized this year, with a total
of 108 members. In addition, there were two Victory Garden clubs with memberships
totalling forty-one.    Particulars of the departmental clubs are as follows:-—
Hixon-Woodpecker-Strathnaver—Hampshire Chick Club, Barred Rocks Chick
Club, Swine Club, and Calf Club;  C. Semerad, organizer.
Prince George District—Calf Club;  W. Kienzle, organizer.
Cranbrook Mills—Calf Club;   Mrs. Allison, organizer.
Salmon Valley—Poultry Club;   L. Caron, organizer.
Vanderhoof—Alfalfa Club, Baby Chick Club  (Rocks), and Hatching Club;
N. Williams, organizer.
Fraser Lake—Hatching Club (Rocks); Mrs. Ivan Black, organizer.
Two members of the Prince George District Calf Club made the trip to Armstrong,
where they competed in the judging competition.    The interest in club work is rather
difficult to maintain just now, but it is hoped to have as many clubs in operation next
year.
Soldier Labour on Farms.
The Commanding Officer of the local Division was very sympathetic to the labour
situation, and gave whatever assistance he could during the grain harvest. No soldiers
were available for hay harvest but it is estimated that for the grain, potato, and
alsike seed harvests soldier help was given to the extent of 300 man-days. In addition
to this, many soldiers gave their week-ends and short leaves for this work to the
extent of not less than 75 man-days. Without this help, it is doubted if the crops
would have been harvested.
Economic Survey.
A party of four men and one woman visited the district during parts of September
and October. They were sent out by the Government of Alberta to look into the
economic situation in the light of future rehabilitation. They remained here five
weeks, and received assistance from this office.
Cattle-lick at Fraser Lake.
Through the Field Crops Commissioner's office an analysis was made of a large
deposit of mineral clay which is located near Fraser Lake. The analysis showed this
deposit contained the same materials as does the special mineral sent up from California to the Department a year or so ago.
Farm Water-supply.
In recent weeks a survey was made into the farm water-supply, in an effort to find
out the variation in depths that water is found in different areas.    The report has DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 119
been forwarded to the Deputy Minister, the Field Crops Commissioner, and the District
Agriculturist at Smithers.
Land-clearing by Machinery.
This method of clearing land is now being tried out in a practical manner at
Salmon Valley, 15 miles north of Prince George. The Bellos Ranch Company, who
cleared several of the Provincial airports of timber, has undertaken to clear 210 acres
of land for the Johnston Bros., at a cost of $43 per acre for one patch of 60 acres and
at $33 per acre for another lot of 150 acres. The bush covering is moderately light
poplar, willow, and spruce. The operation at the prices quoted call for the brush to be
cut and then bunched in piles ready for burning next summer. It will be interesting
to watch this work and, without question, there will be many visitors to this farm, as
the interest in this type of land-clearing is very keen.
CARIBOO AND LILLOOET.
C. F. Cornwall, District Agriculturist.
Weather conditions during the past season have been most unsatisfactory in so far
as agricultural production is concerned. The district was fortunate in that the winter
of 1943-44 was extremely mild, and most stockmen were able to spin out their meagre
hay reserves till spring. The breakup was slow and drawn out and stock had to be
held on the feed-grounds some two or three weeks later than usual by those who still
had hay to feed. However, many cattle had to be turned out before there was sufficient
grass on the ranges.
The spring weather was cold, with a resultant retarded growth. Late spring and
early summer were cloudy and unsettled, with little moisture. The summer and autumn
months were the wettest recorded in the history of the district. October 1st to November 20th was fine open weather, no heavy frosts being experienced until the middle of
the latter month.
Field Crops.
Haying operations commenced rather later than usual due to the lack of moisture
in May and June. Harvesting of tame hay got under way the first week in July, conb-
mencing simultaneously with the wet weather to which this district was subjected for
the duration of the summer. The difficulty encountered in harvesting and the amount
of spoiled hay resulting is the worst this district has ever recorded. The only good
feature is that, owing to the above, labour shortage was not as acute as it might have
been had the weather been more favourable. As it was, haying dragged on until the
snow fell on November 20th. The majority of wild-hay swamp meadows never did
dry up sufficiently to allow cutting.
The same condition is again facing the farmer as last year—small hay reserves,
with a good deal of it being weathered and bleached.
Grain-crops were good this year, but the harvesting of them was difficult. There
was a good deal of sprouting in the stooks.
