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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1945

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPOKT
OF the
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1943
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
L'lluUil by Ciiari.es F. Banfielo, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1944.  To His Honour Colonel W. C. WOODWARD,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for
the year ended December 31st, 1943, with Appendices.
GEOEGE SHARRATT PEARSON,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia. Honourable George S. Pearson,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Fisheries Department for the year ended December 31st, 1943, together with
Appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Assistant Commissioner. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1943.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces in 1942.
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1943	
Capital, Equipment, and Employees	
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia for 1943	
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts	
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1943	
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish)	
Mild-cured Salmon	
Dry-salt Salmon	
Dry-salt Herring	
Pickled Herring	
Halibut Production	
Fish Oil and Meal	
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters	
Condition of British Columbia's Spawning-grounds	
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.
Pilchard Investigation :	
Herring Investigation	
Shell-fish Investigation	
(Digest.)    (No. 29.).
International Fisheries Commission, 1943	
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, 1943.
The Pacific Salmon in British Columbia Waters	
Page.
7
.  8
9
. 9
. 10
. 17
. 18
. 19
. 19
. 20
_ 20
. 21
_ 22
. 23
_ 24
. 24
. 25
. 26
. 27
. 28
- 30
. 30
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. (No. 29.) By
Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver, B.C    31
Pilchard-tagging and Pilchard-tag Recovery from 1936 to 1943. By John
Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C	
Tagging of Herring (Clupea Pallasii) in British Columbia: Insertions and
Recoveries during 1943-44. By Albert L. Tester, Ph.D., Pacific Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C :	
Biological   Investigations   of   Commercial   Shell-fish.
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C	
By   Ferris   Neave,
Report on Investigations of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission for the Year 1943	
The Pacific Salmon in British Columbia Waters. By Wilbert A. Clemens,
Ph.D., Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,
B.C	
The Identification of the Young of the Five Species of Pacific Salmon,
with Notes on the Fresh-water Phase of their Life-history. By R. E.
Foerster, Ph.D., and A. L. Pritchard, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C _.	
Spawning Report, British Columbia, 1943. By Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief
Supervisor of Fisheries	
Statistical Tables	
43
53
75
80
83
86
98
106  REPORT OF THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1943.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF
THE PROVINCES, 1942.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1942 totalled $75,040,919.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of
$38,059,559, or 50.7 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1942 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the
production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second in
rank, by $22,762,113.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1942 was
$6,327,522 more than in the year previous. There was an increase in the value of
salmon amounting to $1,540,777.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1942 was $34,848,940,
or 55.8 per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the total
invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1942, $11,748,763 was employed in
catching and handling the catches and $23,100,177 invested in canneries, fish-packing
establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1942 was 19,138,
or 24.8 per cent, of Canada's total fishery-workers. Of those engaged in British
Columbia, 12,199 were employed in catching and handling the catches and 6,939 in packing, curing, and in fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries
in British Columbia in 1942 was 1,007 more than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of fishery products of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1938 to 1942, inclusive:—
Province.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
$18,672,750
8,804,231
3,996,064
3,353,776
1,957,279
1,811,124
930,874
468,646
492,943
5,290
$17,698,980
8,753,548
5,082,393
3,007,315
2,010,953
1,655,273
950,412
478,511
430,724
4,867
$21,710,167
9,843,326
4,956,618
3,035,100
2,002,053
1,988,545
714,870
450,574
403,510
4,994
$31,732,037
12,634,832
6,484,831
3,518,402
3,233,115
2,842,041
952,026
440,444
414,942
6,652
$38,058,559
15,297,446
7,088,302
Ontario _  	
4,194,092
4,103,345
3,577,616
1,639,539
585,782
492,182
3,056
Totals - _	
$40,492,976
$40,072,976
$45,118,757
$62,258,872
$75,040,919
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1938 to 1942, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
$14,491,285
1,041,165
231,220
$12,994,812
1,305,642
193,148
$13,757,091
1,397,999
172,999
$20,879,104
1,650,731
470,958
$22,419,881
Halibut	
1,985,705
243,113
Carried forward	
$15,763,670
$14,493,502
$15,328,089
$23,000,793
$24,648,699 J 8
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Species.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
Brought forward ___
$15,763,670
855,265
867,007
351,324
162,508
71,297
54,572
37,679
18,985
37,453
$14,493,502
2,198,912
100,693
357,990
60,937
79,419
61,633
39,826
12,246
59,976
1,340
5,934
10,693
3,752
4,388
2,459
441
3,026
1,792
32
$15,328,089
4,426,390
632,393
359,798
77,944
132,822
80,628
46,866
16,354
60,596
2,002
27,851
14,574
3,235
7,491
2,460
555
3,452
3,887
88
$23,000,793
4,665,260
1,781,876
398,316
98,970
189,527
83,253
30,470
8,115
116.111
$24,648,699
8,223,754
2,016,607
676 903
Pilchard-	
155,965
193,840
104,021
Soles     	
7 222
57 862
6,767
22,286
3,942
6,884
3,013
1,016
2,467
760
62
14,555
15,832
3,095
5,920
3,675
986
2,478
1,492
25
47,086
24 829
51 375
8,042
Smelt   	
1,965
390
Skate  -	
5 235
8,960
7
Trout -	
Grayfish, etc.—
2,310
13,117
29,328
531,355
29,569
23 250
31,135
Oil	
68,073
42,807
184,074
3,076
105,453
44,072
36,322
146,112
63,210
137,624
69,062
298,349
61,686
162,159
804
44,860
23,913
60,872
178 667
1,465
77,515
10,417
40,198
14,050
119,035
567
2,094
68,040
80,295
Tuna       	
42,194
165,966
Totals    _
$18,672,750
$17,698,980
$21,710,167
$31,732,037
$38,059,559
VALUE   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA  FISHERIES  SHOWS
SUBSTANTIAL DECREASE.*
The value of the fisheries of British Columbia in 1943 amounted to $32,477,964, a
decrease of $5,581,595 or 15 per censt. as compared with 1942. The salmon-fishery, the
most important single fishery in the Dominion, showed a decrease of 407,766 cwt. or
25 per cent, in the quantity caught. The decrease in landed value was $5,592,983 or
44 per cent., and that in marketed value was $7,679,583 or 34 per cent. The total production value of salmon was,$14,740,298, or over 45 per cent, of the total value of the
fisheries production of the Province.
Herring, the second fishery in point of value, showed a decrease of 496,884 cwt.
or 21 per cent, in the quantity landed, an increase in the landed value of $117,958 or
9 per cent., but a decrease in the marketed value amounting to $414,124 or 5 per cent.
The total production was valued at $7,809,630.
Halibut registered an increase of 15 per cent, in the quantity caught, 51 per cent,
in the landed value, and 24 per cent, in the value as marketed; and pilchards increased
35 per cent, in catch, 112 per cent, in landed value, and 37 per cent, in value marketed.
* Note.—These figures are taken from the Advance Report on British Columbia Fisheries, Dominion Department of Statistics, Department of Trade and Commerce. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 9
Grayfish showed a decrease in quantity caught but an increase in the marketed value of
liver oil sufficient to more than compensate for declines in the values of meal and
industrial oil, the final value of all grayfish products amounting to $2,106,470, or nearly
63 per cent, more than in 1942.
The total value of fish taken, including shell-fish, was 5,230,536 cwt., a decrease
of 480,839 cwt. from the 5,711,375 cwt. taken in 1942, and the value to fishermen at the
point of landing was $15,475,494, a decrease of 16 per cent, from the previous year.
CAPITAL, EQUIPMENT, AND EMPLOYEES.
Capital.—The value of the capital invested in the fisheries in 1943 was $31,704,610,
a decrease of $3,268,754 or 9 per cent, from the 1942 figure of $34,973,364. The amount
invested in vessels and gear required for landing operations was $12,800,020 and that
in fish-processing establishments was $18,904,590.
Employees.—There were 11,903 persons engaged in primary and 6,011 in secondary
operations in 1943, a total of 17,914 for the industry. There were 296 fewer persons
engaged in catching and landing the fish and 945 fewer persons in the processing end
of the industry.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR 1943.
The total pack of canned salmon put up in British Columbia in 1943 amounted to
1,258,221 cases, according to returns made by the licensed canners to the Provincial
Fisheries Department. The 1943 pack was 553,337 cases less than the pack of the year
previous and 416,077 cases below the five-year average. The 1943 pack of British
Columbia canned salmon was the smallest pack put up in British Columbia since 1932,
when 1,081,031 cases were packed. This latter comparison is most significant when it
is remembered that the years 1931, 1932, arid 1933 were depression years in which the
salmon-canners curtailed their packs because of lack of markets. In 1943 the very
opposite pressure was in effect, in that every effort was made to produce as much
canned salmon as possible. The small pack in 1943 was due entirely to the small run
of salmon appearing in the waters off the British Columbia coast in that fishing season.
As pointed out in the pages of this report for 1942, the canned-salmon industry of
British Columbia is now, to all intents and purposes, a war industry, due to the heavy
demand for British Columbia canned salmon by the British Ministry of Food as a war
ration. To this end the Federal and Provincial Governments again exercised control
within their respective jurisdictions over the fishery with a view to diverting to the
salmon-canneries as much of the salmon-catch as possible.
The canned-salmon pack in 1943 consisted of 164,889 cases of sockeye, 10,658 cases
of springs, 3,095 cases of steelheads, 186,043 cases of cohoe, 530,189 cases of pinks, and
363,347 cases of chums. An examination of the pack figures by species shows the
sockeye-catch of 164,889 cases to be the smallest pack of this species since 1921, when
163,914 cases were canned. It will be recalled that the year 1921 was also a depression
year, which may account for the small pack. The 1943 pack of 164,889 cases was
104,998 cases less than the pack four years previous, the cycle-year for most British
Columbia sockeye runs. It was also 219,720 cases less than the average for the previous five years. A breakdown of the total sockeye-pack figures for 1943 will be found
under the section of this report dealing with British Columbia's canned-salmon pack
by districts.
In 1943 there were canned 10,658 cases of spring salmon compared with 24,744
cases in the year previous. This was the smallest pack of spring salmon produced in
British Columbia in recent past years and was 13,508 cases less than the average for
the previous five years.
Steelhead are trout and not salmon, but a few are caught and canned incidental to
salmon fishing and canning operations each year and are accordingly mentioned in the J 10 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
pages of this report. In 1943 there were canned 3,095 cases of steelheads, compared
with 4,649 cases in 1942 and 3,454 cases in 1941.
The cohoe-pack in 1943 amounted to 186,043 cases. This was 25,095 cases less
than were canned the year previous and 38,479 cases less than in 1940, the cycle-year
for this species. The 1943 figure was 73,420 cases less than the average annual pack of
this species for the previous five years. Included in the 186,043 cases of cohoe for 1943
are 14,059 cases of bluebacks.
The pink-salmon pack for 1943 was 530,189 cases, compared with 270,622 cases in
the year previous and 427,774 cases for the cycle-year. The 1943 pack of this species
was 117,572 cases above the average for the previous five-year period.
The canned chum-salmon pack of 363,347 cases in 1943 was disappointing, particularly in view of the Government's desire for a large pack of all species to meet the
requirements of the British Ministry of Food. The 1943 pack of chum salmon was the
smallest pack of this species since 1933, in which year 293,630 cases were canned. The
1943 pack was 270,487 cases less than in the year previous and 23,243 cases less than
were canned in 1939, the cycle-year for this species. The 1943 pack was also 226,188
cases below the average chum-salmon pack for the previous five years.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River System.
The total Canadian pack of all varieties of salmon canned from Fraser River
caught fish in 1943 amounted to 126,541 cases, compared with the record pack of the
year previous when 549,617 cases of all varieties were canned. The 1943 pack consisted
of 31,973 cases of sockeye, 3,505 cases of springs, 244 cases of steelheads, 8,809 cases
of cohoes, 29,860 cases of pinks, and 52,149 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1943 the total pack of canned sockeye salmon produced from
Fraser River caught fish by Canadian and American canners amounted to 51,089 cases.
This was the smallest sockeye-pack on the Fraser River on> record. Of the total 1943
catch by Canadian and American fishermen, the Canadian catch was 31,973 cases, while
the American fishery in the State of Washington caught sufficient sockeye to fill 19,116
cases. The catch percentages of the fishermen of the two countries are 62.58 for the
Canadian fleet and 37.42 for the American fleet. These figures are remarkably close to
the percentage catch figures for the year previous when Canadian fishermen took 62.8
per cent, and American fishermen caught 37.2 per cent. For convenience the percentages for the Fraser River sockeye-catch by American and Canadian fishermen are
tabulated below:  American. Canadian.
Per Cent. Per Cent.
1930  78.00 22.00
1931  68.00 32.00
1932  55.00 45.00
1933 ■  71.00 29.00
1934  72.00 28.00
1935  47.00 53.00
1936 ;    25.00 75.00
1937  38.00 62.00
1938  42.00 58.00
1939  44.50 55.50
1940  37.50 62.50
1941  39.30 60.70
1942  37.20 62.80
1943.—:  37.42 62.58 BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 11
The Canadian pack of sockeye on the Fraser River in 1943 was the smallest Canadian pack for this cycle since 1923, when 31,655 cases were canned, and was the smallest
British Columbia pack of Fraser River sockeye of any cycle since 1928, when 29,299
cases were canned. The sockeye run to the Fraser River in 1943 was derived from the
spawning of 1939 and, according to reports from the various spawning areas for that
year, a large run could hardly be expected in 1943.
Notwithstanding the small pack in 1943, however, according to the reports submitted to the Chief Supervisor for the Federal Department of Fisheries, the spawning
in most of the sockeye-streams in the Fraser River watershed was particularly good.
In the Fraser-Francois Lake watershed it is estimated that 13,000 salmon spawned in
1943 as against 2,000 in the brood-year. In the Stuart Lake system the seeding was
estimated at five times greater than that of the brood-year, while the increase in the
Chilko River system for the brood-year was estimated to be 100 per cent. The Pemberton area also had a heavy seeding. The escapement, however, to the Shuswap area
and the Cultus Lake system was reported as disappointing, while the seeding in the
Harrison system was described as light. It would appear from the escapement of
sockeye to the spawning-beds in the upper reaches of the Fraser River watershed that
the runs were not impeded to any extent on their passage through Hell's Gate in 1943.
Spring Salmon.—There were 3,505 cases of spring salmon canned from Fraser
River caught fish in 1943, compared with 9,688 cases in 1942. In comparing the figures
for these two pack-years the 1943 pack seems small, but if one examines the tables for
the pack figures which are listed in the Appendix to this report it will be observed that
the 1943 pack of spring salmon was not unduly small. On the Fraser River, as elsewhere in British Columbia, the spring-salmon pack figures are not indicative of the
size of the catch.
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1943 the cohoe-pack on the Fraser River was sufficient to fill
8,809 cases. This is compared with 10,542 cases in 1942. The 1943 cohoe-pack was
the smallest pack for this cycle since 1931 and was disappointing.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon make their appearance on the Fraser River every
alternate year, the runs coinciding with the odd-numbered years. The year 1943 was
expected to produce a fairly large pack of pink salmon. However, the run was practically a failure and only 29,860 cases of pink salmon were canned from Fraser River
caught fish. This was particularly disappointing in view of the very short pack of
sockeye produced by this same river system. In 1941, the cycle-year, there were
102,388 cases of pink salmon canned from Fraser River caught fish, while in 1939 the
pack was 95,176 cases and in 1937, 94,010 cases. Not since 1931 has the Fraser River
produced such a small pack of pinks and in that year the small pack was not due in any
way to the run, but purely to depressed market conditions.
The reader is referred to the spawning report of the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries
for the Federal Department, published in the Appendix to this report, for details of
the escapement of pink salmon to the spawning-beds.
Chum Salmon.—There were 52,149 cases of chum salmon canned from fish caught
and credited to the Fraser River. It was hoped that the Fraser River would have produced a larger pack of chums in 1943, particularly in view of the short pack of sockeye
and pink salmon, but comparing the 1943 pack with the cycle-year 1939, a large pack
was probably too much to hope for as in that year the pack amounted to only 30,150
cases. The 1943 pack was considerably lower than the packs for both the years 1941
and 1942, in which years 95,070 cases and 82,573 cases respectively were packed. The
large packs in these two latter years, however, do not necessarily mean that the runs in
these years were greater than in previous years, but rather reflect Government policy
in diverting as much of the salmon-catch as possible to the canneries for shipment to
Britain as canned salmon.    In pre-war years large quantities of Fraser River chum J 12 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
salmon were salted and frozen, which naturally reduced the size of the canned-salmon
pack. While salteries have not been permitted to operate in British Columbia since
1939, it is believed that a larger portion of the Fraser River catch of chum salmon was
frozen in 1943 than in the immediately preceding years.
In any consideration of the canned-salmon pack as an indication of the size of the
run, it is important that the escapement to the spawning areas of the particular river
system should also be considered. The reader is referred to the report of the Federal
Department's Chief Supervisor of Fisheries on the salmon-spawning beds of the Province, which is published in full in the Appendix to this report.
Skeena River.
The total pack of all varieties of salmon caught on the Skeena River in 1943
amounted to 133,589 cases. This is compared with a pack of 152,418 cases in the year
previous and 200,497 cases in 1941. The Skeena River pack in 1943 was composed of
28,268 cases of sockeye, 1,783 cases of springs, 1,952 cases of steelheads, 40,479 cases
of cohoe, 54,509 cases of pinks, and 6,597 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 1943 pack of sockeye salmon for the Skeena River, amounting to 28,268 cases, was the smallest pack of this species on record. It was 6,276 cases
less than for 1942 and 2,238 cases below the very short pack of 1933, the previous low
for this species.
The 1943 pack was largely derived from the spawning of 1938 and 1939, in which
years the packs amounted to 47,257 cases and 68,485 cases respectively. Reports from
the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries on the spawning conditions in these two years would
indicate better than average spawning. For 1938 the Chief Supervisor says, " The
sockeye escapements to the most important areas, such as Babine and Lakelse, have
been gratifying during the season under review." And in dealing with the escapement to the spawning-grounds for the Skeena River in 1939 the Chief Supervisor's
report says, in part, " The local Inspector states that there is no question but that there
has been one of the greatest escapements of sockeye in the Babine Lake and River
sections of the spawning-grounds this year as has been experienced for nearly a
decade." Farther on the Chief Supervisor says, " There is no doubt but that the lowering of the fishing-boundary on the Skeena River some 7 miles four years ago is obtaining the results desired in the way of increased escapement." In view of the apparently
satisfactory escapements in the years 1938 and 1939, the short pack in 1943 was doubly
disappointing. Of the sockeye escapement to the spawning-beds in 1943 the Chief
Supervisor says, in part, " The seeding by this variety, although in general being
satisfactory, was below that of 1939."
The reader is referred to the " Spawning Report, British Columbia," which is contributed by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government and published
in full in the Appendix to this report. The 1943 sockeye-pack on the Skeena River
indicates conclusively that strong remedial measures must be immediately applied to
this fishery if the Skeena River is to continue as an important sockeye-salmon fishery.
Spring Salmon.—The spring-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1943, amounting
to 1,783 cases, was the smallest pack of this species canned on the Skeena River in the
last ten or twelve years. However, as pointed out in previous issues of this report, the
canned-salmon pack figures for this species do not necessarily indicate the size of the
run, as spring salmon find an outlet in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade. The packs of
this species canned on the Skeena River in recent years are as follows: 1942, 6,374
cases;   1941, 4,985 cases;  1940, 6,118 cases;   1939, 4,857 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were packed in 1943, 40,479 cases of cohoe salmon compared
with 44,081 cases in the year previous; while in 1940, the cycle-year for this species,
only 20,614 cases were canned. The 1943 pack was 3,484 cases above the average for
the previous five years. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 13
Pink Salmon.—The catch of pink salmon on the Skeena River in 1943 was sufficient
to fill 54,509 cases. This was 7,208 cases greater than the quantity canned in 1940,.the
cycle-year for this species. The 1943 pack, however, was 5,561 cases less than the
average for the previous five-year period.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack on the Skeena River is never very large,
although usually greater than the 6,597 cases packed in 1943. The packs of this species
for recent years were as follows: 1942, 11,421 cases; 1941, 10,707 cases; 1940,4,682
cases;   and 1939, 7,773 cases.
In considering the canned-salmon pack on the various streams in British Columbia,
due consideration must be given to the escapement to the spawning-beds. For this
information the reader is referred to the "Spawning Report, British Columbia," by
Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government,
which is published in full in the Appendix to this report.
Nass River.
The total canned-salmon pack of all species of salmon caught on the Nass River
in 1943 amounted to 52,333 cases. This was the smallest pack of salmon canned from
Nass River caught fish since 1937, when 49,042 cases were canned, and was 47,809
cases less than were canned in 1942. The 1943 pack was made up of 13,412 cases of
sockeye, 1,002 cases of springs, 335 cases of steelheads, 9,768 cases of cohoes, 17,669
cases of pinks, and 10,146 cases of chums. These figures disregard half cases in each
instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 13,412 cases of sockeye salmon put up from Nass River
caught fish in 1943 was the smallest sockeye-pack for this river system since 1935, when
12,712 cases were canned. The 1943 run of Nass River sockeye was derived from the
spawnings of 1938 and 1939, in which years there were packed 21,462 cases and 24,357
cases respectively. In 1938 the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries' spawning report says
that " Generally speaking, the seeding of this area was a heavy one." In 1939 the
Chief Supervisor reported that " The total sockeye spawning on the Nass River was
very satisfactory."
The reader is referred to the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries' report of the Nass
River escapement which is published in the Appendix to this report. It will be noted
that while the early run to the upper Nass was light, the seeding of the late run was
similar to that reported in 1938 and better than the year 1939. In view of the size of
the pack and reports from the spawning-grounds, the sockeye run to the Nass River in
1943 was somewhat disappointing, it being 6,096 cases less than the average for the
previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—There is never a large pack of spring salmon caught on the Nass
River. Those canned, generally speaking, are caught incidental to fishing for other
varieties. The pack in 1943 of 1,002 cases, while somewhat less than the pack of this
variety in 1942, was equal to the average for the previous five-year period.
Cohoe Salmon.—Sufficient cohoe salmon were caught on the Nass River in 1943 to
make a pack of 9,768 cases. This was 5,719 cases less than were canned in the year
previous and just a few cases less than were packed from Nass River caught fish in
1940, the cycle-year for this species. The cohoe-pack on the Nass River is never
particularly large, although the 1943 pack was somewhat less than average.
The escapement to the spawning-beds was reported as being better than average.
Pink Salmon.—The Nass River produced a canned pink-salmon pack amounting to
17,669 cases. The 1943 run was produced from the smaller of the two pink-salmon
cycles appearing on the Nass River, but the 1943 pack was somewhat less than the
previous pack for this cycle. In 1941, the immediately preceding cycle-year, the pack
amounted to 22,667 cases, while in 1939 the pack was 26,370 cases.    In 1937 the pink- J 14 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
salmon pack on the Skeena was only 8,031 cases. In 1943 the pink-salmon pack was
11,328 cases less than the average for this species packed on the Nass for the previous
five years.
The escapement of pink salmon to the spawning-beds was reported as being very
good.
Chum Salmon.—The Nass River has never been a large producer of chum salmon
and the 1943 pack of 10,146 cases is compared with 12,518 cases in 1942, 6,246 cases in
1941, 5,461 cases in 1940, and 2,500 cases in 1939. The seeding of the spawning-beds
by chum salmon in 1943 was reported as being above the average.
Rivers Inlet.
In Rivers Inlet in 1943 there were sufficient salmon of all varieties caught to fill
79,697 cases, compared with a total pack of 105,539 cases for the year previous. The
1943 Rivers Inlet salmon-pack was composed of 47,602 cases of sockeye, 765 cases of
springs, 69 cases of steelheads, 11,466 cases of cohoe, 8,347 cases of pinks, and 11,448
cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The Rivers Inlet pack of 47,602 cases of sockeye salmon in 1943
was 31,597 cases less than the pack of this species for 1942, but was only 6,541 cases
below the sockeye-pack in Rivers Inlet in 1939, the cycle-year. The Rivers Inlet
sockeye-pack in 1943 was disappointing, being 19,956 cases less than the average for the
previous five-year period. It is indicated in the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries' spawning report that the escapement to the spawning-beds was not particularly satisfactory.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in Rivers Inlet only incidental to fishing for other varieties. On this account the pack is never large. The
765 cases of spring salmon packed in this district in 1943 is compared with 985 cases
in 1942, 1,692 cases in 1941, 1,226 cases in 1940, and 745 cases in 1939.
Cohoe Salmon.—The run of cohoe salmon to Rivers Inlet is never large. The 1943
season produced a pack of 11,466 cases. This is compared with 11,561 cases in 1940,
the cycle-year for this species. With the exception of the large pack in 1941, in which
year 23,202 cases were packed, the 1943 pack compares quite favourably. The pack in
1942 was 8,467 cases and in 1939, 10,974 cases. It might be well to mention at this
point that the 1941 pack of 23,202 cases was the largest pack of cohoes put up from
Rivers Inlet caught fish for many years. The escapement to the spawning-beds apparently was light.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon do not frequent Rivers Inlet in great numbers but are
caught and canned each year to some extent. However, the pack is never large and the
8,347 cases canned from Rivers Inlet caught fish in 1943 was the largest pack since
1939, when 12,095 cases were canned. The 1943 run belongs to the same cycle as the
1939 run. In 1941, the cycle following 1939 and immediately preceding 1943, the pack
amounted to 4,807 cases.
Chum Salmon.—Again in 1943 as in 1942 and 1941, the pack of chum salmon from
Rivers Inlet caught fish was larger than is ordinarily the case and, no doubt, reflects
the increased effort on the part of the fishermen and the canners to supply the British
market with as much canned salmon as possible. The 1943 pack of 11,448 cases is
compared with 15,874 cases in 1942 and 15,442 cases in 1941. The average annual
pack of chum salmon in Rivers Inlet for the five-year period 1936 to 1940 was 8,633
cases. The Chief Supervisor of Fisheries reports a medium escapement to the
spawning-beds for this species.
Smith Inlet.
Smith Inlet is primarily a sockeye-fishing area and, while some seining for chum
salmon is carried on in this inlet during the fall of the year, the catch of chums has
never been a large one.    Other varieties of salmon canned from Smith Inlet caught BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 15
fish have been taken incidental to fishing for sockeye salmon. The pack of Sinith Inlet
caught salmon in 1943 was composed of 15,010 cases of sockeye, 118 cases of springs,
24 cases of steelheads, 541 cases of cohoe, 556 cases of pinks, and 5,693 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 15,010 cases of sockeye salmon canned from Smith Inlet
caught fish in 1943 is compared with 15,939 cases in 1942 and 21,495 cases in 1941.
The Smith Inlet run in 1943 was derived largely from the sockeye run to this inlet
in 1939, in which year the pack amounted to 17,833 cases. In 1943 the seeding was
reported to have been equal to that of 1938, in which year it was reported as " being
most encouraging."
Spring Salmon.—In 1943, 118 cases of spring salmon were caught and canned in
Smith Inlet. As mentioned above, this is not a spring salmon area, the catch of this
species each year is taken incidental to fishing for sockeye salmon.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe salmon are never taken in large numbers in Smith Inlet.
The catch in 1943 was no exception, 541 cases having been canned. This figure is
compared with 1,813 cases in 1942, 1,955 cases in 1941, and 1,102 cases in 1940.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon are also not taken in numbers in Smith Inlet. In
1943, 556 cases were canned, compared with 527 cases in 1942 and 749 cases in 1941,
the cycle-year.
Chum Salmon.—In recent years some seining has been done in Smith Inlet in the
fall of the year for chum salmon. This is not a large fishery, however, and the pack
of Smith Inlet caught chums in 1943, amounting to 5,693 cases, is compared with the
previous years, 1942, 5,490 cases; 1941, 7,741 cases; 1940, 6,015 cases; and 1939, 2,771
cases. The escapement of chum salmon to the spawning-grounds was reported as being
only medium.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Salmon-fishing in the Queen Charlotte Islands, with the exception of trolling, is
confined almost exclusively to seining for pinks and chums and some cohoe. The other
varieties listed as canned from fish caught in this district are incidental to fishing for
the above-named species. Chum salmon are caught in the Queen Charlotte Islands each
year but pink salmon run to the streams in these islands only every alternate year, the
run coinciding with the even-numbered years. There was no pink-salmon run to the
Queen Charlotte Islands in 1943. The total pack of all varieties canned from Queen
Charlotte Islands caught salmon in 1943 amounted to 53 cases of sockeye, 14,488 cases
of cohoe, 313 cases of pinks, and 35,370 cases of chum salmon.
Cohoe Salmon.—The 14,488 cases of cohoe salmon canned from Queen Charlotte
Islands caught fish in 1943 is compared with the 1942 pack of this species, in which year
the pack amounted to 16,935 cases. The pack in 1941 was 27,241 cases while the pack
in 1940, the cycle-year for this species, was 8,897 cases. A large part of the cohoe
salmon comprising the pack of Queen Charlotte Islands cohoe is from troll-caught fish.
Chum Salmon.—The 35,370 cases of chum salmon packed from Queen Charlotte
Islands caught fish was definitely disappointing. The 1943 pack was 10,149 cases less
than were packed in 1939, the cycle-year, and 37,890 cases less than the average for the
previous five-year period which, it will be observed, is not 50 per cent, of the average.
The seeding of the various chum-salmon spawning-beds was also quite disappointing,
the run in some rivers being reported as practically a failure, while in other streams
the seeding is reported as light. In Skidegate Inlet the run to the spawning-grounds
was medium to heavy and Salmon Creek was reported to have received the best seeding
in the last twenty years.
Central Area.
For statistical purposes the Central area comprises all the salmon-fishing areas
off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River, except
Rivers Inlet.    The total pack of all varieties of salmon canned from fish caught in this
PROVINCIAL   LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B. C. J 16 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
area in 1943 amounted to 445,900 cases, comprising the following: Sockeye, 21,101
cases; springs, 547 cases; steelheads, 397 cases; cohoes, 26,645 cases; pinks, 288,109
cases;   and chums, 109,101 cases.
Sockeye Salmon.—The principal sockeye-fishing areas in the Central area are Fitz-
hugh Sound, Burke and Dean Channels, although some sockeye are taken in the vicinity
of Banks Island, Principe Channel, and in the Gardner Canal. The 21,101 cases of
sockeye caught in the Central area in 1943 were 3,631 cases more than were canned in
this area in the year previous, but were 2,424 cases less than the average annual pack of
this species for the Central area for the previous five-year period. The sockeye-pack
in the Central area in 1943 was disappointing when considered in relation to the pack
figures for this area in past years. The reader is referred to the Chief Supervisor of
Fisheries' spawning report, published in the Appendix to this report, for information
on the escapement to the various spawning areas in this district.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in this area but, as in other
areas, this species is caught incidental to fishing for other varieties. There were 547
cases of spring salmon canned from fish caught in the Central area in 1943, compared
with 723 cases in 1942, 460 cases in 1941, and 1,518 cases in 1940.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-salmon catch in the Central area in 1943 was sufficient
to fill 26,645 cases. This was 4,629 cases less than were canned in 1942, and 23,241
cases less than in 1940, the cycle-year. The 1943 pack of cohoe salmon in the Central
area was 12,845 cases less than the average annual pack of this species for the previous
five years.
Pink Salmon.—The Central area is a large producer of pink salmon, although in
recent years the pack has varied over wide limits. In the pages of this report for
1942 it was pointed out that in that year and in the year previous the pink-salmon runs
were so disappointing as to constitute almost a failure. In 1942 the pack was 69,434
cases and in 1940 the pack amounted to only 54,478 cases. In 1943, the. year under
review, the pack of 288,109 cases is most encouraging. Notwithstanding the large
catch of pink salmon in the Central area in 1943, reports from the principal spawning
areas indicate that the escapement was also particularly good. Conditions in the
Central area in 1943 in respect to pink salmon illustrate very graphically the recuperative powers of this species when 'conditions are suitable.
Chum Salmon.—The Central area in 1943 produced a pack of 109,101 cases of
chums. This was 29,949 cases greater than the pack for this area in 1942 and was also
29,717 cases more than were packed in 1939, the cycle-year for this species, and was
8,096 cases above the average annual pack for the previous five years.
The reader is referred to the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries' spawning report in the
Appendix to this report for details of the escapement to the spawning-beds in the
Central area.
Vancouver Island.
In 1943 a total of 347,710 cases of all varieties of salmon were canned and credited
to the Vancouver Island district. This was 189,093 cases less than in the year previous
and was the smallest pack of salmon canned from Vancouver Island caught fish since
1932, in which year it will be recalled canning activities were greatly curtailed due to
economic conditions. The Vancouver Island 1943 pack consisted of 7,185 cases of sockeye, 2,937 cases of springs, 74 cases of steelheads, 73,846 cases of cohoes, 130,825 cases
of pinks, and 132,843 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 7,185 cases of sockeye salmon canned and credited to the
Vancouver Island area was a most disappointing feature of the Vancouver Island
salmon-fishery for 1943. The average annual catch for the previous ten years amounted
to 26,888 cases. The 1943 pack was 44,776 cases less than the year previous and was
the smallest sockeye-pack in the history of the Vancouver Island fishery.    The reader is BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 11
again referred to a detailed report of the sockeye-salmon spawning areas of Vancouver
Island, contained in the Appendix to this report.
Spring Salmon.—Large quantities of spring salmon are caught in the waters off
Vancouver Island each year. Most of these fish, however, are taken by troll and enter
the fresh- and frozen-fish trade. The canned spring-salmon pack consisted principally
of salmon taken in the seines while fishing for other varieties. In 1943 these fish produced a pack of 2,937 cases, compared with 5,407 cases in 1942, 8,038 cases in 1941,
2,454 cases in 1940, and 2,889 cases in 1939.
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1943 the Vancouver Island area produced a pack of 73,846 cases
of cohoe salmon. This was the smallest pack of this species from Vancouver Island
caught fish since 1937. This is compared with 81,837 cases in 1942, 166,908 cases in
1941, and 88,885 cases in 1940—the cycle-year. In the previous cycle-year, 1937, the
pack of cohoes amounted to 58,244 cases. The figures for the Vancouver Island cohoe-
pack include 14,059 cases of bluebacks.
Pink Salmon.—In 1943, 130,825 cases of pink salmon were canned from Vancouver
Island caught fish, compared with 177,292 cases in 1941—the cycle-year—and 235,119
cases in 1939. In the previous cycle, 1937, there were canned 318,780 cases. The
reader will note the downward trend of these figures for the past four cycle-years.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack credited to Vancouver Island in 1943 was
most disappointing, there having been canned only 132,843 cases of this species. Compared with the records for previous years the 1943 pack constitutes almost a failure.
The  packs  of  chums  credited  to  Vancouver   Island  for  recent  past  years  are  as
follows :  Cases.
1942  383,005
1941  593,016
1940  279,064
1939  212,949
1938  266,566
1937  203,900
1936  347,954
In comparing the Vancouver Island pack figures due consideration must be given
to the fact that since the outbreak of hostilities the Provincial Government has declined
to issue licences for salmon dry-salteries. The Federal Government has only permitted
the export of chum salmon under permit. These actions were taken for the purpose of
diverting as much as possible of the Vancouver Island chum-salmon catch to the canneries. When this fact is taken into consideration one will appreciate the disappointment in the Vancouver Island chum-salmon production in 1943.
In all cases where not specifically mentioned, the reader is referred to the Chief
Supervisor of Fisheries' spawning report, which is printed in full in the Appendix to
this report.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY, 1943.
The Provincial Fisheries Department licensed thirty salmon-canneries for operation in British Columbia in 1943. This was the same number as in the year previous.
The operating canneries were located as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands     1
Skeena River     8
Central area .     4
Rivers Inlet     1
Johnston Strait    2
Fraser River and Lower Mainland  11
West coast of Vancouver Island     3
2 J 18 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
While the same number of canneries operated in 1943 as in 1942, the locations of
the operating canneries in 1943 were somewhat altered from the year previous. In
the Queen Charlotte Islands one cannery operated in 1943 as in 1942. There were no
canneries operating on the Nass River in 1943, although two canneries operated in this
district in 1942. In 1943 the Skeena. River District had eight operating canneries,
while only six operated in 1942. The two new canneries operating on the Skeena River
in 1943 were both located at, or in the vicinity of, Prince Rupert. In the Central area,
Rivers Inlet, and Johnston Strait there were four, one, and two canneries respectively,
operated as in the year previous. On the Fraser River and Lower Mainland in 1943
eleven canneries were in operation, while in 1942 twelve canneries were licensed to
operate. On the west coast of Vancouver Island three licensed canneries operated in
1943, one more than in the year previous. The same factors were in effect in 1943 as
in 1942 in respect to the smaller than usual number of salmon-canneries operating in
the Province. Under ordinary circumstances two canneries would have operated on
the Nass River in 1943. The shortage of technical help, however, has forced a consolidation wherever possible. Not only have companies been forced to close down a
cannery and can the production in another cannery belonging to the same company, but
different companies have been forced to enter into joint operations in different areas.
All this, of course, has been voluntary, but it has been brought about by the shortage
of labour. One cannery in the Queen Charlotte Islands at Pacofi, belonging to the
British Columbia Packers, Limited, was destroyed by fire in 1943.
Probably the most outstanding feature of the salmon-canning operation in British
Columbia in 1943 was the exceptionally large run of pink salmon which made its
appearance in the vicinity of Namu, in the Central area. The fish were easily available
to the fleet and for a time it was necessary to put the fishing-boats on a limit as the
canneries were unable to cope with the large catches. The destination of this run of
pink salmon was the Bella Coola district.
Another outstanding feature of the 1943 season was the almost complete failure
of the run of pink salmon to the Fraser River. It was expected that the pink-salmon
run to the Fraser in 1943 would have produced a pack in the neighbourhood of 100,000
cases, whereas the pack amounted to only 29,860 cases.
In 1943 the industry was again advised by the Federal Government that the British
Ministry of Food would take the whole of British Columbia's salmon-pack. Later,
arrangements were made to retain 200,000 cases for Canadian consumption. This was
done and the balance of the British Columbia salmon-pack was taken over by the Canadian Government for the account of the British Ministry of Food. In order that as
much as possible of the catch would be canned, similar restrictions, with slight modification, upon the disposal of salmon were in effect in 1943 as were successful in diverting
most of the catch to the canneries in 1942. The Provincial Government again refused
to permit the operation of salmon dry-salteries and the Federal Government also placed
an embargo on the export of fresh salmon in certain categories, except under export
permit. As a result of these measures the 1943 salmon-pack, as in the year previous,
was, no doubt, larger than would otherwise have been the case. These facts should be
taken into consideration when making comparisons between the canned-salmon pack
figures for British Columbia for the years 1941 to 1943 with the canned-salmon packs
of the years previous to these dates, otherwise the comparison might lead to erroneous
conclusions.
OTHER CANNERIES (PILCHARD, HERRING, AND SHELL-FISH).
Pilchard.—The pilchard-canning industry in British Columbia is centred largely
on the west coast of Vancouver Island, as it is in the waters off the shores of Vancouver
Island where the principal pilchard-fishery is conducted.    There are, however, some BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 19
pilchards canned in canneries located some distance from the fishing-grounds. The bulk
of the pilchard-catch is reduced to meal and oil, but even previous to the war years
there was a growing demand for canned pilchards. This demand has increased during
the war years. The quantity of pilchards canned in any year is not indicative of
the demand for this product, nor does it indicate the size of the pilchard-catch.
Pilchards for canning are selected from the regular pilchard-catch and, due to
the exigencies of this fishery, there is not always available a sufficient quantity of
pilchards suitable for canning.
In 1943 there were five pilchard-canneries operated in British Columbia. In 1942
seven pilchard-canneries operated, while in 1941 five canneries were in operation.
The five plants operating in 1943 produced 94,512 cases, compared with a production
of 42,008 cases for seven plants in 1942 and 72,498 cases for five plants in 1941.
Herring.—Herring have been canned in British Columbia to some extent for
a number of years, but the actual pack has never been large, due to a limited market
for canned herring. Previous to 1939 the canned-herring pack averaged between 25,000
and 50,000 cases. In 1939, however, on the outbreak of hostilities, the demand for
a high protein food in war-time was the means of stimulating the business of herring-
canning and in that year the herring-canning industry of British Columbia assumed the
proportions of a major industry, producing 418,021 cases. The continued demand from
Britain for a low-cost high-protein food has resulted in maintaining the herring-
canning industry at a comparatively high level. In order to assist in promoting as
large a canned-herring pack as possible, the Provincial Government has maintained a
policy of refusing to issue licences to plants utilizing herring, except herring-canneries,
herring-reduction plants, and one or two pickled-herring plants on the understanding
that the first call on the herring-catch was for the account of the herring-canneries.
In certain localities where herring-reduction plants are permitted to operate, the operation is restricted to herring not suitable for canning or to plants located in districts
where herring-canning machinery is not available. All this has had a tendency to increase the canned-herring pack.
In 1943 twenty-two herring-canneries operated, the same number as were licensed
to operate in 1942. Only eighteen of these twenty-two licensed plants operated in 1942,
however. The twenty-two plants operated in 1943 produced a pack of 1,198,632 cases,
somewhat less than the pack of the year previous, when 1,253,978 cases were canned.
In 1942 the total canned-herring production was for the account of the British Ministry
of Food, but in 1943 a small part of the pack was retained for domestic consumption.
Shell-fish.—Shell-fish, principally clams and oysters, are canned in British Columbia
to some extent. The operation, however, is never large, although the production
fluctuates considerably. In 1943 three shell-fish canneries were licensed to operate,
canning clams and abalone. The total pack of shell-fish canned in British Columbia in
1943 by these three canneries was 17,463 cases. This is compared with the production
from four canneries in the year previous, when 22,267 cases of crabs and clams were
canned.    There was no crab canned in British Columbia in 1943.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
There were three tierced-salmon plants licensed to operate in British Columbia in
1943. In the year previous five plants were licensed to operate but only three got into
production. The three plants operated in 1943 produced 856 tierces compared with
