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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1943

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 PROVINCE  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT  OP LANDS
HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. C. D. Orchard, Chief Forester.
REPORT
THE FOEEST BEANCH
FOE  THE
YEAE ENDED DEOEMBEE 318T
1941
a*-
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OP THE  LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed l>y Chari.es F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1942.  Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1942.
To His Honour W. C. WOODWARD,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of
the Department of Lands for the year 1941.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch
during the calendar year 1941.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Chief Forester.  FRASER RIVER REPAIR PLANT.
—Photo, Dave Hall.
British Columbia Forest Service Launch and Pump Eepair Plant, on the North Ar
of the Fraser River, Vancouver, B.C.
;*:.?:
Launch and Pump Repair Plant showing launches t  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
The second full war-year brought economic disturbance and urgent demands on
the forest industry of the Province as well as on the Forest Service. Government
buying for Canadian defence purposes, added to considerable rail shipments on orders
from Great Britain, vied with a marked increase in the United States consumption to
place an unprecedented load on the industry. Shipping shortages virtually eliminated
offshore business and arrangements were made for trans-Canada rail haul of lumber
for the United Kingdom. Originally set at a total of about 60,000,000 board-feet a
month, the business petered out in April or May. Very shortly afterwards, however,
it was renewed and because of the essential defence nature of the orders all other
business had to give way. During the months of June-September a very considerable
volume of lumber was shipped, reaching an average of about 60,000,000 board-feet
per month for that period—no mean feat of transportation in itself.
In the meantime the American demand reached proportions and prices that were
most attractive, combined with the existing exchange on United States funds. There
was also an accumulating demand during the first half-year from the domestic market,
especially for structural timbers.
It is of interest to note that during the First Great War the peak of forest production was not reached until the last year of hostilities, 1918, with a grand total of
1,761,000 M.B.M. In this war a peak was reached in 1940 with a grand total cut of
3,693,000 M.B.M., or more than twice that of 1918. The cut for 1941 was just slightly
less than for 1940. The increased capacity and output is a most important item in
the war effort and the figures indicate how much greater a contribution can be made
by the forests in this war.
At the same time, it must be remembered that as production is increased so the
virgin timber stands are reduced. This indicates the necessity of taking every possible
measure to establish a new stand on the logged-off lands and to adequately protect the
second-growth already established and that which may start hereafter. If the future
transition of the forest industry from virgin to second-growth timber is to be made
with the least possible disturbance to the business and domestic life of the Province,
it is none too soon to provide fully for that change.
Shortage of essential materials in demand by the war industries, both in Canada
and the United States, necessitated controls being placed on their distribution. The
forest industry found it increasingly difficult to secure materials and equipment for
replacement and repairs. During 1941, also, the Dominion Government announced
a policy of inflation-prevention and proceeded to stabilize the prices of commodities,
services, and wages.
All these war measures had an immediate and important effect on the forest
industries, which will become more pronounced as the war progresses, especially in
the case of material procurement. It will be difficult to maintain production on the
present scale if operating equipment can not be maintained in repair.
The armed forces, war industries such as ship-building, and other activities
increased by the war, created a shortage of labour during the year. This reflected
seriously on the labour available to the industries and to the Forest Service and will
so continue increasingly. The effect on output will probably not become entirely
apparent until some time in 1942.
The overshadowing influence of the war had its effect directly on Forest Branch
activities in two ways: increase in work through the needs of the industry and
decreases in staff through enlistments.
Realizing that every stick of timber cut must be recorded; that every logging
operation must be inspected for compliance with " Forest Act " provisions and contract
requirements; that hundreds of separate sales of Crown timber must be cruised,
valued, and sold;  that all land applications must be inspected and classified;  that pre- G 6 DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
emptions must be inspected each year; that fires must be fought and hundreds of
grazing permits issued, to name only a few Branch activities, one may gather that
the enlistment of twenty-three of the permanent personnel and thirty-eight of the
temporary staff has imposed no light burden on the remainder. Although some positions, vacant through enlistment, were filled in a temporary capacity, there were
actually fifteen less permanent appointments occupied at December 31st than a
year ago.
In spite of this reduction in staff most essential services were maintained, as
shown in the various tables submitted herewith.
It was necessary, however, to suspend the important Air Surveys section, details
of whose work are shown elsewhere.
The Forest Branch has been able to assist the armed services in many ways
through the field staff and their intimate knowledge of the country. Distributed
throughout the Province, with many men stationed in outlying parts, they have been
in position to act as observers and reporters to the Air Force. The latter, in turn,
have reciprocated in reporting forest fires. Our radio communication system has been
widely used, especially in securing weather information, while many of the portable
instruments have been lent to all services when not in use on essential forest-work.
The Navy has made some use of our fleet of coast boats and the Army has been
assisted in many ways with advice, equipment, and instruction. In this latter connection a programme of training in fire prevention and control was carried out during
the fire season through lectures, motion pictures, and example. The objectives were
the prevention of forest fires from smoking or camp fires on manoeuvres and the
development of a body of trained fire-fighters who could do effective work until the
arrival of a forest officer.
The comprehensive system of forest surveys, with accurate topographic and cover
maps based largely on air photos has been made available to the forces and proved of
considerable value. It is probable that its usefulness will increase with the possibility
of greater military activity on the Coast.
The forest surveys were instrumental in locating bodies of Sitka spruce, so much
in demand for aeroplane construction. For this purpose also one of the senior
foresters with technical and local knowledge was lent to the British Government to
assist their representative in handling the large volume of business resulting from
the increased demand for aeroplane spruce. The results of all efforts are shown in
the statistics of production.
There are presented hereafter tabular statements covering the various activities
of the Forest Branch and statistics of the forest industries.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
Enlistments in the armed forces further depleted the staff in 1941. A total of
eight permanent and fifteen temporary employees joined up, thus placing a greater
burden on those remaining. Some of the vacated positions were filled in a temporary
capacity, but as at the end of the year the staff was actually smaller by fifteen permanent members. The temporary staff was reduced by 108 during the year, largely by
the lack of Ranger Assistants, of which there were 196 employed in 1940. Of these,
186 were employed in the National Programme of Youth Training in co-operation
with the Dominion Government, a programme that was discontinued in 1941.
Forest Service Enlistments to December 31st, 1941.
1939—
L. F. Swannell, Assistant District Forester, Prince George.
W. Hall, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
H. Casilio, Draughtsman, Victoria.
N. G. Wharf, Clerk, Victoria.
C. V. Smith, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
L. N. W. Woods, Assistant Ranger, Prince George District. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941. G 7
1940—
W. Murray, Draughtsman, Prince Rupert.
T. Hunter, Launch Engineer, Victoria.
G. S. Andrews, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
V. C. Smith, Launch Engineer, Vancouver.
E. G. Oldham, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
G. A. Playfair, Radio Engineer, Victoria.
D. McKay, Junior Clerk, Victoria.
C. R. Lee, Draughtsman, Kamloops.
F. J. G. Johnson, Ranger, Invermere, Nelson District.
A. E. Parlow, District Forester, Kamloops.
J. Boydell, Ranger, Kamloops District.
C. L. Armstrong, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
0. V. Maude-Roxby, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops District.
A. C. Kinnear, Air Surveys Division, Victoria.
L. S. Hope, Assistant District Forester, Prince Rupert.
A. Gordon, Supervisor, Victoria.
W. D. Hay, Assistant Ranger, Prince George District.
A. J. Kirk, Assistant Ranger, Prince George District.
W. E. Jansen, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver District.
C. R. Sandey, Launch Engineer, Vancouver District.
H. G. Mayson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops District.
E. F. Taggart, Assistant Ranger, Prince George District.
A. Smith, Patrolman, Prince George District.
A. B. Ritchie, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops District.
J. H. Wilcox, Lookout-man, Kamloops District.
J. C. Wright, Lookout-man, Kamloops District.
C. W. Mizon, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops District.
W. J. Owen, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver District.
R. R. Douglas, Assistant Forester, Kamloops District.
L. A. Willington, Assistant Ranger, Prince George District.
F. V. Webber, Assistant Ranger, Nelson District.
1941—
H. Stevenson, Ranger, Vancouver District.
S. Benwell, Clerk, Victoria.
W. H. Ozard, Grazing Assistant, Kamloops District.
J. H. Benton, Air Surveys, Victoria.
Howard Elsey, Research Assistant, Victoria.
H. I. Barwell, Draughtsman, Kamloops District.
H. T. Barbour, Acting Ranger, Nelson District.
1. C. MacQueen, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
H. A. Ivarson, Clerk, Prince Rupert District.
D. R. Monk, Draughtsman, Victoria.
F. W. Crouch, Compiler, Victoria.
A. B. Anderson, Cruiser, Victoria.
N. F. M. Pope, Parks, Victoria.
D. L. McMurchie, Parks, Victoria.
A. J. Nash, Student Assistant, Nelson District.
C. W. Walker, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
J. D. LeMare, Cruiser, Victoria.
G. A. Cahilty, Clerk, Kamloops District.
W. S. Hepher, Assistant Forester, Vancouver District.
C. E. Bennett, Cruiser, Victoria.
J. S. Stokes, Chief of Party, Victoria.
J. Robinson, Acting Ranger, Prince Rupert District.
J. Eselmont, Lookout-man, Nelson District. G 8
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
Distribution of Force, 1941.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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" Permanent " staff is a record of salaries voted and positions occupied for at least a part of the year. The
number of permanent employees was reduced through the year by enlistments. Total number of permanent
positions actually occupied December 31st, 1941, was 219.
* Continuously employed, but no specific position or salary voted for the purpose.
FOREST ECONOMICS DIVISION.
PROVINCIAL PARKS.
During 1941 three new Provincial Parks were created as follows:—
Ernest C. Manning, Class A
Hamber, Class A 	
Wendle, Class C	
Total..
Acres.
171,500
2,432,000
640
2,604,140
The boundaries of Mount Seymour Park were extended to include an additional
7,800 acres, making the total area of the park 8,480 acres.
The following table briefly summarizes Provincial Parks in British Columbia to
December 31st, 1941:—
Number of
Classification. Parks.
Class A     17
Class B       3
Class C     26
Administered under separate Parks Acts        3
Totals.
49
Acres.
2,715,658
4,622,246
3,961
1,666,560
9,008,425 ac. or
14,075 sq. mi.
No extensive improvements in Provincial Parks were undertaken during the year
due to financial limitations. The lack of Forest Development Projects and National
Youth Training Plan crews brought to full realization the fact that park-development FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941. G 9
work, such as was done in the past, was contingent upon obtaining labour through such
sources. Without such labour maintenance of existing park facilities was the prime
concern during the year 1941.