The weather was favourable for range conditions, and good growth was made.
The grass stayed green throughout the summer. This, of course, had an adverse effect
on beef cattle, as they cannot be adequately finished off on green grass. Nevertheless,
range conditions should be in good shape for next season. S 120
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Vegetable-crops.
The only vegetable-crop grown in this district of any significance is potatoes.
For the most part, good crops were reported, and it is estimated that 1,450 tons were
produced. About 450 tons of this amount were certified seed potatoes and the balance
of 1,000 tons will be sold as commercials. The majority of certified seed grown is the
Netted Gem, with 400 tons of this variety having been dug. The next in importance
is the White Rose, totalling 25 tons, and other varieties totalled 25 tons. Considerable
interest has been shown in the White Rose market, and it is expected to see more of
this variety grown next year for export to California.
Corn Experiments.
Two test-plots were laid out at the 141-Mile Ranch, with the same seven varieties
tested on each plot. Plot No. 1 was made under field conditions and Plot No. 2 in the
kitchen garden. Due to the lack of labour, Plot No. 1 was badly infested with weeds.
Nevertheless, both plots made a good showing when taking into consideration that
there was very little hot weather during the season. The following table shows the
results of these tests:—
Sample.
Dry Weight
in Ounces.
Per Cent.
Dry
Matter.
Yield per
Acre in
Tons, Green
Weight.
Plot No. 1 (harvested September 12th, 1944) —
8   4/32
6 24/32
5 24/32
7 16/32
6 8/32
7 16/32
6 22/32
3 14/32
5 8/32
412/32
6 12/32
5 14/32
4 16/32
4 10/32
25.39
21.09
17.97
23.44
19.53
23.44
29.90
10.74
16.41
13.67
19.92
16.99
14.06
13.48
16.74
N.W.D. Morden                                                    	
8.008
Wise. 275 	
20.02
Wise. 335                                                                  — 	
28.756
Wise. 355                                                                 _ 	
16.744
21.476
K.E. 2   -	
16.38
Plot No. 2 (harvested October 5th, 1944) —
17.472
N.W.D. Morden    	
Wise. 275
17.29
20.566
Wise. 335                                                                 	
24.206
Wise. 355 _     	
20.748
22.568
K.E. 2  	
22.932
An experiment with flax (Redwing variety), sown with barley at the rate of 10 lb.
per acre, was tried out and made a very successful stand. This was harvested with a
combine and is to be fed to calves during the winter feeding period. The object of the
experiment is to supply in the ration a concentrate that is higher in protein and total
digestible nutrients than would be possible with cereal grains alone.
Some 125 lb. of Sainfoin seed were distributed in the district this spring and in all
instances it has made excellent growth. About one-half acre was sown to Sainfoin on
one ranch for the purpose of further seed supplies with a view to trying Sainfoin for
pasture crops under different soil and moisture conditions. From past observations,
a fair stand can be expected on gravelly soils where drought conditions exist and where
other grasses do not appear to thrive.
Fertilizer Test-plots.
Some fifteen fertilizer test-plots were laid out this spring throughout the district
on a variety of crops and under varying conditions, and some very interesting results
were obtained.    Only in one instance, where twelve plots were laid down some 20 miles
south of Williams Lake, were no beneficial results observed. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 121
A full report of these tests will be forwarded to the Field Crops Branch as soon
as the data can be compiled. A fact worthy of note is that gypsum, applied at the rate
of 500 lb. per acre in the Canim Lake area, increased production on hay land 200 per
cent. It was also noted that ammonium phosphate 11-48 gave excellent results on
swamp-meadow land in the South Cariboo District.
\ Table of Crop Estimates.
Wheat  '	
Acres, 1943.
  386
Acres, 1944.
383
Rye _        	
     60
4
Oats   	
  569
812
Barley	
  253
348
Alfalfa for seed 	
       9
9
Peas for seed .   	
     12
3%
5
Sainfoin for seed	
Hay 	
25,244
Potatoes 	
     90
150
Horticulture.
Fifteen fruit-trees supplied by the Department were planted this year in the
Kersley District. Six hardy varieties of apples, two cherries, and one pear are being
tried out. A close check will be kept on these trees and their progress reported from
time to time.
Live Stock.
