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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1942

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLOMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
OF   THE
LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCHES
OF   THE
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1940
HON. A. WELLS GRAY, MINISTER. OE LANDS
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1941.  Victoria, B.C., November 3rd, 1941.
To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and  Surveys
Branches of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1940.
A. WELLS GRAY,
Minister of Lands. Victoria, B.C., November 3rd, 1941.
The Honourable A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Surveys Branches
of the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1940.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     7
Revenue     7
Sale of Town Lots     8
Pre-emption Records     9
Pre-emption and Homestead Exchanges     9
Land-sales     9
Land Inspections  10
Summary  11
Letters inward and outward  12
Coal Licences, Leases, etc  12
Crown Grants issued  12
Total Acreage deeded  12
Home-site Leases  13  DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., October 27th, 1941.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended December
31st, 1940, in which are several items which may be of interest in analyzing the figures
presented.
A decline in land settlement by pre-emption entry will be noted, no doubt the reason for
same being Province-wide enlistments in various war activities.
An increase in general revenue will be observed, which may be accounted for by the
increased land-sales reported, in which connection it is interesting to note that disposal of
areas reverted through taxation proceedings far outstripped sales of ordinary Crown lands.
Further it is interesting to note that a larger area of the Province was held under lease
in 1940 than during any period in the past ten years.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT OF REVENUE, YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31st, 1940.
Land-sales.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$3,970.09
315.97
1,355.98
15,180.91
$3,970.09
Under " Land Act "—
$16,576.40
13,127.31
55,851.50
886.85
7,431.73
634.00
16,892.37
14,483.29
71,032.41
886.85
7,431.73
634.00
Totals   	
$20,822.95
$94,507.79
$115,330.74
Sundry Revenue.
Under " Land Act "—
$88,042.48
5,936.16
292.10
15,837.53
895.77
794.50
728.00
$88,042.48
5,936.16
$3,196.24
$3,301.57
1,032.47
397.43
3,593.67
16,870.00
895.77
1,431.85
2,226.35
728.00
1,159.91
1,159 91
Totals	
$112,526.54
$6,925.80
$119,452.34 U 8
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$4,300.00
2,464.70
10,718.82
2,400.00
$4,300.00
2,464.70
10,718.82
2,400.00
Totals                	
$19,883.52
$19,883.52
Sundry Receipts.
$6,500.96
278.34
15,475.76
15,612.47
$6,500.96
278.34
15,475.76
$1,971.10
17,583.57
$37,867.53
$1,971.10
$39,838.63
Summary of Revenue.
$20,822.95
112,526.54
19,883.52
37,867.53
$94,507.79
6,925.80
$115,330.74
119,452.34
19,883.52
1,971.10
39,838.63
$191,100.54
$103,404.69
$294,505.23
Summary of Cash received.
$191,100.54
43,819.39
251.90
52,700.00
22,559.49
16,324.25
46,108.63
1,704.30
$103,404.69
$294,505.23
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
43,819.39
251.90
" Better Housing Act "—
52,700.00
22,559.49
Land Settlement Board—
16,324.25
46,108.63
1,704.30
Totals                             .                      ..        .   .
$374,568.50
$103,404.69
$477,973.19
SALE OF TOWN LOTS, 1940.
Disposal of lots placed on the market after being offered at public auction:—
Vancouver City, 20 lots  $10,130.00
Oliver, 7 lots 	
Trail, 6 lots 	
Quesnel, 5 lots 	
Princeton, 7 lots 	
And 47 lots in various townsites
1,500.00
2,260.00
425.00
360.00
1,588.00
$16,268.00
Southern Okanagan Project sold 9 parcels, comprising 472.24 acres, the purchase price
being $10,765.17.
In the University Hill subdivision of Lot 140, Group 1, New Westminster District
(Endowment Lands), 33 lots were sold at the sale price of $33,215.75. LAND-SALES.
U 9
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1940.
PRE-EMPTION AND HOMESTEAD EXCHANGES.
Under 1934 Amendment to " Land Act."
Year.
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
No.
41
21
37
10
3
Total   118
LAND-SALES, 1940.
" Land Act "—
Surveyed (first class)	
Surveyed (second class).
Surveyed  (third class) ___
Unsurveyed
Total  ...
Acres.
3,772.65
10,004.92
4,151.29
17,828.86
800.00
18,628.86
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Pre-emption
Records
cancelled.
Certificates
of Purchase
issued.
Certificates
of Improvement issued.
35
1
IS
10
14
5
1
11
7
139
38
1
34
6
4
1
4
30
5
2
19
23
12
1
4
1
7
13
176
65
3
40
22
3
8
2
36
25
45
25
39
29
111
22
127
171
260
87
50
70
19
89
39
52
3
101
53
676
Atlin                                                	
Clinton    _ _	
14
3
1
14
2
20
1
2
2
7
3
56
38
1
30
Revelstoke   	
4
5
1
3
Totals   	
329
436
2,129
208 U 10
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
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I U 12 REPORT OP MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
STATEMENT OP LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1940.
Lands Branch.
Letters inward   21,301
Letters outward   17,963
MINING LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 1940.
Licences under the " Coal and Petroleum Act"—
No.
Original licences issued  16
Renewal licences issued   27
Totals  43
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
New leases issued      3
Renewal leases issued      7
Totals  10 4,669.40
Sundry leases under the " Land Act "—
Number of leases issued  237 28,479.43
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1940.
Pre-emptions    209
Dominion homesteads   32
Purchases (other than town lots)   350
Town lots   302
Mineral claims   217
Reverted mineral claims   15
Supplementary timber grants   8
" Dyking Assessment Act "   6
" Public Schools Act "  -  2
Miscellaneous    14
Area (Acres).
8,889.00
15,341.20
24,230.20
316.70
4,352.70
Total  1,155
Applications for Crown grants   1,253
Certified copies   1
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims given       94
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions    28,763.64
Dominion homesteads      4,471.55
Mineral claims (other than reverted)      7,297.56
Reverted mineral claims         479.24
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)  17,964.13
Supplementary timber grants         645.65
Total  59,621.77 HOME-SITE LEASES.
U 13
HOME-SITE LEASES   (NOT EXCEEDING 20 ACRES).
No.
Total Annual
Revenue.
Fiscal Year
ended.
8
12
11
31
23
24
18
26
15
29
21
27
67
245
Leases issued, April 1st, 1929, to March 31st, 1930	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1930, to March 31st, 1931	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1931, to March 31st, 1932	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1932, to March 31st, 1933 	
$522.55
636.45
759.95
980.05
1,246.65
1,302.52
1,391.72
1,440.25
1,468.90
1,557.40
1,591.80
1,717.10
March 31st, 1930.
March 31st, 1931.
March 31st, 1932.
March 31st, 1933.
March 31st, 1934.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1934, to March 31st, 1935	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1935, to March 31st, 1936	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1936, to March 31st, 1937	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1937, to March 31st, 1938	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1938, to March 31st, 1939	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1939, to March 31st, 1940	
March 31st, 1935.
March 31st, 1936.
March 31st, 1937.
March 31st, 1938.
March 31st, 1939.
March 31st, 1940.
March 31st, 1941.
10
1
312
11
301
Total revenue received from April 1st, 1929, to
March 31st, 1941 —. 	
$14,615.34  PART II.
SURVEYS BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Pace.
Report of the Surveyor-General  17
Report of Surveys Branch    19
Table A—Summary of Office-work  19
Table B—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps  20
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps  21
Report of Aerial Photograph Librarian  24
Report of Geographic Division  24
Reports of Surveyors—
Triangulation Survey, Kechika and Turnagain River Valleys (Hugh Pattinson)  27
Topographical Survey, Kechika Valley (N. C. Stewart)  30
Topographical Survey, Coquitlam Lake (Alan J. Campbell)  32
Topographical Survey, near Alberni  (R. D. McCaw)  34
Topographical Survey, Northerly Vancouver Island (G. J. Jackson)  36
Surveys, Peace River District (Duncan Cran)  37  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1941.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Surveys
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1940.
The Surveys Branch, with a staff averaging forty-nine in number, is organized into three
divisions—Surveys, Geographic, and Topographic. The Surveys Division deals with field-
notes of all surveys of Crown lands, whether made by Government or privately employed
surveyors, checks these field-notes, and plots therefrom, and keeps an up-to-date record of the
standing of lands and surveys on some 266 large-scale reference maps drawn on tracing-linen;
the division has a blue and ozalid printing department serving all branches of the Government, and meeting the needs of these, and of the general public, for copies of reference and
other maps to the value of about $8,000 per annum.
