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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1943

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1941
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OP THE  LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Baxfield, Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1942.  To His Honour COL. W. C. WOODWARD,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for
the year ended December 31st, 1941, with Appendices.
GEORGE SHARRATT PEARSON,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia. Honourable George S. Pearson,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Fisheries Department for the year ended December 31st, 1941, together with
Appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Assistant Commissioner. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1941.
Page.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces in 1940     7
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1941     8
Capital, Equipment, and Employees       8
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia for 1941     9
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts 1  10
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1941  16
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish) i  17
Mild-cured Salmon  18
Dry-salt Salmon -  18
Dry-salt Herring „ 18
Pickled Herring  18
Halibut Production  19
Fish On and Meal  20
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  21
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Digest)  (No. 27)  21
Pilchard and Herring Investigations  22
The Clam Investigation  24
International Fisheries Commission, 1941 :  24
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, 1941  26
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. (No. 27.) By
Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver, B.C , :_.... 27
Tagging British Columbia Pilchards (Sardinops cxrulea (Girard)) : Insertions
and Recoveries for 1941-42. By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C  45
Tagging of Herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia: Apparatus, Insertions, and Recoveries during 1941-42. By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D.;
Albert L. Tester, Ph.D.; and J. L. McHugh, M.A., Pacific Biological Station,
Nanaimo, B.C  49
The Butter-clam (Saxidomus giganteus Deshayes) :   Studies in Productivity.
By Ferris Neave, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  79
Report on the Investigations of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission for the.Year 1941 ,  82
Spawning Report, British Columbia, 1941.    By Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief
Supervisor of Fisheries  86
Statistical Tables  93  REPORT OF THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1941.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF
THE PROVINCES, 1940.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1940 totalled $45,118,757.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of
$21,710,167, or 48 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1940 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the
production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second
in rank, by $11,866,841.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1940 was
$4,011,187 more than in the previous year. There was an increase in the value of
salmon amounting to $862,279.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1940 was $24,661,022,
or 54.6 per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the total
invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1940, $9,182,425 was employed in
catching and handling the catches and $15,478,597 invested in canneries, fish-packing
establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1940 was 17,893,
or 13.7 per cent, of Canada's total fishery-workers. Of those engaged in British
Columbia, 10,444 were employed in Catching and handling the catches and 7,449 in
packing, curing, and in fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries
in British Columbia in 1940 was 2,013 more than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery
products of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1936 to 1940, inclusive:—
Province.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
British Columbia    	
$17,231,534
8,905,268
4,899,735
3,209,422
2,108,404
1,667,371
953,029
367,025
309,882
13,385
$16,155,439
9,229,834
4,447,688
3,615,666
1,892,036
1,796,012
870,299
527,199
433,354
8,767
$18,672,750
8,804,231
3,996,064
3,353,775
1,957,279
1,811,124
930,874
468,646
492,943
5,290
$17,698,980
8,753,548
5,082,393
3,007,315
2,010,953
1,655,273
950,412
478,511
430,724
4,867
$21,710,167
9,843,326
4,965,618
3,035,100
2,002,053
1,988,545
714,870
450 574
Manitoba 	
Alberta.    	
Yukon— —   _.
403,510
4,994
Totals	
$39,165,055
$38,976,294
$40,492,976
$40,072,976
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1936 to 1940, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
Salmon     	
Halibut    - '	
$13,387,344
943,568
96,311
1,142,397
667,313
418,142
88,422
53,497
$11,907,905-
1,094,214
95,842
1,181,466
902,619
318,769
95,371
95,251
$14,491,285
1,041,165
231,220
855,265
867,007
351,324
162,508
71,297
$12,994,812
1,305,542
193,148
2,198,912
100,693
357,990
50,937
79,419
$13,757,091
1,397,999
172,999
Herring ...-  	
4,426,390
632,393
Cod, ling  	
359,798
77,944
132,822
$16,796,994
$15,691,437
$18,071,071
$17,281,453
$20,957,436 J 8
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Species.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
$16,796,994
38,855
37,019
9,827
59,687
34
3,332
13,875
7,633
7,621
2,053
982
3,233
803
69
$15,691,437
52,188
33,201
15,430
36,199
477
2,339
7,990
3,722
3,523
1,386
923
2,438
337
50
$18,071,071
54,572
37,679
18,985
37,453
6,767
22,286
3,942
6,884
3,013
1,016
2,467
760
62
$17,281,453
61,633
39,826
12,246
59,976
1,340
5,934
10,693
3,752
4,388
2,459
441
3,026
1,792
32
$20,957,436
80,628
Soles 	
46,866
Shrimps _ 	
16,354
60,596
2,002
27,851
14,574
3,235
Smelt 	
Sturgeon  	
7,491
2,460
555
Skate           	
3,452
Oolachans 	
3,887
88
Trout	
Grayfish, etc.—■
68
34,745
34,906
172,201
5,664
1,933
1,274
38,776
26,740
220,251
12,431
4,327
2,310
68,073
42,807
184,074
3,076
105,453
Oil      	
44,072
36,322
146,112
63,210
137,624
1,465
77,515
10,417
40,198
Miscellaneous   	
'    14,050
1,19,035
567
Tuna —	
	
2,094
Totals.	
$17,231,534
$16,155,439
$18,672,750
$17,698,980
$21,710,167
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FISHERIES REACHES NEW HIGH.
A high record value for British Columbia's fishery output was made in 1941, when
the total as marketed was $31,732,037, an increase over the preceding year of $10,021,870
or 46 per cent. Of first importance is the salmon-fishery with a product valued at
$20,879,104, compared with $13,757,091 in 1940. The salmon pack was the largest ever
recorded by the industry (2,295,431 cases*) and its total value rose to $18,406,545
from $11,427,923 in the preceding year. In second place on the list of the chief commercial fishes is herring, with a marketed value in 1941 of $4,665,260. The increasing
importance of the herring-fishery is due to the canning operations, which have grown
enormously during the past two years. In 1941 the pack of canned herring amounted
to 1,014,529 cases, valued at $3,690,097. This value represents 79 per cent, of the total
amount credited to the herring-fishery in the year. Third and fourth, respectively,
among the principal kinds of fish, in order of value, are halibut ($2,121,689) and
pilchards ($1,781,876). Halibut is marketed chiefly as fresh, while oil and meal are
the more important products of the pilchard-fishery.
The quantity of fish of all kinds caught and landed by British Columbia fishermen
in 1941 totalled 5,418,891 cwt, valued at the point of landing at $15,836,402, compared
with a catch of 5,906,896 cwt. and a landed value of $9,067,501 in 1940. Average prices
per hundredweight paid to the fishermen for the principal kinds of fish in 1941 were as
follows, with figures for 1940 in brackets: Salmon, $6.01 ($3.84) ; herring, 39 cents
(35 cents) ;  halibut, $12.36 ($9.75) ;  and pilchards, 50 cents (45 cents).
CAPITAL, EQUIPMENT, AND EMPLOYEES.
Capital.—The capital equipment of the fisheries of British Columbia in 1941 was
valued at $29,314,179, compared with $24,687,397 in the preceding year.    The total
* This includes 46,561 cases of salmon packed from fish caught in 1940 and held in cold storage.
Note.—The above figures are taken from the advance report on British Columbia Fisheries, Dominion Department
of Statistics, Department of Trade and Commerce. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 9
for 1941 comprises: $10,477,873, the value of the vessels, boats, and gear engaged in
the primary operations of catching and landing the fish; arid $18,836,306, the amount
invested in the fish-processing establishments. The greater part of the investment in
the fish-processing industry is credited to the salmon-canneries, which numbered thirty-
six and had an investment of $14,641,330.
Employees.—The fisheries of the Province gave employment in the year to a total
of 18,131 persons, of which 10,217 are. classed as employees on vessels, boats, etc., and
7,914 as employees on fish-processing plants. Compared with the preceding year, the
total number shows an increase of 244.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR 1941.
The total pack of canned salmon put up in British Columbia in 1941 amounted to
2,295,433 cases, according to returns made by the canners to the Provincial Fisheries
Department. This was the largest pack of canned salmon ever recorded in British
Columbia and exceeds the previous record made in 1930 by 73,624 cases. In 1941 the
pack was 677,782 cases above the previous five-year average.
A direct comparison of the 1941 pack figures with the figures for previous years is
liable to be misleading unless other factors are considered. On account of the war
the demand for canned salmon increased sharply. Canned salmon is a high-protein
food, almost indestructible, and is packed in containers which make it reasonably easy
to handle. Furthermore, canned salmon may be stored almost indefinitely without
special facilities. These factors make it an ideal war ration, which the British
authorities were quick to realize. This increased demand from Britain, and Canada's
desire to meet it, is the principal reason for the exceptionally large pack. Heretofore
considerable quantities of salmon have been frozen for the British market, but in 1941
there was no demand for frozen salmon from Britain and no refrigerated space for
shipment had a demand existed. In previous years considerable quantities of salmon
were salted for export to the Orient, but in 1941 no salteries were licensed by the
Provincial Fisheries Department. Also, in previous years considerable quantities of
British Columbia salmon were exported fresh to the United States. This trade was
heavily curtailed in 1941 by an embargo on exports (except for troll-caught spring
salmon), and an embargo was also placed on the freezing of chum salmon. All these
controls have had the effect of diverting practically all salmon caught, with the exception of troll-caught spring salmon, to the canneries. Any comparison of the 1941
canned-salmon pack with the pack figures for previous years must, therefore, take
these factors into consideration. In other words, the 1941 canned-salmon pack is not
a true indication of the catch as compared with previous years.
The 1941 canned-salmon pack consisted of 455,298 cases of sockeye, 51,593 cases of
springs, 3,454 cases of steelheads, 430,513 cases of cohoe, 427,774 cases of pinks, and
926,801 cases of chums. Of these, 1,118 cases of springs, 39,104 cases of cohoe, and
6,339 cases of chums were canned from cold-storage stocks which were caught in the
year previous. These amount to a total of 46,561 cases which should be deducted from
the total pack of 2,295,433 cases to show the true 1941 pack. Except in the case of
cohoe this does not materially change the picture, but the fact is mentioned for the
purpose of record.
Examination of the pack figures by species shows that the sockeye-pack of 455,298
cases was 88,896 cases above the 1940 figure and exceeded the previous five-year average
by 90,421 cases. The spring-salmon pack of 51,593 cases in 1941 was the largest pack
of this species since 1932, when 75,958 cases were canned. The 1941 pack of this
species exceeds the previous five-year average by 32,513 cases.
Steelhead trout are not salmon, but a few are caught and canned incidental to the
fishing and canning operations each year. In 1941 there were 3,454 cases of steelheads
canned. This is compared with 1,207 cases in 1940, 796 cases in 1939, and 1,036 cases
in 1938.
In 1941 the cohoe-pack amounted to 430,513 cases. This is the largest pack on
record for this variety and exceeds the previous record pack of 1938 by 129,432 cases.
The 1941 pack of cohoe was 203,725 cases above the average for the previous five years. The above figures for the 1941 cohoe-pack include 39,104 cases of this species canned
from fish caught the previous year which had been frozen for export to Britain and
which, on account of the war, were not shipped. These are shown in the tables in the
Appendix to this report.
The pink-salmon pack in 1941, consisting of 427,774 cases, was disappointing,
especially in the Central and Vancouver Island areas. The 1941 pink-salmon pack was
192,821 cases less than in 1939, the cycle-year, and 54,723 cases less than the average
for the previous five-year period. The 1941 pink-salmon run, as indicated by the
canned pack, was the second run in succession which was below expectation. The
reader is referred to the next section of this report for a more detailed analysis of the
pink-salmon pack.
In 1941 the pack of chum salmon amounted to 926,801 cases. This was the largest
pack of this species recorded in recent past years and probably establishes a record.
The 1941 pack of chums exceeded the pack of the previous year by 283,360 cases and
was 403,382 cases greater than the average for the previous five-year period. As
pointed out in a previous paragraph, the various controls exercised over the industry
by the Government in 1941 no doubt accounts for much of the increase in these pack
figures compared with previous years. This is especially true regarding the chum-
salmon pack.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River System.
The total Canadian pack of all varieties of Fraser River caught salmon amounted
to 431,299 cases, composed of 171,290 cases of sockeye, 34,038 cases of springs, 248 cases
of steelheads, 28,265 cases of cohoe, 102,388 cases of pinks, and 95,070 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1941 the Fraser River produced a total pack of sockeye
salmon, Canadian and American, amounting to 281,895 cases. This was the largest
total pack of sockeye for this cycle since 1917, when the pack was 559,702 cases. It will
be noted that the 1941 run belongs to that cycle which formerly produced such large
packs, culminating in the exceptionally large pack in 1913, which amounted to 2,392,895
cases, in which year a disaster occurred at Hell's Gate, blocking the river to the passage
of salmon. Of the total 1941 catch by Canadian and American fishermen, the Canadian
catch was 171,290 cases, while the American fishermen in the State of Washington took
110,605 cases. The catch percentages are 60.7 and 39.3 respectively. The percentage
catches of Fraser River sockeye by American and Canadian fishermen are tabulated
below for Convenience. American. Canadian.
Per Cent. Per Cent.
1921  64.0 36.0
1930  78.0 22.0
1931  68.0 32.0
1932  55.0 45.0
1933  71.0 29.0
1934  72.0 28.0
1935  47.0 53.0
1936  25.0 75.0
1937  38.0 62.0
1938  42.0 58.0
1939  44.5 55.5
1940  37.5 62.5
1941  39.3 60.7
The Canadian pack of Fraser River sockeye in 1941 of 171,290 cases was 72,281
cases greater than in the year previous and 71,018 cases above the pack for this variety
in 1937, the cycle-year. The 1941 pack was also 46,592 cases above the annual average
pack for the previous five-year period, 1936-40, inclusive. In considering the production figures for a river system the canned-salmon pack figures must be considered in
conjunction with the escapement to the spawning-beds.    In the Appendix to this report BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 11
there is published " Spawning Report, British Columbia, 1941," which is again furnished by Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for British Columbia
for the Federal Department of Fisheries. The reader is referred to this report for
a detailed description of the conditions obtaining on the various spawning-beds.
Generally speaking, most of the spawning areas appear to have been adequately stocked.
During the spawning migration of the Fraser River sockeye in 1941, water conditions at Hell's Gate were such as to impede the passage of salmon and considerable
apprehension was felt regarding the numbers which might not get through. There
probably was some mortality on account of conditions at Hell's Gate but there can be
no doubt tha.t a great many did succeed in getting through, as is evidenced by the large
numbers reaching many of the spawning-grounds on the upper reaches of this river
system. On the other hand, the run of sockeye to the Adams River, in the Shuswap
district, while not expected to be large in 1941, actually was a failure. This may have
been due to the temporary obstructions at Hell's Gate caused by exceptionally low water.
Spring Salmon.—There were 34,038 cases of spring salmon caught on the Fraser
River in 1941. This was an exceptionally large pack of this species and is compared
with packs of recent past years, namely: 1940, 4,504 cases; 1939, 5,993 cases; 1938,
4,308 cases; and 1937, 5,444 cases. The comparatively large pack of spring salmon in
1941 no doubt reflects the Federal Government's policy of diverting all salmon possible
into the canning trade.
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1941 there were 28,265 cases of cohoe canned from Fraser River
caught fish. This figure is compared with 27,127 cases in 1938, the cycle-year. The
1941 pack was 15,237 cases above the 1940 pack and was 9,531 cases greater than the
average for the previous five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—The runs of pink salmon to the Fraser River coincide with the odd-
numbered years. In 1941 the pink run produced a pack amounting to 102,388 cases,
which seems about normal for the cycle. The 1941 pack exceeded the pack of 1939 by
7,212 cases and was also 21,075 cases above the average annual pack for the five cycle-
years immediately preceding. This average, however, includes the year 1931, when
curtailment of production by the canners on account of economic conditions reduced the
pack of that year to 13,307 cases.
Chum Salmon.—The 1941 pack of Fraser River chum salmon, amounting to 95,070
cases, was the largest in recent past years. The 1941 pack is compared with 35,665
cases in 1940, 30,150 cases in 1939, 58,778 cases in 1938, and 20,878 cases in 1937.
The comparatively large pack in 1941 does not necessarily indicate that the run was so
much greater than the runs of other years, but rather reflects Government policy as
outlined in a previous paragraph.
In all cases where not specifically mentioned, the reader is referred to the spawning
report published in the Appendix to this report for spawning conditions.
Skeena River.
The total pack of all varieties of salmon caught on the Skeena River in 1941 was
200,497 cases. This was 5,142 cases greater than were packed in the year previous.
The 1941 pack consisted of 81,767 cases of sockeye, 4,985 cases of springs, 1,896 cases
of steelheads, 50,605 cases of cohoe, 50,537 cases of pinks, and 10,707 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The canned-sockeye pack from Skeena River caught fish in 1941,
consisting of 81,767 cases, though 34,740 cases less than in the year previous, must be
considered as reasonably satisfactory when compared with the pack figures for the
cycle to which this year's run belongs. The average pack for the previous five cycle-
years, 1921-37, inclusive, was 54,635 cases. The 1941 pack was the largest pack in
this cycle since 1925, when 81,146 cases were canned, and was 10,460 cases above the
average for the previous five years.
The escapement to the spawning-beds was considered satisfactory. This river
system has been experiencing a period of low sockeye production, but it would appear
that the somewhat drastic conservation efforts instituted a few years ago by the
Federal officers were having the desired effect. J 12 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Spring Salmon.—This species is canned on the Skeena River only incidental to the
canning of other varieties. In 1941 there were 4,985 cases of spring salmon canned.
This figure is compared with 6,118 cases in 1940, 4,857 cases in 1939, and 4,318 cases
in 1938.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 50,605 cases of cohoe salmon canned from Skeena
River caught cohoe in 1941. This was 29,991 cases greater than the previous year's
pack for this variety and is compared with 52,821 cases packed in 1938, the cycle-year.
The 1941 pack of cohoe was 21,898 cases above the five-year average. In addition to
the 50,605 cases of cohoe canned from Skeena River caught fish, there were also canned
in Skeena River canneries 31,187 cases of cohoe which were imported from Alaska.
According to reports from the spawning-grounds, a heavy seeding of cohoe took
place in this area.
Pink Salmon.—Sufficient pink salmon were caught on the Skeena River in 1941 to
fill 50,537 standard cases. The 1941 pack was only 3,236 cases above that of the
previous year, which year was considered very disappointing. The pack of this variety
in 1941 was 22,050 cases below the previous five-year average and was 44,699 cases
less than the cycle-year 1939. The 1941 pack of Skeena River pinks was the smallest
in this cycle since 1931. An examination of the pack figures for Skeena River caught
pinks for the previous few years would seem to indicate that greater protection for
this species during the spawning migration is in order.
Reports from the pink-salmon spawning areas of the Skeena River watershed
indicate that seeding by this variety was from " good to fairly heavy."
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack on the Skeena River is never large and the
year 1941 was no exception, 10,707 cases having been packed. This figure is compared
with 10,811 cases in 1937, four years previous. The 1941 pack was 357 cases above
the five-year average, 1936-40, inclusive.
Seeding of the spawning-beds by this variety was reported as having been light.
Nass River,
The total pack of all species of salmon caught on the Nass River in 1941 was
71,330 cases, compared with 60,441 cases caught in 1940. The 1941 pack consisted of
24,876 cases of sockeye, 519 cases of springs, 374 cases of steelheads, 16,648 cases of
cohoe, 22,667 cases of pinks, and 6,246 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 194.1 sockeye-pack on the Nass River of 24,876 cases must
be considered satisfactory. On account of the many year-cycles which make up the
runs of sockeye to the Nass River, it is difficult to compare the catch of any given year
with the cycle-year. A direct comparison with previous years' packs, however, may
indicate the trend. The 1941 pack of sockeye was the largest of any year since 1936,
in which year 28,562 cases were canned. The packs for the intervening years were
as follows: 1940, 13,809 cases; 1939, 24,357 cases; 1938, 21,462 cases, and 1937, 17,567
cases. The run in 1941 produced a pack which was 3,725 cases above the average for
the previous five-year period, 1936-40, inclusive.. The catch in 1941 indicates that
this year's run of sockeye was much better than the year previous, and reports from
the spawning-grounds bear out this assumption, as the seeding of sockeye for the whole
area is reported as " very satisfactory."
Spring Salmon.—The spring-salmon pack on the Nass River is never a large factor
as springs are caught and canned incidental to fishing for other varieties. The pack
in 1941 amounted to 519 cases and the packs of recent past years were as follows:
1940, 1,716 cases;   1939, 708 cases;   1938, 773 cases, and 1937, 1,251 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe were caught on the Nass River in 1941 sufficient to fill
16,648 cases. This was the largest pack of this variety since 1935, when the pack
amounted to 21,810 cases. The 1941 pack exceeded the previous five-year average by
6,623 cases. The spawning areas frequented by this variety are reported as having
been heavily seeded, " the best since 1938."
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon run to the Nass River produced a pack of 22,667
cases in 1941, which was 6,611 cases less than were caught in the year previous. The
1941  pack may be considered  as  satisfactory when compared with the catches of BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 13
previous years belonging to this cycle. The catch in 1939 produced a pack of 26,370
cases and, while the pack of 1937 was only 8,031 cases, the packs of 1935 and 1933
were both greater than that of 1941, being 25,508 cases and 44,306 cases respectively.
The 1941 pack was only 788 cases less than the average for the previous five cycle-
years, 1931 to 1939, inclusive.
Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the seeding by this variety was
better than was expected from the size of the commercial catch.
Chum Salmon.—The Nass River never produced a large pack of chum salmon,
although the 1941 pack of 6,246 cases was considerably lower than what might have
been reasonable to expect. This was slightly greater than the year previous when
5,461 cases were canned, but the 1941 pack was 3,834 cases less than in the cycle-year
1937 and 4,668 cases less than the previous five-year average.
Reports from the spawning-beds indicate that the chum seeding was " good to
medium."
Rivers Inlet.
In 1941 there were caught in Rivers Inlet salmon of all varieties sufficient to
produce a total of 138,650 cases. This pack was 49,985 cases greater than the pack
for this inlet in 1940. The 1941 pack was made up of 93,378 cases of sockeye, 1,692
cases of springs, 129 cases of steelheads, 23,202 cases of cohoe, 4,807 cases of pinks,
and 15,442 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 93,378 cases of sockeye salmon packed on Rivers Inlet in
1941 was the largest pack of this variety since 1935 and exceeds the pack of the cycle-
year 1937 of the four-year cycle by 8,546 cases and was 47,027 cases greater than in
1936, the previous cycle-year belonging to the five-year cycle. The 1941 pack for
Rivers Inlet was 26,031 cases above the previous five-year average and 15,542 cases
above the average for the previous ten years, 1931-40, inclusive.
Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate an excellent seeding in all places
frequented by this variety.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in Rivers Inlet only incidental to fishing and canning of other varieties. There were canned on Rivers Inlet
in 1941, 1,692 cases of springs compared with 1,226 cases in 1940, 745 cases in 1939,
1,209 cases in 1938, and 917 cases in 1937.
Cohoe Salmon.—The catch of Rivers Inlet cohoe in 1941 amounted to 23,202 cases.
This was the largest pack of this variety in recent years and exceeds the pack of the
cycle-year 1938 by 6,917 cases. It was also 12,811 cases above the average for the
previous five-year period 1936-40, inclusive.
The escapement to the spawning-beds is reported as better than usual for this
variety.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon do not frequent Rivers Inlet in great numbers but are
canned each year in varying amounts. In 1941 there were caught and canned 4,807
cases. This figure is compared with 12,095 cases canned in 1939, the cycle-year. The
1941 pack was the smallest of any year in that cycle since 1935, when 4,554 cases were
canned. The pack of pinks in 1941 was 2,884 cases below the average annual pack for
the previous five-year period 1936-40, inclusive.
Chum Salmon.—The comparatively large pack of chum salmon, amounting to 15,442
cases, caught in Rivers Inlet in 1941 no doubt reflects in some measure the heavy
demand for all varieties of salmon for canning in 1941. The pack for this year was
6,417 cases above that of 1940 and was 6,809 cases above the average annual pack for
the five-year period 1936-40, inclusive.    The escapement was reported as " good."
Smith Inlet.
Smith Inlet is primarily a sockeye gill-net fishing area, although some seining is
carried on in this inlet in the fall of the year for chum salmon. The total pack of
Smith Inlet caught salmon in 1941 amounted to 32,109 cases and consisted of 21,495
cases of sockeye, 124 cases of springs, 45 cases of steelheads, 1,955 cases of cohoe, 749
cases of pinks, and 7,741 cases of chums. J 14 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 21,495 cases of sockeye salmon caught in this inlet in 1941
was slightly less than the catch in 1937, the cycle-year, and, notwithstanding reports
that the spawning-beds were adequately seeded, the catch was somewhat disappointing.
The 1941 pack was 1,649 cases below the five-year average and was 2,274 cases less
than the average for the previous ten-year period.
Spring Salmon.—In Smith Inlet, like Rivers Inlet, spring salmon are caught incidental to fishing for other varieties and on this account the pack does not indicate the
size of the run. In 1941, 124 cases were canned compared with 142 cases caught and
canned in 1940.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe, like springs, are never a large factor in the Smith Inlet
catch and the catch of this variety in 1941 was no exception, amounting to 1,955 cases
compared with the previous year's catch of 1,102 cases and with 3,880 cases in 1939.
The average for the previous five-year period was 1,318 cases.
Seeding of the spawning-beds was reported as " reasonably good."
Pink Salmon.—In 1941, 749 cases of pink salmon were caught in Smith Inlet incidental to fishing for sockeye. The pack the year previous was 755 cases. Smith Inlet
is not a pink-salmon area, although in some past years as many as 20,000 cases of pinks
have been canned in this district.
Chum Salmon.—Some seining for chum salmon is done in Smith Inlet in the fall
of the year. In 1941 the catch amounted to 7,741 cases, compared with 9,494 cases
caught in 1937, the cycle-year. In 1940 the catch amounted to 6,015 cases and in 1939
to 2,771 cases.    There were packed in 1938, 8,076 cases of this variety.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Salmon-fishing in the Queen Charlotte Islands, with the exception of trolling, is
confined almost exclusively to seining for pinks and chums and some cohoe. Other
varieties listed as caught and canned from this district are caught incidental to fishing
for the above-named varieties. Chum salmon are fished for each year, but pink salmon
put in an appearance in the Queen Charlotte Islands only in every alternate year, the
runs coinciding with the even-numbered years. The total pack of all varieties of
salmon caught and canned in the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1941 amounted to 105,086
cases, of which 76,745 cases were chums and 27,421 cases were cohoe. The balance
was made up of 149 cases of sockeye, 236 cases of springs, 11 cases of steelheads, and
524 cases of pinks.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of this variety caught and canned in the Queen Charlotte
Islands in 1941, amounting to 76,745 cases, was 88,166 cases less than were caught in
the previous year and is compared with 72,689 cases caught in 1937, the cycle-year.
The 1941 catch was 1,916 cases less than the yearly average for the five-year period
1936-40, inclusive.
Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate a satisfactory seeding, except in the
Cumshewa and Sewell Inlet areas. These two areas were formerly large producers of
chum salmon.
Pink Salmon.—This being an " off " year, there was no run of this variety to the
streams in the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1941. As mentioned above, pink salmon
frequent the streams in these islands only in the even-numbered years.
Cohoe Salmon.—The 27,421 cases of cohoe caught and canned in the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1940 are compared with 16,616 cases canned in 1938, the cycle-year,
and 8,897 cases caught in 1940. The pack in 1941 was 16,804 cases greater than the
average annual pack of this variety for the five-year period 1936-40.
Reports from the spawning-beds indicate the seeding as having been heavy.
Central Area.
The Central area, for statistical purposes, comprises all of the salmon-fishing areas
between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River, except Rivers Inlet. The total pack of
all species of salmon caught in this area in 1941 amounted to 244,579 cases. The pack
for this area in 1940 was 274,232 cases.    The 1941 pack consisted of 20,854 cases of BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 15
sockeye, 460 cases of springs, 330 cases of steelheads, 45,218 cases of cohoe, 66,130
cases of pinks, and 111,587 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—Burke and Dean Channels and Fitzhugh Sound are the principal
sockeye-fishing grounds in this area. Some sockeye are also caught in the vicinity of
Banks Island and Principe Channel and a few are also taken in Gardner Canal. In 1941
the catch of sockeye in the whole area amounted to 20,854 cases. This was the smallest
pack for a number of years and was 11,188 eases less than for the previous year. The
1941 pack was 9,519 cases below the average for the five-year period 1936-40, inclusive.
The reader is referred to the spawning report published in the Appendix to this report,
contributed by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government, for
details of conditions found on the various spawning-beds.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in this area but, as in other
districts, the catch of springs is incidental to fishing for other varieties. In 1941 only
460 cases of spring salmon were canned.
Cohoe Salmon.—Sufficient numbers of this species were caught in 1941 to fill 45,218
cases. The pack was 11,498 cases less than in the cycle-year 1938, but was 846 cases
above the average for the five-year period 1936-40, inclusive.
Pink Salmon.—Probably the most disappointing of all salmon-catches in British
Columbia was the catch of pinks in the Central area. The 1941 pack amounted to
66,130 cases, which must be considered a failure when compared with the pack of 1939,
the cycle-year, which amounted to 150,498 cases. The year 1941 was the second year
in succession in which the pink-catch was a failure, the year 1940 having produced
a pack of only 54,478 cases. It is true that the year 1941 belongs to what may be
termed the small cycle for pink salmon in this area, but even in the small years it is
reasonable to expect a pack of 100,000 cases. The average annual pack for this area
for the five-year period 1936-40, inclusive, is 135,903 cases. There can be little doubt
that the pink-salmon runs in the Central area will, in future, require greater protection
with a view to building up these runs commensurate with the area's proven production
capabilities. Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement on the
whole was considered as " not good."
Chum Salmon.—There were packed from Central area caught fish 111,587 cases of
chum salmon. In 1937, the cycle-year, the pack amounted to 110,493 cases. The 1941
pack was 1,315 cases above the average annual pack for the previous five years and
must be considered as satisfactory.
Vancouver Island.
The total salmon-pack credited to Vancouver Island in 1941 was 985,835 cases.
This was the largest catch ever recorded for this area. The pack was composed of
40,273 cases of sockeye, 8,038 cases of springs, 308 cases of steelheads, 166,908 cases of
cohoe (which figure includes 30,027 cases of bluebacks), 177,292 cases of pinks, and
593,016 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 40,273 cases of sockeye caught in the Vancouver Island area
in 1941 was the largest pack of this species credited to this area in recent past years.
The 1941 pack is compared with 15,177 cases in 1940 and was 16,768 cases above the
average for the five-year period 1936-40, inclusive. Assuming a four-year cycle for
most of the sockeye in this area, the 1941 catch was 12,308 cases above the cycle-year
1938. For details of the escapement to the spawning-grounds the reader is referred to
the spawning report published in the Appendix to this report. Generally speaking, the
sockeye seeding was reported as having been very good.
Spring Salmon.—In 1941 the pack of springs credited to Vancouver Island was
8,038 cases, compared with 2,454 cases in the year previous and 2,889 cases in 1939.
