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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1943

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 PROVINCE  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT  OF LANDS
HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. C. D. Orchard, Chief Forester.
REPORT
OF
THE FOEEST BEANCH
for the
TEAE   ENDED  DECEMBER   31ST
1942
PRINTED by
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1943.  Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1943.
To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of
the Department of Lands for the year 1942.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch
during the calendar year 1942.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Chief Forester.  Close-up taken prior to snag-falling operations, showing condition following logging and
accidental fire. Snags such as these represent the ultimate hazard in forest-fire control and
must be eliminated to ensure protection of the future forest-crop
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Panorama of same area subsequent to fire-proofing. All snags have been felled and old
logging grades and roads opened up and converted to truck-trails for easy forest-protection
access.    The area is now ready for reforestation.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
Another full year of global war has left its marks on the Forest Branch and on the
forest industries of British Columbia.
Enlistments in the armed forces and the transfer of men to war controls and industries has materially lowered the staff. At the same time, the demands of war have
increased the duties of those remaining. Labour scarcity and the difficulties of getting
essential materials and equipment have affected the day-by-day administration of the
business of the Branch, as it has the industries dependent upon the forests.
Upon the entry of Japan into the war it was anticipated that incendiary attacks
might be made on this coast during the fire season. This expectation was shared by
the leading military authorities who were consulted. Our standard protection staffs
would not be enough to cope with any such situation, nor would labour be available for
fire-fighting.
Since the emergency was one of national importance, the problem was placed before
the Federal Government, with suggested solutions. The national importance of the
forests of the Province and the necessity for their protection were recognized at
Ottawa and an agreement was entered into with the Province for the allocation of a
maximum of one thousand Alternative Service Workers.
These men started arriving in May, were dispersed in camps throughout the Lower
Coast and Vancouver Island forest areas, and were thoroughly trained and organized
in forest fire-fighting. The results of their season's work appear elsewhere in this
report, but it is desirable to record here the important fact that, in so allocating these
men, the Dominion Government has acknowledged its interest in Provincial forestry;
a fact that should have beneficial effects both during and after the war.
Labour, material, and equipment shortages also affected the forest industries. In
the face of unprecedented demands for lumber and other forest products, the total
output was less than that of 1941 by approximately five hundred million board-feet.
Early in the year shipments to the United Kingdom were almost at a standstill and
domestic business in a routine state. The American market, however, was increasing
its demands with the tempo of the war effort in that country. Towards spring and
early summer the domestic demand gained momentum, owing largely to increased air-
training schemes and defence construction, while further increase in the United States
business in May exceeded all records. The situation was taken in hand by the Timber
Controller and priorities in markets were set up, whereby 40 per cent, of the lumber
output was allocated to domestic trade, a like amount to the United Kingdom, and the
remaining 20 per cent, to the United States. Some revision was made later, but
control maintained.
Midsummer saw the American markets booming and price ceilings inaugurated.
A new hangar programme was started in Canada but the critical log situation held it
back. At this time the Prairies could see a huge grain-crop in prospect and needed
lumber to provide extra storage.
By September, demand from all markets was so great that the industry was
officially declared " essential," and the British Timber Controller was again in the
market to such an extent that specifications were liberalized to help production.
Late fall saw the log-supply situation worse than for many years, with practically
all mills on a one-shift basis and " peeler " logs under direct allocation by the Timber
Controller.
At the end of the year the situation was no better, with most logging camps shut
down because of snowfall, mills operating from hand to mouth, and an acute fuel
shortage.
This has emphasized the dependence of our large and small communities on the
forests for their day-by-day needs of essential products, and the desirability of them
all setting up their own community forests. There they could grow, in perpetuity, a
supply of wood fuel for their citizens and provide useful, healthful, and profitable work
for city dependents. FF 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
During the year, assistance was given to the Rehabilitation Council through briefs
on the possibilities of forestry and studies of other briefs presented to the Council. In
addition, the staffs of the Forest Districts completed a study of the needs for improvements, adequate protection from fire, and the possibilities for post-war employment on
permanent and temporary bases. These studies are being co-ordinated for the Province
and will be incorporated in a plan that will be immediately applicable in any degree and
for all parts of the Province.
An innovation during 1942 was the issuance of Christmas-tree cutting permits and
the allocation of suitable areas to local residents. These permit areas are designed to
give a perpetual yield of Christmas trees under proper treatment, and their individual
allocation is an incentive so that a steady income may be secured by farm operators
during the off-season on the land. This cash crop often makes the difference between
a bare existence and comfort on small ranch units.
The fire season was generally satisfactory, the only trouble being experienced in
the Prince George District. Here, dry lightning storms started many fires that could
not be controlled because of lack of transportation facilities and efficient labour. The
situation emphasized the need for more lookouts, roads, trails, and, especially for that
type of country, air transportation. Many fires that subsequently destroyed hundreds
of sections of timber could have been controlled in their incipiency if air transportation
had been available. Pontoon planes can land fire crews and supplies on many of the
thousands of lakes and streams in the Province, which are so thickly scattered that any
fire is usually within easy reach. The few minutes to an hour or so needed to fly a
crew from any forest district headquarters to any part of the area administered would
make the difference between control of a fire and the opposite, when compared with
the days frequently needed to take a crew in overland. There will be room for air
transport in the post-war organization of the Forest Branch.
There are presented hereafter tabular statements of the Forest Branch activities
and the forest industries for the year.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
Enlistments depleted the staff during 1942. In all, eighteen permanent and forty-
six temporary employees entered the armed forces. It is of interest to note that the
Forest Branch is now represented in the women's auxiliary to each of the forces.
It is with deep regret that the deaths of three valued members of the Branch are
here recorded.
F. J. Wood, Fire Inspector, Kamloops District.
D. M. Calder, Forest Ranger, Vancouver District.
J. A. C. Denny, Acting Forest Ranger, Vancouver District.
Forest Branch Enlistments to December 31st, 1942.
1939—
L. F. Swannell, Assistant District Forester, Prince George.
W. Hall, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
H. Casilio, Draughtsman, Victoria.
N. G. Wharf, Clerk, Victoria.
C. V. Smith, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
L. N. W. Woods, Assistant Ranger, Prince George District.
1940—
W. Murray, Draughtsman, Prince Rupert.
T. Hunter, Launch Engineer,. Victoria.
G. S. Andrews, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
V. C. Smith, Launch Engineer, Vancouver.
E. G. Oldham, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
G. A. Playfair, Radio Engineer, Victoria.
D. McKay, Junior Clerk, Victoria.
C. R. Lee, Draughtsman, Kamloops.
F. J. G. Johnson, Ranger, Invermere, Nelson District. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942. FF 7
1940—Continued.
A. E. Parlow, District Forester, Kamloops.
J. Boydell, Ranger, Kamloops District.
C. L. Armstrong, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
0. V. Maude-Roxby, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops District.
A. C. Kinnear, Air Surveys Division, Victoria.
L. S. Hope, Assistant District Forester, Prince Rupert.
A. Gordon, Supervisor, Victoria.
W. D. Hay, Assistant Ranger, Prince George District.
A. J. Kirk, Assistant Ranger, Prince George District.
W. E. Jansen, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver District.
C. R. Sandey, Launch Engineer, Vancouver District.
H. G. Mayson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops District.
E. F. Taggart, Assistant Ranger, Prince George District.
A. Smith, Patrolman, Prince George District.
A. B. Ritchie, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops District.
J. H. Wilcox, Lookout-man, Kamloops District. -   .
J. C. Wright, Lookout-man, Kamloops District.
C. W. Mizon, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops District.
W. J. Owen, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver District.
R. R. Douglas, Assistant Forester, Kamloops District.
L. A. Willington, Assistant Ranger, Prince George District.
F. V. Webber, Assistant Ranger, Nelson District.
1941—
H. Stevenson, Ranger, Vancouver District.
S. Benwell, Clerk, Victoria.
W. H. Ozard, Grazing Assistant, Kamloops District.
J. H. Benton, Air Surveys, Victoria.
Howard Elsey, Research Assistant, Victoria.
H. I. Barwell, Draughtsman, Kamloops District.
H. T. Barbour, Acting Ranger, Nelson District.
1. C. MacQueen, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
H. A. Ivarson, Clerk, Prince Rupert District.
D. R. Monk, Draughtsman, Victoria.
F. W. Crouch, Compiler, Victoria.
A. B. Anderson, Cruiser, Victoria.
N. F. M. Pope, Parks, Victoria.
D. L. McMurchie, Parks, Victoria.
A. J. Nash, Student Assistant, Nelson District.
C. W. Walker, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
J. D. LeMare, Cruiser, Victoria.
G. A. Cahilty, Clerk, Kamloops District.
W. S. Hepher, Assistant Forester, Vancouver District.
C. E. Bennett, Cruiser, Victoria.
J. S. Stokes, Chief of Party, Victoria.
J. Robinson, Acting Ranger, Prince Rupert District.
J. Eselmont, Lookout-man, Nelson District.
G. H. Fewtrell, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
S. Lockard, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
E. L. Scott, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
G. J. Ballard, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
W. E. Walker, Patrolman, Vancouver.
E. G. Marples, Lookout-man, Nelson. FF 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
1942—
G. W. Minns, Ranger, Prince Rupert.
C. L. Botham, Ranger, Prince Rupert.
L. A. Chase, Acting Ranger, Kamloops.
D. A. Sims, Clerk, Vancouver.
A. J. Leighton, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
A. R. McLeod, Clerk, Vancouver.
D. Gillies, Clerk, Vancouver.
W. V. Hicks, Clerk, Victoria.
P. N. A. Smith, Draughtsman, Vancouver.
C. J. T. Rhodes, Draughtsman, Victoria.
Miss K. Robinson, Stenographer, Victoria.
G. Levy, Clerk, Victoria.
Miss G. M. MacAfee, Stenographer, Victoria.
Miss L. A. Edwards, Stenographer, Nelson.
I. T. Cameron, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
P. M. Monckton, Draughtsman, Victoria.
J. R. Johnston, Acting Ranger, Nelson.
J. H. Templeman, Ranger, Kamloops.
H. M. Pogue, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
A. H. Dixon, Ranger, Vancouver.
G. R. W. Nixon, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
M. A. Johnson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
H. K. DeBeck, Grazing Assistant, Kamloops.
L. E. Bland, Junior Draughtsman, Victoria.
W. W. Stevens, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
A. G. McNeil, Clerk, Vancouver.
W. D. Grainger, Research Assistant, Victoria.
A. E. Rhodes, Clerk, Victoria.
C. P. Harrison, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
K. A. McKenzie, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
R. E. Crellin, Dispatcher, Nelson.
G. M. Riste, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
W. A. Conder, Lookout-man, Vancouver.
W. M. Patterson, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
H. G. M. Colbeck, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
A. W. Slater, Helper, Vancouver.
D. E. Stephens, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
A. C. Letcher, Patrolman, Vancouver.
R. Bradshaw, Lookout-man, Nelson.
L. E. Croft, Dispatcher, Nelson.
G. Burkitt, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
R. R. Flynn, Lookout-man, Nelson.
E. J. Hamling, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
A. E. Hesketh, Patrolman, Nelson.
J. C. Payne, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
I. C. Robinson, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
D. W. Speers, Lookout-man, Nelson.
G. Crommett, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
H. L. Couling, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
D. Lamont, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
D. A. Kittson, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
C. W. J. Castley, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
Geo. Baldwin, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
N. H. Boss, Draughtsman, Nelson.
R. A. Damstrom, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
W. J. Wright, Dispatcher, Nelson. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 9
1942—Continued.
W. E. Thacker, Lookout-man, Nelson.
E. L. Collett, Helper, Vancouver.
R. G. Bullen, Lookout-man, Vancouver.
C. S. Stubbs, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
A. H. Bamford, Research Assistant, Victoria.
Alex. Corbett, Acting Ranger, Kamloops.
D. E. Dyson, Student Assistant, Vancouver.
A. L. Lyttle, Scaler, Vancouver.
Distribution of Force, 1942.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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" Permanent" staff is a record of salaries voted and positions occupied for at least a part of the year.    Total
number of permanent positions actually occupied December 31st, 1942, was 232.
* Continuously employed, but no specific position or salary voted for the purpose.
FOREST ECONOMICS.
Enlistments and transfers to District staffs during the past year have still further
decimated the ranks of the technical personnel of the Economics Division and with the
exception of the reforestation programme activities are essentially on a maintenance
basis. At the same time this relative inactivity in the field affords an opportunity to
catch up on reports and other office jobs which invariably fall behind schedule during
periods of expansion. In addition, assistance was rendered the Post-war Rehabilitation
Council through the medium of the Interdepartmental Advisory Sub-committee on
Parks and Forests.
AIR AND FOREST SURVEYS.
No air-survey photographic operations were conducted during the year and forest
survey activities were limited to a re-examination of a portion of the Sayward Forest
which was originally surveyed in 1928. A total of 191,390 acres was examined and
the new data are now in the process of being added to our records. The final maps,
estimates, and reports for the Slocan Drainage, the North Shore Region, and the Fraser
River South area have been completed and a summary of the findings is presented below.
The report and maps for the Juan de Fuca Region have been delayed due to a shortage
of experienced draughting personnel, but it is anticipated that this work will be completed during 1943. FF 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Slocan Drainage.
The proposed Slocan Forest constitutes the Slocan Drainage with the exception of
Kokanee Park and certain areas considered most suitable for agriculture. Excellent
conditions are presented for the immediate establishment of a working circle. The
present industry could be expanded considerably and still keep depletion within the
INDEX  MAP
Scale:-15.78 miles to I inch
estimated sustained yield capacity; there is an excellent distribution of age-classes;
the majority of the young stands lend themselves to selective cutting; the eight or nine
commercial species mature at different ages and are used for varied purposes; fire-
protection is the only serious problem. The only drawback to successful utilization
would appear to be the development of suitable markets.
Extensive utilization of the region began with the operation of the first sawmills
in 1894 and the volume of production was dependent on local demand. Later, the
operators developed outlets on the Prairies and Eastern American markets and became FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 11
more independent of the local fluctuations in prosperity. During the early 1930's
depressed business conditions reduced the number of operators so that for the past five
years the average annual cut was 8,800,000 board-feet. The average annual loss by fire
is estimated at 350,000 board-feet, thus making the annual drain on forest capital
9,150,000 board-feet. This compares very favourably with an estimated sustained yield
capacity of 30,440,000 board-feet from accessible sites. In brief, present use is only
one-third of the sustained yield capacity of the region.
The classification of areas is as follows:—
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber— Acres- Acres-
Accessible     81,360
Inaccessible        3,360
■        84,720
Immature timber (all accessible) —
years  36,480
years  26,890
years  25,580
years  53,610
81-100 years  21,240
1-
20
21-
40
41-
60
61-
80
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged  420
Logged and burned  510
Burned  11,970
Non-commercial cover  68,330
163,800
81,230
Total sites of productive quality ,      329,750
Non-productive Forest Land—
Cultivated _.	
