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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1943

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCHES
OF   THE
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st. 1941
HON. A. WELLS GRAY, MINISTER OF LANDS
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1942.  Victoria, B.C., October 5th, 1942.
To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :-
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Beport of the Lands and Surveys
Branches of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1941.
A. WELLS GEAY,
Minister of Lands. Victoria, B.C., October 5th, 1942.
The Honourable A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Surveys
Branches of the Department of Lands for the twelve .months ended December 31st,
1941.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     7
Revenue .     7
Sale of Town Lots . .     8
Pre-emption Records .'. .     9
Pre-emption and Homestead Exchanges..... ;     9
Land-sales     9
Land Inspections .  10
Summary  11
Letters inward and outward  12
Coal Licences, Leases, etc  12
Crown Grants issued  12
Total Acreage deeded  12
Home-site Leases ,  13  DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., October 2nd, 1942.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land
administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year
ended December 31st, 1941.
One of the outstanding features of the year's business is the continued trend in
the method of land settlement noted in recent times, and indicated by the diminishing
number of pre-emption entries and a corresponding increase in land sales and leases.
While the increased figure of leases issued is small in itself, it will be noted that
the high mark established and reported last year is slightly raised.
There is also a perpetuation of conditions mentioned in former annual reports,
particularly the larger volume of reverted-land sales compared to that of ordinary
country-land sales.
Again we are in a position to report a gratifying increase in general revenue—
a record for the immediate past decade.
In conclusion it may be mentioned that large areas, entailing considerable staff
work, have during the year been placed at the disposal of Dominion authorities for
war purposes, details of which cannot for obvious reasons be published.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT OF REVENUE, YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31st, 1941.
Land-sales.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Under " Land Act "—
$392.15
9,638.22
23,568.70
$27,677.06
16,975.08
61.755.66
444.91
8,473.81
412.10
$28,069.21
26,613.30
85,324.36
444.91
4,326.22
4,326.22
8,473.81
412.10
Totals 	
$37,925.29
$115,738.62
$153,663.91
.
Sundry Revenue.
Under " Land Act "—
$101,689.83    | _
4,577.67    |    .
546.07    [        $2,258.41
13,266.98    |           1,069.14
864.83    |    	
706.00    |           1,578.32
     1              185.00
$101,689.83
4,577.67
'    2,804.48
14,336.12
864.83
2,284.32
185.00
 _•»___                  2.773.31
2,773.31
Former Dominion Railway Belt lands—
1
                     700.48
700.48
Totals   	
$121,651.38     ]         $8,564.66
i
$130,216.04 S 8
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
Sundry Revenue—Continued.
-
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Under " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
$5,400.00
26,373.29
650.00
$5,400.00
26,373.29
650.00
Totals   	
$32,423.29
$32,423.29
1
Sundry Receipts.
$8,635.91
205.91
15,163.05
13,590.31
$8,635.91
205.91
Southern Okanagan Project, interest
$2,361.86
.    15,163.05
15,952.17
Totals  	
$37,595.18
$2,361.86
$39,957.04
Summary of Revenue.
$37,925.29
121,651.38
32,423.29
37,595.18
$115,738.62
8.564.66
2.361.86
$153,663.91
130,216.04
32,423.29
39,957.04
Totals 	
$229,595.14
$126,665.14
$356,260 28
Summary of Cash received.
$229,595.14
50,536.19 1
261.27 J
87,350.00 ]
22,672.63 \
24,835.81 }
67,629.87 <
3,263.96
$126,665.14
$356,260.28
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
50,797.46
" Better Housing Act "—
110,022.63
Land Settlement Board—
92,465.68
3,263.96
Totals : 	
$486,144.87
$126,665.14
$612,810.01
SALE OF TOWN LOTS, 1941.
Disposal of lots placed on the market after being offered at public auction:—
Vancouver City, 36 lots 1 $20,160.00
Oliver, 5 lots  1,100.00
Atlin, 10 lots  j  530.00
Quesnel and West Quesnel, 10 lots  965.00
And 38 lots in various townsites   2,108.00
$24,863.00
Southern Okanagan Project sold 30 parcels, comprising 162.01 acres, the purchase price being $11,784.
In the University Hill subdivision of. Lot 140, Group 1, New Westminster District
(Endowment Lands), 25 lots were sold at the sale price of $21,347.50, and 1 parcel
comprising 12.26 acres for $6,130. LAND-SALES.
S 9
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1941.
Agency.
Preemption
Records
allowed.
Pre-emption
Records
cancelled.
Certificates
of Purchase
issued.
Certificates
of Improvements issued.
28
2
23
3
12
4
3
11
7
88
30
37
6
2
2
4
2
2
3
6
18
3
45
8
1
21
19
65
47
4
59
8
8
7
3
3
39
64
44
22
82
27
149
30
173
163
279
90
47
103
36
49
52
33
6
125
51
1,482
Atlin
Clinton      	
20
1
9
Golden   	
3
7
1
Nanaimo  	
Nelson   	
2
9
1
52
Prince George.—   —	
26
18
1
8
2
1
1
Totals                                                       .     .
264
330
3,146
162
PRE-EMPTION AND HOMESTEAD EXCHANGES.
Under 1934 Amendment to " Land Act."
1935...
1936-
1937-
1938-
1939—
1940-
1941-
No.
41
21
37
10
3
6
7
Total .  125
LAND-SALES, 1941.
" Land Act "—
Surveyed   (first class)	
Surveyed (second class) _____
Surveyed (third class)	
Unsurveyed_.
Total	
Acres.
7,207.61
9,326.64
3,291.22
19,825.47
520.00
20,345.47  • S 10
'
KEPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
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.1- S 12 REPORT OF MINISTER OP LANDS, 1941.
STATEMENT OF LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1941.
.   Lands Branch.
Letters inward  20,117
Letters outward  :  16,833
MINING LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 1941.
Licences under the " Coal and Petroleum Act "—   No- Area (Acres).
Original licences issued  31 16,825.00
Renewal licences issued  23 12,966.00
Totals  54 29,791.00
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
New leases issued     2 ■              380.00
Renewal leases issued     2 704.00
Totals       4 1,084.00
Sundry leases under the " Land Act "—   •
Number of leases issued 241 24,078.89
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1941.
Pre-emptions   160
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1939 "  6
Dominion homesteads   18
Purchases (other than town lots)   416
Town lots  ,  352
Mineral claims  .  100
Reverted mineral claims  25
Supplementary timber grants  5
" Dyking Assessments Act "  5
" Public Schools Act "  4
" Coal and Petroleum Act "  5
Miscellaneous   6
Total   1,102
Applications for Crown grants   1,201
Certified copies  6
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims
given _•_ '_  109
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions  .  23,195.45
Dominion homesteads   2,622.80
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  ... 3,736.23
Reverted mineral claims  813.83
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots).. 26,434.34
Supplementary timber grants ..  305.65
" Coal and Petroleum Act "  7,354.00
Total ___  64,462.30 HOME-SITE LEASES.
S 13
HOME-SITE LEASES   (NOT EXCEEDING 20 ACRES).
No.    ■
Total Annual
Revenue.
Fiscal Year
ended.
8
12
11
31
23
24
18
26
15
29
21
27
27
10
1
67
272
339
11
328
Leases issued, April 1st, 1929,-to March 31st, 1930	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1930, to March 31st, 1931	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1931, to March 31st, 1932._ 	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1932, to March 31st, 1933.. ...._..
Leases issued, April 1st, 1933, to March 31st, 1934......	
S522.55
636.45
759.95
980.05
1,246.65
1,302.52
1,391.72
1,440.25
1,468.90
1,557.40
1,591.80
1,717.10
1,846.85
March 31st, 1930.
