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SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1941-42 BY THE… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1944

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Full Text

 SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OP  THE   PEOVINCE   OP
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1941-42
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OP EDUCATION
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1943.  To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg respectfully to present the Seventy-first Annual Report of the Public Schools
of the Province.
H. G. PERRY,
Minister of Education.
March, 19 US.  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
1941-42.
Minister of Education:
The Honourable H. G. T. PERRY.
Deputy Minister
and Superintendent of Education:
S. J. Willis, B.A., LL.D.
Assistant Superintendent of Education:
D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Ph.D.
Chief Inspector of Schools:
H. B. King, M.A., Ph.D.
Inspectors of High Schools:
J. B. DeLong, B.A., Vancouver.
A. Sullivan, B.A., Victoria.
Inspectors of Elementary, Superior, and Junior High Schools:
J. E. Brown, M.A., Penticton.
F. G. Calvert, Vancouver.
T. G. Carter (in Active Service).
E. G. Daniels, B.A., New Westminster.
*J. F. K. English, M.A., B.Paed., Pouce
Coupe.
C. J. Frederickson, B.A., Cranbrook.
W. G. Gamble, B.A., Victoria.
G. H. Gower, M.A., Courtenay.
T. W. Hall, Revelstoke.
F. A. Jewett, B.A., Nelson.
V. Z. Manning, B.A., Vancouver.
A. S. Matheson, B.A., Kelowna.
A. F. Matthews, M.A., Kamloops.
H. McArthur, B.A., Kamloops.
H. H. Mackenzie, B.A., Vancouver.
W. A. Plenderleith, M.A., D.Paed., F.R.S.A.,
F.C.P., A.M.R.S.T., Nanaimo.
*T. F. Robson, Prince George.
*H. D. Stafford, B.A., Prince George.
B. Thorsteinsson, B.A., Rossland.
*A. ,S. Towell, M.A., Abbotsford.
*A. Turnbull, B.A., Prince Rupert.
* These men also inspect the High Schools in their districts.
Municipal Inspectors of Schools:
H. L. Campbell, B.A., M.Ed., Victoria.
R. S. Shields, B.A., New Westminster.
W. Gray, M.A., North Vancouver.
STAFFS OF THE
Vancouver:
A. R. Lord, B.A., Principal.
T. R. Hall, B.A., Vice-Principal.
W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A., F.R.S.A.
H. B. MacLean.
A. E. C. Martin, B.Sc
J. M. Ewing, B.A., D.Paed.
F. C. Boyes, M.A.
Ernest Lee, B.A., B.Sc. in P.E.
Miss L. G. Bollert, B.A.
Miss M. McManus, B.Mus., M.A.
Miss Margaret Maynard, B.A.
Model School:
Miss Z. M. Manning.
Miss M. Macdonald, B.A., A.T.C.M.
M.A., Burnaby.
M.A., Saanich (after May 16th,
C. G. Brown
John Gough.
1942).
NORMAL SCHOOLS.
Victoria:
V. L. Denton, B.A., D.C.L., Principal.
H. O. English, B.A., B.S.A., Vice-Principal
John Gough, M.A. (until May 16th, 1942).
Miss H. R. Anderson, M.A., Ph.D.
K. B. Woodward, B.A., B.Paed.
F. T. C. Wickett, A.R.C.O.
Mrs. N. E. Murphy, B.Sc.
Miss Barbara Hinton, B.Sc.
Mrs. Ethel Reese-Burns.
Model School:
Miss Isabel M. L. Bescoby, M.A.
Miss Marian D. James.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Registrar:  J. L. Watson, B.A.
Officer in Charge of Industrial Education:   F. T. Fairey, B.A.
Inspector of Technical Classes:   H. A. Jones.
Director of Home Economics:   Miss J. L. McLenaghen, B.Sc.
Assistant Inspector in Home Economics:  Miss B. Rogers, B.Sc.
Officer in Charge of High Correspondence School:  Miss E. E. Lucas, B.A., D. es L.
Officer in Charge of Elementary Correspondence School:   Miss Anna B. Miller.
Organizer of School and Community Drama:
L. Bullock-Webster, A.R.C.M., F.T.C.L., M.R.S.T.
Officer in Charge of Text-book Branch:   P. G. Barr.
Chief Clerk:   R. D. Smith.
Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind:   C. E. MacDonald, LL.B., B.S. in Ed., LL.D.
Director, Recreational and Physical Education:  Ian Eisenhardt (in Active Service). TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Superintendent of Education       7
Report of the Chief Inspector of Schools     32
Report on Normal Schools—
Vancouver     43
Victoria     44
Report of the Director of the Summer School of Education     46
Report of the Officer in Charge of Industrial Education     56
Report of the Director of Home Economics     62
Report of the Superintendent of Schools, Vancouver     64
Reports of Municipal Inspectors—
Victoria .     71
New Westminster     73
North Vancouver (City and District) and West Vancouver     75
Burnaby     76
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind     78
Reports of Officers in Charge of Correspondence Schools—
High School and Vocational Courses     80
Elementary School Courses     86
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Text-book Branch     87
Report on Work of Adult Education     90
Report of the Executive of Recreational and Physical Education     99
Report of Organizer of School and Community Drama  103
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust  105
Report of Commission on " Education of Soldiers' Dependent Children Act"  107
Statistical Returns—
High Schools (Cities)  110
High Schools (District Municipalities)  125
.    " High Schools  (Rural Districts)  131
Superior Schools (District Municipalities)  137
Superior Schools (Rural Districts)  138
Junior High Schools (Cities)  __ 143
Junior High Schools (District Municipalities)  152
Junior High Schools (Rural Districts)  156
Elementary Schools (Cities)  158
Elementary Schools (District Municipalities)  190
Elementary Schools (Rural Districts)  207
Elementary Schools (Community Districts)  227
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each City  228
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each District Municipality  231
Enrolment (Recapitulation)  235
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts  236 REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT
OF EDUCATION, 1941-42.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., March, 1943.
To the Honourable H. G. T. Perry,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Seventy-first Annual Report of the Public
Schools of British Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1942.
ENROLMENT.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province decreased during the year from
119,634 to 118,405 and the average daily attendance decreased from 103,192 to 102,085.
The percentage of regular attendance was 86.22.
The number of pupils enrolled in the various classes of schools is shown hereunder:—
Schools.
Cities.
District
Municipalities.
Rural
Districts.
Community
Districts.
Total.
15,874
4,104
842
3,639
18,142f
2,206
2,400
1,247
18,476
541
22,184
3,242
9,872
41,062*
14,758
78,221
Totals, 1941-42               	
66,808
26,727
24,329
541
118,405
Totals, 1940-41 	
67,457
26,598
25,024
555
119,634
* These figures include an enrolment of 89 in the Provincial Government School for the Deaf and the Blind and
41 pupils enrolled in the Provincial Model School (Vancouver).
t These figures include an enrolment of 69 pupils in the Provincial Model School  (Saanich).
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the— students.
High Correspondence School classes, regular students (exclusive of the 1,706 officially registered in high, superior, or
elementary schools)      1,390
Elementary Correspondence School classes, regular students .    1,167
Classes formed under section 13 (g) of the " Public Schools
Act"  -  44
Adult education—
Classes under the Dominion-Provincial Youth
Training and War Emergency Training Programmes      8,726
Vocational classes   (Provincial Government)   not
supported by Dominion grants _..	
Free Mining classes  :	
Night-schools 	
Motor Mechanics for women
Vancouver School of Art	
Victoria School of Art 	
Vancouver School of Navigation 	
High Correspondence School (adults only)	
Elementary Correspondence School (adults only)
Community Self-help Groups (adults only)     1,130
Recreational and Physical Education classes  13,292
132
11
6,861
33
487
28
122
996
182
32,000
Carried forward .  34,601 B 8
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
Brought forward-
Summer School of Education (1941 Session)
Normal School, Vancouver	
Normal School, Victoria 	
Victoria College
University of British Columbia
Total.
34,601
902
173
68
238
2,671
38,653
DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS BY GRADES AND SEX.
Grade.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
Grade I                       	
6,619
5,896
5,873
5,830
6,038
5,950
5,703
4,996
4,214
3,447
2,545
1,985
380
5,894
5,282
5,298
5,404
5,709
5,640
5,727
5,320
4;621
4,013
3,211
2,449
361
12,513
Grade II       :    .
11,178
Grade III  	
11,171
Grade IV            	
11,234
Grade V	
11,747
Grade VI	
11,590
Grade VII.	
11,430
Grade VTTT
10,316
Grade IX                                              	
8,835
Grade X -    .       	
7,460
Grade XL                     —	
5,756
Grade XII... _  .       _   	
4,434
741
59,476
58,929
118,405
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS AND PUPILS ACCORDING TO THE
DIFFERENT CLASSES OF SCHOOLS AND DISTRICTS.
The number of teachers employed in the different classes of schools, the number
of pupils enrolled in each class of school, and also the average number of pupils per
teacher are shown in the following table:—
Schools.
v
■*__
2H
£ <_
m
P..C
S_ S ?
> rt j-.
rt   0>   U
Q » ts
7 c S
rt c O
SI'S
High schools (cities)„_ __ .„ 	
High schools (district municipalities).
High schools (rural districts) 	
Superior schools (district municipalities).
Superior schools (rural districts)	
Junior high schools (cities).
Junior high schools (district municipalities).
Junior high schools (rural districts)	
Elementary schools (cities)*  	
Elementary schools (district municipalities) f_
Elementary schools (rural districts)	
Community schools _   	
Totals   	
493
120
136
32
111
20
23
106
270
107
40
1,132
520
877
21
85
29
9
82
11
613
168
131
23
106
355
136
49
1,214
531
877
21
15,874
4,104
2,206
842
2,400
9,872
3,639
1,247
41,062
18,142
18,476
541
13.40
3.47
1.86
0.71
2.03
8.34
3.07
1.05
34.69
15.32
15.60
0.46
32
30
20
37
23
37
34
31
36
35
21
26
388
4,224
118,405
100.00
30
26
24
19
32
20
32
28
27
32
30
18
20
27
* These figures include 21 teachers employed by the Provincial Government and 89 pupils enrolled in the Provincial Government School for the Deaf and the Blind, and 2 teachers and 41 pupils enrolled in the Provincial Model
School (Vancouver).
t These figures include 2 teachers employed by the Provincial Government and 69 pupils enrolled in the Provincial Model School  (Saanich). REPORT OP SUPERINTENDENT.
B 9
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES.
The following table shows the number of teachers of each sex employed and also
the number of certificates of each class:—
Schools.
s
QJ
■V
a
<
4J
u
H
o
u
V
02
13
H
X
H
- [3
_
a
2
o
p.
s
0)
H
»
3
a
X
_
H
"3
S
S
«
fa
'as
o
486
142
105
3
5
180
69
31
189
24
34
5
1
7
17
90
75
33
6
719
396
609
8
3
10
3
1
229
94
150
13
1
19
7
19
120
24
19
97
34
11
49
9
1
1
1
64
2
1
8
385
93
89
5
40
182
60
18
288
126
153
1
228
75
42
18
66
173
76
31
926
405
724
20
613
High schools (district municipalities) 	
168
131
23
106
355
136
49
1,214
Elementary schools (district municipalities) f  _
531
877
21
Totals, 1941-42- 	
1,268
1,966
503
46
364
66
11
1,440
2,784
4,224
Totals, 1940-41  	
1,225
2,047
563
37
355
10
11
1,593
2,655
4,248
* These figures include 21 teachers employed in the Provincial School for the Deaf and the Blind, and 2 teachers
in the Provincial Model School, Vancouver.
f These figures include 2 teachers employed in the Provincial Model School  (Saanich).
NEW SCHOOLS.
A high school was established in Sechelt United School District; junior high
schools in Maple Ridge (Maple Ridge Municipality) and Wells-Barkerville United;
and superior schools at Atlin, Doe River (Peace River), Malakwa, and Rolla.
Elementary schools were opened for the first time in the following districts:—
Name of School District. Electoral District.
Claydon Bay..
.Mackenzie.
Coal Harbour Comox.
Donald Columbia.
Holmwood Salmon Arm.
Lake Buntzen Dewdney.
Lempriere. . Kamloops.
Muir Creek . Esquimalt.
Patterson Rossland-Trail.
Pinchi Lake Omineca.
Redonda Bay Mackenzie.
The following rural districts were created but no schools were opened:—
Cisco Yale.
Winter Harbour Comox. B 10
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
COMPARISON OF ENROLMENT AND EXPENDITURE FOR
PUBLIC EDUCATION.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province for various years since 1877-78 and
also the cost of maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—
School-year.
No. of
Teachers
employed.
No. of
School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Percentage of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure
for
Education.
Total
Expenditure
for Public
Schools.
1877-78	
56
69
128
267
429
607
816
1,597
1,859
2,246
3,118
3,668
3,784
3,854
3,948
3,959
3,912
3,873
3,942
3,956
4,025
4,092
4,194
4,220
4,248
4,224
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
374
575
744
788
792
803
811
830
821
827
762
773
763
741
721
720
730
696
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
62,263
67,516
94,888
108,179
109,588
111,017
113,914
115,919
116,816
115,792
117,233
116,722
118,431
120,360
120,934
120,459
119,634
118,405
1,395
1,383
3,093
7,111
11,055
16,357
23,195
43,274
49,377
54,746
77,752
91,760
94,410
96,196
99,375
103,510
104,978
103,389
101,893
101,873
104,044
106,515
107,660
108,826
103,192
102,085
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
79.30
81.09
81.94
84.82
86.17
86.65
87.23
89.29
89.86
89.30
86.91
87.27
87.85
88.49
89.02
90.34
86.26
86.22
$48,411.14*
60,758.75*
113,679.36*
174,775.43
290,255.26
473,802.29
544,671.60
1,663,003.34
1,885,654.11
1,653,796.60
3,176,686.282
3,532,518.952
3,765,920.691
3,743,317.08J
3,834,727.192
4,015,074.372
2,849,972.022
2,611,937.802
2,835,040.742
2,972,385.042
3,277,660.232
3,524,962.692
3,630,670.782
3,585,769.002
3,963,848.242
4,028,397.882
1882-83  	
1887-88	
1892-93                           	
$215,056.22t
425,555.10
604,357.86
1,220,509.85
4,658,894.97
4,634,877.56
3,519,014.61
1897-98     	
1902-03                         	
1907-08
1912-13	
1913-14..	
1917-18      .     ..           	
1922-23      .                         —   _
7,630,009.542
1927-28
9,261,094.982
1928-29  	
1929-30   . ... 	
11,149,996.272
10,008,255.662
1930-31	
1931-32 	
10,061,387.992
9,719,333.812
1932-33            .            	
8,941,497.342
1933-34 	
1934-35 	
1935-36  	
1936-37
8,213,369.042
8,458,156.002
8,775,353.782
9,593,562.642
1937-38  	
1938-39 	
1939 40
10,193,367.082
10,640,740.472
10,521,684.922
10,982,364.492
11,120,801.942
1940-41
1941-42	
* The total expenditure for public schools was borne by the Government.
f This amount does not include the expenditure (not available) made for incidental expenses in city school districts.
X This amount includes the annual grant from the Government to the Provincial University.
COMPARISON OF ENROLMENT AND COST PER PUPIL TO
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT.
The following table shows the enrolment during the last twelve years and also the
cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil:—
School-year.
Enrolment
at High
Schools.
Enrolment
at other
Public
Schools.
Total
Enrolment.
Percentage
at High
Schools of
the Total
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Average
Daily
Attendance.
1930-31... - 	
1931-32...	
1932-33 	
1933-34      	
16,197
18,134
18,552
18,932
19,969
21,119
22,338
22,582
23,747
24,436
23,568
22,184
97,717
97,785
98,264
96,860
97,264
95,603
96,093
97,778
97,187
96,023
96,066
96,221
113,914
115,919
116,816
115,792
117,233
116,722
118,431
120,360
120,934
120,459
119,634
118,405
14.21
15.64
15.80
16.35
17.03
18.09
19.71
18.76
19.63
20.28
19.70
18.74
28.03
29.62
21.55
19.51
20.40
21.35
22.93
24.05
24.85
24.52
27.82
28.51
32.74
33.18
23.98
21.85
1934-35	
1935-36	
1936-37   	
1937-38                         	
23.47
24.46
26.10
27.18
1938-39                                -	
27.92
1939-40                 	
27.14
1940 41                           "  	
32.25
1941-42      	
33.13 REPORT OP SUPERINTENDENT.
B 11
COST PER PUPIL, ON VARIOUS BASES, FOR THE SCHOOL-YEAR 1941-42.
Grand total cost of education $11,120,801.94
Less—
Grant re salaries of faculty of Victoria College     $4,270.90
General grant to Victoria College ..       5,000.00
Grant to University of British Columbia-
Normal School, Vancouver
Normal School, Victoria —
Cost of Night-schools 	
Correspondence Schools—■
High School 	
Elementary School 	
Adult Education 	
433,490.00
29,101.07
31,074.34
13,066.29
49,218.87
15,708.35
65,653.27
646,583.09
Net cost for total enrolment of 118,405 pupils..
