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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1944

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLOMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
OP  THE
LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCHES
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
FOR   THE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st, 1942
HON. A. WELLS GRAY, MINISTER OP LANDS
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Baxfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1943.  Victoria, B.C., October 7th, 1943.
To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Surveys
Branches of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1942.
A. WELLS GRAY,
Minister of Lands. Victoria, B.C., October 7th, 1943.
The Honourable A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Surveys
Branches of the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st,
1942.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     7
Revenue     7
Sale of Town Lots -     9
Pre-emption  Records     9
Pre-emption and Homestead Exchanges  10
Land-sales •  10
Land Inspections  10
Summary  12
Letters inward and outward __.  13
Coal Licences, Leases, etc _j  13
Crown Grants issued .  13
Total Acreage deeded  13
Home-site Leases  14  DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., October 6th, 1943.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land
administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year
ended December 31st, 1942.
The volume of business transacted during the year may be considered very satisfactory in view of the existing war conditions and the preoccupation of all classes in
abnormal activities connected with hostilities.
General revenue was slightly less than that reported last year and is extremely
satisfactory in comparison with annual returns covering period of ten years preceding.
Again the sale of lands reverted to the Crown for non-payment of taxes outstripped
the sales of ordinary country lands.
Many areas in various parts of the Province have during the year been reserved
and placed at the disposal of Allied Services for the duration of the war.
A decrease in licences issued under the " Coal and Petroleum Act" will be noted,
the Province-wide reserve of petroleum and natural gas being largely responsible.
The steady influx of inquiries, particularly from Eastern Canada and the United
States, in regard to settlement conditions in this Province, would warrant the expectation of a substantial post-war increase in population.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT   OF  REVENUE,   YEAR   ENDED   DECEMBER   31st, 1942.
Land-sales.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Under " Land Act "—
$450.37
5,977.88
22,246.43
$11,322.60
32,647.43
64,144.81
478.32
$11,772.97
38,625.31
86,391.24
478.32
4,705.97
4,705.97
7,424.71
1,704.06
7,424 71
650.25
2,354.31
Totals    '        -   -..                             	
$34,030.90
$117,721.93
$151,752.83 L 8
REPORT OF MINISTER OP LANDS, 1942.
Sundry  Revenue.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Under " Land Act "—
Sundry lease rentals....
Grazing lease rentals _
Survey fees 	
Sundry fees	
Royalty 	
Improvements _—
Rent of property 	
Reverted mineral claims _
Former Dominion Railway Belt lands-
Survey fees   —
Totals  -- -_-
Under " Coal and Petroleum Act '
Licences  	
Rentals and sundry fees :	
Lieu of work fees 	
Totals _
$94,387.63
9,539.52
1,146.58
19,850.09
3,849.69
806.00
$129,579.51.
$3,200.00
3,485.08
450.00
$7,135.08
$4,063.68
1,444.49
1,613.97
234.50
796.02
633.25
8,785.91
$94,387.63
9,539.52
5,210.26
21,294.58
3,849.69
2,419.97
234.50
796.02
633.25
$138,365.42
$3,200.00
3,485.08
450.00
$7,135.1
Sundry  Receipts.
$11,449.93
10.34
27,341.60
13,105.19
$11,449.93
10.34
27,341.60
$3,468.33
16,573.52
Totals.__                             ..                               	
$51,907.06
$3,468.33
$55,375.39
Summary of Revenue.
$34,030.90
129,579.51
7,135.08
51,907.06
$117,721.93
8,785.91
$151,752.83
138,365.42
7,135.08
3,468.33
55,375.39
Totals _                                      	
$222,652.55
$129,976.17
$352,628.72
Summary of Cash received.
$222,652.55
72,385.31 |
269.78 j
316,027.92 |
25,414.29 j
1,984.96
$129,976.17
$352,628.72
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
72,655.09
" Better Housing Act "—
341,442.21
1,984.96
Totals  	
$638,734.81
$129,976.17
$768,710.98 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
L 9
SALE   OF   TOWN  LOTS, 1942.
Disposal of lots placed on the market after being offered at public auction:
Prince Rupert, 52 lots to Wartime Housing, Ltd.,  $52.00
Prince Rupert, 2 lots '.  300.00
Prince George, 21 lots       2,946.00
Terrace, 16 lots	
Quesnel and West Quesnel, 14 lots..
Vancouver, 9 lots	
Oliver, 4 lots	
Osoyoos, 2 lots :	
Vanderhoof, 3 lots	
And 30 lots in various townsites_
1,125.00
1,325.00
3,400.00
750.00
300.00
100 00
1,875.00
$12,173.00
Southern Okanagan Project sold 9 parcels, comprising 35 acres, the purchase
price being $2,860.
In the University Hill subdivision of Lot 140, Group 1, New Westminster District
(Endowment Lands), 8 lots were sold at a sales price of $9,805.
PRE-EMPTION  RECORDS,   ETC.,   1942.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Pre-emption
Records
cancelled.
Certificates
of Purchase
issued.
Certificates
of Improvements issued.
28
5
1
24
3
8
4
8
3
66
27
29
2
3
2
7 .
1
14
1
24
5
12
6
.     6
2
50
7
26
2
6
3
2
2
26
1
81
46
7
103
30
175
47
143
178
284
113
44
182
70
174
60
46
94
80
853
Atlin 	
16
Cranbrook   	
Fernie   __	
Fort Fraser    ___	
Golden  	
11
2
7
Nanaimo —   __     __ ___
4
6
6
Pouce Coupe  _ _ — _ —__
42
18
1
17
Revelstoke.        	
Smithers    	
2
1
Victoria 	
Totals	
220
169
2,837 L 10 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
PRE-EMPTION  AND   HOMESTEAD   EXCHANGES.
Under 1934 Amendment to " Land Act."
Year. No.
1935  41
1936  21
1937  37
1938_, L  10
1939  3
1940 r  6
1941  7
1942  4
Total  129
LAND-SALES, 1942.
Acres.
Surveyed   (first class)     5,647.16
Surveyed  (second class)  13,735.56
Surveyed   (third class)     9,400.57
28,783.29
Unsurveyed       918.14
Total  29,701.43 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
L 11
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jC«=^fl»-^G REPORT OP MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942. L 13
STATEMENT   OF   LETTERS   INWARD   AND   OUTWARD,   1942.
Lands  Branch.
Letters inward  ,  18,739
Letters  outward    15,450
MINING LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 19.42.
Licences under the " Coal and Petroleum Act"— No. Area (Acres).
Original licences issued r  10 5,915.00
Renewal licences issued  21 11,713.70
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum Act "-
New leases issued 	
Renewal leases issued 	
31
17,628.70
22
13,298.50
1
640.00
23 13,938.50
Sundry leases under the " Land Act"—
Number of leases issued  256 35,754.10
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1942.
Pre-emptions   149
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1939 "  11
Dominion homesteads   17
Purchases (other than town lots)  425
Town lots   303
Mineral claims   182
Reverted mineral claims  33
Supplementary timber grants   2
" Dyking Assessments Act "  6
' " Public Schools Act "  1
Miscellaneous   5
Total i  1,134
Applications for Crown grants  1,256
Certified copies   4
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims
given  .      135
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions  . .  23,095.20
Dominion homesteads      1,572.90
Mineral claims (other than reverted)     7,072.79
Reverted mineral claims     1,308.70
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)   31,134.67
Supplementary timber grants        156.36
Total  64,340.62 L 14
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
HOME-SITE LEASES   (NOT EXCEEDING 20 ACRES).
No.
Total Annual
Revenue.
Fiscal Year
ended.
