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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1945

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 PROVINCE OF  BRITISH  COLOMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCHES
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
FOR THE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 81st, 1944
HON. B. T. KENNEY, MINISTER OF LANDS
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1945.  VICTORIA, B.C., January 18th, 1945.
To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Surveys
Branches of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1944.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands. Victoria, B.C., January 18th, 1945.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Surveys
Branches of the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1944.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands  7
Revenue  7
Sale of Town Lots  9
Pre-emption Records  9
Pre-emption and Homestead Exchanges  10
Land-sales  10
Land Inspections  11
Summary  12
Letters inward and outward  13
Coal Licences, Leases, etc  13
Crown Grants issued  13
Total Acreage deeded  13
Home-site Leases  14  DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., January 17th, 1945.
H. Cathcart, Esq., I.S.O.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land
administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended
December 31st, 1944.
Again, comparison with former tabulations shows a slight decrease in several
items covered by our administration.
The outstanding feature in this connection is the annual decrease in pre-emption
entries since the outbreak of war, which can no doubt be accounted for by service
enlistments and general diversion of man-power to war industry.
The same causes may reasonably be applied to the slight decreases from other
sources of revenue, and any marked upward trend could hardly be expected pending
re-establishment following demobilization of armed forces and the release of those
frozen in various branches of war production.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
REVENUE STATEMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1944.
Land Revenue—Sundry.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Land Act "—
$845.00
129,404.69
530.00
14,130.00
2,600.00
5,356.82
1,316.50
57.67
$845.00
	
129,404.69
530.00
Crown-grant fees—
14,130.00
2,600.00
$600.64
5,957.46
1,316.50
322.00
2,771.96
2,689.90
258.66
379.67
2,771.96
446.00
5,416.94
36.01
6,040.17
56.14
74.34
800.69
60.00
3,400.00
3,304.60
35.00
929.00
50.00
3,135.90
5,675.60
36.01
Former Dominion lands—                                          ,
6,040.17
56.14
74.34
800.69
60.00
Collections under " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
3,400.00
3,304.60
35.00
929.00
50.00 Z 8
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
Land Revenue, Sundry—Continued.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Petroleum and Natural-gas Act, 1944 "—
250.00
1,000.00
250.00
1,000.00
Collections under " Coal Act, 1944 "—
$176,139.57
$6,643.16     1     $182,782.73
Land-sales.
Collections under " Land Act "—Principal and interest-
Country lands : X - —
Pre-empted lands ._ - 	
Townsites   — —	
Former Dominion Railway Belt lands-
Special regulations .. .: __. 	
Surface rights of mineral claims	
Collections under " Coal and Petroleum Act "__
Totals     - 	
$89,346.40
767.44
6,124.35
$46,237.19
$123,033.88
1,425.48
28,302.74
14,769.16
1,640.95
$169,172.21
Summary of Cash received.
$162,379.28
1,425.48
29,070.18
14,769.16
6,124.35
1,640.95
$215,409.40
Survey Fees, Sales of Maps, etc.
$1,557.92
4,718.09
3,690.56
1,017.60
23.70
$7,406.05
$8,963.97
4,718.09
3,690.56
1,017.60
23.70
Totals 	
$11,007.87
$7,406.05
$18,413.92
Summary of Revenue Collections.
$176,139.57
46,237.19
11,007.87 .
$6,643.16
169,172.21
7,406.05
$182,782.73
215.409.40
18,413.92
Totals         	
$233,384.63
$183,221.42
$416,606.05
$233,384.63
61,226.86
1,007.70
38,485.70
4,578.09
32,076.01
595.59
811.12
260.00
214.41
340.13
13.72
81.98
35,057.24
2,953.21
617.87
191.93
$183,221.42
$416,606.05
Collections under " Soldiers' Land Act "—
South Okanagan Land Project—
Improvements - _ -	
Miscellaneous _ , i _ \ _	
Sundry rentals (Votes 112, 121)   _	
139,041.07
Houses, South Vancouver—
Taxes and insurance.._ __  _    „
650.24
Collections under " Better Housing Act "—
Principal _ _.._	
38,010.45
Refunds—
Votes._   _	
Totals  _ _ _	
$411,896.19
$183,221.42
$595,117.61
J REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
Z 9
SALE OF TOWN LOTS, 1944.
Disposal of lots placed on the market after being offered at public auction:—
Atlin, 9 lots  $310.00
Fort George, 51 lots  510.00
Golden South, 7 lots  55.00
Kimberley, 3 lots  205.00
McBride, 4 lots  175.00
Prince George, 29 lots  4,070.00
Quesnel, 19 lots  2,800.00
Quesnel West, 19 lots  1,425.00
Terrace, 62 lots  5,405.00
Vanderhoof, 6 lots  200.00
Vancouver, 13 lots  9,580.00
Westview, 19 lots  2,815.00
Zeballos, 5 lots  220.00
Oliver, 88 lots  19,640.00
Osoyoos, 95 lots  16,880.00
Various townsites, 18 lots  1,480.00
$65,770.00
In the University Hill (Endowment Lands) subdivision of Lot 140, Group 1, New
Westminster District, 12 lots were sold at a sales price of $21,978.75.
Southern Okanagan Land Project, nil.     (All Crown acreage in this area has been
taken off the market and is being held for rehabilitation purposes.)
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1944.
Agency.
Pre-emption   !  Pre-emption
Records              Records
allowed.             cancelled.
Certificates
of Purchase
issued.
Certificates
of Improvements issued.
15
3
4
5
1
7
7
6
3
2
23
2
1
4
1
19
2
8
2
5
1
4
4
6
31
9
10
4
1
3
3
6
19
18
9
16
21
37
15
30
41
49
32
12
34
11
33
16
12
56
12
237
Atlin                                   .,             .                 -
10
10
Golden                 _    	
3
8
3
1
3
2
74
11
13
Revelstoke   —  	
Smithers— _. - — -.-	
2
1
Vancouver  - —	
Vernon  -  —- -	
5
1
Totals      	
83
113
716
147
The Certificates of Purchase as above cover the period from January 1st, 1944, to
March 31st, 1944, only. Since April 1st, 1944, all Certificates of Purchase are issued
from Victoria, and cover only new sales. Certificates of Purchase issued from Victoria
for the period from April 1st, 1944, to December 31st, 1944, total 724. Z 10 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
PRE-EMPTION AND HOMESTEAD EXCHANGES.
Year. UNDER 1934 AMENDMENT TO " LAND ACT." No.
1935    41
1936    21
1937 :__ 37
1938    10
1939  3
1940  6
1941      7
1942    4
1943  2
1944	
Total ._  131
LAND   SALES,   1944. Acres.
Surveyed (first class)       6,073.32
Surveyed (second class)     5,891.75
Surveyed (third class)     7,049.99
19,015.06
Unsurveyed       2,196.00
Total    21,211.06 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
Z 11
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J REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944. Z 13
STATEMENT OF LETTERS  INWARD AND OUTWARD,  1944.
Letters inward  20,646
Letters outward  17,218
MINING LICENCES, PERMITS, LEASES, ETC., 1944.
Licences under the "Coal and Petroleum Act"—     no.      Area (Acres).
Original licences issued      1 640.00
Renewal licences issued  32        19,354.90
33 19,994.90
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
New leases issued _.__    5 2,886.00
Renewal leases issued     1 80.00
6 2,966.00
Permits   under  the   " Petroleum  and   Natural-Gas
Act, 1944 "—
Original permits issued      1 9,018.00
Sundry leases under the " Land Act "—
Number of leases issued  180        17,141.11
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1944.