969 tierces in 1942.    In 1941 four plants operated, producing a pack of 1,481 tierces.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
In each year previous to 1939 there have been varying amounts of chum salmon
dry-salted for shipment to the Orient.    In some years the production of dry-salt salmon J 20 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
has reached fairly large proportions and in recent past years this industry has been
controlled and regulated by the British Columbia Salt-fjsh Board, which Board is
a scheme set up under the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act."
Chum salmon, normally, are fished in quantity in the fall of the year. There is, however, a considerable pack of canned chum salmon put up during the summer and early
autumn months. Due to the increased demand occasioned by the war for inexpensive
protein foods, such as canned salmon, the Provincial Government declined to issue
salmon dry-saltery licences in 1939. For similar reasons the licences covering salmon
dry-salteries were again refused by the Provincial Government in 1940. In 1941, and
again in 1942, the demand of the British Government for a very large portion of the
British Columbia salmon-pack made it imperative that as much as possible of the
salmon-catch be diverted to the canneries. For this reason the Provincial Government
again refused to issue licences covering salt-salmon operations and, as a consequence,
no salmon were legally dry-salted in British Columbia in 1942. A small operation, not
licensed, resulted in the prosecution of the operator.
For the above-noted reasons the British Columbia Salt-fish Board was again
inoperative during the 1943 season and, on that account, no report of the British
Columbia Salt-fish Board is included in this report. Again, in 1943, for the reasons
stated above, the Provincial Government declined to issue licences covering salmon
dry-saltery operations.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
Previous to the 1941 season, production of dry-salt herring was, in latter years,
regulated by the British Columbia Salt-fish Board under the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act." The total production of dry-salt herring in British
Columbia was formerly shipped to the Orient, particularly to Japan, and from there
quantities were re-exported to Manchukuo and China. Conditions in the Orient in
recent years have reduced the quantity of dry-salt herring shipped to the Orient very
considerably. Since 1940 the British Columbia Government has refused to issue herring
dry-saltery licences in order to divert as much as possible of the herring-catch to the
herring-canneries, which were all operating on British war orders for this commodity.
There have been no herring dry-salteries operated in British Columbia since 1940.
PICKLED HERRING.
During World War I. the business of pickling herring in British Columbia attained
fairly large proportions, particularly in Scotch cured herring. After the armistice,
however, the business deteriorated rapidly and for many years no pickled herring were
put up in British Columbia. The pickled-herring industry has been revived since the
beginning of World War IL, due to the fact that certain markets in the United States,
which formerly obtained their supplies from Europe, have had to look elsewhere for
this product.
In 1940, 5,500 barrels of pickled herring were put up in British Columbia.    In
1941 there were three plants operating, which produced a pack of 3,095 barrels;   in
1942 two plants were licensed to operate, producing a pack of 2,240 barrels;  and in
1943 seven plants were licensed, five of which operated, producing 2,928 barrels of
pickled herring.
In order to divert as much as possible of the east coast of Vancouver Island
herring-catch to the herring-canneries for the production of canned herring for Britain,
the Provincial Government again declined to permit pickled-herring plants to operate
on fish caught on the east coast of Vancouver Island, except under special permission
from the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 21
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the
International Fisheries Commission and is shared in by the nationals of both Canada
and the United States. The Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis and on
that account there is very little fluctuation in the amount of halibut landed from year
to year. For the purpose of regulation the coast is divided into four areas, the principal areas, from the standpoint of production, being Areas Nos. 2 and 3. Area No. 2
comprises the waters off the Washington and British Columbia coasts from the approximate vicinity of Willapa Harbour in the south to Cape Spencer in the north. Area
No. 3 comprises the waters from the northern boundary of Area No. 2 to the Aleutians.
The other two areas, Nos. 1 and 4, from which production is very small, comprise the
waters south of Area No. 2 and the Bering Sea respectively.
In 1943 the catch-limits set by the International Fisheries Commission were: For
Area No. 2, 23,000,000 lb. and for Area No. 3, 27,500,000 lb.—a total of 50,500,000 lb.,
an increase over the year previous of 1,000,000 lb. of saleable halibut, exclusive of that
quantity which is permitted to be taken incidental to fishing for other species under
permit in Area No. 2 after that area's closure and before the closure of Area No. 3.
The increase in the catch-limits in 1943 by areas was: 300,000 lb. in Area No. 2 and
700,000 lb. for Area No. 3. There are no catch-limits set by the Commission for Areas
Nos. 1 and 4. These areas automatically close when the catch-limit has been taken in
Areas 2 and 3. This is the second year in succession in which the International
Fisheries Commission has increased the halibut catch-limits. In doing so in 1943 the
Commission pointed out that the action was taken purely on account of the exigencies
caused by the war and that there was a distinct possibility of the quotas being lowered
when the nation's need for protein food was less demanding at the conclusion of hostilities. In addition to the quota of 50,500,000 lb. allowed by the International Fisheries Commission, permits are issued which allow vessels to land halibut caught incidental to fishing for other species in an area closed to halibut-fishing when halibut-fishing
is permitted in another area.
The total landings of halibut by all vessels in 1943 amounted to 53,575,000 lb. Of
this amount 24,696,000 lb were reported as being caught in Area No. 2 while 28,417,000
lb. were reported as having been taken in Area No. 3. Area No. 1 produced 462,000
lb., while no halibut were reported from Area No. 4. Canadian ports' share of this
total was 25,022,000 lb., of which 11,682,000 lb. were caught in Area No. 2 and
13,340,000 lb. in Area No. 3.
The total halibut landings at Canadian ports by all vessels in 1942 was 24,559,216
lb. This amount was divided between Areas Nos. 2 and 3, Area No. 2 receiving
11,343,578 lb. while Area No. 3 produced 13,215,638 lb. in 1942.
The Canadian fleet in 1943 caught and landed a total of 12,830,000 lb. Of this
amount 145,000 lb. were landed in American ports, while the balance, or 12,685,000 lb.,
was landed in Canadian ports. Of this amount 10,892,000 lb. were reported to have
been caught in Area No. 2 while only 1,793,000 lb. were taken by Canadian vessels in
Area No. 3. The 1943 Canadian production is compared with a total of 11,128,922 lb.
in 1942.
In 1943 the average price of Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert was 17.6 cents
per pound and the average price for all Canadian landings in all Canadian ports, including Prince Rupert, was 18 cents per pound.
Halibut-livers are still in high demand as a natural source of vitamins. These
livers have been in increasing demand since the outbreak of war. The halibut fleet,
in addition to saving the livers, now saves a portion of the viscera as well for the same
purpose. Previous to 1942 we were able to give the value received by the fishermen
for this commodity but, due to marketing arrangements presently in effect, final settle- J 22 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
ment for all halibut livers and viscera has not been completed at the time of going to
press. It is estimated, however, that the value of the livers to the halibut-fishermen
for 1943 will amount to about $1,000,000, while it is estimated that the fishermen will
receive in the neighbourhood of $4,000,000 for the viscera. It must be distinctly
understood that these latter figures are estimates only.
The above figures are compiled from information supplied by the International
Fisheries Commission, which information is gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
Fish-oil and edible fish-meal have been produced in British Columbia for a number
Of years, and previous to the war were an important branch of British Columbia's
fisheries. Pilchard arid herring have been the principal species used for the production of oil and meal but, since the outbreak of the war and the demand for natural
sources of vitamins, other species have been found to yield oils of high vitamin content
and the sharp demand for these products has increased activity in this field. Dogfish,
dogfish-livers, shark-livers, codfish-livers, and cannery waste are all utilized for the
production of fish and fish-liver oils, much of which is sold as medicinal oil. In addition to the medicinal oil produced, British Columbia fish-oils find an outlet in many
manufacturing processes, such as the making of soaps, paints, linoleums, etc., while
large quantities are also sold for the feeding of poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oils.—In 1942 the Provincial Fisheries Department for the first time
required licences for the operation of fish-liver reduction plants. In that year nine
plants were licensed to operate. These nine plants reported a production of 916,723
imperial gallons of high vitamin oils from fish-livers in 1942. . Since these figures were
published, however, it was noted that an error was made in the return of one of the
producing companies and the corrected figure for the 1942 production is 392,612
imperial gallons. In 1943 nine plants were licensed to produce fish-oil from fish-livers.
However, in that year only eight plants operated, producing 433,575 imperial gallons
of high vitamin oil. The 1943 production, therefore, was 40,963 imperial gallons
greater than in the year previous.
Pilchard Reduction.—The pilchard-fishery in British Columbia is conducted principally off the west coast of Vancouver Island and, while the bulk of the pilchard-catch
is taken well offshore, in latter years the fishing-vessels have been proceeding farther
south to meet the run of pilchards on its northern migration from Californian waters.
Much of the early pilchard production was caught off the coast of Washington, but
later in the season the bulk of the catch was caught off Vancouver Island shores.
Nine pilchard plants were licensed to operate in 1943. These nine plants produced
2,238,987 imperial gallons of oil and lS^Og1/^ tons of meal. The catch which produced
the 1943 production was one of the largest pilchard-catches in recent past years. The
figures for 1943 are compared with the 1942 figures, in which year 1,560,269 imperial
gallons of oil were produced, while 11,003 tons of edible meal were derived from the
1942 catch.
Herring Reduction.—The reduction of herring in British Columbia has become an
important branch of our winter fishery. Herring are caught from October to March
and while heretofore this industry was conducted largely on the west and south-east
coasts of Vancouver Island, and in the vicinity of Prince Rupert, latterly this industry
has spread and is now conducted practically over the whole of the coast of Vancouver
Island.
In 1941, however, the demand from Great Britain for a high protein food at low
cost to meet the exigencies of war caused the Government to take such action as would
divert as much as possible of the herring-catch from the reduction plants to canneries.
The Provincial Government in 1942, and again in 1943, licensed herring-reduction BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 23
plants on the west coast of Vancouver Island on the distinct understanding that no
herring caught on the east coast would be utilized for reduction in west coast plants.
Plants operated on the east coast were licensed on the distinct understanding that no
herring caught on the east coast of Vancouver Island would be used for reduction
purposes, except that portion of the catch unsuitable for canning. These Provincial
regulations were supplemented by further regulations of the Federal Government
which prohibited the delivery of east coast caught herring to any one except a licensed
herring-cannery. As a result of the steps taken by the Federal and Provincial Departments of Fisheries and the desire of the canners to can as much as possible of the
herring-catch, the thirteen herring plants licensed to operate in 1943 were considerably
less than would have been the case had the whole or the bulk of the herring-catch been
reduced to meal and oil.
The production of herring-meal in 1943 from eleven operating plants was 7,662
tons of meal and 512,516 imperial gallons of oil. These figures are compared with the
production in the year previous when 4,633 tons of herring-meal and 323,379 imperial
gallons of herring-oil were produced.
Whale- Reduction.—In 1943, as in 1942, only one whale-reduction plant was licensed
to operate in British Columbia. The production of this plant in 1942 was somewhat
less than in the year previous. In 1943, 91 whales were caught which produced 62
tons of meal, 90 tons of fertilizer, and 134,553 imperial gallons of oil, of which 18,703
imperial gallons were sperm oil.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed to
operate each year in British Columbia. These plants produce meal and oil from cannery
waste and from the carcasses of dogfish. The oil from the dogfish carcasses is not to
be confused with dogfish-liver oil, which has been reported in another section of this
report.
In 1943 three plants were licensed to reduce dogfish carcasses, while ten licences
were issued coveririg fish-offal reduction plants. In the former case these three plants
produced 631 tons of meal from dogfish carcasses and 33,835 imperial gallons of fish-oil.
The ten plants operating on fish-offal produced 3,701 tons of meal and 414,840 imperial
gallons of oil.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS.
Under section 23 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, fishing
with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under
licence from the Provincial Commissioner of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost
exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes in the
Interior of the Province. This fishery has been in the past of a very minor nature
and for that reason has not been mentioned heretofore in this report. As the number
of licences issued has been increasing, and as statistics are now available covering the
catch for recent past years, it was deemed advisable that this information should be
contained in the annual report of the Provincial Fisheries Department. There will
be found in the Appendix to this report a table showing the name and number of lakes
in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number and approximate
weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted from the statistical data that there are three different kinds of
fishing licences issued for net-fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province—namely,
fur-farm, ordinary, and sturgeon. Licensed fur-farmers, under subsection (10) of
section 23 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, are permitted to
take coarse fish by the use of nets of suitable mesh in the non-tidal waters of the Province under licence from the Commissioner of Fisheries.
There were thirty-six licences issued to fur-farmers. The coarse fish so taken
are used as food for fur-bearing animals held in captivity.    Ordinary licences permit J 24 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
the licence-holder to use a specified number of pieces of net to take fish in the non-tidal
waters of the Province, other than salmon, trout, or sturgeon, for the licensee's own
use or, in certain specified cases, the product may be sold within the district. This
latter is a war measure. There were sixty-nine ordinary licences issued and it will
be noted that forty-six of these were for Okanagan Lake. In the case of Okanagan
Lake, the licence permits the use of a dip-net only for the capture of kokanee. One
sturgeon licence was issued in the 1943-44 season, making a total of 106 licences for
non-tidal fishing in the waters of the Province.
The reader is referred to the table in the Appendix of this report for a detailed
account of the catch of fish taken by nets in the non-tidal waters of the Province during
the 1943-44 season.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SPAWNING-GROUNDS.
Owing to this Department having discontinued making inspections of the various
salmon-spawning areas of the Province, we are indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell,
Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, and the officers of his Department who conducted the
investigations, for furnishing us with a copy of his Department's report. His courtesy
in supplying us with this report is gratefully acknowledged.
Major Motherwell's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-spawning
grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this report.      /
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE
SALMON   (DIGEST).    (No. 29.)
There will be found in the Appendix to this report another paper, No. 29, in the
series " Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon." Paper No. 29 is
again the work of Dr. W. A. Clemens, Department of Zoology, University of British
Columbia.
In the introduction to Paper No. 29 Dr. Clemens points out that the total pack of
sockeye salmon on the Nass and Skeena Rivers and on Rivers Inlet amounted to only
89,282 cases in 1943, which is an exceptionally small pack and represents only an average pack on either Rivers Inlet or the Skeena River over the past thirty years. In
Paper No. 28 it was pointed out that by using as a basis the pack figures, together
with the escapement to the spawning-beds, one may judge the extent of the run of
salmon to a river system. In 1943 the return of sockeye to each of the three areas
covered in Paper No. 29 was apparently exceptionally low because of the small pack
reported above and taken in conjunction with reports from the spawning-beds.
The Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, Vancouver, reports that the escapement for
Rivers Inlet, with a pack of 47,602 cases, " escapement fair "; for the Skeena River,
with a pack of 28,268 cases, " escapement good, but below those of 1938 and 1939, which
were reported as very good"; and for the Nass River, with a pack of 13,412 cases,
" escapement fairly good, reported as a little under average."
In connection with Rivers Inlet, Dr. Clemens points out that the return was evidently small, probably in part because of the failure of the brood-year 1939 to produce
an appreciable number of four-year-old fish, and remarks that " The situation developing on this river seems to demand a period of larger escapements to provide the ' margin
of safety' as suggested in the 1938 report."
Of the Skeena River Dr. Clemens comments on the hopeful feature of the scientific
investigation being planned and commenced by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada
for this river system, whose production in sockeye salmon has reached " the lowest in
thirty-seven years of record."
In connection with the Nass River, in the past ten years packs seem to have shown
less fluctuation and have averaged higher than those of the preceding ten years, which
may indicate a tendency toward a more stabilized condition. Rivers Inlet Sockeye-salmon Run of 1943.
The pack of sockeye on Rivers Inlet of 47,602 cases was the smallest pack in many,
many years. In only three previous years—1916, 1921, and 1936—were the packs
lower than 50,000 cases and in 1936 it will be recalled the small pack was due to a strike
of fishermen in that year and was not due to lack of fish. In Paper No. 28, published in
this report for 1942, Dr. Clemens pointed out that the run in that year was composed
largely of five-year-old fish derived from the spawning of 1937; that the run of 1943
would be the result of the spawnings of 1938 and 1939 and, in view of other factors, it
was reasonable to expect a good return of five-year-old fish in 1943. In Paper No. 29
Dr. Clemens points out that a feature of the run to Rivers Inlet in 1943 was the exceptionally large number of five-year-old fish. The run in 1943 was composed of 91 per
cent, of five-year-old fish and only 8 per cent, of four-year-olds, which exactly duplicated
the composition of the 1942 run. It is suggested that the situation on Rivers Inlet
will be of interest in 1946 and 1947 because, if the fish of the 1942 and 1943 year-
classes have strong tendencies to produce five-year-old fish, there will be very few four-
year-old fish in the years 1946 and 1947, and that unless production of young fish from
the spawning of 1943 is exceptionally large, the runs of 1947 and 1948 will be adversely
affected.
Skeena River Sockeye Run of 1943.
The run of Skeena River sockeye salmon produced a pack of 28,268 cases, which is
the lowest in thirty-seven years of record and the report from the spawning-grounds
in connection with the Babine area states " although in general being satisfactory, was
below that of 1939." In the Lakelse Lake area the escapement was reported to be good.
Commenting on the possible return in 1944, Dr. Clemens points out that this run will
be the product of the 1939 and 1940 spawnings. In the former year the pack was
68,485 cases and the escapement exceptionally good. In the latter year the pack was
116,507 cases and the escapement was large. There would appear to be a reasonable
expectation of a fairly large run in 1944.
The Nass River Sockeye Run of 1943.
The sockeye run to the Nass River in 1943 produced a pack of 13,412 cases and
the escapement was described as fairly good but somewhat under average. Dr.
Clemens points out that it would seem from these facts that the run to the Nass River
system in 1943 was small. Commenting on the possibilities for 1944, Dr. Clemens
points out that this run will be the product of the spawnings of 1939 and 1940 and that
in the former year the pack was 24,357 cases and the escapement reported as satisfactory. In the latter year the pack was 13,809 cases and the escapement was medium to
light. A medium-sized run would seem the most that can be expected in 1944, but,
because of the erratic nature of the runs to this river system, attempts at prediction are
of little value for the Nass River.
The reader is referred to the report in full, published in the Appendix to this
report, for the details of the analyses of the sockeye runs to these three river systems.
PILCHARD INVESTIGATION.
The pilchard-fishery enjoyed a successful season, the total catch being second only
to that of 1929. Some fish were taken in areas north of Vancouver Island and, as has
been the case during several recent years, the fishery continued with fair intensity
into the winter months.
The total catch figures do not give an adequate impression of the availability of
pilchards during the regular 1943 pilchard season. In 1929 many more boats were
employed to make the record catch.    Actually, during 1943 the season's catch per seine J 26 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
boat was 50 per cent, higher than during the season showing the next highest availability (1942). In order to have information which can be used to estimate the availability of pilchards in the north-east Pacific independent of the number and sizes of
boats, detailed catch records are obtained from two sources. Records of landings by
day and boat are supplied by the fishing companies. In addition, many seine-boat
skippers keep " pilot-house log-books " recording the time, place, and success of every
set. The fishing industry has been very co-operative in supplying these records, which
will be useful in tracing the changes in availability over the life of the fishery.
The work of sampling the pilchard-catch has been continued. The average length
of the fish taken during 1943 was low, due to the predominance of comparatively young
fish. However, the average was higher than during the preceding year. Examination
of the length frequency curves makes it evident that this increase in average length
was associated with the growth of the broods of fish produced by the 1937, 1938, and
1939 spawnings, especially the last. Weights were higher than during the two preceding seasons. • In contrast to the conditions in recent years males were again more
numerous than females.
Under an arrangement with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, scales
taken in connection with sampling the Canadian catch are mounted immediately and
sent to the United States Federal laboratory to be read. After being read the mounted
scales are returned for confirmatory reading and storage. The samples show that the
greatest contribution to the 1943 fishery was made by the brood of 1939 (four-year-
olds) with the 1938 year-class (five-year-olds)  second most important.
No new pilchard-tags were put out during the past year. The recoveries made
during 1943 and the way in which they affect calculations based on previous returns
are shown in the Appendix.
The pilchard programme has been carried out by Dr. J. L. Hart with the help of
two part-time assistants.
HERRING INVESTIGATION.
An investigation of the herring of British Columbia, financed jointly by the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department, was
continued in 1943. The work was undertaken by Dr. A. L. Tester, Mr. J. C. Stevenson
(since July 1st, 1943), and their assistants.
An extensive tagging and tag-recovery programme has been under way for several
years. The results for 1943-44 are included in detail in the Appendix to this report.
In general, these conform with the results of previous years in showing the essential
independence of runs of herring to major areas, although, as in 1942-43, mixing (16
per cent, on the average) was somewhat more extensive than previously found. The
1943-44 run to Kwakshua Passage, which yielded about 35,000 tons of fish, contained
mostly tags which were originally used on adjacent spawning-grounds in the vicinity
of Bella Bella. However, the run also contained a relatively large number of tags from
Queen Charlotte Strait area and a small number from Discovery Passage and the northern part of the Strait of Georgia, and from the northern part of the west coast of
Vancouver Island.
A clearer understanding of the movements and migrations of herring of the Strait
of Georgia has been obtained as a result of two years of intensive study. There are two
migration routes which can be, and presumably are, used by Strait of Georgia fish in
travelling to and from summer feeding-grounds outside the area. Fish which spawn in
Discovery Passage and the northern part of the Strait apparently use the northern
route, by way of Johnstone Strait, and on their return supply the Deepwater Bay and
Deep Bay (in 1942-43) fisheries. Either en route or on summer feeding-grounds they
may mix to some extent with Queen Charlotte Strait or even Central coast-line fish. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 27
Herring which spawn along the south-east coast of Vancouver Island use the southern
route, by way of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and on their return supply the fishing-
grounds from Satellite Channel to Nanoose Bay, chiefly the former. Occasionally, and
presumably on their offshore summer feeding-grounds, they mix to a slight extent with
herring from the southern part of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Of the herring
which spawn along the north-east and north-west shores of the Strait of Georgia, part
use the northern and part the southern route. On their return, those using the northern route contribute to the Deepwater Bay and Deep Bay fisheries; those using the
southern route contribute to the fisheries from Satellite Channel to Nanoose Bay, chiefly
the latter. The exact situation is one of considerable complexity, perhaps even more so
than is indicated in the foregoing explanation, and will doubtless vary from year to
year.
Sampling of the commercial catches and spawning runs for length, weight, sex, and
age was continued in 1943-44 with 93 samples (10,051 fish) from the former and 13
samples (1,415 fish) from the latter. Age studies on the 1942-43 samples were completed during the course of the year. A start was also made on a detailed study of
variation in scale pattern with the expectation that it might facilitate scale-reading and
perhaps provide additional information on the extent of mixing between runs. This
phase of the work is being undertaken by Mr. Stevenson.
Spawning reports, covering herring-spawning conditions in 1943 in all areas, were
again collected. These are compiled by fisheries inspectors of the Dominion Department of Fisheries.
Pilot-house record-books were again used as a medium for obtaining detailed daily
catch records of the herring-fishery. Considerable progress was made on preparing a
comprehensive account of fluctuations in the availability and abundance of herring on
the various fishing-grounds over a period of years.
During 1943, Bulletin No. 63 (Fisheries Research Board of Canada, pp. 1-21, 9
fig.) was published. This deals with research on the use of the echo sounder to locate
schools of herring in British Columbia waters, and covers in detail the work done with
the M.V. " Nishga," which was summarized in the report for last year.
SHELL-FISH INVESTIGATION.
The investigation into the shell-fish of British Columbia, with particular emphasis
on clams, was continued in 1943. It will be remembered that this investigation was
instituted in order to ascertain the conditions prevailing on some of the clam-beaches
of British Columbia, particularly those which had been exploited commercially for some
considerable time. The investigation was undertaken by the Fisheries Research Board
of Canada at the request of the Provincial Fisheries Department and is financed jointly
by these two organizations. The work was commenced by Dr. Roy Elsey and is now
being conducted by Mr. Ferris Neave, of the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo.
While all shell-fish are included in the investigation particular emphasis is being placed
on the clams, as it is felt that exploitation of this species has been greater than the
others, and, consequently, the need for protection is greater on that account.
In the Appendix to this report there will be found a paper by Mr. Ferris Neave,
entitled " Biological Investigations of Commercial Shell-fish." In this paper Mr. Neave
discusses the distribution of the 1942-43 clam-catch and compares the annual production of different areas in relation to the fishing effort expended. The investigations
show that in most areas there is an increase in availability of butter-clams and little-
neck clams. There is now being obtained similar statistical information for razor-
clams on the Graham Island beaches of the Queen Charlottes.
The 1943 season was the third season of controlled digging on Seal Island and
production for this digging was extended to the whole beach with a limit of about 100 J 28 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
tons for the season. Availability of clams in this area was very high and although the
more heavily dug portions of the beach showed reduced productivity, investigations so
far lead the investigators to believe that an annual production of 100 tons could be
sustained for several years.
From examinations of small butter-clams from several localities indications are
that sexual maturity is obtained at an average length of 1% inches, both in the slower
and faster growing populations. In the localities under review, clams become capable
of spawning at from three to five years of age and at least two or three years before
reaching the minimum legal length of 2% inches.
Some preliminary experiments on the production of seed oysters were carried out
in an open-air tank which gave favourable results in the case of the native oyster. In
connection with the Pacific oyster larvae, only a few were reared to the setting stage.
The author indicates that there remains a possibility of future success.
The reader is referred to Mr. Neave's paper in the Appendix for a fuller account of
the investigation.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1943.
The regulation of the Pacific halibut-fishery was continued by the International
Fisheries Commission, as prescribed by the treaty between Canada and the United
States. Investigations of the fishery and of the stocks of halibut were continued to
ascertain the effect of regulations and to provide a sound basis for future regulation.
Canadian representation on the Commission was changed early in the year when
Mr. L. W. Patmore, who became a member in 1938, resigned. Mr. G. W. Nickerson was
appointed to fill the vacancy. The other members of the Commission were Mr. A. J.
Whitmore for Canada and Mr. Edward W. Allen and Mr. Charles E. Jackson for the
United States. Mr. Allen served as chairman and Mr. Patmore and Mr. Nickerson,
successively, as secretary.
Meetings of the Commission were held on April '28th at Vancouver and on November 30th and December 1st and 2nd at Seattle. A meeting was held on December 1st
with the Conference Board composed of representatives of the halibut-fishing fleets.
At this meeting members of the Conference Board were informed of the results of the
investigations and the effects of regulation upon the condition of the stocks, and presented their recommendations for the 1944 regulations.
The 1943 halibut-fishery regulations were issued on February 15th. These contained only a few important changes from those of the previous year. The Area 2
catch-limit was increased from 22,700,000 to 23,000,000 lb., and that for Area 3 from
26,800,000 to 27,500,000 lb. The period of validity of permits, under which set-line
vessels could retain and land halibut caught incidentally during fishing for other species
in closed areas, was extended to November 30th, irrespective of when the grounds closed
to regular halibut-fishing. Receivers of halibut were required to report catches of
halibut taken under permit to enforcement officers before unloading such catches.
The fishing season opened on April 16th. Areas 1 and 2, including the grounds
south of Cape Spencer, Alaska, were closed at midnight June 20th, when the Area 2
catch-limit was attained. Areas 3 and 4, including all fishing-grounds north and west
of Cape Spencer, closed on September 8th when the catch-limit for Area 3 was reached.
Small amounts of halibut, caught under permit and not chargeable to the catch-limits,
continued to be landed until November 30th as provided in the regulations.
Landings of halibut reported on the Pacific coast during the year amounted to
53,575,000 lb. The total from Area 1, which extends south of Willapa Harbour along
the Washington, Oregon, and California coasts, amounted to 462,000 lb. Areas 2 and 3,
previously defined, produced 24,696,000 lb. and 28,417,000 lb. respectively. No halibut
was caught in Area 4, which includes the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island regions.   The BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 29
Area 2 catch included 842,000 lb. taken under permit after the closure of the area to
regular halibut-fishing.
The catch by Canadian vessels from Area 2 was almost 2,000,000 lb. greater than
in 1942 and accounted for 45 per cent, of that area's production, compared to 39 per
cent, in 1942. From Area 3, the Canadian catch declines about 250,000 lb. A greater
increase of the Canadian than of the United States fleet in Area 2 accounted for its
larger share of the catch from that area.
The self-imposed curtailment system, adopted some years earlier by the fleets in
an effort to secure a more orderly marketing of their catches, was continued. Tie-up
periods between trips were markedly reduced from previous years and catch-limits per
man per trip were increased, resulting in a curtailment programme that had but little
effect in extending the season. However, it did prevent the landing of very large loads
by the large halibut-vessels and by the large sardine-boats temporarily engaged in
halibut-fishing. It also discouraged the overloading of smaller vessels and the consequent landing of improperly iced fish.
Scientific investigations which have been found by the Commission to be indispensable to the proper management of the fishery were continued. New conditions in
the fishery and the changing aspect of the stocks of fish brought about by regulation
were observed and measured, as well as war-time conditions permitted, to determine the
proper course of future regulation.
The abundance of halibut as measured by the catch per unit of fishing effort showed
some improvement during the year. Preliminary figures indicate a considerable increase of 14.6 per cent, in Area 2. and a slight gain of less than 1 per cent, in Area 3
over the corresponding 1942 figures. The catch per unit of effort was 112 and 110 per
cent, above the 1930 level in Areas 2 and 3 respectively.
Study of the changes in the size and age composition of the marketable stocks,
necessary to understand the changes in abundance, was continued by sampling of the
commercial catch. Approximately 25,000 halibut were measured and material for the
determination of ages was taken from 2,500 of these.
Analysis of the length samples showed that the improvement in abundance during
1943 had been caused mainly by the occurrence of halibut of the smallest commercial
sizes in greater numbers than in any other recent year. This increase in the number
of young fish was predicted some years ago on the basis of the unusually successful
spawning which the spawning investigations of 1936-37 showed had taken place that
winter. This greater replacement should, if carefully husbanded, compensate in part
for the lower replacements that are expected from the relatively poor production of
spawn in the winters from 1938-39 to 1941—42, inclusive.
Field investigations of the production of spawn, which are normally conducted
each winter, were not undertaken in 1943—44 because war-time black-out restrictions
did not permit the continuous day-and-night vessel operations which experience has
proven to be necessary to cover the spawning-grounds adequately. This respite from
winter field-work made it possible to complete the analysis of the spawning data from
the previous nine winters and to begin the organization of this material for publication.
Analysis of materials collected during the spawning investigations of the previous
winter showed that the production of eggs in 1942-43 was much greater than in the
preceding four winters, though it did not reach the high level of 1936-37. This improvement in the spawning should be reflected in the abundance of small fish in the
commercial catches of 1949 and following years.
The Commission's investigations prove that the stock of halibut in Area 3 is in
good condition and that the annual yield from the area is approaching the maximum
that the grounds can produce. They show that the stock in Area 2 is continuing to
improve but is still far below the level of abundance which the grounds can support. J 30
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
They indicate that the annual yields now taken from Area 2 are still considerably below
the amount which can be secured by continued rational control of the fishery.
Control of the fishery during the past twelve years has resulted in increased annual
yields, now 10,000,000 lb. greater than the unrestricted fishery was able to take immediately preceding regulation and possibly 20,000,000 lb. higher than they would
have been to-day if the fishery had been permitted to continue its uncontrolled course.
These increased catches, which are taken with about one-third less fishing effort, make
an important contribution to the war-time fish production of Canada and the United
States and at present prices add about $1,750,000 to the annual incomes of the fishermen of the two nations.
INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1943.
There will be found in the Appendix to this report a " Report on the Investigations
of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission," covering the work done in
1943.    The report is submitted by Mr. B. M. Brennan, Director.
The Commission was set up under treaty between Canada and the United States
and is charged with the rehabilitation of the Fraser River sockeye-salmon runs. The
Commission is composed of six members, three appointed by the Government of Canada
and three by the Government of the United States. The work of the Commission is
financed equally by the two countries.
The report for 1943 deals particularly with the findings of the Commission in connection with a serious blockade of salmon at Hell's Gate and other less serious blockades
on other parts of the migration route. The report also deals briefly with salt-water
tagging and recovery of tags, both in salt and fresh water, and briefly touches on the
statistics of the commercial fishery, as well as statistics on the Indian fishery. There is
a section in the report which deals with the spawning-grounds and the determination of
the escapement thereto, together with the evaluation of the relative success of spawning.
The reader is referred to the report in full for a more complete resume of the
Commission's work, as reported by the Director.
THE PACIFIC SALMON IN BRITISH COLUMBIA WATERS.
In the report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for 1934 there appeared a
paper entitled " The Pacific Salmon in British Columbia Waters," by Dr. W. A. Clemens,
together with a paper entitled " The Identification of the Young of the Five Species of
Pacific Salmon, with Notes on the Fresh-water Phase of their Life-history," by Drs.
R. E. Foerster and A. L. Pritchard, of the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
Since that time these papers have had a wide circulation and have been unavailable
for some time. The demand for reprinting by scientists and laymen alike has been
so insistent that it has been deemed advisable to reprint these two papers in the
Appendix to this report. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 31
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 29.)
By W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, The University of
British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
The total pack of sockeye salmon on Rivers Inlet and the Skeena and Nass Rivers
was only 89,282 cases. This is an exceptionally small pack and, in fact, represents only
an average pack on either Rivers Inlet or the Skeena River over the past thirty years.
The return of sockeye to each of the three areas was apparently exceptionally low, for
in no case is there a report of an exceptionally large escapement. The following is the
information available, that on escapements being provided by Major J. A. Motherwell,
Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, Vancouver:—
Rivers Inlet:  Pack, 47,602 cases;  escapement fair.
Skeena River:  Pack, 28,268 cases;  escapement good, but below those of 1938
and 1939, which were reported as very good.
Nass River:  Pack, 13,412 cases;  escapement fairly good (reported as a little
under average).
The return to Rivers Inlet was evidently small, probably in part because of the
failure of the brood-year 1939 to produce an appreciable number of four-year-old fish.
The situation developing on this river seems to demand a period of larger escapements
to provide the " margin of safety " as suggested in the 1938 report.
The extensive scientific investigation being commenced by the Fisheries Research
Board of Canada on the Skeena River is a hopeful feature in connection with this river
system, whose production in sockeye salmon has reached the lowest in thirty-seven
years of record.
The Nass River continues to produce runs of varying sizes from year to year
without any clear-cut relation to previous cyclic returns. The packs during the past
ten years have shown less fluctuation and have averaged higher than those of the
preceding ten years. This may indicate a tendency toward a somewhat stabilized
condition in production.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which
the fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers,
one in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type,
placed to the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left the
fresh water.    The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
31? 4-l—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature
at the ages of three and four years respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and
mature at the age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of
four and five respectively. J 32 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five
and six respectively.
64, 7i—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six
and seven respectively.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1943.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The pack of sockeye at Rivers Inlet in 1943 amounted to 47,602 cases. In only
three previous years—1916, 1921, and 1936—did the packs reach levels below 50,000
cases. The run of 1943 was composed of 91 per cent, of five-year-old fish and only 8
per cent, of four-year-olds, exactly duplicating the composition of the 1942 run. The
brood-years of 1937 and 1938 apparently produced largely five-year-old fish. In the
former the run was fairly large, providing a large pack and a " satisfactory " escapement. In the latter year the run was apparently of much the same extent, supplying
a large pack and a " better than usual " escapement. However, the two years varied
greatly in composition and productivity. The run of the year 1937 was composed of
60 per cent. 42's and 37 per cent. 52's and produced a large number of 42's in 1941 as
well as a large number of 52's in 1942. On the other hand, the run of 1938 was composed of 27 per cent. 42's and 70 per cent. 52's and produced very few 42's in 1942 and
a relatively small number of 52's in 1943.
The situation on Rivers Inlet will be of interest in 1946 and 1947, for if the fish of
the 1942 and 1943 year-classes have strong tendencies to produce five-year-old fish there
will be very few four-year-old fish in the years 1946 and 1947. In any case, unless
production of young fish from the spawning of 1943 is exceptionally large, the runs of
1947 and 1948 will be adversely affected.
The return in 1944 will be the result of the spawnings in 1939 and 1940. In the
former year the pack was 54,143 cases and the escapement was reported to be an
average one, slightly below expectancy. The fisheries inspector also reported rather
unusual high-water conditions. Since this brood-year has produced very few four-
year-old fish, the " average " escapement in the face of high-water conditions will probably produce a limited number of five-year-old fish in 1944. In 1940 the pack was
63,469 cases and the escapement was stated to be large. There is every reason to
expect a fairly good return of four-year-old fish.
(2.) Age-groups.
The data for this year's study are obtained from 1,457 fish obtained in thirty
random samplings of the commercial catch from July 1st to August 7th. The 49 age-
group is represented by 120 individuals forming 8 per cent., the 52 age-group by 1,323
or 91 per cent., the 63 age-group by 14 or 1 per cent. In addition, there is one 62 fish
not included in the tabulations or calculations. The above percentages are identical
with those of 1942 and are noteworthy because of the predominance of five-year-old
fish.    (Table I.)
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 20.5 and
21.1 inches respectively and of the 52 age-group 24.3 and 23.7 respectively. These are
slightly below the averages of the past years of record.    (Table IV.)
The average weights of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 4.1 and 4.4
lb. respectively and of the 52 age-group 6.8 and 6.3 lb. respectively. These are somewhat beloW the averages of the past years of record.    (Table V.)
The information concerning the distribution of the lengths and weights in 1943 is
given in Tables II. and III. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 33
One male of the 62 age-group occurs in the sampling. It is 26 inches in length
and 7% lb. in weight.
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 526 and of females 931, percentages
of 36 and 64 respectively. In the 42 age-group the males predominate with a percentage of 62 and in the 52 age-group the females predominate with a percentage of 66.
The distribution of the sexes is almost identical with that of 1942 and again shows a
preponderance of females as compared with the 1915-41 averages of 50:50.   (Table VI.)
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
(87,874 cases).-
(64,652 cases) —
(89,027 cases) —
(126,921 cases).
(88,763 cases)-.
(112,884 cases)..
(61,745 cases) —
(89,890 cases)-
(130,350 cases)..
(44,936 cases)—.
(61,195 eases)—.
(53,401 cases)—.
(56,258 cases) —
(121,254 cases)..
(46,300 cases) —
(60,700 cases) —
(107,174 cases)..
(94,891 eases)-.
(159,554 cases)..
(65,581 cases) ...
(64,461 cases)	
(60,044 cases) —
(70,260 cases) —
(119,170 cases)..
(76,428 cases) —
(69,732 cases)....
(83,507 cases)	
(76,923 cases)—
(135,038 cases)-
(46,351 cases).—
(84,832 cases) —
(87,942 cases)....
(54,143 cases)	
(63,469 cases) —
(93,378 cases) —
(79,199 cases) —
(47,602 cases) —
21
80
35.
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
56
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91 J 34
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
Table II.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1943, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
M.
M.
Total.
18 —.
18%-
19_	
19%-
20—
2oy2..
21.	
2iy2_.
22—
22 y2..
23	
23V2..
24—
24V2..
25	
25%..
26.	
26y2..
27	
27y2..
Totals-
Average lengths..
22
13
18
3
4
2
1
74
2
7
8
13
5
8
1
1
1
46
3
10
18
27
28
51
60
73
75
45
34
15
1
11
21
48
77
141
151
143
156
78
38
11
1
446
877
23.7
25.3
24.6
	