The Topographic Division includes a staff of B.C. Land Surveyors specially trained in
topographic mapping; these men spend their summers on field-work and their winters plotting
contour maps based on that field-work; the field-work is permanent in character and, though
swaying to meet immediate needs, fits without waste into a long-term plan for the progressive
contour-mapping of the entire Province.
The Geographic Division is responsible for keeping the published maps of the Province
truly representative of the latest information available. That information comes from tri-
angulation surveys and from the Surveys and Topographic Divisions, from the Forest and
Water Branches, the Mines and Public Works Departments, from the Geodetic, Geological,
Topographical, and Hydrographic services of the Dominion Government; as well as from
prospectors and others having knowledge of out-of-the-way places. The division draws the
maps, secures tenders from lithographers, and supervises publication; there is also in the
division photostatic equipment with an experienced operator who makes photostats and
enlargements and reductions to scale for all Government Departments, and to some extent
for Navy, Army, and general public.
Due to its general mountainous character, only a small percentage of the area of the
Province requires subdivision into small agricultural holdings, but immense tracts of mountain terrain are rich in resources of mineral, timber, and water-power, and the prosperity of
the lowlands depends largely on the successful development of the mountain resources. In a
country of such high relief, contour maps are the best foundation for any appraisal of
resources; and the need for such maps over vast areas, coupled with the limited expenditures
possible with our small population, has kept constant our search for accurate yet economical
methods. The method here developed uses aerial photographs taken at 15,000 feet altitude;
but as such photographs vary greatly in scale over the mountain country beneath, control
over plan and elevation is secured by triangulation, with stations on the summits and by
rounds of oriented ground photographs taken from commanding positions, using special
cameras of fixed focal length; the method takes advantage of our mountains, and our contour-
mapping costs seem to be as low as any in Canada, averaging as they do, less than $25 per
square mile, including everything from the aerial photography to plotting the contour map.
In the belief that good maps are a useful guard against costly errors in development, an
attempt is made to foresee future trends, and a highway to Alaska looms among these. There
are about three general routes through Northern British Columbia which such a highway
could take; it can leave the present highway at Summit Lake, 32 miles east of Prince George,
and follow the Rocky Mountain Trench occupied by the valleys of the Parsnip, Finlay,
Kechika, and Liard Rivers to the northerly boundary of the Province; and thence follow the
Liard, Frances, Finlayson, Pelly, and Yukon to Dawson, whence connection to the Richardson
Highway in Alaska is feasible. This is the shortest possible route for traffic from the south;
has a maximum altitude of 3,273 feet (Sifton Pass), and follows river valleys throughout;
and with a short connection would place Peace River produce in a favoured position in the
far north market, besides, perhaps, satisfying those agitating for a Prairie route for the U 18 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
highway. The alternative routes would leave the present highway near Fort St. James or
Hazelton, cross the Stikine near Telegraph Creek, after traversing country concerning which
there is little precise information; thence cross to Atlin and reach the winter road to Dawson
at Whitehorse. These routes have the advantage of serving Telegraph Creek and Atlin and
should be photographed from the air and at least partially contour-mapped before a decision
on the final route is made.
Due to the limits of staff and available funds, the Surveys Branch has so far been able to
map only one of the suggested routes, this being the easterly or Rocky Mountain Trench
route; in 1939 seven survey parties worked along the valleys north of Finlay Forks and the
southerly half of the route to the Liard was photographed from the air, and in 1940 aerial
photography and the triangulation to the northerly boundary of the Province was completed
and detailed mapping carried northerly to a point about 55 miles beyond Sifton Pass; one
survey party was on triangulation and a second on photo-topographical mapping and the
work is now so far along that two strong photo-topographical parties can complete it in 1941.
The contour map of this route shows that construction would be the easiest ever encountered
in British Columbia, being entirely along river-benches with little rock and so straight that
the length will be at least 50 miles less than previous estimates. Similar work along other
routes would bring out their relative physical merits and would give a reliable foundation for
weighing distances and costs of construction and maintenance, access to agricultural and
mining resources and existing settlements, and suitability for other purposes of the highway.
The twenty-two pack-horses held in the valley of the Kechika River, latitude 58° 30',
without any stored feed, rustled for themselves on the abundant bunch-grass and came
through the winter of 1939-40 without loss and in fine condition, and are again grazing in
that valley for the winter of 1940-41.
The Mines Department attached two geologists to our northern survey parties in 1940
and gave assistance toward the opening and improvement of a trail between Fort Ware
(Whitewater) on the Finlay and Lower Post on the Liard.
In addition to the work in connection with the Alaska Highway, one photo-topographical
survey party was employed on the Coquitlam Lake watershed, with the B.C. Electric Railway
and the Greater Vancouver Water Board contributing $3,000 toward the expense, and two
such parties were engaged in contour mapping north of Barkley Sound and at Hardy Bay;
all three of these projects being of interest to the Department of National Defence, which
will aid in the publication of contour maps.
Little money was left for cadastral surveys, but all needs were met; the main undertaking being the survey of some twenty-two quarter-sections along the new Commotion Creek
Road in the Peace River country.
In addition to Lieutenant-Colonel Aitken, Chief Geographer, and J. F. Stevens, who
enlisted for war service in 1939, the following members of the staff enlisted in 1940: G. W.
Barnes, D. R. Whyte, A. J. Baker, R. F. Leighton, A. M. Barber, and L. J. Roach of the
draughting staff; H. E. Whyte, B.C.L.S., of the topographic staff; and W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.,
of the temporary topographic staff. Some temporary replacements for the war period have
been made, but the absence of the more experienced men is felt, especially in the preparation
of maps for publication.
Reports compiled by F. 0. Morris and W. G. H. Firth for the Surveys and Geographic
Divisions respectively, giving details of the work carried on under their supervision and of
the maps published, as well as reports from the surveyors employed on field-work, are attached
hereto. The showing speaks well for the zeal and efficiency of the staff, and much work, not
elsewhere mentioned, has been carried out for the various units of the Department of National
Defence stationed in Victoria.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. U 19
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
By F. 0. Morris, Assistant Surveyor-General.
SURVEYS DIVISION.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to
land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying, checking
survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many
minor activities.
A blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained, rendering service to the various governmental Departments.
Aerial Photograph Library.—A considerable portion of the Province has been photographed from the air and an effort is made in this office to have on record one copy of each
of these aerial photographs. These are available for inspection and at present total 94,160
views, consisting of 75,180 taken by Department of National Defence, 12,742 by B.C. Forest
Service, and 6,238 by Western Canadian Airways. Index maps showing the position of these
aerial photographs are also on record and available for inspection.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations
and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and mineral reference
maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are maintained by the
Surveys Division. There are now 190 reference maps and 76 mineral reference maps, making
a total of 266 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—(1) by adding new survey
information as it becomes available, and (2) by renewing same when worn out with constant
use and handling in the blue-print machines—forms a considerable portion of the work of the
Division. During the year ten reference maps were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached
hereto, give a list of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1940, Surveys Division.
Number of field-books received   247
„          lots surveyed   268
„         lots plotted   217
„          lots gazetted   197
„          lots cancelled   88
„          mineral-claim field-books prepared   144
„         reference maps compiled   10
„          applications for purchase cleared   149
„         applications for pre-emption cleared   389
„          applications for lease cleared   396
„          coal licences cleared   45
„          water licences cleared   118
„          timber-sales cleared   2,038
„          free-use permits cleared   414
„          hand-loggers' licences cleared   16
„          Crown-grant applications cleared   604
„          reverted-land clearances     1,190
„         cancellations made   1,110
„          inquiries cleared     1,473
„          placer-mining leases plotted on maps   246
„         letters received       4,529
„          letters sent out    3,356
„ Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate    .... 1,284
„          miscellaneous tracings made   146
,,         Government Agents' tracings made   111
„          blue-prints made     22,199
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints from other departments
and public   $3,389.20
Value of blue-prints for Lands Department    $3,745.25
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault  32,624 U 20 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
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REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
REPORT OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH LIBRARIAN.
By W. J. H. Holmes.
Number of aerial views on file December 31st, 1940:—
Royal Canadian Air Force (BA)     1,620
Western Canada Airways  (WCA)     6,238
Royal Canadian Air Force (A)  73,560
British Columbia Forest Service  (BC)  12,742
Total   94,160
During 1940, new views received and taken on file number 10,027. These were mostly
British Columbia flights by the British Columbia Forest Service. There remain a very considerable number of British Columbia views taken during 1938, 1939, and 1940 that have not
yet been received or taken on file, although I have reference maps on which most of them are
indexed. These views I am informed are still in use by the Forest Service and will be filed
here in due course.
During 1940, 15,926 views were issued on loan and 13,324 views were returned.