Pre-emptions        149
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1939 "   15
Dominion homesteads   14
Purchases (other than town lots)   629
Town lots   577
Mineral claims _..__  55
Reverted mineral claims   49
Supplementary timber grants   7
" Dyking Assessments Act "   24
" Public Schools Act "   4
Miscellaneous   5
Total  1,528
Applications for Crown grants  1,716
Certified copies   3
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims
given -_— 133
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions  24,128.86
Dominion homesteads      1,599.70
Mineral claims (other than reverted)       2,584.09
Reverted mineral claims     1,420.68
Purchases of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)  34,106.78
Supplementary timber grants      1,506.42
Total  65,346.53 Z 14
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
HOME-SITE LEASES  (NOT EXCEEDING 20 ACRES).
Number of
Leases.
Rental Collections received
during 1944.
Total Rentals
received.
Total r
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
Leases
I
received from April 1st, 1929, to December 31st, 1943, inclusive
enta's
issued, January 1st to December 31st
issued, January 1st to December 31st.
issued, January 1st to December 31st.
issued. January 1st to December 31st.
issued, January 1st to December 31st.
issued, January 1st to December 31st,
issued, January 1st to December 31st,
issued, January 1st to December 31st.
issued, January 1st to December 31st,
issued, January 1st to December 31st,
issued, January 1st to December 31st,
issued, January 1st to December 31st,
issued, January 1st to December 31st.
issued, January 1st to December 31st.
issued, January 1st to December 31st
issued, January 1st to December 31st
issued, January 1st to December 31st,
issued, January 1st to December 31st,
issued, January 1st to December 31st.
issued, January 1st to December 31st.
issued, January 1st to December 31st,
issued, January 1st to December 31st,
1923.
1924.
1925
1926 .
1927-
1928.
1929
1930
1931
1932.
1933
1934
1935 .
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940-
1941 .
1942 .
1943-
1944.
Leases cancelled during 1944   _     7
Leases paid i'.p and Crown-granted, 1944  -   11
Leases existing at December 31st, 1944	
Lease rentals paid in advance during 1944 .
Total revenue received, April 1st, 1929, to December 31st, 1944
15
9
19
14
11
9
23
25
29
28
22
16
10
260
18
242
$10.00
47.50
39.40
17.25
20.34
9.10
115.00
48.00
108.50
109.50
55.13
49.60
123.75
162.34
177.50
210.11
163.19
75.00
78.50
$20,308.17
1,619.71
542.40
$22,470.28 PART II.
SURVEYS BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Surveyor-General, Surveys Branch  17
Report of Surveys Division  20
Table A—Summary of Office-work  20
Table B—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps  22
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps  23
Report of Aerial Photograph Librarian  26
Report of Geographic Division     26
Reports of Surveyors—
Triangulation and Topography, Columbia River and Lower Arrow Lake (A. J.
Campbell)  29
Triangulation and Topography, Arrow Lakes and Columbia River, Edgewood
to Nakusp (N. C. Stewart)  31
Triangulation Control Survey, following the Bear and Driftwood Rivers and
Takla Lake (H. Pattinson)  34  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1945.
H. Cathcart, Esq., I.S.O.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the
Surveys Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1944.
The Surveys Branch had, before the war, a permanent staff of about fifty, but
war enlistments have reduced the present number to forty-two, including some beginners. It is organized into three divisions—Surveys, Geographic, and Topographic—
each with distinct though related functions.
The Surveys Division deals with field-notes of all surveys of Crown lands, whether
made by surveyors employed by the Government or surveyors employed by private applicants for lands; checks these field-notes and prepares plans therefrom; it keeps an
up-to-date record of the standing of surveys and lands on some 276 large-scale reference
maps drawn on tracing-linen, and covering all settled areas in the Province; the
Division has a modern blue and ozalid printing department which serves all branches
of the Government and supplies prints of reference and other maps to the public as
required.
The Geographic Division is responsible for keeping the published maps of the
Province truly representative of the latest information available. That information
is collected from all sources, but has as its foundation the triangulation surveys and
the work of the Topographic Division; aside from our Surveys and Topographic
Divisions the main sources of information are the Forest and Water Rights Branches,
the Public Works and Mines Departments, and also the Geodetic, Geological, Topographical, and Hydrographic Services of the Dominion Government, and prospectors
and trappers. The Division draws the maps, secures tenders from all lithographers
in the Province capable of handling the sheet size, and then supervises publication;
the Division is also equipped with photostatic camera, etc., for enlargements and reductions, and this serves all Departments, as well as National Defence and, to some extent,
the public.
The Topographic Division is the outdoor end of the Surveys Branch; it includes
a staff of British Columbia Land Surveyors specially skilled in topographic mapping;
these men spend their summers on field-work and their winters plotting contour maps
based on that work; their results are permanent in character, as topography changes
but little throughout the centuries, and their control-points on the ground are marked
for future generations by brass bolts set in rock and cement. It is important to keep
in mind the basic character of this work and the sure foundation it supplies for any
future appraisal of land, timber, water-power, or minerals, or for the location of transportation routes.
Due to its general mountainous character only a small proportion of the area of
the Province requires subdivision into farm-sites, but immense areas of mountain terrain are rich in resources of timber, mineral, and water-power, and the lowlands depend
largely for their prosperity on the development of the resources of this upland; for
the appraisal of these resources contour maps furnish by far the best and cheapest
foundation, for in a country of such high relief contour-lines are as important as
horizontal distances. Every effort has been made to keep our mapping costs low, this
being essential with our large area and small population;  we have developed a system
17 Z 18    . REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
of using vertical aerial photographs, taken at an altitude of about 15,000 feet, controlled by oriented ground photographs taken from commanding positions and by
a minimum of triangulation to fix ground camera positions; for these ground photographs a surveying camera of known focal length is used, and from the ground photographs the positions, horizontal and vertical, of any required number of points on the
variable scale aerial photographs can be obtained. The cost is less than that of photo-
topography, as comparatively few ground camera stations are required, the aerial
photographs supplying most of the topographic information. The plotting scale is
usually % mile to the inch with contours at 100-foot vertical intervals, but satisfactory
larger scale maps with a 50-foot contour interval could be produced from this information. The cost, including aerial photography and everything up to the preparation
of the map for lithography, is less than $25 per square mile, and this is apparently as
low as any costs obtained for comparable maps in Canada; our rough topography is
offset by the extensive views obtainable and this permits us to use the surveying
camera for control rather than the slower ground methods. Areas over which maps
are required by the Defence authorities, or by the Mines, Forest, or Public Works
officials, are given priority, but a sine qua non is aerial photography.
It is the settled belief of the Surveys Branch that good maps are a most useful
guard against costly errors in development. In British Columbia a large proportion
of the cost of surveys is entailed in getting men to and from the ground and from
place to place in the map area. With air photographs and with the triangulation and
photo-topographic methods of control now in use here, it costs but little more to collect
the information for plotting on a scale of V_s mile to the inch with 100-foot contours
with the object of publishing on the 1-mile scale than it does to get the information
for the 4-miles-to-l-inch map with 500-foot contours. A large proportion of the extra
cost of producing the larger scale map is in office-work and printing. Topography is
practically permanent, so our standard policy is to collect information for the large-
scale maps but to publish on any smaller scale called for by present needs; large-scale
maps can be produced as needed in future years without another costly ground survey
and at short notice; moreover, even small-scale maps produced from complete information are better than are such maps produced from less dense control.
