Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1940

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0314085.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0314085.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0314085-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0314085-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0314085-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0314085-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0314085-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0314085-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0314085-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0314085.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
OF the
LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES
of the
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
for the
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 ST, 1939
HON. A. WELLS GRAY, MINISTER OP LANDS
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY  OF THE  LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :.
Printed by CiiAnr.ES F. Banfield, Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1940. Victoria, B.C., October 1st, 1940.
To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith  I beg respectfully to  submit the  Annual  Report of the  Lands  and  Survey
Branches of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1939.
A. WELLS GRAY,
Minister of Lands. Victoria, B.C., October 1st, 1940.
The Honourable A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1939.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands      5
Revenue      5
Sale of Town Lots  r     6
Pre-emption Records  .     7
Pre-emption and Homestead Exchanges      7
Land-sales   .    7
Land Inspections     8
Summary      9
Letters inward and outward    10
Coal Licences, Leases, etc.   10
Crown Grants issued   10
Total Acreage deeded   10
Home-site Leases   11 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., October 1st, 1940.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended December
31st, 1939.
Prom an analysis of the figures presented it will be noted that there is practically no
difference in the volume of business transacted during the previous year.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT OF REVENUE, YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st, 1939.
Land-sales.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Under " Taxation Act "—
$4,404.40
390.76
12,196.52
14,388.56
$4,404.40
Under " Land Act "—
$13,303.18
12,599.38
19,990.48
280.74
7,452.06
1,489.08
13,693.94
24,795.90
34,379.04
280.74
7,452.06
1,489.08
Totals .....  	
$31,380.24
$55,114.92
$86,495.16
Sundry Revenue.
Under " Land Act "—
$87,989.71
5,870.29
279.25
16,185.19
937.72
105.00
77.00
$87,989.71
6,870.29
Survey fees—-
-- $1,344.46
$1,300.23
1,239.00
235.02
1,679.48
17,424.19
937.72
1,542.62
1,647.62
77.00
2,147.98
2,147.98
Totals ....           	
$111,444.16
$6,229.83
$117,673.99
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Coal licences	
Coal rentals	
Sundry fees -
Lieu of work	
Totals .
$3,300.00
3,788.43
6,118.65
1,450.00
$14,657.08
$3,300.00
3,788.43
6,118.65
1,450.00
$14,657.1 V 6
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
Sundry Receipts.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$8,445.90
284.44
8,515.37
10.553.11
$8,445.90
284.44
8,515.37
$2,204.20
12,757.31
Totals	
$27,798.82      1         $2,204.20
$30,003.02
Summary op Revenue.
$31,380.24
111,444.16
14,657.08
27,798.82
$55,114.92
6,229.83
$86,495.16
117,673.99
14,657.08
2,204.20
30,003.02
Totals                   - -	
$185,280.30
$63,548.95
$248,829.25
Summary of Cash received.
$185,280.30
36,498.53
421.14
58,550.00
24,405.14
49,048.74
39,780.65
772.57
$63,548.95
$248,829.25
" Soldiers' Land Act''—
36,498.53
421.14
" Better Housing- Act "—
58,550.00
24,405.14
Land Settlement Board—
49,048.74
39,780.65
772 57
Totals                                                                       _	
$394,757.07
$63,548.95
$458,306.02
SALE OF TOWN LOTS DURING 1939.
Disposal of lots placed on the market at previous auction sales:—
8 lots at Vancouver      $3,925.00
16 lots at Oliver 	
17 lots at Osoyoos ___.
10 lots at Trail 	
11 lots at Quesnel
3 lots at Princeton _
4 lots at Kimberley
9 lots at Atlin 	
5 lots at Clinton __
  2,550.00
  2,050.00
  2,080.00
  990.00
  400.00
  345.00
  340.00
  225.00
And 49 lots in various townsites   2,044.00
$14,949.00
During the year auction sales were held at Clinton, Oliver, and Vanderhoof, and in
furtherance of same a few lots have since been sold and included in above figures.
Southern Okanagan Project sold 16 parcels, comprising 148.83 acres, the purchase price
being $11,595.34.
In the University Hill Subdivision in Lot 140, Group 1, New Westminster District
(Endowment Lands), 7 lots were sold at the list price of $12,070. LAND-SALES.
V 7
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1939.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Pre-emption
Records
cancelled.
Certificates
of Purchase
issued.
Certificates
of Improvements issued.
37
6
22
11
25
9
1
13
9
129
36
7
61
18
14
3
4
5
49
5
1
35
15
40
2
16
9
36
58
176
66
14
80
20
19
1
15
13
4
26
7
24
18
13
21
5
63
12
68
113
235
49
65
48
22
71
18
11
1
108
33
797
Atlin.... _	
18
_
12
10
1
1
1
12
52
31
18
(
4
2
Victoria  ___	
Totals —- __._      .
405
679
1,828
PRE-EMPTION AND HOMESTEAD EXCHANGES.
Under 1934 Amendment to " Land Act."
1935..
1936
1937.
1938.
1939.
No.
41
21
37
10
3
Total 112
LAND-SALES, 1939.
Land Act "— Acres.
Surveyed (first class)    1,687.07
Surveyed (second class)  7,373.20
Surveyed (third class)  1,237.80
Unsurveyed
10,298.07
900.00
Total  11,198.07 V 8
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
O
r-H
H
O
W
Ph
K
S5
O
M
ft.
H
W
ft.
(X,
i CM CO lO CO CM CJ CO
IO
CM
CJ  !
CM   1
j rH   ia
CO
CM
O
CO
US
to
CO
OS   [
co  ;
1 "sf IO
w
O
CJ
CM
00
eo
CM
CO ** CO CO   ! <M
O M H N
CM     rH
{ .2 h
7! o n g
M
1 i tr I
;o«„
< < o o
frfroXXZZZfrfr
.5 .5 « > *s ja & ^ o
frfrQ>t£mh>>> SUMMARY.
V 9
"*   CM
CM    C-
lO    rH
CO
-Tf
eo
to
IO
©    CO
CO   OJ
CJ    CO
rH    OJ
en
so
CO
rH
rH
0)
CO
00
"*
00    rH    t-   IO
IO    O    CO    O    f   ©    CJ
lO   IO   IO   ©   CO
r-
,_i
•*#
00
CM
O
(N
IO
00
r-
■**
-T.
n
00
**
©
rH
rH
rr.
CM
io
rH
**
£
N
OJ
U3
■C0OOM00t-_-C30.lt.
C-_OrH-fl"i-H-OrH"^C0t-
CM    00    CO    -*    rH    rH ._;    C-    -sj-
OJ    lO    CJ    CM    O    CM
IO    ■>*    C-    OJ    rH    ©    I
IO    CJ    rH    QO
CO    rH    CO
rH    CJ    CO
•    lO    CJ
rH    rH    CC
ft.
a
CO
t- M tn ^  io
o  (m  eo  t- -*
eo  —.  t-  o  o>
[    --(H
rH
no
!   CO
',   CJ
CO
CO
: cm
: co
: ■*>■
! as
OJ-rflOlOOCOCMt-COt-t-
tDlOMfflOnMHfiOH
OJrHt-CMCJCMrH J   00    IO
CO   IO  fc-
© °l ^
CO    00    CM
IN    PJ    *   «    w    i~    n
eO    CO    O    Q0    CO    CM    rH
2 -«
2,    "    c3    H    o    O
OJ    U    -    D
g    C    oi    >
O    4    H    CJ
CO M CJ CO o
rH IO CO CM rH
<« rH CJ CM _J
IO CO 00 rH -tf
CJ rH O OJ CM
r-H      ' SO CM
l-H rH CJ
rH   rH   O
IO CO rH 00 CM CO IO
00 SO rH IQ 00 CO CM
-^    N t> t-    CM
O    ©    CO    ©
t-   00   ©   CM
CMO^iOOt-^COCO
©COlOCJt-CO-OCMCO
M N    t«   ■*    H    H _J
"^•t-CMCOlOCOCJ-^CO
■** CM ** © t-    COOlO
1* O Ifl M H       ' CO rH
"H- IM CO CO IO
CM SO -H CM CO
rH "* CM CO CM
CJ    CO    CM    -^"    r-H
1—
eo
no
-O
IO
I—1
CM
rH
^ tH <H
e   °   °   -   3   G
S cd c  c   w  a
A>   tj   in   o
jj    S   o    OJ
d   B   (.    >   u
JM   a.   cy   t-   o   o   _
rlUOU^OMUlirlJ V 10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
STATEMENT OF LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1939.
Lands Branch.
Letters inward   24,605
Letters outward   21,767
MINING LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 1939.
Licences under " Coal and Petroleum Act "— ,_ , frea ,
No. (Acres).
Original licences issued  22 12,023.90
Renewal licences issued  11 5,502.00
33 17,525.90
Leases under " Coal and Petroleum Act "—■
New leases issued      2 638.00
Renewal leases issued __   18 9,217.50
20 9,855.50
Sundry Leases under the " Land Act"—
Leases issued  196 34,555.17
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1939.
Pre-emptions   180
Dominion homesteads   65
Purchases (other than town lots)   179
Mineral claims  315
Town lots   212
Reverted lands (other than town lots)   37
Reverted town lots  28
Reverted mineral claims  69
Supplementary timber grants   4
" Dyking Assessment Act "   5
" Public Schools Act " .  2
Miscellaneous  12
Total   1,108
Applications for Crown grants   1,262
Certified copies   6
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims given .     101
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions     25,396.88
Dominion homesteads  10,275.30
Mineral claims (other than reverted)   11,084.27
Reverted mineral claims      2,587.26
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)     8,444.65
Purchase of reverted lands (other than town lots)      1,922.47
Supplementary timber grants        210.96
Total   59,921.79 HOME-SITE LEASES.
V 11
HOME-SITE LEASES   (NOT EXCEEDING 20 ACRES).
N
_.
Total Annual
Revenue.
Fiscal Year
ended.
8
12
11
31
23
24
18
26
15
29
21
10
6
67
218
285
16
269
$522.55
636.45
759.95
980.05
1,246.65
1,302.52
1,391.72
1,440.25
1,468.90
1,557.40
1,591.80
March 31st  1930.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1930, to March 31st, 1931 	
March 31st, 1931.
March 31st, 1932.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1932, to March 31st, 1933 	
March 31st, 1933.
Leases issued   April 1st, 1933, to March 31st, 1934	
March 31st, 1934.
March 31st, 1935.
Leases issued, April 1st, 1935, to March 31st, 1936	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1936, to March 31st, 1937 	
March 31st, 1936.
March 31st, 1937.
March 31st, 1938.
March Slst, 1939.
March 31st, 1940.
-
Total revenue received from April 1st,  1929, to
March 31st, 19401
$12,898.24 PART II.
SURVEY BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Surveyor-General  .-_  13
Report of Survey Branch   15
Table A—Summary of Office-work   15
Table B—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps   16
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps   17
Report of Geographic Division _   20
Table D—List of Lithographed Maps   22
Reports of Surveyors—
Topographical Survey, Finlay River Valley  (R. D. McCaw)  23
Topographical Survey, Finlay River Valley (A. J. Campbell)  24
Topographical Survey, Finlay River Valley  (N. C. Stewart)  26
Topographical Survey, Finlay River Valley (G. J. Jackson)  28
Triangulation Survey, Finlay River Valley (F. C. Swannell)   30
Triangulation Survey, Kechika River Valley (Hugh Pattinson)  34
Triangulation Survey, Kechika and Liard Rivers (Philip M. Monckton)  37 REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1940.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1939.
The Survey Branch, with a staff averaging forty-nine in number, is organized into three
divisions—Surveys, Geographic, and Topographic. The Survey Division deals with field-notes
of all surveys of Crown lands, whether made by Government or privately-employed surveyors;
checks and plots from these notes and keeps an up-to-date record of the standing of such
lands and surveys on some 261 large-scale reference maps drawn on tracing-linen; the division
has a blue-printing department supplying the demands of the general public and of other
branches of Government for copies of reference and other maps to the value of some $9,000
per annum. The surveyors of the Topographic Division spend their summers on field-work
and their winters plotting contour maps based on that field-work; this work is permanent in
character and furnishes a sound foundation for all planning having to do with the development
of the natural resources of the Province. The Geographic Division is responsible for keeping
the published maps of the Province truly representative of the latest information available.
That information comes from triangulation surveys and from the Survey and Topographic
Divisions, from the Forest and Water Branches, the Mines and Public Works Departments,
from the Geodetic, Geological, Topographical, and Hydrographic services of the Dominion
Government; as well as from prospectors and others having knowledge of out-of-the-way
places. The division draws the maps, secures tenders from lithographers, and supervises
publication.
