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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1940

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT•
OF   THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 3 1st, 1939
WITH APPENDICES
PEINTED  BY
AUTHORITY  OF  THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Chakles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1940.  To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for the year
ended December 31st, 1939, with Appendices.
GEORGE SHARRATT PEARSON,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia. Honourable George S. Pearson;
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Fisheries
Department for the year ended December 31st, 1939, together with Appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEO. J. ALEXANDER,
Assistant Commissioner. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1939.
Page.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces in 1938     7
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1939     7
Capital, Equipment, and Employees     9
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia for 1939    9
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts  10
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1939  15
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish)  16
Mild-cured Salmon  16
Dry-salt Salmon  16
Dry-salt Herring   17
Halibut Production  17
Fish Oil and Meal  18
Conditions of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  18
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.    (No. 25.)     (Digest)  19
Pilchard and Herring Investigations  20
Clam Investigation :  22
International Fisheries Commission, 1939  22
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, 1939  24
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. (No. 25.) By Wilbert A.
Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  26
Tagging British Columbia Pilchards (Sardinops cserulea (Girard)): Insertions and
Recoveries for 1939-40. By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station,
Nanaimo, B.C '.  39
Tagging of Herring (Clupeapallasii) in British Columbia: Insertions and Recoveries
during 1939-40. By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., and Albert L. Tester, Ph.D., Pacific
Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  42
A Preliminary Report on the British Columbia Clam Investigation. By D. B. Quayle,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  67
Annual Report of the British Columbia Salt-fish Board, 1939-40 Season  72
Spawning Report, British Columbia, 1939. By Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries  75
Statistical Tables  80  1  REPORT OF THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1939.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF THE
PROVINCES, 1938.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1938 totalled $40,492,976.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of $18,672,750,
or 45.9 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1938 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second in rank, by
$9,868,519.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1938 was $2,517,311
more than in the previous year. There was an increase in the value of salmon amounting to
$2,583,380.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1938 was $24,065,263, or 49
per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the total invested in
the fisheries of British Columbia in 1938, $9,000,244 was employed in catching and handling
the catches and $15,065,019 invested in canneries, fish-packing establishments, and fish-
reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1938 was 16,417, or 19
per cent, of Canada's total fishery-workers. Of those engaged in British Columbia, 10,314
were employed in catching and handling the catches and 6,103 in packing, curing, and in
fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries in British Columbia in 1938
was 350 less than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery products
of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1934 to 1938, inclusive:—
Province.
1
1934.                     1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
British Columbia. 	
$15,234,335
7,673,865
3,679,970
2,218,550
2,306,517
1,465,358
963,926
219,772
245,405
14,625
$15,169,529
7,852,899
3,949,615
2,852,007
1,947,259
1,258,335
899,685
252,059
225,741
20,725
$17,231,534
8,905,268
4,399,735
3,209,422
2,108,404
1,667,371
953,029
367,025
309,882
13,385
$16,155,439
9,229,834
4,447,688
3,615,666 '
1,892,036
1,796,012
870,299
527,199
433,354
8,767
$18,672,750
8,804,231
3,996,064
3,353,775
1,957,279
1,811,124
930,874
468,646
492,943
5,290
New Brunswick....  	
Ontario   	
Manitoba.. —	
Yukon   	
Totals	
$34,022,323
$34,427,854
$39,165,055
$38,976,294
$40,492,976
SPECIES AND VALUE  OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British Columbia
for the years 1934 to 1938, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
$12,402,042
797,390
36,439
628,982
549,910
324,669
33,402
$12,099,275
860,349
80,513
580,031
670,328
382,490
61,886
$13,387,344
943,568
96,311
1,142,397
667,313
418,142
88,422
$11,907,905
1,094,214
95,842
1,181,466
902,619
318,769
95,371
$14,491,285
Halibut           	
1,041 165
231,220
855,265
Pilchard -    ,, ;. ,:,	
867,007
351,324
162,508
$14,772,834
$14,734,872
$16,743,497
$15,596,186
$17,999,774 K 8
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Species.
1984.
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
$14,772,834
44,057
32,325
34,921
17,758
38,922
2,400
5,216
6,607
3,334
8,423
3,391
1,406
2,872
1,134
207
$14,734,872
65,862
44,525
30,808
25,492
41,609
$16,743,497
53,497
38,855
37,019
9,827
59,687
34
3,332
13,875
7,633
7,621
2,053
982
3,233
803
69
$15,596,186
95,251
52,188
33,201
15,430
36,199
477
2,339
7,990
3,722
3,523
1,386
923
2,438
337
50
$17,999,774
71,297
Crabs.. __	
Soles -	
54,572
37,679
Shrimps    	
18,985
37,453
Flounders ,,   __ 	
3,773
10,409
5,054
9,578
6,936
1,094
3,363
1,110
170
6,767
22,286
3,942
Smelt  -  , -
6,884
3,013
Octopus    -
1,016
2,467
Oolaehans 	
760
62
Trout                    	
Grayfish, etc.—
68
34,745
34,906
172,201
5,664
1,933
1,274
38,776
26,740
220,251
12,431
4,327
2,310
Oil  - ...
26,272
45,597
183,738
547
2,374
23,744
22,924
105,360
1,671
31,175
68,073
42,807
Whales ,— -	
Fur-seals     	
Miscellaneous— —	
184,074
3,076
105,453
Totals  	
$15,234,335
$15,169,529
$17,231,534
$16,155,439
$18,672,750
Previous to 1934 the totals for halibut included landings at British Columbia ports by
United States vessels, whereas for 1935 and onwards the landings by United States vessels
are excluded from the statistics.
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES SHOWS A
DECREASE IN 1939.*
The product of the British Columbia fisheries in 1939 had a total value of $17,698,980,
compared with $18,672,750 in the preceding year and $16,155,439 in 1937. The totals given
represent the value of the fish as marketed, whether sold for consumption fresh, or canned,
cured, etc. The famed British Columbia salmon-fishery had a product valued at $12,994,812,
this amount accounting for 73 per cent, of the total fisheries output of the Province. The
bulk of the salmon is marketed as canned and for this product the chief markets have been
found abroad, with countries of the British Empire taking the major part. The herring and
halibut fisheries are second and third, respectively, on the list of the chief commercial fisheries
of British Columbia in 1939. The chief products of the herring-fishery are canned, dry-salted,
and meal and oil. In the case of the halibut-fishery the entire catch is marketed for consumption fresh, but there are included in the marketed value various by-products, such as
livers, and oil and meal. The pilchard-fishery, usually of importance, shows for 1939 a
greatly reduced catch, and as a consequence the marketed value records a decrease of 88 per
cent. Whaling operations, previously carried on from two stations on the Queen Charlotte
Islands, were suspended for the season of 1939.
The total quantity of fish of all kinds, including shell-fish, taken by British Columbia
fishermen during the year was 4,172,224 cwt. with a value at the point of landing of $7,890,854,
compared with a catch of 4,562,864 cwt. and a landed value of $8,668,566 in 1938.
CAPITAL, EQUIPMENT, AND EMPLOYEES.
Capital.—The capital investment of the fisheries of the Province in 1939 recorded a total
value of $22,477,626, compared with $24,065,263 in the preceding year. The total amount in
1939 comprises $8,154,350 as the value of the vessels, boats, and gear, and $14,323,276 as the
investment in fish canning and curing establishments, the latter amount covering the value
J BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 9
of land, buildings and machinery, materials and products on hand, and cash and operating
accounts. The number of establishments in operation during the year was sixty-seven, a
decrease of eight from the year 1938.
Employees.—The number of men employed during the year in catching and landing the
fish was 9,609, compared with 10,314 in 1938, while the number of persons working in fish
canning and curing establishments totalled 6,271, compared with 6,103. The total number of
employees credited to the fishing industry of British Columbia in 1939 was therefore 15,880,
compared with 16,417 in the preceding year.
* Note.—The above figures are taken from the advance report on British Columbia Fisheries, Dominion Department of Statistics, Department of Trade and Commerce.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR 1939.
The total pack of all species of salmon canned in British Columbia in 1939 amounted to
1,539,063 full cases. This was 168,735 cases less than in 1938 and is also 90,949 cases less
than the five-year average, 1935 to 1939, inclusive. The pack in 1939, however, was 55,400
cases greater than the average annual pack of all varieties for the previous ten years.
The 1939 canned-salmon pack consisted of 269,887 cases of sockeye, 16,098 cases of
springs, 796 cases of steelheads, 245,097 cases of cohoe, 620,595 cases of pinks, and 386,590
cases of chums.
Examination of these pack figures by species shows that the total sockeye-pack of 1939,
amounting to 269,887 cases, was the smallest pack of this species since 1933, when 258,107
cases were canned. The sockeye-pack for the year in question was also 79,322 cases below
the ten-year average annual pack of this species.
The spring-salmon pack in 1939 was 16,098 cases, which was 562 cases higher than in the
previous year but 6,564 cases below the average for the previous five-year period. In considering the pack figures for this species, it should again be pointed out that the figures are
not truly indicative of the quantity available in any given year, as the amount canned is conditioned by the requirements of the fresh, frozen, and mild-cure trade.
While steelhead trout are not salmon, nevertheless a few are caught incidental to salmon-
fishing and are canned, therefore the figures are given here. In 1939 there were canned 796
cases of steelheads, compared with 1,036 cases of this species in 1938 and 844 cases in 1937.
The 1939 pack of canned-cohoe salmon, amounting to 245,097 cases, while not as great as
the record pack of 1938, was greater than any other previous year. As in 1938, so in 1939
there were some cohoe imported from Alaska and canned in British Columbia. These
amounted to 14,658 cases and are included in the above figures. The cohoe-pack in 1939 was
16,915 cases above the average for the five-year period 1935 to 1939, inclusive, and 48,421
cases greater than the average annual pack of this species for the ten-year period 1930-1939,
inclusive.
The pack of pink salmon in British Columbia in 1939, amounting to 620,595 cases, was
the largest pack of this species canned in the Province since 1930, in which year there were
canned 1,111,937 cases. The 1939 pack was also 219,719 cases greater than in the previous
year and 77,886 cases greater than the average for the five-year period 1935-1939, inclusive.
In 1939 the pack of this species also exceeded the ten-year average by 98,083 cases.
The chum-salmon pack amounted to 386,590 cases. This was 155,229 cases less than in
the year previous and the smallest pack of this species since 1933, when 293,630 cases were
canned. The 1939 pack was 90,062 cases less than the average for the previous five years and
8,883 cases below the average for the ten-year period 1930-1939.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River System.
Sockeye Salmon.—The total pack of sockeye salmon on the Fraser River in 1939 amounted
to 97,807 cases. Of this amount 54,296 cases were canned in British Columbia and 43,511
cases were canned in the State of Washington. The percentages are 55% and 44% respectively. It will be noted that Canadian fishermen again caught the greater portion of Fraser
River sockeye, although the percentage accruing to Canadian gear in 1939 was slightly less K 10 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
than in the year previous,
convenience.
Year.
1928           	
These percentages for the past twelve years are
American.
Per Cent.
             68.0
listed below for
Canadian.
Per Cent.
32.0
1929
             64.0
36.0
1930.        ._.
     78.0
22.0
193L   	
     68.0
32.0
1932	
     55.0
45.0
1933          	
               71.0
29.0
1934      ...
           72.0
28.0
1935	
     47.0
53.0
1936	
._■_     25.0
75.0
1937      ...
           38.0
62.0
1938	
     42.0
58.0
1939	
     44.5
55.5
The Canadian pack of Fraser River sockeye in 1939, amounting to 54,296 cases, was 8,526
cases below the pack produced in British Columbia in the cycle-year 1935, but was 13,349 cases
greater than the corresponding pack in the cycle-year 1931. The total pack of Fraser River
sockeye, Canadian and American, in 1939, however, was 19,692 cases below the total canned
in 1935, the cycle-year, and was 30,351 cases less than in the cycle-year 1931.
When considering the production figures for a river system, the pack figures must be
considered in conjunction with the escapement to the spawning-beds. In the Appendix to
this report there is published " Spawning Report, British Columbia, 1939," by Major J. A.
Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for British Columbia for the Federal Department
of Fisheries. The reader is referred to this report. It will be noted that, generally speaking,
the escapement of sockeye to the spawning-beds of the Fraser River was only fairly satisfactory, which would indicate that the commercial fishery was most generously dealt with by
those responsible for conservation.
Spring Salmon.—There were 5,993 cases of spring salmon packed by Canadian canners
on the Fraser River in 1939, compared with 4,308 cases in 1938 and 5,444 cases in 1937. In
the case of springs, the canned-salmon pack figures are not indicative of the size of the run,
as spring salmon find an outlet in many other markets. It would seem that the escapement
to the spawning-beds was reasonably satisfactory.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack on the Fraser River in 1939, amounting to 13,557 cases,
was just about 50 per cent, that of the cycle-year 1936, when 28,716 cases were packed.
Canned-cohoe packs for the intervening years were 11,244 cases in 1937 and 27,127 cases
in 1938.
Pink Salmon.—In 1939 there were canned on the Fraser River 95,176 cases of this
variety, compared with 94,010 cases in 1937, the cycle-year. Pink salmon run to the Fraser
River only in those years coinciding with the odd-numbered years. The average pack for the
previous five cycle-years amounted to 81,313 cases. The spawning-ground reports indicate
the escapement of this variety was reasonably satisfactory.
Chum Salmon.—There were canned on the Fraser River 30,150 cases of chums in 1939.
The average annual pack of this variety for the past five years amounted to 29,919 cases,
which would seem to indicate a satisfactory pack in 1939. In making the comparison, however,
it must be remembered that considerable quantities of chum salmon were salted each season
prior to 1939. No salting took place in 1939, which fact would, no doubt, have the effect of
increasing the canned and frozen packs. Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that
the escapement was light. All things considered, it may be said that the chum-salmon run to
the Fraser River in 1939 was not entirely satisfactory, although it will be noted further on
in this report that the run of this species was generally light throughout the Province.
Skeena River.
The total pack of all species of salmon canned on the Skeena River in 1939 amounted to
205,604 cases, which was 14,798 cases above the pack of the year previous. The 1939 pack
consisted of 68,485 cases of sockeye, 4,857 cases of springs, 55 cases of steelheads, 29,198 cases
of cohoe, 95,236 cases of pinks, and 7,773 cases of chums. BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 11
Sockeye Salmon.—The Skeena River sockeye-salmon pack in 1939 amounted to 68,485
cases, compared with 47,257 cases in 1938, and was 9,868 cases greater than the average pack
for the previous five-year period. This river system has been passing through a period of
comparatively low production of sockeye salmon in recent years. The increased pack in 1939,
together with the encouraging reports from the spawning-grounds, seem to indicate that the
measures taken four years ago by the Federal Department of Fisheries are producing the
desired effect.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are canned on the Skeena River only incidental to the
canning of other varieties. In 1939 there were 4,857 cases of this variety canned, compared
with 4,318 cases in 1938 and 4,401 cases in 1937, while in the year 1936 the spring-salmon
pack amounted to 4,551 cases. As in other districts, the pack of spring salmon on the Skeena
River is not indicative of the run, due to other market outlets for this species.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 29,198 cases of cohoe canned on the Skeena River in 1939.
This was 23,623 cases less than were packed in 1938, but was only 86 cases below the average
for the previous five-year period. In addition to the 29,198 cases of cohoe canned on the
Skeena River from Skeena River fish in 1939, there were also canned in Skeena River canneries some 13,500 cases of this variety which were caught in Alaskan waters.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack on the Skeena River in the year in question,
amounting to 95,236 cases, was 25,626 cases greater than in 1938 and 35,836 cases above the
pack of this variety in the cycle-year 1937. The pack of pinks in 1939 on the Skeena River
was also 15,735 cases above the average for the five-year period. The pink-pack on the
Skeena River in the year in question was much better than the corresponding packs made in
recent past years and, in addition, there would seem to have been a good escapement to the
spawning-grounds.    This is most encouraging.
Chum Salmon.—The Skeena River is not a heavy producer of chum salmon. In 1939 the
pack amounted to 7,773 cases, compared with 16,758 cases in 1938, 10,811 cases in 1937,
15,297 cases in 1936, and 8,122 cases in 1935.    The escapement was described as medium.
Nass River.
The total pack of all species of salmon caught on the Nass River in 1939 amounted to
55,946 cases, which was less than half the amount packed in the year previous, when 113,970
cases of all varieties were caught. The 1939 pack consisted of 24,357 cases of sockeye, 708
cases of springs, 15 cases of steelheads, 1,996 cases of cohoe, 26,370 cases of pinks, and 2,500
cases of chums. It will be noted that the falling-off in the pink-salmon pack largely accounts
for the decrease in the total pack on this river system in 1939, when compared with the year
previous.
Sockeye Salmon.—The pack of sockeye salmon caught on the Nass River in 1939, amounting to 24,357 cases, must be considered as satisfactory, particularly so when compared with
recent past years. The pack for 1939 was 3,425 cases greater than the average for the
previous five years and 4,297 cases greater than the average for the ten-year period 1930 to
1939, inclusive. Due to the complicated nature of the age-groups comprising the runs of
sockeye salmon to the Nass River, it is difficult to compare the pack in any given year with
the pack of the cycle-year. Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement
of both the early and late runs was quite satisfactory and it is the opinion of the Federal
officers that the sockeye runs to the Nass River are in splendid condition.
Spring Salmon.—There is never a large pack of this species on the Nass River and the
pack of 708 cases represents those spring salmon caught incidental to fishing for other species.
The pack in 1938 was 773 cases, while 1,251 cases were packed in 1937.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were caught on the Nass River in 1939, 1,996 cases of cohoe
salmon. This was most disappointing and is compared with 14,159 cases in 1938, 12,067 cases
in 1937, and 11,842 cases in 1936. Several of the canners making returns have indicated that
at least a portion of their cohoe-pack was from troll-caught fish and it may be that some of
these should also be credited to the Nass River system. Reports from the spawning-grounds
indicate that the escapement of this species was small.
In addition to the above figures there were also canned in Nass River canneries in 1939,
1,108 cases of cohoe imported from Alaska. Pink Salmon.—The pack of pink salmon, amounting to 26,370 cases, was more than three
times greater than the pack of this species in the cycle-year 1937, and was also slightly above
the pack of pink salmon in 1935. The 1939 season belonged to the smaller cycle of this species
and when taken in conjunction with the reports from the spawning-grounds it must be considered as satisfactory.    Officers examining the spawning-grounds report the seeding as good.
Chum Salmon.—There is never a large pack of chum salmon on the Nass River, although
the 1939 pack of 2,500 cases was considerably below the pack for this species on the Nass in
recent past years, the figures for which are as follows: 1938, 15,911 cases; 1937, 10,080
cases;   1936, 20,621 cases.    The escapement was reported as being small.
Rivers Inlet.
In 1939 there were caught in Rivers Inlet a total of 83,502 cases of all species of salmon.
This total was made up as follows: 54,143 cases of sockeye, 745 cases of springs, 83 cases of
steelheads, 10,974 cases of cohoe, 12,095 cases of pinks, and 5,462 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon run to Rivers Inlet in 1939 was most disappointing, producing a pack of only 54,143 cases compared with the packs of the brood-years of
1934 and 1935 of 76,923 cases and 135,038 cases respectively. Not only was the pack a small
one, but reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement was only average.
The 1939 pack was 27,518 cases below the average for the previous five-year period 1935 to
1939, inclusive, and 28,263 cases below the ten-year average 1930 to 1939, inclusive. During
the fishing season the weather was cold and wet and it was thought that the salmon were
swimming deep, thus escaping the nets. Reports from the spawning-grounds do not indicate
an escapement above normal. Therefore, we must conclude that the run was definitely a
small one.
Spring Salmon.—This species is never packed in large numbers in Rivers Inlet, the
catch being entirely incidental to fishing for other varieties. The pack in 1939 amounted to
745 cases, compared with 1,209 cases in 1938 and 917-cases in 1937, while in 1936 there were
582 cases of springs canned.
Cohoe Salmon.—The pack of cohoe on Rivers Inlet in 1939, amounting to 10,974 cases,
though smaller than that of 1938 by 5,311 cases, was, however, well above the average for
recent past years. The 1939 pack was 1,220 cases above the average for the previous five-
year period and 3,829 cases above the ten-year average. The escapement to the spawning-
grounds was reported as disappointing.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon, though never a large factor in the total Rivers Inlet pack,
are canned in varying amounts. In 1939 the pack amounted to 12,095 cases compared with
the following packs: 1938, 9,063 cases; 1937, 7,536 cases; 1936, 6,432 cases; 1935, 4,554
cases.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chums in 1939 in Rivers Inlet amounted to 5,462 cases,
which was 2,297 cases less than in the year previous and 2,793 cases less than the average
for the five-year period 1935 to 1939, inclusive.
Smith Inlet.
Smith Inlet, like the adjacent Rivers Inlet, is primarily a sockeye area and, while some
seining is done in this inlet for fall fish, the bulk of the pack is caught and canned during
the sockeye season. The total pack of all varieties caught in Smith Inlet in 1939 amounted
to 28,727 cases, made up as follows: 17,833 cases of sockeye, 215 cases of springs, 50 cases
of steelheads, 3,880 cases of cohoe, 3,978 cases of pinks, and 2,771 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack, consisting of 17,833 cases, was 16,061 cases less than
in 1938 and 6,451 cases below the five-year average. The 1939 pack was also 6,545 cases
below the average for the past ten years. Reports from the spawning-grounds seem to
indicate that the escapement was less than average for this area.
Spring Salmon.—This species is not specially fished for in Smith Inlet and in 1939 there
were canned 215 cases, compared with 68 cases in 1938, 21 cases in 1937, and 30 cases in 1936.
Cohoe Salmon.—These, like spring salmon, are never a large factor in Smith Inlet's
pack, although the 1939 pack of 3,880 cases is high compared with packs of recent years
and is 2,542 cases better than the average for the previous five-year period. It is also 2,126
cases above the ten-year average. BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 13
Pink Salmon.—There were 3,978 cases of pinks caught in Smith Inlet incidental to fishing for sockeye salmon. This figure is compared with 1,761 cases in 1938, 483 cases in 1937,
65 cases in 1936, and 4,412 cases in 1935.
Chum Salmon.—This species is fished for with seines in the fall of the year in Smith
Inlet. In 1939 there were caught 2,771 cases of chum salmon compared with 8,076 cases in
1938 and 9,494 cases in 1937, while in 1936 the catch was only 1,653 cases. The escapement
in 1939 was reported as being light.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Salmon-canning in the Queen Charlotte Islands is confined almost exclusively to pink
and chum salmon. Other varieties canned in this district are caught incidental to the pink-
and chum-salmon fishery. Chum salmon are fished for each year, while pink salmon only put
in an appearance in the Queen Charlotte Islands every alternate year, the runs coinciding
with the even-numbered years. The total pack of all varieties of salmon caught in the
Queen Charlotte Islands in 1939 amounted to 50,699 cases, of which 45,519 cases were chum
salmon, 2,123 cases were pinks, and 3,020 cases were cohoe. There were also canned 36
cases of springs and 1 case of sockeye.
Pink Salmon.—There was no run of this species to the streams in the Queen Charlotte
Islands in 1939. The 2,123 cases canned were stragglers caught incidental to fishing for
chum salmon.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chum salmon, amounting to 45,519 cases, while 4,637 cases
above the 1938 pack was, nevertheless, 17,419 cases less than the average of this species for
the previous five years. Reports from the spawning-beds indicate that the supply of chums,
generally, was found to be disappointing, although the run of this species to Masset Inlet
was reported as being " unexpectedly heavy."
Cohoe Salmon.—The pack of cohoes canned in the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1939
amounted to 3,020 cases. The pack of this variety is never very large in these islands,
although, in 1938, 16,616 cases of this species were canned compared with 1937, in which
year the pack amounted to 4,631 cases.
In addition to the above, there were 36 cases of springs and 1 case of sockeye caught
and canned in the Queen Charlotte Islands District incidental to fishing for other varieties.
Central Area.
The Central Area includes all of the salmon-fishing areas from Cape Calvert to the
Skeena River, exclusive of Rivers Inlet. The total pack of all varieties in this area for 1939
amounted to 301,513 cases, consisting of 26,158 cases of sockeye,' 655 cases of springs, 392
cases of steelheads, 44,426 cases of cohoes, 150,498 cases of pinks, and 79,384 cases of chums.