The completion of the Alaska Highway on a route largely east of the Rocky
Mountains has made Edmonton the supply point for the Liard River country and
Yukon. To reach these areas and Alaska, travellers from most of British Columbia,
as well as from Washington, Oregon, and California, will have to cross the Rocky
Mountains twice and add 500 miles to the one-way distance; the projected road from
Prince George through the Pine Pass to the Peace River farming area has its value
but does not change this condition; our topographic surveys have shown that, if occasion calls for it, both mountain crossings can be avoided, the route can be shortened
by 500 miles and maximum altitude lowered over 1,000 feet by less than 400 miles of
new construction along alluvial valleys. The United States Army later surveyed for
a railway by this Finlay River-Kechika River route and found that their grades could
be kept under 1% Per cent.
In 1944 our triangulation net extending from the northern boundary via Dease
Lake, Telegraph Creek, Skeena, Sustut, and Driftwood Rivers was brought within
one season of a connection with the geodetic survey net near Endako; this survey
gives information as to the nature and height of the country a highway from Hazelton
or Vanderhoof to Yukon would have to traverse and will be useful in any sizing up
of the relative merits of different routes. A route in this general location is favoured
by Alaska Panhandle interests.
At the request of the Dominion Government, topographical survey parties in charge
of A. J. Campbell and N. C. Stewart carried a triangulation net along the Columbia REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. Z 19
River and Arrow Lakes from the International Boundary to stations near Nakusp
connected with the geodetic net in the former Railway Belt. This had to do with the
examination of the Columbia Basin being jointly carried out by the United States and
Canada, but as part of it was on our programme for the next few years it was arranged
that the Dominion Government should bear half the cost.
Five additional latitude determinations were made by officers of the Dominion
Geodetic Survey along the 60th parallel, this being the boundary between British
Columbia and Yukon. Each position was fixed by observation on forty or more pairs
of stars, and it is estimated that the average error in astronomic latitude will be under
10 feet. This work is a joint responsibility of Dominion and Province and each bears
half the cost. The way is now cleared for running the boundary-line for the 200 miles
between Teslin Lake and Smith River, all accessible from the Alaska Highway, and it
is expected that this work will proceed in 1945 with British Columbia land surveyors
doing part of it.
All topographical survey-work is still suffering from the absence of our younger
partly trained assistants in the armed forces, and by the difficulty in getting helpers of
the best age-group. The work involves much hard mountain-climbing and projects
are being selected where the men available can be used with the best results.
A number of small surveys, not calling for specific mention, were carried out by
local surveyors, temporarily employed by the Government, where called for throughout
the Province.
Reports compiled by F. 0. Morris and G. G. Aitken for the Surveys and Geographic
Divisions respectively, giving details of the work carried on under their supervision
and of the maps published, as well as reports from the surveyors employed on field-
work, are attached hereto. Owing to enlistments and the lesser skill of those temporarily employed to fill the gaps, some of our basic reference maps lag, but are
catching up. A new wall map of the Province has been delayed by amendments due
to additional information becoming available, but should be ready for distribution in
April, 1945. The Surveys Branch runs very smoothly and I can report the most wholehearted co-operation from Messrs. Morris and Aitken, the topographic surveyors, and
all members of the staff.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. Z 20
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEYS DIVISION.
By F. O. Morris, Assistant Surveyor-General.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying,
checking survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many minor activities.
A blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained, rendering service to the various
governmental Departments.
Aerial Photograph Library.—A considerable portion of the Province has been
photographed from the air and an effort is made in this office to have on record one
copy of each of these aerial photographs. These are available for inspection and at
present total 108,614 views, consisting of 77,206 taken by Department of National
Defence, 23,603 by B.C. Forest Service, and 7,805 by Western Canadian Airways.
Index maps showing the position of these aerial photographs are also on record and
available for inspection.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and
mineral reference maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are
maintained by the Surveys Division. There are now 196 reference maps and 80 mineral
reference maps, making a total of 276 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—
(1) by adding new survey information as it becomes available, and (2) by renewing
same when worn out with constant use and handling in the blue-print machines—forms
a considerable portion of the work of the Division. During the year one new reference
map was made and six were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached hereto, give a list
of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1944, Surveys Division.
Number of field-books received	
lots surveyed	
lots plotted 	
lots gazetted 	
lots cancelled 	
mineral-claim field-books prepared	
reference maps compiled	
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared __
applications for lease cleared 	
coal licences cleared 	
water licences cleared	
timber-sales cleared 	
free-use permits cleared	
hand-loggers' licences cleared 	
Crown-grant applications cleared 	
reverted-land clearances	
cancellations made   	
inquiries cleared  ,	
placer-mining leases plotted on maps _.
196
204
185
164
17
99
7
522
106
273
48
67
1,950
256
7
1,555
925
496
703
81 APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Z 21
Number of letters received  ,_  5,194.
letters sent out   3,439
Crown-grant and lease tracings made  775
miscellaneous tracings made   73
Government Agents' tracings made   78
blue-prints made _'_ ,_        25,527
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints from other departments and public  $4,718.09
Value of blue-prints for Lands Department  $3,423.15
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault        26,769 Z 22, REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
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REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
REPORT OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH LIBRARY.
By W. J. H. Holmes.
Number of aerial views on file, December 28th, 1944:—
Royal Canadian Air Force (A.)  75,586
Royal Canadian Air Force (B.A.)  1,620
Western Canada Airways (W.C.A.)  6,238
Mackenzie Air Service (M.A.S.)  1,473
Canadian Airways, Ltd. (Alaska Highway obliques)  94
British Columbia Forest Branch (B.C.)  23,603
Total  108,614
Aerial views received and taken on file during 1944: Royal Canadian Air Force,
nil; British Columbia Forest Branch (B.C.), 2,190; and, in addition, 443 (A.) and
(B.C.) duplicate prints were received.
During 1944, 6,093 photos were issued on loan and 9,091 were returned.
There are at present (December 28th, 1944) 5,625 photos (aerial) out on loan.
Views were issued as required by the various branches of departments of the
British Columbia Government and to the Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal Canadian
Naval Service, and, to a limited extent, to surveyors and others of the general public.
Topographic Survey Ground Views.—There are on file the ground views taken by
the Topographic Survey Branch from 1914 to 1944, and estimated to number something
over 36,000, also the corresponding photographic plates.
Aerial photo index maps number 95 and Topographic ground photo index maps 73.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By G. G. Aitken, Chief Geographer.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Mi.
5,500
4,000
1,000
May, 1944
Sept., 1944
July, 1944
3A
PWD
3Q
3 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
9,600
In Course of Printing.
Wall Map of British Columbia in four sheets .
New Peace River Pre-emptors' Map 	
4,000
5,000
April, 1945
April, 1945
1A
3e
1/1,000,000-15.78
m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in. ■
366,255
17,000
In Course of Preparation.
Nelson Degree Sheet 	
Duncan Degree Sheet  	
Fernie Degree Sheet  	
New Northern British Columbia
4b
4f
4d
IH
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to X in.
2 m. to 1 in.
1/1,000,000-15.78
m. to 1 in.
3,050
3,100
3,050
200.600 APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. Z 27
Geographic Board of Canada, Naming and Recording.
Number of map sheets checked  22
Number of names checked  1,928
Number of new names recorded  551
Geographical Work for Other Departments,
National Defence and Public.