The construction of a highway through British Columbia to Alaska seems to be a certainty of the near future. There are about four possible routes, each offering some advantages over the others; but owing to the small population of, and difficult access to, the
northerly 300 miles in latitude, survey-work in the Province has been, until now, largely
confined to the regions south of latitude 56°. The selection of a wrong highway route could
easily cost the public millions of dollars, and the best insurance against a wrong selection is
obviously complete contour information over all promising routes. In 1939 the Survey Branch
started on one of the routes, diverting all available funds to the purpose. What is generally
known as the Rocky Mountain Trench route was chosen for mapping. This route offered the
shortest distance from United States points to Dawson and Fairbanks, was known to follow
a wide, flat valley just west of the Rocky Mountains, and to reach a maximum altitude of only
3,150 feet—this being on the Liard-Yukon divide. A plane was chartered to photograph a
strip 10 miles wide along the trench from Finlay Forks to the northerly boundary of the
Province; but, owing to unfavourable photographic weather, only the southerly half of this
photography was completed and the balance left for 1940; other work went ahead of schedule,
only a short gap in the triangulation control being left for 1940. Contour mapping was completed for the first 150 miles from Finlay Forks and will be continued for the remaining
160 miles to latitude 60°, as funds permit. Three triangulation-survey parties and four
topographical parties were employed on this work; one triangulation party worked from
Liard Post, but the other six were supplied from Prince George, using boats for 350 miles
along Peace River waters and pack-horses for 100 miles over the primitive trail through Sifton
Pass; the twenty-two horses used were secured at Fort St. James and are being wintered on
the open range north of Sifton Pass, in latitude 58°, where bunch-grass is plentiful and
snowfall light.
Since the start of the war in September, Major Aitken, Chief Geographer, has rejoined
the Army, and Mr. Firth, long with the Survey Branch, is capably acting in his stead.
J. F. Steven's has enlisted in an Overseas battalion and most of the other younger members of
the staff have volunteered for the Air Force or other Overseas units, and are awaiting calls. V 14 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
Reports compiled by F. 0. Morris and W. G. H. Firth for the Survey and Geographic
Divisions respectively, and reports by the surveyors who headed the parties working in
Northern British Columbia are attached hereto.
The methods devised by our topographic surveyors for the economical control of aerial
photographs in this country of high mountains have been detailed in previous annual reports,
so will not be again described. It may be said, however, that these methods, combining the
strong features of both aerial and ground pictures, are original and effective and yield perfectly satisfactory contoured maps at little more than half the cost of even ten years ago.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. V 15
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEY BRANCH.
This Branch deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to
land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying, checking
survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many
minor activities. In the average day's work it is found necessary to secure and consult 100
documents from the vault.    An efficient blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations
and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and mineral reference
maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are maintained by the
Survey Branch. There are now 188 reference maps and 73 mineral reference maps, making
a total of 261 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—(1) by adding new survey
information as it becomes available, and (2) by renewing same when worn out with constant
use and handling in the blue-print machines—forms a considerable portion of the work of the
Branch. During the year eight reference maps were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached
hereto, give a list of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary op Office-work for the Year 1939, Survey Branch.
Number of field-books received  378
„         lots surveyed   406
„         lots plotted   359
„         lots gazetted   635
„         lots cancelled     1,800
„         mineral-claim field-books prepared   343
„         reference maps compiled .   8
,,         applications for purchase cleared _.   165
„         applications for pre-emption cleared   504
,,         applications for lease cleared   301
„         coal licences cleared   40
„         water licences cleared  :  144
„         timber-sales cleared     1,782
„         free-use permits cleared   493
„         hand-loggers' licences cleared   8
„          Crown-grant applications cleared     1,045
„         reverted-land clearances    886
„         cancellations made   1,664
„          inquiries cleared  1,959
„         placer-mining leases plotted on maps   523
„         letters received   5,656
„         letters sent out     4,033
„          Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate  1,380
,,         miscellaneous tracings made  206
„          Government Agents' tracings made  173
„         blue-prints made   _ 23,554
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints from other departments
and public   $4,355.29
Value of blue-prints for Lands Department   $4,198.15
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault   35,473 V 16
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
a
o
z
a
3
H
a
a
W
a
<
BS
H
z
W     Ss
' M   _j
! ^ g
!££
to
__.   90   ..
X  a
?>     oj
O   OJ   a
a.£J
© u     __: o o
S'E
3 Ph
K
a;
a> as
h
a
to oj
c.   aj
tn — -a
■ M    h
44
r,   k. i—    L.
8 ** « i3
C-SWPh
"tusti
• C    -Eh  c
£ b S -S _- ~
O xi
>* >
V
SSS
o .2  03
QJ ^    CC
si a)u
J ft
°     "m
qj   tn ^
■ » &fi <S  o
rt    rrj     OJ      2
ffl c   . • ■" a.
M   ID   5
2 o
<o
S Ph
o
Ml    M
60*
a 2
>■   QJ   o y,
h   h __
I o ^
>g   B.
a>
b
<X   &   g
L,   .. -^
m rn <!
.go.1
G    e.    O
■C S £ 1.3.3 g
UOM^PrH<!
s o >> >> o
1 Ai « g ft
> <U 0)    QJ jd
( 10 4J   4J   +)
- 5h O    0    3
S O O   O    o
c_  o
oj
« I
B   to
oj  oj
■s >
O   0)
o a
MM
^ 44 M
-__    QJ    QJ
a £ S
w o u
*H       P.    >»
C3    QJ    (h
qj js a.
to   __   W
cj   &0
3 «_. co
« fi J-1
t. "O -5
S O  0
i- g c
"2 £ 3
__ .u
SS^pp
a.
1 ° C
o  S »
g s §
(Sag
"S6S
J4   « -o ■
-3   OJ   t. 0J
QJ    ^    oj t,
P.UJJ 3
1=  x<  S
3ȣ
9(35
-S   o
c
C*1
a
M    QJ
"
CO
; S>2 a
^ 5  t.
1 ■« >. 2 '
,    tO   r.   43
'    QJ   ^     03
a c
QJ -~
to __,   >• OJ   o
-e 03 j3 J3
6 C"S
H    .-.   CJ
? A\
be
*-T3 3 T3
D. u O T3
qj   r*   ""     M
u . . o
C-E.-    _
•H    =f     '
o   "
a M «
P.  Q> «h
60 &0 ft
33P
O   O   3 M
^ M to
U QJ o
50^
E   r
QJ Eh
43
.1-1 -S "O   "
g o -C -S c
&q M P3 n <J
^■^■^■^■^■^■^■^oooooooooootMwcsitM
OOOi0.0.01!_.C^OiOOOOOOOOOOOCOCOCOCO
d   MWNWMMNW03ccccmc.c.mmc.c.nc.o.coco
fe    E-iEh_h_hEh_h_h_h_h_h_h_-|-H-H-H_hH_hH-H-HH_-(
WHNO.^-JCOOJHWK)^_JtOt-OOC:OHHNO.Tf
N WMM CO
CO CO COCO ^
00  CO   CO  CO  CO
H H_h Eh Eh
'_  t- CO O CO
QJ  _-,    ^
coK -
£ >>
>? 2
3 s» 3 2
"P.S
I | S"S
J QJ ~ .5
. 43   03   u
*,*> 0 a
3 -a '& _f
_ 0 "C -2
J « 5S
2-»"SEh
3   ^ ___
2   QJ
s
3
a
in j^
—i <
s e
Z S | ■£
1 b
O   03  ex
a.
o
i«T3
5 0-a -5
" B o   S
o i_] s   "
«M
A.
cr
c
a> o ^ _.
«► O s °
i»o «•
u ? -a
_e_   *. ' i.
H _c o O
*3 08
C C!
n
<
c_
o
H
u
>
S    Q
< s
hJ «
•f •■
tr. 6
5 eq
p
a_
J
<!
H
Z
H
S
H
BS
<;
fr
w
Q
3
a
J3
M
H
E-i
° a
4J     3
'ft
.a-
QJ    .-
P3 -*->
^   03 ■
>    QJ
• _b^
43
; H
cap'
03
?5Ph
2 44 -S'
3 .   oj a
'cos
,03 QJ  rH
: O
QJ    03
to   *-
B   03   «
•« Ph   -
o3       r~
i -g "a o
a a tj
3   03   -.
-. O '
a qj
■SB
.- a
0)   03
44 O
m >M m ■
see-:
qj q
SSu^
H   r .     „     O     w  .
bo" aoM
oK
CQ    03
to   to
4-   +_
. qj a
: »«h _
h -O   g   03
§ o a
i*    QJT-
SPh;-.
a a
os -a 2
_ a
QJ   03   QJ
a a ^3
s qj 3 a
-* "ol   03
■S ..2
03 to   •>
« PhM
HH   +j   +J
QJ .S    QJ
QJ   03   QJ
,   03   qj
I'go
8.5
2Ph
'a.  ..'
4J     O
S S
QJ 43
QJ    QJ
ft   &
H    C.    ft   O
Ph rap J
"2 e cs-
03 QJ h?, o3
.h u M u
OOgfi,
oj -g p. c
a>   o  $   p
oi   QJ
c- ^ ____:
iSwts
0J   cS wJ
•2 .£ W w
«Ph    _=3
QJ   60 8 "3
-O
it 5 s.S
J   n -   6
J T. 3   3
^   60 03   o
)   3 ill.
_J cQ   O
■>>> B PL,
3 Eh co
4 „ 44 -d
Ja°§
33   M 43
6«'
wo,
_jW
ftS >> a
o h e __!
EHpH<f£
" u 3 § a
^ O o_ (m
qj a to o3 ^ '
qj a g to .2 ;
^3   03   o M
TO pn Ph -3   os
Co.'
60       "g   rtH
S   E 4- 44   o
h ^ S -..
-S-S1 •- ft „!
MS1-   0J H ■
to .-.   c.   QJ 44
o ^3   U J3 03
P. Ph Eh TO
*   03
"2 g
2<i44
!H ^ OJ
qj    >>  0J
"•so1
o oj  „
HJJ   3
c_   03
Eh El,
■a     ^
C     • T3
SJ g
QJ   QJ   O
tO    g   O
03   °   to
ogo
^° ' j
Cm a
_ « -c
^ oj a
?_«
'I-H    *^       QJ
oS S
PltM •?
O   -U     H
^     SW
0J rX
>    O   Q) ►
"    QJ
QJ
QJ
a ^ y
QJ    QJ
QJ    QJ     Sh
§° n
•os"
C    QJ   X
; 3aM
■IH      ^      CO
a S S
ft s
,2 -o £       os
5ffiM
a o
■sw
H
_;«■
■3" 3
L. 33 o
03   3   IH
J TO Eh
KS DO Jh
CD fi QJ
"° " fe   fi   c^
j_* In oi   fi   P
SSx
cS   QJ   QJ
- £   3
M
wo.o.a.o.o.o.c.oiffio.o.roo.o.o.o.o.o.o.o.o.o.ooooooooooototoffit-.'Offitotoffi      o
O     NN(NWNNNCINNNNNN(NWNNO]!NlWNW(NNNNNOqN M
OM^Wt-(KC.OHNnH(la(£|>xO.OHNCC^iOHNMi0^1>l»mONWH01W'*lflOt-MO tH
rH THrHTHi-HrHr-H1-(T-HT-HTH(MCMC'^(MC<ICNI rH   rH   rH ^h-_| APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. V 17
OS
.__        *» .33 _.
1-1      a » u ■ a «
t.     «     ■» a. -SmC- *    .3 >
a S to     >>     «
'C   .
^      a h tf      <u to
. §?   &g-j      8°s.53.sJ2    ?»i?- ■s^a      d    s^s«    °^^-£&      8,5
«^R'^r3£>>SKHBHH'"HH.'j3a,-s-3t,<q        . eBios 'S       j-     Hi 44      •> g
! f ,1 N^iaa 8t _.»SSSr.«      t- n »u«c      to      c ^ -, M      „-«
13 13
~" a
■30JT_^i-.:-;3-roBOS'^5'r?i_i E n   I u   O   c to fj~4:" „- "   P. t°   ft c8r3
°5-3>S"«43> g o g^M/l I^flfiJa-i    ^.gBa^g^Qj^l^ &J«g     0§,
s Blill|t|SjiilSllSlaJ?94a«lri__!i!33MiasSs^'
I   g|.=3s»^sf«^s^isa|^li
SM § S3 »•»•§ ft-2i-g.£a >
1    l»|l»|gI§lllillls|lhli-'^I^51i5II|i|liilil'|li
S S,»ftg<"SQJ.5QJH«^!P'3^«03W_J QJo3NA.3!43--5 33Bc.oo3o31h-)+;^3o3^;BcSBo+j
g fto3ftft<t;^AlH4403t.aoHo45lH"a 3h«°t,3«0i3>H(ahhO^il^j3j3«S3"
SZ t3pBramAiramftHMfeP.nf5Si-?   afi g h pp 3 S « n fe ih hh £ £ to g o 5 5 W 6 no o h
a
a
«
d<^p3   . •< m   .<Jcfl   .   .<Jcj   . <i ffl u 3 tj   •      "Jjeao   .<Jc_i   .^   .   .<lcfloi   . <! o_i   . ^ k d   .   . ■<   . *i!