March 31st, 1931.
March 31st, 1932.
March 31st, 1933.
March 31st, 1934.
March 31st, 1935.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1935, to March 31st, 1936.	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1936, to March 31st, 1937	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1937, to March 31st, 1938	
March 31st, 1936.
March 31st, 1937.
March 31st, 1938.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1938, to March 31st, 1939.	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1939, to March 31st, 1940 	
March 31st, 1939.
March 31st, 1940.
March 31st, 1941.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1941, to March 31st, 1942-	
March 31st, 1942.
Total revenue received from April 1st, 1929, to
March 31st, 1942..	
$16,462.19  PART II.
SURVEYS BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Surveyor-General, Surveys Branch  17
Report of Surveys Division _•___  20
Table A—Summary of Office-work—..-,-  20
Table B—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps  21
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps  22
Report of Aerial Photograph Librarian  25
Report of Geographic Division .  25
Reports of Surveyors—
Topographical Survey, Kechika River Valley (A. J. Campbell)  27
Topographical Survey, Liard and Dease Rivers (N. C. Stewart)  29
Triangulation Survey, Turnagain River to Dease Lake (H. Pattinson)  32
Topographical Survey, Great Central Lake (R. D. McCaw) ..  36
Topographical Survey, Toquart and Kennedy Rivers (G. J. Jackson)  37  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1942.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the
Surveys Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1941.
The Surveys Branch, now reduced by enlistments from its average staff of forty-
nine, is organized into three divisions—Surveys, Geographic, and Topographic. The
Surveys Division deals with field-notes of all surveys of Crown lands, whether made
by Government or privately employed surveyors; checks these field-notes and plots
therefrom; and keeps an up-to-date record of the standing of lands and surveys on
some 270 large-scale reference maps drawn on tracing-linen. The division has a blue
and ozalid printing department serving all branches of the Government, and meeting
the needs of these, and of the general public, for copies of reference and other maps
to the value of about $8,000 per annum.
The Topographic Division includes a staff of B.C. Land Surveyors specially trained
in topographic mapping; these men spend their summers on field-work and their
winters plotting contour maps based on that field-work; the field-work is permanent
in character and, though adjusted to meet any immediate needs, fits without waste into
a long-term plan for the progressive contour mapping of the entire Province.
The Geographic Division is responsible for keeping the published maps of the
Province truly representative of the latest information available. That information
comes from triangulation surveys and from the Surveys and Topographic Divisions,
from the Forest and Water Branches, the Mines and Public Works Departments, from
the Geodetic, Geological, Topographical, and Hydrographic services of the Dominion
Government; as well as from prospectors and others having knowledge of out-of-the-
way places. The division draws the maps, secures tenders from lithographers, and
supervises publication; there is also in the division photostatic equipment with an
experienced operator who makes photostats and enlargements and reductions to scale
for all Government Departments, and to some extent for Navy, Army, Air Force, and
general public.
Due to its general mountainous character, only a small percentage of the area of
the Province requires subdivision into small agricultural holdings, but immense tracts
of mountain terrain are rich in resources of mineral, timber, and water-power, and the
prosperity of the lowlands depends largely on the successful development of the mountain resources. In a country of such high relief, contour maps are the best foundation
for any appraisal of resources; and the need for such maps over vast areas, coupled
with the limited expenditures possible with our small population, has kept constant
our search for accurate yet economical methods. The method here developed uses
aerial photographs taken at 15,000 feet altitude; but, as such photographs vary greatly
in scale over the mountain country beneath, control over plan and elevation is secured
by triangulation, with stations on the summits and by rounds of oriented ground
photographs taken from commanding positions, using special cameras of fixed focal
length; the method takes advantage of our mountains, and our contour-mapping costs
seem to be as low as any in Canada, averaging, as they do, less than $25 per square
mile, including everything from the aerial photography to plotting the contour map.
In the belief that good maps are a useful guard against costly errors in development, an attempt is made to foresee future trends, and an overland transportation
route to Yukon and Alaska seems to be in the offing. There are three general routes
through Northern British Columbia which have been urged from various quarters and
which are governed by the three more or less parallel mountain systems of the Coast
Range, the Cassiar Range, and the Rocky Mountains.
2 S 18 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
Route A lies east of the Coast Range, leaving the Canadian National Railway and
the main highway at Vanderhoof, or possibly at Hazelton, passing over the divide at
the head of the Skeena River to Stikine River waters, crossing the latter river above
Telegraph Creek, thence via Atlin, Whitehorse, and Kluane Lake to the Alaska border
and Fairbanks. This route is favoured in the report of the American section of the
Alaska Highway Commission due to its proximity to the Alaska Panhandle; though
not fully investigated this route through British Columbia calls for higher passes and
heavier construction than Route B.
Route B is favoured by the Canadian section of the Alaska Highway Commission;
it can leave the present highway at Summit Lake, 32 miles east of Prince George, and
follow the Rocky Mountain Trench occupied by the valleys of the Parsnip, Finlay,
Kechika, and Liard Rivers to the northerly boundary of the Province; and thence
follow the Liard, Frances, Finlayson, Pelly, and Yukon to Dawson, whence connection
to the Richardson highway in Alaska is feasible, or it can branch off from the Pelly,
cross the Yukon at Five Finger Rapids and cross the Alaska boundary on Ladue River;
thence to the Richardson highway and Fairbanks. This is the shortest possible route
for traffic from the south; has a maximum altitude of 3,273 feet (Sifton Pass), and
follows river valleys throughout; and with a short connection would place Peace River
produce in a favoured position in the Far North market. On this route our survey
information is complete and the grades are such that a railway along this route is
perfectly feasible.
Route C, favoured by Alberta interests, would run from rail-head at Dawson Creek
to Fort St. John; thence to Fort Nelson across a country poorly drained; thence down
the Fort Nelson River and westerly through the Rocky Mountains via the difficult Liard
Valley to Lower Post and Watson Lake. This route would serve the airports at Fort
St. John and Fort Nelson, but is over 100 miles longer to Lower Post than is Route B,
and offers far greater construction difficulties and worse alignment and grades.
Due to the limits of staff and available funds, the Survey Branch has so far been
able to map only one of the suggested routes, this being the B or Rocky Mountain
Trench route. This mapping was completed in 1941 after several years of activity,
using aerial and ground photographs and a triangulation net extending from Prince
George to the northerly boundary of the Province. This work disclosed a route following wide and flat but well-drained river valleys, unbelievably straight and almost
without rock-work—far the easiest piece of construction of similar length in British
Columbia.
It is proposed to continue investigations of other areas in Northern British Columbia so that nothing may be overlooked in planning for the future development of that
country and its transportation routes.
In 1941 we had two topographical survey parties, under A. J. Campbell and N. C.
Stewart respectively, completing the mapping of Route B as above, and one triangulation party under Hugh Pattinson connecting the Route B triangulation to the net on
the Stikine River near Telegraph Creek. R. D. McCaw and G. J. Jackson were respectively in charge of topographical survey parties working north of Barkley Sound on
areas of interest to the military authorities. There was little demand for land boundary
surveys, but such as arose were fully met.
My 1940 report listed the names of ten members of the Survey Branch staff who
had enlisted in the Armed Forces and it is with very great regret that I have to report
that R. F. Leighton, R.C.A.F., one of these, has been killed overseas.
Our Topographical Division has in the year lost R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., who
became ill while on field-work and died a month later, and W. J. Moffatt, B.C.L.S., who
died suddenly on field-work near Lower Post. These men are missed as much for
their fine personal qualities as for their marked contributions to improved mapping
technique.