2
	
11
30
22
	
45
39
78
	
107
172
203
3
206
1
230
4
159
83
46
18
3
2
1,457
Table III.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1943, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
52
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2y2   	
1
17
30
17
6
3
2
20
12
10
1
1
1
2
11
32
35
50
66
86
70
49
25
11
8
1
12
36
83
133
178
154
150
82
35
11
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
3	
3y2   	
4...    	
4%     	
5	
sy.— — —	
6   	
64
76
131
174
6%     -
223
236
158
86
36
14
9
7 _
714 _ 	
8 __ '	
8y2     	
9	
9V>                   ___
Totals	
74
46.
446
877
6
8
1,457
4.1
4.4
6.8
6.3
7.8
7.1 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 35
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the 4% and $2
Groups, 1912 to 1943.
42
52
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41                  	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
24.7
1912-41 (conversion) _   	
1942                    	
23.9
23.8
1943    	
23.7
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the 4% and 52
Groups, 1914 to 1943.
Year.
42
52
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41              _ —    .
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.8
4.6
4.4
7.0
7.2
6.8
6 5
1942            .                         ...                  	
6 4
1943  	
6.3
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1943.
Year.
4
2
52
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915-41 (average) —   	
1942     	
63
61
62
37
39
38
34
35
34
66
65
66
50
38
36
50
62
1943                           	
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1943.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The Skeena River sockeye salmon produced a pack of 28,268 cases, which is the
lowest in thirty-seven years of record. The report on the escapement to the Babine
area states " although in general being satisfactory, was below that of 1939." In the
Lakelse area the escapement was reported to be good. It is hoped that the causes of
this serious decline in productivity will be disclosed by the investigation now being
undertaken by the Fisheries Research Board.
The. return in 1944 will be the product of the 1939 and 1940 spawnings. In the
former year the pack was 68,485 cases and the escapement exceptionally good. In the
latter year the pack was 116,507 cases and the escapement large. There would appear
to be a reasonable expectation of a fairly large run in 1944.
(2.) Age-groups.
The length, weight, and sex data and scale collections were obtained from 2,156
fish in thirty-four random samplings from July 5th to August 19th. The 42 age-group
is represented by 844 individuals or 39 per cent., the 52 by 841 or 39 per cent., the 53 J 36 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
by 358 or 16 per cent., and the 63 by 113 or 6 per cent. The outstanding feature in
the distribution of the year-class percentages is the high representation of 53 and 63
fish. This suggests the possibility of an admixture of Nass River fish. Furthermore,
the scale patterns are identical for the most part with those of the corresponding age-
groups in the Nass fish. However, the average lengths and weights of these age-
classes in the two rivers are quite different and it would seem therefore that there
was no significant influx of Nass River fish.    (Table VII.)
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females in the 42 age-group are 21.9 and
21.9 inches respectively and are considerably below the averages of the past years of
record. In the 52 age-group the averages are 25.1 and 23.9 inches respectively, the
latter being somewhat below the general average. The averages in the 53 age-group
are 23.3 and 22.6 inches and in the 63 age-group 25.8 and 24.2 inches respectively.
While these are below the averages of 1942, they are essentially equal to those of the
past years of record.    (Table X.)
The average weights of the males and females in the 42 age-group are 4.7 and
4.6 lb. respectively and are considerably below the records of past years. In the
other age-groups the weights do not differ significantly from those of previous years.
(Table XI.)
The distributions of the lengths and weights are given in Tables VIII. and IX.
Two male individuals of the 32 age-group occur in the samplings but are not
included in the tabulations or calculations. The data for these are as follows: August
6—15% inches, 1% lb.;   August 19—15% inches, 1% lb.
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 917 and of females 1,239, percentages of 43 and 57 respectively. The percentage of males in the 42 age-group is equal
to that of the females, which is unusual, since the females usually predominate. There
is a high predominance of females in the 52 age-group with a percentage of 69. This
is somewhat similar to the situation in 1942 and much above the 1915-41 average.
(Table XII.)
The distributions of the sexes in the 53 and 63 age-groups are almost equal. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 37
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
(108,413 cases) .
(139,846 cases).
(87,901 cases)....
(187,246 cases).
(131,066 cases) .
(92,498 cases) —
(52,927 cases)—
(130,166 cases)_
(116,553 cases) .
(60,923 cases) —
(65,760 cases)....
(123,322 cases) ..
(184,945 cases)..
(90,869 cases)....
(41,018 cases) —
(96,277 cases)...
(131,731 cases) _
(144,747 cases).
(77,784 cases) ...
(82,360 cases) —
(83,996 cases).._
(34,559 cases)-
(78,017 cases) ...
(132,372 cases).
(93,023 cases)...
(59,916 cases)....
(30,506 cases)-
(54,558 cases) —
(52,879 cases)....
(81,973 cases) —
(42,491 cases) —
(47,257 cases) —
(68,485 cases)—
(116,507 cases) _
(81,767 cases) „
(34,544 cases) —
(28,268 cases) —
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
36
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
13
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
18
5
6
4
8
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5
4
1
1
3
6 J 38
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1943, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
5
2
5
3
€
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
18%	
2
2
19.. -
2
 .
	
	
	
1
3
19 y2           .    - .
4
1
5
20 --
22
3
1
1
27
2oy2	
42
15
2
59
21
42
57
70
80
46
113
129
73
2
5
1
17
38
2
10
20
16
7
27
25
34
2
4
97
2iy2	
208
22	
265
22y2._ - —
250
23  	
58
30
6
72
37
35
1
6
245
23y2 —
34
10
15
116
36
20
4
8
243
24	
7
2
1
1
35
43
124
114
23
21
12
9
'    4
4
12
11
218
24»/2	
205
25	
37
61
10
3
5
4
120
25y2„ _    	
	
37
25
3
1
11
4
81
26 	
	
	
32
11
1
7
5
56
26y2 - 	
	
29
2
1
• 4
36
27 	
9
	
5
2
16
27%
7
1
5
13
28     	
2
3
5
28y2	
	
1
1
29 	
	
	
2914  	
1
1
Totals—          	
422
422
259
582
181
177
65
58
2,156
Ave. lengths	
21.9
21.9
25.1
23.9
23.3
22.6
25.8
24.2
	
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1943, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
5
3
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2VZ	
2
3
28
95
101
108
69
13
3
12
115
153
106
28
7
1
1
6
15
22
32
49
54
35
23
10
8
2
2
2
38
97
131
127
97
63
20
5
1
1
1
9
24
35
40
37
18
15
1
1
3
27
47
46
29
18
4
2
1
2
1
6
8
7
14
5
6
3
3
3
8
9
10
16
8
3
1
2
3     	
3
3y2	
4     --	
44
249
4^_           	
5    	
5% -	
6.        _           	
329
6y2	
7     	
7%     	
8
195
150
73
35
17
13
5
2
8%   	
9        '	
gy2..        	
10	
Totals	
422
422
259
582
181
177
55
58
2,156
Ave. weights	
4.7
4.6
6.8
5.9
5.5
4.9
7.3
6.1
	 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 39
Table X.-—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1943.
42
52
h
63
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41 	
1912—41 (conversion)  -	
1942      - -	
1943     	
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
25.8
26.1
25.2
25.1
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
24.8
24.1
24.9
24.7
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1943.
Year.
42
h
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41 _ 	
1942  	
1943.	
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.6
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.1
6.0
5.9
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.1
5.4
4.9
6.8
7.2
7.3
6.0
6.6
6.1
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1943.
42
52
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.   ■
Total
Females.
1915-41 (average)     	
1942	
1943.            ,	
48
42
50
52
58
50
43
25
31
57
75
69
46
33
43
54
67
57
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1943.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The run of sockeye salmon to the Nass River produced a pack of 13,412 cases and
an escapement described as fairly good but somewhat under average. It would seem
from these facts that the run was small.
The return in 1944 will be the product of the spawnings of 1939 and 1940. In the
former year the pack was 24,357 cases and the escapement reported as very satisfactory.
In the latter year the pack was 13,809 cases and the escapement was medium to light.
A medium-sized run would seem the most that could be expected, but attempts at prediction are of little value on this river system.
(2.) Age-groups.
The material for the 1943 study consists of data for 1,304 fish obtained in thirty-
three random samplings from July 6th to August 21st. The representation of the
various age-classes is as follows: 42, 69 or 5 per cent.; 52, 171 or 13 per cent.; 53, 874
or 67 per cent.; and 63, 190 or 15 per cent. (Table XIII.). The outstanding feature in
the distribution is the very low percentage of four-year-old fish and the rather high
representation of fish in the 52 and 63 age-groups. It would appear that there had
been a tendency for the Nass fish to remain an additional year in the sea. J 40
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of both males and females of the 42 and 53 age-groups are
approximately 1 inch below the averages of the past years of record (Table XVI.).
On the other hand, the average lengths of the fish in the 52 and 63 age-groups are
slightly above the average of the past years.
The average weights of both the males and females of the 42 and 53 age-groups
are much below the averages of the past years of record; in fact, in the 53 age-class
are a pound below.
The average weights in the 52 and 63 age-groups are approximately equivalent
to the averages of the past years.    (Table XVII.)
The distributions of the lengths and weights are given in Tables XIV. and XV.
(4.) Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 702 and of females 602, percentages
of 54 and 46 respectively. This is a decided reversal of conditions, since the females
are usually represented by the higher percentage. The situation results from the
preponderance of males in the 52 and 63 age-groups.
Table XIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
from 1912 to 1943 and Packs.
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
(36,037 cases).
(23,574 cases)..
(31,327 cases) _
(39,349 cases)-
(31,411 cases)..
(22,188 cases)..
(21,816 cases).
(28,259 cases).
(16,740 cases)-
(9,364 cases)..
(31,277 cases)..
(17,821 cases )..
(33,590 cases)..
(18,945 cases)..
(15,929 cases)..
(12,026 cases)..
(5,540 cases) —
(16,077 cases)..
(26,405 cases)..
(16,929 cases)..
(14,154 cases)..
(9,757 cases) —
(36,242 cases) -
(12,712 cases)„
(28,562 cases)..
(17,567 cases)-
(21,462 cases)..
(24,357 cases )-
(13,809 cases)-
(24,876 cases)-
(21,085 cases)-
(13,412 cases)-
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
'22
21
14
23
37
22
5
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
63
2
71
2
45
10
59
8
66
8
71
4
45
9
65
6
72
6
75
8
91
1
77
6
91
2
67
2
63
13
81
4
61
3
60
6
54
3
67
6
61
7
55
3
74
4
73
6
67
10
68
6
70
5
66
7
59
10
52
4
66
5
67
15 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 41
Table XIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1943, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
53
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
20 y2
1
2
3
9
9
7
2
2
1
4
5
7
10
■3
3
1
7
19
19
18
21
16
8
3
3
1
3
2
11
15
7
9
6
1
1
1
2
3
9
17
46
61
84
86
51
36
13
3
1
4
27
62
95
96
102
51
19
4
2
1
4
11
11
21
25
30
14
18
6
1
1
6
7
8
11
4
5
5
1
1
21                               	
8
21%                 ..                        	
14
22       — _._	
46
22%              	
98
23                    	
157
23 y2                                         	
169
24                                                         -
200
24%                                  -   -.
169
25	
107
25%                                - -	
87
26.       	
61
26%                	
50
27              	
47
27%           -  -
44
28                                         -           	
18
28%                                  -	
21
29 -	
7
35
34
115
56
411
463
141
49
1,304
22.8
22.2
26.1
24.8
24.1
23.5
27.1
25.8
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1943, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
h
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3%                         	
3
4
11
12
4
1
1
3
17
8
3
2
8
10
26
21
22
11
13
2
1
1
3
7
16
15
8
4
2
1
2
4
21
56
94
111
70
40
11
2
9
79
140
130
79
21
3
2
3
9
20
25
26
34
16
7
1
1
1
8
11
13
6
4
5
3
4%                           	
122
5                  ..          	
218
5%                    	
247
6                   -	
221
6%                ~	
137
7            	
110
7%            	
69
8	
56
8%                            -	
51
9              	
39
9%         . 	
9
10                               	
1
10%
1
11           	
1
Totals    —
35
34
115
56
411
463
141
49
1,304
5.2
4.7
7.6
6.4
5.9
5.3
7.9
6.9 J 42               REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths
Age-groups, 1912 to 1943.
in Inches of Principal
Year.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41 	
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.8
26.1
25.4
24.9
24.1
25.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.4
25.7
1942.	
26.0
1943 _   ...
25.8
Table XVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1943.
Year.
42
h
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.             F.
1914-41 — -_
1942	
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.4
5.1
4.7
7.3
7.1
7.6
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.2
5.6
5.3
8.0              7.0
7.5              6.7
1943-	
7.9              6.9
1  1
Table XVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1943.
Year.
42
52
h
63
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915-41 (average)	
1942	
1943 - -	
49
42
51
52
58
49
47
48
67
53
52
33
45
44
47
55
56
'53
63
70
74
37
30
26
47
45
54
53
55
46 BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 43
PILCHARD-TAGGING AND PILCHARD-TAG RECOVERY
FROM 1936 TO 1943.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
A technical account of the pilchard-tagging work in British Columbia from 1935
to 1941 has been published in the Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada
(Hart, 1943a), based on tagging and recoveries recorded in Appendices of the Reports
of the British Columbia Provincial Fisheries Department from 1936 to 1941. The
present report attempts a condensation of the earlier paper, with alterations to
include:—
(1.)  Recovery in 1941 in the State of Washington of two Canadian tags, one
put out in each of 1939 and 1940, erroneously omitted from the Journal
account.
(2.)  Recoveries in British Columbia in 1942 (Hart, 19436).
(3.)  Recoveries made in British Columbia in 1943, as follows:—
Canadian tags—
One tag put out in 1938—out five years.
One tag put out in 1940—out three years.
Oregon tags—twelve tags.
California tags—thirty-five tags.
No Canadian tags were recovered in the United States during 1942.
Throughout the report tags recovered since 1941 are separated from earlier recoveries by placing them after a plus sign in brackets.    These tags are included in
calculations involving numbers of recoveries, but are excluded from the calculation of
the concentrations of tags in the populations where their inclusion would lead to distortion of the results and from other calculations.
TAGGING.
Fish for tagging were obtained from the seines of commercial fishermen and with
minor exceptions were tagged directly from the nets and released on the fishing-
grounds. The tags were serially numbered strips of nickel-plated iron, 19 by 4 by
0.86 mm., weighing 0.44 gram. They were applied internally, in the body-cavity, either
by manually inserting the tag through a slit cut with a fine chisel or by the use of a
so-called " gun " which combined the functions of cutting and insertion with carrying
100 tags in a magazine.
During six years 20,391 pilchards were tagged in connection with the regular
summer (July to September) fishery working from the west coast of Vancouver Island,
as follows: 1935,978; 1936,2,535; 1937,6,936; 1938,4,982; 1939,2,370; 1940,2,590.
Of these, 14,185 tags were used in connection with Canadian fishing operations carried
on off the coast of Washington and Oregon, as follows: 1937, 6,736; 1938, 2,489;
1939, 2,370; 1940, 2,590. The remainder of the tags were used either off the Vancouver Island coast or in the inlets of the west coast of Vancouver Island.
In making use of tagging results it must be kept in mind that the total number
of tags put out is not effective. Substantial numbers of tagged fish die as a result of
handling and others are destroyed immediately after release by the accumulation of
predators around the pursed-up net.
RECOVERY.
Tags from recaptured fish were collected by magnets placed between grinders and
driers in the meal lines of reduction plants.    In Canada they were obtained for exami- J 44 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
nation by paying rewards for sending the tags, together with a statement of the source
of the fish producing the return, to the proper authorities. In California tags were
picked out in the laboratory from the scrap-metal collected on the magnets. Some tags
were recovered from various traps or crevices in the reduction machinery.
Returns made by magnets involve two sources of error: (1) Not all tags are
recovered—some pass over the magnet and are lost. Tests of efficiency in recovery of
reduction plants (Brock, 1940; Hart, 1938; Janssen, 19386; Shuman, 1939) permit
quantitative compensation for the deficiency. (2) Some tags are detained in their
passage from the fish-bins to the magnets for considerable periods. The fact that such
tags are frequently reported as coming from an incorrect source must be constantly
kept in mind in interpreting results.
TREATMENT OF DATA.
In making calculations of the concentrations of tags in different fishing areas and
seasons, adjustments were made for the size of the fish in the catches since fish less
than 220 mm. standard length were seldom, if ever, available for tagging in connection
with the Canadian investigation. The number of fish more than 220 mm. length was
calculated on the basis of the tonnage landed and of the sizes encountered in each year
and region as found by sampling. Weighting was then completed by multiplying this
number by the composite tag-recovery efficiency for the region to give the number of
fish more than 220 mm. standard length which would have produced the number of
returns recorded with perfect recovery. These values were used to calculate (1) the
weighted concentrations of tags per 100,000 metric tons (0.907 metric ton equals 1
short ton) of fish more than 220 mm. and (2) the weighted concentration of tags per
100,000,000 fish more than 220 mm.
Where numbers of tags are considered the weighted numbers have been obtained
by multiplying the actual number of recoveries by the reciprocal of recovery efficiency
for the appropriate year and region.
RESULTS.
Number of Recoveries.
In all, 483 (+5) Canadian tags have been recovered at plants in the following
political divisions: British Columbia—357 (+3), Washington—55, Oregon—33 (the
three referred to collectively hereinafter as the " North-east Pacific ") ; and California
—38 (+2).
A large proportion of recoveries from the North-east Pacific were made very soon
after tagging. These recoveries are believed to be not representative of conditions
among pilchards in general and they have, accordingly, not been used in making calculations. The numbers of quick recoveries are: 1936, 18; 1937, 59; 1938, 268;
1939, 28;   1940, 41.
In addition to Canadian tags, magnets installed in British Columbia plants recovered 127 (+42) tags used by the California Bureau of Marine Fisheries off the
California coast (Janssen, 1938a, 19386, 1939, etc.) and 7 (+17) tags used by the
Oregon Pish Commission in connection with operations of the Oregon fishing fleet
(Brock, 1940, etc.).
Movements between Canadian and Californian Grounds.
The recovery of 38 (+2) Canadian tags by California plants and of 127 (+42)
California tags by British Columbia plants shows unquestionably the movement of
pilchards from Canadian fishing-grounds to Californian and the reverse.    That the BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 45
movement is fairly general is indicated by comparing 38 (+2) with the number of
North-east Pacific recoveries of Canadian tags exclusive of quick returns 31 (+3).
(British Columbia, 20 (+3), including 2 recoveries made in 1936; Washington, 9;
Oregon, 2.)
Comparative Concentrations on the Whole Coast.
Conclusions based upon comparisons of the small numbers of returns indicated
must be accepted with caution. Certain comparisons between weighted concentrations
are, however, of interest.
Recoveries made during the season immediately following that of tagging:—
Region.
Tags
recovered.
Tags per
100,000 Metric
Tons, weighted.
Tags per
100,000,000
Fish, weighted.
North-east Pacific.   	
25
29
17.0
7.8
3.6
Recoveries made during seasons subsequent to the one immediately following that
of tagging:—
Region.
Tags
recovered.
Tags per
100,000 Metric
Tons, weighted.
Tags per
100,000,000
Fish, weighted.
4 (+3)
10 (+1)
2.7
2.7
California.. :    	
0.46
It will be noted that pilchard-tags are more concentrated in the North-east Pacific
than in California waters during the season immediately following that of tagging.
This difference in the concentrations of tags in different regions does not continue into
subsequent years.
The change from differential concentration to near uniformity may be explained
in several ways. The excess of tags in the North-east Pacific may be those which
entered reduction plants as quick recoveries and were retained until the following-
season. It is likely that a few such tags were unrecognized, but it is unlikely that all
or even much of the observed difference can be attributed to them.
The larger concentration of tags in the North-east Pacific may be a result of the
weighting methods employed. Careful consideration of the sizes of pilchards tagged
and exploited in the North-east Pacific and in California and calculations based on
different assumptions indicate that it is unlikely that the weighting methods employed
can have been responsible for more than part of the observed difference, although it is
likely that they are responsible for some of it. Finally, incomplete migration can produce a difference of the kind observed. It is known that some pilchards remain in the
inlets on the west coast of Vancouver Island during the winter and some tags have been
recovered from them. It is believed that many others fail to make the complete migration to Californian waters during the winter months and that incomplete migration is
the chief, source of discrepancy. All three sources of difference play a part in producing the difference between concentration of tags in the North-east Pacific and off
California.
The difference in the locality (California or North-east Pacific) of return of tags
recovered in the season following that of tagging and those recovered in subsequent
seasons could occur by chance as often as not (p=0.6).
Concentrations in California.
The weighted concentrations of Canadian tags are different for different Californian ports.    This difference appears to be confined to the first season following J 46
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
tagging in which the concentration is higher in the San Pedro region than in the San
Francisco-Monterey region as follows:—
Region.
Tags recovered.
Tags per
100,000 Metric
Tons, weighted.
Tags per
100,000,000
Fish, weighted.
17
12
5.5
18.4
0.96
3.13
As compared with the results for tags
out after longer periods:—
Region.
Tags recovered.
Tags per
100,000 Metric
Tons, weighted.
Tags per
100,000,000
Fish, weighted.
9 ( + 1)
1
2.9
1.5
0.46
0.26
A difference as great as that noticed between the two regions could have arisen by
chance only once in about twenty times.
Speed of Southward Migration.
Canadian tags recovered in California during the season following that of tagging
were reported between the following dates: San Francisco, December 27th to January
29th; Monterey, December 30th to January 31st; San Pedro, February 23rd to March
25th. Corresponding data for tags out longer are: San Francisco, December 5th to
February 5th; Monterey, December 15th and January 11th; and San Pedro, March
12th. The San Francisco and Monterey data agree very closely and differ from those
for San Pedro. They are in line with an hypothesis of orderly migration down the
coast. Examination of the data for San Francisco shows that the variation in recovery
dates is greater for the tags out for the longer time to an extent which would be
expected by chance only once in about seven trials. It is probable that the hold-over
tag recovered in 1941 but returned in 1942 at San Francisco was recovered quite late
in the season and would increase the observed discrepancy. It is not, however, possible
to assign exact dates for the purpose of including it in the calculations.
Tags recovered during the first season following that of tagging differ from those
recovered subsequently (1) in the concentrations in the catches landed at different
California ports and (2) in the recovery dates in different regions of California. The
differences are so large that they would occur jointly by chance only once in about
twenty-four trials. Accordingly there would appear to be a real difference in behaviour.
There was no evidence of differential behaviour in the relative concentrations off
North-east Pacific and California fishing-grounds.
Given tagging dates and locations and the approximate date and localities of
recovery, minimum speeds of migration can be calculated and the following approximate results in kilometres per day are obtained:—
Time and Place of Tagging.
Place op Recovery.
San Francisco.
August, 1936 ; off Vancouver Island	
July-August, 1937 ; Washington coast..
July-August, 1938 ; Washington coast..
September, 1938 ; Vancouver Island-	
August, 1939 ; Washington coast..
7.1, 8.5
11.6, 12.9, 10.6,
11.4, 12.4, 13.7
Monterey.
San Pedro.
6.3
6.8, 8.4
10.1, 11.7, 14.3
7.1
9.2, 8.7, 8.9
6.6, 6.8, 6.8
12.6, 12.7, 12.4,
12.4, 12.1, 11.2 BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 47
In spite of the errors inseparable from the method the rates indicated are remarkably consistent within seasons and recovery ports. Some of the differences between
seasons are no doubt accountable to the fact that the fish were tagged at the height
of the season some time before the commencement of their southern migration. The
higher rates indicated for migration to San Pedro in 1936 and 1937 would support
this suggestion, since the influence of the period when no active migration is under
way would have less effect in distorting calculated speeds to that port than for others
for which the free time was less. Fishing continued into October in 1936 and 1937,
so it may be assumed that no southward mass migration began until then. If forty
days and sixty days respectively are subtracted from the migration period, the estimated speeds will be increased by about 30 per cent, for San Francisco and Monterey
and about 20 to 25 per cent, for San Pedro recoveries. Application of these justifiable
corrections brings the rates of migration as calculated for different years closer
together.
The speeds indicated correspond rather closely with those indicated by Janssen
(1937, 1938a) (average approximately 6 nautical miles or 11.1 km. per day) for the
northern migrations in 1937 and 1938.
The southward migration down the coast would appear to be at a relatively uniform speed since the difference between average dates for pilchard-tag recoveries at
San Francisco-Monterey, and at San Pedro, January 12th and March 12th, fifty-nine
days, divided into the approximate distance between the respective fishing-grounds,
560 km., indicates a migration speed of about 9.5 km. per day.
Total Mortality Rates.
If mortality rates are constant from year to year, and if the tagged fish after
recovering from the first shock of handling and tagging die at the same rate as
untagged individuals, the total annual percentage survival rate, i.e., the complement
of the mortality rate, from all causes should be the same as the percentage of tags
recovered in any one year is of the number of tags recovered in the year immediately
preceding. Consequently, logarithms of tags recovered plotted against year of recovery should lie along a straight, line whose slope is indicative of mortality and whose
^-intercept is the logarithm of the number of tags which could have been expected as
recoveries in the first year had there been no sharp break in conditions (Fig. 1). The
numbers of recoveries made have been corrected for efficiency of recovery since cumulative changes in recovery efficiency would have vitiated the results. California
recoveries made during the season immediately following tagging and therefore out
for a period between four and seven months have been included with tags recovered
in the North-east Pacific after having been out for approximately a complete year.
From the line fitted by least squares to the data using all recoveries and weighted
according to the number of recoveries during each interval the annual mortality rate
can be calculated as approximately 69 per cent, and it will be seen that the number of
tags to be expected for the year of tagging is 316 (=antilog 2.50). This figure may
be compared with the number of tagged fish estimated as having been processed, 799,
and the difference regarded as the number of true " quick recoveries " corrected for
recovery efficiency. Considering California returns alone the mortality rate is indicated as being approximately the same but the North-east Pacific returns alone give
a lower result, 60 per cent., which may differ significantly from the others. The mortality rates indicated are in reasonable agreement with those based on age analysis
by the South Pacific Investigations of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
The number of recoveries involved is not large enough to assure more than one-figure
accuracy in estimated mortalities. J 48
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
30
1        1        1        1        1
—G RECOVERIES   FROM   CALIFORNIA
V
s\
v
>F   RECOVERIES
6
\
\\\
CC
s
Z
—
"c&\
LOGARITHM
O
6
—
\\   _
i    i    ii    ix
<
D
12               3               4               5
YEAR   OF   RECOVERY
Fig. 1. Decline in recovery of pilchard-tags.
Local Movements.
Indications of local movements of pilchards have been described in the various
Appendices of the Reports of the British Columbia Provincial Fisheries Department.
These are compiled in the following subsections, for the most part quoting Hart
(1943a) :—
Movements on Canadian Fishing-grounds.—For reasons outlined in an earlier
section, the means of tag-recovery is not well adapted to the study of short migrations.
In some cases, however, evidence of mixing of fish on the fishing-grounds appears BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 49
Fig. 2. Part of the west coast of North America.
beyond question. In 1937, for example, tags used near Cape Flattery were recovered
around Destruction Island and Grays Harbour. Some tags used at Destruction Island
were recovered at the same place two months later; one was taken off the mouth of
the Columbia after nine days, and others continued to be taken off the area between
Tillamook Head and the mouth of the Columbia River.    Nine weeks after tagging
4 J 50 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
another tag used at Destruction Island was recovered off Heceta Head. Tags used off
Grays Harbour were recovered later off Destruction Island. The returns indicate
general mixing. As a further example may be cited the recoveries made in 1938 of
tags used in the inlets of the west coast of Vancouver Island. These were reported—
apparently validly—from a great variety of other inlets, indicating very general movement along the north-western part of the Vancouver Island coast. (See Fig. 2 for
localities.)
The most interesting results from tagging returns were obtained during some
seasons in which marked changes took place in the location of the fishing-grounds.
In such cases some evidence concerning movements is available and is of interest in
that it indicates the movement of fish between widely separate parts of the fishing-
grounds rather than the appearance on the fishing-grounds of new shoals which had
not been exploited previously.
Movements to Canadian Waters.—During the early summer of 1938 the Canadian
pilchard fleet operated off the Washington coast and there was no evidence of fish in
the inlets of Vancouver Island or within a reasonable distance of the shore. In the
middle of the season fishing off Washington fell off to nothing and later pilchards were
found to be very available in the inlets on the north-western part of the west coast of
Vancouver Island. One tag used off the Washington coast was recovered from fish
taken on the west coast of Vancouver Island at a plant which had not operated during
the early part of the season, and this recovery showed beyond question that fish had
moved from the southern to the northern part of the fishing-grounds. Recoveries by
other plants of tags used off the Washington coast reported, apparently correctly,
from the west coast of Vancouver Island landings, support the certain return and
indicate a general movement of fish. It is worthy of remark that the movement which
undoubtedly took place was not observed by the fishermen who were plying between
west coast reduction plants and fishing-grounds off the Washington coast and it is
concluded that the movement took place too far offshore to be observed. Such a situation would occur if the fishermen restricted their courses to the most direct route
between Barkley Sound reduction plants and Washington coast fishing-grounds while
the fish followed the most direct route from the latter to Kyuquot Sound rather than
that along the coast-line.
In 1940 fishing again moved during the season from off the Washington coast to off
Vancouver Island. The transition, however, was less clear cut and the results were
very much less satisfactory for the British Columbia fishing industry. In this year
tags used off the Washington coast were later reported from off Vancouver Island, near
Lennard Island, and off the Columbia River. Returns referred to localities near Vancouver Island appear to have been too numerous and to have been made by too many
plants to be the result of technical imperfections. It is concluded that movement of fish
is demonstrated from off the southerly part of the Washington coast to the fishing-
grounds off Vancouver Island exploited toward the end of the season.
Estimates of speed of migration for short distances are more subject to error than
those for longer migrations, but may be presented for purposes of comparisons with
the speeds indicated for movements between Canadian and California fishing-grounds:
From the Washington coast to Heceta Head, Oregon, 1937, 6.6 km. per day; from
Destruction Island to the mouth of the Columbia River, 1937, 18 km. per day; from the
Washington coast to Vancouver Island, 1938, 7.9 km. per day; from the Washington
coast to off Vancouver Island, 1940, 5.1, 5.1, 5.3, 7.4 km. per day; from the Washington
coast to Lennard Island, 1940, 4.8, 5.5, 4.8, 8.0 km. per day; and from the Washington
coast to the mouth of the Columbia River, 1940, 4.5, 9.7 km. per day.
Fish taken in Inlets in Winter.—Although the main body of pilchards leaves northern fishing-grounds in the autumn, some fish frequently remain in the inlets throughout BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 51
the winter, where they are occasionally captured during the winter herring-fishing
season and where they sometimes provide early inshore fishing before the main pilchard shoals approach the Vancouver Island coast in the summer. Some of the tag-
recoveries indicate that these pilchards are a part of the general population cut off
from participation in the general movement by local conditions rather than a special
local population.
In 1936 tags used on fish released off Vancouver Island were recovered in inlets
indicating an inshore movement. During this year 100 tags were put out in Bedwell
Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island. One of these tags was recovered two
days later from the same locality and three months later during the herring season a
landing of pilchards from Deer Creek yielded another tag, indicating that part at least
of the tagged fish were remaining in the inlets throughout the winter. Early in the
1937 season a few pilchards were found in Sydney Inlet, far removed from the main
body of pilchards which did not approach the Canadian coast during that season, and
some observers were of the opinion that these fish were moving out from the deeper
inlets. This opinion was confirmed by the recovery from these fish of a tag used on a
fish released in Bedwell Sound during the previous summer.
SUMMARY.
The paper constitutes a condensation of and includes quotations from a technical
report on pilchard-tagging in British Columbia (Hart, 1943a). Tags recovered in
British Columbia plants during 1943 are reported and minor alterations to incorporate
additional data are included.
More than 20,000 magnetic belly-tags were used to investigate movements of pilchards.    These tags were recovered by electromagnets situated in reduction plants.
In comparing concentrations of tagged pilchards in different localities consideration was given to the influence on the results of (1) deficiencies in the methods employed, (2) the tonnage of pilchards taken on different fishing-grounds, and (3) the
sizes of pilchards taken in different fishing regions.
Four hundred and eighty-eight Canadian tags were recovered, most of them in
British Columbia but significant numbers in each of the Pacific Coast United States.
Many recoveries from fish captured in the North-east Pacific were made very soon after
tagging. Such " quick recoveries " are not regarded as being indicative of general
conditions among the pilchard population. Magnets in British Columbia recovered
considerable numbers of tags put out in connection with California and Oregon fishing
operations.
There is considerable movement of pilchards between northern fishing-grounds and
those of California. This interchange of individuals is too great to be the result of
casual movements and definite migration is indicated.
During the first season following that of tagging, tagged fish appear to be more
concentrated on northern fishing-grounds than off the California coast. This observation may be accounted for in three different ways and it is believed that each of them
plays a part in producing the difference; namely (1) deficiencies in the method of
recovering tags, (2) errors in adjusting for length frequency in different regions, and
(3) lack of completeness in the migration from northern to California fishing-grounds
during the first year after tagging.
During the first year after tagging, tagged fish are relatively more concentrated
on fishing-grounds off San Pedro than off Central California. Later this condition
does not hold.
Recovery dates for Canadian tags taken at different California ports in the season
following that of tagging give evidence of an orderly migration down the coast. J 52 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
Average minimal speeds of southward migration range from 6.3 to 14.3 km. per
day. Errors involved in the method of calculation are responsible for part of the variation between the results for different years and to different ports. All errors would
tend to make the estimates of speed of migration lower than the correct ones.
Pilchard-tag recovery data can be used in calculating survival and total mortality
rates. A total mortality rate of approximately 69 per cent, per year is indicated by the
data at hand.
Fish move about considerably on northern fishing-grounds. In some cases these
movements appear to be more or less random, but in others general movements appear
to take place which accompany changes in the locality of the fishing-grounds. Part of
the general pilchard population moves in and out of the inlets on the west coast of Vancouver Island and a few individuals frequently spend the winters in inside waters, thus
failing to take part in the general southward migration.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The pilchard-tagging programme has been jointly financed by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Department of Fisheries of the Province of British
Columbia. It has enjoyed the encouragement of the directors and staffs of both
organizations and the employees of the various fishing companies who have assisted
both with tagging and tag-recovery. The state fisheries organizations of California,
Oregon, and Washington have co-operated fully in recovering tags and supplying
information concerning recovery efficiency, their commercial fisheries, and the length
characteristics of the fish.
REFERENCES.
Brock, V. E.   Report on the tagging of pilchards by the Fish Commission of Oregon.
Report to Commissioners, 1940, 1-10, 1940.
Hart, J. L.   The efficiency of magnets installed in British Columbia reduction plants in
recovering sardine tags.    Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Progress Reports
Pacific No. 38, 18-20, 1938.
Hart, J. L.   Tagging experiments on British Columbia pilchards.    Journal, Fisheries
Research Board of Canada, Vol. 6, No. 2, 164-182, 1943a.
Hart, J.  L.    Report on pilchard-tag recovery 1942-43.    Report,  British  Columbia
Fisheries Department, 1942, 43, 19436.
Janssen, J. F. (Jr.).   First report of sardine tagging in California.    California Fish
and Game, Vol. 23, No. 3, 190-204, 1937.
Janssen, J. F. (Jr.).   Northern recoveries of California sardine tags.    California Fish
and Game, Vol. 24, No. 1, 70-71, 1938a..
Janssen, J. F. (Jr.).   Second report of sardine tagging in California.    California Fish
and Game, Vol. 24, No. 4, 376-390, 19386.
Janssen, J. F. (Jr.).   1938 recoveries of California sardine tags in northern waters.
California Fish and Game, Vol. 25, No. 1, 47-48, -1939.
Shuman, R. F.   The recovery of tags from commercial pilchard landings in the State
of Washington during 1938.    Report, Division of Scientific Research to Director
of Fisheries, 1-11, 1939. \ BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 53
TAGGING OF HERRINC
INSERTIONS
By Albert L. Tester,
Introduction	
i (CLUPEA PALLASII) IN BRI
AND RECOVERIES DURING
Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station,
TISH COI
1943-44.
Nanaimo,
ajm:
B.C.
BIA:
CONTENTS.
Page.
53
Tagging	
	