The beef industry has not had a good year, and the inactivity of the market has
been very discouraging to producers. Prices have kept fairly steady for good beef
throughout the year, but feeder and stocker cattle were a drug on the market and
prices on the two latter have been too low. Far too many cattle moved to market this
year before they were ready. This was due mainly to the wet summer and consequent
green range feed not hardening off.
- This fact, together with the short supply of hay harvested, was in part responsible
for the shortage of cattle in this district for early shipments and a crowded market for
later shipments. Shipments from the district this year are far below expectations
and, in spite of this, cattle are more difficult to move than last year. The situation is
hard to understand. There are still, at this late date, many stockmen waiting to ship
their beef.
The total number of cattle marketed from Cariboo for the year 1944 will be approximately 17,288 head. This compares with 19,129 head in 1943, 17,551 head in 1942,
20,318 head in 1941, and 14,528 head in 1940.
The seventh annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Stock Show and Sale was held during
the week October 9th to 13th, at which 2,199 head were sold through the sale ring for
a total of $160,801.10. Prices averaged 93 cents per hundredweight under last year's
sale. The highest price paid for 2-year steers was $11.70; 1-year steers, $8.70; 2-year
heifers, $9.60; 1-year heifers, $8.55; and calves, $9. Boys' and girls' champion calf
brought $40 per hundredweight.
The auction sale of seventy-two Hereford bulls, four Hereford females, and nine
Shorthorn bulls realized $26,490. Average price for Hereford bulls was $327.77, with
the top price for the Grand Champion and first prize under eighteen months being
$1,050, bought by the Alkali Lake Ranch at a record price for the Williams Lake sale.
The bull, Baldwin Lad 2nd, was contributed by George W. D. Hysop. Average price
for Shorthorn bulls was $223.33, with a top price of $400 for a bull contributed by
Allan Jeffery. Average price for Hereford females was $220, with a top price of
$275.    The averages above are considerably higher than those of last year. S 122 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Nutrition.
The quality of cattle in the district is steadily improving and, year by year, the
trend to better breeding stock is gaining momentum. It can now be said that the
average stockman considers herd improvement an important part of his ranch operation. More attention must now be paid to live-stock nutrition, a consideration which
hitherto has received little interest, but the producer is gradually becoming aware of
the fact that if his beef is to continue to demand a market he must produce a better
finished product and this means better feeding.
Good beef cannot be produced from calves that are weaned and then put on a diet
of straight roughage for the winter. Strong calves cannot be expected from cows and
heifers that are wintered on swamp-hay. If cattle must be wintered in this manner,
an economical but balanced ration must be worked out for them. Wintering will cost
more, but it does pay dividends. It has already been proven by several ranchers in
the district. gHEER
Sheep production continues about the same as last year. Generally speaking, this
district is not favourable to the production of sheep. Predatory animals limit the
extent of a flock to the number of animals that can be kept close by the farm dwelling.
The lifting of the embargo to the United States was a considerable help in the marketing of lambs and in market prices.
Swine.
Hog production kept on an even keel with last year. It is estimated that some
3,500 hogs will have been shipped to packers in the twelve months from March, 1944,
to March, 1945. No diseases have been reported this year and all hogs inspected have
appeared in good health.
Poultry.
Poultry-keeping, for the most part in this district, is a side line, although a number
of farms, particularly in the Quesnel-Kersley District, make it a profitable one. Those
who give their flocks intelligent care and proper nutrition find them a source of steady
income. Prices for eggs and dressed poultry throughout the year have been satisfactory and egg prices held steady until about the middle of November, when they took
two successive drops.    It is expected that the price will return to normal before long.
Dairying.
The production of butter-fat within the district was kept on a par with 1943. The
Williams Lake creamery reported an estimated production for 1944 of 45,000 lb.
Butter-fat prices paid by the local creamery have been fairly steady: Special, 46 cents
per pound;  No. 1, 44 cents per pound;  and No. 2, 41 cents per pound.
At the present time, there is not much incentive for an increase in butter-fat
production. Its comparative price with beef has detracted from the industry. If
proper transportation facilities could be arranged for certain districts—notably Bridge
Lake, Forest Grove, and Canim Lake—the annual butter-fat production could be
increased many thousands of pounds.
The services of a cow-testing association could be of great service to this district.
It is hoped that after the war such an organization will be possible.
Warble-fly Control.