In 1938 the total pack for the Central Area amounted to 351,798 cases of all varieties, while
in this area in 1937 a total of 265,065 cases were canned.
Sockeye Salmon.—The principal fishing-grounds in the Central Area for sockeye salmon
are Fitzhugh Sound, Burke and Dean Channels. In addition to these areas some sockeye
are taken in the vicinity of Banks Island and Principe Channel, while some sockeye gill-
netting is conducted in Gardner Canal.
The pack of sockeye salmon canned in the Central Area in 1939 amounted to 26,158
cases, compared with 36,178 cases in 1938 and 29,987 cases in 1937. Sockeye is never a large
factor in the pack of the Central Area, the average annual pack for the previous five years
amounting to 30,448 cases. The 1939 pack was 4,290 cases less than the previous five-year
average.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 44,426 cases of cohoe canned in the Central Area in 1939.
While this is considerably less than the exceptionally large pack of 56,716 cases put up in
this area in the previous year, nevertheless the pack compares favourably with the cohoe-
packs in this area in recent past years. The 1939 pack was 1,665 cases above the average
annual pack for the previous five years and was greater by 3,683 cases than the average
for the ten-year period 1930 to 1939, inclusive.
Pink Salmon.—The 150,498 cases of pink salmon packed in the Central Area in 1939
must be considered as satisfactory. This figure exceeds the previous year's pack by 19,656
cases and is 53,177 cases greater than the pack of 1937, the cycle-year. The 1939 pack was
6,652 cases greater than the average pack of this species in the Central Area for the previous
. K 14 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
five-year period.    The size of the pack, considered in conjunction with the reports from the
spawning-grounds generally, would indicate that this cycle is improving slightly.
Chum Salmon.—There were 79,384 cases of chum salmon packed in the Central Area in
1939. This figure is compared with 127,089 cases in 1938, 110,493 cases in 1937, 99,592 cases
in 1936, and 125,953 cases in 1935. The 1939 pack, it will be observed, was considerably
lower than the pack of any year of the previous five years and records indicate that it was
the lowest pack of any year since 1931, when 34,570 cases of this species were packed. In
comparing the 1939 pack of chums with that of 1931, it should be remembered that in 1931,
due to the depression, the canners curtailed canning to a very great extent, so that the small
pack in that year was not indicative of the amount of chum salmon available. In 1939 there
was a general scarcity of chum salmon, not only throughout the Central Area, but in all
chum-salmon areas in the Province.
Vancouver Island.
The total canned-salmon pack credited to Vancouver Island for 1939 was 590,736 cases,
composed of 16,259 cases of sockeye, 2,889 cases of springs, 132 cases of steelheads, 123,388
cases of cohoes (in which are included 48,209 cases of bluebacks), 235,119 cases of pinks, and
212,949 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1939 the sockeye-pack credited to Vancouver Island amounted to
16,259 cases, compared with 27,965 cases in 1938 and 25,427 cases in 1937. The 1939 pack
was 9,143 cases less than the average for the previous five-year period and was also less than
the average for the previous ten-year period by 8,469 cases. Generally speaking, reports
from the spawning-grounds of the widely scattered areas of Vancouver Island indicate that
they were reasonably well seeded.
Spring Salmon.—The pack of spring salmon credited to Vancouver Island in 1939 was
2,889 cases, compared with 4,254 cases in the previous year and 2,359 cases in 1937. In comparing the pack of spring salmon, one year with another, it should be remembered that the
pack figures for this species are not indicative of the quantities available, as spring salmon
finds its largest outlet in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 123,388 cases of cohoe packed in 1939. This figure includes
the blueback-pack, which amounted to 48,209 cases. These figures are compared with the
pack of the year previous, when 89,471 cases of cohoe were canned. In the latter figure,
27,417 cases of bluebacks are included. Including bluebacks, the cohoe-pack in 1939 was the
largest pack of this species put up in recent past years and exceeds the large pack of 1935
by 19,022 cases, in which year 104,366 cases were canned.
Pink Salmon.—In 1939 there were 235,119 cases of pink salmon credited to Vancouver
Island. This figure is compared with 318,780 cases packed in 1937, the cycle-year. From
this it will be observed that the 1939 pack was some 83,661 cases below the pack for the
immediate previous cycle, but it is encouraging to note that the pack in 1939, though smaller
than 1937, is still considerably above immediate previous cycle-years. The pack in 1935
amounted to 191,627 cases and in 1933 to 172,945 cases.
Chum Salmon.—Vancouver Island produced a pack of chum salmon in 1939 amounting to
212,949 cases. This is slightly less than the year previous, when 266,566 cases of this species
were canned. The pack of chum salmon all over the Province in 1939 was short of expectations and the pack in this district was no exception. In considering the canned-salmon pack
figures for Vancouver Island, it should be remarked that, ordinarily, considerable numbers
of chum salmon caught find an outlet in the salt-salmon market. In 1939, however, no
salmon-salteries operated. The catch, therefore, was utilized entirely by the canners and
freezers. The 1939 pack was 22,116 cases less than the average for the previous five-year
period.
In all cases where not specifically mentioned in this report, the reader is referred to
Major Motherwell's report on the condition of the salmon spawning-grounds for detailed
information in respect to escapements. BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 15
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY, 1939.
There were thirty-five salmon-canneries licensed to operate in the Province of British
Columbia in 1939. This was three less than operated in the previous year. The canneries
operating in the various districts in 1939 were as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands   2
Nass River   2
Skeena River   6
Central Area  4
Rivers Inlet  4
Johnstone Strait   3
Fraser River and Lower Mainland  10
West Coast of Vancouver Island  4
In comparing the number of canneries operating in the different districts with the year
previous, it will be noted that in 1939 there were two less canneries operated in Queen Charlotte Islands, one less in Rivers Inlet, and one less in Smith Inlet, while on the west coast of
Vancouver Island there was one more cannery operating in 1939 than in 1938. From the
above it will be noted that there were no canning operations conducted in Smith Inlet. The
three canneries located in this district were operated as net-camps and the production of these
canneries' gear was transported to Rivers Inlet for canning.
Pink salmon appear in the Queen Charlotte Islands only in each alternate year, the run
coinciding with the even-numbered years. There was no run of pink salmon to the streams
of the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1939, which probably accounts for the fact that there were
two less canneries operated in this district in 1939. In Rivers Inlet one company closed down
its only cannery and transported the fish out of the district to one of its other operating
canneries. On the west coast of Vancouver Island a new operation was commenced at
Markale.
The sockeye-fishing season opened in the northern areas on June 25th, and early reports
from the Skeena River and the Nass River indicated that the season in these districts got
away to a fairly good start. By mid-July most canneries on the Skeena River reported a
pack double that of the same date the previous year. Up until this date most sockeye were
being caught outside, but the boats started to move up-river in considerable numbers about
July 20th. The weather on the Skeena and Nass Rivers during the sockeye season was not
good, with considerable south-east winds and rain.
In Rivers Inlet and Smith Inlet all boats were fishing by July 7th, but the weather up
until that date had been exceptionally bad, strong south-east winds with rain, which is the
poorest kind of fishing weather in these two areas. The weather remained unsatisfactory
throughout the fishing season in these areas and there is no doubt that the inclement weather
had an adverse effect on the pack.
In Johnstone Strait, sockeye-fishing around the Nimpkish River was not particularly
good. The poor fishing, however, may be in part due to the large number of seine-boats
operating in this area, particularly in the early part of the season. On July 7th there were
seventy-six seine-boats operating in the Nimpkish area. This number is obviously many
times more than the number required. The consequent overcrowding in this area results in
a definitely uneconomic operation.
In 1939 quite a number of gill-nets were observed operating in Johnstone Strait. This
practice is more or less a new departure and whether or not the practice continues will, no
doubt, depend on the degree of success attained by those boats operating in this area in 1939.
Early reports indicate that gill-net fishing in Johnstone Strait is quite feasible, both from a
physical and economical standpoint.
In the salmon-fishery of 1939 there was practically no loss of time due to labour trouble.
The main part of the season passed peacefully, but on September 16th the salmon purse-
seiners operating in Johnstone Strait went on strike, demanding an increase in the price of
chum salmon. According to the summary of disputes compiled by the Department of Labour,
work was resumed on October 3rd when the difficulty was straightened out by the operators
agreeing to pay a higher price and signing union agreements. The freedom from labour
trouble experienced in 1939 was, no doubt, in a large measure due to the strenuous efforts K 16 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
made by the representatives of the fishermen and canners prior to the commencement of the
operating season.
OTHER CANNERIES  (PILCHARD, HERRING, AND SHELL-FISH).
Pilchard.—The canning of pilchards on the west coast of Vancouver Island in recent
years has shown a tendency to increased production. Unfortunately, in 1939 the schools of
pilchards did not appear off the coast of Vancouver Island and, as a result, fishing-vessels had
to operate off the Washington and Oregon coasts. Due to this long haul it was difficult to
obtain pilchards of a quality suitable for canning; therefore, the total pack of canned
pilchards on the west coast in 1939 amounted to only 7,300 cases. In 1938 the pilchard-pack
amounted to 69,653 cases.
Herring.—In 1939 the canning of herring assumed the proportions of an important
fishery. Eight canneries were licensed to operate in 1939, compared with two canneries in
1938. The increase in herring-canning activities is a direct result of the outbreak of hostilities in Europe. Prior to 1939, the pack of canned-herring has amounted to between
25,000 and 30,000 cases. In 1938 the specific figures were 23,356 cases, while in 1937 27,365
cases were canned. The herring-pack in 1939 amounted to 418,021 cases. This large increase
in the quantity packed is a direct result of the demands of the war for a cheap protein food.
It is interesting to note that the bulk of this large pack was disposed of readily.
Shell-fish.—Shell-fish are canned in British Columbia to some extent, but the production
is never a large factor in the total. In 1939 there were canned 5,431 cases of clams, 3,695
cases of oysters, and 462 cases of crabs.    Four canneries were licensed to operate.
Tuna-fish.—The catching and canning of tuna-fish are operations that have not been
reported in British Columbia heretofore. In 1939 some experiments were conducted off the
west coast of Vancouver Island which would indicate that, in some years at least, there was
a possibility of developing a tuna-fishery. Just how plentiful tuna-fish are it is too early to
say, but it is interesting to note that in 1939, according to reports submitted to this Department, there were 721 cases of tuna canned. The actual pack may have been somewhat higher
than this, due to some operators not reporting their packs. It was not necessary to obtain a
licence to operate a tuna-fish cannery in 1939; therefore, the submission of pack figures was
entirely voluntary on the part of the canners.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
In 1939 there were six plants licensed to mild-cure salmon in the Province of British
Columbia. These six plants produced a pack amounting to 2,594 tierces, which was 229
tierces less than the amount packed in 1938, in which year five plants packed 2,823 tierces.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
Each year previous to 1939 there have been varying amounts of chum salmon dry-salted
for shipment to Japan. Some years the production of dry-salt salmon reaches fairly large
proportions and in recent past years this industry has been controlled by the British Columbia Salt-fish Board, which Board is a scheme set up under the " Natural Products
Marketing (British Columbia) Act." Chum salmon, normally, are fished in quantity in the
fall of the year. There is, however, a considerable pack of canned chum salmon put up
during the summer and early autumn months. In 1939 the run of chum salmon in the various
districts in British Columbia, where these fish are caught, was much lighter than usual,
resulting in a canned pack considerably below normal. The outbreak of hostilities in September coincided with the usual time the dry-salteries commenced to operate. It was felt
that, with the country at war, every effort should be made to increase the production of
protein foods for Empire needs and, in order to do so, the Provincial Government declined to
issue salmon dry-saltery licences, thus that quantity of chum salmon which would ordinarily
have found an outlet in a dry-salted state in the Orient was diverted to the use of the Empire
through the frozen-fish and canned market outlets.
The year 1939 was the first in many years in which no chum salmon were dry-salted in
British Columbia. BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 17
DRY-SALT HERRING.