'    53
Recovery methods
Induction detectors.
Magnets	
Recoveries	
Induction detectors.
Magnets	
Stability of populations and movements.
West coast of Vancouver Island	
East coast of Vancouver Island	
Queen Charlotte Strait	
Central coast-line	
Northern coast-line	
Summary of results	
Acknowledgments.—	
Detailed list of tags used in 1943-44.
References	
56
56
57
58
59
61
66
68
68
69
70
71
71
72
73
74
INTRODUCTION.
This article represents the eighth in a series of annual reports dealing with
herring-tagging and tag-recovery. As already outlined (Tester and Boughton, 1943),
the investigation was originally designed (1) to add to the general knowledge of the
life-history of herring in British Columbia waters, (2) to determine the extent of herring movements, and (3) to determine the strength of the tendency of herring to form
local populations. In addition, it was hoped that some information might be obtained
on the rates of exploitation of the populations supplying the various fishing-grounds.
The methods of tagging and recovery have been described in detail in previous
reports (Hart and Tester, 1937, 1938, 1939, and 1940; Hart, Tester, and McHugh,
1941; Hart, Tester, and Boughton, 1942; and Tester and Boughton, 1943) and are only
briefly referred to in the present report.
TAGGING.
In all previous years the internal tags used have been made of nickel-plated iron.
In 1943-44, because of war-time difficulties, it was necessary to resort to silver-plating
for several of the series (as indicated in Table IX.). It is believed that this change
will not affect the comparability of the results with those of previous years.
The tagging methods of 1943-44 were similar to those previously employed. Fish
were caught during the spawning period in the spring by bait-seines or beach-seines
and were tagged and released either immediately or after being held overnight in bait-
boxes made of wooden slats or in a collapsible pound made of web attached to a float.
In one case (8J, Table IX.) the fish were taken from a set made by commercial fishermen J 54
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
supplying a bait-pound and in another (8L) the fish were tagged directly from a commercial bait-pound. In some cases (8B, 8C, 8D, and 8H) the tagging was made in part
from a tub, following a method previously described (Tester and Boughton, 1943, p. 46).
On two occasions (8A and 8B) the fish were tagged into bait-boxes and were towed a
short distance and then released over deep water to prevent their immediate capture
by large numbers of gulls and divers which were attracted to the scene of tagging.
The policy adopted in 1943-44 was similar to that in previous years, namely, (1)
to curtail tagging during the fall and winter fishing season, (2) to concentrate the
spring tagging in two major areas, the Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Strait,
but with some tagging in adjacent major areas as time warranted, and (3) to use a
relatively large number of tags (3,000 or more) in each individual tagging.
Efforts were made to tag herring at the Sooke salmon-traps in the Strait of Juan
de Fuca during the early fall, but these were unsuccessful owing to failure of the fish
to appear in the traps in sufficient quantity.
The spring tagging operations in the Strait of Georgia met with good success with
six large taggings in various localities along the south-east coast of Vancouver Island,
two along the west shore of the mainland, and one in the Discovery Passage area. No
taggings were made in the vicinity of Satellite Channel, at Cortes Island, nor within
the long inlets of the mainland, although the first two areas were visited fairly frequently during the spawning period. In the Queen Charlotte Strait area two large
taggings were made, both in the vicinity of Retreat Passage. No fish were encountered
on other potential spawning-grounds in the area during the times at which they were
visited. A trip to the Central coast-line resulted in two large taggings, one at the
head of Rivers Inlet and the other in Gunboat Passage. Similarly, a quick trip to the
west coast of Vancouver Island produced one large tagging at Matilda Inlet, Clayoquot
Sound. The total number of tags used in 1943-44 (45,965) is the largest of any one
season over the period of investigation (see accompanying tabular recapitulation of
tags used, and also previous reports).
Locality.
Number of Tags used in each Year,
1939-40.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43.
1943-44.
Fall and Winter.
897
495
496
697
1,197
1,799
400
9,077
3,796
8,437
2,497
2,299
Northern British Columbia- __ 	
15,559
5,465
1,497
21,561
5,077
Spring.
Strait of Georgia (including Puget Sound and north
4,947
200
9,759
5,977*
2,491
29,590
6,023
4,220
6,132
Queen Charlotte Strait and south to Nodales Channel-
West coast of Vancouver Island	
3,493
	
Totals. .              	
29,697
24,571*
23,017
30,828
45,965
* Correction to number given in previous reports.
Summarized data on the 1943-44 taggings are given in Table I., along with similar
data for other taggings which produced returns in 1943-44. Tagging localities are
shown on the accompanying map. Following the custom of former years, detailed data
on the 1943-44 taggings, for use in identifying recoveries, are included in Table IX.
at the end of this report. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 55
Table I.—Summary of the Tagging Data for Taggings producing Returns during the
1943-44 Fishing Season and for Tags inserted during the 1944 Spawning Season.
Tagging
Code.
Date.
No. of
Tags
inserted.
Method of
Capture of
Fish.*
Place of Tagging.
4K
4L
4M
4Q
4U
4W
4AA
Mar. 13, 1940	
Mar. 17, 18, 1940- -	
Mar. 19, 1940 - 	
Mar. 18, 1940             	
1,197
1,797
1,000
1,000
1,595
1,399
1,397
1,488
l,797t
1,197
1,495
1,200
995
1,989
998
1,193
496
497
1,000
1,489
1,579     •
1,499
1,689
1,497
2,000
1,776
1,498
1,892
2,997
2,495
2,004
2,500
2,989
1,693
2,989
1,000
1,099
3,493
2,978
2,138
3,017
3,190
3,830
1,178
3,174
5,021
4,043
3,999
2,997
3,026
3,121
3,011
4,220
D.N.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S,
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
s.s.
S.S'.
s.s.
s.s.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
S.T.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S1.
B.S1.
B.S'.
B.S'.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.P.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
S.S.
B.P.
B.P.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.P., B.S.
B.S.
C.B.S.
B.S.
B.P.
B.S.
B.S.
Deep Bay, Baynes Sound.
Cutter Creek, near Minstrel Island.
Shoal Harbour, Gilford Island.
Mar. 24, 1940  	
Mar. 18, 1940 -	
Mar. 28, 29, 1940
Winter Harbour, Quatsino Sound.
Campbell Island, near Brown Narrows.
Head of Toquart Bay, Barkley Sound.
Campbell Island, near Brown Narrows.
Laidlaw Islands, Laredo Sound.
Deer Passage, near Bella Bella.
Kwakshua Passage, Calvert Island.
Lyall Point, Barkley Sound.
Toquart Bay, Barkley Sound.
Browning Inlet, Quatsino Sound.
Bunsby Islands, entrance to Ououkinsh Inlet.
Refuge Cove, Sydney Inlet.
Sooke.
Ganges Harbour, Saltspring Island.
Kulleet Bay, near Ladysmith.
51
5L
5M
5N
50
5P
Mar. 17, 1941  .- 	
Mar. 28, 1941     -	
Mar. 29, 1941     .
Mar. 30, 1941..     - 	
Mar. 4, 1941" - 	
Mar. 5, 1941 --	
Mar. 13, 1941            -          	
5X
5Y
6A
60
6G
61
Mar. 14, 1941- - -	
Mar. 16, 1941 , 	
Oct. 17, 1941 - - -
Feb. 26, 1942    	
Mar. 9, 1942  --
Mar. 10, 1942      '.	
6J
Mar. 12, 1942           ...            	
6K
6L
6M
Mar. 27, 1942	
Mar. 15, 1942	
Mar. 19, 1942      	
Squirrel Cove, Cortes Island.
Retreat Passage.
6N
Mar. 28, 1942           	
60
Mar. 30, 1942   	
6P
Apr. 21, 22, 1942 -—	
7B
7C
Feb. 25, 26, 1943 --	
Mar. 1, 3, 1943	
Ladysmith Harbour.
7D
Mar. 7, 8, 12, 13, 1943	
Mar. 16, 1943      	
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon.
7F
7G
71
Mar. 27, 1943 ._	
Mar. 29, 1943 -	
Apr. 11, 1943         	
Pender Harbour.
Deserted Bay, Jervis Inlet.
7J
7K
7L
Mar. 17, 18, 1943.. -	
Mar. 22, 1943 -  -
Mar. 28, 1943     -	
Deepwater Bay.
Bend Island, Clio Channel.
7M
7N
Mar. 31, 1943 -	
Apr. 5, 1943             	
Gunboat Passage.
8A
Feb. 21, 1944            .             	
Feb. 24, 25, 1944     	
8C
8D
8E
Feb. 29, 1944 -	
Mar. 2, 3, 1944 • • 	
Mar. 7, 1944          	
Comox Harbour.
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon.
8F
Mar. 10, 11, 1944   	
Mar. 12, 13, 14, 15, 1944      	
Gabriola Island, near Entrance Island.
Kuper Island, near Clam Bay Spit.
8H
Apr. 2, 3, 4, 1944 	
Mar. 31, 1944          	
Deepwater Bay, Discovery Passage.
Mar. 6, 1944                            	
8K
Mar. 27, 1944 	
Shoal Harbour, Retreat Passage.
8L
8M
8N
Mar. 18, 1944-. -
Mar. 20, 1944	
Mar. 26, 27, 1944   ..             	
Rivers Inlet, head.
Gunboat Passage.
Matilda Inlet, Clayoquot Sound.
* B.S.=bait-seine;   S.S.=shore-seine;   S.T.=salmon-traps ;   D.N.=dip-net;   B.P.=bait-pound;   C.B.S.=commer-
cial bait-seine.
t Correction to number given in previous reports. J 56
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
RECOVERY METHODS.
As in previous years, tags were recovered mechanically by two methods, induction
detectors and magnets. No incidental recoveries were made in canneries, although
reward placards were displayed near heading-machines and filling-tables.
Induction Detectors.
As in 1942-43, two induction detectors were operated throughout the fishing
season, one at the Imperial Cannery and the other at the Gulf of Georgia Cannery,
Steveston.
Owing to changes in the unloading system at the Imperial Cannery, a new tag-
detector installation was necessary. However, the same recovery principle as in 1942-43
was used. Fish dropped from an overhead conveyer to a chute. In sliding down the
chute they passed through a "pick-up "detector coil and thence over a trap-door which BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 57
was pivoted transversely at its centre on an axle. When an impulse was received from
the detector coil—e.g., from a metal tag—the trap-door momentarily opened to_a position at right angles to the flow of fish, allowing a few, including the one with the tag,
to fall to a bin below. The distance of the coil to the trap-door was increased over that
in 1942-43 to compensate for a slightly greater slope of the chute. A new control-room,
adjacent to the chute, was built.
The Imperial detector gave satisfactory performance during its period of operation, October 8th to February 1st, apart from minor breakdowns. It ran efficiently on
80 per cent, of the fish passing into the cannery.
In the Gulf of Georgia installation the tagged fish were recovered from a belt-
conveyer in the same manner as last year. This belt ran through the detector coil and
past a hinged gate system which swept and led the fish off the belt when activated. Unfortunately, prior to the opening of the season the belt-conveyer had been rebuilt at a
greater incline than in 1942-43; when tested, it was found necessary to rivet a series
of transverse strips of belting at intervals along the belt to give sufficient traction- to
carry the fish up the slope. Successive trip-loads of fish (from the weighing-machine)
tended to pile deep on the belt with the upper layers continuously sliding backwards,
thus making accurate timing of the recovery system very difficult. The fish also tended
to lie crosswise on the belt to a greater extent than last year, so that any tags which
they contained would pass through the coil with their long axes parallel to the coil face,
in which position only a weak impulse was generated to the tag detector. Difficulties
were also experienced because of poor connections within the balancing and pick-up
coils which had been rebuilt to conform with those of the Imperial detector; moisture
also penetrated one of the coils when oil from the fish partially dissolved the pitch with
which it was impregnated, thus changing its electrical properties and making balancing
impossible.
Although the Gulf of Georgia detector ran on 78 per cent, of the fish entering the
cannery its efficiency at recovering tags was very low as compared with that of the
Imperial detector for reasons discussed above. This is illustrated by the following
tabulation showing the number of recoveries per 100 tons of fish passing through each
of the two detectors while they were in effective operation:—
Fishing-ground.
A.
Imperial
Detector.
B.
Gulf of Georgia
Detector.
A/B.
0.48
0.57
0.51
2.32
10.00
0.26
0.19
0.05
1.18
2.00
1.8
Porlier Pass vicinity  ._ 	
3.0
10.2
5 0
The relatively poor recovery of the Gulf of Georgia detector from Nanoose Bay
fish is probably due to excessive operational difficulty during the period in which these
fish passed through the tag detector. An average for the season, weighted to the
quantity of fish from each fishing-ground, would indicate that the Imperial detector
was about five times as efficient as the Gulf of Georgia detector in recovering tags.
Last season (Tester and Boughton, 1943, p. 51) it was 1.4 times as efficient. The difference is believed due entirely to the increased difficulties experienced with the Gulf of
Georgia detector in 1943-44.
Magnets.
Electromagnets already installed in the meal-lines of reduction plants were again
instrumental in recovering herring-tags.    A new installation was made in the offal- J 58
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
reduction plant of the Redonda Bay Cannery. No returns resulted from the magnets
at Kildonan and Ceepeecee, presumably because they were not in effective operation
during the season. The Butedale magnet, although recovering tags, developed a short-
circuit towards the end of the season;   it has since been repaired.
It may be pointed out again that magnets are less satisfactory than induction
detectors because usually there is considerable uncertainty regarding the fishing locality
from which the fish bearing the tag originated. Recoveries from cracks and crevices
in the plant machinery, from driers, and from traps for tramp-metal are included as
magnet returns.
The reduced opportunity for recovering tags in reduction plants because of extensive canning operations has already been pointed out (Hart, Tester, and Boughton,
1942, p. 58). Most of the tags either fall from the fish during heading and gutting
or they enter the cans with fish; in any event, very few are recovered when herring-
offal is reduced. During 1943-44 practically the entire catch from the lower east coast
of Vancouver Island and Discovery Passage, part of the catch from the west coast of
Vancouver Island, and a small part of the catch from Queen Charlotte Strait and the
Central coast-line was canned.
RECOVERIES.
Reference is again made to qualifications which must be considered in interpreting
the recoveries and in drawing conclusions regarding the populations involved (Hart,
Tester, and McHugh, 1941, p. 54;   Hart, Tester, and Boughton, 1942, p. 59).
Table II.—Tags recovered by the Imperial Detector (A) and the Gulf of Georgia
Detector (B) during 1943-44-
Place and Time of Tagging..
Place of Capture.
Code.
Barkley
Sound.
Satellite
Channel.
Porlier
Pass to
Dodd
Narrows.
Nanoose
Bay.
Deep
Bay.
Deep-
water
Bay.
Clio
Channel.
Kwak-
shua
Passage.
Total.
A.
A.   B.
A.    B.
A.    B.
B.
A.    B.
A.    B.
A.
5P
Toquart Bay, March, 1941	
1
1
6C
Ganges Harbour,  February,
1942   	
1    ....
1
7E
Porlier Pass, March, 1943 —	
....      1
1    ....
2    ....
4
7C
Valdes Island, March, 1943
4      1
2    ....
7
7B
Ladysmith Harbour, February,
1943   	
—
9      4
5      1
8    ....
1
28
6G
Kulleet Bay, March, 1942-	
1
1    ....
	
2
4K
Deep Bay, March, 19401 	
1    --
—
1
71
Union Bay, April, 1943 -	
1    ....
1
7F
Pender Harbour, March, 1943 ..
1    ....
1      1
....
—    	
3
7G
Deserted Bay, March, 1943	
	
2    ....
2
61
Skuttle Bay/March, 1942	
3    ....
3
7D
Skuttle Bay, March, 1943 	
1    ....
2    ....
8      1
12
6J
Porpoise Bay, March, 1942	
2    ....
--      1
	
3
6K
Squirrel Cove, March, 1942 	
	
1    .___
1
7J
Deepwater Bay, March, 1943—.
- -
2    ....
8      3
2
15
6P
Cahnish Bay, April, 1942	
—    ....
1    __..
1
7N
Chatham Channel, April, 1943
	
8    ....
....      1
9
6N
Clio Channel, March, 1942	
	
1    ....
2    ....
3
7K
Clio Channel, March, 1943	
     	
	
1
1
60
Kingcome Inlet, March, 1942 ...
	
_ _
1
1
4W
Campbell Island, March, 1940...
....    	
_	
	
1
1
6M
Campbell Island, March, 1942 ..
....    	
	
	
....    	
1
1
7M
Gunboat Passage, March, 1943
Totals     	
....    ....
—    .._
....
....    _.
	
10
10
1
21
10
23
1
36
3
16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 59
Induction Detectors.
Data on detector recoveries are summarized in Table II. Of one hundred and
eleven tags, ninety-five were taken by the Imperial detector and sixteen by the Gulf of
Georgia detector. All of the tags recovered had been out for a period of six months or
more. The 1943-44 results are enhanced by the fact that fish from several different
fishing-grounds, including four major areas, passed through the detectors. The following pertinent observations arise from the table:—
One tag originally used in Barkley Sound (5P) was recovered from Barkley
Sound fish.
The Satellite Channel catches contained nineteen tags originally used among the
islands on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island (7E, 7C, and 7B) ; one from Deep
Bay (4K), near Comox, on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island; and one from
Pender Harbour (7F), on the north-east shore of the Strait of Georgia. Thus most of
the recoveries from Satellite Channel catches (90 per cent.) came from spawning-
grounds close to that fishing-ground.
The catches made between Porlier Pass and Dodd Narrows contained nine tags
from the islands on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island (6C, 7E, 7B, and 6G) and
one tag from the north-east shore of the Strait (7D). Again, most of the recoveries
from this area (90 per cent.) came from spawning-grounds close to the fishing-ground.
The Nanoose Bay catches contained thirteen tags from the lower south-east coast
of Vancouver Island (7E, 7C, 7B, and 6G) ; eight from the north-east shore of the
Strait of Georgia (7F, 7G, 7D, and 6J), including four from within the long inlets
leading from it (Porpoise Bay and Deserted Bay) ; and two from Deepwater Bay, Discovery Passage (7J). It is evident that in 1943-44 fish which spawned in many different parts of the Strait of Georgia contributed to the Nanoose Bay fishery.
Only a relatively small tonnage was taken from Deep Bay in contrast to last season.
One tag from Ladysmith Harbour (7B) was recovered.
The catches made at Deepwater Bay, Discovery Passage, contained twelve tags
originally used in Discovery Passage (7J and 6P), one from the northern end of the
Strait of Georgia (6K), thirteen from the north-east shore of the Strait of Georgia
(61, 7D, and 6J), and one from the north-west shore of the Strait of Georgia (71).
In addition, the catches contained nine tags from the Queen Charlotte Strait area (7M
and 6N). It is clear that most of the tagged fish caught at Deepwater Bay (75 per
cent.) came from spawning-grounds in the northern part of the Strait of Georgia,
including the north-east and north-west shores of the Strait and Discovery Passage,
but that some (25 per cent.) came from the Queen Charlotte Strait area.
A small tonnage of fish from Clio Channel yielded three tags, all from spawning-
grounds in that general area (Queen Charlotte Strait).
The Kwakshua Passage catches contained twelve tags (75 per cent.) from the
Central coast-line and two tags (12.5 per cent, each) from the Queen Charlotte Strait
area and the Discovery Passage area.
As in 1942-43, there is evidence of a partial segregation of the populations supplying the fisheries along the south-east coast of Vancouver Island. Assuming a dividing
line between " southern " spawning-grounds and " northern " spawning-grounds to lie
roughly between Parksville and Sechelt, and omitting the one recovery from Deep Bay,
the results can be summarized as follows:—
Fishing-ground.
Number of
Recoveries.
Per Cent. Recoveries.
Southern.
Northern.
31
23
27
90
57
10
43
100 J 60
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
These results, almost identical with those of last year apart from the exclusion of
Deep Bay, again indicate that fish which spawn in the southern part of the Strait of
Georgia (the south-east coast of Vancouver Island) return mostly to southern fishing-
grounds (Satellite Channel and from Porlier Pass to Dodd Narrows), whereas those
which spawn in the northern part of the Strait of Georgia (particularly the north-east
shore and Discovery Passage) return mostly to northern fishing-grounds (Deepwater
Bay and, in 1942-43, Deep Bay). Fish which spawn in both the southern and northern
part of the Strait appear to supply the NanooSe Bay fishing-grounds. However, the
results for Nanoose Bay may be distorted by lack of taggings in the immediate vicinity
in 1943 and the unusual mortality, probably including tagged fish, in 1942.
The mixture of fish originally tagged in the Queen Charlotte Strait area with those
caught at Deepwater Bay is worthy of note and supports the suggestion offered last
year that the Deepwater Bay fish arrived on that fishing-ground by way of Discovery
Passage and Johnstone Strait rather than by way of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The
mixture of Deepwater Bay and Queen Charlotte Strait fish with those caught at Kwakshua Passage, which is demonstrated by the detector recoveries, will be referred to later.
Table III.—Calculations of Percentage Recovery for Tags used in the Spring of 1942
and 1943 and recovered from Satellite Channel (A), Porlier Pass to Dodd Narrows
(B), Nanoose Bay (C), Deepwater Bay (D), Clio Channel (E), and Kivakshua
Passage (F).
(For explanation see text.)
Code.
Place and Time of Tagging.
Calculated Total Number of Recoveries
from Fishing-grounds at:
Number
of Tags
used.
Percentage
A.
B.
C.
D.
1
E.        F.
1
Total.
Recovery.
7E'
Porlier Pass, March, 1943	
6.9
8.1
15.0
2,004
0.7
7C
Valdes Island, March, 1943-	
22.2
8.1
30.3
2,997
1.0
7B
Ladysmith Harbour, February, 1943
49.9
34.3
32.2
116.4
1,892
6.2
7H
Northwest Bay, April, 1943	
	
2,002
—
71
Union Bay, April, 1943 	
	
3.4
3.4
1,693
0.2
7F
Pender Harbour, March, 1943      _  .
5.5
4.0
9.5
2,500
0.4
7G
Deserted Bay, March, 1943. _.	
8.1
8.1
2,989
0.3
7D
Skuttle Bay, March, 1943______ _____
6.9
8.1
27.5
42.5
2,495
1.7
7J
8.1
27.5
54 6
90.2
2,989
2,978
3 0
7N
27.5
27.5
0.9
7K
Clio Channel, March, 1943  ___
27.3
27.3
1,000
2.7
7M
Gunboat Passage, March, 1943  _
	
273.0
273.0
3,493
7.8
6C
Ganges Harbour, February, 1942
6.9
6.9
497
1.4
6G
Kulleet Bay, March, 1942	
4.0
4.0
1,000
1,489
0 4
61
Skuttle Bay, March, 1942  	
10.3
10.3
0.7
6J
8.1
8 1
1,579
1,499
6K
Squirrel Cove, March, 1942  __
3.4
3.4
0.2
6P
Cahnish Bay, April, 1942—.	
3.4
3.4
1,498
0.2
6N
Olio Channel, March, 1942 	
3.4
267.0
270.4
2,000
13.5
60
1,776
1,497
6M
Campbell Island, March, 1942	
	