Views were issued on loan to the British Columbia Forest Service; the Topographic
Branch, the Geographic Branch, and the Surveys Branch of the Surveyor-General's Department; the Department of Public Works, the Department of Mines, the Water Rights Branch,
and other branches of the Public Service; also to the Garibaldi Parks Board, the management
of certain lumbering firms, the local Works Branch of the R.C.A.F., the Municipal Engineers
of Victoria and Vancouver, and to surveyors, and to a limited extent to others of the general
public.
There are at present (December 31st, 1940) 8,197 aerial views out on loan.
Topographic Survey Ground Views.—There are on file the ground views taken by the
Topographic Survey Branch from 1914 to 1940, and estimated to number approximately
35,000, also the corresponding photographic plates; 35 of these views are on loan to the
Department of Mines and 5 to the Premier's office.
Reference Maps.—Aerial view index maps now number 93 and topographic ground view
index maps, 63.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By W. G. H. Firth, Acting Chief Geographer.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Central British Columbia 	
7,000
3.000
May, 1940
Auccust. 1940
lL
3c
15.78 mi. to 1 in.
175,000
9.000
B.C. Electoral (1938 Redistribution)    ...	
400     j     December, 1940
[
lJF
27 mi. to 1 in.           366,255
In Course of Preparation.
5d
3j
3b
4 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
11,000
9,350
9,350
Geographic Board op Canada, Naming and Recording.
Number of map sheets, names reviewed     15
Recommendations to Geographic Board        8
New names recorded  .  271
Geographical Work for other Departments.
Sixty items, receipts and value of work  $1,294.00 APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. U 25
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps issued to Departments and public ..:         10,645
Maps received into Geographic stock         11,238
Total value of printed maps issued  $3,507.58
Revenue from printed maps  $2,410.91
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made  2,477
Revenue from Departments and public      $700.85
Value of photostats for Lands Department, etc  $1,301.10
Letters.
Letters received and attended to  1,467
Standard Base Map.
Big Bend Pre-emptors' Sheet, sheets compiled, complete     6
Nechako Pre-emptors' Sheet, sheets compiled, complete     1
Standard Base Map, skeleton sheets compiled  12
School districts, plotted from description  29
Control nets supplied  36
Triangulation.
Main, by least-square adjustment, triangles adjusted  106
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations  608
Index-cards, records  874
Triangulation index-maps  5
The following members of the staff, all apprentice draughtsmen, joined His Majesty's
Forces: George Barnes, Survey Battalion, R.C.A., June 24th, 1940; Lindley Roach, Royal
Canadian Engineers, July 25th, 1940;   R. F. Leighton, R.C.A.F., September 26th, 1940.
There are now five members of this Division serving with the Canadian Army (Active).
A considerable amount of geographical work for National Defence purposes was undertaken by the Division at the request of various military organizations under the Pacific
Command, the Western Air Command of the R.C.A.F., and the British Columbia Provincial
Police, and expressions of thanks for the assistance rendered have been made by these
organizations.    As instructed, this work was charged at labour cost only.
The staff has responded loyally to the extra work imposed by enlistments and war
circumstances. U 26
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
List of Lithographed Maps.
Map    Year of
No.      Issue.
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
1a
1A
1933
1933
IE
1930
10
1916
IH
1933
1JCA
1923
1JC
1937
1JD
1937
1JE
1937
1JF
1937
lJGL
1937
1JGC
1937
IK
1925
lL
1940
2a
1938
2b
1914
2c
1929
2d
1923
2e
1924
2f
1927
3a
1930
3b
1926
3C
1940
3d
1937
3e
1928
3f
1934
30
1935
3H
1931
3j
1932
3k
1938
3m
1929
3p
1924
3q
1936
4a
1927
4c
1936
4d
1913
4e
1925
40
1914
4H
1926
4j
1921
4k
1923
4l
1926
4m
1927
4n
1930
4p
1931
4q
1939
5a
1916
5b
1929
1929
5C
1929
toD
1941
MRMl
1927
MRM2
1928
MRM3
1928
MRM4
1929
MRM5
1929
MRM6
1932
MRM7
1934
MRM8
1935
PWD
1939
MD
1939
1930
I
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways etc      	
Wall Map of British Columbia.   In four sheets.   Roads, trails,
railways,   etc.    Showing   Electoral  Districts,   Redistribution
1932, with 1934 Amendment....- - - 	
British   Columbia.    In   one  sheet.    Showing   Land   Recording
Districts    _	
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen  	
Cariboo and adjacent Districts   —
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data...	
British  Columbia.    In  one   sheet.    Showing  rivers,   railways,
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
and precipitation  -  	
Ditto ditto and Land Recording Districts	
Ditto ditto and Mining Divisions  _	
Ditto ditto and Assessment and Collection Districts ...
Ditto ditto andElectoralDistricts,Redistributionl938
Ditto ditto and Land Registration Districts  	
Ditto ditto and Counties  	
South  Western   Districts   of  B.C.,   Commercial  and   Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
Central British Columbia (contoured 1,000-ft. interval)	
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island 	
New Westminster and Yale Districts   —	
Northerly Vancouver Island 	
Powell Lake    	
Bella Coola (preliminary)    	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary)....
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George     	
Nechako        —
Stuart Lake (contoured)	
Bulkley      —
Peace River (reissue 1930)  —
Chilcotin    	
Quesnel (contoured) _.  	
Tete Jaune   	
North Thompson   	
Lillooet    	
Prince Rupert  _   	
Grenville Channel (preliminary)  	
Peace River Block    	
Degree Series—
Rossland (contoured)    	
Cranbrook. —  	
Fernie   —	
Upper Elk River.   	
Windermere  —
Arrowhead    - 	
Vernon (contoured)   — 	
Kettle Valley (contoured)  	
East Lillooet, Economic Geography (contoured)   —
Nicola Lake (contoured) 	
Penticton (contoured)    	
Lower Fraser Valley (preliminary)... — 	
Hope-Princeton (contoured)   	
Topographical Series—
Omineca and Finlay River Basins, Sketch-map of 	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special) —
„ North sheet (special) —
Stikine River (contoured)      	
Revelstoke-Golden (Big Bend-Columbia River)  (contoured)	
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
Slocan and Ainsworth _  	
Trout Lake  	
Lardeau River   _  	
Nelson-Ymir... _ —   	
Rossland-Ymir — 	
Grand Forks-Greenwood _ 	
Greenwood and Osoyoos     	
Barkerville and Lightning Creek    	
Miscellaneous—
Highway and Travel Map of B.C  .— _	
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts 	
Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia	
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
cV_ m. to 1 in.
f>_ m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
2.00
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
co c
E-2
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.35
Free
1.50
$14.00
20.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.50
On ap.
12.00
t In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map Number " of map
desired.
Maps listed above can be mounted to order in the following forms:   Plain mounted;   cut-tc-fold any size:   with
wooden bars top and bottom to hang, etc.    Prices upon application.
We can supply information concerning maps of British Columbia printed and published at  Ottawa by the
Department of Mines and Resources.
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address :—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands, Victoria, B.C. 2nd January, 1941. TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR DISTRICT. U 27
TRIANGULATION SURVEY, KECHIKA AND TURNAGAIN
RIVER VALLEYS, CASSIAR DISTRICT.
By Hugh Pattinson, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the above survey carried out by
me under your instructions of June 1st:—
The object of the survey as defined in your instructions was primarily to make a rigid
connection consolidating triangulation surveys made by Mr. Monckton and myself during the
1939 season. During that season Mr. Monckton's party carried a survey south-easterly from
the British Columbia-Yukon boundary to the mouth of the Turnagain River, while my party
extended a network north-westerly from Sifton Pass down the valley of the Kechika River;
after completion of the above connection, my instructions were to continue the triangulation
south-westerly towards Dease Lake, following the general direction of the Turnagain River.
The party, consisting of A. T. Holmes, B.C.L.S., and W. H. Forrest, B.C.L.S., assistants,
and seven men, was organized at Prince George and left for Summit Lake with outfit and
supplies on the 7th day of June. On the following day the party commenced the journey
by river to Fort Ware, from which place there is a trail connection via Sifton Pass and Chee
House to Lower Post on the Liard River. A branch trail runs south-westerly from Chee
House to Dease Lake. A photo-topographical party in charge of Mr. N. C. Stewart and two
geological survey parties in charge of Dr. Holland and Dr. Hedley respectively left Summit
Lake at the same time. Transportation of personnel, supplies, and equipment of all parties
was handled by Dick Corless, Jr., river freighter, of Prince George. Three boats were
required to accommodate the combined parties. We arrived at Ware on June 14th, having
been delayed for a day at Deserters Canyon, on the Finlay River. Owing to the unusually
high water and the large amount of drift floating down the river, it was found impractical
to run the boats up through the canyon, so we had to back-pack approximately 5 tons of
supplies and equipment over the half-mile portage to the upper end of the canyon. We also
skidded a 36-foot boat over the portage.