M      Z   _-t-0)0000-JC)0)OHHH0]OJ0]WNNC0 C003C0^H,^10WOt-t-t-t-00MC001_J0)0)OHr.N«
<3 HHHHHHHHMWMPJWMOINMWPI        OJNNNWClWWWWWMC^NNWOlcqMWCO0O030OM
H
Z
a
S
Eh
Ph
H
fa 42
O 60
a
o
■3
Eh A "8  S M
on qj .33 J • .__
1-1 44 B 5 -
03
MJh l» ,2 rt
5   ^2-8   .2    ? I it    8 s a rill        ^
•3BO      ^3^«       -o      -S        ^g             §      £ M      hi ■S'Jo-S       U        g       5i3j3c
fl  o  cj _    • +3  O   m        33        03         ° T3              o S3 h  cs^  k^W         -j       Jh         to^toS
5m"aS"aa"      §      §     ^5         «   . -o 'S      g giSa&c     33     §     M'?-5*   ■   t
?*-|SS||grf5rf«'  B-»4 asg |   a |aJ^§ ^ ^ggwogg
5s^.3lS5._3§'l s   s^fi.^a 3 4-g ?!a.s   ^^^gnfflo
BS   -
•a a
<h 44
443aoa^_>.i-p3        S        0 g 3 W g        »SB'>§gu^«42t; a*.^.B'a___.^43434._-.rc5
!«ta£|i.i2i5 Siuji* Willis II! |fi||!i;suuii
g§g§g20.■5g«•2•2^£}-"g<U>oog§§o,
o«a« :-s-a6S |£«gg^| §-§«„|2I; gj.
^P^MCO^^WffleJ     wMoQf-i^^fe^PHOO^^QPQ flQMMWOMOSSOOO^
moq   . •< « tS   -<oa   .   .   .   . < . < n   .   . •< m o   . <   . < m   .
HHrt HrlHHHHHHHrlHHHrl V 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
a
a!
60
'5
i
03
43
TO
03
Ph
° S
43§
TO
"  0
II §
__j .-„
a n a
O
03
<!
§
H
O
■1
Pi
W
a
a
«
M a
<H     QJ
O     QJ
g8
QJ    W
-J    OJ    L,
oj.2m
S>>
0!
a
a a "
03 5   h
QJ   QJ     .
a hS > -o
a     3 c
6013 Ph   3
£ to
a      03
M hH
43
3 •
«'
73 __i
a <!
a
a o
£ a !-s
is a -a
a g a
rH -+J     -
'.ate
h  t.   I*
QJ j-   g
>to£
to .!
.K
,_> a
l. a
O   QJ
PhQ
M'g g
,sS«
|JS|
0M    Qj"
13.2 44
3.J J
4   3H
o PQ a
^   . a
CJ   y43
a S IS
qj a s
a o o
moo
Eo
rH.2
rH   ""
K
, ■J3fEi   _<
3 O
rH«M   &te-H
II   Q
"a-
2 a -a 5 5
■ «
N oj
.    CO QJ
3§      «
S«o
• r    __ a
ISO
oJ    Cj
te
cj:
p.
c.
• r.
M
44
a
a
•^
m
i-l
44
a
T3
a
0)
n>
WWQ
rt g-o
S > c
|S a
::a^-s
^
S S;
a
IH
ft
a
..S
•    L.
OJ
a
fi£  »'
a      33
;*jS«
a   OJ   J >
a
CO
CO
a
te.'C
44     .
a oj
J ft
«1H     O
O   cj
to o
a .
H .>>  •
OJ -3
■o 33 a
a a oj
a>pq
QJ    jH   QJ    3    >
PhPh
3.   H   m
a 43 3
44 42   o
l-H  rH  rH
U J!
Jpj
a qj
'«
S43
ou-
44
ipH   _
.    L.
> a
■f p.*
£ S *
n s o
co 43 ;z;
w Eh __,
CJ        13
a 13
qj a
a a
TO +,
a      a ^h ^3
to     J te. a
-3 oj ft .2 a
|5S4h 8 g
2 is a a J
~ 5 a"*
a a a a n
to _-. H § .oj
"■■H OJ
■-H O   rr-J
« §■ E a lT
-. 5 te, a a.
g    te    OJ
O    yj
fi
qj a
a »4=
a a to
<» .5   +_»
■Stf 2
P.
a 2 ■" a
QJ    QJ    3    QJ    OJ    QJ  5
- P5to KfQp:
EhQI
p-3
m o a
fri-l >h
~^h  5
g si
£*!
^<t3
B   o   to   g   »
43   S   £   =3
3 a a | §;
TO TO <! TO S >
BaS
^ a
£ a
|W    3
I ■ e»
SSph
r> .5 "H
Ph w  a,
'•H    g£
o.2 ° a
!* a ft
TO *h Ph
2   >.
!  '33 'j-    QJ
§°8
-'c 43
0)   3 w
43 a ^j
a-.-S ^h
gTO   o
Ph jrg
_i_ »
2 6o a
5 ■__: »
QJ Q
a 8
QJ "5 .£
>3K
k;«
a a oj
?> a
S^Jl3
tn   rt   a*
(h 'ai
QJ    QJ
fi   03
*   Cj   <--   h
43 L.
rH    R QJ
II   S    .4=
1     «   CO   o
_   «T3 qj
ro 5   -
•~f     co a
■ai-" os
^«g2
M
44   >
B ■«
aM
O
a a
a
a a
QJ    QJ
a
a
3
QJ    QJ
44 44
TO TO
■5 a 5J a
a ^h a -h
■_! B tJ .2
.5$ to a -g
73 a-3
a Ph a   -
.3 43 o a
S u a .5
o '2 a a
os a a
too^;
"h a '
>TOC
  O  rH CM CO t3. IT. 00
CDC.(»010HWCO^-JtDt-MOOHHrt^uc_l-[_clOHOICO^UCDt.ffloOOOOOOO
CDCOt.CDO-t-C-t-t-t-C-t-t-tJ-mcOMCOWCOWOOOOOOC.O.C.OJOJ-JOJOJOJOJ'HHHHHHH
Eh
Z
a
a
Eh
Ph
H
n
p.
O
7
o
w
►3
M
<
Eh
II
IH
QJ
II
a
>
a
P.
N
L4
^
O
60
8 S
.43-fcS
.    O   O-O   4
* 33 "z, a _
]  "3 "   OJ 13
! > » 5 g
i ?8^5
i'PH^tf'g
i gg-gl
i I & n. .
4 M rt  g  fi
l^.     QJ   ,rt
X! r*   4J    U
.■> .S M ^ 42
44 05 co"*TO
_3        ^.
■a
L.
a
CQ
a
a
W
a    P3
tn  QJ
n 44
qj ca
.thi
._>   to
•a o
1«
w«
--, ■«
S «
a
.-,3
.■S a
[to
^H   IH
,-s a
E ra
<o <r< co .5 u.
a >> ^ qj > tuo oj
Ch    QJ   qj P. .S   3T ~
II ft
SI
a „
> a
8 U •
a
<!     ^2
a oj
5 a *_ £
to    .    .    .
cm co -^ in
CO CO  CO CO
QJ "^
ft
ft
rS a
Cj      O
QJ   0)
4_   o :-.
Ph 43   g
a ,_,
o •
O^i
ho'a
o H
43 rH
f|l
3
J27: .
qj 43
|mS
a
* __i
o 44
oa
* 3 » >  •
to O g w u ■
*..SS.&i!-
. 8 ?    f^"-
Ph O     O
QJ
o
44
fi
a
Wr^
r3
3
is
w
to 43
OJ   W
44 a   ■
an-g
1-1 13 'E
44 a ■"
" a.2   ■
r- IH H OJ
"   2    i>.  t
5-5 a 5
_h        oj 13
° 13 a
. -044  2
SjaiS oj
a^SM44
o   oj _r sj
^i^ a^
h   4,
! o 'a
BPh    _
rfi    ^H
a.o g
^l5
fi   oj   o
o3-fi O
O      £      flj       W    "J
fea^o.«
»   .»ro.a
ft 8 13 a "a
o!!c«-
hh a a Pm .3
_, Ph   -__, a
I S ag -
B "   3   te> L.
W   OJ'B   g^
8 a te 3 <
Ph^.S   -
a to 3
• a oj n.
, o > ^
IQS-5
a fi 43
3   2   2
a t, qj to
3 SPh E
3 ft.Sf-3 3o 543 Sio-2;? a
WPa<Joo(-HpHp.gfc_i&2
Ph   i^.H     - a
TH 4a "JH   C
«     «     «   -H     S
a ^44 a, 2
0 o .3 5 a
TO Ph
'Ph
, c a
,  o  J*
I 'Jj    OJ
1 a >
:^P.
r'o a
1 B ^i
■ a 0
I ^ftla
1 a 3
, to a
;   L.   oj
' a 3
PhB
, 8    II
;p. «•"
"a-;
■S b
o.g a
13 Ph a
S -33 !2
°°   0   >
a,
1 » a
2 E a
t.Jii
s.Sa
*tH -^ a
a o +3
MPn<i
^-    .   h
qj   QJ
■>   . M .&
j >. a K
"    OJ rJ IH
a a o
>"§ j
,   a i-l
®   ^ i_3
Kfe"2
■a a oj
'5 oj S
TOa a
13 a I
B r> 13
a _j a
44   giS
"qj   > Ph
"«8
OQJ
CO   >
_, to a
43   a c^
a      3
60  QJ    ^
42 fta
oj ft a
Eh Pa
te
a
E     £
T3
a
H
43 .6
■SPh
wP5
4H   h
•    O    QJ
1 -o a
a K
0, M
M 43
2   • M
te    CQ ^3
hO
£■0
OKI
M
5^
> ra
Ph
O
lu
oa
a
t-H
H
r/i
CJ
n
ol
g
a
a
0
13
a
a
fr
a
,-J.
44
0
a ^s
fi
to
13
a
s
3
CT
te
TO
M
•3
a
QJ
a
M
'3
QJ
ih a
PP"
"h .2
° te
^■s
W Ph
<   . <: n
CO t> 00 CO
."^ CO CO 00
,<|     .     .     .<MO     .<MO     .<!     .'	
C^0_OHWN(NN««C0(r0^^1O(0NC0mOHWiM^lO^l>00ffiiOH(N APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. V 19
o oj a 8 a
*tH    r_. "Cj    JC  \3
"     43
te>'S    te    a JH rfl
grC-^> l-gt
ft ™ -^ s?3._ £? S a        a      .4
ftaaEH'S g_go        n      O
-.     r.     -, OJ H  _0_ n)
13 --,  k -4 o °  „,  u
a
OJ
550JR     ja"-=a h £
13            c- 60         n o  0 o
J-   .   5   fi           •"   «  2 u H
a I     3 5           ȣ -2 >
.2 >; 3 60  ,       «,« a
"3 3 a +_ -a       _?> i; 8" c _?
«.%g           i       ^rS ft £
■o   c-5          a    a S 3 §
034-13H_;rH<>. g
te. 42^J„       ooJ -S I
a."      .  (<»■   SSp -t_ <1     is
£1-.:
a) ^h
1
aoSa^g    5H6 ^ g
8.<r.a.r.Oj3J g <
"8. •« .ti j>>™    »    a' .a PQ
h -- qj oj a a    a
9*    .S p.   So a
OJ   £   £ -3  60   - -*; -—1 —" g
Eh J « a g a    > c «h -o.    o       5
•2    S«oa     -      »
oq
S-5-S
a
H^aojgft s-;Eo
o£te,aa2 a h «__?
br .33 Jj? ,_> ft i_ C u     -4
Z Eh J a 8 ^4= l)  "
r       B    *H    0 -w    H    a
te.
a
a
a     13
►h      a
Ph
£.$
- U
o
L.
te,^
OJ r.
33    ®
a %
w 3M te^-1 3,3 Er3
■a     ^ fi„ » omrl"" a
^8'3      a      HH^ajteog^a
*** t:       _q      iDh<>ii_-j^Hr
3 _; SP5
53   43   g
S5S 8Sw-5 8.2 a
%V*2-~ oS u"B a<!
a«'2l>Wwig,rS>rH
__* W "R .Eh QJQJrfC.Srd___^ .-T
g„-2a !s >44a,5 a si3 S S ^
c!>^SSa>rMr-,i3BapH
WojgaMgBac-|Bftr0^a
S g ° o g,c a 0^5 6o«| a 3 g
ftaja00B30aj'3cjaooL.
ftfeWfc_lgQQM^HK^oOEH
.   O0.0-O.0.000-0.0.0.(MIMNCO
O      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
Z   UJWWtDCOt-t-t-tr-OOOOCOHt-O
rHi-HiHiHT-.i-Hi-l.-lr-.i-Hi-Hi-.CMtMCO V 20
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of '
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Remarks.
