Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY FOR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1945

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0319111.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0319111.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0319111-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0319111-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0319111-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0319111-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0319111-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0319111-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0319111-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0319111.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA
REPORT
OF THE
PEOVINCIAL MUSEUM
OF
NATURAL  HISTORY
AND
ANTHROPOLOGY
FOE THE YEAR  1943
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1944.  To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1943.
H. G. T. PERRY,
Minister of Education.
Office of the Minister of Education,
Victoria, B.C. Provincial Museum of Natural History
and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., April 15th, 1944.
The Honourable H. G. T. Perry,
Minister of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report of the activities of
the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1943.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
G. CLIFFORD CARL,
Director. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
The Honourable H. G. T. Perry, Minister.
Dr. S. J. Willis, Superintendent.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY.
Staff:
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
George A. Hardy, Botanist.
Lillian C. Sweeney, Assistant Preparator (Artist).
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Clerk-Stenographer.
E. A. COOKE, Laboratory Assistant and Attendant (to February 15th).
Frank L. Beebe, Laboratory Assistant and Illustrator (from May 1st).
H. H. Pegler, Attendant.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
AND ANTHROPOLOGY.
OBJECTS.
(a.) To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the
Province.
(b.) To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
Province.
(c.) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly
to the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge regarding
the same.
(Section 4, " Provincial Museum Act," R.S.B.C. 1936, c. 231.)
ADMISSION.
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, week-days, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.;
and on Sunday afternoons, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Director  7
Exhibition and Preparation    7
Loan Exhibits and Museum Displays •_  7
Field-work _■  8
Publications  8
Illustrations  9
Motion-pictures  9
Education  9
Staff Changes  10
Attendance  11
Report of the Botanist  12
Report of the Entomologist  14
Accessions to the Museum :  14
Paper: " The Natural History of the Forbidden Plateau Area, Vancouver Island,
British Columbia," by G. Clifford Carl  18 REPORT of the PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
FOR THE YEAR 1943.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.
Despite the war-time restrictions that have been placed on travelling the Provincial
Museum has experienced a busy year, both from the standpoint of numbers of visitors
and of educational activities. The following is a general account of the services rendered and of the progress of work in the various fields in which the Museum has
been active during the year 1943.
EXHIBITION  AND PREPARATION.
Among the new specimens placed on display during the year is an exhibit featuring
different types of forest fungi commonly found in this Province. An enlarged model
in cross-section illustrates the life-history of a bracket-fungus from the spore which
enters the wood to the production of the familiar fruiting body. Other specimens
show types of growth and method of annular increase in size.
Two water-colours by Major Allan Brooks have been hung in the bird section.
The first, featuring black brant, was acquired by purchase; the second, showing various
species of sea-birds in a scene typical of the Victoria district, was donated to the
Museum by the artist. We wish to thank Major Brooks for the most generous gift of
this painting which makes a most welcome addition to the bird exhibit.
Among the living exhibits the native wild flower display has continued to receive
attention, especially from students interested in the botany of this Province. The
living reptile display has been maintained by the addition of a blue racer and a gopher
snake received from Mr. A. C. Mackie, of Vernon, and by a second specimen of blue
racer from Mr. G. P. Holland, of Kamloops. A live scorpion, captured by Mr. L. E.
Johnson, of Victoria, has also been a source of interest.
The miniature fish-hatchery has been kept in operation; the cohoe salmon eggs
used in this display were supplied through the kindness of Mr. E. V. Epps, of the
Cowichan Lake Hatchery.
Among the models of fishes prepared by Mrs. L. C. Sweeney during the year are
the following: Blenny, ling-cod, cohoe salmon (blueback), chub, coarse-scaled and fine-
scaled suckers, sculpin, mackerel shark, rainbow trout, crappie, sunfish, small-mouth
black bass, shiner, and catfish. A series of ten mushroom groups was also constructed
to be added to the display of common fungi already on exhibit. To be included in the
series of enlarged models is a mosquito constructed approximately twenty times life
size so that the details of structure are plainly visible.
LOAN EXHIBITS AND MUSEUM DISPLAYS.
A small collection of British Columbia Indian material was sent on loan to the
Hudson's Bay Company, Winnipeg, to be exhibited in the. Hudson's Bay Company
Museum under the direction of Mr. Clifford P. Wilson.
Examples of arts and crafts of present-day Indians were sent through the Museum
to the Annual Exhibition of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in the City of Quebec
in October and to the Sixty-fourth Annual Exhibition held in Montreal in November.
Specimens receiving special notice were two examples of finely woven baskets made
by Mrs. Charlie Thomas and Mrs. Johnny Johnson, of Kakawis, B.C., the latter receiving an award for individual work. Prizes were also awarded to Christie Indian School
(Kakawis) for first in Design; to Inkameep School (Oliver) and Christie Indian School
7 D 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
for Applied Work; and to St. Catherine's School (Duncan) for Honourable Mention.
Madeline Charlie, of St. Catherine's School, also received an individual award for a
knitted sweater. Entries also included examples of handicrafts from St. Michael's
School (Alert' Bay) and from other individuals. All exhibit material was sent under
the auspices of the Society for the Furtherance of British Columbia Indian Arts and
Crafts, Victoria.
During the period May 17th to May 31st, 1943, an exhibition of Indian children's
handiwork was held in the Museum, sponsored by the Society for the Furtherance of
British Columbia Indian Arts and Crafts. The material on display consisted of drawings and paintings illustrating Indian' folk-lore, designs, beadwork, various types of
woodwork and carving, examples of dressmaking, knitting, and other handicrafts.
Schools represented in the' display included the following: Christie Indian School
(Kakawis), St. Catherine's School (Duncan), Songhees Indian Day School (Craig-
flower, Victoria), Kuper Island Indian Residential School, Campbell River Indian Day
School, Crosby Girls' School (Port Simpson), St. Michael's School (Alert Bay), Pen-
ticton Indian Day School, Inkameep School (Oliver), Squamish Residential School
(North Vancouver), and Kootenay Indian'School (Cranbrook). The exhibition was
formally opened by Mrs. W. C. Nichol, who was introduced by Major L. Bullock-
Webster, President of the Society.
Early in the year a collection of original bird paintings by Major Allan Brooks
was placed on display and attracted considerable attention. The pictures featured
wood-duck, hooded merganser, pheasant, snipe, brant, mallard, and other sea-birds in
oils and in water-colours.
FIELD-WORK.
The principal collecting trip made during the year was to the Forbidden Plateau
area during the latter part of August. The details of this expedition are included in
the account found elsewhere in this report.
Other- short trips were made to Active Pass, to Saltspring Island, to Goldstream,
and other near-by areas for the purpose of collecting fresh exhibition material and
scientific specimens. Mrs. Sweeney made a collection of representative plants and
obtained specimens of marine life while visiting Cortes Island in July.
PUBLICATIONS.
During the year the following articles and other publications have originated from
the Museum:—
" Some Accounts of the Flora and Fauna of the Driftwood Valley Region of North
Central   British  Columbia."    John   F.   and   Theodora   C.   Stanwell-Fletcher.
Occasional Paper No. 4, Provincial Museum, May, 1943.
" The  Amphibians  of British  Columbia."    G.  Clifford  Carl.    Handbook  No.  2,
British Columbia Provincial Museum, June, 1943.
" Northward  Extensions  of the  Range  of  Ascaphus."    John  W.  Slipp  and  G.
Clifford Carl.    Copeia, No. 2, June, 1943.
" Frogs Herald the Approach of Spring."    G. Clifford Carl.    Victoria Daily Times,
February 13th, 1943.
" The Provincial Museum—Past and Present."    G. Clifford Carl.    Victoria Daily
Times, March 13th, 1943.
" Field Observations on the Forest Tent Caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria var. eros
Stretch."    George A. Hardy.    Proceedings Entomological Society of  B.C.,
Vol. 40, pp. 28-29, 1943.
" Bracket   Fungus—The   Dryad's   Saddle."    George   A.   Hardy.    Victoria   Daily
•     Times, February 6th, 1943. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 9
" 'Bandy '—The Varied Thrush." George A. Hardy. Daily Colonist, February
28th, 1943.
" From Forest to City." George A. Hardy. Victoria Daily Times, May 29th,
1943.
In addition to the above, the manuscript has been prepared for Handbook No. 3,
" The Reptiles of British Columbia," which will be published in 1944. Material prepared by Miss Alice Ravenhill under the title " A Corner Stone of Canadian Culture "
has been edited and prepared for publication as Occasional Paper No. 5. Handbook
No. 1, " Fifty Edible Plants of British Columbia," by G. A. Hardy, published by the
Museum in December, 1942, has met with a wide demand, possibly because it has been
one of the first contributions to appear in this field. Copies have been supplied to
various fortified points along the coast and also to branches of the Royal Canadian Air
Force. Further copies were printed during the year to satisfy requests which are
still being received.
The Provincial Museum is the subject of a chapter in " Ports of British Columbia,"
by Agnes Rothery, published in 1943 by McClelland & Stewart, Limited, Toronto.
ILLUSTRATIONS.
The major part of Mr. Beebe's time has been spent in producing illustrations.
These have included representations of the snakes of British Columbia to be used in
Handbook No. 3, some freshwater fishes and a series depicting local 'mushrooms, some
of the latter being in colour. These diagrams and illustrations are to be used in
publications now in the course of preparation.
Mr. Beebe has also prepared a set of title backgrounds in colour to be used in the
motion-picture film now being prepared. >
MOTION-PICTURES.
A motion-picture film in colour featuring the amphibians of the Province was commenced in 1942 and was added to during the past year through the co-operation of
Mr. C. R. D. Ferris, of the British Columbia Government Travel Bureau. At the time
of writing, this material has been edited and title backgrounds have been prepared, but
the film will not be completed until early 1944.
Three more silent, black and white films have been added to the library by the
purchase of the following:—
" Voracious Plants and Insects."    Insect-eating plants and animals.
" Singing and Stinging."    Life-history of the mosquito.
" Do you know Beans?"    Germination of the bean seed.
A copy of the coloured film " Sea-birds," produced by the Museum in 1941, was
loaned to the National Film Society of Canada for use in camps of the Royal Air Force
in Eastern Canada. Up to December the film had been viewed by over 2,500 persons
and the loan period was extended three months.
EDUCATION.
Museum Lectures.
Once again a series of illustrated lectures was given at the Museum for school
children of the Greater Victoria area. Sound motion pictures were obtained for each
lecture from the Vancouver School Board film library and talks were given by members
of the Museum staff and by guest speakers. The lecture series was opened by the
.Honourable H. G. T. Perry, Minister of Education. D 10
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The following table summarizes the programme and attendance:—
Museum Nature Talks, Saturday Mornings, 9.30 and 11.
Date.
Subject.
Speaker.
Number of
Children.
"How Plants Grow "_    .
" Underwater Life " 	
340
Dr. G. Clifford Carl 	
Mr. George A. Hardy 	
Major H. Nation 	
Dr. G. Clifford Carl 	
Dr. G. Clifford Carl *
360-    ' '
435
March 13
471
March 20          -
382
March 27
" Indian Masks and Music " 	
378
Total. 	
2,366
We are again grateful to Mr. A. T. Goward, Vice-President of the British Columbia
Electric Railway Company, for granting to children attending the lectures permission
to travel to and from the Museum on school tickets. We also wish to thank Mr. Foster,
of the Department of Agriculture, and Major Nation, of the Department of Mines, for
their contribution to the programme, and Mr. Ferris, of the Department of Trade and
Industry, for providing and operating the motion-picture projector.
Schools and other Lectures.
The programme of illustrated lectures in the schools of the Victoria area commenced in the fall of 1942 was continued into the spring months of the following year.
During this series the Director and the Botanist each visited the following schools:
Burnside, George Jay, Margaret Jenkins, North Ward, Oaklands, Quadra, Sir James
Douglas, South Park, and Victoria West.