The catch of spring salmon in the waters adjacent to Vancouver Island is taken principally by trolling-gear and this production finds a market in the fresh- and frozen-fish
trade. The canned pack of this species reported in this column represents those spring
salmon caught incidental to fishing for other varieties.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 166,908 cases of cohoe canned from fish caught in the
Vancouver Island area in 1941.   This figure includes 30,027 cases of bluebacks.   Figures J 16 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
for the 1941 pack are compared with the 1940 pack figures, in which year there were
canned 88,885 cases of cohoe, which figure includes 23,277 cases of bluebacks; and the
1939 pack of cohoes, amounting to 123,388 cases, with which is included 48,209 cases of
bluebacks. In 1938 the Vancouver Island cohoe-pack was 89,471 cases, 27,417 cases of
these being bluebacks.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon were caught and canned in the Vancouver Island area
in 1941 to the extent of 177,292 cases, which pack was rather disappointing when compared with the previous packs belonging to this cycle. In 1939 the pink-pack was
235,119 cases or 57,827 cases above 1941, while in 1937 the pack was 141,488 cases more
than were canned in 1941. The pack in 1937 amounted to 318,780 cases. The 1941
pack was 22,795 cases less than the yearly average for the previous five cycle-years
1931-39, inclusive.    Spawning, as reported, was not satisfactory.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chum salmon in the Vancouver Island district in 1941,
amounting to 593,016 cases, was probably a record canned pack of this variety for this
district. Heretofore large quantities of Vancouver Island caught chums have found
an outlet in the salt-fish and frozen-fish trades and, in addition, there has existed a
considerable demand for this fish from south of the International Border. Since the
outbreak of hostilities in 1939 the Provincial Government has declined to issue salmon-
saltery licences and, as a result, salteries have not operated. In 1941 no chum salmon
were frozen. In addition, the Federal Government prohibited the export of chum
salmon, except under permit. No permits were issued during the chum-salmon fishing
season in the Vancouver Island district, thus all chum salmon caught were canned
which, no doubt, accounts in some measure for the exceptionally large pack of canned
chums from this district in 1941. In the year under review the pack was 330,930 cases
above the average for the previous five-year period 1936-40, inclusive, and was 313,952
cases above the pack of the previous year. Notwithstanding the measures mentioned
above which, no doubt, diverted large quantities of Vancouver Island caught chums to
the canneries, other indications, such as the conditions on the spawning-grounds and
reports from the-fishing-grounds during the season, would all point to a very heavy run
of this species in 1941.    All spawning-beds were exceptionally well seeded.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY, 1941.
There were thirty-six salmon-canneries licensed to operate in British Columbia in
1941. This was two less than the number licensed to operate in 1940. The operating
canneries were situated in the various districts, as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands      2    '
Nass River     2
Skeena River      7
Central area     4
Rivers Inlet     2
Johnstone Strait     4
Fraser River and Lower Mainland  11
West coast of Vancouver Island i    4
Compared with the year previous, there were operated in 1941 one cannery less in
the Queen Charlotte Islands district and the same number as the year previous on the
Nass River, Skeena River, and ih the Central area. In Rivers Inlet in 1941 there were
two canneries less in operation than in the year previous, while in Johnstone Strait
and on the west coast of Vancouver Island the number operating in 1941 was the same
as in the previous year. In the Fraser River and lower mainland district there was
one more cannery operated in the year under review than in the previous year. This
extra cannery was a new establishment built in North Vancouver. There was no pink-
salmon run to the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1941, which probably accounts for the
one less cannery operating in that district. There were only two canneries operated in
Rivers Inlet in 1941. Those other plants which formerly operated as canneries were
all used as net-camps, the catches being transported for canning to other canneries in
the district.    As in the year previous, there were no canneries operated in Smith Inlet BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 17
in 1941. The three cannery properties located in this latter area, however, all operated
as net-camps. One salmon-cannery in the Johnstone Strait area was destroyed by fire
in mid-season, the cannery in question being the Quathiaski Cannery belonging to the
British Columbia Packers, Limited.
Probably the most outstanding feature of the 1941 salmon-canning operations in
British Columbia was the exceptionally large pack of salmon put up by the comparatively small number of canneries operated, which indicates that the salmon-canneries of
British Columbia, generally speaking, are very seldom worked to maximum capacity.
Early in the 1941 operating season the Federal Government indicated that the British
Ministry of Food was anxious to obtain a large portion of the British Columbia salmon-
pack; i.e., 1,200,000 cases of an anticipated 1,700,000 cases. Realizing that there would
be no difficulty in disposing of their pack, the salmon-canners went all out to put in cans
as much as possible of the salmon-catch. The Federal and Provincial Governments
both adopted policies which would have the effect of diverting as much as possible of
the salmon-catch to the canneries. The Provincial Government declined to permit the
operation of salmon dry-salteries and the Federal Government placed an embargo on
the export of fresh salmon in certain categories and also discouraged the freezing of
salmon for a portion of the season. These measures had the desired effect, with the
result that most of the fall fish were canned, whereas heretofore large quantities of fall
fish have found an outlet in the frozen-fish and salt-fish trades. These facts should be
taken into consideration when making comparisons between the canned-salmon pack
figures for British Columbia for 1941 and the pack figures of other years. The result
of these various efforts was a total salmon-pack amounting to 2,295,433 cases, which is
the largest pack on record, and of this amount approximately 1,500,000 cases were
exported to England for the account of the British Ministry of Food.
OTHER CANNERIES   (PILCHARD, HERRING, AND SHELL-FISH).
Pilchard.—The pilchard-canneries in British Columbia are located principally on
the west coast of Vancouver Island, as it is in the waters off the shores of Vancouver
Island where the principal pilchard-fishery is conducted. While the bulk of the pilchard-
catch is reduced to meal and oil, nevertheless there is a growing trade in canned
pilchards. There were five pilchard-canneries operated in 1941 compared with four
plants in operation in 1940. These five plants produced 72,498 cases of canned
pilchards in 1941, compared with 73,000 cases in the previous year.
Herring.—Previous to 1939 herring were canned in British Columbia to some
extent but the pack was never large, owing to the limited market. In 1939, due principally to orders arising on account of hostilities in Europe, the canning of herring
assumed the proportions of a major industry and in that year there were canned 418,021
cases. In 1940 Britain's requirement of a low-cost high-protein food was directed to
British Columbia canned herring and, as a result, sixteen herring-canneries were
licensed to operate in that year, producing a pack of 640,252 cases. That this product
was favourably received by the British authorities is evidenced by the fact that early in
1941 the British Government negotiated with the Canadian Government for a pack of
canned herring equivalent to 1,600,000 cases. British Columbia canners undertook to
produce this large pack, and in order that as much as possible of the herring-catch
would find an outlet through the canners the Provincial Government declined to issue
herring dry-saltery licences. In addition to this, the Federal Government placed an
embargo on the reduction of herring caught on the east coast of Vancouver Island,
except that amount not suitable for canning. The result of these restrictions, together
with increased effort on the part of the fishermen, the twenty-three herring-canneries
which were licensed to operate in 1941 produced a pack of 1,527,350 cases, all of which
was shipped to Great Britain.
The requirement of Great Britain for a low-cost high-protein food during wartime is an ideal opportunity for the herring-packers of British Columbia to demonstrate
to the British consumer the possibility of supplying canned herring and, if the operators
insist on maintaining a high standard of quality, there seems to be no good reason why
a very large portion of this trade could not be retained after the cessation of hostilities.
2 J 18 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Shell-fish.—Shell-fish, principally clams and oysters, are canned to some extent in
British Columbia. The operation is never large, although in some years the production
is considerably higher than in others. In 1941 there were four shell-fish canneries
licensed to operate. These four canneries produced a pack of 11,560 cases of clams and
6,773 cases of crabs.    There was also a small quantity of oysters canned in 1941.
Tuna-fish.—In 1939 there was a small experimental pack of tuna-fish put up in
British Columbia and in 1940 no cannery made returns to the Provincial Fisheries
Department, indicating that no tuna-fish had been canned. In 1941, however, returns
again indicate that tuna-fish were canned in small quantities, one cannery only making
returns.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
In 1941 four plants were licensed to operate as tierced-salmon plants, the same
number as were licensed in the year previous. The four plants in 1941 produced a pack
of 1,481 tierces, as against 767 tierces produced in the year previous.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
In each year previous to 1939 there have been varying amounts of chum salmon
dry-salted for shipment to the Orient. In some years the production of dry-salt
salmon has reached fairly large proportions and in recent past years this industry has
been controlled and regulated by the British Columbia Salt-fish Board, which Board is
a scheme set up under the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act."
Chum salmon, normally, are fished in quantity in the fall of the year. There is, however, a considerable pack of canned chum salmon put up during the summer and early
autumn months. Due largely to the increased demand occasioned by the war for
inexpensive protein foods, such as canned chum salmon, the Provincial Government
declined to issue salmon dry-saltery licences in 1939. For similar reasons the licences
covering salmon dry-salteries were again refused by the Provincial Government in
1940. In 1941 the demand of the British Government for a very large portion of the
British Columbia salmon-pack made it imperative that as much as possible of the
salmon-catch be diverted to the canneries. For this reason the Provincial Government
again refused to issue licences covering salt-salmon operations and, as a consequence,
no salmon were dry-salted in British Columbia in 1941.
For the above-noted reasons the British Columbia Salt-fish Board was inoperative
during the 1941 season and on that account no report of the British Columbia Salt-fish
Board is included in this report as heretofore.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
Previous to the 1941 season, production of dry-salt herring was, in latter years,
regulated by the British Columbia Salt-fish Board under the " Natural Products
Marketing (British Columbia) Act." The total production of dry-salt herring in
British Columbia was formerly shipped to the Orient, particularly to Japan, and from
there quantities were re-exported to Manchukuo and China. Conditions in the Orient
in recent past years have reduced the quantity of dry-salt herring considerably.    In
1941, however, the British Columbia Government refused to issue herring dry-saltery
licences in order to divert as much as possible of the herring-catch to the herring-
canneries, which were all operating on British war orders for this commodity. There
were no herring dry-salteries operated in British Columbia in 1941.
PICKLED HERRING.
Owing to the outbreak of hostilities in Europe, certain markets in the United States
which formerly obtained their supplies of pickled herring from European countries
suddenly found themselves without a source of supply and, as a result, some pickled
herring was produced in British Columbia during the 1939-40 season. The quantity
produced, however, was small in that year and the pack was more or less of an experimental nature.    In 1940 the Provincial Government licensed five pickled-herring plants BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 19
to operate in British Columbia, which five plants produced a pack of 5,500 barrels of
herring. In 1941 three pickled-herring plants were licensed to operate, these three
plants producing a pack of 3,095 barrels. There is no doubt that this pack would have
been considerably larger except that the British Columbia Government, in order to
divert as much as possible of the east coast herring-catch to the herring-canneries,
again declined to permit pickled-herring plants to operate on fish caught on the east
coast of Vancouver Island. This action forced the operation of pickled-herring plants
largely to the west coast of Vancouver Island or, at least, to operations conducted on
west coast caught fish, which-no doubt materially reduced the size of the pack that
otherwise would have been produced.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
The total halibut-landings on the Pacific Coast of North America are regulated by
the International Fisheries Commission. On this account there is very little fluctuation
in the amount landed from year to year. For the purpose of regulation, the coast is
divided into four areas. The principal areas, from the standpoint of production, are
Areas Nos. 2 and 3, the waters off the coast of Washington and British Columbia corresponding with Area No. 2 and the waters off the coast of Alaska corresponding with
Area No. 3.
In 1941 the catch-limits set by the International Fisheries Commission were: For
Area No. 2, 22,700,000 lb. and for Area No. 3, 26,300,000 lb.—a total of 49,000,000 lb.
These catch-limits differed from the year previous in that in 1940 the catch-limit for
Area No. 3 was 25,300,000 lb. There was no change in the amount of halibut which
was permitted to be taken in 1941 in any of the other areas. In addition to the
49,000,000 lb. permitted to be taken from Areas Nos. 2 and 3, the International Fisheries Commission issues permits which allow vessels to land halibut caught incidental
to fishing for other species in an area closed to halibut-fishing while halibut-fishing is
permitted in another area. The regulations of the International Fisheries Commission
also permit the landings of halibut caught in Area No. 1 so long as Area No. 2 is open
to fishing and halibut caught in Area No. 4 may be landed so long as halibut are permitted to be fished in Area No. 3. Catch-limits, however, are set only in Areas Nos.
2 and 3.    The production from Areas Nos. 1 and 4 is comparatively small.
The total landings of all vessels in 1941 amounted to 52,118,000 lb., which was
1,122,495 lb. less than the total landings in 1940. The 52,118,000 lb. include 332,000 lb.
landed from Area No. 1. Of the balance, 23,845,000 lb. were caught in Area No. 2 and
27,941,000 lb. were caught in Area No. 3. The total halibut-landings at Canadian ports
by all vessels, Canadian and American, amounted to 22,837,000 lb., and of this total
12,206,000 lb. were caught in Area No. 2 while 10,631,000 lb. were caught in Area No. 3.
These figures are compared with 12,885,211 lb. for Area No. 2 and 10,999,908 lb. for
Area No. 3 in the year previous. The Canadian fleet caught and landed in Canadian
ports 10,469,000 lb. from Area No. 2 and 2,334,000 lb. from Area No. 3, making a total
of 12,803,000 lb. landed by Canadian vessels in Canadian ports in 1941. This was
128,621 lb. greater than the Canadian catch landed in Canadian ports in 1940. In
addition to the above, Canadian vessels landed in American ports 61,000 lb. from Area
No. 2 and 16,000 lb. from Area No. 3. The total Canadian catch of halibut in 1941,
therefore, was 12,880,000 lb.
Heretofore the unweighted average price for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert
was used as a basis for comparison. The International Fisheries Commission, through
whose courtesy these figures are supplied, is now using the weighted average price
rather than the unweighted figures. The International Fisheries Commission advised,
however, that the unweighted prices did not differ appreciably from the weighted values
and are sufficiently close for comparison. In 1941 the weighted average price paid for
Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert was 9.86 cents per lb.
Halibut-livers in 1941 were again in demand by pharmaceutical houses as a valuable source of concentrated vitamins. Since the outbreak of hostilities there has been
an increased demand for halibut-livers. These were formerly thrown away but now
are  producing  a   considerable   sum  to" the  halibut-fishermen   of  the   Pacific.    This J 20 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
amounted to $456,598 in 1941. In addition to the livers, halibut-fishermen are now
landing halibut viscera, which is also a rich source of vitamin-bearing oils. In 1941
the Pacific halibut fleet received $126,180 for halibut viscera.
The above figures are compiled from information supplied by the International
Fisheries Commission, which information is gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
The production of fish-oil and edible fish-meal from various species of British
Columbia fish has become an important factor in the fishing industry of the Province.
Pilchard and herring have been, and probably still are, the principal species used for
the production of oil and meal, but considerable quantities of these products are also
produced from dogfish and cannery waste. Due to the exigencies of the war in Europe
and the necessity for natural sources of vitamins and the discovery that certain British
Columbia fish-oils are potent in Vitamins A and D, there has developed in British
Columbia in the past eighteen months a very important branch of the fishing industry
engaged in producing unquestionably high vitamin oils from various fish-livers, some
of which have not been used heretofore. The livers used principally in this branch of
the fish-oil industry are dogfish-livers, various species of cod-livers, halibut livers, shark-
livers (notably soup-fin shark), and others.
The Provincial Government did not license the operation of plants producing liver-
oils exclusively in 1941; therefore, no returns have been made to the Provincial Fisheries Department, but it is known that the production of high vitamin liver-oils was
quite considerable in 1941.
In addition to the vitamin oils mentioned above, British Columbia reduction plants
produced fish-oil and edible fish-meal in large quantities. The oil is used in numerous
manufacturing processes, principally in the making of soaps, paints, linoleums, etc.,
and in recent years considerable quantities of this oil have found an outlet as a feeding
oil for the feeding of poultry and other live stock. The meal is also used to fortify
stock foods.
Pilchard Reduction.—The pilchard-fishery of British Columbia is conducted principally on the west coast of Vancouver Island and while the bulk of the pilchard-ca'tch
is taken well off-shore, there appear in certain seasons schools of pilchards in the inner
passages in the proximity of Queen Charlotte Sound. In 1941, nine pilchard-reduction
plants were licensed to operate in British Columbia. These nine plants produced 11,437
tons of pilchard-meal and 1,916,191 imperial gallons of oil. In 1940 there were six
plants licensed to operate and these six plants produced 4,853 tons of meal and 890,926
imperial gallons of oil.
Herring Reduction.—The reduction of herring in British Columbia has grown and
is now an important branch of our winter fishery. Herring are caught from October
through to March, and while heretofore the fishery was conducted largely on the west
coast and south-east coast of Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of Prince Rupert,
in recent years the fishery has been extended to practically the whole of the British
Columbia coast. In 1941, however, the demand from Great Britain for a high-protein
food at low cost, which demand could be met by a large-scale production of the canning
of herring, made necessary such Government action as would divert as much herring
as possible from the reduction plants to the herring-canneries. The Provincial Government licensed herring-reduction plants on the west coast of Vancouver Island on the
distinct understanding that no herring caught on the east coast would be utilized for
reduction in west coast plants. Plants located on the east coast were licensed on the
understanding that no herring caught on the east coast of Vancouver Island would be
used for reduction purposes, except that portion of the catch unsuitable for canning.
These Provincial Government regulations were supplemented by further regulations
by the Federal Government which prohibited the delivery of east coast caught herring
to any one except a licensed herring-cannery. As a result of the steps taken by the
Federal and Provincial Departments of Fisheries and the desire of the canners to can
as much of the herring-catch as possible, the fifteen herring-reduction plants which
were licensed to operate in British Columbia ih 1941 produced somewhat less meal and BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 21
oil than the fifteen licensed plants did in 1940. In 1940 there were produced 10,886
tons of herring-meal and 923,137 imperial gallons of herring-oil, whereas in 1941 the
production of meal was 8,780 tons and the production of oil amounted to 594,684
imperial gallons.
Whale Reduction.—In 1941 two whale-reduction plants were licensed to operate in
British Columbia. This was one more than operated in 1940. The two plants, located
at Naden Harbour and Rose Harbour, in the Queen Charlotte Islands, killed 328 whales
which produced 270 tons of meal and 561 tons of fertilizer. In addition, there were
produced 110,313 imperial gallons of whale-oil and 508,712 imperial gallons of sperm-oil.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed to
operate each year in British Columbia. These plants produce meal and oil from the
carcasses of dogfish and cannery waste, etc. In 1941 there were twelve such plants
licensed compared with eleven plants in 1940. The production amounted to 16,488
tons of meal and 381,755 imperial gallons of oil in 1941 compared with 4,061 tons of
meal and 378,957 imperial gallons of oil in 1940. In addition to this meal and oil
produced from cannery waste and dogfish, etc., two reduction plants reduced anchovies
to the extent of 351 tons of meal and 23,585 imperial gallons of oil.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SPAWNING-GROUNDS.
Owing to this Department having discontinued making inspections of the various
salmon-spawning areas of the Province, we are indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell,
Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, and the officers of his Department who conducted the
investigations, for furnishing us with a copy of his Department's report. His courtesy
in supplying us with this report is gratefully acknowledged.
Major Motherwell's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-spawning
grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE  SOCKEYE SALMON
(DIGEST).    (No. 27.)
In the Appendix to this report will be found paper No. 27 in the series " Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon." This paper is again the work
of Dr. W. A. Clemens, formerly director of the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo,
and now head of the Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia.
In paper No. 27 attention is directed to the fact that the Rivers Inlet sockeye-pack
in 1941 was above the average for the past thirty-four years and that the pack of sockeye for the Nass River in 1941 was slightly above the average for the past twenty-nine
years but that the pack of Skeena River sockeye was below the average for the past
thirty-four years.
In the case of seeding of the spawning-beds, it is pointed out by the author that
in all three cases the seeding was apparently satisfactory.
Commenting specifically on the particular river systems, Dr. Clemens remarks as
follows:—
Rivers Inlet Sockeye Run, 1941.
The Rivers Inlet sockeye run of 1941, amounting to 93,378 cases, falls in what
might be considered the medium-sized range between 60,000 and 100,000 cases. A considerable number of four-year-old fish from the 1937 brood-year appeared in the 1941
run, as well as a rather large number of five-year-old fish from the 1936 spawning.
It will be recalled that there was an exceptionally large escapement in 1936 because
of the strike among the fishermen, and also that late in the autumn of that year there
occurred a very severe freshet which it was thought at the time may have caused considerable damage to the spawning-beds. Dr. Clemens points out that since there have
been no extraordinary returns of fish in 1940 or 1941, it would seem reasonable to conclude that the freshet did have some adverse effect upon the production, but just how
much it is impossible to say.
With regard to the run which may be expected in this inlet in 1942, Dr. Clemens
points out that the 1942 Rivers Inlet sockeye run will be the result of the spawnings
of 1937 and 1938.    If the packs are considered as an indication of the size of the run, J 22 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
there would seem to be reason to believe that the pack in 1942 should be approximately
equivalent to those of 1937 and 1938. In the former year the pack was 84,832 cases
and the escapement was stated to have been satisfactory. In the latter year the pack
was 87,942 cases and the escapement was reported as better than usual.
Skeena River Sockeye Run, 1941.
Commenting on the general characteristics of the Skeena River sockeye run, Dr.
Clemens points out that this run produced a pack of 81,767 cases of sockeye and the
escapement is described as satisfactory. Attention is directed to the 1940 report,
where it was pointed out that the run of 1941 would depend largely upon the production of four-year-old fish from the spawning of 1937, because the 1936 spawning had
already produced a very large run of four-year-old fish in 1940 and in view of the fact
that the percentage of fish in the 42 age-group in 1941 is relatively low, the pack is
obviously large in relation to the brood-years.
Commenting on the possibilities for the 1942 run, the author points out that this
year will be the production of the brood-years of 1937 and 1938. In the former year
the pack was 42,491 cases and in the latter year the pack was 47,257 cases. The
escapement in both years was reported as being good. Unless the production from
this escapement is exceptionally good, the author feels that the prospects for a large
run in 1942 would not appear to be very bright.
Nass River Sockeye Run, 1941.
With regard to the Nass River run of sockeye in 1941, the author contents himself
by observing that the pack in 1941 was 24,876 cases, which was close to the average
pack of the past twenty-nine years, and that the run in 1942 will be derived from the
spawnings of 1937 and 1938. In the former year the pack was 17,567 cases, with the
escapement reported as being quite good on the whole, and in the latter year the pack
was 21,462 cases with the escapement reported as being heavy. As previously stated,
the returns to the Nass River are entirely unpredictable.
PILCHARD AND HERRING INVESTIGATIONS.
The pilchard and herring investigations have been carried on during the year
under a continuation of the agreement between the Fisheries Research Board of
Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department, and they have continued to provide
information on the stocks of fish which supply these two important British Columbia
fisheries. The work has been conducted by Dr. J. L. Hart, Dr. A. L. Tester, Dr. R. V.
Boughton, and their assistants. The personnel engaged in this work has been reduced
owing to two experienced men having joined the armed forces.
Pilchards.
The pilchard-fishery proved unexpectedly successful during the 1941 season and
the catch made for unit fishing effort was as high as it has ever been since the inception
of the fishery. This unexpectedly successful year was a result of the occurrence on
the fishing-grounds of a large proportion of pilchards which were smaller and younger
than those customarily encountered by the British Columbia fleet. The reason for the
occurrence is not plain, but is believed to be connected with hydrographic conditions
which brought younger-than-usual fish within range of the British Columbia fishing
operations. Evidently this physical phenomenon has followed the successful production of one or several abundant year-classes of young fish, but the degree to which
these year-classes are abundant can not be stated at the present time. A noteworthy
feature of the pilchard-fishery has been the taking of fish during the winter, since
several thousand tons of pilchards were captured along the west coast of Vancouver
Island during the winter months.
A curtailed tagging and tag-recovery programme has been maintained and, as
reported in the Appendix, has been instrumental in demonstrating some of the relationships between the pilchard populations along the west coast of the North American
continent. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 23
Herring.
The British Columbia herring-fishery has assumed greatly increased importance
because of the need for canned herring to augment the food-supply of the United
Kingdom during the war. In the 1940-41 herring season the total catch amounted to
over 94,000 tons, of which 76.7 per cent, was taken from fishing-grounds in the vicinity
of Vancouver Island and the balance, 23.3 per cent., from fishing-grounds to the north
of Vancouver Island. The total catch was less than that in the previous season, when
it amounted to over 150,000 tons, and the decrease is largely due to the failure of
herring to appear in quantity in the central and northern fishing-grounds prior to the
closure of the season. In the southern areas, on the contrary, the availability of the
fish was higher than in the previous year. The canned-herring production in 1940-41
(640,252 cases) was greater than in 1939-40 (418,021 cases).
Several features of the 1940-41 fishing season are revealed in daily catch statistics
collected through the medium of Pilot House Record Books: the failure of fishing in
Prince Rupert Harbour, but the exploiting of new grounds to the north at Union Bay
and Wark Channel; successful fishing during December and January at Aaltanhash
Inlet, near Butedale; a very late run to Laredo Inlet; extensive scouting of the Bella
Bella, Rivers Inlet, Smith Inlet, and Queen Charlotte Sound areas, but with relatively
poor returns; a lower availability at Deepwater Bay and Okisollo Channel than in the
previous year; high availability and early attainment of the 30,000-ton quota on the
south-east coast of Vancouver Island; and slightly more successful fishing on the west
coast of Vancouver Island than in the previous year, with " outside " fishing in Nicolaye
Channel, Kyuquot Sound.
The sampling of the commercial catch to determine size, age composition, and
growth rate was continued iii 1940-41 with the collection of 129 samples, comprising
about 13,700 fish. It was found that on the south-east and west coasts of Vancouver
Island the herring were larger than in the two previous years, and that the precociously
mature group of age II. was no longer present. Fish of the 1938 year-class (age III.)
were particularly abundant and formed about 80 per cent, of the catch on the southeast coast, and in Clayoquot, Nootka, and Kyuquot Sounds. There was great variation
in age composition between samples from different fishing-grounds in the Queen Charlotte Sound area, and, in general, the fish were older but smaller than those from areas
to the south. To the north of Vancouver Island, there was a general decrease in
average length and age from that of 1939-40. The 1938 year-class was particularly
abundant at Laredo Inlet and Bella Bella.
Spawning-ground studies were again made with the co-operation and assistance
of Department of Fisheries officers. For the Strait of Georgia, the spawning appeared
to be slightly heavier than in 1940, whereas on the west coast of Vancouver Island it
was slightly lighter. In the Queen Charlotte Sound area it also appeared to be slightly
lighter, but in most northern areas it showed a fair increase.
A memorandum was prepared covering the five-year test of a quota system of
regulation of the herring-fishery of both the east and west coast of Vancouver Island.
The general reaction of the herring populations to the quotas was assessed. During
the five-year period the east coast fishery has been fairly stable and limited by the
quota. On the west coast the catch declined to 1938-39 and then increased slightly,
but only in one year, 1936-37, has the quota been approximated. On the average, the
spawn-deposition has been much less on the west than on the east coast. As a result
of this experiment, the Department of Fisheries requested that the tests be continued
for a second five-year period, and revised the quotas by raising that for the east coast
and lowering that for the west coast.
Racial studies, which have had as their objective, firstly, the defining of individual
geographical populations if possible, and secondly, the extent of their intermingling,
have been largely curtailed and a report of the findings is being prepared. The amount
of useful information which can be obtained from studies of this type is definitely
limited, and the method has been supplanted by the more direct approach of tagging
and tag-recovery. J 24 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
A complete account of tagging and tag-recovery during the 1941-42 season is
included in the Appendix to this report. The tag returns in 1941-42 were less than
in previous years, chiefly because of the larger quantities of fish canned and the smaller
quantities reduced. In the canned fish, tags may be recovered from the offal which
passes through reduction plants, but it is known that this is not nearly as productive
of tags as whole fish. Although the information obtained in 1940-41 is somewhat less
than in previous years, the results confirm past findings with regard to the practical
independence of the populations in major areas—i.e., the Strait of Georgia, the west
coast of Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Sound, the central coast-line, and the northern coast-line. They again show that within major areas there is some mixing of the
runs to particular localities, but that this mixing is incomplete. The 1941-42 results
gave indications of this tendency toward segregation in the runs to various fishing-
grounds in the Strait of Georgia.
THE CLAM INVESTIGATION.
The investigation into the clams of British Columbia was continued in 1941. This
investigation was instituted in order to ascertain the conditions prevailing on some of
the clam-beaches of British Columbia, particularly those which have been exploited
commercially for some considerable length of time. The investigation was undertaken
by the Fisheries Research Board at the request of the Provincial Fisheries Department
and is financed jointly by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Provincial
Fisheries Department. The work was commenced by Dr. Roy Elsey and latterly has
been carried on by Mr. D. B. Quayle. Mr. Quayle obtained leave of absence for the
purpose of joining the Royal Canadian Air Force, and the scientific work is now being
conducted by Mr. Ferris Neave, of the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo.
In the Appendix to this Department's report for 1939 there appeared a preliminary
report on the investigation by Mr. Quayle. While the investigation is primarily for
the purpose of obtaining information on the clams of the Province, it is broad enough
to include shell-fish generally and in future reports it is possible that reports will be
given on other species than clams.
In the Appendix to this report will be found a report, " The Butter-clam (Saxi-
domus giganteus Deshayes) : Studies in Productivity," by Ferris Neave. In this
paper Mr. Neave makes a comparison between the productivity of different areas in
respect of butter-clams in the terms of average catch per " man-tide." Mr. Neave also
comments on an experiment which has been started on Seal Island, near Comox, to
investigate the relation between clam population and production and to determine the
effect of limiting the annual catch under a quota system. In this paper figures are
presented showing the catch made during the first season from beach areas of known
extent, together with estimates of the clam population of these areas. From this preliminary work and the evidence adduced so far, Mr. Neave concludes that there appeared
to be a direct relation between abundance of clams and the yield obtained. It is generally
conceded that the clam-beaches in the lower part of British Columbia which have been
exploited for the longest period of time have been depleted to some extent, and it is
hoped that this investigation will be the means of indicating to what extent this has
occurred and pointing to a means of correction.
These papers outlining the progress of the work will be published in this report
from time to time.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1941.
The International Fisheries Commission completed its tenth year of successful
regulation of the Pacific halibut-fishery. It continued the scientific investigations of
the fishery and of the stocks of halibut that provide the basis for rational control of
the fishery.
Meetings of the Commission were held on June 12th and on November 27th, 28th,
and 29th. During these the condition of the fishery and the programme of investigation and regulation were considered. On November 28th the Commission met with the
Conference Board, composed of representatives of the fishermen's and owners' organ- BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 25
izations from British Columbia, Washington, and Alaska. At this conference the
success of the conservation measures adopted by the Commission was discussed and
recommendations for the regulation of the fishery in 1942 were received from the fleets.
The members of the Commission were the same as in 1940: Mr. L. W. Patmore
(chairman) and Mr. A. J. Whitmore for Canada; Mr. Edward W. Allen (secretary)
and Mr. Charles E. Jackson for the United States. At the meeting of November 29th
Mr. Edward W. Allen was elected chairman and Mr. L. W. Patmore secretary for the
calendar years 1942 and 1943.
Halibut-fishing regulations in 1941 were essentially the same as in 1940. The
Area 2 catch-limit of 22,700,000 lb. was retained. However, the Area 3 catch-limit was
increased 1,000,000 lb. from 25,300,000 to 26,300,000 lb. The validity of permits for
the retention of halibut caught incidentally during fishing for other species in areas
closed to halibut-fishing was extended to twenty days after closure" of the last area open
to halibut-fishing. The opening date of the 1942 season was set as midnight of
April 15th.
The catch-limits of Areas 2 and 3 were attained earlier in 1941 and the fishing
season was shorter than in any previous year. Fishing began on April 1st, as in 1940.
The grounds south of Cape Spencer, Area 2, were closed to fishing at midnight of June
30th, thirteen days earlier than in 1940. Area 3, west of Cape Spencer, was closed at
midnight of September I4th, twelve days earlier than in 1940. As provided in the
regulations, Areas 1 and 4 closed at the same time as Areas 2 and 3 respectively.
Permits for the retention of halibut caught incidentally during other fishing in Area 2
became invalid at midnight of October 4th.