1. Southerly   Vancouver   Island
Land Series
2. Hope-Princeton Degree Sheet,
contoured
3. Highway and Travel Map of
British Columbia
4. B.C. Mining Division	
10,000  j May, 1939
6,000
5,000
Oct., 1939
June, 1939
6,000  j July, 1939
2a
4Q
P.W.D.
M.D.
4 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
20 mi. to 1 in.
50 mi. to 1 in.
16,000
3,100
In Course of Printing.
Central British Columbia
7,000 | Approximate
[ date of issue,
|     May, 1940
8 mi. to 1 in.
175,000
Tenders    called,    but
not yet accepted.
In Course of Preparation.
1. Stuart Lake Pre-emptors' Map
2. Big Bend Pre-emptors' Map..
3. Windermere Degree Sheet ....
Geological Map, P.G.E. Railway Resources Survey, 1929-
30
3C
3k
4g
3 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
Special
proposed scale,
10 mi. to 1 in.
9,000
11,000
3,100
30,500
Tenders called, but
not yet received.
Nearly completed, but
held up ; priority of
Stuart Lake sheet.
Held up ; lack of definite geological survey information.
Geographic Board op Canada, Naming and Recording.
Number of map-sheets, names reviewed	
Recommendations to Geographic'Board	
New names recorded	
New post-offices, schools, and hospital locations recorded	
17
325
294
150
Geographical Work for other Departments.
Thirty-seven items, receipts and value of work	
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps and Gazetteers issued to departments and public
Maps received into Geographic stock	
Total value of printed maps and Gazetteers issued	
Revenue from printed maps and Gazetteers	
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made	
Revenue from departments and public	
Value of photostats for Lands Department, etc...
$1,469.90
10,274
29,343
$3,681.36
$3,457.08
2,488
$635.55
$1,504.90
Letters.
Letters received and attended to  1,975 APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. V 21
Standard Base Map.
Big Bend Pre-emptors' Sheet, compiled, complete  6
Big Bend Pre-emptors' Sheet, compiled, not complete  8
School districts plotted from description  47
Control nets supplied   50
Triangulation.
Main, by least-square adjustment, triangles adjusted  151
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations  487
Index-cards records  670
Triangulation index-maps         6
Plan of triangulation, Kitimat to Terrace sheets drawn       1
Major G. G. Aitken, M.C., Chief Geographer, joined His Majesty's Forces on September
5th, 1939, and Mr. W. G. H. Firth was placed in temporary charge of this division from
that date.
Mr. J. F. Stevens, apprentice draughtsman, joined His Majesty's Forces on September
28th, 1939.
Over a period of eighteen months an important and efficient card filing system of all
Dominion, Provincial, and other map publications has been completed. This work has been
undertaken as the opportunity presented itself and apart from the normal work of the staff. V 22
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
Table D.—List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
Year of
Issue.
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
1A 1933
1933
1937
IE 1930
1G      I   1916
IH 1933
1923
lJC
1JD
1JB
1JGL
1JGC
IK
tlL
2C
2D
2e
2f
t3c
3d
3e
3f
3g
3H
3j
3k
3M
3p
3q
4a
40
4d
4b
4g
4H
4j
4k
4l
4m
4n
4p
4q
5A
5b
MEMl
MP.H2
MEM3
MKM4
MRM5
MRM6
MRM7
mrm8
PWD
MD
9
5
1937
1937
1937
1937
1937
1925
1940
1938
1914
1929
1923
1924
1927
1930
1926
1940
1937
1928
1934
1935
1931
1932
1938
1929
1924
1936
1927
1936
1913
1925
1914
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1931
1939
1916
1929
1929
1929
1930
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
1939
1939
1907
1898
1896
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways, etc.
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways,   etc.    Special  edition   showing   Electoral  Districts,
Redistribution 1932, with 1934 Amendment
British   Columbia.    In   one   sheet.    Showing   Land   Recording
Districts
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen	
Cariboo and adjacent Districts
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data 	
British   Columbia.    In   one   sheet.    Showing   rivers,   railways,
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
and precipitation  	
Ditto ditto and Land Recording Districts	
Ditto ditto and Mining Divisions  —	
Ditto ditto and Assessment and Collection Districts..
Ditto ditto and Land Registration Districts  —
Ditto ditto and Counties
South   Western   Districts   of   B.C.,   Commercial   and   Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929'.)
Central Districts of B.C., Commercial and Visitors — 	
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island
New Westminster and Yale Districts
Northerly Vancouver Island  __	
Powell Lake
Bella Coola   (preliminary)     	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography   (preliminary)
Pre-emptors' Series—■
Fort George 	
Nechako
Stuart Lake (contoured)
Bulkley Valley
Peace River   (reissue  1930)..
Chilcotin
Quesnel (contoured)
Tete Jaune   —
North  Thompson  —
Lillooet
Prince Rupert 	
Grenville Channel   (preliminary)
Peace River Block 	
Degree Series—
Rossland Sheet  (contoured)   	
Cranbrook Sheet  	
Fernie  Sheet
Upper Elk River Sheet .
Windermere Sheet 	
Arrowhead Sheet ._.
Vernon Sheet  (contoured)      	
Kettle Aralley  (contoured)    	
East Lillooet, Economic Geography  (contoured)
Nicola Lake   (contoured)    	
Penticton   (contoured)
Lower Fraser Valley  (preliminary)	
Hope-Princeton  (contoured) - 	
Topographical Series—
Omineca and Finlay River Basins, Sketch-map of .
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special)
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), North sheet (special)
Stikine River   (contoured)       	
GEOGRAPHICAL  GAZETTEER  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA	
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
Slocan and Ainsworth  	
Trout Lake
Lardeau River 	
Nelson-Ymir   	
Rossland-Ymir 	
Grand  Forks-Greenwood
Greenwood and Osoyoos
Barkerville and Lightning Creek 	
Miscellaneous—
Highway and Travel Map of B.C. 	
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts .
Northern Interior.    (A. G. Morice)  	
Kootenay District, East, Triangulation Survey of	
Kootenay District, West, Portion of.       _ __
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
31.53 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
Mc m. to 1 in.
y2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
6,000 ft. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
2.00
.50
.60
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
QJT_
.J.TJ ^
_   a o
i a
Qj '
I 8
•5_rH«
a    a
•a . o
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.50
.50
.50
2.00
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.35
Free
.10
.10
.10
$14.00
20.00
4.00
4.00
4.0U
4.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
18.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
" 4.00
4.00
4.00
2.50
On ap.
.50
.50
.50
t In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map Number " of map
desired.
We can  supply information  concerning maps  of British  Columbia printed and published at  Ottawa by the
Department of Mines and Resources, etc., etc.
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address:—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands, Victoria, B.C. 3rd January, 1940. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, FINLAY RIVER VALLEY. V 23
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, FINLAY RIVER VALLEY.
By R. D. McCaw.
Victoria, B.C., December 18th, 1939.
F. C Green, Esq., B.C.L.S.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report upon topographical surveys which I carried on during
the past season in the Finlay River Valley.
Mr. A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S. (whose work adjoined mine on the north), and I left Summit
Lake, some 32 miles north of Prince George, on July 3rd. For the transportation of our
parties and equipments we had three river-boats powered by outboard motors. The usual
water route to Finlay Forks was followed by way of the Crooked River, MacLeod Lake, and
the Pack and Parsnip Rivers. From Finlay Forks we went up the river some 55 miles (by
water distance) to the approximate dividing-line of our proposed surveys. The Parsnip,
which was still in flood, gave us a fast ride down to the Forks, while the Finlay, also swollen,
slowed us down going up-stream. No trouble was experienced, and credit must be given the
boatmen for the efficient manner in which they navigated the boats.
The area to be mapped by my party was the southerly portion of that being done this
season along the Finlay River. The main triangulation control had been laid down by
Mr. L. S. Cokely, B.C.L.S., in 1930. Arrangements had been made for coverage by aerial
photography to be done during the summer by Mr. G. S. Andrews, of the Forest Branch. Our
ground work consisted of establishing sufficient control for the air photographs for the purpose of the ultimate production of a map suitable for publication on a scale of 1 inch to 1 mile,
with contour-lines at 100 feet vertical intervals. Particular attention was devoted to the
portion where it might be possible to construct a road up the river from Finlay Forks.
For the purpose of aerial control, the photo-topographical system was used almost
entirely, being supplemented at times by distances measured from triangulation stations to
points which could later be identified on the air views. All triangulation stations were read
with a Wild transit, with a few exceptions early in the summer. All important stations were
marked either by standard brass bolts or B.C.L.S. bars. At times, on cut-banks, these marks
were off-setted back from the instrumental stations for preservation. For photography the
usual survey cameras were used with Ilford panchromatic, and infra-red plates. While it was
possible to obtain sufficient results for control-work, the area was very poor from a photo-
topographical standpoint. There was very little smoke, but haze gave trouble continually,
especially for distant views, of which there had to be many, owing to the valley being wide
and most of the main stations on the rim east or west of same.
For general, remarks on the Finlay River Valley as to history, geology, and physiography,
I would refer to the report of Mr. L. S. Cokely, of January 27th, 1931, and to that of Mr.
Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S., concerning his triangulation survey during the past summer. It is
sufficient to say here, for the portion under survey, that the floor of the valley rises from the
extremely winding river and its myriads of side channels in terraces about 50 to 300 or 400
feet (in parts) above it before the general slope of the mountain is reached. These series of
benches from one side of the valley to the other extend in width from about 5 to 10 miles in
the widest part. On the east side of the valley four main streams join the Finlay. From
north to south these are Deer, Collins, and Deadman Creeks, and the Ospika River. The last
is a fair-sized stream and is navigable for small boats for more than 20 miles. On the west
side of the valley and in the same order are Olson, Ruby, Mica, and Cache Creeks, comparatively small streams. Farther south is the Omineca River, joining the Finlay opposite the
mouth of the Ospika River. The lower Omineca is quite fast and pushes through the Black
Canyon seme 8 miles up from the Finlay, breaking up into many channels on its way down to
the latter stream. At high water boats cannot make the canyon, but when not in flood the
river is navigable for many miles. South of the Omineca is a very extensive and more or less
flat bench land extending far to the south and approximately 20 miles in width.
The soil in general is a sandy loam, or silt, with parts appearing gravelly and, judging
from wild vegetation, is very fertile. Nearly every trapper has his patch of potatoes at the
home cabin. Some have other garden vegetables. Strawberries do well at Finlay Forks,
where there is a large patch under cultivation.    Unfortunately, summer frosts occur which V 24 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
have their effect on garden growth. Quite a severe frost occurred early in August this year.
Some small oat-fields were noticed at the Forks, probably used for hay. In our area there was
not a great deal of wet weather. Rain fell on about nine days in July, three days in August
(with some light showers), nine days in September up to the 19th (and some light showers).
Spruce and open swamps are quite common, some being of large size. An occasional
" bottomless " muskeg is encountered.
Fires have pretty well cleaned up the original spruce, and usually jack-pine and poplar
have taken its place. Birch is much in evidence seen from boats on the river. The Butler
Range on the west side of the valley is thickly timbered from valley-bottom to timber-line,
which is approximately 5,300 feet. Some spruce and balsam on these slopes reach a diameter
of over 2 feet. South of the Omineca repeated fires have occurred and scrub poplar, willow,
and alder, with a few evergreens, have grown up. Windfalls are plentiful in this section.
Thick windfalls and standing fire-killed timber are prevalent near the mouths of Mica and
Ruby Creeks, and on the east side of the river for many square miles north of Moodie
Mountain.
A small amount of placer-mining was being done on the bars in the Finlay River and at
the Black Canyon on the Omineca. There are about six or eight white trappers in the area,
and we found their trails of great value when man-packing back from the river. Finlay Forks
post-office is about 5 miles up-stream from the Finlay, Parsnip, and Peace Junction. Besides
the post-office there is a store, small sawmill, and Government radio station.
The old pack-horse trails built years ago have fallen into disuse as such and many parts
have filled in with brush and windfalls. There are only a few horses in the country besides
the work-horses at Finlay Forks. All traffic in and out is by water or plane in summer and
by plane or dog-team in winter.    Dogs are also used as pack-animals.
Moose, caribou, black bear, and deer were seen during the summer, but do not seem to be
as numerous as one would expect. There are very few game birds. Fishing in the creeks is
fair, but poor in the Finlay, owing to the fact that the river never fully clears up. Wolves
are said to be numerous, although none were seen.