Urban (roads, towns, etc.)
Grazing 	
Barren 	
       1,060
  280
  70
  298,350
Scrub _.   133,060
Swamp and water       5,480
Total non-productive and non-forest sites     438,300
Total land area of proposed Slocan Forest      768,050
The total volume of merchantable timber (over 11 inches D.B.H.) is estimated to
be 696,070 M.B.M., practically all of which is accessible. Approximately 97y2 per cent,
is in Crown ownership and the balance held in Crown grants and timber licences. In
addition, there are 493,850 M.B.M. available as thinnings, thus giving a total merchantable volume of 1,189,920 M.B.M.    The distribution by species is as follows:—
Species.
Mature.
Thinnings.
Total.
Engelmann spruce .—   ,	
M.B.M.
'    231,010
34,810
140,450
119,400
47,590
89,520
17,810
12,750
2,730
M.B.M.
23,210
150,610
33,920
31,560
100,480
11,570
80,640
50,360
11,500
M.B.M.
254,220
185,420
174,370
150,960
148,070
101,090
98,450
63,110
14,230
Total                                           	
696,070
493,850
1,189,920 FF 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942. PF 13
North Shore Region.
The North Shore Region as reported on is situated north of the Fraser River and
Burrard Inlet between Howe Sound and the Stave River-Chehalis River divide and
extending north to the headquarters of the Stave, Pitt, and Indian Rivers. The first
settlers in this portion of the Province arrived more than eighty years ago and this
marked the beginning of forest utilization by the white man; however, not until 1890
did the annual cut assume definite proportions. Since then the greater part of the
merchantable timber has been logged and, as a result, the present operations are almost
all on a small scale. At the same time, utilization is being directed more and more to
second-growth stands on alienated lands. This trend is particularly noticeable in the
Mission Ranger District where, in 1941, 90 per cent, of the sawlog cut was from young
forests.
Present utilization, together with loss by fire, is estimated to average 74,000,000
board-feet per year. This compares unfavourably with an estimated annual capacity
for sustained yield of 60,000,000 board-feet.
This region, together with the adjacent one south of the Fraser River, will doubtless become the scene of intensive forest utilization and management in the near future.
Prospects are excellent on account of the ready market close at hand, good growing
conditions, and the variety of species, both deciduous and coniferous, that can be grown.
The hardwoods are becoming increasingly important and the furniture and veneer
industry that has been established will assure a market for products that can be grown
on a rotation of forty to fifty years. It has been recommended that, as soon as the
opportunity presents, an extension forester be assigned to these two regions. His
duties will be to educate the smaller land-owners, both as individuals and communities,
in proper methods of handling their forest land on a wood-lot basis. In addition, there
would be established demonstration areas similar to that being developed in conjunction
with the Green Timbers Forest Nursery.
The classification of areas is as follows:—
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber  Acres. Acres.
Accessible  174,760
Inaccessible      21,770
      196,530
Immature timber—
1-   5 years    1,860
6- 10 years  8,220
11-20 years  41,020
21- 40 years   27,940
41- 60 years  30,280
61- 80 years  6,230
81-100 years ■_  9,010
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged   5,940
Logged and burned  27,470
Burned  3,410
Non-commercial cover  23,360
124,560
60,180
Total sites of productive quality      381,270
Non-productive Forest Land—
Cultivated and urban ■.     58,070
Barren and scrub   568,920
Swamp and water     53,790
Total non-productive and non-forest sites      680,780
Total area of region  1,062,050 FF 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The total volume of merchantable timber is estimated to be 5,951,970 M.B.M., of
which 90 per cent, is accessible. In addition, there are 459,630 M.B.M. available as
thinnings in immature stands, all of which are considered accessible. A summary of
the ownership status shows that approximately 65 per cent, of the merchantable volume
has not been alienated or encumbered, either by Crown grant, timber berth, lease,
licence, or sale.
Timber volumes (over 11 inches D.B.H., except in the case of hardwoods, which
were cruised to a minimum top diameter of 8 inches), are estimated as follows:—
Species.
Merchantable Timber.
Thinnings.
Accessible.
Total.
!
M.B.M.             M.B.M.
2,237,260    j     2,443,520
1,367,010    |     1,546,310
824,110     j         849,350
711.050     1          877.370
M.B.M.
52,040
128,510
207,050
4,060
132,660
31,640
22,340
14,040
5,920
3,160
890
148,320
37,910
24,900
14,320
5,920
3,160
890
300
6,140
5,700
43,720
8,320
2,340
1,450
Totals    	
5.350.080     1      5.951.970
459,630
Fraser South.
The " Fraser South Area " is situated between the Fraser River and the International Boundary, extending from the Strait of Georgia east to the vicinity of Hope to
include the drainages of the Chilliwack River and Silver Creek. Utilization of these
forests has been continuous since the arrival of the first settlers; however, the important developments took place during the last forty years. In that period about 100,000
acres have been logged and an estimated 4,000,000,000 board-feet of sawlogs supplied to
the mills at Vancouver and New Westminster. The soil for the most part was excellent
for agriculture, so as logging proceeded settlement followed close behind and extensive
farming communities were developed. Thus a virgin forest area of the early part of
the century has become largely agricultural interspersed with a mosaic of potential
wood-lots. The remaining mature timber is confined to the more remote valleys and the
higher elevations so that future utilization will be governed largely by transportation
costs.
From a forest management point of view this area should not be considered a self-
sustaining unit but should form part of a working circle which would include the
Harrison Drainage and the North Shore Region. In the meantime much can be done
by way of public education, and the extension work recommended for the North Shore
Region should also include the area under discussion. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 15
The classification of areas is as follows :-
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber—
Accessible	
Acres.
     48,540
Inaccessible      5,420
Immature timber—
1-    5 years 	
6- 10 years 	
11- 20 years 	
21- 40 years 	
41- 60 years 	
61- 80 years 	
81-100 years 	
Over 100 years old
13,130
16,920
41,600
11,670
30,630
16,080
550
1,970
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged  ;_  7,620
Logged and burned  25,510
Burned  6,130
Non-commercial cover   23,310
Acres.
53,960
132,550
62,570
Total sites of productive quality      249,080
Non-productive Forest Land—
Cultivated and urban	
Barren and scrub	
Swamp and water	
188,610
227,550
38,990
Total non-productive sites     455,150
Total acreage in area      704,230
The estimated average annual cut is 50,300 M.B.M. and together with an average
annual fire loss of 450 M.B.M. gives a total drain on forest capital of 50,750 M.B.M. per
year.    By comparison the estimated sustained yield capacity is 40,080 M.B.M.
The total volume of merchantable timber has been estimated to be 1,507,380 M.B.M.,
of which 92 per cent, is classified as accessible. In addition, there are available as
thinnings in accessible immature stands 491,710 M.B.M. of merchantable timber. The
ownership status indicates that 65 per cent, of the volume is situated on vacant Crown
land.
Timber volumes (over 11 inches D.B.H., except in the case of hardwoods, which
were cruised to a minimum top diameter of 8 inches), are estimated as follows:—
Merchantable Timber.
Accessible.
Total.
M.B.M.
489,510
336,530
342,590
1,730
178,260
4,280
8,580
40
14,770
7,960
5,110
M.B.M.
493,570
340,880
422,490
1,730
207,770
4,280
8,580
40
14,890
8,000
5,150
M.B.M.
241,050
62,160
53,630
5,670
6,030
Western white pine..   	
1,620
6,870
67,970
19,640
27,070
1.389.360     1      1.507.380
491,710 FF 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
One new Provincial forest, the Graham, was created during the year. This forest
was reported on in the 1939 Forest Branch Annual Report and the details of the
inventory may be found by reference to that publication. There are now forty-five
Provincial Forests; nineteen on the Coast and twenty-six in the Interior, totalling
11,510 and 19,220 square miles respectively, an aggregate of 30,730 square miles.
FOREST RESOURCES INVENTORY.
At the conclusion of this season's activities the cover-mapping project had been
successful in establishing fully up-to-date forest atlases at the Vancouver, Kamloops,
Prince George, and Nelson District offices as well as at Headquarters in Victoria. Due
to lack of suitable personnel at Prince Rupert it was not feasible to revise their maps,
but this will be done at the earliest opportunity. This work will now be on a maintenance basis, requiring annual attention to effect current revision for changes due to
logging and fires.
A total of 952 maps was revised during the course of the year. Of this total, 155
were new coloured linen prints issued to replace worn-out copies and to cover areas
where new forest surveys were available.
One minor reconnaissance was conducted in the Nelson Forest District to check the
cover-map information over a small drainage.
Statistical recording of forest inventory data by the Hollerith system was continued
and the fire atlas maps were revised currently.
FOREST RESEARCH.
Mensuration.
A three-man field party remeasured twenty-one permanent yield plots established
at scattered points on Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland Coast to study the
rate of growth of immature stands of Douglas fir. In addition, this party remeasured
a series of 114 line-plots on East Thurlow Island and at Elk Bay. The latter plots were
laid out in 1930 for the purpose of tracing the rate of growth and changes in species
composition of a large area selected as representative of the stands of second-growth
hemlock-Douglas fir which have followed the logging of mature Douglas fir-hemlock
forests situated north of Seymour Narrows. Data from these plots are now in the
process of analysis and it is hoped that in due course a bulletin will be published.
SlLVICULTURAL STUDIES.
The programme of silvicultural research was directed for the most part towards
maintaining the necessary examinations connected with long-term projects already in
progress. These plots were established to investigate various phases of the phenomena
of seed dissemination and production, survival of disseminated seed, germination, and
natural seedling survival. As might have been expected, the failure seed-crop of 1942
was forecast accurately in 1941 by relatively few samples. The failure was due entirely
to a lack of reproductive buds, not to a failure in the development of fruiting-buds.
This confirms our belief that poor and failure years can be forecast accurately. The
seed-crop for 1943 is forecast as a potentially good year, probably comparable to 1941,
for most of Vancouver Island, providing that nothing drastic happens to the conelets
during their development.
One complete year's work on the physiology of seed production by Douglas fir
indicates that the fruiting status of the tree is related to the fluctuations in its reserve
foods. The starch-sugar fluctuations, particularly in the twigs, appear to be closely
related to growth and development of the cones. A carbohydrate peak occurs in June
and may be related to bud differentiation which takes place shortly thereafter. The
main value of the work to date is to show that the fruiting status of a given tree does
not depend on the actual level of food reserves, as has sometimes been suggested, since
the reserves of fruiting and non-fruiting trees are very similar. The fluctuations of
the reserve foods during the year, however, are typical for each group.    Similarly, FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942. FF 17
conelet abortions in the spring have no relation to the level of food reserves, as might
have been suspected if no data were available.
Nutritional work on Douglas fir and western hemlock was of an exploratory nature.
Sand cultures indicate that growth of these species in soils should be improved by
various treatments, particularly those tending to improve the physical condition of the
soil. They showed that the nutritional requirements of the species are relatively low,
as is the case with many conifers. Tap water apparently provided almost enough
calcium and potassium for normal growth, with normal concentrations of the other
elements. The data confirm much work on conifer nutrition in suggesting that
nitrogen and phosphate are most likely to be limiting to the growth of seedlings.
Experiments in artificial seeding have been continued and a new phase of these
endeavours concerned the use of paper covers to protect seed-spot sowings. Indications
are that some protection was afforded, but the method appears to be too costly for
practical consideration. A home-made self-operating mouse-trap proved to be no better
than poison bait in eliminating the mouse population. The poisoning experiments,
using two different baits—thallium-oatmeal and strychnine-apple—have extended over
two seasons. The mouse population appears to be reduced and better germination of
Douglas fir is obtained than on unprotected areas; however, the degree of success
attained in general does not compare favourably with that obtained by planting nursery
stock and therefore cannot be fully recommended. It is possible that the poison bait
experiments were on too small a scale, since in order to protect sowings on areas from
Vio to Vi acre the bait was distributed over 5-6 acres. It is probable that the population
of the adjoining land would invade the poisoned area after the bait became unattractive.
Weather conditions, such as prevail throughout the winter on the Pacific Coast, probably
render the bait unattractive after a short period of time. It is considered that the
difficulties of population control would be materially decreased if the experiments were
conducted over areas from 50-100 acres.
An experiment designed to determine the cause of Douglas fir seed and initial
seedling losses in spot sowings was repeated over a second season with the co-operation
of officers of the Dominion Department of Agriculture in the Divisions of Forest
Entomology and Pathology. Seed and seedlings were protected by specially designed
cages in order to selectively eliminate birds and mice. A preliminary compilation of
the first season's observations shows that drought and damping-off were the chief
causes of seedling mortality. During both seasons-losses were lightest on the sub-plot
which was caged to exclude both birds and mice and the heaviest losses occurred on the
open sub-plot. Results suggest that both birds and mice may be responsible for some
seedling losses, although it was not found possible to distinguish these losses from
those which might be caused by insects.
It is generally recognized that Douglas fir is a very poor natural pruner. Grown
for maximum production on short rotations of about 120 years, there will be no
appreciable quantity of clear wood produced unless artificial pruning is practised. A
comprehensive study has been outlined with the object of finding out how much pruning
will cost, using various tools and methods, and ultimately to determine whether the
expected additional returns for clear wood will cover their costs.
During the summer an experimental plot containing 3.5 acres was established in
a 12-year-old Douglas fir plantation at the Green Timbers Plantations. This study
will endeavour to determine the following:—
(1.) Rate of healing of live branch wounds as effected by: (a) Different tools;
(b) method of cutting, i.e., either removing or else cutting outside the
branch base; and (c) the season of pruning.
(2.) Tool efficiency. Four different California (curved) type saws and one
pruner (shears) were included, being a selection which investigators elsewhere have shown to be best as judged by time-cost, causing the least tree
damage, and producing the best cuts. In this test an attempt was made
to eliminate the variation due to size and number of branches per tree.
Three operators were used in the test, and each had a minimum training
period of half a day with each tool. FF 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
(3.) Pruning costs in the bole section between 1.5 and 7.5 feet, including
elapsed working-time (walking from tree to tree, etc.).
The best dominants, at an approximate spacing of 18 by 18 feet, were marked for
pruning. The selected trees had an average diameter of 3.6 inches and average height
of 23.6 feet. The stand shows evidence of growing on one of the best British Columbia
sites, with a probable site index of 170 or better at 100 years. At 12 years the following characteristics of the fir portion of the stand are of interest:—
Number of trees over 0.5 in. D.B.H  825 per acre.
Total basal area  31.06 sq. ft. per acre.
Average D.B.H.  1    2.6 in.
Average height   19.7 ft.