The production of dry-salt herring in 1939 was again regulated by the British Columbia
Salt-fish Board under the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act." The total
production of this commodity is exported to the Orient, principally to Japan, and quantities
are re-exported from Japan proper to Manchukuo and China. Continued unsettled conditions
in the Orient, particularly in China, which previously was the only market for this commodity, together with the exchange restrictions placed on the export of currency by the
Japanese Imperial Government, has caused some reduction each year in the quantity of salt
herring marketed. In past years British Columbia has exported to the Orient as much as
60,000 tons of dry-salt herring in a single season. This business has gradually diminished
and in 1939 four herring dry-salteries produced 7,596 tons of dry-salt herring, compared with
7,600 tons in 1938, while in 1937 the pack amounted to 10,230 tons.
For particulars of the marketing of the 1939 pack of dry-salt herring, the reader is
referred to the annual report of the British Columbia Salt-fish Board, which is published in
full in the Appendix to this report.
HALIBUT.
The total halibut landings on the Pacific Coast of North America are regulated by the
International Fisheries Commission. On this account there is very little fluctuation in the
amount landed from year to year. For administrative purposes the coast is divided into
four areas. The principal areas, from the standpoint of production, are Areas Nos. 2 and 3;
the waters off the coast of Washington and British Columbia corresponding with Area No. 2
and the waters off the coast of Alaska corresponding with Area No. 3.
In 1939 the catch-limits set by the International Fisheries Commission were: For Area
No. 2, 22,700,000 lb., and for Area No. 3, 25,300,000 lb.—a total of 48,000,000 lb. These limits
are the same as those prevailing in 1938. In addition to the 48,000,000 lb. permitted, the
International Fisheries Commission issues permits which allow vessels to land halibut caught
incidental to other fishing during the closed season for halibut. The regulations of the
International Fisheries Commission provide that halibut caught in Area No. 1 may be landed
so long as Area No. 2 is open to fishing and halibut caught in Area No. 4 may be landed so
long as Area No. 3 is open to fishing. Catch-limits, however, are set only in Areas Nos. 2
and 3.
Landings by all vessels in 1939 amounted to 50,737,249 lb. This includes 372,943 lb.
landed under permit. Of the balance, 1,067,917 lb. were landed from Area No. 1, 24,309,343
lb. from Area No. 2, and 25,359,989 lb. were landed from Area No. 3. The total halibut-
landings at Canadian ports by all vessels, Canadian and American, amounted to 22,689,753
lb., while the total Canadian landings at Canadian ports by Canadian vessels were 13,370,727
lb. Of this amount, 10,855,328 lb. were caught in Area No. 2 while 2,515,399 lb. were caught
in Area No. 3. In addition to the above, Canadian vessels landed 94,428 lb. in United States
ports. The above figures indicate that the total halibut-landings in 1939 by all vessels in
Canadian ports show an increase of 3,344,205 lb. over the year previous, and that the total
Canadian catch in 1939 was 1,462,295 lb. greater than the total catch by Canadian vessels in
the year previous. Of the total Canadian catch, 10,913,030 lb. were caught in Area No. 2 and
2,552,125 lb. were caught in Area No. 3.
The unweighted average price for Canadian halibut at Prince Rupert in 1939 was 6.2
cents per pound, compared with 5.8 cents per pound in 1938. This shows a slight increase
over the year previous. Attention is directed to the fact that these prices are based on the
unweighted average prices for all Canadian landings at Prince Rupert and should be used
with distinct caution.    They are quoted principally as indicating the trend.
Halibut-livers in 1939 were again in demand by pharmaceutical houses as a valuable
source of concentrated vitamins. These livers, which were formerly thrown away, have now
become a source of considerable revenue to the fishermen which, in 1939, amounted to $444,747,
compared with $437,300 received by the fishermen for this commodity in 1938.
The above figures are compiled from information supplied by the International Fisheries
Commission. K 18 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
The production of fish oil and meal has become an important branch of British Columbia's fisheries. Pilchards and herring are the principal species used for reduction, but considerable quantities of oil and meal are also produced from dogfish and cannery waste.
Contrary to the general belief, British Columbia's reduction plants produce fish-oil and an
edible meal, not a fertilizer, as is often supposed. The oil is used in numerous manufacturing processes, principally in the making of soaps, paints, linoleum, etc. There is also a
continually growing outlet for certain grades of fish-oil for the feeding of poultry and other
live stock, due to the high vitamin content of the oil. Plants are now established in British
Columbia which specialize in the refining and blending of British Columbia produced oils and
are capable of supplying a feeding oil with a guaranteed vitamin content.
Pilchard Reduction.—The pilchard-fishery of British Columbia is conducted principally
off the west coast of Vancouver Island. In the early days of this fishery pilchards were
taken mostly in the inlets, but later developments in the type of fishing equipment used has
enabled the vessels to proceed farther to sea and, in later years, practically all the pilchards
taken are caught well off-shore, so that this fishery may rightfully be considered a " deep-
sea " fishery. Fishing generally commences about the first week in July and continues until
the first fall storms, usually about the middle of September.
In 1939 pilchards did not appear off the coast of Vancouver Island at their usual time
and as it is well known that these fish approach the Vancouver Island feeding-grounds from
the south, the fishing fleet prospected in that general direction, eventually discovering the
pilchard schools well down off the coast of Washington. For some reason which is not generally known, the pilchards, in some years, do not come as far north as the waters off the
west coast of Vancouver Island and 1939 was such a season. Practically all the pilchards
taken in 1939 were caught from Destruction Island south to the Columbia River. Having to
travel such great distances between the plants and fishing-grounds is a most expensive
operation and consumes a great deal of time, consequently the production suffers.
In 1939 there were five plants licensed to operate and these five plants produced 900 tons
of meal and 181,473 imperial gallons of oil. These figures are compared with the production
of 1938 in which year there were produced 8,899 tons of meal and 2,215,823 imperial gallons
of oil. To all intents and purposes, the pilchard-fishery of British Columbia in 1939 may be
considered to have been a failure.
Herring Reduction.—The reduction of herring in British Columbia is now an important
branch of our winter fishery. Herring are caught in British Columbia from October through
to March and, while heretofore the fishery was conducted largely on the west coast and
south-eastern shores of Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of Prince Rupert, the industry
has been successful in prospecting new grounds and considerable quantities of herring are
now taken all the way from the 49th parallel to Prince Rupert.
In 1939 there were thirteen plants licensed to reduce herring. These thirteen plants
produced 22,870 tons of meal and 1,677,736 imperial gallons of oil. In 1938 twelve plants
produced 18,028 tons of meal and 1,526,117 imperial gallons of oil.
Mention was made in the pages of this report for 1938 of the heavy herring-fishing
which took place in District No. 2, in the vicinity of Calvert Island. This district in 1939
was again one of British Columbia's heavy producing districts, while the herring fleet fishing
in District No. 2 also attained considerable success in the vicinity of Laredo Channel.
Whale Reduction.—One company owns and operates two whaling-stations and a fleet of
whalers in British Columbia.    This company did not operate its whaling-stations in 1939.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—As mentioned in a previous paragraph, fish oil and meal are
produced in lesser quantities in plants operating on other than pilchards, herring, and whales.
These other plants operate principally on dogfish and cannery waste. In 1939 eleven such
plants were licensed to operate. These eleven plants produced 3,599 tons of meal and 331,725
imperial gallons of oil.
CONDITIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS.
Owing to this Department having discontinued making inspections of the various salmon-
spawning areas in the Province, we are indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor
of Fisheries, and the officers of his Department who conducted the investigations, for furnish- BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 19
ing us with a copy of his Department's report.    His courtesy in supplying us with this report
is gratefully acknowledged.
Major Motherwell's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-spawning
grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON (DIGEST).
(No. 25.)
There again appears in the Appendix to this report the twenty-fifth paper dealing with
the life-history of the sockeye salmon in British Columbia, which is once more contributed by
Dr. W. A. Clemens, of the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C. As was noted in the
digest covering paper No. 24 of this series, the run of sockeye salmon to the Fraser River is
not dealt with, due to the fact that the study of the sockeye salmon of the Fraser River
watershed has been taken over by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission.
In paper No. 25, Dr. Clemens points out that the packs of sockeye salmon in 1939 at
Rivers Inlet and on the Skeena River were somewhat below the averages of the past years,
but on the Nass River the pack was somewhat above recent averages. In discussing the
Skeena River, Dr. Clemens points out that the pack on the Skeena in 1939, amounting to
68,485 cases, was below the average of 91,809 cases for the past thirty-two years and below
the average of 76,760 cases for the past sixteen years. The Nass River shows a somewhat
better record with a pack of 24,357 cases, which is above the average of 21,039 cases for the
past twenty-seven years. The author points out that these comparisons are of general
interest only and do not take into account any cyclic variations.
Rivers Inlet Sockeye Run, 1939.
In discussing the Rivers Inlet sockeye-salmon run of 1939, which produced a pack of
54,143 cases, it is pointed out that this was slightly below expectancy; also that the escapement was reported as at least an average one, although high-water conditions made observations somewhat difficult. In discussing the return in 1940, which will be the result of the
spawnings in 1935 and 1936, attention is directed to the fact that in the former year the pack
amounted to 135,038 c^ses and the escapement was considered unusually large. In the latter
year the pack was 46,351 cases, which was relatively small, because of a strike on the part of
the fishermen for a portion of the season. The escapement in this year was reported as
heavy, but severe floods occurred subsequently and it is believed that a considerable percentage of the eggs were destroyed. Incidentally, the author points out that a prediction as
to the extent of the run in 1940 would be futile.
The analysis of the Rivers Inlet run of 1939 is from the material obtained from 1,485
individuals taken in twenty random samplings from July 10th to August 7th. In 1939 the
average length of both sexes of the four-year-old fish are one-half inch below the average of
the past twenty-six years, while the five-year-old fish were also very slightly below average.
In respect to weights, however, the average weights of both sexes of both four- and five-year-
old classes are approximately one-half pound below the average for the past years of record.
Skeena River Sockeye Run of 1939.
Dealing with the sockeye run to the Skeena River, the author points out that in 1939 the
run was larger than was expected from the brood-years, while the escapement to the Babine
area was reported as the " greatest in a decade." The 1940 run will be the production of
the brood-years of 1935 and 1936. The author points out that in view of the changing conditions and various uncertain factors, it is impossible to make a reasonably reliable prediction
as to what the run will be in 1940.
The data dealing with the Skeena River run of 1939 are from information obtained from
1,290 fish in fifteen random samplings from June 25th to August 18th. On the Skeena River
the author finds that the average lengths of both sexes in all the age-groups are much above
the averages of the past twenty-seven years, but the average weights of both sexes in all the
year-classes are decidedly below the general averages of the past twenty-five years of record.
Commenting on this the author points out: " . . . It would seem that these data may indicate a long or difficult migration in which the fat content was definitely reduced." K 20 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Nass River Sockeye Run of 1939.
Dealing with the sockeye run to the Nass River in 1939, Dr. Clemens points out that the
pack in that year, amounting to 24,357 cases, was slightly above the average for the past
twenty-seven years and was considerably above the average for the past ten years, while the
escapement was reported as very satisfactory and particularly heavy in the Meziadin Lake
area. The author makes no prediction as to what may be expected from this watershed
in 1940.
On this river system the average lengths of certain age-groups are slightly above the
average length for corresponding groups for the past twenty-seven years, while the average
length for the 53 age-group is identical with the average for this group for the past twenty-
seven years. On the other hand, the author points out that the average weights of both sexes
in all the age-classes are below the averages for the past twenty-five years, similar to the
condition occurring among the Skeena River fish.
PILCHARD AND HERRING INVESTIGATIONS.
The arrangement between the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Provincial
Fisheries Department for carrying on investigations of pilchard and herring has been continued. Most emphasis has been laid on herring problems, which have been approached from
several angles. The work has been organized by Dr. J. L. Hart and Dr. A. L. Tester and
carried out by them and their associates, Dr. R. V. Boughton and Mr. J. L, McHugh.
Pilchards.
From the point of view of availability of fish the 1939 pilchard season was the worst
ever experienced since the inception of the fishery. The total catch was considerably in
excess of that made during the last season of failure in 1933, but consideration of the various
factors involved make it clear that if the experience, boats, and gear used in 1939 had been
available in 1933 the production in the earlier year would have been very much larger.
During the past season the average catch per boat was approximately 210 tons, or about one-
tenth that in the 1938 season or the requirement for profitable operation.