Other lectures and illustrated talks have been given by the Director as follows:
University Women's Club (January 16th) ; Lions Auxiliary (March 2nd) ; Y.M.C.A.
(March 7th) ; Colwood School (March 22nd) ; Oak Bay P.T.A. (May 25th) ; Mount
Douglas High School (May 31st and September 30th) ; St. Michael's School and Clover-
dale School P.T.A. (October 6th) ; Duncan Consolidated School (October 26th) ; University of British Columbia Biological Discussion Club (December 1st) ; P.E.O.
(December 7th), and by the Botanist at St. Michael's School (March 10th) and Colwood School (March 31st).
Early in July Mr. Hardy and Dr. Carl conducted groups of boys on two natural
history outings in connection with the Vacation Club programme presented by the
Y.M.C.A. under the direction of Mr. Archie Morrison. In August Dr. Carl also led
a sea-shore group as part of the Playground activities at Windsor Park, Oak Bay,
supervised by Mrs. E. J. Costain.
Included in the Vacation Club programme offered at the Y.M.C.A. building was a
course in modelling and casting of natural history specimens given by Mrs. L. C.
Sweeney, of the Museum staff.
STAFF  CHANGES.
On February 15th Mr. E. A. Cooke retired from the Civil Service after an association of more than twenty-five years. As a member of the Museum staff he is well
known to many Victorians and other visitors to the Museum where his knowledge of
the natural history specimens and of the Indian material was often called into use.
Members of the Museum staff and of other departments join in extending best wishes
to Mr. Cooke.
In May Mr. Frank L. Beebe joined the staff to take on laboratory duties and the
preparation of illustrations. In the latter field Mr. Beebe has had considerable experience in the use of the air-brush in depicting natural history specimens and has been REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 11
occupied in producing illustrations for Museum publications, as noted in a previous
section.
During February, March, and April Mr. Charles D. Bury was employed to assist
temporarily with duties connected with the Museum lecture series given at that time.
In December the temporary services of Mrs. H. Burt were acquired in mounting,
labelling, and cataloguing plant.specimens in the herbarium under the direction of
Mr. Hardy.
During the year the janitor service of the Museum building was taken over by the
Public Works Department. The efficient work of Mr. James Cruickshank is much
appreciated and we are grateful to the Department of Public Works for his services.
ATTENDANCE.
During  1943 the number  of visitors who  registered  at the  Museum  and  the
estimated attendance was as follows:—                                Registered. Estimated.
January   1,692 2,741
February    2,269 3,744
March  2,562 4,187
April   3,050 5,140
May   2,983 4,888
June  .  4,302 5,518     .
July   5,725      , 9,460
August    7,195 9,848
September   4,847 6,161
October   3,298 3,786
November    1,985 2,786
December   1,365 2,006
Totals  41,273 60,265
To these figures are to be added 2,366 children who attended the lecture series
during February and March and, in addition, forty-eight school classes, three British
Columbia Police classes, and five Youth Tourist Clubs who registered during the year.
Compared with the 1942 attendance record the total number of visitors registering
in 1943 showed an increase of 9,588 or over 30 per cent. This is the largest registration recorded by the Museum and the estimated attendance is also one of the largest
on record.
The attendance record for the month of July has again been analysed by Mr. Pegler
as follows:—
Residence. Registration. Residence. Registration.
British Columbia   3,188            Washington       476
Alberta   420            Oregon       116
Saskatchewan   288            California       219
Manitoba   130            Other States       471
Ontario   136            Alaska           6
Quebec   51            Great Britain       119
New Brunswick   11            Other countries         52
Nova Scotia  22           Country not stated        11
Prince Edward Island ___. 7    ■                            .                  	
Newfoundland   3                    Total   1,470
Total   4,258 Grand total   5,728
Compared with a similar analysis of the July attendance of previous years the
total number of registered visitors for this period is greater than in 1942 but less than D 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in 1941. It is interesting to note that the number of visitors from British Columbia
has shown a considerable increase during both years. Many of these have been
members of the armed forces and other newcomers to the Province.
REPORT OF THE BOTANIST.
ACTIVITIES.
The herbarium has been enriched by the addition of 909 herbarium sheets, each
of which comprises one or more specimens, so that the total number handled is considerably in excess of this figure. To this also must be added 140 numbers of mushrooms and other fungi, bringing the whole from all sources up to 1,045 separate records.
Sheets filed and shelved in the classified series amount to 400, while as many or
more have been mounted and await final disposition. The mounting has been considerably expedited with the help of Mrs. L. Sweeney.
Plants identified for inquirers, as distinct from those retained for the herbarium,
number 325. This service has often entailed considerable time-consuming research
where information apart from the name has been sought.
The seasonal wild flower exhibit has continued to be a popular attraction ever
since its inauguration by the present botanist just twenty years ago. In this display
a succession of plants is maintained throughout the year; spring and summer flowers
give place to autumn fruits and berries, which in turn are followed by the evergreens
of the winter season.
Special exhibits have been featured as opportunity or the exigency of the moment
dictated. Thus garden weeds, water and marsh plants, forest berries, ferns and cone-
bearing trees have been instances of this phase of presentation. At all times informative labels have been appended.
The collection of the local mushrooms and related fungi has been continued from
the previous year. The autumn of 1943 has been exceptionally favourable to their
development so that a proportionate amount of time has been devoted to the collecting,
recording, preparation, and preservation of these perishable plants. It is hoped
eventually to arrive at a definite conclusion as to the composition of our more conspicuous mushroom flora with a view to making the results accessible to the public in
published form.
Mr. Joseph Ewan, of the University of Colorado at Boulder, has completed a
review of our Delphiniums in connection with a larger study of the genus. Some forty
sheets have thus been intensively studied and nomenclature brought up to date.
A certain amount of time has been spent in the preparation and delivery of lectures
to schools and to articles for presentation or publication, as indicated elsewhere in this
report.
A life-sized coloured chart of many useful and injurious mushrooms has been
loaned through the generosity of Mr. W. R. Foster, Plant Pathologist of the Department of Agriculture.    This very nicely supplements the models in the case near-by.
Mr. J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, has generously contributed 180 sheets of specimens from various parts of the Province, most of them
accompanied by valuable notes on habitat, occurrence, and taxonomy.
Mr. W. H. Mathews, Department of Mines, has been responsible for a collection of
225 sheets of plant specimens from the northern portion of the Province, in parts little
visited from a botanical view-point.
Mr. J. A. Munro, Chief Federal Migratory Bird Officer for British Columbia, has
placed at our disposal a series of sixty sheets from the central and eastern sections
of the Province.
Dr. I. McTaggart Cowan, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia,
donated 175 sheets of most acceptable material from the border-line districts of this REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 13
Province and Alberta, much of it from high altitudes and containing many new
acquisitions to the Herbarium.
Mr. G. R. Wyatt, under the auspices of the Geological Survey in charge of Mr. N. C.
Stewart, made an excellently prepared collection of- fifty-five sheets from the Beaufort
Range area of Vancouver Island.
Two Museum field-trips resulted in additional plant specimens. One to the Forbidden Plateau district of Vancouver Island yielded 200 sheets collected by Mrs. G. C.
Carl. This is a representative assemblage of the area concerned, particulars of which
are contained in the special report elsewhere. The other collecting trip was to Cortes
Island, where Mrs. L. Sweeney made a very acceptable gathering of sixty-two sheets,
forty-seven from Cortes and fifteen from the near-by island of Mitlenatch, districts
hitherto unrepresented by specimens in the herbarium.
In addition to the above, many short trips in the neighbourhood of Victoria were
made by the Botanist, each of which has added to the quota of accessions for the year.
During the mushroom season much help has been given in the collection of material
by Mr. A. Nicholls, of Duncan, who has spared no pains in effort or expense in shipping
specimens to the Museum. Miss H. Hinder, of Victoria, has maintained an enthusiastic
interest and has contributed many local species to our collection.
Mr. F. L. Beebe and Mrs. L. Sweeney, members of the Museum staff, have helped
considerably by energetically giving of their spare time in collecting or observing the
mushrooms in their respective localities.
Entomological work took up a percentage of the Botanist's time.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
It is with much pleasure that we have the privilege of extending our most cordial
thanks and appreciation to all who have in any way contributed specimens, whether
to the passing attraction of the wild flower exhibit or to the permanent herbarium
collection. We are particularly indebted to the following specialists who have so kindly
co-operated by giving of their time and knowledge to the identification, confirmation,
and examination of critical material submitted:—
Dr. C. R. Ball, Plant Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D.C.
Mr. J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. J. Walton Groves, Dominion Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ont.
Mrs. H. Mackenzie, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. H. L. Mason, University of California, Berkeley, California.
Dr. Francis Pennell, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa.
Mr. A. E. Porsild, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Ont.
The following British Columbia plants have been added to the collection:—
Potamogeton Friesii Rupr.    Lac la Hache, June 28th, 1942;   G. A. Hardy.
Potamogeton panormitanus Biv. var. minor Biv. Lac la Hache, June 29th, 1942;
J. A. Munro.
Poa Canbyi (Schribn.) Beal.    Mount Tolmie, V.I., May 26th, 1942;  J. W. Eastham.
Carex microptera Mack.    Elgin, B.C., June 29th, 1942;   J. W. Eastham.
Carex pachystachya var. gracilis (Olney) Mack. Victoria, May 22nd, 1942; J. W..
Eastham.
Carex paucifructus Mack.    Nelson, B.C., July 8th, 1942;   J. W. Eastham.
Carex praticola Rydb.    Nelson, B.C., July 12th, 1942;   J. W. Eastham.
Salix Candida Fluegge.    Lac la Hache, July 1st, 1942;  G.A.Hardy.
Salix bebbiana var. perrostrata (Rydb.) Schneider. Chezacut, B.C., 1940; F. M..
Shillaker.
Salix melanopsis var. Bolanderiana (Rowlee) Schneider. Donald, B.C., July 21st,
1941;   J. W. Eastham. D  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Ranunculus pedatifidus Smith.    Crowsnest Pass,, B.C.,  June 21st,  1942;    Mary
Johnstone.
Agastache anethiodon (Nutt) Brit.    Prince George, July 30th, 1942; J. E. Murray
per J. W. Eastham.
Symphytum asperrimum Don.    Ladner, B.C., May 26th,  1942;  J. W. Eastham.
Naturalized from Europe.
Potentilla argentea L.    Cranbrook, B.C., July 30th, 1942;   W. B. Johnstone.
Pentstemon acuminatum Dougl.    Crowsnest Pass, B.C., June 21st, 1942;   W. B.
Johnstone.
The following plant is not known to have been hitherto recorded from North
America:—
Corrigiola littoralis L.    Vancouver,  B.C.,  August  25th,   1943;    J.  W.  Eastham
(collected by W. Sandall).  This plant was identified for Mr. Eastham at the
University of Wisconsin.    It is suggested that it may have been introduced
with nursery stock of European origin.
The following species are additions to the " Flora of Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands," 1921:—
Poa Canbyi (Schribn.) Piper.    Mount Tolmie, V.I., May 20th, 1942;   J. W. Eastham.
Agrostis Thurberiana Hitchc.    Mount  Copley,  V.I.,  August  14th,  1942;   J. W.
Eastham.
Carex pachystachya var. gracilis (Olney) Mack.    Victoria, May 28th, 1942;   J. W.
Eastham.
Polygonum viviparum L.    Forbidden Plateau, V.I., August, 1943;  Mrs. G. C. Carl.
Pedicularis bracteosa Benth.   Forbidden Plateau, V.I., July 30th, 1942; J. L. Clark.
Centaurea nigra L.   (introduced).    Sidney,  V.I.,  September  23rd,  1943;   E.  C.
Shenstone.
Erigeron compositus Pursh.    Forbidden Plateau, V.I., August, 1943;   Mrs. G. C.
Carl.