A preliminary compilation shows that healing progressed rapidly on trees pruned
late in May. Even on trees pruned in July the callus tissue was beginning to roll over
the shoulder of the branch stubs. Only slight differences in time-cost were found
between the different tools tested. Under the heavy underbrush conditions existing at
Green Timbers it was found that the moving-time from tree to tree was nearly equal
to the pruning-time.    Total time per man-tree averaged 6.4 minutes.
Applied Management Studies.
Cutting plans investigations were continued on the logging operation on Vancouver
Island which has been under close observation for the past three years. All lands
logged and burned prior to 1941 were examined in detail early last summer and the
beneficial effects of " patch logging " on the rate of regeneration is quite marked.
However, too short a time has elapsed since logging for the new stands to become fully
established, so definite conclusions cannot be drawn at this time.
At the request of the management of a company, a preliminary investigation was
made of the sustained yield possibilities of a large tract of timber now being developed
on Vancouver Island.
The logging and milling study in Engelmann spruce of the Okanagan Valley was
completed; however, due to personnel difficulties there has been no opportunity to
complete the analysis of the data.
Fire-control Studies.
Research in the field of forest protection has been suspended for the duration of
hostilities as personnel with the necessary specialized training is no longer available.
However, it was possible to continue with the programme of panoramic lookout photography, and it is of interest that these photos are of sufficient use to the Department
of National Defence to necessitate their having duplicate copies of all our panoramas.
In addition, five military observation-posts were photographed during the season.
The following lookout points were photographed during the year:—
Vancouver Forest District:   Elk and Empress with retakes of Rosewall and
Upper Campbell.
Kamloops Forest District:   Swakum.
Nelson Forest District:   Morrissey, Roderick Dhu, Sentinel, Copper, Idaho,
Whatshan, Upper Duncan, Natal, Watson, and Mineral Monument 73.
SOIL SURVEYS AND RESEARCH.
Research on the problem of the relationship of forest increment to soil profiles has
been suspended during the past year. Our efforts were directed toward the completion
of the soil survey of the E. & N. Railway Grant on Vancouver Island and the current
requirements of the reforestation programme for land classification.
The soil survey of the E. & N. Railway Grant was started in 1940 as part of a
programme leading toward planned land utilization in which forest and agricultural
uses would be considered as complementary in regional development. The project is
co-operative with the Dominion Experimental Farms Service, Ottawa, and the Provincial Department of Agriculture assisting in the field work. During the first year
154,000 acres were examined, but for various reasons it was not possible to resume FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 19
activities until January, 1942. At that time the scope of the survey was enlarged to
include agricultural lands outside the " Grant" so that the area under study may now
be described as the southern half of Vancouver Island. To date a total of 550,000 acres
have been mapped, including the entire east coast of Vancouver Island from the Salmon
River Valley to Mill Bay and the district surrounding the head of Alberni Canal. The
only areas of importance remaining to be examined are the Saanich Peninsula, Met-
chosin, and Sooke Districts. Plans have been made to complete the project early in
1943.
It is standard procedure to have soil examinations made of possible reforestation
sites with a view to excluding potential arable land from our plantations. During the
past year lands were examined at Alberni, Campbell Lake, Waterloo Creek, Big Horn
Valley, Nanaimo Lakes Road, and Hill 60. A total of 26,000 acres was classified,
making a grand total of 164,000 acres so examined to date. In addition, a reconnaissance was made of a large portion of the Sayward Forest, which was found to be
definitely non-agricultural.
REFORESTATION.
Forest Nurseries.
Production at the two nurseries was maintained at the rate of approximately
10,000,000 trees of 2-0 stock per annum. However, the unusual weather conditions
which occurred in 1941 were followed by heavy frosts and a silver thaw early in 1942.
These served to inflict heavy losses on the nursery stock; in the case of hemlock and
spruce there was bad heaving, while Douglas fir suffered badly by the ice-crust skinning
the bark off the seedlings from the ground up. The remaining stock made excellent
growth during the season and culling will be light.
Research activities were continued and some progress was made in applying
stratification to nursery conditions. Experiments were carried out using peat to protect stratified seed from damping-off organisms, and results indicate that the peat
protects the seedlings from the pathogens yet has no adverse effect on the soil, even
when added to the soil to the extent of 50 per cent. In the nursery, seedlings from
stratified seed were definitely larger and stronger than those from spring-sown, dry
seed but they were still not sufficiently large to be used as 1-0 planting stock. Experiments designed to test more practicable methods of stratification sowing and disease-
control are under way. Poisonous dusts are being tried as control for decay in
winter-sown Douglas fir seed.
The cone-crop for 1942 was a total failure and no seed was added to the stocks on
hand, which are ample for next season's requirements.
Planting.
Planting projects were located on Vancouver Island at Bowser, Timberlands near
Ladysmith, Lower Campbell Lake, Quinsam Lake, Hill 60 near Duncan, and at Elk
Falls. In addition, a small amount of experimental planting was done at the Green
Timbers plantations and the Squamish Community Forest. A total of 6,694,000 trees
was planted on 7,928 acres of cut-over land. Much the greater part of the planting
took place in the spring with only about 5 per cent, being planted in the fall. No
projects were conducted by logging companies, due no doubt to the scarcity of labour.
The following table summarizes the planting to date:—
Status.
Previously
PLANTED.
Plantei
, 1942.
Totals to
Date.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Crown lands—
Production _   -
10,661.0
614.6
733.2
124.0
31.1
13,198.0
517.7
877.3
112.0
30.0
6,673.8
5.3
7,908.0
5.0
3.0
12.0
17,334.8
619.9
733.2
126.5
43.6
21,106.0
522.7
877.3
2.5
12.5
115.0
Other private planting (farm, wood-lots, etc.)
42.0
Totals    ...
12,163.9
14,735.0
6,694.1
7,928.0
18,858.0
22,663.0 FF 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Losses by fire to date, 211 acres;  net acreage of plantations, 22,452.
Fortunately labour for the spring planting operations was obtained without particular difficulty through the Employment Service of Canada; however, shortly thereafter the situation changed rapidly and by midsummer it was very doubtful if any men
could have been hired for that type of work. In the meantime arrangements had been
completed for personnel of the Alternate Service Workers to be stationed in the Vancouver Forest District and following the closing of the fire season in October these men
have done the fall planting, felled snags, and opened up old railroad grades in preparation for the tree-planting it is planned they will do next spring. The programme calls
for the planting of approximately 7,000,000 trees at Menzies Bay, Loveland Lake,
Quinsam Lake, Lower Campbell Lake, Bowser, Timberlands, Hill 60, and the Robertson
River Valley.
PUBLICATIONS.
The following papers were prepared for publication during the past year:—
" Parthenocarpy, Parthenogenesis, and Self-sterility of Douglas Fir," by G. S.
Allen.    Journal of Forestry 40:   642-644, 1942.
" Douglas Fir Seed from Young Trees," by G. S. Allen. Journal of Forestry 40:
722-723, 1942.
" Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), A Summary of its Life History," by G. S.
Allen.    British Columbia Forest Service Research Note No. 9;  27 pages, 1942.
"Alaska Highway Survey in British Columbia," by G. S. Andrews. Geographical
Journal, July, 1942.
PROVINCIAL PARKS.
The most notable feature of parks administration has been the appointment of two
men as Park Rangers. Previously there have been attendants on duty at various parks
during the summer season and there has been the headquarters technical staff, but for
the first time men were assigned to work full time in the field on the administration and
development of specific parks. One man was stationed at the Wells Gray Park and the
other on Mount Seymour. As these men become fully acquainted with the recreational
requirements of the public and the potentialities of each area to meet these demands it
will be their task to assist in drawing up long-term plans of development. In addition,
the Park Ranger will carry out the routine administrative tasks relative to issuing
park-use permits, maintenance of improvements, assistance to the people using the park,
and fire-protection.
The classification of Nakusp Hot Springs and the Medicine Bowls Parks was
changed from "A" to " C " and in future these areas will be administered by local
advisory park boards. There were three minor adjustments of boundaries and the
following table summarizes the Provincial Parks in British Columbia to December 31st,
1942: Number of
Classification. Parks. Acres.
Class A  16 2,715,276
Class B  3 4,622,246
Class C  27                   4,113
Administered under separate Park Acts  3 1,666,560
Totals     49 9,008,195
or 14,075 sq. mi.
Peace Arch Park continues to be very popular and numerous improvements were
made by way of rearrangement of some of the flower-beds and pools. The American
counterpart of this park has been considerably improved during the past year, so the
combined area of the two parks constitutes an attractive beauty-spot.
Mapping of the Elk Falls, Little Qualicum, Englishman River, Stamp Falls, John
Dean, and Medicine Bowls Parks was completed and, exclusive of the latter, long-term
development plans have been formulated. Detailed maps and a full report for the first
five mentioned are now in the process of compilation. These parks are strategically
located at the outstanding beauty-spots on Vancouver Island and offer easy access to - ■    -m»^ ■   ■
One of the numerous scenic views to be found in
Elk Falls Park, near Campbell River.
'■  ''■■:";        ■ ■ ■■■..        .   ■   ■      ■■  ■      ■:■■•' '■ ' .'.  :':-."       . ■■   ":'' '■■■   '■ "   .       ■ ■■■  .   .      .-.-' ■■'. '■'.-.      ■
Registration-booth at John Dean Park, near Victoria.  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 21
the public. Facilities have been provided for sightseers and picknickers and from
June 1st to September 30th an attendant is on duty at each area. A summary of the
registration-books indicates that an estimated 29,600 people visited these five parks
during the summer months of 1942. This compares with an estimate of 31,400 during
the same period of 1941. Thus despite travel restrictions there was only a decrease of
5.6 per cent, in numbers of visitors this season. The number of American and foreign
visitors was only half that of the preceding year, whereas British Columbia people,
forced to take short trips and remain closer to home, increased their visits by nearly
6 per cent. Little Qualicum Falls Park again proved to be the most popular, while Elk
Falls and Stamp Falls suffered the greatest loss in visitors because of their distance
from the main highways and centres of population.
A limited programme of improvements on the Island Parks and at Mount Seymour
was initiated using a number of the Alternate Service Workers during the season when
fire-hazard is non-existent. At Mount Seymour trails are being improved, the ski-run
further developed, an administrative headquarters cabin constructed, a new system of
signs and guide posts established, further slashing carried out along the right-of-way
for the proposed highway to the mountain, and maintenance of the old logging truck-
road now the principal access to the park. On Vancouver Island a small mobile crew
is going from park to park building registration-booths, constructing suitable facilities
for housing the park attendants, and, in general, doing maintenance jobs which are too
extensive for the attendants to attempt during the summer season.
FOREST BRANCH LIBRARY.
Items
RECEIVED   AND   CATALOGUED.
Classification.
Up to 1940.
1941.
1942.
Totals.
Bound volumes     —  - 	
Government Reports and Bulletins, etc   	
329
2,910
766
5
153
36
9
120
29
343
3,183
831
Totals               -       	
4,005
194
158              4,357
55
5,259
43
1,962
	
22,898
30,119
FOREST MANAGEMENT.
The gross scale of all forest products for the year 1942 shows a net reduction of
five hundred and seven million feet from the previous year's total. Although production east of the Cascades advanced nearly fifty million feet the coastal region, where
the major volume accrues, dropped behind considerably over one-half billion feet.
Labour shortage due to man-power requirements of the armed forces and other war
industries was the main contributing factor. At the same time the past ten-year
average production level of approximately three billion feet was exceeded by two
hundred million feet.
Despite reduced output, gross estimated value of production exceeded last year's
record by over $4,500,000. This is attributable to higher unit sale values under pressure of war needs. Lumber, shingles, boxes, and poles, with added value accruing
from the manufacture of ply-wood and veneers, are the main items contributing to
the increase in total production value. Reduction is noted in the value of logs exported
due to short log-supply for home consumption.
The Christmas-tree business has been under close observation by the Forest
Service since it assumed prominence some years ago. With expansion of the business
year by year over the past decade there arose a demand for extension of cutting rights
from private lands, where it first originated, to Crown lands in the Douglas fir regions
of the Province, as Douglas fir was found to be the most desirable species. The annual
cut from 1937 on reached a total of around one and one-half million trees. FF 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The centres of production in order of importance are Invermere, Cranbrook, and
Fernie in the East Kootenay District; Kamloops and the open range lands of the
Cariboo District in the Interior Dry Belt; Vancouver Island and the Lower Fraser
Valley west of the Coast mountains.
It is recognized that Christmas trees are a legitimate forest product and the perpetual production of these trees on specified poor-quality growing-sites can be good
forestry practice if properly managed. However, on the greater proportion of permanent forest lands it is considered more profitable to produce sawlogs and other
timber products so that the second growth and reproduction used for the Christmas-
tree trade should be preserved for restocking purposes. The claim that Christmas-
tree cutting consists of a thinning of young stands for the betterment of the final
timber-crop is not borne out in actual practice.
From observation it was found that with few exceptions harvesting methods
employed in British Columbia were destructive and improvident; in other words,
Christmas-tree lands were " mined " instead of " farmed." For this reason, and by
reason of inability to maintain a properly trained supervisory staff to ensure permanent benefit to the industry, cutting on Crown lands was prohibited, with the exception
of two experimental areas in the East Kootenay and on the open range lands in the
Cariboo District. These sites are too dry to grow satisfactory timber-crops and clearing for grazing purposes is advantageous.
In 1941 a survey of the East Kootenay District was undertaken and tentative
arrangements made to institute a permit system on Crown lands of low-quality growing-sites. These permits were to be issued to resident settlers, with a limitation on
the annual cut, based on the sustained yield capacity of the permit area. Permits
were not intended to replace private land production but rather to supplement it and
thereby give the settler an added income.
During 1942 sixty-one such permits were issued to bona-fide settlers between
Invermere and the International Boundary in the East Kootenay. Conditions embodied
in each permit were designed to ensure the harvesting of successive crops in perpetuity.
It is anticipated that these permits will serve to demonstrate the practicability of
Christmas-tree " farming," or, in other words, that a sustained and increased annual
yield of improved quality trees can be attained in contrast to the short-time exploitation of Christmas-tree lands formerly in vogue. It is hoped that ultimately private
lands best suited for Christmas-tree growth will also be managed and operated on
a sustained yield basis.
Operations on these sixty-one permit areas during 1942 yielded 164,860 trees out
of a total allowable cut estimated at 243,300 trees.
Another development of interest during 1942 was the introduction of regulations
governing the harvesting of cascara-bark, as a first step towards the conservation of
this native tree of highly medicinal value. Through improper methods of harvesting,
but a small part of the cascara available was heretofore recovered and rapid depletion
of native stands of this species was in evidence.