The total catch of halibut on the Pacific Coast in 1941 was 52,118,000 lb. Of this,
342,000 lb. were recorded from Area 1 south of Willapa Harbor, Washington; 23,845,000
lb. from Area 2, and 27,941,000 lb. from Area 3. No catches were made in Area 4.
The Area 2 catch included 510,000 lb. taken under permit while fishing for other species
after closure of Area 2.
The earlier attainment of the catch-limits and the earlier closure of the areas
resulted from a combination of factors. There was an increase in the number of
regular halibut vessels and of small boats fishing in Area 2. Several large vessels,
chiefly from the sardine or pilchard fishery, joined the Area 3 fleet. A larger proportion of the catches from both areas was landed at ports closer to the fishing-grounds.
As a result of the earlier closure of Area 2, a greater number of Area 2 vessels fished in
Area 3 after closure of the former. The Area 2 class of vessel that in 1932, the first
year of regulation, caught only 224,000 lb. in Area 3, accounted for 6,827,000 lb. of the
Area 3 catch in 1941.
The fleets continued their programme of voluntary curtailment, involving lay-up
periods between trips and limits upon the size of trips, to spread the permitted catch-
limits over a longer period of the year. Lay-up periods were increased in 1941, but
were insufficient to compensate for the factors that tended to further shorten the season.
However, the season would have been materially shorter had the curtailment programme
not been in effect.
The total number of regular halibut-boats in the Canadian Area 2 fleet decreased
but the fishing power of the fleet increased. The addition of several larger vessels more
than offset a decline in number of smaller boats. The Canadian catch of halibut was
12,880,000 lb., about 250,000 lb. greater than in 1940 and the second highest annual
catch since 1915. Of this catch, 10,530,000 lb. were reported as from Area 2 and
2,350,000 lb. as from Area 3, constituting 44 per cent, and 8 per cent, respectively of the
totals for those areas.
The scientific investigations of the Commission which have been found to be indispensable to the rational control of the fishery were continued. Changes in the fishery
and changes in the condition of the stocks resulting from past regulation were measured
and analysed to determine the proper course of future regulation.
The condition of the spawning stock in Area 2 was studied by means of quantitative determinations of the abundance of eggs and larvse on the important spawning
area in the vicinity of Cape St. James, British Columbia. The operations of the
halibut-vessel  " Eagle," which were begun  in late December,  1940, were continued J 26 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
until the middle of March, 1941. A total of 399 net-hauls were made at 158 stations,
which have been sampled annually in a comparable manner for the past eight years.
Hydrographic samples were taken at twelve stations to determine the currents and
water conditions in the spawning area. Similar operations were again undertaken in
early December, 1941.
A preliminary analysis of the materials collected during investigation of the
success of spawning in the winter of 1940-41 indicates that for the fourth consecutive
season no increase in the production of spawn occurred.. This finding is in accord with
results from other studies of the Commission in respect to the present condition of the
Area 2 stock.
Study of the changes taking place in the composition of the stocks of adult halibut
as a result of regulation was continued. More than 75,000 fish in the market catches
from representative fishing-grounds were measured, 43,000 from banks off the coast of
British Columbia in Area 2 and 32,000 from grounds off Alaska in Area 3. These
measurements showed that the Area 3 stock is in sound condition but that Area 2 still
has relatively few spawners. As in the case of other investigations of the condition of
the Area 2 stock, these data failed to indicate any improvement.
Determination of the changes in the age-composition of the adult stocks, a more
exact method of measuring the changes in the stocks, was begun using age materials
collected incidentally during the taking of market measurements. When completed,
this will accurately relate the changes that have occurred to the years in which they
originated and thus to the events producing them.
The investigations of the Commission prove that the condition of the stock of
halibut in Area 3 has improved markedly under regulation. The abundance and
average size of the fish are both greater, indicating the presence of a greater supply
of fish of spawning size. The stock has been rebuilt to the condition that prevailed
about 1924. With the expenditure of only 50 per cent, as much fishing effort and
without injury to the future yield, it is now producing as great a catch as was obtained
in 1930 with unrestricted fishing. The stock is in sound condition but must be kept
under close observation as the rate of improvement, which was at first very rapid, is
diminishing.
The condition of the Area 2 stock has also improved greatly since 1930, but is still
far from sound. As in Area 3, the initial rate of improvement was very rapid. However, the rate of improvement slowed down after 1935 and since 1938 has ceased. This
cessation of improvement must be viewed with concern, as replenishment of the stock
by reproduction is still very limited in amount.
The cessation of improvement in Area 2 coincided with and must be ascribed to.
the catching of large amounts of halibut in excess of the permitted catch-limits, chiefly
through illegal fishing after closure of the area. Due to these excess catches, the actual
catch in Area 2 has become as great as those which were taken about 1924 and which
caused a deterioration of the stock when it was in a condition comparable to that now
existing. The past history of the fishery indicates that unless such excess catches are
eliminated the gains resulting from the past ten years of regulation in Area 2 will
be lost.
INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1941.
Under the treaty between Canada and the United States, known generally as the
" Sockeye Treaty," there was set up in 1937 the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission, which Commission is charged with investigating the various problems
connected with the sockeye-salmon runs to the Fraser River. The scientific work of
this Commission is under the direction of Dr. W. F. Thompson, who formerly directed
the scientific work of the International Fisheries Commission dealing with the halibut-
fishery of the Pacific. We have prevailed upon Dr. Thompson to briefly review the
scientific work in connection with the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission covering the year 1941. Dr. Thompson's report deals chiefly with the conditions
prevailing at Hell's Gate, although mention is also made of other activities in connection
with the Commission's investigation into the sockeye runs to the Fraser River. Dr.
Thompson's report will be found in the Appendix to this report. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 27
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 27.)
By W. A. Clemens, Department of Zoology, The University
of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
Of the 455,297 cases of sockeye salmon packed in 1941 in British Columbia, 200,021
consisted of fish proceeding to Rivers Inlet and the Skeena and Nass Rivers.
The Rivers Inlet pack amounted to 93,378 cases, which is above the average of the
past thirty-four years—namely, 82,813 cases. The Dominion Fisheries Inspector reports
the spawning-grounds to have been " well seeded."
The pack of Skeena River fish was 81,767 cases, which is below the average of the
past thirty-four years—namely, 91,850. However, the deposition of eggs throughout
the river system is stated to have been very satisfactory.
The Nass River pack consisted of 24,876 cases, which is slightly above the average
of the past twenty-nine years—namely, 21,835 cases. The escapement is reported as
heavy and the conditions for spawning as very satisfactory.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in
designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in
which the fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two
numbers, one in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small
type, placed to the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish
left the fresh water.    The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
31; 4j—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature
at the ages of three and four years respectively.
■   32—" the grilse,"  usually males,  which migrate in their  second year and
mature at the age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of
four and five respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five
and six respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of
six and seven respectively.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1941.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
As stated previously the pack of sockeye salmon at Rivers Inlet in 1941 amounted
to 93,378 cases. This falls in what may be considered as the medium-size range; that
is, between 60,000 and 100,000 cases. A goodly number of four-year-old fish from the
1937 brood-year appeared in the run, as well as a rather large number of five-year-old
fish from the 1936 spawning.
It may be recalled that there was an exceptionally large escapement in 1936 because
of a strike among the fishermen. Also, that late in the autumn there occurred a very
severe freshet which was feared to have caused considerable damage to the spawning-
beds. Since there have been no extraordinary returns of fish in either 1940 or 1941,
it would seem reasonable to conclude that the freshet did have some adverse effect upon
the production, but just how much cannot be determined. J 28
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
The return in 1942 will be the result of the spawnings in 1937 and 1938. In the
former year the pack was 84,832 cases and the escapement was stated to have been
satisfactory. In the latter year the pack was 87,942 cases and the escapement was
reported as " better than usual." In view of the fact that these packs were somewhat
above the average and that the escapements were apparently good, it would seem that
a run at least approximately equivalent to those of 1937 and 1938 should appear.
(2.) Age-groups.
The data for this year's study were obtained from 2,286 fish taken in twenty-nine
random samplings of the commercial catch from June 30th to August 1st. The 42
age-group is represented by 1,338 individuals forming 59 per cent., the 52 age-group
by 922 individuals or 40 per cent., the 53 by 20 or 1 per cent., and the 63 by 6 fish.
In addition there is one individual of the 41 age-group and one of the 31 age-group
(Table I.).
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 21.3 and
21.7 inches respectively. These are considerably below the averages of the past twenty-
nine years and the lowest on record, with the exception of the year 1936. As was the
case in 1940, the females slightly exceed the males in average length. In the 52 age-
group, the average lengths are 25.0 and 24.7 inches for males and females respectively.
These are approximately equivalent to the averages of the past years of record
(Table IV.).
The average weights of the males and females are 4.1 and 4.2 lb. respectively.
These are much below the averages of the past twenty-nine years and in the case of
the males constitute a new low record. In the 52 age-group the average weights are
6.4 and 6.1 lb. for the males and females respectively and are somewhat below the
average of the past years of record (Table V.).
It is evident that the fish comprising the run of 1941 are comparatively small in
size. The difference in lengths and weights of the fish of the 52 age-group in 1940
and 1941 is particularly striking. The difference in size of fish in the two years is
reflected in the number of fish required to fill a 48-lb. case. In 1940 the figure was
12.61 while in 1941 it is 13.40. These data are supplied through the kindness of
Major J. A. Motherwell.
The information concerning the distribution of lengths and weights in 1941 is
given in Tables II. and III.
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 1,208 and of females 1,080, percentages of 53 and 47 respectively. The averages for the past twenty-seven years are
50 and 50 respectively. In the 42 age-group the males predominate with a percentage
of 69, while in the 52 age-group the females predominate with a percentage of 71.
While these percentages are rather high, they are not exceptional (Table VI.). BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 29
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
5,
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
(87,874 cases).-.
(64,652 cases) ...
(89,027 cases)-.
(126,921 cases).
(88,763 cases) ...
(112,884 cases).
(61,745 cases) ...
(89,890 cases)...
(130,350 cases).
(44,936 cases).:..
(61,195 cases)..
(53,401 cases)-.
(56,258 cases)-
(121,254 cases).
(46,300 cases)-
(60,700 cases)-
(107,174 cases).
(94,891 cases)...
(159,554 cases).
(65,581 cases) —
(64,461 cases)...
(60,044 cases)....
(70,260 cases)...
(119,170 cases).
(76,428 cases) —
(69,732 cases) ...
(83,507 cases)...
(76,923 cases)-
(135,038 cases).
(46,351 cases)..
(84,832 cases)...
(87,942 cases)...
(54,143 cases) —
(63,469 cases)-
(93,378 cases) —
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40 -
^^^
J 30              REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Table II.-
—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1941, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals,
Total.
42.
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
171/.	
1
1
18... 	
	
18 V.      	
2
2
19   —	
9
9
19 %
31
1
32
20.	
96
10
1
107
20 y_
157
30
1
1
189
21
168
171
89
99
--
1
2
2                     1
261
277
2i y,   	
5
22               —
128
60
86
54
2
4
1
27
2
1
4
220
149
22 y™
23 	
39
34
24
15
24
26
41
62
1
129
137
' 23 V.                    	
24 	
17
5
28
95
145
3
2
43
123
1
1
173
25	
5
1
29
119
1
155
251/..	
33
75
3
111
26	
1
27
64
92
26y2     	
24
28
52
27	
—
24
12
36
271/,
4
1
1
6
28     -
Totals —	
Ave. lengths
3
3
921                417
271
651
12                     8
2
4
2,286
21.33       |    21.73            24.98
1                     1
24.66
21.42             22.25
1
26.25
25.25
Table III.-
—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 194-1, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
Total.
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.       1        F.
1
M.
F.
| |       !    j j!
2   —   —	
1
!
1
2%  	
■-    1    	
3    	
51
3
i    [
3V>
264
78
2
3                   1
4
312
175
2
6
5      |            1
41/.	
162
101
9
27
2        t              3
5	
74
46
25
77
1
2
sy,
36
12
47
145
1
6 	
19
1
55
144
219
W_	
2
1
39
108
3
153
7    	
40
76
1
1
118
7%    -
26
41
67
8                   .     -          -
17
22
1
8%  —.-
8
3
11
9 	
Totals
3
3
921                417                271
651
12
8                    2
4
2,286
Ave. weights	
4.07
4.18               6.35
I
6.06
3.96              4.56              7.50
1                    |
6.62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 31
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the 4-2 and 52
Groups, 1912 to 1941.
4
2
5
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912                   	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
22.1
22.3
22.6
22.7
21.9
22.4
22.1
22.4
22.4
21.0
22.0
23.1
22.0
22.0
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
22.8
22.2
22.6
22.0
22.4
22.0
22.2
22.4
'20.9
21.9
22.8
21.9
22.5
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.6
26.1
25.2
26.0
25.2
25.2
25.5
25.6
25.8
24.6
24.5
26.6
25.3
26.7
24.6
1913	
25.2
1914	
25.2
1915                                 -	
25.1
1916	
25.0
1917                                        . ..
24.4
1918 	
, 24.5
1919	
24.4
1920                 	
25.0
1921                                 	
24.2
1922	
1923	
24.2
24.1
1924
24.3
1925  ■	
24.8
1926 	
24.6
1927 :	
24.2
1928     	
25.2
1929 	
25.3
1930	
25.2
1931 —	
24.8
1932 •  	
24.6
1933 	
24.7
1934	
25.0
1935        	
25.1
1936	
23.4
1937	
24.0
1938  	
25.5
1939
24.5
1940    	
25 6
22.4
22.4
25.4
24.7
1941    -   	
21.3
21.7
25.0
24 7 J 32
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the 4_ and 52
Groups, 1914 to 1941.
42
52
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914    :  ...
1915                                  - -	
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.0
4.9
4.5
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.5
4.9
4.6
4.7
4.4
4.7
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
6.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.0
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.3
4.1
4.4
4.5
4.2
4.8
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.6
7.5
6.7
6.5
7.3
7.3
6.9
7.9
6.1
7.1
6.5
8.2
6.8
6.6
1916       	
1917  .  .                 	
6.7
6.2
1918      	
1919	
6.7
5.9
1921    _ —	
6.0
1922     	
1923  	
7.0
5.9
1924  .  .                              	
6.1
1925         	
6.2
1926 -	
6.3
1927   	
1928  	
1929          	
7.6
6.7
6.7
1930  — 	
6.9
1931 	
6.4
1932         	
6.5
1933 	
6.6
1934..	
6.7
1935	
6.1
1936  	
6.7
1937 _	
5 8
1938  	
6 4
1939
5 9
1940	
4.9
4.8
7.0
1941  	
4.1
4.2
6.4
6.1 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 33
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1941.
Year.
42
5
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915  . .            	
65
63
79
77
74
63
66
71
74
66
63
68
63
57
56
59
54
56
55
63
43
61
49
56
64
69
35
37
21
23
26
37
34
29
26
34
37
32
37
43
44
41
46
44
45
37
57
39
51
44
36
31
43
39
49
41
48
40
38
31
31
34
32
36
30
36
37
33
' 28
32
27
39
20
28
32
37
23
29
67
61
61
59
52
60
62
69
69
66
68
64
70
64
63
67
72
68
73
61
80
72
68
63
77
71
45
49
48
66
58
49
51
61
62
50
41
51
62
60
53
47
47
47
42
49
63
32
48
87
50
52
53
55
1916 ...              - .	
51
1917                    	
52
1918
34
1919 	
1920 ..    . —
42
61
1921                   	
49
1922                   	
39
1923 A    	
1924    	
1925  .                 , 	
38
50
59
1926         	
49
1927  	
38
1928 - „	
50
1929 	
47
1930 	
53
1931 -	
53
1932 -    ,  	
53
1933    	
1934    	
1935	
58
51
47
1936	
68
1937  	
52
1938	
1939  -	
63
50
1940	
1941   	
47
63  |
1
37
34
66
50
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1941.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The run of sockeye salmon to the Skeena River produced a pack of 81,767 cases,
with an escapement described as very satisfactory. It was stated in the 1940 report
that the size of the run in 1941 would depend largely upon the production of four-
year-old fish from the spawning of 1937 since the 1936 spawning had already produced
a very large run of four-year-old fish in 1940. In view of the fact that the percentage
of fish in the 42 age-group in 1941 is relatively low, the paek is obviously large in
relation to the brood-years.
The return in 1942 will be the production of the brood-years 1937 and 1938. In
the former year the pack was 42,491 cases and in the latter year 47,257 cases. In both
years the escapements were reported as very good. Unless the production from these
escapements is exceptionally good, the prospects for a large run in 1942 would not
appear to be very bright.
(2.) Age-groups.
The length, weight, and sex data and scale collections were obtained from 1,830
fish in forty-four random samplings from July 3rd to August 22nd. The 42 age-group
is represented by 707 individuals or 39 per cent., the 52 by 959 or 52 per cent., the 53
by 142 or 8 per cent., and the 63 by 22 or 1 per cent. (Table VII.). The five-year-old
fish thus constitute 60 per cent, of the sampling, and in view of the size of the pack
would seem to indicate a real preponderance of this age-class as well as a relative
scarcity of four-year-old fish. The brood-year of 1936 was thus extraordinarily successful in that it produced an exceptionally large number of four-year-old fish in 1940
and, in addition, a large number of five-year-olds in 1941.
3 J 34
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The average length of the males of the 42 age-group is 23.2 inches, which is somewhat below the average of 23.7 for the past twenty-nine years of record. That of the
females is 23.2 inches, practically identical with the average of the past years (Table X.).
It may be noted that the average lengths of the males and females are identical. This
is an unusual occurrence for the Skeena River fish. On the other hand, in the case of
Rivers Inlet fish the females not infrequently exceed the males in average length.
The average lengths of the males and females of the 52 age-group are 26.2 and
25.2 inches respectively. These are slightly above the past years of record. The
average lengths of the 53 and 63 age-groups present no unusual features  (Table X.).
The average weights of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 5.0 and 4.9
lb. respectively and are very slightly below the averages of the past years of record.
The average weights of the 52 age-group are 6.7 and 6.2 lb. for males and females
respectively and practically identical with the averages of the past years (Table XL).
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 657 and of females 1,173, percentages of 36 and 64 respectively. These figures represent a new record in the
proportions of males to females but are somewhat similar to those of 1939 and 1940,
when the percentages of males were 37 and 38 respectively. The females predominate
in both the 42 and 52 age-groups, with percentages of 62 and 67 respectively.
There has usually been an excess of females in the samplings from the Skeena
River, but in recent years the excess has become more pronounced.
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
(108,413 cases)..
(139,846 cases)..
(87,901 cases)....
(187,246 cases) ..
(131,066 cases) ..
(92,498 cases) ...
(52,927 cases) —
(130,166 cases)-
(116,553 cases)-
(60,923 cases) —
(65,760 cases) ....
(123,322 cases)..
(184,945 cases)-
(90,869 cases) —
(41,018 cases) -
(96,277 cases) —
(131,731 cases)..
(144,747 cases) ..
(77,784 cases)....
(82,360 cases) ...
(83,996 cases)....
(34,559 cases)....
(78,017 cases) -
(132,372 cases)..
(93,023 cases)....
(59,916 cases) ...
(30,506 cases) —
(54,558 cases)....
(52,879 cases) —
(81,973 cases) —
(42,491 cases)...
(47,257 cases) —
(68,485 cases) ...
(116,507 cases).
(81,767 cases)...
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
18
5
6
4
8
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5
4
1
1 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 35
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1941, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
5
2
5
<S
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
20	
1
1
2oy2	
1
1
	
2
21 	
13
1
14
21%	
20
17
1
4
42
22 	
24
43
2
3
7
79
22% —	
38
75
1
5
21
140
23 	
32
97
10
4
11
154
23 %  	
37
102
7
24
8
18
1
197
24 	
51
31
58
29
10
12
48
107
17
13
11
7
3
3
198
24%	
202
25   	
15
10
32
129
9
1
2
198
26%  —	
5
3
38
131
1
3
3
184
26      ...
3
61
106
1
1
172
26%..  	
60
71
1
132
27    	
45
16
2
63
27% 	
36
2
	
2
40
28 	
5
	
5
28%	
4
4
29  	
2
1
3
Totals -	
271
436
312
647
62
80
12
10
1,830
23.23
23.16
26.16
25.23
24.17
23.11
26.17
24.8
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1941, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
53
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.        1        F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
3   	
1
1
3%	
7
6
1
14
4	
39
42
2
1
6
	
90
4%—,- -	
56
121
3
13
11
25
1
230
5 	
68
148
7
52
10
26
1
1
313
5%—  -	
51
84
26
110
20
15
4
310
6           	
35
29
40
180
16
5
2
1
308
6%—	
9
5
77
158
4
2
4
1
260
7 	
5
1
80
98
3
2
189
7% 	
53
31
84
8 	
22
3
25
8%	
4
2
6
Totals	
271
436
312
647
62
80
12
10
1,830
Ave. weights	
5.02
4.93
6.73
6.15
5.41
4.94
6.75
5.8 J 36
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1941.
Year.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 	
24.6
23.5
26.4
25.2
1913-   —	
23.5
22.9
25.5
24.7
1914  —
24.2
23.4
26.2
25.1
1916 	
24.2
23.5
25.9
25.0
24.5
23.4
25.6
24.4
1916 —	
23.9
23.6
26.2
25.0
24.1
23.8
26.2
24.8
1917 	
23.6
23.2
25.5
24.7
23.9
23.8
25.4
25.0
1918 	
24.1
23.3
25.9
25.0
23.9
23.4
25.2
24.7
1919	
24.3
23.4
25.7
24.8
24.3
23.4
25.8
24.7
1920 	
23.8
23.2
26.2
25.3
24.1
23.4
26.2
25.1
1921.	
23.8
23.1
25.2
24.2
24.2
23.4
24 9
24 2
1922    	
23.6
23.2
25.3
24.4
23.8
23.3
24.6
24.1
1923 - 	
23.7
23.1
25.5
24.5
23.9
23.2
25.6
24.4
1924 	
24.1
23.3
26.2
25.2
24.7
23.6
25.8
24.8
1925 	
23.6
22.8
25.6
24.7
24.1
23.3
25 8
24 8
1926 — 	
23.8
23.4
25.6
24.8
24.6
23.8
26.0
25.0
1927 	
23.9
23.3
25.7
24.8
24.1
23.5
25.2
24 9
1928  	
23.3
22.8
25.3
24.7
23.5
22.8
25.6
24.7
1929    	
22.9
22.7
25.5
24.7
23.8
22.8
25.5
24.3
1930 	
23.1
22.7
24.7
23.9
23.5
22 4
1931 —  	
23.5
23.1
25.7
24.8
23.8
23.1
25.8
24.7
1932   	
23.4
22.7
25.2
24.4
24.1
22.8
25.4
24.4
1933  	
23.2
22.8
26.1
25.2
24.3
23.4
26.4
25.3
1934  	
23.8
23.2
26.3
25.2
25.2
24.1
26.0
24.9
1935  	
23.1
22.9
26.3
25 2
23 6
22 8
26 2
1936	
23.8
23 2
26 0
25 2
24 4
26.0
25.6
1937 	
23.5
22.9
26.2
25.1
24.9
24.1
26.9
1938	
23.3
22.5
25.3
24.4
23.6
23.1
25.6
24.3
1939    	
24.1
23.9
26.1
25.4
24.8
24.1
26.3
25.1
1940  	
24.0
23.3
27.0
25.7
24.3
23.8
27.0
26.1
Average lengths 	
23.7
23.1
25.8
24.9
24.1
23.4
25.8
24.8
1941	
23.2
23.2
26.2
25.2
24.2
23.1
26.2
24.8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 37
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1941.
Year.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914   	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.2
6.6
7.1
6.3
1915     	
6.0
1916 —        —       	
5.9
1917 —	
5.8
1918   ..  	
5.8
5.3
6.9
6.4
5.7
5.3
6.6
6.1
1919	
6.1
5.5
7.0
6.2
6.1
5.4
6.9
6.3
1920 —	
5.6
5.1
7.2
6.4
6.3
5.1
7.3
6.3
1921 —   •	
5.7
5.1
6.4
5.7
5.8
5.1
6.0
5.6
1922 	
5.4
5.1
6.5
5.7
5.5
5.1
6.2
5.7
1923   —
5.3
4.9
6.3
5.7
5.3
4.8
6.3
5.4
1924 	
5.6
5.0
7.0
6.3
5.9
5.1
6.6
5.8
1925	
5.1
4.7
6.5
5.8
5.5
4.9
6.9
5.4
1926   —
5.3
5.1
6.5
5.8
5.9
5.2
6.9
6.2
1927	
5.4
5.1
6.5
5.9
5:4
5.0
6.0
6.8
1928	
5.0
4.6
6.4
5.8
5.0
4.6
6.5
6.8
1929 —.
4.9
4.7
6.8
6.2
5.6
4.9
6.8
5 7
1930 —
5.4
5.1
6.7
6 0
5.6
5.0
6.8
5 8
1931   	
5.4
5.1
6.8
6.3
5.5
5.0
6.9
6.0
1932—  	
5.4
4.9
6.9
6.1
6.0
5.0
6.8
5.9
1933
4.9
4.7
7 1
6 3
5.7
5.0
7.1
6.3
6.2
1934 —	
5.7
5.2
7.7
6.6
6.7
5.8
7.7
1935     	
5.1
4.9
7.4
6.5
5.5
4.7
7.2
6 4
1936 ■ • -
5.6
5.2
7.3
6 6
6.1
5.5
7.4
6 2
1937 	
4.9
4.6
6.4
5.8
5.7
5.1
7.0
6 1
1988 ■	
5.2
4.6
6.6
6.1
5.3
5.0
6.9
5.9
1939 —	
4.9
4.7
6.3
5.7
5.4
4.9
6.6
6.5
1940	
5.6
5.1
8.2
6.9
5.7
5.2
8.2
6 8
Average weights	
5.4
5.0
6.8
6.1
5.7
5.1
6.8
6.0
1941 . - —.
5.0
4.9
6.7
6.2
5.4
4.9
6.8
5 8
. J 38
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1941.
Year.
4
2
5
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1915	
56
44
45
55
49
51
1916   	
70
30
43
57
55
45
1917 - — - -	
66
34
48
52
60
40
1918    	
63
37
46
54
67
43
1919 	
53
47
46
54
49
51
1920—   - 	
41
59
37
63
38
62
1921 _	
44
56
44
56
45
55
1922 -  	
52
48
41
59
50
50
1923 -	
60
40
37
63
52
48
1924 ...  _	
50
50
43
57
45
55
1925   	
57
43
42
58
60
50
1926     	
40
60
43
67
42
58
1927   	
45
55
41
59
44
56
1928     	
48
52
45
55
46
54
1929  	
50
50
46
54
50
50
1930  	
47
53
56
44
53
47
1931 ,.  -  	
43
67
39
61
44
56
1932   —
47
53
63
37
54
46
1933	
48
52
40
60
45
55
1934	
42
58
33
67
39
61
1935 - .;.. 	
41
69
32
68
40
60
1936 - 	
38
62
36
64
39
61
1937     „
45
65
39
61
42
58
1938 - -	
40
60
61
49
42
58
1939      	
34
66
42
68
1940	
38
62
39
61
38
62
1941	
38
62
33
67
36
64
48
52
43
57
46
54
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1941.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The pack of sockeye salmon from the Nass River run in 1941 was 24,876 cases.
This, as stated previously, is close to the average pack of the past twenty-nine years, in
which the range has been from 5,540 cases in 1928 to 39,349 in 1915.
The run in 1942 will be derived from the spawnings of 1937 and 1938. In the
former year the pack was 17,567 cases and the escapement was reported as " quite good
on the whole." In the latter year the pack was 21,462 cases and the escapement was
recorded as large and the seeding heavy. As stated in previous reports, the returns to
the Nass River are entirely unpredictable.
(2.) Age-groups.
The analysis of the run of 1941 is based upon data for 1,581 fish obtained in forty-
six randon samplings from July 1st to August 22nd. The representation of the various
age-groups is as follows: 42, 579 fish or 37 per cent.; 52, 118 fish or 7 per cent.;
53, 828 fish or 52 per cent.;  and 63, 56 fish or 4 per cent. (Table XIII.).
The outstanding feature is the exceptionally high percentage of the 42 group of fish
and the correspondingly low percentage of the 53 group. Over the past twenty-nine
years the average representation of the former age-class has been 16 per cent, and of
the latter 67 per cent. Since the 53 fish constitute the dominant age-class in Nass River
system, apparently the condition in 1941 should be attributed to a limited number of
five-year-old fish rather than to an exceptional number of four-year-olds. It may be
noted that the Fishery Inspector reported for the Meziadin Lake spawning-ground
areas that " the run was composed of large and medium sized fish about evenly divided." BRITISH COLUMBIA.                                                        J 39
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 25 and 24
inches respectively and somewhat above the averages of the past years of record.   The
averages for the 53 age-group are 26.1 and 25.1 respectively and almost identical with
the average of the past years.   The averages for the smaller age-groups—namely, the
52 and 63—are somewhat above the twenty-nine-year averages.
The average weights of the males and females in the 42 age-group are 6.2 and 5.5
lb. respectively and in the 53 age-group, 6.6 and 6.0 lb. respectively.    The former are
slightly above the averages of the past years and the latter slightly below (Tables XVI.
and XVII.).
(4.) Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 755 and of females 826, percentages
of 48 and 52 respectively.    The above percentages are almost identical with those of the
averages of the twenty-seven years of record—namely, 47 and 53.   In the 42, 52, and 53
age-classes the females slightly outnumbered the males in the 1941 run (Table XVIII.).
Table XIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
from 1912 to 1941 and Packs.
Percentage of Individuals.
42
52                    53
63
1912  (36 037 cases)        	
1
R                            27                             B3
2
1913  (23,574 cases)	
15
12
71
2
1914 (31 327 cases)                 - -	
4
41
45
10
1915  (39,349 cases)	
19
14
59
8
1916 (31,411 cases)                        	
9
17
66
8
1917  (22,188 cases) -	
10
15
71
4
30
16
45
9
1919  (28.259 cases)_             —	
7
22
65
6
1920  (16,740 cases)-	
8
14'
72
6
1921   (9,364 cases)      	
10
7
75
8
6
2
91
1
1923  (17 821 cases)                      -  	
11
6
77
6
4
3
91
2
1925  (18,946 cases)       -	
23
8
67
2
1926  (15,929 cases)	
12
12
63
13
1927   (12,026 cases) -     -
8
7
81
4
1928 (5 540 cases)                  	
30
6
61
3
25
9
60
6
28
15
64
3
1°31   (16 929 cases)
10
17
67
6
1932 (14,154 cases)                              -	
28
4
61
7
1933   (9,757 cases)            -	
35
7
55
3
13
9
74
4
11
10
73                          6
1936  (28,562 cases) - -
16
7
67
10
1937   (17 567 cases)                          	
22
4
68
6
21
4
70
fi
1939  (24,357 cases)          - -	
14
13
66          |            7
1940   (13,809 cases)                      -	
23           |            8
69          |          10
1941   (24,876 cases)                    - - -	
37           1              7
52                        4
!                       1 J 40
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Table XIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1941, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
42
52
h
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
21	
2
6
10
24
53
76
56
35
13
2
1
4
8
45
59
77
49
43
13
3
1
3
11
5
14
8
6
5
1
1
3
5
16
12
15
5
7
9
8
43
41
110
88
60
16
4
7
18
41
68
119
101
76
15
3
1
1
3
1
2
3
3
9
7
11
3
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
21%                     	
22         -         .         '	
4
22%  	
10
23      	
58
23 % -  	
88
24                              	
154
24 %  	
183
25                          	
299
25% 	
230
26                          	
253
26% '
130
27                              	
91
27%                       	
29
28    	
28%                           -
21
13
29                           	
12
29%                        	
3
30	
2
Totals  	
277
302
54
64
379     |      449
45
11
1,581
Average lengths 	
25.01
23.98
26.99
25.55
26.11        25.09
I
28.07
26.95
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1941, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of
Individuals.