Work on the map-sheets is now in progress. These are being drawn on a scale of 2 inches
to 1 mile.
I have, etc.,
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VICINITY OF FORT GRAHAME,
FINLAY RIVER VALLEY.
By A. J. Campbell.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1940.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical control surveys carried out by me, under your instructions, during the past field season.
The party was one of four topographical parties working under a plan to compile a map
of the Finlay River Valley from near Finlay Forks to Fort Ware, and of the Fox River to
Sifton Pass. R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., covered the lower portion up to Deer Creek, my party
from Deer Creek to Rubyred Creek. From there G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S., carried on to Paul
Creek, and N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., to Sifton Pass.
Our area, from Deer Creek to Rubyred Creek, extends 35 miles in an air-line along the
valley, or 45 miles following the river, and the map will cover approximately 400 square miles.
As in former years, our work consisted in providing control for mapping from aerial
pictures, using the photo-topographical method where feasible and any other method that
would give the necessary information.    The wide valley of the Finlay River with its extremely TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VICINITY OF FORT GRAHAME. V 25
flat floor, but having plenty of detail, such as meadows and swamps, burnt patches, small lakes,
cut-banks along the river, etc., was readily covered by photographs taken from the mountains
and hills on either side. Also, a series of points in the valley-bottom were located by triangulation from the higher stations. These were chosen at places naturally identifiable, or
marked by cutting lines or crosses in the small timber so that they could be located definitely
on the aerial pictures. The main triangulation control had been laid down by Leroy S.
Cokely, B.C.L.S., in 1930, and in part by F. C. Swannell in the same year. Most of the cairns
that had been erected at that time were still standing and this aided materially in carrying
forward our own work.
It is not the intention of this report to repeat what has already been said in the many
reports that have been made on the Finlay River Valley. For historical information, a
general description of the valley, access to and mode of transport, the reader is referred to
reports of Mr. Cokely and Mr. Swannell, published in the Annual Report of the Land and
Surveys Branches 1931, and also to R. D. McCaw's report of this year. The report of Dr.
Victor Dolmage, contained in the Summary Report 1927, Part A, Geological Survey of Canada,
gives an extremely interesting and detailed description of the geology of the Finlay River
District, with particulars of the mica deposits near Fort Grahame and the lead, zinc, and
silver deposits up the Ingenika River.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The Finlay River, from Fort Ware to the Forks, flows through the Rocky Mountain
Trench, and the remarkable straightness of the valley is the most striking feature. From the
mountain-tops the valley can be followed in either direction until it disappears in the haze of
the distance. The river channel is also remarkably straight in that, while there are many
bends and, in places, high-water channels and backwaters, it makes few swings across the
valley-floor. From the southerly end of our section, near Deer Creek, to its junction with the
Ingenika River, the river is closer to the west side of the valley. From there it swings across
to the east side until, at Rubyred Creek, the slopes rise directly from the river-bed. Along
this 45-mile stretch of the river there is a total rise of 152 feet—or about 3% feet to 1 mile—
with no falls and few riffles, and can be readily navigated, given the proper equipment. An
interesting calculation, based on a trip from the mouth of the Ingenika down to Fort Grahame
and back, gives the average water speed as just over 4 miles per hour.
The only tributary of the Finlay, in our section, is the Ingenika River, which joins, from
the west, about 18 miles above Fort Grahame. It is a clear, swiftly flowing stream, about
200 feet wide at its mouth, and is navigable for a distance of 40 miles, according to Mr.
Swannell's report of 1930. We were there late in the season, but had no difficulty in getting
up about 12 miles. The other streams are much smaller and most of them, joining the valley
from the east, enter through such large gaps in the hills the impression is given they should
carry more water than they do. Davis Creek, a few miles below Fort Grahame, and Big
Creek, a similar distance above, are much the biggest, with a width of approximately 30 feet
each.
The mountains flanking the valley on the east are around 5,000 feet high near Deer Creek,
and gradually increase in height, going up the valley to Deserter Peak, which has an altitude
of 7,430 feet and lies just north of our boundary at Rubyred Creek. Those on the west side
are higher at the southerly end. In the Butler Range, south of Fort Grahame, they go over
7,000 feet and between Factor Ross Creek and the Ingenika River up to 6,000 feet, but north
of the Ingenika the mountains are 10 to 15 miles back. Inside this area there are only two
somewhat isolated hills that are over 3,000 feet in height. Lower rolling hills, large stretches
of flat bench land closer to the river, and many small lakes cover the rest.
The floor of the valley is flat and, with the exception of the part north of the Ingenika,
is about 5 miles wide. To the east of the river there are large areas of bench land, sometimes
miles in width, stretching along the whole length of our section. These are from 100 to 300
feet above the water and keep more or less to that throughout. The edge of this bench, where
it falls rather steeply to the river-flat, is generally bare and can be seen for miles from the
mountains opposite, broken only by the small creeks on their way to the river. Along this
stretch, close to the slopes, swamps are prevalent, some very wet and others fairly dry. Back
of Fort Grahame a very large and very wet open, grassy swamp stretches for some miles.    On V 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
Police Creek, opposite the mouth of the Ingenika River, an open, grassy meadow is included
in a surveyed lot and is used by the Indians for cutting hay to feed their few horses through
the winter.
FOREST-COVER.
The benches and slopes are covered principally with jack-pine and polar. Spruce is found
along the river-flats and in the wetter spots, surviving the extensive fires that have burned a
large proportion of the valley. Extensive burns of later date were seen in the mountains east
of the Finlay, particularly around the headwaters of Davis Creek, where there is little green
bush to be seen. The timber is small, averaging around 12 inches, and rarely going over
2 feet.
MINERALS.
The known deposits of mica have been described in detail by Dr. Dolmage in his report.
They lie in the hills some 5 to 10 miles south of Fort Grahame and, while there has been little
or no work done of late years, interest is still maintained in some of them, and it is quite
probable that, with the advent of cheaper transportation, further development will take place.
This also applies to lead, silver, and zinc properties 16 miles up the Ingenika River, which
closed down in 1930 after considerable development-work had been done. Discoveries of
copper have also been reported and with better transportation, more intensive prospecting
would follow in what is apparently promising ground.
AGRICULTURAL POSSIBILITIES.
Along the valley there are thousands of acres that could be easily cleared and cultivated,
and from the evidence given by the small plots of garden vegetables that are to be found at
every cabin there is no doubt that much larger acreage of such crops could be grown, and, as
has been the case in many parts, the danger of summer frosts would be much reduced or
eliminated entirely by the opening and cultivating of large areas. Wild small fruits are
general but not plentiful, and huckleberries were thick on some of the burnt-over and partially
open slopes.
GAME.
Moose, caribou, black, bear, and deer were seen during the season, but were far from being
as numerous as would naturally be expected so far away from civilization, but as it has been
the hunting-ground of the Indians around Fort Grahame for many years, and their principal
diet is meat, it is not surprising. Few grouse and rabbits were seen, but are reported as being-
plentiful at times.    The whole area is covered by registered trap-lines, mostly held by Indians.
TRAILS.
A good horse-trail follows along the bench land on the east side of the valley from
between Deer and Rubyred Creeks, generally well back from the river but touching it at Fort
Grahame and again at Rubyred Creek. Branch trails connect with the river-bank in a few
places. Other trails include the old Police trail from Fort Grahame to Hazelton, up Factor
Ross Creek, and a trail up the Ingenika River. Horses were brought into the valley during
the summer over the Hazelton trail.
The usual map-sheets are being prepared.
I have, etc.,
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VICINITY OF FORT WARE.
By N. C. Stewart.
Victoria, B.C., December 30th, 1939.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I  have the honour to  submit the  following  report on the topographical  survey
carried out by me under your instructions during the field season of 1939. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VICINITY OF FORT WARE. V 27
The area controlled is situated in that portion of the Rocky Mountain Trench which
extends from Paul Branch Creek, on the Finlay River, to Sifton Pass, a distance of approximately 52 miles along the trench. A map is being prepared at a scale of one-half mile to
1 inch, with a contour interval of 100 feet, and will cover 475 square miles.
The field party consisted of W. J. Moffatt, B.C.L.S., assistant; A. G. Slocomb, instrument-
man; four helpers, two river boatmen, a cook, and a horse packer for part of the season. The
party was organized at Prince George on June 22nd and disbanded there on October 2nd.
The area being suited to control by photo-topography, that method was almost solely
used. The camera stations were tied by triangulation to points established during the season
by F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S. The area was photographed from the air by G. Andrews, of the
Forestry Service.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The Rocky Mountain Trench is remarkably straight from Paul Branch to Sifton Pass,
its direction being N. 300° W. At Paul Branch the valley from mountain-top to mountain-top
is about 6 miles wide and at Sifton Pass it is 8 miles wide. The altitude at Paul Branch is
2,400 feet and at Sifton Pass 3,273, giving a gradient of about 17 feet to the mile. The trench
is drained by the Finlay River, which breaks into the trench from the mountains to the west,
about 12 miles above Paul Branch, and by its tributary the Fox River, which rises at Sifton Pass.
Two streams of considerable importance enter the trench from the east: the Kwadacha, or
Whitewater, River joins the Finlay 9 miles above Paul Branch and a stream out of Weissner
Lake, which joins the Fox about 15 miles north of Fort Ware. These streams all have clear
water except the Kwadacha, which rises in a very large ice-field, visible from any of our
camera stations.
The mountains on the west side of the trench are more rugged and higher than those on
the easterly side; the westerly range presenting an almost unbroken wall, except for the
entrance of the Finlay, already mentioned, and for Fox Pass, which is about 16 miles farther
north. The mountains on the easterly side are divided by numerous valleys of considerable
width; in one of these is Weissner Lake, the largest in the area. The highest peak in the
westerly range has an altitude of 7,873 feet, but on the east side the mountains only attain
a height of 6,900 feet.
The floor of the trench is composed of glacial and alluvial deposits. It is not smooth.
Cut-banks up to 200 feet in height are found along the Finlay and Fox Rivers, suggesting that
a higher floor existed, probably before Deserters Canyon was cut through. Again, it has been
suggested that the Finlay River may have entered the trench at Fox Pass, its passage having
been blocked by glacial action, for moraine material now fills the pass. As is to be expected
from a terrain formed by glacial action, there are numerous small lakes and swampy areas,
separated by gravelly ridges and benches extending generally in the direction of the trench.
Fox Lake, about 1 % miles long, is the largest in the valley.
FOREST.
The ridges and benches of the trench floor are wooded with jack-pine and poplar, quite
open in places. The swamps and meadows are usually surrounded by a fringe of small spruce.
The slopes of the mountains are covered with jack-pine, poplar, and some spruce and balsam,
with a dense undergrowth of willow, alder, and soapallie. The area has been repeatedly
burnt over; consequently, there is little merchantable timber. Grassy meadows and swamps
provide feed for horses. Wild flowers abound and on the gravelly benches and open hillsides
are patches of wild fruits, mostly huckleberry and strawberry. At Sifton Pass there is a long,
narrow grassy meadow with sidehills rising 150 feet to wide wooded benches on either side.
Timber-line is at an approximate altitude of 5,000 feet above sea-level.
MINERALS.
Many years ago placer gold was taken in considerable quantity from 80-Mile Bar, located
in this area about 6 miles below Fort Ware. Colours can be panned almost everywhere along
the Finlay River and up the Kwadacha, as far as we went. We also obtained colours in a few
places on the Fox River. Little evidence of mineralization was seen in the mountains adjacent
to the trench, and on the valley floor bed-rock shows in very few places. Quartz veins with
slight oxidation were found west of Sifton Pass. V 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
GAME.
Wolves and the Indians have almost exterminated the game, not one moose was seen by
our party during the entire season. A few goat, sheep, and bear were seen high up on the
mountains. In the valley there are grouse, ducks, and some geese, and a few porcupines and
squirrels. We saw some beaver. There is very good fishing. Rainbow trout, Dolly Varden,
and grayling, in the rivers and lakes, provided the camp with the only fresh food we had. The
whole area is divided into trap-lines, which provide the sole means of livelihood of the Fort
Ware Indians.
CLIMATE.
We experienced showery weather all through the season, with occasional snow-storms on
the mountains after September 15th. Frost occurred on August 7th and on clear nights after
September 1st. From a study of the forest-growth it is evident that there is a good precipitation, both in summer and winter. I would estimate that the average depth of snow at Sifton
Pass is about 4 feet, and considerably less at Fort Ware.
ACCESSIBILITY, ETC.