8
12
11
31
23
24
18
26
15
29
21
27
27
23
9
3
67
284
351
12
339
Leases issued, April 1st, 1929, to March 31st, 1930      ,
$522.55
636.45
759.95
980.05
1,246.65
1,302.52
1,391.72
1,440.25
1,468.90
1,557.40
1,591.80
1,717.10
1,846.85
1,924.23
March 31st, 1930.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1930, to March 31st, 1931	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1931, to March 31st, 1932	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1932, to March 31st, 1933 	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1933, to March 31st, 1934 	
March 31st, 1931.
March 31st, 1932.
March 31st, 1933.
March 31st, 1934.
March 31st, 1935.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1935, to March 31st, 1936	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1936, to March 31st, 1937	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1937, to March 31st, 1938.- __	
Leases issued, April 1st, 193S, to March 31st, 1939 ._-.	
March 31st, 1936.
March 31st, 1937.
March 31st, 1938.
March 31st, 1939.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1939, to March 31st, 1940 	
March 31st, 1940.
March 31st, 1941.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1941, to March 31st, 1942	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1942, to March 31st, 1943 	
March 31st, 1942.
March 31st, 1943.
Leases Crown-granted .__. _	
Total revenue received from April 1st, 1929, to
March 31st, 1943 ... 	
$18,386.42 PART II.
SURVEYS BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page
Report of the Surveyor-General, Surveys Branch  17
Report of Surveys Division  20
Table A—Summary of Office-work  20
Table B—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps ...  22
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps  23
Report of Aerial Photograph Librarian  26
Report of Geographic Division  26
Reports of Surveyors—■
Topographical Survey, Cowichan Lake and Nanaimo River (A. J. Campbell).  28
Topographical  Survey,  vicinity of  Nanoose Bay and Alberni  Canal   (N.   C.
Stewart)  30
Topographical  Survey, West  Coast  of Vancouver  Island,  vicinity of  Tofino
(G. J. Jackson)  33
Triangulation Survey, South of Telegraph Creek (H. Pattinson) 1  36  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1943.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the
Surveys Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1942.
The Surveys Branch, now reduced by enlistments from its average staff of forty-
nine, is organized into three divisions—Surveys, Geographic, and Topographic. The
Surveys Division deals with field-notes of all surveys of Crown lands, whether made
by Government or privately employed surveyors; checks these field-notes and plots
therefrom; and keeps an up-to-date record of the standing of lands and surveys on
some 273 large-scale reference maps drawn on tracing-linen. The division has a blue
and ozalid printing department serving all branches of the Government, and meeting
the needs of these, and of the general public, for copies of reference and other maps
to the value of about $8,000 per annum.
The Topographic Division includes a staff of British Columbia Land Surveyors
specially trained in topographic mapping; these men spend their summers on field-
work and their winters plotting contour maps based on that field-work; the field-work
is permanent in character and, though adjusted to meet any immediate needs, fits
without waste into a long-term plan for the progressive contour mapping of the entire
Province.
The Geographic Division is responsible for keeping the published maps of the
Province truly representative of the latest information available. That information
comes from triangulation surveys and from the Surveys and Topographic Divisions,
from the Forest and Water Branches, the Mines and Public Works Departments, from
the Geodetic, Geological, Topographical, and Hydrographic services of the Dominion
Government; as well as from prospectors and others having knowledge of out-of-the-
way places. The division draws the maps, secures tenders from lithographers, and
supervises publication; there is also in the division photostatic equipment with an
experienced operator who makes photostats and enlargements and reductions to scale
for all Government Departments, and to some extent for Navy, Army, Air Force, and
general public.
Due to its general mountainous character, only a small percentage of the area of
the Province requires subdivision into small agricultural holdings, but immense tracts
of mountain terrain are rich in resources of mineral, timber, and water-power, and
the prosperity of the lowlands depends largely on the successful development of the
mountain resources. In a country of such high relief, contour maps are the best
foundation for any appraisal of resources; and the need for such maps over vast areas,
coupled with the limited expenditures possible with our small population, has kept
constant our search for accurate yet economical methods. The method here developed
uses aerial photographs taken at 15,000 feet altitude; but, as such photographs vary
greatly in scale over the mountain country beneath, control over plan and elevation
is secured by triangulation, with stations on the summits and by rounds of oriented
ground photographs taken from commanding positions, using special cameras of fixed
focal length; the method takes advantage of our mountains, and our contour-mapping
costs seem to be as low as any in Canada, averaging, as they do, less than $25 per
square mile, including everything from the aerial photography to plotting the contour
map.
2 17 L 18 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
In the belief that good maps, if taken advantage of, are a useful guard against
costly errors in development, an attempt is made to foresee future trends, and various
overland transportation routes to Yukon and Alaska are among these. There are three
general routes through Northern British Columbia which have been urged from various
quarters, and which are governed by the three more or less parallel mountain systems
of the Coast Range, the Cassiar Range, and the Rocky Mountains. All have certain
merits and drawbacks which may have different weights in peace than they have in
war, and so are described herein.
Route A lies east of the Coast Range, leaving the Canadian National Railway and
the main highway at Vanderhoof, or possibly at Hazelton, passing over the divide at
the head of the Skeena River to Stikine River waters, crossing the latter river above
Telegraph Creek, thence via Atlin, White Horse, and Kluane Lake to the Alaska border
and Fairbanks. This route is favoured in the report of the American section of the
Alaska Highway Commission due to its proximity to the Alaska Panhandle; it has a
length of about 1,493 miles from Prince George to Fairbanks and reaches an altitude
of 4,402 feet on the Little Klappan-Spatsizi divide, dropping to 976 feet at the Stikine
crossing. A triangulation net is being carried along this route, so our knowledge of
it is increasing.
Route B is favoured by the Canadian section of the Alaska Highway Commission;
it can leave the present highway at Summit Lake, 32 miles east of Prince George, and
follow the Rocky Mountain Trench occupied by the valleys of the Parsnip, Finlay,
Kechika, and Liard Rivers to the northerly boundary of the Province; thence follow
the Liard, Frances, Finlayson, Pelly, across the Yukon at Five Finger Rapids, cross
the Alaska boundary on Ladue River and on to Fairbanks. This route was followed
by a railway location survey in 1942 which gave a maximum grade of 1% per cent, and
a length from Prince George to Fairbanks of about 1,295 miles. This is, without doubt,
the most favourable railway route as it follows water grades with a minimum of grade
changes, and the highest point reached (Sifton Pass) has an altitude of only 3,273
feet. A highway, after reaching Lower Post, could follow existing Route C, thus
giving an over-all distance from Prince George to Fairbanks of about 1,431 miles and
a maximum altitude south of Lower Post of 3,273 feet. On this route we have a
complete large-scale contour map of the British Columbia section.
Route C follows a line of airports constructed in 1941, and for that reason was
selected by the American engineers for the construction of a highway to Alaska in
1942. This highway, after crossing the Peace River at 1,325 feet, crosses the Rocky
Mountains at 4,212 feet altitude and reaches Fairbanks via Lower Post, White Horse,
and Kluane Lake in 1,574 miles from Dawson Creek or 2,069 miles from Edmonton.
It crosses the hitherto remote north-eastern section of the Province, a region low
enough and fiat enough for agriculture, though reported to be very poorly drained.
Putting the Alaska Highway east of the Rocky Mountains makes necessary its connection with the British Columbia road system passing through Prince George; this
can be done either by extending the Manson Creek Road down the Peace River, by
building through the Pine Pass, or by building through the Monkman Pass. If the
country to the north develops it will probably be necessary to build the 350 miles
connecting Finlay Forks with Lower Post, to avoid the two crossings of the Rocky
Mountains; fortunately this is easy, except for the bridges.