Cost per pupil for year on total enrolment-
$10
Cost per pupil per school-day (194 days) on total enrolment	
Cost per pupil for year on average daily attendance of 102,085	
Cost per pupil per school-day (194 days) on average daily attendance	
Net cost to Provincial Government for total enrolment of 118,405 pupils
for year ($4,028,397.88—$646,583.09)        3
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil for year on total enrolment	
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil per school-day (194 days) on
total enrolment 	
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil for year on average daily attendance  .	
,474,218.85
88.46
.46
102.60
.53
,381,814.79
28.51
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil per school-day (194 days) on
average daily attendance 	
Cost per capita for year on population of 830,000 (1942 estimate)	
Cost per capita per school-day (194 days) on population of 830,000	
Cost to Provincial Government per capita for year on population of
830,000  .	
Cost to Provincial Government per capita per school day (194 days) on
population of 830,000 	
* Computed on net total cost of $10,474,218.85.
t Computed on net cost to Provincial Government of $3,381,814.79.
.15
33.13
.17
*12.62
*.07
+4.07
+.02
CHILDREN OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE.
The number of children of foreign parentage attending the public schools of the
Province during the year was as follows:—
School.
n
S
pj
3
'u
9)
S
<
QJ
co
0)
P
IS
o
X
o
X
M
p
o
Q
B
a
£
X
o
P
0J
u
ft
co
a
cd
a
s
a
CO
p
a
w
P
.5"
_
CO
01
C
C3
P.
C.
1-3
CO
CQ
s
.5
CO
p
«
m
s
cd
'>
cd
,C
■3
c
C5
CJ
W
CO
a
'%
'eg
u
P
co
'U
_
X
4-
o
CO
'cd
O
H
341
69
292
556
222
360
292
26
108
846
88
54
17
29
8
95
9
409
519
90
73
56
152
15.7
126
97
33
150
361
208
218
205
145
282
768
909
839
17
9
14
112
81
48
346
37
342
848
117
427
938
54
629
1,700
514
333
139
34
97
428
174
263
125
39
156
427
378
223
445
214
542
1,352
775
855
141
44
159
573
261
251
582
176
451
1,173
874
799
3,775
3,286
9,391
4,767
5,205
Elementary schools in district
municipalities ,. 	
Totals                       	
1.84nill.414
1,086
654
1,067
3,148
281
2,117
4,168
1,135
1,348
4,183
1,429
4,055
27,925 B 12
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
NUMBER OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
The following table shows the number and classes of school districts in which
expenditure  for  school  purposes  was  made  during  the  school-years   1941-42   and
1940-41:
1941-42.
.    33
City school districts	
District municipality school districts   26
Rural school districts  633
Community school districts  4
1940-41.
33
26
667
4
Totals.
696*
730
* At the time this Annual Report was prepared 352 school districts were under the administration of Official
Trustees.    In 262 of the 352 districts schools were in operation.
HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year was 15,874. Of this
number, 7,225 were boys and 8,649 were girls.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the number of teachers, and the
enrolments for 1941-42 and for 1940-41 in each city are shown in the following
table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
12
7
5
14
5
7
4
4
2
5
4
2
8
2
6
8
2
7
8
24
3
2
5
7
7
4
5
1
8
259
14
6
33
9
7
18
7
10
6
4
2
8
4
2
11
2
8
11
3
8
9
30
3
2
7
10
9
4
6
1
12
330
17
7
46
205
141
411
134
192
100
126
52
117
86
21
267
28
232
217-
69
210
276
820
57
27
159
224
175
93
165
15
246
9,081
517
205
1,206
217
137
Chilliwack High School Area ■—    __	
394
119
216
140
121
47
137
98
Greenwood - — 	
Kamloops    - 	
23
264
28
241
223
63
227
Nelson  —   —
281
871
58
32
142
212
Revelstoke    	
187
90
165
17
262
9,799
525
212
1,227
44
478
613
15,874
16,775 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
B 13
HIGH SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality high schools for the year was 4,104.
Of this number, 1,808 were boys and 2,296 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the
years 1941-42 and 1940-41 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
Abbotsford:  Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Educational
1
2
7
27
2
5
4
■   2
8
8
4
11
1
7
9
17
4
13
7
10
34
2
6
4
2
10
9
5
15
1
8
10
19
4
20
9
219
851
70
102
105
40
259
219
117
431
10
208
253
514
104
363
239
206
Burnaby      	
933
53
Delta     	
133
117
Kent...	
48
287
282
142
Oak Bay  _	
396
Peachland	
20
236
Richmond  	
260
498
113
Surrey  	
Vancouver, West - „.	
390
248
Totals   	
22
136
168
4,104
4,362
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural high schools for the year was 2,206. Of this number,
1,025 were boys and 1,181 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the
years 1941-42 and 1940-41 are shown in the following table:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
32
32
21
27
41
36
11
14
21
20
40
58
54
53
14
21
27
33
139
168
42
52
41
44
20
15
8
15
24
22
-       25
34
51
85
22
41
42
60
27
35
11
20
28
39
185
168
11
15
Athalmer-Invermere.
Bralorne 	
Britannia Mine	
Burns Lake __	
Castlegar United.
Cobble Hill	
Comox  —
Copper Mountain..
Cowichan Lake	
Creston Valley United.
Dawson Creek	
Dewdney.  	
Field 	
Fort Fraser..
Fruitvale	
Golden	
Harewood ....
Hedley	
Howe Sound United.
loco	
James Island..
Keremeos	
Kimberley	
Lillooet	
2
2
2
■ 1
1
2
2
1
2
6
2
2
1
1
1
2
5
2
2
4
1
2
10
1 B 14
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
High Schools—Rural Districts—Continued.
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
2
3
2
2
1
6
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
1
3      '
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
5
1
2
1
1
2
5
2
2
1
9
5
2
2
3
3
2
3
1
3
2
1
2
2
3
1
2
2
2
30
80
15
51
20
21
40
77
33
30
24
180
59
34
47
74
44
32
38
15
54
35
19
33
45
43
21
20
25
30
37
88
15
Nakusp          	
New Denver. 	
North Bend.          	
41
21
22
44
66
30
39
21
200
Princeton     -   	
68
37
50
13
59
41
30
44
60
35
17
37
48
47
20
39
27
28
Totals  	
54
111
131
2,206
2,431
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality superior schools during the year was
■842.    Of this number, 443 were boys and 399 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the
school-years 1941-42 and 1940-41 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
Abbotsford:  Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Educational
3
1
19
4
19
4
741
101
553
Delta                                             	
143
237
4
23
23
842
933 REPORT OP SUPERINTENDENT.
B 15
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural superior schools for the school-year was 2,400. The
number of boys was 1,192, of girls, 1,208.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and
the enrolment for the school-years 1941-42 and 1940-41:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
3
4
2
3
5
4
2
3
3
2
3
2
4
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
4
3
3
2
3
4
2
3
4
2
3
5
4
2
3
3
2
3
2
4
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
4
3
3
2
3
4
2
53
102
41
56
130
106
43
58
84
47
56
31
113
44
70
31
50
32
72
58
36
37
40
42
72
30
35
35
33
70
47
66
42
122
64
65
39
77
123
48
70
103
70
36
171
117
52
68
85
41
56
35
106
31
72
57
49
78
55
44
Peace River—
45
40
Pouce Coupe  -	
68
23
28
31
34
80
38
53
Rolla                 _       - -	
Sechelt United         	
64
115
84
73
Waldo United	
48
37
69
121
Yahk United
62
Totals    	
40
106
106
2,400
2,509
I
— B 16
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city junior high schools was 9,872. The number of boys was
4,907, of girls, 4,965.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and
the enrolment for the school-years 1941-42 and 1940-41:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
4
2
1
1
16
6
5
8
1
9
8
9
24
2
8
5
13
119
12
10
15
22
8
7
11
1
14
13
15
33
4
9
7
15
150
14
14
18
600
179
151
306
21
349
283
322
906
76
296
163
513
4,411
369
375
552
580
190
156
279
20
347
314
358
922
55
291
Rossland     	
163
481
4,215
364
365
558
23
270
355
9,872
9,658
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality junior high schools was 3,639. Of this
number, 1,799 were boys and 1,840 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the
school-years 1941-42 and 1940-41 are given in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
26
6
6
9
7
9
11
23
10
36
8
6
11
9
15
15
26
10
893
211
126
342
241
309
391
766
360
1,037
192
138
226
Penticton  .-. —_ - _ .	
Richmond.. - _ —- _
311
472
725
344
Totals   -  	
13
107
136
3,639
3,445
I REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
B 17
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural junior high schools was 1,247. The number of boys
was 602, of girls, 645.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the
school-years 1941-42 and 1940-41 are given in the following table:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
8
2
8
3
4
8
3
3
2
10
2
9
5
4
11
3
3
2
224
39
263
59
157
248
112
101
44
229
48
291
61
130
250
110
96
Totals           	
9
41
49
1,247
1,215
SUMMARY OF ENROLMENT IN HIGH AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The following is a summary of enrolment in high and junior high schools:—
Number
of
Pupils
enrolled.
Boys.
Girls.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Number, op Pupils enrolled in Grades
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
3
.2 S «
3S-2
oqS4S
High schools:
Cities 	
District municipalities —
15,874
4,104
2,206
7,225
1,808
1,025
8,649
2,296
1,181
12,745.47
3,292.54
2,159.10
	
3,115
643
447
5,031
1,550
697
3,968
1,116
577
3,155
794
445
605
96
40
Totals 	
22,184
10,058
12,126
18,197.11
	
4,110
7,278
5,661
4,394
741
Junior high schools:
9,872
3,639
1,247
4,907
1,799
602
4,965
1,840
645
8,581.97
2,993.92
1,068.74
3,720
1,130
456
3,399
1,334
398
2,753
1,175
393
District municipalities 	
	
Totals 	
14,758
7,308
7,450
12,644.63
5,30'6
5,131
4,321
	
36,942
17,366
19,576
30,841.74
5,306
5,131
8,431
7,278
5,661
4,394
741 B 18
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 41,062. Of this number, 21,214
were boys and 19,848 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the
school-years 1941-42 and 1940-41 are given in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
Alberni  	
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
2
6
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
4
53
1
1
3
1
15
8
11
9
9
12
9
11
4
8
8
3
14
2
17
8
5
17
17
47
15
6
5
8
17
10
12
4
2
36
649
2
10
25
20
92
8
11
9
9
13
9
11
4
8
8
3
14
2
18
8
5
17
18
47
16
6
5
8
17
10
13
4
2
37
710
2
21
25
21
95
305
432
351
336
490
335
370
123
295
326
67
502
53
658
296
166
590
643
1,978
571
222
175
315
599
352
495
132
52
1,388
23,176
41
89
934
842
3,363
290
456
354
337
Cranbrook   	
489
370
395
126
292
311
Greenwood   	
44
522
57
Kelowna 	
669
307
189
647
671
1,917
Port Alberni
571
218
183
304
Prince Rupert 	
616
354
Rossland _      	
470
123
56
1,317
23,371
24
88
Vancouver, North   —   -	
789
816
3,281
120
1,132
1,214
41,062
41,024 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
'
B   19
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality elementary schools was 18,142.    The
number of boys was 9,452 and of girls 8,690.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and
the enrolment for the school-years 1941-42 and 1940-41:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-12.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
Abbotsford:   Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Educational
9
19
1
11
2
4
2
9
1
2
15
7
9
2
1
1
1
7
14
8
1
23
5
2
22
96
7
33
3
14
2
14
11
7
31
24
18
18
2
18
6
38
52
10
8
51
20
15
22
98
7
33
3
14
2
14
14
7
31
24
18
20
2
19
6
39
52
10
10
51
20
15
849
3,567
193
1,072
90
534
58
367
472
245
1,219
788
458
753
60
690
214
1,017
1,942
294
268
1,724
684
584
1,000
3,184
263
1,0<60
84
496
59
359
429
217
1,187
1,029
538
747
54
669
1,262
1,803
283
271
1,645
640
579
Delta ______    _  _       	
Kent    _:__	
Langley  __  	
Maple Ridge  _ 	
Oak Bay      	
Peachland ■ _ 	
Richmond ,. __       ,
Saanich  —_    ,.	
Vancouver, North   	
Vancouver, West _    —	
Totals _  	
156
520
531
18,142
17,858
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRIC
The enrolment in elementary schools of the rural districts wa
ber of boys was 9,533 and of girls 8,943.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions,
the enrolment for the school-years 1941-42 and 1940-41:—
TS.
s 18,476.
and of tea
The num-
_hers, and
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
1                     1                     1
648                877                877
18,476
18,869
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—COMMUNITY DISTE
The enrolment in the elementary schools of the community sch(
Of this number, 276 were boys and 265 were girls.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions,
the enrolment for the school-years 1941-42 and 1940-41:—
JCTS.
>ol district
and of tea<
_ was 541.
.hers, and
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1941-42.
Enrolment,
1940-41.
13
21
21
541
555
, B 20
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
NUMBER OF SCHOOLS OF EACH CLASS AND NUMBER OF TEACHERS
IN EACH CLASS OF SCHOOL.
Class of School.
No. op
Schools.
No. op Teachers.
1941-42.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1940-41.
High schools:
Cities                                                 	
44
22
54
4
40
23
13
9
120
156
648
13
44
22
54
5
39
23
12
8
116
161
676
13
613
168
131
23
106
355
136
49
1,214
531
877
21
649
194
136
Superior schools:
25
105
Junior high schools:
Cities     —   — _
329
106
46
Elementary schools:
1,211
520
906
21
T"*"*"
1 146
1,173
4,224
4,248
SALARIES.
The following table shows the highest, lowest, and average salary (quoted in dollars
only) paid to teachers during the school-year 1941-42. (Exchange and part-time
teachers are not included) :—
High Schools.
Junior High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities.
$1,250
1,200*
1,250
1,300
1,250
1,233
1,230
1,460
1,250
1,200
1,300
1,250
1,275
1,200
1,300
1,260
1,450
1,248
1,250*
1,200
1,200
1,287
1,440
1,200
1,450
1,350*
$1,407
1,529*
1,494
1,641
1,435
1,402
1,334
1,786
1,550
1,300
1,896
1,425
1,588
1,501
1,573
1,889
2,216
2,574
1,553*
1,367
1,517
1,478
1,801
1,522
1,821
1,732*
	
$1,950
2,050
1,400
2,000
2,700
2,000
2,133
1,437
1,350
1,400
1,200
2,450
1,000
2,150
1,509
1,280
1,570
2,500
2,304
2,500
1,375
1,300
2,087
2,194
2,060
2,500
1,948
$850
900
845
900
1,050
880
871
820
1,100
900
850
1,000
1,000
975
850
1,075
920
1,100
835
940
800
850
925
1,000
960
950
1,270
$1,121
Armstrong— 	
$1,650
2,800*
2,000
2,900
1,780
2,133
1,437
3,150
2,050
1,400
2,700
1,600
2,300
2,250
2,120
3,200
3,600
3,675
2,500*
1,700
2,150
2,156
2,750
2,500
2,750
2,250*
1,201
$2,060
$1,100
$1,317
1,308
1,172
1,250
	
1,375
1,260
1,621
1,121
1,350
1,110
1,029
1,400
1,393
1,234
1,100
1,017
1,825
. 1,300
2,400
1,200
1,300
1,150
1,481
1,300
1,434
1,377
1,000
1,235
Ladysmith	
1,154
1,162
1,676
1,994
1,971
1,760
3,300
3,135
1,400
1,500
1,294
1,473
1,483
1,434
1,238
Port Coquitlam 	
1,100
1,042
1,200
1,150
1,000
Prince George 	
Prince Rupert  	
1,166
1,430
1,200
1,318
1,317
1,268
Rossland...   — — 	
2,000
1,450
1,596
	
1,250
1,440
1
* These figures refer to high school area. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
B 21
Salaries—Cow.mwec..
High Schools.
Junior High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
, Cities—Continued.
$1,200
3,800
4,380
2,700
2,900
3,800
$1,200
1,600
1,200
1,455
1,480
1,400
$1,200
2,167
2,799
1,850
1,815
2,382
$1,150
2,600
3,960
1,650
2,700
3,000
$900
950
900
800
1,000
940'
$1,025
Trail-Tadanac.  	
$2,400
4,378
2,300
1,680
3,242
$1,450
1,343
1,100
1,150
1,640
$1,733
2,272
1,523
1,455
2,092
1,270
Vancouver ,	
1,781
1,232
Vernon  	
Victoria   	
1,218
1,701
$4,380
$1,200
$2,361
$4,378
$1,100
$1,931
$3,960
$800
$1,614
District Municipalities.