The Finlay River provides the chief means of access. Flat-bottom boats up to 45 feet in
length, powered with gas-motors, make the round trip from Summit Lake to Fort Ware in
ten days. Twice a month there is a plane service from Prince George to Fort Ware. The
freight rate to Ware is 8 cents per pound by boat and 26 cents by airplane. From Ware to
Sifton Pass, and beyond, there is a pack-trail on which we did quite a lot of work during the
season. This trail is poorly located, but is passable for pack-horses. The Indians use dogs
as beasts of burden, hence do not require much of a trail. We were able to navigate, with
some difficulty, the Fox River to Fox Pass, some 16 miles. A road of easy gradient and
straight alignment could be cheaply and swiftly constructed through this section of the Rocky
Mountain Trench.
Fort Ware, established by the Hudson's Bay Company about 2 miles below the mouth of
the Fox River, is the only settlement, in the area. It consists of a well-stocked store, with
caches, a residence for the factor, and a bunk-house; the free use of the latter during the
season I wish to acknowledge with thanks. The Company has installed a broadcasting and
receiving set, with a wind-driven motor. The Sikanni Indians have a few buildings on their
reserve at Fort Ware and at various places in the Fox Valley. These Indians, some eighty in
number, make good cabins;   they are good axemen and use the whip-saw for making lumber.
This is an area of apparently few resources; no merchantable timber, little land suitable
for agriculture, no lode-mining yet discovered, a scarcity of game; but yet it was a pleasant
place in which to work and live, due to pleasant surroundings. Here are scenic spots that
rival those of other sections of the Province; and in the fall, when the leaves turn to gold, the
long vistas down the trench are truly wonderful.
I have, etc.,
N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, FINLAY RIVER.
G. J. Jackson.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1939.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the photo-topographical survey
carried out by me during the past summer.
The area covered was on the Finlay River, and consisted of a strip approximately 10 miles
wide along about 35 miles of the river. The south boundary was at Rubyred Creek, about
4 miles below Deserters Canyon, and the north boundary was at Paul Creek, about 10 miles PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, FINLAY RIVER. V 29
below Fort Ware. This connected with the work of A. J. Campbell, B.CiL.S., on the south,
and the work of N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., on the north.
The work was controlled by a triangulation net laid down by F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S.,
during the summer. Elevations were based on those carried up the river from Finlay Forks
by R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., and A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., to my southern boundary. Aerial
views were taken by G. S. Andrews, of the Forestry Service, from an elevation of about
16,000 feet.
The party was organized at Prince George on June 22nd, and disbanded September 15th.
It consisted of R. C. Mainguy, B.C.L.S., as assistant; a cook, two boatmen, and four axemen.
The area was reached by river-boat, with outboard motor, from Prince George, by way of
Summit Lake, down the Crooked, Pack, and Parsnip Rivers to Finlay Forks; then up the
Finlay River. During the summer one boat was used for work and moving camp and supplies.
The main camps were all on the river, from which the mountains on each side were reached
by fly-camps. Supplies, gas, and mail were brought in from Prince George, several times
during the season, by Dick Corless and his freight-boats. Everything arrived when expected
and in perfect order.
Views were taken and angles read from fifty-one stations; ten of these were on cut-banks
along the river, the rest were on the mountains on each side of the valley. All stations were
marked by iron bars or brass bolts.
The valley of the Finlay is part of the Rocky Mountain Trench and is very straight,
bearing about 30 degrees west of north. In this section the valley is from 5 to 7 miles wide.
It is fairly flat and rises from the river in a series of benches to the foot-hills of the mountains on each side. In many places there are high cut-banks of 200 to 300 feet in height along
the river. The river meanders from side to side of the valley, so that it is nearly twice as
long as a straight line up the valley. It is constantly changing its course, as there are many
side channels, which were evidently the main river at one time. The changes are caused by
log-jams, which are extensive on some parts of the river. On the benches back from the river
there are a number of small lakes and swamps. There are several large creeks flowing into
the river from each side. One river, the Akie, which is quite wide at the mouth and for
several miles up it, comes in from the east, about 12 miles above Deserters Canyon.
The Finlay River is from 500 to 700 feet in width and has an average current of about
4 miles per hour. It is good for river-boats, except at Deserters Canyon. This is navigable
at lower stages of water, but at very high water a half-mile portage has to be made.
The mountains on each side vary from 4,000 to 7,500 feet in elevation and are timbered to
about 5,000 feet.
This summer was cloudy and showery, with snow-flurries on the mountains during each
month; but it was, apparently, wetter than usual. There were several frosts during August
and September. The winters are said to be cold and bright, with comparatively little snowfall.
The freeze-up generally comes in November and the break-up in April.
Judging from the vegetation, the soil is productive and suitable for hardy vegetables and
fruits, but the summer frosts would make other crops very uncertain. There are many areas
of level ground suitable for agriculture, which could be easily and cheaply cleared.
There is very little timber of commercial value. Most of the valley and side-hills have
been badly burnt over—probably the majority during the days of the Klondike rush—but
some burns are of more recent date. The valley is timbered now with jack-pine and poplar,
with patches of spruce in river-bottoms and around the lakes and swamps. On the mountainsides the timber is jack-pine, poplar, spruce, and balsam, with considerable underbrush in
places.
There is no lode-mining in the area, but traces of gold can be found on most of the bars
in the Finlay. Two prospectors were working them this summer and claimed to be making
fair wages.
The only industry is trapping. All the area is taken up by registered trap-lines; half a
dozen by white men, the rest by Indians. The chief furs are beaver, marten, fox, fisher, and
mink. V 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
Practically all transportation is by river; in summer by river-boat and in winter by dog-
team. There is a fair horse-trail on the east side of the river as far as Russel Creek, where
it crosses the river and continues up the west side to Fort Ware. There are trap-trails up
most of the side creeks; some of which could be used by horses, but most are only suitable
for dogs.
There is a plane service twice a month from Prince George to the posts of the Hudson's
Bay Company at Fort Grahame and Fort Ware. This is discontinued for a few weeks during
freeze-up and break-up.    All heavy supplies are brought in by river-boat.
Game was scarce in the valley, but is probably more plentiful back in the hills. Moose,
caribout, goat, and bear were seen during the summer. Moose were the most plentiful.
Wolves and the Indians are blamed for the scarcity of game. Game birds were also scarce,
although a few willow, spruce, and blue grouse and ptarmigan were seen. A few geese nested
in the swamps and lakes.
The Finlay is a poor river for fish, as the water is always full of silt, but the creeks and
some of the lakes are better. Some rainbow, Dolly Varden, and arctic trout, or grayling, were
caught during the summer.
A contour map of the area is now being prepared on a scale of 2 inches to 1 mile, with
a contour interval of 100 feet.
I have, etc.,
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR DISTRICT.
By Frank Swannell.
Victoria, B.C., November 13th, 1939.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the triangulation survey carried
out by me, with Messrs. W. H. Forrest, B.C.L.S., and A. H. Phipps as assistants, during the
summer of 1939.
The primary object of this triangulation was to provide the main control for the photo-
topographical surveys made this same season by Messrs. Stewart and Jackson. It was an
extension northward of the British Columbia Government triangulation net, based on geodetic
survey positions at Prince George, which had, by various surveyors, been carried from that
point northerly to the confluence of the Finlay and Ingenika Rivers during 1929-30. Opposite
the mouth of the latter river a base some 2% miles long was very carefully laid out and
measured by LeRoy Cokely, B.C.L.S., and myself during the summer of 1930. Our results,
independently obtained and in each case double-checked, were in very close coincidence and
agreed well with the value carried down on to this base from geodetic data. This base is
being adopted for the extension of the triangulation northward to Sifton Pass and its further
continuance this season down the Kechika River, by Mr. Hugh Pattinson, B.C.L.S.
Universal Wild theodolites were used and angles of the main system usually read eight
times, which, owing to the optical arrangement of the Wild is equivalent to sixteen values for
each angle. All photo-topographical stations visible were also read into. Twenty-three
main stations, including the initial two of Mr. Pattinson's triangulation, were occupied.
A secondary triangulation was also carried up the Finlay River from Deserters Canyon
to the foot of Long Canyon, and several points fixed up Fox River. This was to provide
control for traverses made by Col. Rolston, who was investigating the Finlay and Fox Valleys
for the Public Works as a possible route for the proposed Alaskan Highway. In addition,
Weissner Lake was partially triangulated. Some fifty secondary stations in all were read,
of which about ten had originally been set by the photo-topographical survey.
PREVIOUS EXPLORATIONS—FINLAY AND FOX RIVERS.
The first white man to see the Finlay was Mackenzie, who, ascending the Peace, reached
Finlay Forks on May 31st, 1793. The river is shown on his map as " Finlay's Branch."
No actual ascent of the river, however, appears to have been made until 1824;   in which year TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR DISTRICT. V 31
Samuel Black, Chief Trader of the Hudson's Bay Company, with a crew of voyageurs and
Indian hunters and guides ascended to the headwaters. The first part of Black's journal
was seen at Cumberland House, in 1894, by Mr. J. B. Tyrrell, but has since disappeared.
From a precis made by Mr. Tyrrell we know that Black left the Rocky Mountain portage
establishment on May 13th, 1824, and reached the foot of Deserters Canyon on the 27th.
Here two of his canoe-men decamped; hence the name given the canyon. Black reached the
mouth of Fox River on June 1st; his estimate of the air-line distance from " deserters'
portage " to Fox River is 36-40 geographical miles, which is quite close to the actuality.
Black's journal of his explorations around the headwaters of the Finlay is preserved in the
British Columbia Archives; it is very prolix and abounds in florid descriptions of the scenery.
As he was not a trained surveyor and had no means of fixing his positions, his expedition
was barren from the mapping point of view.
Fort Grahame, first known as " Bear's Lake Outpost," was founded about 1869, about
which date the first prospectors pushed up the river. R. G. McConnell, of the Geological
Survey, spent the season of 1893 on the Finlay and its tributaries. He appends a map of
the region to his report. In 1897 the first parties of Klondikers taking the Edmonton route
reached Fort Grahame and wintered there; pushing on through Sifton Pass next season.
Inspector J. D. Moodie, of the N.W.M.P., sent with a patrol to investigate this route, more
particularly as to the feasibility of constructing a wagon-road to the Yukon, also spent this
winter at Fort Grahame. Moodie's report, published in the Sessional Papers for 1899, gives
an excellent description of the country from this point of view.
In 1912 Mr. A. W. Harvey, B.C.L.S., made surveys up as far as Deserters Canyon; and
in 1914 I made a rapid reconnaissance of the Ingenika River and the Finlay to about 15
miles above the Fishing Lakes. Mr. Victor Dolmage in 1927 made a geological survey,
utilizing my 1914 map for the topographical features. Outside of the sketch-map accompanying Inspector Moodie's report, no information was available regarding the Fox River
and the Kechika until Mr. E. C. W. Lamarque, B.C.L.S., and myself passed through with the
Bedaux expedition in 1934.
THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN TRENCH SECTION, INGENIKA RIVER
TO SIFTON PASS.
The " Rocky Mountain Trench," or great intermontane valley, crosses the International
Boundary in longitude 115° 10' W. and runs N. 33° W. for some 800 miles; being bordered on
the east by the Rocky Mountains and to the west by many different ranges. It is quite
independent of and was formed antecedent to the present drainage system of the country,
being traversed in turn by the Kootenay, Columbia, Canoe, Bad, Parsnip, Finlay, and Fox
Rivers, and continuing northward into the blue distance beyond the Sifton Pass Divide.
The straightness of this ancient trough-valley is remarkable. The line of peaks along
the eastern side of this great depression which were used this year in extending the triangulation lie very nearly in the same straight line for 90 miles up to Sifton Pass. The peaks
similarly used to the west are also nearly in one line, the distance across the trench from
peak to peak being about 9 miles.
The flatfish valley-bottom is from 5 to 7 miles in width, floored by glacial deposits of
silts and gravels, rising in benches and terraces. The Finlay meanders tortuously from side
to side of the valley-bed, often expanding into an intricate system of high-water channels;
this being noticeably the case above the confluence of the Akie River. Old channels are
blocked by log-jams and silt and new ones are cut each high water. High cut-banks of
cemented gravel are a feature of the river above the Akie; the unequal hardness of the
strata in places producing a peculiar bastion-like effect. Some of these cut-banks tower over
200 feet above the river and are being continually undermined by the impinging current.
Elsewhere the banks are generally low. Very little bed-rock obtrudes along the river except
at Deserters Canyon, 15 miles above the Ingenika, where the river cuts for one-half mile
through a belt of conglomerate. The river, usually 200-250 yards in width, here contracts
to 160 feet at the head of the canyon.    This canyon is dangerous at high water.
Between the Ingenika River and Fort Ware, a distance, by river, of 73 miles, no stream
of any size enters from the west. On the east, or Rocky Mountain side, the Akie comes in 12
miles above the canyon through a wide deep-cut valley which forks some 14 miles up.    The V 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
Akie (or Akieca) is heavily laden with glacial silt, has a wide flood-bed through which it
twists tortuously in many channels for 2 miles up, where, reaching the rim of the main Finlay
Valley, it emerges from a gorge. Above this it wanders at low water through a wide
flqod-bed.