Our field-work is at present handicapped by the enlistment of most of our younger
men in the armed forces, but we are carrying on with the older men assisted by high
school boys. In 1942, Mr. Hugh Pattinson, B.C.L.S., had a triangulation party, largely
composed of Indians, working over from Stikine waters to the headwaters of the Skeena
River on Route A above described; survey parties in charge of A. J. Campbell, N. C.
Stewart, and G. J. Jackson, all B.C. Land Surveyors, were in the Cowichan Lake, REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. L 19
Nanaimo, and Tofino areas respectively, engaged in topographical mapping using air
photographs, and all working in conjunction with the military authorities.
Reports compiled by F. O. Morris and W. G. H. Firth for the Surveys and Geographic Divisions respectively, giving details of the work carried on under their
supervision and of the maps published, as well as reports from the surveyors employed
on field-work, are attached hereto. Owing to enlistments and the lesser skill of those
temporarily employed to fill the gaps, some of our basic reference maps lag, and the
fact that fully half the time of our Geographic staff is devoted to special map requirements of the military authorities necessitates postponement of other map-work;
however, the staff has risen to the occasion and the general public is well served.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. L 20 REPORT OP MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
By F. 0. Morris, Assistant Surveyor-General.
SURVEYS  DIVISION.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying,
checking survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many minor activities.
A blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained, rendering service to the various
governmental Departments.
Aerial Photograph Library.—A considerable portion of the Province has been
photographed from the air and an effort is made in this office to have on record one
copy of each of these aerial photographs. These are available for inspection and at
present total 96,647 views, consisting of 75,603 taken by Department of National
Defence, 14,712 by B.C. Forest Service, and 6,332 by Western Canadian Airways.
Index maps showing the position of these aerial photographs are also .on record and
available for inspection.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of
alienations and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and
mineral reference maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are
maintained by the Surveys Division. There are now 195 reference maps and 78 mineral
reference maps, making a total of 273 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—
(1) by adding new survey information as it becomes available, and (2) by renewing
same when worn out with constant use and handling in the blue-print machines—forms
a considerable portion of the work of the Division. During the year three new reference maps were made and eleven were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached hereto,
give a list of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the year 1942, Surveys Division.
Number of field-books received  239
„          lots surveyed  285
„          lots plotted   214
„          lots gazetted   226
,,          lots cancelled   36
„          mineral-claim field-books prepared   135
,,          reference maps compiled   11
,,          applications for purchase cleared   191
„         applications for pre-emption cleared  242
„          applications for lease cleared   319
„         coal licences cleared  34
„          water licences cleared   91
„         timber-sales cleared   1,936
„         free-use permits cleared  468
„         hand-loggers' licences cleared   17
„          Crown-grant applications cleared  _,  1,102
,,          reverted-land clearances  1  955
„         cancellations made  496
„         inquiries cleared  '-  1,953
„         placer-mining leases plotted on maps  160 .  APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. L 21
Number of letters received  4,397
letters sent out   3,078
Crown-grant and lease tracings made   1,426
miscellaneous tracings made   127
Government Agents' tracings made         .     92
blue-prints made         23,112
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints from other departments and public   $4,991.45
Value of blue-prints for Lands Department  $3,348.55
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault        29,587 L 22
REPORT OF MINISTER OP LANDS, 1942.
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ffifflOHWNCJNCOWWM'JTfiinOt-OOOiOHNMTliiOtOt- APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. L 25
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REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
REPORT OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH LIBRARY.
By W. J. H. Holmes.
Number of aerial views on file December 31st, 1942:—
Royal Canadian Air Force (A)  75,046
Royal Canadian Air Force (BA)  1,620
Western Canada Airways (WCA)  6,238
Mackenzie Air Service (MAS)  1,473
Canadian Airways, Ltd. (Alaska Highway obliques)  94
British Columbia Forest Service (BC)  21,413
Total.
105,884
Aerial views received and taken on file during 1942:—
Royal Canadian Air Force (A)  1,063
British Columbia Forest Service (BC)  6,701
Mackenzie  Air   Service   (MAS),  (vicinity  of
Moberly Lake)     1,473
(plus 6 duplicates),
(plus 68 duplicates).
Total
9,237
There still remain a number of British Columbia views taken during 1938, 1939,
and 1940 that have not yet been received for filing.
During 1942, 8,213 views were issued on loan and 10,244 views were returned.
There are at present (December 31st, 1942) 6,975 aerial views out on loan.
Views were issued on loan to the British Columbia Forest Service; the Topographic Branch, the Geographic Branch, and the Surveys Branch of the Surveyor-
General's Department; the Department of Public Works, the Department of Mines,
the Water Rights Branch, and the British Columbia Land Settlement Board; to the
Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal Canadian Naval Service; and, to a limited extent,
to surveyors and others of the general public.
Topographic Survey Ground Views.—There are on file the ground views taken
by the Topographic Survey Branch from 1914 to 1942, and estimated to number something over 35,000; also the corresponding photographic plates.
Reference Maps.—Aerial view index maps now number 98, and topographic ground
view index maps 70..
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By W. G. H. Firth, Acting Chief Geographer.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
100
2,000
BOO
2,000
4,000
March, 1942
April, 1942
Aug., 1942
Aug., 1942
Dec, 1942
IH
lJ
3a
Ih
3b
15.78 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
IB.78 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
170,000
366,255
Fort George (reprint)       __	
Northern British Columbia (reprint) ___	
9,350
170,000
9,350
In Course of Preparation.
3a
4b
4g
3 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
9,350
3,050
3,100
J APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. L 27
Geographic Board of Canada, Naming and Recording.
Number of map-sheets' names reviewed        11
New names recorded  1,302
Geographical Work for other Departments,
National Defence and Public.
Sixty-four items, receipts and value of work  $2,007.00
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps issued to Departments and public ,  14,444
Maps received into stock  8,700
Total value of printed maps issued  $5,850.70
Revenue from printed maps  $5,347.33
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made  4,189
Revenue from Departments and public  $1,286.00
Value of photostats for Lands Department, etc      $816.70
Letters.
Letters received and attended to  1,343
Standard Base Map.
Nechako Pre-emptors' Sheets, compiled complete  3
Fort George Pre-emptors' Sheets, compiled complete  2
Standard Base Map, skeleton sheets compiled  7
School districts plotted from description 11  23
Control nets supplied  45
Triangulation.
Main and  Coast, by least square  adjustment, triangles
ad j u sted    217
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations  586
Index-cards, records r  824
Triangulation index maps  6
RESUME.
Sean Howard, apprentice draughtsman (war replacement), enlisted March 14th,
1942.
A. W. Lees, apprentice draughtsman (war replacement), enlisted September 9th,
1942.
A. H. Ralfs, assistant mathematical computer, enlisted September 15th, 1942.
T. Hinton, apprentice draughtsman, enlisted November 19th, 1942.
Nine members of the Geographic staff have joined the Canadian Army (Active).
A. E. Stone was appointed as apprentice draughtsman (war replacement), April
13th, 1942.
The operations of the Division during the past year were governed almost entirely
by the need for its products and services in connection with national defence.
A large increase was noted in map distribution, caused principally by demands
from the Canadian and United States armed forces. L 28 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
Considerable data were assembled at the request of the Geographical Section,
Department of National Defence, for the production of military maps covering various
sections of the Province; since 1940 no less than thirty new map-sheets have been
compiled and printed by Dominion Government offices largely from data supplied by
this Department; these constitute military maps on the scales of 1 and 2 miles to
1 inch, the majority of which cover Vancouver Island and the coastal area, also air
navigation charts of coastal and other areas on the scale of 8 miles to 1 inch.