Recognizing the fact that planned recreational management is of primary importance in the administration of parks, preliminary regulations were drafted to provide
terms and conditions for use and occupancy within Provincial Parks of Class A and
Class B categories.
It is estimated that 36,000 people visited six small parks on Vancouver Island in
which registration facilities were available. These parks included John Dean, Stamp
Falls, Englishman River Falls, Little Qualicum Falls, Medicine Bowls, and Elk Falls
Parks, all of which are primarily adapted to attract motor tourists.
The Peace Arch Park, adjacent to Blaine, and which is one of the beauty-spots
along the King George VI. Highway, was visited by thousands of people and was used
several times for patriotic ceremonies.
A report was completed for the Wells Gray Park, following the exploratory reconnaissance which was conducted during 1940. The report deals with the recreational
possibilities of the area and will provide a basis for future development. This park
is considered outstanding inasmuch as it has unusual recreational and scenic attractions, with opportunities for big-game hunting and lake and stream fishing. The
northern portion is an ideal wilderness area.
Increasing importance is being attached to the recreational value of the Mount
Seymour Park, in the vicinity of Vancouver. This area has potential winter and
summer playground possibilities that are particularly adapted to serve a mass populace,
such as exists in Greater Vancouver. A preliminary recreation plan was completed for
this park during the year.
FOREST SURVEYS.
Field surveys were completed on 1,294,000 acres as follows:—
Acres.
South-west Coast of Vancouver Island :     682,000
Fraser River South, west of Hope      612,000
Total  1,294,000
Forest-cover and other required data for both of the above-mentioned projects
were compiled from vertical air photographs. R.C.A.F. photographs were available
for the West Coast, whereas those for the Fraser River South area were supplied by
our Air Surveys Section. Field parties were of the two-cruiser type and were specially
organized with the requisite equipment and personnel to effectively co-ordinate field
methods with photographic technique. Final maps, estimates, and reports are being
compiled for the areas concerned.
Existing cruises of the more valuable Engelmann spruce compartments were
checked in the Tranquille and Fly Hill Provincial Forests in the Kamloops Forest
District. The areas were further reviewed for accessibility to existing utilization
centres as a result of the demands created by present market conditions. In addition
one large timber-sale was cruised in the Fly Hill Forest.
Assistance was rendered the United Kingdom Technical Mission Timber Control
in connection with airplane spruce production on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
The final maps, estimates, and reports for the Slocan Drainage and the North
Shore Region, which were surveyed in 1940, have been delayed as a result of staff
enlistments, but it is anticipated this work will be completed during 1942.
Okanagan Drainage.
Estimates, forest and topographic maps, and management recommendations were
completed for the Okanagan Drainage, which comprises the entire area tributary to
Okanagan Lake in the Kamloops Forest District. Several Provincial Forests—namely,
Inkaneep, Little White Mountain, Grizzly Hills, Aberdeen, and Okanagan—are located
in this region and were consequently resurveyed, the original forest surveys having
been conducted throughout the period 1925-29, inclusive. G 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
INDEX    MAP
Scale:-15.78 miles to I inch FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941. G 11
This important timber producing region is of significance because of the good
local market available in addition to other domestic and foreign markets. Prior to
1940 the average annual lumber production totalled 38,000 M.B.M., of which 36,000
M.B.M. was used locally, chiefly for box-shooks and crates. Production has since
exceeded the above figures due to war-time markets. On the basis of log-scale the cut
from forests within the drainage totalled 25,000 M.B.M. per annum, approximately 50
per cent, of which was from Provincial Forests. In addition, 10,000 M.B.M. of saw-
logs were brought in from outside regions such as Princeton, Kettle River, Duck Range,
and Barriere.    Timber production from this region is expected to increase.
Fire losses over the ten-year period 1930-39, inclusive, were excessive, averaging
20,000 M.B.M. per annum of merchantable volumes and increment from immature
forests.    Estimates for losses from insects and fungi were not available.
Virgin yellow pine forests are being rapidly depleted, but in view of the reserves
of other species and the fact that the lumber industry is already adapting itself to
this condition by extending cutting operations to the less accessible spruce forests, this
situation does not create the concern it otherwise might, especially in view of the fact
that cut-over yellow pine forests, as a whole, are restocking satisfactorily.
From the standpoint of Crown timber available, market conditions, and established
industry, the situation in this region is favourable for developing a working circle in
an endeavour to maintain sustained yield objectives. With more intensive management
and fire-protection lumber production could be considerably increased. The need for
improved fire-protection facilities is definitely indicated and, in view of the fact that
access to the more remote areas is gradually improving, it is expected that fires will be
more easily controlled in the future.
The total volume of merchantable timber is estimated to be 2,336,700 M.B.M.,
practically all of which is accessible. Approximately 91 per cent, is of Crown ownership and the balance is chiefly on Crown grants and Indian Reserves. Details of timber
volumes (over 11 inches D.B.H.) are as follows:-—
Total Volumes.
Species. M.B.M.
Western yellow pine   258,180
Douglas fir   694,470
Western larch _„. 236,520
Engelmann spruce  701,680
Silver fir (balsam)  96,760
Lodgepole pine  ,  302,320
Western red cedar  36,620
Western hemlock   80
Black cottonwood  7,760
Aspen   2,040
Western white birch   280
Total  2,336,710
In addition there are 7,820  M.B.M.  of  Douglas  fir, western  yellow pine,  and
western larch available as cordwood.
The classification of areas is as follows:—
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber  Acres. Acres.
Accessible   448,810
Inaccessible        3,280
Total       452,090 G 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Productive Forest Land—Continued.
Immature timber— Acres.
1- 20 years old  182,170
21- 40 years old     65,630
41- 60 years old  166,170
61- 80 years old  129,540
81-100 years old     37,700
Over 100 years old     12,950
Uneven-aged (selection)   138,390
Total       732,550
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged   28,880
Logged and burned  11,340
Burned   38,900
Non-commercial cover—
Deciduous   17,550
Coniferous  ,  27,290
Total       123,960
Total sites of productive quality  1,308,600
Non-productive and Non-forest Land-
Cultivated and urban 	
     98,280
Barren, scrub, and alpine   278,090
Swamp      14,130
Water   117,390
Open range and meadow  181,210
Total non-productive and non-forest sites      689,100
Total area  1,997,700
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
No new Provincial Forests were created during the year; however, several adjustments were made in forest boundaries. A summary of Provincial Forests is as
follows:—
Type of Forest.
Coast.
Interior.
Total.
Number.
Area.
Number.
Area.
Number.
Area.
Productive Forests 	
18
3
Sq. Miles.
10,227
26
2
1
Sq. Miles.
19,220
233
10
44
2
4
Sq. Miles.
29,447
233
4
14
Totals  	
21
10,231
29
19,463
50
29,694 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 13
AIR SURVEYS.
Air survey photographic operations were suspended for the year as a result of
staff enlistments and it is not anticipated that an extensive programme will be undertaken for the duration of the war.
A brief summary of photographic operations to date is as follows:—
Year.
Vertical Photography.
Oblique
Photography.
Square Miles.
No. of
Photographs.
No. of
Photographs.
1936                                            	
1
570                             920
2,430                        2,700
7,090                          9,325
6,600                        6,158
5,370                        4,175
1937	
1938 : 	
120
1939   -.   	
494
1940     —-	
Totals 	
22.060           1           23.278
614
FOREST RESOURCES INVENTORY.
Following the publication of " The Forest Resources of British Columbia" in
1937, the plan of forest-cover mapping was revised to provide for standardized cover-
mapping technique so that an up-to-date forest atlas could be maintained in all District
headquarters and Rangers' offices. The Vancouver, Prince Rupert (Coast only), and
Nelson Districts were subsequently completed in this respect. During the year 1941
this project was concluded in the Fort George District and continued in the Kamloops
District. In this work particular attention is being directed to securing better mapping and map-filing facilities in all offices.
A minor reconnaissance was conducted in the Kamloops District to facilitate the
cover-mapping work which was being done.
Statistical recording of forest inventory data, secured from recently completed
forest surveys, was continued by the Hollerith system. Revised forest estimates are
now available for the Okanagan drainage and the resources of the Vancouver District
are gradually being brought up to date in this manner.
A start was made during the year to revise the Victoria copies of the Nelson District Forest Atlas.
The fire atlas maps have been transferred from the Operation draughting office
to the Forest Resources office, where these records will be maintained in the future.
FOREST RESEARCH.
Mensuration.
Mensuration-work was confined to the re-examination of twenty-five permanent
yield plots located in the Kamloops and Vancouver Forest Districts.
The cutting of second-growth Douglas fir stands for lumber production in the
Lower Coast Region, particularly in the Fraser Valley, prompted an investigation in
1940 to determine the optimum rotation for harvesting such stands. The studies also
served as a check against Normal Yield Tables which had been previously compiled.
Conclusions drawn from this work show that cutting on the better growing sites should
not take place at an age less than 120 years, whereas on the poorer sites a rotation age
of 140 years or more would be advisable. It is also indicated that these rotation ages
are generally applicable to both Douglas fir and western hemlock, either in pure stands
or in mixture. These findings check closely with the cutting-ages recommended for
Douglas fir in Washington and Oregon. In that region rotation ages for board-foot
volume, in trees 11 inches and over, range from 90 years on the very best sites to 150
years on the poorest site. Sites on the British Columbia Coast are generally lower
than in Washington and Oregon, and therefore the cutting-age in British Columbia
should be generally higher. G 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
SlLVICULTURAL STUDIES.
The major portion of the silvicultural research programme involves essential
studies of management problems related to the Lower Coast forests. For some time
emphasis has been placed on regeneration and seed production, and these phenomena
will continue to largely engage our attention until the long-term studies now under
way have yielded the necessary basic information. However, the problem of suitable
cultural methods has not been neglected, and in 1929 and 1930 experiments were
started in thinning and pruning young stands of Douglas fir. Re-examinations have
been made at regular intervals and, even though it is too early to draw definite conclusions, some interesting information has been obtained.
A second thinning of the plots was found to be needed and this was accomplished
following the original methods which conformed to the Swedish system. Four degrees
of cutting were used—namely, heavy and very heavy low thinnings, and two crown
thinnings of the same intensity. It is quite evident that the original thinning has
had a beneficial effect on the stand, but the full influence of these treatments on quality
and quantity of the crop will not be evident for some time. Pruning, on the other
hand, shows more immediate results and there is also the probability that as forest
practice in this region becomes more intensified the first steps will be to introduce
pruning of selected crop trees in young stands. Douglas fir, as is generally recognized,
is a very poor self-pruner and, if commercially important quantities of clear material
are to be harvested from stands less than 120 years of age, then some form of artificial
pruning must be introduced. This treatment has, under present economic conditions,
the greatest possibilities for yielding a satisfactory return to the forest owner. The
present experiments indicate that pruning operations should be started early (10 to 15
years of age) and continued at intervals until the desired length of clear bole has been
obtained. Observation of a 20-year-old stand pruned in 1930 shows that occlusion of
the pruned branch stubs is still incomplete ten years later on at least 45 per cent, of
the trees and also that the pruning of live branches results in much more rapid occlusion than in the case of dead branches. It is hoped that as time and man-power
become available these experiments may be expanded to include younger stands.