Reports compiled by F. 0. Morris and W. G. H. Firth for the Surveys and Geographic Divisions respectively, giving details of the work carried on under their
supervision and of the maps published, as well as reports from the surveyors employed
on field-work, are attached hereto.    Owing to enlistments and the lesser skill of those REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL. S 19
temporarily employed to fill the gaps, some of our basic reference maps lag, and the
fact that fully half the time of our Geographic staff is devoted to special map requirements of the military authorities necessitates postponement of other map-work; however, the staff has risen to the occasion and the general public is well served.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. S 20
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
By F. 0. Morris, Assistant Surveyor-General.
SURVEYS DIVISION.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying,
checking survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many minor activities.
A blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained, rendering service to the various
governmental Departments.
Aerial Photograph Library.—A considerable portion of the Province has been
photographed from the air and an effort is made in this office to have on record one
copy of each of these aerial photographs. These are available for inspection and at
present total 96,647 views, consisting of 75,603 taken by Department of National
Defence, 14,712 by B.C. Forest Service, and 6,332 by Western Canadian Airways.
Index maps showing the position of these aerial photographs are also on record and
available for inspection.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of
alienations and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and
mineral reference maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are
maintained by the Surveys Division. There are now 193 reference maps and 77 mineral
reference maps, making a total of 270 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—
(1) by adding new survey information as it becomes available, and (2) by renewing
same when worn out with constant use and handling in the blue-print machines—forms
a considerable portion of the work of the Division. During the year four new reference maps were made and ten were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached hereto, give
a list of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1941, Surveys Division.
Number of field-books received
lots surveyed	
lots plotted	
lots gazetted 	
lots cancelled	
mineral-claim field-books prepared .._
reference maps compiled	
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared
applications for lease cleared	
coal licences cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber-sales cleared	
free-use permits cleared	
hand-loggers' licences cleared	
Crown-grant applications cleared 	
reverted-land clearances 	
cancellations made	
inquiries cleared
placer-mining leases plotted on maps	
letters received 	
letters sent out	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made	
miscellaneous tracings made	
Government Agents' tracings made	
blue-prints made	
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints from other
partments and public
de-
Value of blue-prints for Lands Department	
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault
271
291
276
294
44
146
14
208
335
297
70
122
2,046
375
11
935
1,087
649
2,128
286
4,431
3,113
1,022
96
86
19,912
$3,823.52
$3,517.25
30,952 pq
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. S 21
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S 25
REPORT OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH LIBRARY.
By W. J. H. Holmes.
Number of aerial views on file December 31st, 1941—
Royal Canadian Air Force (A)  73,983
Royal Canadian Air Force (BA)     1,620
Western Canada Airways  (WCA)     6,238
British Columbia Forest Service (BC)  14,712
Canadian Airways, Ltd. (Alaska Highway obliques)  94
Total  96,647
During 1941 the number of aerial views received and taken on file were 2,487.
These were mostly British Columbia flights by the British Columbia Forest Branch.
There remain a considerable number of British Columbia views taken during 1938,
1939, and 1940 that have not yet been received for filing.
During 1941, 10,975 views were issued on loan and 10,166 views were returned.
There are at present (December 31st, 1941) 9,006 aerial views out on loan.
Views were issued on loan to the British Columbia Forest Service; the Topographic Branch, the Geographic Branch, and the Survey Branch of the Surveyor-
General's Department; the Department of Public Works, the Department of Mines,
the Water Rights Branch, and the Department of Railways; to the Royal Canadian
Air Force and other branches of the military services; and, to a limited extent, to
surveyors and others of the general public.
Topographic Survey Ground Views.—There are on file the ground views taken by
the Topographic Survey Branch from 1914 to 1941, and estimated to number approximately 35,000;   also the corresponding photographic plates.
Reference Maps.—Aerial view index maps now number 97 and topographic ground
view index maps 66.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By W. G. H. Firth, Acting Chief Geographer.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Revels toke-GoIden  	
4,000
4,000
1,000
250
1,800
June, 1941
Jan., 1942
June, 1941
Aug., 1941
Dec., 1941
5d
3j
lGX
IJF
P.W.D.
4 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
50 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
20 mi. to 1 in.
15,000
9,350
366,255
366,255
In Course of Preparation.
Nechako Pre-emptors* Map	
Fort George Pre-emptors' Map.—.
Nelson Degree Sheet (Revision).
3b
3a
4b
3 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
9,350
9,350
3,050
Geographic Board of Canada, Naming and Recording.
Number of map-sheets' names reviewed     14
New names recorded  549
Geographical Work for other Departments, National Defence
and Public.
Ninety items, receipts and value of work  $1,708.00 S 26 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps issued to Departments and public        12,401
Maps received into stock   9,237
Total value of printed maps issued   $4,450.75
Revenue from printed maps .__  $4,139.49
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made  2,562
Revenue from Departments and public       $675.00
Value of photostats for Lands Department, etc.   $1,387.15
Letters.
Letters received and attended to   1,370
Standard Base Map.
Nechako Pre-emptors' Sheets, compiled complete   8
Standard Base Map, skeleton sheets compiled  6
School districts plotted from description   35
Control nets supplied   33
Triangulation.
Main  and  Coast,  by  least  square  adjustment,  triangles
adjusted    241
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations   746
Index-cards, records   649
Triangulation index maps   3
Resume.
Sergeant-Pilot R. F. Leighton, R.C.A.F., a popular member of the staff in military
service, was killed on active service on November 1st, 1941—reported to be the first
Civil Servant killed on active service.
Sapper L. Roach, R.C.E., on leave for military service, resigned on May 9th, 1941.
Sean Howard was appointed as apprentice draughtsman (war replacement) on
March 24th, 1941.
The section of the Division primarily concerned with the compilation of maps and
making the final drawings for reproduction purposes has been taxed to the limit to
meet the normal demands and the requests made by the Pacific Military and Western
Air Commands, also the British Columbia Police, for special types of maps required for
national defence.
The Division has been in daily contact with these services and has met all requests,
sometimes of an exacting nature, satisfactorily. This work included the preparation
and drawing of large-scale operational maps and charts, the delimitation and legal
description of defence areas, etc.; work requiring close co-operation with the authorities
concerned and for which the members of the Division by experience and training are
particularly fitted.
At the request of the Surveyor-General for the Dominion, complete data were
assembled and forwarded to Ottawa for the production of seventeen maps of various
types covering the coastal and other vulnerable areas of the Province and urgently
required by the Pacific Military and Western Air Commands. These maps are submitted to this Division for final revision before publication. Appreciative comments
for the co-operation and help given in this large volume of work have been received.
The valuable record of geographical names built up over a period of thirty years
has been maintained. There are now over 25,000 record-cards properly indexed and,
where available, a concise historical note on the name, and whether confirmed by the
Geographical Board of Canada, appears on the reverse side of the card. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, KECHIKA RIVER VALLEY. S 27
A special descriptive brochure on Hamber Park was compiled and designed for
presentation to the Honourable Eric W. Hamber and twenty-five copies were later
produced for private distribution and publicity purposes.
It is noted a considerable increase is shown in the number of maps issued; also
the revenue from the sale of printed maps was practically doubled. The stocks of
Maps Ia, Wall Map of British Columbia; Ij, British Columbia; and Ih, Northern
British Columbia, have been greatly depleted owing to military demands, particularly
those made by the Chief Engineer, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C. These maps were
evidently the best available for aeronautical and other purposes.
The production of maps and distribution and dissemination of geographical data
are of prime importance at the present time and this Division, sometimes under adverse
circumstances, has been and is playing an important role in the interests of national
defence.
It would be unfair for the writer to mention any particular member, as he can
state without reserve that the whole staff have applied themselves diligently to the
extra work imposed on them and with a most commendable spirit.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, KECHIKA RIVER VALLEY.