J. O. Davidson, packer, arrived at Ware with his pack-train on June 15th, having already
relayed about 2% tons of previously ordered supplies to Fox Pass on the Fox River. Mr.
W. H. Forrest, B.C.L.S., with three men left Ware on June 15th in advance of the main party
in order to improve the trail between Ware and Sifton Pass. The remainder of the party
left Ware on June 18th with twenty horses packed and arrived at Driftpile Camp, on the
Driftpile River, on June 23rd. Before leaving Victoria a message had been forwarded to
J. 0. Davidson, instructing him to have two 36-foot boats constructed so that we could utilize
the Kechika River to the fullest extent for transportation purposes, thus saving time and
horse-flesh. The boat for my party was ready for use when we arrived at Driftpile Camp,
except for caulking of the seams. Standing green timber was felled, limbed, peeled, whip-
sawed into boards, and the boat completed ready for use in thirteen days by two men. Two
additional men, Fred Forsbery and Ludwig Snnaaslet, were taken on the strength of the party
at Ware, primarily on account of their extensive knowledge of the country in general and
their skill in handling boats. Due to shallow water, log-jams, and other impediments to navigation between Driftpile and Big Creek, it was decided to make the mouth of the latter creek
the head of navigation and a cache was built there where the pack-train could unload and
store supplies, which were later loaded on the boat and carried down river to Chee House,
from which point pack-horses were again used for transportation purposes. Actual survey
operations commenced on July 5th and were carried on continuously until September 14th,
when the party started for Dease Lake and the outside. During the latter part of the season
the business of keeping up supplies was greatly simplified, due to the fact that they could be
procured at Boulder Creek, which is only a four-day return trip from our last camp (Camp
No. 11). Altogether thirty stations were occupied during the season and three additional
stations were set but not occupied owing to poor weather conditions.
From the Kechika River Valley the triangulation network wras extended approximately 60
miles south-westerly in the general direction of Dease Lake, with a view to eventually making
a connection with an existing network in that vicinity, thus closing an extensive circuit. U 28 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
Physical Characteristics of the Kechika and Turnagain River Valleys.
Unlike the Kechika River Valley, which.is remarkably straight throughout its length, the
Turnagain Valley twists and turns to a considerable degree. It has no large tributaries, but
is fed by numerous mountain torrents. The mountains are quite rugged and in some cases
almost inaccessible. The valley-bottom is generally narrow and in places the river flows
between canyon walls. The main tributaries are Sand Creek and Mosquito Creek. The
former heads in a small lake about 6 miles east of the southerly end of Deadwood Lake and
is only a small creek during the low-water period, but it has a wide bed strewn with drift and
is probably a very turbulent creek at high stages of water, although easily fordable generally;
flowing in a north-easterly direction for several miles from its head it turns abruptly and
flows south-easterly, emptying into the Turnagain River about 11 miles above the confluence
of that river with the Kechika River.
Mosquito Creek heads in two small lakes about 2 miles north-easterly from the point
where the Turnagain River and the Chee House-Dease Lake Trail come together. It is fed
by numerous mountain streams and, although swift in spots, is easily fordable. It flows for
some distance through a canyon.
The largest lake encountered during the season was Deadwood Lake, which has an
average width of approximately 1% miles, the length being approximately 12 miles.
That portion of the Kechika River Valley covered by the season's operations extends from
Denatiah Creek to the mouth of the Turnagain River. The valley is straight and of considerable width, with many extensive meadows and a number of small lakes scattered over
the valley-bottom. The river itself is very crooked and divides itself into several channels in
places. There are high cut-banks at intervals, but usually the river is easy of access. There
is about 2 miles of canyon with fast water and some extremely sharp turns between No. 4
Camp and the mouth of the Gataga River. Extensive sand and gravel bars appear during
stages of low water. The floor of the valley is generally fairly level, but occasionally broken
by low knolls and ridges. No large tributaries enter the Kechika River between the mouth
of the Gataga River and Chee House, though it is fed by numerous mountain streams.
Forest-cover.
Below the 4,000-foot level there is a medium coverage of jack-pine and Canada spruce.
The timber is generally small, due to the northern latitude and high average elevation above
sea-level. A few scattered tamarack were noticed in the swamps. In addition to the coniferous varieties mentioned above, aspen, cottonwood, and occasional patches of birch are found
in the valley and on the lower slopes of the mountains. Timber-line lies slightly above the
5,000-foot contour, although for several hundred feet below that contour only scattered
patches of alpine balsam are found.
There is very little timber of commercial size, though in certain sheltered areas patches
of spruce over 2 feet in diameter were noticed. Some of the level bench lands lying between
the base of the mountains and the river-banks produce a good quality of jack-pine, tall and
straight with few limbs. There is no underbrush and very little vegetation in these areas, as
the soil is of poor quality, lacking in humus, and apparently only suitable for the production
of the above variety of timber. There are patches of old burn where windfalls are plentiful,
but, generally speaking, the region seems to have escaped extensive conflagrations.
Vegetation.
Except in the areas covered by jack-pine, there is a fairly heavy growth of vegetation
and wild grasses. Wild berries are quite plentiful in certain areas. Among the varieties
noticed were red currants, black currants, gooseberries, saskatoons, raspberries, strawberries,
and cranberries. There were also some huckleberries and blueberries, but they were generally
small in size and by no means plentiful. In the valley of the Kechika River there is an
abundance of good grass. There are numerous quite extensive meadows, some of which
produce a heavy growth of swamp-hay while others produce a variety of wild grasses, which
afford excellent pasture for horses. Good side-hill grazing is found at intervals along both
the Kechika and Turnagain Rivers. These side-hills produce a good species of bunch-grass,
and tufts of sage-brush and deadwood were noticed in places well exposed to the sun. TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR DISTRICT. U 29
Game and Fur-bearing Animals.
Sheep are quite numerous and flocks ranging from two or three to a score or more in
number may be seen almost any day ranging the mountain pastures above timber-line. They
are grey in colour and are thought locally to be of the species known as Stone's.
Goat are also plentiful and are often seen in large herds. Being almost snow-white the
flocks are easily discernible against the green of the mountain-slopes from a distance of a mile
or more, with the aid of field-glasses.
Few moose or caribou were noticed during the summer, but the latter were seen in large
numbers towards fall.
Both black and grizzly bear were noticed on numerous occasions and wolves are plentiful.
Two trappers who hold registered trap-lines on the Rabbit River informed me that during
the winter months they have seen wolf-packs from thirty to sixty in number roaming the
frozen rivers.
Of the game birds, willow and blue grouse are quite plentiful and large flocks of ptarmigan were generally to be seen on the higher slopes of the mountains. Among the fur-bearing
animals trapped are beaver, lynx, marten, mink, fox, wolverine, and muskrat. Lynx proved
to be the main catch of the only white trappers in the region.
Climate.
Precipitation is moderate, probably not exceeding 20 inches. Showers occur frequently,
even during the summer, but are not heavy. Some very severe electric storms occurred
during the summer, making it risky to occupy the high stations during such storms. The
weather is very unpredictable and is inclined to change very suddenly. On more than one
occasion within an hour after sending a favourable weather report to the aerial photography
party, the sky would become overcast, making photography out of the question for that day.
The average depth of snow during the winter months is less than 2 feet in the Kechika
Valley, but there is a heavier fall in the Turnagain Valley. There are certain light snowfall
areas and the depth varies considerably within short distances. From information obtained
from people who have wintered in the remote region, there was only 4 inches of snow in that
portion of the Kechika Valley between Big Creek and No. 6 Camp at the end of December,
1939. The depth increases as one travels south-easterly from Big Creek towards Sifton Pass,
and likewise increases as one travels north-westerly to the Liard River from No. 6 Camp.
Accessibility.
Access to the region is gained by following either of the two main water routes. One
route is by way of Wrangell, Alaska, and up the Stikine River to Telegraph Creek; whence
a road follows the valley of the Tanzilla River and connects with Dease Lake. There is a
tractor-road between Dease Lake and Boulder Creek, where extensive placer-mining has
been done, but the road is poorly defined in places owing to the fact that it has mainly been
used as a winter road when there was considerable depth of snow on the ground. From
Boulder Creek there is a pack-trail to Chee House at the mouth of the Turnagain River, from
which point trails branch south-easterly to Ware and north-westerly to Lower Post, on the
Liard River. The Barrington Transportation Company of Wrangell, Alaska, provides a bimonthly boat service between Wrangell and Telegraph Creek.