The small volume of fish caught by the fishery necessarily led to a curtailment of
biological work and results. The few loads of fish which were delivered provided opportunity
for taking few samples. The short season did not allow time to complete the programme for
tagging fish and the small tonnages processed could not be expected to bring as many tags into
the plants as would be expected under more favourable fishing conditions.
In length the pilchards were the shortest encountered since systematic measurements
were begun. Males averaged 241 mm. in length and females 243.3 mm. This is the second
year in which a decline has been evident. The females again are better represented than the
males, but this condition is less uniform than in former years. Vertebral numbers show no
significant change from previous years.
The principal result of the tagging investigation further establishes the fact that an
interchange of fish exists between the populations of the California sardine-fishing grounds
and the populations frequenting the waters fished by the Canadian pilchard-fishermen.
Herring.
During the past three years there has been a great expansion of the herring-fishery into
the waters of the central and northern coast-line and the Queen Charlotte Islands. This
expansion has been accompanied by the construction of new and the renovation of old reduction plants. During the 1938-39 season there were five plants operating in areas north of
Vancouver Island as compared with five plants of major importance and two of minor importance in the vicinity of Vancouver Island. The total catch for the 1938-39 season reached
an all-time record of over 100,000 tons, of which about 60 per cent, was taken in the central
and northern areas.
The collection of catch statistics through the medium of Pilot House Record Books and
with the co-operation of seine-boat captains, has been continued. The information derived
from these records is of great importance in tracing fluctuations and trends in the availability,
or ease of capture, of herring. On the south-east coast of Vancouver Island the availability
in 1938-39 was somewhat less than that of the previous year, but close to the average over BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 21
a six-year period. Under conditions existing over this period, the herring appear to have
maintained their abundance and to have supported a steady and reliable fishery. On the west
coast of Vancouver Island, exclusive of Quatsino Sound, the availability has shown a marked
downward trend from 1935-36 to 1938-39. This trend in availability is believed to reflect a
trend in abundance, but the reasons for the change are not clear at present. In the central
area, the availability was low during the summer, fall, and early winter, but rose to an
exceptionally high level with the spectacular fishing at Kwakshua Passage and Safety Cove,
and later at Laredo and Kent Inlets. At Rupert Harbour the availability was moderately
high, but on the new fishing-grounds of the Queen Charlotte Islands it was relatively low.
With the expansion of the herring-fishery the task of sampling the commercial catch has
been considerably augmented. Nevertheless, sampling has been continued and has included
most of the major and several of the minor runs. In certain localities in the vicinity of Vancouver Island, a group of small fish of peculiar modal length and probably in the second year
of age dominated the catch. The biological significance of the appearance of this group is
not known as yet. In the Kwakshua Passage run of 1938-39 two more or less distinct groups
could be recognized, one consisting mostly of fish in their second year and the other consisting mostly of older fish. From a study of age composition and racial characters, the
theory has been advanced that the older Kwakshua Passage fish belonged to a run which
spawned in the vicinity of Bella Bella the previous spring and which contributed to the
Cousins Inlet fishery of the previous year. . Comparisons of samples from Kwakshua Passage,
Prince Rupert Harbour, and the east coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands indicates strongly
that intermingling between the runs to these areas is limited or absent. The evidence is
based on striking differences in age composition in all three localities and on differences in
vertebral count between samples from Kwakshua Passage and Prince Rupert Harbour and
between the latter and Queen Charlotte Islands.
With the collaboration of the Dominion Department of Fisheries, the collection of herring-
spawning reports has been continued. On the average, spawning in 1939 could be classed as
heavy and equal to that of 1938 on spawning-grounds of the Strait of Georgia. On the west
coast of Vancouver Island, however, spawning on the whole was of less than average intensity,
but was slightly greater than that of the previous year. In the central and northern areas,
spawning appears to have been good, particularly in the vicinity of Bella Bella and Laredo
Inlet, in spite of the heavy fishing of the 1938-39 season. At Masset and Juskatla Inlets,
spawning was heavy and, as usual in these particular inlets, took place during the early
summer. Mortality caused by storms and the feeding of birds was high in the central area
and on the south-east coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, but otherwise was average or
below average.
A study of young herring, designed to fill in gaps in the knowledge of their early life-
history, was continued during the summer of 1939. Vertebral counts again demonstrated
significant differences between broods from different spawnings in the same general locality.
Collections of young herring made throughout the summer have given a clear picture of the
rate of growth of one brood. Studies on the mortality of young herring have shown that
many species of fish, and even jelly-fish, feed on them in the larval and post-larval stages and
may represent limiting factors of abundance. Preliminary work has been done on the
feasibility of tagging young herring. If successful, this phase of the work may be of inestimable importance in defining the geographical areas occupied by local runs, in indicating
the relative contribution of each nursery-ground to the supply of mature fish, and possibly
in predicting the abundance of an incoming year-class.
A method of conveniently determining the condition (fatness) of herring by the use of
specific gravity has been successfully developed.
As during the past three years, particular emphasis has been placed on the study of the
extent of intermingling and migration of herring runs by means of the insertion and recovery
of internal tags. Results for the 1939-40 season are given in detail in the Appendix. This
investigation is quickly yielding results of considerable importance. It has been shown that
there is but a negligible degree of mixing between the runs to major areas. Within certain
of the major areas—e.g., along the west coast of Vancouver Island—there is a less strongly-
marked tendency for some of the runs to particular inlets to maintain their integrity. A
feature of the results for this year is the discovery that, in all probability, fish caught in the
. K 22 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Deepwater Bay area at the north end of the Strait of Georgia belong to the same population
which supplies the fishery on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island. During the past year
the tagging investigation has been expanded to include new fishing-grounds. Taggings have
been made in the Alert Bay, central, northern, and Queen Charlotte Island areas.
THE CLAM INVESTIGATION.
In the Appendix to this report will be found " A Preliminary Report on the British
Columbia Clam Investigation," by D. B. Quayle, of the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
B.C. This clam investigation has been undertaken by the Fisheries Research Board and is
financed jointly by that Board and the Provincial Department of Fisheries. The investigation was undertaken in order to ascertain the condition prevailing on some of the clam
beaches of British Columbia, particularly those which have been exploited commercially for
some considerable length of time. In this paper Mr. Quayle discusses in a general way the
various species of clams utilized commercially in British Columbia, together with their distribution, the habits of the clams, regulations now in effect, equipment and methods of digging
clams, a brief history of the fishery, together with past production. Mr. Quayle also emphasizes the need for catch statistics in this fishery and outlines a means of measuring the
productiveness of the various clam-beds.
The investigation has not been under way a sufficient length of time to enable one to
arrive at any definite conclusions, but from the information so far obtained, Mr. Quayle concludes that "... After considering carefully both the biological and statistical results that
have been obtained to date and with the full realization of their significance, it is believed that
the British Columbia ' hard-shell' clams are in no immediate danger of becoming extinct or
even depleted to a point beyond which recovery may not be made within a reasonable length of
time. It is also felt that, though some depletion may have occurred in certain areas, the data
at hand at the present time are insufficient to warrant making suggestions for possible alleviation of the situation."
This investigation is proceeding and progress will be reported from time to time.
THE INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1939.
The International Fisheries Commission continued the regulation of the Pacific halibut-
fishery and the scientific investigation of the halibut and its fishery, which forms the basis
for the regulations.
The regulations governing halibut-fishing in 1939 were essentially the same as those of
1938, only minor changes designed to facilitate enforcement being made. The catch-limits of
22,700,000 lb. for Area 2 and 25,300,000 lb. for Area 3 were retained. Closure of Area 2 by
means of a last date of fishing was continued. The last date of validation of licences and the
last date of fishing, by which Area 3 was closed in 1938, were supplemented by a last date of
departure. The provision for the retention and landing of a limited proportion of halibut
caught incidentally to fishing for other species with set lines was continued with minor
qualifications.
The fishing season opened April 1st as in the previous year. Areas 1 and 2 were closed
to halibut-fishing at midnight of July 29th, one day later than in 1938. Permits for the
retention of halibut taken incidental to fishing for other species in Areas 1 and 2 after closure
to halibut-fishing were granted until October 16th and valid until October 31st. Validation
of licences for fishing in Area 3 was discontinued on September 22nd, seven days earlier than
the previous year. The date of last departure for fishing in Area 3 was October 8th. Areas
3 and 4 were closed to all halibut-fishing at midnight of October 28th.
The landings of halibut during the year amounted to 50,737,249 lb. of which 1,067,917 lb.
were from Area 1, south of Willapa Harbour, Washington; 24,309,343 lb. from Area 2,
between Willapa Harbour and Cape Spencer, Alaska; and 25,359,989 lb. from Area 3,
between Cape Spencer and the Aleutian Islands. No fishing was done in Area 4, which
includes the waters of Bering Sea. The Area 2 landings, including 372,943 lb. taken under
permits while fishing for other species after the closure of that area, exceeded the quota by
1,609,343 lb.
Both the size of the Canadian fleet and the Canadian share of the catch increased during
the year.    Twelve more Canadian vessels and seventy-seven additional fishermen engaged in BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 23
the fishery and shared in the catch. The Canadian fleet landed 45 per cent, of the Area 2
catch and 10 per cent, of the Area 3 catch in 1939, as compared to 41 per cent, and 10 per
cent, respectively in 1938. The total catch landed by this larger fleet was the greatest taken
by the Canadian halibut fleet since 1914.
The Commission maintained its usual close contact with the fishing fleet and trade as an
aid to regulation. Early in December it met with the Conference Board, composed of representatives of the fishing fleets in the different ports, to give the fishermen an opportunity of
presenting their views on matters pertaining to the regulation of the fishery. It gave
statistical assistance to the fishing fleets to aid them in distributing their catches throughout
a longer season.
Scientific investigations were pursued where necessary for the purposes of the Treaty.
They included the collection and analysis of the statistical and biological data whereby the
success of regulation can be determined and on which intelligent control of the fishery must
be based.    The collection of biological data made necessary the operation of vessels.
Study of the size and age changes taking place in the stocks of marketable halibut as a
result of regulation was continued. Approximately 68,000 fish from different banks were
measured at the time of landing at Seattle. Of these, 39,000 were from Area 2, principally
Goose Island grounds, and 29,000 from western banks in Area 3. Materials for the study of
age composition were taken at the same time. A preliminary analysis of results for Area 2
failed for the second successive year to show any increase in the average size of the fish or in
the proportion of larger and therefore mature fish.
The condition of the stocks of halibut, as indicated by the catch per unit of fishing effort,
did not show the improvement that has characterized the catch of the previous eight years.
The catch per skate of gear in Area 2 fell from 68.8 lb. in 1938 to 60.6 lb. in 1939, a decrease
of approximately 12 per cent., which brought it back to the 1937 level. The catch per skate
in Area 3 was practically the same as in 1938, being 115.8 lb. in 1938 and 114.8 lb. in 1939,
a change due probably to chance only. The abundance in Areas 2 and 3 was still 71 per cent,
and 76 per cent, higher respectively than in 1930, when the abundance of halibut reached the
lowest point in the history of the fishery. The slight decline in Area 3 is unimportant in
view of the generally good condition of the Area 3 stock. The great decrease in abundance
in Area 2, on the other hand, must be regarded with concern in view of the unsatisfactory
condition of the stock there.
The quantitative study of the production of eggs in the vicinity of Cape St. James was
continued as a measure of the changes occurring in the spawning stock off the British Columbia coast. The plankton and hydrographic work begun in early December of 1938 on the
chartered vessel " Eagle " was carried on until the middle of February of 1939. The same
vessel was again chartered in December of 1939 for the same purpose and a like period. In
the winter of 1938-39, 384 net-hauls were taken at 142 stations to determine the abundance
of eggs and larvse and hydrographic samples were taken at seventeen stations to obtain information about the hydrographic conditions under which the eggs develop and as to the currents
in which they drift.
The halibut schooner " Tordenskjold " was chartered in December, 1939, to tag halibut
and carry on associated studies off the coasts of British Columbia and south-eastern Alaska.
Working with a crew of Canadian fishermen, 337 fish were tagged in the vicinity of Cape St.
James during the trip completed before the end of the year. From the fish unsuitable for
tagging, measurements, sex and state of maturity data, and materials for the determination
of fecundity and age were obtained.