Phenological observations, or the gathering of data relative to the time of leafing,
flowering, and fruiting of shrubs and trees, were continued at three points—namely,
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station; Green Timbers Forest Nursery; and Colwood, in
the vicinity of Victoria. Increasing importance is being attached to this work and
there is a growing need for a review of the whole situation, with the object of standardizing technique on a national or international regional basis.
Damping-off, a fungous disease of newly-germinated seedlings, in forest nurseries
represents one of the greatest potential dangers to germinates and no practical method
of combating this problem has been developed for conifers. Preliminary preparations
were therefore made to study damping-off control by using a germinating medium of
peat-moss.
Other projects involved continuation of studies relative to:—
(a.) Natural regeneration on logged areas, particularly in reference to mortality,
reproduction on prepared spots, rate of restocking, and following the course of germination and survival of seedlings under various conditions.
(b.) Seed production from standing timber from the qualitative and quantitative
standpoints, including observations for Douglas fir under 20 years old.
(c.) Fruiting characteristics of Douglas fir, having as an objective forecasting of
seed-crops by the flower-buds present during the fall preceding cone maturity. Analyses
of this study show promise for the prediction of failure or poor seed-crops, but results
are still inconclusive for potentially good crops, due to the difficulty of introducing a
factor to allow for losses from insects, adverse weather conditions, etc.
(d.) Artificial seeding, with particular attention being given to avoiding depredations by mice.
Applied Management Studies.
Co-operative cutting plan investigations on the Coast were confined to one logging
operation on Vancouver Island where " patch logging " is being practised.    It is the FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941. G 15
logging company's object to temporarily leave settings of timber adjacent to logged
settings in an endeavour to secure natural regeneration on the latter. A case-history
study is being made of this operation and future cutting plans by the company have
been influenced by the resulting analyses which have been made.
Engelmann spruce forests in the Interior have always been logged on the basis
of a clear-cutting system. Unsatisfactory natural regeneration and logging-slash conditions have resulted. In an endeavour to cope with this situation selective logging
studies were commenced in the Okanagan Provincial Forest in co-operation with one
of the spruce operators. This project will involve the usual sample plot observations
before and after logging as well as logging and milling cost studies to correlate economic aspects with silviculture.
A preliminary plan was drafted to facilitate the administration of Christmas-tree
cutting on Crown lands in the Windermere region of the Nelson Forest District. The
principal object was to provide for perpetual Christmas-tree cutting on poor Douglas
fir growing sites adjacent to established communities and farms.
The subject of farm wood-lots, or forest farms as they are sometimes called, is
becoming of increasing importance in British Columbia. In certain sections of the
Province it appears feasible to combine agricultural pursuits with planned harvesting
of forest products on contiguous forest areas. The Fairbridge Farm School, near
Duncan, Vancouver Island, offered unusual farm wood-lot opportunities and consequently a detailed survey was undertaken and a wood-lot operating plan was outlined
for the administrators of the farm. Observations will be made periodically to study
the progress of this endeavour.
Fire-control Studies.
Fire-control field investigations were confined to the Vancouver, Nelson, and
Kamloops Forest Districts and were limited in scope due to the absence of personnel
on war service. Visibility mapping was carried out from existing and potential lookouts and supplementary data were secured to complete forest-cover and fuel-type maps
as well as visibility maps.
This survey also forms the basis for a plan of forest development and improvement
that will be able to absorb large numbers of men in constructive work after the war.
Rehabilitation will require the temporary employment of men until permanent places
can be found for them. Forest improvement, administration, and protection will
provide both types of employment.
Panoramic lookout photography was continued from the following lookout points:—
Kamloops Forest District:   Cornwall, Green, Joss, Begbie, and Revelstoke.
Prince Rupert Forest District:   Verdun, Parrott, Barrett, Malkow, Thornhill,
and Old Fort.
Nelson Forest District:   Sproat.
Vancouver Forest District:   Courtenay.
SOIL SURVEYS AND RESEARCH.
Soil surveys were completed on 80,300 acres of selected areas on Vancouver Island,
between Duncan and Campbell River, in order to differentiate land-use requirements
for agricultural development and reforestation. The following table summarizes land-
use and regional soil surveys to date:—
Area Surveyed.
Year. (Acres.)
1939      25,820
1940   185,550
1941  .     80,300
Total   291,670
Soils research was continued in the field of forest-site determination through the
medium of plant indicators as well as from the standpoint of topography and soil-
moisture relationships to soil productivity. G 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
REFORESTATION.
Forest Nurseries.
Production at the Green Timbers nursery was maintained at approximately
6,000,000 trees of 2-0 stock per annum. The stock is mainly Douglas fir, but western
hemlock, western red cedar, and other species are also grown. Unusual weather conditions prevailed at critical periods. During the winter season 1940-41 heavy frost-
heave occurred in the hemlock and cedar seed-beds but recoveries were satisfactory.
Minor frost-damage was done to Douglas fir in the spring and a small quantity of 2-0
stock was sun-scorched during the July heat-wave. No damaging frosts occurred
during the fall of 1941. Major shipments from the nursery were to plantations in the
vicinity of Campbell River, Lang Bay, Bowser, Cowichan Lake, and to three logging
operations on Vancouver Island. In addition, trees were provided for farm wood-lot
purposes, community forests, etc. Research activities involved studies to improve
hemlock germination, the use of Vitamin Bt for seedling production, the use of hardwood sawdust instead of straw to prevent frost-heave, and tree sprays to prevent
grouse-damage to planted trees.
The Campbell River nursery is now fully organized to produce 4,000,000 trees of
2-0 stock per annum. The winter period of 1940-41 resulted in losses to hemlock
from frost-heaving but minor damage only resulted from the July heat-wave. The
initial shipments of planting stock were made in October and went to plantations in
the vicinity of the nursery, the trees being transported in specially constructed boxes
by motor-truck.
Seed Collections.
Cone collections totalled 762 bushels, only 8 bushels of which were western hemlock, the balance being Douglas fir. Extractions totalled 227 lb. of Douglas fir seed
or 0.30 lb. per bushel of cones, which is less than an average yield. The hemlock cones
yielded 7 lb. of seed or 0.9 lb. per bushel of cones. In addition, 4 lb. of western red
cedar seed were collected direct from seed-trees. Due to the unusually wet weather in
August and September, cone collections were approximately 50 per cent, below the
objective; however, seed stocks already in storage are sufficient to provide for any
such deficiency.
Planting.
Planting projects were confined to Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland
Coast. A total of 8,750,000 trees were planted on 10,760 acres of logged land.
Approximately 80 per cent, of the trees were spring-planted, the balance being planted
in the fall. These figures include 477,200 trees which were planted by private
endeavour on logging company lands, community forests, farm wood-lots, etc., the
planting stock being supplied by the Forest Branch.
The following table summarizes planting to date:—
Previously
PLANTED.
Planted, 1941.
Totals to
Date.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Crown lands—
2,393.3
607.3
273.2
109.0
28.9
3,010.0
510.7
327.3
97.0
28.0
8,267.7
7.3
460.0
15.0
2.2
10,188.0
7.0
550.0
15.0
2.0
10,661.0
614.6
733.2
124.0
31.1
13,198.0
Other private planting (farm wood-lots,
etc. >                         	
30.0
Totals   	
3,411.7
3,973.0
8,752.2
10,762.0
12,163.9
14,735.0
Plantation losses from forest fires total 211 acres, all of which were burned in 1938
by one fire.
Five 75-man reforestation camps, four of which were completed during 1941, have
been constructed.    In addition, 30 miles of abandoned logging-railroad grades were FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 17
improved during the year for motor-truck travel in order to provide access to reforestation areas.
Snags were felled on 15,000 acres to reduce the fire-hazard on and. adjacent to
plantation sites. Approximately 20 per cent, of the snagged area is contiguous to
potential plantations and is either unsuitable for planting or is fully stocked. Snagging
on such areas was essential in order to reduce the fire-hazard around plantation sites.
A total of 98,400 snags was felled, 79 per cent, of which were 10 inches in diameter
or over.
A noticeable increase in planting costs resulted from increased wages and the
advance in price of materials.    A further increase is anticipated during 1942.
Publications.
One bulletin was printed for publication, namely, " A Study of the Factors Affecting the Reproduction of Western Hemlock and its Associates in the Quatsino Region,
Vancouver Island," by A. P. MacBean.
In addition, the following papers were published in current technical journals:—
" A Standard Germination Test for Douglas Fir Seed," by G. S. Allen. Forestry
Chronicle 17:   75-78, 1941.
" Light and Temperature as Factors in the Germination of Douglas Fir Seed," by
G.S.Allen.    Forestry Chronicle 17:   99-109,1941.
" A Basis for Forecasting Seed Crops of Some Coniferous Trees," by G. S. Allen.
Journal of Forestry 39:   1014-1016, 1941.
" Factors Governing the Selection of Practical Working Circles in British Columbia," by H. J. Hodgins.    B.C. Lumberman, May, 1941, Volume 25, No. 5, p. 28.
Forest Branch Library.
Classification.
Up to 1939.
1940.
1941.
Totals.
Bound volumes   	
314
2,627
671
15
283
95
5
153
36
334
Totals  	
3,612
393
194
4,199
Periodicals and Trade Journals 	
18,620
47
4,278
55
5,259
28,157
FOREST MANAGEMENT.
Up to the last quarter of 1941 the scale of all forest products for the year indicated
that the all-time record of 1940 would be surpassed, but adverse fall weather conditions
slowed up production to such an extent the volume output for the year showed a reduction of some 13 million board-feet from that of the previous year. The total scale for
the year exceeded the past ten-year average by 864 million feet.
On the other hand, value of production advanced to the estimated total of
$119,920,000, due to higher unit market values obtaining under the accelerated demand
of the war effort. This is the highest value reached in the history of the industry in
this Province, exceeding that of 1940 by some $17,000,000.
The following statistical tables present in detail the various phases of activity in
the industry and the Forest Service administration. Noteworthy trends of development may be covered briefly as follows:—
Statistics of water-borne lumber trade are not available for publication, as a war
measure.
Pulp and paper production approached established mill capacity with augmented
demand in Continental American markets due to the cutting-off of European imports.
Douglas fir holds first place amongst species cut, forming 46 per cent, of the cut.