The other route starting from Summit Lake, north of Prince George, follows the Crooked,
Pack, and Parsnip Rivers to their confluence with the Peace at Finlay Forks, and then up
the last-named river to Fort Ware, near the mouth of the Whitewater River. The remainder
of the journey is by trail, following the valley of the Fox River to Sifton Pass, then down
the Kechika River. The choice of route depends on which part of the region one wishes to
visit. During the summer there is a bi-monthly aeroplane mail and passenger service between
Prince George and Fort. Ware. There is also a plane stationed at Dease Lake which can be
chartered for trips to any part of the region where there is a large enough body of water to
make a safe landing and take off.
General.
The country has no permanent residents at present, although there are two white trappers
with registered trap-lines on the Rabbit River. J. 0. Davidson, packer, wintered in the
Kechika River Valley a few miles north of the mouth of the Gataga River.    The fact that U 30 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
his horses were in excellent shape in the following spring speaks well for the climate and the
amount of winter feed available. Conditions are favourable for stock-raising on a moderate
scale if markets were available, and a considerable amount of hay could be cut on the many
large and small meadows scattered along the valley. There is also a moderate amount of good
open hillside grazing at intervals along both sides of the valley.
Specimens of copper ore were noticed west of the Turnagain River and pieces of coal
float were seen on the bars along the Kechika River. Signs of extensive placer-mining were
found on Walker Creek, a small stream which flows south-westerly into Deadwood Lake.
Remains of at least twelve old cabins and numerous pieces of whip-sawed flume lumber were
found scattered along the creek.
Horse-feed is not as plentiful in the Turnagain Valley as in the Kechika Valley and our
main camps had to be spaced carefully in order that the horses could get sufficient good
pasture.
Approximately 10 miles of new trail were constructed and some 80 miles of existing
trail improved by clearing windfalls and brushing out. Unfortunately, new work is necessary each season due to washouts, fresh windfalls, etc. The trail-work was very capably
supervised by W. H. Forrest, B.C.L.S., who had to keep over 200 miles of trail in such shape
that supplies could be kept continually on the move by pack-train. In such circumstances it
was found impractical to spend very much time on any particular section of trail, and the
work had to be distributed over the whole trail in order to facilitate the transportation of
supplies as the work was carried forward.
The region is very remote and largely unprospected as yet and likely to remain so until
less expensive means of access are obtained.
No doubt valuable information regarding the possible mineral resources will be forthcoming from Dr. Holland and Dr. Hedley.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, KECHIKA VALLEY.
By N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical survey carried
out by me, under your instructions, during the field season of 1940.
The area controlled is situated in the portion of the Rocky Mountain Trench extending
for 55 miles north-westerly from Sifton Pass. This area was photographed from the air by
Jack Benton, of the Forestry Branch. The air photographs were controlled by photo-
topographical methods, and the camera stations tied by triangulation to a network laid down
by Hugh Pattinson, B.C.L.S., in 1939. A map is being prepared at a scale of V2 mile to 1
inch, with a contour interval of 100 feet.    The area covered is approximately 500 square miles.
The field party consisted of W. J. Moffatt, B.C.L.S., A. G. Slocomb and G. C. Emerson,
instrument-men; three helpers, two horse-packers, two river-boatmen, and a cook. Nine
horses were provided. Lumber was whip-sawed near the headwaters of the Kechika River,
and a 36-foot river-boat built, engines and gas being packed over from Ware. Dr. M. S.
Hedley, of the Department of Mines, and an assistant worked out from our camps. The
party was organized at Prince George on June 7th, and disbanded there on October 1st.
Physical Features.
From Sifton Pass the Rocky Mountain Trench continues in a remarkably straight line,
bearing about N. 30° W. Twenty-seven miles north of the Pass a rounded mountain juts out
into the trench from the west side. From this mountain, the trench can be viewed for over
100 miles. The Kechika River, rising in the mountains near Sifton Pass, flows through the
trench for some 110 miles, when it swings north-easterly to join the Liard. Near the pass
the Kechika is a mere creek, but numerous streams entering from both the east and west soon
increase its size, making it navigable for flat-bottomed river-boats. The main branches are
Rainbow Creek, 22 miles north;   the Black River, 45 miles north;   and the Gataga, 50 miles TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, KECHIKA VALLEY. U 31
north of Sifton Pass. Rainbow Creek and Black River are clear streams entering from the
west. The Gataga enters from the east. It is a silt-laden stream, about equal in volume to
the Kechika. Several other tributaries, which had little water when we saw them, had beds
from 100 to 250 feet in width.
For most of the distance from Sifton Pass to Gataga Forks the river-flat is narrow and
flanked by terraces, those along the easterly side being very well defined. The mountains on
either side of the trench are rounded and rise to altitudes of over 7,000 feet above the sea.
On the west side there are several low limestone ridges and dykes. In the trench are numerous small lakes and meadows.    Beyond Gataga Forks the trench is wider and flatter.
The descent of the valley-floor from Sifton Pass (altitude 3,273 feet) averages 30 feet to
the mile for the first 14 miles and 18 feet to the mile for the next 36 miles.
Forest.
The ridges and benches of the trench-floor are wooded with jack-pine and poplar, quite
open in places. The swamps and meadows found along the river and on the benches are
usually surrounded by a fringe of small spruce. The slopes of the mountains are covered
with jack-pine, poplar, and some spruce and balsam, with a dense undergrowth of willow,
alder, and soapalalie. The area has been frequently burnt over, consequently there is little
merchantable timber. Wild flowers abound, over one hundred varieties were collected.
Blueberries, strawberries, and cranberries were not plentiful. Timber-line is at an approximate altitude of 5,000 feet above sea-level.
Minerals.
Coal float, a poor quality lignite, was found in several places in this area, and a few gold
colours were panned in the streams. Iron and copper oxidization were seen in the rocks along
Rainbow Creek; in fact, it was from these coloured rocks the stream derived its local name.
Limestone outcrops all along the west side of the trench.
Game.
Game is plentiful north of Sifton Pass. Goat, sheep, moose, bear (both black and
grizzly), wolves, coyotes, rabbits, beaver, porcupines, squirrels, and muskrats were seen
during the summer. It was a good season for fool-hens, willow and blue grouse, and ptarmigan on the mountain-tops. A few ducks and geese hatched in the valley. Dolly Varden and
Arctic grayling provided fish for the camp. The whole area is divided into registered trap-
lines.    The chief fur-bearing animals are beaver, marten, fox, fisher, and mink.
Climate.
We experienced showery weather throughout the season. There were a few warm and
clear days after the middle of August. Summer frosts occurred but were not bad. Snow
appeared on the higher peaks on August 13th and again on September 16th. The weather
is quite cold in the winter, but the snowfall is not great. There was less than 4 feet at
Sifton Pass during the past winter, and below Gataga Forks not more than 1 foot of snow
covered the ground.    Our horses wintered there quite well, coming out fat in the spring.
Accessibility.
This area is reached by pack-trail from Ware. Considerable improvements were made
on this trail during the season. The trail follows the east side of the trench, through this
area and beyond to Chee House at the mouth of the Turnagain River, where it connects with
the " Davy " trail from Lower Post on the Liard, and with the trail from Dease Lake via
Boulder and Mosquito Creeks in the Turnagain watershed. There is also a trail to the east
from Chee House that connects with other trails leading to Fort Nelson. Horse-feed is
plentiful in the numerous meadows found near these trails.
It is said by trappers around Lower Post that it is possible to reach the Upper Kechika
by boat from Lower Post, but that the Liard River just above the mouth of the Kechika is
rather difficult to navigate.
Scoop Lake, situated not far from the mouth of the Turnagain, is quite suitable for
a plane base—we tested it out during the fall. U 32 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
There will be little difficulty in constructing a road in the Rocky Mountain Trench northward from Sifton Pass. The gradient is very slight and long, fairly open stretches should
provide a straight alignment. Apparently no rock-work would be necessary and gravel is
always within easy reach.
Except for the trails and a few Indian cabins, there is little sign of man's endeavours in
this area. It is likely that a small amount of mixed farming will be carried on in the
Kechika Valley when it is accessible. I saw some white clover growing in a meadow about
6 miles north of Sifton Pass. The seed had been scattered in the meadow some five years
ago by a trapper, without any attempt at cultivation. Also at Lower Post I saw some very
fine vegetables, including lettuce, turnips, carrots, cabbages, and potatoes. Fur-farming
should do well and big-game hunting could be carried on now.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, COQUITLAM LAKE.
By Alan J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical surveys
carried out by me, under your instructions, during the season of 1940.
The area assigned included that part of Map-sheet 92 G/7 lying to the east of Indian
Arm, and, as one of the objects of the survey was to define on the map the boundaries of the
Coquitlam Lake watershed, it was required that the survey be extended northerly into 92
G/10, as far as necessary to do this. Map-sheet 92 G/7 had been covered with aerial photographs in 1930 by the Air Force, and in 1939 and 1940 enough of 92 G/10 was flown, by the
Forest Branch, to cover the Coquitlam Lake watershed. Thus we were able to employ, as
most of the country was mountainous, our usual combination of photo-topographical views
and aerial views for the compilation of the map.