This office distributed 507 lb. of Rotox during the spring months for the control of
the warble-fly. Reports received in the office from ranchers show 10,515 head treated
once and 4,839 head treated a second time. Reports were not received from all those
who treated and it is safe to say that between 12,000 and 15,000 head were treated at DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 123
least once. This is considerably more than received treatment last year and it is now
being readily accepted as part.of the ranch programme by those who have been practising it. This work was carried on in the Chilcotin area for the first time, and reports
have come in to the effect that the results were favourable.
Four power-sprayer machines have been ordered by stockmen of this district for
control-work next year. This will be a tremendous help in accomplishing the ultimate
goal of a warble-free area.
Animal Parasites.
Cattle Lice.—Canim Lake and Horsefly Districts had a number of cases of cattle
infested with lice during the late winter months. However, no severe cases were
observed.    Samples of lice were sent to the Dominion Entomological Office at Kamloops.
Cattle Ticks.—In certain areas, notably along the Fraser River, tick infestation is
heavy. Many areas along the river are used for spring pastures because of their
earliness, and at this time stock has to be closely watched for symptoms of paralysis.
Infestation this year was normal.
Diseases.
Generally speaking, most live stock came through the winter in good shape and
although it was comparatively long, no real cold snaps were experienced that always
tend to weaken the resistance of stock.
Several outbreaks of disease were reported and investigated. Hsemorrhagic septicaemia was in evidence on a number of ranches, but only in serious proportions on
three places. There is an erroneous conception among stockmen that preventive
inoculation is of no value. On the three places above mentioned some 300 head of calves
suffered from the malady with fatalities reaching about 20 per cent. Anti-serum
proved very successful in all cases taken in time.
■Necrotic Stomatitis.—No serious outbreaks, but the disease is persistent on a
number of places.
Calculi.—Ten or twelve cases have been reported. All prove fatal unless surgery
is undertaken, when temporary relief can be given.
Brucellosis.—This disease made itself very severely felt in the district during the
past winter and early spring. While as yet no extensive blood-testing work has been
done, it is established that the disease is present. The number of abortions reported
from many parts of the district clearly indicate that the disease has made its way
throughout the Cariboo. Few stockmen seem to realize the seriousness of its presence
in their herds. This office is attempting to interest them in calfhood vaccination and
recognized methods of control.
Actinobacillosis.—No serious concentration of this disease has been reported as
was the case last year. However, there have been a number of cases throughout the
district.    The majority of cases respond favourably to the iodide shock treatment.
Tuberculosis.—At the request of stockmen in the Horsefly District, some 300 head
of cattle underwent the tuberculin test. Of this number, twenty-nine head were
reactors—twenty-seven beef cattle and two dairy cows. The beef cattle have already
been disposed of and the dairy cows will be destroyed shortly. Interest is being shown
for further testing in this vicinity.
Astragalus Compestris Poisoning.—A disease caused by the ingestion of Astragalus campestris, commonly known as " timber milk-vetch," is responsible for losses
throughout this district, amounting to thousands of dollars. The timber milk-vetch is
so widely distributed on the timbered ranges of the Cariboo that it is an impossibility
to keep the cattle away from it. Furthermore, stock appear to acquire a taste for it
and will eat it in preference to other feed. So far there has been no practical effective
cure for the poisoning that results from foraging on this plant.    Accompanied by Mr. S 124 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, a survey was made this past summer of certain
range-lands in the Chilco Lake area in the Chilcotin District to ascertain if this plant
was the only one responsible for the many affected animals ranging in that district.
Grasshopper-control.—The infestation of grasshoppers this past season is probably the worst this district has ever experienced. The continual wet weather during the
summer was detrimental in some respects. However, farmers and ranchers can be
thankful in view of the fact that, had it been a hot, dry season, the grasshoppers would
have, in all probability, polished off all vegetation.
It was again the " red-legged" species (Melanoplus mexicanus) who was the
aggressor. The commonly known range hopper (Comnula pellucida)' were not a menace
this year and control zones kept them down.
The greatest damage was done on the low-lying benches along the Fraser River.
In several instances, all vegetation was completely annihilated.
Both the South Riske Creek and Clinton Control Areas carried out control measures
as far as it was possible with the man-power and equipment at their disposal. However, both areas found that they had little success in dealing with the red-legged hoppers.
It is felt, however, that the work was not carried out in vain. The infestation would,
no doubt, have been more serious had control not been practised, and preparations are
being made for next year's work.