42
52
h
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3%
19
43
84
91
33
7
1
9
93
112
58
29
1
1
9
9
16
13
5
1
5
16
19
14
8
1
7
22
56
133
121
31
7
2
4
29
105
165
121
23
2
5
7
9
14
5
5
5
2
2
. 2
1
4
4%
13
5     .
149
5%	
288
6              	
380
6%..
7
7 V.
->  -	
412
209
75
8
37
8%             	
9         	
12
5
Totals      - —	
277
302
54
64
379    |      449
45
11
1,581
Average weights	
6.18
5.50
7.40
6.53
6.62
6.00
7.74
7.14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J  41
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1941.
Year.
42
52
h
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1012
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.5
24.9
24.6
24.9
24.9
24.9
23.8
24.1
24.9
25.6
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.6
23.8
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
■   23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
23.8
23.9
23.7
24.1
24.0
24.1
23.3
23.5
24.2
24.6
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.1
25.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
26.5
26.4
27.1
26.9
27.3
26.8
26.0
26.0
26.9
28.2
25.1
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.4
25.7
25.2
25.8
25.9
25.9
25.8
24.5
24.8
25.8
26.8
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.6
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
26.1
26.6
25.9
26.3
26.5
26.6
25.0
25.2
26.1
27.2
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
25.3
25.6
25.2
25.4
25.2
25.6
24.2
24.4
25.3
26.1
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2
27.9
28.2
28.3
28.4
28.6
28.9
28.3
27.2
26.6
27.9
29.3
25.6
26.6
25.6
25.3
26.7
25.5
25.2
26.7
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.5
25.4
25.4
27.0
26.5
26.2
26.2
26.8
27.1
27.1
27.9
27.1
27.6
27.1
26.3
26.1
26.6
28.1
1913
1914                   	
1915                                         	
1916
1917                                                 	
1918                                           	
1919 '. 	
1920                          -	
1921                   	
1922                                                   -   -
1993                                         '
1924  _ . .
1925	
1996
1927    -	
1928                    	
1929	
1930                                	
1931 -
1932                              .
1933                   -	
1
1934    	
1935               -    -
1936 , ..
1937             -	
1938                  :	
1939
1940                          	
Average lengths	
1941   _	
24.5
23.7
26.3
25.2
26.1
25.3
27.6
26.4
25.0
24.0
27.0    1      25.6
26.1    1      25.1
28.1
27.0
,i                    1
!               1
\. J 42
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Table XVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1941.
Year.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914
6.2
5.6
6.0
6.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
6.6
6.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
6.2
6.7
6.1
6.5
6.5
5.9
5.3
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
6.5
5.2
6.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
6.4
6.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.6
6.6
5.4
5.9
5.2
6.7
5.2
6.8
fi.O
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.4
7.5
8.1
8.4
7.8
7.8
6.8
7.4
6.8
8.9
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
6.5
6.8
6.6
7.0
7.3
6.5
7.1
6.1
6.3
6.1
7.8
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
7.1
6.8
7.3
7.0
7.6
7.0
7.6
6.2
6.5
6.0
8 0
6.5
6.6
6.2
6.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
6.5
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.7
6.1
6.7
5.5
5.8
5.3
7 n
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.6
8.2
8.3
8.7
8.4
9.4
8.4
8.7
7.8
7.6
7.1
9.5
6.8
191 s
6.5
lplfi
6.4
1917
6.4
1918
6.7
1919
6 7
1920                	
7.0
1921      	
6.6
1922	
6.6
1923   	
1924    _    _
6.8
6.5
19!>fi
6.3
1926          _
7.1
1927                   _
70
1928	
6.6
1929	
1930                         _    	
6.8
7 2
1931             .          	
74
1932     	
1933 	
7.6
7 9
1934     	
1886 	
8.1
1836 -
1«37
70
1938  ...
1939
6.8
6.1
8 5
1940  	
6.9             6.0
1
6.0              5.4
7.3
6.4
6.9              6.2
8.0
1941                	
6.2       1       K.K
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.0
7.7
7.1 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 43
Table XVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1941.
Year.
M.
6,
M.
F.
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
1915 .
1916.
1917.
1918
1919
1920 ..
1921 .
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927 ..
1928.
1929.
1930.
1881-
1932.
1833-
1934.
1835.
1836.
1937.
1838.
1939-
1940.
1941..
55
61
65
52
53
46
40
36
43
55
58
43
39
60
48
49
49
49
48
48
39
42
56
51
51
48
48
45
39
45
48
47
54
60
64
57
45
42
57
61
60
52
51
51
51
51
52
61
58
44
49
49
52
52
49
61
47
40
48
39
45
32
43
44
52
44
64
48
61
43
53
46
56
51
40
35
43
52
61
60
46
61
39
63
60
52
61
55
68
67
56
48
66
46
52
49
67
47
54
44
49
60
66
57
48
49
40
54
52
50
46
50
46
40
47
46
47
47
45
44
45
42
44
40
43
45
47
60
39
43
50
40
46
49
46
48
60
54
50
54
60
53
54
53
63
55
56
55
68
56
60
67
65
63
50
61
57
50
60
64
51
54
53
68
58
70
54
66
54
64
60
67
68
67
61
62
58
63
70
72
76
58
71
60
66
58
61
47
32
42
30
46
34
46
36
40
33
32
43
39
38
42
37
30
28
24
42
29
50
44
42
39
32
20
52
66
47
51
48
42
46
44
46
48
49
46
46
46
46
43
47
48
49
50
42
43
51
44
48
61
48
48
45
53
49
52
58
54
56
54
52
51
54
64
54
54
57
53
52
61
50
68
57
49
56
52
49
52
Average..
49
52
47
53
55
63 | 37
COMPARISON LENGTHS AND WEIGHTS OF SOCKEYES, 1940-41.
In 1940 the average lengths and weights of the fish composing the run to the Nass
River were exceptionally large. The records for the Skeena River fish were somewhat
above the averages of the past years and for Rivers Inlet the fish of the 52 age-group
were exceptionally large.
In 1941 the average lengths and weights of the Nass and Skeena River fish were
near the averages of the past years of record, while those of the Rivers Inlet fish were
considerably below the past years' averages.
The differences in average lengths and weights for 1940 and 1941 are presented in
Table XIX. In order to simplify comparisons the averages of the male and female
lengths and weights are given.
It will be seen that in all cases, except for the lengths of the 63 fish of Rivers
Inlet, where the representation of this age-group is very small, the fish were shorter
and lighter in 1941.
It seemed of interest to determine the relation of weight to length among the fish
of the various age-groups for the two years. For this purpose there has been used
what is usually called the " condition factor." The procedure followed was that commonly used wherein the weight is multiplied by 100,000 and the product divided by
the cube of the length. The figure 42 is usually considered as the average " condition
factor." Values above this represent increasing plumpness and values below decreasing plumpness. The data in Table XIX. indicate that the Rivers Inlet fish, in spite of
their small size, are plumper in relation to their length than are the fish of the other
two areas and, on the other hand, the large fish of the Nass River are less plump in
relation to their lengths. J 44
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Furthermore, for each river system the larger fish of 1940 tended to be plumper
than the smaller fish of 19"41.
Finally, there are presented herewith, through the kindness of Major J. A. Motherwell, the number of salmon required to fill a 48-lb. case in each of the three sockeye
areas under consideration:— 1940. 1941.
Nass River  10.17 11.94
Skeena River  12.48 12.50
Rivers Inlet   12.61 13.40
These figures further illustrate the considerable differences in sizes of the fish in
the two years in the Nass River and Rivers Inlet areas. In the former region one and
three-quarters more fish were required per case in 1941 and in the latter region nearly
four-fifths of a fish. On the Skeena River the numbers were practically identical in
the two years.
Table XIX.—Comparison Lengths and Weights of Sockeyes, Rivers Inlet, Skeena
River, and Nass River, 1940-41.
4
2
5
0
5
0
6
3
1940.
1941.
1940.
1941.
1940.
1941.
1940.
1941.
Nass River—
Length     	
Weight   -„    : _.
25.1
6.5
41
23.7
5.4
41
22.3
4.8
43
24.5
5.9
40
23.2
5.0
41
21.5
4.2
42
27.5
8.4
39
26.4
7.6
41
26.2
7.8
43
26.3
7.0
38
25.7
6.5
39
24.9
6.3
41
26.7
7.5
39
24.1
5.5
39
22.8
5.2
44
25.6
6.3
38
23.7
5.2
39
21.8
4.3
41
28.7
9.0
38
26.6
7.5
40
25.7
7.3
43
27.6
7.4
35
Skeena River—
Length "      ' '	
Weight     ."._. -
25.5
6.3
38
Rivers Inlet—
25 8
Weight  *	
7.1
41 BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 45
TAGGING BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARDS   (SARDINOPS CMEVLEA
(GIRARD)) :   INSERTIONS AND RECOVERIES FOR 1941-42.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo.
INTRODUCTION.
Since 1936 an annual tagging programme has been carried on in connection with
the fishing operations of the British Columbia fishing fleet. This programme, supplemented by corresponding investigations conducted by California, Oregon, and Washington State fisheries organizations, has brought to light the essential facts concerning
pilchard migrations. The fact that pilchards move from the fishing-ground of one
political subdivision to another and do so in considerable abundance is now established
beyond doubt. Certain quantitative aspects of the migrations involved remain to be
investigated, but, as far as Canadian researches are concerned, these can only be
studied by a considerable intensification of the work with more equipment and personnel. Under present conditions it has appeared inadvisable to attempt such an
expansion of the programme and for this reason the work during the past year was
limited to attending to returns of tagging carried out in former years or by other
agencies, and to somewhat specialized problems.
METHODS.
Tagging.
The essentials of tagging have remained unchanged from previous years. A small,
oblong strip of nickel-plated magnetic metal, with smoothly rounded ends and edges
and bearing an identifying number, is inserted through a slit into the body-cavity of
the pilchard. In tagging operations carried out during the 1941-42 season the slit
in the side of the fish was made with a small knife having the cutting-edge at the end
and the tag was manipulated by hand (Hart, 1937). The fish for tagging were
caught with a small-meshed bait-seine, and were impounded in it until tagging was
complete.
Tag-recovery.
The recovery of tags was by the same type of methods and equipment as used in
earlier years (Hart, 1937). By means of electromagnets installed in reduction plants
in the chutes which conduct the meal into the grinders the tags were extracted from
the flow of dried meal and were held until removed by an attendant.
TAGS APPLIED.
As indicated in the introductory part of this report, pilchard-tagging as carried
out during former years was not continued during the 1941-42 season. It seemed
evident that the current methods had been employed to the limit of their usefulness
and that further profit from the tagging of pilchards in the commercial run would
depend upon carrying out operations on a large enough scale and with sufficiently
refined methods to assure large returns of tags in subsequent years and from the
fisheries of California and other states of the American Union. Only operations which
would assure substantial recoveries in other seasons or in other fishing-grounds could
provide the reliable quantitative value which is essential now to make a worth-while
contribution to our knowledge. Such an extension of the work is patently impossible
and probably inadvisable as well, considering the current employment of all efficient
gear and competent assistance on work which is more directly connected with the
conduct of the war. With this situation in mind, efforts to tag the commercial run of
pilchards were dropped.
In the early summer of 1940 large bodies of young pilchards entered the Strait of
Georgia to an extent which was quite beyond precedent. These fish remained and
grew in the inland waters during the summer and, as recorded in the report for last J 46 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
PENDER HARBOUR
NOOTKA
SOUND
AN ADA
COPAL IS  HEAD
CAPE   FALCON
SO NAUTICAL M/LES BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 47
year, 1,000 of them were tagged in the autumn of 1940. During the winter which
followed, these pilchards experienced a very heavy mortality in several parts of the
strait. It seems desirable to know whether these fish which have strayed beyond the
limits of their usual habitat will ever rejoin the main body of pilchards and contribute
to the regular commercial fishery. To test this, further attempts at tagging were
made during the winter of 1941-^42.
In carrying out the tagging experiments it is understood that negative evidence
will carry but little weight; i.e., if no returns are made of the tags used on the Strait
of Georgia fish, the evidence that they failed to join the general population will be
rather weak. If, on the other hand, tags are recovered from the west coast of Vancouver Island or United States fisheries, there will be positive proof of a migration
to the open water and of the union of schools of fish which have had widely different
histories. In the following tabulation all of the tags used in connection with pilchard-
tagging in the Strait of Georgia are recorded:—
Date.
No. of Fish
tagged.
Place Tagged Fish released.
Serial Numbers of Tags
used, C, F, and G.
September 10, 1940	
1,000
1,000
1,000
Cowichan Bay	
Pender Harbour 	
K3000-K3.999 (small tags).
November 20, 1941	
February 20, 1941	
C3000-C3999
C4000-C4999
TAGS RECOVERED.
In all, twenty-five tags were recovered from pilchards during the regular season
of 1941 and the winter of 1941-42.
Three of the tags recovered had been put out by Canadian investigators. Two
were used during the pilchard season of 1940, off Copalis Head and Cape Falcon, when
the British Columbia fishing fleet was operating off the United States coast. One tag
was put out in Kendrick Arm of Nootka Sound on a herring-tagging trip and was
apparently placed in a pilchard by mistake during night-tagging operations. It is
possible, of course, that the tag entered the reduction plant in a herring, but this seems
unlikely in view of the rarity with which herring are encountered in summer schools
of pilchards. On the other hand, the alternative explanation is favoured by the known
fact that Kendrick Arm is a usual wintering area for " homesteading " pilchards.
Twenty-one of the tags were used in California by the California State Fisheries
Laboratory between the years 1937 and 1940 and one tag was put out by the Oregon
State Fish Commission.
The total number of tags recovered was rather small in view of the relatively large
catch of pilchards made. This may be accounted for, in part at least, by the notably
small size and presumably low age of the fish caught. Small fish, especially those of
the 1939 year-class, which comprised a considerable part of the catch, would have been
exposed to the possibility of being tagged for a relatively short time.
One fish certainly, and two more probably, of the 1939 year-class tagged in California during 1940 were recovered during the summer of 1941 off British Columbia
fishing-grounds. The recoveries are interesting in that they demonstrate beyond dispute that the young fish of that year-class which were prevalent on the fishing-grounds
during the summer of 1941 did not consist entirely of the fish of the same year-class
which had been common in northern waters during the previous summer.
Two California tags were recovered during pilchard-fishing operations carried out
during the winter of 1941-42.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The investigation has received the co-operation of the companies operating reduction plants in permitting the installation of magnets for recovering tags, and of the
plant employees who have recovered tags from the magnets and sent them in for
examination. It is indebted, also, to the California State Fisheries Laboratory for
supplying the tags used during the past season. J 48 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
The pilchard-tagging programme has been financed under a joint agreement
between the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Department of Fisheries of
the Province of British Columbia. The support of the executive officers concerned,
Dr. R. E. Foerster and Mr. G. J. Alexander, is gratefully acknowledged.
REFERENCE.      .
Hart, J. L. Tagging British Columbia pilchards. (Sardinops cserulea (Girard)):
Methods and preliminary results. Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department,
1936, 49-54, 1937. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 49
TAGGING OF HERRING (CLUPEA PALLASII) IN BRITISH COLUMBIA:
APPARATUS, INSERTIONS, AND RECOVERIES DURING 1941-42.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D. ; Albert L. Tester, Ph.D. ; and R. V. Boughton, Ph.D.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS.
Page.
Introduction  49
Tagging :  49
Recovery methods .  52
Induction detectors   52
Magnets : ,  58
Effect of canning on tag-recovery    58
Other possible methods of recovering tags  59
Recoveries  59
Induction detectors  59
Magnets .  60
Discussion of sources of individual recoveries  61
Stability of populations and movements  69
West coast of Vancouver Island  69
East coast of Vancouver Island  73
Discovery Passage  74
Queen Charlotte Sound -_ 74
Central British Columbia r  74
Northern British Columbia  75
Summary of results P  75
Acknowledgments .  75
References ■ .  76
Postscript ■-   76
Detailed list of tags inserted during 1941-42  78
INTRODUCTION.
This report deals with the herring-tagging and tag-recovery work which was
carried out during the 1941-42 fishing season and which was completed soon after the
close of the 1942 spawning season. As originally planned, the herring-tagging programme was designed (1) to determine the strength of the tendency of herring to
form local populations, (2) to determine the extent of herring movements, and (3) to
add to the general knowledge of the life-history of herring in British Columbia waters.
The work during the past year is a continuation of the general programme as laid out
and constitutes the sixth year of investigation.
TAGGING.
The tagging methods present no new feature over previous years. The essential
part of the operation is introducing into the body-cavity of the fish a small piece of
magnetic metal which is stamped with identifying marks (Hart and Tester, 1937).
During the past year this was done either " by hand " (Hart and Tester, 1937) or
"with a gun " (Hart and Tester, 1938). Fish for tagging were obtained by the use
of small bait purse-seines, with beach-seines, with dip-nets, from salmon-traps, and
from bait pounds, as indicated in Table I. In all cases every reasonable precaution was
taken to avoid injuring the fish by handling.
Continuing the policy decided upon in 1939 of curtailing tagging on the fishing-
grounds, no attempt was made to tag in connection with ordinary herring-fishing
operations, although 496 tags were used at the Sooke salmon-traps during the fishing
season.
4 J 50
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Table I.—Summary of the Tagging Data for Taggings producing Returns during the
1941-42 Fishing Season and for Tags inserted during the 1941-42 Fishing Season
and the 1942 Spawning Season.
Tagging
Code.
Date.
No. of
Tags
inserted.
Method of
Capture of
Fish.*
Tagging
Method, t
Place of Tagging.
3B
3G
Oct. 11, 1938  	
Jan. 12, 1939
1,078
798
1,299
945
997
2,192
1,494
1,599
1,491
682
1,499
1,199
1,799
1,197
1,797
1,000
999
500
•1,150
1,000
1,199
996
1,000
1,595
1,399
1,499
800
798
1,397
1,000
975
1,000
974
998
2'00
1,488
1,704
787
1,697
1,197
1,495
1,200
995
1,200
992
1,192
1,989
998
1,193
496
997
497
. 500
993
C.S.
C.S.
C.S.
S.S.
S.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
C.S.
B.S.
B.S.
C.S.
D.N.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
C.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.P.
D.N.
S.S.
S.S.
S.S.
S.S.
S.S.
S.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
S.T.
B.S.
B.S.
D.N.
B.S.
G
G
G, K'
G, K"
G, K°
G, K°
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'°
G, K'°
G, K'
G, K"
G, K'°
G, K'°
G. K'°
K'
G. K'
K'
K'
K'
K'
K'
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'
K'
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'
G
G
K'
G, K'
G, K'
G
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'
K'
,   K'
K'
K'
K'
K'
K'
K'
K'
K'
• K'
K'
K'
Swanson Channel.
S.E. Arm, Quatsino Sound.
Laredo Inlet.
Departure Bay, near Nanaimo.
3J
3K
3M
Mar. 6, 7, 1939 .._.	
Mar. 2, 5, 1939 _. _.
Mar. 9, 1939
3R
3U
Mar. 19, 1939 	
Mar. 7, 1939
Campbell Island, near Brown Narrows.
3V
Mar. 19, 1939            	
3W
Mar. 21, 22. 1939
3Y
4G
Mar. 29, 1939 _	
Mar. 3, 1940	
Sydney Inlet.
41
Mar. 9, 1940    .
4J
Mar. 4, 5, 1940 	
4K
Mar. 13, 1940
4L
Mar. 17, 18, 1940            	
4M
4N
40
Mar. 19, 1940	
Mar. 21, 1940 	
Mar. 23, 24, 1940
Shoal Harbour. Gilford Island.
Bend Island, Clio Channel.
4P
4Q
Mar. 16, 17, 18, 1940  ..
Mar. 18, 1940. 	
Whitepine Cove, Clayoquot Sound.
4R
4S
4T
4U
4W
4X
4Y
4Z
Mar. 19, 1940	
Mar. 20, 1940	
Mar. 21, 1940 	
Mar. 24, 1940  -
Mar. 18, 1940	
Mar. 20, 1940	
Mar. 21, 1940 -	
Mar. 23, 1940
Kendrick Arm, Nootka Sound.
Queens Cove, Esperanza Inlet.
Clanninick Cove, at entrance to Kyuquot
Sound.
Winter Harbour, Quatsino Sound.
Campbell Island, near Brown Narrows.
Big Bay, near Prince Rupert.
Butler Cove, near Prince Rupert.
4AA
5C
Mar. 28, 29, 1940.	
Mar. 6, 1941 ..
Head of Toquart Bay, Barkley Sound.
Gabriola Bluff, near Dodd Narrows.
5D
Mar. 8, 1941 .
Hammond Bay.
5E
Mar. 10, 1941 .
Entrance to Nanoose Bay.
5F
5G
Mar. 11, 1941	
Mar. 17, 1941 .....
Breakwater Island, Gabriola Pass.
Bargain Harbour.
5H
Mar. 21, 1941
Thomas Point, Kingcome Inlet.
51
Mar. 17, 1941	
Campbell Island, near Brown Narrows.
5J
Mar. 20, 1941	
Duncan Bay, near Prince Rupert.
5K
Mar. 23, 1941	
Jap Inlet, Porcher Island.
5L
Mar. 28, 1941
Laidlaw Island, Laredo Sound.
5M
Mar. 29, 1941	
Deer Passage, near Bella Bella.
5N
50
Mar. 30, 1941	
Mar. 4, 1941
Kwakshua Passage, Calvert Island.
Lyall Point, Barkley Sound.
5P
Mar.. 5, 1941  '.	
Toquart Bay, Barkley Sound.
5Q
Mar. 8, 9, 1941	
Kendrick Arm, Nootka Sound.
5U
Mar. 11, 1941    	
Queens Cove, Esperanza Inlet.
5V
Mar. 12, 1941	
Clanninick Cove, entrance to Kyuquot
5W
5X
Mar. 13, 1941   	
Mar. 14, 1941	
Sound.
Browning Inlet, Quatsino Sound.
Bunsby Islands, entrance to Ououkinsh
5Y
Mar. 16, 1941     	
Inlet.
Refuge Cove, Sydney Inlet.
6A
6B
Oct. 17, 1941 	
Feb. 19, 1942            	
Sooke.
Selby Creek, Prevost Island.
6C
Feb. 26, 1942
Ganges Harbour, Saltspring Island.
6D
6E
Mar. 2, 1942  —
Mar. 6, 1942  	
Departure Bay, near Nanaimo.   "
East side Kuper Island.
* C.S.=commercial seine; B.S.=bait-seine; S.S.=shore-seine ; S.T.=salmon-traps ; D.N.=dip-net; B.P.=bait-
pound.
f G=:gun ; K'=fish held with one hand while knife and tag are manipulated with other hand ; K°=fish held by
one man while another manipulates knife and tag;   K'°=both types of knife-tagging used. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 51
Table I.—Summary of the Tagging Data—Continued.
Tagging
Code.
Date.
No. of
Tags
inserted.
Method of
Capture of
Fish.*
Tagging
Method.t
Place of Tagging.
6F
6G
6H
61
Mar. 7, 1942 	
Mar. 9, 1942	
Mar. 9, 1942 	
Mar. 10, 1942	
1,004
1,000
2,000
1,489
1,579
1,499
1,689
1,497
2,000
1,776
1,498
1,005
698
800
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.P.
S.S.
S.S.
S.S.
K'
G
K'
K'
K'
K'
G, K'
G
G, K'
G, K'
K'
K'
K'
K'
Head of Departure Bay, near Nanaimo.
Kulleet Bay, near Ladysmith.
Union Bay, Baynes Sound.
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon,
Porpoise Bay, Seechelt Inlet.
Squirrel Cove, Cortes Island.
Retreat Passage.
McLaughlin Bay, Campbell Island.
Clio Channel.
Kingcome Inlet.
Cahnish Bay.
Departure Bay, near Nanaimo.
Departure Bay, near Nanaimo.
Nanaimo Harbour.
6J
6K
Mar. 12, 1942 .. .'. 	
Mar. 27, 1942	
6L
6M
Mar. 15, 1942  	
Mar. 19, 1942 	
6N
60
6P
6Q
6R
6S
Mar. 28, 1942 	
Mar. 30, 1942 —
Apr. 21, 22, 1942 	
Apr. 24, 1942..	
May 2, 1942 ,.	
June 3, 4,1942  	
* C.S. =commercial seine; B.S.=bait-seine ; S.S.=shore-seine; S.T.=salmon-traps ; D.N.=dip-net; B.P.=bait-
pound.
t G=gun ; K' = fish held with one hand while knife and tag are manipulated with other hand ; K° = fish held by
one man while another manipulates knife and tag;   K'°:=both types of knife-tagging used.
Whereas the tagging technique and the curtailment of fishing-ground tagging
represent no change from previous reports, other policies adopted in the tagging of the
1941-42 season formulated on the results of past years' experience are new. A review
of results obtained to date indicates that the information obtained from the west coast
of Vancouver Island is as complete as is likely to be obtained by a continuation of the
available method on the scale which has been accepted as practical. Although knowledge
is less thorough, a similar situation holds in the Central and Northern parts of the
Province, in that the essential features concerning the major populations are fairly
well understood and more detailed information of value is obtainable only by intensive
study. Under existing war-time conditions, it has seemed best to reduce to a minimum
the expenditure of resources in those more distant areas, and to concentrate all available effort on the more readily accessible Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Sound
areas, where much remain's to be learned concerning details of the movements and
mixtures of the various spawning populations, some of which have contributed to the
most dependable fishery in British Columbia.
Two seine-boats were used during March for tagging operations and the work
carried out by them was supplemented by two taggings carried out in the Strait of
Georgia from the "Whiff" (Hart and Tester, 1939), and another small boat, having
no live well. One seine-boat was used for most of the work on the Strait of Georgia
and experienced very fair success in the southern part, with the result that, in all,
eleven lots of herring were tagged. Owing apparently to lack of fish, operations in the
area between Cape Mudge and Nodales Channel were less successful and it was possible
to tag only two lots of fish. During March a hurried trip was taken up the west coast
of Vancouver Island in the hope that a few lots of spawning herring would be encountered and tagged. This hope was not realized, in spite of the fact that the trip was
made at what might, in the light of previous experience, be considered a most opportune
time. The second seine-boat was successful in tagging three lots of herring in the
Queen Charlotte Sound area. It made one rapid trip up to the Central area, where one
lot of herring was successfully tagged near Campbell Island.
The results of tagging operations during the 1941-42 season are indicated in
Table I. In this table are given also the pertinent details of all taggings which are
directly involved in this report. Places referred to in the table are shown in the
accompanying maps. In Table VII., at the end of the report, the tags put out during
the past year are listed in order according to their identifying marks, along with the
data on tagging code and the date and place the fish were released. Similar tables in
earlier  reports  have  given  corresponding  data  for previous  years.    The  following J 52
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
recapitulation shows the number of tags used in each area in each year  of the
investigation.
Locality.
1936-87.
1937-38.
1938-39.
1939-40.
1940-41.
1941-42.
Fall and Winter.
1,500
7,090
1,199
4,086
2,798   .
1,454
2,525
1,094
2,494
755
897
495
496
1,197
1,799
400
9,077
3,796
8,437
2,497
2,299
Spring.
Strait of Georgia (including Puget Sound
1,898
5,279
6,587
4,947
200
9,759
5,877
2,491
15,559
Queen   Charlotte   Sound   and   south   to
5,465
5,692
6,684
1,395
5,947
3,489
2,696
1,497
Totals  	
16,180
21,441
27,041
29,697
24,471
23,017
After the close of the spawning season there occurred along the central part of the
south-westerly shore of the Strait of Georgia an unprecedented mortality among the
herring. It seems quite possible that such mortality may affect the returns from tags
put out in that region during the spring of 1942. It will be noticed from Table I. that
four separate taggings were carried out in Departure Bay and, in addition, three
others in the region where the mortality occurred. It is hoped that some estimate of
the influence of the unusual mortality on the supply of fish may be deduced by comparing the returns for these taggings among themselves and with other taggings.
There is some confusion concerning the 6D tagging carried out at Departure Bay.
This tagging was carried out on impounded fish believed to have been caught locally.
Later it was found that some of these fish had been brought in from Selby Creek.
No tests of tagging technique were included in the work originated in 1942, and it
may be noted here that no noteworthy additions were made by the recoveries to the data
bearing on the relative efficiencies of different tagging techniques.
RECOVERY METHODS.
As in previous years, two methods of recovering tags were employed. Induction
detectors were installed at Ucluelet and Steveston to take advantage of the more satisfactory information accompanying returns made by them. Magnets were used in other
plants in order to have some coverage of the whole coast which did not require the constant supervision of specially trained assistants. One tag was recovered in dressing
herring for the table and this recovery has been includedamong the detector recoveries
since the information accompanying it most resembles that which accompanies detector
recoveries.
Induction Detectors.
As mentioned above, an induction detector was installed again at Ucluelet. This
installation for reasons not yet clear did not prove effective, and was not successful in
making recoveries.
The detector formerly used at Galiano Island and at Nootka was installed at the
Imperial cannery, Steveston, and gave satisfactory performance apart from short
periods when it was not in operation because of electrical, mechanical, or operational
difficulties. When first installed, the mechanical arrangement for recovering tagged
fish was essentially similar to that used at Galiano Island and at Nootka (Hart and
Tester, 1937 and 1939). The fish passed up the marine leg, along an overhead conveyer, down a sloping wooden chute, through a coil (located at A), over a trap-door
(located at B), and thence into the plant by means of a slat-conveyer (C),  (Fig. 1). BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 53
GRADER
Chut*
Coil No.
3\
(elevation)
To overflow
bin
compressor
]»»v mux w
Fig. 1. Showing the arrangement of the equipment employed to recover tags at Imperial Cannery. J 54
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 55
BRITISH
COLUMBIA
•Southern Sheer
0/r*  JUAN   Ot ?
~^C& J 56
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 57
BRITISH
COLUMBIA
A/orfhej-n Sheet
SL. Laid/aw
Meyers
Laredo Soun
•4-z:.   Late
SM. fieer Passaje.-^
Af/'/S sr>k Sound^
Be//a &e//a "
3AZ4145Z   Camp£e///s.
CM   McLaujh/tn Bt
SM    KtvaAsAua Passe,
Calrerf-f JsJanl J 58 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
The trap-door was pivoted transversely at its centre on an axle and was connected to a
piston and cylinder operated by compressed air. When an impulse was received in the
coil, the trap-door momentarily swung at right angles to the flow of fish down the chute
thus by-passing some of the fish to a bin below. This arrangement was used from
October 7th until November 22nd.
Prior to November 22nd, a few loads of fish had not passed through the tag-
recovery system. These had been by-passed before they reached the coil through a
gate to a slat-elevator (D) which carried them into the plant through a grading-
machine and a weighing-machine. Following November 22nd, the plant operators
decided to unload all the fish in this manner. Therefore, in order to bring the tag
detector into use again, it was necessary to change the position of the coil and the
method of trapping the tagged fish. The details of the new set-up, which was in use
from November 25th until February 26th, are shown in Fig. 1. The fish slid down the
chute, through the coil, and were deflected (with the aid of a stream of water) to the
base of the elevator (D) by means of a wooden gate which ran at an angle across the
chute. The gate, pivoted at its upper end, was held in position by the extended piston
under 15 to 20 lb. air-pressure. When an impulse was received through the coil, the
pressure was switched from the bottom to the top of the piston by means of the four-
way solonoid valve, thus forcing the piston back in the cylinder and opening the gate.
This allowed the fish to flow down the chute into a bin. When the gate was opened it
operated a lever connected to the mercoid switch which cut off the current to the
solonoid valve.    This again reversed the air-pressure in the cylinder and closed the gate.