For triangulation control, the instructions were to extend from the stations Cathedral and
Mesiloet, established by J. T. Underhill in 1928, easterly, across the Coquitlam and Pitt
Valleys to the geodetic station " Allouette," situated south of Golden Ears Mountain and
close to the east boundary of our area. The stations required to complete this programme
were selected, before leaving for the field, from photographs taken during former surveys
west of Indian Arm, and it was carried out precisely as laid down. It was specially mentioned in the instructions that an attempt be made to get a reading from Cathedral on Little
Mountain geodetic triangulation station in Vancouver. This gave considerable worry, as it
was known from former experience that the blanket of smoke, which hung continually over
the city, made it impossible, except on rare occasions, to get such reading, or, as it was said,
the only time to get it was on a clear Sunday, with a strong north wind, after it had rained
all Saturday. It was a clear Monday when Cathedral was occupied this time, and it was
only possible to get this reading by the use of a heliotrope, devised from two shaving-mirrors,
to send a beam of light from Little Mountain towards the observer on Cathedral.
The field party consisted of R. D. Fraser and A. H. Ralfs as assistants, a cook, and
generally four helpers. It was organized at Coquitlam on June 15th and partially disbanded
near the end of September and finally disbanded on October 31st. The Coquitlam Lake watershed is under the jurisdiction of the Greater Vancouver Water Board; also the British
Columbia Electric Railway Company, due to an agreement made at the time their dam at the
outlet of Coquitlam Lake and their tunnel from that lake to Buntzen Lake was built, is
responsible for policing and protecting the area. It was therefore necessary for all members
of the party to have blood tests made satisfactory to the Water Board, and for us to obtain
permission from the British Columbia Electric Railway Company before being allowed to
enter the watershed. The blood test is made to make certain that no person entering a water
district is a typhoid carrier, or has typhoid germs in his blood-stream. Such persons are
rare, so it was rather disturbing when three members of the party were required to have
a second test to satisfy the medical authorities.    It developed that all of them had, twenty or TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, COQUITLAM LAKE. U 33
more years ago, been inoculated for typhoid and that traces still remained in their systems, so
they were given their cards.
The south part of Map-sheet 92 G/7 is in the settled areas along the main line of the
C.P.R. and includes either the whole or north parts of several municipalities. Included is the
north part of Burnaby, the whole of Port Moody, the Imperial Oil Company town of loco,
north parts of Coquitlam and Port Coquitlam. East of the Pitt River the sheet includes
small parts along the north boundaries of the Municipalities of Pitt Meadows and Maple
Ridge. Outside the area covered by these municipalities there is no land, except from some
of the dyked meadows along the Pitt River, which is ever likely to be considered as suitable
for settlement. The Coquitlam watershed is, of course, not open for settlement and probably never will be. Around the lake the slopes are steep and rocky. On the west, between
the lake and the Indian Arm, they rise, very steeply, to a broken-topped ridge, mostly timber
covered, around 4,000 to 4,500 feet altitude. On the east are similar slopes, but somewhat
more broken by the valleys of small creeks which head in small valleys generally holding-
one or more small lakes. On this side are found rocky peaks over 5,000 feet in height.
Coquitlam River rises in Disappointment Lake, 3,400 feet in altitude and around 12 miles
above the lake. The valley is narrow and in many places slides of large rocks, thinly
covered with moss and some trees, come down to the river-level, making the valley rather
difficult travelling. About 6 miles above the lake, a small creek joins the river from the west
and leads to a pass of approximately 1,900 feet altitude, over to Hixon Creek, and thence to
the Indian River. This is the only break on the west side of the watershed. The only break
on the east side of the valley is a small lake-filled gap around 3,000 feet in height on a
branch creek near the north end, leading over to Pitt River waters. It follows that the
Coquitlam watershed generally has well-defined boundaries.
Widgeon Creek Valley, with the exception of a portion of meadow-land at its mouth,
where it joins the Pitt River, is quite narrow, with steep slopes rising on each side. A comparatively low pass at its head leads over to Pitt Lake. Widgeon Lake, about 1% miles
long and 2,550 feet altitude, is held in a hanging valley to the west of the main valley, about
7 miles up from Pitt River.
Pitt Lake is similar to Coquitlam in having steep, rocky slopes rising directly from the
water. Even the deltas at the mouths of the few creeks are small and quite rocky. This
lake is practically at sea-level and has a 2-foot tide. At the foot of the lake are extensive
shallows, partly exposed at low water but generally covered to a depth of 2 or more feet.
This is evidently a continuation of the process which built up the Pitt Meadows, through
which the Pitt meanders below the lake on its way to join the Fraser River. The channel
through these narrows is marked by buoys for the benefit of the many tug-boats and small
craft that travel the lake. The shallows, and the channel through them, are plainly visible
on the aerial pictures.
Large areas of the more accessible and better timbered areas have been logged and are
slowly coming into reproduction. Coquitlam Lake area is reserved as a water area and hence
not logged, so the slopes are still covered with the old growth. Around Pitt Lake the areas
adjacent to the shore have, to a large extent, been logged over, but several outfits are operating
in side valleys towards the upper part of the lake, and, I believe, operations on a large scale
are proceeding on the Upper Pitt River. One outfit is logging by truck from 2,000 feet
altitude and over on the ridge east of Coquitlam River.
Hemlock, cedar, fir, and balsam are the principal species noted in the area. In the older
logged area, where reproduction has well started, hemlock and cedar are predominant.
Generally the logged areas are covered with alder and poplar, to small brush on the later
logged areas. The Forest Branch, during the past year, made an extensive cruise of the
whole area and their maps and reports will provide detailed information of the forest-cover.
No evidence of minerals was noted during the season and no mining is in operation.
The Viking group of claims on the east shore of Pitt Lake, near the south end, have seen
considerable activity over a period of years. A 75-ton mill has been erected on this property
by the Pitt Mining Company, but no work was being done, during the past season. Two
quarries, one on the Indian Arm and the other on the Pitt River, are in operation. The
crushed granite rock is used in general construction-work. U 34 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
Generally the usual coast weather can be expected, but the past summer was exceptionally dry, and this was to our disadvantage in respect to the photographic and triangulation part of the work. Due to the prolonged dry spell the smoke from Vancouver and the
neighbouring centres became more dense and prevalent, and made it necessary to visit some
stations several times before reasonably satisfactory results were obtained. It is reported,
as one would expect, that the annual rain and snowfall is much heavier among the hills to
the north than over the lower parts to the south.
Some black bear, Coast deer, and mountain-goat were seen, but cannot be called plentiful.
Grouse were encountered generally, but were not numerous. It is reported that ducks are to
be found in large numbers during the season around the Pitt Meadows.
The accessibility of this area is too well known to require any comment. The settled
area along our south boundary is, of course, well supplied with roads. Outlying roads that
might be mentioned include the pipe-line road to Coquitlam Lake, the Quarry Road to the
quarry on Pitt River, and the roads that extend well north in the Pitt Meadows east of the
river. Pitt Lake is served by a small boat, for passengers and freight, making three trips
a week, serving the logging camps located there. Coquitlam Lake is not open to the public
and no trails were found there, but a trail from loco leads up on to ridge to the west of the
lake, used principally by hikers and mountaineers from the big city. From the quarry road
a zigzag trail leads up the steep slopes to reach Munroe Lake, and other trails run north
from Port Haney to the hills below the Golden Ears Mountain.
The usual map-sheets are being prepared, with a contour interval of 100 feet, for publication, on a scale of 1 mile to 1 inch.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, NEAR ALBERNI.
By R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith beg to report upon topographical surveys carried on by me during the
1940 season. Your instructions, dated June 1st, assigned to me an area on Vancouver Island,
comprised of the south-west portion of Map-sheet 92 F/2 and parts of adjoining sheets, north
and west, which could be done during the season. The area lies east and west of the Alberni
Inlet and extends north to Sproat Lake. The south boundary comprises sheets completed
two years ago by Messrs. A. J. Campbell and G. J. Jackson, B.C. Land Surveyors. Coverage
by air photography had been done some years ago by the R.C.A.F., and the usual methods
were carried out by us to control the air photographs for the purpose of preparing a map
for publication on a scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, with contours at 100 feet vertical intervals.