All harvesting of cascara-bark on Crown lands is now under permit and in the
case of privately owned lands the written consent of the private owner must first be
obtained. All permits granted over Crown lands require the observance of the following conditions:—
(1.)  All trees must be felled prior to peeling:
(2.)  All cascara-trees under 4 inches stump diameter 6 inches above the
ground are reserved from cutting:
(3.)   Stumps must be left at least 6 inches in height above the ground and no
bark is to be removed from the stump:
(4.)   All limbs and branches must be peeled down to a diameter of at least
1% inches:
(5.)   Every precaution  must be taken  to prevent  injury to  small  sprouts
growing below the stump-line: CHRISTMAS-TREE CULTURE.
■■:■- r&
Trees from limbs. After the first Christmas tree is
cut, one or two limbs are left on a high stump. These
turn upwards and form separate, symmetrical trees.
In this picture one such limb tree has been cut (note
stump in front of paper) the other limb tree has been
pruned to increase bushiness.
fe":   '••"';
Pruning the lower part of the tree-trunk increases
the bushiness of the top, making it more attractive
for a Christmas tree. In this case some limbs should
have been left below the pruning to make more trees
when the original tops are cut.
•IIP
l*~I!  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942. FF 23
(6.)   A return statement of bark harvested  (in pounds, dry weight) will be
completed and the permit form returned to the issuing forest officer
when collecting has been completed,  and in  any case not later than
January 31st of the following year.
These permits are issued free of charge and are designed primarily to inculcate
harvesting methods which will tend to perpetuate the growth of the cascara-tree and
conserve the supply of a valuable medicinal agent.    No dues are payable on the bark
collected, but the permits are personal and not transferable.    They do not permit the
hiring of paid collectors, but are deemed to cover collection of bark by other members
of the permittee's own family.    Collectors are urged to apply the same principles to
the harvesting of bark from privately held lands.
Penalties are provided for infraction of the regulations or any term or condition
of any permit issued thereunder.
Total production of cascara-bark for 1942 is estimated at 300 tons (dry weight),
with a value of $150,000. The bulk of production came from private lands, as the tree
thrives best on alluvial soils. It is found principally in the lower Coast region and on
Vancouver Island, but it also occurs scattered throughout the Interior Wet Belts in
the southern portion of the Province. Over 500 permits were issued for collection on
Crown lands.
The rules for good practice ih harvesting were in many instances not closely followed, as shown by field observation, which indicates the necessity of extended educational effort with the two-fold objective in mind—namely, protection and perpetuation
of this public asset and the assurance of a continual annual income to the collector.
A few instances of individuals establishing plantations are reported both on the
Coast and in the Interior.
Statistical tables follow giving details of the forest industry for the year. , A few
observations are in order to indicate general trends.
The details of water-borne lumber trade are again withheld because of the war.
Pulp and paper output was curtailed during the last half of the year by the introduction of quota paper shipment allotments and difficulties experienced in the supply
of raw material in the form of pulp logs. Production value remained at about the
same level as the previous year.
Douglas fir still leads in the volume cut by species, forming 44 per cent, of the
total production. Cedar fell off considerably, but maintains second place with over 18
per cent. Hemlock is a close rival of cedar and bids fair to outstrip it. Spruce follows with 9 per cent., gaining ground each year with heavier cut in the Interior stands.
Balsam, larch, yellow pine, white pine, lodgepole pine, and several deciduous species
make up the balance. It is interesting to note the cut of birch, a valuable source of
veneer for aircraft manufacture, exceeded 3,400,000 board-feet, over 50 per cent, from
the Fort George District, and oak appears for the first time.
Non-royalty bearing timber from early Crown grants forms about one-third of
the cut, with timber licences a close second. Timber sales produced 18 per cent, of
the cut and leases about 12 per cent.
In minor products the main item is cedar poles and piling; production increased
appreciably over the previous year, the larger sizes being in demand to fill the gap
caused by shortage of metal and other substitutes. Hewn ties show a further decline.
Christmas-tree production also decreased.
Owing to a favourable fire season in most districts logging inspection work
increased materially, despite disruptions of staff due to enlistments.
Coincident with opportunity afforded for increased activity in field inspection
trespass was curtailed in comparison with 1941. Pre-emption inspection work again
reduced in keeping with lesser number of pre-emptions in effect.
Land examination and classification as the result of applications under the
" Land Act" called for over 500 individual reports, a reduction of about 180 from
the previous year. FF 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Timber-sales maintain their priority in staff activity and, with continued demand
for increased production, sales awarded in 1942 surpassed slightly in acreage those
dealt with in the previous year. Estimated revenue from this source exceeds the
$2,125,000 mark.
More detailed tables are submitted in this report with respect to stumpage prices,
as bid, on sales awarded, together with stumpage actually received for timber-sale
material scaled during the year.
It is noteworthy that the general advance in stumpage values is not immediately
reflected in current operations by reason of the fact that much of the material scaled
during the current year originated on sales acquired under market conditions existing
at the time of the contract, many of them dating back to early or pre-war years.
Export of unmanufactured logs was about half the volume reported for 1941.
This is attributable to the active demand for local consumption and control exercised
over export by the Timber Control Board of the Federal Government.
The forest insect survey is a co-operative effort on the part of the Forest Service
with the Dominion Department of Agriculture, Entomological Branch, as a means of
obtaining widely disseminated information as to the occurrence of injurious forest
insects. Monthly collections of insects present on growing timber are obtained by all
field officers and boxed for shipment to the Entomological Laboratory at Vernon,
British Columbia, where identification is made of insects obtained. Thus in the event
of an outbreak of epidemic proportions of any injurious form of forest insect-life
adequate steps may be taken to prevent widespread destruction of merchantable timber
values.
With the half billion feet decrease in output for 1942 in comparison with 1941
forest revenue shows a slight reduction. The item of timber-sale stumpage continues
to show an advance, while royalty revenue is off slightly. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 25
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1 FF 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight
within the Province.
Product.
Lumber—	
Pulp and paper	
Shingles... 	
Boxes  	
Doors 	
Piles, poles, and mine
props 	
Cordwood, fence-posts,
and lagging	
Ties, railway -	
Additional value contributed by the wood-
using industry	
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported  _.
Pulp-wood exported	
Christmas trees 	
Cascara bark	
Totals 	
1936.
$36,160,000
14,950,000
7,800,000
1,629,000
2,718,000
1,434,000
1,489.000
623,000
1,360,000
1,200,000
2,646,000
11,000
1937.
$40,638,000
17,214,000
6,876,000
2,122,000
2,971,000
2,346,000
1,459,000
560,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
3,782,000
5,000
1938.
$36,296,000
11,066,000
6,875,000
1,964,000
1,353,000
1,616,000
1,455,000
560,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
3,238,000
1939.
$72,010,000
$80,872,000|$67,122,000
I
$50,379,000
16,191,000
8,560,000
2,039,000
737,000
1,556,000
1,495,000
360,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
3,852,000
11,000
141,000
1940.
1941.
$55,514,000 $64,596,000
22,971,000 27,723,000
9,620,000! 11,550,000
4,779,000 4,707,000
740.0001 *
1,759,000: 1,723,000
1,399,000: 1,522,000
258,000! 204,000
1942.
1,600,000
1,400,000
2,684,000
8,000
72,000;
2,000,000
1,500,000
4,212,000
7,000
176,000
$88,221,000
$102,804,000 $119,920,000 $124,720,000
$67,150,000
27,457,000
12,822,000
5,397,000
2,576,000
2,165,000
221,000
2,500,000
1,500,000
2,618,000
2,000
162,000
150,000
Ten-year
Average,
1933-42.
$40,855,000
17,353,000
8,004,000
2,709,000
1,021,000
1,508,000
1,535,000
453,000
1,548,000
1,468,000
2,951,000
14,000
55,000
15,000
$79,489,000
* Included in wood-using industry value.
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
Ten-year
Average,
1933-42.
276,710
41,443
264,136
53,026
179,639
39,348
216,542
50,870
262,144
68,428
275,788
75,453
252,559
74,915
246,209
48,759
In addition to 300,287 tons of pulp manufactured into paper in the Province 171,272
tons were shipped out of the Province during the year.
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1941-42
(inF.B.M.).
Forest District.
1941.
1942.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Loss.
3,053,573,768
212,805.474
2,528,147,522
182,993,071
525,426,246
29,812,403
3,266,379,242
2,711,140,593
555,238,649
27,154,497
107,938,790
141,573,370
136,711,615
30,921,143
123,102,695
154,759,005
152,716,743
3,766,646
15,163,905
13,185,635
16,005,128
Kamloops  -	
-7
Totals, Interior	
413,378,272
461,499,586
48,121,314
	
3,679,757,514
3,172,640,179
507,117,335 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 27
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Logging Inspection, 1942.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
691
382
411
1,021
581
1
17
825
135
205
931
473
1,517
534
616
1,952
1,054
3,945
2,288
826
3,993
Nelson  	
2,701
Totals, 1942 ',	
3,086
18
2,569
5,673
13,753
Totals, 1941 _.._	
3,207
18
2,833
6.058
11,438
Totals, 1940          .	
2,864
12
2,272
5,148
10,968
Totals, 1939  	
2,770
10
2,068
4,848
11,295
Totals, 1938  _	
2,674
23
1,804
4,501
10,828
Totals, 1937  i
2,404
46
1,932
4,382
11,507
Totals, 1936    .
2,354
35
1,883
4,272
11,138
Totals, 1935.	
2,074
59
1,660
3,793
10,081
Totals, 1934            	
1,603
87
1,546
3,236
9,486
Totals, 1933.   .   	
1,237
67
1,425
2,729
8,121
Ten-year average, 1933-42... 	
2,427
37
1,999
4,464
10,862
Trespasses, 1942.
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38
20
30
26
177
48
486
244
204
1,815,114
1,294,579
963,352
288,478
52,383
12,511
301,293
1,297
23,860
26,900
148
2,204
2,263
53
89
70
201
219
130
7
2
3
3
$5,787.10
3,083.38
3,360.76
1,034.83
Nelson...   —	
1,382
1,125.64
Totals, 1942  	
180
1,159
4,413,906
365,861
4,757
490
1,512
15
$14,391.61
Totals, 1941 	
236
1,788
7,627,990
626,391
2,887
1,365
4,150
17
$24,253.10
Totals, 1940—	
194
877
5,206,829
94,444
1,573
4,279
9,854
13
$14,088.24
Totals, 1939  	
209*
571
6,905,268
94,818
3,147
5,206
46,729
26
$17,725.00
Totals, 1938	
149
816
4,309,030
203,195
3,014
1,185
7,530
10
$9,653.86
Totals, 1937 .„  .
156
1,147
8,239,813
143,860
1,607
2,132
35,017
7
$17,439.52
Totals, 1936  	
153
501
2,067,130
75,272
1,632
2,452
13
$5,243.00
Totals, 1935   	
121
655
3,043,486
50,965
1,283
14,078
3
$6,077.58
Totals, 1934	
101
720
3,270,608
30,555
1,385
4,825
6
$5,401.05
Totals, 1933 _	
70
155
1,578,108
41,689
1,413
3,807
2
$2,727.81
Ten-year average, 1933-42
157
829
4,666,217
162,705
2,270
3,882
11
$11,700.00
* Christmas-tree cutting largely responsible for increase. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 31
Pre-emption Inspection.
Pre-emption records examined, by districts, are:— Average, Ten Yrs.
1942. 1933-42.
Vancouver       148 312
Prince Rupert      104 176
Fort George      312 560
Kamloops      579 766
• Nelson        83 131
Totals  1,226 1,945
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1942.
Forest District.
Applications for   j   Applications for
Hay and Grazing j       Pre-emption
Leases.                       Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
No.
1
6   -
1
56
6
Acres.
57
1,590
80
12,001
794
No.
2
11
2
24
4
Acres.
110
1,569
221
3,563
388
No.
35
10
19
52
33
Acres.
2,029
1,099
1,592
4,943
3,291
No.
17
7
7
36
5
Acres.
476
825
358
6,246
1,376
No.
55
34
29
168
48
Acres.
2,672
5,083
2,251
26,753
5,849
Kamloops	
Nelson.  	
Totals	
70
14,522
43     1       5.851
149
.12,954
72
9,281
334
42,608
Classification of Areas examined, 1942.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
2,672
5,083
2,251
26,753
5,849
Acres.
949
1,470
1,289
4,381
1,192
Acres.
1,723
3,613
962
22,372
4,657
Acres.
140
M.B.M.
Prince Rupert „	
1,173
Nelson T  	
71
348
Totals	
42,608
9,281
33,327
211
1,521 FF 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1942.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-      i   Poles and
timber            Piles
(M.B.M.).! (Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-ties
(No.).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
321
274
230
396
248
48,138
50,198
64,010
74,503
68,373
1
308,710    |        547,525    .
78,725          1,115,000
96,382             568,750
175.373    1    2.666.150
7,748
8,790
48,462
24,274
10,958
2,500
214,225
66,194
77,744
20,443
Prince Rupert 	
Fort George..	
34,600
51,000
Nelson  	
135,486
3,665,314
657,900
Totals, 1942......	
1,469
305,222
794,676
8,562,739
100,232
381,106
743,500
Totals, 1941. 	
1,611
.   321,220
689,595
15,794,246
126,463
199,174
263,480
Totals, 1940 	
1,620
300,480
572,562
11,309,288
72,157
314,644
512,042
Totals, 1939	
1,324
212,594
470,660
5,016,945
68,078
339,866
261,100
Totals, 1938 	
1,486
325,403
482,680
5,747,765
126,329
804,240
169,900
Totals, 1937  -
1,471      ]      278,386
633,216
9,658,000
140,820
753,408
160,450
Totals, 1936 	
1,415
252,035
464,402
8,535,045
148,606
1,083,746
63,200
Totals, 1935	
1,319
238,952
398,884
5,674,908
114,753
1,164,454
74,700
Totals, 1934	
1,331
223,391
356,264
2,856,619
80,101
1,235,766
73,766
Totals, 1933	
942
169,831
186,418
1,620,112
95,233
549,976
174,861
Ten-year average,
1933-1942	
1,399
262,751
504,936
7,477,567
107,277
682,638
249,700 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 33
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FF 37
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1942.
■
Operating.
Shut Down.
Forest District.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
178
67
72
120
114
8,992
700
915
1,236
1,354
59
2
6
3
8,719
10
80
65
27
15
38
40
29
404
157
210
203
232
7
1
3
85
5
Nelson	
45
Totals, 1942	
551
13,197
70
8,874
149
1,206
11
135
Totals, 1941...	
557
13,820
76
8,835
129
1,083
5
63
Totals, 1940	
642
12,691
77
8,585
141
1,432
18
307
Totals, 1939	
461
11,698
84
7,926
147
1,907
24
637
Totals, 1938	
481
12,159
88
8,184
126
1,406
19
315
Totals, 1937	
434
11,042
80
9,124
131
1,685
16
402
Totals, 1936—-	
410
.    11,401
86
8,859
122
1,699
10
316
Totals, 1935	
384
9,822
93
8,492
96
1,962
16
1,231
Totals, 1934	
349
9,152
82
7,311
129
2,999
13
1,228
Totals, 1933...