Senecio pauciflorus Pursh.;   Senecio pauciflorus var. fallax Greenm.    Forbidden
Plateau, V.I., August 31st, 1943;   Mrs. G. C. Carl.
Solidago corymbosa Nutt.    Forbidden Plateau, V.I., August 31st, 1943;  Mrs. G. C.
Carl.
REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST.
Activity in this section has been confined mainly to routine incidental to the preservation of the collection. Donations and inquiries were chiefly centred on those of
economic importance or on those that arrested the attention of the casual observer,
such as pests of the pantry and parlour, large showy silkworm moths or conspicuous
long-horned beetles.
Several butterflies and beetles were taken at the Forbidden Plateau, for particulars
of which see the account elsewhere in this report.
The Botanist, representing the Entomological interests of the Museum, attended
the annual meeting of the British Columbia Entomological Society at Vancouver in
March, where he delivered a paper on " Field Observations of the Tent Caterpillar."
ACCESSIONS.
During 1943 the following numbers of specimens were added to the catalogued
collections (figures in parentheses denote the total number on December 31st, 1943):
Indian material, 32 (5,127); plants, 1,274 (16,516); mammals, 75 (5,204); birds, 109
(9,010);  reptiles, 28 (256);  amphibians, 51 (525);  fishes, 35 (605).
The following list includes the names of contributors and the number and type of
specimens contributed in 1943. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 15
Anthropological Accessions.
Salishan (Coastal).
By gift       5
Maurice Brenton per Arthur Peake, Duncan.    One jadeite chisel.
D. Cambrey, Victoria.    One stone dish.
John Coyne per Commissioner T. W. S. Parsons, Victoria.    One dagger.
Commissioner T. W. S. Parsons, Victoria.    One knife.
Arthur Peake, Duncan.    One bone arrow.
Haida.
By gift :       3
Miss Kathleen Agnew, Victoria.    Two woven hats.
A. M. D. Fairbairn, Sooke.    Small collection of Haida material.
Nootkan.
By gift       2
G. A. Gibson, Victoria.    One woven hat.
Duncan McTavish, Victoria.    One woven cedar bark rain-cape.
By purchase  2
G. Murray, Victoria.    One obsidian spear-head.
Christie Indian School, Kakawis.    One beaded belt.
Okanagan.
By gift       i
A. M. D. Fairbairn, Sooke.    Collection of material.
Other Tribes.
By gift .       6
Mrs. T. Stanage Boyle, Victoria.    One embroidered bag (Ojibway tribe).
Miss F. Fitz Gibbon, Victoria.    One model of birch-bark canoe and four birch-
bark baskets (made by Ontario Indians before 1830).
By purchase  2
Mrs. M. Weekes, Regina, Sask.    Two ceremonial pipes (Plains Indians).
Botanical Accessions.
E. W. Abraham, Victoria, one; T. E. Astley, Victoria, six; I. McT. Cowan, Vancouver, 175; J. W. Eastham, Vancouver, 196; Miss A. Ewart, Victoria, three; George
Fraser, Ucluelet, one; G. A. Gibson, Victoria, one; A. L. Grayling, Kaslo, one; B.
Hartley, Klemtu, eleven; Miss H. Hinder, Victoria, collection of mushrooms; W. B.
Johnstone, Cranbrook, seventy-eight; E. Lohbrunner, Victoria, three; W. H. Mathews,
Victoria, 225; J. A. Munro, Okanagan Landing, sixty; A. Nicholls, Duncan, collection
of mushrooms; R. T. Nippin, Saanich, five; S. A. Norwood, Quesnel, one; the late C. C.
Pemberton per Miss E. M. Pemberton, Victoria, collection of wood-growth specimens;
W. P. D. Pemberton, Victoria, four; C. W. Saunders, Victoria, one; F. M. Shillaker',
Chezacut, nineteen; J. Stafford, Victoria, two; R. Stearns, Burns Lake, four; G.
Tester, Victoria, one; D. 0. Thomas, Victoria, one; Mrs. F. M. Wotherspoon, Victoria,
nine;  G. Wyatt per N. C. Stewart, Victoria, sixty.
Zoological Accessions.
Mammals.
By gift     12
Maurice Black, Cortes Island, per Mrs. L. C. Sweeney.    One porpoise skeleton.
Pat Dunn, Victoria.    One black bear.
W. R. Hall, H.M.C.S. Telapus.    One porpoise skull.
L. Jobin, Williams Lake.    Seven little brown bats, one lump-nosed bat.
F. M. Shillaker, Chezacut.    One mink skull. D 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
By the staff—
F. L. Beebe       1
G. Clifford Carl     17
Birds.
By gift        6
R. Brindle, Victoria.    One sooty grouse.
L. J. Clark, Victoria.    One winter wren.
H. H. Currie, Nelson.    Collection of bird-nests.
E. G. Hart, Victoria.    One upper mandible of toucan.
J. W. Speck, Victoria.    One red-winged blackbird.
E. White, Victoria.    One surf scoter.
By the staff—
Mrs. L. C. Sweeney       1
F. L. Beebe     11
G. Clifford Carl       2
Amphibians and Reptiles.
By gift  149
Mrs. G. Ballantyne, Redonda Bay.    One red salamander.
C. D. Bury, Victoria.    Three prairie rattlesnake-skins.
I. McT. Cowan, Vancouver.    One fence lizard.
H. H. Currie, Nelson.    One western skink.
J. M. Elliot, Jordan River.    One clouded salamander.
Arthur Frayne, Victoria.    One prairie rattlesnake-skin.
G. P. Holland, Kamloops.    One desert gopher snake.
W. F. Howell, Victoria.    One bullfrog.
R. C. W. Lett, Gordon Head.    One garter snake.
C. Lyons, Victoria.    One salamander.
A. C. Mackie, Vernon. One hundred and three rattlesnakes, one gopher snake,
one blue racer.
J. A. Munro, Okanagan Landing.    Two frogs.
Mrs. H. C. Northcote, Cracroft.    Two clouded salamanders.
John Stevens, Oliver.    Six tiger salamanders.
Mrs. T. L. Thacker, Hope.    Four salamanders, one frog.
G. A. Whatmough, Oakville, Ontario. One western painted turtle, seven salamanders, four newts, one garter snake, one snapping turtle, three snakes.
By the staff—
Mrs. L. C. Sweeney       l
F. L. Beebe     n
G. Clifford Carl     40
Fish.
By gift     36
John Bruce, Victoria.    One raffish.
Ray Butt, Glen Lake.    One carp.
Consolidated Whaling Corporation, Victoria.    One sea-lamprey.
M. Crammond, Victoria.    One clingfish, one sculpin.
V. M. J. David, Vancouver.    One wolf-eel.
W. M. Ferrier, Kamloops.    Two sockeye salmon, five wild goldfish.
F. G. Forbes, Lac la Hache.    Nine chub, six Kamloops trout, four suckers.
W. 0. Quesnel, Dawson Creek.    One wall-eyed pike.
John Robilliard per Askey's Fish Market, Victoria.    One king-of-the-salmon.
J. C. Scott, Victoria.    One handsaw fish. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 17
A. A. Sherman, Cowichan Bay.    One decorated blenny.
G. V. Wilby, Vancouver.    Two lantern-fish.
By the staff—
G. Clifford Carl      3
Invertebrates.
By gift     60
G. G. Aitken, Victoria.    One wasps' nest.
W. B. Anderson, Ucluelet.    One beetle.
Pupils of Redonda Bay School per Mrs. G. Ballantyne.    One spider.
Douglas Carbol, Victoria.    One sea-urchin.
Gerald Cruickshank, Laddie Gawthrop, Gordon More, and Gary Webster, Victoria.    Eight black widow spiders.
Miss E. Eley, Victoria.    One spider.
Mrs. W. H. Foote, Victoria.    Furniture beetles.
George Forbes, Lac la Hache.    One moth, two beetles.
W. H. Golby, Victoria.    One sponge.
W. K. Hardy, Victoria.    One wasps' nest.
E. C. Hart, Victoria.    One beetle.
Miss N. R. Hinds, Victoria.    One spider.
D. S. Hobbies, Victoria.    One beetle.
L. E. Johnson, Victoria.    One scorpion.
Mrs. E. Lane, Saanich.    Tube of ship-worm.
G. H. Lofts, Victoria.    Caterpillar attacked by small black fly.
E. Lohbrunner, Victoria.    Four beetles.
S. H. McCall, Victoria.    One moth.
Mrs. A. McCurdy, Victoria.    One tapeworm.
D. C. McDowell, Victoria. Mud-wasps' nests.
0. F. Maisonville, Sointula. One turtle crab.
G. Murew, Victoria.    One beetle.
S. L. Neave, Kyuquot.    Four oyster-shells.
J. C. Newmarch, Victoria.    One tick.
Mrs. H. C. Northcote, Cracroft.    One bot-fly, two moths.
Raymond Peterson, Victoria.    One electric-light bug.
W. E. Phillips, Victoria.    One moth.
W. H. A. Preece, Saanich.    One beetle.
Rendell Rhoades, Wilmington, Ohio.    Collection of crayfish.
Miss N. Russell, Victoria.    One caterpillar, one spider.
H. Sargent, Victoria.    One lappet-moth caterpillar.
A. A. Sherman, Cowichan Bay.    Four box-crabs.
Bernie Silsby, Victoria.    One sea-urchin.
Mrs. F. Skillings, Victoria.    One moth.
J. Stafford, Victoria.    One moth.
Mrs. T. L. Thacker, Hope.    Two centipedes.
E. White, Victoria.    One moth.
Thomas Widdowson, Read Island.    Two fish-lice.
Palaeontology.
W. Taverner, Victoria.  Collection of dinosaur bones from Alberta.
Miscellaneous.
Mrs. A. McCurdy, Victoria.    Forty-three lantern-slides.
The late C. C. Pemberton per Miss E. M. Pemberton, Victoria.    Collection of
lantern-slides.
2 R 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE FORBIDDEN PLATEAU AREA,
VANCOUVER ISLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By G. Clifford Carl, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
CONTENTS.
Introduction
Page.
    18
Description of the area                                                	
  19
Location and size                                        	
  19
ToioogTaphv                                                 	
  19
Geology                                                                .
  19
Climate
  20
Life Zones           _   _ 	
  20
Plants                                                                   	
     21
Miscellaneous Invertebrates
  29
Sponges                                                       _____
  29
Bryozoa, Moss Animals
        _____ 29
Leeches	
Molluscs                                     	
  29
  _    ___    29
Crustaceans..     _                _             	
               30
Insects    __ __                        	
  31
Vertebrates
                                              33
Fishes                                    _ __       _ 	
                   33
Amphibians       _   	
                                 34
Reptiles
                                             35
Birds               _   	
                                          35
Mammals        _           	
                           38
Bibliography	
  40
INTRODUCTION.
The Forbidden Plateau is one of the most outstanding recreational areas on
Vancouver Island. Situated only a short distance from the Island Highway and yet
accessible only by trails, this park-like area has become more and more popular as an
outdoors resort.
The name itself is intriguing and undoubtedly attracts many visitors who otherwise would pass it by. Based upon Indian legends which attribute mysterious and
supernatural powers to the area the name suggests a " taboo " which arouses the curiosity. The Plateau was supposed to be the sequestered spot of medicine men; women
and children disappeared when they visited the area; an unknown tribe was believed to
live there. Such beliefs served to mark this upland area of lakes and mountains as
forbidden ground.
Previous to 1925 the Plateau area was known only to prospectors and timber-
cruisers, but since that time its recreational possibilities have been recognized and an
increasing number of persons have visited the district each year.