Abbotsford: Matsqui-Sumas-
Abbotsford Educational Ad-
$1,900
2,921
$1,200
1,200
$1,455
1,720
$1,525
2,500
1,630
1,550
1,150
1,275
1,125
1,650
2,515
1,150
1,300
1,500
1,450
3,000
900
2,150
1,100
2,155
2,045
1,250
2,200
1,200
1,925
2,432
$800
780
900
780
800
825
1,000
780
900
865
804
800
800
1,050
850
950
800
780
860
850
900
780
950
950
$1,001
1,290
1,109
$2,730
$1,100
$1,522
1,001
1,017
988
1,063
957
1,419
1,002
Coquitlam    .„_
1,800
1,250
1,438
1,350
1,100
1,171
Delta 	
2,000
2,300
1,650
1,900
2,150
2,000
3,100
1,400
2,750
1,400
1,300
1,350
1,200
1,200
1,225
1,550
1,400
1,350
1,592
1,775
1,500
1,343
1,373
1,582
2,260
1,400
1,661
1,300
1,100
1,217
Kent      ,.,
947
Maple Ridge _	
1,350
1,550
1,100
1,100
1,199
1,250
1,034
1,028
1,688
875
Oak Bay- __. 	
1,700
1,250
1,418
1,164
943
2,208
2,500
1,236
1,325
1,563
1,801
1,792
1,100
1,280
1,087
1,151
Saanich
974
Summerland  _ _	
2,050
2,500
1,250
1,200
1,588
1,428
1,200
1,365
1,100
1,155
893
1,267
1,510'
Vancouver, "West
2,978
1,200
2,092
2,000
1,100
1,453
For all district municipalities _	
$'3,100
$1,200
$1,672
$2,730
$1,100
$1,328
$3,000'
$780
$1,131
Rural Districts.
$3,470
$1,200
$1,587
$2,200
$1,100
$1,405
$2,440
$780
$917
Community Districts.
For all community districts.-
	
	
	
$1,165
$840
$921 B 22
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
Salaries—Continued.
Superior Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Abbotsford:   Matsqui-Sumas-
$1,600
1,260
1,650
1,230
1,100
1,100
1,800
1,230
1,350
1,350
1,200
1,200
1,100
1,100
1,600
1,150
1,150
1,150
1,100
$800
950
900
1,150
900
850
1,150
950
780
850
780
900
800
780
950
875
800
900
900
$1,029
1,053
1,313
1,190
967
925
1,338
1,090
993
1,067
983
1,050
917
940
1,138
1,013
917
983
1,000
Malakwa -
$1,100
1,152
1,200
1,200
1,250
1,100'
1,100
1,800
1,225
1,250
1,150
1,300
1,600
1,100
1,100
1,100
1,400
1,200
$800
891
1,050
900
800
850
850
1,150
930
830
950
900
1,000
850
800
800
900
1,000
$950
978
ministrative Area 	
Mackenzie United	
Oyster, North	
Peace River Educational Administrative Area	
Pender Harbour. 	
Pender Island	
Pioneer Mine  .
Procter _ 	
1,125
1,050
Atlin 	
1,001
975
Brechin  ....
975
1,383
1,077
1,040
Rolla	
1,050
Sooke   _	
Stewart	
1,023
Falkland  _
Fort St. John.	
1,200
933
Waldo United
950
Wellington, South 	
933
1,050
Yahk United
1,100
For all superior schools ...
$1,800
$780
$1,044
The average yearly salary paid to teachers employed in all public schools (high,
superior, junior high, and elementary) of the Province for the school-year 1941-42 was
$1,517; to teachers employed in all high schools, $2,120; to teachers employed in all
superior schools, $1,044; to teachers employed in "all junior high schools, $1,743; to
teachers employed in all elementary schools, $1,281; and to teachers employed in all
community schools, $921. REPORT OP SUPERINTENDENT.
B 23
SALARY CLASSIFICATION.
The following table shows the number of teachers in the Province receiving the
annual salary indicated for the school-year 1941-42:—
Salary.
No. of
Teachers.
Salary.
No. of
Teachers.
Salary.
No. of
Teachers.
Salary.
No. of
Teachers.
Below $780
187
179
26
71
144
47
170
16
24
116
31
136
26
17
59
19
132
22
30
103
20
146
15
37
112
38
94
15
32
81
14
92
15
24
49
25
78
20
18
39
26
72
13
29
59
$1,661-1,680	
22
45
17
10
22
27
349
19
14
17
9
48
13
6
19
6
72
9
14
24
3
19
21
3
17
7
38
2
4
13
5
28
9
2
3
2
51
3
3
3
52
4
3
2
2
$2,581-2,600	
17
2
5
12
23
2
10
3
34
2
4
3
5
52
2
4
4
5
24
1
3
1
12
1
1
3
20
75
1
1
1
4
1
.....
3
5
18
$3,501-3,520..	
$780
1,681-1,700.
1,701-1,720	
2,601-2,620 	
3,521-3,540	
781-   800
2,621-2,640.	
3,541-3,560	
801-   820
1,721-1,740	
1,741-1,760
2,641-2,660
2,661-2,680
2,681-2,700-	
3,561-3,580
3,581-3,600
3,601-3,620
3,621-3,640
3,641-3,660
3,661-3,680
1
821-   840
13
841-   860
1,761-1,780
861-   880
1,781-1,800
1,801-1,820.
1,821-1,840
1,841-1,860
2,701-2,720	
881-   900
2,721-2,740	
2,741-2,760
4
921-   940
2,761-2,780-	
3,681-3,700 -
3,701-3,720
3,721-3,740	
3
941-   960
1,861-1,880
2,781-2,800	
961-   980
1,881-1,900	
2,801-2,820	
981 1,000
1,901-1,920
2,821-2,840	
3,741-3,760. -..
1,001-1,020
1,921-1,940
2,841-2,860	
3,761-3,780.	
1,021-1,040
1,941-1,960	
2,861-2,880	
3,781-3,800.	
4
1,041 1,060
1,961-1,980	
2,881-2,900. -
3,801-3,820
3;821-3,840	
1,061 1,080
1,981-2,000
2,901-2,920
2,921-2,940
1,081-1,100
1 101 1,120
2,001-2,020
2,021-2,040
8,841-3,860	
1
2,941-2,960
2,961-2,980	
3,861-3,880 -
1,121-1,140'
2,041-2,060.
2,061-2,080	
3,881-3,900	
3,901-3,920
3,921-3,940	
1,141 1,160
2,981-3,000.
3,001-3,020.	
3,021-3,040-	
1,161 1,180
2,081-2,100
1,181 1,200
2,101-2,120 .     ..
3,941-3,960 -
1
1,201-1,220
2,121-2,140
2,141-2,160
2,161-2,180.
2,181-2,200
2,201-2,220
2,221-2,240.
2,241-2,260.
2,261-2,280
3,041-3,060 -
3,961-3,980
3,981-4,000	
1
1,221 1,240
3,061-3,080
3,081-3,100	
1
1,241-1,260
4,001-4,020	
4,021-4,040- -
1,261-1,280
3,101-3,120.
3,121-3,140
3,141-3,160.	
1,281 1,300
4,041-4,060-	
1
1,301-1,320
4,061-4,080.
4,081-4,100 .......
1 321 1,340
3,161-3,180	
1,341-1,360.
1,361-1,380
1,381-1,400'.	
3,181-3,200
8,201-3,220
3,221-3,240.
3,241-3,260
3,261-3,280
3 281-3,300
4,101-4,120.	
2,281-2,300
2,301-2,320
2,321-2,340
2,341-2,360
4,121-4,140
4,141-4,160
4,161-4,180
4,181-4,200-	
1,401-1,420	
2
1,421 1,440
1,441-1,460
1,461-1,480
1,481-1,500
1,501 1,520
2,361-2,380
2,381-2,400
4,201-4,220	
3,301-3,320 -
4,221-4,240	
1
3,321-3,340
4,241-4,260 -
2,421-2,440
2,441-2,460	
3,341-3,360	
4,261-4,280	
1 521 1,540
3,361-3,380	
4,281-4,300'	
1 541-1,560
2,461-2,480	
2,481-2,500	
2,501-2,520
3,381-3,400	
3,401-3,420
4,301-4,320	
1,561-1,580
4,321-4,340-	
3,421-3,440
3,441-3,460
3,461-3,480
3,481-3,500
4,341-4,360-	
1,601 1,620
2,521-2,540	
4,361-4,380
♦Total	
5
1,641-1,660
2 561 2,580
4,181
* Exchange and part-time teachers not included. B 24 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
EXPENDITURES FOR EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL-YEAR 1941-42.
Minister's Office:
Salaries   $6,256.38
Office supplies  513.80
Travelling expenses  1,756.12
$8,526.30
General Office:
Salaries      $26,000.23
Office supplies         2,398.27
Travelling expenses :  553.78
  28,952.28
Text-book Branch:
Free text-books, maps, etc.   58,097.67
Correspondence Schools—High:
Salaries  _     $39,463.33
Office supplies       17,004.23
Revision of courses         2,167.17
Travelling expenses .«  86.29
Payment to Text-book Branch for special services  180.00
$58,901.02
Less fees  ..         9,682.15
Correspondence Schools—Elementary:
Salaries      $12,404.79
Office supplies         3,303.56
Industrial Education:
Salaries   $16,180.60
Office supplies  1,729.27
Travelling expenses  4,105.44
Grants in aid   13,991.02
Night-schools  13,066.29
'Inspection of Schools:
Salaries   $89,530.68
Office supplies  9,437.24
Travelling expenses ._—.. 24,174.59
$123,142.51
Less amount paid by School Boards  :        9,198.93
Normal School—Vancouver:
Salaries (less deduction for rent, $468)   $40,176.68
Office supplies  1,911.66
Travelling expenses  539.86
Fuel, light, and water  2,391.49
Books, binding, periodicals  1,881.96
Allowance to Demonstration School  1,300.00
Furniture (by Public Works)   8.00
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)   1,155.93
Incidentals     739.49
$50,105.07
Less Normal School fees        21,004.00
49,218.87
15,708.35
49,072.62
113,943.58
29,101.07 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. B 25
Normal School—Victoria:
Salaries (part by Public Works)   $32,330.00
Office supplies  889.41
Travelling expenses  655.31
Transportation of students to outlying practice-schools 174.97
Incidentals     237.02
Fuel, light, and water (by Public Works)  1,797.85
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)  1,969.79
Furniture (by Public Works)  ..  201.99
$38,256.34
Less Normal School fees         7,182.00
$31,074.34
School for the Deaf and the Blind:
Salaries (less deductions for rent, etc., $3,710.03)  $34,419.24
Office supplies .  397.00
Laundry and janitor supplies   1,239.92
Travelling expenses  289.87
Fuel, light, and water  2,786.99
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)  11,638.98
Furniture and equipment (part by Public Works)  1,728.89
Provisions   4,760.60
Incidentals    428.84
'     $57,546.18
Less amount  received  for  board  and tuition  of
pupils from Alberta         2,250.00
 55,440.33
High. Superior.       Junior High. Elementary.
Salary grants to cities. $328,944.93 $190,609.44     $512,453.97     1,032,008.34
Salary grants to dis-
■ trict municipalities.-.    114,132.62 $15,534.00     94,150.18       337,522.17        561,338.97
Salary grants to rural
school districts       94,431.55   72,797.40     37,855.00       564,211.96        769,295.91
Salary grants to community school districts .  14,048.09 14,048.09
$537,509.10 $88,331.40 $322,614.62 $1,428,236.19
Special grant under section 13 (g) of the Act  1,173.00
Special salary grants:
Cities   $288,807.72
District municipalities       76,473.11
Rural school districts        84,295.70
        449,576.53
School buildings, erection and maintenance, and special aid to school
districts    68,514.45
Education of soldiers' dependent children and expenses   12,590.25
Bursaries for children over 16 years of age in Mothers' Allowances
Families   6,104.25
School tests, High School and Senior Matriculation examinations  : ..     $31,526.55
Less fees for examinations and certificates       24,769.33
  6,757.22 B 26 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
Conveying children to central schools       $127,336.01
School libraries  9,902.85
Summer schools and teacher-training for special certificates     $6,141.45
Less summer-school fees  :         2,446.40
  3,695.05
Official Trustee, Community School Districts:
Salary         $2,400.00
Expenses   852.38
$3,252.38
Less paid by districts         1,650.61
  1,601.77
Board of Reference       . 644.94
Adult Education:
Extension and adult education and education of the
unemployed     $30,072.21
Recreational  and physical  education for youths  over
school age        35,581.06
  65,653.27
School radio broadcasts:
Salaries  (less amount paid by Canadian Broadcasting
Corporation, $1,250)  1       $1,967.43
Expenses          3,570.94
  5,538.37
Curriculum revision and educational supervision, etc.   12,105.97
Incidentals and contingencies   2,887.23
University of British Columbia  _'_         433,490.00
Special grant to Victoria College  5,000.00
Total cost to Government    $4,028,397.88
Amount expended by districts, including debt charges:
High. Superior. Junior High. Elementary.
Cities $1,545,381.64       $798,271.87 $2,700,277.59     5,043,931.10
District municipalities      313,260.85    $28,288.00       187,638.16       585,991.04     1,115,178.05
Rural school districts      199,526.54      84,519.49 85,894.15       552,229.88        922,170.06
Community school
districts  50.00       11,074.85 11,124.85
$2,058,219.03 $212,807.49 $1,071,804.18 $3,849,573.36
Grand total cost of education $11,120,801.94
. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
B 27
EXAMINATIONS, 1942.
University Entrance Examinations.
June.
August.
Subject.
Number of
Candidates.
Number
passed.
Number of
Candidates.
Number
passed.
English VI              - 	
3,164
3,401
3,241
3,121
3,694
1,322
3,058
24
848
234
64
1,041
129
4
24
33
453
137
87
175
2,723
2,924
3,152
2,679
3,152
1,164
2,454
14
635
212
64
942
114
4
18
33
447
122
70
156
304
262
90
325
280
95
327
9
92
15
46
9
2
4
8
8
10
209
Social Studies V  	
233
84
163
114
Latin III     	
26
French III..     	
190
German III       	
1
53
13
40
7
Greek I                             	
1
4
Home Economics (B) HI      	
7
2
Industrial Arts (B) III	
2
Bible Study I  .._  	
Senior Matriculation Examinations.
Subject.
June.
August.
Number of
Candidates.
Number
passed.
Number of
Candidates.
Number
passed.
748
718
44
38
241
219
25
20
177
153
43
36
165
141
22
18
721
534
132
47
297
198
46
Chemistry I..     - -   	
360
267
75
25
229
175
60
42
Biology I    	
204
181
19
17
93
77
5
4
Latin IV           	
160
126
19
3
French IV _    	
654
501
86
42
12
5
19
15
26
18
German IV             	
7
6
1
1
Greek I	
4
16
4
14
4     .
3
-
- B 28
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
SCHOLARSHIPS.
University Entrance.
The Royal Institution Scholarships awarded in June, 1942, by the University of
British Columbia to the students who ranked first and second in their respective districts were won by the following:—
District.
Name.
High School.
Per
Cent.
Scholarship.
King Edward, Vancouver _.   	
Victoria 	
Victoria 	
96.0
92.6
91.8
95.4
89.8
93.4
93.0
93.4
91.6
87.4
85.6
93.4
91.8
87.0
86.0
$175
175
175
No. 1	
(1) Donald Lindsay Holms   .-„,.
(2) Mildred Edmonds  	
No. 2	
Prince Rupert 	
(2) Nils Lawrence Larson	
(1) Cameron John McFeely	
175
No. 3.  	
175
King George, Vancouver 	
Lord Byng, Vancouver  	
John Oliver, Vancouver  	
Maple Ridge   -	
Chilliwack  —	
175
No. 4	
(1) Dorothy Eileen Moore.- 	
(2) Doris BlytheGibbs  	
175
175
No. 5	
No. 6	
(1) Violet Onerva Katainen 	
(2) Erna Frances Toews	
175
175
No. 7. 	
(2) James Neil Henderson- 	
Kelowna	
Nakusp   	
Kimberley-   — -	
175
175
(2) Kathleen Beatrice Halpin  -
175
Senior Matriculation.
The winners of the scholarships awarded in June, 1942, by the University of British
Columbia on the results of the Senior Matriculation examination to (1) the two students
obtaining the highest standing in the Province, (2) the student obtaining the highest
standing in. districts other than Greater Vancouver and New Westminster, were:—
Name.
High School.
Per
Cent.
Scholarship.
John Oliver, Vancouver____ _	
1
88.2    1    $175
The three additional scholarships established by the University of British Columbia
for the students obtaining the next highest standings in Districts Nos. 2, 5, 6, and 7
were awarded to the following:—
District.
Name.
High School.
Per
Cent.
Scholarship.
No. 7        	
John Alexander Burgess  -  	
Trail	
Vernon          ..
Kamloops 	
Trail   	
85.0
84.8
84.6
84.6
$175
175
No. 6
No. 6        	
♦John Leslie Sharpe - -.	
175
No. 7       -
175
* These two students tied for third place.
" SPECIAL ASSISTANCE IN THE COST OF EDUCATION ACT, 1940."
Under this Act the sum of $250,000 was provided for the fiscal year 1941-42 as a
special grant to assist municipalities and rural school districts in meeting the local cost
of education. The amount was distributed in May, 1941, among the cities, district
municipalities, and rural school districts on the basis of $58.50 per teacher regularly
employed.    In 1942 the Legislature voted the sum of $450,000 for a similar purpose for
_ REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. B 29
the fiscal year 1942-43, and, pursuant to an order of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
that amount was distributed in May, 1942, to the districts on the basis of 70 per centum
of the total salaries paid for the month of January, 1942, to teachers regularly employed
in the schools of the Province.