The tagging and associated investigations will yield much needed information concerning
the adult populations on the banks of that region. They will contribute information regarding the migrations and interrelationships of the populations, the rate at which the halibut are
removed by the fishery, the size and age at maturity, fecundity and rate of growth.
Analysis of the 1938-39 egg-catches and comparison of the results with those of previous
years was carried out by approved methods. For the second consecutive year, the number of
eggs produced showed a marked drop. Production for the year amounted to only 35 per cent,
of that of 1936-37 and only 50 per cent, of the 1937-38 figures. While some fluctuations in
the annual production of eggs and young may be expected to occur, this continued decline
strongly indicates a decline in abundance of spawners which, in view of the decline in catch K 24 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
per skate in Area 2, cannot be ignored. Although the egg production is still higher than in
1935 and 1936, the decline indicates an adverse trend of abundance that may be expected to
have lasting and unfavourable effects upon the fishery when the young produced by these
spawnings first enter the fishery five to six years later.
In the light of what research has been done on the question, it appears at the present
time that the only available explanation of the unfavourable trend in the condition of the
Area 2 stock must be the large amounts of halibut which have been taken recently, both
legally and illegally, in excess of the catch-limit assigned to the area. A sharp reduction of
these excess catches will be necessary to assure the maintenance of past improvements and to
make possible further improvements in the condition of the stock.
INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1939.
Although 1938 was the first year of active investigation by the Commission, the work
undertaken was limited by the funds available and the appropriations made were determined
before the needs of the Commission had been ascertained. The work undertaken that year is
reviewed in the last report of this series.
In 1939 the programme was repeated, with some enlargement and correction in accord
with the increased funds available. The fact that the sockeye salmon runs in a four-year
cycle necessitates repetition of the research to determine the characteristics of the several
years. Before this is done, the programme must be made of proper type and sufficiently
extensive to give the results desired.
The collection of the great mass of already existing information regarding the river
system and its salmon has continued as reviewed in the report of last year. This must be
done during the season when fish are not running. As it is a time-consuming task it is not
anticipated that it can be finished before next year at best. Many sources of information
remain to be covered.    It is being carried on by Mr. C. E. Atkinson and assistants.
The survey of the spawning-grounds, to give as accurate a record as possible of the
present runs, was repeated for the second year of the cycle. The staff of the Commission,
added to the existing staff of the Dominion Department of Fisheries, has made certain that
everything is done to make the count of the escapement as accurate as is possible with
methods available at present. Although the survey last year was of similar character, this
year these counts were carried on with greater accuracy. The spawning-grounds were
studied and defined much more closely and details of obstructions were compiled.
Tagging operations under the supervision of Dr. J. L. Kask were more extensive and the
returns much more numerous than in 1938. Two vessels were employed in 1939 instead of
one, and operated throughout the fishing area on the United States side as well as on the
Canadian. The two were used over a period of five instead of two months. Whereas 5,695
tags were placed in 1938, 11,547 were placed in 1939. Recoveries were 40 per cent, in 1938
and 59 per cent, in 1939. Returns of tags placed at the Sooke trap were 44 per cent, in 1938
and 51 per cent, in 1939. Returns of tags placed elsewhere in salt water were 47 per cent,
in 1938 and 65 per cent, in 1939. Returns of tags placed at Hell's Gate were 27 per cent, in
1938 and 54 per cent, in 1939. The highest percentage of returns of tags were for the
Shuswap Lake run, where 75 to 83 per cent, of certain lots of fish tagged at Hell's Gate were
returned en route to and on the spawning-grounds. Of 1,006 tags placed at Sooke, the
returns prior to July 2nd were from other rivers than the Fraser, as was true in 1938.
For the cycle-year 1939 the tagging showed the time of passage of runs through the
commercial areas, the time en route, the time of passage through Hell's Gate, and the arrival
on the spawning-grounds. An interesting development was the light thrown on the difficulties
of passage through Hell's Gate by the history of recaptured tags. A report on this must
await completion of the research, but indicates difficulties in passage at certain times.
Observers were stationed at the principal canneries this year, as was done last year.
They again secured comprehensive samples of the commercial catch and recovered tagged
fish. This year, in addition, statistical work was commenced under the supervision of Mr.
F. H. Bell to give an accurate history of the run, its abundance and, location at various
times, as well as to check the amount taken in each district.
An intensive study of the distinction of races in the area through which the Fraser
River run passes was undertaken this year under the supervision of Dr.  R.  E.  Foerster. BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 25
Sockeye salmon from the various streams on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Baker
River, Lake Quinault, and every section of the Fraser were studied for morphological characters and for differences in growth-history.
Very important activities this year were the experiments to determine the size of the
escapement to the spawning-grounds. As is well known, determination of this by weirs is
not feasible and an attempt is being made to develop new methods. The experiment of last
year at Cultus Lake for this purpose was followed this year by a similar one of somewhat
different character under Dr. Kask's supervision. At the same time an experiment in the
Lake Harrison-Lillooet-Birkenhead system was begun, using the same general principles as
at Cultus Lake. This was carried on by Mr. M. B. Schaefer and assistants. It is anticipated
that this will take several years to develop. It is designed not only to measure the escapement to that tributary, but to analyse its runs in an intensive way by using tags, close inspections of the spawning-grounds, etc. By so doing some idea of what is to be expected elsewhere in the Fraser River may be obtained. To facilitate this study a trap was built in the
mouth of the Lower Harrison River and a weir was erected near Owl Creek, in the Birkenhead River.
The purpose of this work is to follow each individual run of sockeye salmon, determining
place and time of occurrence, through the commercial catch, past important natural barriers
and to the spawning-grounds, where an attempt is being made to determine the numbers as
accurately as possible. Only by possessing such information can each run which needs
regulation of catch, removal of obstructions or other assistance, be properly aided.
The work this year was the first which fairly covered the fishery through the season.
Publication of the results must await completion of analysis of the data obtained.
The offices of the Commission are now on the third floor of the Dominion Government
Building in New Westminster, having been moved from the former location in the Westminster Trust Building. K 26 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 25.)
By W. A. Clemens, Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
The packs of sockeye salmon in 1939 at Rivers Inlet and at the Skeena River were somewhat below the averages of the past years of record, but that at the Nass River was somewhat
above. That at Rivers Inlet was 54,143 cases, while the average of the packs for the past
thirty-two years is 84,313 cases. The pack on the Skeena River was 68,485 cases, which is
below the average of 91,809 cases for the past thirty-two years and below the average of
76,760 cases for the past sixteen years. The thirty-two-year average is high in relation to
conditions existing during recent years, because the river now seldom produces a pack over
100,000 cases. Only one has exceeded that figure during the past fourteen years. If the
thirty-two-year period is evenly divided, eight large packs fall within the first sixteen years
and three within the last sixteen years. The record on the Nass River is somewhat better
with a pack of 24,357 cases, which is above the average of 21,039 for the past twenty-seven
years.
The above comparisons are of general interest only and do not take into account cyclic
variations.
The escapements to all three spawning areas appear to have been very good.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating
the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the fish
migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers, one in large
type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to the right and
below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water. The age-groups
which are met most commonly are:—
S1, 4a—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature at the
ages of three and four years respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and mature at
the age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four and
five respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five and six
respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six and
seven respectively.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1939.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The sockeye-salmon pack at Rivers Inlet in 1939 amounted to 54,143 cases and was
slightly below expectancy. The escapement was reported as at least an average one, with
the possibility of late-run fish increasing the spawning population. High-water conditions
made observations difficult.
The return in 1940 will be the result of the spawnings in 1935 and 1936. In the former
year the pack was 135,038 cases and the escapement was considered unusually large. In the
latter year the pack was 46,351 cases, which was relatively small because of a strike on the
part of the fishermen for part of the season. The escapement was reported as " heavy," but
severe freshets occurred subsequently and it is believed that a considerable percentage of the
eggs were destroyed. Under the circumstances a prediction as to the extent of the run in
1940 would be futile. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 27
(2.) Age-groups.
The material for this year's analysis was obtained from 1,485 individuals taken in twenty
random samplings from July 10th to August 7th. The 42 age-group predominated with 993
individuals and constituting a percentage of 67. The 52 age-group is represented by 475 individuals or 32 per cent.; the 53 by 16 or 1 per cent, and the 63 by only one fish. This distribution is quite a normal one (Table I.).
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The average length of both sexes of the four-year-old fish are 22 and 21.9 respectively, one-half inch below the average of the past twenty-six years. Those of the five-year-
old fish, 25.3 and 24.5 respectively, are very slightly below the past averages. The average
weights of both sexes of both the four- and five-year-old classes, 4.4, 4.2, 6.5, and 5.9 respectively, are approximately one-half pound below the averages of the past years of record
(Tables IV. and V.). The data concerning the distribution of lengths and weights are given
in Tables II. and III.
(4.)  Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 742 and of females 743. In the four-year-
old age-class the males numbered 561 and the females 432, percentages of 56 and 44 respectively, while in the five-year-old age-class the numbers were 174 and 301, percentages of 37
and 63 respectively. This distribution of the sexes is fairly close to the averages of the past
twenty-five years (Table VI.).
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage op Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
(87,874 cases) —
(64,652 cases)...
(89,027 cases) —
(126,921 cases).
(88,763 eases)....
(112,884 cases).
(61,745 cases)-
(89,890 cases) ...
(130,350 cases).
(44,936 cases) —
(61,195 cases) —
(53,401 cases)...
(56,258 cases) —
(121,254 cases).
(46,300 cases)....
(60,700 cases)...
(107,174 cases).
(94,891 cases) —
(159,554 cases).
(65,581 cases)...
(64,461 cases) —
(60,044 cases)...
(70,260 cases)...
(119,170 cases).
(76,428 cases)...
(69,732 cases )-
(83,507 cases)-
(76,923 cases) —
(135,038 cases).
(46,351 cases)...
(84,832 cases)...
(87,942 cases)_.
(54,143 cases) —
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32 K 28
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Table II.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1939, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
5
2
E
3
63
Total.
M.        1
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19  —
19%.	
5
4
22
39
104
50
117
46
92
26
40
5
11
1
10
12
102
62
135
30
64
6
7
2
1
1
1
15
9
35
4
25
9
28
10
23
5
9
1
8
7
44
15
76
12
65
17
32
8
14
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
1
	
1
5
6
20   	
33
20 ■% — 	
53
21  	
21%	
210
112
22  	
22 % 	
263
83
23       	
218
23%-  	
24  .
58
160
24% -
23
25    	
103
25% 	
26
26 	
26%..  	
27         	
27% — 	
28
60
18
38
6
10
28%                  	
Totals      	
561
432
174
301
7
9      |        ......      |            1
1,485
22.0
21.9
25.3
24.5
21.6
22.7       1        .....        1       27.0
Table III.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1939, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number op
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
h
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.        |        M.
1
F.
2%..-	
12
66
185
131
101
42
18
3
3
1
9
83
178
103
45
11
1
1
1
4
22
16
36
27
24
24
15
4
1
2
8
23
37
63
62
46
30
19
8
3
3 	
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
3
1
	
1
3%	
4	
153
4% 	
5    	
5%      .
132
118
79
57
43
23
7
1
6  ,	
6%	
7 	
7%..	
8 	
8%.	
9	
Totals
561
432
174
301
7
9
1
1,485
Ave. weights.-	
4.4
4.2
6.5
5.9
4.5
4.7
6.5 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 29
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the U2 an^ ^9
Groups, 1912 to 1939.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912           	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
22.1
22.3
22.6
22.7
21.9
22.4
22.1
22.4
22.4
21.0
22.0
23.1
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
22.8
22.2
22.6
22.0
22.4
22.0
22.2
22.4
20.9
21.9
22.8
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.6
26.1
25.2
26.0
25.2
25.2
25.5
25.6
25.8
24.6
24.5
26.6
24.6
1913  	
25.2
1914                      	
25.2
1915      	
1916        -	
1917                     	
25.1
25.0
24.4
1918                                    -  	
24.6
1919                     	
24.4
1920                                           	
25.0
1921           -~.          .                   	