In view of the growing interest in this area on the part of both local residents and
tourists and in line with the policy of the Provincial Museum to carry on certain field-
work each season it was decided to visit the Forbidden Plateau in 1943 to study the
natural history of the region. For this purpose a Museum party consisting of the
writer, Mrs. G. C. Carl, and Mr. Frank L. Beebe spent the period from August 23rd to
September 2nd in the Plateau district collecting animals, plants, and natural history
information.    We were accompanied by Mr. L. J. Clark and Captain R. T. Brindle, both REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 19
of Victoria.    Being thoroughly familiar with the district, Mr. Clark assisted us in
many ways, both as guide and assistant collector, for which we are most grateful.
The services of Mr. J. Ward, of Dove Creek, who acted as packer in transporting
our equipment and supplies to and from the Plateau are much appreciated. We are
grateful also to Mr. E. Croteau, of Comox, for facilities placed at our disposal at
Croteau Camp where we made our headquarters; to Mr. C. S. Wood, of Forbidden
Plateau Lodge, for information and other assistance; to Mr. C. P. Lyons, Assistant
Forester, Provincial Forest Branch, for data and suggestions; and to the various
specialists named in the account to follow who assisted greatly in the identification of
specimens.
The information concerning the natural history of the Forbidden Plateau area as
gathered during our visit and as obtained from other sources is presented herein. This
report, however, can not in any way be considered as exhaustive. Rather it should be
looked upon as a preliminary account which may form a basis for future work in this
interesting area.
DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA.
Location and Size.
The Forbidden Plateau is a district the centre of which lies approximately 16 miles
west of Courtenay, Vancouver Island. In area it comprises about 100 square miles.
Boundaries have not been defined since the Plateau lies within the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway land grant. However, in 1929 the greater part of the district known
as the Forbidden Plateau was taken in as a part of the Strathcona Park Reserve in
order to protect its wild-life population. The boundaries of this reserve were fixed by
Order in Council approved January 17th, 1929, as follows:—
" Commencing at a point on the easterly shore of Buttle Lake where the easterly
boundary of Strathcona Park intersects the said easterly shore of said lake; thence in
a straight line in an easterly direction to the top of Mount Washington; thence in a
straight line south-easterly to the top of Mount Beecher (Becher); thence astronomically west to the easterly boundary of Strathcona Park; thence northerly, following
said easterly boundary to the point of commencement."
Although this preserve as defined does not take in all the area usually considered
to be part of the Forbidden Plateau it includes the district referred to in the present
report.
Topography.
The use of the term " plateau " for this area is somewhat misleading since only a
small part of the region is flat or plateau-like. In general it consists of a series of
ridges, sloping wet meadows, and open park land at various elevations ranging from
3,500 to 4,000 feet. Towering above these general levels are several peaks such as
Becher (4,538 feet), Indian Head (4,304 feet), Elma (4,519 feet), Washington (5,415
feet), Brooks (4,960 feet), Strata (4,722 feet), Jutland (6,003 feet), Castle Crag (5,700
feet), and Albert Edward (6,968 feet).
Cutting the southern boundary of the reserve is the deep valley of the Cruikshank
River which flows at the bottom of a canyon with walls rising almost sheer for over
1,000 feet.
Numerous lakes, ponds, and streams form a confusing water-shed pattern draining
to the sea by three routes; namely, via Cruikshank River to the south-east, Brown's
River to the east, and Oyster River to the north.
Geology.
In general terms the rocks of the Forbidden Plateau area fall into two main
groups. The first and older group is an assemblage of volcanic rocks with some inter-
bedded limestone, argillite, and quartzite, varying in age from late Palaeozoic to Triassic
and possibly Jurassic.    These form the greater part of the Plateau.    The second group, D 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of more recent origin, consists of sandstones, shales, and conglomerates of Upper Cretaceous age—the same as that which contains the important coal-beds of Cumberland
and vicinity. The sedimentary rocks of this group are found in three isolated areas;
the first includes the height of land between Harris Lake and Goss Creek; the second
includes Strata Mountain and Mount Brooks; while the third consists of Mount Washington. These more or less pronounced elevations are separated by narrow areas of
the older, underlying rocks exposed along intervening valleys. Fossils may be found in
these Cretaceous sediments, particularly at Limestone Ridge just west of Helen Mackenzie Lake and at Mount Strata.
Mount Albert Edward is composed entirely of volcanic rocks, including pillow lava,
andesite, dacite, and breccia cut by a variety of diabase and other basic dykes, all
intruded by two or three small bodies and many associated dykes of granodiorite.
A few mineral deposits of some economic importance occur within the area. These
include deposits of iron pyrites and small amounts of gold, silver and copper. (Data
taken from Gunning, 1931.)
Climate.
There is little information and there are no precise data available regarding the
climate of the Forbidden Plateau area. From our own observations and from details
supplied by others the climate appears to be more or less typical of sub-alpine regions
with heavy precipitation mostly in the form of snow. Depths of 20 feet are said to be
not uncommon in many parts of the Plateau and snow is present usually from the end
of September until the end of May. Heavy rains may occur during the remaining
months, although relatively fine weather is usually experienced during the month of
August.
Certain indications of the severity of the winter may be seen in many parts of the
Plateau. For example, the majority of the trees are of small size and have short,
bushy branches characteristic of trees in regions of heavy snowfall. Moreover, the
trees and shrubs growing on hillsides have their main trunks bent sharply down-hill
just above the ground-level. This " elbowed" appearance is very striking on most
steep slopes and apparently is induced by the pressure of snow which tends to slide to
the valley below. The innumerable ponds and lakelets of shallow depth—i.e., less than
3 feet—are devoid of life except for a few insect larvae and occasionally tadpoles of the
tree-toad, Hyla regilla, apparently because they freeze solidly each winter. The banks
of many of these small waterbodies and even of some of the larger lakes are often raised
in ridges to form a lip higher than their surroundings seemingly by the force of
expanding ice.
Despite the heavy precipitation the Plateau area does not appear to have suffered
from floods and rapid run-offs. On the contrary, much of the area is exceedingly wet
underfoot, even at the end of summer, indicating that the ground-cover is sufficient to
retain and store water for long periods.
Life Zones.
Within the Plateau area there are to be found several types of animal and plant
life due largely to the varied climate resulting from differences in altitude between the
valley bottoms and the mountain tops. Three belts or life zones may be distinguished;
these are characterized as follows:—
Canadian Zone.—The forested belt covering the valleys, low ridges, and lower
slopes of the mountains. The dominant trees in this zone are Mountain hemlock
(Tsuga Mertensiana), Yellow cedar (Chamxcyparis nootkatensis), Douglas fir
(Pseudotsuga mucronata), White pine (Pinus monticola), and Lovely fir (Abies
amabilis). The dominant shrubs include rhododendron and several species of blueberries (Vaccinium).    Animal species characteristic of this zone include the deer, bear, REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 21
Red squirrel, White-footed mouse, Ladder-backed woodpecker, Whiskey jack, Blue
grouse, Northern raven, Oregon junco, Northwestern salamander, and Northwestern
toad. While many of these plants and animals are commonly found in this zone they
are not necessarily confined to it but may be found in adjoining zones as well.
Hudsonian Zone.—A comparatively narrow belt of dwarfed hemlock, Yellow cedar,
and juniper in the timber-line region, which is about 5,000 feet in elevation in the Forbidden Plateau. Other dominant plants in this zone are heather (Cassiope Mertensiana
and Phyllodoce empetriformis), teaberry (Gaultheria ovatifolia) and rhododendron
I Rhododendron albiflorum). Among the animals the marmot is the most characteristic
species found in this zone.
Arctic-Alpine Zone.—The treeless zone on mountain-tops above timber-line, ranging above 5,000 feet in the Forbidden Plateau area. Dominant forms in the plant
kindom here include Saxifraga Tolmiei, Spirxa pectinata, Arenaria verna, Erigeron
compositus, Phacelia sericea, Lomatium Martindalei v. angustatum, and Phlox diffusa
such as are found near the summit of Mount Albert Edward. Here also are found
ptarmigan, pipits, and Rosy finches among the birds.
PLANTS.
The following list includes plant records from several sources. The names followed by catalogue numbers in parentheses are represented by specimens collected by
the Museum party and now in the Museum herbarium. The majority of these specimens have been identified by Mr. George A. Hardy, of the Museum staff, to whom we
are exceedingly grateful. The remaining specimens have been kindly identified by
various specialists as indicated.
The arrangement is based on Henry's " Flora of Southern British Columbia and
Vancouver Island," 1915, with slight changes in some instances. Common names are
given wherever possible and in the case of specimens in the Museum's collections the
catalogue numbers are supplied to facilitate possible future reference.
Alg_b.
Gloeotrichia echinulata (J. E. Smith) P. Richter.
A colonial alga of the blue-green group found free-floating in Croteau Lake and no
doubt in other lakes of the district.
Sphserella nivalis (Bauer) Summerfelt.    Red Snow.
The patches of " red snow " commonly seen on Mount Albert Edward are produced
by large numbers of minute, spherical plants, probably of the above species.
LlCHENES.    Lichens.
Usnea florida Arn.    Old Man's Beard.
A light green lichen hanging in festoons from tree branches and dead snags.
Alectora jubata (Linn.).
A dark brown or black lichen frequently seen intermixed with the above-mentioned
species.
Hepatic_e.   Liverworts.
The following list of liverworts known to occur in the Forbidden Plateau area has
been kindly supplied by Mrs. Hugh MacKenzie, of Victoria, B.C.:—
Lophozia Kunzeana (Hub.) Evans.
Lophozia alpestris (Schleich.) Evans.
Diplophyllum taxifolium (Wahl.) Dum.
Marsupella emarginata (Ehrh.) Dum.
Marsupella sullivantii (De Not.) Evans. .   . D 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
OPHlOGLOSSACEiE.    Adder's Tongue Family.
Botrychium silaifoliumPresl.    Grape Fern (15,868).
Panther Lake.
Polypodiace_e.    Fern Family.
Cryptogramma acrostichoides R. Br.    Parsley Fern.    (15,857a.)
Croteau Camp; dry ridge.
Dryopteris dryopteris L.    Oak Fern.    (15,699.)
Croteau Camp; damp hillside.
Struthiopteris spicant (L.) Scop.    Grape Fern.    (15,740.)
Paradise Meadows.
Athyrium filix-femina L. Roth.    Lady Fern.    (15,700.)
Croteau Lake;  damp hillside.
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.    Bladder Fern.    (15,741.)
Paradise Meadows.
Selaginellace_e.
Selaginella Wallacei Hieron.
LYCOPODlACEyE.    Club Moss Family.
A few specimens of club mosses were collected; these were identified as follows by
Mrs. Hugh MacKenzie:—
Lycopodium annotinum L.
Lycopodium clavatum L.    Common Club Moss.
Croteau Camp.
Lycopodium lucidulum L. var occidentalis.
Lycopodium alpinum L.
Mount Albert Edward.
Lycopodium obscurum L.
Lycopodium complanatum L.
Lycopodium inundatum L.
CONIFER-E.    Pine Family.
Juniperus communis var. montana Ait.    Juniper.
Mount Albert Edward; not common.
Chamsecyparis nootkatensis (Lamb.) Spach.    Yellow Cedar.
Common throughout the lower parts of the Plateau.
Pinus contorta Dougl.    Scrub Pine.
Lone individuals were seen at Paradise Meadows and stunted forms were present
on Mount Albert Edward.
Pinus monticola Dougl.    Western White Pine.
Common.
Abies amabilis Forbes.    Lovely Fir.
Common.
Tsuga Mertensiana Carr.    Mountain Hemlock.
Common.
Picea sitchensis Carr.    Sitka Spruce.
Common throughout the lower levels of the Plateau.
Sparganiace_e.    Bur-reed Family.
Sparganiitm simplex Huds.    Bur-reed.    (15,702.)
Croteau Lake; backwater. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 23
Gramine_e.    Grass Family.
The grasses, sedges, and rushes have kindly been identified by Mr. J. W. Eastham,
Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver.
Danthonia intermedia Vasey.    Wild Oat-grass.    (15,733.)
Paradise Meadows and Murray Meadows.