27.3
27.3
1.8
Calculations of the total number of tags probably taken by the fishery and of the
probable percentage recovery from individual taggings are included in Table III. for
detector returns from six fishing-grounds. Because of the small number of recoveries
and the erratic performance of the Gulf of Georgia detector, the calculations are based
on returns from the Imperial detector only. Following the method used last year
(Tester and Boughton, 1943, p. 53), the number of tags recovered from each fishing-
ground is multiplied by the total tonnage taken by the fishery (Satellite Channel,
15,400;   Porlier Pass to Dodd Narrows, 9,600;   Nanoose Bay, 17,400;   Deepwater Bay, BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 61
4,603; Clio Channel vicinity, 2,670; and Kwakshua Passage, 37,661), and divided by
the tonnage " efficiently " operated on by the detector (Satellite Channel, 2,774; Porlier
Pass to Dodd Narrows, 1,398; Nanoose Bay, 4,324; Deepwater Bay, 1,337; Clio Channel, 20; and Kwakshua Passage, 1,379). A small tonnage (about 1,000) from Deep
Bay is not included, as fish from that locality did not pass through the Imperial detector.
The accuracy of the calculations is based on the assumptions that the Imperial detector
was 100-per-cent. efficient at recovering tags and that the recoveries from each fishing-
ground were distributed in the total catch in the same proportion as in that part passing
through the detector.
There is considerable variation in the calculated percentage recovery of tags from
each tagging. Considering those used in 1943 on the lower south-east coast of Vancouver Island it would seem that the fish which spawned at Ladysmith Harbour (7B)
contributed to a much greater extent to the south-east coast fishery than those spawning
at Valdes Island (7C) and Porlier Pass (7E). The difference is probably due to lack
of random mixture of the tagged fish with the population. No recoveries resulted from
the tagging at Northwest Bay (7H), and the percentage recoveries from Union Bay
(71), Pender Harbour (7F), and Deserted Bay (7G) are low, suggesting that fish from
these areas did not contribute to as great an extent as those from other tagging areas
in the Strait of Georgia to the fishery along the south-east coast of Vancouver Island
and Discovery Passage. The apparently large percentage recovery of Gunboat Passage
tags (7M) from Kwakshua Passage is worthy of note.
Percentage recovery calculations are included in Table III. for 6-series tags, used
in 1942 and recovered in 1943-44 (not correcting for those already recovered in
1942-43). The percentage recoveries are for the most part relatively low, as might
be expected with tags out for more than one year. However, that for Clio Channel
(6N) is exceptionally high. This might be due to chance as the calculation is based
mostly on two tags, recovered from a small tonnage (20).
Considering only taggings of the 6-series which were made in the lower south-east
coast of Vancouver Island area (south of Dodd Narrows), the probable number taken
in 1942-43 was 104 and in 1943-44, 11, indicating a total mortality rate of 89 per cent.
This is similar to the total mortality rate of 88 per cent, as calculated for the 5-series
last year (Tester and Boughton, 1943, p. 65). However, it should be pointed out that
this estimate may be high, as any migration in or out of the area will increase the
apparent mortality rate.
It is interesting to note that in 1943—44 there were no recoveries of 6-series tags
used along the east coast of Vancouver Island from Nanaimo to Comox in 1942. This
corroborates the evidence received last year that most of the fish tagged in that area
during a period of mortality died, probably along with a fair percentage of the spawning population (Tester and Boughton, 1943, p. 54).
Magnets.
The number of tags recovered from reduction plants, chiefly by means
magnets, is shown in the following tabulation:—
Of electro-
Location'of Plant.
Name of Plant.
Number of
Recoveries.
9.
Nootka —_ _ -  	
Imperial  __	
4
4
Gulf of Georgia  	
4
6
222
168
Butedale — _._... _____
125
63
Total. - -- -	
605 J 62 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
The small number of tags (13) from plants on the west coast of Vancouver Island
is due to several factors, including (a) no tags were used in west coast areas in 1941-42
and 1942-43, (b) the west coast catch in 1943-44 was relatively small (9,195 tons),
(c) part of the west coast and all of the east coast of Vancouver Island fish landed at
the plants were canned, and (d) the magnets at two west coast plants (Kildonan and
Ceepeecee) were apparently not in effective operation. The small number of recoveries
(14) from plants in the Strait of Georgia is due chiefly to the fact that these operated
almost entirely on offal from canneries associated with them, and that at two of the
three plants with magnets tag detectors removed the tagged fish from the catches
entering the canneries, and hence from the offal. The large number of tags (578)
recovered by four plants located north of the Strait of Georgia is explained partly by
the following facts: (a) That almost the entire catch landed at the plants was reduced,
(o) that one of the plants (Alert Bay) handled most of the catch (2,670 tons) from
Queen Charlotte Strait where tagging has been relatively intensive in recent years,
(c) that all plants operated extensively on a large catch (37,661 tons) from the Central
coast-line (mostly from Kwakshua Passage) where tagging has been maintained on
a moderate scale annually and where there has possibly been an accumulation of tagged
fish because of relatively small catches during the 1940-41, 1941-42, and 1942-43 fishing seasons (about 10,500, 12,800, and 4,900 tons respectively). The latter possibility
has not been investigated as yet.
Following the custom of earlier reports there is given below a discussion of the
magnet recoveries for individual taggings; namely, an unbiased interpretation of the
probable fishing-grounds from which the fish bearing the tag originated. The interpretation is based on knowledge of the plant history (daily tonnage reduced, canned,
or otherwise handled, and the fishing-ground from which each load came), the efficiency
and " lag " of the magnets in recovering tags, and the date and place of recovery as
reported by the person returning the tag. In all cases, unless otherwise specified, the
interpreted place of recovery agrees with that reported with the return.
To save space and avoid repetition, the following remarks apply to all recoveries
designated A, B, C, or D in the account to follow:—
A = Tags almost certainly from Kwakshua Passage catches, but with the remote
possibility that they may have entered the plant with small loads of herring from Fish
Egg Inlet, Drainey Inlet, or Clio Channel, which were processed at the beginning of
the season.
B = Tags almost certainly from Kwakshua Passage, but with Passage Island as
a remote possibility. Several loads from the latter locality were reduced during July
and August.
C = Tags almost certainly from Kwakshua Passage, but with Clio Channel vicinity
as a remote possibility. The plant operated on Clio Channel and Kwakshua Passage
fish during the first part of the season, but exclusively on Kwakshua Passage fish during the second part (after the Christmas holiday period). Tags indicated as "C"
were recovered during the latter period.
D = Tags practically certain to have come from Kwakshua Passage. The only
other fish processed by the plant prior to running on herring were pilchards from the
Queen Charlotte Islands during September.
It might also be noted that tags recorded as coming from " Clio Channel" in the
account which follows were variously reported as coming from Serpentine Pass, Bones
Bay, Minstrel Island, and Knight Inlet. These fishing-grounds are all at or adjacent
to Clio Channel and this one name is used to avoid confusion.
Cutter Creek (4L) : Of six recoveries, two came from Clio Channel, one from
Kwakshua Passage (A), and three (reported from Clio Channel vicinity) could equally
well have come from either Clio Channel or Kwakshua Passage. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 63
Shoal Harbour (4M) :   Two recoveries, both from Kwakshua Passage (A and B).
Refuge Cove (4Q) : One recovery, probably from Sydney Inlet, but with Barkley
Sound and the lower east coast of Vancouver Island as less likely alternatives.
Winter Harbour (4U) :  Two recoveries, both from Kwakshua Passage (A and D).
Campbell Island (4W) : Four recoveries, all from Kwakshua Passage (A, B, C,
and D).
Toquart Bay (4AA) : Three recoveries. It is almost certain that two came from
Barkley Sound, but with Sydney Inlet and east coast of Vancouver Island fishing-
grounds as less likely alternatives. The third almost certainly came from Sydney
Inlet, but with the east coast of Vancouver Island and Quatsino Sound as possibilities.
Campbell Island (51) : Twenty-two recoveries. One came from either Clio Channel or Kwakshua Passage. The remainder are considered to have come from Kwakshua Passage (A—8, B—7, C—3, D—3).
Laidlaw Islands (5L) :   One recovery from Kwakshua Passage (C).
Deer Passage (5M) :  Four recoveries from Kwakshua Passage (A—3, D—1).
Kwakshua Passage (5N) : Fifteen recoveries. One came from either Clio Channel or Kwakshua Passage catches. The remainder came from Kwakshua Passage
(A—4, B—5, C—2, D—3).
Lyall Point (50) : One recovery, almost certainly from Barkley Sound, but with
Sydney Inlet and east coast of Vancouver Island localities as less likely alternatives.
Toquart Bay (5P) : Two recoveries, both probably from Barkley Sound, but with
Sydney Inlet and the east coast of Vancouver Island as less likely alternatives.
Browning Inlet (5W) :   One recovery from Kwakshua Passage (A).
Bunsby Islands (5X) : One recovery which probably came from Kwakshua Passage, but with the east coast of Vancouver Island as a rather likely alternative.
Refuge Cove (5Y) : One recovery, probably from Sydney Inlet. Barkley Sound
and east coast of Vancouver Island fishing-grounds are less likely possibilities.
Sooke (6A) : One recovery reported from Kwakshua Passage. It is equally likely,
however, that this tag came from west coast of Vancouver Island fishing-grounds and
there is a possibility that it came from Nanoose Bay. As no Sooke tags were recovered
by plants processing large quantities of Kwakshua Passage fish, it is considered most
likely that the tag came from some locality on the west coast of Vancouver Island,
possibly Barkley Sound.
Skuttle Bay (61) :   One recovery from Kwakshua Passage (D).
Squirrel Cove (6K) : Two recoveries. One came from Kwakshua Passage (D).
No interpretation is offered for the other which was found in the drier and which was
reported from either the east coast of Vancouver Island, Deepwater Bay, or Clio
Channel.
Retreat Passage (6L) : Nine recoveries. One came from Clio Channel and five
from Kwakshua Passage (A—2, B—2, D—1). Two reported from Clio Channel
vicinity may equally well have come from Kwakshua Passage. One, presumably coming from herring mixed with a load of pilchards caught at Safety Cove in September,
is included with Kwakshua Passage returns in the tables.
Campbell Island (6M) : Forty-two recoveries. One came from either Clio Channel vicinity or Kwakshua Passage, as reported. One probably came from Kwakshua
Passage, although west coast of Vancouver Island localities are possible alternatives
and Nanoose Bay is a remote possibility. The remainder are considered to have come
from Kwakshua Passage (A—16, B—11, C—7, D—6).
Clio Channel (6N) : Thirty recoveries. One very probably came from Sydney
Inlet, with Nanoose Bay and Quatsino Sound as less likely alternatives. It is certain
that fourteen came from the vicinity of Clio Channel. Another very probably came
from Clio Channel, but with east coast of Vancouver Island localities as a remote alternative.    Four came from Kwakshua Passage (A—2, B—1, C—1).    Of the remaining J 64 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
ten, six were reported from Clio Channel vicinity, three from Clio Channel or Kwakshua Passage, and one fj;om Kwakshua Passage. According to plant records all ten
are equally likely to have come from either Clio Channel or Kwakshua Passage. In
view of the small number of recoveries from plants which processed Kwakshua Passage
but not Clio Channel fish, it is likely that most of the ten actually originated with fish
from the latter locality, although this interpretation is not used in compiling the tables
of data.
Kingcome Inlet (60) : Twenty-four recoveries. Twelve were recovered with fish
from Clio Channel and two with Kwakshua Passage fish (A—2). Of the remaining
ten, five were reported from Clio Channel vicinity and five from either Clio Channel
or Kwakshua Passage. Although for the same reason given in the preceding paragraph, most of these tags are likely to have come from Clio Channel fish, the strictly
unbiased interpretation that they came from either Clio Channel or Kwakshua Passage
is adhered to in tabulating the results.
Cahnish Bay (6P) : Six recoveries, one from Clio Channel vicinity and four from
Kwakshua Passage (A—3, D—1). The sixth tag probably came from Deepwater
Bay, but with localities along the south-east coast of Vancouver Island as less likely
alternatives.
Ladysmith Harbour (7B) : Three recoveries. It is certain that one came from the
east coast of Vancouver Island, probably Satellite Channel, and it is probable that a
second also came from the east coast of Vancouver Island, possibly Porlier Pass vicinity,
although it was recorded from Tofino Inlet. The third tag probably came from Barkley Sound, with Sydney Inlet and east coast of Vancouver Island localities as less likely
alternatives.
Skuttle Bay (7D) : Four recoveries. One probably came from Deepwater Bay, but
with east coast of Vancouver Island fishing-grounds as an alternative. One probably
came from Nanoose Bay, but with Satellite Channel and Deepwater Bay as alternatives.
One was recovered with Kwakshua Passage fish (B).
Deserted Bay (7G) : Two recoveries, both from the same plant at about the same
time and reported from Kwakshua Passage fish. They may have come from that
locality, although it is considered unlikely in view of the fact that no 7G tags were
recovered by other plants processing far larger quantities of Kwakshua Passage fish
than the plant making the two recoveries. Localities along the south-east coast of
Vancouver Island and Deepwater Bay are likely alternatives. No further interpretation is offered.
Union Bay (71) : One recovery from Kwakshua Passage (A), and one from either
Clio Channel or Kwakshua Passage.
Deepwater Bay (7J) : Twenty-eight recoveries. Four came from fishing-grounds
in the vicinity of Clio Channel and twenty-one came from Kwakshua Passage (A—12,
B—5, C—1, D—3). Two tags, one reported from Clio Channel vicinity and another
reported from Clio Channel and Kwakshua Passage, could equally well have come from
either of these two fishing-grounds. No interpretation is offered for one tag which
was found in the drier of a plant processing fish and offal from many different places.
Clio Channel (7K) : Twenty recoveries. Six came from Clio Channel and three
from Kwakshua Passage (A—2, C—1). The remaining eleven tags, six of which were
reported from the vicinity of Clio Channel and five from either Clio Channel or Kwakshua Passage, may have come from either of these two localities.
Retreat Passage (7L) : Twenty-one recoveries, two from Clio Channel and thirteen
from Kwakshua Passage (A—8, B—2, C—2, D—1). The remaining six, two of which
were reported from Clio Channel vicinity and four from Clio Channel or Kwakshua
Passage, may have come from either of these two places.
Gunboat Passage (7M) : Two hundred and thirty-nine recoveries. Two were
recovered from Clio Channel fishing-grounds.    Two hundred and twenty-six were re- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 65
covered from Kwakshua Passage (A—85, B—76, C—27, D—38). An additional two
tags are interpreted as coming from Kwakshua Passage, but with localities along the
south-east coast of Vancouver Island as less likely alternatives. The remaining nine
are considered to have come from either Clio Channel or Kwakshua Passage—eight
were reported from fishing-grounds in the vicinity of Clio Channel and one was reported
from either Clio Channel or Kwakshua Passage.
Chatham Channel (7N) : One hundred recoveries. Forty-three came from Clio
Channel fishing-grounds. Twenty-eight came from Kwakshua Passage (A—10, B—12,
C—4, D—2). Twenty-seven came from either Clio Channel or from Kwakshua Passage; of these sixteen were reported from Clio Channel fish and eleven from either Clio
Channel or Kwakshua Passage fish. Of the remaining two tags, no interpretation is
offered for one (found in the drier of a plant processing fish from many different
places) and the other, reported from Deepwater Bay, probably came from that locality
with south-east coast of Vancouver Island fishing-grounds as less likely alternatives.
Five tags with undecipherable code letters were received.
The above results are summarized in Table IV.
Table IV.—Summary of the Presumed Sources of Tags from each Tagging producing
Returns, which were .recovered on Magnets during the 1943-44 Season.
(For qualifications see text.)
(
Place and Time of Tagging.
*>
Place of Capture.
Code.
Barkley
Sound.
Sydney
Inlet.
Southeast
Coast
of
Vancouver
Island.
Deep-
water
Bay.
Clio
Channel vicinity.
Clio
Channel or
Kwakshua
Passage.
Kwakshua
Passage.
No Interpretation
offered.
Total.
4AA
50
5P
4Q
5Y
SX
4U
5W
6A
7B
Toquart Bay, March, 1940	
Lyall Point, March, 1941	
Toquart Bay, March, 1941	
Refuge Cove, March, 1940	
Refuge Cove, March, 1941...	
Bunsby Islands, March, 1941
Winter Harbour, March, 1940	
Browning Inlet, March, 1941
Sooke, October, 1941 ___
Ladysmith Harbour, February,
1943         _	
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
~
1
1
1
z
1
4
2
1
15
12
6
2
43
2
1
1
....
2
3
2
10
10
11
27
1
1
1
9
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
21
1
2
6
4
2
3
13
28
4
21
1
4
14
41
228
2
1
1
1
I
-
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
71
1
I
-
2
7G
61
Deserted Bay, March, 1943.
Skuttle Bay, March, 1942	
2
1
7D
Skuttle Bay, March, 1943 ...	
4
6K
6P
7J
4L
4M
6L
6N
Squirrel Cove, March, 1942	
Cahnish Bay, April, 1942	
Deepwater Bay, March, 1943
Cutter Creek, March, 1940 ,
Shoal Harbour, March, 1940 .
Retreat Passage, March, 1942
Clio Channel, March, 1942 .
2
6
28
6
2
9
30
60
7K
7L
7N
4W
51
5L
5M
Kingcome Inlet, March, 1942
Clio Channel, March, 1943
Retreat Passage, March, 1943 —
Chatham Channel, April, 1943...
Campbell Island, March, 1940-..
Campbell Island, March, 1941—
Laidlaw Islands, March, 1941....
24
20
21
100
4
22
1
4
5N
6M
7M
?
Kwakshua Passage, March, 1941
Campbell Island, March, 1942 ....
Gunboat Passage, March, 1943—
Code undecipherable —_	
Totals           	
15
42
239
5
7      1        4
3      1        3
88
85
405
10
605 J 66              REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
STABILITY OF POPULATIONS AND MOVEMENTS.
Major Areas.
Detector returns as listed in Table II. and magnet returns as listed in Table IV.
are combined and further summarized according to major areas in Table V.    The raw
data show that in every case the number of tags used in and recovered from each major
area is greater than the number used in one and recovered from another major area.
However, in some cases, an apparently large number of tags used in one major area was
recovered from another.    For example, of the tags used in the Strait of Georgia and
Discovery Passage, 87 were recovered from Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage
fish but 31 were recovered from the Central coast-line.    Again, of the tags used in the
Queen Charlotte Strait area, 84 were recovered from that area, but 61 were recovered
from the Central coast-line.    It is apparent from the data that intermingling between
the fish of major areas has taken place.    But it will also be apparent from the data and
discussions to follow that this intermingling is not necessarily as extensive as might
be judged from the raw data of Table V.
Table V.—Summary, according to Major Areas, of the Interpreted Sources of all Tags
from Taggings producing Returns on both Magnets and Detectors during  the
1943-44 Season.
Major Recovery Area.
Total.
Major Tagging Area.
West
Coast of
Vancouver
Island.
Strait of
Georgia
and
Discovery
Passage.
Queen
Charlotte
Strait.
Queen
Charlotte
Strait or
Central
Coastline.
Central
Coastline.
No Interpretation
■   offered.
9
2
1
87
10
5
84
2
4
69
12
4
31
61
325
4
1
5
13
133
226
339
5
Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage
t
Totals 	
12
97
91
85
421
10
716
The number of tags recovered from a fishing-ground is influenced by many factors,
among which of immediate concern are the following:   (a) The tonnage caught, (6) the
tonnage mechanically searched-for tags,  (c) the efficiency of- the recovery apparatus,
and  (d)  the number of tags originally used.    To obtain some idea of the extent of
mixture between areas an attempt has been made to correct for (a) and (b)   (Tester
and Boughton, 1943, p. 62), but not (c).    A correction for (d) will be discussed later.
In adjusting the results for  (a)  and  (b)  only part of the available data can be
used:   Imperial detector recoveries for catches from the west coast of Vancouver Island, the Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage, Queen Charlotte Strait and the
Central coast-line;  magnet recoveries from Ucluelet and Nootka for catches from the
west coast of Vancouver Island;   magnet recoveries   (in part)  from Alert Bay for
catches from Queen Charlotte Strait and the Central coast-line;  and magnet recoveries
from Namu, Butedale, and Port Edward for catches from the Central coast-line.     Where
necessary (Ucluelet, Nootka, and Port Edward) corrections for canning have been made
by including half the tonnage canned along with the total tonnage reduced  (a very
arbitrary correction similar to that used in previous years, the accuracy of which will
not appreciably affect the 1943-44 results because of the relatively small tonnages
canned at canneries associated with these plants).    Tags of doubtful origin are not
• BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 67
included in the calculations.    The results, shown in Table VI., are expressed as the
concentration of tags per 100 tons of fish caught.
Table VI.—Concentration of Tags per Hundred Tons of Fish according to Major Areas
for Magnet (M) and Detector (D) Recoveries.
(Concentration, weighted to the number of tags originally used, is given in brackets.
For explanation see text.)
Major Tagging Area.
Major Recovery Area.
West
Coast of
Vancouver
Island.
Strait of
Georgia and
Discovery
Passage.
Queen
Charlotte
Strait.
Central
Coast-line.
West Coast of Vancouver Island ,  , _ 	
M.+D.
0.22
(7.68)
0.05
(0.05)
0.02
(0.08)
D.
0.68
(0.68)
0.09
(0.36)
M.+D.
0.42
(0.42)
7.12
(28.32)
0.17
(1.03)
M.+D.
0.01
(0.35)
0.10
(0.10)
0.20
(0.80)
1.05
(6.46)
Table VI. shows that the concentration of tags per 100 tons of fish is greatest in
fish caught in the major area in which the tags were originally used. For example, in
fish caught along the Central coast-line, the concentration of Central coast-line tags was
105 times that of west coast of Vancouver Island tags, 10 times that of Strait of Georgia
and Discovery Passage tags, and 5 times that of Queen Charlotte Strait tags.
A rough correction for factor (d), differences in the numbers of tags originally
used, has been attempted. In this, the above results are weighted to the total number
of tags used in the Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage during the past four
spawning periods (51,144 between 1940 and 1943, inclusive), assuming an annual
decrease in the availability of tags of 75 per cent, in all areas (a very rough approximation). In other words, the results, included in brackets in Table VI., give the probable
concentration of tags per 100 tons of fish caught in 1943-44 if the same number of tags
(51,144) had been used in all four major areas. It may be seen that in some cases the
probable degree of mixing is less and in other cases greater than is indicated in the
unbracketed figures of Table VI. For example, in fish caught along the Central coastline, the concentration of Central coast-line tags would be about 18 times that of west
coast of Vancouver Island tags, 65 times that of Strait of Georgia tags, and 8 times
that of Queen Charlotte Strait tags.
If the concentrations (bracketed) of Table VI. are now reconverted to actual numbers by multiplying by the catch in each major area (west coast of Vancouver Island,
9,195; Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage, 48,015; Queen Charlotte Strait, 2,670;
Central coast-line, 37,661 tons) and they are divided by 100, the figures given in Table
VII. result. These represent the number of tags, according to major area of insertion
and recovery, which would probably have been taken by the 1943-44 fishery if the number of tags used over the period 1940 to 1943 had been equal to the number used in the
Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage. These figures give a better idea of the extent
of mixing between major areas than those of Table V. They indicate that 84 per cent.
(421%9i3) °f the tagged fish returned to the same major area in which they were
tagged and that 16 per cent. (69%9i3) migrated to major areas other than those in
which they were tagged. This conclusion is based on the assumption that in all four
major areas the catch in each formed the same proportion of the population in each; J 68
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
this is not necessarily true. It would seem that a more accurate idea of the extent of
mixing would require information on the total population present in each major area.
There is no way of procuring this information at the present time.
Table VII.—Calculated Number of Tags which probably would have been recovered in
each Major Area if Tagging in all Areas had been as Extensive as in the Strait of
GeorOia- (For explanation see text.)
Major Recovery Area.
Major Tagging Area.
West
Coast of
Vancouver
Island.
Strait of
Georgia and
Discovery
Passage.
Queen
Charlotte
Strait.
Central
Coast-line.
Total.
West Coast of Vancouver Island	
Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage.
706
5
7
327
173
11
753
27
132
38
301
2,433
838 '
381
1,234
2,460
Totals 	
718
500
791
2,904
4,913
A more thorough and refined treatment of the data will not be attempted in the
present report. Details of mixing between and within major areas will be discussed
in the following paragraphs.   •
West Coast of Vancouver Island.
In interpreting the west coast results the fact that there were no west coast taggings in 1941-42 and 1942-43 must be taken into consideration. The tagged fish,
recaptured in 1943-44, had all been free to wander for a period of more than two and
one-half years, whereas the majority of those recaptured in other areas had been at
liberty for a shorter period.
The results show that a small run to Barkley Sound contained some fish originally
spawning in Barkley Sound (4AA, 50 and 5P), with the addition of a few from the east
coast of Vancouver Island (6A and 7B) ; and that a small run to Sydney Inlet contained some fish originally spawning in the Clayoquot Sound area (4Q and 5Y), with
the addition of some from Barkley Sound (4AA) and a few from the Queen Charlotte
Strait area (6N).
Some fish from the northern part of the west coast, Ououkinsh Inlet (5X) and
Quatsino Sound (4U and 5W), joined the Kwakshua Passage run.
East Coast of Vancouver Island.
The results for the east coast of Vancouver Island, based on detector returns, have
already been discussed in detail and will only be reviewed briefly. The few recoveries
from magnets conform with the conclusions already drawn.
There is evidence similar to that of last year (Tester and Boughton, 1943, p. 66)
of partial segregation of the east coast runs. The catches made at Satellite Channel
and Porlier Pass vicinity contained tags most of which (90 per cent.) were originally
used among the islands on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island. Tags from the
Nanoose Bay fish were mostly (57 per cent.) from the south-east coast of Vancouver
Island, but there was also a substantial number (35 per cent.) from spawning-grounds
along the north-east shore of the Strait (including Jervis and Seechelt Inlets) and some
(8 per cent.) from Discovery Passage. The Deepwater Bay fish contained mostly tags
from Discovery Passage (33 per cent.) and the northern part of the Strait of Georgia
(42 per cent.). BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 69
For the second year it has been shown that the fish caught at Deepwater Bay
contained tags not only from the northern part of the Strait of Georgia and Discovery
Passage, but also from,Queen Charlotte Strait (25 per cent.). It seems likely that
part, at least, of the fish which spawned in the northern part of the Strait of Georgia
and the southern part of Discovery Passage left the area in the spring and returned
again in the fall by way of Johnstone Strait, and that mixture with Queen Charlotte
Strait fish took place during the period of migration or presumed ocean residence.
During this period also, some of these fish mixed with Central coast-line fish which
eventually were caught at Kwakshua Passage.
Calculations of the probable percentage recovery of tags used in the Strait of
Georgia and Discovery Passage and recovered from fishing-grounds along the east
coast of Vancouver Island (Satellite Channel to Deepwater Bay) indicate that fish from
some spawning-grounds contributed to a much greater extent than others to the fishery
in 1943-44. For the southern part of the Strait, a total annual mortality rate of 89
per cent, is indicated by calculations of the probable number of 6-series tags returned
in 1942-43 and 1943-44.
Lack of recovery of 6-series tags used between Nanaimo and Comox during the
1942 spawning period corroborates evidence given last year that most of the fish tagged
in that area during a period of unusual mortality (Tester, 1942) died, probably along
with a fair percentage of the spawning population.
Queen Chaelotte Strait.
The catches of Queen Charlotte Strait fish were all made in the vicinity of Clio
Channel (Bones Bay, Minstrel Island, Serpentine Pass, and adjacent waters of lower
Knight Inlet) during November and December, 1943. The actual number of tags
recovered is shown in Table V. The results of calculations given in Table VII. give a
fairer idea of the extent of mixing. Of the calculated probable number of recoveries
of Queen Charlotte Strait tags (assuming that tagging in all areas was of similar
intensity to that in the Strait of Georgia), 61.0 per cent, was taken from Clio Channel
catches, 24.4 per cent, from Central coast-line (Kwakshua Passage) catches, 14.0 per
cent, from Discovery Passage (Deepwater Bay) catches, and 0.6 per cent, from west
coast of Vancouver Island (Sydney Inlet) catches. Of the calculated probable number
of tags recovered from Clio Channel fish, 95.2 per cent, were from Queen Charlotte
Strait, 1.4 per cent, from Discovery Passage, and 3.4 per cent, from Central coast-line
spawning-grounds (all from one tagging, 7M). These results indicate a fairly substantial movement of Queen Charlotte Strait fish away from the area, chiefly to the
north, and but a slight movement of fish from other major areas into the area. However, it must be remembered that the results are influenced to an unknown extent by
the relative fishing intensity in Queen Charlotte Strait as compared with other areas.
The high concentration of Queen Charlotte Strait tags (7.12 per 100 tons), shown in
Table VI., is worthy of note. This might be taken as indicating a relatively small population of fish in Queen Charlotte Strait, although there are other possible explanations.
There is evidence of a difference between taggings in the extent of mixing of
Queen Charlotte Strait fish with those of the Central coast-line. To illustrate this,
Table VIII. has been compiled from data included in Tables II. and IV. It may be
seen from Table VIII. that there is a greater tendency (which may be shown to be
statistically significant) for fish tagged in the vicinity of Retreat Passage (Shoal Harbour opens into Retreat Passage) to mix with Kwakshua Passage fish than is the case of
those tagged elsewhere in the Queen Charlotte Strait area. This is interesting in view
of the observation which has been made that there are frequently two kinds of herring
in Retreat Passage, one consisting of small slow-growing fish and the other (Tester,
1941) of large fast-growing fish. J 70
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
Table VIII.-
-Numbers of Tags originally used in Queen Charlotte Strait, recovered
from Clio Channel and Kwakshua Passage Catches.
Place and Time of Tagging.
Area op Recovery.
Code.
Clio
Channel.
Kwakshua
Passage.
4L
Cutter Creek, March, 1940	
2
17
6
44
12
1
6N
Clio Channel, March, 1942        .                           -	
4
7K
Clio Channel, March, 1943 ;' _	
4
7N
Chatham Channel, April, 1943   	
28
60
3
81
40
Shoal Harbour, March, 1940 - -	
Retreat Passage, March, 1942.    _	
4M
6L
7L
1
2
2
6
13
3
21
It might be noted that the Chatham Channel tagging (7N) was very productive of
returns. Calculations based on both magnet and detector recoveries indicate a total
probable recovery from all fishing-grounds of 5.4 per cent. Similar calculations for the
Clio Channel tagging (6N) indicate a total probable recovery of 2.1 per cent. These
results are in contrast to those given in Table III. for detector recoveries alone, and
show the danger of extrapolation from meagre data.
Central Coast-line.
The catches from which tags were obtained were all made at Kwakshua Passage
during December and January. Catches were also made in February from the vicinity
of Laredo Inlet but no recoveries resulted from these, the magnet having been removed
for repairs from the plant which handled almost all of the fish.
The magnet recoveries from Kwakshua Passage fish are numerous and in most
cases there is little or no doubt that the tags came from that fishing-ground. Consequently, together with the few detector recoveries, they give a fairly reliable and
complete picture of the constitution of the Kwakshua run in so far as tagging and tag-
recovery is concerned.
From Tables IL, IV., and V. the following results are obtained. Of the tags
recovered from Kwakshua Passage fish, 325 were originally used along the Centra]
coast-line: Campbell Island (4W)—5; Kwakshua Passage (5N), Campbell Island (51),
Deer Passage (5M), and Laidlaw Islands (5L)—40; Campbell Island (6M)—42; and
Gunboat Passage (7M)—238. Doubtless the number would have been greater if tagging had not been curtailed in 1942 (6-series) and 1943 (7-series). From Kwakshua
Passage fish there were also recovered 61 tags originally used in the Queen Charlotte
Strait area: Cutter Creek (4L) and Shoal Harbour (4M)—3; Retreat Passage (6L),
Clio Channel (6N), and Kingcome Inlet (60)—13; Retreat Passage (7L), Clio Channel
(7K), and Chatham Channel (7N)—45. Neglecting a very small tagging (5H), there
are represented eight of the nine taggings conducted in the Queen Charlotte Strait area
over a four-year period (1940 to 1943). This shows that mixing of Queen Charlotte
Strait fish with those caught at Kwakshua Passage, while limited in volume, was
general in nature, although as already pointed out some fish (those tagged in the
vicinity of Retreat Passage) joined the Kwakshua Passage run to a greater extent than
others. Included among the tags from Kwakshua Passage fish were 31 from Discovery
Passage and the northern part of the Strait of Georgia, mostly the former: Cahnish
Bay (6P) and Deepwater Bay (7J)—27;   Squirrel Cove (6K), Skuttle Bay (61 and BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 71
7D), and Union Bay (71)—4. There were also four tags from the northern part of
the west coast of Vancouver Island: Bunsby Islands (4X), Winter Harbour (4U), and
Browning Inlet (5W).
Considering tags from the four major areas which were recovered from Kwakshua
Passage fish the percentages are as follows: Central coast-line, 77.2; Queen Charlotte
Strait, 14.5; Discovery Passage and Strait of Georgia, 7.4 (former, 6.4; latter, 1.0) ;
and west coast of Vancouver Island, 1.0. If the figures given in Table VII. are used (corrected for differences in the number of tags originally used in each major area), the
percentages become: Central coast-line, 83.8; Queen Charlotte Strait, 10.4; Discovery
Passage and Strait of Georgia, 1.3; and west coast of Vancouver Island, 4.5. The
latter figures probably give a better conception of the extent of movement of " outside "
fish to Kwakshua Passage. However, it must be pointed out that the results would probably have been modified if there had been taggings on more than one of the many individual spawning-grounds within the Central coast-line area during the past two years.
Only two Central coast-line tags were recovered from other major areas, both from
Clio Channel in Queen Charlotte Strait, forming but 1 per cent, of the recoveries (Table
VII.). It is obvious therefore that the 1943-44 results show a much more extensive
movement of fish into the Central coast-line area than away from it.
Some significance may perhaps be attached to the fact that there was only 1
recovery from Laidlaw Islands (5L) as compared with 21 from Campbell Island (51)
and 4 from Deer Passage (5M). This suggests that fish which spawned at the entrance
to Laredo Inlet in 1941 did not join the 1943-44 Kwakshua run to the same extent as
those which spawned in the Bardswell Group in that year. It may also be noted that
there were no recoveries from taggings in the Northern coast-line area—Big Bay (4X),
Butler Cove (4Y), Jap Inlet (5K), and Duncan Bay (5J).
Northern Coast-line.
No tags were recovered from a small tonnage, partly reduced and partly canned,
taken from Khutzeymateen Inlet and Union Bay during February.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS.
The 1943-44 results agree with those of previous years in showing that mixing
between the populations of major areas is limited in extent. To some extent they
serve to clarify what is meant by the word " limited." While the conclusions are still
based on several assumptions, which will influence them to an unknown extent, an interchange between major areas of about 16 per cent, in 1943-44 is indicated.
The movement of herring from " outside " areas (chiefly Queen Charlotte Strait)
to the Central coast-line fishery (Kwakshua Passage) was apparently more extensive
than the movement of Central coast-line fish to other major areas. In contrast, the
movement of fish from "outside" areas to Queen Charlotte Strait fishing-grounds (Clio
Channel vicinity) was apparently less extensive than the movement of Queen Charlotte
Strait fish to other major areas.
Results of two successive years of intensive study of the Strait of Georgia and
Queen Charlotte Strait populations are now at hand. The 1943-44 results for the
Strait of Georgia are very similar to those for 1942-43. They reveal a complicated
situation the explanation of which hinges on the fact that there are two migration
routes which can be, and presumably are, followed by fish travelling to and from
summer feeding-grounds outside the area—a southern route by way of the Strait of
Juan de Fuca and a northern route by way of Johnstone Strait. It would appear that
fish spawning along the south-east coast of Vancouver Island for the most part use
the southern route and, on their return, contribute to the fisheries in the vicinity of
Satellite Channel, Porlier Pass, and at Nanoose Bay; that fish spawning in Discovery J 72 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
Passage and the north end of the Strait of Georgia mostly use the northern route and,
on their return, contribute largely to the fishery at Deepwater Bay; and that fish
which spawn along the north-east shore of the Strait (and possibly also the north-west
shore of the Strait) use partly the southern route, contributing to the Nanoose Bay
fishery on their return, and partly the northern route, contributing to the Deepwater
Bay fishery on their return. Without doubt, the exact situation varies from year to
year, depending on the proportions of spawning fish using each migration route and,
on their return, the extent to which the southern group penetrates northward and the
northern group penetrates southward along the east coast of Vancouver Island where
the fishing-grounds are located. This interpretation of the results, as yet incomplete,
must be regarded as a theory which appears to fit the observed facts (including
recoveries made both inside and outside of the Strait of Georgia). It is subject to both
modification and amplification by the addition of further data. For example, sufficient
information is not yet available to include a comprehensive discussion of those fish
which do not migrate from the area but which spend the summer on local feeding-
grounds such as Point Grey, Active Pass, etc. These form an unknown percentage of
the Strait of Georgia population.
Detailed information concerning the constitution of the Queen Charlotte Strait
population or populations has not been obtained, chiefly because of the limited nature
of the fishery in that area during the past two seasons. It is known, however, that
fish from several different places within the area, including Chatham Channel, Clio
Channel, Retreat Passage, and Kingcome Inlet, contributed to the fishery in the Clio
Channel vicinity in 1943-44.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
Again it is a pleasure to record the support of the herring-fishing industry in
connection with the present investigation. British Columbia Packers, Limited, and
Canadian Fishing Company, Limited, again permitted the operation of tag detectors
at their respective plants, the Imperial Cannery and the Gulf of Georgia Cannery,
Steveston, B.C. The management of these plants gave every assistance to the tag
detector operators, Mr. A. G. Paul and Mr. R. S. Isaacson. Crews of most of the
reduction plants operated by various companies assisted the investigation by searching
for tags on magnets and in the plant machinery. Technical aMvice and assistance of
Mr. F. J. Bartholomew, of the Electric Power and Equipment Company, Vancouver, is
also gratefully acknowledged.
The seine-boats "Arctic Queen " and " B.C. Pride " were loaned for spring tagging-
work by the Nootka-Banfield Company, Limited, and by Nelson Brothers Fisheries,
Limited. The crews, Captains 0. Brune and A. Godson, and Messrs. R. Lund, E.
Kevis, P. Reite, and F. Orange, co-operated fully in every respect. The seine-boats,
modern vessels equipped with radio-telephone, were ideally suited for the purpose.
The assistance of Mr. J. C. Stevenson, M.A., Mr. A. G. Paul, and Mr. R. S. Isaacson, of
the Pacific Biological Station, made the extensive tagging programme possible. Particular mention is made of courtesies extended by Mr. M. Warnock, of Bargain Harbour,
during tagging operations in that locality.
The investigation has been carried on under joint agreement by the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada and the Fisheries Department of the Province of British
Columbia. Thanks are extended to Dr. R. E. Foerster and to Mr. G. J. Alexander, of
the respective organizations, for their support and assistance. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 73
Table IX.—Detailed List of Tags inserted during 1943-44-
Identification
Marks.
Date released.
Tagging
Code.
Where released.
No. of
Tags used.
H79901-H80000
H89201-H90000
H99601-H99701
LLJJ
LLKK
LLLL
LLMM
LLNN
LLOO
LLPP
LLTT
LLUU
MMBB
MMTT
MMZZ
OOAA
OOBB
OOJJ
OOKK
OOLL
OOMM
0000
OOPP
00RR
00SS
00TT
OOUU
OOXX
00YY
OOZZ
0044
O066
PPAA
PPBB
PPJJ
PPKK*
PPLL*
PPMM*
PPNN*
PP00*
ppppt
PPRR*
PPSS*
PPTT*
PPUU*
PPXX*
PPYY»
PPZZ*
PP44*
PP66*
RRAA*
RRBB*
RRHH«
RRII*
RRJJ*
RRKK*
RRLL*
RRMM*
RRNN*
RROO*
RRPP*
RRRR*
RRSS*
RRUTJ*
RRXX*
IILLt
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Feb.
Mar.
Feb.
Mar.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Feb.
Mar.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Apr.
Mar.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Mar.
Apr.
Mar.
Apr.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
3
1944
3,
1944
3,
1944
31
1944
31
1944
3,
1944
31,
1944
31
1944
31
1944
31
1944
31,
1944
31
1944
29
1944
3
1944
29
1944
2
1944
21
1944
21
1944
6
1944
6
1944
18
1944
25
1944
18
1944
24
1944
29
1944
25
1944
6
1944
29
1944
18
1944
2
1944
7
1944
26
1944
10
1944
10
1944
26
1944
11
1944
15
1944
13
1944
12
1944
26
1944
15
1944
2
1944
3
1944
27
1944
2
1944
4
1944
3
1944
14
1944
27
1944
27
1944
27
1944
27
1944
20
1944
3
1944
14
1944
3
1944
27
1944
3
1944
20
1944
27
, 1944
20
, 1944
20
1944
20
1944
27
, 1944
20
, 1944
28
, 1941
8D
8D
8D
81
81
8D
81
81
81
81
81
81
8C
8D
8C
8D
8A
8A
SJ
8J
8L
8B
8L
8B
8C
8B
8J
8C
8L
8D
8E
8N
8F
8F
8N
8F
8G
8G
8G
8N
8G
8H
8H
8K
8H
8H
8H
8G
8K
8K
8N
8N
8M
8H
8G
8H
8K
8H
8M
8K
8M
8M
8M
8K
8M
5L
Skuttle Bay.....	
Skuttle Bay 	
Skuttle Bay	
Deepwater Bay	
Deepwater Bay..	
Skuttle Bay _	
Deepwater Bay	
Deepwater Bay	
Deepwater Bay	
Deepwater Bay	
Deepwater Bay	
Deepwater Bay	
Comox Harbour.	
Skuttle Bay	
Comox Harbour	
Skuttle Bay	
Nanaimo Harbour-.
Nanaimo Harbour..
Retreat Passage	
Retreat Passage	
Rivers Inlet	
Departure Bay	
Rivers Inlet	
Departure Bay.	
Comox Harbour	
Departure Bay	
Retreat Passage	
Comox Harbour	
Rivers Inlet	
Skuttle Bay	
Horswell Point	
Matilda Inlet	
Gabriola Island	
Gabriola Island	
Matilda Inlet 	
Gabriola Island	
Kuper Island	
Kuper Island _
Kuper Island	
Matilda Inlet	
Kuper Island	
Bargain Harbour	
Bargain Harbour___
Shoal Harbour	
Bargain Harbour...
Bargain Harbour-
Bargain Harbour...
Kuper Island	
Shoal Harbour	
Shoal Harbour	
Matilda Inlet	
Matilda Inlet	
Gunboat Passage ...
Bargain Harbour.__
Kuper Island  _
Bargain Harbour...
Shoal Harbour	
Bargain Harbour-
Gunboat Passage.—
Shoal Harbour	
Gunboat Passage	
Gunboat Passage....
Gunboat Passage-
Shoal Harbour	
Gunboat Passage	
Laidlaw Islands 	
100
791
99
500
499
500
502
498
500
500
500
500
498
495
499
924
1,150
988
952
1,077
977
1,015
1,047
1,049
1,250
953
968
943
1,097
921
1,178
1,105
1,094
1,078
1,084
1,002
1,002
1,004
1,007
1,006
994
510
606
506
500
405
601
509
515
491
508
517
508
502
505
511
502
508
501
504
500
489
506
508
507
100
* Silver-plated tags.
t Omitted from previous lists. J 74 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
REFERENCES.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia: Methods, apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1936-37.   Report,
B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department, 1936, 55-67, 1937.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring {Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1937-38.    Report, B.C.
Provincial Fisheries Department, 1937, 64-90, 1938.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring {Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1938-39.    Report, B.C.
Provincial Fisheries Department, 1938, 51-78, 1939.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring {Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Insertions and recoveries during 1939-40.    Report, B.C.  Provincial
Fisheries Department, 1939, 42-66, 1940.
Hart, J. L., A. L. Tester, and J. L. McHugh.   The tagging of herring {Clupea pallasii)
in British Columbia:   Insertions and recoveries during 1940-41.    Report, B.C.
Provincial Fisheries Department, 1940, 47-74, 1941.
Hart, J. L., A. L. Tester, and R. V. Boughton.    Tagging of herring {Clupea pallasii)
in   British   Columbia:    Apparatus,   insertions,   and   recoveries   during   1941-42.
Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department, 1941, 49-78, 1942.
Tester, A. L., and R. V. Boughton.    Tagging of herring {Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1942-43.    Report, B.C.
Provincial Fisheries Department, 1942, 44-69, 1943.
Tester, A. L.    Queen Charlotte Sound herring.    Fisheries Research Board of Canada,
Progress Reports (Pacific) No. 47, 10-11, March, 1941.
Tester, A. L.    Herring mortality along the south-east coast of Vancouver Island.
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Progress Reports (Pacific) No. 52, 11-15,
September, 1942.
POSTSCRIPT.
Since the preparation of the foregoing report two tags have been received from
Kildonan as follows: Porlier Pass (7E)—one; Deserted Bay (7G)—one. Both tags
were reported from Barkley Sound fish. Both may have come from this locality, from
Sydney Inlet, from Nanoose Bay, or from Deepwater Bay. No further interpretation
is offered. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 75
BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF COMMERCIAL SHELL-FISH.
By Ferris Neave, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
During the past year shell-fish investigations have continued to deal mainly with
problems affecting the production of butter-clams and oysters. In the case of the former species the problems at the present time concern the utilization and conservation
of the existing stocks. With oysters, on the other hand, the issues at stake are to
a large extent concerned with methods of cultivation, improvements in which might
result in an increase of stock and an expansion of the industry.
As in previous years, the investigation has received the support and encouragement of both the Fisheries Research Board and the Provincial Fisheries Department,
while officers of the Dominion Department of Fisheries have continued to obtain the
statistical data desired.
COMMERCIAL CLAM-CATCH.
Efforts have again been made to express the season's commercial clam-catches in
terms of the average quantity taken by one man during one low-tide period. While
the figures arrived at may vary because of weather conditions, the number and efficiency of diggers, and other factors, it is felt that they should reveal long-term trends
in the productivity of the areas regularly exploited. As in previous reports, the year
is taken as beginning on October 1st.
Records submitted during 1942-43 comprise the following quantities of clams:—
Species. Lb.
Butter-clams   2,893,222
Razor-clams  ,      389,825
Little-neck clams      248,920
Butter-clams.—-The catches reported were distributed geographically as follows:—
Area and Centre. Lb.
Northern British Columbia (Prince Rupert)  741,421
Central British Columbia (Bella Bella, Namu) .___ 417,934
Queen Charlotte Strait and Johnstone Strait (Alert Bay) 1,066,200