Thirty-seven items, receipts and value of work      $626.31
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps issued to Departments and public 3        15,598
Maps received into stock        12,453
Total value of printed maps issued  $4,815.33
Revenue from printed maps  $3,690.56
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made  3,620
Revenue from Departments and public  $1,865.75
Value of photostats for Lands Department, etc      $834.50
Letters.
Letters received and attended to  1,857
Standard Base Map.
Peace River Pre-emptors' Sheet, compiled complete  1
Nelson Degree Sheet, revision complete  4
Duncan River Degree Sheet, lots and topography complete.. 4
Standard Base Map, skeleton sheets compiled  5
School districts plotted from description  11
Triangulation.
Main, by least square adjustment, triangles adjusted  461
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations  285
Triangulation index maps  10
Index-cards, records  715
Control nets supplied  44
Notes.
Fourteen control nets supplied in answer to requests from Canadian armed forces.
Fifty triangulation stations determined for Canadian Hydrographic Service.
At the close of the year 1944 there were 9,986 triangulation index-record cards
011 file" RESUME.
C. R. W. Leak, D.L.S., returned veteran, was appointed as draughtsman, March
18th, 1944.
S. Wright, B.C.L.S., was appointed as temporary draughtsman, April 3rd, 1944.
D. B. Young was appointed as apprentice draughtsman (war replacement), July
1st, 1944.
R. H. Simmons, draughtsman, was retired on superannuation, July 31st, 1944.
His service with the Department of Lands commenced June 7th, 1910.
Alan C. Horwood, apprentice draughtsman (war replacement), enlisted November
1st, 1944.
R. S. Butt, returned veteran, was appointed as apprentice draughtsman (war
replacement), November 20th, 1944. Z 23
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
List of Lithographed Maps.
Year of
Issue.
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy
*1A
lA
lex
lE
1G
IH
1JCA
1JO
1JD
1JE
1JCF
lJGL
1JGC
IK
1L
2A
2B
20
2D
2e
2f
3a
3b
3c
3d
*3e
3f
3g
3h
3j
3k
3M
3p
3Q
4a
t4B
4c
T4d
4E
t4F
4g
4H
4j
4k
4l
4m
4n
4p
4q
5A
5b
5C
5d
I 1944
1933
1937
1930
1916
1943
1923
1937
1937
1937
1943
1937
1937
1925
1940
1938
1914
1929
1923
1924
1927
1944
1942
1940
1937
1945
1934
1935
1931
1942
1938
1929
1924
1936
1927
1945
1936
194S
1925
1945
1943
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1931
1939
1916
1929
1929
1929
1941
MRMl 1
MKM2
MKM3
MBM4
MRM5
MKM6
MEM7
MEM8
PWD |
MD  |
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
1944
1939
1930
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia,
railways etc	
In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
Wall Map of British Columbia. In four sheets. Roads, trails,
railways, etc. Showing Electoral Districts, Redistribution
1932, with 1934 Amendment     	
British Columbia. In one sheet. Showing Land Recording
Districts.
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen..
Cariboo and adjacent Districts-
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data	
British  Columbia.    In  one  sheet.    Showing  rivers,   railways,
main reads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
and precipitation..
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
and Land Recording Districts..
and Mining Divisions-
and Assessment and Collection Districts—
and Electoral Districts, Redistribution 1938
and Land Registration Districts 	
and Counties
South Western  Districts   of  B.C.,   Commercial  and   Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
Central British Columbia (contoured 1,000-ft. interval)  —
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island  —
New Westminster and Yale Districts  _  	
Northerly Vancouver Island . 	
Powell Lake-
Bella Coola (preliminary)  	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary).
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George-  :  _ _
Nechako-
Stuart Lake (contoured).
Bulkley-
Peace River (contoured)	
Chilcotin-
Quesnel (contoured).
Tete Jaune	
North Thompson	
Lillooet 	
Prince Rupert-
Grenville Channel (preliminary).
Peace River Block 	
Degree Series—
Rossland (contoured)  	
Nelson (contoured) 	
Cranbrook  	
Fernie	
Upper Elk River. 	
Duncan   . 	
Windermere 	
Arrowhead .
Vernon (contoured)   	
Kettle Valley (contoured) 	
East Lillooet, Economic Geography (contoured)-
Nicola Lake (contoured) —  	
Penticton (contoured)-
Lower Fraser Valley (preliminary) —   -
Hope-Princeton (contoured) —   _	
Topographical Series—
Omineca and Finlay River Basins, Sketch-map of—  	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special)-
„ ,, „ North sheet (special)
Stikine River (contoured) _
Revelstoke-Golden (Big Bend-Columbia River)  (contoured).
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
Slocan and Ainsworth-   	
Trout Lake    	
Lardeau River     	
Nelson-Ymir-
Rossland-Ymir	
Grand Forks-Greenwood-
Greenwood and Osoyoos..
Barkerville and Lightning Creek—
Miscellaneous—■
Highway and Travel Map of B.C..
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts -
Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia	
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
1: 1,000.000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
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2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
y2 m. to 1 in.
Va m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
2.00
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
oj i_
-i "S
:   _i
as
c. P
E-2
.50
.50
.25
.25
".25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.35
Free
1.50
$14.00
20.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.50
On ap.
12.00
* In course of printing. -J- In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the
desired.
Maps listed above can be mounted to order in the following forms:   Plain mounted:   cut-to-fold any size
wooden bars top and bottom to hang, etc.    Prices upon application.
We can  supply information  concerning maps  of British  Columbia printed  and  published at  Ottawa  by the
Department of Mines and Resources.
Map Number" of map
with
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address :—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
3rd January, 1945. TRIANGULATION, COLUMBIA RIVER, ETC. Z 29
TRIANGULATION AND TOPOGRAPHY, COLUMBIA RIVER
AND LOWER ARROW LAKE.
By A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit the following report of the triangulation and
topographical surveys which were, under your instructions dated June 10th, 1944,
carried out during the past season.
The primary object of the survey was to cover a gap in the triangulation network
of the Province, and, in doing so, connect the geodetic triangulation network along the
International Boundary near Trail, B.C., with the Dominion network along the Railway
Belt, near Revelstoke. Our part in this was to carry a network northerly from two
stations, Lake and Kelly of the International Boundary network, along the Columbia
Valley and Arrow Lakes and, in co-operation with N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., working
to the north of us, connect with a Provincial network in the vicinity of Nakusp, on
Upper Arrow Lake, carried south from the Dominion triangulation in the Railway Belt.
Castlegar, being centrally located in the area, was selected as headquarters and
the party was organized there on June 20th. The party, consisting of six men, including R. D. Fraser as assistant and H. Ridley of the topographical office, were established in a house at Castlegar, and, due to the difficulty of obtaining a cook, meals were
obtained at a restaurant when working out from headquarters. A number of the
stations required fly-trips of several days; on these we did our own cooking, taking
along as much prepared food as possible.
The work was satisfactorily completed on September 20th, and the party was
disbanded and we returned to Victoria.
The original plan, laid down in Victoria, had been to commence the triangulation
from the base Kelly-Glory, two stations of the main network along the 49th parallel,
established by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1925. But it was discovered, before leaving for the field, that the geodetic station mark on Old Glory Mountain had been reported lost. A peculiar history then came to light. The reconnaissance party establishing the station in 1925 planted a geodetic bronze tablet to mark
the station and also a reference tablet. The observing party, in the same year, reported
the station tablet was found but no reference mark. Hence no distance and bearing
is given. In 1933 a party of the International Boundary Commission reported that
the reference tablet was found but that the station mark must be under a British
Columbia forestry lookout cabin built on the summit in 1930. The men who had built
the cabin claimed there had been no tablet where it had been erected, but they had
been careful not to disturb the reference mark. A search was instituted and the floor
of the cabin removed, but no tablet found. On our first visit to Old Glory it was
evident that the above was correct and as the reference was in a position to make it
useless as a station, we established our own and set a British Columbia brass bolt
somewhat north of the cabin. On occupation later we tied to the reference mark and
the cabin, and it is certain that the site of the original station mark is under the cabin.