Cedar follows with 20 per cent., hemlock is next with 18 per cent., and spruce makes up
7 per cent. The balance is comprised of smaller volumes of other species. Spruce
production has risen rapidly in the last two years—Sitka spruce on the Coast for 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
selected airplane material and Engelmann spruce in the Interior to meet increased
rail trade.
Lands granted prior to 1887 and timber licences in about equal proportions account
for 60 per cent, of the total cut. Timber leases and timber sales follow, again about
equally divided.
Minor products, which mean so much to the small operator and the settler, particularly in the Interior, show a steady decline in hewn railway-tie output, due to the larger
percentage of sawn ties accepted and the increasing use of treated ties with a much
longer life. Cedar pole production advanced with lessened use of metal substitutes
under war restrictions imposed. Christmas trees, largely from private holdings, are
of growing importance as a source of timely income to the settler.
Coupled with the increase in logging activity the already heavy load of work
borne by a staff severely handicapped by enlistments became a problem calling for
redoubled effort to keep abreast of essential duties. The increase in logging inspection
accomplished is ample proof of this.
Trespass cases were more numerous as the result of greatly increased logging
activity and indicate the necessity of close field supervision.
Pre-emption inspections show a steady decline in keeping with the drop in new
pre-emptions recorded.
Land examinations for purposes of the " Land Act" make a heavy call on the
Rangers' time, as shown by the volume of this class of work carried on.
Timber-sale administration is possibly the heaviest load on the staff. It will be
noted that for the past two years sales cruised and evaluated have passed the sixteen-
hundred mark annually, while in 1941 sales awarded top all previous records with
estimated revenue close to the $2,000,000 mark. This is almost double the past
ten-year average.
Stumpage prices received on sales of Crown timber have naturally advanced over
those of previous years by reason of the higher selling-price of forest products, but
the added public equity thus recovered by no means absorbs the entire increase in
selling-price. In fact it has been calculated that but 3.7 per cent, of the difference in
selling-price over the war years has been taken up by stumpage, leaving 96.3 per cent,
to the operator to cover such items as increased wages, cost of materials, lowered
efficiency, increased taxes, etc.
It may be explained that the Department has never adopted a policy of what may
be termed " fixed stumpage rates " in the sale of Crown timber. Stumpage values are
appraised by individual sales with due regard to species, quality, and " loggability " of
the standing timber, and particularly the estimated cost of production and average unit
sale price of the products taken out of the forest. The margin between the cost of
production and sale value of the product represents stumpage, royalty (reserved by
statute), and profit to the operator. The public equity by way of stumpage collected
is but a fair proportion of this difference.
Raw-log export increased by some 89 million feet over that of 1940. Of the total
export 86 per cent, originated on granted lands carrying no restrictions on export.
The chief sources of forest revenue are timber royalty, timber-sale stumpage, and
timber-licence rentals. With the decline in licences, due to logging, vacant Crown
lands are being more heavily drawn upon to supply the demand for timber and, as
mentioned above, this trend will add materially to the load carried by the administrative
staff in the years to follow. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 19
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight
within the Province.
Product.
1935.
1936.
1938.
1940.
Ten-year
Average,
1932-41.
Lumber—   	
Pulp and paper	
Shingles.   _.
Boxes   	
Doors..— 	
Piles,   poles,   and   mine
props  	
Cordwood,   fence-posts,
and lagging 	
Ties, railway 	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using
industry 	
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported 	
Pulp-wood exported	
Christmas trees	
Totals	
$24,094,000
12,414,000
8,750,000
1,720,000
1,693,000
810,000
1,453,000
764,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
2,820,000
23,000
$36,160,000
14,950,000
7,800,000
1,629,000
2,718,000
1,434,000
1,489,000
623,000
1,350,000
1,200,000
2,646,000
11,000
$56,941,000
$72,010,000
$40,638,000
17,214,000
6,875,000
2,122,000
2,971,000
2,346,000
1,459,000
560,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
3,782,000
5,000
$36,296,000
11,066,000
6,875,000
1,964,000
1,353,000
1,615,000
1,455,000
560,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
3,238,000
$50,379,000
16,191,000
8,560,000
2,039,000
737,000
1,556,000
1,495,000
360,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
3,852,000
11,000
141,000
$80,872,000
$67,122,000
$88,221,000
$55,514,000
22,971,000
9,620,000
4,779,000
740,000
1,759,000
1,399,000
258,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
2,684,000
8,000
72,000
$102,804^00
$64,596,000
27,723,000
11,550,000
4,707,000
1,723,000
1,522,000
204,000
2,000,000
1,500,000
4,212,000
7,000
176,000
$35,686,000
15,692,000
7,172,000
2,301,000
1,021,000
1,295,000
1,503,000
456,000
1,418,000
1,253,000
2,912,000
19,000
38,000
$119,920,000
$70,766,000
* Included in wood-using industry value.
Paper (in Tons) .
Product.
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
Ten-year
Average,
1932-41.
Newsprint-   —
262,123
33,287
276,710
41,443
264,136
53,026
179,639
39,348
216,542
50,870
262,144
68,428
275,788
75,453
244,664
43,617
In addition to 322,034 tons of pulp manufactured into paper in the Province 172,811
tons were shipped out of the Province during the year.
Total Amount op Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1940-41
(in F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1940.
1941.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Loss.
3,107,647,391
216,129,041
3,053,573,768
212,805,474
54,073,623
3,323,567
3,323,776,432
3,266,379,242
57,397,190
17,405,801
88,046,370
144,260,896
119,665,257
27,154,497
107,938,790
141,573,370
136,711,615
9,748,696
19,892,420
17,046,358
2,687,526
Nelson...   	
369,378,324
413,378,272
46,687,474
2,687,526
 ___.
Grand Totals	
3,693,154,756
3,679,757,514
60,084,716
18,397,242 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
763
394
453
1,108
489
1
17
1,106
189
206
903
429
1,870
600
659
2,011
918
4,393
1,799
831
2,480
1,935
3,207
18
2,833
6,058
11,438
Totals, 1940                	
2,864
12
2,272
5,148
10,968
Totals, 1939 	
2,770
10
2,068
4,848
11,295
Totals, 1938  	
2,674
23
1,804
4,501
10,828
Totals, 1937
2,404
46
1,932
4,382
11,507
Totals, 1936 	
2,354
35
1,883
4,272
11,138
Totals, 1935                   	
2,074
59
1,660
3,793
10,081
Totals, 1934      ...           	
1,603
87
1,546
3,236
9,486
Totals, 1933	
1,237
67
1,425
2,729
8,121
Totals, 1932	
1,124
37
1,316
2,477
7,273
Ten-year average, 1932-41	
2,231
39
1,874
4,144
10,214
Trespasses.
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Vancouver   — ~ ~
100
22
22
51
41
426
35
377
572
378
4,601,628
737,788
1,140,624
797,361
350,589
11,229
34,934
17,865
455,858
6,505
174
141
2,015
451
106
756
609
1,435
7
1
5
4
$11,011.69
1,163.74
2,570.80
Kamloops     	
Nelson....      ,	
200
2,515
8,482.26
1,024.61
Totals, 1941 	
236
1,788
7,627,990
526,391
2,887
1,365
4,150
17
$24,253.10
Totals, 1940  .
194
877
5,206,829
94,444
1,573
4,279
9,854
13
$14,088.24
Totals, 1939 	
209*
571
6,905,268
94,818
3,147
5,206
46,729
26
$17,725.00
Totals, 1938	
149
816
4,309,030
203,195
3,014
1,185
7,530
10
$9,653.86
Totals, 1937	
156
1,147
8,239,813
143,860
1,607
2,132
35,017
7
$17,439.52
Totals, 1936.....	
153
501
2,067,130
75,272
1,632
2,452
13
$5,243.00
Totals, 1935	
121
555
3,043,486
50,965
1,283
14,078
3
$6,077.58
Totals, 1934.	
101
720
3,270,608
30,555
1,385
4,825
6
$5,401.05
Totals, 1933	
70
155
1,578,108
41,689
1,413
3,807
2
$2,727.81
Totals, 1932	
95
368
767,896
35,484
2,140
9,265
14
$3,490.84
Ten-year average, 1932-41	
148
750
4,301,616
129,667
2,008
4,859
11
$10,610.00
	
* Christmas-tree cutting largely responsible for increase. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 25
Pre-emption Inspection.
Pre-emption records examined by district are:—
1941.
Vancouver   305
Prince Rupert   130
Fort George  378
Kamloops   504
Nelson   116
Average, Ten Yrs.
1932-41.
337
188
588
788
133
Totals   1,433 2,034
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1941.
Forest District.
Applications for
Hay and Grazing
Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
Totals-
No.
6
5
2
27
5
Acres.
866
1,357
200
4,311
1,277
8,011
No.
2
3
10
34
1
50
Acres.
230
446
1,310
4,225
160
6,371
No.
72
15
27
61
48
Acres.
5,958
2,472
3,231
5,552
4,114
223
21,327
No.
52
19
12
104
12
Acres.
1,101
11,438
1,132
16,481
2,811
32,963
Classification of Areas examined, 1941.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
8,155
15,713
5,873
30,569
8,362
Acres.
1,314
2,485
2,212
4,339
622
Acres.
5,918
12,568
3,216
26,034
7,740
Acres.
923
660
445
196
M.B.M.
37,628.9
9,538
4,154
Kamloops 	
1,328
Totals	
68,672
10,972
55,476
2,224
52,648.9 G 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Areas cruised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-          Poles and
timber             Piles
(M.B.M.).  (Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-ties
(No.).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
454
268
241
411
237
64,195
50,123
65,789
76,691
64.422
377,506
81,367
124,131
89,747
16,844
1,492,369
2,846,400
1,160,582
4,764,042
5,530,853
29,867
7,433
53,289
29,476
6,398
9,450
75,085
44,653
51,746
18.240
26,400
60,580
Kamloops..—	
176.500
l
Totals, 1941. 	
1,611
321,220
689,595
15,794,246
126,463
199,174
263,480
Totals, 1940 	
1,620      |      300,480
572,562
11,309,288
72,157
314,644
512,042
Totals, 1939   	
1,324              212,594
470,660
5,016,945
68,078
339,866
261,100
Totals, 1938. 	
1,486      [      325,403
i
482,680
5,747,765
126,329
804,240
169,900
Totals, 1937 _ .
1,471
278,386
633,216
9,658,000
140,820
753,408
160,450
Totals, 1936
1,415
252,035
464,402
8,535,045
148,606
1,083,746
63,200
Totals, 1935.	
1,319
238,952
398,884
5,674,908
114,753
1,164,454
74,700
Totals, 1934	
1,331
223,391
356,264
2,856,619
80,101
1,235,766
73,766
Totals, 1933	
942
169,831
186,418
1,620,112
95,233
549,976
174,861
Totals, 1932	
875
144,769
202,421
1,759,905
68,414
488,655
69,900
Ten-year average,
1932-41    ....