By A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical surveys
carried out under your instructions of June 3rd, 1941.
In these instructions the area assigned to us covered that part of the Kechika River
Valley lying below the area mapped by Mr. N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., in 1940, and extending north-westerly a distance of approximately 65 miles to the Earle River. A
party under Mr. Stewart was carrying on the mapping field-work from the Earle River
to the north boundary of the Province.
The valley had been covered with vertical aerial photographs in 1940, and the purpose of the survey was to obtain sufficient data to prepare a topographical map on the
scale of 1 mile to 1 inch and a contour interval of 100 feet. The immediate purpose of
the map is to show information that would be of value to engineers studying the
relative advantages of different possible routes for a highway to Alaska. This field-
work was completed and data obtained to cover an area between 600 and 700 square
miles.
The field party consisted of R. D. Fraser and A. H. Ralfs, both of the permanent
staff, as assistants; three survey helpers; a cook, a packer, and a river-boatman. Only
one of these men, the packer, was on the ground. Two of them came across country
from Fort Ware and the remainder were taken in from the outside by way of Wrangell,
Alaska, Telegraph Creek to Dease Lake. From there to Scoop Lake, a small lake in
the Kechika Valley and very close to the centre of our area, men, outfit, and supplies
were taken in by plane. This saved considerable time, which was important, due to
the rather short season, in that country, suitable for our work. At Scoop Lake thejtwo
men from Fort Ware, " Skook " Davidson and a packer, were anxiously awaiting us.
They had expected us some days earlier and were completely out of supplies and living
on the country. Davidson had twenty-two head of horses, all in fine condition after
spending their second winter in the valley, a few miles above Scoop Lake. From the
almost luxuriant growth of good grass that was later noted throughout the valley, and
the reported light winter snowfall, there seems to be no reason why horses or even
cattle should not be able to winter range.
The majority of these horses went on to join Mr. Stewart's party at Lower Post,
on the Liard River, leaving a few to assist in our transportation problems away from
the river. This portion of the Kechika River is readily navigated by small river-boats,
and we had our choice of the two boats built in 1940, of whip-sawn lumber, near the
head of the Kechika, for the use of Mr. Stewart's and Mr. Pattinson's parties.    These S 28 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
boats had been left with Mr. Davidson for the winter and were in surprisingly good
condition, considering they had been built of green lumber with a minimum of tools.
The work was completed to the Earle River on September 12th and we moved by
pack-train to Lower Post, where some work was done to assist Mr. Stewart's party.
The party was then disbanded and the outfit brought up the Dease River to Dease Lake
and thence to Victoria, which was reached on October 9th.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The Kechika is a well-defined valley down to its junction with the Turnagain River
and is similar to the Finlay River Valley at Fort Grahame. The valley-floor is around
4 or 5 miles in width with large areas of bench land, 100 to 200 feet above the river,
rising gradually back to the main slopes of the hills and mountains on either side, with,
in places, many channels and back waters and, every so often, contacting and cutting
into the benches along the river; a striking feature is the absence of solid rock as only
in very few places where the river has cut into the higher benches is rock to be seen.
For the most part it runs between earth banks and gravel-bars. The range of mountains bounding the valley on the west runs nearly straight on a bearing of N. 32° W.,
parallel to and 3 or 4 miles back from the river. This range carried on beyond the
Turnagain, holding the same bearing, but with lower altitudes to the Earle River and
beyond.
Below the Turnagain the valley opens out and the river swings to the right, passing
between timbered hills around 3,500 feet altitude. Below the Earle River it turns
farther to the east and passes through this range of low hills to the valley of the Liard.
At the Turnagain, the river is about 4 miles from the mountains and at the Earle
around 15 miles. This leaves a large area of plateau and rolling country with one hill,
reaching to an altitude of 3,500 feet.
On the east side of the valley, and near the southerly end of our work, lies Terminus Mountain, the most northerly mountain of the main Rocky Mountains. The
altitude of this mountain is 6,267 feet above sea-level. Down the valley the altitudes
of the hills decrease until the timbered hills beyond the Turnagain are reached.
Besides the Turnagain and Earle Rivers several much smaller streams enter the
valley. ' A few of these reach the river. The others, quite respectable streams when
they leave the hills, sink into the ground and disappear in the flat bench land. Several
small lakes, of which Scoop Lake, 2 miles long, is the largest, are found in the first few
miles above the Turnagain, while on the plateau between the Turnagain and Earle
Rivers four larger and a number of small lakes are located.
FOREST-COVER.
Above the Turnagain River spruce of 12 inches diameter is the predominating
species. Poplar is found along the edge and the partially open slopes of the benches
above the river and several large poplar-covered flats with widely spaced trees to
10 inches diameter were noted, and, on the west side, some park-like pine-covered
stretches were found. Marshy meadows and several dry meadows with exceedingly
good growth of grass were seen on the valley-floor, and good grass was general on the
poplar flats and on the open side-hills. A few birch of small size are to be found
scattered over the area.
Below the Turnagain more pine was noted, as were stretches of old burnt areas
grown up in poplar, and many windfalls. Some tamarack of small size was also found,
generally in marshy places. Willow and alder and small brush are prevalent, but not
thick enough to interfere seriously with bush travelling.
A considerable variety of berries are to be found throughout the area, but nowhere
were they seen in any profusion. Some strawberries, gooseberries, a few blueberries
and raspberries; cranberries were somewhat more plentiful. The berries were of
good size and flavour, but it could not be classed as a good berry country.
GAME.
The whole valley is taken up with registered trap-lines held by Indians, and is
reported to be good fur country.    Beaver, marten, fisher, otter, mink, and muskrat are TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, LOWER POST. S 29
said to be common. The east side of the valley is supposed to be a good place for
grizzly bear. Only one was seen, but we came across much evidence of their work.
Some mountain sheep and goat on the higher mountains were encountered, and from
the well-travelled game trails on the higher ridges it is evident that, at times, these
animals must be common. It is the same with the moose. Their tracks, generally old,
are to be found all over, but only a very few were seen. It was reported that timber-
wolves are numerous, and some were seen. This probably explains the scarcity of the
moose and other animals. Willow grouse and fool-hens are plentiful and many geese
and some ducks were seen along the river and on the lakes. The Kechika River is
known locally as the Big Muddy and the name fits, but the Turnagain is a clear-water
stream and some fish, Dolly Varden and grayling, were taken from it. It is believed
that in some of the larger lakes these fish are plentiful.
CLIMATE.
Very little snow was to be seen, even on the higher mountains, when we arrived in
the Kechika Valley the middle of June and we were told it had been gone for some
time. From Dease Lake considerable snow could be seen on the mountains visible from
there, which indicates an earlier spring for the valley. From the middle of June to
the end of August there, was not much rain and generally warm, sunny weather. On
August 29th snow covered the mountains and a heavy frost occurred. This snow disappeared and we had clear cold weather for a couple of weeks, which enabled us to finish
our work and move to Lower Post.
ACCESSIBILITY.      .
The Moody Trail to the Yukon came over Sifton Pass and down the Kechika River
to Terminus Mountain. Opposite this mountain it turned off the'valley, crossed a low
pass and proceeded down another valley on its way to McDame Creek and the Yukon.
Where this trail leaves the valley evidences could be seen where several cabins had
once stood. The trail from Fort Ware to Lower Post, a distance of 230 miles, follows
the same route to Terminus Mountain, which is about half way between the posts. It
keeps to the east side of the river and 40 miles below joins a trail from Fort Nelson
and on to " The Crossing " of the Kechika, 66 miles from Lower Post. The trail finally
leaves the river at the crossing, and at 47 miles from the post, and 8 miles up from the
Kechika crosses the Earle River. A trail, which starts up the Turnagain Valley, goes
through to Dease Lake. A branch of this trail reaches McDame Creek on the Dease
River.