CADET INSTRUCTION IN THE SCHOOLS.
Cadet instruction is now a regular part of the school curriculum. In the school-
year 1941-42 there were eighty-three active Army Cadet Corps, with an enrolment of
11,920. Provision has also been made for the establishment of Air Cadet Squadrons,
in which students of Grade XL, Grade XII., and Senior Matriculation may be enrolled.
In accordance with a regulation of the Council of Public Instruction, made in
February, 1942, a student may earn five credits for efficiency in cadet work. The
regulation and requirements are as follows:—
" When, a cadet in a regularly organized Public School Cadet Corps has received
cadet instruction, in excess of that given in the regular Health and Physical Education
periods, for two or three additional periods in Grade XL and three or two additional
periods in Grade XII. or a total equivalent of five periods per week for one year, he
shall be entitled at the end of Grade XII. to five credits towards the fifteen credits of
Free Electives required for University Entrance or High School Graduation; provided
that these further requirements shall have been met:—
(i.)   The corps shall have been classified as efficient by the officer inspecting
the corps at the annual inspection:
(ii.) The cadet shall have been trained in all of the subjects laid down for
Army or Air Cadets as set forth on page 4 of the Syllabus of Training,
Cadet Services of Canada (1941), prepared under the direction of the
Chief of the General Staff, Department of National Defence, Ottawa,
Canada:
(iii.)   The corps shall have been trained under a qualified instructor, approved
by the Department of National Defence:
(iv.)  The cadet shall have passed his classification test in musketry and shall
have reached the standards in signalling laid down on page 18 of the
syllabus:
(v.)  He shall have reached the standard required for classification as a First-
class Cadet as defined below.
" Definition of a First-class Cadet.—A First-class Cadet is a cadet who:—•
(i.)   Has completed the full syllabus of training for Army or Air Cadets as
laid down in the syllabus named above, and is proficient in all of the
subjects of the syllabus:
(ii.)  Is smart and alert in bearing, clean and tidy in his person and dress, not
only on parade but also on the school premises and in public places:
(iii.)   Is polite and mannerly at all times and observes the courtesies of speech
and address expected of cadets both on and off parade:
(iv.)   Is regular in attendance at parades and inspections, and satisfies his
principal and instructor with respect to the necessity of any absence:
(v.)  Takes proper care of all clothing and equipment entrusted to his charge,
and accounts for this clothing and equipment when required to do so:
(vi.)  Has a good record in respect of his conduct and discipline as a cadet and
in his general school citizenship."
THE PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL BUILDING AND GROUNDS
(VICTORIA).
In February, 1942, the Department of National Defence, Ottawa, intimated to the
Provincial Government that it would like to have the use of the beautiful Victoria
Normal School buildings and grounds for a hospital for the duration of the war. The
Honourable John Hart, Premier of the Province, readily agreed to the suggestion and
offered the property free of rental to the Dominion Government.    The building was B 30 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
vacated in March, 1942. The Normal School staff and students are now temporarily
housed in the Memorial Hall, which was willingly offered for their use by the Anglican
Synod, to whom the deep appreciation of this Department is extended for its courtesy
in this matter.
THE SCHOOLS AND THE NAVY LEAGUE OF CANADA.
Navy Week was observed in the schools from October 20th to October 25th, 1941,
and many contributions were sent by the children to the President of the Navy League
to assist the League in carrying out its work throughout the Dominion. Following is
a short summary of the activities of the League:—
"(a.)  The formation and maintenance of Sea Cadet Corps for boys and young
men.    In these corps the lads learn all the elementary duties of a seaman, including drill and shooting:
"(6.)  The provision of hostels at the ports, both on the Atlantic and Pacific
coasts—such as Prince Robert House at Victoria with its hundred beds
—where sailors for a small charge enjoy many of the comforts of home,
with clean bedrooms, lounges, writing-rooms, library, and play-rooms:
"(c.)  The activities of the Women's Auxiliaries.    They arrange entertainments for sailors temporarily ashore, also for young sailors who are
training in barracks far from their homes.    They knit and otherwise
provide woollen mittens, helmets, and sweaters.    They make up ditty-
bags, containing many small comforts that the men value greatly:
"(d.)  The provision of tobacco and cigarettes in considerable quantities for
the men in the convoys."
WAR SAVINGS STAMPS AND CERTIFICATES.
Since the war began the schools in the Province have given generous aid in all
movements connected with our war effort. In the past two years students have invested
over half a million dollars in War Savings stamps, of which amount the sum of $215,000
was contributed in the school year 1941-42. The Provincial War Finance Committee
has been warm in its praise of the splendid work of the schools and of the co-operation
received from the teachers.
RELEASE OF STUDENTS FOR FARMING OPERATIONS.
In March, 1942, the Council of Public Instruction made a regulation for the release
of some students from school to assist in relieving the shortage of labour on the farms.
With the consent of the School Boards and the principals, and with the approval of their
parents, thousands of youths gave valuable aid on the farms from June to September,
and in some cases in October also.    The regulation of the Council was as follows:—
"(1.) The principal of a high school, with the consent of the Board of School
Trustees, is authorized to release from school after June 1st, 1942, boys
and girls of Grades IX., X., and XL who, in the opinion of the principal,
have made such progress during the year as to entitle them to promotion to a higher grade for the next school-year and, at the same time,
to release boys and girls of Grade XII. who have made an average
standing on the year's work of C+ (66%) and are worthy to be recommended by the principal for a High School Graduation Diploma or a
University Entrance Certificate; provided that in all cases release be
not granted unless the boy or girl has been offered and accepted employment as indicated above and undertakes to remain in said employment to the end of the school-year; and provided that the terms and
conditions of employment are satisfactory to the Provincial Department
of Labour.
"(2.) In the discretion of a School Board and high school principal, boys and
girls who may be released before the end of the school-year may be
required to remain at school for an additional hour on regular schooldays during April and May. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. B 31
"(3.) The principal of a high school, with the consent of the Board of School
Trustees, is authorized to excuse from attending school during the
months of September and October, 1942, boys and girls who are employed in the operations referred to above, and to make such arrangements for the intensive training of these pupils when they return to
school next term as may be considered necessary to bring their work up
as quickly as possible to the required standing for their respective
grades."
BIBLE STUDY.
A course designated Bible Study I. was available for the use of high school students
in 1941-42. A large number of students took advantage of it and successfully passed
the examination at the end of the school-year. Since that time two new courses, Bible
Study II. and Bible Study IV., have been compiled, printed, and issued to the schools.
Bible Study III. will probably not be ready before September, 1943. Hereafter there
will be no separate examination conducted by the Department in Bible Study I. or II.
or III., but where a student wishes to obtain credit in any of these courses the recommendation of his instructor is accepted, provided the candidate has obtained the equivalent of a C+ standing in the course. At the end of the school-year 1943-44, there
will be a final examination on the whole four courses and satisfactory standing in that
examination will entitle a candidate to five credits towards High School Graduation and
University Entrance.
CHANGES IN THE STAFF.
In October, 1941, Mr. T. G. Carter, Inspector of Schools, Penticton, joined the
R.C.A.F. With the rank of Flying Officer he is now engaged in the inspection and
examination of students at the Educational Refresher Schools for Air Crew conducted
in the Prairie Provinces and in British Columbia.
To fill the vacancy caused by Mr. Carter's enlistment in the Air Force, Mr. Bergie
Thorsteinsson, B.A., of the Powell River Junior High School staff was given temporary appointment, effective January 1st, 1942, as Inspector of Schools, with headquarters at Rossland.
In September, 1941, Miss Bertha Rogers, B.Sc, of the Oak Bay High School staff,
was employed temporarily as assistant to the Director of Home Economics. On April
1st, 1942, Miss Rogers was given permanent appointment as Assistant Inspector in
Home Economics.
On May 16th, 1942, Mr. John Gough, M.A., Instructor in the Provincial Normal
School, Victoria, was appointed Municipal Inspector of Schools for the school district of
Saanich.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education. B 32 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
INSPECTION OF SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF H. B. KING, Ph.D., CHIEF INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The schools have operated during the past year under handicaps so well known
that there is no need to particularize them. Teachers and pupils have shown a devotion
to their country's cause in every way open to them. They are serving in their
thousands on land, on sea, and in the air in theatres of operation throughout the world.
In the circumstances it is surprising that standards of school achievement have been
so well maintained.
The end of the war will face our democracies with many problems of educational
organization, of changes in the aims and subject-matter of education. Accurate forecast of what these changes shall be cannot be made at this time. It is, however, desirable that all persons engaged in teaching, or interested in education, should give
thought concerning the bearing upon education of the changes in the world which are
bound to occur. In the meantime I should like to draw attention to more mundane
matters of present concern.
CADET TRAINING.
Cadet training was carried on in practically all high schools which had a qualified
instructor available, and in some elementary schools. The work was carried out very
well under the stimulating supervision of Major W. R. Critchley, G.S.O.2 (Cadets) for
this military district, and of Flight-Lieutenant E. G. Symonds for the Air Cadets.
One would have to exhaust himself in praise to do justice to the zeal which the cadet
instructors gave to fitting themselves for their duties and then to the training of the
boys. Officers in charge of the instructional cadres of the army and of the Royal
Canadian Air Force speak in highest terms of the value of this training for the future
recruit.
One obvious gain has been in the manners and general deportment of the pupils.
Standards set for the earning of credits for cadet work will have a wholesome effect in
the same direction.
There are now enough school cadets in British Columbia to constitute an army
division.
Not to be outdone by the boys, in many schools the girls have insisted upon being
formed into Girls' Cadet Corps, in which they receive appropriate training.
EDUCATION AND THE ARMED FORCES.
It is a constant source of surprised comment by officers of the armed forces that
the youths coming from the schools, or who have received their education in the last
decade or so, are better educated, better disciplined, more responsive and teachable
than any recruits they have had in their military experience. Military " crime"
amongst these youths is negligible. The officers do not hesitate to give the credit for
these facts to the modern school.
The better education of the present-day recruit enables him to grasp quickly the
increasingly difficult technical features of military training. It may confidently be
claimed that the final success of our war effort will be due in large part to the education
which has been given and is being given in the schools.
Essential to victory is the development of an all-powerful Air Force., Airmen
require a good knowledge of mathematics and science, particularly of physics. This
latter subject usually is an optional subject for students seeking admission to the
universities. Matriculants therefore may or may not have studied elementary Physics.
In our British Columbia organization of high school Science, however, practically all
students, except Commercial students, study General Science. A student who has had
General Science V. has had almost all the Physics required by the Air Force. In Grade
XL our students learn logarithms, and continue the use of them in the other grades.
This skill in most Provinces is learned in the Senior Matriculation year. Thus an
unusually large percentage of British Columbia students have the special education
background required of flying personnel. INSPECTION OP SCHOOLS. B 33
Our former students who have entered war industries have earned similar commendation. The Industrial Arts programme in both elementary and secondary schools
has been of much value in effecting rapid adjustment to industrial demands.
It is not many years since an important commission recommended that free public
education should cease at the end of a pupil's thirteenth year. It is not pleasant to
speculate upon the effect which this would have had upon the issue of the war had the
suggestion been carried out.
RURAL EDUCATION.
In the United States the best work in Rural Education is being done in underprivileged and backward areas; in some cases under one or other of the many Federal
Boards functioning under the United States Government, in other cases by bureaux
financed by various foundations. Notable amongst the latter is the Bureau of School
Service of the University of Kentucky, Lexington, the bulletins of which institution
should be read by those interested in Rural Education.
The problems of the rural school curriculum are not to be solved merely by the
drawing up of a special rural school Programme of Studies. The conditions of life and
the nature of the communities differ so greatly that no prescriptive programme would fit
rural British Columbia as a whole. The problem is one of adjustment and adaptation.
The real curriculum is not the Programme of Studies but the selected experiences
which the teacher employs, or which teachers and pupils select, to promote the growth
of the pupils. These experiences will vary with pupils and with communities.
Knowing how to select and organize experiences is a matter of teacher-training, both of
pre-service and in-service training.
It is stated in the different official bulletins that the programme should be adjusted
to individual pupils, classes, and communities. No one can make these adjustments
but the class-room teacher. Many or most of the difficulties teachers have in curriculum matters come from the old notion that the curriculum is a fixed body of knowledge
which has to be administered to all pupils alike.
Rural teachers would simplify their task of teaching many subjects to many grades
if they employed the "Enterprise" technique. Dickey, "The Enterprise" (Gage),
and Wrightstone, " Appraisal of Newer Elementary School Practices " (Bureau of
Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York), explain how to
initiate and carry out an " enterprise." There are duplicate copies of these books in
the Teachers' Shelf of the Public Library Commission, Provincial Library, Victoria.
Pages 14-19 of the new Elementary School Bulletin also deal with this method.
Rural graded schools tend to be copies of city graded schools. The consolidation
of schools in country districts will not solve the problem of rural education unless the
schools are given a rural bias.
SCHOOL-GARDENS.
There has been some development of school-gardens during the year, attributable
to the leadership of Inspectors. The greatest success was achieved where the interest
of community groups was aroused. It will, however, take long and sustained effort to
transform the many unattractive school buildings and grounds into places of beauty.
It has been taken for granted that schools, especially rural schools, should be ugly.
Iman E. Schatzmann, in a book entitled " The Country School" (University of
Chicago Press, 1942), has this to say of rural schools in England:—
" Wherever a traveller went in England, prior to the present dramatic period, he
never failed to be impressed by the beautiful public and private gardens. In sharp
contrast to the neglected playgrounds of American rural schools were the well-kept,
well-landscaped, and attractive rural-school gardens of England. Teachers and pupils
alike took great pride in working hand in hand throughout the year in the school
gardens. Shrubs and flowers were found everywhere, and no matter how small the
school it always had a generous plot of land to provide for school gardening. Two or
three counties had officers to supervise both gardening and rural science. The course
of instruction in the post-primary schools generally included training in tillage and
3 B 34 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
the growing of common vegetables on a good system of rotation, the cultivation of
flowers, and the propagation of fruit trees. One school visited had a rock garden with
a hundred and twenty varieties of Alpine plants.
" From the above it becomes evident that English boys and girls were imbued
with a love, appreciation, and understanding of growing things. They were also taught
to love animals and to preserve wild life.
" As far as academic subjects were concerned, the methods of instruction were
substantially the same in both country and urban schools. The English language was
the core of the curriculum in every school. It was believed that the child must be
taught the effective use of thought and speech if he were to cope with the problems of
life and derive the most benefit from the wealth of literature, new ideas, science, and
art. He must learn to think constructively; he must write things worth writing, read
things worth reading, listen to things worth listening to, and say things worth saying.
" Frequently the study of geography was tied up with ' village survey-making'
and with such matters as industries, crops, occupation, vegetable and animal life, and
transportation. Newspaper clippings gave information on current problems, conditions, and markets. History definitely leaned toward biographical, social, and economic
studies. The children learned from certain aspects of their village history the importance and relationship of some episode in national and world-history.
" Educators felt that mathematics must have meaning for boys and girls leaving
school at the age of fourteen if they were to use it in their work at home, on the land,
or in industry. Therefore, they must acquire a sound knowledge of simple arithmetical processes and some accuracy and skill in their use. An effort was made to relate
the courses in mathematics to gardening, crafts, and daily activities such as poultry-
raising and bee-keeping. The science course included nature study (with the usual
making of aquaria and vivaria), bird studies, and rural science. The latter imparted
knowledge of soils and fertilizers, air, water and weather, machines, electricity and
magnetism. Wireless sets were frequently built by the pupils. Courses in rural
science such as were broadcast by the Rothamsted Experimental Station in Harpenden
were often listened to because they afforded the pupils opportunities for active co-operation in carrying out experiments and recording observations in accordance with radio
instruction. In preparation for these broadcasts the Rothamsted Experimental Station
sent an illustrated booklet on rural science to the schools wishing to take advantage of
their courses scheduled in advance for each school term."
In many parts of British Columbia there are deficiencies of diet which could be
corrected by the production of the variety of vegetables essential for growing youth.
A similar condition exists in the more backward parts of the United States. The rural
elementary school in some of the States (in Kentucky, for example) is moving to correct these conditions. It would be a forward step of great social significance if the
teachers in the rural areas, or those likely to teach in these areas, were given sufficient
training in Rural Science to enable them to give a lead in these matters.
SCHOOL-LUNCHES.
The unregulated, unsupervised luncheon period in non-urban schools is passing
away. In the last school-year its going was accelerated. In one considerable area it
has disappeared entirely.
It is now not uncommon in country schools for the pupils remaining in school for
the noon hour to sit down to a table provided with dishes and to eat in a civilized
manner. In some cases pupils contribute the essentials for the making of soup, and
each child has a hot bowl of soup and sometimes a cup of cocoa, both of them prepared
by the pupils. The table in some schools is covered with a linen table-cloth or with
oilcloth. Occasionally it is decorated with a vase of flowers. Dishes, knives, forks,
spoons, and other utensils have been provided by the community. The table and chairs
are sometimes donated, sometimes supplied by the Board, sometimes they have been
constructed by friends of the teacher. In other cases both tables and seats have been
made as Practical Arts projects by the pupils. INSPECTION OF SCHOOLS. B 35
The school-lunch affords opportunity for social training. It offers the best approach
to learning the principles of diet and nutrition.