1,339
246,706
445,710
6,797,283
104,095
1
693,393
182,340 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 27
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z G 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Average Sale Price for Species.
Sawn Timber.
Figures for 1941.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Figures for 1940.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Ten-year
Total,
1932-41.
Board-feet.
Ten-year
Average,
1932-41.
Price
per M.
Douglas fir..
Cedar	
Spruce	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine-
Western yellow pine..
Larch (tamarac)	
Other species	
215,738,000
94,229,000
157,151,000
57,786,000
15,905,000
10,046,000
26,749,000
35,527,000
10,628,000
$1.79
1.69
1.76
2.34
1.67
1.08
1.52
184,251,000
87,787,000
107,819,000
81,527,000
25,039,000
13,905,000
21,013,000
18,847,000
8,714,000
$1.57
1.49
1.44
.81
.78
2.16
1.50
.91
1.27
1,295,287,000
521,086,000
691,254,000
560,264,000
174,588,000
81,117,000
188,959,000
128,138,000
72,309,000
$1.34
1.22
1.34
.74
.75
1.88
1.42
.82
.95
Totals-
623,759,000
$1.50
548,902,000
$1.!
3,713,002,000
$1.16 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 29
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1941.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Forest District.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
Vancouver	
194
55
88
114
106
10,033
556
975
1,026
1,230
64
3
4
5
8,675
40
25
95
32
15
11
56
15
377
88
36
458
124
4
1
48
Kamloops 	
Totals, 1941- -
557
13,820
76
8,835
129
1,083
5
63
Totals, 1940 	
542
12,691
77
8,585
141
1,432
18
307
Totals, 1939	
461
11,698
84
7,926
147
1,907
24
Totals, 1938	
481
12,159
88
8,184
126
1,406
19
315
Totals, 1937 -
434
11,042
80
9,124
131
1,685
16
402
Totals, 1936 	
410'
11,401
86
8,859
122
1,699
10
316
Totals, 1935 	
384
9,822
93
8,492
96
1,962
16
1,231
Totals, 1934	
349
9,152
82
7,311
129
2,999
13
1,228
Totals, 1933	
295
8,715
78
7,325
134
3,632
22
1,652
Totals, 1932 	
293
7,641
45
6,813
139
4,621
13
1,470
Ten-year average,
1932-41	
420
10,814
79
8,145
129
2,242
16
752 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 31
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1941.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
5,172,931
3,307,150
37,836
4,127
49,478,988
10,760,792
2,036,249
234,761
28,803,610
9,229,823
4,517,423
138,059
83,455,529
C»dar
23,297,765
6,591,508
376,947
153,284,101
38,248,633
153,284,101
38,248,633
1,478,822
346,601
Whit«> Pino
27,276
974,488
477,058
346,601
Totals, 1941  	
8,549,320
63,485,278
43,165,973
191,879,335
307,079,906»
Totals, 1940	
4,697,188
37,567,582
24,865,886
150,396,702
217,527,358*
Totals, 1939.	
6,383,398
111,155,799
66,870,882
128,323,383
312,733,462
Totals, 1938  ,',	
4,386,370
98,637,490
74,650,653
81,998,569
259,673,082
Totals, 1937	
4,924,298
114,991,217
66,611,218
83,947,361
270,474,094
Totals, 1936  	
4,028,567
107,007,342
49,061,362
58,731,564
218,828,835
Totals, 1935	
8,766,098
129,029,692
56,979,194
40,516,782
235,291,766
Totals, 1934 	
10,489,155
89,831,736
43,416,151
28,998,709
172,735,751
Totals, 1933-  	
16,941,207
119,089,573
59,215,094
13,694,960
208,940,834
Totals, 1932	
18,572,020
87,223,114
44,380,166
15,589,383
165,764,683
Ten-year average, 1932-41—..	
8,773,762
95,801,882
52,921,658
79,407,674
236,904,976
* Of this total, 263,795,733 F.B.M. were exported from Crown grants carrying
F.B.M. were exported under permit from other areas.
the export privilege;   43,284,173 G 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1941.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, P.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Other
Countries.
Vancouver—
Poles   --
 lin. ft.
2,715,641
391,667
1,049
62
5
605
132,409
2,492,536
96,375
13,280
195,180
2,000
257
5,633
12,916   •
12
6,226
7,286,805
173,525
54,380
58,271
142
648,665
1,453,427
87,287
5,302
7,305
32
390
10,000
52,043
941,540
$271,564
54,833
7,346
469
35
30
13,240
274,178
41,758
3,320
15,614
160
1,542
2,441
1,033
72
623
650,883
86,767
7,069
4,079
2,175
64,866
145,343
5,237
42,416
58,440
144
1,755
75
26,022
94,154
2,654,739
18,232
1,049
62
5
605
132,409
1,852,145
60,902
361,474
Piles	
...... lin. ft.
11,961
Pulp-wood —	
cords
	
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling	
lin. ft.
640,391
96,375
13,280
126,160
2,000
257
5,632
12,916
12
6,226
1,443,065
173,525
54,380
58,271
142
Fort George—
Poles	
lin. ft.
.... lin. ft.
69,020
lin. ft.
trees
 lin. ft.
Kamloops—
5,843,740
ties
 lin. ft.
 cords
trees
.... lin. ft.
648,665
1,418,137
3,802
Nelson—
35,290
83,485
5,302
6,298
Piles 	
...... lin. ft.
cords
1,007
32
cords
390
10,000
52,043
33,590
Christmas trees	
 trees
907,950
$1,877,683
I
Total value, 1940	
$1,849,767
Summary for Province, 1941.
Product.
Volume.
Value.
Per Cent, of
Total Value.
 lin ft.
14,624,543
327,576
402
1,081
68,265
7,562
71,187
5,444
62
1,728,840
5
10,000
$1,417,812
156,988
1,827
7,490
10,419
59,982
5,112
44,591
469
172,883
35
75
75.51
Hewn railway-ties   	
—-    ties
8.36
0.09
0.40
0 56
3.20
  lin ft.
0 27
2 38
0 02
    trees
   cords
Shake-bolts  	
Totals   -.-- 	
$1,877,683 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 33
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued.
1937.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
298
S6
129
282
69
3
9
18
1,451
4
1
1
258
103
124
272
59
9
6
1,501
3
6
1
198
91
103
259
61
3
16
6
1,479
1
2
2
272
101
99
275
58
1
16
13
1,724
4
3
2
20
211
Crown grants, 1887-1906    	
85
Crown grants, 1906-1914 _	
101
282
64
1
16
5
1,853
11
6
2
17
Totals —.                           j -                 	
2,352
339
2,342
321
2,221
316
2,588
315
2,654
Transfers and changes of marks ...— 	
307
Draughting Office, Forest Branch, 1941.
Number of Drawings prepared or Tracings made for
Timber-
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscellaneous
Matters.
Constructional
Work.
Totals.
Blue-prints
from
Reference
Maps.
January ..
February.
March ...—
April	
May	
June —..—
July	
August—
September-
October	
November...
December. .
Totals
18
32
22
15
15
18
25
15
22
27
25
13
247
99
144
117
131
91
85
51
91
77
61
66
74
1,087
35
35
40
29
64
31
27
53
41
52
40
21
22
20
10
16
14
5
14
6
11
8
17
7
15
2
1
7
6
11
8
4
4
3
5
4
189
233
190
198
190
150
125
169
155
151
153
119
1
20
15
20
9 G 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Crown-granted Timber Lands.
Year.
Area of Private
Timber Lands
(Acres).
Average Value
per Acre.
1921... - 845,111 $10.33
1922  887,980 11.99
1923  883,344 11.62
1924  654,668 15.22
1925  654,016 40.61
1926  688,372 39.77
1927  690,438 39.01
1928  671,131 38.62
1929  644,011 38.41
1930  629,156 44.74
1931 „._  602,086 43.77
1932  552,007 43.73
1933  567,731 41.18
1934  557,481 37.25
1935  535,918 37.13
1936  515,924 36.61
1937  743,109 23.32
1938  754,348 23.05
1939  719,112 22.73
1940  549,250 27.70
1941  543,632 26.99
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown
by the following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1941.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1940.
Average
Value
per Acre.
1941.
Change in
Value
per Acre
since 1940.
Alberni    	
68,880
107,617
97,136
15,319
328
8,060
315
112,515
2,637
160
1,748
21,323
33,361
41,024
1,074
32,135
— 3,230
— 644
— 1,545
— 1,382
*
— 323
*
+ 7,223
*
— 156
— 160
— 160
*
-2,700
*
— 2,542
$41.99
25.73
33.92
6.09
14.99
1.99
10.37
31.36
5.83
4.15
13.62
17.11
14.12
3.87
16.41
31.59
— $0.05
— 3.16
Cowichan  	
Fort Steele      —                 	
—     .90
+     -21
Golden 	
Kettle River   ___ .'.	
—  1.97
*
03
*
55
Prince George      	
+    .65
*
*
+    .07
-16.32
-    .02
Victoria 	
Totals -	
543,632
— 5,619
$26.99
* No change. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 35
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G 37
FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1940-41.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees 	
Timber-licence penalty fees  ,
Hand-loggers' licence fees 	
Timber-lease rentals !JL__*	
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest._
Timber-sale rentals 	
Timber-sale stumpage 	
Timber-sale cruising 	
Timber-sale advertising     .
Timber royalty .... .	
Timber tax  -  _
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund) —
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)
Trespass penalties  . 11
Scalers' examination fees 	
Exchange 	
Seizure expenses .	
General miscellaneous  L
Timber-berth rentals, bonus and fees. :_
Interest on timber-berth rentals 	
Transfer fees on timber berths ,__
Grazing fees and interest	
Taxation from Crown-grant timber lands
Total revenue from forest resources
Ten-year Average
$419,276.18
$510,415.00
1,300.00
1,212.00
13,850.39
28,951.00
250.00
1,018.00
56,678.64
62,729.00
149.66
851.00
29,747.18
22,132.00
725,714.15
444,894.00
12,161.44
7,322.00
1,489.40
1,080.00
2,159,596.68
1,506,683.00
50,712.57
63,314.00
542.80
424.00
337.45
146.00
16,280.87
8,818.00
225.00
242.00
129.59
195.00
474.80
781.00
4,726.87
3,106.00
20,644.92
28,250.00
50.36
272.00
55.36
79.00
35,537.22
18,328.00
$3,549,931.53
$2,711,242.00
224,652.87
302,922.00
$3,774,584.40
$3,014,164.00 G 38
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
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G 39
FOREST EXPENDITURE, FISCAL YEAR
1940-41.
Forest District.
Salaries.
Temporary
Assistance.