The work carried out by our parties this season completed the mapping of the
Rocky Mountain Trench route of the Alaska Highway through British Columbia.
Along this section there would be no difficulty encountered in constructing a road.
Practically no rock-work, easy grades and plenty of road-building material. The only
large bridge required would be that crossing the Turnagain and good bridge-sites are
available.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, LOWER POST.
By N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical survey
carried out under your instructions during the field season of 1941.
The surveys, which were in the vicinity of Lower Post, on the Liard River, controlled a strip of country averaging 12 miles in width and extending in a south-easterly
direction from the north boundary of the Province some 50 miles to the Earl River,
where connection was made with the surveys carried out this season by A. J. Campbell,
B.C.L.S. In addition, the work was extended up the Dease River to the mouth of Blue
River and down the Liard to Twenty-mile Creek.    These surveys complete the mapping S 30 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
of the " Trench Route " of the proposed Alaska Highway. Owing to the comparatively
flat terrain, control for air photos was obtained by various methods; photo-topography,
triangulation, traverses, and by the use of aneroids. A map is being prepared at a
scale of one-half mile to 1 inch with a contour interval of 100 feet. The areas controlled total approximately 750 square miles.
The field party consisted of W. J. Moffatt, B.C.L.S.; A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S.;
G. C. Emerson, instrument-man; two river-boatmen, a cook, a horse-packer, and three
helpers. The area was reached via Wrangell, Telegraph Creek, and Dease Lake, where
two 40-foot river-boats were built. We set out in these boats down Dease River on
June 13th, arriving at the mouth of Blue River two days later. After setting a few
signals we continued down-river to Lower Post, near the junction of the Dease and Liard
Rivers. As much of the work was at a considerable distance back from the river pack-
horses were required, and these were supplied by that veteran packer, " Skook" Davidson. During the last two weeks of the field season, Mr. A. J. Campbell and his party
helped to finish the control in my area.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The Rocky Mountain Trench is very well defined from Finlay Forks to the confluence of the Turnagain and Kechika Rivers, near which point the mountains defining
the trench get smaller and 35 miles north-west of that junction there are no more
mountains, but a broad expanse of plateau country extending to the north boundary of
the Province, and beyond into Yukon Territory and also both east and west along the
Liard and Dease Rivers. The Earl River, which was chosen as the dividing line
between the surveys of Mr. Campbell and myself, rises in Deadwood Lake and flows
easterly, joining the Kechika River some 30 miles below the mouth of Turnagain. A
few miles north of the Earl River remnants of glacial action running north-easterly
across the trench are indicated by gravelly ridges rising from 200 to 300 feet above
the average floor. Again north of these ridges for about 15 miles there is a wide
wooded valley with a pleasant aspect, flanked on the westerly side by more or less
regular hills, culminating in Mount Monk, but on the easterly side the hills are less
conspicuous and much lower. From Mount Monk we had a grand view of the plateau
country. It has the appearance of a gently rolling wooded plain, but is in fact cut up
by the valleys of the Liard and Dease Rivers and numerous tributary streams and, in
addition, by ancient glacial action, the moraines extending in a more or less easterly
direction.    An average altitude for this plateau country is 2,400 feet above sea-level.
The Liard River at Lower Post (altitude 1,900 feet) is about 800 feet wide (current, 4 to 5 miles per hour). The water is usually quite clear. The Liard rises in
Yukon Territory, entering the Province some 6 miles north of its confluence with the
Dease, the Provincial boundary crossing it about one-half mile above the foot of Liard
Canyon. The Dease River is the principal tributary of the Liard in this section.
From the mouth of the Blue River (a stream 50 feet wide) to the Liard the Dease is
a swift, shallow stream 300 to 500 feet wide. At points 2 and 4 miles above the mouth
of the Dease are rapids difficult to navigate. Another tributary of the Liard is the
Hyland, which joins it 15 miles below the Dease. The Hyland also rises in Yukon
Territory. It is a swift stream, about 150 feet wide at its mouth, and can be navigated
for 50 miles. Scattered throughout the area surveyed are numerous small lakes and
meadows connected by meandering creeks.
FORESTS.
The tops of the ridges and hills are wooded with pine up to 10 inches diameter and
in the depressions are pine and spruce, with poplar and some birch. Poplar predominates on all southerly exposures. The birch is found mostly on side-hills flanking
the Liard and Dease Rivers. Larch or tamarack was seen in swampy places. Small
stands of commercial spruce, sufficient for local needs, were found along the larger
rivers and in certain areas inland where forest fires had not penetrated. The plateau
country has considerable underbrush, mostly alder, willow, and soapalalie, making
cross-country travelling difficult, and debris from forest fires have added to this diffi- TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, LOWER POST. S 31
culty. However, in areas where poplar is predominant, the going is better, and under
these trees there is usually a good growth of grass, much like the bunch-grass in appearance.    Wild flowers are plentiful on open ridges and in the meadows.
Wild berries, mostly strawberries, cranberries, and a few blueberries and raspberries were seen, but this is not considered a good berry country. Numerous meadows
provide plenty of horse-feed. Considerable hay could be cut in the vicinity of the
Davy trail, between the 19-Mile Post and the Earl River.
MINERALS.
We saw no indications of minerals; if any exist, they are deeply buried by river
and glacial action. Gold can be panned in the Liard and Dease Rivers, but not in
paying quantities. Some years ago the country south of Lower Post was staked for
oil, but I have been unable to And out if bona-fide indications were ever found there.
GAME.
The area surveyed is ideal for the raising of fur-bearing animals, especially beaver.
The whole of this north country is covered by registered trap-lines, many of these are
carefully managed and are producing large quantities of fur. Fur-bearing animals
caught here include beaver, fox, fisher, marten, otter, mink, muskrats, weasels, and
squirrels. Moose and bear were seen, but are not plentiful. Wolves are numerous,
possibly accounting for the lack of other game. I saw deer-tracks on the gravel-bars
at the mouth of the Hyland River. Rabbits are increasing in numbers. Occasional
porcupines were seen. Fool-hens and willow grouse are quite plentiful and also ducks,
geese, and loons. In the fall thousands of cranes paid one-night visits on their way
south. In certain lakes there were trout, an especially good lake was found near the
36-Mile Post on the Davy Trail.    In the larger rivers there are grayling and trout.
CLIMATE.
We had showery weather between June 13th and July 14th, then warm, summer
days until the end of August, when a heavy frost occurred and snow came on the
mountain-tops south of our area. The first ten days of September were very suitable
for our work, but from then on to the end of the field season, October 3rd, the weather
was not good, being wet and cold with numerous snow-storms. In the opinion of local
residents the climate is quite suitable for their way of life, having warm summers tempered by numerous showers, a fairly cold, steady winter with a snowfall not exceeding
2 feet in depth. The beginning of navigation depends on the ice going out on Dease
Lake (for the rivers clear sooner) ; usually this occurs some time in May. Navigation
on the Dease ends when some small lakes between Dease Lake and McDame freeze over;
this may happen any time after the middle of October. During the past two winters
•our pack-horses wintered in the Kechika Valley, coming through in very good condition
without loss.    In this plateau country the flies were not as troublesome as we expected.
ACCESSIBILITY, ETC.
From the time the Hudson's Bay Company's men explored the Liard and Dease
Rivers in the 1830's, these rivers have provided the chief means of access to Lower
Post, which has been, for many years, the centre to which the trappers and Indians
have gathered to sell their furs and buy their meagre supplies. From Lower Post the
Dease River is navigated to Dease Lake, some 180 river miles; the Upper Liard is
navigated some 100 miles into Yukon Territory, and the Liard down-stream for about
50 miles with safety. The Hyland River is run by power-boats 50 miles into Yukon
Territory.