In both trap and gate system of recovery, each tagged fish was isolated by passing
the fish from the bin through the coil a few at a time and then individually, as in
previous years.
Magnets.
Magnets for the recovery of tags have been installed in the meal-lines of all the
plants which reduced herring during the past year. They are designed to recover tags
during the reduction process, after the fish have been pressed and dried, but before the
resulting meal enters the grinder. They are effective in that they operate with a
minimum of supervision, but they are defective not only in the fact that some tags are
not recovered but also because some tags are delayed in their passage through the plant
for various periods of time which leads to difficulty in interpreting the results of the
recoveries. As mentioned in earlier reports, in some plants tags are recovered from
traps for tramp metal (Hart and Tester, 1939) or from the sumps on specially designed
grinders (Hart and Tester, 1940). Occasional tags are recovered from crevices or
joints in the meal-conveyers. As considerable uncertainty accompanies the data in
regard to the time and place the fish carrying such tags were caught, all are listed with
the magnet recoveries.
Effect of Canning on Tag-recovery.
The increased extent to which herring have been canned in the last two years has
introduced complications into the analysis of the tag-recovery data as mentioned in the
report for 1940-41 (Hart, Tester, and McHugh, 1941). There, attention was called to
the fact that while some tags are recovered from offal it is not reasonable to consider
that all tags are removed from cannery fish and subsequently pass through reduction
plants. The two possibilities can be illustrated by two examples. In 1940, two tags
were reported from runs of offal under conditions which made it practically certain that
the reported source was the correct one. On the other hand, in 1941, herring which
had been cleaned and salted preparatory to canning were unloaded by a conveyer in
which an induction detector was installed. Of these fish prepared for canning, three
were found to contain tags. Exact computations are not possible, but there is no'basis
in the 1941-42 results for believing that tags were less numerous in the cleaned fish
than in those from the same localities which were unloaded in a whole condition. In
view of these observations it has been the practice to discount cannery deliveries to a
considerable extent when considering the possibilities of tag returns. On the basis of
the information at hand it is not possible to state what proportion of tags present are
removed from the fish in preparing them for canning. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 59
Other Possible Methods of recovering Tags.
In view of the increasing difficulty of recovering tags from cannery deliveries by
magnets in reduction plants and the impossibility of operating more induction detectors,
it is intended to extend the activities of the recovery programme by canvassing in
the canneries and kippering establishments, asking employees to be on the lookout
for tags which may drop from the body-cavities of the fish to the working-tables.
The possibility of such accidental recoveries is indicated by the return to us of a tag
found by a lighthouse-keeper while preparing herring for the table.
RECOVERIES.
In last year's report (Hart, Tester, and McHugh, 1941), a general discussion was
introduced of the qualifications which must be considered in interpreting the returns
of herring-tags. For purposes of convenience they are reported in summarized form
in the following paragraphs:—
The tagged portion of a school of spawning fish may not truly represent the whole
population in the vicinity of the spawning-grounds at the time of tagging and will
represent all fish which spawn in the general area even less accurately.
Under practical conditions it is not possible to tag equal proportions of the populations in all areas.
Lack of uniformity in the efficiency of recovery may lead to distortion of the results
and difficulty in interpretation.
Difficulties arise owing to cannery operations and these have been dealt with in an
earlier section of this report.
Inequalities in the intensity of exploitation of different fishing-grounds must also
be taken into consideration in interpreting the results.
Owing to a variety of causes, independent of the movements of the fish, some
recoveries are relatively certain as to point of origin, etc., and others must be regarded
as questionable. As the incidence of positive returns depends upon such things as the
location of induction detectors and the operating policies of interested companies, due
allowance must be made in basing conclusions on the number of returns which are
regarded as certain.
All of these qualifications have been given due consideration in interpreting the
results.
Induction Detectors.
Excluding the recovery made when dressing fish, forty-two recoveries were made
by induction detector. The results are summarized in Table II. Thirty-five of the
forty-two tags included in the tables had been out for more than six months and seven
tags (6A) had been out for a comparatively short time.
The 6A tags, used at Sooke on October 17th, were recovered at the following locations and dates in 1941: October 23rd, Otter Bay (Swanson Channel) ; October 24th,
Otter Bay (Swanson Channel) ; November 4th, Nanoose Bay; November 17th, Nanoose
Bay; November 26th, Swanson Channel; November 26th, Trincomali Channel (off
Montague Harbour) ; February 12th, Nanoose Bay. The first Swanson Channel record
represents a minimum migration of some 50 nautical miles in six days and the first
Nanoose Bay recovery indicate a minimum migration of some 85 nautical miles in
eighteen days. It would seem that the fish tagged at Sooke did not remain in a body,
but became more or less generally distributed over the fishing-grounds.
Examination of Table II. shows that of the thirty-six returns which had been out
for more than six months, thirty-two were recovered from fish caught on the east coast
of Vancouver Island, which had been tagged in the Strait of Georgia. One recovery
was of a tag put out in Quatsino Sound and recovered there. One recovery was of a
tag used at Bend Island in 1940 and recovered in Okisollo Channel. (This recovery
offers definite confirmation of what was suspected last season; namely, that there is
some movement of fish from the Queen Charlotte Sound area into the Discovery Passage
area.) One tag used on the west coast was recovered on the east coast and one tag
used at Shoal Harbour in the Queen Charlotte Sound area was recovered at Laredo J 60
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Inlet. In summary it may be said that of the thirty-six returns, thirty-three came
back from the general area of tagging, one confirmed a mixing, still of unknown degree,
suspected on the grounds of previous work of existing between adjacent major areas,
and two demonstrated movements between contiguous major areas which are regarded
as being in general distinct.
Table II.—Tags recovered by Induction Detectors during 1941-42.
Place and Month of Tagging.
Place
of Capture.
Code.
o
a .
S"g
3 O
Cm
PrA
O QJ
2 i
g 1
MO
S'ol
° s
SB
.5 a
HO
CJ
UI
o
o
g*
__ rt
c_
la
o
-a   .
® ti
ft o
Total.
3U
Barkley Sound, March, 1939    	
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
3
2
1
1
....
l
2
1
4
2
3
4
3
1
1
1
4U
3B
Quatsino Sound, March, 1940  	
1
1
3K
1
4G
1
41
2
4K
Deep Bay, March, 1940 	
1
40
2
5C
Gabriola Bluff, March, 1941 —	
2
5D
8
5E
5
5F
5
5G
6A
Bargain Harbour, March, 1941  	
Sooks, October, 1941      .           	
4
7
4M
4N
Shoal Harbour, March, 1940  — ____..
Bend Island, March, 1940.. 	
1
1
43
The data in Table II. have been examined for evidence of relationship between
tagging locality and fishing-ground and the following tabulation has resulted:—
Tagging Areas from South to North.
Locality of Recovery.
No. of
Recoveries.
2
4
9
10
7
These figures suggest that fish which spawn north of Nanoose Bay are more likely
to be caught oh Nanoose Bay fishing-grounds in subsequent seasons than those which
spawned farther to the south.
Magnets.
Three hundred and ninety-nine tags were recovered by magnets in ten plants.
These recoveries are classified in Table III. according to plant making the return and
the individual tagging. The data in this table are so arranged that they are quite
free from the possibility of subjective interpretation. Attention may be called to the
general tendency of the tagging localities to be close to the sites of the plants making
the recoveries. In a foot-note are given the localities from which herring were delivered
to the plants concerned, and it is evident that in almost all cases the recovered tags
can be accounted for by fish delivered from fishing-grounds close to the area of tagging.
A summarization such as Table III. cannot take into consideration the times at which
fish deliveries were made. It is, accordingly, desirable to present, as far as possible,
information concerning the fish which actually produce the tag. Data on this point
which accompanies returns are sometimes not satisfactory.    For this reason Table IV. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 61
has been drawn up from the following discussion of individual tag-recoveries on the
basis of fish deliveries and the known behaviour of the various plants in returning
tags. Table IV. includes only magnet recoveries. The following discussion, however,
includes also induction detector returns.
Discussion of Sources of Individual Recoveries.
Swanson Channel (3B) : One recovery made by induction detector among fish
caught in Trincomali Channel.
Quatsino Sound (3G) : One recovery reported from Barkley Sound. Quatsino
Sound is a likely alternative source and other west coast of Vancouver Island localities
and the east coast of Vancouver Island possible ones in descending order of probability.
Laredo Inlet (3J) : One recovery reported from Thistle Passage at the entrance
to Laredo Inlet. The reported area is probably correct although fishing-grounds in the
northern part of British Columbia (Khutzeymateen Inlet and Union Bay) are possible.
Departure Bay (3K) : One recovery made by induction detector from fish caught
in Swanson Channel.
Kulleet Bay (3M) : Two recoveries. One was correctly reported from east coast
of Vancouver Island fishing-grounds; the other was rather vaguely reported from
" Kyuquot and Queens Cove," although any other fishing-grounds on the west coast of
Vancouver Island north of Sydney Inlet appears equally probable as sources and east
coast localities are possible.
Campbell Island (3R) : One recovery was recorded from Laredo Inlet. This report
is probably correct, although alternative possibilities in order of likelihood are: Other
areas in Central British Columbia, fishing-grounds in Northern British Columbia, the
Queen Charlotte Sound area, the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Barkley Sound (3U) : Two tags recovered. One was reported from Barkley Sound,
probably correctly but with the east coast of Vancouver Island as a possible alternative.
The other was also reported from Barkley Sound, but fishing-grounds in the Sydney
Inlet area northward to Kyuquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island appear
equally likely and the east coast of Vancouver Island is a possible source.
One 3U tag was recovered by induction detector from fish caught in Swanson
Channel.
Kyuquot Sound (3V): Six recoveries. Five were reported from Kyuquot Sound.
Four of these are no doubt correct, with Sydney Inlet, Barkley Sound, and the east
coast of Vancouver Island as possible alternatives for one; two others had Sydney
Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay as possible alternatives; and one had Nootka
Sound and the east coast of Vancouver Island as possibilities. The fifth tag reported
from Kyuquot Sound might equally well have entered the plant with Nootka Sound
fish with the following other possibilities: Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose
Bay. The remaining 3U tag was recovered during operations on pilchards caught in
Barkley Sound. The tag may have entered the plant in a herring mixed with the
pilchards or, more probably, with herring from Sydney Inlet, Barkley Sound, or Ououkinsh Inlet in the preceding catches.    East coast localities are also possible sources.
Nootka Sound (3W) : Two recoveries. One reported from Ououkinsh Inlet probably correctly had Nanoose Bay as a possible alternative. The other was reported from
Kyuquot Sound probably correctly and had the east coast of Vancouver Island and
Nootka Sound as possible alternatives.
Sydney Inlet (3Y) : One recovery reported from Kyuquot Sound. Other west
coast localities such as Nootka Sound, Quatsino Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet,
and Barkley Sound appear almost equally likely and the east coast of Vancouver
Island is a possible alternative.
Ganges Harbour (4G) : One recovery by induction detector from fish caught in
Trincomali Channel.
Nanoose Bay (41) : Two recoveries made by induction detector from fish caught
in Trincomali Channel.
Laredo Inlet (4J) : One recovery reported probably correctly from Laredo Inlet.
Localities in Northern British Columbia such as Khutzeymateen Inlet and Union Bay
are possible alternatives. J 62 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Deep Bay (4K) : One recovery reported from fish taken at Active Pass. Barkley
Sound and other east coast of Vancouver Island localities are possible alternative
sources.
One recovery was made by induction detector from fish caught at Nanoose Bay.
Cutter Creek (4L) : Four returns, two reported from Bones Bay and two reported
from Bones Bay or Retreat Passage. These fishing-grounds probably indicate the
sources of the tags as accurately as possible. However, Knight Inlet and Deepwater
Bay are alternatives for one tag and those areas plus the east coast of Vancouver
Island for the others.
Shoal Harbour (4M) : Five recoveries, three recorded from Bones Bay, one recorded
from Bones Bay or Retreat Passage, and one recorded from Khutzeymateen Inlet. The
recoveries reported from Queen Charlotte Sound fishing areas are probably correct in
that the fish carrying the tags originated in that general area, although they could
have come into the plant with fish caught on the east coast of Vancouver Island. The
reported recovery of a tag from Khutzeymateen Inlet would also appear to be correct,
although Union Bay (near Prince Rupert), Queen Charlotte Sound, and Nanoose Bay
are other possibilities.
One 4M tag was recovered by induction detector from fish caught at Laredo Inlet.
Bend Island (4N) : One recovery reported probably correctly from fish taken at
Bones Bay. Other fishing-grounds in the Queen Charlotte Sound area and the east
coast of Vancouver Island are possible alternative sources.
One Bend Island tag was recovered by the induction detector from fish taken in
Okisollo Channel.
Von Donop Creek (40) : Two recoveries were made by the induction detector from
fish caught at Nanoose Bay.
Whitepine Cove (4P) : Six recoveries reported from the following fishing-grounds:
Barkley Sound, one; Sydney Inlet, two; Esperanza Inlet, one; Klaskish Inlet, one;
Quatsino Sound, one. Examination of plant records indicate that the tag recorded
from Barkley Sound more probably originated from Sydney Inlet, with alternatives
in descending order of probability: Kyuquot Sound, Barkley Sound, east coast of
Vancouver Island. Of the tags reported from Sydney Inlet one is probably correctly
reported, Barkley Sound and the east coast of Vancouver Island being possible alternatives. The other tag recorded from Sydney Inlet could have originated more readily
from fish caught in Nootka Sound, Quatsino Sound, Kyuquot Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet,
and possibly from the east coast of Vancouver Island. The Esperanza Inlet recovery
was probably correct, although other west coast of Vancouver Island fishing-grounds
south of Quatsino Sound are possible sources. The reported recovery from Klaskish
may be correct, but Sydney Inlet, Kyuquot Sound, Barkley Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet,
and the east coast of Vancouver Island are possible alternatives. The Quatsino Sound
report may be correct, but Nootka Soun'd appears to be equally likely as a source.
Other possible sources of the tag are Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet,
and the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Refuge Cove (4Q) : Seven recoveries reported from the following localities: Barkley
Sound, one; Sydney Inlet, one; Nootka Sound, two; Kyuquot Sound, three. The
recovery reported from Barkley Sound was made during a run on pilchards. It is
probable that the tag entered the plant with deliveries of herring caught in the Sydney
Inlet area, with Kyuquot Sound, Barkley Sound, and east coast of Vancouver Island
localities as other possibilities. The Sydney Inlet recovery is probably correct, with
Barkley Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island as possible
alternative sources. The two Nootka Sound recoveries are probably correct, with
Quatsino Sound, Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay as
possible alternatives. The returns reported from Kyuquot Sound are probably correct,
although one of them might have come from Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, or Nanoose
Bay and the other from Nootka Sound or some fishing-ground on the east coast of
Vancouver Island.
Kendrick Arm (4R) : Twelve recoveries reported from the following fishing-
grounds:   Sydney Inlet, two;   Esperanza Inlet, one;   Kyuquot Sound, six;   Ououkinsh BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 63
Inlet, one; Quatsino Sound, two. One of the Sydney Inlet records is probably correct,
with alternative sources possible in Kyuquot Sound, Barkley Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet,
and the east coast of Vancouver Island. The other Sydney Inlet tag was recovered
during a run on pilchards and more probably entered the plant with herring caught at
Nootka or Quatsino Sounds; Kyuquot Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay are
other possible sources. The Esperanza Inlet recovery is probably reported correctly,
although Quatsino Sound, Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose
Bay are possible sources. All of the six returns reported from Kyuquot Sound are
probably correct, but two have alternative sources in Nootka Sound and the east coast
of Vancouver Island, and the remaining four in Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and
Nanoose Bay. The reported recovery from Ououkinsh Inlet probably correctly describes
the origin of the tag, although the recovery took place during a run on pilchards. The
only alternative source was rather improbable—Nanoose Bay. Examination of plant
operation records make it appear improbable that one of the recoveries reported from
Quatsino Sound is correctly reported. The possible sources in order of probability are:
Nootka Sound, Kyuquot Sound, Quatsino Sound, and the east coast of Vancouver Island.
The other Quatsino Sound return is possibly correct, but Nootka Sound is almost
equally possible as a source and other alternatives are to be found in Kyuquot Sound,
Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay.
Esperanza Inlet (4S) : Fourteen recoveries reported as follows: Sydney Inlet,
one; Nootka Sound, one; Esperanza Inlet, two; Kyuquot Sound and Esperanza Inlet,
two; Kyuquot Sound, three; Ououkinsh Inlet, three; Klaskish Inlet, one; Quatsino
Sound, one. The Sydney Inlet report is possibly correct but Kyuquot Sound is almost
equally probable as a source. Other possible sources are Barkley Sound, Ououkinsh
Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island. The recovery reported from Nootka
Sound probably originated there, although Quatsino Sound is a fairly likely source
and the following points of origin are possible: Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay. The recoveries reported from Esperanza Inlet are
probably correctly indicated, although Nootka and Kyuquot Sounds are also possible
sources as well as Quatsino Sound and the east coast of Vancouver Island. The same
alternatives exist for the two recoveries reported from Kyuquot Sound and Esperanza
Inlet. The three reports of 4S tags recovered from Kyuquot Sound are probably correct, but alternatives exist in Nootka Sound and the east coast of Vancouver Island.
The recoveries reported from Ououkinsh Inlet are probably correctly reported and the
only possible alternative—Nanoose Bay—is quite improbable. The recovery indicated
from Klaskish Inlet is possibly correct, although alternatives are to be found in Sydney
Inlet, Barkley Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island. The
Quatsino Sound record may have come from Nootka Sound fish, or less probably from
Kyuquot Sound fish or fish taken in Sydney or Ououkinsh Inlets or Nanoose Bay.
Kyuquot Sound (4T) : Fourteen returns recorded as follows: Barkley Sound, one;
Sydney Inlet, one; Esperanza Inlet, two; Esperanza Inlet and Kyuquot Sound, two;
Kyuquot Sound, six; Ououkinsh Inlet, one; Quatsino Sound, one. The Barkley Sound
record is probably correct, although many other alternatives exist, including Quatsino
Sound, Nootka Sound, Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and the east
coast of Vancouver Island. The Sydney Inlet recovery is probably incorrectly reported,
although that area is a possible alternative to Nootka Sound or Quatsino Sound, which
appear probable. Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and east coast of
Vancouver Island are other additional sources. The Esperanza Inlet reports are probably correct, although other Nootka Sound fishing-grounds, Kyuquot Sound, and the
east coast of Vancouver Island are possible alternatives. The same alternatives exist
for the two recoveries reported from Kyuquot Sound and Esperanza Inlet. The six
recoveries reported from Kyuquot Sound are probably correct; three of them have
alternatives in Sydney and Ououkinsh Inlets and Nanoose Bay and the remaining
three had as alternatives Nootka Sound and the east coast of Vancouver Island. The
Ououkinsh recovery is probably correct and the only possible alternative to it is
Nanoose Bay. The Quatsino Sound recovery is possibly correct but Nootka Sound is
also a probable source. Other alternatives are Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh
Inlet, and Nanoose Bay. J 64 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
* Quatsino Sound (4U) : Fifty-five recoveries from the following localities: Barkley
Sound, nine; Sydney Inlet, six; Nootka Sound, seven; Esperanza Inlet, ten; Esperanza Inlet or Kyuquot Sound, one; Kyuquot Sound, seven; Ououkinsh Inlet, one;
Quatsino Sound, fourteen. All of the Barkley Sound recoveries were made under circumstances which made recovery from runs of Quatsino Sound fish more probable and
there is little reasonable doubt that all of them did so, although other west coast
localities and the east coast of Vancouver Island are possible sources. Similarly, it"
would appear that the tags recorded from Sydney Inlet were recorded incorrectly, as
plant records indicate that as being a most improbable source. One of the tags so
recorded almost certainly came from Kyuquot Sound and the remaining five most
probably came from Quatsino Sound or Nootka Sound. Besides the localities named,
Ououkinsh Inlet and the east coast of Vancouver Island are possible alternative sources
for any of these tags. All of the tags recorded from Nootka Sound may be correctly
reported, but Quatsino Sound appears as an equally probable source for the tags. For
these tags Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay are possible
alternative sources. Of the ten recoveries reported from Esperanza Inlet, two are
probably correct and the rest are possibly so, although the chances appear good that
some of the returns came from Quatsino Sound fish. Possible alternatives for the two
recoveries which are considered as probably being from Esperanza Inlet are Nootka
Sound, Kyuquot Sound, Quatsino Sound, and the east coast of Vancouver Island. Additional possible alternatives for the remaining eight recoveries are Nootka Sound,
Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay. Additional possible alternatives for
the tag reported from Kyuquot Sound and Esperanza Inlet are Quatsino Sound, Nootka
Sound, and the east coast of Vancouver Island. Of the seven recoveries reported from
Kyuquot Sound, three are presumably correct, but two of these have alternative sources
in Nootka Sound and the east coast of Vancouver Island' and one in Sydney and
Ououkinsh Inlets, and Nanoose Bay. The other four recoveries might equally well
have come from Quatsino Sound fish and, in addition, they have Nootka Sound, Sydney
Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island as possible alternatives.
Ououkinsh Inlet as the reported place of recovery of one 4U tag is almost certainly
correct, although Nanoose Bay is an improbable alternative. Of the fourteen recoveries
reported from Quatsino Sound, eleven are probably correct but have a variety of alternative possibilities—namely, Nootka Sound, Esperanza Inlet, Sydney and Ououkinsh
Inlets, and Nanoose Bay. The remaining three have as possible sources Nootka and
Kyuquot Sounds and the east coast of Vancouver Island.
It is not believed that all the 4U tags were returned from fish caught in Quatsino
Sound, but the fact that none of the tags were returned by plants which failed to operate
upon Quatsino Sound fish does indicate that the bulk of the fish bearing 4U tags were
confined to the westerly part of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Moreover, atteiv
tion is called to the fact that the plant which processed the largest proportion of the
Quatsino Sound fish was instrumental in recovering thirty-eight of the fifty-five
4U tags.
One 4U tag was found in dressing herring caught in Quatsino Sound.
Campbell Island (4W) : Five recoveries reported as follows: Laredo Inlet, four;
" Rupert District," one. The Laredo recoveries are probably all correct, although three
have the following alternatives: Khutzeymateen Inlet, Union Bay, Queen Charlotte
Sound, and Nanoose Bay, and the other one could have entered the reduction plant
concerned with fish from either Khutzeymateen Inlet or Union Bay. The remaining
tag may be correctly reported, but alternative sources such as Queen Charlotte Sound
and Central British Columbia appear possible.
Big Bay (4X): Three recoveries, one reported from Union Bay and two from the
vicinity of Khutzeymateen Inlet. All recoveries are probably reported correctly,
although one had Union Bay and Laredo Inlet as possible alternatives, and the others
had Union Bay, Queen Charlotte Sound, and Nanoose Bay.
Butler Cove (4Y) : Two recoveries reported from Khutzeymateen Inlet and Meyers
Passage.    The first is probably correct, with Union Bay, Queen Charlotte Sound, and
* For additional recoveries from this tagging see postscript at the end of the report, page 76. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 65
Nanoose Bay as alternatives. The recovery reported from Meyers Passage is less
dependable and it seems equally likely that it originated with fish caught in Khutzeymateen Inlet, with Union Bay as a second possibility.
* Lake Island (4Z) : Nine recoveries. Seven recorded from Laredo Inlet, or its
approaches, and two reported from Meyers Passage. All of these recoveries are probably
correctly reported. To some extent they have each other as possible alternatives and,
in addition, the tags may have alternatives in some or all of Khutzeymateen Inlet,
Union Bay, other fishing-grounds in Central British Columbia, Queen Charlotte Sound,
and the east coast of Vancouver Island.
* Barkley Sound (4AA) : Seven recoveries were recorded from the following localities: Deepwater Bay, one; Esperanza Inlet and Kyuquot Sound, one; Kyuquot Sound,
four; Quatsino Sound, one. The recovery reported from Deepwater Bay, off Discovery
Passage, is probably correct, but the tag may have entered the plant with fish caught
on other fishing-grounds on the east coast of Vancouver Island. The recovery reported
from Kyuquot Sound and Esperanza Inlet probably originated in one of these localities,
but Nootka Sound and the east coast of Vancouver Island are other possibilities. All
of the Kyuquot Sound recoveries may be correctly indicated, but it would appear from
plant records that one of them could equally well have come from Nootka or Quatsino
Sounds, with east coast fishing-grounds as a further possible alternative. These
alternatives also apply to one other 4AA tag reported from Kyuquot Sound. The two
remaining tags may be correctly reported, but have Sydney and Ououkinsh Inlets and
Nanoose Bay as possible alternatives. The Quatsino recovery is possibly correct but
has a variety of possible alternatives, including Nootka Sound, Sydney and Ououkinsh
Inlets, and Nanoose Bay.
* Gabriola Bluff (5C) : Two recoveries were made by induction detector from fish
caught at Trincomali Channel and Nanoose Bay respectively.
Hammond Bay (5D) : Two recoveries reported from fish caught at Deepwater Bay
in Discovery Passage. The report is probably accurate, although Okisollo Channel and
areas on the east coast of Vancouver Island are also possible sources.
Eight 5D tags were recovered by induction detector from fish caught in the following localities:  Swanson Channel, one;  Trincomali Channel, three;  Nanoose Bay, four.
Nanoose Bay (5E): One recovery reported from Central British Columbia (Fish
Egg Inlet), but plant records showed that all of the fish landed at about that time were
delivered from Swanson Channel fish, and it is accordingly concluded that Swanson
Channel is the correct source of the tag.
Five 5E tags were recovered by induction detector from the following fishing-
grounds:   Swanson Channel, one;   Trincomali Channel, two;   Nanoose Bay, two.
Breakwater Island (5F) : One recovery reported from Nanoose Bay probably
correctly and the fish carrying the tag was certainly caught on the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Five 5F tags were recovered by induction detector, one each from Swanson and
Trincomali Channels and three from Nanoose Bay.
Bargain Harbour (5G): One recovery reported, probably correctly, from the Strait
of Georgia.
Four 5G tags were recovered by induction detector from fish caught at Nanoose
Bay.
Thomas Point (5H) : One recovery recorded from Union Bay (near Prince
Rupert) or Okisollo Channel. These fishing-grounds indicate the most probable points
of origin for the tag, but a variety of fishing-grounds in the Queen Charlotte Sound
area are possible sources.
* Campbell Island (51): One recovery reported from the Strait of Georgia. This
record is probably correct.
Duncan Bay (5J): Fifteen recoveries, four reported from Union Bay, ten from
Khutzeymateen Inlet, and one from Passage Island in the Central area. All of these
recoveries are probably correctly reported. The Union Bay and nine of the Khutzeymateen recoveries had Laredo Inlet as a possible alternative source.    The remaining
* For additional recoveries from this tagging see postscript at the end of the report, page 76.
5 Khutzeymateen recovery had no possible alternatives. The only possible alternative
source for the Passage Island tag is Klemtu.
Jap Inlet (5K) : Two recoveries reported from Khutzeymateen Inlet—no doubt
correctly. No reasonable alternatives are evident for one of the returns. Discovery
Passage and Queen Charlotte Islands are improbable alternatives for the other.
*Laidlaw Islands (5L) : Four returns all reported, probably correctly, from Laredo
Inlet. The alternative possible sources are included among the following: Khutzeymateen Inlet, Union Bay (near Prince Rupert), other fishing-grounds in Central British
Columbia, Queen Charlotte Sound, and the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Deer Passage (5M) : Two recoveries reported from Meyers Passage in Central
British Columbia and Laredo Inlet. It seems probable that the indicated areas are
correct or that Laredo Inlet is correct for both returns, although Khutzeymateen Inlet
and Union Bay are possible alternatives.
Kwakshua Passage (5N): Five recoveries recorded from Nootka Sound, Esperanza Inlet and Kyuquot Sound, Kyuquot Sound, Quatsino Sound, and Union Bay or
Bella Coola. Other alternatives on the west coast of Vancouver Island, such as Sydney
and Ououkinsh Inlets, are possible for the first four and there is some possibility of the
tags having come to the plant with fish caught on the east coast of Vancouver Island,
but it is not reasonable to suppose that any of them were caught in Central British
Columbia. The last-mentioned tag probably came from some fishing-ground in Central
or Northern British Columbia and there is a possibility that it originated from the
Discovery Passage area.
* Barkley Sound (50): Seven recoveries, five of them reported from Barkley Sound
and one each from Esperanza Inlet and Kyuquot Sound. Four of the Barkley Sound
recoveries are probably correct, with all having the east coast of Vancouver Island as a
possible, if improbable, alternative. In addition, one of the returns had Kyuquot
Sound and Sydney Inlet as alternatives and the remaining one had these localities and
Quatsino Sound and Ououkinsh Inlet as well. The fifth Barkley Sound record may be
correct, but Quatsino and Nootka Sound seem from the plant record to be equally
probable sources, while other possible ones are Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh
Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island. The Esperanza Inlet record is probably
correct, with possible alternatives as follows: Nootka Sound, Kyuquot Sound, Quatsino
Sound, and east coast of Vancouver Island. The Kyuquot Sound report, also, is
probably correct, with possible alternatives in Nootka Sound and the east coast of
Vancouver Island.
* Barkley Sound (5P) : Fourteen recoveries recorded as follows: Barkley Sound,
seven; Sydney Inlet, two; Queens Cove, two; Kyuquot Sound, two; Union Bay or
Okisollo Channel, one. Five of the Barkley Sound records are probably correctly
reported, although the various tags had alternative sources as follows: East coast of
Vancouver Island, four; and east coast of Vancouver Island and Ououkinsh Inlet, one.
One of the tags reported from Barkley Sound would appear to have an equal possibility
of being returned from Sydney Inlet, Kyuquot Sound, or, possibly, the east coast of
Vancouver Island; and the remaining one could equally well have originated from fish
caught in Quatsino or Nootka Sounds, Sydney or Ououkinsh Inlets, or Nanoose Bay.
Both of the Sydney Inlet recoveries are probably correct, but they had Barkley Sound,
Ououkinsh Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island as possible alternatives. Either
of the Queens Cove records may be correct, but one had a nearly equal chance of being
returned from Kyuquot Sound and could have been returned from the east coast of
Vancouver Island; and the other had an almost equal chance of having entered the
plant with Quatsino Sound fish and could have done so with fish caught in Kyuquot
Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, or the east coast of Vancouver Island. One of the Kyuquot
Sound records is probably correct, with Ououkinsh and Sydney Inlets and Nanoose Bay
as possible alternatives. The other one could equally well have been returned from
Nootka Sound or Quatsino Sound, and also had Ououkinsh and Sydney Inlets and
Nanoose Bay as alternatives. The recovery reported from Union Bay or Okisollo
Channel had the various fishing-grounds of the Queen Charlotte Sound area as alter-
* For additional recoveries from this tagging see postscript at the end of the report, page 76. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 67
native points of origin, but it is clear that the tag was not returned from fish caught
on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
Kendrick Arm (5Q) : Thirty-six recoveries reported as follows: Barkley Sound,
seven; Sydney Inlet, five; Nootka Sound, three; Esperanza Inlet, eight; Kyuquot
Sound, six; Quatsino Sound, seven. Five of the Barkley Sound reports are probably
correct, although two have Sydney Inlet, Kyuquot Sound, and the east coast of Vancouver Island as alternative possibilities, and the remaining three have those alternatives in addition to Nootka and Quatsino Sounds and Ououkinsh Inlet. In the cases of
the remaining two Barkley Sound reports it appears that the tags would have had an
equal opportunity of entering the plant with fish caught in Sydney Inlet or Kyuquot
Sound, with possible sources in Ououkinsh Inlet and the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Three of the Sydney Inlet records are probably correct, but two have alternative sources
in Barkley Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island, and one of
them in Kyuquot Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island. The
other reports are possibly correct, but other fishing-grounds such as Nootka and Quatsino Sounds appear equally likely to have produced the tags, and still further possible
alternatives exist in Kyuquot Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay. The three
tags reported from Nootka Sound are probably correct, although Quatsino Sound,
Kyuquot Sound, Sydney and Ououkinsh Inlets, and the east coast of Vancouver Island
are possible alternatives. All of the Esperanza Inlet recoveries are probably correct,
although a variety of alternatives exist, comprising for three of the recoveries, Quatsino, Kyuquot and Nootka Sounds, Sydney and Ououkinsh Inlets, and Nanoose Bay, and
for the remaining five, Kyuquot, Quatsino, and Nootka Sounds, and the east coast of
Vancouver Island. All of the five records listed from Kyuquot Sound are probably
correct, although four of them could have come from Nootka Sound or the east coast
of Vancouver Island, and the remaining one had Sydney and Ououkinsh Inlets and
Nanoose Bay as alternatives. All of the seven recoveries reported from Quatsino
Sound may be correct, but Nootka Sound is rather a probable alternative for all of
them, and there is a possibility that any of the tags may have originated in any of the
following localities:  Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay.