The sale and distribution of topographical maps is restricted owing to present
circumstances, but after the war these maps produced essentially for defence purposes
should aid greatly in widening the geographical knowledge of the Province.
As Lieutenant-Colonel G. G. Aitken, M.C, will resume his duties as Chief
Geographer early in 1943, the writer takes this opportunity of acknowledging with
thanks the whole-hearted co-operation of the staff and the happy relations that have
existed throughout his term of office as Acting Chief Geographer, also for the help
and confidence reposed in him by the superior officers of the Department.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, COWICHAN LAKE AND
NANAIMO RIVER, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical
control surveys carried out under your instructions in the vicinity of Cowichan Lake,
the Nanaimo River Valley, and extending to the east coast of Vancouver Island. This
portion of the island, comprising an area of approximately 900 square miles, well
known, in part well settled, and with large areas logged, had never been mapped topographically. It was considered to be in the public interest that such a map should
be made at this time.
This section was too large to be covered, in one season, with sufficient control to
make a map of the required accuracy, and, as it was expected the whole area, as well
as a larger area to the north, would be photographed from the air, there was a choice
in the part to be covered first. Accordingly the western or more mountainous parts
were undertaken, with the intention of covering as much of the easterly and flatter
areas as time and conditions permitted. The dense smoke from the slash-burning,
which commenced early in September, made work of this nature virtually impossible,
so, while the mountainous areas were well covered, very little was accomplished in the
other parts. This was exceedingly unfortunate as it developed late in the season, the
easterly part of our area was all that had been successfully covered with aerial photographs. Hence the area possible to map is limited to the portion south of Cowichan
Lake, which had been photographed from the air in 1937, and the westerly part of that
covered this year.
The field party was organized in Victoria on June 23rd, with R. D. Fraser and
A. H. Ralfs, of the permanent service, as assistants, and with S. L. Clarke, also of the
permanent service, and two boys as survey helpers.    A cook completed the party.
Until the end of July the work was carried out in the vicinity of Cowichan Lake.
During August the upper valleys of the Nanaimo River and Jump Creek, and out
towards the City of Nanaimo, were well covered. Then a return was made to Cowichan
to carry the work there farther to the east and to complete triangulation work neces- TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, COWICHAN LAKE, NANAIMO RIVER.  L 29
sary. Due to the dense smoke in September this was not very successful and, after
a struggle to complete certain parts, the party was disbanded on September 21st. Late
in October, after the smoke had cleared, two short trips were made with small parties
from the office staff. Several important camera stations were occupied and very
important triangulation work completed. This closed the field-work for the season,
during which 104 points were fixed by triangulation. Eighty of these were occupied
as camera stations at which 546 photographs were taken, and approximately 650 square
miles controlled for mapping from aerial photographs.
The area included in this report is one of the best known on Vancouver Island,
and it is not necessary, as usual, to give a detailed description of the physical features,
climate, etc. It might be mentioned that, for photographic work of any kind, the past
season was one of the best in many years, and it is possible that if the dense smoke
had not stopped our work the whole area would have been controlled.
Logging operations have been carried on in this part for many years and large
sections have already been logged, thus forcing the logging companies to extend their
railways and truck-roads farther and farther back to reach the untouched sections.
A new railway is being constructed from Ladysmith to tap the upper Nanaimo Valley
and its branches. A shorter line, up Nineteen Creek, off Robertson River, is being
built to reach higher timbered areas lying there. A new sawmill being constructed
at Mesachie Lake will be fed by this line. The railway from Chemainus, in the
Chemainus Valley, is being pushed up much farther. Truck-roads are extending
farther out, particularly those from Ladysmith, and one, from Cowichan Lake, is being
built up Meade Creek to reach an area of fine timber around the headwaters of that
creek. A second sawmill is nearing completion near Honeymoon Bay, on Cowichan
Lake.
The Forest Branch have been, for some time, carrying on extensive reforestation
projects over the logged areas and these show great promise. A few years have made
a surprising difference in the appearance of the country along the road to Cowichan
Lake. Four years ago it was a rather barren-looking stretch, with many dry snags.
The barrenness has been covered by new growth and many of the snags have disappeared.
MINERALS.
The mineral possibilities of the area have been covered in different reports issued
by the Department of Mines. Several of the claims mentioned in these reports, particularly those on the ridge around Cottonwood Valley, off Cowichan Lake, are still in
the process of development. The mines on Mount Sicker, due to the war, are being
reopened and extensive work is planned.
GAME.
Many deer were seen throughout the season and would appear to be getting more
numerous. Elk, black bear, and deer were encountered on one day around the headwaters of Shaw and Sadie Creeks; blue grouse and willow grouse were fairly plentiful,
while wild pigeons were seen in different parts. The fishing in Cowichan Lake, Cowichan Bay, and vicinity is too well known to need mention here.
ACCESSIBILITY.
The district is well served by the main island highways and the two railroads.
These are shown on many published maps and the logging-railways and truck-roads
are privately owned, and, as such, are not open to the public; but the railways leave
routes of travel after the rails have been taken away and, doubtless, some of the wonderful truck-roads will be maintained as public roads after their use for logging L 30 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
purposes has ended. Some of these old logging grades are being turned into passable
roads and truck-roads are being kept in condition for fire-fighting and reforestation
purposes.
There are a number of trails through the still virgin parts; most of them are only
blazed routes and difficult to follow, but others have been cut out and kept open. A
good trail, from the end of the road at the second Nanaimo Lake, leads up the valley
and by way of Green River around to the head of Jump Creek and connecting with the
Reservoir road at the dam on that creek. Trails are kept open up Cottonwood Creek
and from the Cottonwood over Widow Pass into the headwaters of Chemainus River
and beyond to Jump Creek waters to reach the different claims located there.
As usual, our thanks are due to the different logging companies for the use of
their roads and in providing transportation over their railways, and also for placing
at our disposal valuable information from their plans and maps.
TOPOGRAPHICAL  SURVEY,  VICINITY  OF  NANOOSE   BAY
AND  ALBERNI  CANAL.
By N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on topographical surveys
carried out under your instructions during the field season of 1942 in an area on Vancouver Island, between Nanoose Bay and Alberni Canal, and extending southerly from
Home Lake and Qualicum River to the northerly limits of the watersheds of the
Nanaimo and Nitinat Rivers. The entire area is within the E. & N. Railway land
grant.
The survey was designed to produce a contoured map at a scale of one-half mile
to the inch, with a 100-foot contour interval, using air photographs controlled by photo-
topographic methods in the mountainous parts and by chain or stadia traverses in the
flatter areas. The camera stations and traverses were fixed by secondary triangulation broken down from existing geodetic points. Many ties were made to lot corners
with the idea of placing accurately the cadastral surveys. The area thus controlled
contains approximately 800 square miles.
The field party consisted of G. C. Emerson, G. McRae, and G. New, instrument-
men; four helpers and a cook. Field-work began at Cameron Lake on June 22nd and
the party was disbanded on September 24th, the early closing-down being due to dense
smoke from slash-burning. With a crew recruited from the office staff, a return to
the field was made on October 13th, so as to occupy some stations while signals were
still up, finally completing field operations on October 17th.