Also from Lower Post trails radiate. The Davy trail goes south-easterly (66
miles), crossing the Kechika River 5 miles below the mouth of the Turnagain; here it
connects with trails leading southerly to Ware on the Finlay River and easterly with
the trail to Rabbit River, and ultimately with trails that lead to Fort Nelson, east of
the Rocky Mountains.    From Lower Post trails go north-easterly into the Hyland River S 32 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
country, northerly up the Liard into the Yukon Territory, and south-westerly following
the left bank of the Dease River to McDame Creek. With the exception of the Davy
trail, these trails were designed for packing by dog-team. During the season we
cleared out about 20 miles of the Davy trail for our horses.
For some years airplanes have been landing on the river at Lower Post. The
Yukon Southern Air Transport, operating in this district, found these landings hazardous, so established an airport at Watson Lake, situated in Yukon Territory, about 25
miles north-west of Lower Post. During the past season this airport has been enlarged
to accommodate any kind of airplane. To get materials for this work, a road was built
from Lower Post. The construction company using two bulldozers built this 26 miles
of road in fourteen days.
As already stated, Lower Post is the nerve centre of the district. Here the Hudson
Bay Company has a post and the Taku Trading Company a store. There are a few
Indian houses, and the religious needs of the community are served by two Roman
Catholic priests. Trappers, both white and Indian, within 100 miles or more, visit the
post each summer, the Indians bringing their entire families, so that often there is
quite a population at the post. During last summer considerable additional activity
was provided by the building of the airport at Watson Lake, for Lower Post was the end
of the 400-mile haul from Wrangell for all the equipment and supplies required on that
work. Although quite familiar with airplanes and outboard motors, the Lower Post
Indians saw for the first time an automobile and, still more amazing, a giant bulldozer
in action.
The future development of this district will probably follow along the same lines
as in the past. Fur-farming could be intensified. A certain amount of agriculture
might be started, for very good potatoes and root vegetables are now grown in certain
sheltered spots. In places on the Davy trail where there are numerous meadows, horses
and cattle might be raised.
This season's field surveys completed the mapping in British Columbia of the
Rocky Mountain Trench route of the proposed Alaska Highway. In this most northerly
section, as in other sections which I mapped, there will be little difficulty in building a
road—grades are negligible, alignment more or less straight, little or no rock-work,
gravel at hand everywhere, and good sites for bridges.
TRIANGULATION CONTROL SURVEY, TURNAGAIN AND
TANZILLA RIVER VALLEYS.
By Hugh Pattinson, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the above survey carried
out by me under your instructions of May 22nd.
The primary object of the survey as defined in your instructions was to extend
the triangulation network south-westerly from stations already established on the
Turnagain River so as to make a solid connection with existing Provincial triangulation in the vicinity of Dease Lake.
Upon completion of the above, my instructions were to further extend the triangulation making a connection to two stations of Mr. Fred Nash's 1930 triangulation on
the Stikine River.
The party, consisting of George A. Dickson, assistant, and five men, was organized
at Telegraph Creek. Horses, twelve in number, were used for transportation purposes
and these were obtained with all necessary packing equipment from the Diamond B
ranch on the Stikine River.
The party left Telegraph Creek on June 3rd and the interval between that date
and June 25th was utilized in the resignalling and occupation of some of Mr. John
Davidson's stations along the Tanzilla River and in establishing several new ones in -
TRIANGULATION CONTROL SURVEY. S 33
such positions that they could be occupied to advantage later in the season when
making connections to the Stikine River triangulation.
The original intention had been to commence operations on the Turnagain River,
but snow in the passes and very wet trails made it advisable to spend the first few
weeks of the season at the southern end of the work in order to give the trails a chance
to dry out before taking a pack-train over them.
On June 25th the party left Dease Lake for the Turnagain River where the most
northerly stations were occupied, and the work was carried on continuously in a southwesterly direction until September 25th when we returned to Telegraph Creek. Connections were made to Mr. Nash's stations, Birch and Meehaus, on the Stikine network,
thus closing an extensive circuit. Altogether twenty main stations were occupied.
Four geological survey stations were tied in by rays from main stations but were not
occupied. Five geological stations were established as permanent parts of the main
network and were given serial numbers and monumented in a similar manner to
other Provincial triangulation stations. No permanent markings were found at any
of the geological stations, but approximate bearings and other available information
made it possible to identify stations MUD, Ear, East, and Hat. In each case a cairn
about 5 feet in height had been erected and in all cases when these stations were
occupied and included in our main scheme of triangulation we rebuilt and enlarged
the cairns to a height of approximately 8 feet.
A connection was made by triangulation to Lot 13540 (Dalvene No. 5 Mineral
Claim), one of a group in the vicinity of Thenatlodi Mountain. Lot 5470 (Tatcho
Creek Indian Reserve) was also tied in by triangulation and traverse.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE UPPER TURNAGAIN
AND TANZILLA RIVER VALLEYS.
Between the mouth of Tent Creek and the canyon the valley of the Turnagain
River is narrow, with the mountains sloping down to within a few hundred feet of
the river. From the canyon south-westerly the valley widens to some extent and
there are flat areas at least a mile in width. The main tributary emptying into the
Upper Turnagain is Snowdrift Creek, which heads in the Hotailuh Mountains. Three
Forks Creek, Two Fish Creek, Kutcho Creek, Hard Creek, and Wheaton Creek are
lesser tributaries, but these are all short mountain streams having a large spring
run-off but an insignificant flow during the remainder of the year. The balance of
the region covered by the season's operations is drained by the Tanzilla and Tuya
Rivers and their tributaries. Neither of these rivers are of great length nor do they
drain very extensive areas. Both of them flow through canyons at intervals and after
leaving the mountains each drains a considerable area of plateau-like country. Their
beds are rough in character with many large boulders. We had no difficulty fording
either of these rivers on foot during low water periods, but it is difficult to cross them
even on horseback when in flood as the current is swift and footing uncertain. Both
the Tanzilla and Tuya Rivers empty into the Stikine River from the north and their
points of entry are only about 12 miles apart.
The largest lakes noticed in the area covered were Hluey Lakes, situated about
4 miles north-easterly from A Hluey, and Thenatlodi Lake, situated at the foot of
Thenatlodi Mountain. The former consists of a group of several lakes, the largest
being about 3 miles in length. The latter is a narrow lake, being about the same
length as the largest of the Hluey Lakes. The region extending south-westerly from
A Turn and A Thenatlodi contained between the Tanzilla and Stikine Rivers consists
largely of high plateau country broken by scattered mountains of moderate height
and generally rounded on top. A few small creeks drain the area and most of these
were dry in September.
FOREST-COVER.
Due to the northern latitude and high average elevation of the terrain the timber
is generally small and of little or no commercial value at the present time. Frequent
fires have  caused  the  destruction  of large  areas  of jack-pine  and  spruce  forests. S 34 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
There are very few deciduous trees, although a few patches of poplar and cottonwood
of limited extent were noticed. The coniferous varieties predominate with spruce and
jack-pine on the lower levels and alpine balsam on the upper slopes of the mountains
extending to timber-line, which in this latitude is approximately 5,000 feet above
sea-level. Some very extensive fires have occurred in the area between Dease Lake
and Thenatlodi Mountains and also in the vicinity of Tanzilla Butte. There are thousands of acres covered with standing fire-killed timber, mostly spruce. There appears
to be little or no second growth as yet and after a few years the country will be
extremely difficult to travel through owing to windfalls. Apparently the fire-killed
spruce is still fairly sound at the roots and at present it is possible to pick a way
through with horses without encountering much down timber. A few patches of good
quality jack-pine were noticed on some of the benches along the Turnagain River.