Expenses.
Total.
$63,489.61
20,622.52
19,267.41
36,544.37
32,382.22
90,048.99
$34,749.01
15,083.49
5,954.92
15,460.87
11,467.87
35,058.83
$98,238.62
$20.00
1,531.11
2,220.00
720.00
35,726.01
26,753.44
54,225.24
Nelson 	
44,570.09
Victoria 	
125,107.82
Totals	
$262,355.12
$4,491.11
$117,774.99
$384,621.22
4,000.00
9,961.10
13,860.56
42,989.81
9,803.07
8,560.83
500,000.00
87,812,70
Grand total ,	
$1,061,609.29
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1940 (credit)        $4,075.74
Collections, fiscal year 1940-41      179,350.11
$183,425.85
Expenditures, fiscal year 1940-41      174,682.13
Balance, March 31st, 1941 (credit)
3,743.72
Balance, April 1st, 1941 (credit)        $8,743.72
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1941      149,129.07
Expenditures, 9 months, April-December, 1941
$157,872.79
117,446.15
Balance, December 31st, 1941      $40,426.64
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1940      $56,485.58
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1940        79,438.51
$135,924.09
Expenditures, fiscal year 1940-41        84,515.08
Balance, March 31st, 1941 (credit)      $51,409.01
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1941 (under
subsection (2), section 32)       87,812.70
$139,221.71
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32  	
Expenditures, 9 months, to December 31st, 1941        28,596.19
Balance, December 31st, 1941 (credit)   $110,625.52 G 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1940  1—  $8,235.32
Government contribution      $8,560.83
Other receipts :  8.00
     8,568.83
$16,804.15
Expenditures, April 1st, 1940, to March 31st, 1941- 10,095.14
Balance, March 31st, 1941 (credit) .     $6,709.01
Collections, April 1st, 1941, to December 31st, 1941     11,859.24
$18,568.25
Expenditures, April 1st, 1941, to December 31st, 19411—      8,218.17
Balance, December 31st, 1941 (credit) .  $10,350.08
STANDING OF FOREST PROTECTION FUND,
DECEMBER 31ST, 1941.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1940  £    $465,246.93
Expenditure          880,522.60
Collections, tax   $220,133.41
Collections, miscellaneous        19,392.22
Government contribution      500,000.00
$1,345,769.53
739,525.63
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1941 . _.___      $606,243.90
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1941 i~i- $606,243.90
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1941  415,665.28
Refundable to votes, 9 months, April-December  (approximately) , 1941  126,000.00
Collections, tax  .  $189,983.98
Collections, miscellaneous        15,576.85
Government contribution      375,000.00
$1,147,909.18
580,560.83
Balance (deficit), December 31st, 1941..'. :      $567,348.35
Estimated and Known Costs of Forest Protection to other Agencies, 1941.
Expenditures.
Forest District.
Tools and
Equipment.
Improvements.
Patrol.
Fire-
fighting.
Total.
$42,164.00
2,831.00
$1,416.00
775.00
$64,681.00
1,017.00
$29,941.00
4,407.00
708.00
635.00
1,142.00
$138,202.00
9,030.00
708 0C
15,200.00
2,300.00
18,642.00
Totals        '..	
$60,195.00
$2,191.00
$67,998.00
$36,833.00
$167,217.00
Totals, 1940	
$42,737.00
$1,699.00
$46,254.00
$64,544.00
$155,234.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 41
Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1941.
Districts.
Patrols
and Fire
Prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$129,667.24
31,856.94
31,966.29
88,287.31
94,114.62
47.966.74
$12,010.48
3,254.77
4,579.74
12,904 31
22,395.45
3,113.37
$46,681.01
944.23
1,081.46
96,612.16
222,220.70
$4,057.46
1,935.29
1,449.21
4,666.39
18,757.43
$192,416.19
Prince Rupert  _	
Prince George   	
37,991.23
39,076.70
202,470.17
357,488.20
51,080.11
Totals. _._..	
$423,859.14
$58,258.12
$367,539.56
$30,865.78
$880,522.60
FOREST PROTECTION.
The season 1941 was characterized by an outstanding shortage of man-power.
This not only resulted in difficulties and delays in recruiting a fire crew, but it required
a change of organization and equipment, and intensified the necessity for highly efficient detection and quick action in suppression measures.
Weather.
The outstanding feature of the 1.941 season was the most alarming build-up of
spring fire conditions experienced for many years. Up to the end of April, in all parts
of the Province, a winter of light snowfall and mild weather was followed by weeks of
warm days and little rainfall. With the coming of the close season came the rains.
The rainfall from May to September was much above average. As an instance, representative stations in the Kamloops Forest District recorded 212 per cent, of the 1940
precipitation, or 187 per cent, of the average annual precipitation, May to September,
over the past ten years. There were no prolonged periods of intense hazard. Only
one of consequence was alarming. At the end of July there were about twelve days of
extremely high hazard, during which the whole Province experienced the highest
temperatures for years, with correspondingly low relative humidities. During the
last week of August there was a definite break from summer weather to autumn rains.
September was the wettest for many years. Lightning storms were more pronounced
over the whole Province, especially the lower Coast, than for a long time. Fortunately
there were few dry lightning storms. Rains accompanied them, which must have
extinguished most of the strikes before they could be detected. Nevertheless, in Nelson
and Vancouver particularly, the percentage of lightning fires was up.
Fires.
Causes.—As mentioned above, lightning- caused more fires and a much larger percentage than in years past. Fifty-six per cent, of all fires were so attributed. In a
year when the total outbreaks from all causes was below average, lightning set 871
fires as against a ten-year average of 524. During the present cycle of weather electrical storms seem to be on the increase. The west coast of Vancouver Island was hard
hit with lightning which caused, on one occasion, forty-four outbreaks in two. Ranger
Districts.    Up to a few years ago lightning was an inconsiderable factor in those parts.
Fires from such causes as campers, railways, and incendiarism were definitely
fewer. Fires from other causes—such as smokers, industrial operations, and brush-
burning—remained in about the same proportion.
Damage.—The average damage over the last ten years is evaluated at $751,000
per year. The 1941 damage was about 73 per cent, of this figure, or $548,000, of which
one fire in the Fort George District was responsible for 70 per cent. The early spread
of this fire was the result of inaccessibility, the lesson taught being that extensive
forest areas must be tapped with roads or trails, preferably roads. Owing to the lack
of accessibility by road and trail to this fire, air transportation became an outstanding
feature in suppression, but only small, lightly equipped crews could be transported at
high cost. In Forest Districts other than Fort George, the damage from forest fires
was slight. G 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Cost of Fire-fighting.—The cost to the Forest Branch of fighting fires in 1941 was
$137,438. These costs to the Forest Branch were 85 per cent, of the annual average
over the last ten years. Other agencies in 1941 spent $36,833 in fire-fighting. In
addition, for the purposes of detecting and suppressing forest fires, these agencies
spent $130,384 in patrol, improvements, tools and equipment. Records indicate an
increase in costs of pre-organization and a decrease in costs of fire-fighting.
Forest Protection Education and Publicity.
Endeavour along many lines was made to increase public information and interest
in the value of the forests and to make the public more conscious of the need for
protecting them.    The following is a list of means chosen:—
(a.)   Forest Branch calendars depicting seasonal forest activities.
(b.) A flag folder to 125,000 school pupils. The Department of Education assisted
with the folders to the extent of one-third of the cost.
(c.) Lectures to troops. Troops in camps and forts were instructed in the matter
of forest-protection by lectures and motion pictures. Many of these troops came from
places where they had no familiarity with the forests or forest fires.
(d.) Radio. Spot radio announcements stressing forest-protection were broadcast
during the fire season. The costs were small. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation carried these free of charge.
(e.) Essay contest. The Forest Branch collaborated with the Dominion Forest
Service and with the Canadian Forestry Association in an essay contest in May.
(/.) Young Ranger Bands. This is a fraternal organization amongst the youth
of Central British Columbia. The fundamental tenets of the organization are based
on the perpetuation of the forests. The originator of the movement, which has been
functioning for more than fifteen years, was employed during the summer season to
maintain and extend activities. Summer camps were held for ten days for girls, and
the same for boys, at Tete Jaune and at Pinkut Lake, near Burns Lake. In these
camps instruction was given in forest-protection and new members of the fraternity
were initiated.
(fir.) Moving pictures. Free showings of moving pictures were made at schools,
army camps, and exhibitions with a short forest-protection talk given in connection
with each showing. An estimated total of 100,000 people saw the forest-protection
pictures.    The Canadian Forestry Association continued forest-protection lectures.
(h.) Fire weather bulletins. These were circulated amongst the logging industry
during the periods of critical weather conditions. Forest-protection advertising was
inserted in most of the daily and weekly papers in the Province. Seasonal warnings
of dangerous weather conditions, especially those over week-ends, were carried in a
number of papers.
(i.)  "Prevent Forest Fires" road signs were renewed.
Fire-control Planning.
The field-work of the fire-control plan for the Nelson District was completed.
Scientific planning in detection of forest fires has demonstrated its value.
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling.
Owing to the extraordinarily heavy September rains, the results of slash-disposal
were unsatisfactory. This is particularly the case on Vancouver Island and the Lower
Mainland, where section 113a of the " Forest Act " applies. Of the slash created since
1938 there is carried forward for disposal in 1942 an approximate total of 93,000 acres.
To this must be added an estimated 30,000 acres which will be cut over in the late
months of 1941 and the early months of 1942. For silvicultural and other reasons,
exemption from burning has been granted covering 21,000 acres. Thus, there will be
carried into the fire season of 1942 a total of 144,000 acres of recent slash. This constitutes a heavy risk in a season when the danger of fire starting may be intensified
manyfold. Tanker-truck.    Capacity of tanl__ .
00 gallons.    Water can b,
-Photo, Dave Hall.
di^ctly to ho^ine/ PUmPe<1'r°m "atUral ™^
to tank
-.-
MacDonald Portable I
ump.    Weight, 60 1b; with 1M ,   ,   ., .
and gasoline for four 1.0^™^™ *"• -tion-bose, noBlk,  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941. G 43
Snag-falling under section 113a of the " Forest Act" is satisfactory. There are,
however, great areas logged prior to the enactment of the above section which carry
snags presenting the fire-fighter with his greatest problem in fire-control. While some
progress has been made in disposing of these snags, it has not been found possible to
cope adequately with the problem.
Equipment.
The outstanding features of new equipment were tanker-trucks for the quick
control and suppression of fires close to roads and the development of a new type of
light portable pump to facilitate suppression of small fires found far from means of
transportation.    These portable pumps are as yet in the experimental stage.
Stand-by Crews.