Calamagrotis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv.    Reed Bent Grass.    (15,734.)
Murray Meadows and Paradise Meadows.
Deschampsia atropurpurea (Wahl.) Scheele.    Mountain Hair Grass.     (15,778.)
Murray Meadows and Mount Albert Edward.
Agrostis exarata Trin.    Spike Redtop.     (15,778a.)
Murray Meadows; alpine form.
Agrostis thurberiana Hitchc.    Thurber Redtop.     (15,778b.)
Murray Meadows.
Hierochlce odorata (L.) Wahlenb.    Sweet Grass.    (15,782.)
Murray Meadows.
Phleum alpinum L.    Mountain Timothy.     (15,783.)
Murray Meadows.
Glyceria pauciflora Presl.     (15,779.)
Murray Meadows.
CyperacE-E.    Sedge Family.
Carex Hindsii Clarke.    Hind's Sedge.    (15,735.)
Paradise Meadows and Croteau Lake; lake-shore.
Carex physocarpa Presl.     (15,736.)
Paradise Meadows and Croteau Lake; lake-shore.
Carex pyrenaica Wahl.    Pyrenaen Sedge.     (15,810.)
Mount Albert Edward.
Carex nigricans Mey.    Blackish Sedge.    (15,811.)
Mount Albert Edward; lower slope.
Carex limosa L.    Shore Sedge.    (15,865.)
Panther Lake.
Carex cephalantha (Bailey) Bicknell.    Larger Stellate Sedge.     (15,866.)
Panther Lake.
Carex spectabilis Dewey.    Showy Sedge.     (15,789.)
Half Dome Ridge.
Eriophorum polystachion L.    Cotton Grass.     (15,857.)
Croteau Camp.
Scirpus cssspitosus var. callosus Bigel.    Tufted Club-rush.     (15,739.)
Paradise Meadows.
Juncace_£.    Rush Family.
Luzula Piperi Coville.    Piper's Wood-rush.    (15,788.)
Half Dome Ridge and Mount Albert Edward; between rocks.
Juncus Mertensianus Bong.    Merten'vs Rush.    (15,738.)
Paradise Meadows and Croteau Lake; lake-shore.
Juncus Drummondii Meyer.    Drummond's Rush.    (15,813.)
Mount Albert Edward; in rocky earth pocket.
Juncus ensifolius Wiks.    Three-stamened Rush.    (15,849.)
Croteau Lake; along shore. D 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Liliace_e.    Lily Family.
Smilacina sessilifolia Nutt.    Nuttall's Solomen's Seal.     (15,859.)
Croteau Camp; in woods.
Veratrum viride Ait.    False Hellebore.     (15,841.)
Croteau Lake.
Tofieldia intermedia Rydb.    False Asphodel.     (15,762.)
Murray Meadows, Paradise Meadows, and Croteau Lake.
Stenanthium occidentalis (Gray) Rydb.    Mountain Bells.     (15,861.)
Paradise Meadows and Croteau Lake; wooded hillside.
Lilium columbianum.    Wild Tiger-lily      (15,727.)
Paradise Meadows.
Clintonia uniflora (Schult.) Kunth.    Queen Cup.
Orchidace^e.
Habenaria stricta Lindl.    Slender Bog Orchid.    (15,698.)
Croteau Camp; bog.
Habenaria dilatata (Pursh)  Hook.    Boreal Bog Orchid.     (15,752.)
Croteau Camp; lake-shore.
Spiranthes Romanzoffiana Cham.    Ladies' Tresses.     (15,826.)
Brink of Cruikshank Canyon and Paradise Meadows.
Listera nephrophylla Rydb.    Heart-leaved Twayblade.     (15,725.)
Paradise Meadows; wooded slope.
Salicace_e.    Willow Family.
(Identified by Dr. C. R. Ball, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.)
Salix mackenziana (Hooker.) Barratt.     (15,759.)
Murray Meadows and Croteau Lake; not common.
Betulace_e.
Alnus sitchensis (Regel.)  Sarg.    Green Alder.     (15,695.)
Croteau Camp; fairly common.
POLYGONACEiE.    Buckwheat Family.
Polygonum viviparum L.    Alpine Bistort.    (15,707.)
Near Croteau Lake and Murray Meadows.
Polygonum minimum Wats.    Leafy Knotweed.     (15,824.)
Brink of Cruikshank Canyon.
Oxyria digyna (L.) Camptdera.    Mountain Sorrel.    (15,790.)
Half Dome Ridge.
Caryophyllace^e.    Pink Family.
Silene acaulis L.    Moss Campion.    (15,776.)
Mount Albert Edward.
Arenaria verna L.    Sandwort.    (15,775.)
Mount Albert Edward;  summit.
Ranunculace_e.    Buttercup Family.
Anemone multifida Poir.    Wind Flower.     (15,769.)
Mount Albert Edward; near summit.
Caltha leptosepala D.C,    Mountain Marsh Marigold.    (15,709.)
Croteau Lake. ......
B-_H-_-_----H_--__-.
•/■*fc*--*t,-,>'-
■■.■■■,■-..■■   '■■';,
wmagmr—
;...-J.        ,
t-':,« •«{•.«       ;     ,„
.*a3>_-.
■
(Courtesy B.C. Government Travel Bureau.)
Hairtrigger Lake, Forbidden Plateau;  Mount Albert Edward and Mount Regan
in the background.
(Courtesy B.C. Government Travel Bureau.)
Mariwood Lake and Woods Lake, Forbidden Plateau;   Cruikshank Canyon in
right background.  1X5*30
4f±<>
49*40
mm \\
MAP OF
FORDIPPEn    PLATEAU   AREA
Scale
Miles i«
W ©
4945
4-9*o
>f
£
/I
y
v   o REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 25
Trollius laxus Salisb.     (15,784.)
Murray Meadows; in marshy ground.
Aquilegia formosa Fischer.    Columbine.     (15,867.)
Panther Lake; in flower by streamside.
Actsea arguta Nutt.    Baneberry.     (15,723.)
Mount Strata.
Coptis trifoliata Salisb.    Gold-thread.     (15,745.)
Paradise Meadows.
Crucifer_e.    Mustard Family.
Arabis Drummondii Gray.    Drummond's Rock-cress.     (15,721.)
Mount Strata.
Erysimum elatum Nutt.    Western Wallflower.     (15,878.)
Mount Albert Edward; a sweet-smelling, conspicuous, yellow flower.
Droserace_e.    Sundew Family.
Drosera longifolia L.    Sundew.     (15,728.)
Paradise Meadows; a sticky secretion on the leaves serves to trap insects which
in part supply the plant with nourishment.
Crassulace_e.    Orpine Family.
Sedum divergens Wats.    Stonecrop.     (15,805.)
Mount Albert Edward and Cruikshank Canyon.
Saxifragace_e.    Saxifrage Family.
Ribes lacustre Poir.    Swamp Gooseberry.     (15,817.)
Mount Strata; rock-slide.
Parnassia fimbriata Banks.    Fringed Grass of Parnassus.     (15,834.)
Murray Meadows, Paradise Meadows, and Croteau Lake.
Mitella pentandra Hook.    Mitrewort.     (15,701.)
Croteau Camp; streamside.
Tiarella unifoliata Hook.    Simple-leaved Tiarella.     (15,830.)
Croteau Camp; damp woods.
Saxifraga Bongardi Presl. Pursh.    Bongard's Saxifrage.    (15,703.)
Saxifraga bronchialis var. austromontana (Wiegand)  Piper.     (15,772.)
Mount Albert Edward; crevices of rock near summit.
Saxifraga Tolmiei T- G.    Tolmie's Saxifrage.     (15,806.)
Mount Albert Edward and Mount Strata!
Rosace_e.    Rose Family.
Rubus pedatus Smith.    Creeping Raspberry.     (15,766.)
Croteau Lake.
Sanguisorba sitchensis Meyer.    Burnet.     (15,785.)
Murray Meadows and Paradise Meadows; both white and dark purple flowers are
represented.
Spirsea pectinata T. G.    Comb-leaved Spirea.     (15,807.)
Mount Albert Edward and Croteau Lake.
Spirsea Douglasii var. Menziesii Presl.    Hardhack.     (15,869.)
Panther Lake.
Potentilla palustris L.    Marsh Cinquefoil.     (15,870.)
Panther Lake. D 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Potentilla diversifolia Lehm.     (15,694.)
Plateau above Cruikshank Canyon, Croteau Camp and Mount Albert Edward.
Sibbaldia procumbens L.    Sibbaldia.     (15,882.)
Mount Albert Edward.
Pyrus occidentalis Wats.    Mountain Ash.     (15,840.)
Croteau Trail.
Amelanchier florida Lindl.    Saskatoon.     (15,822.)
Brink of Cruikshank Canyon.
LeguminoS-E.    Pea Family.
Lupinus latifolius Agh. var. columbianus (Hel.)    Lupine.     (15,862.)
Croteau Camp and Half Dome Ridge.
Empetrace.E.    Crowberry Family.
Empetrum nigrum L.    Crowberry.     (15,732.)
Paradise Meadows and Mount Albert Edward; locally common.
Pachystima myrsinites Raf.    False Box.     (15,823.)
Edge of Cruikshank Canyon.
Hypericace_e.    St. John's Wort Family.
Hypericum anagalloides C. & S.    Bog St. John's Wort.     (15,748.)
Paradise Meadows and. Lake Beautiful.
Onagrace_e.    Evening Primrose Family.
Epilobium latifolium L.    Broad-leaved Willow Herb.     (15,879.)
Mount Albert Edward.
Epilobium alpinum L.    Alpine Willow Herb.     (15,835.)
Croteau Lake; streamside.
Umbellifer.e.    Parsley Family.
Lomatium Martindalei var. augustatum C. & R.    Alpine Fennel.     (15,800.)
Mount Albert Edward.
Heracleum lanatum Mich.    Cow Parsnip.     (15,761.)
Murray Meadows.
Cornace_e.    Dogwood Family.
Cornus unalaskensis Ledeb.    Bunchberry.     (15,712.)
Near Croteau Lake.
Ericace.e.    Heath Family.
Vaccinium occidentale A. Gray.    Western Bog Bilberry.    (15,692.)
Mount Albert Edward, Croteau Camp, and Paradise Meadows.
Vaccinium csespitosum Mich.    Dwarf Bilberry.     (15,693.)
Croteau Camp, Plateau above Cruikshank Canyon, and Paradise Meadows.
Vaccinium deliciosum Piper.    Blue-leaved Bilberry.     (15,864a.)
Croteau Camp.
Vaccinium ovalifolium Smith.    Tall Blue Bilberry.     (15,864.)
Croteau Camp and Mount Albert Edward.
Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl.    Mountain Bilberry.     (15,891.)
Croteau Camp and Mount Albert Edward; close to tree-trunk in shade.    Leaves
were also found in the crop of a Blue grouse.
Pyrola asarifolia Michx.    Wintergreen.     (15,710.)
Croteau Lake. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 27
Pyrola minor L.    Lesser Wintergreen.     (15,773.)
Half Dome Ridge.
Pyrola secunda L.    One-sided Wintergreen.     (15,829.)
Croteau Lake;, damp woods.
Cladothamnus pyrolxflorus Bong.    Copper Bush.     (15,842.)
Croteau Lake; along streams.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng.    Kinnikinick.     (15,843.)
Croteau Lake.
Gaultheria ovatifolia Gray.    Western Teaberry.     (15,696.)
Croteau Camp and Paradise Meadows; on stream bank.
Cassiope Mertensiana Don.    Moss Heather.
Common in all areas; flowers, white.
Phyllodoce empetriformis Don.    False Heather.
Common; flowers, pink.
Phyllodoce glanduliflorus (Hook) Cov.    False Heather.
Half Dome Ridge; flowers greenish-yellow.
Kalmia polifolia Wang.    Pale Laurel.     (15,860.)
Croteau Camp.