This is the third geodetic station mark that the writer has encountered in three years
affected, in some way, by forestry lookout cabins.
With this exception, the original main system was carried out to the letter. And
with the addition of two points used as main stations, two ways of calculating from
the base Kelly-Lake to our stations Union-Sangrida, half-way up and straddling Lower
Arrow Lake. Included was our point on Glory Mountain given the station name of
Glory A to distinguish from the geodetic and also the Provincial station on Mount Z 30 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
Faith, one of a net extending easterly from the Okanagan. The two stations, Union
and Sangrida, were used by Mr. Stewart in carrying the triangulation northward.
From the main stations breakdown systems were laid out to tie to points in the
valley and lake-shore. The hydrographic bench-marks at the bridge over the Columbia
at Trail, Birchbank, and Castlegar were tied, as also precise level bench-marks on the
Rossland Branch of the Kettle Valley Railway and several along the main line from
Castlegar as far west as Coykendahl. The ties to the cadastral surveys mentioned in
your instructions or suitable substitutions were all made, mostly by direct triangulation. In respect to iron posts set by Mr. McLatchie along the railway our information was that these have largely disappeared. We were fortunate in being able to
locate a pair near Kinnaird in a position to be readily fixed by triangulation and also
two posts of the same series, but not a pair, near Coykendahl. These were fixed by
traverse from one of our stations close to the track.
British Columbia triangulation brass bolts cemented in holes drilled in solid rock
were set at all the newly established main stations and at many of the minor ones.
Where practical the points were further marked by one or more bearings trees. The
geodetic bronze tablets on Kelly and Lake were found to be in perfect condition as was
the British Columbia brass bolt on Mount Faith. Some of our stations occupied as
camera stations were marked only by drill-holes in the solid rock.
At many of the stations and at stations established for the purpose photographs
were taken with a survey camera. These views were taken to cover the Columbia
Valley and that of Lower Arrow Lake and will be useful in any future mapping or
work that may be undertaken. In all, some sixty stations were occupied and twenty-
four dozen plates exposed.
Wild Universal theodolites, reading to seconds, were used exclusively and all angles
at the main triangulation stations were read at least six times, and more often twelve,
depending on visibility and the closures obtained. In the main system errors in any
triangle were well under the ten-second limit.
The season was a wonderful one for our work. The visibility was generally very
good and we were able to carry on with a minimum of delay. Much less rain and
fewer electric storms were experienced than expected, and except for a hot spell during
the latter part of July, during which the heat was rather overpowering, the temperatures were at a comfortable level. According to the residents it was a typical summer.
If so, it is one of the best sections of the Province in that respect. We had been
warned to expect much delay from the smoke of forest fires but had very little, due
probably to good forest protection, as a number of lightning fires were started but
were quickly brought under control.
For such a mountainous country it is well served with transportation facilities.
Highway No. 3 reaches Rossland from the west over the Cascade Road, not a particularly good piece, but from Rossland the highway is over a good paved road down to
Trail and up the east side of the Columbia to Castlegar and crossing the Columbia
by cable ferry, up the Kootenay Valley to Nelson and the east. Rossland also is connected with Northport, in the State of Washington.
The main line of the Kettle Valley Railway passes through Castlegar on its way
from Vancouver to Nelson and the east. A branch line runs down the Columbia
Valley to Trail and on up to Rossland. Castlegar is a surprisingly busy junction due
to the many freight trains to and from the Trail Smelter. For fifty years the S.S.
" Minto " has been, and still is, plying the waters of the Arrow Lakes from Robson
at the foot to Arrowhead at their head. This was the original transportation route
into the country.
These are the main transportation routes—but there are other roads. Trail is
connected by one down the east bank of the Columbia to the Pend d'Oreille Valley and
on beyond.    A branch from this runs up the Beaver River Valley to Fruitvale and on f
TRIANGULATION, ARROW LAKES, ETC. Z 31
to Salmo, Ymir, and Nelson. A 13-mile long road leads from the Castlegar ferry along
the north shore of the lake through East Robson and on to Syringa. The original
road connection between Castlegar and Nelson was by way of a road up Pass Creek
and around north of Sentinel Mountain to the Slocan Valley, near its junction with
the Kootenay, and hence to Nelson.    This is somewhat neglected now but still passable.
These roads are all shown on existing maps but there are others which were of
great assistance to us in reaching our stations. One such road, north from Rossland
for 7 miles to an old mill, was used in reaching Old Glory Mountain. From the old
mill a horse-trail leads to the summit, another 7 miles. There is no question of this
route being kept open and improved, for, as well as the forestry lookout cabin occupied
for three or four months, a meteorological station has just been completed, practically
on the summit, to be occupied all the year. Another station was reached with the
help of a road up China Creek, a very steep and rocky 5 miles. Aaron Hill, one of our
main stations east of the Columbia, was reached from a road branching off the Beaver
River Road at Ross Spur, 7 miles above Fruitvale. This road runs for 10 miles up
Beavervale Creek to a small sawmill. Beyond the mill branch logging-roads reach out
in different directions. One of these comes very close to our station. This is a remarkably good road of its kind. The logging-road of the Waldie & Sons mill at Castlegar
running back north-westerly into the hills was, after obtaining permission, used and
proved a great help in reaching the rather distant station on Ladybird Mountain.
This is and has long been a well-known area and there are forest, mines, agriculture, and other reports available to any one interested so, in this report, there is no
attempt at such as is the usual practice.
In respect to game, a considerable number of deer were seen and seem to be plentiful in the back areas. Grouse were noted over the whole area but did not appear to
be numerous. Some black bear were also seen, but the scarcity of the usual signs
would indicate they were not numerous.
Good fishing is reported in the Arrow Lakes at some seasons, and also in the
smaller lakes among the hills, but our attempts were not very successful.
A detailed description of the routes to the main triangulation stations, and of the
more important minor, will be presented with the other returns.
TRIANGULATION AND TOPOGRAPHY, ARROW LAKES AND
COLUMBIA RIVER, EDGEWOOD TO NAKUSP.
By N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the triangulation and
topographical surveys carried out under your instructions during the 1944 field season.
The work consisted chiefly of the extension southerly of the existing Provincial triangulation network in the vicinity of Nakusp, on the Upper Arrow Lake, to join up with the
triangulation surveys being extended northerly from the International system near
Trail by Mr. A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S. In addition to the main network, secondary
stations were established along both the Upper and Lower Arrow Lakes and the river
joining them. Ties were frequently made to the cadastral surveys, and photos covering
the easterly side of the valley were taken, the purpose of the survey being to establish
a certain amount of control within easy reach of the shores of the lakes as a preliminary
to topographical work which will be required in the future hydro-development of the
Columbia River drainage system. Z 32 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
Field headquarters were established at Edgewood, on the Lower Arrow Lake. The
party consisted of R. C. Mainguy, B.C.L.S., five helpers, and a cook. A light delivery,
six horses, and a small boat with an outboard motor provided ample means of transportation.    Field-work commenced on June 22nd and ended on September 12th.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The area covered by the survey extends from Saddle Mountain, opposite Nakusp, to
O'Leary Mountain, some 15 miles below Edgewood, with an east-west width of about
25 miles, 10 miles of which lies east of the Columbia River and its widenings, the Upper
and Lower Arrow Lakes.