Seal Island, near Comox  236,825
South-east coast of Vancouver Island (Porlier Pass)  430,742
These figures, while not necessarily complete, show a greater production than in
the previous season in Central British Columbia and in the southern part of the Strait
of Georgia while a decrease is evident in Northern British Columbia.
Average catches per man-tide, during the seasons for which data are available,
are given in the following table:—
Area.
Average Catch
per Man-tide.
1939-40.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
558.1
272.3
186.7
599.9
153.8
159.1
Lb.
352 2
182.7
198.2
287.4
200.7
248.2
601.1
120.0
138.0
124.7
149.9
175.2
202.4
Northern British Columbia .
Central British Columbia—...
Queen Charlotte Strait, etc...
Seal Island -	
South-east Vancouver Island-
fa.) Chemainus district...
(b.)  Sidney district-	
With respect to the 1942-43 figures, the reduced average (and total production)
for the northern area is considered to be due mainly to bad weather conditions preventing full exploitation of the most productive beaches.    The Queen Charlotte Strait J 76
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
area shows a higher average for the first time in the annual series. Whether this
should be attributed, in part, to a smaller number of men engaged in digging is
uncertain. All the clams reported from the south-east region of Vancouver Island
were delivered to the same buyer and could logically be considered as belonging to
one area. During the earlier years covered by the present system of statistics,
however, the locations of buyers facilitated a division into " Sidney " and " Chemainus "
districts. It has been thought interesting to continue the two series of averages.
Hence, catches of the past season have been segregated into two groups representing
as closely as possible these two topographical units. The continued rise since 1939-40
in the average catch per man-tide in these districts is the most striking feature of the
table given above.
Little-neck Clams.—The total reported production of 248,920 lb. was about 25 per
cent, greater than that shown "by the records for the previous year, the increase being
due to the greater quantities produced in the area of south-east Vancouver Island. On
the. other hand, no catches were reported from Burrard Inlet and Jervis Inlet, which
have previously contributed small amounts. Catches amounting to 10,840 lb. were
reported from the Milbanke Sound area of Central British Columbia, the rest coming
from the southern part of the Strait of Georgia.
The significance of man-tide averages is doubtful in the case of winter catches of
little-necks, since in 1942-43 these were obtained in the course of operations which
were mainly directed towards the taking of butter-clams. These operations have been
included in the figures given for the latter species. Comparisons are possible, however,
in the case of the spring and summer clam-fishery of the south-east Vancouver Island
area. This fishery has supplied from 60 to 80 per cent, of the total reported little-neck
catch for British Columbia during the last three seasons. Average catches per man-
tide based on this portion of the annual production are as follows: 1941, 129.8 lb.;
1942, 127.8 lb.; 1943, 152.7 lb. The large increase in productivity which is indicated
for the 1943 season is encouraging, but it is possible that human factors are involved.
Razor-clams.—At the desire and through the co-operation of the Massett Cooperative Association, a system of catch records was instituted on the razor-clam
grounds of Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands. This is the only area in which
this species is being exploited commercially at the present time. For statistical purposes the productive portion of the northern coast-line of the island was divided into
three sections. The production is shown in the following table. Digging operations
took place between March 2nd and June 23rd.
Beach.
No. of
Man-tides.
Lb.
Average Catch
per Man-tide
(Lb.).
North	
1,518
806
1,631
118,400
82,350
189,075
Middle                                          .         	
All                                                 -	
3,955
389,825
The catch was regarded as poor, the season's total being one of the lowest recorded
from these beaches. Bad weather conditions and a relative scarcity of diggers are
considered to have been at least partly responsible. No previous figures for the catch
per unit of effort at Masset are available, but the general average of 98.6 lb. per man-
tide can be contrasted favourably with conditions on the main razor-clam beaches of
Washington, where, during the years 1928 to 1938, the annual average varied from
about 18 to 68 lb. per man-tide. [
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 77
INVESTIGATIONS AT SEAL ISLAND.
For the third consecutive year controlled digging of the butter-clam beach at Seal
Island, near Comox, was carried out during two sets of low tides in the winter (January
23rd to February 7th, 1944).
During previous operations digging had been confined to four areas marked out on
the beach, the intensity of the digging being varied for each area and records being
kept of the catch obtained and the man-hours expended. In the present season, after
testing the productivity of each marked area, digging was permitted on the whole
beach up to a total production of just over 100 tons, in accordance with the view
expressed previously (Rept. Prov. Fish. Dept., 1942) that such a quota could be sustained for several years.
As in 1942 and 1943, these operations were conducted in co-operation with British
Columbia Packers, who recruited diggers and took delivery of the clams.
Statistics for 1944 were as follows:—
Man-
tides.
Man-hours.
Catch
(Lb.).
Average Catch.    ,
Amount
Per
Man-tide.
Per
Man-hour.
previously
(Lb.).
A 	
18
18
21
22
185
82.44
99.00
108.57
117.26
752.58
8,002
20.030
10,390
19,428
151,361
444.55
1,112.77
494.76
883.09
818.17
97.06
202.32
95.70
165.68
201.12
198,781
B                     .            	
62,035
C  	
D                   -           —.      • -
110,023
101,725
All                 	
264
1,159.85
209,211
792.57
180.38
472,582
All (1943)	
394         1     1.588.47
236.825     1        601.08
149.09
235,757
* The statistics for " general " include some clams dug from areas B and D subsequent to the figures given for
those areas.
A marked increase over 1943 is shown in the average catch per man-tide and per
man-hour. The former unit was influenced by the somewhat more favourable tides
utilized in 1944. The increased production per man-hour was due to the exploitation
of previously undug territory outside the staked areas. Of the latter, A, C, and D,
which had been subject to more or less heavy previous digging, showed a decrease in
production per unit of effort. Area B, which had been dug more lightly, showed a
marked increase in productivity.
At the end of the 1944 season a large number of random square-yard plots were
dug and the clams obtained were counted and weighed. Based on these samples, rough
estimates of the quantities of legal-sized clams remaining in the staked areas were as
follows:   A, 40 tons;   B, 55 tons;   C, 20 tons;   D, 50 tons.
With exploitation now extended to the whole beach and limited quantities of young
clams reaching commercial size each year, it is not to be expected that the present very
high average catches per man-hour can be maintained in future years. It is believed,
however, that an annual production about equal to this year's (104.6 tons) can be sustained for a time without serious depletion of the beds.
It is proposed to review the three years' operations at Seal Island and to discuss the
problems more fully in the near future.
SIZE AND AGE IN RELATION TO MATURITY OF THE BUTTER-CLAM.
In view of the regulation prohibiting the taking of butter-clams less than 2%
inches in length, it is of interest to know the size at which the species becomes capable J 78
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
of spawning. In addition, growth is known to be much more rapid in some beaches
and areas than in others. The effect of this factor on the degree of protection afforded
by the size-limit has not been clear. Samples of small clams from several localities
were collected during the past year in order to throw light on these points. Smears
from the freshly cut gonads were examined microscopically, the criterion for maturity
being the presence of fully developed oocytes or spermatozoa.
Locality.
Smallest
Mature
Clam.
Probable
Age.
Largest
Immature
Clam.
Probable
Age.
In.     Mm.
1.53    38.8
1.32    33.6
1.47    37.3
1.28    32.4
1.56    39.5
Years.
3
4
4
3
5
In.    Mm.
1.53    38.8
1.39    35.4
1.70    43.4
1.61    40.8
1.64    41.6
Years.
3
4
5
3
5
The figures given under " age " indicate the age at the next spawning season following the examination.
While further data from more localities are desirable, these samples indicate a
considerable degree of uniformity in the size at which butter-clams mature. The
mature condition appears to be reached at an average length of about 1% inches both
in fast-growing and slow-growing populations; that is, it is associated with size rather
than age. In the localities shown in the table it appears that clams become capable of
spawning at least two or three years before attaining legal size.
TANK-REARING OF OYSTER LARVM.
In view of a developing shortage of seed-oysters and the unreliability of natural
spatfalls as a source of new stock, experiments were begun in 1943 on the rearing of
oyster larvae in confinement.
A specially built tank, situated on the foreshore at Departure Bay, facing south,
was used. This tank has concrete walls and a sloping floor of natural rock. It can be
filled through a valve at high tides and at the usual working-level contains about 20,000
gallons of water having a maximum depth of about 7 feet.
Native Oysters.—A small stock of native oysters was held over winter in the tank.
Larvae from these appeared in the water on May 27th and continued to be fairly numerous until August 6th, on which date the tank was drained. Development appeared to
take place in a normal manner and setting of the larva occurred from about the end of
June onward. During the period from July 10th to August 3rd an average set of about
three spat per square inch of surface was obtained on the tinder-side of glass plates
immersed in the tank. This was considered to be very satisfactory, especially in view
of the small number of mature oysters used and the lack of previous knowledge of this
species under tank conditions.
Pacific Oysters.—Experiments on the tank-rearing of Pacific oyster larva? were
unavoidably postponed until too late in the season to give good chances of success. A
spawning which was made on August 11th produced a heavy population of larva? which
developed well until August 20th, when a reduction in numbers was apparent, coincident
with a drop in water temperature to about 18.9° C. Temperatures continued low during the next three days, at the end of which time few living larva? could be found.
Following a rise in temperature to 20.5° a further spawning was made on August 25th.
Very numerous larva? again resulted, but after three days the temperature again fell
to 18.5° and heavy mortality again occurred.
Although the majority of the larva? succumbed in these two experiments, some were
successful in completing their development, since a number of living well-grown spat
were discovered in the tank when the latter was drained several months later. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 79
Neither of these two species of oyster has been previously reared from the egg
under tank conditions and the degree of success attained in these initial experiments
warrants further investigation of this method of culture.
SUMMARY.
The distribution of the 1942-43 clam-catch is discussed and comparisons are made
between the annual production of different areas in relation to the fishing effort
expended. In most areas, increased availability of butter-clams and little-neck clams
is noted. Similar statistical information is now being obtained for razor-clams on the
Graham Island beaches.
In the third season of controlled digging at Seal Island, production was extended
to the whole beach, with a limit of about 100 tons for the season. Availability of
clams was very high and although the more heavily dug portions of the beach showed
a reduced productivity, it is believed that an annual production of 100 tons could be
sustained for several years.
Examination of small butter-clams from several localities indicates that sexual
maturity is attained at an average length of about 1% inches, both in slower and
faster growing populations. In the localities in question, clams become capable of
spawning at from three to five years of age and at least two or three years before
reaching the minimum legal length of 2% inches.
Preliminary experiments on the production of seed-oysters in an open-air tank
gave favourable results in the case of the native oyster. While only a few Pacific
oyster larva? were reared to the setting stage, there remains a possibility of future
success. J 80
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
REPORT ON INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC
SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR THE YEAR 1943.
By B. M. Brennan, Director.
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission was established primarily
for the purpose of rehabilitating the seriously depleted sockeye-salmon fishery of the
Fraser River system. Scientific investigation of the various factors that vitally affect
the present state of the fishery must precede regulation and such other measures as
may be necessary in order to increase the stock. In many instances new and radically
different methods of study have had to be devised, tested, and used for the solution
of unusual problems. An example is the Hell's Gate study, which soon after the commencement of investigations in 1938 was recognized as a cause of mortality. Not
until 1940 and 1941, however, were methods perfected which showed the full seriousness of the obstruction. This work has made it possible to recognize the extensive
harm to salmon migration caused by numerous other blocks. The installation of permanent remedial measures for all serious obstructions is one of the first objectives
of the Commission.
Barriers to salmon migration constitute but one of the major problems awaiting
solution by the Commission's staff. Other projects have been continued and will be
dealt with briefly in this report. Results from the various projects during 1943 have
given us data even more satisfactory than during previous years. The improvement
is traceable to the recognition and gradual elimination of errors and to improvements
in technique resulting from greater experience.
SALT-WATER TAGGING.
The tagging of sockeye at Sooke was continued with the excellent co-operation of
the Canadian Department of Fisheries and the trap operators. A total of 1,953 sockeye were tagged, 502 or 48 per cent, of which were later recovered. Results to date of
the tagging at Sooke are as follows:—
Year.
Number
tagged.
Number
recovered.
Per Cent,
recovered.
980
1,042
930
849
1,803
1,053
439
558
437
503
793
502*
44
54
47
1941                       -  -
59
1942                                         	
1943                              	
* Number recovered as of March 31st, 1944.
During 1943 few tagged fish were recovered in streams or areas other than the
Fraser. Fish tagged early in the season are frequently recovered from the Nitinat
and Barkley Sound; this year tagging did not commence until July 8th. Shortage of
personnel made further salt-water tagging impracticable.
THE COMMERCIAL FISHERY.
During the 1943 sockeye-fishing season the Commission again made observations
of the commercial fishing operations. Landing and pack statistics were gathered
currently from Puget Sound and Fraser River canneries. Such statistics were checked
against other sources, such as the Washington State Department of Fisheries and the
Dominion Fisheries Department. The system of fishing-vessel log-book records was
continued in order to provide details of the fishery with respect to location and intensity
of fishing and the composition of the fleet.    The system of log-book records has been BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 81
in operation for several seasons and promises to yield valuable results.    The co-operation of the fishermen has been excellent.
All these data are being used to formulate a policy for the ultimate regulation of
the fishery as provided for in the treaty establishing the Commission.
INDIAN FISHERIES.
Careful observations and records of the Indian fisheries in the Fraser River watershed have been made by both the Dominion fisheries guardians and the Commission's
field observers. The combined efforts of these men provide reasonably accurate estimates of the numbers of salmon caught by Indians each season. Special emphasis has
been placed on the spawning-ground fisheries, where strict control must be exercised
for the protection of some of the smaller and more valuable seed-stocks. Close co-operation between the guardians and the field observers has eliminated considerable overlapping and repetition and has provided useful data for use in connection with a
programme of rehabilitation.
THE HELL'S GATE PROJECT.
Scientific investigations carried out since 1938 prove that serious obstructions to
up-stream migration of salmon exist at Hell's Gate, Bridge River Rapids, and at
numerous other points. Remedial measures at Hell's Gate constitute the greatest
single need, since this is the first obstruction to be encountered during up-stream
migration. Realizing that the removal of obstructions must precede other phases of
the rehabilitation programme for the river, the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission has asked the Governments of Canada and the United States for $2,000,000
with which to remove all important obstructions. Meantime, temporary emergency
measures have been taken in order to reduce losses until the permanent programme
can be completed. The emergency measures include a temporary fish-ladder and a
flume, the latter largely financed by the canning industry. In consequence of these
measures there is reason to believe that up-stream migration has been considerably
aided and that injuries to migrating salmon have been reduced. What has been
accomplished thus far in a small way may be achieved in much larger measure when
the projected plans have been carried out.
A scale model of the Hell's Gate canyon, built on the grounds of the Hydraulics
Laboratory of the University of Washington, has been studied thoroughly by the Commission's engineers. With the aid of the model actual conditions at the Gate can be
reproduced readily and the effects of any proposed alterations determined quickly.
By this means various remedial measures have been tested and the best solution
determined.
An important part of the Hell's Gate investigation has been the tagging programme carried out in the river with the object of confirming the water-levels at which
fish can pass the Gate. With this purpose in view, 8,684 fish were tagged at Hell's
Gate during the 1943 season. Total recoveries above or below the Gate (but not
including those recovered at the Gate) to March 16th, 1944, were 2,850 or 32.8 per
cent, of the number tagged. The results confirmed the earlier assumption that a block
exists between the approximate levels of 25 and 40 feet. Above or below this range
salmon have a relatively free passage. The period of blockade as determined from
these data was found to be short during 1943 with consequent advantage to the migrating sockeye. With the completion of this phase of the investigation the basic facts
have been obtained for the projected permanent project which, it is hoped, will go far
to restore the Fraser River runs to their former magnitude. J 82
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
SPAWNING-GROUNDS.
Determination of the escapement to the various spawning-grounds and the evaluation of the relative success of spawning are important phases of the Commission's
scientific investigations. During 1943 all known sockeye-streams were patrolled regularly and the necessary information obtained. A weir was placed in the Bowron River
and the entire run counted. The Raft River was fenced for the bulk of the run and
an approximate population figure obtained. In the Stellako River an extensive tagging
programme was undertaken for the purpose of population determination. Other
regions such as the Harrison, Birkenhead, and Chilko areas were enumerated by calibrated indices based on recoveries of dead sockeye, live counts, or other features of
a spawning population. A preliminary study of the Pitt River system was made in an
attempt to devise a successful method for enumeration of this race of fish. The escapement studies are tedious and expensive, but the accuracy of the observations improves
each year as the dynamics of a spawning population becomes better understood.
The 1943 escapement above Hell's Gate was particularly favourable with increases
of 100 to 300 per cent, of the brood-year. In addition, it is reported that the sockeye
arrived and spawned in better physical condition than has been the case for the past
several years, a reflection of the more favourable water conditions encountered during
migration. The success of spawning appears to be based on sex ratio, completeness of
spawning, and other indices favourable for this portion of the escapement.
OTHER PROJECTS.
During the year a number of other investigations have been pursued by the staff
of the Commission. These include a continuation of the research on the history of
the fishery, additional limnological surveys, and a study of the races of Fraser River
sockeye. The racial investigations embraced the study of scales, the counting of
pyloric ca?ca, and the study of such other morphological characters as may possibly
serve in the recognition of particular races. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 83
THE PACIFIC SALMON IN BRITISH COLUMBIA WATERS.
By W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver.
The Pacific salmon belong to a genus or group known scientifically as Oncorhyn-
chus. Along the North American Coast, and therefore in British Columbia waters,
there are five species or kinds, namely:—
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha—pink, humpback.
Oncorhynchus tschawytscha—spring, tyee, king, chinook, and the young sometimes called "Jacks."
Oncorhynchus kisutch—cohoe, silver, and the immature, particularly in the
Strait of Georgia, known as " bluebacks."
Oncorhynchus nerka—sockeye, red in Alaska, blueback in the Columbia River,
and the landlocked form known as kokanee, little redfish or Kennerly's
salmon.
Oncorhynchus keta—chum, dog. .
Pink Salmon.—The pink salmon is remarkable in that it matures at the end of its
second year. The young go to sea as fry and fifteen months later the mature fish appear
off the mouths of various streams in large schools. They usually do not proceed great
distances up-stream to spawn. The extent of the ocean movements is not known, but,
in relation to the Fraser River, tagging experiments have shown that schools pass
through both the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Johnstone Strait on their way to that
river. The pink salmon reaches a weight of 3 to 6 lb. and is taken commercially in
purse-seines, gill-nets, and traps.
Spring Salmon.—The adults ascend practically all of the large streams and spawn
usually in the upper reaches of the tributaries. The young go to sea very soon after
emerging from the gravel or at any time during the following twelve to fifteen months.
In Alaskan waters some are known to remain two years in fresh water. In the sea
they grow rapidly, maturing in three to eight years and reaching a very large size, a
weight of 100 lb. being recorded. Tagging experiments have shown that they may
travel long distances, as, for example, from the fishing-banks off Barkley Sound to the
Sacramento River, California; from near Hippa Island off the Queen Charlotte Islands
to Marshfield, Oregon; and from Alaskan waters to the Columbia River. The commercial fishermen take them by troll, purse-seine, gill-net, and trap, and the sport
fishermen by troll, as, for example, off Campbell River, where they constitute the widely
known tyee-fishery.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe salmon enter innumerable streams and may spawn a
short distance from the sea or may proceed to the upper tributaries of the larger
rivers. The young usually remain a year in fresh water; a few may remain for two
years and a considerable number may go to sea during the first year. They increase
rapidly in size and mature at the end of the third, occasionally at the end of the second,
and rarely in the fourth year. The size at maturity varies from 5 to 15 lb. Cohoes
range throughout the coastal waters and, judging from tagging results, there is indication that some never leave the Strait of Georgia. They are captured by troll, purse-
seine, gill-net, and trap and provide a considerable amount of sport-fishing in trolling
and fly-casting.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye salmon is the most prized of the Pacific salmon
because its high oil content, the colour of its flesh, and its rather uniform size make it
an excellent fish for canning. The adults usually ascend those streams on which there
are lakes and pass through the lakes to spawn in the tributary streams. A few spawn
along the shores of lakes and a few in streams on which there are no lakes. Some
young sockeye go to sea very soon after hatching, but the majority descend to the J 84 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
lakes, where they spend usually one, frequently two, and occasionally three years and
eventually pass out to the ocean. They return as adults after three or four summers
in the sea when they are thus four or five years of age. A few, for the most part
males, mature at three years of age and are frequently referred to as grilse. A few
mature at six years of age and fewer still at seven and eight years. While the weight
at maturity is usually between 5 and 7 lb., weights as high as 12 lb. are recorded.
Information concerning the movement in the ocean is meagre. Tagging experiments
in 1915 at Haystack Island off Portland Canal showed that, while the bulk of the fish
migrated to the Nass River, a considerable number travelled as far north as Earnest
Sound, Alaska, and as far south as Union Passage (Grenville Channel). In that year
also, tagging at Seymour Narrows showed a definite migration to the Fraser River,
indicating a movement from the north-west through Queen Charlotte and Johnstone
Straits. The sockeye are taken chiefly in gill-nets at the mouths of rivers, in traps at
the south end of Vancouver Island, and to some extent in purse-seines.
Chum Salmon.—The chum salmon ascends practically all streams, spawning generally at no great distance from the salt water. The young go to sea soon after
emerging from the gravel and maturity is reached usually in the fourth year, but also
in the third and fifth. The species attains an average weight of approximately 10 lb.
and forms the basis of an extensive purse-seine fishery. The fish are also taken by
gill-net and trap. Little is known of the ocean movements, but tagging has shown
that many chum salmon enter the Strait of Georgia through Johnstone Strait as well
as through the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
As far as is known, all the individuals of the five species of Pacific salmon spawn
but once. In the case of the spring salmon some individuals may return to the sea
after spawning a short distance above tidal waters, but so far there is no evidence to
show that they survive to spawn a second time. There is a tendency for the fish of
all the species to return to spawn in the stream in which they lived as young. This
return to the so-called " Parent Stream " has been well established for sockeye and
spring, and to some extent for pink and cohoe, by means of experiments involving the
removal of various fins from young fish at the time of their seaward migration.
Young salmon in fresh water feed largely on small shrimp-like animals and insects,
In the sea they substitute marine shrimp-like forms. The sockeye, pink, and chum
continue to feed on this type of food throughout their lives, while the spring and cohoe
turn to a fish diet of herring, pilchard, sand-lance, etc. It is because of this habit that
the latter two species are readily taken by trolling.
In the identification of the five species certain characters are commonly used.
These are:—
(1.) Scales in rows along the side of the body. Frequently the number of scales
in the lateral line is used. The latter is a conspicuous structure commencing behind
the head and terminating at the base of the tail-fin. Each scale along this line is
penetrated by a pore. A count of the total number of scales along this line may be
made, but owing to some scales being very small and therefore readily overlooked,
accuracy is sometimes difficult to attain. It has been found that the number of scales
in the first row above the lateral line is more reliable. The pink salmon has 170 to
229 scales in this row, which number is much above that of the other species.
(2.) Fin-rays. Each fin, except the little adipose or "fat" fin, is supported by
a number of rods of cartilage. The number of the rods or rays in the anal fin, which
is located behind the anus or vent, has been used for purposes of identification. In
making the count, the small rays at the front of the fin, less than half the length of
the longest ray, are not considered. The spring salmon has a range of 15 to 19,
which is higher than in the other species and the uppermost numbers are useful in
confirming identification. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 85
(3.) Gill-rakers. Under the gill-cover are V-shaped structures or arches bearing
the filamentous gills. On the inner side of each arch, opposite the gill-filaments, are
stiff spines somewhat resembling the teeth of a comb. These are the gill-rakers which
serve to strain out food-particles from the water which flows from the mouth out past
the gills. The count is made of the number on the first or foremost arch. The sockeye
salmon has a range of 30 to 39, with only a slight overlap with that of the pink salmon.
(4.) Branchiostegals. The membrane under the head and forming the lower
margin of the gill-cover is supported by narrow curved and flattened rods of cartilage'
which are known as the branchiostegals. The number of these structures is frequently
useful in making an identification. The spring salmon has a range of 13 to 19, which,
as in the case of the anal fin-rays, is higher than in the other species.
(5.) Pyloric ca?ca. Attached to the intestine in the region where it joins the
J-shaped stomach are a large number of small, slender, finger-like pouches. The cohoe
possesses only 45 to 80 plyoric ca?ca and is readily distinguished by this character from
the other species except the sockeye.
(6.) Colour-markings. The spring, cohoe, and pink have distinct large black
spots on the back and tail-fin. Those on the spring salmon are numerous and rather
round in shape; those on the cohoe sparse, more or less oblong in shape, and absent
from the lower half of the tail-fin; those on the pink are relatively very large and oval
in shape. The sockeye and chum have fine black specklings in place of the heavy
spotting of the other three species.
Using the characters described above, the following key may be used for the
identification of the various species:—
A. Back and tail-fin with distinct black spots.
B. Scales in first row above lateral line 170 or more.
BB. Scales in first row above lateral line less than 155.
C. Black spots on tail-fin on both upper and lower
halves;  anal rays 15 to 19; branchiostegal rays 13
to 19.
CC. Black spots on tail-fin on upper half only;   anal
rays 12 to 16;  branchiostegal rays 12 to 15.
AA. Back and tail-fin without black spots but with fine black
specklings.
D. Gill-rakers on first arch 30 to 39.
DD. Gill-rakers on first arch 20 to 26.
The following table may also be helpful:—■
Pink salmon.
Spring salmon.
Cohoe salmon.
Sockeye salmon.
Chum salmon.
Scales in
Lateral Line.
Scales in First
Row above
Lateral Line.
Gill-rakers.
Anal Rays.
Branchiostegals.
Pyloric Caeca.
Pink      -
150 to 198
131 to 151
121 to 136
125 to 139
126 to 151
170 to 229
140 to 153
120 to 145
125 to 143
130 to 153
27 to 33
20 to 28
19 to 25
30 to 39
20 to 26
13 to 17
15 to 19
13 to 16
13 to 16
13 to 17
10 to 15
13 to 19
12 to 15
11 to 15
12 to 16
165 to 195
Spring  —	
Cohoe—	
140 to 185
45 to    80
66 to    92
140 to 185
It will be noted that there are certain outstanding characteristics for each species
and it is usually possible, by a process of elimination, to arrive at an accurate identification. It should be pointed out, however, that all the characters are variable and it
is unwise to rely entirely upon one character alone in making a decision.
The writer is much indebted to Drs. R. E. Foerster and A. L. Pritchard for the
ranges in the various characters except those of the pyloric ca?ca. J 86 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE YOUNG OF THE FIVE SPECIES OF
PACIFIC SALMON, WITH NOTES ON THE FRESH-WATER
PHASE OF THEIR LIFE-HISTORY.
By R. E. Foerster, Ph.D., and A. L. Pritchard, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station,
Nanaimo, B.C.
The correct and ready identification of the young of the five species of Pacific
salmon, genus Oncorhynchus, is of particular importance not only to the specialist in
fisheries biology who studies in detail the life-history of these forms, but also to the
fish culturist and enforcement officer who are charged with the duty of conserving
and protecting the fishery. It may be of considerable interest, also, to the angler
and the naturalist who pursue the general study of aquatic organisms, their habits
and relationships.
Two publications have already appeared which have dealt with this problem. The
earlier of these, published in 1907 by F. M. Chamberlain, naturalist on the United
States Fisheries steamer "Albatross," was a rather comprehensive study of the various
species, young and adult, in the Naha and Karluk Rivers, Alaska. Although it contains
excellent detail concerning the early stages of salmon, this work is now out of print
and hence no longer available. The second paper, a study by Donald R. Crawford
(1925), avoids detail but contains a useful qualitative key and illustrations.
The present paper includes the more pertinent information given in the two
previous publications and, in addition, embodies further detailed data gathered during
various researches on the Pacific salmon in British Columbia. It brings together for
each species the specific morphological characters, the characteristic external features,
and the details concerning development, time of migration, etc., to the end that, by a
consideration of all the factors, identification may be made possible.
The material has been more or less rigidly divided into three parts. The first of
these, the discussion of variable characters, records, mainly for the fisheries scientist,
certain detailed observations which are now at hand concerning various body characters. The second, a general description of species, gives in detail general information
concerning habits and appearance of each species; while the third presents a "key,"
by means of which the various species may be readily separated, and a plate illustrating
the typical markings characteristic of each species.
The separation of the adults of the five species of Pacific salmon has been based
upon either general appearance—namely, shape, colour, markings, etc.; or upon differences observed in certain morphological characters—namely, number of fin-rays, of
scales, of gill-rakers, etc. In the young, general appearances may not alone suffice as
a means of separation, due to the fact that environment is known to affect to some
extent the colour and markings, nor has it been definitely established that the counts
of certain morphological characters, which in these small fish are by no means easy,
will serve as a means of identification. It has been found that both qualitative and
quantitative characteristics have to be considered.
Fig. 1 is a diagram of a salmon in which the various morphological characters
considered and studied in detail are clearly shown. The inset demonstrates the position of the gill-arches on which are found the gill-rakers.
To obtain a count of the gill-rakers, the first gill-arch on the left side of the fish
should be removed carefully by cutting away the ends from the gill-cover and from the
second gill-arch which lies immediately beneath it. In this operation care should be
exercised in making the incision so as not to destroy the ends of the arch and thus
inadvertently remove some of the small gill-rakers. The arch can then be spread out
by pinning the ends apart on a piece of cardboard. All rakers visible under moderately high magnification should be enumerated. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 87
In making a determination of the number of scales along the lateral line, the fish
should be placed on its right side under a lens of moderately high magnification.
Through this it is moderately easy to see and prick with a pin the scales or scale-
pockets, beginning immediately behind the edge of the operculum and following the
lateral line to the end of the vertebral column. This latter boundary may be found
by palpating with a needle.
Fin-rays, those bony supports which project into the fins, which are not at least
half as long as the longest ray should be considered as undeveloped and not be counted.
The last ray of the anal and of the dorsal fin is branched and appears to be double.
Each should be counted as one only.
The branchiostegal rays are those cartilaginous flattened rods or flaps which form
the lower margin of the operculum and cover the gills on the ventral side. They may
be easily spread apart for enumeration by holding open the gill-cover. All those visible
should be counted.
Fig. 1. Diagram of a salmon showing the various morphological characters considered in this paper. Inset
shows left operculum bent back to expose first gill-arch with gill-rakers. A—anal fin ; Adi.—adi'pose or fatty fin ;
B—branchiostegal rays ; C—caudal fin ; D—dorsal fin ; GF—gill-filaments ; GR—gill-rakers ; LL—lateral line ;
O—operculum or gill-cover ;   P—left pectoral fin ;   V—left ventral or pelvic fin.
In determining the number of vertebrse the flesh should be carefully removed from
one side of the fish, thus exposing the backbone. After careful cleaning, the segments
beginning with the one immediately behind the skull and ending with the one immediately in front of the long vertebra? projecting up into the tail can be counted. For
accurate determination the vertebra? should be kept slightly wet. Some degree of
magnification is necessary.
The material for examination, obtained chiefly from the salmon-retaining ponds
at Smith Falls Hatchery, Cultus Lake, British Columbia, consisted of 69 chum salmon
{Oncorhynchus keta), 69 spring salmon (0. tschawytscha), 68 cohoe salmon (0.
kisutch), and 63 sockeye (0. nerka). As a sample of pink salmon (0. gorbuscha), 37
were taken from a collection made at McClinton Creek eyeing-station, Masset Inlet.
The individuals used were selected at random from samples taken at regular intervals
throughout the autumn, winter, and early spring. While the authors realize that this
material is too limited to be the basis of exhaustive conclusions, nevertheless they
feel that the counts made thereon are sufficient as an indication of the use of the
various characters as an aid to the separation of the species.    In addition the data J 88
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
are presented as one contribution to a more complete and comprehensive survey which
is much to be desired.
DISCUSSION OF VARIABLE CHARACTERS.
In the present section are set down the results of the examination of those variable characters which are utilized chiefly in the identification of the adult salmon, the
object being to discover whether they have any significance in the separation of the
young of the species.
Gill-rakers.—From Table I., in which is presented a summary of the average
numbers of gill-rakers for each Vs-inch length group for all species, it appears that in
the very early stages up to a length of 1% inches, there is an increase in the number
of gill-rakers with increase in size. Such a change might be attributed to the overlooking of some of the rudimentary rakers on the very small arches, but in view of the
fact that all counts were carefully made under comparatively high magnification, it is
unlikely that such an error would have occurred.
The counts for individuals from 1% to 3% inches in length have been averaged
at the bottom of the table. Correspondence of these averages with those for the adults
taken from Jordan and Evermann (1896) is very close in the case of the pink, chum,
and cohoe, but not in the case of the spring and sockeye. This disagreement may be
due either to the difference between the populations sampled or to differences in the
technique of counting. Whether the pink, chum, cohoe, and spring have their full
quota of gill-rakers at 3% inches could not be ascertained, due to lack of material
from the same environment. It has been definitely proven, however, that those of the
sockeye do increase from the fingerling to the yearling stage, and from comparison
of the latter with adult counts there appears to be another increase before the adult
period is reached.
Table I.—Summary of the Average Numbers of Gill-rakers for each Ys-inch Length
Group for the Young of the Five Species of Pacific Salmon.
Pink.
Chum.
Spring.
Cohoe.
Sockeye.
Lengths in Inches.
No.
used.
Gill-
rakers.
No.
used.
Gill-
rakers.
No.
used.
Gill-
rakers.
No.
used.
Gill-
rakers.
No.
used.
Gill-
rakers.
%   to   1 _....-	
l    to lYs
3
7
4
3
2
1
1
1
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
11
5
5
3
4
3
5
3
4
2
3
2
3
5
2
1
4
1
7+  2
8+ 4
10+ 5
11+  7
13+ 7
13+  8
13+  7
13+ 9
7
5
8
9
4
6
2
5
3
4
5
6
4
1
4
3
3
7
9
7
10
3
5
2
1
3
2
2
4
3
1
2
1
6+  2
6+ 3
9+  4
9+  5
11+  6
12+  7
11+  7
12+  7
11+  8
12+ 8
11+  9
11 + 10
11+ 9
12+ 9
11+  9
12
9
3
7
7
1
3
3
3
1
4
4
2
1
3
14+  4
12+ 6
9+  4
12+  5
14+  7
1% to l~i	
15+ 7
lVt to 1% 	
7+  4
8+  4
9+  5
10+   6
11+  7
10+  7
11+  7
11+  8
12+  9
11+  9
11+  9
11+  9
11+  9
12+  9
15+ 8
1% to 1M.           	
16+10
iy2 to 1%        	
15+10
16+10
17+10
17+10
17+11
18 + 13
15 + 10
17+11
17+11
1%   to   1%	
1% to 1% 	
1% to 2 	
17+11
18+11
18+11
2      to 2% 	
14+ 9
14+  9
14+10
15 + 11
16+10
14+11
14+10
13+11
18+12
15+11
19+11
18+11
17+12
18+12
2Vs to 2i/i	
IVi to 2% —
2% to 21/j. 	
2y2 to 2%	
2% to 2%	
17+13
17+13
19+12
2% to 2%	
2% to 3     	
12+ 9
13+ 9
17+12
3      to 3y8 --	
18+11
19+12
18+11
18+12
20+13
18+13
3% to 3V4	
15+11
3% to 3%..	
3% to 3% _	
14+11
13+10
3% to 3%	
3% to 3%	
Av.   (from  1%  inch
17+12
14+10
11+  8
12+ 9
18+11
Adults (Jordan)
15+13
15+ 9
14+ 9
....
13+10
22 + 14
" No. used " refers to the number of individuals examined in each case.
The first figure given for the gill-rakers is the number on the long side of the arch;   the second that on the
short side.    The plus sign indicates that the two should be added to obtain the total number.
J BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 89
It is noteworthy that the gill-raker counts for young pink and sockeye salmon are
very similar, a relationship which is quite different to that which holds in the adult
stage. Such a circumstance would make questionable any differentiation between
young of. these two species on the basis of this character. It might be possible to distinguish the young of the pink and the sockeye from those of the other three species for
partial separation, but in such a comparison only fish of similar size should be employed.
Scales.—The number of scales along the lateral line of salmon has long been used
as a ready means of identification of the adults of some of the species. In the young,
however, this character is of much less value, since in the early stages the scales are
merely forming. The length at which it is possible to make counts varies with the
species. In the pink it is about 21/4 inches; the chum, 1% inches; the spring, 1%
inches;  the cohoe, 1% inches;  and the sockeye, 1% inches.
Table II. gives the average lateral line scale-counts for the various Vg-inch length
groups.
Table II.—Summary of the Average Numbers of Scales on the Lateral Line for each
Ys-inch Length Group for the Young of the Five Species of the Pacific Salmon.
Pink.
Chum.
Spring.
Cohoe.
Sockeye.
Lengths in Inches.
No.
used.
No.
Scales.
No.
used.
No.
Scales.
No.
used.
No.
Scales.
No.
used.
No.
Scales.
No.
used.
No.
Scales.
% to 1  _	
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
170
168
177
178
185
175
178
172
177
177
7
4
3
5
3
4
2
3
2
3
5
2
1
4
1
140
134
135
134
134
137
135
139
138
138
138
138
139
134
144
9
4
6
2
5
3
4
5
6
4
1
134
135
139
138
141
139
144
143
141
141
145
5
9
2
4
2
1
3
2
2
4
3
1
1
2
1
131
126
127
126
127
125
128
125
130
130
132
127
130
132
130
1
7
1
3
3
3
1
4
4
2
1
3
1     to 1 Va  -	
1% to 1M, ..-
lYi to 1%-. 	
126
1 % to 1 Vz —
127
iy2 to 1%   	
1% to 1% 	
127
127
1% to 1%
126
1% to 2__	
2     to 2 %	
125
130
2Vs to 2% -        	
128
2% to 2%.	
2% to 2V2	
129
131
2V2to2% 	
2% to 2%	
135
2% to 2 7s            	
27s to 3	
135
3     to 3% 	
SVs to 3%  _ 	
3% to 3% ■	
3% to 3% -	
3V2to3%	
3% to 3% 	
Av. (of averages) —
176
137
139
129
128
Adults (Jordan)	
170
150
146
127
133
In some cases it appears from the averages as if an increase in number of scales
with increase in the total length of the fish were indicated. It is felt, however, that
such a small difference may be entirely due to the difficulty in separating the small,
closely packed scales at the posterior end, on the caudal peduncle.
Taking the range for each species as a distinguishing character, it is apparent
that the same separation can be made for young salmon as Jordan and Evermann have
applied for adults. Pink salmon, with the highest count, 168 to 185, are quite clearly
separated from the next group, consisting of chums and springs, possessing 134 to 140
and 134 to 145 scales respectively. The third group, cohoes and sockeye, have still
fewer, 125 to 132 and 125 to 135 respectively.    When there is but slight difference in J 90
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
scale-count between species, such as chum and spring or cohoe and sockeye, the separation must be based on other differences. As will-be shown later, the division of these
particular species by other means is quite easy.
Fin-rays.—As stated previously, the fin-rays are those cartilaginous supports which
project into the fins. Those which are not one-half as long as the longest rays should
be considered as undeveloped and should not be counted. The last ray of the dorsal and
anal fins appears to be double but it is counted as one.
No correlation of the average number of fin-rays for each length group is included
in this paper, since it has been found that there is no significant variation with increase
in size. Both anal and dorsal fins are dealt with and comparison is made with the
counts given by Jordan and Evermann for adult individuals.
Anal Fin.—There is tabulated below the number of individuals of each species in
the sample possessing the designated number of anal fin-rays:—
Species.
Number of Rays.
Adults
(Jordan and
Evermann).
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
14
8
5
30
41
29
42
20
13
37
20
48
3
1
8
15
13-14
16
13-14
14-16
There is no significant difference between the anal fin-ray counts for young and
adult salmon. Even in the case of the cohoe, where the greatest apparent difference is
found, the discrepancy may have arisen because of the inability to distinguish, in the
young, those fin-rays which, in the adult, are classed as undeveloped and not counted.
The point to be emphasized is that the close similarity of the counts for all species precludes the use of this character as a reliable means of separation. It may here be
noted, however, that there should arise no difficulty in separating Pacific salmon young
from young trout. The latter are distinguished by having not more than 12 anal fin-
rays, whereas Pacific salmon have more than 12. The counts made on the young of
the Pacific salmon for this paper in no case showed less than 14 anal fin-rays.
One of the most characteristic features of the young of the cohoe salmon is that
of having the first two or three rays of the anal fin distinctly longer than the remainder.
This elongation produces a concave margin to the free edge of the fin. In the other
four species there is a gradual decrease in the length of the rays toward the tail, resulting in a straight margin to the fin. Further, it might be noted that the first anal ray
in the cohoe fin is whitish in colour as opposed to the normal darkened appearance in all
others.
Dorsal Fin.—Treating the dorsal fin-ray counts in a similar manner to the anal
rays, there follows a table showing the number of fin-rays possessed by the individuals
of each species in the collection examined:—
Species.
Number
3F Bays.
Adults
(Jordan and
Evermann).
10.
11.
12.
1
13.       |
14.
15.
1
13
1
30
20
12
50
36
38
43
1
15       |
6        1
28
1        I
4        1
_1
16
2
1
Z
....
9
10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 91
In every species the young were found to have more dorsal fin-rays than has been
indicated for adults. The difference, as in the case of the anal fin, is probably due to
a difference in criterion for estimating developed and undeveloped rays. The dorsal
fin-ray count would appear to be of little use in separating the various species.
Branchiostegal Rays.—The branchiostegal rays are sometimes used to assist in the
identification of adult salmon. Consequently the counts for small salmon have been
made for comparison and use, if possible. The following table indicates for each
species the number of individuals possessing a certain number of such rays. The Jordan and Evermann record for adult individuals has been added in the last column.
Branchiostegal Rays.
Species.
Number
of Branchiostegal Rays per Fish.
Average.
Adult
1
9.     |     10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Average.
Pink salmon.— _ 	
1
5
12
16
3
11-12
11 or 12
Chum salmon — 	
3
5
35
24
2
	