Although the average diameter would not exceed 8 inches the trees were tall and
straight with few limbs.
VEGETATION.
There was an abundance of good grass for horse-feed in the vicinity of every
camp and most of the area covered during the season's operations supported a fair
growth of vegetation and wild grasses. A wide variety of wild berries are found in
certain areas. Among those encountered were blueberries, black currants, red currants, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, cranberries, and saskatoons. The open
hillsides produce a species of bunch-grass which affords excellent feed for horses.
Tufts of deadwood were noticed on many of the hillsides having a southern exposure.
This plant, which is usually found in dry localities, was particularly prevalent along
the banks of the Tuya River. Most of the area may be classed as good summer range
land and there are meadows large and small scattered throughout the southern part
of the region covered, from which a fair amount of wild hay could be cut.
GAME AND FUR-BEARING ANIMALS.
Moose and caribou are plentiful and large numbers of each were seen during the
season. The caribou were generally to be found high up in the mountains during the
summer, and small herds were often encountered above timber-line, grazing near
patches of snow.
Mountain-sheep of the species known as Stone's are quite numerous in the high
pastures of the mountains flanking the Turnagain River.
Goat also were seen on numerous occasions. Being almost snow white they are
easily discernible for a considerable distance and almost any day herds could be seen
grazing on the higher slopes of the mountains.
Among the fur-bearing animals trapped are beaver, lynx, marten, fox, mink,
wolverine, and muskrat. During the past trapping season beavers were the main
catch of the majority of the trappers. Both black and grizzly bear were noticed on
several occasions.
Of the game birds willow grouse and ptarmigan were the most numerous. Large
flocks of the latter were seen almost daily above the 5,000-foot contour. Some blue
grouse were noticed but they were by no means plentiful. There are fish in most of
the creeks and lakes. Rainbow, Dolly Varden, and Arctic trout are found in the
Turnagain River and tributaries.
CLIMATE.
Frequent showers occur even during the summer months along the Turnagain River,'
but they are not heavy and are usually of short duration. The average precipitation
throughout the area would probably not exceed 18 or 20 inches. As one travels southwesterly towards Telegraph Creek the climate becomes drier. The weather generally
is very unpredictable and severe electric storms occur with little or no warning. On
three different, occasions the party was forced to descend from the summit due to
sudden lightning storms, accompanied by heavy downpours of hail and sleet, and in
each case the weather was calm and clear when the party commenced the climb from
camp.    The snowfall is moderate, becoming lighter to the south-west from Dease Lake. TRIANGULATION CONTROL SURVEY. S 35
Probably the heaviest snowfall occurs in the Upper Turnagain Valley. Strong winds
drift the snow in the open areas, particularly along the trail adjacent to Snowdrift
Creek, where the country has a very bleak appearance and the wide timberless valley
affords a long sweep for the winds.
ACCESSIBILITY.
Access to the region may be gained by way of either of two main routes, each
of which follows the main waterways of the country to a large extent. The most convenient route is by way of Wrangell, Alaska, and up the Stikine River 187 miles to
Telegraph Creek, which is the head of navigation on that river. From Telegraph
Creek a road leads 72 miles to Dease Lake, from which point trails give access to
various parts of the region. The principal one follows the Turnagain River to Chee
House at the confluence of that river with the Kechika River; thence up the last-named
river to its head at Sifton Pass, which is also the head of the Fox River. The trail
then follows the Fox and-Finlay Rivers to Ware, a Hudson's Bay Post situated on the
banks of the Finlay River 44 miles from Sifton Pass. The other main route is from
Prince George to Summit Lake, at the head of the Little Crooked River, then down
that river and down the Pack and Parsnip to Finlay Forks and up the Finlay River to
Ware, a total distance by river of about 350 miles. From Ware the above-mentioned
trail is used.
In addition to the two principal routes mentioned above, access may be obtained
by trail to Telegraph Creek from Hazelton and Atlin, but the trails from these places
are in poor shape as they have not been used very much in recent years. A pack-train,
however, managed to get through from Hazelton to Telegraph Creek last summer, but
they reported considerable difficulties encountered due to washouts, windfalls, and other
obstacles.
GENERAL.
The region has few permanent residents and most of those encountered were interested either in trapping or mining, or both.
There are two general stores at Dease Lake, which supply the needs of the limited
population, and a radio station was recently constructed in that vicinity by Pan-American Airways.
The road connecting Dease Lake with Telegraph Creek was greatly improved by
gravelling and widening same during the summer, and now trucks can make a trip
between the two places in about six hours where formerly they took anywhere up to
two days when the road was wet.
Due principally to the average high elevation of the region very few areas were
noticed which would be suitable for mixed farming. Vegetables, including potatoes,
are successfully grown on the Ira Day ranch near the mouth of the Tuya River. No
cattle or sheep are raised in the country at present, the inhabitants de.pending almost
entirely on moose and other wild meat. Most of the area covered during the season is
good summer range and would support a large number of stock. It would probably
be necessary to put up sufficient winter feed to last about five and one-half months.
If a closer market were available there should be an opportunity for stock-raising on
a moderate scale.
When one observes the large amount of imported edibles, such as meat, milk, eggs,
vegetables, etc., which come up the Stikine River each boat-day it would seem that there
should be a chance for a few farmers on well located homesteads to make a fair living.
Locally grown potatoes bring at least $4 per 100 lb. With increased population a more
substantial local market will be assured and considerably more interest will be taken
in the farming possibilities. A limited number of horses are raised in the country,
mainly for use on the pack-trail.
Placer-mining has been carried on at Wheaton Creek for several years and was
continued during the past spring and summer. At the present time there are no lode
mines in operation, although there are a number of recorded mineral claims in the
district. A fair number of prospectors were out during the summer, but no important
new discoveries have been reported. S 36 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
A small sawmill in the vicinity of Telegraph Creek provides sufficient lumber for
local requirements.
There are few large lakes within the limits of the season's operations. Hluey and
Thenatlodi Lakes should be suitable for pontoon equipped planes to alight on if necessary.    The former is surrounded by swamp.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, GREAT CENTRAL LAKE.
By L. A. Austen-Leigh, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith beg to report on the topographical surveys carried out under your
instructions to the late Mr. McCaw, during the 1941 season.
The area included in those instructions, which was completed, consists of that
corner of Map-sheet 92 F/7 which lies to the south-west of the Stamp River and, to-
the west, the unsurveyed remainder of Map-sheet 92 F/6, which includes the drainage
area of Great Central Lake, the Taylor River, and the headwaters of the Kennedy
River, its northern boundary being Mr. Stewart's map of Strathcona Park and the
southern Mr. McCaw's work in 1940 and Mr. Jackson's in 1941.
There were available aerial photographs by the R.C.A.F. and British Columbia
Forest Surveys, the triangulation of the Survey of Canada, and a number of ground
photographs taken by Mr. Stewart in 1938 looking south into this area.
The work was carried out in the usual way by stations, to obtain photographic
control, barometer readings and ties, the whole being bound together by triangulation.
Mr. McCaw started at Great Central Lake on June 17th, with Mr. McRae as his
assistant. While the work was proceeding up Great Central Lake Mr. McCaw was
taken ill and, on July 20th, he was obliged to return home.
The work was continued by Mr. McRae under the directions left by Mr. McCaw.
It was hoped that Mr. McCaw would be able to return by September, but later his
illness took an unexpected and deeply regretted turn for the worse. He died on
August 22nd.
Under your directions I went out to the party, and on August 29th I found Mr.
McRae about 4 miles up the Taylor River from the head of Sproat Lake. The work
had been carried on in a satisfactory way. All but one of the necessary camera stations had been occupied and it remained to occupy some triangulation stations and to
tie in some loose ends in the Stamp River section.