In some graded schools in rural areas the Women's Institute has organized a service
providing lunches at cost.
GUIDANCE.
In former reports reference has been made to the desirability of Home-room
Guidance and to having teachers responsible for more than one subject in the classes
which they meet.
In the report of the Eight-year Study in which thirty schools participated in an
important study involving greater freedom for the schools in preparing students for
college, the statement which follows is made with respect to the organization of
Guidance.    It is worthy of consideration by high schools in this Province:—
" The Thirty Schools recognized that some way must be found by which each pupil
should be well known by at least one teacher. They took seriously this obligation of
knowing their students well, and several effective ways were found to meet it. Such
arrangements as these were devised in various schools:—
" The counselor or home-room teacher became also the teacher of his home-room
group in one or more subjects.
" The counselor continued with the same group of students, not just for a semester
or a year, but for two or three years.
" Instead of a formal report of grades sent to the student's home without his previous knowledge, a carefully written statement of his progress was prepared jointly by
adviser and student. This often led to a conference attended by counselor, parents,
and pupil, resulting almost always in greater knowledge and understanding.
" The counselor visited each student's home, at least once each year, more frequently if necessary.
" Organization of teachers around groups of students with whom they all were
working supplanted, to a considerable extent, the traditional departmental organization
around subjects.
" In some of the large high schools a smaller school within the larger one was
organized. Thus six teachers became responsible for 210 students for the greater part
of the school day. Each teacher was a counselor of thirty-five students, and the six
teachers and the 210 boys and girls worked together as a unit. The schedule was
arranged so that there was flexibility in class grouping and so that the six teachers
had an hour together for conference every day."—Adventure in American Education,
Vol. I., pp. 37-38, Harper, 1942.)
SPANISH.
In my report for the school-year 1940-41, I discussed the desirability of paying
more attention to the study of Spanish. While our Programme of Studies for many
years has provided two courses in Spanish (Spanish I. and Spanish II.), only a handful of students have studied this language. No alteration in these courses was made
in recent revision of the High School Programme. The courses as they stand could be
improved and better text-books are available.
During the past year considerable interest in Spanish developed and a demand for
the language is evident. A similar movement is under way in the British Isles, as
evidenced by articles in recent issues of the Educational Supplement of the London
" Times." The war is a factor in this new attitude, but English educational opinion
is influenced by the fact, or by the belief, that few students have gained, or are likely to
gain, an effective mastery of French and that Spanish gives " more miles to the gallon,"
as one English writer has put it, than either French or German.
The hope that the study of Spanish by British Columbia students will lead to
furthering commercial relations with Latin America and that it will open to these
students positions in the business world is not confirmed by the experience of schools
in California and other States where Spanish is studied. The chief outcomes of the
study will be increased knowledge of the Latin American (in some countries, the Indo-
American) world, and the personal satisfaction of learning a rich language in which
reasonable proficiency may be attained. B 36 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
As Spanish is a language easier to learn than French it has been studied to meet
College Entrance requirements in the United States by the linguistically less able
students. Their presence handicaps the more able who are likely to make later use of
the language. Some measure of selection should be employed if the study of Spanish
is to return individual or social dividends. Previous success with Latin or French
would be a good criterion.
A large amount of " transfer " may be made to Spanish from Latin or French,
particularly from Latin.
RESEARCH IN ALGEBRA.
In June, 1942, the Mathematics teachers of the Victoria High School, in co-operation with the Child Study Department of the Victoria schools, conducted a research in
Algebra which could be repeated, with the assurance of fruitful results, in any high
school.
A Survey Text in Algebra was given to 136 Grade XL students. The test consisted of sixty-three items testing that number of different algebraic processes or
essential understandings. The report prepared by the participants analysed the errors
made, tabulated the Rights, Wrongs, and Omissions for each item, and drew up a summary and statement of conclusions. The results of the survey will be used for remedial
and corrective instruction with these same pupils in Grade XII.
As the conclusions drawn from this research are of significance for all teachers of
Mathematics, these are given below:—
" Summary and Conclusions.
"(1.) This examination was designed to test the basic skills and principles included
in the typical elementary algebra course extending through quadratics. The emphasis
was upon genuine understanding of processes and relationships rather than upon mere
mechanical manipulation.
"(2.) Beginning Algebra is without doubt one of the most difficult subjects of the
modern curriculum. As one writer has put it, ' The fundamental concepts are not
sufficiently clear to the learner because they are presented too abstractly and too rapidly
in succession. Hence the student fails to acquire a full understanding of the meaning
of such important concepts as literal number, signed number, exponent, equation, and
relationship.'
"(3.) Rules introduced too soon or too abstractly interfere with meanings.
Students should, therefore, be encouraged at all times to think of the meanings involved
and to check inductively from what they know of first principles and easy illustrations
if in doubt about rules. Rules need to have their foundations of meaning constantly
reinforced even in the upper grades.
" (4.) The following concepts were not well mastered by the group on the whole:—
(a.) The linear equation in one unknown with easy fractions and decimals;
(&.)  The perfect square a2—2ab-\-b2 and its factors;
(c.)  The evaluation of simple algebraical expressions by substituting negative
numbers, multiplying by co-efficients and collecting terms (the processes
of multiplication and addition were badly confused);
(...)  The fundamental concepts of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and
division in basic situations;
(e.)  The addition of easy fractions  (arithmetical and algebraical);
(/.)  Collecting like surds; multiplying and dividing unlike surds;
(g.)  Reduction to lowest terms of easy literal fractions;
(/..)   The fundamental concept of simple, direct proportion;
(£.-)   Division by a fraction;
(/.)   The quadratic equation in one unknown (reversed signs).
"(5.)   In problem solving, some of the students were badly handicapped through
lack of the kind of reading ability required in mathematics.    Reading mathematical
materials requires, among others, the following abilities:  Noting details and weighing
them; following directions;  and organizing factual contents (making systematic notes INSPECTION OF SCHOOLS. B 37
or analyses on paper), and drawing inferences from them. Comprehending such
materials demands careful reading. In other words, such reading must be slow and
interpretative.
" Students who have not yet learned to attack such materials slowly should be
taught to do so. They will find it expedient from time to time to pause in their reading
in order to relate previous material to that which is being read, and to predict what
will follow. A student must learn to differentiate his reading-speed so that he consciously uses a rate that enables him to comprehend fully what he is reading.
" Work-study reading techniques are among those most highly related to achievement in mathematical subjects.    The teacher of mathematics should contribute to the
developmental reading growth of his students by training them in. these techniques.
" Difficulties that students encounter in reading mathematical materials include:—
"(a.)  Difficulties in vocabulary.    Context clues are of little value in getting
the meaning of the mathematical terms from the rest of the sentence,
and unless the relationship is understood the sentence cannot be translated into equational or shorthand language.    The word ' subject'  (of
a formula)   cannot be  understood  unless there  is  direct  instruction
through introducing the word in many precise and concrete situations.
It is the task of the student with the aid of his teacher gradually to
build the mathematical vocabulary needed and the ability to see the
relationships in the statements read.
"(&.)   Difficulties due to failure to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant
facts,
"(c.)   Difficulties due to failure to set down all the necessary steps.    Sometimes the failure to include all the necessary steps in solving a problem
is due to the fact that the student skips over pertinent material in reading the problem.    At other times, of course, failure to include all the
necessary steps is due to lack of understanding the mathematical processes involved.
"(6.)  Not enough students used diagrams and systematic written notes (or steps)
in solving items of all sorts;   they tried to solve without organizing the data and conclusions, memory failed to keep the steps in mind, and confusion resulted.
"(7.) Teachers of Algebra are apt to spend not enough time on easy illustrations
of basic principles and too much time on difficult examples and applications.
"(8.) Algebraic concepts need to be taught and learned spirally; i.e., the concepts
need to be expanded gradually over a period of several years. A concept should not be
taught once and for all in Grade VII.; it should be introduced in Grade VII., but the
threads should be taken up again in Grades VIII., IX., X., XL, XII., and even in college.
The process becomes one of learning by reorganization; from year to year, students
gain added insight into the meaning of the concept. It is not merely review in the
old sense, but extensional thinking and learning which is necessary to real understanding of and skill in the use of the language of Algebra.
" ' The purpose of this analysis has been to draw to the attention of all teachers
of Algebra the importance of the " semantic " approach in teaching elementary Algebra.
Briefly to summarize, the semantic approach emphasizes meanings, attitudes, habits
of thinking and working, and the higher mental processes, especially those foundational thinking experiences which should precede the study of any new topic and should
constantly be reinforced year after year. Until such time as drill in understanding
supersedes mechanical drill in the use of meaningless rules we cannot expect any real
mastery of Algebra.'"
PROVINCE-WIDE TESTING OF READING.
In March, 1942, most of the Grade VIII. pupils in the Province were given the
Public School Achievement Test in Reading, Form 3. A few pupils were tested in
February and some in April. The scores not given in March did not affect the distribution of the scores as a whole, which, therefore, may be taken as representing the level
of achievement in Reading for the Province in the month of March.    In all, 9,091 pupils B 38 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
were tested. This was the most comprehensive testing of any subject as yet undertaken
in British Columbia.
The United States norm for Grade VIIL, or national median, is 52 (October testing) . The British Columbia median is 54.7, which is just under the October norm for
American pupils in Grade IX.A (the second half year of Grade IX.). If we allow for
the fact that the British Columbia testing was done in March, we may say that the
median or typical British Columbia student is, in reading comprehension, one-half year
in advance of his American counterpart.
One is saved from too much complacency over these results by an inspection of the
range of scores. While 40 per cent, of the pupils had already reached the standard
for American Grade IX. pupils (October), the 1,576 British Columbia pupils below
Grade VILA standard require special attention in a planned remedial programme.
The few pupils scoring less than 36 are mostly atypical pupils of various types.
The following table is self-explanatory, except for the column which gives the
Provincial percentiles. This column will enable a teacher who uses the Public School
Achievement Test (any form of it) to determine where a pupil stands relatively to all
the Grade VIIL pupils in the Province as in March, 1942. P00 is the point below which
90 per cent, of the pupils fall. The highest 10 per cent, of pupils, or the first decile,
scored above 60.3. As the decimal point in these cases is theoretical, since the real
scores are not decimal, we may say that a pupil scoring 61 or 62 is in the highest 10 per
cent. or decile in the Province; that one scoring 59 or 60 is in the second decile; that
one scoring 45 or less is in the lowest decile, and that one scoring 51 or 52 is in the
fourth lowest decile, and so on.
The one-roomed rural schools compare favourably with graded schools when one
gives consideration to the frequent changes of teachers in rural schools, to the inexperience of many of them, to the lack of books and equipment, and to the poverty of some
of the communities. -
INSPECTION OF SCHOOLS.
B 39
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- B 40 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
DIAGNOSTIC TESTING.
The general survey test in Reading Comprehension was followed by the administration of the Van Wagenen-Dvorak Diagnostic Test of Silent Reading Abilities. This
test was given to as many pupils falling below the Grade VILA level as Inspectors were
able to reach after the survey test had been scored. This test analyses the specific
reading deficiencies of the pupil and yields a reading profile which tells the teacher those
reading disabilities which need correction.
It is expected that these profiles of the more backward pupils and the scores of all
pupils on the survey test will reach secondary school principals and that the latter will
make use of these data in, the organization of the classes and in the initiating of a
programme of reading improvement in their Grade IX. classes.
READING ABILITY OF JAPANESE CHILDREN.
It is a current belief that Japanese children are superior students, outclassing
white children. This belief is not supported by the evidence of these test results. In
two inspectorates in which there were numerous Japanese children, their scores were
separated from the scores of the white children and the two tabulated as below. Many
of the white pupils are children of foreign language speaking parents.
Comparison of the Reading Scores of Grade VIIL White and Japanese
Children of Two Inspectorates (March, 1942).
White. Japanese.
62  1
60-61    20 1
58-59  38 10
56-57 ■ 58 8
54-55  32 12
52-53  20 5
50-51  18 12
48-49  14 14
46-47  11 10
44-45  9 8
42-43 J  6 6
40-41  4 5
38-39  1 2
36-37  2 6
34-35  1
32-33  2
Total  237 99
Median     55.9 49.8
It will be seen from the above that the Japanese median is just under the Grade
VIII.B American standard, while the median of the white children is just under the
Grade IX.A standard, a difference of two and one-half years in school achievement. The
median Japanese score is in the third lowest Provincial decile. Thus it cannot be said,
on the basis of these scores, that Japanese children are superior in Reading achievement, and reading affects achievement in other school subjects. However, some
Japanese children appear in the higher deciles, though only one Japanese ranks amongst
the twenty-one pupils scoring 60 or more. Thus while some Japanese children are
gifted and will do excellently in the high school and in the university, an unselected
Japanese group does not excel an unselected white group, in so far as conclusions may
be drawn from a comparison of the Reading scores of 237 Grade VIIL whites and
ninety-nine Japanese.
It may be remarked that the median scores of these two inspectorates were raised
when the Japanese scores were eliminated. INSPECTION OF SCHOOLS. B 41
GRAMMAR TEST.
In June, 1942, a test in Grammar was given to 2,249 Grade VIIL and Grade IX.
classes in elementary, junior high, and high schools. The purpose of the test was to
ascertain if pupils had that modicum of grammatical knowledge essential for the
studying of a foreign language. The test was given to 870 Grade VIIL pupils in fifteen
elementary schools, to 861 Grade VIIL pupils studying Latin or French in junior high
schools, and to 518 Grade IX. Latin students in both junior and senior high schools.
The pupils studying Latin or French in either Grade VIIL or Grade IX. may be
presumed to have been a more selected group than the elementary school group, which
included all.of the Grade VIIL pupils in each of the fifteen elementary schools.
The test, which is printed below, is a very easy one. The pupil is required to
identify a noun or pronoun as being in some one of five possible constructions. Each
construction is repeated four times.
The median scores for the elementary schools range from 8.3 to 16.3; the range
for the upper third (five schools) is from 14.9 to 16.3; for the middle third from 11.8
to 13.2; for the lower third, 8.3 to 10.9. The median for all of the elementary schools
is 12.5.
The range of median for the Grade VIIL pupils studying Latin or French in junior
high schools is from 9.1 to 14.8, with a median for the 861 pupils of 11.0.
The range of median for the Grade IX. pupils studying Latin was from 12.9 to 19.1,
with a median of 13.9 for this group of 518 pupils.
From the data here given and from other data not given certain conclusions may
be drawn:—
(1.) In all types of schools the majority of the pupils need strengthening in their
ability to identify the grammatical usage of words in very simple sentences. Knowledge may have lapsed from want of use. A few minutes daily of oral " maintenance "
practice in the English and foreign languages classes would keep alive knowledge
previously acquired.
(2.) Some Grade VIIL pupils studying a foreign language would be better employed in obtaining a mastery of English.
(3.) Except in two junior high schools which made high median scores (19.1 and
16.1), the Grade IX. Latin students in both junior and senior high schools do not show
the superiority in knowledge of English Grammar which might have been expected.
Except in these two schools, the median for the Grade IX. Latin pupils is below that of
the Grade VIIL pupils in five of the fifteen elementary schools. As Latin students
usually are a select group, this result is surprising. In some schools the median score
of these selected pupils is below the median of the unselected Grade VIIL pupils in a
tributary elementary school in the district. As high school Latin students are usually
a more select group than students of French, there is no reason to believe that the Grade
IX. French students would have done any better. These results do not strengthen the
case for the study of a foreign language.
The test is printed below so that principals and teachers may use it to find how
their pupils stand.
The test is untimed.
Grammar Test.
Name . J.         Date	
(First name, initial, last name.)
Age last birthday years. Class or division  Grade	
School  Teacher of subject	
Directions to Pupils.
The word underlined in each of the following sentences is either: (1) the direct object of
some part of a verb, or (2) the indirect object, or (3) the object of a preposition, or (4) a
predicative noun or complement, or (5) a predicative adjective.
1. If the underlined word is the direct object of some part of a verb, write the figure (1) in the
empty bracket to the right. B 42
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
2. If the underlined word is the indirect object, write the figure (2) in the bracket.
3. If the underlined word is the object of a preposition, write the figure (3) in the bracket.
4. If the underlined word is a predicative noun or complement, write the number  (4) in the
bracket.
5. If the underlined word is a predicative adjective, write the number (5) in the bracket.
The following is an example of what is required:
The dog bit the man.      (   1   )
Now do what is asked with the following sentences.
The illustration is a map of Ancient Europe.	
1.
2. The Romans lived in an ancient and beautiful country.
3. The doll delights the young girl.	
4. Italy is long and narrow. 	
5. Italy is a peninsula. ,	
6. The lady and her daughter see the picture. 	
7. I gave the boy a dollar.	
8. I gave the girl a bunch of flowers. 	
9. The motorist struck a man crossing the street.
10. He told me an interesting story.	
11. The pupils in this class are clever.	
12. He is the oldest boy in the room.	
13. Sink me the ship, master gunner.	
14. He is wise for his years.	
15. Augustus became emperor. 	
16. The good boy salutes me.	
17. The soldier is very courageous. 	
18. In the picture we see Terentia and Flaccus.
19. I bought my grandson a new bicycle.	
20. I am the monarch of all I behold.	
Number right..