12-13
13 or 14
Spring salmon... 	
5
16
40
4
14-15
15 or 16 to
18 or 19
Cohoe salmon ___ _._
	
4
27
29
7
12-13
13 or 14
1
5
37
17
2
—
12-13
13 to 15
It is quite obvious that the variation existing in each species results in overlapping
between species. It appears from the tabulation that the only use to which the data
may be put is to show that if a small fish has 15 or 16 branchiostegal rays it is a young
spring salmon. Use of this character, therefore, as an aid to separation of the species
is not recommended.
Vertebrse.—The numbers of vertebra making up the vertebral columns of individuals of each species were counted. The counts obtained are tabulated below,
showing for each species the number of individuals possessing a given number of
vertebras:—
Species.
Number of Vertebrae in Vertebral Column.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
2
-
1
2
1
1
3
1
5
3
3
5
2
2
6
1
2
18
9
2
7
21
5
14
8
1
10
12
11
21
1
5
13
16
17
2
7
4
6
15
1
25
18
6
It is at once seen that vertebral counts are not satisfactory for definite separation
of species of Pacific salmon. With the possible exception of the spring salmon young,
there is too much overlapping to allow much reliance upon this character for identification purposes. In the various samples ranging from % inch to 3 inches there was no
definite evidence obtained to indicate that the number of vertebras changed with increase
in size. The smallest fry were found to have as many vertebras as the larger finger-
lings, but, of course, the size of the individual segments varied with the total length.
Parr Marks.—These consist of wide, vertical bars or round or oval, black patches
appearing on the sides of the fish and are formed by the laying-down of black pigment
in the skin in certain areas and in certain patterns. They remain with the fish until
the latter have attained a certain size, not accurately determined, whereupon the silvery
pigment overlays them and conceals them. Parr marks are not to be confused with
the ordinary black-spotting appearing on the fins or the back of the fish. J 92 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
Since many instances are known in which colouring and speckling vary with change
in, environment, it would be unwise to place too much reliance upon such features for
identification purposes in the case of Pacific salmon. Parr marks, however, have been
shown by experience to differ little in a given species in different localities, and thus
may be safely used as an aid in the separation of the species.
Pink salmon may be definitely distinguished by the complete absence of any pan-
marks. They possess a clear and unbroken silvery sheen along both sides. Of the
other four species a definite division can be made between those possessing large parallel
vertical bars and those having large round or oval spots. The spring and cohoe have
the vertical bars and the sockeye and chum the round or oval markings. Unquestionable separation of groups of species can be made to this extent, but, as will be shown
below, the further separation of springs from cohoes and sockeye from chums must be
based on other characteristics.
GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES.
There now follows a general description of each species covering life-history,
habits, rate of growth, colour and markings, and those morphological characters referred to above, all of which when considered together will assist in or confirm the
identification of young salmon where the " key " at the end of this paper is not sufficiently precise.
Pink or Humpback Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).—Pink salmon, when they
return from the sea to spawn, frequent chiefly the small coast streams or the lower
tributaries of the large river systems. They do not penetrate far inland. Observations made by the junior author have indicated that hatching of eggs usually occurs in
late December and the young alevins remain in the gravel for some two or three months,
passing to sea as free-swimming fry during February, March, April, and May. While
the water temperatures prevailing during the winter and spring months control and
influence the rate of development and the time of migration, it is found that the main
pink salmon seaward migrations usually take place in the latter part of April and early
May. These observations coincide with those of Chamberlain for Alaska and apply
also fairly generally to Southern British Columbia waters and Puget Sound (Davidson, 1934).
At the time of migration the fry are from 1*4 to 1% inches in length. Hatched
in streams not far removed from the sea, the fry drop down at once to salt water and
may be said to have no fresh-water residence. Definite scales have not developed by
the time of seaward exodus. Feeding in fresh water is very incidental, but once in salt
water active ingestion of the abundant marine food-organisms commences and growth
is very rapid. Although Chamberlain records instances of pink salmon young being
recovered in shore waters in June and July, it is generally assumed that these fish pass
immediately offshore to the deeper waters of the ocean. In the Masset Inlet area,
pinks are noted moving out of the inlet in June and July, but they are not commonly
found previously in the shallow waters and they are not seen subsequently until they
return in the fall of the succeeding year as " two-year-old " adults.
It is thus obvious that there is but a short time each year when pink salmon young
will be found in fresh water or in inshore areas of the coast. As noted above, young
pink salmon are completely devoid of parr marks and this characteristic should separate
them immediately from other species. If there is any doubt a count of the number of
scales along the lateral line should confirm the identification since pink salmon have a
high scale-count, 168 to 185.
Chum or Dog Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta).—The chum salmon resemble the pink
in general spawning habits. They come in from the sea shortly after the latter and
populate all the accessible coast streams and lower tributaries of the main river BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 93
systems. They are to be found frequenting cohoe- and sockeye-spawning areas both
above and below lakes in the Harrison, Cultus, and Pitt River systems. All chum
salmon fry, even those hatched in streams above lakes, appear to migrate to sea the
first spring. None are found in fresh water after June or July. Upon reaching the
river-mouths the young migrants gradually pass to the sea, Chamberlain reporting them
as having been captured in June and July in seine hauls in relatively shallow water in
the vicinity of the Karta and Karluk Rivers and Gilbert (1913) observing them in
Puget Sound.    No scales are formed at the time the fry leave the rivers.
In life, the chum salmon is a long, slim, gracefully shaped fry, mottled grass to
dark green on back, silvery on lower parts with a rather pale-green iridescence. The
back is heavily spotted with small black dots, sometimes fusing together. Parr marks
on the sides vary in number from 6 to 10, but they are found chiefly above the lateral
line and are elliptical to oval in shape.
The only other species with which the chum salmon fry might be confused is the
sockeye. The green colour of the back of the chum is quite different from that of the
sockeye, being somewhat darker and extending lower on the sides, and the faint-green
iridescence of the silvery sides is also characteristic. In size the chum is quite distinct,
being consistently considerably larger than the sockeye at the same time of year. An
examination of the gill-rakers and a count of the scales will readily separate these two
species. The sockeye has a greater number (average, 18-fTl or 12) and longer and
finer gill-rakers than the chum (average, 14-j-lO) and possesses fewer scales, 125-135,
as compared with 134-144 for the chum.
In the sea-run individuals whose parr marks have begun to fade out there may be
some confusion as to their separation from pinks, but here, as noted above, the scale-
count will readily distinguish them.
Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).—Although there are some varieties of
sockeye, commonly called " creek" sockeye, that spawn in coast streams, the vast
majority possess the peculiarity of spawning only in streams above lakes. That is to
say, on their return from the sea they select those streams or tributaries of rivers which
have lakes at their head and then proceed to pass through the lakes to spawn in the
streams above. Some spawn on the beaches of lakes where there is a certain degree
of seepage-flow.
Sockeye also are noted for the great variation in period of fresh-water residence.
Commonly the fry emerging from the gravel drop down immediately to the lake and
disappear in the depths, there to remain unseen until they appear at the lake outlet the
following spring prepared to migrate seaward. This is the general habit in the Fraser
and other Southern British Columbia streams, though in certain cases, particularly
with " creek " sockeye, the fry may repair immediately to sea, while in other instances
some individuals remain for an extra year in fresh water, migrating seaward as two-
year-olds. In more northern waters the period of fresh-water residence is extended.
In the Skeena and Southern Alaska streams the proportion of two-year-old migrants
exceeds that of the yearlings, while in Northern Alaska three years' residence in fresh
water is common. There occurs also the landlocked form of this species, popularly
called the kokanee or kickininee, which remains in fresh water throughout its entire
life-cycle.
The chief difficulty in identification of the sockeye occurs at the fry stage, when,
as remarked above, there is possible confusion with the chum fry. The former are
generally smaller in size than chum fry at the same period but are rather similarly
marked. The sockeye have, however, silvery sides with no green iridescence, the back
is uniformly olive to grassy green, not mottled as in the chum, and the fine, black
punctulations are more numerous and more definite. The parr marks are more evenly
distributed than in the chum and are situated chiefly immediately above the lateral line, though at times they may project down below it. A second row of narrower
marks may be found above and alternated with the regular parr marks; but they are
not always present or conspicuous.
When the sockeye have remained in fresh water for a year and commence their
spring migration to the sea they are from 3 to 5 inches long. The same markings are
present and the tips of the caudal fin are dusky. There may arise at this time some
confusion with cohoe yearlings, which are much the same size and have the same
general appearance. The most readily observed difference, however, is in the shape of
the anal fin. In the sockeye the margin of the anal is quite regular, the rays growing
uniformly shorter from anterior to posterior ends, but in the cohoe the first two or
three rays are longer than the remainder, producing a concave outer margin. Frequently
the first few rays are sufficiently longer than the remainder to produce a spike at the
anterior end of the fin. Final identification can always be made by counting the gill-
rakers, of which the sockeye possess, at the yearling stage, around 18-J-12, whereas
the cohoe have only 12 or 13 + 9 or 10.
Spring Salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha).—Upon their return to fresh water
the spring salmon select the larger rivers and the larger tributaries of those rivers,
including those far inland.
The young may migrate to sea immediately after hatching, as fry, or they may
remain in fresh water for the summer, dropping down to salt water with the onset
of the autumn freshets. Yearlings, those individuals remaining in fresh water for
the winter and migrating the following spring, are not common.
As noted elsewhere in this paper, spring and cohoe young are immediately separated from other salmon by the possession of long, conspicuous, vertical bars as parr
marks. The bars lie about equally on either side of the lateral line. There are
numerous other small spots or blotches between and above the parr marks. Both
spring and cohoe fry may exhibit a brownish colour on the back and upper half of the
sides, with a brassy iridescence overshadowing the silver of the lower half of the sides,
and the ventral surface and the fins may have a reddish tinge. In general, however,
the spring salmon is not as brownish as the cohoe, nor are the fins as deeply coloured,
but for accurate separation of spring from cohoe, reliance must be placed again upon
the shape of the anal fin or upon the number of scales along the lateral line. As
explained in the section on sockeye immediately above, the anal fin of the cohoe is quite
characteristic in having a concave outer margin by reason of the greater length of the
first few rays, a feature which is lacking in the spring salmon. The scale-counts may
be compared as follows:   spring salmon, 134-145;   cohoe salmon, 125-132.
Cohoe Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).—The most generally distributed, the cohoe
salmon are found throughout the Pacific Coast drainage system from the smallest coast
stream to the most remote inland tributary.
The young may migrate down-stream as fry, fingerlings, or yearlings, but whether
they pass on out to sea at stages younger than yearling is still a matter of some doubt.
They have been definitely observed leaving the inland streams and lakes as fry, while
others have remained in the streams throughout the summer and fall. A fall migration has not been definitely established, but in the following spring a down-stream
migration of yearlings has been found to occur. It is quite possible that the early
fry or fingerling migrants drop down-stream only to some more favourable feeding
and resting area, perhaps to the river-mouth itself, there to remain until the following
spring, when they continue out to sea. Examination of scales has shown definitely
that cohoes with a complete first year's residence in fresh water are by far the most
numerous.
Cohoe fry and fingerlings populate most of the streams and lakes of the Pacific
Coast and their correct identification is of some importance.    As already noted, the BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 95
fry may be separated from all others except the spring through the possession of large
vertical bars as parr marks. These bars extend almost as far below the lateral line as
above it. From the spring fry, cohoes may be separated because of the possession of
elongated first rays of the anal fin, fins tinged with brownish-orange, the lower fins,
pectorals, pelvics, and anal sometimes edged with white. As for fingerlings, since the
pink and chum salmon repair directly to sea as fry and are not normally found in
fresh water during the summer, it is only necessary to distinguish between the cohoe,
the spring, and sockeye. The sockeye may be set apart due to the fact that the parr
marks are short, elliptical or oval spots and not definite vertical bars, but should these
marks be indistinguishable it has been found that the sockeye has more, longer and
finer gill-rakers than the cohoe, approximately 18 -f-11 as opposed to 12 -j- 9. From
the spring fingerling the cohoe may be set apart on the basis of the same characters
used for the fry.
It should be pointed out that these colour-markings as well as the long vertical
parr marks are also possessed by the young of some of the Pacific trout. The cutthroat and particularly the brook cut-throat very closely resemble the young cohoe, but
the latter is usually much larger at the same period of year. The number of anal fin-
rays will at once separate the cohoe from the trout, since the former have 14 or more
rays, whereas the trout have 12 or less. The anal fin, by reason of the smaller number
of rays, is much shorter in the trout than in the cohoe. Among trout, the dorsal and
occasionally the caudal fin are conspicuously spotted.
KEY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF YOUNG SALMON.
On the basis of observations which have been recorded and from practical experience gained in handling Pacific salmon young over a period of years, the following key
has been constructed by which the young of the Pacific salmon can be readily identified.
The key is for use only in rapid separation of the species, and where doubt arises as
to the distinction between certain species, reference to the more detailed descriptions
contained in the paper should be made.
A. ANAL  RAYS,  9  to  12.    DORSAL  FIN  WITH  LARGE
BLACK SPOTS.
AA. ANAL RAYS MORE THAN 13.    DORSAL FIN WITH
NO LARGE BLACK SPOTS.
B. No parr marks present. Scale-count approximately 175
(168 to 185). Fry deep blue to greenish on back in
life.   Belly silvery.
BB. Parr marks present as vertical bars or oval blotches.
Scale-count 150 or less.
C. Parr marks short, elliptical or oval, extending little, if
any, below lateral line.
D. Gill-rakers about 18 + 11. Scales 125 to 135. Row
of definite black spots on back. Colour, bluish or
greenish tinge on back, no green iridescence on sides
below lateral line.   Belly silvery.
DD. Gill-rakers about 14 +10. Scales 134 to 144. Black
spots on back may be present but not as large and
position irregular. Colour, bright, mottled green
on back. Sides below lateral line silvery with faint-
green iridescence.   Belly silvery.
Trout and Chars.
Pacific salmon.
Pink.
Sockeye.
Chum. J 96 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
CC. Parr marks large vertical bars, almost bisected vertically by the lateral line.
• •  « E. First rays of anal fin not elongated.    Colour, darkly
stippled with black on back. Some brownish on
back and upper half of sides. No brassy iridescence.
Silvery belly.    Fins not usually coloured. Spring.
EE. First rays of anal fin elongated, producing a concave outer margin to fin. Colour, brown to brownish-orange. Sides and belly silvery, tinged with
brassy iridescence. Lower fins tinged with orange
and tipped with white. First ray of anal whitish
in colour. Cohoe.
CITATIONS.
Chamberlain, F. M. Some observations on salmon and trout in Alaska. Rept. U.S.
Comm.' of Fish, for 1906.    Bur. Fish. Doc. No. 627, 1907.
Crawford, D. R. Field characters identifying young salmonoid fishes in fresh waters
of Washington. Univ. of Wash. Pub. in Fish., Vol. I., No. 2, pp. 64-76. April,
1925.
Davidson, F. A. The homing instinct and age at maturity of pink salmon {Oncorhynchus' gorbuscha).    Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish., Vol. XLVIIL, No. 15, 1934.
Gilbert, Chas. H. Age at maturity of the Pacific coast salmon of the genus Oncorhynchus.    Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish., Vol. XXXIL, Doc. No. 767.    1913.
Jordan, D. S., and B. W. Evermann. The fishes of North and Middle America. Smithsonian Inst., U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington.    1896. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 97
PINK SALMON
SOCKEVE  SALMON
CHUM SALMON
'■&• Ufa' >'5db ■i&ZfJv'S*^'■«■'="\"«
SPRING SALMON
^•"'^':ftiii3_j¥S^^^S
COHOE  SALMON
Plate displaying example of each of the five species of Pacific salmon. J 98 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1943.
By J. A. Motherwell.
As the industry was advised early in the season, it was anticipated that the run
of salmon during the year would be below normal. This forecast was borne out by
the year's experience, with the exception of pinks in the Central and Bella Coola areas.
Conditions in most streams during the year from the standpoint of sufficient water
to permit of the easy access of salmon to the spawning-grounds were unusually good,
with the exception of some of the streams in the lower part of the Province, and conditions generally in spawning-streams were such as to justify the expectation of a
good season's hatch. An encouraging factor was the absence of severe freshets which
sometimes occur just after the spawning has finished, with resultant great damage.
Sockeye-supplies on the spawning-grounds throughout the Province were not as
satisfactory as hoped, although conditions were reasonably good at the Nass, Skeena,
Rivers Inlet, and Smith Inlet areas. The Birkenhead and Upper Fraser spawning-
grounds at Chilko Lake and Stellako River were particularly satisfactorily seeded with
this variety compared with recent cycles. The escapement was better than might be
inferred from the small pack. The seeding by springs was on the whole unsatisfactory.
The cohoe-supplies were found to be fair, with some areas quite good. The seeding
by pinks was generally fair, but in the Central and Bella Coola areas the escapement
was very heavy. The supplies of chums were reasonably good, with the exception of
the areas along the west coast of Vancouver Island and the east coast of the Queen
Charlotte Islands.
QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.
Sockeye are not fished commercially. The escapement, however, to such streams
as the Ain, Awun, Nadem.and Copper Bay Rivers was quite good. The cohoe seeding
was fairly good in Skidegate, Copper Bay, and Tlell River areas, as well as in Masset
and Naden Harbour streams. In other portions of the Queen Charlottes, however, the
seeding appears to have been light. This is the " off " year for pinks and none was
found on the spawning-grounds.
The chum-supplies were not up to expectations. In the Naden, Ain, and Awun
Rivers the run was practically a failure. The seeding in the west coast streams is
reported as light, with the exception of the streams at Nesto Inlet, Security Cove, and
Peel Inlet. At Skidegate Inlet the supplies found are reported as being from a medium
to a heavy seeding. The Cumshewa streams were generally well seeded. The supplies
in Selwyn Inlet streams were light. This also applies to the streams in Atli and
Crescent Inlets. The seeding at Salmon Creek is reported as very heavy, the best in
probably the last twenty years. Sedgwick Bay medium, Hutton Inlet a failure, Werner
Bay a failure, Skaat Harbour light. In the streams from Island Bay to Ikeda Bay,
including Bag Harbour, Tangle Cove, Oyster Cove, George Bay, Huston Inlet, and
Harriet Bay, the seeding ran from good, medium, to heavy.
LOWER NASS AREA.
Observations covering the lower portion of the Nass River and its tributaries
suggest a smaller run of sockeye than average, although the inspecting officer states
that the escapement was very satisfactory, due partly to the bad weather conditions.
The escapement to the Tseax River was a good average one, but that to Bear Lake
poor. The inspecting officer comments on the small size of the individual fish passing
up-stream after July. The escapement of springs is reported as heavy. The cohoe
run is reported as a good average. The pink escapement is reported as very good,
partly the result of less intensive fishing operations by purse-seines. The chum seeding was above average, especially to the stream at the head of Work Channel. The
escapement to Toon River is stated by the inspecting officer as the heaviest he has seen
in the Nass area. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 99
UPPER NASS AREA.
The main sockeye-spawning areas of this system were not inspected by an officer
of the Department, but by a man who has had many years' experience in this work,
having accompanied both the officers of the Federal and the Provincial Fisheries
Departments over the areas for many years. He has had more experience in this area
than any officer of the Fisheries Department. The seeding by the early run of sockeye
is reported as being rather light and disappointing. The seeding by the late run,
however, was found to be heavy and similar to that reported in 1938, and better than
in the years 1939 and 1942. The inspecting officer suggests that, taking the seeding
as a whole, it could be considered as fairly good, although a little under average. The
seeding by springs is reported as the best in the twenty-one years' experience of the
inspecting officer. The cohoe-supply is better than average, the fish being individually
large. The fishway at Meziadin Lake was cleaned out and left in good condition.
Another portion of the old cribbing had given way, but the fishway itself is functioning quite satisfactorily.
SKEENA AREA.
In the Babine Lake area, the principal sockeye-spawning ground of this watershed, the seeding by this variety, although in general being satisfactory, was below
that of 1939. Some of the principal spawning-streams, such as Fulton and Morrison
Rivers, received a heavy seeding, although in the former there appears to have been
some waste of eggs. The seeding at Fifteen-mile Creek was definitely poor. The
supplies in Babine River generally were quite good. The inspecting officer called attention to the considerable percentage of small individual sockeye on the spawning-grounds
in the year under review. The seeding by springs in the Babine River was light to
medium, and the cohoe seeding average. The pink seeding, however, was very heavy,
the fish being individually large.
In the Morice River and Lake system, which is tributary to the Skeena River,
conditions for observation were poor. The sockeye seeding, however, appeared to be
light.    The spring seeding also was fairly light but the cohoe-supply was good.
In the Kalu Lake system, also tributary to the Skeena River, a very good seeding
of sockeye was found at the head of Kalum Lake. The supplies were greater than in
the year 1939 when the seeding was good. There was also a good escapement to Cedar
River and Clear Creek.    The individual fish in the Kalu Lake system were large.
Lakelse Lake, an important part of the Skeena system, is primarily a sockeye
and pink area. The seeding in Williams Creek, which is the principal spawning-
ground for the former variety, was found to be good. The seeding at Schulbuckhand
Creek was good, being an improvement over the brood-year. The supplies in Salmon
and Granite Creeks were not up to expectations, although these streams are small and
not as suitable as the first two mentioned. The pink-supply is reported as being very
heavy and an improvement over the brood-year, when a heavy escapement took place.
In the Ocstahl River system the sockeye seeding was only fair, being less than in
1939. There was a heavy seeding of spring salmon in Johnson Creek. The cohoe
supplies appear to have been satisfactory. There was a very good seeding of pinks
in the main Ocstahl River and its tributaries, which was an improvement over the
cycle-year of 1941. The supply of chums in the Ocstahl River and tributaries is
reported as fair; not as good as in the brood-year.
LOWE INLET AREA.
The sockeye seeding is reported as being good, due to less intensive fishing and
favourable water conditions. The cohoe-supplies were average. Pinks showed a decided
improvement over the brood-year.    The same remarks apply to the chums. BUTEDALE AREA.
Weather conditions were very favourable for the ascent of salmon to the spawning-grounds, streams being at all times well supplied with water. High water, of
course, made the inspection very difficult. The sockeye-supply in the southern portion
of the area was below average. The Kitlope River, at the head of Gardner Canal,
however, received a satisfactory seeding. The cohoe escapement to the southern part
of the area was lighter than that of the brood-year, but conditions were just the reverse
in the northern part of the area. The seeding generally of this variety was satisfactory. The pink-supply is reported as being exceptionally large and is described by
the inspecting officer as " unheard of in an off-year, having only been exceeded in the
past eleven, seasons by the seeding of 1936." The seeding at Quaal River, Bish Creek,
and Kainet River is reported as very heavy. While the chum seeding was better than
that of the brood-year, it could only be classified as light to medium. Kainet River
was the only stream which received a heavy supply.
BELLA BELLA AREA.
The early sockeye seeding was reported as light to medium, with some improvement in the later runs. The total, however, was poorer than that of the brood-year.
The same condition applies to the cohoe-supply. A very heavy seeding of pinks
occurred and all major streams are reported as being filled to spawning capacity, the
seeding showing improvement generally over the brood-year. The chum seeding was
abundant, with all large streams receiving plentiful supplies. Spawning conditions
from the standpoint of water were good.
BELLA COOLA AREA.
The sockeye seeding was not heavy, but is reported by the inspecting officer as
quite satisfactory, in view of the run. One outstanding feature this season is the
large percentage of small fish, the so-called " runts." It is estimated that approximately 60 per cent, of the total run was made up of these small individuals, not over
12 inches in length. A disturbing factor of the Bella Coola spawning-ground situation is the report that the big flood of 1936 altered the course of one of the glacial
streams which up to that time had drained into Knight Inlet. It now carries deposits
of silt into the Atnarko River and this settles over a portion of the salmon-spawning
grounds frequented by the larger sized fish. Conditions in the Kimsquit River were
reasonably good.
The seeding by springs was satisfactory in the Bella Coola system, but rather
light in the Dean River area.    The cohoe-supplies are considered adequate.
The outstanding feature of the spawning inspection was the very large quantities
of pinks found over the whole district supervised by the Bella Coola Inspector. The
inspecting officer observes that: " It is a remarkable return from the cycle-year's heavy
seeding. Practically all streams tributary to the Bella Coola and Atnarko were literally loaded with spawning pinks, this species reaching points 80 miles distant from salt
water in appreciable numbers."
Spawning conditions throughout the season were favourable and, to the date of
inspection, no freshets had occurred. The chum seeding was also heavy throughout
the district.
RIVERS INLET AREA.
The usual two inspections of the sockeye-spawning grounds were made in this
area; the first between September 6th and 10th and the second between October 12th
and 20th. The seeding generally was found to be poorer than in the brood-years of
1938 and 1939. In some rivers, however, the conditions were on a par or even better,
while the spawning in two streams was found to be very disappointing. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 101
At Waukwash River the supply was not as good as in 1938, but equal to that of
1939. The Inspector observes that the stream was generally well seeded and one of
the best seen in 1943. The seeding at Indian River was equal to that of the two
brood-years. Conditions at Asklum River were satisfactory; in fact, it received the
best seeding of any stream in the area, and was better than in the brood-years. The
situation at Genesee River was most disappointing. At Owikeno River, which is one
of the main spawning areas, the seeding was definitely poor.
A later report has been received from a one-time employee at the Department's
hatchery at Rivers Inlet, with regard to conditions at Whonnock River, which shows
that there was an average seeding of sockeye in that important stream, although the
fish were individually small.
With regard to the streams tributary to Rivers Inlet proper, and those streams
tributary to Owikeno Lake, to which fall salmon proceed, the information is that the
cohoe-supplies were light, the pinks very good, but the chum-supplies only medium.
SMITH INLET AREA.
The sockeye seeding is reported as being equal to that of 1938, when the supplies
were found to be satisfactory. There was a good escapement to the Geluck River and
a satisfactory one to the Delabah, two important sockeye-streams of the system.
The remarks with regard to the fall varieties, in the Rivers Inlet area, apply to
this district also.
FRASER RIVER WATERSHED.
Prince George Area.'—Encouraging supplies of sockeye were found in the Fraser-
Francois Lake watershed, the quantities being estimated at 13,000 compared with 2,000
in the brood-year. Most of this seeding was in the Stellako River. In the Stuart
Lake system the seeding is estimated at five times greater than that of the brood-year,
although the quantities are still not great compared with early runs of this variety.
The supplies of springs in the Nechako and Stuart Lake system were disappointing.
Quesnel Area.—In the Chilko system, which is the main sockeye-spawning ground
of this area, the supply of sockeye was found to be approximately 300 per cent, greater
than that of the brood-year. In the Quesnel Lake system no sockeye were observed.
In the Bowron Lake system there was an increase of approximately 100 per cent, over