Rhododendron albiflorum Hook.    White-flowered Rhododendron.     (15,855.)
Croteau Camp; common, forming dense thickets.    A large proportion of the leaves
show a brilliant yellow spotting.
Hypopites hypopites (L.).    Small Pinesap.     (15,838.)
Croteau Lake; in woods.
Primulace_e.    Primrose Family.
Dodecatheon Jeffreyi Moor.    Shooting Star.     (15,754.)
Paradise Meadows.
Trientalis arctica Fisch.    Northern Star Flower.     (15,747.)
Paradise Meadows.
Gentianace_e.    Gentian Family.
Gentiana sceptrum Pall.    Swamp Gentian.    (15,729.)
• Paradise Meadows; common.
Menyanthes crista-galli L.    Deer Cabbage.     (15,763.)
Croteau Lake. N
Polemoniace_e.    Phlox Family.
Phlox diffusa Benth.    Phlox.     (15,767.)
Mount Albert Edward.
Hydrophyllace^e.    Water-leaf Family.
Romanzoffia sitchensis Bong.    Cliff Romanzoffia.     (15,770.)
Mount Albert Edward;   among rocks at summit.
Phacelia sericea Gray.    Grey Phacelia.     (15,887.)
Mount Albert Edward; near summit.
Scrophulariacej..    Figwort Family.
Pentstemon Menziesii Hook.    Menzie's Beard-tongue.     (15,818.)
Mount Strata and Mount Albert Edward;   rock-slide. D 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Pentstemon diffusus Dougl.    Spreading Beard-tongue.     (15,819.)
Mount Strata; rock-slide.
Veronica alpina L.    Alpine Speedwell.     (15,836.)
Croteau Lake and Half Dome Ridge.
Veronica americana Schwein.    Brooklime.     (15,765.)
Croteau Lake.
Mimuliis Langsdorfii Donn.    Langsdorff's Monkey Flower.     (15,786.)
Murray Meadows.
Castilleja miniata Dougl.    Common Paint-brush.     (15,792.)
Half Dome Ridge and Croteau Camp.    Agrees with crispula of Piper.
Castilleja rhexifolia Rydb.    Paint-brush.     (15,844.)
Croteau Lake.
Pedicidaris bracteosa Benth.    Bracted Lousewort.     (15,714.)
Croteau Camp; lake-shore.
Pedicidaris racemosa Hook.    Leafy Lousewort.     (15,793.)
Half Dome Ridge, Paradise Meadows, and Cruikshank Canyon brink.
Pedicularis ornithorhyncha Benth.    Bird's-bill Lousewort.     (15,808.)
Mount Albert Edward and Half Dome Ridge.
Lentibulariace^e.
Pinguicula vulgaris L.    Butterwort.     (15,821.)
Hairtrigger Lake;   wet ground.    The thick, slin_y leaves serve as insect-traps.
RubiacE-E.    Madder Family.
Galium t'rifidmn L. var. pacificum Wiegand.    Small Bedstraw.     (15,750.)
Paradise Meadows.
Valarianace_e.    Valerian Family.
Valeriana sitchensis Bong.    Valerian.     (15,881.)
Mount Albert Edward and Croteau Lake.
Campanulace_e.    Bluebell Family.
Campanula rotundifolia L.    Bluebell.     (15,704.)
Lake Beautiful, Mount Strata, and Mount Albert Edward.
Composite.    Composite Family.
Erigeron salsuginosus (Richards.) Gray.    Aster Fleabane.     (15,713.)
Croteau Lake, Half Dome Ridge, and Mount Albert Edward.
Erigeron compositus Pursh.    Dwarf Mountain Fleabane.     (15,871.)
Mount Albert Edward.
Solidago corymbosa Nutt.    Northern Goldenrod.    (15,873.)
(S. multiradiata var. scopulorum Gray and S. algida Piper, synonyms.)
Mount Albert Edward.
Achilea borealis Bong.    Northern Yarrow.     (15,804.)
Mount Albert Edward; near summit.
Petasites frigida (L.) Fries.    Alpine Coltsfoot.     (15,777.)
Murray Meadows. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 29
Arnica latifolia Bong.    Broad-leaved Arnica.     (15,716.)
Mount Albert Edward and Croteau Camp; streamside.
Arnica mollis Hook.    Hairy Arnica.     (15,802.)
Mount Albert Edward.
Senecio triangularis Hook.    Spearhead Ragwort.     (15,717.)
Croteau Lake.
Senecio pauciflorus Pursh. and .
Senecio pauciflorus Pursh. var. fallax Greenm.    Few Flowered Ragwort.     (15,771.)
Mount Albert Edward and Half Dome Ridge.
Luina hypoleuca Benth.    Silver-back.     (15,691.)
Plateau above Cruikshank Canyon.
Antennaria media Greene.    Alpine Everlasting.     (15,809.)
Mount Albert Edward; near summit.
Anaphalis margaritacea var. subalpina Gray.    Alpine Pearly Everlasting.     (15,722.)
Mount Strata.
Agoseris aurantiaca (Hook.) Greene.    Golden Agoseris.     (15,803.)
Mount Albert Edward.
Aster foliaceus Lindl.    Leafy Aster.     (15,755.)
Paradise Meadows.
MISCELLANEOUS INVERTEBRATES.
Sponges.
Spongilla probably lacustris (Linn.).    Fresh-water Sponge.
Green, finger-like colonies of sponges were seen in several lakes, particularly
Panther Lake and Lady Lake. In most cases the colonies were attached to submerged
stones or sticks in water of medium depth.
Bryozoa, Moss Animals
Plumatella repens var. fractosa (Allman).
Colonies of this fresh-water bryozoan were found attached to stones and other
supports in the shallows of Upper Lake Beautiful. These colonies resemble many
branched rootlets, brownish in colour and forming small mats about one-quarter inch
in thickness.
Cristatella mucedo Cuvier.
Colonies of this moss animal have the appearance of small gelatinous masses;
they were found fastened to stones in association with the above-mentioned bryozoan.
The Bryozoa were identified by Dr. Mary D. Rogick, of the United States National
Museum.
Leeches.
Helobdella stagnalis stagnalis (Linn.).
Specimens of this leech from Lady Lake were identified by Dr. Percy Moore, of
the United States National Museum.
Molluscs.
Ariolimax columbianus (Gould).    Pacific Giant Slug.
Many of these large slugs were seen on the Dove Creek Trail, but no specimens
were observed on the Plateau itself. D 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Prophysaon andersoni (Cooper).    Anderson's Slug.
Several specimens of this slug were found under decaying wood on damp hillsides
near Croteau Lake. The species may be recognized by the diamond-mesh reticulations,
the two dark bands on the mantle, and the light dorsal stripe posterior to the mantle.
The largest specimen measured 1% inches in length.
Monodenia fidelis fidelis (Gray).    Common Snail.
This large land snail was seen on several occasions in various parts of the Plateau,
usually in damp woods.
Pisidium probum Sterki and
Pisidium pibula Sterki.    Fresh-water Clam.
These two species of small clams have been tentatively identified by Mr. H. B.
Herrington, of Newburgh, Ont. Specimens were found in the silt in Lady Lake and in
Croteau Lake; they are probably present in most of the lakes in the Plateau area.
In Croteau Lake these molluscs formed part of the diet of salamander larvae.
Crustaceans.
With the exception of the bottom-loving amphipods ("shrimps") the Crustacea
of the Forbidden Plateau lakes are almost entirely composed of free-swimming forms
such as water-fleas and copepods. These, together with other free-floating minute
animals and plants, are usually termed " plankton " and provide a source of food for
fish, particularly in the fry and fingerling stage. Samples were obtained from a few
representative lakes on the Plateau by towing a fine-meshed net through the water or by
pouring water through the net. Of the following records, those from McKenzie,
Woods, Beautiful, Meadow, and Mariwood Lakes, and Mount Becher Pond are from
samples collected in 1936 by Dr. W. A. Clemens, of the Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia; the remainder are from collections made by the writer in 1943.
Water Fleas (Cladocera).
Sida crystallina (0. F. Miiller).    McKenzie, Woods, Beautiful, Meadow, and Mariwood
Lakes.
Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Lieven).    McKenzie Lake.
Holopedium gibberum Zaddach.    Panther and Croteau Lakes.
Daphnia longispina  (O. F. Miiller).    Panther and McKenzie Lakes;  Mount Becher
Pond.
Simocephalus serrulatus (Koch).    Mount Becher Pond.
Scapholeberis  mucronata   (O.   F.   Miiller).     Panther,   McKenzie,   Woods,   Beautiful,
Meadow, and Mariwood Lakes.
Bosmina obtusirostris Sars.    Panther, Croteau, McKenzie, Woods, Beautiful, and Mariwood Lakes.
Acroperus harpse Baird.    Croteau, McKenzie, and Woods Lakes.
Alona afflnis (Leydig).    Panther, Woods, and Mariwood Lakes.
Alona costata Sars.    Beautiful and Mariwood Lakes.
Chydorus sphsericus (0. F. Miiller).   Croteau, McKenzie, Beautiful, and Meadow Lakes;
Mount Becher Pond.
Polyphemus pediculus  (Linne).    Panther, Croteau, McKenzie, Woods, and Beautiful
Lakes; Mount Becher Pond.
Copepods.
Diaptomus shoshone Forbes.    Panther, Croteau, and McKenzie Lakes.
Diaptomus oregonensis Lilljeborg.    McKenzie Lake.
Cyclops viridis Jurine.    Panther Lake.
Cyclops serrulatus Fischer.    Croteau, McKenzie, Woods, Beautiful, and Meadow Lakes. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 31
Cyclops albidus Jurine.    Croteau, Woods, Beautiful, and Meadow Lakes; Mount Becher
Pond.
Amphipods.
Hyalella azteca Saussure.    Fresh-water Shrimp.
Shrimps were seen and collected in Lady Lake, Panther Lake, and Upper Lake
Beautiful, where they were found among the stones in shallow water. Stomachs of
trout taken from Upper Lake Beautiful contained numbers of shrimps, indicating that
these crustaceans are an important article of food at this season.
INSECTS.
The following notes on insects of the Forbidden Plateau area were prepared by
Mr. George A. Hardy, of the Museum staff. They are based on specimens collected
by the Museum party in 1943 and on a collection made in 1930 and 1931 by Mr. J. D.
Gregson, of the Livestock Insect Laboratory, Kamloops. We are much indebted to
Mr. Gregson for permission to use the data supplied by his collection. We also wish
to thank Mr. Hugh B. Leech, of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory at Vernon,
and Mr. William Downes, Dominion Entomologist at Victoria, for identifying specimens.
Beetles.
Cerambycidse.    Long-horned Beetles.
Ragium lineatum L.  ,
Croteau Camp, July 11th, 1930, J. D. Gregson.
Pachyta armata Lee.
On flowers of Hieracleum lanatum at Murray Meadows, August 31st, 1943.
Evodinus vancouveri Csy.
Croteau Camp, July 11th, 1930, J. D. Gregson.
Anoplodera tibialis (Lee).
A species of high altitudes.
Anoplodera chrysocoma (Kby.).
Anoplodera dolorosa (Lee.).
Croteau Camp, July 10th, 1930, J. D. Gregson.
Buprestidss.    Flat-headed Borers.
Melanophila Drummondii Kby.
July 7th, 1931, J. D. Gregson.
Cucujidse.    Cucujid Beetles.
Cucujus puniceus Mann.
July 11th, 1930, J. D. Gregson.
Elateridse.    Click-beetles.
Ludius resplendens (Esch.).
From fish stomach and on herbage.
Ludius lateralis (Lee.).
From fish stomach, Panther Lake, August 24th, 1943.
Ludius angusticollis (Mann).
From fish stomach, Panther Lake, August 24th, 1943.
Coccinellidse.    Ladybugs.
Hippodamia quinquesignata Kby.