For years it has been the wish of the Forest Service to establish crews of properly
equipped men for quick action on fires in their early stages. During the past season
three such crews were established, one in the Vancouver, one in the Kamloops, and one
in the Nelson Forest Districts. Each crew consisted of ten men trained for this
specialized job. They were employed for approximately 100 days during midsummer.
The season did not prove to be one of a great number of fire outbreaks, but all reports
indicated that the expenditure was justified by results. The stand-by crews to some
extent offset the extreme shortage of man-power ordinarily recruited for fire-fighting.
During periods of low hazard they were used on improvement-work.
Co-operation with the Department of National Defence.
This took form in the following ways:—
(a.) Aircraft Detection Corps. Almost all Lookout-men and a number of others
on the staff were incorporated in the Aircraft Detection organization, as supervised
by the Royal Canadian Air Force.    This work will be intensified in 1942.
(&.) Equipment was loaned to all branches of the Services. This equipment was
comprised principally of short-wave radios.
(c.) The Forest Service collaborated with the army in training their troops in the
matter of forest-protection. The army reciprocated on a number of outbreaks in the
vicinity of encampments where the troops arrived in force to make short work of
suppression.
Fraser River Boat and Equipment Station.
On the Fraser River, at 3150 Celtic Avenue, Vancouver, a plant was completed as
shown in the frontispiece. At this station, repair, overhaul, and construction of
launches is being carried on. It consists of two boat-ways, carpenter's shop, blacksmith's shop, machine-shop, office, and radio room. Accommodation is provided for
the overhaul and testing of fire-fighting pumps and outboard motors. This plant
replaces the old boat-repair station at Sonora Island, now dismantled.
Enlistments.
The Forest Service staff suffered severely on account of sixty-three members of
its permanent and temporary personnel joining the Services. Work has expanded
owing to the large increase in timber production, and with war in the Pacific it is to
be expected that the problems of forest-protection are to be multiplied. Those remaining in the Service consider that they have an opportunity of doing their part in the
war effort by assuming as much as possible of the overload of work. Some appointments to take the place of enlistments have had to be made, although not all positions
have been filled. All appointments have been on an acting basis so that enlisted men
may find re-employment with the Forest Service on demobilization.
Fire Law Enforcement.
The comparatively few infringements of the fire law indicated that the general
public, and particularly those engaged in the timber industry, have developed an appreciation of forest-protection principles and are striving to carry them out. G 44
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
Closures.
The usual closures in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts, on certain watershed and industrial areas, were placed. These were well received by the public. As
a measure of protection those on industrial areas were placed at the request of private
interests, such as mining companies. It is worthy of note that during the period of
closure in the Nelson District, July 20th to September 9th, not one man-caused fire
was recorded. In the Vancouver Forest District there was but one closure, from
July 16th to July 20th, during the period of an intense heat-wave; this closure, however, required cessation of travel in the woods and the closing-down of all industrial
operations. It was accepted by the public in an understanding manner and without
doubt was a factor in preventing forest fires. The following is a list of 1941
closures:—■
Area. Effective. Suspended.
Vancouver Forest District July 16.        July 20.
(Except West Coast of Vancouver Island from
Toquart   Harbour  north;    East   Coast   of
Vancouver   Island   from   Suquash   north;
Mainland and islands from Wells Passage
and Kingcome Inlet north.)
Kamloops Forest District—
Copper Mountain July 18.
Klo and Bellevue Creeks July 18.
Mount Ida Provincial Forest July 19.
Fly Hills Provincial Forest July 19.
Larch Hills Forest July 22.
Penticton Watershed July 26.
Summerland Watershed  July 30.
Nelson Forest District—
Sheep Creek July 18.
Erie and Kelly Creeks July 21.
Lamb Creek, Upper Kootenay Valley, Duck
Creek  July 22.
The following tables give the details of the 1941 fire season :-
Sept. 22.
Sept. 24.
Sept. 15.
Oct. 14.
Sept. 2.
Sept. 24.
Sept. 24.
Sept.
Sept.
5.
5.
Sept.   5.
Fire Occurrences by Months,
1941.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
I
      1       17
17
1
11
55
16
16
3
5
31
59
340
20
30
200
239
88
29
17
138
105
14
1
1
2
2
492
22
25
26
31
76
89
452
452
Totals —	
......    [    121
100
114
829
377
20
1,561
Ten-year average, 1932-41 	
     1      BS>
177
121
508
441
171
10
1,580 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 45
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1941.
Fo. est District.
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11
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89
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219
57
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18
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7
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28.95
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323
17
36
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452
28.95
Totals 	
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
1,561
100 00
55.89
9.19
4.62
11.74
5.12
0.25
2.11
1.22
8.59
1.22
100.00
Ten-year average, 1932-41
524
264
86
314
106
9
40
69
143
22
1,580
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1941.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent,
of Total.
$27,046.00
1,200.00
$4,600.00
1,780.00
10.00
25.00
$13,029.00
9,700.00
$6,464.00
585.00
15.00
830.00
$51,139.00
13,265.00
25.00
861.00
13.00
78.31
20.13
0.04
6.00
13.00
1.32
0.02
Totals	
$28,265.00
$6,415.00
$22,729.00
S7.894.00  1     S65.303.00
100.00
$83,371.00  1    $29,178.00  1    $62,144.00  1    $11,853.00 1 $186,574.00
,   ..... G 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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G 47
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
Total.
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
1,265
236
90
400
74
5
41
38
171
18
515
305
77
374
111
11
32
88
175
16
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
263
269
74
242
107
14
55
20
124
25
524
256
81
321
78
6
29
74
152
26
173
217
65
289
127
11
45
72
97
15
320
312
103
415
117
10
41
65
188
19
285
234
77
197
77
7
32
65
90
18
336
230
156
197
108
18
17
127
64
13
5,255
2,643
868
3,143
1,060
90
402
Campers   	
Railways operating-	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)
Road and power- and telephone-line construction    	
690
Miscellaneous (known causes)..	
Unknown causes  	
1,433
220
Totals _ _.	
1,561
2,338
1,704
2,412
1,193
1,547
1,111
1,590
1,082
1,266
15,804
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1941.
Total Fires.
Under 54 Acre.
Vi to 10 Acres.
10 to 500 Acres.
Over 500 Acres.
Damage.
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Vancouver 	
492
31.53
295
59.86
33.40
\
154|31.30
34.07
40
8.23
20.72
3
0.61
9.09
468
15
9
Prince Rupert	
76
4.87
37 48.69
4.19
16|21.05
3.54
20
26.31
10.36
3| 3.94
9.09
58
15
3
89
5.70
34
38.20
3.85
23 25.84
5.09
21
23.59
10.87
11(12.37
33.33
73
6
10
Kamloops -
452
28.95
199
44.03
22.54
167
36.95
36.94
77
17.04
39.91
9   1.98
27.27
421
29
2
Nelson  	
452
28.95
318
70.35
36.02
92
20.35
20.36
35
7.75
18.14
7|  1.55
21.22
436|   13
3
Totals 	
1,561
100.00
883
100.00
45 21	
100.00
193
100.00
331 _
100.00
1,456|   78|   27
100.00
56.56
28.95 j	
12.36
2.13
93.27j5.00jl.73
	
Ten-year average,
I
1
1932-41 	
1,580
755
518!   	
1,440
911   48
!
1
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1941.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
Lightning    —
Campers  	
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
55.89
9.19
4.62
11.74
5.12
0.25
2.11
1.22
8.59
1.22
$82,870.24
12,562.06
162.28
2,650.90
2,141.49
59.30
9.20
0.12
2.91
1.55
18.16
2.67
5.34
0.75
$444,882.36
10,402.23
102.01
32,974.37
12,569.29
65.25
28,223.88
3,025.50
6,224.88
9,835.55
81.14
1.70
0.02
6.03
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)
Road and power- and telephone-line construction 	
2.82
0.01
24,979.42
3,687.33
7,351.92
1,032.80
4.94
0.53
1.13
1.68
Totals   —-	
1,561
100.00
$137,438.44
100.00
$548,305.32
100.00 G 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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A FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 49
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1941—Part I.
Accessible
Merchantable Timber.
Inaccessible
Merchantable
Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Forest District.
cfl
1
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Salvable
Volume of
Timber
killed.
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Vancouver  	
Acres.
428
205
43,098
675
429
M.B.M.
6,121
1,112
321,556
279
1,654
M.B.M.
2,886
75
80
20
62
$
4,071
1,068
325,683
1,057
1,600
Acres.
532
12
1,641
262
489
M.B.M.
680
65
9,763
$
266
6
823
130
342
Acres.
668
210
20,229
1,712
2,648
$
4,025
561
Fort George    .,,-■
98,074
5,988
406
4,649
Totals  	
44,835
330,722
3,123
333,479
2,936
10,914
1,567
25,467
113,297
28.94
96.80
0.91
69.04
1.89
3.20
0.32
16.45
23 45
	
71,714
58,253
185,653
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1941—Part II.
Not satisfactorily
restocked.
Noncommercial
Cover.
Grazing or
Pasture
Land.
Nonproductive
Sites.
Grand Totals.
District.
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Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Acres.
3,385
433
1,053
316
67
Acres.
2,487
302
170
104
17
Acres.
44
857
25,101
751
2,411
$
2,958
797
13,162
579
1,222
Acres.
1,175
1,917
12,292
17,496
1,306
$
587
958
6,144
4,319
653
Acres.
1
373
34
3,277
63
$
19
3
153
2
Acres.
1,314
93
2,813
233
1,765
$
657
46
1,406
112
882
Acres.
10,034
4,402
106,431
24,826
9,195
M.B.M.
6,801
1,177
331,319
279
2,060
$
12,564
3,455
445,295
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
12,338
9,350
Totals....	
5,254
3,080
29,164
18,718
34,186
12,661
3,748 |   177
6,218
3,103
154,888
341,636
483,002
Per cent	
3.39
1.99
18.83
3.88
22.07
2.63
1
2.42 |  0.04
4.02
0.64
100.00
100.00
100.00
Ten-year average, 1932-41
10,844
539
345,150
384,243
564,693 G 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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■a FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941. G 51
GRAZING.
General Conditions.
In 1940-41, for the third winter in succession, the range-stock industry experienced
light snowfall and comparatively mild weather. Both cattle and sheep ranged out in
private pastures until well into January in many cases. This condition, beneficial as
it was in saving hay-supplies, resulted in lack of moisture in the ground, reduced
summer growth of forage, and dried up watering-places. Lack of rainfall in the
spring to bring along the fresh grass caused a serious condition on early ranges which
was not relieved until the end of May. Another dry spell early in July ripened the
forage and resulted in hardening-off of the beef before reaching prime condition.
A wet spell in late July and August again changed range conditions and fall beef
came in to shipping-points in reasonably good condition.