At this time the fine weather seemed to have broken up. The stations were high
and could only be dealt with on fine days. Smoke, of which there was always a supply
from the various mills in the neighbourhood, was bound to be reinforced in September
by brush-burning.
In point of fact there were two days that were fine and clear till the end of the
season, and these were spent on the triangulation stations of Klitsa and Cokely.
On September 27th the party was paid off.
At the foot of Great Central Lake there is a large lumber mill, and, except for
recreational facilities, the only source of activity in the region is the timber. A great
deal has been taken and a great deal remains. A small logging camp at the mouth of
Lowry Creek, and a large one at the head of Great Central, are now at work.
The Taylor River section has not been touched, but there is a quantity of commercial timber which is, I understand, about to be logged.
Quite a few deer were seen and there are said to be fish in the lakes.
The highways of the area are the two big lakes and there is a good trail up the
Taylor and over the pass to the Kennedy River.
The usual work on the maps is proceeding. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, TOQUART AND KENNEDY RIVERS. S 37
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, TOQUART AND KENNEDY RIVERS.
By G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the topographical survey
made by me, under your instructions, during the past summer.
The area completed is on Vancouver Island, to the north and west of Barkley
Sound, consisting of the watershed of the Effingham-Toquart and Kennedy Rivers.
This completes Map-sheet 92 F/3.
The area has all been covered by vertical views of the R.C.A.F. and by the British
Columbia Forest Service. The triangulation was controlled by stations of the Geodetic
Survey of Canada, supplemented by some British Columbia Coast triangulation stations.
The party was organized at Victoria and started work at the head of Effingham
Inlet on June 13th. A pack-trail was cut up the west side of Effingham River to the
forks, a distance of about 6 miles. Then it was continued up the East Fork to the
head, another 6 miles.    Stations were occupied on each side of the valley.
On July 13th, having finished the Effingham Valley, we moved to Toquart, where
we put up several signals for future use and occupied one mountain, about 4 miles up
the river.
On July 27th we moved to the head of Kennedy Lake by way of Tofino. We
occupied stations on each side of Kennedy River for about 8 miles up the river, also
several stations around the lake to the head of Clayoquot Arm.
On September 19th we moved back to Toquart, where Lucky triangulation station
and a couple of other stations were occupied. On September 25th we broke camp and
moved back to Victoria by way of Alberni.
During the season there was a great deal of fog, and this often necessitated a wait
of several days at stations before there was a day sufficiently clear for our work.
The area is very mountainous. The rivers are in very narrow valleys, lying in a
general north and south direction. The hills rise steeply from the rivers up to very
jagged, bare rock peaks, reaching an elevation of from 4,000 to 5,000 feet. There are
a number of small lakes scattered throughout the area. Then there is Kennedy Lake,
which is large for an island lake. It is U-shaped and nearly 20 miles long from tip to
tip of the " U."    This lake is only about 15 feet in elevation above sea-level.
There are no operating mines in the area at present. Development-work is being
done spasmodically on the Toquart group, a gold prospect, about 2V2 miles up Lucky
Creek, near Toquart, but this was not working when we were there.
On Kennedy River there are three gold mines, with considerable development-
work done on them, and several other groups of claims have been staked. The Leora
group, on the east side of Kennedy River, about 1 mile from the mouth and about one-
quarter of a mile back from the river, is the only one where work was being done this
year. This group was first staked in 1902 and has been worked intermittently since
then and between 400 and 500 tons of ore shipped from it. The present owners were
busy pumping out the old workings this summer and hoped to be able to start mining
soon.
About 2 miles up the river from the Leora, on the east side, is another old mine, the
Rose Marie. This was worked in the late nineties, and a four-stamp mill was operated
for a couple of seasons.    No work has been done on this recently.
About IV2 miles farther up the river, on the east side, is the Tommy K. group.
This was staked in 1933 by the Kennedy Lake Gold Mines. Here quite a camp was
built, consisting of a cook-house, bunk-houses, office, and work-shop, and considerable
prospect-work has been done. No work was being done on this property this season.
During the time they were here they built a good truck-road up the east side of the
river to the mine. Unfortunately, a number of bridges across creeks have been
washed out and it will require considerable work to make the road passable again.
Very encouraging values in gold and silver were found here, but in narrow veins.
The area is heavily timbered and has a dense growth of typical west coast underbrush—salal, huckleberry, and rhododendron.    The timber consists of hemlock, balsam, S 38 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1941.
spruce, red and yellow cedar, with scattered black and white pine. Along the north
boundary of the area fir was in evidence and this increases in both abundance and
quality to the north.
No logging has been done here and the timber is of commercial value at present
in only a small part of this area. Fair timber extends for a couple of miles up Effingham Valley, but in a very narrow strip. In the Toquart Valley timber extends to the
lake, about 3 miles up. Here there is a big percentage of cedar, of which a lot has
fallen down. This should make a good shingle-bolt proposition, as the bolts could
easily be floated down the river. There is fair timber up the Kennedy River for a
short distance on each side, and between Kennedy Lake and Toquart Bay there is an
area of well-timbered rolling hills.
The climate is very temperate, but the precipitation is heavy, being about 100
inches a year along the coast and sometimes over 300 inches back in the valleys. There
is little snow on the coast, but it is heavy on the mountains. There is a great deal of
fog in the summer, and it is the exception to have the mountain-tops clear of it.
The chief industry is fishing and all settlement depends on it. A large number
of trollers, purse-seiners, and gill-netters operate along the coast. Canneries, salteries,
and reduction plants operate at convenient points to take care of the fish. The chief
catch is salmon, pilchard, and herring.
Little agriculture has been attempted, but the climate is very suitable for it, and
any small fruits and garden produce do very well.
Wild blueberries were plentiful on the mountains this year, both the high and low
bush varieties. Wild flowers were very plentiful, at and above timber-line there were
very fine patches of Pentstemon and of yellow Erythronium and other mountain plants.
Below timber-line there were many tiger-lilies, chocolate lilies, pink Erythronium and
Trilliums, bog violets, peacocks, and many others.
Ducks and geese are said to be plentiful during the fall and winter in the inlets,
but the local game is very scarce. Deer have practically disappeared and only the
odd bear and grouse is seen. There are some fur-bearing animals, the chief catch
being marten, mink, and coon, but these are not at all plentiful.
Roads and trails are scarce and most of the travelling along the coast is done by
water. Ucluelet and Tofino are connected by a road. There is now a rough pack-trail
up Effingham Inlet, which we cut this summer, but none of any account up the Toquart.
Kennedy Lake is reached by boat from Tofino; just above salt water there are rapids,
about one-quarter mile long, which necessitate the boat being pulled up by rope from
the shore. A trail around the rapids is now in very bad shape, as slides have come
over it. From the rapids to the lake, a distance of about 4 miles, there is little current.
Kennedy River is reached by a 10-mile run along the lake. From the head of convenient navigation on the river, about a mile up from the lake, a road has been built
up the east side of the river for about 4 miles. From there a rough pack-trail continues
up the river and across to and down Taylor River to Sproat Lake.
Tofino and Ucluelet are the nearest towns to the district, and at both these places
there are stores, a hotel, post-office, school, etc.
A telephone-line runs along the coast from Alberni to these towns. Mail service to
them from Alberni is bi-weekly. The C.P.R. boat from Victoria runs every ten days in
the winter and every five days during the summer months. Canada Airways run planes
from Vancouver three times a week.
The work on the map is now in progress and the usual plans are being prepared.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Ohaei.es B\ Banfield, Printer to the King's Host Excellent Majesty.
1942.
1,125-1042.9811  

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