295
8,715
78
7,325
134
3,632
22
1,652
Ten-year average,
1933-42..	
446
11,370
81
8,347
130
1,901
15
618 FF 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Export of Logs (in F.B.M
.),1942.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
8,049
2,550,449
582,986
16,891,984
261,841
1,502,347
23,359,590
1,979,444
37,000
2,093,382
42,802,023
2,241,285
37,000
88,758,672
18,034,878
88,758,672
1,223,289
786
18,034,878
80,669
718,966
21,000
2,022,924
21,786
Totals, 1942	
2,639,167
18,960,886
27,618,347
106,793,550
156,011,950*
Totals, 1941
8,549,320
63,485,278
43,165,973
191,879,335
307,079,906
Totals, 1940	
4,697,188
37,567,582
24,865,886
150,396,702
217,527,358
Totals, 1939	
6,383,398
111,155,799
66,870,882
128,323,383
312,733,462
Totals, 1938	
4,386,370
98,637,490
74,650,663
81,998,669
259,673,082
Totals, 1937 	
4,924,298
114,991,217
66,611,218
83,947,361
270,474,094
Totals, 1936
4,028,567
107,007,342
49,061,362
58,731,664
218,828,835
Totals, 1935	
8,766,098
129,029,692
66,979,194
40,516,782
235,291,766
Totals, 1934	
10,489,155
89,831,736
43,416,151
28,998,709
172,735,751
Totals, 1933	
16,941,207
119,089,573
59,215,094
13,694,960
208,940,834
7,180,477
88,975,659
51,245,476
88,528,092
235,929,704
* Of this total, 144,290,745 F.B.M. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege;   11,721,205
F.B.M. were exported under permit from other areas. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 39
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1942.
Forest District.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Other
Countries.
Vancouver—
Poles - -	
. ■ lin. ft.
3,799,098
555,595
210
15
200
54,000
1,661,856
$455,892
88,895
2,520
113
10
6,480
182,195
1,560
15,155
2,614
720
156
30
3,688,759
142,034
210
15
200
54,000
899,727
110,339
408,202
Piles:      - 	
__lin. ft.
5,359
cords
,.„posts
Prince Rupert—
lin. ft.
762,129
6,240
86,101
415
1,731
1,950
5
6,240
189,536
415
1,731
1,950
5
5,084,795
113,211
1,108
40,347
502
374,136
2,953,154
178,722
6,375
9,724
Fort George—
Poles  	
 lin. ft.
103,435
 _ cords
... lin. ft.
Kamloops—
lin. ft.
603,810
49,509
9,393
2,737
5,012
44,896
295,315
10,723
51,000
77,792
3,504,580
1,580,215
113,211
1,108
40,347
502
 lin. ft.
374,136
2,720,324
23,517
Nelson-—
Poles - 	
...' lin. ft.
232,830
155,205
6,375
7,721
459
47,555
53,000
Piles  *
... lin. ft.
 cords
2,003
479
47,555
921,000
2,156
23,778
110,520
20
859,000
 ties
... trees
Total value, 1942	
$2,042,981
	
Total value, 1941      _    -
$1,877,683
Summary for Province, 1942.
Product.
Volume.
Value.
Per Cent, of
Total Value.
Poles and piling  	
  , lin. ft.
14,422,756
162,497
484
210
6,440
11,247
42,297
6,877 "
15
1,349,136
$1,651,985
74,007
2,186
2,520
1,570
89,799
2,893
56,012
.     113
161,896
80.86
3.62
0.11
0.12
0.08
4.40
______   __lin.ft.
0.14
2.74
0.01
7.92
Totals               _..___          	
$2,042,981
100.00 FF 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
258
103
124
272
59
9
6
1,501
3
6
1
198
91
103
259
61
3
16
6
1,479
1
2
2
272
101
99
275
68
1
16
13
1,724
4
3
2
20
211
85
101
282
64
1
16
6
1.853
11
6
2
17
160
Crown grants, 1887-1906...	
85
Crown grants, 1906-1914 	
92
250
2
Indian reserves _   	
4
1,709
19
6
2
1
Totals  	
2,342
321
2,221
316
2,588
315
2,654
307
2,418
224
Draughting Office, Forest Branch, 1942.
Number of Drawings prepared or Tracings made for
Month.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscellaneous
Matters.
Constructional
Work.
Totals.
from
Reference
Maps.
January.—.  	
February ,	
27
13
39
29
34
31
28
27
16
13
33
39
58
90
96
91
78
87
71
60
36
51
62
88
28
26
37
25
38
24
33
30
30
32
30
26
7
2
7
9
8
9
8
5
14
9
6
27
11
8
5
3
7
6
11
1
13
5
2
1
131
139
184
157
165
157
151
123
109
110
133
181
26
8
8
April	
4
9
15
July        ... ■'               	
6
1
1
October...        -	
November
December.—    — -
8
1
Totals.     _	
329
868
359
111
73
1,740
87
Forest District.
Vancouver 	
Forest Insect Survey, 1942.
Insect-box
Collections
made.
_-_ 178
Prince Rupert    44
Fort George    30
Kamloops  __  137
Nelson  168
Negative
Reports.
18
4
2
9
37
Totals ...
557
70 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 41
Crown-granted Timber Lands.
Area of Private
Timber Lands
(Acres).
... 845,111
.__ 887,980
Year.
1921	
1922	
1923  _ 883,344
1924  654,668
1925  654,016
1926  688,372
1927 -:  690,438
1928  671,131
1929  644,011
1930  629,156
1931  602,086
1932  552,007
1933  567,731
1934  557,481
1935 :  535,918
1936  515,924
1937  743,109
1938 1  754,348
1939  719,112
1940  549,250
1941 ...  543,632
1942  527,995
Average Value
per Acre.
$10.33
11.99
11.62
15.22
40.61
39.77
39.01
38.62
38.41
44.74
43.77
43.73
41.18
37.25
37.13
36.61
23.32
23.05
22.73
27.70
26.99
26.34
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown
in the following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1942.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1941.
Average
Value
per Acre,
1942.
Change in
Value
per Acre
since 1941.
68,806
104,454
91,092
13,609
328
315
116,512
2,637
160
1,748
21,164
3.3,361
41,024
1,074
31,711
— 74
— 3,163
— 6,044
— 1,711
*
*
+ 3,997
*
*
*
— 159
*
*
*
— 423
$40.68
23.30
34.45
6.45
15.00
10.37
30.44
5.83
4.15
13.62
17.18
14.12
2.57
7.05
28.61
—$1.31
— 2.43
+    -53
+    .36
*
Comox  :	
Cowichan        — 	
+    .92
*
*
Nelson  ' 	
*
+    -07
*
Slocan    	
— 1.30
Totals     ,  	
527,995
— 15,637
$26.34
	
* No change. PP 42
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1? FF 44
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1941-42.
Timber-licence rentals 	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest..
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty	
Timber tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund) 	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)—.
Trespass penalties	
Scalers' examination fees	
Exchange 	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Timber-berth rentals, bonus and fees	
Interest on timber-berth rentals	
Transfer fees on timber berths	
Grazing fees and interest	
$437,369.96
1,590.00
20,193.57
250.00
48,731.95
74.96
31,495.63
889,400.07
13,522.57
2,382.00
2,453,335.23
81,623.49
293.93
351.09
17,548.79
600.00
217.94
465.64
4,666.54
22,546.76
171.63
91.77
30,514.34
Ten-year Average.
$486,146.00
1,260.00
29,077.00
945.00
60,227.00
760.00
23,203.00
492,032.00
8,248.00
1,252.00
1,645,948.00
63,323.00
366.00
179.00
10,233.00
286.00
204.00
715.00
3,240.00
27,020.00
288.00
74.00
19,860.00
Total __   $4,057,437.86   $2,874,886.00
Taxation from Crown-grant timber lands      211,410.13       244,935.00
Total revenue from forest resources $4,268,847.97   $3,119,821.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 45
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z FP 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST EXPENDITURE, FISCAL YEAR 1941-42.
Forest District.
Salaries.
War Service,
Temporary
Assistance.
Temporary
Assistance.
Expense.
Total.
$65,277.94
18,210.89
19,248.76
40,179.25
32,186.19
82,241.12
$37,174.22
18,074.28
6,778.72
14,407.07
12,736.37
24,762.88
$104,452.16
$1,654.37
$1,263.55
1,499.89
39,103.09
27,527.37
2,881.89
1,651.66
3,132.00
57,468.21
Nelson    	
46.45
46.620.67
110,136.00
Totals                           	
$257,344.15
$9,219.92
$2,809.89
$115,933.54
$385,307.50
4,000.00
8,624.22
11,487.11
150,768.65
12,450.32
11,845.74
500,000.00
103,158.43
Grand total	
$1,187,631.97
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1941 (credit)	
Collections, fiscal year 1941-42	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1941-42...
Balance, March 31st, 1942 (credit)
Balance, April 1st, 1942 (credit)	
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1942
Expenditures, 9 months, April-December, 1942_
Balance, December 31st, 1942 (credit)	
$8,743.72
187,951.28
$196,695.00
178,719.10
$17,975.90
$17,975.90
125,373.64
$143,349.54
108,627.63
$34,721.91
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1941	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1941  (under
subsec. (2), sec. 32, " Forest Act ")	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1941-42.
Balance, March 31st, 1942  (credit)	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1942 (under
subsec. (2), sec. 32, "Forest Act")	
Moneys received under subsec. (4), sec. 32,   " Forest Act "
Expenditures, 9 months, to December 31st, 1942 __
$51,409.01
87,812.70
$139,221.71
32,035.13
$107,186.58
103,158.43
$210,345.01
18,088.74
Balance, December 31st, 1942  (credit)  $192,256.27 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942. FF 47
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1941  $6,709.01
Government  contribution   (sec.   11,
" Grazing Act ")    $11,845.74
Other receipts   73.60
  11,919.34
$18,628.35
Expenditures, April 1st, 1941-March 31st, 1942__._.. 9,205.29
Balance, March 31st, 1942  (credit)     $9,423.06
Government contribution   (sec.  11,  " Grazing
Act ")   $10,171.51
Other   receipts,   April    1st,    1942-December
31st, 1942   26.70
 ■    10,198.21
$19,621.27
Expenditures, April 1st, 1942-December 31st, 1942       3,219.37
Balance, December 31st, 1942 (credit)  $16,401.90
STANDING OF FOREST PROTECTION FUND,
DECEMBER 31ST, 1942.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1941      $606,243.90
Expenditure, April 1st, 1941-March 31st, 1942        687,369.36
$1,293,613.26
Collections, tax   $240,368.79
Collections, miscellaneous       10,310.12
Refunds of expenditure        12,207.81
Government contribution      500,000.00
        762,886.72
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1942      $530,726.54
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1942      $530,726.54
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1942        370,923.28
Repayable to votes (estimate)        195,000.00
$1,096,649.82
Collections, tax   $193,359.09
Collections, miscellaneous        27,356.58
Government contribution .'     375,000.00
        595,715.67
Estimated deficit, December 31st, 1942      $500,934.15
Note.—During the period May-December, 1942, the Forest Protection Fund
served as a drawing account for payment of cost of operating Alternative Service
Workers camps. Disbursements made for this purpose were repaid by the Federal
Department of Mines and Resources under agreement negotiated between the Province
and the Dominion Government, dated April 29th, 1942. FF 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Estimated and Known Costs of Forest Protection to other Agencies, 1942.
Expenditures.
Forest District.
Tools and
Equipment.
Improvements.
Patrol.
Fire-
fighting.
Total.
Vancouver    —
$65,271.00
3,456.00
$3,262.00
2,248.00
$56,811.00
4,322.00
$152,904.00
10,398.00
262.00
2,101.00
1,296.00
$278,248.00
20,424.00
262.00
Kamloops   -
2,101.00
10,150.00
1,850.00
13,296.00
Totals- .__	
$78,877.00
$5,510.00
$62,983.00
$166,961.00
$314,331.00
Totals, 1941-..	
$60,195.00
$2,191.00
$67,998.00
$36,833.00
$167,217.00
Forest Protection Expenditure fob
Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1942.
Districts.
Patrols
and Fire
Prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$140,175.26
31,355.07
35,133.23
82,267.83
95,880.16
51,253.96
$15,995.41
4,174.22
9,739.22
12,114.47
21,138.18
21,209.63*
$64,950.36
3,802.90
16,181.43
10,910.04
43,310.92
$17,147.19
1,390.15
1,617.07
2,931.37
4,691.29
$238,268.22
40,722.34
62,670.95
Kamloops. - 	
108,223.71
165,020.55
72,463.59
Totals   	
$436,065.51
$84,371.13
$139,155.65
$27,777.07
$687,369.36
* Includes $14,500 purchase and equipping six heavy trucks.
FOREST PROTECTION.
Weather.
Generally speaking, the season throughout the Province was extremely favourable.
In the Nelson and Kamloops Districts, which ordinarily represent the most consistent summer fire-hazard, the usual condition was conspicuously absent. In midsummer in these districts heavy and periodic rains kept both vegetation and ground in
moist condition, and, while the frequency and intensity of lightning-storms did not
show any noticeable abatement, the prevailing wet weather which followed each storm
rendered them abortive and very little trouble was experienced. It was not until
around the middle of September that conditions in these two districts approached anything resembling a hazard, and at that time a warm and dry period set in, lasting until
the latter part of October. It is worthy of note that in these districts roughly 17 per
cent, of fire occurrence took place over this late and post-season period, but owing to
the very lateness of the season with accompanying cold nights and heavy dews, little
damage ensued.
In the Prince Rupert District, although snowfall and precipitation were considerably under average in both the coast and interior sections of the area, giving every
indication of a dry season to follow, certain factors subsequently worked to advantage,
resulting also in a favourable season throughout that district. In the interior section
of the district moist conditions with moderately warm weather developed during April,
May, and June, permitting early growth of native grass and, at the same time, the
entire absence of cold north-west winds, which usually blow continuously at that time
of the year in this area, allowed such growth to develop abundantly, thus eliminating
much of the flash-hazard in the area. As a result, although periods of higher than
ordinary temperatures occurred in July and August with numerous storms and a
marked increase in lightning, prior conditions were such that with slight rainfall
following most storms, fires were easily held in check. In the coastal section rainfall
continued scant during the forepart of the season and south-easterly winds, normally FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942. FF 49
counted upon to produce fairly sustained precipitation at this period, were infrequent.
Temperatures in the area during July and August were above normal and westerly
winds completed the drying effect until considerable hazard had developed. This hazard
was somewhat lessened by abnormally heavy dew occurrence and calm mornings.