During the season 109 triangulation points were occupied, of these 68 were camera
stations; 528 survey photographs were taken and some 23 miles of traverses made.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
Along the east coast of Vancouver Island in this area, there is a coastal plain
some 5 to 6 miles in width, bordered by timbered slopes that rise steeply to a mountain
system or systems that extend to the Alberni Canal, and which culminate in Mount
Benson (altitude, 3,360 feet), Mount Moriarty (altitude, 5,282 feet), Mount Arrow-
smith (altitude, 5,962 feet), and Mount McQuillan (altitude, 5,168 feet). Three small
rivers drain the easterly slopes of these mountains and cross the coastal plain, these
J TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, NANOOSE BAY AND ALBERNI CANAL.     L 31
are the Qualicum out of Home Lake, the Little Qualicum out of Cameron Lake, and
the Englishman River from Mountains Arrowsmith and Moriarty. Labour Day Lake,
situated just south of Mount Moriarty, is drained by the Cameron River into Cameron
Lake.    The westerly slopes are drained by China and Rogers Creeks into Alberni Canal.
FORESTS.
This section of Vancouver Island was originally covered with a wonderful forest
in which Douglas fir and red cedar predominated, other varieties being hemlock, spruce,
and balsam. Although a large part has been logged, there still remain several fine
stands, notably in the Cameron River valley (this includes Cathedral Grove), the head
of the Nitinat River and in the watershed of Englishman River. The logged areas
are reproducing with a very dense growth of all varieties. The forests provide the
raw material for the chief industry in this area. There are two large sawmills at Port
Alberni and one at Redgap, on Nanoose Bay. Detailed reports on the timber resources
may be obtained from the Forest Branch, Department of Lands.
MINERALS.
Although there are no producing metalliferous mines, there are many prospects
throughout the area. Placer gold is found in China Creek and Nanaimo River. The
discoveries on China Creek were made in the sixties and subsequently worked out
chiefly by Chinamen. Lode claims showing values in gold, silver, and copper have
been located and developed along Mineral and McQuillan Creeks, both tributaries of
China Creek (see 1936 Report of the Minister of Mines), and claims have been staked
on Franklin River and near the headwaters of the Cameron and Nitinat Rivers. Mineral claims (indicating copper, silver, and gold values) have also been staked south of
Cameron Lake, near Rowbotham Lake, on the upper branches of Englishman River
and on Nanoose Creek, not far from the Island Highway. In the limestone north of
Home Lake zinc showings occur (for details see Report of the Minister of Mines,
1927). Some prospectors encountered on the Cameron River trail said they had found
gold in some small veins on Mount Moriarty.
In Memoir 69, compiled by D. B. Dowling, Geological Survey, Ottawa, 1915, it is
stated that the productive coal measures of the Comox field extend along the east coast
of the island to Northwest Bay, and that these measures very possibly contain workable coal-seams.
GAME.
Deer are plentiful, as many as twenty were seen in one day. Small black bear
were encountered, but are not numerous. Blue grouse were plentiful, and willow
grouse and wild pigeons were seen. Signs of fur-bearing animals, including mink,
marten, beaver, and racoon, were found. Elk were reported near the headwaters of
China Creek and Nitinat River. Good sport-fishing is to be had in this district; trout
in Labour Day, Cameron, and Home Lakes and tributary streams, and salmon-fishing
in Alberni Canal, Strait of Georgia, and up the larger rivers. Many of the smaller
lakes have been stocked with trout and bass.
CLIMATE.
The climate along the east coast in vicinity of Parksville and Qualicum Beach -is
reputed to be the most equable on Vancouver Island. Here the average annual rainfall
is 31 inches, most of this falling in winter .time, hence the summers are dry and warm.
The Alberni Canal also has a very temperate climate, but the rainfall recorded at Port
Alberni has an annual average of 69 inches. The field season of 1942 was very dry
with an exceptional number of cloudless days, which was, of course, very good for our
photographic work. L 32 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
ACCESSIBILITY.
The Island Highway traverses the easterly portion of the area and the Alberni
Highway branches at Parksville, going westerly along the south side of Cameron Lake
and over a summit 1,300 feet above sea-level, with a short descent to the cities of
Alberni and Port Alberni on the Alberni Canal. These are surfaced roads. A cut-off
road, also surfaced, leaves the Island Highway at Qualicum Beach, running southerly,
joins the Alberni Highway near Hillier's Crossing. As the flat country along the east
coast is well settled, it is adequately supplied with a rural road system. In the vicinity
of Port Alberni good roads lead out to Sproat and Great Central Lakes and through
the wide valley of the Stamp River. An old logging-railroad, from which ties have
been removed, leads south-east from Port Alberni up China Creek to the mouth of
McQuillan Creek. The upper part of this road is in poor shape but can be negotiated,
providing one wishes to take the risk of driving over the old wooden trestles. In
addition to the roads already mentioned, there is a maze of logging-roads (and railroads from which the ties have been removed). The Forest Branch is connecting
many of these logging-roads and improving the surface, thus making serviceable
through roads—a policy which should aid in fire-prevention and fire-fighting and general accessibility. One of the roads so improved provides a route from Little Qualicum
Falls Park, on the Alberni Highway, to the Home Lake Road, and another goes from
the Home Lake Road around the north and west sides of Home Lake and then southerly
to a point on the Alberni Highway, about 3% miles east of Alberni, thus providing an
alternate route between the east and west coasts.
The trunk roads of the logging companies at present operating in this area are
well designed and constructed. These roads should be a great asset in the future
development of the district, when made available to the general public. The location
of the larger operations are as follows: First, a road into an area south of Nanoose
Bay and emerging at tide-water about 1 mile east of Redgap P.O. Second, a road from
the headwaters of Nanoose and Bonell Creeks and the East Fork of Englishman River
to salt water at Northwest Bay. Third, another road from East Fork of Englishman
River to salt water at Arbutus Point. Lastly, a trunk road from Home Lake to Dunsmuir Station, on the E. & N. Railway, and to tide-water near-by.
The Alberni Pacific Logging Company were using a road from the vicinity of the
west end of Home Lake to the Alberni Highway, about Z1/^ miles east of Alberni; this
road being joined to the Home Lake roads by the Forest Branch, as already mentioned.
From the summit on the Alberni Highway there is a good trail up the Cameron
River to the Nitinat River. We blazed a route from the forks of the Cameron River
to Labour Day Lake (altitude, 2,995 feet), which point is reached on an easy grade all
the way from the highway. There is a blazed trail from Labour Day Lake to the
Nanaimo River trail. Other trails in the area lead to Mount Arrowsmith from the
easterly end of Cameron Lake, one up Englishman River and a third to Rowbotham's
Lake, the lower ends of the last two being hard to find where they cross the logging
slash.
Besides the roads and trails, mention should be made of the E. & N. Railway along
the east coast and the branch line from Parksville to Port Alberni. Owing to the
scarcity of shipping due to the war, this railroad took up the work of freighting large
amounts of lumber and cedar poles across the island to Nanoose Bay, the first leg of
the journey to Atlantic waters. The Alberni Pacific Logging Company have a railroad
crossing this area from their operations in the Ash River to their mills at Port Alberni. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, NANOOSE BAY AND ALBERNI CANAL.     L 33
INDUSTRIES.
The chief industries, in order of importance, are lumbering, farming, the tourist
trade, and fishing. Forest products include lumber, cedar shingles, ply-wood, cedar
poles and posts. There are a large number of fine farms, both along the east coast
and in the vicinity of Alberni, where good crops are obtained, for weather and soil are
suitable for vegetables, fruits of all kinds, hay and clover, and some alfalfa, and for
the raising of poultry and dairy products. In logged-over areas where fireweed grows
in abundance, honey is collected and, near the sea, holly can be commercially grown.
There are one or two fur-farms in this area.