This is a very mountainous country. The mountain masses or ridges, lying generally in a north and south direction, are separated by three deep and narrow valleys;
the most easterly valley contains the Upper Arrow Lake, the middle valley west of
Saddle Mountain is drained by that part of the Columbia River from Arrow Park to
Burton, and includes Arrow Park Creek on the north and Burton Creek on the south,
and the westerly valley contains the Lower Arrow Lake and the Whatshan Lakes and
River. The waters of the Columbia cross from the easterly to the westerly valley by
almost right-angled bends. The more important tributaries of the Columbia in this
area are Slewiskin, Cariboo, and Snow Creeks from the east, and Whatshan, Inonoaklin,
Eagle, Worthington, and Johnston Creeks from the west. The mountains east of the
Columbia are very rugged and reach a height well over 9,000 feet in the spectacular
peaks of the Valhalla Mountains. West of the river the mountains are more rounded
in character and of lesser height, rising at Mount Scaia to 7,425 feet above sea-level.
The altitude of the Upper Arrow Lake at Nakusp is 1,390 feet, the lower lake being
about 7 feet lower. There is a difference up to 30 feet between high and low waters,
and hence during most of the year there are extensive beaches along the lakes.
FORESTS.
Considerable areas of commercial timber are found along the Arrow Lakes. The
forest-growth resembles that on the Pacific Coast, the varieties being the same but the
trees do not grow as large. The undergrowth is quite dense, including devil's-club, but
no salal. The commercial varieties are red cedar, Douglas fir, hemlock, white pine,
balsam, birch, cottonwood, and spruce. In this area timber-line is around 7,000 feet
above sea-level, so that commercial timber is found quite high up. I saw red cedar and
Douglas fir over 4 feet in diameter at 5,000 feet altitude. Non-commercial varieties
include aspen, poplar, alder, lodge-pole pine, maple, yew, and cypress. Willow, soopo-
lallie, buck-brush, and wild rhododendron provide the underbrush. Wild fruits are
plentiful—cherries, saskatoons, huckleberries, blueberries, elderberries, high-bush cranberries, salmon-berries, strawberries, and raspberries. Wild flowers are found everywhere and in great quantities, especially along the shore of the Arrow Lakes and in the
alpine country near timber-line.
Logging operations here are usually on a small scale and selective; hence many of
the logged-off areas when viewed from the mountain-tops show little signs of being
denuded. However, the slopes of the mountains are scarred by many forest fires which
are started by the numerous lightning storms in this vicinity.
MINERALS.
This area was thoroughly prospected during the late nineties, minerals of economic
value (chiefly gold, silver, and copper) being discovered on Cariboo and Snow Creeks,
near Burton, in the Lightning Peak country, and also around the headwaters of the
Kettle River.    Considerable work was done on a property across the lake from Edge- TRIANGULATION, ARROW LAKES, ETC. Z 33
wood.    Some placer gold was taken from Cariboo Creek, but there was practically no
mining in this area during the present year.
GAME.
This is a good game country. Deer were very plentiful, both white-tail and mule
deer. We saw numerous black bear at low altitudes. Grizzlies were seen on Silver
and Scalping Knife Mountains, and much evidence of them on or near the tops of other
mountains. Considerable fur is trapped here, consisting of lynx, coyote, wolverine,
marten, mink, and skunk. Other small animals such as squirrels, gophers, rabbits,
chipmunks, marmots, and coneys were quite numerous. Game birds—blue and willow
grouse, spruce partridge, geese, and ducks—were also quite plentiful. Good fishing is
to be had in the Arrow Lakes, Whatshan Lakes, and tributary streams, especially Cariboo Creek, the varieties being Dolly Varden, rainbow trout, and red fish, or kokanees.
CLIMATE.
The weather was exceptionally good for our work, with sufficient rain-storms to
keep down forest fires and to free the air from dust and smoke. The summer storms
are usually accompanied by thunder and lightning, the latter often striking and setting
the forests ablaze. The summer storms are evidently prevalent, for very little irrigation is practised in this valley. Although there are hot spells during daytime, the
nights are always cool. In winter snow on the ground is around 18 inches deep along
the lake and the temperature may go to zero or sub-zero for a short time. It is quite
a good climate.
ACCESSIBILITY.
C.P.R. stern-wheel steamers have served the Arrow Lakes since the early nineties.
The S.S. " Minto " has been about forty-eight years in service between West Robson
and Arrowhead and is still going strong.
Highway No. 6 from Vernon over the Monashee Mountain crosses the Lower
Arrow Lake by a good ferry at the Needles, and then continues up the east side of the
valley to Nakusp and then on to Nelson. A branch road follows down the Inonoaklin
Valley to Edgewood, on the Lower Arrow Lake, and then northerly along the lake,
joining the main highway below the Needles. From the Needles a branch road follows the lake northerly for about 7 miles, but the last 4 miles are very difficult, and
also from the Needles there is a good road into the summer resort on the lower end of
Whatshan Lakes. From Burton an old mining-road leads up Cariboo Creek about 10
miles; the upper part of this road is in very poor condition, many of the small bridges
being dangerous. Another ferry at Arrow Park connects the highway with a road
extending along the west side of the valley from a point opposite Burton to West
Demars, near the lower end of Upper Arrow Lake. An indifferent mining-road
branches from Highway No. 6 about 22 miles west of Edgewood and goes to the mines
in the Lightning Peak country.
There are numerous pack-trails in this area, some of these were built by the early
prospectors and trappers and others by the Forestry Branch for forest-protection purposes. We used quite a number of these trails after doing some work on them, clearing
fallen trees. Included in those used by us are the trail to Mount Scaia from the Lightning Peak road; the trail up the Kettle River from Highway No. 6 to Keefer Lake;
the trail from Edgewood to Mount O'Leary, locally known as the Johnston Creek trail;
forestry trails to Whatshan Lookout from the Needles, and Saddle Mountain Lookout
from West Demars; another forestry trail to top of Scalping Knife Mountain from the
highway about 2 miles north of Burton; and a trappers' trail from a point about 2 miles
south of Burton to Alpine country on Naumulten Mountain.    In addition, we used a Z 34 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
very good mining-trail up Cariboo Creek, from the end of the mining-road already
mentioned, to the Black Bear mine, and then on to Silver Mountain.
INDUSTRIES.
Farming is the chief industry in this area. The lower part of the Inonoaklin
Valley contains some very fine farms growing hay and grain, raising stock and dairy
products. From Edgewood north to Nakusp on both sides of the Columbia Valley there
are many farms, but south of Edgewood there is little or no land suitable for farming.
These farms produce both dairy products and fruit, but many of the orchards have
been neglected, the owners experiencing difficulty in marketing the fruit. On the other
hand a cheese-factory at Edgewood and a creamery at Nelson provide a ready market
for milk and cream. However, judging from the orchards that have been looked after,
it is evident that this district is well suited for fruit-growing. Potatoes and other
vegetables also grow well. More intensive farming could be undertaken, aided by
irrigation, for there are numerous streams that could be harnessed for that purpose.
There are still some areas that could be cleared and put under cultivation.
Logging is next in importance. Mills at Nakusp and Castlegar have been in operation since the nineties. Red cedar, white pine, Douglas fir, hemlock, and spruce are
the chief varieties used for sawlogs. Red cedar poles and fence-posts and, since the
war, birch and cottonwood logs, have been in demand.