Mount Albert Edward, July 26th, 1931, J. D. Gregson. D 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cleis picta (Rand).
Mount Albert Edward, July 26th, 1931, J. D. Gregson.
Gyrinidx.    Whirligig Beetles.
Gyrinus picipes Aube.
Croteau Lake, September 1st, 1943.
Dytiscidse.    Predaceous Diving Beetles.
Agabus tristis Aube.
Croteau Lake, September 1st, 1943.
Agabus vancouverensis Leech.
July 7th, 1931, J. D. Gregson.
Acilius semisulcatus Aube.
Mount Strata, July 20th, 1931, J. D. Gregson.
Carabidx.    Ground-beetles.
Carabus tsedatus Fab.
Byrrhidx.    Pill-beetles.
Byrrhus kirbyi Lee.
Mount Albert Edward, July 27th, 1931, J. D. Gregson.
Pythidx.
Priognathus monilicornis (Rand).
Mount Albert Edward, July 21st, 1931, J. D. Gregson.
Curculionidx.    Weevils.
Rhyncholus brunneus Mann.
Bugs.
Chlorochroa uhleri Stal.
Mount Albert Edward, July 21st, 1931, J. D. Gregson.
Aradus heidmanni Bergr.    Fungus Bug.
Mount Albert Edward, July 21st; 1931, J. D. Gregson.
Butterflies.
Parnassius clodius a claudianus Stich.    Pellucid Parnassian.
The dark Vancouver Island and Lower Fraser Valley form; common on the open
meadows.
Neophasia menopia F. & F.    Pine White.
Abundant, particularly around pine-trees in which the caterpillars are found.
Several adults were collected on the snow-fields of Mount Albert Edward.
Dryas hydaspe b. rhodope Edw.    Dusky Silver-spot.
Characteristic phase of Vancouver Island and Lower Fraser Valley, the latter being
the type locality.
Brenthis epithore Edw.    Western Fritillary.
A typical west coast butterfly, occurring from Alaska to California in hilly situations as distinct from plains.and high mountains.
Lycxna mariposa Reak.    Dusky Copper.
A mountain species, ranging from British Columbia to California; the clear ashy
grey of the under-side of the hind wings is very distinctive.
Lycxna helloides Edw.    Purple Copper.
A more common species elsewhere than the preceding one and of wider distribution, occurring from Vancouver Island to Iowa. Judging from specimens collected it
would appear to be locally replaced by L. mariposa. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 33
Plebejus aquilo c. megalo McD.    Cascade Blue.
Essentially a northern species, occurring from Labrador to Arctic America; the
race megalo is the south-western mountain phase occurring on most of the high mountains in the Province.
Strymon melinus b. atrofasciata McD.    Grey Hair-streak.
Found throughout temperate America; the race is a western variation.
Argynnis rhodope Edw., tr. f. gregsoni Gunder.
Specimens of this form were collected by Mr. J. D. Gregson in 1931 on Mount
Washington at 6,000 feet elevation and were described and named by Gunder (1936).
Moths.
Trichodesia albovittata Gn.
July 11th, 1930, J. D. Gregson.
Flies.
Tabanidx.    Horse-flies.
Large numbers of a small tabanid fly were found in trout stomachs taken from fish
caught at Circle Lake on August 29th, 1943.
Fleas.
A few specimens of fleas collected from some of the mammals taken in the Forbidden Plateau area were sent to Mr. George P. Holland, of the Livestock Insect Laboratory,
Kamloops, who has identified them as follows:—
Opisodasys keeni (Bak.).
Catallagia charlottensis (Bak.).
Malarxus telchinum (Roths.).
Monopsyllus w. wagneri (Bak.).
All taken from Vancouver Island white-footed mice from Croteau and Mariwood
Camps.
Thrassis spenceri (Wag.).
From Vancouver Island marmot taken on Mount Washington.
VERTEBRATES.
Fishes.
Salmo gairdneri kamloops Jordan.    Kamloops Trout.
The many lakes of the Plateau were apparently originally barren of sport fish,
possibly because of insurmountable falls between them and the sea. A stocking programme therefore was commenced in 1929 when the Dominion Department of Fisheries
planted 40,000 eyed eggs of Kamloops trout from Lloyd's Creek Hatchery in Panther
Lake. This initial introduction was followed by other plantings from Penask Lake
Hatchery as follows:—
In 1930: Circle (40,000); Francis (10,000); Isabella (20,000); Johnston
(40,000);   Mariwood (10,000);   McKenzie (40,000);   Meadow (40,000).
In 1931: Amphitheatre (40,000) ; Battleship (30,000) ; Bell (20,000) ; McPhee
(10,000);   Moat (30,000);   Rolland (60,000) and Syms (10,000).
In 1932: Amphitheatre (30,000); Battleship (30,000); McPhee (24,000); Moat
(30,000) ; Isabella (10,000) ; Johnston (3,000) ; Mariwood (30,000) ; Mclntyre
(30,000);  Summit (6,000) and Sunrise (30,000).
In general the plantings have resulted in successful introductions; many of the
lakes now provide excellent sport-fishing and in many the trout appear to be main- D 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
taining the population by spawning in the tributary streams. In addition to the lakes
into which eyed eggs were placed, the following bodies of water now contain trout:
Croteau, Beautiful, Upper Beautiful, Helen Mackenzie, Pierce, and Lady.
In most lakes the fish are of small size, measuring between 8 and 10 inches in
length. Large fish up to 15 lb. are reported to be present in Circle Lake and in Moat
Lake.
An examination of stomach contents of a number of trout taken in Panther, Beautiful, and Circle Lakes during the last week of August revealed that the fish at that
season were feeding mostly on insects taken from the surface of the water. The following kinds of insects were found:—
Panther Lake: Winged ants, wasps, leaf-hoppers, ground-beetles, click-beetles,
stone-fly.
Lake Beautiful: Winged ants, ichneumon flies, horse-flies, click-beetles, dobson fly.
Circle Lake: Midge flies, horse-flies.
Stomachs from Lake Beautiful trout also contained numbers of fresh-water shrimp,
Hyalella azteca, indicating that these Crustacea form an important part of the diet of
the fish in this body of water.
Cottus sp.    Sculpin.
An unidentified species of fresh-water sculpin is reported by Mr. Clark to be
present in Panther Lake from observations made in 1942. No specimens were seen
when a search was made in 1943.
This fish, if present, is probably the only species native to the area.
Amphibians.
Ambystoma gracile (Baird).    Northwestern Salamander.
The Northwestern salamander appears to be abundant in the Forbidden Plateau
area. The larva? are particularly noticeable along the margins of lakes, especially by
flashlight at night. At this time many larvae from 3 to 6 inches in length may be
seen lying motionless on the bottom or slowly moving along looking for food. When
disturbed they dash off suddenly to disappear into the mud or under stones or other
cover. At first sight they may be momentarily confused with fish but are easily distinguished by the presence of two pairs of legs and by the feather-like gills on either
side of the neck.
The larvae apparently transform to the adult stage toward the end of summer;
eight or ten individuals, each still with gill-stumps showing, were found under logs
and bark along the shore of Croteau Lake over a period of a few days during the last
week in August.
Adults measuring about 5% inches in length were found in several instances under
logs on damp hillsides not far from the lake-shore. The colour patterns of these
varied somewhat, a typical salamander being chocolate brown with bronze-coloured
irregular spots on sides of head, body, and legs, with slate grey on the under-parts.
The greenish jelly-like remains of egg-masses of this salamander were observed
in Panther Lake and in many ponds at Paradise Meadows; larvae were collected in the
latter area and in Croteau Lake. The main food of the larvae in Croteau Lake appeared
to be small clams (Pisidium probum and P. pibula) which were abundant in the bottom
ooze.
Ambystoma macrodactylum (Baird).    Long-toed Salamander.
An individual of this brightly coloured salamander was found associated with a
Northwestern salamander under a log on a damp hillside near Croteau Lake on August
24th. The species has previously been reported from Forbidden Plateau by Brown and
Slater (1939). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 35
In life the present specimen was dark chocolate in colour with a bright greenish-
yellow stripe down the back from the back of the head to the tip of the tail. Small
irregular spots of the same colour were on the head and limbs while the sides and
under-surfaces were speckled with small, whitish spots.
Triturus granulosus granulosus Skilton.    Pacific Coast Newt.
Mr. Clark reports finding a newt in the stomach of a trout taken from Circle Lake.
Bufo boreas boreas Baird and Girard.    Northwestern Toad.
By far the most widely spread amphibian in the area is the common toad. Individuals were seen in almost all parts of the Plateau, even near the summit of Mount
Strata (at about 4,600 feet), in the rock-slide at the base of Strata and on Mount Washington. They were common along most trails and in thickets, sometimes some distance
from ponds or lakes.
No tadpoles of the toad were seen but the adults probably spawn in both ponds and
lakes soon after the ice leaves. Mr. Ward tells of seeing a migration of young toads
across the trail some years ago toward the end of summer.
Hyla regilla Baird and Girard.    Pacific Tree-toad or Tree-frog.
The tree-toad is common throughout the Plateau, particularly along lake-shores
and stream edges. Adults were heard croaking on many occasions and both juveniles
and adults were observed.
Tadpoles were numerous in small ponds in various parts of the Plateau; they
were often seen crowded together in the shallow water of the margin, supposedly to
take advantage of the warmer water, sunshine, and possibly greater food-supply.
Larvae with hind legs about half developed were present in most pools; tadpoles
changing to the adult stage were seen in only a few cases. Since the majority of the
individuals were just beginning to show development of the hind limb it seemed likely
that many would be killed by the first freeze-up which usually occurs by mid-September.
Several tadpoles were seen in a small stream draining into Circle Lake, a most
unusual habitat for this species. It is possible that they originated from a near-by
pond draining into the stream.
Reptiles.
The reptiles are apparently represented in the area by garter snakes only, and
these appear to be rare, since only one report is available of a snake being seen (Lake
Beautiful, 1942, L. J. Clark).
Birds.
Only a very incomplete idea of the bird-life of the Forbidden Plateau area can be
gained by a stay so short as ours and at only one season'. However, the impression
gained by our visit was that birds were remarkably few in number of species, despite
the wide range of habitats and the apparently abundant food-supply. Common birds,
such as robins, thrushes, Golden-crowned sparrows, and woodpeckers, which one might
expect to find in numbers appeared to be either absent or extremely rare. Only a few
water-birds were observed. The following annotated list is based on Mr. Beebe's notes,
the writer's observations, and Sutton's published records for Paradise Meadows (1936).
Gavia sp.    Loon.
An unidentified loon was seen flying on one occasion over Croteau Lake and was
heard in other parts of the Plateau.
Ardea herodias fannini Chapman.    Northwest Coast Heron.
Herons are reported as being occasionally seen. D 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Branta canadensis (Linnaeus).    Canada Goose.
A flock of nine geese was seen or heard several times during our stay. The birds
were first observed on Woods Lake on August 25th; they were seen or heard in flight
on several later occasions, but not within range so that they could be identified as to
subspecies.
Glaucionetta clangula americana (Bonaparte).    American .Golden-eye.
Three golden-eyes were seen on Lower Lake Beautiful on August 25th and a pair
was observed on Hairtrigger Lake the following day. An immature bird, possibly a
female, was present on Croteau Lake during our stay in camp. It apparently was
unable to take off from the water.
Astur atricapillus striatulus Ridgway.    Western Goshawk.
A goshawk was seen on more than one occasion during our visit.
Accipiter velox velox (Wilson).    Sharp-shinned Hawk.
Several Sharp-shinned hawks were seen. On one occasion a pair were observed
harrying two ravens which had been feeding upon a deer carcass at the foot of Mount
Strata.
Aquila chryssetos canadensis (Linnaeus).    Golden Eagle.
Pearse (1943) provides a possible sight record of this bird near Mount Albert
Edward in August, 1924.