Parasitic flies made their appearance in some areas, and it is hoped that they will
become established in sufficient numbers by next year to wipe out the red-legged
grasshopper.
The South Riske Creek Control Committee's expenditures amounted to $595.55
and the Clinton Committee's expenses were $1,487.68. Both committees purchased
additional bait-spreading equipment.
Junior Club Work.
A Boys' and Girls' Beef Calf Club was organized at Lac la Hache last fall and the
calves were judged and sold at the Williams Lake sale in October, where great interest
was shown in this class. Junior Beef Calf Clubs are a new undertaking in this district.
As a result of the sale there is considerable enthusiasm shown for the expansion of
this work, and the organization is under way for further development in this line.
Quesnel Cattlemen's Association.
Farmers of the North Cariboo District who are interested in the beef cattle
industry have formed and incorporated an association in compliance with the " Societies
Act," to be known as the Quesnel Cattlemen's Association. The president is Alan
Miles, of Kersley. While the North Cariboo is not a beef cattle producing district,
there has been a long-felt need for an organization in the district that was capable of
sponsoring a sale for the advantageous disposal of stock, whether it be beef or dairy.
Then, too, there are a number of farms in the district that do not participate in the
dairy industry and are favourably disposed to merchandising their produce through
beef cattle. For those in this category, the association will be an inducement for
better cattle and the sale will facilitate the disposal of their produce.
The first annual sale conducted by the Quesnel Cattlemen's Association was held
on September 22nd, and was a definite success. Some 270 head were disposed of with
the gross receipts amounting to $15,568.03. Top steers brought $10.50; heifers, $9;
cows, $7; and calves, $10. A grant from the Minister of Agriculture was of considerable assistance in the organization of the sale.
General.
The maintenance of production is favourably comparable to 1943, despite the fact
that the production of beef will be slightly lower.    This, however, was not the fault DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944.
S 125
of the producer, but rather the state of market conditions,
tion are on a par with last year.
Labour.
All other lines of produc-
While labour was scarce this year, it did not become as acute as was the case last
year. Due to the continuing wet weather, farmers did not feel in a position to hire
large haying crews. Consequently, they got by working when the weather would
permit and the haying season was strung out over a long period. When men were
needed, they were brought in through the Dominion-Provincial Emergency Farm
Labour Service. All applications for labour that could not be secured locally were
fulfilled through this service.
KAMLOOPS AND NICOLA.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
Heavier shipments of cattle had been anticipated for the Nicola and Kamloops
Districts, but they did not materialize by the middle of November. At November 1st,
Nicola had shipped 5,934 head as against 5,601 in 1943; at November 30th, Kamloops
shipped 8,633 head as compared to 8,872 in 1943.
Prices remained steady on steers over the whole of the year with grain-fed steers
in January selling at $11.25, heifers at $10.60, and cows at $7. The prices of the
season with a volume are shown as follows:—
Month.
July	
August -	
September..
October	
November—
$11.60
11.50
10.25-S10.75
10.00- 10.50
10.00- 10.25
Heifers.
$10.50
10.00
9.25-$10.00
9.00-    9.75
8.50-    9.25
$8.50-$9.50
8.50- 9.00
7.00- 8.00
6.50- 8.00
6.00- 8.00
The feeder steer market was not very active because of the shortage of feed and
brought from $8.50 to $10.
Ranges were particularly dry and short of feed up until the beginning of September, but did brighten up during the autumn months, thus saving the day for many
cattlemen who were short of winter feed. The heavy infestation of grasshoppers cut
the carrying capacity of the ranges considerably, which were already hard hit by lack
of moisture and poor growing conditions during the early spring. Cattle as a result
were not shipped as early nor were they carrying as much flesh.
There was a cut in the number of cattle grain fed for early spring turn off
compared to 1943 because of the shortage of labour and the prospects of prices remaining high throughout the year. Approximately 64 cars of feed-grain were brought in
under the Federal Freight Assistance Policy during the year. More grain-feeding is
done with weaned calves to maintain heavier fleshing over the winter. It is found that
winter losses are cut down considerably as a result.
One hundred and thirty-nine registered bulls were sold at the Provincial Bull Sale
and Fat Stock Show held in March. These sires had a wide distribution over the Province, making the event a truly Provincial one.    Twenty-five Hereford females, nineteen S 126
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of which were from the Mitchell herd at Lloydminster, Sask., brought surprisingly good
prices.
Average.
High.
Prize.