The whole area is divided into trap-lines. Fair catches of marten and lynx are
made.
There are many points of interest for tourists; splendid scenery, good fishing,
hunting, and boating. Edgewood, on the Lower Arrow Lake, is nicely situated near the
mouth of Inonoaklin Creek; it has two general stores, but no hotel, the hotel having
recently burned down. A waterfall on the Inonoaklin, a short distance from Edgewood,
is well worth a visit. There are stopping-places and a general store at the Needles.
Here again on Whatshan River there are several picturesque waterfalls. Burton, originally called Burton City in the early mining-days, is now the centre of a considerable
farming district. It has an hotel and two general stores. From Burton one can get
a good view of some of the high peaks of the Valhalla Mountains to the east. At Arrow
Park there are two stores; this is the centre of quite a farming area, and up Arrow-
park Creek considerable logging operations are being carried on. Nakusp is a well-
established place with, among other things, a good hotel, hospital, and high school.
From Nakusp one gets a fine view of Upper Arrow Lake and of Saddle Mountain, which
rises some 6,000 feet above the lake.
TRIANGULATION CONTROL SURVEY, FOLLOWING THE BEAR AND
DRIFTWOOD RIVERS AND TAKLA LAKE, CASSIAR DISTRICT.
By Hugh Pattinson, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the above survey carried
out by me, under your instructions dated May 29th, 1944.
The object of the survey as defined in your instructions was the extension southeasterly from stations " Twister " and " Mosque " of my season 1943 triangulation, for
the purpose of obtaining a rigid connection with stations of the Geodetic Survey of
Canada, situated in the vicinity of Endako. TRIANGULATION CONTROL SURVEY, VICINITY TAKLA LATJ.E. Z 35
At the same time, my instructions directed me to tie in existing cadastral surveys
wherever economically possible and also to connect with at least one mile-post of the
55th parallel of latitude.
Further to the above, I was instructed to collect information having a bearing on
a possible road route designed to connect Yukon and Alaska with the British Columbia
road system.
The party, comprising my assistant, W. H. Forrest, B.C.L.S., and seven men, was
organized at Fort St. James. Indians were employed at intervals for short periods
and their knowledge of hunting-trails giving access to the mountains saved considerable
travelling-time for the party. Twelve horses were obtained from J. 0. (Skook) Davidson and the pack-train was in charge of J. Rasmussen, of Vanderhoof. For lake and
river transportation a light 26-foot cedar boat was used. This boat was taken up the
Driftwood River and skidded over the portage to Bear Lake. The boat was powered
with a 16-horse-power Evinrude engine.
The party left Fort St. James on June 3rd and commenced survey operations on
June 5th. It was noticed that many of the mountains to the north were still covered
with snow, so it was decided to spend the first month of the season in the southern
portion of the region before proceeding north across the Sustut River. The first main
camp was located at Bulkley House, at the head of Takla Lake, and a number of main
stations were established and occupied on the surrounding mountains. Survey operations were carried on continuously until September 29th, when heavy snowfalls in the
mountains and general bad weather conditions made it advisable to terminate the field
season.
The general direction of the triangulation was south-easterly, following the Bear
and Driftwood Rivers and Takla Lake. The network, using a system of quadrilaterals,
was extended approximately 120 miles, the last main stations occupied being in the
vicinity of the 55th parallel of latitude, which crosses the Middle River near the mouth
of Natazutla Creek. A tie was made to Mile-post 55 of said parallel, and existing
stations Fulton, Nation, and Tsi-Tsult were cut in from several main stations. Fulton
is a secondary station of the Geodetic Survey of Canada and is on Matzehtzel Mountain, west of Babine Lake.
Connections were made to existing cadastral surveys as follows:—
Lot 4701, Indian Reserve in vicinity of Bulkley House.
Lot 5849, Beatrice Mining Claim, Driftwood Mountain.
Lot 4699, Indian Reserve near mouth of Kastberg Creek.
Lot 4700, near mouth of Kotsine River.
Lot 4726, Indian Reserve at north end of Bear Lake.
Lot 5667, in vicinity of Takla Landing.
Nineteen mountain stations with average elevations between 6,000 and 7,000 feet
were occupied. Only one station, " Kettle " (7,280 feet), topped the 7,000-foot contour.
This station is on the highest point of the Kettle Glaciers, which is also the highest
point of the divide between the Omineca River and Bear Lake. Ten low stations were
occupied, these being established mainly for the purpose of obtaining connections to
existing cadastral survey monuments and lake triangulation stations. These low stations are generally convenient to the main trails and should provide fairly precise elevations at intervals along the main valleys or probable future road routes to the region.
ACCESS.
A regular boat service is maintained between Fort St. James and Takla Landing
by Dave Hoy, who handles mail, passengers, and freight. Canadian Pacific Airways
planes made frequent calls at Takla Landing and numerous chartered flights to Thutade, Z 36 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
Bear, and other lakes scattered throughout the region, but as far as I have been able to
ascertain there is no regular plane schedule.
The land route most generally used is by the road which connects Manson Creek
and Germansen Lake with the Provincial highway system at Vanderhoof. There is
a truck-road from Takla Lake to Old Hogem, on the Omineca River, and a good trail
from Germansen Lake connects with this road at Tom Creek. A pack-trail used
extensively by the Indians runs from Hazelton to Fort Babine and continues easterly
to West Landing on Takla Lake. There are various other passable pack-trails giving
access from Telegraph Creek, Fort Graham, and Ware, on the Finlay, and other points
where trading-posts have been established for the convenience of the very scattered
population of Indians, trappers, and prospectors.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS.
The area covered by the season's operations consists mainly of a series of short
broken spurs and mountain ranges, the highest points of which are generally between
6,000 and 7,000 feet above sea-level. The principal rivers are the Driftwood and the
Bear, which receive most of the run-off from these ranges. The Bait Range, Driftwood Mountains, and the Tsaytut Spur extend north-westerly along the west side of
Driftwood River and Bear Lake, while on the east side are a number of disconnected
mountains running north-westerly from Bodine Mountain and terminating with the
Connelly Range at the Sustut River. The Kettle Glaciers are the highest and most
rugged of these mountains. Bear Lake is about 12 miles long with an average width
of about three-quarters of a mile. The mountains on each side are high and rugged,
rising immediately from the shore to altitudes from 4,000 to 5,000 feet above lake-level.
The Bear River, which flows out of Bear Lake, is a short, swift-flowing stream
and is not navigable even for canoes, except perhaps during the period of extreme high
water. It flows into the Sustut River, about 8 miles below Bear Lake, and thence to
the Skeena waters. The Driftwood River, which is the main feeder of Takla Lake,
heads in the high glaciated mountains west of Bear Lake, the principal peaks of which
are Mount Peteyaz and Mount Coccola. It is a fairly swift-flowing stream, but has
no bad rapids and is navigable with canoes and light boats powered with outboard
motors. There are stretches where the water is shallow with many boulders and some
log-jams, and in such places it is better to resort to the more arduous method of poling,
rather than risk damaging the engine. The straight-line distance from headwaters
to mouth is about 40 miles, but at least 10 miles should be added to this distance to
cover the extremely serpentine course which it pursues. Its main tributaries are
Kotsine River and Kastberg Creek. The former heads in the Driftwood Mountains
and Bait Range and empties into the Driftwood River from the west about 11 miles
above Bulkley House. The latter heads near the Kettle Glaciers and flows southwesterly, emptying into the Driftwood near the Kastberg Indian Reserve. Another
tributary, Lion Creek, has its head in Nanitsch Lake to the east of Scallop Mountain.