It is 36 miles from the Akie to Paul Creek, 40 feet wide and 2% feet deep, which breaks
through a gneissic range paralleling the main Rockies. Why this was styled Paul Branch on
old maps is a mystery as it is only a large creek.
KWADACHA AND WARNEFORD RIVERS.
Fifty-six miles above Deserters Canyon the main fork of the Finlay, the Kwadacha,
comes in; its turbid, whitish, silt-laden waters flowing without mingling alongside the clear
Upper Finlay water for some miles below the confluence. It contributes one-third of the
Finlay and at its mouth is 50 yards wide at low water, five feet deep, and very swift. At
high water its width here is 70 yards. Four miles up is a short canyon above which the
river is much cut up into many channels with bars and drift-piles. About 17 miles up, the
river forks, the main Kwadacha coming in from the east. Sixty-five miles up, the Bedaux
trail from the Muskwa River to Fort Ware crosses, the river here being 30 yards wide at low
water and just fordable. Above the ford the river emerges from a very deep-cut rock
gorge and 15 or 20 miles due north is reported to issue from a large ice-field. The left-hand
fork, known as the Warneford or Wolverene River, comes in from the north-east and forks
20 miles up. The North Fork heads in Quentin Lake, the East Fork in Haworth Lake at a
reported altitude of 4,300 feet.
UPPER FINLAY RIVER.
Above the confluence with the Kwadacha the Finlay abruptly changes direction, cutting
transversely the wide valley in which its lower course runs. It comes in from the west
through a narrow gap in the first range, bordering the Rocky Mountain Trench. A few
miles farther up commences the long succession of canyons and rapids characterizing the
remainder of its course.
FOX RIVER VALLEY.
The Fox River (or Tochieka), although an insignificant shallow stream, only 30 yards
wide where it enters the Finlay 3 miles above the Kwadacha, now is the sole occupant of the
wide intermontane valley for so many miles occupied by the Finlay. The Fox forks about
22 miles up. The main branch, which just below the crossing of the Sifton Pass trail is completely blocked by a log-jam, continues for some 10 miles in the Rocky Mountain Trench; at
the eastern edge of which it again forks, one branch heading to the N.N.E. in a deep, wide
valley.
The other branch heads in Weissner Lake, about 7 miles long, lying due east and west in
a transverse valley which continues through to the Warneford River. This transverse valley
again appears to the west of the Rocky Mountain Trench as the Fox Pass. In 8 miles the
Finlay River is reached; the river occupying this valley for 25 miles westward. It seems
obvious that, anciently, before cutting south into the narrow cleft of Cascade Canyon, the
Finlay reached the Rocky Mountain Trench through the Fox Pass.
The left-hand and smaller branch of Fox River parallels the main branch of the Fox for
10 miles, keeping to the western side of the trench, rapidly diminishes in volume, passes
through Fox Lake, 1% miles long, and heads near Sifton Pass.
At Sifton Pass, 44 miles above Fort Ware on the Finlay, the mountains narrow in and a
swampy meadow marks the actual divide between Finlay and Liard waters. This 44-mile
section of the Rocky Mountain Trench has a bottom width varying from 3 to 5 miles. It is
completely floored with glacial-drift deposits, contains numerous small lakes and muskeg-filled
depressions, and is characterized by longitudinal moraine ridges down the valley centre. This
formation is especially noticeable in the area between 'the parallel courses of the branches of
the Fox. It is here the pack-trail should have run instead of following, in typical Indian
fashion, the line of least resistance through the string of muskeg meadows to the west of this
central elevation. TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR DISTRICT. V 33
NATURAL RESOURCES AND  CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
There is at present no lode-mining in the Ingenika-Sifton Pass section of the Rocky
Mountain Trench. Fine gold may be found, but seldom in paying quantities, on nearly every
bar along the Finlay; but none of the easterly tributaries, except the Kwadacha, carry any
trace of gold. A bar above Deserters Canyon was being worked last September by Messrs.
Blanchard and Miller, who reported that $4 to $5 a man was being made. No other mining-
was being done.
Timber resources are scanty. Most of the country was burnt over during the Klondike
rush, or even earlier, and pine and poplar have replaced the original spruce. Spruce intermixed with cottonwood now occurs in scattered areas, mostly on the rich alluvial bottoms
between river-loops.
Clearing would be light and many areas of good agricultural land could be picked, but the
whole valley is subject to summer frosts. Fox River Valley being floored with glacial drift
is barren and valueless, and such meadows as exist are almost invariably swampy. Potatoes
and other vegetables have been raised at Fort Grahame and garden-truck by Del Miller at
his place, 28 miles below Fort Ware. Small fruits such as strawberries, raspberries, and cranberries would yield well.    Wild strawberries were particularly plentiful this year.
The winters are cold, but the weather reported to be mostly clear and bright and the
snowfall light. No recent figures are available, but at Fort Grahame in 1898 the lowest
temperatures recorded were: In January, — 38°F.; February, —50°; March, —6°. The
summer of 1939 was rainy, rain falling on twelve days in July, fourteen days in August, and
on six days in the first half of September. Several summer frosts were recorded. In 1914,
a more normal season, average noon temperatures were: June, 68°; July, 62°; August, 68°;
and September, 51°.
MEANS OF ACCESS AND SETTLEMENT.
In this whole area there are only half a dozen white trappers and a few dozen Sikanni
Indians. There are no settlements and only the one trading-post—that of the Hudson's Bay
Company at Fort Ware, 1% miles above Kwadacha Forks. The river provides the means of
access, supplies being brought up in large boats. Fort Ware is 370 miles from Prince George.
The route comprising 32 miles by road to Summit Lake; thence down-stream by the Crooked
River to McLeod Lake; and down the Pack and Parsnip Rivers to Finlay Forks, 210 miles
from Prince George. The remaining 160 miles up the Finlay is only interrupted by one
obstacle—Deserters Canyon—which, however, except at extreme high water, is easily
negotiated by the large powerfully-engined freighting-boats. An easier route, particularly
for going out in the fall, is to go down the Peace River from Finlay Forks to the head of the
Peace River Canyon and from there by road to the railway at Dawson Creek. We made from
the Ingenika River to the railway in three days, travelling two by boat and one by truck.
During the summer months there is a fortnightly mail service to Fort Ware by aeroplane.
GAME AND WILD ANIMALS.
There is very little game, which is attributed to wolves being numerous. The Sikannis
frequenting Fort Ware are, however, probably responsible for the scarcity of moose. Not a
dozen goat were seen the whole season and fewer caribou. This lack of large game was
typical of conditions as far back as my exploration in 1914. We saw very few black bear and
no grizzly. Small game was also scarce; grouse few and the coveys small, while the rabbits,
exceedingly numerous in 1914, are now seemingly completely gone. Trout to a large size
were caught in the Finlay as well as grayling, and in a few of the numerous small lakes trout
and whitefish were plentiful.
I have, etc.,
Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S. V 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
TRIANGULATION SURVEY, KECHIKA RIVER VALLEY,
CASSIAR DISTRICT.
By Hugh Pattinson.
Victoria, B.C., November 13th, 1939.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the above survey carried out by
me under your instructions of June 22nd:—
The object of the survey, as defined in your instructions, was to extend a triangulation
network north-westerly along the valley of the Kechika River as far as possible, from stations
to be set in the vicinity of Sifton Pass, the triangulation to be utilized later as control for
mapping from aerial and ground photos.
The party, consisting of A. T. Holmes, B.C.L.S., assistant; and five men, was organized
at Prince George and left for Fort Ware, near the mouth of the Whitewater River, on
June 30th, arriving at the latter place on July 7th. The pack-train of twenty-two horses, in
charge of J. 0. Davidson, which was to meet me at Fort Ware, had not arrived. It was
therefore decided that A. T. Holmes, with three of the party, should await the arrival of the
horses, utilizing the intervening time by clearing trail; while the remainder of the party
proceed to Sifton Pass, establish a camp and commence field operations. One horse was
obtained and the services of its Indian owner. The horse was packed with one week's food-
supplies and the party of four, including myself, left Fort Ware on July 11th, arriving at
Driftpile, our first main camp, on July 14th. The remainder of the party arrived with
pack-train and supplies on July 19th, five days later.
Before leaving Prince George, arrangements had been made with Dick Corless, Junior,
river freighter, to have additional supplies landed at Fort Ware on the 10th days of August
and September respectively. From the latter point we were entirely dependent on our
pack-train for the relaying of the supplies to our various camps, and although the average
return trip was approximately 200 miles, over a trail which was anything but good, the
pack-train each time  arrived on  schedule.
Our first work consisted of locating and erecting signals on four prominent mountain-
peaks; thus forming the first quadrilateral of the triangulation network to be continued
north-westerly along the valley of the Kechika River. The most southerly points-—
A " Sifton " and A " Scarcity "—were located on the west and east sides respectively of the
valley of the Fox River, and the straight line joining them cuts that river near its head
about 2% miles southerly from the height of land between the Fox and Kechika Rivers.
A " Sifton " and A " Scarcity " were later occupied by F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S., and N. C.
Stewart, B.C.L.S.
Twenty-six stations were set and monumented during the season, extending the network
approximately 100 miles north-westerly from Sifton Pass; the last station being within a few
miles of the mouth of the Turnagain River.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, KECHIKA RIVER VALLEY.
The valley of the Kechika River is remarkably straight throughout its entire length.
The river follows a serpentine course and divides itself at intervals into numerous channels.
During the period of low water extensive sand- and gravel-bars appear. The floor of the
valley is generally fairly level, but occasionally broken by low knolls or ridges. Usually,
access to the river is easy, but there are high cut-banks at intervals caused by encroachment
of the river during high water, on the timbered bench lands. To the north of the Gataga
and Black Rivers the mountains gradually become lower and more rounded on top and the
valley widens out considerably. The main tributaries entering the Kechika River between
its head and the Turnagain River are the aforementioned Gataga and Black Rivers. The
former is swift and the water of a muddy grey colour, due to glacial silt brought down
from the high mountains where it has its source. It empties into the Kechika River from the
east side, flowing in a north-westerly direction. The width at the part where the trail crosses
is about 180 feet across the flow at low water, but the bed is very much wider, probably 500
or 600 feet from bank to bank. TRIANGULATION SURVEY, KECHIKA RIVER VALLEY. V 35
The Black River empties into the Kechika River from the west at a point approximately
48 miles north-westerly from Sifton Pass, its mouth being only 5 or 6 miles above the mouth
of the Gataga River. The current is quite fast but the river is fordable during periods of
low water. Unlike the Gataga River the water is crystal clear. The width from bank to
bank would probably average about 250 feet, but varies considerably at different points.
The volume of the Kechika is increased greatly by the waters of the Black and Gataga
Rivers, and below the confluence of the Kechika with the latter river fording became
impracticable and rafts had to be resorted to.
FOREST-COVER.
There is a medium coverage of Canada spruce and jack-pine below the 4,000-foot level,
but owing to the high latitude and high average elevation above sea-level the timber is
generally small, even when mature. Some spruce was noticed up to 2 feet in diameter,
but it is doubtful if the average would exceed 8 inches. There is a good stand of jack-pine
covering a park-like area on the west side of the Kechika River, between the Black River
and Denatiah Creek. Timber-line lies slightly above the 5,000-foot contour, but for 500 feet
below that contour there are only scattered clumps of alpine balsam. In the valley and on
the lower slopes of the mountains aspen, Cottonwood, and occasional birch are found intermixed with the coniferous varieties. Some tamarack was noticed in the swamps. A very
small proportion of the wooded areas has been burnt over, and this fact is probably partially
due to the remoteness of the region and lack of population.
VEGETATION.
Meadows, large and small, are found at intervals, varying in size from two or three to
several hundred acres in area. Some of these meadows are swampy and others dry, and the
quantity and quality of the grass varies accordingly. The swamp meadows produce a heavy
growth of swamp-hay, while the others produce a variety of good cured grasses which afford
excellent feed for horses. North of the Gataga River there are some long stretches of
open and semi-open hillside sloping from the bench lands to the floor of the valley. These
slopes support a variety of bunch-grass very similar to that found in the Dry Belt of
British Columbia. Tufts of sagebrush and deadwood were also noticed on these open hillsides.
GAME.
Goat are very plentiful and almost any day herds ranging from two or three to a dozen
or more can be seen, with the aid of field-glasses, grazing on the short grass on the higher
levels of the mountains. Occasionally some of them wandered down into the valley, where
their long almost snow-white hair made them clearly visible against the green background.
Sheep were also quite plentiful and were generally seen grazing in flocks, six or seven
in number. Unlike the bighorn they are grey in colour and are probably of the species known
as Fannin's, although they bear a marked similarity to the Stone's, which roam the mountains
from the Stikine River north through the Atlin District.