24.2
1922                          	
24.2
1923 — 	
24.1
1924                      	
24.3
1925  	
24.8
1926                     	
24.6
1927         —-	
24.2
1928                                           -.—                	
25.2
1929                               	
25.3
1930            	
25.2
1931       -   -	
24.8
1932	
24.6
1933          - -   -	
24.7
1934            	
25.0
1935                                                            	
25.1
1936            —   .                         -	
23.4
1937           -	
24.0
1938   - -	
25.5
22.5
22.4
25.4
24.7
1939          -  . 	
22.0
21.9
25.3
24.5
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the &2 an^ ^2
Groups, 191U to 1939.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914   	
1915 - -
1916    _  	
1917   	
1918    -    - —
1919   — -	
1921      - 	
1922          -
1923          —
1924             .                                     —
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.0
4.9
4.5
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.5
4.9
4.6
4.7
6.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.0
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.3
4.1
4.4
4.5
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.6
7.5
6.7
6.5
7.3
7.3
6.9
7.9
6.1
7.1
6.8
6.6
6.7
6.2
6.7
5.9
6.0
7.0
5.9
6.1
1925            - - -	
6.2
1926   - 	
6.3
1927   -	
1928          - -    -	
7.6
6.7
1929     -	
1930  	
1931  	
1932               -	
6.7
6.9
6.4
6.5
1933    	
1934 —	
1935 -      -.
1936    - -	
1937 — _  	
6.6
6.7
6.1
6.7
5 8
1938            -
6.4
4.9
4.8
7.0
1939                  .     ..    _           _ _ _ -.	
4.4
4.2
6.5
5 9
- K 30
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
i2 and 52 Age-groups, 1915 to 1939.
42
5
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915                   -— 	
65
63
79
77
74
63
66
71
74
66
63
68
63
57
56
59
54
56
55
63
43
61
49
56
35
37
21
23
26
37
34
29
26
34
37
32
37
43
44
41
46
44
45
37
57
39
51
44
43
39
49
41
48
40
38
31
31
34
32
36
30
36
37
33
28
32
27
39
20
28
32
37
57
61
51
59
52
60
62
69
69
66
68
64
70
64
63
67
72
68
73
61
80
72
68
68
45
49
48
66
58
49
61
61
62
50
41
51
62
50
53
47
47
47
42
49
53
32
48
37
50
55
1916            	
61
1917                       	
52
1918                       	
34
1919  . . 	
42
1920    -  	
51
1921                          -	
49
1922                       -	
39
1923             —-      - —
38
1924 	
1925                      	
50
59
1926. -- - - -
1927 - —
49
33
1928	
1929 .  —              	
50
47
1930       -	
53
1931  - - - -	
1932      .-	
53
53
1933—  	
58
1934  	
51
1935  -    	
1936 	
1937 -	
1938   	
1939	
47
68
52
63
Average —  	
63
37
35
65
50
50
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1939.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The run of sockeye to the Skeena River was apparently larger than was expected from
the brood-years. The pack amounted to 68,485 cases. The escapement to the Babine area
was reported as the " greatest in a decade," while that to the Lakelse area was very good,
estimated as between 33,000 and 40,000 fish by the investigators of the Fisheries Research
Board. The number of fish entering Williams Creek, tributary to Lakelse Lake, was 24,085
by actual count.
The run of 1940 will be the production of the brood-years of 1935 and 1936. In the
former year the pack was 52,879 cases and the escapement was considered very good, but it
is believed that some of the natural spawning in the Lakelse area was destroyed by severe
freshets. In the latter year the pack was 81,973 cases and the escapement was reported as
comparatively large. In view of changing conditions and various uncertain factors, it is
impossible to make a reasonably reliable prediction as to the run of 1940.
(2.) Age-groups.
The length, weight, and sex data and the scale collections were obtained from 1,290 fish
in fifteen random samplings from June 25th to August 18th. The age-groups were represented as follows: 42, 641 individuals or 50 per cent.; 52, 459 individuals or 35 per cent.;
53, 139 individuals or 11 per cent; 63, 51 individuals or 4 per cent. This percentage distribution of the age-groups is approximately the same as the average of the past years of
record (Tables VII., VIIL, and IX.).
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of both sexes in all the age-groups are much above the averages of
the past twenty-seven years.    The average length of the male 40's is 24.1 inches, two-fifths BRITISH COLUMBIA.                                                       K 31
of an inch above the general average.    That of the female 4„'s is 23.9, four-fifths of an inch
above the general average and the highest on record;   the previous high was recorded in 1916
at 23.6 inches.    A similar condition occurs in the 52 age-group.    The average lengths are
26.1 and 25.4 respectively, with the latter setting a new record, the previous high being 25.3
as recorded in the year 1920.    The average lengths for the 5„ age-group are 24.8 and 24.1
inches and for the 63 age-group 26.3 and 25.1 inches.    These are all much above the general
average.
The average weights of both sexes in all the year-classes are decidedly below the general
averages of the past twenty-five years of record (Tables X. and XL).
It would seem that these data may indicate a long or difficult migration in which the
fat content was definitely reduced.
(4.)  Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 490 and of females 800, percentages of 38
and 62 respectively.    When only the 42 and 52 age-groups are considered the percentages are
37 and 63 respectively.    The latter figures are used in Table XII.    The percentage of males
is the lowest in twenty-five years of record.    In 1920 the percentage was 38, and in each of
the years 1934 and 1936 it was 39.
The males were much in the minority in both the 4,, and 50 age-groups, with percentages
of 34 and 42 respectively.
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
42
h
h
63
1907  (108,413 cases)             -	
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
68
49
67
45
64
50
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
18
5
6
4
8
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5
4
1909   (87,901 cases)                                         	
1910   (187,246 cases)                                         	
1911   (131,066 cases)           	
1912   (92,498 cases)             - - -
1913   (52,927 cases)                                              -
1914   (130,166 cases)                        	
1915   (116,553 cases)           	
1916  (60,923 cases)          	
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8'
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
1918  (123,322 cases)          - — -	
1919   (184,945 cases)          -
1920   (90,869 cases)              	
1921   (41,018 cases)                             	
1922   (96,277 cases)                                                                  	
1923  (131,731 cases)         	
1924   (144,747 cases) -   	
1925   (77,784 cases)            - -
1926 (82,360 cases)  —	
1927 (83,996 cases)            . .                           	
1928  (34,659 cases)              -  	
1929  (78,017 cases)                                       	
1930 (132,372 cases) -	
1931 (93,023 cases)          	
1932 (59,916 cases)	
1933 (30 Kl'6   raattr.)
1934   (54,558 cases)             -    .                       -           ...                .   -
1935   (52,879 cases)      -	
1936 (81,973 cases) 	
1937 (42,491   fttaea)
1938 (47,257 cases) _ -  	
1939 (68,485 cases)             	 K 32
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1939, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
5
2
5 3
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
20  -	
1
1
20%.  -
2
2
21  -	
4
1
5
21%	
10
9
1
20
22  	
6
15
1
2
24
22% -	
18
35
2
5
1
61
23 	
25
50
1
5
4
4
1
90
23%	
21
25
74
89
6
8
6
28
2
7
13
15
1
1
2
1
125
24 	
174
24%	
23
31
28
12
9
64
57
19
9
2
21
24
20
32
15
32
38
55
47
28
12
14
11
6
3
19
14
3
1
3
1
2
4
4
6
8
5
2
175
25       -
187
25% 	
145
26                	
114
26%    	
63
27 -  	
2
20
18
1
3
44
27%  -	
18
6
2
1
27
28
15
10
3
1
2
1
20
28%  - -	
12
29                    	
29%     	
1
	
1
217
424
191
268
62
77
20
31
1,290
Average lengths—
24.1
23.9
26.1
25.4
24.8
24.1
26.3
25.1
Table IX.-
-Skeena River Sockeyes, 1939, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of
ndividuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
5
3
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.                F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
3	
2
10
42
45
38
43
23
12
2
4
101
146
112
48
13
1
1
20
31
31
48
31
15
13
5
20
54
61
62
41
20
4
1
2
6
16
20
13
4
1
1
9
21
29
13
3
1
1
3
3
4
4
4
1
2
2
8
7
7
3
2
2
3%-  	
4    	
15
162
4% 	
5     	
242
277
5%	
226
6                    	
155
6%	
7    	
113
60
7%	
23
8 	
13
8%  -	
2
Totals	
217
424
191
268
62
77
20
31
1,290
Average weights...
4.9
4.7
6.3
5.7
5.4
4.9
6.6
5.5 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 33
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1939.
Year.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912. _	
1913 	
1914 	
1915  	
1916  	
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23.8
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.8
23.9
23.3
22.9
23.1
23.5
23.4
23.2
23.8
23.1
23.8
23.5
23.3
23.5
22.9
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.3
22.8
23.4
23.3
22.8
22.7
22.7
23.1
22.7
22.8
23.2
22.9
23.2
22.9
22.5
26.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2
25.5
25.9
25.7
26.2
25.2
26.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.7
25.3
25.5
24.7
25.7
25.2
26.1
26.3
26.3
26.0
26.2
25.3
25.2
24.7
25.1
25.0
25.0
24.7
25.0
24.8
25.3
24.2
24.4
24.5
25.2
24.7
24.8
24.8
24.7
24.7
23.9
24.8
24.4
25.2
25.2
25.2
25.2
25.1
24.4
24.5
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
24.2
23.8
23.9
24.7
24.1
24.6
24.1
23.5
23.8
23.5
23.8
24.1
24.3
25.2
23.6
24.4
24.9
23.6
23.4
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.3
23.8
23.5
22.8
22.8
22.4
23.1
22.8
23.4
24.1
22.8
23.5
24.1
23.1
25.6
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
25.6
25.8
25.8
26.0
25.2
25.6
25.5
24.6
25.8
25.4
26.4
26.0
26.2
26.3
26.9
25.6
24.4
24.8
1917  - - 	
1918   	
25.0
24.7
1919  _.
24.7
1920 	
25.1
1921 -	
24.2
1922 	
1923       	
24.1
1924  .,	
1925  	
24.8
24.8
1926   — 	
1927 -   	
1928  	
1929  	
25.0
24.9
24.7
1930  -	
1931	
1932  	
1933	
23.2
24.7
24.4
25.3
24.9
25.1
25.0
25.5
1934	
1935 	
1936	
1937	
1938	
23.7  |  23.1
25.7
24.8
24.1
23.3
25.7
24.7
1939  	
24.1     23.9
1
26.1
25.4
24.8
24.1
26.3
25.1 K 34
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 191U to 1939.
Year.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914                            ....       	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.4
5.4
5.4
4.9
5.7
5.1
5.6
4.9
5.2
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.5
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.6
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.9
4.7
5.2
4.9
5.2
4.6
4.6
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.9
7.0
7.2
6.4
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.7
7.4
7.3
6.4
6.6
6.3
6.2
6.3
6.0
6.4
6.2
6.4
5.7
5.7
5.7
6.3
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.8
6.2
6.0
6.3
6.1
6.3
6.6
6.5
6.6
5.8
6.1
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.7
6.1
6.3
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.5
5.9
5.4
5.0
5.6
5.6
5.5
6.0
5.7
6.7
5.5
6.1
5.7
5.3
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.8
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.0
4.6
4.9
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.8
4.7
5.5
5.1
6.0
6.6
7.1
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.3
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.9
6.9
6.0
6.5
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.8
7.1
7.7
7.2
7.4
7.0
6.9
1915     	
1916- -  	
1917                              	
6.0
5.9
5.8
1918	
1919                               	
6.1
6.3
1920                               	
6.3
1921
5.6
1922 	
1923                                -
5.7
5.4
1924                     	
5.8
1925  	
1926           	
5.4
6.2
1927                                —
5.8
1928	
5.8
1929  	
1930  	
1981.     ' -	
1932 -	
5.7
5.8
6.0
5.9
1933  - —	
1934 -
6.3
6.2
1935   	
1936  -	
1937  	
1938                             	
6.4
6.2
6.1
5.9
Average weights 	
5.4
5.0
6.8
6.1
5.7
5.1
6.8
5.9
1939
4.9
4.7
6.3
5.7
5.4
4.9
6.6
5.5
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
Itr, and 52
Age-groups, 1915 to 193i>
.
Year.