It is a wild, turbulent stream with a large spring run-off and is difficult to ford at
high-water periods, though quite easy at other stages of water. At the trail-crossing
the bed is strewn with large boulders, making poor footing for horses. It enters the
Driftwood from the east about 6 miles north of Takla Lake.
The largest body of water within the area of operations is Takla Lake. A triangulation of this lake was made by F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S., and it has been described in
several reports. It is some 56 miles in length with an average width of about 1%
miles. Between the head of the lake and Takla Landing the mountains on each side
are some distance back from the lake, leaving considerable areas of timbered flats and
benches. Below the landing the mountains generally rise steeply from the shore-line
and there is very little level country to be seen.    The North-west Arm, 19 miles long, TRIANGULATION CONTROL SURVEY, VICINITY TAKLA LAKE. Z 37
joins the main lake about 11 miles above the head of Middle River. Between the main
lake and the North-west arm the mountains are very precipitous and rise directly from
the shore-line.
FOREST-COVER.
There is a fairly heavy coverage, consisting chiefly of the coniferous varieties,
spruce being the most common, with jack-pine prevalent on the gravelly benches and
drier areas. Alpine balsam predominate above the 4,000-foot contour. Among the
deciduous varieties are aspen and cottonwood, with occasional patches of birch. Considerable areas have been ravaged by forest fires, the most extensive of these being
east of the Driftwood River, between Scallop Mountain and a round-topped isolated
mountain on the summit of which Station " Cougar " was established. The latter
mountain is situated close to the Bates Creek trail, at the head of Bates Creek, and
would make a good forestry lookout station, as it is easy to climb, handy to the trail,
and commands a very fine panoramic view of the surrounding terrain.
Scattered stands of spruce of commercial dimensions were noticed along the valley
of the Driftwood River, and also patches of jack-pine suitable for tie-timber. Scattered
fir are found along Takla Lake and the North-west Arm of same, and some quite large
cottonwood were noticed along the lake-shore.
VEGETATION.
There is a scarcity of pasture land between the Sustut River and Takla Lake, and
overnight camps have to be spaced accordingly when travelling with pack-horses.
There is an abundance of good feed at the Hudson's Bay Meadow, about 8 miles south
of Bear Lake, and also at a camp known as the " Bluff Camp," situated at the foot of
a high bluff beside the trail, a short distance south of Kastberg Creek. Good pastures
are also found near the mouth of Kotsine River and at the mouth of Driftwood River,
in the vicinity of Bulkley House. The above camps have been used extensively for a
good many years as pack-train camps, as they are the only points between Takla Lake
and Bear Lake where sufficient feed is available convenient to the trail. The alpine
meadows and high plateau country produce a variety of wild grasses and the really
extensive areas of good summer grazing land are generally above the 3,500-foot contour.
Wild berries were particularly plentiful last season and many hundreds of pounds
of huckleberries were gathered by the Takla Lake Indians. Raspberries and both high-
and low-bush blueberries were also quite plentiful. Among other varieties noticed were
gooseberries, strawberries, black currants, red currants, cranberries, and saskatoons.
Small patches of vetch and pea-vine were encountered but, generally speaking, the
valley lands between the Sustut River and Takla Lake contain very little grazing land.
GAME AND FUR-BEARING ANIMALS.
Grizzly and black bear were encountered on several occasions. Goat were observed
frequently on the higher levels of the mountains, but generally only in small herds of
four or five. No sheep were seen during the season, but moose and caribou are plentiful and deer are seen occasionally. Of the more valuable fur-bearing animals trapped
are beaver, mink, marten, fox, lynx, muskrat, and wolverine. Wolves roam the region
and, although large numbers are trapped each year, they still seem to be on the increase.
Among the game birds found are willow and blue grouse, but these were less
plentiful than usual. Ptarmigan are quite numerous in the mountains. Canada geese
were noticed in large numbers on the numerous lakes and sloughs and large flocks were
seen to alight around the mouth of the Driftwood River and along Middle River.
There is excellent fishing in the Bear and Driftwood Rivers, both of which are
well stocked with rainbow trout. Salmon travel up the Skeena, Sustut, and Bear Rivers
to Bear Lake, where large numbers are smoked by the Indians. Z 38 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1944.
CLIMATE.
There are no records available giving the average annual rainfall over a period of
years, but I think the annual precipitation for the last two years would run close to
35 inches. As a general rule, the rainfalls would not be considered particularly heavy
when compared with those at the Coast, but showers occur with great frequency
throughout the entire summer. On some days the rain was continuous, but usually
intermittent showers occurred and the sky remained overcast, with the summits of the
mountains obscured by clouds throughout the day.
The wet days, of which there were fifty-two, were distributed throughout the summer as follows: June, nine; July, thirteen; August, sixteen; and September, fourteen.
A fairly heavy snowfall reaching down to timber-line occurred on September 17th.
Most of this snow melted quickly, but another fall came on September 24th and the
summits were still white with snow when we left the country at the beginning of
October.
GENERAL.
The meagre population consists mostly of Indians who are all congregated in two
small Indian villages, one situated at the north end of Bear Lake and the other near
the Hudson's Bay Post, Takla Landing.
There are two other trading-posts besides the Hudson's Bay Company; one at
Bear Lake, run by Carl Hanawald, and another run by Mrs. Aiken at the old landing
south of the Takla Indian Reserve.    Mrs. Aiken also runs the post-office.
There is a regular weekly boat service during the summer between Fort St. James
and Takla Landing.
The few white residents, consisting of trappers, prospectors, and miners, all reside
in the vicinity of Takla Landing, close to the stores and Government radio telegraph
station.
Pan-American Airways have a radio station situated on the east side of the lake,
between the ferry-landing and the point where the road from Old Hogem touches the
lake.    The United States Army recently took charge of this station.
Canadian Pacific Airways planes alighted on the lake almost daily during the
summer and made numerous trips to Thutade, Bear, and other lakes with supplies and
equipment for miners and prospectors. Two parties of the Dominion Geological Survey
were working in various portions of the region and had their supplies brought in by
plane to Bear and Sustut Lakes.
The main source of revenue at present is from the fur, but this will undoubtedly
be supplemented later with the development of mining and lumbering.
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company and Bralorne Mines have mercury
properties on Silver Creek, where considerable development-work was carried out during the summer;  the former Company also had a party working at Thutade Lake.
No extensive areas of land suitable for agriculture were noticed. The surveyed
Indian reserves included most of the good land adjacent to the trail.
Potatoes and all the common vegetables are successfully raised in the gardens in
the vicinity of Takla Landing, and good potatoes are also grown by the Indians at
Bulkley House and Bear Lake.
Generally speaking, the region is not suitable for agriculture, being for the most
part mountainous, with fairly heavy forest coverage. Some scattered areas could be
placed under cultivation, and no doubt will be, when road access has been attained and
local markets are available, but the future prosperity of the country is more likely to
come from the development of mining and lumbering industries than from farming. TRIANGULATION CONTROL SURVEY, VICINITY TAKLA LAKE. Z 39
There would appear to be no serious engineering difficulties to hinder road-
construction along the valleys of the Driftwood and Bear Rivers. There are possibilities for power-development on some of the creeks, as Kotsine River, Kastberg Creek,
and Lion Creek all have falls.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1045.
805-145-4732 

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