Field-work was started on June 8th. For horizontal and vertical control, photo-topography
was used generally. In places, elevations were helped out by barometer or logging survey
plans. Again the Hydrographic Survey stations on the inlets were, as a rule, easily identified
on the air views, and used for horizontal control at salt water. The main triangulation for
the area had been started by the Geological Survey of Canada in 1910. Later the Geodetic
Survey started a primary net. In 1928, L. S. Cokely, B.C.L.S., for the British Columbia
Government, expanded further triangulation on the Island, making numerous land survey
ties. In 1938, Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S., continued triangulation-work as a base for the
topographical surveys. In order to complete various triangulation readings, we occupied the
geodetic stations Lucky and Klitsa. The customary procedure of marking our subsidiary
triangulation stations was followed, standard brass bolts or B.C.L.S. iron bars being used at
all important ones. At times the iron bars were placed at measured offsets from the instrumental stations where rock prevented driving. The triangulation instrument used in all
cases was the Wild. Therefore all station and monument positions may be computed with
accuracy. Ilford panchromatic and infra-red plates were used for ground photographs, as in
the past. Owing to extreme smoke conditions from the burning of logging slash we closed
down on September 11th. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, NEAR ALBERNI. U 35
The whole area under survey, except the portion adjacent to Alberni and Port Alberni,
is of a steep mountainous nature, and where not logged off, has, with some other small
exceptions, a thick forest-cover. The underbrush, as usual in the west coast country, is very
thick. The timber species consist of Douglas fir, hemlock, cedar, balsam, some spruce, and
white pine. Scrubby black pine also appears in parts. The high ridges rise to alpine areas,
with the highest peaks to the west bare. The Klitsa station (5,388 feet above the sea) is
on the highest mountain of the Klitsa Range, and is south of the west end of Sproat Lake.
This lake, in a beautiful mountain setting, is well known to many as a summer resort and
for its fishing. The main body is about 13 miles long, the east end being about 7 miles by
road from Alberni. Klitsa Lodge, at Reeves Point, on the north shore, is a well-known
rendezvous for tourists, and on a hot day, Bishops Landing, on the south side, swarms with
bathers. Two other large lakes in the area done, but smaller than Sproat, are worthy of
mention; these are Nahmint and Henderson. The former, south of Sproat Lake, empties
into the Nahmint River, which in turn flows into the Alberni Inlet, some 15 miles south of
Alberni. Nahmint Lake has good fishing but is difficult to reach, a trail from Two Rivers
Arm, on Sproat Lake, being the best route. Henderson Lake, about 10 miles long, and only
a few feet above salt water, empties through a short outlet into Uchucklesit Inlet. The
valley, like that of Nahmint, is steep and narrow. At the top end is the old fish-hatchery, at
present not operating. A meteorological station at this point, some years back, registered
a total precipitation for one year at about 320 inches, thus giving the locality a very wet
reputation which has never been lived down. It is said that during the winter, at that time,
the water in the lake rose over 20 feet, causing great inconvenience to those working at the
hatchery.
The forest provides the main industry. The Bloedel, Stewart & Welch Company has
large logging camps at Great Central Lake and Franklin River, with a new camp opened
recently at Coleman Creek. Mills of the Company are located at Great Central Lake and
Port Alberni. The Alberni Pacific Lumber Company is a pioneer in that industry in the
Alberni area, and is logging in areas north of Alberni at present, hauling logs by rail to the
mill at Port Alberni. On the north shore of Sproat Lake is the mill of the Sproat Lake
Lumber Company. This Company is logging south of the Stirling Arm of Sproat Lake.
All of these plants, together with some smaller outfits, give the district a very considerable
pay-roll.
The Alberni Inlet is a very busy stretch of water, as well as Barkley Sound and all
adjoining inlets. Freighters loaded with export lumber and hog-fuel are leaving Port Alberni
continually. Fishing-boats are very numerous. The wharves at Port Alberni are a veritable
sea of craft of various kinds. A mail-boat, carrying passengers, plies up and down the inlet
from the port to points on Barkley Sound some three times a week. The C.P.R. west coast
service makes regular trips in and out. There are some very good small passenger-boats
available, including speed boats, for traffic down the inlet. At Kildonan, on Uchucklesit
Inlet, is located a fish canning and reduction plant of the B.C. Packers Company. The
Company also operates a particularly good general store. A short distance south the Union
Oil Company has a plant, very convenient for gas-boats plying in the neighbourhood. South
of this again, at Green Cove, is a saltery. In season large quantities of fish are handled here
and shipped out.
Very little mining was being done in the area under survey. The Thistle gold mine, up
the North Fork of Franklin Creek, and reached by an old logging-railway grade turned into
a truck-road, was sending truck-loads of ore 12 miles to Underwood Cove on the Alberni
Inlet. This was then shipped to the smelter at Tacoma. At the 3W mine, up Corrigan
Creek, some work was being done and a small amount of ore deposited at the Bloedel, Stewart
& Welch Company logging-railway for shipment out.
The Alberni district seemed to be in a very prosperous condition, judging by the amount
of new building and other work going on. The main highway, leading in from the east,
carried a heavy traffic of freight-trucks, passenger buses, and private cars in and out of
Alberni and Port Alberni. The E. & N. Railway serves both towns with passenger and
freight service. The weather during the summer was dry, with plenty of hot days. Down
the inlet, and in the area adjacent to Henderson and Nahmint Lake particularly, there was
a good deal of rain and much fog, causing us considerable loss of time. However, this must
be expected on the west coast. U 36 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
Little game was seen other than grouse. There are deer and some black bear, cougars,
and wolves in the outlying parts. I saw the first wolf this summer that I have seen since
working on the island.
Before closing this report I would like to say that we are much indebted to Bloedel,
Stewart & Welch, Limited; the Sproat Lake Lumber Company; and the District Forest
Ranger's office for courtesies extended, especially in the matter of transportation.
As usual, the summer's work is being mapped on a scale of 2 inches to 1 mile in sheets
according to the National Topographic Series.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, NORTHERLY VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the photo-topographic survey
made by me, under your instructions, during the 1940 season.
The area covered lies along the north shore of Vancouver Island, between the Nimpkish
River and Hardy Bay, and consists of that portion of Vancouver Island lying north of latitude 50° 30' and between longitudes 127° 00' and 127° 30'. It also includes the islands
adjacent, which are Malcolm, Haddington, Cormorant, Pearse, Plumper, Hanson, Swanson,
and Lewis Islands. The areas on Vancouver Island to the east, south, and west have been
completed in former years.
The area has all been covered by vertical aerial views taken by the Royal Canadian Air
Force. The triangulation is controlled by stations of the Geodetic Survey of Canada, by
stations of the B.C. triangulation system, and by stations of the B.C. Coast triangulation.
Elevations were obtained from sea-level, checking with stations of former years.
There are no bare hills in the area, and the only hills of sufficient height to overlook the
country are along the southerly boundary. All hills occupied required a great deal of
clearing before they were of any use. Horizontal control was supplemented by triangulation
stations along the coast. Vertical control was obtained by barometer, when it could not be
obtained from views.
During the season seventy camera stations and three triangulation stations were occupied.
Thirty dozen views were taken, four land ties made, and many barometer readings taken.
Many days were lost on account of rain and fog.
The Vancouver Island section is comparatively low, with the exception of isolated hills
1,000 feet high, or less. The general level does not reach 500 feet until the base of 4,000-
foot hills along the southerly boundary are reached. Most of it drains northward by the
Nimpkish, Cluxewe, Keogh, and Quatse Rivers, but the south-west section drains westward
into Varney Bay and Rupert Inlet by Marble River and Wankaas Creek.
Except for many small lakes and swamps, the area is completely timbered. The predominating timber is hemlock, balsam, and cedar. There are large areas of windfalls grown
up with a dense stand of small hemlock. There is also a dense growth of salal, which, with
the windfalls, makes part of the country nearly impenetrable.
There are good harbours at Port McNeill and Hardy Bay.
There is little permanent settlement in the area. There are several settlers along the
shore, west of the Nimpkish River. At Port McNeill there is a wharf and several logging
camps. At Fort Rupert, the site of the old Hudson's Bay Company post of that name,
established in 1849, there are a few-white families and a few Indians. Hardy Bay is a town
with several stores and hotels, a school, and a wharf.
The only road is a motor-road across the island from Hardy Bay to Coal Harbour.
There are few trails and these few are poor ones. At one time there were good trails from
Port McNeill to Rupert Inlet and from Fort Rupert to Rupert Inlet, but these are practically
obliterated now by windfalls and brush.
A Government telephone-line follows along the coast to Hardy Bay and across to Coal
Harbour by the road. SURVEYS, PEACE  RIVER DISTRICT. U 37
The only industries are logging and fishing. Logging is mostly confined to the vicinity
of Port McNeill at present. The Pioneer Timber Company has a large camp here and there
are also several smaller outfits.    These all use trucks to haul the logs to salt water.
Trolling and purse-seining for salmon is carried on all along the coast.