Contributor.
Purchaser.
Hereford bulls (105)	
Hereford females (25)	
Shorthorn bulls (29)	
Aberdeen Angus bulls (5).
Car-lots of fifteen	
Groups of five.	
Singles	
Boys' and Girls'.
$467.47
330.00
273.00
251.00
13.87
13.48
16.33
19.60
$1,750.00
425.00
520.00
370.00
16.10
14.25
90.00
35.00
Champ.
Champ.
Champ.
Champ.
Champ.
Grand
Champ.
Champ.
J. W. Edgar..
A. Mitchell	
R. Taylor, Princeton..
R. Ballhorn	
Douglas Lake j.....
Douglas Lake. 	
Bulman Bros—
James Turner..
Douglas Lake Cattle.
G. Davidson.
F. P. Stewart.
Woodward's, Ltd.
Woodward's, Ltd.
David Spencer.
Safeway Stores.
Of the 139 bulls offered, eighty-three Herefords and five Aberdeen Angus came
from Alberta and Saskatchewan.
The Douglas Lake Cattle Company purchased thirty-nine high-grade Hereford
bulls at the Calgary Bull Sale. The breeders from the Kamloops area contributing to
the Cariboo Bull Sale in October are as follows: Hysop & Sons, Chase, B.C., nine
Hereford bulls and four females; Robbin McGregor, Pinantan, four Hereford bulls;
Mrs. P. Marston, Ashcroft, six Hereford bulls; C. Turner, Westwold, twelve Hereford
bulls; D. C. Wilson & Sons, Vinsulla, eight Hereford bulls; and A. and W. Watt,
Barriere, three Shorthorn bulls.
In regards to changes in the pure-bred industry, C. Green, of Westwold, dispersed
his entire Shorthorn herd. C. Turner,, formerly of Westwold, moved to a new location
at Salmon Arm with his Hereford herd.
The Sixth Annual Provincial Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale featuring
the Boys' and Girls' Beef Club exhibits was another very successful event. A total of
seventy-five calves were shown and sold by six beef calf clubs and seven non-club members. The four clubs from the vicinity of Kamloops received their club placings. A beef
judging competition was held for all club members, as well as two members representing the Lac la Hache club, Cariboo, and two from the South Country club, Cranbrook.
Those placing first and second in this competition were W. A. Palmer and Bernard
Donchi, both of the Lower North Thompson Beef Calf Club. A showmanship competition was also held in conjunction with the showing of calves in the ring. Some of
the results of the sale of the calves are given as follows:—
Club.
Number of
Members and
Calves.
Average
Price.
.High.
Armstrong " A "..
Armstrong " B "„
Kamloops South.—
Barriere	
Westwold.	
Lower North Thompson..
11
12
7
16
$14.96
13.94
13.83
13.00
19.75
13.69
$26.00
15.50
15.50
16.00
65.00
16.75
Average, Boys' and Girls'  (general) :   1944, $14.46;   1943, $14.44.
The Westwold Lamb Club was again organized but finished up with only three
members completing the project. The club leaders to the clubs of the district are:
Joe Bulman, Westwold; T. Wilson, Lower North Thompson; Warner Philip, Kamloops
South; W. Watt, Barriere. All the leaders are doing an excellent job of coaching and
supervising their clubs generally. This year the beef team representing British
Columbia at the National Contests, Toronto, were Bernard Donchi and Bud Gessner,
of the Lower North Thompson Beef Calf Club, coached by T. Wilson.    Bud Gessner led DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1944. S 127
the competition, which included four teams from the Western Provinces. Bernard
Donchi was third highest. These boys made a very creditable showing and for the first
time brought the honours in beef to this Province. The poultry team of two girls,
Miss Betty Slater and Miss Thelma Tuey, also won top honours in their competition,
with Miss Slater leading, thus establishing for this Province a record performance at
the National Contests. The dairy team placed fourth against stiff competition and
the swine team sixth. At this point it should be mentioned that considerable impetus
has been given club work in the Interior through the efforts of Col. Victor Spencer by
again supplying calves at cost from his Diamond "S" Ranches for the next year.
This ranch has supplied to the Kamloops clubs fifteen good quality steer calves of
Hereford breeding. In all, thirty-five calves have been placed with juniors for 1945
club work.