the spawning of the brood-year. The supply of springs at Chilcotin was an average
one. The seeding in the Quesnel Lake system was fair. This also applies to the
Bowron, Cottonwood, and Blackwood Rivers systems.
Kamloops Area.—At Raft River the sockeye seeding showed considerable improvement over that of the brood-year. The supplies in the Shuswap area, including Little
River and Adams River, were disappointing, the inspecting officer estimating only
5,000 individuals in the former and 12,000 in the latter stream. The supply of springs
was about an average one, the fish arriving on the spawning-beds in excellent condition.   The quantities of cohoes on the spawning-grounds were estimated to be normal.
Pemberton Area.—The inspecting officer reports a remarkably heavy seeding of
sockeye in the Birkenhead River system. In Seton Creek some 800 spawning sockeye
were observed. It has been noted in previous seasons that the conditions at the falls
in the Fraser River at the mouth of Bridge River appear to affect the quantities of
sockeye entering the Seton Lake system. The seeding by springs in the Squamish
area was light, but there was a fair average in the Pemberton system. Satisfactory
supplies were observed in the Seton Creek area. The cohoe-supplies were disappointing on the whole, although the run of this variety extends into January and February
and the inspection in the fall does not cover the whole seeding. The pink-supplies
were disappointing. The seeding by chums in the Squamish River system was good.
This also applies to the streams tributary to the west side of Howe Sound. J 102 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
Chilliwack Area.—In the Chilliwack-Cultus Lake section the only important sockeye-spawning beds are at Vedder River and Cultus Lake. The supplies of sockeye
were disappointing, the return to Cultus Lake being estimated at approximately 12,000
fish compared with 73,000 in the brood-year of 1939. The spring seeding was light, as
was also that of the cohoe, although the upper waters of the Chilliwack River were
fairly well stocked. Fair supplies of cohoes were observed in the main streams,
including the Coquihalla River. The seeding of pinks was fairly heavy, although not
quite equalling that of 1941. The supplies were found particularly abundant in the
Chilliwack River and Jones and Popkum Creeks. There was a satisfactory seeding of
pinks in the Coquihalla River. The chum seeding was an improvement over the brood-
year and fresh fish were still entering the stream at the time of inspection. A heavy
seeding occurred in the Vedder and Chilliwack Rivers and Sweltzer Creek. Steelhead
trout were unusually plentiful.
Harrison Area.—The sockeye seeding in this area, including the Mission portion
of the district, has been light. This applies also to the springs and cohoes. The pink
and chum supplies, however, are reported as being quite heavy, particularly in the
principal streams such as the Harrison and Chehalis Rivers.
Pitt Lake Area.—A satisfactory supply of sockeye was observed in this system,
estimated to be an improvement over the brood-year. Only fair supplies of cohoes
were found.
Lower Fraser Area.—Fair supplies of cohoes were found in the Serpentine and
Nicomekl Rivers, tributary to Mud Bay. In the smaller streams tributary to the
Fraser, west of Chilliwack, excellent supplies of pinks were found at Whonnock Creek
and a remarkably good showing in the North and South Alouette Rivers and Beaver
River. Chums were found to be exceptionally plentiful in Whonnock Creek and there
was a fair seeding at Stave and Coquitlam Rivers.
North Vancouver Area.—In the streams tributary to Burrard Inlet the seeding by
springs was disappointing. The cohoe seeding was fair and the pinks not up to expectations.    The chum-supplies were also light.
ALERT BAY AREA.
The sockeye-supplies in the main spawning-grounds such as the Nimpkish River,
Keough River, Glendale Cove, Shushartie, Port Neville, Quatsi River, and MacKenzie
River were fair, and compared favourably with those of the brood-year of 1939. Water
conditions in the streams were favourable. Average supplies of spring salmon were
observed at all streams, except Quatsi River and Adams River. A medium seeding
occurred in the case of cohoes at nearly all streams, with heavy supplies at Wakeman,
Viner, and Salmon Rivers. The pink seeding in mainland streams was the heaviest
in the past ten years, practically all streams receiving large supplies. On the other
hand, the seeding in the streams in the Vancouver Island section of the area was disappointing, being below that of the brood-year. Heavy supplies of chums were found
at Kingcome, Seymour, Salmon, and Viner Rivers, those in the Viner River area being
particularly heavy. The remaining streams received from light to medium supplies.
All streams were well supplied with water.
QUATHIASKI AREA.
The streams tributary to Hayden Bay and Phillips Arm are the only ones frequented by sockeye. The seeding at Hayden Bay was equal to that of the cycle-year,
but an improvement was observed in Phillips River. The seeding by spring salmon
is considered a fair average, Campbell, Phillips, and Salmon Rivers being at least equal
to that of the cycle-year. The cohoe escapement is reported as considerably better
than that of the previous cycle, to all spawning-grounds, particularly those of the BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 103
Campbell and Homathko Rivers and Cumsack Creek, where the escapement was heavy.
Even for an " off " year, the supply of pinks was found to be very disappointing, the
only exception being the streams tributary to Bute Inlet, where a good escapement was
observed, being a considerable improvement over that of the brood-year. The chum-
supply was found to be disappointing and this is suggested as being possibly the result
of flood conditions in 1939.
COMOX AREA.
The seeding by springs in the Puntledge River was found to be satisfactory, being
an increase over that of 1940, 1941, and 1942, although not equalling the average runs
of 1936 to 1939. The cohoe seeding was light. The inspecting officer attributes this
condition to the effect of the numerous freshets in 1940. An extremely heavy supply
of pinks was reported in the Courtenay River system. The seeding was even better
than that of 1939. There were few to be found in other streams in the area, as this
is the " off " cycle for the pink variety. In the brood-year the seeding was poor, even
for this particular cycle. Generally speaking, only medium supplies of chum salmon
were found, although they compared favourably with the seeding of the brood-year.
The best conditions were found in the Courtenay River system, although the seeding
at Little Qualicum River is reported as excellent. That at Big Qualicum River, however, was not as good as that of the brood-year.
PENDER HARBOUR AREA.
The sockeye seeding in the Saginaw Lake system was light, but compared well
with that of the brood-year. The same conditions apply in the case of cohoes. There
was a heavy seeding of pinks in the important Jervis Inlet area, particularly to Squaka
River. At Deserted Bay River the supply was only fair, and in other streams in the
district there was the usual light seeding. Chums were found in fair quantities in
most of the larger streams, comparing well with the quantities showing in the brood-
year.
NANAIMO AREA.
Cohoes were found in satisfactory quantities and the chum seeding was adequate.
Other varieties of salmon do not frequent this area in commercial quantities.
LADYSMITH AREA.
The cohoe seeding was equal to that of the brood-year in the Nanaimo River
system. In the Chemainus River and other creeks in the vicinity the supplies are
reported as being excellent and an improvement over those of 1940. The seeding by
springs in the Nanaimo River is reported as very satisfactory. Average quantities
were also found in the Chemainus River. The usual few pinks appeared in both the
Nanaimo and Chemainus River systems. The chum seeding in the Nanaimo River
was heavier than that of the brood-year. The supplies in the Chemainus River were
also excellent.    This also applies to the smaller adjacent streams which are frequented
by chums.
COWICHAN AREA.
The seeding by springs is reported as being satisfactory and the cohoe-supply
was good. The chum seeding was also quite satisfactory. Spawning conditions in the
Cowichan River were very good. Salmon had no difficulty in passing over Skutz FaHs
via the fish-ladder installed by the Department. In fact, salmon were observed passing
through the ladder at the rate of 1,500 per hour at times. J 104 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
VICTORIA AREA.
The cohoe-supply to the various streams compared favourably with that of the
brood-year. This also applies to the chums in the Sooke and Demanuel Rivers. In the
smaller streams in the Sooke area the supply was found to be below average. At Gold-
stream, however, the chum seeding was better than for many years, and the run was
still continuing at the time of the last inspection.
ALBERNI AREA.
The sockeye seeding in the Somass River system, which includes the Sproat and
Great Central Lakes and tributaries, has apparently not been as good as hoped. Due
to high-water conditions at Sproat Falls and Stamp River Falls the ascent of the
salmon was made much easier. Only 5,400 sockeye were counted through the fishway
during the fall, which is approximately 30 per cent, of the runs counted in the same weir
during each of the two preceding seasons. However, undoubtedly a much smaller percentage of the run used the fishway, in view of the favourable natural water conditions.
Unfortunately, no inspection was made of the spawning-grounds at the head of Anderson Lake, although a fair escapement of sockeye was observed passing up-stream during
the fishing season. The escapement at Hobarton River, tributary to Nitinat Arm, is
reported as satisfactory. The seeding of the spring-salmon beds in the principal
streams, such as the Somass, Nahmint, Sarita, Toquart, and Nitinat Rivers, is considered good, and spawning conditions favourable. A fair seeding of cohoes was
observed in the Somass River system, as well as in the Nahmint, Toquart, Sarita, San
Juan, and Nitinat Rivers. The supply of chums was found to be most disappointing,
but early closing of fishing provided a fair seeding in some of the streams. Generally
speaking, however, the chum seeding was poor. Water conditions in the several
streams were satisfactory.
CLAYOQUOT AREA.
The sockeye-supplies are reported as being medium in the Kennedy Lake and
Clayoquot River systems. The supplies observed were below those of the brood-year.
The seeding in the Megin River and Lake system was not up to expectations. The seeding by springs is reported as the heaviest in the past four years, in all streams. The
cohoe-supplies were less than those of the brood-year. A few pinks were observed,
although this is not a pink area. The chum-supplies, generally speaking, were found
to be light, although varying greatly in the several streams.
NOOTKA AREA.
The usual small seeding of sockeye was again observed, although this variety
never appears in any material quantities. The spring-supplies were found to be normal.
This also applies to the cohoe variety. The chum escapement was much the same as
that found in the years 1939 and 1940. The individual fish, however, averaged only
about 7 lb. in weight.
KYUQUOT AREA.
The seeding by springs is reported as only fair. The cohoe-supply is reported
as being below that of the brood-year. For an " off " year the seeding by chums was
good, showing considerable improvement over that of the brood-year.
QUATSINO AREA.
This is not an important sockeye area, but the seeding of this variety was found
below normal. A good average supply of springs was observed at Marble Creek, which
is the most important stream for this variety.    Average seedings also occurred at Main BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 105
River and Klaskish River. Medium supplies of cohoe were seen in all the streams in
Winter Harbour and Quatsino Sound, with the exception of Main River and Koprino
River. , The seeding in the outside streams, between the entrance to Quatsino Sound
and Cape Scott, such as the Macjack, San Josef, and Fisherman Rivers, is reported as
being below average. This being an " off " year for pinks, very few were observed.
The chum-supply was found to be medium. It is reported to be equal to that of an
average year, except to most of the streams in the West Arm of Quatsino Sound and
to Jim's Creek and Klashkino Inlet. The seeding was, however, an improvement over
that of 1939. J 106
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
STATISTICAL TABLES.
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1943.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoe.
Pinks.
Chums.
Total.
31,9731
53
13,4121
28.268J
47,6021
15,010
21,101
7,185
283
3.505J
1.002J
1,783
765
118
547
2,937
244
335
1,952
69
24
397
74
8,809
14,488
9,768
40.479J
11,466
541
26,645
73,8461
29,8601
313
17,669
54,509
8,347
556
288,1091
130,826
52,149
35,370
10,1461
6,597
11,448
5,693
109,101
132,843
126,5411
79,6971
21,942
347,7101
164,889
10,658
3,095
186,043
530,189
363,3471
1,258,2211
* 14,059%  cases of bluebacks are included with the cohoe pack for Vancouver Island.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1935 TO 1943.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
164,889
10,658
363,3471
530,189
186,043
3,095
666,570
24,7441
633,834
270,6221
211,138
4,649
455,298
51,593
926,801
427,774
430,513
3,454
366,402
17,740
643,441
213,904
224,522
1,207
269,887
16,098
386,590
620,595
245,097
796
447,450
15,356
541,819
400,876
301,081
1,036
325,836
16,174
447,760
585,574
133,489
844
414,809
29,853
597,488
591,5351
229,750
1,068
350,444
21,920
409,604
514,966
231,492
596
Spring-  _	
Pink..-                   	
Steelhead  	
Totals     	
1,258,2211
1,811,558
2,295,433
1,467,216
1,539,063
1,707,798
1,509,677
1,864,5031
1,529,022
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS.
Total packed by Districts
in 1935 TO 1943, inclusive
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
126,5411
133,589
79,6971
21,942
52,3331
347,7101
496,407
549,617
152,4181
105,539
23,777
100,1421
536,8031
343,2601
431,299
200,497
138,650
32,109
71,330
985,835
398,152
46,561
152,363
195,355
88,665
33,998
60,441
419,579
516,815
199,241
205,604
83,502
28,727
55,946
590,736
375,307
277,084
223,413
122,363
44,921
113,970
458,554
467,493
231,848
133,165
108,782
35,502
49,042
608,798
342,350
260,261
218,634
72,0111
14,888
139,5751
559,7461
599,387
216,728
170,420
155,571
49,928
78,214
469,427
388,734
Skeena 	
1,258,2211
1,811,558
2,295.433
1,467,216
1,539,063
l,707,798f
1,509,677*
1,864,5031
1,529,022
* Including 527 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River.
f Including 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye and 26,828 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 107
TABLE  SHOWING THE  TOTAL
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE
SOCKEYE-PACK  OF  THE   FRASER  RIVER,
WITH THE FOUR-YEAR CYCLE, 1895-1943.
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total-
British Columbia..
Washington __.
Total.
British Columbia-
Washington 	
Total.-
British Columbia-
Washington. 	
Total .
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total___..
British Columbia..
Washington. 	
Total..
British Columbia.—.
Washington	
Total-
British Columbia -
Washington	
Total-	
British Columbia-
Washington  	
Total _
British Columbia -
Washington  __
Total-
British Columbia .
Washington .-_
Total.
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total-
British Columbia-
Washington	
1895—
1899-
1911—
1919—
1939—
1943-
Total..
51,090
395,984
1896—
356,984
1897-
- 860,459
1898—
256,101
65,143
72,979
312,048
252,000
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
508,101
480,485
1900—
229,800
1901-
- 928,669
1902—
- 293,477
499,646
228,704
1,105,096
339,556
980,131
458,504
2,033,765
633,033
204,809
1904—
72,688
1905-
- 837,489
1906-
■ 183.007
167,211
123,419
837,122
182.241
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
59,815
1908—
74,574
1909-
- 585,435
1910—
■ 150,432
96.974
170,951
1,097,904
248,014
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
58,487
1912—
123,879
1913-
- 719,796
1914—
198,183
127,761
184,680
1,673,099
335,230
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
91,130
1916—
32,146
1917-
- 148,164
1918—
19.697
64,584
84,637
411,538
50,723
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
38,854
1920—
48,399
1921-
- 39,631
1922—
51,832
64,346
62,654
111,053
102,967
48,566
103,200
142,598
100,398
31,655
1924—
39,743
1925-
- 35,385
1926—
85,689
47,402
69,369
112,023
44,673
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
61,393
1928—
29,299
1929-
- 61,569
1930—
103,692
97,594
61,044
111,898
352,194
158,987
90,343
173,467
455.886
40,947
1932—
65,769
1933-
- 52.465
1934—
139.2.38
87,211
81,188
126,604
352,579
128,158
146,957
179,069
491,817
62,822
1936—
184,854
1937-
- 100,272
1938—
186.794
54,677
59,505
60,259
134,641
117,499
244,359
160,531
321,435
54,296
1940—
99,009
1941-
- 171,290
1942—
446,371
43,511
59,354
110,605
263,458
97,807
158,363
281,895
709,829
31,9731
19,1161 J 108             REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES.
Fraser River, 1928-43, inclusive.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
31,9731
3,5051
52,149
29,8601
8,809
244
446,371
9,688
82,573
134
10,542
309
171,290
34,038
95,070
102,388
28,265
248
99,009
4,504
35,665
12
13,028
145
54,296
5,993
30,150
95,176
13,557
69
186,794
4,308
58,778
63
27,127
14
100,272
5,444
20,878
94,010
11,244
184,854
15,126
31,565
28,716
Steelheads  	
Totals                             	
126,5411
549,617
431,299
152,363
199,241
277,084   |   231,848
260,261
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
62,822    139,238
9.401      16.218
52,465
5,579
34,391
92,746
13,901
65,769
28,701
14,948
385
16,815
23
40,947
9,740
251
13,307
8,165
657
103,692
21,127
68,946
30,754
25,585
27,879
61,569
10,004
144,159
158,208
40,520
12,013
29,299
5,082
8,227
111,328
24950
104,092
2,199
11.392
193,106
Pinks	
2,881
27,061
795
Steelheads '. _	
Totals              	
    i  	
216,728 ,273,139
199,082
126,641
73,067
277,983
426,473
258,224
Skeena River, 1928-43, inclusive.
1943.
1942.
1941.          1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
28,2681
1,783
6,597
54,509
40,4791
1,952
34,544
6,374
11,421
52,767
44,0811
3,231
81,767
4,985
10,707
50,537
50,605
1,896
116,507
6,118
4,682
47,301
20,614
133
68,485
4,857
7,773
95,236
29,198
55
47,257
4,318
16,758
69,610
52,821
42
42,491
4,401
10,811
59,400
15,514
21
81,973
4,5511
15,2971
91,389
25,390
Pinks   	
Totals ,            	
133,589
152,4181
200,497
195,355
205,604
190,806
132,638
218,634
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
126,163
54,456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
9,857
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
58
78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
13
34,559
6,420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
Pinks  	
Steelheads _	
Totals	
170,420
284,096
185,463
233,711
162,986
450,377
220,245 I 298,709 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 109
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Rivers Inlet, 1928-43, inclusive.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
47,6021
765
11,448
8,347
11,466
69
79,199
985
15,874
954
8,467
60
93,378
1,692
15,442
4,807
23,202
129
63,469
1,226
9,025
3,329
11,561
55
54,143
745
5,462
12,095
10,974
83
87,942
1,209
7,759
9,063
16,285
105
84,832
917
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
46,351
581)
11,505
6,4321
7,1221
19
Totals	
79,6971
105,539
138,650
88,665
83,502
122,363
108,782
72,0111
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
326
429
5,089
6,571
32
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
342
989
2,386
1,120
29
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
868
7
Totals      -	
155,571
86,000
93,220
81,709
88,874
138,980
75,126
81,527
Smith Inlet, 1928-43, inclusive.*
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
15,010
118
541
556
5,693
24
15,939
8
1,813
527
5,490
21,495
124
1,955
749
7,741
45
25,947
142
1,102
755
6,015
37
17,833
216
3,880
3,978
2,771
50
33,894
68
1,058
1,761
8,076
64
25,258
21
241
483
9,494
5
12,788
30
310
Pinks  — 	
65
1,653
42
Totals - -	
21,942
23,777
32,109
33,998
28,727
44,921
35,502
14,888
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
Sockeyes	
31,648
216
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
37,369
354
5,068
19,995
8,841
87
25,488
48
273
1,148
165
20
12,867
122
112
824
133
36
32,057
290
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
9,683
78
275
853
113
12
33,442
286
Cohoes — —  -	
230
167
19
Steelheads. „	
6
Totals	
49,928
41,256
71,714
27,142
14,094
52,185
11,014
34,150
* Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other districts. J 110
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Nass River, 1928-43, inclusive.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
13,4121
1,0021
10,1461
17,669
9,768
335
21,085
1,515
12,518
49,0031
15,487
534
24,876
519
6,246
22,667
16,648
374
13,809
1,716
5,461
29,278
10,060
117
24,357
708
2,500
26,370
1,996
15
21,462
773
15,911
61,477
14,159
188
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
28,5621
2,167
20,6201
Pinks   	
75,8871
11,842
496
Totals	
52,3331
100,1421
71,330
60,441
55,946
113,970
49,042
139,5751
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
Sockeyes -  	
Springs  -	
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
9,757
1,296
1,775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
1,439
392
5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,126
84
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
5,540
1,846
3,538
Pinks	
83,183
10,734
36
Totals  	
78,214
75,213
60,434
85,671
32,881
113,460
29,185
104,877
Vancouver Island District, 1928-43, inclusive.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
Sockeyes-	
7,185
2,937
132,843
130,825
73,8461
74
51,961
5,407
383,005
14,474
81,8371
119
40,273
8,038
593,016
177,292
166,908
308
15,177
2,454
279,064
33,785
88,885*
214
16,259
2,889
212,949
235,119
123,388
132
27,965
4,254
266,566
70,108
62,054
27,607
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
32,6961
6,340
347,951
Pinks	
82,0281
90,625
Steelheads  -	
105
347,7101
536,8031
985,835
419,579
590,736
458,554
608,798
559,746
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1 1929.
1928.
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
18,397
4,875
96,642
172,945
60,019
147
27,611
10,559
70,629
33,403
35,132
28,596
22,199
4,055
16,329
81,965
26,310
24,638
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1,645
162,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
14,248
2,269
303,474
41,885
23,345
Pinks	
5,249
Totals _	
469.427 1 372.347
353,025
205,930
175,541
340,395
294,854
390,470
* 23,277 cases of bluebacks are included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 111
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1934-43, inclusive.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
63
1
38
43,801
83,329
16,935
41
149
236
76,746
524
27,421
11
16
62
164,911
44,966
8,897
1
36
45,519
2,123
3,020
179
66
40,882
57,952
16,616
2
140
72,689
13
4,631
85
227
69,304
89,355
19,920
Springs	
63
86,298
1,479
5,461
35,370
313
14.488
38,062
53,398
Pinks 	
Cohoes  	
8,315
Totals	
50,224
144,145
105,086
218,852
50,699
115,695
77,475
178,891
93,301
100,033
Central Area, 1934-43, inclusive.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
Sockeyes	
Springs - — -
21,101
547
109,101
288,1091
26,645
397
17,470
7231
79,152
69,434
31,274
355
20,854
460
111,587
66,130
45,218
330
32,042
1,518
135,802
54,478
49,886
506
26,158
655
79,384
150,498
44,426
392
36,178
540
127,089
130,842
56,716
433
29,987
1,641
110,493
97,321
25,009
614
27,499
830
99,592
246,378
45,824
373
32,417
687
125,953
94,190
41,831
355
20,438
2,116
117,309
157,336
53,850
Steelheads  	
733
Totals	
445,9001
198,4081
244,579
274,232
301,513
351,798
265,065
420,496
295,433
351,782
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS, 1928 TO 1943, INCLUSIVE.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
31,9731
28,2681
47,6021
15,010
13,4121
7,185
21,437
446,371
34,544
79,199
15,939
21,085
51,961
17,471
171,290
81,767
93,378
21,495
24,876
40,273
22,219
99,009
116,507
63,469
25,947
13,809
15,177
32,484
54,296
68,485
54,143
17,833
24,357
16,259
34,514
186,794
47,257
87,942
33,894
21,462
27,965
36,357
100,272
42,491
84,832
25,258
17,567
25,427
29,989
183,120
Skeena River  - —
81,973
46,351
12,788
28,5621
Vancouver Island- —
34,4301
27,584
Totals - 	
164,889
666,570
455,298
366,402
269,887
441,671*
325,836
414,809
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
27,611
21,685
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
61,569
78,017
70,260
9,683
16,077
10,340
35,331
29,299
34,559
60,044
Smith Inlet _  .   	
33,442
5,540
'Vancouver Island -	
14,248
26,410
Totals       	
350,444
377,844
258,107
284,355
291,464
477,678
281,277
203,542
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the
year 1936.
* 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye packed at Skeena River are not shown in the above table for the year 1938. J 112
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
!
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SPRING-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1932 TO 1943, INCLUSIVE.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
1940.
1939.
1938.
3,505}
9,688
38
1,515
6,374
985
8
7231
5.407
6
34,038
236
519
4,985
1,692
124
460
8,038
383
4,504
62
1,716
6,118
1,226
142
1,518
2,454
5,993
36
708
4,857
745
215
655
2,889
4,308
Queen Charlotte Islands    	
66
773
1,0021
1,783
765
118
547
2,937
4,318
Rivers Inlet..—  - — -
Smith Inlet                              -              	
1,209
68
540
4,254
Totals   _	
10,658
24,7441
50,475
17,740
16,098
15,536
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
5,444
140
1,251
4,401
917
21
1,641
2,359
15,126
227
2,167
4,5511
5811
30
830
6,340
9,401
63
560
4,039
429
216
687
6,525
16,218
258
654
8,300
436
164
2,116
1,630
•      5,579
3,575
1,296
3,297
449
354
841
4,875
28,701
4,408
28,269
Smith Inlet           :	
48
3,236
10,559
Vancouver Island	
Totals  	
16,174
29,853
21,920
29,776
20,266
75,958
* In addition to the above there were packed 1,118 cases of springs out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE COHOE-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1932 TO 1943, INCLUSIVE.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
1940.
1939.
1938.
8,809
14,488
9,768
40,4791
11,466
541
26,645
73,8461
10,542
16,935
15,487
44,0811
8,467
1,813
31,274
81,8371
701
28,265
27,421
16,648
50,605
23,202
1,955
45,218
166,908
31,187
13.028
8,897
10,060
20,614
11,561
1,102
49,886
88,885
20,489
13,557
3,020
1,996
29,198
10,974
3,880
44,426
123,388
14,658
27,127
16,616
14,159
52,821
16,285
1,058
56,716
89,471
26,828
Smith Inlet      _   -             	
Vancouver Island — —- -	
Alaska   .„	
Totals 	
186,043
211,138
391,409
224,522
245,097
301,081
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
11,244
4,631
12,067
15,514
6,012
241
25,009
58,244
527
28,716
19,920
11,842
25,390
7,1221
310
45,824
90,6251
24,950
5,461
21,810
23,498
8,375
1,201
41,831
104,366
11,392
8,315
9,935
54,476
4,852
3,941
53,850
78,670
13,901
3,251
39,896
3,446
5,068
33,471
60,019
Skeena River -	
7,955
48,312
Smith Inlet_ _____	
273
Vancouver Island	
41,172
Alaska           	
Totals  _	
133,489
229,750
231,492
225,431
159,052
189,031
* In addition to the above there were packed 39,104 cases of cohoe out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 113
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PINK-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1932 TO 1943, INCLUSIVE.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
Fraser River    _ 	
29,8601
313
17,669
54,509
8,347
556
288,1091
130,825
134
83,329
49,0031
52,767
954
527
69,434
14,474
102,388
524
22,667
50,537
4,807
749
66,130
177,292
2,680
12
44,966
29,278
47,301
3,329
755
54,478
33,785
95,176
2,123
26,370
95,236
12,095
3,978
150,498
235,119
63
57,952
61,477
69,610
9,063
Smith Inlet      	
1,761
130,842
70,108
530,189
270,6221
427,774
213,904
620,595
400,876
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
94,010
13
8,031
59,400
7,536
483
97,321
318,780
89,355
75,8871
91,389
6,4321
65
246,378
82,0281
111,328
1,479
25,508
81.868
4,554
4,412
94,190
191,627
2,199
53,398
32,964
126,163
2,815
6,953
157,336
54,526
92,746
385
2,415
44,306
95,783
5,059
19.995
101,701
172,945
44.629
58,261
3,483
Smith Inlet             	
1,148
80,034
33,403
Totals 	
585,574
591,5351
514,966
436,354
532,535
223,758
STATEMENT SHOWING THE CHUM-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1932 TO 1943, INCLUSIVE.
1943.
1942.   •
1941.*
1940.
1939.
1938.
52,149
35,370
10,1461
6,597
11,448
5,693
109,101
132,843
82,573
43,801
12,518
11,421
15,874
5,490
79,152
383,005
95,070
76,745
6,246
10,707
15,442
7,741
111,587
593,016
3,908
35,665
164,911
6,461
4,682
9,025
6,015
135,802
279,064
2,816
30,150
45,519
2,500
7,773
5,462
2,771
79,384
212,949
82
58,778
40,882
15,911
7,759
8,076
Smith Inlet       ,
266,566
Totals     	
363,3471
633,834
920,462
643,441
386,590
541,819
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
20,878
72,689
10,080
10,811
9,415
9,494
110,493
203,900
31,565
69,304
20,6201
15,2971
11,505
1,653
99,592
347,951
8,227
86,298
17,481
8,122
7,136
12,427
125,953
143,960
104,092
38,062
2,648
24,388
895
15,548
117,309
210,239
34,391
6,988
1,775
15,714
677
8,841
128,602
96,642
14,948
358
14,515
38,549
Rivers Inlet _. _	
Smith Inlet 	
944
165
166,653
70,629
Totals 	
447,760
597,488
409,604
513,181
293,630
306,761
* In addition to the above there were packed 6,339 cases of chums out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940. J 114
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1943.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1943.
Season.
Canned.
Meal.
Oil.
1930 31                                                                                            	
Cases.
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
69,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
Tons.
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
Gals.
3,204,058
1931 32                                         .                  -           -	
2,551,914
1932 33                                                                          	
1,315,864
1933 34                                                                                 _                       	
275,879
1934 35                                                                          ■                               	
1,635,123
1935-36                      _	
1,634,592
1936-37         __      _ _                  -	
1,217,087
1937 38                                                	
1,707,276
1938 39                                                                          	
2,195,850
1939 40                                          -	
178,305
1940-41                                                              —-	
890,296
1941-42                                               ___                     	
1,916,191
1942-43                                                          	
1,560,269
1943 44                                                                          	
2,238,987
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1943.
Season.
Canned.
Dry-salted.
Pickled.
Meal.
Oil.
1935-36- _  	
1936-37.        	
Cases.
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
Tons.
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
Tons.
892
779
502
591
Tons.
5,313
10,340
14,643
18,028
22,870
10,886
8,780
4,633
7,662
Gals.
328,639
786,742.
1937-38 _ _ -	
1,333,245
1938-39      	
1,526,117
1939.-40    	
1,677,736
1940-41          	
923,137
1941-42 _ _____	
594,684
1942-43   _ _  	
323,379
1943 44
512,516
The above figures are for the season, October to March 31st, annually.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, AND FERTILIZER,
PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING AND PILCHARD,
1935 TO 1943.
Season.
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1935-36    '	
1936-37  	
1937-38  _	
1938-39 	
1939-40 __ _.__ ______	
Tons.
211
332
268
273
181
270
130
62
Tons.
354
687
527
512
434
561
205
90
Gals.
426,772
763,740
662,355
543,378
Tons.
2,226
2,857
2,445
2,059
3,559
4,998
5,410
4,768
4,332
Gals.
260,387
356,464
266,009
186,261
331,725
415,856
405,340
1,255,225*
882,250f
1940-41	
361,820
619,025
255,555
134,553
1941-42 _	
1942-43 _	
1943-44 _	
* Includes 916,723 gallons fish-liver oil.
f Includes 822,250 gallons fish-liver oil. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 115
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