Along the east coast are found many fine beaches and camping-places, the better
known being at Qualicum Beach and Parksville. Here, with delightful climate, are
ideal locations for summer homes. At Cameron Lake there are fine beaches open to
the public, as well as tourist camps and a chalet from which one may obtain various
kinds of sport, including hunting, boating, fishing, and mountaineering on the slopes
of Mount Arrowsmith. During the depression years, the Forest Branch made accessible and improved two wonderful parks, one at Little Qualicum Falls and the other
at Englishman Falls on Englishman River.    These parks are well worth a visit.
In and around the fast-growing cities of Alberni and Port Alberni, there are also
many attractions for the tourist and sportsman, such as the Stamp River Falls and
fishing and boating on the Alberni Canal.
In conclusion, I would like to convey my thanks to the logging companies for the
use of their roads and for the valuable information from their plans and maps, and to
the various members of the Forest Branch in the district for their help in many ways.
TOPOGRAPHICAL  SURVEY,  WEST  COAST
OF  VANCOUVER   ISLAND.
By G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the topographical survey
made by me, under your instructions, during the past summer.
The area completed is on the west coast of Vancouver Island, in the vicinity of
Tofino, and completes map-sheets 92 F/4 and 92 E/l.
The area has all been covered by vertical aerial views of the Royal Canadian Air
Force and of the British Columbia Forest Service, taken at altitudes of from 9,000 to
15,000 feet. The shore-lines are covered by views taken at about 10,000 feet while
the views of the interior were taken at 15,000 feet. The triangulation was controlled
by stations of the British Columbia Coast triangulation and of the Hydrographic
Survey of Canada.
The party was organized at Victoria and arrived at Tofino on the S.S. " Princess
Maquinna " on June 24th. Work was commenced at once. An old house near Tofino
was rented for the season to live in, while working in the vicinity and to store supplies
and equipment. As much of the work was along the water a launch was hired for the
season. From here side-trips were made to Kennedy Lake and up Clayoquot, Tofino,
and Tranquil Rivers and Warn Bay. The party was in the field until September 29th
and came back to Victoria by way of Alberni.
The weather during the season was much better than usual for the west coast,
there being little rain and less fog than most years.    In September, however, it got L 34 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
very smoky and after the first week it was so dense that stations could not be occupied
successfully. We waited for three weeks hoping it would clear, but then disbanded
the party.
During the season views were taken from forty-four stations, 20 miles of traverse
were run, several ties made, and many barometer readings taken.
Tofino and Ucluelet are the main towns in the area. Both these places have stores,
an hotel, post-office, customs, school, etc. At Clayoquot, on Stubbs Island, about 1 mile
from Tofino, there are an hotel and a store.
On the south-west end of Meares Island there is an Indian settlement at Opitsat
and 1 mile north of this is the large Indian school at Kakawis, where the Indian children from up and down the coast are sent to be educated. This school is run by the
Roman Catholics. There is another Indian settlement at Yarksis, on the east side of
Vargas Island.
Telephone-line runs along the west coast, connecting these towns with Alberni.
Mail and passenger service is now three times a week from Alberni. The C.P.R. boat
from Victoria runs every ten days, while Canada Airways runs planes from Vancouver
three times a week.
Vargas Island, which has an area of about 12 square miles, is low-lying, swampy
land, with a few hills reaching as high as 500 feet along the north-east end. The
timber is scrubby on the flats, but better among the hills.
Meares Island, about 30 square miles in extent, is quite rough and rocky, the hills
reaching to 2,500 feet elevation. This island is heavily timbered and almost entirely
taken up by timber limits.
The part of Vancouver Island lying between Ucluelet and Tofino and south of
Kennedy River and Lake, is low-lying and swampy, with isolated knolls reaching 500
feet elevation. This is all timbered, but in the wettest areas it is very scrubby. On
the points between the two arms of Kennedy Lake and on each side of Tofino Inlet
there are heavily timbered hills reaching an elevation of 3,500 feet.
There is now a well located and well constructed road from Ucluelet to within
9 miles of Tofino. The last 9 miles to Tofino is still narrow and crooked, but could
easily be improved. This road is nearly level and reaches an elevation of a little over
100 feet. A couple of miles from Ucluelet a trail branches off to Kennedy Lake and
is about 4 miles long.
Kennedy Lake is reached from Tofino by boat. In the river just above salt water
there are rapids about one-quarter mile long, up which a small boat can be lined. From
the rapids to the lake, a distance of about 4 miles, there is little current.
Up the Clayoquot River, which flows into Clayoquot or West Arm of Kennedy
Lake, there is a trail to Clayoquot Lake, about 1 mile. The lake is 40 feet above the
Kennedy and about 1 mile long. There is no trail around it, as there are high rock
bluffs on each side, but a small boat can be lined up to the lake. For a couple of miles
above the lake it is easy travelling along the flats and bars to the foot of a canyon.
From there it is rough travelling and no trail.
On Tofino Creek a trail starts at a cabin on the beach on the east side; after about
one-half mile it enters an old road, which continues about 1 mile up the river. From
the end of this road there is a poor trail for about 5 miles farther, which crosses from
side to side and uses bars in places. There is also a trail on the west side of the river
for about 1 mile to an old prospect.
On Tranquil Creek there is a new camp building about one-half mile up the river,
which can be reached by boat at high tide. From here there is a truck-road, partly
built, for about 1 mile up the west side of the river, and a trail for a couple of miles
farther to a small cabin. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.    L 35
There is a good trail up Virge Creek for about 2 miles, starting at a cabin at the
mouth of the creek and leading to a cabin on the summit at an elevation of 2,500 feet.
There are no mines in the area that are operating at the present time. A number
of claims have been staked within a few miles of Tofino and Tranquil Inlets, and a
certain amount of development-work done on them from time to time. Some of these
date back to the 1890's. The ore is chiefly iron and copper pyrites, with some values
of gold and silver. On the east side of Tofino Creek there are the remains of a wagon-
road about 1 mile long. This started about one-quarter mile up the creek, accessible
at high tide, and went to the Copper King property; over this road several hundred
tons of copper ore were shipped years ago.
On Meares Island, in Lemmens Inlet, there is the old Kalappa group of claims,
where considerable development-work was done and some chalcopyrite ore shipped
about thirty years ago.    The remains of bunkers can still be seen on the shore.
At Wreck Bay, a few miles west of Ucluelet, there is a sand beach about 3 miles
long. Here is found a fine black sand with which is associated very fine gold. This
has been worked off and on since the 1890's and considerable gold has been recovered
in that time.
The whole country is heavily timbered and has a dense growth of typical west
coast underbrush. The timber consists of hemlock, balsam, spruce, cedar, black pine,
and some white pine. It is scrubby on most of the small islands and on the swampy
areas of Vargas Island and on the peninsula east of Tofino. No large logging operations have been started yet. There is a fully equipped sawmill on Meares Island, in
Mosquito Harbour, but this has been closed down for over twenty years.
Fishing is the chief industry and a number of purse-seiners and trollers operate
in Barkley and Clayoquot Sounds and off shore. Before the war a large number of
Japanese trollers made their headquarters at Tofino and Ucluelet, but these, of course,
are not operating now and the business is in the hands of whites and Indians.
Although little agriculture has been attempted, garden produce, small fruits, and
flowers do well, as is evidenced by household gardens. No watering is required and
there is sufficient sunshine to ripen most fruits and vegetables.
There are some very fine sand beaches along the south shore, between Ucluelet
and Tofino, and also on Vargas and Meares Islands. The largest of these is Long
Beach, which is about 7 miles long and quite wide at low tide. This is a natural speedway for cars and the old road used it for several miles.