Violent thunder-storms passed over parts of this region but, fortunately, were few in
number, as no definite break occurred throughout the balance of the season. Conditions
on the Queen Charlotte Islands were practically similar to the Coastal Mainland with
violent north-westerly winds at frequent periods during July, August, and September,
making fire-control difficult on several outbreaks which occurred on the islands during
those months.
The season in the Prince George Forest District commenced favourably without
the usual spring flash-hazard. However, by the end of June a very severe condition
had developed and this period of high hazard carried through to the end of the first
week in July. During this week of high hazard, on five successive days a series of dry
lightning-storms passed over the district, resulting in the setting of numerous.fires
and creating the most serious fire situation which that area has experienced since
organization of the Service. Fortunately, local thunder-showers which closed this
period of heavy hazard gradually developed into more general rains and assisted in the
work of fire-control. Following this initial hazard a two weeks' break permitted some
reorganization of scattered fire-fighting resources prior to the second period of high
hazard, which began developing towards the end of July and was at its height by the
middle of the first week in August. At this time heavy, dry lightning-storms again
occurred over an even wider path across the area, setting many fires in the most
inaccessible portions of the district. From this date on conditions remained continually
hazardous until just after the middle of August, and then moderated to some extent,
but did not finally break until the end of the first week in September. For the balance
of the season the weather remained such that hazard was negligible.
In the Vancouver Forest District the character of the season experienced was the
direct reverse from the average, inasmuch as hazard remained comparatively low as
late as mid-July, when the first definite signs of drying out were indicated. As the
season progressed through August and September, hazard conditions became increasingly serious, fuel-moisture curves remaining consistently low. The southern portion
of Vancouver Island was especially hazardous with no precipitation recorded from July
17th to September 30th; other parts of the district had a light rain on August 25th
but virtually nothing in the way of precipitation before or afterwards during this same
period. High temperatures were not uncommon during the summer, notably at the
end of June, the first several days in July, and the opening three weeks in August, with
September remaining consistently warm throughout. Equinoctial gales arrived early
on September 15th and this, with the cumulative hazard already existing, was the chief
factor in the difficulties experienced in slash-burning control. The season finally broke
in early October.
Fires.
Causes.—Lightning again was the cause of more fires than any other agency,
approximately 50 per cent, of the season's outbreaks being attributable to this source.
This is a slightly lower percentage than during the season of 1941, but the decrease is
due entirely to the more favourable weather conditions obtaining immediately prior to
and following storm occurrence, for, as mentioned previously, the frequency and
intensity of lightning-storms showed no noticeable abatement. It would appear that a
cycle of weather, involving extraordinary electrical disturbances, is being experienced,
as until the year 1940 it was a rare occasion when fires in excess of 30 per cent, of total
occurrence were attributable to lightning.
Fires caused by smokers and campers were next in number of occurrence, these two
agencies representing together approximately 27 per cent, of all fires.
Railway-caused fires roughly doubled in percentage over season 1941 and represented approximately 8 per cent, of total occurrence.
It is worthy of note that incendiarism caused less than one-half of 1 per cent, of
all fires.
4 FF 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Cost of Fire-fighting.—Total cost of fire-fighting to the Forest Branch during the
season of 1942 was $69,701, or approximately only 44 per cent, of the average annual
cost over the previous ten-year period. It is estimated that other private agencies
throughout the Province spent $166,961 in fire-fighting during the season and, in addition, made a further expenditure of $147,370 in tools and equipment, protection improvements, and patrol.
The decreased cost to the Forest Branch in comparison with prior years may be
largely attributed to three main causes: (1) The very favourable weather conditions
obtaining throughout Interior districts of the Province, where in past years a heavy
proportion of our expenditure has been incurred; (2) the saving in fire-fighting wages,
particularly in the Prince George and Kamloops Districts, where army personnel were
made available as fire-fighters, with the Forest Branch responsible only for cost of
transportation and a proportion of food supplies; and (3) the fact that Alternative
Service Workers fought a considerable number of fires in the Vancouver Forest District
without cost to the Forest Protection Fund—a saving of $20,000 was estimated due to
this factor alone.
The bulk of expenditure by other agencies (approximately 88 per cent, of the total
figure shown under this head) took place in the Vancouver Forest District. Here the
heavy increase in number of logging operations due to war demands for lumber reflected
in the figures of equipment purchased and patrol cost. Several large operational fires
which occurred in mid-season and persisted until the weather broke likewise swelled the
total figure of expenditure by private agencies.
Damage.—Total estimated damage for the year was $1,336,496. Of this figure
approximately 61 per cent, occurred in the Prince George District, 21 per cent, in the
Prince Rupert District, and 17 per cent, in the Vancouver District, with damage in
Kamloops and Nelson Districts being negligible.
Damage in the Prince George District occurred to a large extent in the unorganized
portion of the district tributary to the new Alcan Highway, where access for control
measures was possible only by air transport. The extreme difficulty of obtaining aircraft at the time reflected appreciably in the total damage figure.
In the Prince Rupert area one fire was responsible for 70 per cent, of the total area
burned over and 84 per cent, of the estimated damage in the entire district. From the
standpoint of forest-cover, loss was comparatively small, as 82 per cent, of this damage
occurred to abandoned buildings, railway, mining, and smelter equipment at the town of
Anyox, where junking operations were in progress at the time.
In the Vancouver Forest District the greatest proportion of damage occurred under
the headings railway, logging, and sawmill equipment, and cut forest products.
Forest Protection Education.
An increased effort was made along many lines throughout the year in an
endeavour to bring the Forest Protection message before the general public and gain
their full'co-operation, which has become so vital in these times of dwindling Forest
Service personnel and consequent disrupted Forest Protection organization. The chief
endeavours were concentrated along lines as indicated below:—
(a.) Forest Branch calendars were again prepared and a special effort made to
have distribution carried out before the close of the old year, with a hope that our
calendars would be given the most conspicuous wall-space prior to receipt of the
numerous private calendars annually given out. The topic treated in our 1942 calendar
was " Reforestation " with photographic illustrations and write-ups depicting progressive steps from nursery to actual planting.
(b.) A reprint of 20,000 copies of our school children's booklet, " Forest Folk,"
was made early in the year and distribution carried out in schools throughout the
Province. This booklet was prepared essentially for the primary grades, and once
again was very well received.
(_.) Spot radio announcements stressing Forest Protection messages were again
broadcast over all local networks periodically throughout the season. Following initial
organization of this form of protection message by Victoria Office last season, during FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942. FF 51
1942 the actual placing and directing of time of announcement was turned over to
District Foresters who placed the messages with their local broadcasting stations as
and when they considered local hazard conditions made such announcements timely and
of paramount value. Endeavour was made to have this form of Forest Protection
message put over the air just before or just following newscasts and in this manner,
with current public interest in the news, the greatest number of people is reached with
these messages at a minimum of cost, for many of the broadcasting stations co-operate
to the extent of free time or, at least, reduced rates.
(d.) Co-operation with the military was again carried out by conducting Forest
Protection lectures in troop camps and forts on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. On the island alone, during the month of June, lectures were given to approximately 6,000 men on the subject of Forest Protection as it relates to troops on the move
and in camp throughout hazardous areas. The army's function in assisting the Forest
Service by eliminating all fires of their own, extinguishing all small fires which they
might discover, and promptly reporting fires which they could not extinguish, was
stressed in these lectures. Lectures were introduced with a showing of the film, " The
Great Fire," and after the actual lecture a further film, " Fire-fighting with Hand-
tools," was shown to demonstrate tool usage. The latter film was specially prepared
for this specific purpose..
One extraordinary feature of the lectures given in the Nanaimo area was that some
600 troops who understood only the French language were stationed in this area. In
this case an officer of the regiment attended three of the lectures in English, took notes,
and subsequently delivered an excellent lecture to his men in French.
(e.) Young Ranger Band activities were again supported in the Northern Interior
districts. While this movement is still enthusiastically supported in certain sections of
the North, it would appear that membership has dwindled to some extent, probably due
to the fact that under current conditions it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain
grown-ups in the various localities willing to sponsor a local Band. Further, the fact
that the organization only embraces children of an age up to 16 years and does not
embody in its set-up " Elder Groups " formed from " graduate " members of the Bands
would seem to tend towards a general loss to the movement and the purpose for which it
was originally formed. If such " Elder Groups " were formed, even with only periodic
meetings held, it seems possible that many of the young people, upon reaching 16 years
of age and leaving the Band, would retain much of their interest through the " Elders' "
meetings and these groups in time would form a ready source for the much-needed
sponsors for new Bands.
(/.) " Fire Weather Bulletins " were again circulated to all operators in the logging industry in the Vancouver Forest District during periods of critical fire-weather
conditions. Of necessity, under war regulations weather forecasts were omitted from
the " Bulletins " during the season, but instructive data on hazard build-up, types of
recording instruments, etc., were embodied with a view to inculcating interest to the
point where the operator would institute his own fire-weather recording station.
(g.) Forest Protection display advertising was inserted as in former years in the
majority of daily and weekly papers throughout the Province. A complete set of new
poster displays for the most part based upon a war effort motive featured the advertising this year.
(k.) Lectures, accompanied by moving-picture showings were again given to
schools, parent-teacher associations, service clubs, and various representative bodies
throughout the Province. In addition, films were loaned for private showings in such
groups. A feature of this class of work during the year was instruction lectures to
rural A.R.P. organizations, chiefly on Vancouver Island. These lectures dealt with the
function of rural A.R.P. in forest-protection in the event of incendiary air-raid emergency and, in addition to dealing with emergency fire-fighting methods, also embodied
the showing of a specially prepared film demonstrating the use of hand-tools. FF 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fire-control Planning.
Lookouts and Visibility Mapping.—No further work was carried out on this
project, due to enlistment of field staff previously engaged in the work and lack of
qualified replacements.
Panoramic Lookout Photographs.—This  project was  continued  and  panoramic
photography completed on ten more established lookouts in the Nelson District, one in
the Kamloops District, and one in the Vancouver District.    It is hoped to carry on with
this work again next season, finishing up the Nelson District and covering several
recently established lookouts in various other Forest Districts, including Prince George.
Only those lookouts of definitely proven value, already approved by visibility mapping
crews, are being covered. _, _,
Suppression Crews.
Suppression crews were again organized in the Nelson and Kamloops Districts, a
crew not being placed in Vancouver District during the season in view of establishment
of Alternative Service Workers' stand-by crews in that district.
The outstanding difference in organization this year was that, on the basis of last
year's experience, in the Nelson District the number of men per crew was reduced to
approximately half of that used last year and number of crews doubled. This tended
to make the crew more mobile, it was possible to utilize lighter equipment for transportation, servicing in respect to food supplies was made easier, and, while the supervisory
overhead was slightly higher, it was quite evident that the smaller crew generally
worked to advantage. These stand-by units are essentially initial action men and the
speed of action is of paramount importance in fire-suppression work.
During non-hazardous periods of the season, assisted by bulldozer and truck equipment, much valuable forest-protection improvement-work was carried out by the crews.
While in the two districts involved the past season was below normal in fire occurrence, a number of fires were effectively handled by the crews, and with two years'
experience now gained we are quite satisfied as to value obtained for expenses under
this head. __
Equipment.
In spite of the current war-time difficulty of supply and existing priority regulations entailing slow deliveries, during 1942 it was possible to augment our Forest
Protection launch, automotive, and mechanical equipment with some much needed
additional units.
Three D2 caterpillars, complete with bulldozer and winch, were acquired for distribution and fire-fighting use in the larger districts, this purchase bringing our total of
this type of equipment to eleven tractors throughout the Province. Five heavy-duty
3-ton trucks, equipped with dump bodies, hoist, and loading boards, were also purchased
as supplementary units to the three new cats and to take care of transportation of two
old bulldozers not previously so equipped. All bulldozing equipment, with the exception
of one Cletrac 35, is now provided with its own individual transportation unit suited to
the needs of the particular caterpillar.
During the year five launches were also added to the Department's fleet. These
were the " Syrene I.," acquired as a headquarters launch for the Vancouver District,
replacing the launch " P. Z. Caverhill," lost in collision; the " White Cloud I." for
Prince Rupert headquarters district and ranger use; the "White Pine II.," a ranger
boat for use of the Sicamous Ranger on Shuswap Lake, replacing the " White Pine I."
which had outlived its usefulness; the "Juniper II." for ranger use on Adams Lake;
and the " Laurel" for Vancouver District North Arm Ranger and patrol use.
In view of the marked success of tanker-trucks supplied Interior districts last year,
two more of these units were constructed and put into operation in 1942. We now have
a total of seven of these trucks in operation and they have proved of outstanding value
in early suppression of roadside and range fires which are readily accessible to this
form of fire-fighting unit.
The two trail tractors acquired several years ago from the U.S. Forest Service and
which were, in effect, experimental models, developed various mechanical difficulties to
the extent that they were withdrawn from use a year ago pending redesigning.    During 1942 our Mechanical Superintendent redesigned these units and a conversion to a
standard caterpillar tractor with some improvisation was carried out. The result has so
far proved very satisfactory and we feel that both these small cats are now valuable and
reliable units in our mechanical equipment stock.
While on the subject of automotive equipment, mention should be made of the very
heavy increase in both maintenance-work in the field and more especially in office duties
occasioned largely as a result of the existing tire and gas shortage. With a fleet of
cars and trucks such as that now operated by the Department, the required completion
of numerous forms and circulars under ever-changing regulations alone has meant
endless office-work for the Mechanical Superintendent, whose field-work has perforce
suffered accordingly. Also, as a result of this general situation and as a co-operative
measure with the office of the Tire Controller, approximately 80 per cent, of all departmental cars classed for use on administrative work were laid up. This necessarily has
meant a reduction in public services previously rendered, and, while with the opening of
next fire season it may be necessary to put some of these units again temporarily in
service, it is expected that the majority of these cars will be laid up for the duration,
or, if used, will be in the nature of replacements for cars worn out in service. Incidentally, this has occasioned a swing towards transportation by common carrier with
resultant increase in travelling expenses.
j No new pumping equipment was acquired during the season, due chiefly to the
difficulty of supply. However, the fourteen units of the MacDonald Pack Power Pump,
designed by J. G. MacDonald, Fire Inspector, Vancouver, and put in hand for construction last year, were delivered and distributed to various districts. While the season
was such that many of these units did not receive thorough test, general reports to
hand are that the performance of these units proved very satisfactory and the pump is
considered a valuable piece of equipment for the purpose for which it was designed.
Radio equipment was supplemented in the spring of 1942 with an additional fifteen
SPF units and four PAC headquarters sets. In addition, 50-watt transmitters, constructed by our own technician, were established at headquarters offices in both the
Nelson and Kamloops Districts. These latter two sets, with the additional power
involved, have to a large extent solved some of our transmitting difficulties which had
become a very real problem during the fire season in those districts.