Number wrong-
Number omitted..   PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
B 43
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF A: R. LORD, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The forty-first session of the Vancouver Normal School opened on September 8th,
1941, and closed on June 12th, 1942.    Attendance and results were as follows:—
Men.
Women.
Total.
22
134
16
1
156
16
1
22
20
151
129
173
149
" Distinction " standing was awarded to Mona Elizabeth Asselstine, B.A., Fernie;
Rosemary Brodie Hallowell Lumb, Vancouver; Elaine Kelley McKinnon, B.A., Vancouver; Mildred Ann Twiss, B.A., Vancouver; and Josephine Winifred Weldon, B.A.,
Vancouver. Medals for outstanding ability in Physical Education were presented to
Loma Jean McKenzie, Vancouver, and James William Stewart, Vancouver.
Every student in attendance during the second term completed a St. John Ambulance course in First Aid and received a Senior certificate; 143 also received Strath-
cona Trust, Grade B, certificates.
Two staff changes occurred during the year: Mr. F. C. Boyes, M.A., became
instructor in Social Studies and Miss Margaret Macdonald, B.A., A.T.C.M., was
appointed as assistant in our Model School.    Both have given most satisfactory service.
The general organization of the school remained much the same as during the
previous two or three years, any changes being in matters of detail rather than of
principle. Continued and highly profitable use was made of the facilities of the Vancouver Model School, to the principal and staff of which we are greatly indebted.
Practice-teaching facilities were provided in twenty-four Vancouver, New Westminster,
and Burnaby schools for the usual two periods of four weeks each. That the assistance
of these schools continues to be efficiently and most graciously given is indicated by the
fact that the number of rooms offered exceeded our requirements by at least 25 per
cent.
There are two problems in need of an early solution if this school is to do its share
in providing an adequate supply of properly trained teachers for the schools of British
Columbia. The first, which is common to most Canadian Normal Schools, is the securing every year of an enrolment proportionate to the Provincial need for teachers. The
second, more distinctly peculiar to Vancouver, is the provision of practice in typical
ungraded schools.
An analysis of Normal School attendance in British Columbia since the opening
of the first school in 1901 is interesting. There were then 543 teachers employed and
103 students attended the Normal School; twenty years later the number of teachers
had increased to 2,734 and Normal School enrolment to 453; in 1940 the corresponding
numbers were 4,220 and 309.
During those first twenty years students with two years of high school education
and one term at Normal could receive certificates and obtain a salary of $780; there
was no Normal School fee and after 1915 their travelling expenses to Normal were
paid. During the next ten years training was progressively increased to four years
at high school and two terms at Normal and the commencing salary was slightly
increased as well. Since 1923 fees have been imposed—first $40, then $100, and finally
$135. Transportation grants were discontinued in 1927 and admission requirements
have been raised to five years of high school and two subsequent summer sessions and
the initial salary has returned to where it was thirty years ago. B 44 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
We are securing some fine young women and men in our Normal Schools but, in
the main* we are getting what we are paying for. If the democratic way of life is to
be a reality it must begin in our class-rooms and it can only begin there if the road to
teaching is made easier by a reduction or cancellation of fees and more attractive by
a salary commensurate with the training required.
As most of our graduates will do their initial teaching in ungraded schools it is
obvious that they should have practice in that type of work. Unfortunately, there are
no ungraded schools in the area tributary to Vancouver, and it has not been practicable
to provide boarding accommodation and transportation costs to schools farther afield
for the majority of our students whose homes are in Vancouver.
As an alternative a Model School with two ungraded class-rooms has been set up.
This is excellent so far as it goes, but two rooms do not permit much practice for each
of 175 students. We urgently need two additional class-rooms and a permanent home
for the four as one of the existing classes occupies a badly-needed Normal School room
and the other has been provided with a building through the generosity of the Vancouver School Board.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VICTORIA.
REPORT OF V. L. DENTON, B.A., D.C.L., PRINCIPAL.
The session of 1941-42 opened on September 8th, 1941, and closed on June 25th,
1942. During the year, sixty-eight students were in attendance. Of these, two completed a refresher course in order to qualify for a British Columbia Certificate.
Diplomas were awarded to sixty-four students, two of whom received honour
standing.    The following table presents a summary of enrolment:—
Women.
Men.
Total.
57
2
2
7
64
Failed                    — -   	
2
2
61
7
68
During the summer arrangements were made for Inspector K. B. Woodward, of
Rossland, to join the staff as instructor in Mathematics and Tests and Measurements.
His intimate knowledge of rural school conditions in the Interior of the Province was
much appreciated. It was with considerable regret that at the end of the session,
through reduction of staff, it became necessary for Mr. Woodward to resume his duties
at Rossland.
In February, the Provincial authorities agreed to turn the Normal School building
over to the Dominion Government for use as a military hospital for the duration of
the war. Temporary quarters for the Normal classes were found in Shrine Temple,
on View Street, to which place some necessary equipment was moved. The remainder
was placed in storage.
Students and staff alike co-operated in this pilgrimage from spacious quarters in
our vine-covered building on Tolmie side to the somewhat restricted area at " The
Shrine." It was realized that this was but one small sacrifice toward helping in the
war effort. We know that many hundreds of the armed forces will now be able to
receive treatment and to recuperate in the midst of 8 acres of beauty and quiet.
At the end of May, the students were accommodated in rural schools on Vancouver
Island and throughout several Interior inspectorates. Reports from the students and
from Inspectors lead us to believe that this month of practice-teaching at the end of
the term solves many perplexing problems in teacher-training. Altogether, eight weeks
of practice-teaching were secured during the school-year under review. Toward the end of the term, Mr. Gough was appointed Municipal Inspector of
Saanich Schools. This again reduced the staff, carrying out the policy of meeting an
expected reduction in attendance at Normal in September, 1942. Mr. Gough enters
upon his new duties with the good wishes of the staff and the assurance that he will
fill a need of long standing with credit to all concerned.
Victoria Model School has been closed and the pupils assigned to various schools.
Miss Marian James has accepted an appointment as Supervisor of Primary Grade
work in Victoria city schools. There her wide experience and cheery personality will
benefit and stimulate those who associate with her. It is not easy to fill her place at
Normal School and we hope to be able to secure her services, in some degree, during
the war period.
During the summer vacation, Mrs. Nita Murphy, in charge of Home Economics,
part-time Librarian, and Dean of Women, received a flattering offer of a fellowship at
Oregon State College. She has been granted leave of absence to pursue her studies
toward a Master's Degree in her chosen field. Our best wishes for success follow her
across the border.
Altogether this unusual year has been one of adjustment to changing situations.
In this the officials of the Public Works Department have been most courteous and
helpful. Arrangements were at length concluded for space in Memorial Hall. Accommodation for 100 students was secured, equipment moved in, and Victoria Normal is
again ready to serve those who seek entrance to the teacher-training course. The staff
is delighted with the new quarters, which are well lighted, spacious, and dignified. B 46
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION.
REPORT OF C. B. CONWAY, B.Sc, M.S., D.Paed., DIRECTOR.
There is a danger that the allied nations, in their efforts to win the war, should so
neglect the coming generation that future historians would wonder why we strove to
win it. The danger of a poorly educated population, a war-time breakdown in moral
standards, a generation which does not know how to make use of the democracy which
is being saved for it by such a narrow margin, is not as widely realized as it should be.
In war-time the affairs of education and the positions of teachers seem to decrease in
importance when compared with those that are more directly related to the national
effort. Consequently, great credit is due to those teachers who understand the danger,
and continue in their unspectacular work while putting forth every effort to educate
themselves that they may become more efficient.
It may be assumed that the great majority of the teachers who attended the
Summer School of Education this year were those who were capable of taking the long
view. They realized that while their work might not have great effect on the day-today success of the war, in the long run teaching is one of the most important of professions. Their self-improvement will have its effect on the problems of preventing
future wars and of helping the world recover from the one it is now undergoing.
COURSES AND ENROLMENT.
Naturally, the enrolment for the five-week session, July 6th to August 7th, was
lower than it has been in previous years. Only forty-two male teachers were registered in the Academic Section of the Summer School, and three of these joined the
R.C.A.F. after one week's attendance. Nevertheless, the total decrease was not so
great as might have been expected, had one considered enlistments in the armed
services, the outbreak of war on the Pacific, the higher salaries paid in industry, the
decrease in Normal School enrolment, and the fact that many teachers already had
completed the courses necessary for Specialist Certification.
The number of instructors was approximately the same as in 1941, and a greater
number of courses was offered.
Courses.
Instructors.
Enrolment.
Academic Section   ._. —	
49
39
10
18
28
20
8
5
688
594
'94
Industrial Arts Section—
38
Totals for 1942        1 _ _	
67
59
83
33
34
42
726
Totals for 1941       _      	
902
Totals for 1940          _ '    	
889
Only four of the courses listed in the bulletin were cancelled, and several new ones
were conducted.    The new courses were :•—
No.   27. Home, School, and Community Relations.
No.   28. Remedial Education.
No.   32. Junior Observation and Laboratory.
No.   35. The Enterprise or Activity in Elementary School.
No.   54. Practical Typewriting.
No.   97. Arithmetic in the Primary Grades.
No. 185.  (Vancouver) Needlecraft and Applique.
No. 186.  (Vancouver) Lettering.
Two courses, Principles and Techniques of Elementary Education, and Educational
Psychology, which are among those required for permanent certification, were offered
in both Vancouver and Victoria. Wm
Art Display:  Water-colours and Oils by High School Pupils.
Q
...
"^^B
Course 56:   Designs with Motifs of Papier-mache.  SUMMER SCHOOL OP EDUCATION. B 47
The enrolments in the various courses were as follows:—
Academic Section.
History and Philosophy of Education: Enrolments.
No. 1. Principles and Techniques of Elementary Education  88
No. IA. Principles   and   Techniques   of  Elementary   Education
(Vancouver)   31
No. 35. The Activity or Enterprise in the Elementary School  107
Psychology and Measurement:
No. 10. Educational Psychology .  28
No. 10a. Educational Psychology  (Vancouver)  22
No. 13. Child Psychology  129
No. 28. Remedial Education   76
Individual Development and Guidance:
No.   25. Principles of Guidance in the Personality Adjustment
of School Children  79
No.   27. Home, School, and Community Relations  7
No. 201b. Appreciation in Dress  51
Organization and Administration:
No. 32. Junior Observation and Laboratory...  34
Graphic and Practical Arts:
No. 54. Practical Typewriting   65
No. 56. Modern Art for Middle and Upper Grades 1. 18
No. 60. Practical Arts  60
English:
No. 72. Senior Matriculation English  20
Primary Education:
No. 92. Social Studies and Science in the Primary Grades  67
No. 93. Reading in the Primary Grades  90
No. 95. Fine and Industrial Arts and Play Materials..:  78
No. 97. Arithmetic in the Primary Grades  76
Social Studies:
No. 113. Senior Matriculation History  18
Commercial Education:
No. 120. Stenography Theory and Methods  20
No. 123. Typewriting Theory and Methods  19
No. 130. Commercial Arithmetic   21
No. 132. Accounting  9
Music Education:
No. 140. School Music in the Primary Grades  58
No. 140H. Music in High School Grades .  21
No. 144. Introduction to Music Literature and History  34
No. 146. Advanced Choral Music and Conducting  34
No. 148c Choral Ensemble  33
No. 150. Practice Teaching Under Supervision  22
School Physical Education:
No. 160. Introduction to Physical Education  24
No. 161. Materials and Methods in Health Education  21
No. 163. Child and School Hygiene J.  24
No. 166. School Athletics  31
No. 167. Elementary School Physical Education Laboratory  11 B 48 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
School Physical Education—Continued. Enrolments.
No. 168. High School Physical Education Laboratory  26
No. 170. Fundamental Rhythm _'_ :  36
No. 174. Elementary Folk Dancing  27
No. 176. Physical Education Activities  23
No. 177. Recreational Activities   19
Art Education:
No. 183. Pictorial Composition  36
No. 184. Art Appreciation  30
No. 185. Needlecraft and Applique  31
No. 186. Lettering    27
Home Economics Education :
No. 200. Curriculum and Methods in Home Economics  16
No. 201. Problems in Fitting, Pattern Study, and Clothing Construction   16
No. 201b. Appreciation in Dress  51
No. 202. Applied Art in Home Economics  10
Library Service:
No. 212. Children's Literature 1  21
No. 213. Cataloguing and Classification  15
Industrial Arts Section.
Plane and Solid Geometrical Drawing  7
Freehand Sketching Applied to the Industrial Arts.  8
Draughting Applied to Woodwork and Metalwork  5
Practical Geometry  2
Freehand Sketching  4
Woodwork:
No. 227. Elementary Woodwork   11
No. 228. Elementary Wood-turning   2
No. 245. Advanced Woodwork (Bench-work)   3
No. 246. Advanced Wood-turning  3
No. 247. Practice in the Use of Wood-making Machinery;  Care
and Maintenance   2
No. 248a. Farm Mechanics           1
Electricity:
No. 229b. Farm Mechanics  19
No. 231. Elementary Electrical Theory  13
No. 232. Elementary Electrical Shop-work  11
Metalwork:
No. 234. Art Metalwork        7
No. 235. Elementary Sheet-metal Work        6
No. 248b. Farm Mechanics  11
No. 249. Advanced Sheet-metal Work        7
•awinc
No.
i:
223.
No.
224.
No.
225.
No.
241.
No.
242.
Total of Student Courses in 1942 1,945
Total of Student Courses in 1941 2,237
Total of Student Courses in 1940 2,242 A Farm Project by the " Fine and Industrial Arts " Class.
Cane-work and Pottery at the Practical Arts Display.  SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. B 49
REGISTRATION.
An analysis of the registration reveals the following information covering those in
attendance :■—■
Teaching Experience:
13 or more years  116
10 to 12 years     24
7 to   9 years     33
4 to   6 years     77
1 to   3 years  373
Less than 1 year     44
Not reported     59
Total .  726
Class of School.—In 1941-42 the students were teaching in:—
Rural schools  294
District municipality schools , .  142
City schools  140
Town schools     43
Not reported    107
Total  726
Three of the students were teaching outside of British Columbia last year, although
their homes are in this Province; ten were teaching in British Columbia although their
homes are outside, and fifty were residing and teaching outside of British Columbia.
Many of the latter hope to obtain British Columbia positions this year.
Class Of Certificate: Interim.       Permanent. Total.
Academic     20 28 48
First-class   353 160 513
Second-class      13 58 71
Third-class   4 4
Special      17 5 22
Not reported               68
Total  726
University Degrees:
Bachelor of Arts  48
Master of Arts ..  2
Bachelor of Science (Home Economics)   21
Master of Science .  1
Bachelor of Music  1
Bachelor of Commerce  2
Bachelor of Education  1
Total _______    76
Attendance at Summer School.—The following numbers of teachers reported that
they had last attended Summer School:—
In or previous to the year 1932       13   .,
In the period 1933 to 1935, inclusive       3
In the period 1936 to 1938, inclusive    29
In the period 1939 to 1941, inclusive  446
Not reported as having attended previously  235
Total  726 B 50 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
Specialist Certification.—The following numbers of teachers indicated that they
are seeking Specialist Certification in the following:—
Art     34
Commerce      31
Home Economics     26
Industrial Arts     33
Library _„__._    16
Music  ..     49
Primary  109
School Physical Education      51
Total  349
Credits.—The following numbers of teachers held the indicated number of credits
at the beginning of the session:—
12% or more     42
10 to 11%     38
7% to 8%     40
5 to 6%     68
2% to 3%  183
0 to 1%  365
Total  726
The following conclusions may be drawn from a study of these tabulations and a
comparison with those of past years:—
(1.) The student-body contained a higher proportion of teachers with very
little or a great deal of experience. That is, there were fewer teachers
in attendance with a four-to-twelve-year teaching background and more
of those who were either elderly or very young. A larger number than
usual were attending Summer School for the first time.
(2.) There was a notable increase in attendance of those who had not taught
during the previous year. The greatest decrease in attendance was
found among those who had been teaching in schools in district municipalities or cities. The student-body continues to be drawn mainly from
rural districts.
(3.) The number of teachers with Second-class certificates continued to
decrease. This improvement was offset by a decrease in attendance of
those with University degrees.
(4.) The student-body contained a much higher proportion of those who were
seeking specialist certification, particularly in Primary and Music. The
effect of the present industrial activity is reflected in the severe drop in
enrolment in Industrial Arts.
FACULTY.
Mr. H. L. Campbell, who was Director of the Summer School of Education from
1937 to 1941, resigned this year to become Municipal Inspector for the City of Victoria.
The most grateful thanks of all those connected with the Summer School are due to
Mr. Campbell for the interest he has shown and the help he has continued to give.