Another event in Kamloops worthy of note is the Fourth Central British Columbia
Feeder Sale held on October 3rd. The total turn-over from this sale was $39,762.59
for 804 head of cattle. After four sales held in Kamloops which have all brought
remunerative prices for the poor-to-medium quality of cattle offered, it is regrettable
to note the type of cattle raised in Central British Columbia is not improving as
it should be by the encouragement given. Very few bulls have been purchased by that
territory—which in itself is an indication that very little improvement is taking place.
A bull-control area is in the process of organization in the area made up of
the Upper Heffley Creek, Cahilty, and MacGillivary Districts and should be in operation
for the 1945 bull season. The area neighbouring, known as Heffley, Vinsulla, and
Sullivan Valley, have adopted a voluntary bull-control area under the Sullivan Valley
Stock Association. It is functioning quite successfully and all seem to abide by
the decisions of the bull-culling committee, composed of two stockmen of the area and
the District Agriculturist.
Approximately some 15,000 head of cattle were treated for warbles during the late
winter and early spring. A warble-control area was organized by the cattlemen of
the Nicola Valley, embracing the territory which is known as the Nicola Grasshopper-
control Area. Two power-sprayers were used and 1,827 cattle were treated. While
this number covers a small percentage of the cattle within that area it is a beginning
in the right direction. Damage to hides is only a small part of the loss accruing from
warble infestation. The biggest loss, as observed on the range, is the beef or fleshing
not put on when stock are not feeding at ease during the early summer. This represents
a tremendous loss in pounds of beef or milk. Considerable research on this pest is
being carried on in the Entomological Laboratory here.
Tick paralysis in yearlings caused a heavy loss in several Nicola herds.
The casualty was about 100 head with as many as 300 head stricken with paralysis
found in one day. The type appeared to be of a more virulent form in many of
the cases, with cattle living but a very short period after the paralysis occurred.
Sheep and Wool Industry.
The Kamloops and Nicola Districts shipped 211,417 lb. of wool (a decrease of
8,106 lb. from 1943) at a value of $56,848.70 and an average price of 26% cents per
pound. Lambs sold for $10.50 to $11 off cars in Vancouver. Bands were taken to
summer ranges above timber-line about two weeks earlier than in 1943. It is of
significance to report that a further forty-two head of ewes and lambs were lost from
lupin poisoning at Hulcar, west of Enderby. This is the same spot where sixty-eight
sheep were lost from the same cause in 1943. The sheep in both cases were being
trailed to the mountains through a bad piece of lupin country.
No range-breeding ewes were brought in this year from the Prairies. There has
been no increase in the sheep population in this district on account of the difficulties in S 128 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
securing labour and because of the damages done by predatory animals everywhere,
discouraging smaller sheepmen from staying in the business.
The Provincial Ram Sale was held in Kamloops on September 30th, but did not
bring the high-breed averages it did in 1943.
Number and Breed. High. Average.
Seven Southdowns  $30.00 $28.75
Thirty-eight Hampshires   100.00 41.18
Thirty-four Suffolks  100.00 51.54
Nine Rambouillets     40.00 27.78
The grade ewes entered did not command the attention of many buyers and sold
for average from $9 to $10 per head.
Swine Production.
The swine population has made no increase since 1943. Some progress is still
being made in breeding. A few boars and some gilts of good breeding are moving from
time to time. The Tranquille farm is maintaining a fine herd of Yorkshires where
many look to for breeding stock.
Dairy Industry.
Prices for butter-fat in the dairying business remain constant with the price of
34 cents for the five and one-half summer months and 35 cents for the rest of the year.
With beef prices remaining strong and labour scarce, many dairymen have turned
their herds slowly into beef production. Producers claim that butter-fat prices have
not been remunerative enough for the extra trouble involved in milking cows. Pastures
in the North Thompson basin, where much of the dairying of the district is carried on,
were exceptionally good, especially where white clover constituted the stand.
Horses.
There is practically no activity on the horse market and good useful horses are
hard to move even at prices below cost of production.    The Kamloops Horse-breeding
Station again operated with the two thoroughbred stallions enrolled in 1943;   " Jerry
Mac," owned by J. Ferguson, Ashcroft, bred fifteen mares during the season of 1944,
and " Help Yourself," by J. H. Owens, Ashcroft, bred forty-two mares during the season
of 1944.
Poultry.
Poultry-keeping does not seem to be on the increase. Those engaged in the poultry
business as a major enterprise have done well. Prices during the peak season of
pro