Esperanza Inlet (5U): Thirteen recoveries reported as follows: Sydney Inlet,
one; Esperanza Inlet, four; Esperanza Inlet and Kyuquot Sound, one; Kyuquot Sound,
four; and Quatsino Sound, three. The Sydney Inlet report is probably correct,
although Barkley Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island are
possible alternatives. Two of the Esperanza Inlet recoveries are probably correct, with
alternative possibilities in Nootka, Kyuquot, and Quatsino Sounds, and the east coast
of Vancouver Island. The other two are possibly correct, but from the plant records
it appears that Quatsino Sound is equally possible as a source. Other possible sources
of the tags are Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay. The
tag reported from Esperanza Inlet and Kyuquot Sound is probably correctly indicated,
but might have come from the east coast of Vancouver Island. The recoveries reported
from Kyuquot Sound all appear to be probably correct, although they might have
entered the plant with fish caught in the Nootka Sound area or on the east coast of
Vancouver Island. Any of the three tags reported from Quatsino Sound might equally
well have been returned from Nootka Sound or Esperanza Inlet. Other alternatives
for two of them were Sydney Inlet, Kyuquot Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay,
and for the other one the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Kyuquot Sound (5V) : Thirteen recoveries, one reported from Esperanza Inlet and
the remaining twelve from Kyuquot Sound. The Esperanza Inlet record is probably
correct, but there are alternative possibilities in Kyuquot, Quatsino, and Nootka Sounds,
and the east coast of Vancouver Island. The Kyuquot Sound recoveries are probably
correct, but nine of them have Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay as
alternative possibilities, and three of them have Nootka Sound area and the east coast
of Vancouver Island as possible alternatives.
* Quatsino Sound (5W): Forty-eight recoveries reported from the following fishing-
grounds:   Barkley Sound, nine;   Sydney Inlet, four;   Nootka Sound, two;   Esperanza
* For additional recoveries from this tagging see postscript at the end of the report, page 76. J 68 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Inlet, nine; Kyuquot Sound, nine; Quatsino Sound, fifteen. Any of the Barkley
Sound reports may be correct, but from plant records it would appear that the chances
of recovery from Quatsino Sound fish is equal to that of recovery from Barkley Sound
fish. In this connection it is worthy of remark that one plant which operated extensively on Barkley Sound herring but no Quatsino Sound herring at the time recoveries
were being made turned in no 5W tags. Other alternative localities of capture for
the tags under discussion were, for eight, Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh
Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island, and, for the remaining one, Nootka
Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, Kyuquot Sound, and the east coast of Vancouver
Island. The four recoveries indicated from Sydney Inlet are probably incorrectly
reported. Plant records indicate that the chances are about equal for recovery from
Quatsino and Nootka Sound areas, with Sydney and Ououkinsh Inlets and Nanoose
Bay as further possibilities. The recoveries reported from Nootka Sound would appear
to have an equal chance of being recovered from Quatsino Sound. Kyuquot Sound,
Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay are also possible places of origin for
these tags. Two of the recoveries reported from Esperanza Inlet are probably correct,
but have Nootka and Kyuquot Sounds and the east coast of Vancouver Island as
alternatives. The remaining seven are possibly reported correctly, but there is considerable likelihood that they originated in Quatsino Sound and less likelihood that
the fish carrying the tags were caught in Nootka or Kyuquot Sounds, or Sydney or
Ououkinsh Inlets, or at Nanoose Bay. Five of the recoveries reported from Kyuquot
Sound are probably correct, although two of them have Nootka Sound and the east
coast of Vancouver Island as possible alternatives, and three of them have Sydney
Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay as possible sources. The remaining four
recoveries are possibly correct, but all have Quatsino Sound as a reasonably likely
alternative source. In addition, one has Nootka and Kyuquot Sounds and the east
coast of Vancouver Island as possible alternative sources and the other three have
Nootka Sound, Sydney and Ououkinsh Inlets, and Nanoose Bay. Any of the reports
of recoveries of 5W tags from Quatsino Sound may be correct, but alternatives from
other areas on the west coast of Vancouver Island and on the east coast of Vancouver
Island occur for all of them. In view of the fact that the greater majority of the
5W tags were recovered while landings of Quatsino Sound fish were being made,
whether the individual tags were recorded from Quatsino Sound or other fishing-
grounds, all of these tags are considered as having originated in Quatsino Sound.
* Bunsby Islands (5X) : Forty-nine recoveries reported from the following fishing-
grounds: Barkley Sound, Sydney Inlet, and Esperanza Inlet, one; Sydney Inlet, four;
Esperanza Inlet, nine; Esperanza Inlet and Kyuquot Sound, three; Kyuquot Sound,
thirty; Quatsino Sound, two. The recovery indicated as coming from Barkley Sound
or Esperanza Inlet or Sydney Inlet no doubt originated in one of these places or on
the east coast of Vancouver Island. Two of the Sydney Inlet recoveries are probably
correct, with Ououkinsh Inlet and Nanoose Bay as possible alternatives. The remaining two are possibly correct and have as alternative sources Nootka, Quatsino and
Kyuquot Sounds, Sydney and Ououkinsh Inlets, and Nanoose Bay. All of the Esperanza
Inlet recoveries are probably correct, although one of them has an almost equal chance
of originating from Quatsino Sound, with Sydney Inlet, Kyuquot Sound, Ououkinsh
Inlet, and Nanoose Bay as other alternatives. One other of these tags could have had
as possible alternatives: Sydney Inlet, Barkley and Kyuquot Sounds, and the east
coast of Vancouver Island. The remaining seven of the recoveries reported from
Esperanza Inlet had Kyuquot and- Nootka Sounds and the east coast of Vancouver
Island as possible sources. The three recoveries reported from Esperanza Inlet and
Kyuquot Sound probably came from one of those areas, but might have originated
from Nootka Sound or the east coast of Vancouver Island. Twenty-seven of the
Kyuquot Sound recoveries are probably correct, although fourteen have Sydney and
Ououkinsh Inlets and Nanoose Bay as possible alternatives, and thirteen the Nootka
Sound area and the east coast of Vancouver Island. The remaining three are possibly
correctly  reported,  but  have  various  alternative  possibilities,  such  as  Nootka and
* For additional recoveries from this tagging see postscript at the end of the report, page 76. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 69
Quatsino Sounds, Sydney and Ououkinsh Inlets, and the east coast of Vancouver
Island. The two reports from Quatsino Sound may be correct, but one has Nootka
and Kyuquot Sounds as probable alternatives, as well as the east coast of Vancouver
Island, and the other has Nootka Sound as a likely alternative, in addition to possible
alternatives in Sydney Inlet, Kyuquot Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay.
Refuge Cove (5Y) : Twenty recoveries reported as follows: Barkley Sound, five;
Sydney Inlet, six; Nootka Sound, one; Esperanza Inlet and Kyuquot Sound, one;
Kyuquot Sound, seven. One of the recoveries reported from Barkley Sound is probably correct, but had Ououkinsh and the east coast of Vancouver Island as possible
alternatives. Although the remaining four appear more doubtful, with Sydney Inlet
as a probable alternative, they may be correct; two of them have Esperanza Inlet and
the east coast of Vancouver Island as additional alternative sources, and two of them
have Kyuquot Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island. Four
of the reported recoveries from Sydney Inlet appear to be correct, although Kyuquot
Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and the east coast of Vancouver Island are also possible
sources of the fish carrying the tags. The remaining two Sydney Inlet recoveries,
while they may be correct, are more doubtful. They have as alternative sources
Quatsino Sound, Kyuquot Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, and Nanoose Bay. The report from
Nootka Sound is probably correct, with Sydney Inlet, Kyuquot Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet,
and Nanoose Bay as possible alternatives. The recovery reported from Esperanza
Inlet and Kyuquot Sound is probably correct, but Quatsino Sound, Nootka Sound, and
the east coast of Vancouver Island are also possible sources. Five of the Kyuquot
Sound reports are probably correct, although Sydney Inlet is a reasonably likely
alternative and Ououkinsh Inlet and the east coast of Vancouver Island are fairly
probable ones. Two other Kyuquot reports appear improbable, though possible.
Alternative sources were Nootka Sound and the east coast of Vancouver Island for
one and those areas plus Quatsino Sound for the other.
Sooke (6A) : Two recoveries, one reported from the Strait of Georgia and the
other from the " Alert Bay District." The first is certainly correct. The other one
may have originated from some fishing-ground within the Queen Charlotte Sound area,
but the east coast of Vancouver Island is also possible as a source.
Seven 6A tags were recovered by induction detector, three each from fish caught
in Swanson Channel and Nanoose Bay and one from fish caught in Trincomali Channel.
It is noteworthy that no returns were reported from tagging 5B, in which 997
tags were used at Satellite Channel and Fulford Harbour at the end of the 1940
fishing season.
STABILITY OF POPULATIONS AND MOVEMENTS.
An examination of Table IV. indicates a definite tendency for tags to be recovered
close to areas in which they were originally used. At the same time there is evidence
that some fish are caught far from the original tagging area. This is brought out
more clearly in Table V., in which both tagging areas and fishing-grounds are grouped
according to major area. It is evident that when such major areas are considered the
great preponderance of the fish are caught in the same region as that in which they
were tagged six months or more previously. The table shows that out of the 435
returns for which interpretations are offered, 419 were recovered from the major
tagging areas. On this basis, it is possible to say that 96 per cent, of the tagged fish
returned to the same general area.
The discussion of the interchange of fish between and within fishing areas follows.
West Coast of Vancouver Island.
More tags were recovered from the west coast of Vancouver Island than from
any other major area. This fact may be related to (1) a more intensive fishery on
the west coast; (2) more intensive tagging in that area; (3) more efficient recovery
in that area; (4) factors connected with the movements of the fish; and (5) difference
in the efficiency of tagging. It is believed that most of the difference between the west
coast of Vancouver Island and other fishing areas can be attributed to causes under
the first three headings. J 70
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Table III,
-Tags from each Tagging recovered by each Plant making Recoveries
during the 1941-42 Season.
Locality and Month of Tagging.
Plant making Recovery.   (See foot-note for fish processed.)
Code.
c
CO
a
0
B
V
3
o
o
•A
CJ
cj
u
QJ
CJ
p.
CJ
CJ
o
is
CJ
ft
s
t-t
CO
M
u
CJ
<
3
S
OJ
_CJ
"3
-v
CJ
3
M
■V
u
ca
js
13
w •
U
0
Ph
_v
fl
i—i
■s
3
(-1
Total.
3U
2
2
4
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
5
2
1
7
1
7
2
1
1
1
1
9
8
1
3
1
3
1
2
3
8
1
8
16
6
4
3
6
9
22
38
32
3
3
2
1
2
3
1
3
11
6
8
1
7
4
25
8
8
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
2
3
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
2
1
1
12
1
1
2
4AA
7
50
7
5P
3Y
4P
4Q
5Y
3W
4R
5Q
4S
5U
3V
Barkley Sound, March, 1941 —	
Sydney Inlet, March, 1939 ,
Whitepine Cove, March, 1940	
Refuge Cove, March, 1940	
Refuge Cove, March, 1941—	
Nootka Sound, March, 1939	
Nootka Sound, March, 1940	
Nootka Sound, March, 1941.	
Esperanza Inlet, March, 1940  	
Esperanza Inlet, March, 1941	
14
1
6
7
20
2
12
36
14
13
6
4T
5V
5X
Kyuquot Sound, March, 1940 	
Kyuquot Sound, March, 1941. -	
14
13
49
1
55
6W
3M
4K
Quatsino Sound, March, 1941 	
Kulleet Bay, March, 1939 	
48
2
1
5D
5E
5F
5G
6A
Hammond Bay, March, 1941	
Nanoose Bay, March, 1941.  -
Breakwater Island, March, 1941	
Bargain ^Harbour, March, 1941  —
Sooke October, 1941      	
2
1
1
1
2
4L
4M
Cutter Creek, March, 1940 	
4
5
4N
1
5H
1
3J
3R
Laredo Inlet, March, 1939. 	
Campbell Island, March, 1939	
1
1
1
4W
4Z
51
Campbell Island, March, 1940	
Lake Island, March, 1940 -	
Campbell Island, March, 1941    	
5
9
1
4
5M
5N
Deer Passage, March, 1941  ..—	
Kwakshua Passage, March, 1941.	
2
5
3
4Y
5J
5K
Butler Cove, March, 1940 -	
Duncan Bay, March, 1941	
Jap Inlet, March, 1941 ,	
Totals	
2
15
2
18
49
169
95
4
14
10
15
23
2
399
Kildonan:   Barkley Sound, east coast of Vancouver Island, Sydney Inlet, Esperanza Inlet, Quatsino Sound.
Ucluelet: Quatsino Sound, Sydney Inlet, east coast of Vancouver Island, Barkley Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet,
Kyuquot Sound.
Nootka: Quatsino Sound, Nootka Sound and Esperanza Inlet, Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Ououkinsh Inlet,
Barkley Sound, Nanoose Bay.
Ceepeecee:   Kyuquot Sound, Nootka Sound and Esperanza Inlet, east coast of Vancouver Island, Quatsino Sound.
Imperial: East coast of Vancouver Island, Okisollo Channel and Deepwater Bay, Laredo Inlet, Union Bay,
Barkley Sound.
Alert Bay: Queen Charlotte Sound area, Okisollo Channel and Deepwater Bay, Laredo Inlet, east coast of
Vancouver Island, Khutzeymateen Inlet.
Namu: Laredo Inlet, Northern British Columbia, other areas in Central British Columbia, Queen Charlotte
Sound, east coast of Vancouver Island.
Butedale: Khutzeymateen Inlet and Union Bay, Laredo Inlet, etc., east coast of Vancouver Island, Passage
Island and Klemtu, Queen Charlotte Sound.
Port Edward:   Khutzeymateen Inlet and Union Bay, Laredo Inlet.
Tuck Inlet:   Union Bay, Laredo Sound. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 71
Table IV.—Summarizing the Supposed Sources of Tags from each Tagging producing
Returns on Magnets during the 1941-42 Season.
(The entries in this table represent the authors' interpretation of the recoveries
based on data concerning the amounts and dates of fish delivered to each plant, the
plants which failed to make recoveries from certain taggings, and the peculiarities of
each plant in returning tags as determined by tests. Details of the qualifications concerning the interpretations are given in the text.)
Code.
Locality and Month of
Tagging.
Place of Capture.
s»
2 a
^ r.
+J CJ
S a
o £
K>
CJ m tn
ft rr.   _.
ca^= cd
-a a
c _
C3  S
Ǥ
c n  .
.-.  3  CJ
PW»5
Total.
3U
4AA
50
5P
3Y
4P
4Q
5Y
3W
4R
5Q
4S
5U
3V
4T
5V
5X
3G
4U
5W
3M
4K
5D
5E
5F
5G
6A
4L
4M
4N
5H
3J
3R
4J
4W
4Z
51
5L
5M
5N
4X
4Y
5J
5K
Barkley Sound, March, 1939	
Barkley Sound, March, 1940.	
Barkley Sound, March, 1941	
Barkley Sound, March, 1941	
Sydney Inlet, March, 1939	
Whitepine Cove, March, 1940 ...
Refuge Cove, March, 1940	
Refuge Cove, March, 1941	
Nootka Sound, March, 1939   	
Nootka Sound, March, 1940	
Nootka Sound, March, 1941 	
Esperanza Inlet, March, 1940 ...
Esperanza Inlet, March, 1941 ....
Kyuquot Sound, March, 1939	
Kyuquot Sound, March, 1940 	
Kyuquot Sound, March, 1941 	
Bunsby Islands, March, 1941 	
Quatsino Sound, January, 1939 .
Quatsino Sound, March, 1940 .._.
Quatsino Sound, March, 1941
Kulleet Bay, March, 1939	
Deep Bay, March, 1940  ...
Hammond Bay, March, 1941 —
Nanoose Bay, March, 1941 	
Breakwater Island, March, 1941
Bargain Harbour, March, 1941   .
Sooke, October, 1941	
Cutter Creek, March, 1940
Shoal Harbour, March, 1940 	
Bend Island, March, 1940	
Kingcome Inlet, March, 1941 	
Laredo Inlet, March, 1939
Campbell Island, March, 1939 	
Laredo Inlet, March, 1940;	
Campbell Island, March, 1940 _..
Lake Island, March, 1940- 	
Campbell Island, March, 1941—
Laidlaw Islands, March, 1941	
Deer Passage, March, 1941 	
Kwakshua Passage, March, 1941
Big Bay, March, 1940	
Butler Cove, March, 1940 	
Duncan Bay, March, 1941.:.	
Jap Inlet, March, 1941 	
Totals 	
I  ~-  I
I  ■-  I
3
1
14
1
2
7
7
14
1
6
7
20
2
12
36
14
13
6
14
13
49
1
55
48
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
4
5
1
1
1
1
1
5
9
1
4
2
5
3
2
15
2 J 72
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Table V.—Summary, according to Major Areas, of the Supposed Sources of all Tags
from Taggings producing Returns during the 1941-42 Season.
(This table is based upon the same interpretations as Table IV. and is accordingly
subject to the same qualifications.)
General
Locality op Recovery.
+3 rt
fl &
a> ai H
General Locality of Tagging.
^0
fl
-a
fl
bO
rt
CJ
.B
"3^
0 E ^
.2
In *-<
rt
04
O
Tj cd
V>
M
02 **'!I7
.2 JsS ho
01
ft
0 3
u 5
to S
rt rt
Ih
>
8*
0<!
o<!
CO
CJ B
cj g
3 o
am
CQ cd
■si
CJ o
s cd
CJ/2
No Specif
assigned,
not from
of Taggin
a
ft
sz
r. 11
325
1
1
1
1
43
2
2
2
1
9
1
1
1
4
1
22
2
1
20
1
Table VI.—Summary of the Supposed Sources of all Tags recovered during the 1941-42
Fishing Season which were used on the West Coast of Vancouver Island or which
are interpreted as having been returned from that Major Area.
(This table is based upon the same interpretations as Table IV. and is accordingly
subject to the same qualifications.)
Area
of Interpreted Recovery.
Tagging Area.
fl
3
o
CO
f>»
4
f-H cr
c o
w >,
Cu fl
£ c
5 d
EG  S
rt w
fl   /.
g-S
!§
T3
B
3
O
m
o
S
Areas not included
in the West Coast
of Vancouver
Island.
0J
c o
tt
tt
*OT3 P
cc rtW
£■0.2
6 c B
W  Cd M
3
£3
10
2
i
2
3
13
1
6
4
8
15
Nootka Sound and Esperanza Inlet ■    	
6
4
18
23
26
1
2
12
50
i
16
4
10
36
55
1
2
1
102
7
Of the 328 tags used on the west coast (for which interpretations are offered) 325
were recovered in that major area, one was recovered on the east coast of Vancouver
Island, one was recovered in Discovery Passage area, and the other one was recovered
either in the Discovery Passage area or in Northern British Columbia. Four tags
used in Central British Columbia were recovered on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
The movements within the west coast area are illustrated in the summary shown
in Table VI. From the table it may be calculated that out of the 201 recoveries of
tags used on the west coast (for which interpretations are offered in regard to particular area of recovery) and recovered in the same major area, 120 or 60 per cent, were
reported from the particular tagging area. If the Nootka-Esperanza and Kyuquot-
Ououkinsh areas are combined, 155 tags may be considered as recovered from the
tagging area, or 77 per cent. These estimates of the extent of segregation within the
west coast of Vancouver Island fishing areas agree reasonably well with those based BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 73
on returns made in previous years and indicate that unlimited movement does not take
place within the west coast area.
The limitation of movement applies even between the closely situated Nootka
Sound-Esperanza Inlet area and the Kyuquot Sound-Ououkinsh Inlet area, as may be
illustrated in the following tabulation:—
Place of Tagging.
Interpreted Place of Recovery.
In Nootka Sound and
Esperanza Inlet.
In Kyuquot Sound.
Outside of the Nootka-
Kyuquot Area.
Nootka Sound and Esperanza Inlet
Kyuquot Sound  	
Outside of Nootka-Kyuquot area	
(a) 18
(d) 12
(S)    9
(6) 23
(e) 50
(h) 20
(c) 10
(/) 4
(i) 55
In considering the tabulation it should be kept in mind that two of the principal
factors influencing number of recoveries are the number of tags present and the
amount of fish caught. In view of the fact that about twice as many fish were taken
in the Kyuquot Sound-Ououkinsh Inlet area as in the Nootka Sound-Esperanza Inlet
area the relatively high value in cells a and e, combined, as compared with that in b
and d, combined, indicate that mixing between those two areas is not entirely random.
The independence of the combined areas from the rest of the west coast can be estimated quantitatively as 79 per cent, by comparing the sum of the values in the cells
a, b, d, e, and i with the total value in all the cells.
There is, in the results, evidence of considerable independence of the fish from
Quatsino Sound. Reference to Table III. shows that the amount of fish from Quatsino
Sound and the number of Quatsino tags recovered rather closely parallel one another,
and accordingly suggests that the degree of isolation indicated by the interpretations
is too low.
In the report for 1940-41, attention was called to the fact that of the Barkley
Sound taggings 4AA tags behaved generally differently than those of the 3U tagging
and that in general they showed a less well marked tendency to be interpreted as being
recovered from Barkley Sound. Reference to the text analysis of the sources of 4AA
tags indicates that the tendency to wander away from Barkley Sound was continuous
into the succeeding year. Of the seven tags recovered, one was recovered in another
major area and all of the others were recovered under circumstances which make the
possibility of recovery from Barkley Sound appear impossible or highly improbable.*
This condition is in contrast to those for the other Barkley Sound taggings, 3U, 50,
and 5P, a majority of whose interpreted returns are from Barkley Sound.
The 4U tagging at Quatsino Sound is unique in that, of all taggings producing
substantial numbers of returns, it is the only one to produce more tags in the second
season after tagging than the first. (The 2M tagging is an exception to this statement, but in its case the comparatively low recovery in the first year was evidently
due to technical difficulties with recovery of tags in plants situated near the fishing-
grounds most concerned.) In the 1940-41 season, when twenty-eight recoveries of
4U tags were made, a very small amount of fish was taken in Quatsino Sound and
most of the tags recovered were taken off Kyuquot Sound. In the report for 1940-41,
attention was called to the greater concentration of 4U tags among the few fish caught
in Quatsino Sound than those taken off Kyuquot Sound. It is evident that the concentration of 4U tags in the Kyuquot Sound area in 1940-41 (0.63 per hundred tons of
herring) was less than that observed in Quatsino Sound in 1941-42 (0.93 per hundred
tons of herring considering returns interpreted as being from Quatsino Sound, 1.90
considering all 4U returns, with the correct value no doubt being between these two).
East Coast of Vancouver Island.
The number of tags recovered from the east coast of Vancouver Island was small
considering the amount of fish caught in the east coast fishery.    This is largely to be
* For additional recoveries from this tagging see postscript at the end of the report, page - J 74
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
attributed to the extensive canning operations carried on in the east coast which offer
little opportunity for tag-recovery. In general, recovery has been small for the east
coast of Vancouver Island in recent years.
Interpretations were offered for forty-five tags put out on the east coast. Of these,
forty-three were returned from the east coast and two were recovered from Discovery
Passage. Tags interpreted as coming from fish caught on the east coast numbered
forty-seven. Of these, forty-three came from east coast taggings, one from a west
coast tagging, two from a tagging carried out in the Discovery Passage area, and one
from a Central British Columbia tagging. The situation under which no movement
out of the east coast area was indicated (aside from the movement into the Discovery
Passage area, which has a doubtful status) while there was definite evidence of movement into the area is in contrast with that for the previous year when no tags from
outside the area were recovered on east coast fishing-grounds and 27 per cent, of the
tags recovered from east coast taggings were recovered outside the east coast area.
(If Discovery Passage is included in this calculation and regarded as not being a part
of the east coast of Vancouver Island, 45 per cent, of the east coast tags are shown to
be recovered from outside the major tagging area.)
The relationship between tagging area within the east coast of Vancouver Island
region and the fishing-ground producing recoveries has been pointed out in an earlier
section. There is evidence of a tendency for fish tagged in the northern part of the
Strait of Georgia to be recovered from Nanoose Bay. This is a further indication of
a heterogeneity among the herring populations spawning in the Strait of Georgia
which has been suggested in earlier reports.
Discovery Passage.
The recoveries made during the past season give no indications of the independence of the herring populations of the Discovery Passage area. This may be largely
because neither the tagging during 1940-41 nor the recovery during 1941-42 was completed in such a way as to provide a suitable test of the independence of the area.
Owing to a comparative failure of spawning in the area during the spring of 1941, no
tags were put out. During the fishing season, the fishery was conducted in such a way
that there was little opportunity of any returns from the Discovery Passage area being
reported with certainty.
Queen Charlotte Sound.
Recoveries from and within the Queen Charlotte Sound area were greatly reduced
from the previous year. This is partly a result of the very sparse tagging in Queen
Charlotte Sound in the spring of 1941 and may be in part caused by curtailed fishing
in the area on stock which consisted largely of immature fish. No tags used in areas
outside Queen Charlotte Sound were interpreted as being recovered from fish caught
in that area, but three tags from Queen Charlotte Sound taggings were interpreted as
coming from three other major fishing areas. Ten of the thirteen tags recovered from
Queen Charlotte Sound taggings were returned by the plant operating upon most of
the Queen Charlotte Sound fish.
Central British Columbia.
The number of returns for Central British Columbia is comparatively low for the
second successive year. This small return is not attributable to the number of tags
out as shown by the following figures for the number of tags put out and recovered:—
Year.
Tags put out.
Tags recovered in Year
following Tagging.
Number.
Percentage.
1938                           :	
1,395
3,489
2,497
5,877
58
311
45
30
4.2
8.9
1.8
0.5
1939     ';	
1940.:                	
1941 	 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 75
It is evident that all of the difference in the percentage recovery is not due to
decline in the catch and it is regarded as unreasonable to believe that it is due to
deterioration in technique. By elimination it would appear then that the decline in
tag-recovery is related to some change in the life-history of the fish or some change
in the relationship between the fish population and the fishery. It is suggested tentatively that the facts of the case, including the continuation of satisfactory spawnings
in the region, are covered by the supposition that two groups of fish formerly spawned
together in the region, but that one group which was accustomed to approach the shore
and enter the inlets early in the season has become less numerous, while the other
group which characteristically remains off-shore until immediately before spawning
has maintained its abundance.
During the 1941-42 season the independence of the Central British Columbia
fishing area was maintained only imperfectly. Twenty^two tags put out in the Central
area were interpreted as being recovered in the same area. This may be compared
with two tags put out in other areas which are interpreted as being recovered in the
Central British Columbia region and five Central British Columbia tags which are
interpreted as being recovered in other major areas. In the last connection, the four
Kwakshua Passage (5N) tags recovered on the west coast of Vancouver Island are
noteworthy.
Northern British Columbia.
The number of tags recovered from Northern British Columbia was small but
larger than in the previous year. The decline in number of recoveries is less than
that shown for the Central area, but is, nevertheless, marked. The figures for recoveries
and tags used in this major area follow:—
Tags put out.
Tags recovered in Year
following Tagging.
Number.
Percentage.
1939                                	
2,696
2,299
2,491
53
10
22
2.0
1940   	
0.4
1941                      -	
0.9
The independence of the Northern British Columbia area is reasonably well maintained. Twenty tags used in the area were recovered from Northern British Columbia
fishing-grounds and one was interpreted as coming from beyond the limits of the area:
One tag from Central British Columbia was recovered from within the area. It is
evident again that fish spawning in Big Bay occur in substantial numbers during the
subsequent fishing season on fishing-grounds to the north such as those in Union Bay
and Khutzeymateen Inlet.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS.
The results of the herring-tagging and recovery programme agree in general with
those obtained in previous years. They establish the relative isolation of the major
fishing areas. On the whole these may be regarded as 96 per cent, independent. The
results also show that within major areas a certain amount of segregation of populations takes place, and this may occur even between closely associated contiguous areas.
There is evidence of heterogeneity in regard to the fishing-grounds supplied by the
different spawning populations of the Strait of Georgia. No evidence has been obtained
to indicate the separation of the Discovery Passage area from the rest of the east
coast of Vancouver Island.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
As in former years, the herring-tagging investigation has enjoyed the co-operation
of many individuals and agencies. British Columbia Packers, Limited, and the Nootka-
Banfield Company, Limited, have been most accommodating in permitting the installation of induction detectors in their plants at Steveston and Port Albion   (Ucluelet) J 76 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
respectively. Plant crews have again assisted the investigators by attending to the
recoveries of tags from magnets.
The Nootka-Banfield Company, Limited, and Nelson Brothers Fisheries, Limited,
have again placed the seine-boats " Snowfall " and " Jessie Island No. 11 " at our disposal for the spring tagging operations. The crews of these boats, Captains Ole Bruno
and Sigurd Berg, and Messrs. E. Lund, A. Carefoot, J. Yauk, and M. Campbell, have
given competent and willing assistance, as has Mr. S. Vollmers in his operation of the
" Whiff."    Mr. N. Tibbo, as a volunteer assistant, has given valuable help.
The courtesies of all of the foregoing are gratefully acknowledged, especially since
such co-operation as that extended is absolutely essential to the execution of a widespread programme such as that involved in herring-tagging.
The investigation has been carried out under a joint agreement between the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Fisheries Department of the Province of
British Columbia. The investigators wish to thank Dr. R. E. Foerster and Mr. George
J. Alexander, of the respective organizations, for their support of the work and understanding of the problems involved.
REFERENCES.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia: Methods, apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1936-37.   Report,
B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department, 1936, 55-67, 1937.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1937-38.    Report, B.C.
Provincial Fisheries Department, 1937, 64-90, 1938.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1938-39.    Report, B.C.
Provincial Fisheries Department, 1938, 51-78, 1939.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Insertions and recoveries during 1939-40.    Report, B.C.  Provincial
Fisheries Department, 1939, 42-66, 1940.
Hart, J. L., A. L. Tester, and J. L. McHugh.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii)
in British Columbia:  Insertions and recoveries during 1940-41.    Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department, 1940, 47-74, 1941.
POSTSCRIPT.
Since the completion of the foregoing report additional tags have been received
from two plants. Five of these were recovered at Butedale and were caught under
circumstances which make it evident that they came from fish caught in Laredo Inlet or
Meyers Passage. The tags were: 4Z, Lake Island—one; 51, Campbell Island—one;
5L, Laidlaw Island—two; 2M, Bella Bella—one. The site for the Bella Bella tagging
is not shown in the map accompanying this report but is illustrated in reports for
previous years. The 2M tag, used on March 25th, 1938, was out for a longer period
than any other recovered in the present investigation.