Although the war was beginning to affect the ease with which faculties could be
obtained for part-time educational institutions, an exceedingly able group of thirty-five
instructors was engaged for the session. Two of the original total were forced to
withdraw: Mr. John Gough, of Victoria Normal School, who became Municipal Inspector for Saanich, and Dr. Mary Luff, of the Metropolitan Health Service, Vancouver,
who was called suddenly to London, England, to act as a Psychiatrist in civilian defence
work. Therefore, the teaching staff actually consisted of thirty-three persons. Twenty
of these were teachers in British Columbia schools and eleven were engaged in Normal
Schools or other British Columbia institutions.    Two were visitors:   Dr.  Donalda Display of Texts and Books for School Libraries.
Shadowgraphs, Water-colours, Wood-carving, and Weaving;   Courses
60 and 95.  Dickie, of the Edmonton Normal School, and Dr. Florence Mateer, of the Merryheart
Clinic in Columbus, Ohio.
A complete list follows:— •
Academic Section.
Alsbury, A. T., B.A., Commercial Specialist, Magee High School, Vancouver.
Bescoby,  Isabel,  M.A.,  Principal,  Model  School,  Provincial  Normal  School,
Victoria.
Bollert, Grace, B.A., Provincial Normal School. Vancouver.
Brown, Frances T., M.A., Central Junior High School, Victoria.
Bruce, Graham, M.A., Principal, Fairview High School of Commerce, Vancouver.
Dickie,   Donalda,   M.A.,   Ph.D.,   Instructor  in   English,   Provincial   Normal
School, Edmonton.
Ewing, John M., B.A., D.Paed., Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Gayton, J. L., B.A., M.D., D.P.N., Medical Health Officer, Saanich.
Gaitskell, C. Dudley, M.A., Art Specialist, Powell River Schools.
Harwood, Norris, B.A., Inter. B.Com.  (London), Victoria High School, Victoria.
Hatton, Mrs. Evelyn, B.Sc. (H.E.), Central Junior High School, Victoria.
Herbert, Estella J., R.N., Nurse, Victoria.
Hinton, Barbara, B.Sc, Provincial Normal School, Victoria.
James, Marian D., Primary Specialist, Model School, Provincial Normal School,
Victoria.
Johns, Harold P., M.A., Victoria High School, Victoria.
King, Hazel H., Graduate, Carnegie Library School;   Children's Librarian,
Public Library, Victoria.
Kurth, Burton L., Chief Supervisor of Music, Vancouver Schools, Vancouver.
Lee, Ernest, B.A., B.S. in P.E., Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Mateer, Florence, A.M., Ph.D., Director, Merryheart School for Corrective
Education, Columbus, Ohio.
Maynard, Max, A.M., Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver.
McManus, Mildred, Mus. Bac, Instructor in Music, Provincial Normal School,
Vancouver.
Melvin, Grace W., D.A., Head, Department of Design, Vancouver School of
Art, Vancouver.
Mott, Victor, Graduate, Fashion Art School, San Francisco, Studio of Interior
Decoration and Dress Design, Victoria.
Murphy, Mrs. Nita, B.Sc, Dietitian, Provincial Normal School, Victoria.
Napier, Mrs. E. M. E., M.A., B.L.S., Head, Catalogue Department, Public
Library, Victoria.
Ramsay, Beth T., B.Sc, Victoria High School, Victoria.
Scott, Charles H., Dip. G.S.A., A.R.C.A., F.R.S.A., Director, Vancouver School
of Art, Vancouver.
Shadbolt, J. L., Instructor, Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver.
Shaffer, Marion A., B.A., Commercial Specialist, Duncan High School, Duncan.
Tyler, F. T., B.Sc, B.Ed., M.A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Education and
Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Industrial Arts.
Darling, Gordon, B.Sc, Instructor in Electricity, Vancouver Technical School,
Vancouver.
Hope, William, Instructor of Soldier Blacksmith Classes, Vancouver Technical
School, Vancouver.
Russell, A. E., Instructor in Sheet-metal Work, Vancouver Technical School,
Vancouver.
White, John S., Instructor in Draughting, Victoria High School, Victoria.
Wishart, Alfred, Instructor in Woodwork, Vancouver Technical School, Vancouver. B 52 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
HEALTH SERVICE.
The Summer School Health Service for teachers has now been in operation for
four consecutive years. Through the courtesy of the Provincial Health Department,
J. L. Gayton, B.A., M.D., D.P.N., and Miss Estella Herbert, R.N., continued to give the
first-aid treatments, medical examinations, tests and immunization, and the educational services which were provided first in 1939.
The doctor and nurse were on duty from 1 to 4 p.m. daily, except on Wednesdays,
when their hours were 10 to 12 a.m. Very little modification of last year's programme
was found to be necessary, and their work consisted of:—
(1.)   Medical examinations, together with minor tests such as haemoglobin
estimation, followed by advice as to habits, diet, or need for medical
treatment.    Many were referred to local or family physicians.
. (2.)   Consultations and partial examinations for special problems.
(3.)   First-aid treatment for minor injuries;   fortunately in much smaller
numbers than last year.
(4.)   Tuberculin patch testing, followed by chest X-rays at the tuberculosis
clinic when the test was positive.
(5.)   Immunizations for typhoid fever, diphtheria, scarlet fever, and smallpox.
(6.)  A display of literature available from the Provincial Board of Health
and the Metropolitan Insurance Company.
(7.)  A class in First Aid, at the close of which nineteen students took examinations for the St. John Ambulance Association certificate.
The following is a summary of the services given:—
Complete physical examinations        81
Consultations and partial examinations        63
First-aid treatments       29
First-aid lectures and demonstrations        14
Tuberculin patch tests (positive, 16;   doubtful, 1)        46
Chest X-ray (all negative)        20
Health pamphlets distributed  1 1,200
TRANSPORTATION REFUNDS.
Arrangements were made with the railroads, through the Canadian Passenger
Association, to continue granting the special rate of fare-and-one-third to teachers
attending Summer School. In addition, British Columbia teachers whose one-way
railway fare (exclusive of berths and meals) or steamship fare (which includes berths
and meals) exceeded $20 were granted a refund of class fees varying with the distance
travelled.
The refunds made to teachers under this regulation amounted to $614.56. These
refunds made Summer School attendance less expensive to those teachers from remote
parts of the Province.
SATURDAY AND EVENING TEACHER-TRAINING CLASSES.
The in-service training of teachers in courses provided by local school administrators was continued during the school-year 1941-42. These courses are under the
direction of the Summer School of Education and must be satisfactory in content and
quality of work done in order that credit may be granted. The instructors and accommodation are provided by the local school authorities.
The following courses were in operation during the winter of 1941-42:—
Enrolment.
No.   60. Cardboard Modelling and Bookbinding  15
No.   61. Light Woodwork      9
No.   62. Elementary Leathercraft   12
No.   64. Elementary Weaving  11
No. 168. Advanced Physical Education Laboratory  14
No. 212. Children's Literature   13
Total  74 SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. B 53
An indication of the manner in which teachers are devoting their time to war-
work may be found in the fact that the total enrolment was less than one-third of that
of the previous year. The total enrolment of teachers in courses of this type, since
their inception in 1937, is 1,395.
LIBRARY.
Before the opening of the session each instructor was required to submit a list of
the most important reference books for his course. These books were borrowed or
purchased and placed " on reserve " in the Library, and might be taken out by students
for one-hour periods or for over-night.
The Library contained over 2,000 volumes of the most important reference books
and remained open from 8 o'clock in the morning until 10 o'clock at night. Over 7,000
borrowings are recorded for the session.
Through the Teachers' Professional Library, which is operated by the British
Columbia Provincial Library Commission, many Summer School books were kept in
active circulation throughout the winter months.
Thanks are due to those in charge of the following institutions for their generosity
in lending books to the Summer School Library:—
Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Provincial Normal School, Victoria.
Provincial Library Commission.
Victoria Public Library.
Victoria Teachers' Professional Library.
Victoria High School Library.
University of British Columbia Library.
Office of the Provincial Director of Home Economics.
DISPLAYS.
New books, loaned by member-firms of the Canadian Publishers' Association and
the Canadian Association for Adult Education, were displayed in a separate room for
a three-week period.
A Primary Reading Room and a Primary Display Room gave students from other
classes an opportunity to see the work done by the Primary Specialists, particularly
those in the Fine and Industrial Arts class conducted by Miss Marian James.
A Practical Arts Display was open for the five-week period, and was changed from
week to week as the students in Mr. Gaitskell's and Miss Brown's classes produced
practical art work of different types.
EXTRA-CURRICULAR FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES.
Many students have expressed their appreciation of the extra-curricular events
which have become a very notable part of the Summer School of Education in British
Columbia. In some institutions the organization of the programme is left until the
session has opened, and, as a result, it is very difficult to obtain artists of satisfactory
calibre or to plan for a satisfactory succession of events. In the British Columbia
Department of Education it is realized that a majority of the teachers who attend
Summer School are restricted in their contacts through ten months of the year, and
that they have few opportunities to hear good music or stimulating discussions of
world problems. Consequently, considerable care is devoted to the planning of the
extra-curricular side of Summer School life, and a wide variety of events is prepared
from which the students may choose those in which they are particularly interested.
Admission to all lectures, concerts, dramatic performances, and social functions is
covered by the student's activity fee of $2.
This summer a large number of teachers volunteered to assist in the organization
of entertainment for the armed forces in the neighbourhood. Working in groups which
varied in size from nine to 120, they visited various canteens, recreation halls, and
Y.M.C.A. huts in the district. The entertainment they provided was greatly appreciated by the men on active service.    Dancing lessons by instructresses supervised by B 54 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
Mrs. Ernest Lee, hobby and spare-time activities, and a 1%-hour radio broadcast from
Fort Macaulay featured the programme.
The following extra-curricular functions and activities were provided:—■
July 6th.—Opening assembly.
July 7th.—Air-raid and explosives lecture by Major Alan Ransome.
July 8th.—Vocal recital by the English duo, Victoria Anderson and Viola
Morris.
July 9th.—Y.M.C.A. war services programme, under the direction of Charles
Bayley and Paul Michelin.
July 10th.—Violin-piano recital by Daphne Carapata and Beth Morrison.
Weekly dance in the gymnasium.
July 13th.—Lecture, " Ecclesiastical Research—Not Serious," by Dr. Donalda
Dickie.
July 14th.—Recital by the woodwind trio of the Seattle Symphony Orchestra.
Tea for students from other Provinces.
July 15th.—Lecture by R. T. Bevan, of Moose Jaw, author of " Songs for
Young Canadians."
July 16th.—Vocal recital by John Goss, baritone.
Visit to the Kiwanis Craft Shop for the Blind.
July 17th,—Dramatic recital by Anthony Walsh, of Inkameep Indian School.
Weekly dance, with members of the Navy as special guests.
July 20th.—Vocal recital by John Bray, baritone, and Muriel Jarvis, soprano.
July 21st.—Piano recital by Mrs. Gertrude Huntley Green.
Teacher-staff tea.
July 22nd.—Double piano-violin recital by four young artists—Joy Berman,
Mervin Cummings, Mary Paterson, and Eddie Hulford.
Tour of the Naval Training School at Esquimalt.
July 23rd.—Dance recital by pupils of the Florence Clough Dance Academy.
Beach party at the Willows Beach.
July 24th.—Teachers' Federation Hour.
Weekly dance, with the R.C.A.F. as guests.
July 27th.—Violin recital by Selma Reyes.
July 28th.—A.R.P. lecture by Corporal D. W. Taylor, of the British Columbia
Police.
July 29th.—Piano recital by Barbara Custance.
Summer School radio broadcast from Fort Macaulay.
Dance at the R.C.A.F. hall at Patricia Bay.
July 30th.—Young artists' recital by nine junior members of the Musical Arts
Society.    Tea for students from Northern British Columbia.
July 31st.—Lecture, " Psychology Outside the Text-book," by Dr. Florence
Mateer.
Weekly dance, with guests from the Gordon Head Officers' Training
Centre.
Aug. 1st.—Tour of the Parliament Buildings, Library, Archives, and Museum.
Aug. 3rd.—Vocal recital by Peggy Turnley, soprano.
Splash party at the Crystal Garden.
Aug. 4th.—Lecture on War Savings by Miss E. A. Waller.
Aug. 5th.—Fashion show by the Dress Appreciation class, under the direction
of Mr. Victor Mott.
Aug. 7th.—Closing dance in the Empress Hotel.
In addition to these events, many students took part in the Softball, volley-ball,
basketball, badminton, bridge, table-tennis, tennis, or bowling tournaments which continued throughout the session. Others attended the weekly " Music-lovers' Hour "
or accompanied the recreational and educational groups in their tours of the local
fortresses. It was emphasized that no student should attempt to attend all the functions or take part in all the events, but should choose wisely among those which would
give him or her the most enjoyment and the greatest sense of satisfactory personal
development. SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. B 55
FINANCIAL REPORT.
Herewith is appended a financial summary of the operation of the Summer School
of Education for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1942. It should be noticed that
figures for the current year will not be available until the same date in 1943.
Academic Account.
Receipts:
Fees paid by registered students   $18,923.75
Sale of text-books, mimeographing, and supplies        2,253.08
Government grant in aid of Summer School       1,499.93
Total  $22,676.76
Disbursements:
Staff (including honoraria, living and travelling expenses)   $12,076.45
Text-books, mimeographing, supplies, printing, etc       7,343.20
Refunds to students on account of courses  414.45
Transportation refunds        1,124.92
Rentals, accommodation charges, janitorial charges       1,717.64
Total  $22,676.76
Extra-curricular Account.
Receipts:
Activity fees paid by students (less refunds)      $1,362.80
Miscellaneous receipts and grants   814.23
Total -     $2,177.03
Disbursements:
Fees and expenses of artists, lecturers, etc  $1,267.84
Social affairs, dances, picnics, teas, excursions, sports, etc. 632.19
Miscellaneous charges, services, rentals, etc  277.00
Total  $2,177.03
These accounts are audited annually by officials of the Provincial Treasury Department, and by Ismay, Boiston & Holden, chartered accountants.
It is a fixed policy that all moneys received from teachers shall be expended on
behalf of the Summer School, and any deficits shall be made up by grants provided by
the Department of Education. During the current year the estimates have been
modified to provide for certain Vancouver courses in which the normal expenditures
greatly exceed the income from fees, but the total grant has remained the same. The
effect of this change will not be apparent until the close of the present fiscal year. B 56 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF F. T. FAIREY, B.A., OFFICER IN CHARGE.
This report is for the school-year 1941-42, and covers the work of the following:—
(a.)  Industrial Arts (Woodwork and Draughting) in elementary schools.
(6.)  Industrial Arts (Woodwork, Draughting, Metalwork, and Electricity) in
junior and senior high schools.
(c.)  Industrial Arts Option Courses in high schools—"A" Woodwork and
" B " Metalwork—for University Entrance.
(d.)  Vancouver Technical School.
(e.)  High School Commercial and Agricultural Courses.
(/.)  Vancouver School of Art.
(g.)  Night-schools.
(h.)  Mining Classes.
(..) Teacher-training.
Frequent reference will be made in this report to the effect which the war has had
upon the practical work of the schools. The past year saw the expansion of war industries in our Province, with a consequent drain upon the student-body, especially those
who had received some form of practical training. The Vancouver Technical School
and the T. J. Trapp Technical High School, New Westminster, were, of course, the
biggest sufferers, or perhaps it would be better to say " were able to render the greatest
service." Large numbers of students immediately found places in an expanding war
industry, thus justifying the excellence of the work and the training which they had
received during their period in school.
It is my duty to repeat a warning which I made last year, that the withdrawal of
boys and girls from high schools before they have received training comparable to their
capacities is something which should be discouraged. Industry continues to call for the
better educated and better skilled. It is very unwise to encourage young people who
have the capacity for further training to leave school before graduation.
Serious inroads also have been made upon the teaching staff. No arrangement has
been made to discourage teachers who are vitally necessary in the schools from leaving
to join the fighting services. Teachers of practical subjects have felt it their duty to
join one or other of the fighting forces or to give their services to war industries. Our
schools, therefore, have suffered a serious loss. I regret to say that, when such emphasis is being placed upon vocational training, we face a new year with several of our
Industrial Arts centres closed through lack of competent teachers.
Teachers of Industrial Arts and their students continue to make splendid contributions to the war effort. Courses have been modified with the purpose of speeding up
the training, so that boys would be better fitted to serve their country in many ways.
Special projects have been undertaken to assist local authorities, such as the Red Cross
and A.R.P. authorities, and many clubs have engaged in the making of model aircraft
to be used by members of the armed forces for recognition and range estimation
purposes.
It is with gratitude that I express my appreciation of the continued co-operation
I have received from many School Boards throughout the Province, who have gladly
placed their facilities at the disposal of the War Emergency Training Programme.
This programme, which is described under the heading of " Adult Education," has
interfered quite seriously with the operation of several of the schools, particularly the
Vancouver Technical School. The uncomplaining attitude of the staff of these schools,
and all officials, has made the operation of this plan work quite smoothly.
All schools in the Province have been visited at least once by Mr. Jones, the
Inspector of Technical Classes. At the request of the Dominion Government, I detailed
Mr. Jones to take a course in Montreal in connection with the Dominion Government's
Job Instructor Training Programme. On his return, Mr. Jones held several Institutes
in Vancouver and Victoria, which were attended by representatives from all firms
engaged in war contracts.    I need hardly say that Mr. Jones displayed his customary
. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. B 57
energy and enthusiasm, and all Institutes were most successful. Many expressions of
appreciation have been sent to this office, testifying to the great benefit which instructors, working in factories, received from this course.