The climate is very temperate but the precipitation is heavy, being about 110
inches per annum along the shore and increasing up the inlets and valleys. Records
kept at Kennedy Lake for eleven years, prior to 1935, showed an average of 176 inches
a year. There is little snow on the coast, but it is heavy in the mountains. There
is considerable fog in the summer.
Ducks, geese, and brant are plentiful around Tofino during the winter months.
Deer are scarce on the main island, but are said to be fairly plentiful on Vargas and
Meares Islands. Black bears were seen quite often along the inlets and rivers. Grouse
are very scarce.    There are some fur-bearing animals, chiefly marten, mink, and racoon.
Trout are to be found in moderate numbers in most of the rivers and lakes.
Salmon of all varieties come into the inlets in season and spawn in the rivers. Salmon,
halibut, cod, pilchard, herring, and anchovies are caught along the coast. Numerous
Japanese oysters were noticed in the mud-flats near Tofino. The Dominion Government operated a salmon-hatchery at Kennedy Lake for years, but this has not been in
operation since 1935.
The work on the maps is now in progress and the usual plans are being prepared. L 36 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
TRIANGULATION SURVEY, LITTLE KLAPPAN RIVER, INDIAN CREEK,
KLUAYETZ CREEK, AND KLUATANTAN RIVER, CASSIAR DISTRICT.
By Hugh Pattinson, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the above survey carried
out by me under your instructions of June 5th, 1942.
The primary object of the survey as defined in your instructions was to make a
rigid connection between two of Mr. Fred Nash's previously established stations—Bowl,
Cloud, or Andesite—in the vicinity of Klappan River crossing, and two of Mr. F. C.
SwannelPs stations—Stalk and Slate—the former being near Stalk Lake and the latter
about 5 miles east of Duti Creek, one of the headwater tributaries of the Upper Skeena
River.
At the same time, my instructions directed me to collect information that might
be of use in appraising the merits of a highway route to connect with the British
Columbia road system at Fort St. James or Hazelton.
In addition to the above, where the work could be done economically, existing land
surveys and boundary lines were to be tied to the triangulation and also, if time permitted, a connection made with Mr. Foster's Skeena River triangulation.
The party, consisting of eight men, was organized at Telegraph Creek. Abnormal
conditions, due to the war, made it very difficult to secure experienced help; however,
the services of four Indians were finally obtained, which, with three white helpers,
completed my party.
Fifteen horses were also obtained at Telegraph Creek. Due to the unusually high
water, the horses had to be taken across the river on a scow as it was considered too
risky to try to swim them across.
On June 20th the party started for Klappan River crossing, in the vicinity of
which the first stations to be occupied were located. The distance by trail from Telegraph Creek is approximately 75 miles and the trail runs easterly following the
Klastline River valley for a considerable distance. There are some soft places along
the trail where horses get bogged down and, as there were several days of heavy rain
before the party left Telegraph Creek, we experienced considerable inconvenience in
this respect. Due to the large areas of fire-killed timber, windfalls are- constantly
falling across the trail and many of these were cut out by the party, particularly in
the vicinity of Buckley Lake.
Actual survey operations commenced on June 29th and were carried on continuously until October 7th, when the party returned to Telegraph Creek. The general
direction of survey operations was south-easterly, following the valleys of the Little
Klappan River, Indian Creek, Kluayetz Creek, and Kluatantan River. Stations were
set on the main divides, readily accessible and convenient to the trail. Ties were made
to the south-east corner of Township 79, and to Sections 26 and 27, Township 24. By
the time connection had been completed with Mr. SwannelPs stations, Stalk and Slate,
it was time to start the return trip to Telegraph Creek, as certain high stations
remained to be occupied on the way out. Sixteen inches of snow covered the summit
of Mount Cloud, which was the last high point occupied. The highest mountain utilized
as a station was Mount Umbach, near the head of Skelhorne Creek. A 30-foot raft
was constructed at Klappan River crossing and it required five trips to get outfit and
supplies over to the east side of the river, the same raft being used again on the return
trip. TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR DISTRICT. L 37
ACCESS.
The only present means of entry into the region are by trail, of which there are
three, none of them particularly good. That most generally used begins at Telegraph
Creek and runs easterly to Buckley Lake and crosses Klastline River at a canyon,
following it for some distance. The trail crosses a 3,940-foot summit before dropping
down to the Klappan River at the crossing. The distance to the crossing from Telegraph Creek is between 70 and 80 miles by trail and, with full horse loads, takes about
a week. This time could be considerably reduced if improvements were made on the
trail.
From Klappan River crossing one trail continues easterly past Cold Fish Lake to
Hyland's Post and Caribou Hide and another runs south-easterly, following the Little
Klappan, Indian Creek, Kluayetz Creek, and Kluatantan River to the Skeena River.
Other trails giving access into the region start from Hazelton and from the Finlay
River near Ware. That from Hazelton follows the Skeena River and Slowmaldo Creek,
and is in very poor shape. Most of the bridges at the various creek crossings have
been washed out and windfalls litter the trail in many places. However, one pack-
train managed to get through to Telegraph Creek during the summer of 1941. I have
no information regarding the condition of the trail from the Finlay and do not think
it has been used in recent years, but I believe some Telegraph Creek Indians who were
packing for the American engineers intended to bring their horses back that way.
The trail follows Bower Creek for some distance when it leaves the Finlay River and
crosses that river again above Fishing Lakes.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS.
The region covered by the season's operations lies mainly within the drainage
areas of the Little Klappan River, Indian Creek, Kluayetz Creek, Kluatantan River,
and Duti Creek, the last named being the main branch of the Upper Skeena River.
Two main divides were crossed; namely, that between the Little Klappan and Indian
Creek and that between Kluayetz Creek and the Kluatantan River. The Little Klappan
flows north-westerly through a narrow timbered valley at its lower end, but widens
out towards its head to an open grassy valley from 1 to 2 miles in width. Its main
tributary is Tsetia Creek, which heads in some lakes in Kenostic Pass, and empties
into the Little Klappan about 8 or 9 miles above its mouth.
Indian Creek is a short creek only 6 or 7 miles in length and flows into the Spatsizi
River just below the mouth of Tenas Creek. It flows through a wide, open, grassy
valley throughout most of its length, but cascades down through a narrow canyon
before emptying into the Spatsizi. It has a small flow, exeept during the spring runoff, as it only drains a small area.
Kluayetz Creek is the main branch of the Upper Spatsizi and is still called Spatsizi
by the Indians. It is only about 15 or 16 miles long and is easily fordable with horses
at most stages of water and can be crossed on foot throughout most of the summer.
Its main tributaries are Ellis Creek, which empties into it from the south, near its
confluence with the Spatsizi River, and Ranger and Skelhorne Creeks, which are its
headwater feeders. The last named heads near Mount Umbach, the highest of our
triangulation stations.
Kluatantan River and Duti Creek are the main headwater branches of the Upper
Skeena River and both drain rugged mountain regions. The former heads in open
grassy country and flows south-easterly down a wide valley through semi-open country
for 6 or 7 miles, where its volume is increased by the water of its chief tributary,
Kluayaz Creek, which flows out of Kluayaz Lake. It then continues southerly, the
valley becoming narrower, with increasing forest-cover and vegetation as the elevation L 38 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
decreases. It empties into the Upper Skeena River about 10 miles above the mouth
of Duti Creek to the north of Groundhog Mountain. Duti Creek heads in the mountains west of Kitchener Lake and is fed from numerous glaciers. It is a fast-flowing
stream, difficult to ford except at periods of low water, and then only in certain spots.