Twenty-two additional tags have been received from Kildonan as follows: 4U,
Quatsino Sound—two; 4AA, Barkley Sound—three; 5C, Gabriola Bluff—one; 50,
Barkley Sound—seven; 5P, Barkley Sound—six; 5W, Quatsino Sound—two; 5X,
Bunsby Islands—one. The following remarks deal with the sources of the tags as
interpreted on the basis of plant operations.
Quatsino Sound (4U) : One reported from Quatsino Sound, probably correctly.
The other one reported from Barkley Sound fish is interpreted as coming from Quatsino
Sound fish also. Other possibilities are Barkley Sound, east coast of Vancouver Island,
Sydney Inlet, Esperanza Inlet, and Kyuquot Sound.
Barkley Sound (4AA) : Two reported from Barkley Sound, evidently correctly,
and one from Winter Harbour. It is considered probable-that the last-mentioned tag
also entered the plant with Barkley Sound fish. Other possible sources are Esperanza
and Sydney Inlets, east coast of Vancouver Island, and Kyuquot Sound. BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 77
Gabriola Bluff (5C) : Reported from Barkley Sound. Other possible sources are:
Esperanza and Sydney Inlets, east coast of Vancouver Island, and Kyuquot Sound.
A tag used on the west coast of Vancouver Island recovered under the circumstances of
this one would have been regarded as probably originating with Barkley Sound fish.
However, it is possible that the tag entered the plant with fish caught on the east coast
of Vancouver Island, and this appears more probable in view of the blackened condition
of the tag.    No interpretation is offered.
Barkley Sound (50) : All seven recoveries reported from Barkley Sound, probably
correctly. Other alternative sources are Esperanza and Sydney Inlets, east coast of
Vancouver Island, and Kyuquot Sound.
Barkley Sound (5P) : All six recoveries reported from Barkley Sound, probably
correctly. Alternative possible sources for one of the tags were Sydney Inlet, east
coast of Vancouver Island, and Kyuquot Sound, and for the remaining five, those
localities plus Esperanza Inlet.
Quatsino Sound (5W) : Two recoveries, both reported, probably correctly, from
Quatsino Sound. Possible alternative sources are Barkley Sound, east coast of Vancouver Island, Sydney Inlet, Esperanza Inlet, and Kyuquot Sound.
Bunsby Islands (5X) : Reported from Barkley Sound. This may be correct, but
Quatsino Sound is also quite possible as an alternative source, with the east coast of
Vancouver Island, Sydney and Esperanza Inlets, and Kyuquot Sound as other alternatives. No interpretation is offered as to the point of origin on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
The additional recoveries will necessitate changes in some entries in the tables in
the body of the paper and in some cases will affect calculations based on them. The
alterations which will be caused will not affect the important general conclusions
in any way. J 78
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Table VII.—Detailed List of Tags inserted during 1941-42 (with a Correction
to a Previous List).
Identification
Marks.
P20001-P21100
P21101-P22700
P261O1-P2670O
P26701-P27200
AASS
BBAA
BBLL
BBTT
HHII
HHPP
HHTT
IIA A
IIOO
IIPP
1144
JJII*
JJKK
JJLL
JJMM
JJNN
JJOO
JJ66
KKHH
KKII
KKKK
KKMM
KKOO
KKXX
KKZZ
NNJJ
NNKK
NNOO
NNPP
NNTT
NNUU
NNXX
PPII
Date released.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar. 19
Feb. 19
Mar. 2
Oct. 17.
Feb. 26
June 4.
May 2.
Mar. 10
Mar. 10
Mar. 10
Mar. 10
June 4
Mar. 17
Mar. 6
Mar. 9
Mar. 9
Mar. 10
Mar. 7
Mar. 28
Mar. 19
Mar. 30
Apr. 21
Mar. 30
Mar. 28
Apr. 24
Apr. 22
Mar. 9
Mar.
Mar. 27.
Mar. 27.
Mar. 27
May 2
Apr. 24
June   3,
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1941
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1941
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
1942
Tagging
Code.
6L
6J
6L
6M
6B
6D
6A
6C
6S
6R
61
61
61
61
6S
51
6E
6H
6H
61
6F
6N
6M
60
6P
60
6N
6Q
6P
6G
6G
6K
6K
6K
6R
6Q
6S
Where released.
Retreat Passage-
Porpoise Bay	
Retreat Passage-
Campbell Island-
Selby Creek 	
Departure Bay	
Sooke   	
Ganges Harbour	
Nanaimo Harbour..
Departure Bay—	
Skuttle Bay	
Skuttle Bay	
Skuttle Bay 	
Skuttle Bay	
Nanaimo Harbour-
Brown Narrows	
Kuper Island	
Baynes Sound	
Baynes Sound	
Skuttle Bay-	
Departure Bay	
Clio Channel 	
Campbell Island	
Kingcome Inlet	
Cahnish Bay	
Kingcome Inlet	
Clio Channel 	
Departure Bay	
Cahnish Bay 	
Kulleet Bay	
Kulleet Bay	
Squirrel Cove	
Squirrel Cove	
Squirrel Cove	
Departure Bay	
Departure Bay	
Nanaimo Harbour-
No. of
Tags used.
1,093
1,579
596
498
997
500
496
497
200
199
194
100
98
97
100
99
993
998
1,002
1,000
1,004
1,000
999
1,000
998
776
1,000
502
500
499
501
500
500
499
499
503
500
* Erroneously recorded as WII in the 1940-41 report. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 79
THE BUTTER-CLAM (SAXIDOMUS GIGANTEUS DESHAYES)
STUDIES IN PRODUCTIVITY.
By Ferris Neave, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
In a previous report (B.C. Fisheries Dept., 1939) Mr. D. B. Quayle pointed out
the desirability of estimating the stocks of marketable clams existing from year to
year in the main areas of production. In order to provide a basis for comparison over
a period of years and thus gain an idea of the trend of the fishery, a system of recording catches was instituted, whereby the average quantity of clams obtained by a digger
during one tide can be estimated. This unit of effort, the " man-tide," is used as an
index to compare the productivity of different areas and of different years. The necessary statistics are obtained through the assistance and co-operation of the Dominion
Department of Fisheries, the clam-buyers, and the individual diggers.
In addition to this general survey, a more intensive investigation of the factors
governing production has been started at Seal Island.
COMPARISON OF AREAS.
The following figures were obtained by Mr. Quayle for various areas during the
1940-41 season. Averages for 1939-40, when these are available, are given for comparison. The figures under " Catch " are the quantities from which the averages were
calculated and do not necessarily represent the total catch from these localities.
Area.
Catch.
Total
Number of
Man-tides.
Average
Catch per
Man-tide.
1939-40.
Lb.
161,965
656,395
522,555
504,179
61,376
60,880
246,193
181,952
39,320
694
3,535
2,537
2,760
354
349
1,973
1,214
218
Lb.
233.4
185.7
206.0
182.7
173.1
174.4
124.7
149.9
180.4
Lb.
172.6
Old Village	
210.1
206.2
Bella Bella                            	
Comox.— ' -  	
Chemainus	
Sidney  	
120.0
138.0
SEAL ISLAND.
A special investigation of the butter-clam beach at Seal Island, near Comox, was
begun in January, 1942. This beach, which has been closed to diggers since 1939, at
which time it was in a depleted condition, was believed to have developed a heavy population of marketable clams. Experimental digging of these grounds was authorized
by an Order in Council of January, 1942, and an opportunity was thereby provided for
obtaining information on the population and productivity of a well-stocked beach under
controlled conditions. Specific information was sought regarding (1) the population
of clams existing in a beach which had not been dug for several years; (2) the quantities of clams obtained by diggers from such a beach under known conditions; (3) the
effect of imposing annual quotas on certain areas of known extent; and (4) the annual
yield which can be sustained over a period of years. In view of the limited results
obtainable in a single season, the present discussion is devoted to a partial consideration of (1) and (2).
The initiation of the experiment and the completion of the necessary arrangements
were in large measure due to Mr. George J. Alexander, Assistant Commissioner of J 80
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Fisheries.    Operations were conducted through the co-operation of British Columbia
Packers.
Methods.
Before digging commenced, three areas (A, B, and C) were staked out within the
portion of the beach considered to possess the heaviest population. These areas were
contiguous and were approximately 10,700 square yards, 11,000 square yards, and 7,500
square yards in extent.
Digging operations took place during two sets of low tides—namely, from January
29th to February 2nd and from February 10th to 13th. Digging was permitted on one
specified area only during a given night. Digging in Area A was stopped when it was
considered that two-thirds of the territory had been fully exploited, about one-quarter
of Area B was dug, while in Area C digging was continued until no digger considered
it worth further attention. Diggers were paid according to the weight of clams
delivered.
Digging Effort.
Estimation of the effort involved in taking the clams was based on the number of
forks in use during each of the eight nights on which operations were conducted.
Diggers were assisted on most nights by a relatively small number of " pickers," who
are not included in the figures presented below.
In conformity with the procedure outlined in the first paragraph of this report,
figures are given for average catches per man-tide. Since all the Seal Island digging
was done under supervision, however, an estimate was also possible in terms of " man-
hours "—i.e., the average catch made by one .fork in one hour. In view of the varying
length of time available for digging on different tides, it was felt that the " man-hour "
might provide a somewhat more accurate unit for estimating the digging effort.
Catch.
Catches were weighed by the buyer on delivery. The number of clams was estimated from counts made on a series of weighed samples.
The following statistics were obtained for the three areas:—
No. of
Tides.
No. of
Diggers
(Man-tides).
Man-hours.
Catch.
No. of
Clams.
Average Catch.
Area.
Per Man-
tide.
Per Man-
hour.
A -	
B '. -	
C	
2
4
2
160
65
168
655.35
250.75
680
Lb.
111,292
25,920
98,545
386,100
90,288
342,600
Lb.
695.57
398.77
586.58
Lb.
169.82
103.37
144.92
Totals 	
8
393
1,586.10
235,757
818,988
599.89
Estimate of Population.
The catches were extremely heavy. In order to ascertain the effect of digging
operations on the stock of clams, a knowledge of the population of the areas is essential.
On the basis of the known size of the areas and the estimated extent to which each was
" dug out," the following figures were obtained regarding the total population of
marketable clams before digging commenced:—
Area.
Pounds.
No. of Clams.
Average
Pounds per
Square Yard.
A                                                  -	
166,938
103,680
100,000
579,150
361,152
347,648
B                	
C                       ...                   ■ 	
13.33 BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 81
The general accuracy of these estimates is borne out by the close relation which exists
between the estimated population per square yard and the average catch per man-hour.
15.60 9.42 13.33
Thus: Area A, = 0.0918.   Area B, = 0.0911.   Area C, = 0.0920.
169.82 103.37 144.92
The average amount of work performed per hour appears to have been nearly
constant during the digging periods. The average length of the digging tides allotted
to each area was almost the same (3.89 hours for Area A, 4.04 hours for Area B, and
4.00 hours for Area C). On the basis of the foregoing estimates the average amount
of work done by one fork in one night was the equivalent of 43.63 square yards completely dug. Under these circumstances closely similar estimates of the population
can be reached by the use of either of the following equations:—
(1) Population  (pounds per square yard) = (average catch per man-hour) X 0.0916
(2) Population  (pounds per square yard) = 	
(No. of man-tides) X 43-63
Estimates would be:
A.
B.
C.
(1)
15.56
9.47
13.27
(2)
15.94
9.14
13.44
It is intended to follow the trend of population and production through annual
diggings over a period of several years. J 82 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
REPORT ON INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC
SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR THE YEAR 1941.
During 1941 the outstanding feature of the season was the final demonstration
that a blockade still exists at Hell's Gate Canyon, 135 miles up the Fraser River, where
it passes through the Coast and Cascade mountains. This has been under observation
by tagging experiments since 1938, and evidence has been accumulating each year.
Special attention was called in the reports of the Commission for 1938 and 1939 to the
evidence secured by the tagging experiment of those years showing a blockade and the
need for further studies. In 1940 extensive evidence of the delay was presented to the
Advisory Board by the Commission. In 1941 special efforts were made to complete this
evidence.
It will be recalled that the first mention of an obstruction at Hell's Gate was made
in 1913 when serious mortality was caused by rock dumped into the river at various
points along the canyon. Energetic efforts removed much of these obstructions, but in
January of 1914 a further and very great slide of rock recurred at Hell's Gate. The
removal of this was not completed until February of 1915.
The obstruction in 1913 was followed by a decline of over 75 per cent, in the return
of 1917. The return in 1918 from the spawning of 1914 was reduced over 85 per cent.
The return in 1921 from the spawning of 1917 was reduced 75 per cent. By 1918
damage to those particular races most affected by the obstruction seemed to have
reached its maximum because the catch thereafter was more or less stable at a low level.
Since then sporadic increases in later years indicate what may constitute partial
recovery of certain of these races—namely, those of Chilko and Adams River. But the
former great run of the 1913 cycle has definitely vanished, a loss which at present
prices might be between 30 and 35 millions of dollars every fourth year.
To this should be added the loss caused by damage to four other species of salmon
with which the Commission is not directly concerned.
Species of fish have great recuperative powers, this being possibly due to an
increase in the survival rate during early stages when the species becomes scarce.
From experience with other fisheries, it would be expected that those races which were
depleted would rebuild themselves. But only two have done this to any great degree—
namely, the Chilko and the Adams River races. If these two could do this, and if those
races spawning below Hell's Gate could maintain themselves, there would seem to have
been some continuing influence which affected those races which remained in a depleted
condition.
Tagging at Hell's Gate has shown that the several races of sockeye pass at different
times. It has also shown that delay at Hell's Gate occurs as a rule in the latter part of
August, with variation according to the year. From this it has seemed that if this
delay resulted in mortality an explanation was at hand for the difference in condition
of the various races of sockeye.
The existence of a delay at Hell's Gate has been surmised by various observers
since 1913, notably in 1926 and 1927, and many have thought, without proof, that it
damaged the run.' The delay has been abundantly indicated in 1938, 1939, and 1940
by the tagging experiments, which showed that the proportion of recaptures below
Hell's Gate increased steadily with the accumulation of fish in the eddies below the
obstruction. They also showed that the average time between tagging and recapture
in the same eddies increased until a water-level was reached at which fish were able
to pass.
But no evidence of actual unusual mortality had been adduced save the stranding
of salmon among the rocks at points where there was difficulty of passage. It was
assumed, without disproof, that the delayed salmon ultimately passed. Nor was the
evidence from the tagging as to the exact levels at which the blockade occurred as
precise as it should be.
To secure this evidence there were tagged in 1941 a total of 13,537 sockeye below
and 921 above Hell's Gate. Many of these were recovered on the spawning-grounds
while en route or along the main river below the obstruction.    To carry out these opera- BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 83
tions a large part of the staff of the Commission was employed from the time the
blockade developed in July until December.
The recovered tags and supplemental investigations showed:—
(1.) Between water-levels of 25 and 40 feet few fish passed through at the beginning of the period and none in the latter half.
(2.) A delay of more than twelve days left sockeye unable to pass when the
blockade became passable after the period August 15th to September 1st. Later any
delay whatever seemed fatal.
(3.) The first period of blockade lasted thirty-six days. The second lasted thirty-
one days, after a one- or two-day opening. In this short time there passed the major
share of all spawners reaching the upper Fraser in 1941. After this opening no fish
passed through. Since a delay of twelve days resulted in failure to pass, the seriousness of the blockades in 1941 is obvious.
(4.) Fish tagged immediately below the blockade twelve days or less prior to its
opening gave about 20 per cent, as many recoveries from up-river as did fish tagged
3,000 feet above the blockade. This was undoubtedly due to the presence of a large
body of fish below the blockade which had been delayed too long to resume their normal
migration and which were mixed with those which were able to stand the delay or
were recently arrived.
(5.) Fish tagged below, but which later passed, were in large part delayed and
abnormal in their migration in contrast to the direct speedy migration of those tagged
above.
(6.) As the result of the blockades, a great mass of sockeye, estimated at a half
to two-thirds of all reaching the blockade, failed to pass Hell's Gate, and were followed
by investigators through subsequent disappearance below the turbid waters of the
Fraser until their death two to three months later, even as late as December. These
fish passed through the normal physiological changes usually accompanying migration.
They successively became less active, fell back into quieter water, assumed a bottom-
swimming habit, thus disappearing from view, tried to spawn in unfavourable places,
died and sank to the bottom. It was estimated by some observers that over a million
sockeye died thus. The disappearance explains the failure to observe the effects of
blockades in the years since 1913.
(7.) Whereas a delay of twelve days was found to be too great in 1941, for the
race concerned and the time of season in question, records of water-levels at Hell's Gate
show that since 1913 the average duration of a blockade is 34.6 days, with a minimum
of nine to a maximum of sixty. The average date of beginning of the blockade is
August 10th, at the height of the season of migration.
(8.) Examination of the spawning runs to those grounds in the Fraser River
which were populated by races which passed Hell's Gate at the time the blockade was
effective showed that these were seriously damaged, by elimination of sections of the
run corresponding to the time of blockade as corrected for the time required for
migration.
(9.) Records for 1938, 1939, and 1940 confirm these findings of 1941, allowing for
variations in conditions and the scope of the experiments.
From these results it would seem that an explanation is at hand for the failure of
up-river races of sockeye to be rehabilitated. It may well be surmised that those races
which made up the major part of the so-called " big " year of the 1931 cycle were those
whose time of passage at Hell's Gate coincided most closely with the period of blockade.
A corollary of this is that the variation in periods of blockade and of migration cause
a variable degree of interference and that this renders the maintenance of certain
other races precarious, even though they show increases at present. A further
corollary is that damage to a race is not necessarily abrupt or complete, but may be
partial and variable.
The discovery of definite and demonstrable damage of this kind tends for the
moment to overshadow everything else in the programme of the Commission. But it
should not be forgotten that further results of perhaps equal importance can be expected
as the experiments are completed and their results analysed. J 84
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
Several years' research were necessary to produce these first results, each year's
programme being built upon the results of the preceding years. For instance, the
proper observation of the Hell's Gate obstruction involved knowledge of migration
times, accurate observation of spawning-grounds and points of capture en route, adequate recovery of tagged fish, and a knowledge of the physiological changes which occur
in migratory salmon, as well as development in scope and efficiency of the actual tagging
experiments. To complete the present work and to analyse the great mass of data
already on hand is a major task, undoubtedly the most important and urgent that the
Commission faces.
Nor should it be forgotten that the future regulation of the fishery, the sharing of
the catch, the effect of the Indian fishery (which evidence indicates may be as important
to some races as Hell's Gate), and the actual rebuilding of runs freed of mortality at
obstructions will claim a great deal of effort in future research. And there still remain
many fundamental problems in the life-history of the fish which must be solved.
The tagging at the Sooke traps at the southern end of Vancouver Island was carried
on under the same arrangements as in former years, with the cordial co-operation of
the owners and the Dominion Department of Fisheries. In the last four years the
numbers tagged and recovered were as follows:—
,                      .                            Year.
Number
tagged.
Number
recovered.
Per Cent,
recovered.
1938                   '    -     	
980
1,051
930
849
431
547
417
485
44
1939        •     .               _  	
51
1940                                                                                                 ..    .
45
1941                                                                        	
58
In 1941 the Commission chartered three vessels of Canadian registry for various
lengths of time. The " Laila," a small seine-boat, was operated for three months at the
mouth of the Fraser. The " Clara M." was operated for one and a half months to purchase fish for tagging from seiners near the San Juan Islands. The " Phylima " was
used for one month in Johnstone Straits for the same purpose.
During the last four years the results of such experiments have been as follows:—
Year.
Number
tagged.
Number
recovered.
Per Cent,
recovered.
1938      	
2,587
6,152
3,279
4,737
1,231
3,990
1,614
2,871
1939  	
1940          -                  	
1941          -	
At Hell's Gate 13,537 sockeye were tagged below and 921 above the narrows. The
results are described above.
Four observers were stationed at the canneries at Steveston, Bellingham, and
Anacortes. They recovered tagged fish, took representative series of sockeye, and
collected statistics. A system of log-book records was begun, with a high degree of
success. The purpose of the statistics is to lay a basis of knowledge of gear, vessels,
men, and behaviour of the schools, which will allow regulation and division of the catch
according to treaty provisions.
The usual survey of the spawning-grounds was carried on. Tags were recovered;
time and place of run were determined; scientific observations were made on size, sex,
and spawning; methods of enumeration were developed; and material was gathered
for racial studies.
It was estimated that about 73 per cent, of the spawning escapement of 1941 went
to Chilko River and Lake where the work of the Commission was extensive.
The interesting observation was made that certain runs which apparently were
seriously affected by the blockade at Hell's Gate nevertheless were as large as the runs BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 85
in their cycle-years. This would indicate that a large increase can be expected with the
removal of the obstruction.
On the other hand, the run to' the North and South Thompson rivers was exceedingly poor, totalling about 300 fish, and for the most part it must be conceded that the
failure was the result of the blockade at Hell's Gate. About thirty-four fish were
counted in Adams River, far below the run in 1937.
The experiment in development of methods of counting escapement, which has
been carried on in the Harrison system, was brought to completion and will be continued only in partial form next year.
The Cultus Lake experiment in predator control and counting of migrants was
continued. Some 6,676 coarse fish were recovered. The adult migrants numbered
18,164;  the first and second age-group seaward migrants totalled 3,959,490.
Collection of historical material was continued and has resulted in extensive
information bearing on the history of the fishery and the runs.
Members of the staff contributing material to the above were Dr. J. L. Kask,
Assistant Director; Messrs. M. B. Schaefer, C. E. Atkinson, L. E. Whitesel, D. R.
Johnson, and H. S. Tremper. J 86 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1941.
By J. A. Motherwell.
GENERAL.
It is most satisfactory to be able to report that, notwithstanding a record salmon-
pack in British Columbia, the seeding of the spawning-grounds has been found to be
well above average, with the exception of the pink variety. In this case the runs,
particularly in the northern waters, were disappointing, but extra restrictions were
placed on the fishing, which permitted a larger percentage of the runs than usual to
reach the spawning-grounds. Water conditions, apart from several small areas, were
very favourable, and freshets have done little, if any, damage.
SOCKEYE.
This variety was found in abundance in the usual areas. The Nass, Skeena, Bella
Coola, and Rivers Inlet watersheds were amply supplied and other less important areas
received satisfactory seedings. In the case of the Fraser River watershed, notwithstanding the difficulty experienced at Hell's Gate, the seeding by sockeye in the Chilko
River and Lake watershed was over 200 per cent, better than that of the brood-year of
1937. This year's estimate is 350,000 spawners compared with 110,000 in 1937. This
watershed has been building up very satisfactorily in recent years. In the Stuart
Lake, Francois Lake, and Quesnel'Lake systems the spawning was heavier than in the
brood-year. In the Shuswap area the run was practically a failure, although no heavy
return was expected in that district during the year under review. The sockeye
spawning was above average, also, in the Hayden Bay, Sproat, Stamp, Anderson, and
Nimpkish River systems.
SPRINGS.
The seeding by this variety can be considered a good average, generally speaking.
COHOES.
The supplies of cohoes found on the spawning-grounds were, as a rule, excellent,
many of the fish being very large individually.
PINKS.
In the areas north of Vancouver Island the pink-supply was entirely inadequate,
though, through extra closed seasons, a larger percentage of these runs was saved for
the spawning-grounds. One outstanding exception was the case of Bella Coola, where
the pink-spawning grounds are reported as being filled to capacity. The seeding of
the Skeena River district was an improvement over the brood-year of 1939. A heavy
seeding of pinks was also reported in the Harrison Lake district, including the streams
tributary to the Fraser, from Harrison Lake down to the mouth of the river.
CHUMS.
A splendid seeding by this variety was observed, particularly in the areas around
Vancouver Island and the Mainland opposite, notwithstanding a record catch of this
variety.
A more detailed description of conditions found follows:—
QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.
There was the usual showing of sockeye in several of the streams in the Masset
Inlet area and Copper River. These, however, are of little commercial value and the
only serious toll taken of the runs is by the Indians for their own food purposes. The
cohoe seeding was found to be heavy.   This being an " off " year for the pink variety, BRITISH  COLUMBIA. J 87
the seeding, as expected, was very light. Generally speaking, the chum seeding was
satisfactory, with the exception of the streams tributary to Cumshewa and Sewell
Inlets.
NASS AREA.
The Meziadin Lake district is the chief sockeye-spawning grounds of this watershed. The inspecting officer refers to an early and late run. By the former he means
the quantities of salmon actually seen on the spawning-grounds around Meziadin Lake;
by the latter he refers to the last part of the run which is proceeding up the Meziadin
River through the fishway to the lake. The seeding by the early run is reported as
heavy, an improvement over those of the years 1936 and 1940, and similar to the heavy
run of 1937. The seeding by the late run was also fairly heavy; not quite up to that
of 1936, but exceeding those of the years 1937 and 1940. The general seeding by
sockeye over the whole Nass area, including the tributary streams between Meziadin
and salt water, has evidently been very satisfactory.
The fishway in the dam at the outlet of Meziadin Lake is in good condition and
constitutes no obstruction to the ascent of salmon. Spawning conditions over the whole
area were good.
Whilst the supply of spring salmon on the spawning-grounds in the upper reaches
of the watershed is reported as being quite good, the lower tributary streams contained
an unusually heavy run. The supply of spawning cohoe observed in the several streams
frequented by this variety is reported as being the best since 1938. The seeding at
all points is reported as being heavy. The seeding by the pink variety is estimated
as a good average and better than was expected from indications in the commercial
fishing areas. In the three principal pink-salmon streams, the Quinnimas, Ikginik,
and Khutzeymateen, the escapement was better than the cycle-year of 1939. The supply
of chums on the spawning-grounds is reported as a good medium.
SKEENA AREA.
The Babine Lake and River section, which is the principal sockeye-spawning area
of the watershed, was supplied with a satisfactory quantity of sockeye-eggs. There
was some waste of eggs at Pierre Creek and Fifteen-mile Creek, which points will
require some attention in the future. The conditions for spawning were good as there
has been very little frost and plenty of water to cover the eggs. The number of salmon
taken by the Indians for food purposes was smaller than expected, owing to their
absence for haying operations, employment in mines and local sawmills.
The supply of springs is reported as fairly heavy, cohoes as a heavy run, and the
pinks as fairly heavy. In the Kispiox watershed the Inspector's report refers to the
supplies of sockeye, springs, and cohoes as heavy, and a medium run of pinks. In the
Lakelse Lake area, heavy supplies of sockeye were observed at Williams Creek, which
contains the principal spawning-beds. A satisfactory supply was also found at Schul-
buckhand Creek and satisfactory quantities in the smaller Granite Creek. There was
a heavy seeding by cohoes in this area. The pink seeding was reported as good, and
an improvement over the cycle-year of 1939. On the spawning-grounds of the streams
tributary to the Skeena River, below Lakelse River, satisfactory quantities of springs,
cohoes, and pinks were found. The chum seeding was light, but the Skeena watershed
is not a prolific chum area.
LOWE INLET.
Due to heavy prevailing rains during the latter part of September and most of
October, together with" unusually strong winds, it was impossible to inspect all sockeye-
spawning grounds. The supply found, however, is reported as fairly heavy, generally
speaking, comparing favourably with the heavy spawning of 1936. The escapement to
the streams on the west coast of Banks Island is reported as very heavy and a decided
improvement over that of the brood-year. The weather during the sockeye run was
hot, with no rain, and it was found necessary to enforce special closures until the rains
arrived. The supply of cohoes in most streams was found to be heavy, and compared
favourably with the heavy spawning of the brood-year of 1938. The pink run was disappointing, although the seeding, due to extra conservation
measures, was better than expected. On the whole, however, the pink situation was
found to be not good. The spawning was the heaviest in the streams in the northern
portion of the area. On the other hand, the chum seeding was found to be quite
satisfactory.
BUTEDALE AREA.
Due to the seining season being the driest in the past nine years, it was necessary
to close a considerable portion of this area to ensure a proper escapement to the spawning-grounds. The sockeye spawning, although never extensive, was found to be the
lightest for some years past. The average escapement in the southern part of the area
was below that of 1937; but to the major spawning-grounds, such as the Kwakwa and
Talamoso Inlets, was very satisfactory. The cohoe seeding is reported as excellent,
although not quite as good as the cycle-year of 1938. The pink-supply was normal for
this " off " year cycle, but owing to less fishing intensity a larger percentage of the
run reached the spawning-grounds. The chum seeding was better than normal, an
increase over the cycle-year of 1937, which was considered a fair year.
BELLA BELLA AREA.
On the whole, salmon escapement was satisfactory; the sockeye seeding being a
medium one, cohoes reported as heavy, pinks medium, and chums heavy, compared with
the brood-years.    Water-levels were favourable.
BELLA COOLA AREA.
Owing to there being no seaplane service available, the inspection of this difficult
area was made on foot. Much time was lost in the clearing of a passable trail over
a distance of approximately 50 miles from salt water. Conditions were unusually difficult, due to a continuous downpour of rain which flooded the areas through which the
trail passes.
In the Bella Coola and Atnarko River system the supply of sockeye on the spawning-grounds was found to be entirely satisfactory; a distinct improvement compared
with the brood-year. A noticeable feature was the almost total al sence of runts, which
are usually much in evidence in this area. The run of springs is reported as heavy,
equal to that of last year, which was the best in the experience of the inspecting officer,
covering eighteen years. This is reported as being the third successive heavy spawning of springs in the area. The cohoe-supply was up to usual. All the pink-salmon
spawning-grounds are reported as being filled to capacity. The chum-supply was found
to be good and a decided increase over that of the brood-year, the spawners being found
in nearly all tributary streams as well as in the usual creeks.
RIVERS INLET AREA.
The inspecting officer states that he is more than satisfied with the escapement of
sockeye to the Owikeno Lake system, which is the spawning-ground of the sockeye,
particularly in connection with the supply of five-year-old fish. The escapement to
the Waukwash River was better than average and that area was well seeded. At Indian
River every bar is reported as being covered with spawning sockeye, and more springs
were observed than in past years.
At Shumahault River more sockeye were observed than for some years. At Genesee
Creek the inspecting officer reports the best showing and the greatest number of fish he
had ever seen in the creek, and spawning conditions perfect. Conditions at Nookins
River were good. At Asklum River the beds are reported as being well seeded with
sockeye. At Quap River the inspecting officer found the bed of the stream literally
covered with spawning sockeye, and refers to the escapement as huge.
The Whonnock River is reported as being heavily seeded by sockeye, and springs,
cohoes, and chums were also observed in good quantities.
The inspecting officer states that the sockeye run was earlier than usual; that the
greater part of the escapement is comprised of five-year-old sockeye;   that the area in BRITISH COLUMBIA.
general has been well seeded, and although a heavy freshet occurred in the middle of
October little, if any, damage was done to the spawning-grounds.
In connection with the escapement of fall salmon the report reads that the cohoe
spawning was better than usual, the pinks very good, and chums good.
SMITH INLET AREA.   .
There are only two important sockeye-spawning grounds in this area. The principal one is the Geluck River where the seeding was found to be good. In the second
river, the Delabah, and in the lake at the mouth of the river, very considerable quantities of sockeye were observed and the seeding is rated quite adequate.
The seeding of springs was reasonably good and this also applies to the cohoes
and pinks, but the chum-supply was only fair.
FRASER RIVER WATERSHED.
Prince George Area.—This spawning area is divided into two definite districts—
the Stuart Lake watershed and the Fraser Lake-Francois Lake watershed. The quantities of sockeye appearing on the spawning-grounds in both watersheds show a decided
increase over those of the brood-year of 1937; although the supplies of salmon, of
course, are still infinitesimal compared with the large runs of this cycle previous to its
destruction at Hell's Gate in the fall of 1913. The run of springs which is found in
the Upper Nechako River, Stuart River, and in the upper portion of the Fraser River
was normal. Spawning conditions of both varieties were good throughout both areas,
and the salmon arrived in good physical condition.