It is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain parts for maintenance of radio
equipment, and indications are that, with some few exceptions, new equipment may be
out of the question for the duration.
Building and Construction.
Improvements were continued at the Fraser River Repair Plant and included sheet
piling along the river-bank, levelling of the area adjacent to the station, erection of a
derrick, construction of a small lumber storage-shed, and dredging of the tie-up basin.
The past season also saw construction of the first " laminated" wall type of
lookout. This was constructed on Livingstone Mountain and is of entirely new design,
originated by R. G. McKee, Assistant District Forester, Kamloops District. The building was entirely prefabricated before being transported to the site and, on this basis,
very considerable saving was effected on costs of horse transportation of material up
the mountain, which item, as a general rule, forms the heaviest part of expenditure in
lookout construction. Reports to hand at this time would indicate that this is a decided
improvement in lookout buildings, although final test will come when it is ascertained
how the construction has withstood winter conditions on the mountain. If satisfactory
in this respect, it is expected to swing to this type of construction in many future
lookout buildings, where sites are not readily accessible to ordinary transportation of
building materials.
The usual maintenance of Ranger stations and other improvements was carried
out during the year, but new building construction was held to a minimum in the light
of war conditions of supply and the very evident greater need of national defence in
respect to building materials. FF 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Alternative Service Workers Camps.
Early in the year representations were made to Federal authorities pointing out
the inadequacy of local sources of fire-fighting man-power in the light of current
war-time conditions of employment. The possibility of forest fire emergencies which
might arise as a result of enemy attack with incendiary air-borne missiles was also
stressed in these representations. As a result an agreement was reached with the
Dominion Government whereby a number of Alternative Service Workers (conscientious objectors) were made available to the Department for forest-protection duties on
the Mainland Coast and Vancouver Island.
Under the terms of the agreement, the Provincial Government Forest Protection
Fund served as a drawing account for immediate financing of the plan, the Fund being
subsequently reimbursed by payments from the Dominion Government based upon an
allowance at a fixed rate per man-day. While in the early stages of the programme
initial capital cost incurred in establishing housing and supplying equipment exceeded
credits established through the per diem allowance, monthly expenditure decreased
steadily once camps were established, and by the end of the calendar year the plan was
operating at a cost less than the total of established monthly credits and the Forest
Protection Fund had been totally reimbursed.
During the period May to December, 740 men reported for duty. This total has
since been decreased somewhat through discharges for medical and other reasons,
extended leaves, etc., but, all factors considered, the number of men made available has
been very satisfactory.
Briefly, the organization set up comprised establishment of eighteen camps located
strategically throughout the more hazardous portions of Vancouver Island and the
Lower Mainland. One of these camps, at Green Timbers Nursery, served as a manning
pool to which all men ordered for duty reported initially before being assigned to one
of the project camps. Throughout the early part of the season, crews in the project
camps were fully trained in fire-fighting measures, and in hazardous periods later in the
season placed on stand-by as initial action suppression crews. In non-hazardous periods,
crews carried out forest-protection improvement-work. At the close of the season,
crews were consolidated for the winter months into a reduced number of camps adjacent
to the larger forest improvement projects.
The plan has worked out very satisfactorily, and, aside from the actual fire-fighting
work carried out, much valuable and essential forest-protection improvement work has
been accomplished. Snag-falling and fire-proofing of logged-over lands, together with
opening up of the larger of these areas for forest-protection access by means of
conversion of old grades into truck-trails or rough roads, constituted the main effort on
improvement-work carried out.
Following is a brief summary of accomplishments since May, when men were first
made available:—
(1.)   Six thousand two hundred and sixty-six man-days spent fire-fighting on
145 fires.
(2.)  Two hundred and fifty-nine thousand four hundred snags felled over
24,500 acres of logged-off land.
(3.)  Sixteen miles of new road slashed and graded;   57 miles of old logging
railroad grade converted to truck-trails;   44 miles of existing road im-
improved;   64 miles of road maintained, requiring 21 miles of ditching,
134 culverts, and 8 small bridges.
(4.)  Ten miles of new trail cut and 12 miles of old trail improved.
(5.)   Twenty-eight miles of telephone-line constructed.
(6.) Four hundred and twenty-five thousand seedlings planted on 660 acres of
logged-over and fire-proofed land.
In regard to the above, it will be noted that snag-falling and road-construction form
the greater proportion of the project work. In this respect snag-falling and opening
up of logged-over lands with truck-trails are most essential improvements in the fire-
proofing of such areas. Over much of the area on which snag-falling has been carried
out, present plans call for reforestation involving planting of some 7,000,000 seedlings FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 55
in the spring of 1943. It is also pointed out that road-construction undertaken on
several of the projects was at the express request of National Defence authorities and
constituted rights-of-way considered of primary military importance to Coast defence
as well as forest-protection.
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling.
While, generally speaking, weather throughout the slash-burning season offered
ample opportunity for the carrying-out of slash burns, it varied to such an extent that
many fires set escaped control, resulting in considerable damage, or, after full preparatory measures by the operator, fires were set and immediately extinguished by unforeseen rains. These conditions had the effect in many cases of either absolutely deterring
operators from setting fire through fear of damage or delaying their burn until such
a time as conditions appeared absolutely safe, when in most instances results were
negligible due to unpredictable following rains.
Final results obtained during the season are shown in the following tabulation:—
Summary of 1942 Slash-disposal.
Area of Slash burned (Acres).
Number of Operations conducting Slash-burning.
Slash
created
prior to
1941.
Slash
created,
1941.
Slash
created,
1942.
Total.
318       -
7,565
53,281
23,884
84,730
A breakdown of figures covering slash created in 1942 indicates that results
obtained in regard to disposal of this current logging slash can be termed only partially
satisfactory, due chiefly to conditions as outlined in the preceding paragraph. Following are detailed figures:—
Acres.
Total area logged, Vancouver Forest District, 1942.
63,868
Total area logged, fir belt, Vancouver Forest District, 1942  58,097
1942 slash area, slash burned intentionally  21,962
1942 slash area, slash burned accidentally     1,922
1942 slash area exempted from burning...,     4,588
1942 slash area on which extension to 1943 granted __    2,610
Totals ■  31,082     58,097
The indicated difference of 27,015 acres in the above totals comprises acreage
logged between the close of 1942 burning season and the year end, plus some acreage
of previously created 1942 slash under investigation and on which extension is to be
granted or compensation applied as may be indicated following complete report.
In analysing this 1942 slash-burning, it is indicated that of the total of 318 slash-
fires set during the year, eight were carried out satisfactorily prior to May 1st and
thirty-three subsequent to October 1st. The balance of 277 were conducted under
permit during the closed season and 219 of these were carried out quite satisfactorily.
On the remaining fifty-eight slash-fires set during the closed season, conditions of the
permits were not fully complied with and results of the burns were more or less unsatisfactory. It is interesting to note that while these fifty-eight burns where operators
did not fully comply with permit conditions comprised roughly 26.5 per cent, of the
total slash area burned over during 1942, they accounted for 46 per cent, of the total
acreage of young growth and forest-cover destroyed in all slash-burning during the
year. At the same time they represent by value 72.7 per cent, of total slash-burn
damage to young growth and forest-cover, 51.6 per cent, of total damage to felled and
bucked timber, and 68 per cent, of damage to buildings and equipment. FF 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
As regards slash created prior to 1942, present figures indicate that, in spite of the
very sizeable acreage burned during the past season, there still remains a total of
roughly 24,000 acres on which hazard should properly have been reduced under the
requirements of section 113A of the Act. This acreage, considered together with the
27,015 acres of unburned 1942 slash, means that there will be carried into fire season
1943 a total of some 51,000 acres of unburned slash, to which must be added the additional acreage of current slash which will be created by logging carried out in the preseason months of 1943. This large acreage of ripe slash constitutes a very considerable
risk to be carried in a season when the danger of fire occurrence may be intensified
many times through agencies beyond control. The figure, however, compares favourably with the start of 1942 when we entered the season carrying an estimated acreage
of slash in excess of double this amount.
A recapitulation of all slash-disposal over the past nine years is indicated in the
following table:—
Slash-disposal, 193U-UZ.
.
Area of Slash burned over (Acres).
Year.
Intentional
Burn.
Accidental
Burn.
Total.
1934                    ...        .'	
15,935
13,239
7,691
27,516
50,033
51,603
33,034
5,524
80,226
4,927
11,783
1,340
3,015
35,071
1,930
2,265
3,385
4.504
20,862
1935                  	
25,022
1936                                                     .        ...                	
9,031
1937                 ...  	
30,531
1938                            	
85,104
1939	
53,533
1940                              -	
35,299
1941 - -    	
8,909
1942                                                              ....             	
84.730
284,801
68,220
363,021
Snag-falling under section 113a of the Act was fairly satisfactory throughout the
year, considering the very difficult conditions with which operators were faced in
regard to obtaining fallers. There still remain large areas of lands logged prior to
enactment of the above section which carry snags, but noteworthy progress was made
during the year in disposing of snags on some of these areas under Alternative Service
Workers' projects.
Forest Closures.
The usual closures were again placed in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts
on watershed and industrial areas, although in the first-mentioned district some watershed areas in the lower Okanagan, closed in former years at request from municipal
authorities, were not affected this year—possibly due to lack of any serious hazard in
that area. Industrial area closures were again made at the request of private interests,
such as mining companies with heavy investment in buildings and equipment in particular areas. It is worthy of note that in the Sheep Creek industrial area in the
Nelson District, a Patrolman at the access road checked 800 cars and 3,400 persons
during the twenty-eight days this closure was in force.
In the Vancouver Forest District no mid-season closure was put into effect this
year. In late September, however, with a serious hazard condition obtaining and a
heavy increase in civilian woods travel during the opening weeks of the hunting season,
a five-day closure was placed in respect to woods travel, camping, fishing, hunting, and
other recreational pursuits. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 57
Following is detail of 1942 closures:
Area.
District.
Effective
Date.
Date
suspended.
July    7
July    7
July  13
July  27
July  27
July 27
July  27
July 27
Sept. 25
Aug. 31
Kamloops.    	
Kamloops _„_ ____  	
Nelson  _.__ , _ 	
Nelson _ 	
Bear Creek.—   -	
Sept.   4
Sept.   8
Sept.   8
Nelson __.._ 	
Sept.   8
Sept.   8
Sept. 30
of Vancouver Island north of Toquart Harbour,   the   east   coast   of   Vancouver   Island
north of Suquash, and the islands and mainland north of Wells Passage and Kincome Inlet
Fire Law Enforcement.
Infringements of the fire law during the year were practically negligible, information being laid in only eighteen instances throughout the Province and convictions
being obtained in all cases. It is worthy of note that eight of the cases were laid under
section 122 of the Act involving refusal to fight fire. This may probably be accounted
for by the fact that under current labour conditions, with no scarcity of jobs offering
at much higher rates of pay, men were reluctant to accept fire-fighting employment at
nominal pay when ordered out in an emergency.
Co-operation with the Department of National Defence.
Co-operation was again extended in various ways to the Department of National
Defence, as follows:—
(a.) The Aircraft Detection Corps was assisted by a number of our lookout-men
and almost all rangers who served as spotters for the organization.
(..) Equipment was loaned to various branches of the Services. This comprised
for the most part radio transceiving equipment which was made available to the Army,
Navy, and Air Force during that period of the year when such equipment was not
required in our forest-protection communication system.
(c.) Various truck-trails and roads of primary military value were developed
under improvement projects operated by Alternative Service Workers.
((..) Forest-protection training lectures were again given to troops in the Coast
area. (See (d) under the heading of " Forest-protection Education " in this report.)
In respect to this work it is pointed out that the army more than reciprocated by rendering valuable assistance in the form of fire-fighting man-power throughout the season.
In many instances, notably in the Prince George and Kamloops Forest Districts, the
supplying of army personnel for fire-fighting purposes was the only factor which prevented serious and costly conflagrations.
Officers and men of the R.C.A.F. also rendered valuable assistance throughout the
season in detection and reporting of fire occurrence from the air, notably in the Vancouver Forest District.
In the matter of co-operation, thanks are also due to the Vancouver Island Power
Boat Squadron, a civilian group organized under the Traffic Control Board for purposes
of emergency evacuation. This group offered the use of their various squadrons for
transportation of fire-fighters in the event of pressing need. While it was not necessary during the season to take advantage of the offer, the squadrons maintained
stand-by crews and two boats at each of their bases, throughout the season. FF 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fire Occurrences by Months,
1942.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
Vancouver       - - -	
1
12
1
7
4
8
17
2
17
15
6
14
3
4
29
12
76
19
99
223
75
138
24
54
106
169
123
12
62
55
11
6
10
392
61
181
445
335
Totals, 1942	
1    |      32
57    |      62
492
491
252
27
1,414
-42 	
Ten-year average, 1933-
|      60
1
167    |    200
1
528
455
175
10
1,595
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1942.
Forest District.
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25
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14
1
25
3
54
5
392
27.72
17
11
12
12
1
1
2
5
61
4.32
117
20
1
8
8
17
6
4
181
12.80
Kamloops 	
273
30
51
48
5
1
4
1
25
7
445
31.47
236
21
37
24
3
	
2
9
3
335
23.69
Totals _ _ _.
704
158
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
1,414
100.00
49.79
11.17
8.06
15.56
2.12
2.19
2.69
0.35
6.37
1.70
100.00
	
Ten-year average, 1933-42
662
257
83
317
98
10
42
57
146
23
1,595
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1942.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent,
of Total.
$74,925.00
3,665.00
$6,451.00
50,000.00
$87,250.00
114,000.00
$38,674.00
100,000.00
$207,300.00
267,665.00
43.42
Prince Rupert.    ...
56.06
75.00
75.00
577.00
1,367.00
652.00
1,842.00
0.14
400.00
0.38
Totals	
$78,990.00
$56,601.00
$201,250.00
$140,618.00
$477,459.00
100.00
Ten-year average, 1933-42	
$87,963.00
$33,875.00
$81,441.00
$25,311.00
$228,590.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 59
03
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
Total.
Lightning.. - - — 	
704
158
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
1,265
236
90
400
74
5
41
38
171
18
515
305
77
374
111
11
32
88
175
16
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
263
269
74
242
107
14
55
20
124
25
524
256
81
321
78
6
29
74
152
26
173
217
65
289
127
11
45
72
97
15
320
312
103
415
117
10
41
65
188
19
285
234
77
197
77
7
32
65
90
18
5,623
2,571
Railways operating   	
Smokers  	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
826
3,166
982
103
423
568
1,459
Totals  	
1,414
1,561
2,338
1,704
-
2,412
1,193
1,547
1,111
1,590
1,082
15,952
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1942.
Forest District.
Total Fibes.