The lower Duti Creek valley is heavily timbered, mainly with spruce up to 2 feet in
diameter and there is considerable underbrush. Farther up the valley balsam predominates. There are also some fairly extensive burns where the original forest-cover
of spruce is being replaced by poplar. Travelling is slow and arduous in these areas,
due to fallen timber and dense second growth.
FOREST-COVER.
The region has a medium coverage of Canada spruce, with occasional patches of
jack pine, aspen, and cottonwood, with some birch, the coniferous varieties predominating. There is little timber of commercial value, due to the average high elevation
above sea-level and the northern latitude. Spruce up to 2 feet in diameter are found
in the lower Duti Creek valley and in a few places along the lower end of the valley
of the Little Klappan River. Alpine balsam predominates above the 4,000-foot contour. A comparatively small proportion of the region has been burnt over in recent
years, although there are a number of old burns. Timber-line is slightly over 5,000
feet.
VEGETATION.
Except on a few jack-pine ridges and gravel benches where the soil lacks humus,
there is an abundance of wild grasses and other vegetation. Sufficient horse-feed was
available at every camp and the fact that the pack-animals were all in very good shape
at the end of a season of almost continual packing, speaks well for the region in this
respect. At the head of Indian Creek and along Kluayetz Creek and the Upper Kluatantan are long stretches of open meadow lands which produce a good quality of cured
grasses. Slough-grass meadows are plentiful throughout the area and a heavy growth
of wild rhubarb was noticed along some of the smaller creeks. Berries were not
plentiful, although scattered patches of low bush blueberries we're noticed and also
some wild strawberries. A few gooseberries, black currants, and cranberries are also
found occasionally.
GAME  AND  FUR-BEARING  ANIMALS.
Moose and caribou are quite numerous and were seen almost daily throughout the
season. Both grizzly and black bear were encountered on many occasions, at least six
of the former being seen during the summer. Goat are extremely plentiful and herds
up to a dozen or more were noticed grazing along the higher levels of the mountains.
There are quite a few sheep in the western portion of the region, but they seem to be
scarce to the east of the Little Klappan-Indian Creek divide. One silver fox was
noticed near the head of Kluatantan River. Wolves and coyotes roam over the country
in large numbers. Of the more valuable fur-bearing animals, beaver are the most
numerous, but lynx, marten, fox, mink, wolverine, and muskrat are also trapped.
Groundhogs infest the region and are considered a delicacy by the Indians. They
are particularly large and fat in this area. One of the unusual and interesting features
is the black chipmunk, which are found in this part of the Province. Large salmon
find their way up the Skeena River to Kluayaz Lake and there are rainbow trout in
some of the creeks. Of the game birds, willow and blue grouse are fairly plentiful,
and ptarmigan are particularly numerous in the mountains. Some Canada geese and
swans were also noticed. TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR DISTRICT. L 39
CLIMATE.
It is difficult to obtain reliable information in regard to climatic conditions as
there are no residents and only a few Indians enter the region for short periods during
the winter. From information obtained from Indians who make the trip to Caribou
Hide each winter from Telegraph Creek, the average snowfall at Klappan River
crossing is about 2 feet. The depth increases to about 4 feet or more at the Little
Klappan-Indian Creek divide and varies considerably in other parts of the region, due
to different factors such as elevation, air-currents, etc. The snowfall is quite heavy
in the Upper Skeena River valley, according to the Indians, but it is difficult to get any
of them to give a definite figure as to its depth. During the summer, showers occurred
frequently but were not of long duration. The weather is generally unpredictable
and changes very suddenly. The only really heavy rains occurred late in September,
when a torrential downpour lasted for two days and nights without cessation. Light
frosts at night are fairly frequent during the summer at elevations above 4,000 feet.
From the general appearance of the country, vegetation, etc., I would say the average
precipitation is moderate, probably not exceeding 20 inches.
GENERAL.
There are no permanent residents; in fact, outside our own party, there was no
one in the area during the summer and we did not see another human being until our
return to Telegraph Creek in October. In regard to the resources; fur is the only one
which has brought in any revenue to date. The whole region is a paradise for big-
game hunters and in the past many parties have gone in during the hunting season,
but the condition of the trail at present makes the trip too long for the average big-
game hunter who has only a limited amount of time at his disposal. No minerals were
noticed, but coal float was picked up along some of the creeks and pieces of coal were
also seen among the slide-rock in mountain basins and on some of the high mountain
ridges. In one case, what appeared to be a seam outcropping on the surface, partially
covered by snow, was observed close to the summit of a mountain, near the head of
the Little Klappan River. It seems more than possible that with the opening-up of
this region large coalfields will be discovered and developed, and if such should be the
case it will be an asset of no small value, as aside from its use as fuel for domestic
purposes and for the production of power, there are so many useful by-products even
now in general use.
The possibilities of this part of the Province for general farming purposes are not
very promising, due to the generally high elevation and frequent summer frosts, but
there is plenty of good arable land and meadows where wild hay could be' cut. It should
be a good stock-raising area, if sufficient hay could be raised for the long period of
winter feeding. There are many thousands of acres of good summer grazing land
along the Upper Kluatantan valley, along Kluayetz Creek, and at the head of Indian
Creek. The timber, except in some of the lower sheltered areas where there are some
spruce up to 2 feet in diameter, is of little or no commercial value, although there is
sufficient for most domestic purposes.
The construction of a road through the area covered by the season's operations
presents no major engineering difficulties. There are no bad muskegs to cross and
there is plenty of good gravel available for surfacing. From Klappan River crossing
a river grade could be followed to the Little Klappan-Indian Creek divide. From here,
the descent following Indian Creek down to the Spatsizi is gentle and through open
grassy country for several miles, most of the drop being in the last half mile, which is
quite steep. Indian Creek flows through a narrow canyon near its lower end and
there is a rise of between 300 and 400 feet in the first mile of trail westerly from its L 40 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1942.
mouth, the remaining distance to its head being up a gentle slope. From the mouth
of Indian Creek there is an easy ascent along the valley of Kluayetz Creek to the
Kluatantan-Kluayetz divide. Open, dry meadows interspersed with areas of low willow
brush extend all the way up the wide, pleasant valley to the divide. The descent
following the trail down the valley of the Kluatantan River is through similar country,
but there is more brush and the valley-floor is less uniform. The descent is gentle
for the most part and the only sharp change in elevation occurs about 3 miles above
Kluayaz Lake. From this point there is a drop of approximately 200 feet in the next
3 miles of trail. From Kluayaz Station as far as could be seen there appeared to be
an easy and uniform river grade, but time did not permit an examination of the
Kluatantan valley to its confluence with the Skeena River. There are no bad creek
crossings between the Klappan trail crossing and the mouth of the Kluatantan River.
Should the necessity arise for a land air base or an emergency landing-field in
this remote region, there are long stretches of open grassy and almost level bench
lands along the Kluayetz valley which could be quickly and economically converted
into moderate sized landing-fields. Some of these areas are entirely clear of brush,
but are covered with turf hummocks about 12 inches high. Pan-American planes
passed overhead within sight of our camp at frequent intervals. Hydroplanes have
landed on Kitchener Lake and Cold Fish Lake, and possibly Bucking Horse and Kluayaz
Lake could be used for that purpose, although the latter does not look to be over
2 miles in length.
Samples of bed-rock were taken from the various mountain stations occupied and
turned over to the Provincial Mineralogist at Victoria.
About 5 miles of trail between Klappan River crossing and the mouth of Eagle
Nest Creek were cleared of windfalls and portions of overgrown trail were slashed at
intervals, amounting to approximately 20 miles altogether.
There is plenty of room for improvement on the trail entering the region from
Telegraph Creek.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfiei.d, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1943.
1,025-1043-6495

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