Halixetus leucocephalus alascanus Townsend.    Northern Bald Eagle.
Two immature individuals were seen soaring over the western slope of Mount Elma.
Falco columbarius suckleyi Ridgway.    Black Merlin;   Black Pigeon Hawk.
A Black merlin was seen to chase Canada jays into cover on one occasion near
camp. A second individual was seen pursuing a Blue grouse near the summit of Mount
Washington.
Dendragapus fulginosus fulginosus (Ridgway).    Blue Grouse; Sooty Grouse.
Blue grouse are common; individuals and small flocks were seen in all parts of the
Plateau.    Males were heard hooting on several occasions.
Bonasa umbellus sabini (Douglas).    Oregon Ruffed Grouse.
One individual only was seen below Paradise Meadows.
Lagopus leucurus saxatilis Cowan.    Vancouver Island White-tailed Ptarmigan.
Ptarmigan are present on Mount Albert Edward above 5,000 feet elevation.
A hen bird with three three-quarters-grown young was seen on the lower reaches of
the ridge leading to the summit and two other adult birds were seen higher up, one
almost at the peak. The adults were in preliminary winter plumage; that is, as follows: Ground colour of back and sides of breast rich brown mottled with black;
feathers of wings, belly, legs, and tail, white. The coloration of the juveniles was
brownish with dark and light brown barring on head, neck, and breast; the wing
feathers only were white.
Fulica americana Gmelin.    American Coot.
Coots or mud-hens were seen on McKenzie Lake by Mr. C. P. Lyons about September 23rd, 1941.    They are probably regular visitors.
Columba fasciata fasciata Say.    Band-tailed Pigeon.
Two individuals were seen at Croteau Lake. Sutton (1936) reports them to be
present at Paradise Meadows. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 37
Nephcscetes niger borealis (Kennerly).    Black Swift.
Swifts were seen on one occasion, near the summit of Mount Washington. They
probably also occur in other parts of the Plateau near the high peaks where strong
updrafts carry food in the form of insects to a high elevation.
Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin).    Rufous Hummingbird.
A hummingbird was seen at Panther Lake and at Half Dome near the lower slopes
of Mount Albert Edward.
Megaceryle alcyon caurina (Grinnell).    Western Belted Kingfisher.
Kingfishers are reported to be present by Mr. Lyons.
Colaptes cafer cafer (Gmelin).    Red-shafted Flicker.
Several flickers were seen during our stay, but they do not appear to be common.
Picoides tridactylus fasciatus Baird.    Alaska Three-toed Woodpecker; Ladder-backed
Woodpecker.
This species has been reported from Paradise Meadows by Sutton (1936). It may
be distinguished by the black back banded with broken white bars and by the presence
of three instead of four toes; the male has a yellow cap.
A single bird, possibly of this species, was seen near Croteau Lake on August 30th.
Empidonax hammondi (Xantus).    Hammond's Flycatcher.
This small flycatcher has been reported from Paradise Meadows by Sutton (1936).
Perisoreus obscurus griseus Ridgway.    Gray Jay; Whiskey Jack; Camp-robber.
Jays are one of the most noticeable birds in the Plateau area due to their bold
nature and fearless behaviour around camp. Their graceful gliding flight from tree
to tree and the variety of their cries make them interesting if not welcome visitors.
Several immature birds of the year were noted at Croteau Camp; in these, the
head and face were dark instead of light grey as in the adult.
Cyanocitta stelleri stelleri (Gmelin).    Steller's Jay.
Individuals were seen on the trail below Paradise Meadows but none was noted on
the Plateau.
Corvus corax principalis Ridgway.    Northern Raven.
Ravens were one of the most conspicuous birds in the district, owing to their
large size and raucous calls. A pair was observed almost daily at camp and others
were seen in all parts of the Plateau, even near the summit of Mount Albert Edward.
On one occasion a pair was disturbed in the act of feeding upon a dead deer near the
foot of Mount Strata. As they wheeled overhead they were attacked by a pair of
Sharp-shinned hawks which they easily eluded.
Penthestes rufescens rufescens (Townsend).    Chestnut-backed Chickadee.
Chickadees were numerous in the area; they were seen in all the wooded sections of
the area, usually in flocks.
Sitta canadensis Linnaeus.    Red-breasted Nuthatch.
Nuthatches were heard calling " quank, quank " in all parts of the Plateau, usually
in company with chickadees. No specimens were collected for identification; it is
believed those of the Plateau belong to this species, since birds of this species are
known to occur in Mount Arrowsmith vicinity.
Cinclus mexicanus unicolor Bonaparte.    American Dipper.
Dippers are occasionally seen along streams.
Nannus hiemalis pacificus (Baird).    Western Winter Wren.
Winter wrens appeared to be common in the area. D 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Turdus migratorius propinquus Ridgway.    Western Robin.
A robin was heard on only one occasion.    They appear to be uncommon in the
Plateau area.
Ixoreus nxvius nxvius (Gmelin).    Pacific Varied Thrush.
Several birds were seen about Croteau Camp.
Hylocichla guttata nanus (Audubon).    Dwarf Hermit Thrush.
One individual only was seen, near Croteau Lake.
Regulus satrapa olivaceus Baird.    Western Golden-crowned Kinglet.
These birds were noted on several occasions, often associated with chickadees.
They were also observed at Paradise Meadows by Sutton (1936).
Anthus spinoletta rubescens (Tunstall).    American Pipit.
Pipits were seen in a flock on the slope of Mount Albert Edward at about 5,000 feet
elevation. In all likelihood these birds breed in this region. They are easily distinguished by the long bill, the long hind claw, and the skylark-like habit of mounting
and singing high in the air.
Dendroica toivnsendi (Townsend).    Townsend's Warbler.
Warblers of this species have been reported from Paradise Meadows (Sutton,
1936).
Leucosticte   tephrocotis  tephrocotis   (Swainson).    Gray-crowned   Rosy   Finch;   Leu-
costicte.
Several rosy finches were observed on Mount Albert Edward, one of them at the
very summit. The birds were exceedingly shy, flitting from rock to rock or diving
from the sheer face into space at the approach of a human. This bird is not likely
to be confused with any other in this habitat; it is easily recognized by the suffusion
of light rose colour over rump, flanks, abdomen, and the greater part of the wings.
It probably breeds on Mount Albert Edward.
Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson).    Northern Pine Siskin.
Several flocks of siskins were seen about camp and in other parts of the Plateau.
Junco oregonus oregonus (Townsend).    Oregon Junco.
Juncos were common; a flock visited camp almost daily in the early morning.
Fledglings just learning to fly were seen at Croteau Lake on August 29th.
Mammals.
Myotus lucifugus (Le Conte).    Little Brown Bat.
Bats, possibly of this species, were seen at Panther Lake on two occasions; no
specimens were obtained for positive identification.
Euarctos americanus vancouveri Hall.    Vancouver Island Black Bear.
Bears are common throughout the Plateau area. Signs of their presence were
seen in almost all parts, and individuals were seen at Panther Lake and at Paradise
Meadows. It is said that in blueberry season bears are commonly seen in the open
feeding upon the fruit,
Martes caurina vancouverensis Grinnell and Dixon.    Vancouver Island Pine Marten.
Marten are probably occasionally present in the  Forbidden  Plateau  area.    An
individual was seen on the Dove Creek Trail below Camp 5 by Mr. Clark in 1942.
Mustela vison evagor Hall.    Vancouver Island Weasel.
An individual in summer pellage was found one morning at camp, drowned in a
water-bucket. The animal had apparently fallen in while examining a freshly used
landing-net hanging on the cabin wall above the bucket. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1943. D 39
Canis lycaon crassodon Hall.    Vancouver Island Wolf.
Wolves apparently pass through the district occasionally. From the presence of
tracks and a " deer kill " a wolf was known to have been present in the Plateau in 1936
according to Mr. Ward.
About 1933 Mr. J. Cecil (" Cougar ") Smith, of Campbell River, shot a female
at Mount Washington and reared four cubs found in the litter.
Felis oregonensis vancouverensis Nelson and Goldman.    Vancouver Cougar.
Cougars are apparently occasionally present in the Plateau area. Fresh tracks
were seen on Mount Elma and on the trail below Paradise Meadows, and the remains of
a deer possibly killed by a cougar were seen on Paradise Meadows.
Marmota vancouverensis Swarth.    Vancouver Island Marmot.
Marmots are known to be present on Mount Washington and Mount Strata within
the Plateau area. The colony on Mount Washington appears to be quite small, occupying an area of open country on the southern slope at about 5,000 feet elevation. Here
there are a number of burrows and other signs of marmot activities.
The animals are very dark in appearance; except for a white spot on the forehead
and a white streak down the mid-line of the belly, the fur is almost black with a few
grizzled hairs around the shoulders of adults. A large male may be over 2 feet in
length. Their chief food appears to be blueberry shrubs (Vaccinium). Like other
ground-squirrels this rodent has a loud chirping call and a piercing whistle of alarm.
Only one burrow appeared to be occupied in the small colony on Mount Strata
slope. A lone individual was seen there in 1942 by Mr. Clark, but no animals were
noted during our visit.
Sciurus hudsonicus vancouverensis Allen.    Vancouver Red Squirrel.
Squirrels were not commonly seen, although heaps of cone fragments and ground
workings at the bases of trees were numerous; individuals were observed on only a
few occasions.
Peromyscus maniculatus interdictus Anderson.    Vancouver Island White-footed Mouse.
Several mice of this subspecies were taken at Croteau and Mariwood Camps. They
are apparently common in the Plateau area, but appear to be most abundant around the
cabins, where they occasionally do some damage to foodstuffs and stored blankets.
The original specimens described by Anderson (1932) were collected on the Forbidden Plateau by Mr. Hamilton M. Laing, of Comox.
Microtus sp.    Meadow Mouse.
Burrows, runs, droppings, and an abandoned nest indicated that meadow mice
were present at Paradise Meadows, but no specimens were taken.
Ondatra zibetheca osoyoosensis (Lord).    Rocky Mountain Muskrat.
Signs of muskrat activities in the form of cut grasses and sedges and burrows in
the bank were noted in sloughs at Paradise Meadows.    One individual was seen.
The muskrat is not native to Vancouver Island; it was introduced some years ago
and is slowly spreading through all water systems suitable to its well-being. It has
apparently reached Paradise Meadows within recent years since it has not been noted
previously.
Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson).    Coast Deer.
Deer are common throughout the Plateau region. Lone individuals and groups of
two or three were seen on several occasions. D 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Anderson, Rudolph Martin.     1932.     Five New Mammals from British Columbia.
Ann. Rept. Nat. Mus. Canada, 1931, pp. 99-119.
Brown, Walter C, and Slater, James R.    1939.    The Amphibians and Reptiles of
the Islands of the State of Washington.    Occ. Papers Dept. of Biology, Coll. of
Puget Sound, No. 4, pp. 6-31.
COWAN, Ian McTaggart.    1939.    The White-tailed Ptarmigan of Vancouver Island.
Condor, Vol. 41, pp. 82-83.
Gunder, J. D.    1936.    New Rhopalocera (Lepidoptera).    Can. Entomologist.    Vol.64,
No. 12, pp. 276-284.
Gunning, H. C.    1931.    Buttle Lake Map-area.    Vancouver Island [Geology].    Summ.
Rept. Can. Dept. Mines.    1930, Part A, No. 2292,, pp. 56 A-78 A.
Pearse,   Theed.    1943.    Golden   eagle  on   Vancouver   Island,   B.C.    Can.   Field-Nat.
Vol. 57, Nos. 4 and 5, p. 96.
Sutton,   George  Miksch.    1936.    Birds  in  the  Wilderness.    Macmillan   Company.
pp. 1-200.
Swarth, Harry S.    1912.    Report on a collection of birds and mammals from Vancouver Island.    Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool.    Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1-124.
VICTOHIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1944.
1,305-444-8824

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0319111/manifest

Comment

Related Items