Under Vi Acre.
Vi to 10 Acres.
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55.10
34
55.74
47
26.00
267
60.00
258
77.00
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10 to 500 Acres.
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Damage.
4JO
_ _|
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert 	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson   —-
Totals	
Per cent _	
Ten-year average
1933-42	
392
61
181
445
335
27.72
4.32
12.80
31.47
23.69
26.28
4:14
5.72
32.48
31.38
1,414 100.00
100.00|
1,595
1100.00
58.13
787
116[29.60[ 30.29
9|14.75J 2.35
80|45.00] 20^89
124j27.90| 32.37
54116.001 14.10
383
1100.001    159
27.091    ...-.].-.- [11.24
12.00
21.31
16.00
10.80
7.00
29.56
8.18
18.24
30.19
13.83
1100.00
5141
-I   272
3.30
8.20
13.00
1.30
26.00
10.00
50.00
12.00
2.00
351
54
152
432
332
25
16
4
14
BO|  |100.00[1,321|   59|    34
- |93.42|4.17|2.41
I
1,4601   88    47
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1942.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
704              49.79
$58,736.19
3,706.34
633.00
5,296.59
259.79
34.60
473.08
160.67
287.44
113.50
84.27
5.32
.91
7.60
.37
.05
.68
.23
.41
.16
$1,075,070.57
32,039.46
1,410.04
118,479.30
1,116.36
10,678.50
95,722.02
21.81
1,634.27
324.22
80 44
158
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
11.17
8.06
15.56
2.12
2.19
2.69
.35
6.37
1.70
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing).	
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
.08
.80
7.16
Industrial operations    	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
.12
.02
Totals —-	
1,414
ioo.oo
$1,336,496.55
100.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 61
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1942—Part I.
Accessible
Merchantable Timber.
Inaccessible
Merchantable
Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Forest District.
a
OJ
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up;
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a fil!
Salvable
Volume of
Timber
killed.
P,
■^ a cn
£$ O
4j  0J
V
a!
60
s
a
s
H
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ojS
£3
4»
t, «
Acres.
605
221
39,809
528
41
M.B.M.
5,110
1,995
119,066
243
46
M.B.M.
4,135
185
17
4
$
1,893
1,812
312,313
762
60
Acres.
145
20
78
327
17
M.B.M.
2,053
100
268
9
$
1,581
5
298
4
4
Acres.
1,947
3,049
120,943
868
81
$
16,335
4,295
482,564
Kamloops  —- '	
493
152
i
41,204  j   126.460
4,341
316,840
587|    2,430
1,892
126,888
603,839
9.23  |      98.11
3.37
36.88
0.13|      1.89
0.22
28.42
58.65
70,643
62,870
213,532
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1942—Part II.
Not satisfactorily
Noncommercial
Grazing or
Pasture
Nonproductive
Grand Totals.
Cover.
Land.
Sites.
Forest
nd
£
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Vancouver.-	
Acres.
5,611
1,339
61
49
17
Acres.
3,619
135
72
50
53
Acres.
1,378
10,068
2,200
1,386
112
$
3,740
2,978
580
719
46
Acres.
5,270
4,402
28,589
2,170
226
$
1,318
1,101
7,147
1,003
52
Acres.
104
113
2,683
1,327
$
5
6
133
65
Acres.
2,413
5,632
194,834
3,675
277
$
604
1,408
13,656
1,836
69
Acres.
21,092
24,866
386,699
11,736
2,151
M.B.M.
7,163
2,095
119,334
252
46
$
25,476
11,599
816,564
Kamloops 	
Nelson 	
4,950
448
Totals   -	
7,077 | 3,929 [15,144
8,063
40,657
10,621 |  4,227 | 209 |206,831
17,573
446,544
128,890 | 859,037
1.58 [    0.88 |    3.39
0.94
9.10
1.24 [    0.95 [0.02 |    46.32 |    2.05
100.00
100.00 1   100.00
Ten-year average, 1933-42
9,307
447
347,675
312 536    599.131 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 63
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aj H FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942. FF 65
GRAZING.
General Conditions.
"All flesh is grass " (Isaiah).
This, of course, is very evident in the case of live stock which exist wholly on
domestic or wild forage. It might also be said that " all flesh is a result of weather,"
for the condition and growth of range live stock particularly is almost entirely due to
weather conditions. A mild season and plentiful rainfall bring abundant and succulent growth of range forage. Stock can eat more of nourishing plants with less effort
than in years of drought and severe temperatures.
The year 1942 was a case in point, for an early spring and plentiful rains to the
middle of July produced the best range grass in many years. Cattle and sheep fared
well and came back to the home ranch in the fall in excellent condition.
Hay-crops were correspondingly good, but labour shortage and considerable spoilage by adverse haying weather reduced the amount ultimately stacked for the winter.
A severe or long winter in 1942-43 might result in considerable losses for lack of feed.
Prices for live stock were again higher and, combined with the high grade of the
stock, may overcome any possible losses from wintering. The range stock industry
fared well during 1942 and enters 1943 better financially than for many years past.
Ranchers are at last able to pay off long-outstanding debts contracted during the lean
years of the past decade.
Although war conditions are probably directly responsible for the increased prices
being received by the industry, they also have their depressing effects. Chief among
these is the acute labour shortage. This has driven the costs of hay much higher and
also the costs of all other farm activities. The range stock industry will need careful
study by those in authority over labour distribution during the war if the armed forces
and war industry workers, let alone the general populace, are to be properly fed.
Markets and Prices,
War conditions affected the markets for live stock as they did in 1941, demand
being very heavy and prices rising over those of the previous year. The gain in price
was not, however, as great as between 1940 and 1941. The United States market was
again a large factor in cattle marketings, but the total number of animals shipped from
the Province was down about 10 per cent.
Top steers sold at Vancouver at a peak of $11.32 per hundredweight in early
summer. In January the price was $9.60 per hundredweight and eased to $9.50 in
October, with a decided rising tendency towards the year's end. These prices compare
favourably with 1941 when the peak was $10, January prices about $8.65 and late
fall $8.75.
Sheep products were also higher, with lamb ranging from $11 to $13.61 per
hundredweight, compared with $10.50 to $12.50 the previous year.
Wool was up a little from 21 cents to 25 cents a pound. The B.C. Sheep-breeders'
Association handled over 475,000 lb. of wool at the above price to the producer.
The range live-stock industry is benefiting greatly from the organized sales of
breeding and fat stock held each year in the range country. Prices received this year
at the Annual Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show at Kamloops set a record and many
excellent sires went on the range.
The Central British Columbia Live-stock Association held a feeder sale in September, grossing nearly double the amount received in 1941. '
The Annual Cariboo Bull and Fat Stock Sale at Williams Lake in October was very
successful and the Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale at Kamloops in December
brought unit prices higher than in previous years.
One of the most promising sales was started by the Waldo Stock-breeders' Association and was held at Elko. In co-operation with the Department of Agriculture,
procedures were worked out, with a total of 428 cattle and 554 sheep being sold. Prices
were excellent and considerably higher than producers had previously received selling
individually to travelling buyers. FF 66 . DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Such methods of increasing returns to the producers deserve every encouragement,
for the result is better animal husbandry and a more prosperous industry. Great
sections of British Columbia depend almost entirely on the range live-stock industry for
livelihood. A combination of good farm, range and live-stock management is needed
to maintain this important section of the community; one that serves the rest of the
Province with necessary food products."
Live-stock Losses.
No outstanding cases of losses to live stock were reported in 1942. Some cases of
diseases appeared, but generally were less prevalent than in previous years. The
Forest Branch continued its co-operation with the Department of Agriculture in
reporting and controlling disease on the range.
Owing to the luxuriant growth, of palatable weeds on the range, there was less
loss from poisonous weeds. As long as there is plenty of good forage, range animals
do not suffer from the small percentage of poisonous plants they may eat; but where
the latter make up a large proportion of the total feed, losses are sustained. Good
range management fostering growth of palatable forage will save many animals.
Losses from predatory animals were also light in 1942. This also may be due to
the greater forage-growth and resultant better food-supply for these animals.
Range Reconnaissance.
Loss of field staff to the armed forces prevented any adequate programme of range
reconnaissance in 1942. Only the most essential work could be done where immediate
range problems were pressing. As a result, the total acreage covered was only 80,076
acres, made up as follows:—
Acres.
Pinantan-Pemberton Range   53,446
Upper Deadman Creek    26,630
Total  *.  80,076
Since 1932, when range reconnaissance was placed on an organized basis, the field
staff of the Kamloops Forest District has reported on and mapped 2,761,871 acres of
range land. Reports and maps show the kind, location, carrying capacity, and condition
of the range, with improvements and topography added. They form the basis on which
range management may be organized and administration carried on intelligently.
There are still millions of acres of range land in the Province of which little
knowledge has been recorded. As the country develops, these ranges will be used
more intensively and will require administration and careful management. There is
yet a huge task to be done in range reconnaissance that might well form an important
project in post-war rehabilitation.
Co-operation.
Meetings with live-stock associations had to be curtailed in 1942 for lack of staff.
However, some twenty-six associations held meetings at which Forest Officers attended
to discuss problems.
This is an important part of range administration, as the range-users, through
their local recognized and incorporated association, are able to give a balanced opinion
on range management that is highly valuable to administrative officers.
Grazing Permits.
The use of Crown range is secured through permit issued under authority of the
" Grazing Act." This also allows for control by the Forest Branch in the interests of
the range and its users.
Each range should have its management plan based on careful reconnaissance and
revised by periodic inspection. Each permittee on the range has his individual problem
and must secure his permit. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942.
FF 67
Lack of staff, accentuated by the war, has increased the difficulties of administration, the volume and trend of which is indicated by the following tabulation of
Grazing Permits issued:—
Grazing Permits issued.
District.
No. of
Permits
issued.
Number
df Stock under Permit.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
16
254
860
1,207
6,354
77,227
94
1,372
3,331
20
2,706
34,236
Totals, 1942	
1,130
84,788
4,797
36,962
Totals, 1941	
1,064
881
790
738
807
700
746
789
77,774
74,404
69,447
72,774
75,123
75,224
60,305
68,735
4,180
3.958
2,758
2,248
2,328
2,061
1,870
2,235
39,552
Totals, 1940  .
Totals, 1939   -
37,132
38,357
Totals, 1938                                                   	
37,060
Totals, 1937	
Totals, 1936    	
42,185
46,084
Totals, 1935	
36,902
Totals, 1934                                                  	
36,569
Collections.
The amount of money collected in 1942 was slightly more than in 1941, and included
was over $5,000 in arrears, reflecting the prosperous state of the industry.
The following table shows the results of the year's collections:—
Grazing Fees billed and collected.
Year.
Fees billed.
Collections.
Outstanding.
1939            .	
$21,348.41
23,338.28
23,781.19
25,116.02
$22,027.05
38,146.48
29,348.22
30,802.33
$42 012 10
1940                       -                                                                    	
27,203.90
21,636.87
1941       	
1942 -   . 	
15,950.56
Range Improvement.
The natural range is not usable without some form of control of animals and protection for them. They must be kept within certain bounds, away from danger, and
given access to good feed and water. In the early days of the industry, when there
was plenty of range available for all users, such methods were not necessary, but when
every acre is needed, as at present, the range requires considerable improvement.
The Range Improvement Fund, the condition of which is reported on previously,
is made up from one-third of the fees collected, and is available for improvements on
the Crown range that may be considered to increase the forage in quantity or quality.
During 1942, the programme laid out could not be completed because of labour
shortage. Most projects are contracted to associations or individuals interested, frequently on a co-operative basis. Ranchers in 1942 had a hard enough time running
their ranches and stock without doing jobs on the range that might be left over.
The following amount of work was done, however: 4 cattle-guards; 11 drift-
fences, totalling 14.5 miles; 2 drift-fences repaired; 2 holding-ground fences repaired;
1 holding-ground fenced; 6 mud-holes fenced; 6 stock-trails constructed, totalling 8
miles; 11 water developments completed; and 35 acres burned-over land seeded to
forage experimentally.
War conditions have shown how essential to the war, as well as peace-time economy
of the country, is the range live-stock industry. The meat supplies of our armed forces
and the civilian population are quite largely dependent upon it, while the development
of large portions of the Interior of the Province, with the utilization of millions of
acres of productive land, would be impossible without it.    It behooves ranchers and FF 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Government alike to take all possible steps to insure the continuance of the renewable
natural resource, forage, which can be done with proper management.
There is still room for expansion of range live-stock production, but it will require
much study, field reconnaissance, and inspection, as well as the co-operation of the
stockmen as individuals and associations. There are considerable possibilities for
post-war rehabilitation on the ranges of the Province.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, JANUARY 1ST, 1943.
Victoria Office.
C. D. Orchard! Chief Forester.
G. P. Melrose Assistant Chief Forester.
E. E. Gregg Forester—Protection.
E. W. Bassett Assistant Forester.
J. H. Blake Marine and Structural Engineer.
W. C. Spouse Mechanical Superintendent.
G. A. Playfair (on Active Service) Radio Engineer.
H. E. Ferguson Radio Engineer.
E. B. Prowd Forester—Management.
S. E. Marling Assistant Forester.
F. S. McKinnon Forester—Economics.
H. J. Hodgins Assistant Forester.
S. W. Barclay , Royalty Inspector.
H. H. Smith Chief Accountant.
A. E. Thompson Chief Draughtsman.
Districts.
Vancouver.
C. J. Haddon District Forester.
T. A. Clarke Assistant District Forester.
W. Byers Supervisor of Scalers.
M. W. Gormely Assistant Forester.
W. S. Hepher (on Active Service) Assistant Forester.
D. B. Taylor Assistant Forester.
J. G. MacDonald Fire Inspector.
A. H. Waddington Fire Inspector.
Prince Rupert.
R. C. St. Clair : District Forester.
L. S. Hope (on Active Service) Assistant District Forester.
J. E. Mathieson ,___.Fire Inspector.
Prince George.
R. D. Greggor District Forester.
L. F. Swannell (on Active Service) Assistant District Forester.
D. L. McMulIan Assistant Forester.
Kamloops.
C. C. Ternan District Forester.
R. G. McKee Assistant District Forester.
R. R. Douglas (on Active Service) Assistant Forester.
C. L. Armstrong (on Active Service) Assistant Forester.
H. B. Forse Assistant Forester.
I. T. Cameron  .Assistant Forester.
W. W. Stevens (on Active Service) Acting Assistant Forester.
J. M. Fraser Fire Inspector.
E. A. Charlesworth Supervisor of Scalers. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1942. FF 69
Nelson.
R. E. Allen District Forester.
K. C. McCannel Assistant District Forester.
W. C. Phillips Assistant Forester.
W. Holmgren Fire Inspector.
P. Young Fire Inspector.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. BanfielDj Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1943.
1,325-243-3408   

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