Moose and caribou were scarce during the summer, but the former began to appear in
fair numbers towards fall.
A few black bear and several wolves were seen. The latter are apparently quite
numerous and are probably responsible to some extent for the scarcity of deer and the
dwindling herds of moose and caribou in this region. On several occasions the remains of
recently killed moose were noticed.
The presence of fresh beaver-cutting was observed at several points along the river-
banks, and several fox were seen during the season.
Of the game birds, willow grouse were quite numerous and ptarmigan were generally
to be seen high up on the mountains.
CLIMATE.
According to information obtained from Indians in the locality, and others living adjacent
to it, the climate is generally fairly dry with moderate precipitation, probably not exceeding
20 inches. The average depth of snow during the winter months is about 1% feet. During
the past season light showers were very frequent, but there were few heavy rainfalls until V 36 REPORT OF THE  MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
near the end of September. Light snowfalls occurred early in August on the summits, but
the snow melted within twenty-four hours. On September 5th there was a fairly heavy
snowfall which extended down to timber-line and covered some of the higher stations for
the balance of the season. The first really cold weather was experienced on October 5th
while en route to Fort Ware; when there was a sudden change from comparatively mild
weather to zero temperature. The cold spell lasted less than forty-eight hours and when
we took our departure from Fort Ware on October 10th the weather was still mild.
ACCESSIBILITY.
There are the two main water routes. One starting from Summit Lake north of Prince
George follows the Little Crooked, Pack, and Parsnip Rivers to their confluence with the
Peace and Finlay Rivers at Finlay Forks, and then up the last-named river to Fort Ware
near the mouth of the Kwadacha River. The remainder of the journey is made by trail,
following the valley of the Fox River to its head, at Sifton Pass. The distance by river from
Summit Lake to Fort Ware is approximately 350 miles, and the distance by trail from the
latter place to Sifton Pass is about 50 miles.
The other water route is by way of Wrangell and follows the Stikine River to Telegraph
Creek, where a road connects with Dease Lake. The route then follows the Dease River
to its confluence with the Liard River, near Lower Post. There was a bi-monthly aeroplane
mail and passenger service between Prince George and Fort Ware during the past summer.
The plane, equipped with pontoons, alighted on the Finlay River opposite the Hudson's Bay
Post. Unfortunately, there are long distances where it is not possible for a plane to land
in safety; however, one lake approximately 2 miles in length, situated near the mouth of the
Turnagain River, would probably comply with the necessary requirements.
GENERAL.
The country has no permanent residents at present, although Indian trap-lines extend
as far north as the Gataga River.
The visible resources consist chiefly of the timber, the future value of which it would
be difficult at this time to estimate. Though generally small in size compared with the
timber in more southern latitudes, there is probably sufficient commercial timber to take
care of most local and domestic requirements in case of future settlement. Specimens of
soft coal float were noticed along the bars of the Kechika River and were probably washed
down from the seam referred to in the Moodie report as discovered by two of his party who
went prospecting from his camp No. 49.
Conditions are favourable for stock-raising on a moderate scale. There are many
large meadows north of the Gataga River from which a considerable tonnage of hay could be
cut, and there is good open hillside grazing at intervals along the river.
Due to the remoteness of the region and absence of roads or good trails, the country is
still unprospected and likely to remain so until easier and less expensive means of access are
obtained. The expenditure of time and money required is far beyond the means of the
average prospector. Vast areas of rugged mountainous country extending from the Kechika
River easterly, across the main range of the Rocky Mountains and including the watersheds of
1 the Rabbit, Gataga, and Toad Rivers still remain virgin territory for the prospector. Other
areas extending westerly to the Stikine mountains still await the ring of the prospector's
pick and the sound of the woodman's axe, and it is quite within the bounds of possibility
that riches, now undreamed of, may be brought to light by the coming generation of
prospectors.
I  have, etc.,
Hugh Pattinson, B.C.L.S. TRIANGULATION SURVEY, KECHIKA AND LIARD RIVERS. V 37
TRIANGULATION SURVEY, KECHIKA AND LIARD RIVERS.
By Philip M. Monckton.
Victoria, B.C., November 8th, 1939.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Acting under your instructions of June 20th, I organized part of my survey crew
in Victoria and proceeded to the starting-point of the work at Lower Post, on the Liard
River. We left Victoria on June 22nd and arrived at Wrangell, Alaska, on June 26th; left
Wrangell the same day and reached Telegraph Creek on June 28th. Here we arranged for a
packer, a cook, and horses; then proceeded to Dease Lake by truck over a rough road,
73 miles. From this point small boats are operated down Dease Lake and Dease River.
The lake is 28 miles long and the run to Porter Landing at the foot (north end) of the lake
takes half a day. In the early evening we reached McDame Creek, a further 60 miles, and
tied up for the night. All of July 3rd was taken up with the 120-mile stretch to Lower Post,
situated on the Liard River, one-half mile up-stream from its confluence with the Dease
River. Here we were given a hearty welcome by the Hudson's Bay Company storekeeper
and were put up at his residence.
Lower Post (or Liard Post, as it is sometimes called) is the most northerly settlement
in British Columbia, being only 2 miles from the Yukon border. It consists of a few log
buildings, including three stores, and (in July) quite a large number of visiting trappers,
both white and Indian. Prices are naturally very high, as would be expected, with a freight
rate of 14 cents a pound from Vancouver; but the stores are quite well stocked, nevertheless.
The only industry at Liard is fur, and the trappers here seem to do quite well. Most of them
trap across the boundary, in the Yukon Territory, and spend one month a year in Liard.
We saw one or two small gardens, in which a few small spindly potatoes and other truck
were waging a losing battle with nature. In August severe frosts killed them. Only
rhubarb seemed to thrive. Some years they get a crop of potatoes of poor quality and these
sell at $8.a sack, in competition with "outside" ones at around $20. The soil is sandy and
dry. From Lower Post trails radiate in all directions. North up the Liard River, 25 miles
to Watson Lake, Y.T., where the air-mail calls once a week, each way, on its run between
Vancouver and White Horse. This plane formerly called at Lower Post, but the latter is
now condemned as an airport. By following this trail about 3 miles, one leaves British
Columbia near the foot of the canyon of the Liard, and by following the Liard another
5 or 6 miles, the monument set by Dr. Dawson in 1887 can be seen on a rock on the right bank
of the river. The original was taken away and a new one made of concrete set in the same
spot in 1927.
Another trail goes eastward to Hyland River and up this river; and one goes south to
McDame, on the left bank of the Dease River. But the most used one is the " Davy " trail,
which comes in from the south-east and leads to the Muddy (Kechika) River, Fort Nelson,
Fort Ware, and all points east.    This we followed.
Our programme consisted of picking out a suitable base-line, chaining it, and triangulating thence to Dawson's monument (previously referred to), and after that south-easterly
as far as time would allow.
There are no mountains near the Lower Post, nor exposure of rock. The only elevations
on which a station can be built are at the edges or angles of the various benches and moraines.
These are from 200 to 800 feet above the river; flat-topped, and densely timbered. Open
lookout spots are few and face only in one direction. The highest one of these hills is locally
known as Canyon Mountain; it is 6 miles by trail north of Lower Post and 800 feet above
the river. From it (with some clearing) one can see through about 180 degrees from
south-east to north-west. This gives a view into the Yukon Territory of perhaps 50 or 60 •
miles of perfectly level jack-pine flats.
The Liard River at Lower Post is about 600 feet wide, flowing 5 miles per hour, and
8 or 10 feet deep in the channel. It is muddy and impregnated with lime. It is navigable
(with obstructions here  and  there)   for  small  boats  with  plenty  of  power,  up-stream  to V 38 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1939.
Frances Lake, and up the main fork more than 100 miles; also down-stream to Cranberry
Rapids, where there is a portage to the Kechika, of a mile or so. The Hyland, too, is said
to be passable with a light boat and a strong " kicker " for 250 miles.
We located and cut out a base-line (1% miles long) with one end near the Post; tied in
some old surveys there, and had a good deal of difficulty in getting satisfactory quadrilaterals
to expand from the base in such a position that we could see over the surrounding benches
to the higher hills beyond. Almost half the season was spent on this; but finally, on
August 8th, we left the Post with everything behind us completed and pointed ourselves
toward the south-east.
The Davy Trail commences about a mile from the Post, across the Liard and Dease
Rivers, and some 66 miles to the Kechika River. It splits there; one fork crosses the
Kechika River and goes to Fort Nelson; the other keeps to the left bank and goes to Sifton
Pass and Fort Ware. This trail is of purely Indian construction, but is passably well located
and has very few swamps or unnecessary up-and-downs in it. It is well cut out and not much
cluttered up with fallen trees.
Our first halt was at the 6-Mile post, where we had a station called " Black Mountain."
From here we moved to Mile 20 and read two stations. About Mile 18% is probably the highest
point on the trail. Assuming Liard to be 2,150 feet, this point is around 2,800 feet. From
Mile 10 to Mile 20 there has been a great deal of fire, and from quite a few of the bare benches
extensive views can be had; but from Mile 20 to Mile 46 the country is excessively flat and
covered with dense timber and nothing can be seen. The odd hills (like the Station " Dome,"
4 miles north-east of Mile 27) have nearly level tops and will need many acres cleared to give
a 360-degree field of view. To the south-west of Mile 19 the first mountain of the Cassiar
Range is seen, about 4 miles from the trail, and on this a station was set; and as one proceeds
to the south-east the Cassiar Range gradually increases in height and prominence, but it is
not until opposite Mile 50 that any point reaches timber-line, and as far as we went the highest
was only 5,200 feet, or 3,000 feet above the valley. On the north-east of the trail, a low
mountain appears at Mile 47 and continues to Mile 62, but it is an isolated one and not connected to any range. Just to the east of this low hill (3,800 feet) is the Kechika River, which
flows about 5 miles per hour and is 500 feet wide. It pursues an extraordinary serpentine
course until, at about 15 miles east of Mile 40, it leaves the Rocky Mountain Trench and cuts
through the hills to join the Liard.
We finished the field-work on September 26th near the Turnagain and left for Telegraph
Creek on September 27th, arriving there on October 14th and at Victoria on October 28th.
CLIMATE.
At Lower Post and in the flat country near it, there seems to be a dry area. No records
have ever been kept either of rainfall, snowfall, or temperature. But the summer of 1939 was
said to be the wettest in memory at Dease Lake; yet around Liard it was very dry but cloudy,
and during the whole season there were only six nights when the stars were visible. Last winter,
at Watson Lake, the coldest was 64° below; so in all likelihood Lower Post was much the
same. One day in July it was over 90°. The main feature of the climate is the continual
wind, no doubt being drawn into the Rocky Mountain Trench. Severe summer frosts were
noted, 17° in August. A few flakes of snow fell on August 4th; no more until September
13th; again on September 26th; on October 6th at Boulder Creek (elevation 3,400 feet) it
was zero, and after that a great deal of snow fell all over Cassiar.
TIMBER.
The two main species are spruce and jack-pine. These grow to a diameter of 12 inches
and 70 feet high. In the swamps the commonest tree is the tamarack; it does not exceed
1 foot in diameter. Along the rivers there is some cottonwood. Interspersed with the others
is a fair amount of birch, poplar, alder, and different varieties of brush. There is good feed
at many places along the Davy Trail and many good creeks at which to camp. The best feed
is at the following mile-posts (from Dease River) : At Mile 6, Mile 12, Mile 16, Mile 20,
Mile 29, Mile 36, Mile 48, Mile 54, Mile 61, and along the banks of the Kechika from Mile 66 on. TRIANGULATION SURVEY, KECHIKA AND LIARD RIVERS. V 39
GAME.
In the flat country, game is very scarce and no reliance should be put in,obtaining any.
We got one moose in August on a mountain-top in the Cassiar Range, and never even saw
another one. No caribou were seen; a few sheep and goat on the high peaks in the Cassiar
Mountains, west of Birch Lake.    A fair amount of grouse were obtained however.
There is no shortage of wolves, which howled constantly around our camps at Mile 54
and Mile 61.    Also a few coyotes and many black bear.
After leaving the work and travelling up the Turnagain, in mountainous country, the
situation was quite different.    Many moose, caribou, etc., were observed.
GEOLOGY.
The whole area consists of sedimentary rocks; sandstone, shale, limestone, conglomerate,
and mica schist. No igneous rock was seen in place, nor was it, on the way out, until a belt
of granite was encountered at the head of Mosquito Creek. Some coal was seen on Dease
River, near the mouth, and on the Liard, near the Canyon. We heard rumours of oil seepage,
but saw none.    However, no doubt, the rocks are the right formation for oil.
I have, etc.,
Philip M. Monckton, B.C.L.S.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
iuled by Chari.es F. Bankiislij, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1940.
1,125-1040-7470 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0314085/manifest

Comment

Related Items