The reports upon the Industrial Arts which follow have been prepared by Mr.
Jones.
INDUSTRIAL ARTS.
Elementary Schools and Junior High Schools.
Experience in our war industries has shown the value of giving basic training in
the use of tools, mastery of simple operations, and some knowledge of materials and
drawing. Men in industry who did not attend high school appreciate the opportunity
they were given to learn something about tools and their uses while in elementary or
junior high school.
Very few elementary-school shops remain in this Province, outside the City of
Vancouver, so that most boys have the opportunity of doing the exploratory work offered
by the General Shop. Progressive teachers have improved the quality and design of
pupils' projects by introducing varied media. The General Shop facilitates such
combinations.
Some schools have been made more attractive by having pupils create articles of
utility and beauty, such as signs and metal flower-pot holders for class-rooms and halls,
as well as articles required for other school activities. Many schools have made up
quantities of the Hind Emergency Stretcher, designed by a Vancouver Industrial Arts
teacher. The tendency to be of service to others in these strenuous times stimulates
desirable training in good citizenship, and is helpful to our war effort.
There are sixty-one cities and districts where Industrial Arts shops are established: Abbotsford, Alberni, Armstrong, Ashcroft, Burnaby, Chase River, Chilliwack,
Coquitlam, Courtenay, Cranbrook, Creston, Cumberland, Delta, Duncan, Esquimalt,
Fernie, Harewood, Howe Sound, loco, Kamloops, Kaslo, Kelowna, Kent, Kimberley,
Ladysmith, Langley, Maple Ridge, Michel-Natal, Mission, Nanaimo, Nelson, New Westminster, North Saanich, North Vancouver, Oak Bay, Ocean Falls, Oliver, Penticton,
Pitt Meadows, Port Alberni, Port Moody, Powell River, Prince George, Prince Rupert,
Princeton, Revelstoke, Richmond, Rossland, Saanich, Salmon Arm, Saltspring Island,
South Wellington, Summerland, Surrey, Trail, University Hill, Vancouver, Vernon,
Victoria, Wells, and West Vancouver.
Senior High Schools.
We have had great demands from war industries for boys who have had high-school
Industrial Arts training, particularly in Drawing and Metalwork. The majority of the
boys placed with aircraft companies have done very well. All war industries agree
that basic training given in Industrial Arts high-school courses has been beneficial
when followed up by plant training on the job. The emphasis given to mastery in high-
school courses is appreciated by war industries, which have to work to close tolerances
and rigid inspection standards.
Most progressive teachers have improved their shop organization, teaching aids,
and standards of work to meet present-day demands. The best work is being done by
teachers who have had industrial experience, or who visit industries and try to set up
industrial standards towards which their pupils may strive during their training in
school.
INDUSTRIAL ARTS OPTIONS FOR UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE.
All students taking the Woodwork or Metalwork course take the same Drawing
course, which is general in character, consisting of:—
(1.)  Reading drawings.
(2.)   Making working-drawings.
(3.)  Geometry.
(4.)   Sheet-metal work.
(5.)  Engineering fundamentals. B 58 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
War-time experience has shown that this general Draughting course is best for
boys going into the various fighting services and war industries.
The examinations this year were arranged so that pupils who selected Woodwork
were given a Woodwork working-drawing question in the Drawing section and the
pupils who selected Metalwork were given a Metalwork working-drawing question. The
other questions were general, and should have been answered by any pupils who had
mastered the general fundamentals of the Drawing course.
Industrial Arts courses demand mastery in doing and knowing. It is evident from
the examination papers that the teachers do not make sure that the pupils know the
work as detailed in the Course of Study. Systematic checking throughout the term
would be beneficial, and higher standards of work should be expected from the pupils.
Many teachers have been successful in training their pupils by setting a good example
themselves in everything they do. Some teachers deserve great credit for the extra
amount of work they have done in making excellent equipment and teaching aids for
more effective teaching.
In addition to those passed upon the recommendation of principals of accredited
high schools, 258 students from forty-three high schools wrote the examination in June
and August, 1942.
The total number of individual elementary and junior and
senior high school shops in the Province (of which forty-
six are general shops) is       161
The total number of individual elementary and junior and
senior high school instructors is       126
The total number of pupils participating is:—
Elementary school  3,796 .
Junior high school  6,873
Senior high school  3,583
 14,252
VANCOUVER TECHNICAL SCHOOL.
In my last report I stated that the work of the Vancouver Technical School had
been interfered with by the encroachments upon its facilities by the War Emergency
Training Programme. This interference not only was continued during the past year,
but has multiplied several times. The Dominion Government requested me, as Regional
Director of the War Emergency Training Programme, to expand the work in the Vancouver area, and this expansion necessitated the use of still more of the equipment and
accommodation at the Vancouver Technical School. The Vancouver School Board, the
principal and staff of the school, co-operated in a splendid manner and have made no
complaint. This, together with the withdrawal of large numbers of students into war
industries, made the year one of change. The school, however, continues to offer its
full programme, as detailed below:—
(1.) High School Graduation (Technical).—A diploma is granted to students who
complete Grade XII., and include two years in a major shop. This certificate does not
admit to the University. Major courses are given in the following: Sheet Metal,
Printing, Woodwork, Machine-shop Practice, Automotive Engineering, Electricity,
Mining, Lumbering, and Diesel Engineering.
(2.) High School Graduation (University Entrance).—Selected students, who will
ultimately specialize in Science, are given shop experience in addition to the courses
prescribed for University Entrance.
(3.) Special Advanced Courses are offered in Sheet Metal, Printing, Woodwork,
Acetylene and Arc Welding, Machine-shop, Automotive and Diesel Engineering,
Draughting, Electricity, Cookery, and Aviation Mechanics.
Special students devote full time to the subject of their choice, except that Mathematics and Engineering Drawing may be required as part of the course. Those permitted to enrol for Special Courses are: (a) Students who have had at least three
years' high-school work; (b) youths and men who have been in industry and who wish
further technical training;   (c) adults who desire special instruction. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.
B 59
The total number of boys attending the Technical School in 1941-42 was 978.
The school conducts also a large night-school during the winter months, where men
in industry return to receive special instruction in the following: Acetylene Welding,
Boat Design, Building Construction, Draughting, Electricity, Electrical Engineering,
Foundry Practice, Machine Construction and Drawing, Machine-shop Practice, Motors,
Plumbing, Printing, Radio, Sheet Metal, Ship-fitting, Technology of Steel, Welding,
Woodwork.    The students enrolled in 1941-42 numbered 810.
HIGH SCHOOL COMMERCIAL AND AGRICULTURAL COURSES.
The number of high schools and junior high schools which include a Commercial
course in their programmes is increasing. The Department assists these schools in the
purchase of equipment, and this has helped the schools to provide the typewriters and
other equipment which is necessary to undertake this work successfully.
In Vancouver there are two schools devoted to Commercial work exclusively. These
are the Fairview High School of Commerce and the Grandview High School of
Commerce.
The schools and their enrolments are as follows:—
Students.
Abbotsford  71
Alberni   102
Burnaby   359
Chilliwack   253
Coquitlam  52
Courtenay   14
Cranbrook   36
Creston Valley United   102
Cumberland   10
Delta  _.  42
Duncan   40
Fernie  69
Kamloops  75
Kaslo  4
Kelowna   166
Kimberley   148
Ladysmith  36
Langley  30
Maple Ridge    149
Mission  59
Nanaimo  163
Students.
Nelson  123
New Westminster   190
North Vancouver   246
Oak Bay      50
Ocean Falls       25
Penticton  173
Port Moody __._       42
Powell River       95
Prince George       44
Prince Rupert
Revelstoke	
Richmond 	
Rossland 	
Saanich	
  38
  30
  129
  125
  188
Surrey   425
Vancouver  4,230
Vernon  98
Victoria   517
West Vancouver   283
Total 9,031
High schools situated in agricultural centres are becoming more and more willing
to fit their programmes to the community needs. Therefore, the course in Agriculture,
which is found in Bulletin I., is receiving more attention than formerly. This is a
healthy sign.
Agricultural  courses  were  offered  in  the  last  school-year  in
grades of:—■ students.
Abbotsford  25
Burnaby   32
Chilliwack   90
Creston Valley United  59
Dewdney  13
Kelowna  24
Mission  28
New Westminster   24
North Vancouver
Oliver	
Saanich	
Salmon Arm
Vernon 	
Total.
the high-school
Students.
.... 21
__._ 61
.... 40
....      4
___. 19
440 B 60 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
VANCOUVER SCHOOL OF ART.
The Vancouver School of Art is an integral part of the school system of the City of
Vancouver. It is organized and administered by the Board of School Trustees and is
the only full-time Art School in the Province.    It continues to do effective work.
In addition to a number of special courses, the day-school offers two certificates:—
(1.) The Diploma is granted following completion of a four-year course in one of
the following fields: (a) Drawing, Painting, Illustration; (b) Commercial Art; (c)
Design and Crafts;   (d) Interior Decoration;   (e) Art Teachers'Training.
(2.) The School Merit Certificate is granted on completion of a two-year course.
In September, 1941, the school offered a High School Graduation Course in Art.
Following completion of Grades IX. and X., pupils are admitted to the Vancouver School
of Art, where they will complete Grades XL and XII. In addition to Art studies, they
will at the same time take the academic subjects necessary for High School Graduation.
The academic subjects are: English, Social Studies, Health and Physical Education.
The Art subjects are: Drawing, Painting, Design and Colour, Commercial Art, Modelling, Pictorial Composition, Fashion Drawing, Interior Decoration, and History of Art.
This High School Graduation Course is free to Vancouver residents.
As a means of further preparing students for war-work, the school has added
Mechanical Drawing to its list of subjects taught.
It is gratifying to know that, despite war conditions, the attendance at the school
was only slightly affected. Evening classes, the Summer School for Teachers, and the
Special Classes held on Saturday mornings have maintained their attendance record.
The peak enrolments in the school during the year were as follows:—
Day-school     63
Night-school and Saturday classes  375
Summer School :    49
Total  487
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
The interest in this essential form of adult education is being steadily maintained.
Requests for night-schools in new centres are constantly being received. This year
the Department consented to include in its regular night-school system classes in First
Aid, and classes in many centres were started as a result of this stimulus.
It was expected that the two night-school systems, Vancouver and Victoria, would
be affected by the increase in war industries and the opportunities for free training
offered to adults under the War Emergency Training Programme. Contrary to expectations, however, the enrolment did not suffer.
Instruction in the subjects listed below was given to 6,861 students.
Subjects.—Accounting, Acetylene Welding, Advertising, Air Cadet Instructors'
Course, Aircraft Recognition, Algebra, Amateur Photography, Armature Winding,
Art, Auto Engineering, Band Music, Boat Design, Book-keeping, Building Construction, Cabinetmaking, Carpentry and Joinery, Chemistry, Child Art, China Painting,
Choral Singing, Cookery, Commercial Art, Commercial Arithmetic, Commercial Law,
Commercial and Remedial English, Community Singing, Composition, Continuation,
Credit Unions, Current Events, Current History, Diesel Engineering, Draughting,
Dramatics, Drawing, Dress Appreciation, Dressmaking, Electricity, Electrical Engineering, English, English for Japanese, English for New Canadians, First Aid, Foundry Practice, French, Geometry, General Science, General Shop, Grammar, Handicrafts,
Home-crafts, Home Nursing, Household Arts, Industrial Arts, Interior Decoration,
Journalism, Latin, Leathercraft, Library Science, Lip Reading, Literature, Machine
Construction and Drawing, Machine-shop Practice, Manual Arts, Marine Navigation,
Mathematics, Mechanical Drawing, Mechanical Engineering, Metalwork, Mining,
Modelling, Motor Mechanics, Music, Navigation for the Air Force, Operatic Training,
Painting (Oil and Water-colour), Physical Culture, Physics, Plumbing, Pottery, Practical Mathematics, Practical Arts, Printing, Psychology, Public School Subject, Pulp
and Paper, Public Speaking, Radio, Radio Communication, Salesmanship, Sheet Metal, INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.
B 61
Sheet-metal Draughting, Ship-fitting, Shop Mathematics, Short-story Writing, Shorthand (Pitman and Gregg), Show-card Writing, Social Studies, Spanish, Speech Education, Speech Correction, Speech Training (Teachers), Technical Draughting, Technology
of Steel, Trigonometry, Typewriting, Vancouver in the World of Trade and Commerce,
Voice Culture, Weaving, Welding, Woodwork, and Writing for the Radio.
Summarized Statement of Attendance and Teachers in Evening Vocational
Schools for Period July 1st, 1941, to June 30th, 1942.
o
im _
—<  0>
■£.,£
o s
_■<-_
O
d
3 1
'o
u
-* ** <n
3 c 2
o J.-3
Number of Individuals
enrolled.
Teachers.
Male.
Female.
Total.
Male.
Female.
Total.
4
2
2
3
1
1
1
4
2
4
3
1
2
13
12
11
6
1
1
1
70
16
29
1
9
2
5
3
1
1
1
3
2
3
2
1
2
11
12
18
7
1
1
1
137
23
39
1
143
19
103
47
13
39
14
125
31
58
78
21
53
209
200
347
125
25
10
41
3,642
375
1,113
30
30
15
15
20
12
14
14
20
18
13
54
10
53
161
170
147
64
13
4
10
1,953
126
691
14
113
4
88
27
1
25
105
13
45
24
11
48
30
200
61
12
6
31
1,689
249
422
16
143
19
103
47
13
39
14
125
31
58
78
21
53
209
200
347
125
25
10
41
3,642
375
1,113'
30
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
7
10
4
6
1
1
1
67
6
31
1
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
9
2
1
23
6
7
4
Delta -_ __	
Kaslo  -  	
1
3
2
Ladysmith   _    __	
12
13
8
1
1
2
90
12
38
1
Squamish     	
Totals _	
286
6,861
3,641
3,220
6,861
153
65
218
FREE MINING CLASSES.
The only mining class operating during the past year was a small class in placer-
mining, held in Vancouver, with an enrolment of eleven. However, the indications
are that mining classes will be in greater demand during the coming year.
TRAINING OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS TEACHERS.
This Department has suffered grievous loss in its teaching staff. Many of its
most experienced teachers have felt it their duty to offer their services to the Navy,
the Army, and the Air Force. Others have gone into war industries. The supply of
trained teachers is always a serious problem, but it now has become acute. The number
of teachers attending the Summer School of Education for Industrial Arts Teachers,
which was held at the Vancouver Technical School last summer, was the lowest in its
history. It has not been possible to find teachers with sufficient training to staff all
the schools in the Province. Some of the smaller, but none the less important, centres
cannot operate during the coming school-year.
Thirty-nine men were in attendance at the Summer School of Education held at
the Vancouver Technical School. B 62 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1941-42.
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OF MISS JESSIE L. McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR.
Home Economics continues to expand both in the schools and in the community.
We now have 132 centres in operation and 15,130 pupils taking the course in our
schools.
We experienced considerable difficulty this year in securing Home Economics
teachers, as war jobs are beginning to take their toll in our ranks. However, before
school reopened, we were fortunate enough to have filled all our vacancies. The shortage of Home Economics teachers is likely to become more and more acute as time goes
on, as we still have no Chair of Home Economics in our university, and are therefore
compelled to draw from other Provinces our supply of graduates in this field. While
there was a surplus we were able to get all we needed, but to-day most Home Economics
trained women are being absorbed in their own Provinces, and that leaves us without
a source to which we can turn.
The decision of the University Senate, in 1939, to allow graduates in Home
Economics to take their fifth year (Education) at the University of British Columbia
has helped us greatly and has been a boon to a number of girls in this Province who
have had to attend outside universities for the major part of their training. Five
student-teachers enrolled in the Education class in Vancouver this year.
The growth in the number of centres in- the Province has made supervision an
increasingly large undertaking—so much so that in September, 1941, Miss Bertha
Rogers, B.Sc, formerly Home Economics instructor at Oak Bay High School, was
appointed Assistant Inspector in Home Economics. Miss Rogers has had outstanding
success as a teacher, in addition to practical experience as a hospital dietitian. She
has given our Home Economics teachers much encouragement and help during the
year, and the efficient way in which she has taken over her task has done a great deal
to maintain a high standard of work in our schools.
The Senior Matriculation Home Economics course is gradually extending. Kelowna,
Kimberley, Nelson, Vancouver, and Vernon all offered this work in 1941-42.
The accomplishment in Applied Art is improving all the time. Some excellent
work-books and projects were turned out by students in various parts of the Province.
The Teacher's Manual is proving of great assistance to our teachers.
Three hundred and twenty-six students took Home Economics for University
Entrance and thirteen for Senior Matriculation by correspondence. These lessons are
very popular and they are bringing Home Economics instruction within the reach of
girls in even the remotest parts of the Province.
Five private schools have added Home Economics to the list of subjects they
offer—St. Margaret's and Norfolk House in Victoria, and Little Flower Academy, St.
Augustine&