There is no mining in the area at present, but there is a coal area extending several
miles inland from the coast, between Port McNeill and Fort Rupert. Here, in about the
year 1835, the first discovery of coal on Vancouver Island was made. In the next few years
the Hudson's Bay Company did some development-work and mined about 10,000 tons of coal
at Suquash, about 8 miles east of their post at Fort Rupert. As late as 1922 development-
work was done at Suquash by the Pacific Coast Coal Mines, Limited. A number of shafts
and levels were driven and buildings erected. Now this is all overgrown and the buildings
are falling to pieces. The coal is of excellent quality, very hard and practically smokeless.
The seam at Suquash averages about 6 feet.
On Haddington Island there is a quarry of the best building-stone on the coast. From
here the stone for the Parliament Buildings in Victoria was obtained. The quarry is idle at
present.
Game and fur-bearing animals are scarce. There are a few bear, deer, and grouse
scattered over the area. In the fall and winter there are a number of geese and ducks
along the coast.
There are trout in nearly all the lakes, rivers, and creeks. Salmon run up all the rivers
to spawn.    Cod and halibut are caught along the coast.
The climate is not subject to extremes of heat or cold. Rainfall is heavy, but snowfall
light, except at high altitudes.    There was a lot of fog during August and September.
Malcolm Island is 15 miles long, with an extreme width of 3 miles and an average width
of 2 miles. The highest elevation is 400 feet. It is timbered with hemlock, cedar, and
balsam, with a dense growth of salal, and in many places there are windfalls. Most of the
best timber has been logged. There are two bays with fair shelter on the south side of the
island, but none on the north. There is a scattered settlement along the south shore, and at
Sointula, on Rough Bay, there is a Government wharf, school, post-office, and co-operative
store. The people are all Finlanders, who settled here about 1900, and their descendants.
They do some farming, but their chief source of income is from fishing and from working in
the near-by logging camps. There is a road running eastward from Sointula for a few miles,
but otherwise few trails.
Cormorant Island is 2% miles long by % to 1 mile wide. Alert Bay is situated on the
south side; it is the chief town of the district. The wharf, Government Buildings, wireless,
post-office, and hospital are here, also a number of stores and a B.C. Packers cannery.
There is an Indian village and large Indian school.
Pearse Islands and Plumper Islands are groups of very small, rocky islands with little
on them but scrubby timber.
Hanson, Swanson, and Lewis Islands are 5, 3, and 2 square miles in area, respectively.
They are rocky, but timbered with hemlock, balsam, and cedar. On Hanson Island, at
Double Bay, and on Swanson Island, at Freshwater Bay, there are excellent harbours for
.rollers, and a fish-buying camp at each place.
The work on the maps is now in progress and the usual plans are being prepared.
SURVEYS ALONG EAST PINE-COMMOTION CREEK
ROAD, PEACE RIVER DISTRICT.
By Duncan Cran, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS.
The graded highway which passes through the uplands of this area is from between 600
and 650 feet, near the east end, to about 750 feet, near the west end, above the Pine River, U 38 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1940.
which it roughly parallels at a distance therefrom of about three-quarters of a mile. The
greatest width of level country between the road and the breaks of the Pine to the south-east
and south is about a quarter of a mile. Part of this strip is broken by coulees, the heads of
which are skirted by the road. The small river-flat in the extreme west is about 60 feet
above the river. Part of the river-flat farther down the river was flooded in the early spring
of last year, due to heavy rains up-river and an ice-jam below the ferry. It caused the loss
of stock, trapped in a barn, belonging to the Maddens, who moved to higher ground. The
same flood caused several deaths in the vicinity. The almost bare hillside, 10 to 15 chains
in width, just over the breaks, passes through Lots 1459-1463, 1467, and 1472, and although
in most part steep, is suitable for grazing. A flat bench, about 340 feet above the river-flat,
occupies parts of Lots 1459-1461. Lots 1468-1471 consist of small benches with intervening
comparatively easy slopes. Lot 1472 is mostly cut up with deep coulees, but is suitable for
grazing.    The rest of the area surveyed is for the most part nearly level or slightly rolling.
MEANS OF ACCESS.
A fairly good road from Dawson Creek enters the area from the east. From the top of
the hill (just east of the north-west corner of Lot 1468) this road has recently been rerouted
and constructed by the use of bulldozer, elevating grader, and LeTourneau carry-all; the
latter machine eliminating all sharp pitches and widening the ditches. This road is now
practically completed as far as the oil-well at Commotion Creek, about 30 miles to the west.
SITUATION.
The East Pine post-office is at Madden's on Lot 1468 and about 1V2 miles by winding
road from the ferry across the Pine River. The post-office is about 49 miles by road from
Dawson Creek, end of steel, the latter point being the shipping-point for stock and grain.
If development of oil is successful there should be enlarged market for farm and garden
produce.    So far the farms farther up the river can supply the wants of the camp.
INDUSTRY.
Drilling for oil is proceeding at Commotion Creek. Good crops of oats on roughly cultivated ground were obtained this year on small areas on Lots 1468 and 1451, with a good crop
of potatoes on Lot 1468; this in spite of a dry season. Horses and cattle ranging over the
land surveyed were in good shape.
AGRICULTURAL POSSIBILITIES—SOIL.
The mineral soil is silt or, on part of the west area near the road on the higher ground,
very fine sand. Where the ground is untouched by fire there is leaf-mould about 3 inches
deep, but part of this has been burned in places, on the nearly open ground along the road
and on the middle bench near the river. The agricultural possibilities are fairly good and would
indicate mixed farming. There is sufficient surface water to keep a number of horses and
cattle on the uplands where the grass and weeds, including peavine and vetch, provide food.
Care would have to be taken to avoid broadcast fires in the summer and fall. The agricultural value has been incalculably impaired on vast areas by fires which have destroyed the
vegetable soil. The soil on most of the area surveyed, being of a loose nature, would be
excellent for potatoes. A limited number of cattle could be raised. A cattle-buyer visited
East Pine in October and bought a few head at a price satisfactory to the farmer.
TIMBER AND VEGETATION.
Most of the area, the uplands in particular, is covered by poplar and cottonwood averaging about 8 inches in diameter, with spruce in clumps or scattered and some willow-bottom.
The stand of poplar and cottonwood is in many cases fairly heavy. Except for a small area
along the road the clearing would cost from $15 to $50 an acre. Among the poplar, cottonwood, and willow the growth of weeds, including peavine, vetch, fireweed, and grass, is good,
but poor or short where fire has gone deep.
WATER.
I should consider this area to be comparatively well watered. Water from seepage or
a spring existed in October in the road-ditches between Lots 1454 and 1472, after supplying SURVEYS, PEACE RIVER DISTRICT. U 39
camp and stock needs. There are springs on Lots 1451, 1452, 1468, 1463, 1459, and 1467.
Considerable water in a small pond in October just west of Lot 1464 probably indicated being
fed by a spring, one being reported but not located near-by. Water was found by digging
in a swamp in Lot 1457. It was reported that water had been reached at 18 feet at a point
just off the road in Lot 1463.
CLIMATE.
Rainfall is generally sufficient for growing good crops. Snowfall varies greatly from
year to year, from a depth, on the ground, of less than 1 foot to almost 4 feet. The writer
has only seen it attain that depth once, however. As has been noted before, in connection
with rainfall in the Peace River country, showers are often local. Planting of wheat sometimes takes place in the latter part of April but generally early in May. It is generally
endeavoured to have cutting of grain done by September 1st, as the first fall of snow soon
after that is not unlikely. This year the crops were very good, due, to a great extent, to the
supply of subsoil moisture resulting from the rains last fall. The grade of wheat this year
is high, due to a dry harvest.    Crops may suffer from lack of moisture next year.
GAME.
Moose, deer, and bear, including, I believe, grizzlies, are quite plentiful between East
Pine and Commotion Creek. Bear were seen on the river and on the hillside while surveying.
There were a fair number of prairie-chicken and grouse.
SURVEY.
Transportation was entirely by car or truck; the car being used frequently to go to and
from work. Supplies were obtained from local small stores near the ferry; vegetables being
obtained from local gardens. Most of the time the crew consisted of a chainman and rodman,
two axemen, and cook. As some of the surveyor's time was taken with looking over or
cruising the country it was not considered advisable to have a larger crew. The road was
used as boundary of lots where location of same was definite. Where the road was posted
(by iron bars and wooden posts, as were the lot corners), other than at lot corners, it was
at the points of intersection of tangents of road boundaries, on the outside of curves. The
survey commenced at the breaks of the Pine River where it flows north and was jogged in
such a way to allow for future extension of survey to the north when and if settlement
and development warrants.
Five photographs accompany this report.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1941.
1,125-1141-4990 

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