Quesnel Area.—In the Bowron River watershed the run of sockeye salmon showed
a considerable increase over that of the brood-year. This also applies to the Horsefly
system. The spring-salmon run was normal. Spawning conditions were favourable.
A surprisingly large return of sockeye was found in the Chilko Lake and Chilcotin
River system, the inspecting officer estimating a total of 350,000 spawners compared
with 110,000 in the brood-year of 1937, notwithstanding the fact that evidently considerable difficulty had been experienced by the salmon in reaching the spawning-
grounds, which was evidenced by the wounds and bruises appearing on a large percentage of the fish. An average supply of spring salmon was observed to this system.
Spawning conditions were good.
Kamloops Area.—The principal sockeye-spawning grounds are found in the Shu^
swap, Adams River and Lake systems. Only a small return was expected this year
but, even so, the return was very disappointing, only a few sockeye being found in
Adams River and in Raft River, a tributary of the North Thompson. An average
supply of spawning springs was observed.    Spawning conditions were favourable.
Pemberton Area.—In the Seton-Anderson Lake system approximately 1,200 sockeye were passed over the counting-fence. Approximately another 800 spawned in
Seton Creek, below the fence, and in the Fraser River. This compared with approximately 50,000 observed in the system in the brood-year of 1937. In this connection it
is interesting to recall that at certain stages of the water at the rapids in the Fraser
River, at the outlet of Bridge River, sockeye have had difficulty in passing up-stream
and it has been observed that in some years when most difficulty was experienced, much
larger quantities of sockeye were found in the Anderson-Seton Lake system, the inference being, as previously pointed out, that they may have dropped back from Bridge
River rapids.
A good supply of spawning sockeye was observed in the Birkenhead River system,
an increase over.that of the brood-year. These fish are reported as having been in
good physical condition. A substantial run of spring salmon was also observed. The
cohoe seeding is reported as favourable and was continuing at the time of inspection.
In the Squamish River watershed a satisfactory seeding by springs was found on
the spawning-grounds.    The cohoe seeding was satisfactory and was continuing at the
time of inspection.    The supply of pinks was estimated as medium heavy, an increase
over that of the brood-year.    An exceptionally heavy seeding of chum salmon occurred.
7 J 90 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
In the Howe Sound portion of the district the several tributary creeks showed a light
seeding of cohoe, and a good seeding of pinks and chums.
Hope Area.—Unusual numbers of sockeye salmon were found in most of the small
streams tributary to the Fraser in this area. This was undoubtedly due to the difficult
water conditions at Hell's Gate, which evidently prevented a portion of the run passing
above this point. They, no doubt, dropped back to the smaller streams below the Gate.
At Kawkawa Lake and Sucker Creek, for instance, the limited spawning-grounds were
crowded with sockeye, the fish showing numerous bruises. A similar condition was
observed in 1930 when the run of sockeye to the Fraser River exceeded, as it did in
the year under review, all expectations. In that year the Fraser tributaries for 65
miles below Hell's Gate were crowded with sockeye. There was an average spawning
of springs and a light supply of chum salmon.
Chilliwack Area.—The principal sockeye-spawning ground in this area is at Cultus
Lake, where at the time of inspection over 18,000 of this variety had been counted over
the fence. This compared with approximately 2,900 sockeye in the brood-year of 1937.
Cohoe were found in all streams tributary to the Chilliwack River, equal to the medium
run in the brood-year. The pink seeding is reported as heavy and a very definite
increase over the brood-year of 1939. A heavy spawning of chums also occurred, large
individual specimens predominating.    Spawning conditions were favourable.
Harrison Lake Area.—The principal sockeye-spawning grounds are the Morris
Creek system and Silver and Douglas Creeks, tributary to Harrison Lake. Some 10,000
of this variety were observed spawning at Morris Creek, which is a very considerable
increase over the spawning of the brood-year. A normal spawning occurred at Silver
and Douglas Creeks. A satisfactory spawning of springs occurred in the Harrison
River. The cohoe-supply is reported as light. A very heavy seeding of pinks is
reported, which extended to the streams tributary to the Fraser River between the
outlet of Harrison River and New Westminster.    This also applies to chums.
Pitt Lake Area.—The spawning of sockeye in this area compared favourably with
recent years. The quantity appeared to be adequate. A light run of springs was
observed.    A fair seeding of cohoes, pinks, and chums is also reported.
Lower Fraser Area.—The Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers were both well seeded
by cohoe.
North Vancouver Area.—The cohoe seeding was found reasonably good, the pinks
substantial, and chums abundant.
ALERT BAY AREA.
The sockeye seeding was entirely satisfactory. At the Nimpkish River, the most
important stream, the seeding is reported as heavy and much greater than that of the
brood-year. A satisfactory seeding occurred at Fulmore River, with fair supplies at
Keough River, Glendale Cove, McKenzie River, and Kahweiken River, Thompson Sound.
Light supplies, comparable to the brood-year, were observed in Shushartie and Nahwitti
Rivers. The spring seeding was normal with heavy runs at Wakeman and Kleena
Kleene Rivers. The Adams River seeding was light. Practically all streams were well
supplied with cohoe-eggs. The inspecting officer comments on the unusually large size
of the individual fish, some weighing up to 20 and 22 lb. The heaviest seeding of pinks
occurred at Wakeman River, Keough River, and at all streams in Knight Inlet. The
seeding at Bond and Kahweiken Rivers was an improvement over the brood-year, but
the showing at Adams and Klucksivi Rivers was only about 50 per cent, of that of 1939.
An exceptionally heavy seeding by chums was observed throughout the whole area.
QUATHIASKI AREA.
The sockeye seeding in the Hayden Bay area is reported as heavy. The sockeye
run at this point is undoubtedly increasing. The escapement at Phillips River is also
reported as very heavy, compared with the brood-year. The spring seeding was normal.
The cohoe seeding was excellent throughout the district. The pink-supply was poor
and considerably lighter than the brood-year of 1939.    This, of course, was the "off" BRITISH COLUMBIA. J 91
year for this species in the area. The chums were very plentiful on the spawning-
grounds and the seeding is reported as very heavy, compared with the years of 1937
and 1938.
COMOX AREA.
This is not a sockeye area. The spring seeding at Puntledge River was disappointing. The supply of cohoes on the spawning-beds was found to be very satisfactory,
particularly at Puntledge and Courtenay Rivers. The inspecting officer comments, for
the second year in succession, on the large number of two-year-old cohoes. Even for
an " off " year, the pink seeding was poor, although in the Tsolum River a better supply
was expected as a result of the good seeding in 1939. There was a fair showing in
Morrison Creek, tributary to the Puntledge River. The chum-supply is reported as
extremely heavy and much in excess of the brood-year of 1937. The inspecting officer
remarks on the definite rehabilitation of this run to numerous small streams in Baynes
Sound, and the continued improvement at Oyster River where the chum run is reported
as being of very recent origin.    The seeding of both Qualicum Rivers was also heavy.
PENDER HARBOUR AREA.
The'Only sockeye-stream of any value in this area is Saginaw River, where the
escapement was considerably greater than that of the brood-year. The seeding of
springs was average. The cohoe-supplies were found to be very good and, in most of
the streams, an increase over those of the brood-year. The seeding was particularly
good in the Toba Inlet area. The spawning of pinks is considered inadequate, although
an exception was observed in the streams tributary to Jervis and Seechelt Inlets. An
unusually heavy seeding of chums was found and was reported as the heaviest spawning
for many years. All streams throughout the district are reported as being filled with
this variety.
NANAIMO AREA.
In the small streams lying between Englishman River and Nanaimo the return of
cohoes to the spawning-grounds was about the same as in 1938, the brood-year. The
spawning-ground of the local streams carried chum salmon in greater quantity and
over a longer spawning period than is usually the case. Spawning was much heavier
than in the years 1937 and 1938.
LADYSMITH AREA.
There was a good average seeding of springs and a noticeable improvement in the
supply of cohoes. The usual few pinks were observed, although this is not a pink area.
The chum seeding is reported as much better than the years 1937 and 1938.
COWICHAN AREA.
The seeding of springs is reported as very good and the cohoe-supply is stated to
be the largest in the experience of the local Inspector. He also speaks of the chum
seeding as the biggest he has ever seen. The steelhead-supplies are apparently being
well maintained.
VICTORIA AREA.
The cohoe seeding was a fair average, smaller than that of the brood-year, when
the run was exceptionally large.    The chum seeding is reported as very satisfactory.
ALBERNI AREA.
The sockeye areas are the Somass, Anderson, and Hobarton River system. The
escapement to the Somass is reported as the best in the last thirteen years. This also
includes Sproat Lake and its tributaries. There was an excellent seeding in the Anderson system. The escapement to the Hobarton area was very good. The seeding of
springs in the Somass, Nahmint, Sarita, Toquart, and Nitinat areas, which are those
frequented by this variety, was good.    The cohoe escapement was exceptionally good in all streams frequented by this variety. The chum seeding is reported as the heaviest
since 1936, both in the Barkley Sound and Nitinat areas. The Inspector for the district
reports that the runs, both from a commercial catch and spawning-ground standpoint,
have been the best for many years.
CLAYOQUOT AREA.
The sockeye seeding in the principal spawning-areas of Kennedy Lake system is
reported as extremely satisfactory. The spring seeding in the area generally is
reported as good. The cohoe-supplies were found to be very heavy, the runs of this
species showing a considerable increase during the last three or four years. The chum
seeding was good and heavier than that of the brood-year and also last year.
NOOTKA AREA.
The usual small supply of sockeye, not commercially important, was found on the
spawning-grounds. The spring seeding was normal. The cohoe-supplies, which are
never large in this area, provided an average showing. The chum seeding was the
best in years.
KYUQUOT AREA.
The spring seeding was very good compared with previous years, and the supply
of cohoes showed an increase over that of the brood-year. There was a heavy escapement of chums, notwithstanding the largest catch of this variety in many years.
QUATSINO AREA.
The sockeye runs to this area are never of much importance commercially, but the
seeding in the year under review was normal. The spring seeding is reported as
medium. The cohoe-supplies, on the other hand, were above average. This was an
"off" year for pinks and only a light seeding was observed. The chum seeding was
reported as normal, although the run of this variety was considered light. Fishing
operations, however, were not as intensive as usual. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 93
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1941.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoe.
Pinks.
Chums.
Total.
Fraser River    	
171,290
149
24,876
81,767
93,378
21,495
20,854
40,273
1,216 '
34,038
236
519
4,985
1,692
124
460
8,038
383
1,118
248
11
374
1,896
129
45
330
308
113
28,265
27,421
16,648
50,605
23,202
1,955
45,218
166,908
31,187
39,104
102,388
524
22,667
50,537
4,807
749
66,130
177,292
2,680
95,070
76,745
6,246
10,707
15,442
7,741
111,587
593,016
3,908
6,339
431,299
105.086
71,330
Skeena River.       	
Rivers Inlet 	
Smith Inlet  	
200,497
138,650
32,109
244,579
♦Vancouver Island.—	
Alaska   	
Packed out of cold-storage stocks,
1940 catch
985,835
39,487
46,561
Totals	
455,298
51,593
3,454
430,513
427,774
926,801
2,295,433
* 30,027 cases of bluebacks are included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island. J 94
REPORT  OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
TABLE   SHOWING  THE
RIVER,  ARRANGED
CYCLE, 1895-1941.
TOTAL   SOCKEYE-PACK   OF   THE   FRASER
IN ACCORDANCE  WITH  THE  FOUR-YEAR
British Columbia-
Washington 	
Total-
British Columbia-
Washington 	
Total-
British Columbia-
Washington	
Total	
British Columbia _
Washington	
Total	
British Columbia-
Washington 	
Total	
British Columbia..
Washington	
Total-
British Columbia _
Washington _	
Total _
British Columbia.
Washington	
Total .
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total	
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total	
British Columbia _
Washington 	
Total	
British Columbia..
Washington __.	
1895—
1899—
1907—
1915-
1923—
1935—
Total.
97,807
158,363
281,895
395,984
1896—
356,984
1897-
- 860,459
1898—
256,101
65,143
72,979
312,048
252,000
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
508,101
480,485
1900—
229,800
1901-
- 928,669
1902—
293,477
499,646
228,704
1,105,096
339,556
980,131
458,504
2,033,765
633,033
204,809
1904—
72,688
1905-
- 837,489
1906—
183.007
167,211
123,419
837,122
182.241
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
59,815
1908—
74,574
1909-
- 585,435
1910—
150,432
96,974
170,951
1,097,904
248,014
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
58,487
1912—
123,879
1913-
- 719,796
1914—
198,183
127,761
184,680
1,673,099
335,230
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
91,130
1916—
32,146
1917-
- 148,164
1918—
19.697
64,584
84,637
411,538
50,723
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
38,854
1920—
48,399
1921-
- 39,631
1922—
51,832
64,346
62,654
102,967
48,566
103,200
111,053
142,598
100,398
31,655
1924—
39,743
1925-
- 35,885
1926—
85,689
47,402
69,369
112,023
44,673
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
61,393
1928—
29,299
1929-
- 61,569
1930—
103,692
97,594
61,044
111,898
173,467
352,194
158,987
90,343
455,886
40,947
1932—
65,769
1933-
- 52.465
1934—
139,238
87,211
81,188
126,604
352,579
128,158
146,957
179,069
491,817
62,822
1936—
184,854
1937-
- 100,272
1938—
186,794
54,677
59,505
60,259
134,641
117,499
244,359
160,531
321,435
54,296
1940—
99,009
1941-
- 171,290
43,511
59,354
110,605 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 95
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1926 TO 1941, INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
Sockeyes 	
171,290
34,038
95,070
102,388
28,265
248
99,009
4,504
35,665
12
13,028
145
54,296
5,993
30,150
95,176
13,557
69
186,794
4,308
58,778
63
27,127
14
100,272
5,444
20,878
94,010
11,244
184,854
15,126
31,565
28,716
62,822
9,401
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
16,218
104,092
Pinks  	
2,199
11,392
Totals  	
431,299
152,363
199,241
277,084
231,848
260,261
216,728
273,139
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Sockeyes   	
52,465
5,579
34,391
92,746
13,901
65,769
28,701
14,948
385
16,815
23
40,947
9,740
251
13,307
8,165
657
103,692 '
21,127
68,946
30,754
25,585
27,879
61,569
10,004
144,159
158,208
40,520
12,013
29,299
5,082
193,106
2,881
27,061
795
61,393
18,453
67,259
102,536
24,079
10,658
85,689
32,952
88,495
Pinks	
32,256
Cohoes -	
21,783
13,776
Totals  	
199,082
126,641
73,067
277,983
426,473
258,224
284,378
274,951
Skeena River.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
Sockeyes   	
81,767
4,985
10,707
50,537
50,605
1,896
116,507
6,118
4,682
47,301
20,614
133
68,485
4,857
7,773
95,236
29,198
55
47,257
4,318
16,758
69,610
52,821
42
42,491
4,401
10,811
59,400
15,514
21
81,973
4,551J
15.297J
91,389
25,390
33
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
Pinks  	
126,163
54,456
Steelheads 	
114
Totals   	
200,497
195,355
205,604
190,806
132,638
218,634
170,420
284,096
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929. | 1928.
1
1927.
1926.
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
9,857
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
58
78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
13
34,559
6,420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
83,996
19,038
19,006
38,768
26,326
582
82,360
Springs —	
30,594
63,527
Pinks         	
210,081
30,208
754
Totals  	
185,463
233,711
162,986
450,377
220,245
298,709
187,716
407,524 J 96
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1926 TO 1941, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Rivers Inlet.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
Sockeyes  *	
Springs	
93,378
1,692
15,442
4,807
23,202
129
63,469
1,226
9,025
3,329
11,561
55
54,143
745
5,462
12,095
10,974
83
87,942
1,209
7,759
9,063
16,285
105
84,832
917
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
46,351
581£
11,505
6,432i
7.122J
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
Pinks	
2,815
4,852
Steelheads	
79
Totals	
138,650
88,665
83,502
122,363
108,782
72.011J
155,571
86,000
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Sockeyes    	
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
325
429
5,089
6,571
32
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
342
989
2,386
1,120
29
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
868
7
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
65,581
685
11,727
Pinks                    ..    .
12,815
7,286
Steelheads   	
11
Totals -—  	
93,220
81,709
88,874
138,980
75,126
81,527
69,773
98,105
Smith Inlet, 1926-41.*
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
Sockeyes  	
21,495
124
1,955
749
7,741
45
25,947
142
1,102
755
6,015
37
17,833
215
3,880
3,978
2,771
50
33,894
68
1,058
1,761
8,076
64
25,258
21
241
483
9,494
5
12,788
30
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
216
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
Cohoes  _	
Pinks      	
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
Totals - -	
32,109
33,998
28,727
44,921
35,502
14,888
49,928
41,256
*
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
37,369
354
5,068
19,995
8,841
87
25,488
48
273
1,148
165
20
12,867
122
112
824
133
36
32,057
290
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
9,683
78
275
853
113
12
33,442
286
230
167
19
6
22,682
349
2,990
732
2,605
8
17,921
112
164
689
Springs  	
Cohoes  	
Pinks 	
Steelheads    	
Totals -	
71,714
27,142
14,094
52,185
11,014
34,150
29,366
18,917
1 Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other districts. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 97
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1926 TO 1941, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Nass River, 1926-41.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
Sockeyes  — —	
24,876
519
6,246
22,667
16,648
374
13,809
1,716
5,461
29,278
10,060
117
24,357
708
2,500
26,370
1,996
15
21,462
773
15,911
61,477
14,159
188
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
28.562J
2,167
20,6201
75.887J
11,842
496
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
Pinks	
32,964
9,935
Steelheads 	
311
Totals	
71,330
60,441
55,946
113,970
49,042
139,5751
78,214
75,213
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Sockeyes 	
9,757
1,296
1,775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
1,439
392
5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,126
84
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
5,540
1,846
3,538
83,183
10,734
36
12,026
3,824
3,307
16,609
3,966
96
15,929
5,964
15,392
Pinks       	
50,815
4,274
375
Totals 	
60,434
85,671
32,881
113,460
39,185
104,877
39,828
92,749
Vancouver Island District, 1927-41.
1941.
]
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
Sockeyes   	
40,273
8,038
593,016
177,292
166,908
308
15,177
2,454
279,064
33,785
88,885*
214
16,259
2,889
212,949
235,119
123,388
132
27,965
4,254
266,566
70,108
62,054
27,607
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
32.696J
6,340
347,951
82,0281
90,625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
Chums 	
Pinks- . .         	
210,239
54,526
78,670
Totals ..;„;,	
985,835
419,579
1
590,736
458,554
608,798
559,746
469,427
372,347
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
18,397
4,875
96,642
172,945
60,019
147
27,611
10,559
70,629
33,403
35,132
28,596
22,199
4,055
16,329
81,965
26,310
24,638
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1,645
162,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
14,248
2,269
303,474
41,885
23,345
5,249
24,835
6,769
220 270
Pinks  	
52,561
58,834
Steelheads and Bluebacks.—.  —
10,194
Totals  	
353,025
205,930
175,541
340,395
294,854
390,470
373,463
* 23,277 cases of bluebacks are included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island. J 98
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1926 TO 1941, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1932-41.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
Sockeyes	
Springs 	
Chums  	
149
236
76,745
524
27,421
11
16
62
164,911
44,966
8,897
1
36
45,519
2,123
3,020
179
66
40,882
57,952
16,616
2
140
72,689
13
4,631
85
227
69,304
89,355
19,920
63
86,298
1,479
5,461
258
38,062
53,398
8,315
3,575
6,988
278
358
2,415
3,805
Totals	
105,086
218,852
50,699
115,695
77,475
178,891
93,301
100,033
10,563
6,856
Central Area, 1932-41.
1941. 1940. 1939. 1938. 1937. 1936
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
Sockeyes..
Springs.—
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelheads	
Totals.
20,854
460
111,587
«6,130
45,218
330
32,042
1,518
135,802
54,478
49,886
506
26,158
655
79,384
150,498
44,426
392
244,579
274,232
301,513
36,178
540
127,089
130,842
56,716
433
29,987
1,641
110,493
97,321
25,009
'   614
27,499
830
99,592
246,378
45,824
373
32,417
687
125,953
94,190
41,831
355
20,438
2,116
117,309
157,336
53,850
733
26,106
841
128,602
101,701
33,471
827»
351,798     265,065
420,496
295,433 | 351,782
291,548
21,685
3,236
166,653
80,034
41,172
591
313,371
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF THE
PROVINCE BY DISTRICTS, 1926 TO 1941, INCLUSIVE.
Total packed by Districts in 1926 to 1941, inclusive.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
431,299
200,497
138,650
32,109
71,330
985,835
398,152
46,561
152,363
195,355
88,665
33,998
60,441
419,579
516,815
199,241
205,604
83,502
28,727
55,946
590,736
375,307
277,084
223,413
122,363
44,921
113,970
458,554
467,493
231,848
133,165
108,782
35,502
49,042
608,798
342,350
260,261
218,634
72,0111
14,888
139,575J
559,7461
599,387
216,728
170,420
155,571
49,928
78,214
469,427
388,734
273,139
284,096
86,000
41,256
Smith Inlet	
75,213
372,347
451,815
2,295,433
1,467,216
1,539,063
1,707,798$
l,509,677t
l,864,503i
1,529,022
1,583,866
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Fraser _ 	
Skeena—  	
199,082
185,463
93,220
71,714
60,434
353,025
302,111
126,641
233,711
81,709
27,142
85,671
205,930
320,227
73,067
162,986
88,874
14,094
32,881
175,541
137,661
277,983
450,377
138,980
52,185
113,460
340,395
848,439
426,473
220,245
75,126
11,014
29,185
294,854
341,873
258,224
298,709
81,527
34,150
104,877
390,470
901,822
284,378
187,716
69,773
29,366
39,828
373,463
405,476
274,951
407,524
98,105
18,917
92,749
347,722
844,139*
Smith Inlet	
Other Districts	
1,265,049
1,081,031
685,104
2,221,819
1,398,770
2,035,629
1,360,634
2,065,190
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet.
t Including 527 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River.
t Including 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye and 26,828 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 99
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1926 TO 1941, INCLUSIVE.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
171,290
81,767
93,378
21,495
24,876
40,273
22,219
99,009
116,507
63,469
25,947
13,809
15,177
32,484
54,296
68,485
54,143
17,833
24,357
16,259
34,514
186,794
47,257
87,942
33,894
21,462
27,965
36,357
100,272
42,491
84,832
25,258
17,567
25,427
29,989
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28.562J
34,4304
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
Skeena River	
70,655
76,923
Smith Inlet.    ..
14,607
Nass River 	
Vancouver Island  	
28,701
27,282
20,438
Totals..- 	
455,298
366,402
269,887
441,671*
325,836
414,809
350,444
377,844
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
27,611
21,685
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
61,569
78,017
70,260
9,683
16,077
10,340
35,331
29,299
34,559
60,044
33,442
5,540
14,248
26,410
61,393
83,996
65,269
22,682
12,026
24,835
37,851
85,689
82,360
65,581
Smith Inlet	
17,921
15,929
26.070
44,462
Totals	
258,107
284,355
291,464
477,678
281,277
203,542
308,052
337,012
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the
year 1936.
* 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye packed at Skeena River are not shown in the above table for the year 1938.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SPRING-SALMON PACK OF THE
PROVINCE, BY DISTRICTS, 1930 TO 1941, INCLUSIVE.
1941.*
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
34,038
236
519
4,985
1,692
124
460
8,038
383
4,504
62
1,716
6,118
1,226
142
1,518
2,454
5,993
36
708
4,857
745
215
655
2,889
4,308
66
773
4,318
1,209
68
540
4,254
5,444
140
1,251
4,401
917
21
1,641
2,359
15,126
227
2,167
4.551J
581i
30
830
6,340
50,475
17,740
16,098
15,536
16,174
29,853
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
9,401
63
560
4,039
429
216
687
6,525
16,218
258
654
8,300
436
164
2,116
1,630
5,579
3,575
1,296
3,297
449
354
841
4,875
28,701
278
4,408
28,269
459
48
3,236
10,559
9,740
854
1,439
9,858
325
122
754
4,055
21,127
Queen Charlotte Islands 	
131
1,891
7,501
434
290
1,721
3,431
Totals .—	
21,920
29,776
20,266
75,958
27,147
36,526
: In addition to the above there were packed 1,118 cases of springs out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940. J 100
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE COHOE-SALMON PACK OF THE
'     PROVINCE, BY DISTRICTS, 1930 TO 1941, INCLUSIVE.
1941.*     1      1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
Fraser River   	
28,265
27,421
16,648
50,605
23,202
1,955
45,218
166,908
31,187
13,028
8,897
10,060
20,614
11,561
1,102
49,886
88,885
20,489
13,557
3,020
1,996
29,198
10,974
3,880
44,426
123,388'
14,658
27,127
16,616
14,159
52,821
16,285
1,058
56,716
89,471
26,828
11,244
4,631
12,067
15,514
6,012
241
25,009
58,244
527
28,716
19,920
11,842
25,390
Nass River    ... 	
Rivers Inlet  	
Smith Inlet   	
7,122i
310
45,824
Vancouver Island   	
90,6255
Totals	
391,409
224,522    |    245,097
1
301,081
133,489
229,750
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
24,950
5,461
21,810
23,498
8,375
1,201
41,831
104,366
1
11.392             13.901
16.815
j
8.818              25.585
8,315
9,935
54,476
4,852
3,941
53,860
78,670
3,251
39.896
3,446
5,068
33,471
60,019
3,805    |        5,335
7,955    j        8,943
48,312    j      10,637
7,062    j        6,571
273    !            112
41,172    j      10,806
63,637    |      50,953
7,091
Nass River  	
Skeena River       ..  	
Rivers Inlet	
Smith Inlet      	
1,126
29,617
756
1,460
Central Area   	
54,327
30,206
Totals	
231,492
225,431
159,052
189,031
102,175
150,168
* In addition to the above there were packed 39,104 cases of cohoe out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PINK-SALMON PACK OF THE
PROVINCE, BY DISTRICTS, 1930 TO 1941, INCLUSIVE.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
102,388
524
22,667
50,537
4,807
749
66,130
177,292
2,680
12
44,966
29,278
47,301
3,329
755
54,478
33,785
95,176
2,123
26,370
95,236
12,095
3,978
150,498
235,119
63
57,952
61,477
69,610
9,063
1,761
130,842
70,108
94,010
13
8,031
59,400
7,536
483
97,321
318,780
	
89,355
75.887J
91,389
6.432J
65
246,378
82.028J
Totals                               -
427,774
213,904
620,595
400,876
585,574
591,5354
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
111,328
1,479
25,508
81,868
4,554
4,412
94,190
191,627
2,199
53,398
32,964
126,163
2,815
6,953
157,336
54,526
92,746
385
2,415
44,629
58,261
3,483
1,148
80,034
33,403
13,307
30,754
224,902
44,306
95,783
5,059
19,995
101,701
172,945
5,178
44,807
5,089
824
55,825
81,965
79,976
Skeena River  	
275,642
18,023
Smith Inlet                            	
16,615
376,084
89.941
Totals 	
514,966
436,354
532,535
223,758
206,995
1,111,937 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
J 101
STATEMENT SHOWING THE CHUM-SALMON PACK OF THE
PROVINCE, BY DISTRICTS, 1930 TO 1941, INCLUSIVE.
1941.*
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
95,070
76,745
6,246
10,707
15,442
7,741
111,587
593,016
3,908
35,665
164,911
5,461
4,682
.9,025
6,015
135,802
279,064
2,816
30,150
45,519
2,500
7,773
5,462
2,771
79,384
212,949
82
58,778
40,882
15,911
16,758
7,759
8,076
127,089
266,566
20,878
72,689
10,080
10,811
9,415
9,494
110,493
203,900
31,565
69,304
Nass River —	
20.620J
15,2974
11,505
Smith Inlet	
1,653
99,592
Vancouver Island 	
347,951
Totals   	
920,462
. 643,441
386,590
541,819
447,760
597,488
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
8,227
86,298
17,481
8,122
7,136
12,427
125,953
143,960
104,092
38,062
2,648
24,388
895
15,548
117,309
210,239
34,391
6,988
1,775
15,714
677
8,841
128,602
96,642
14,948
358
14,515
38,549
944
165
166,653
70,629
251
68 946
39,010
3,978
392
3,893
429
113
34,570
16,239
5,187
492
Smith Inlet                            	
1,660
104,771
177,856
Totals             	
409,604
513,181
293,630
306,761
55,997
401,900
* In addition to the above there were packed 6,339 cases of chums out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PILCHARD INDUSTRY OF THE
PROVINCE, 1920 TO 1940, INCLUSIVE.*
Year.
Total Catch.
Canned.
Used in
Reduction.
Oil.
Meal.
Bait.
1920
Cwt.
88,050
19,737
20,342
19,492
27,485
318,973
969,958
1,368,582
1,610,252
1,726,851
1,501,404
1,472,085
886,964
120,999
860,103
911,411
889,037
961,485
1,035,369
110,453
575,399
Cases.
91,929
16,091
19,186
17,195
14,898
37,182
26,731
58,501
65,097
98,821
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
Cwt.
Gals.
Tons.
Bbls.
9,937
4,232
1921
1922                                	
1923
3,625
1924	
1925  --	
1926                                     	
220,000
940,000
1,310,000
1,560,000
1,654,575
1,468,840
1,456,846
876,700
119,545
845,849
896,586
863,373
930,713
986,118
105,303
533,983
495,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
3,997,656
2,856,579
3,204,058
2,551,914
1,315,864
275,879
1,635,123
1,634,592
1.217.097
1,707,276
2,195,850
178,305
890,296
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,826
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
4,045
2 950
1927                             	
1 737
1928    	
1929                                             	
2,149
1,538
926
1930                -  	
1931    -	
1932   	
1933                                   .- -	
1,552
1,603
20
1934            	
40
1935  -	
1936   	
1937 	
521
580
1,045
1938        	
310
1939                        	
20
1940               - 	
* Authority:   Advance Report of the Fisheries of British Columbia, Ottawa. J 102
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1941.
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, 1920 TO 1941   (OTHER
THAN FROM PILCHARD).
Year.
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1920	
Tons.
503
326
485
292
347
340
345
376
417
273
249
340
211
332
268
273
181
270
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
N         666
651
754
780
581
223
631
354
687
527
512
434
561
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,626
3,335
5,647
6,608
5,583
5,028
7,509
13,197
17,147
12,115
26,129
15,884
25,619
Gals.
55,669
44,700
1921..  	
1922  	
1923 " :	
1924 .   .
283,314
706,514
645,657
556,939
468,206
437,967
571,914
712,597
525,533
75,461
180,318
241,376
354,853
217,150
1925	
1926	
1927	
250,811
1928	
387,276
1929 	
1930 	
1931	
459,575
243,009
352,492
1932      , '  	
1933 ■	
509,310
813,724
426,772
763,740
662,355
543,378
231,690
497,643
1934	
441,735
1935	
1936	
588,629
1,143,206
1937	
1,578,204
1938  	
1,157,315
1939   	
1,990,901
1940 	
361,820
619,025
1,338,993
1941    	
1,000,198
STATEMENT SHOWING THE HERRING INDUSTRY OF
THE PROVINCE, 1935 TO 1941.
Year.
Canned.
Dry-salted.
Pickled.
Oil.
Meal.
1935   -  	
Cases.
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
Tons.
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
Tons.
892
779
Gals.
328,639
786,742
1,333,245
1,526,117
1,677,736
923,137
594,684
Tons.
5,313
1936       .        .	
10,340
1937	
14,643
1938	
1939       	
18,028
22,870
1940	
10,886
1941      	
8,780
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st annually.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1942.
1,325-642-8127  

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