Sheep bands that summer in the high alpine meadows did not fare so well. The
long wet spell from mid-July into the fall brought cold, hail, fog, and snow on the
mountains. Much luscious feed was cut down by the heavy hail-storms and many
sheep were lost in dense fog. Early snow drove all sheepbands to lower levels sooner
than usual, some sheepmen having difficulty in getting their bands out of the mountains.
Hay and grain crops suffered severely from the early and long-continued wet fall
weather. In many places great quantities of hay spoiled in the fields after cutting,
while many a second alfalfa-crop went uncut and grain sprouted in the stook.
These adverse conditions were alleviated somewhat by higher prices for beef,
lamb, and wool, but what with higher priced labour and the troubles instanced above it
is believed that profits were not so satisfactory as the previous year.
Markets and Prices.
Markets for products of the range-stock industry were strong throughout the
year and able to absorb the seasonal gluts with very little decline in price. The
domestic market took considerably greater quantities of stock and the export market,
entirely United States, also increased. In this latter market the Province has had an
increased share of Canadian shipments in recent years. In 1939 British Columbia
ranges supplied only 8 per cent, of shipments from Canada; in 1940 they rose to 15
per cent, and in 1941 were 22 per cent.
Excellent prices were received for all range-stock products, and especially so at
the four special sales held during the year. At Kamloops the Annual Bull Sale and
Fat Stock Show was held in March, at which the highest prices on record were secured.
A very successful feeder sale at Kamloops in October and a beef sale at Williams Lake
in November brought excellent prices; a Christmas Fat Stock Show at Kamloops
averaged about $100 per head of cattle sold and almost $10 per head of sheep.
Outside of these special sales all products sold well, top steers opening in Vancouver at $8.65 per hundredweight in January, rising to a peak of $10 in September.
Prices eased off towards the end of November to $8.75 and at the end of the year were
again on the rise.
Nicola Valley prices were only slightly less than Vancouver, while Cariboo beef
brought from $1 to $1.50 per hundredweight less at shipping-point. However, these
returns are ample to show a satisfactory profit to the average rancher, who has had a
hard struggle to make ends meet for some years.
Lamb and mutton prices averaged from $1 to $1.50 per hundredweight over 1940
prices, ranging from $10.50 to $12.50 per hundredweight. Increased prices for market
lambs have brought a heavy demand for breeding ewes, which are hard to obtain.
Wool prices did not increase much, if any, in 1940, but wool sold at about 21 cents
per pound return to the producer. The B.C. Sheep Breeders' Association handled
a total of 407,977 lb. of wool during the year at these figures.
Live-stock Losses.
The range-stock industry is subject to many forms of animal loss which, if serious
enough, ultimately ruin an otherwise profitable venture.    To the various diseases to G 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
which cattle and sheep are subject may be added the losses from predatory animals,
drowning in bogs and lakes, and poisoning from various weeds.
In 1941 the campaign against foot-rot in sheep was maintained in co-operation
with the Live Stock Branch of the Department of Agriculture. This disease, formerly
very destructive, seems to have been controlled, but efforts will not be relaxed until it
is completely wiped out. Results so far have been accomplished through the co-operation of well-intentioned sheepmen with quarantine-enforced treatment, closure of
infected ranges, and other measures against those failing to conform to sanitary rules.
Some cases of Caseous lymphadenitis in sheep have been observed and where
requested by the Live Stock Commissioner forest officers have co-operated in its control.
The same holds good for other observed diseases of sheep, cattle, and horses. Only by
full co-operation between all departments having jurisdiction over stock movements
can losses from disease be lowered or eliminated. The Forest Branch will continue
its close co-operation with the Department of Agriculture to that purpose.
Some losses of cattle killed by bears and wolves have been reported. Hunters
from the Game Commission have taken the problem in hand with excellent effect.
Losses of sheep by predatory animals are a constant source of annoyance; coyotes
and bears being the chief malefactors, each taking a fairly regular toll. In an endeavour to protect their bands sheep-herders sometimes kill considerable numbers of bears,
especially grizzlies. Protests have been made by sportsmen's associations at this
slaughter of valuable game animals, with the result that a working agreement has
been made between the Forest Service and the Game Commission to consult before
allowing sheep on new range. To date several potential disputes have been settled
before any harm has been done on either side. Frequent opportunity is taken to meet
with the Game Commissioners and sportsmen's clubs to discuss mutual problems.
Poisonous weeds and mud-holes have taken a small toll of range animals, but losses
in 1941 seem to have been lighter than for some time.    This is to be expected in the
case of mud-holes because of the fencing of the most hazardous ones carried on each
year
Range Reconnaissance.
Continuing the programme of mapping and reporting on range areas the field
staff in the Kamloops Forest District covered a total of 205,860 acres, divided as
follows:—
Acres.
Copper Creek-Tranquille   9,180
Lac du Bois   20,480
Loon Lake Plateau   63,000
Scotty-Mills Creeks   4,800
Fish Trap Creek  7 600
Jamieson Creek  7 000
Keremeos Stock Range  2,700
Ewart Creek Range   700
Apex Mountain Range   54,000
Lower Similkameen   36 400
Total  205,860
Reports and maps on these areas have been mostly completed and studied. They
are essential to proper administration of the range resource and must be supplemented by closer inspection of the range while in use. Lack of staff has prevented
as full a programme of reconnaissance as is desirable and as careful inspection as is
essential. War conditions accentuate these difficulties by reducing staff through enlistments and pressing stockmen to increase their herds on ranges already overcrowded.
Reconnaissance-work completed will not be lost, but gains in range management may be.
Every effort should be made during the war to maintain this valuable, renewable
resource. _
Co-operation.
Official recognition of incorporated live-stock associations is a cardinal principle
of range administration.    The majority opinion of the range-users is highly valuable FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941.
G 53
and appreciated by the Forest Service and consequently frequent meetings are held
with these groups. Out of these meetings come many useful suggestions for practical
range management and improvement. To them are taken administrative problems for
discussion while all matters affecting their range are fully referred to them. Among
these are land alienations, about which their opinions are solicited.
During 1941 there were thirty-nine live-stock associations co-operating with the
field officers and with whom meetings were held at various times.
Grazing Permits.
Use of Crown range is authorized by permit under the " Grazing Act " and regulations. Each rancher and his range problem must be treated separately which, when
the numbers involved are considered, represents an enormous amount of work for field
and office staff. This is especially true as all applications for permits are received,
each year, after March 1st and must be dealt with before the grazing season, usually
in April or May.    The table following shows the magnitude of this work.
Grazing Permits issued.
No. of
Permits.
Number of Stock under Permit.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
Fort George	
Nelson  	
Kamloops 	
Totals, 1941
Totals, 1940
Totals, 1939
Totals, 1938
Totals, 1937
Totals, 1936
Totals, 1935
Totals, 1934
27
262
775
1,752
5,493
70,529
105
1,305
2,770
26
4,625
34,901
77,774
4,180
39,552
881
790
738
807
700
746
789
74,404
69,447
72,774
75,123
75,224
60,305
68,735
3,958
2,758
2,248
2.328
2,061
1,870
2,235
37,132
38,357
37,060
42.185
46,084
36,902
36,569
Collections.
Grazing fees are not a great source of governmental revenue, but they do about
pay for administration and contribute substantially to the improvement of the range.
Collections in 1940 were particularly good because it was the first prosperous
year after many poor ones. Consequently a large portion of old arrears was collected.
This reduced the possibilities in 1941, but still there was taken in $5,000 more than
current billing.    The following tabulation shows the results of the year's collections:—
Fees billed and collected.
Year.
Fees billed.
Collections.
Outstanding.
1939                                         	
$21,348.41
23,338.28
23,781.19
$22,027.05
38,146.48
29,348.22
$42 012 10
1940                                                    	
27,203.90
21,636.87
1941                                	
Range Improvement.
Shown previously in this report is the standing of the Range Improvement Fund.
This is made up of one-third of all fees collected and is used to improve the Crown
range in quantity or quality. Over the years a steady programme of improvements
has been conducted to the betterment of conditions in the range live-stock industry.
During 1941 the following improvements were completed: 17 drift-fences, total length
28 miles; 6 stock trails, total length 33 miles; 1 bridge; 2 cattle-guards; 5 mud-holes
fenced;   9 water developments;   and 5 holding-ground fences repaired. G 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Continuance of the war will result in many changes in the live-stock industry and
the administration of the Crown range. We may expect increases in the cost of running the ranches and some increase in prices of range products. Upon the balance
between the two will depend the condition of an industry which is essential to the
welfare of the country and the war effort. Second to no other factor in this economic
problem is the basic resource, the range itself. To maintain the industry the forage
must be plentiful and nutritious. It can only be kept so under careful range management. Every reasonable effort must be made by Government and stockmen to maintain the range in productive condition and increase its capacity where possible. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1941. G 55
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1942.
Victoria Office.
C. D. Orchard : Chief Forester.
G. P. Melrose Assistant Chief Forester.
E. E. Gregg Forester—Protection.
E. W. Bassett Assistant Forester.
J. H. Blake Mechanical Inspector.
W. C. Spouse Assistant Mechanical Inspector.
G. A. Playfair (on Active Service) Radio Engineer.
H. E. Ferguson Radio Engineer.
E. B. Prowd Forester—Management.
S. E. Marling Assistant Forester.
F. S. McKinnon Forester—Economics.
H. J. Hodgins Assistant Forester.
S. W. Barclay Royalty Inspector.
H. H. Smith Chief Accountant.
Districts.
Vancouver.
C. J. Haddon District Forester.
T. A. Clarke . Assistant District Forester.
W. Byers Supervisor of Scalers.
M. W. Gormely Assistant Forester.
W. S. Hepher (on Active Service) Assistant Forester.
D. B. Taylor Assistant Forester.
J. G. MacDonald Fire Inspector.
A. H. Waddington Fire Inspector.
Prince Rupert.
R. C. St. Clair District Forester.
L. S. Hope (on Active Service) Assistant District Forester.
J. E. Mathieson Fire Inspector.
Prince George.
R. D. Greggor District Forester.
L. F. Swannell (on Active Service) Assistant District Forester.
H. B. Forse Assistant Forester.
Kamloops.
C. C. Ternan District Forester.
R. G. McKee Assistant District Forester.
R. R. Douglas (on Active Service) Assistant Forester.
C. L. Armstrong (on Active Service) Assistant Forester.
I. T. Cameron Assistant Forester.
W. W. Stevens (on Active Service) Acting Assistant Forester.
F. J. Wood Fire Inspector.
E. A. Charlesworth Supervisor of Scalers.
Nelson.
R. E. Allen District Forester.
K. C. McCannel Assistant District Forester.
W. C. Phillips Assistant Forester.
W. Holmgren Fire Inspector. VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chart.es F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1942.
1,325-442-7424

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