42
c
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1915         - -
56
44
45
55
49
51
1916  - — 	
70
30
43
57
55
45
1917                                -  -
66
34
48
52
60
40
1918
63
37
46
54
57
43
1919  -       	
53
47
46
54
49
51
1920                - - -
41
59
37
63
38
62
1921  -	
44
56
44
56
45
55
1922                                         	
52
48
41
59
50
1923 	
60
40
37
63
52
48
1924                  	
50
50
43
57
45
1925                                     	
57
43
42
58
50
1926                             	
40
60
43
57
42
1927                                      	
45
55
41
59
44
1928        - -	
48
52
45
55
46
1929	
50
50
46
54
50
1930   	
47
53
56
44
53
47
1931         	
43
57
39
61
44
56
1932  	
47
53
63
37
54
46
1933  •   - 	
48
52
40
60
45
55
1934       -   	
42
58
33
67
39
61
1935   -   -	
41
59
32
68
40
60
1936    — - -	
38
62
36
61
58
1937         — 	
45
55
39
61
42
1938  - 	
40
60
51
49
42
58
1939   	
34
66
42
58
37
63
49
51
43
57
47 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 35
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1939.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The run of sockeye to the Nass River in 1939 produced a pack of 24,357 cases, which is
slightly above the average of the past twenty-seven years and considerably above the average
of the past ten years. The escapement was reported to be " very satisfactory " and particularly " heavy " in the Meziadin Lake area.
The run in 1940 will be the product of the spawnings of 1935 and 1936. In the former
year the pack was 12,712 cases and the escapement recorded as heavy in the early part of the
season and good in the late part. In the latter year the pack totalled 28,562 cases and the
escapement was reported as the largest over the period of the preceding fifteen to twenty
years. Since about 75 per cent, of the Nass River sockeye are five-year-old fish, the 1935
brood-year is the important one and what it may produce in 1940 is difficult to judge.
(2.) Age-groups.
The analysis of the run of 1939 is based on data for 1,451 fish obtained in twenty-one
random samplings from June 28th to August 18th. The 53 age-group predominates as usual
with 960 individuals and forming 66 per cent. The 42 age-group has a relatively low representation with 201 individuals or 14 per cent., while the 52 age-class has a somewhat higher
representation than usual with 194 individuals or 13 per cent.
96 individuals or 7 per cent. (Tables XIII., XIV., and XV.).
The 63 age-group contributed
Table XIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
from 1912 to 1939 and Packs.
Percentage of Individuals that spent
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
8
27
63
2
15
12
71
2
4
41
45
10
19
14
59
8
9
17
66
8
10
15
71
4
30
16
45
9
7
8
22
14
65
72
6
6
10
7
75
8
6
2
91
1
11
6
77
6
4
3
91
2
23
8
67
2
12
12
63
13
8
7
81
4
30
6
61
3
25
9
60
6
28
15
54
3
10
17
67
6
28
4
61
7
35
7
55
3
13
9
74
4
11
10
73
6
16
7
67
10
22
4
68
6
21
4
70
5
14
13
66
7
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
(36,037 cases).
(23,574 cases).
(31,327 cases)-
(39,349 cases) .
(31,411 cases).
(22,188 cases)-
(21,816 cases).
(28,259 cases).
(16,740 cases)-
(9,364 cases)...
(31,277 cases).
(17,821 cases).
(33,590 cases).
(18,945 cases)-
(15,929 cases).
(12,026 cases).
(5,540 cases) —
(16,077 cases).
(26,405 cases).
(16,929 cases)..
(14,154 cases).
(9,757 cases) —
(36,242 cases)..
(12,712 cases).
(28,562 cases).
(17,567 cases).
(21,462 cases).
(24,357 cases). K 36
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of both sexes of the 42, 52, and 63 age-groups are somewhat above,
and those of the 53 age-group are identical with, the averages of the past twenty-seven years
(Table XVI.). On the other hand, the average weights of both sexes in all the age-classes
are much below the averages of the past twenty-five years, recalling the condition occurring
among the Skeena River fish (Table XVII.). The average weights of the 5, age-group set
new low records at 6 and 5.3 lb. for the males and females respectively.
(4.)  Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 703 and of females 748, percentages of
48 and 52 respectively. These percentages are very close to the averages of the past twenty-
five years—namely, 47 and 53 respectively. The males are slightly in the majority in the 42
and 52 age-classes with percentages of 51; decidedly in the majority in the 6g age-class with
a percentage of 61 and in the minority in the 53 age-class with a percentage of 46. In twenty
out of the twenty-five years of record the male 53's have been in the minority (Table XVIII.).
Table XIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1939, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number op
Individuals.
42
52
h
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
22 	
2
11
11
22
22
18
9
4
2
1
1
2
12
16
19
26
15
5
g
2
4
2
6
15
14
18
12
20
3
2
1
6
6
15
17
21
17
11
1
1
1
1
8
22
45
88
84
100
57
25
11
1
2
1
2
10
39
66
121
109
125
31
10
1
1
3
4
2
3
9
10
13
9
5
1
1
2
1
2
6
5
11
3
2
2
1
6
22%   	
3
23                                         	
15
23%        — -
38
24                                        	
86
24%         	
149
25 - 	
224
25%
245
26    	
267
26%                                .   .
173
27...    -	
112
27% _	
52
28	
43
28%  	
20
29  -   —
11
29%    	
7
Totals.—  	
102
99
99
95
443
517
59
37
1,451
Average lengths —.
24.9
24.2
26.9
25.8
26.1
25.3
27.9
26.6
	
I BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 37
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1939, grouped, by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number op
Individuals.
42
52
h
e
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3%
1
6
14
19
31
27
2
1
1
2
9
24
33
20
9
2
2
3
5
14
22
18
23
7
3
1
1
2
8
18
30
21
12
3
1
2
9
37
98
140
107
40
10
14
64
147
178
94
19
1
1
1
8
8
16
15
6
2
2
2
4
7
8
8
7
1
4.
4%
31
118
5
5%-
6
6%-
251
358
330
189
7
95
7%- — -	
8         	
53
8V»    —   .     .                  	
—    1     -	
9
9%-
3
2
Totals     	
102
99
99
95
443    |     517
59
37
1,451
5.3
5.0
6.8
6.1
6.0     1       5.3
7.1
6.1
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1939.
Year.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 -	
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.5
24.9
24.6
24.9
24.9
24.9
23.8
24.1
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.5
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
23.8
23.9
23.7
24.1
24.0
24.1
23.3
23.5
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.1
25.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
26.5
26.4
27.1
26.9
27.3
26.8
26.0
26.0
25.1
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.4
25.7
25.2
25.8
25.9
25.9
25.8
24.5
24.8
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
26.1
26.6
25.9
26.3
26.5
26.6
25.0
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
26.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
25.3
25.6
25.2
25.4
25.2
25.6
24.2
24.4
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2
27.9
28.2
28.3
28.4
28.6
28.9
28.3
27.2
26.6
25.6
1913
26.6
1914
26.6
1915                  	
25.3
1916
25.7
1917  —       .       	
25.5
25.2
1919 ...	
10.90
26.7
25.9
1921                               -    -
26.2
1922
25.9
1923
26.5
1994
25.4
1925                                   	
25.4
1926
27.0
1927
26.5
192»
26.2
1929                    —                 -.              -   —
26.2
1930
26.8
1081
27.1
1932                               	
27.1
1933                     -	
27.9
1934                                 	
27.1
1935                                      	
27.6
1936                    	
27.1
1937                      	
26.3
1938   - -	
26.1
24.5
23.7
26.2
25.1
26.1
25.3
27.6
26.3
1939   ....             -	
24.9
24.2
26.9
25.8
26.1
25.3
27.9
26.6 K 38
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Table XVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 191k to 1939.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1°14
6.2
5.6
6.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
6.2
6.7
6.1
6,5
5.5
5.9
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.6
5.4
5.9
5.2
5.7
6.2
5.8
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.4
7.5
8.1
8.4
7.8
7.8
6.8
7.4
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
6.5
6.8
6.6
7.0
7.3
6.5
7.1
6.1
6.3
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
7.1
6.8
7.3
7.0
7.6
7.0
7.6
6.2
6.5
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.5
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.7
6.1
6.7
5.5
5.8
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.6
8.2
8.3
8.7
8.4
9.4
8.4
8.7
7.8
7.6
6.8
1915
6.5
1916        	
6.4
1917               	
6.4
1918         	
6.7
1919
6.7
1920         	
7.0
1991
6.6
1922         	
6.6
1923	
6.8
1924 —
6.5
1925              	
6.3
1926          - -
7.1
1927         -	
7.0
6.6
1929    -	
6.8
1930     _
7.2
1931	
7.4
1932   -'.  	
7.5
1933	
7.9
1934        _	
8.1
1935            	
7.4
7.5
1937  	
7.0
6.8
6.0
5.4
7.2
6.4
6.9
6.2
8.0
6.9
1939	
5.3
5.0
6.8
6.1
6.0
5.3
7.1
6.1
Table XVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
49, 5,„ 5„, and 6., Age-groups, 1915 to 1939.
Year.
42
52
53
63
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1916  -    	
65
61
65
52
53
46
40
36
43
55
58
43
39
50
48
49
49
49
49
48
39
42
56
51
51
45
39
45
48
47
54
60
64
67
45
42
57
61
50
52
51
51
61
51
52
61
58
44
49
49
49
61
47
40
48
39
45
32
43
44
52
44
54
48
51
43
53
46
56
51
40
35
43
52
51
51
39
53
60
52
61
55
68
67
56
48
56
46
52
49
57
47
54
44
49
60
65
57
48
49
62
50
46
50
46
40
47
46
47
47
45
44
45
42
44
40
43
45
47
50
39
43
60
40
46
48
50
54
50
54
60
53
64
63
53
65
56
55
58
56
60
57
55
53
60
61
57
60
60
54
53
68
58
70
54
66
54
64
60
67
68
67
61
62
58
63
70
72
76
58
71
50
56
58
61
47
32
42
30
46
34
46
86
40
33
32
43
39
38
42
37
30
28
24
42
29
50
44
42
39
52
55
47
51
48
42
46
44
46
48
49
46
46
46
46
43
47
48
49
50
42
43
51
44
48
48
1916   _    	
45
1917- - -  	
53
1918
49
1919   	
62
1920   	
58
1921.	
64
1922	
56
1923	
1924	
54
52
1925 -  . .  ..
1926  ■	
1927  	
54
1928	
1929 	
1930  	
57
1931... _    .
1932-  ' 	
1933	
62
61
1934	
1935	
1936 	
57
49
56
52
1937.    _
1938...	
1939  —	
49
51
47
53
45
55
69.  !  38  1    47 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 39
TAGGING BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARDS   (SARDINOPS CJERULEA
(GIRARD)) :  INSERTIONS AND RECOVERIES FOR 1939-40.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
This is the fourth of a series of annual reports dealing with the tagging of pilchards
carried out in connection with the fishing activities of Canadian fishermen. It deals with the
tags applied during the summer of 1939 and the recoveries during the summer of 1939 and
the fall and winter of 1939-40.
The pilchard-fishery of 1939 produced the smallest volume of fish since 1933 and it would
seem that the availability of fish was the lowest since the inception of the reduction industry
in Canada in 1925. For that reason the present account cannot report a great deal of
progress. The curtailed fishing season did not allow the completion of the tagging programme. Moreover, the small tonnages of raw fish processed did not provide opportunity for
the recovery of as many tags as would be expected in a more successful season.
METHODS.
The methods used in previous years as described in Hart (1937; 1938a) were employed
again during the past year. The tagger lived on the seine-boat tender. When fishing was in
progress work was carried out from the seine-boat skiff. By confining a few fish in a small
pocket of the seine it was possible to continue tagging operations during much of the time
the net was being fleeted in and dried up. The type of internal body tag employed in former
years was used and all of them were inserted in the fish by the use of the tagging-gun (Hart
and Tester, 1938).
Recoveries were made by electromagnets fixed in the bottoms of the chutes down which
the dried meal slides into the grinder. In some cases tags have been found in crevices in the
conveyers and have been returned in the usual way. A reward of 50 cents was paid to plant
employees for each tag handed in with information concerning the fish being processed at the
time of recovery. The recovery method is defective in two respects. In the first place, some
tags entering the plant are never recovered at all. Secondly, a considerable proportion of the
tags do not pass directly through the plants, but are held up for longer or shorter times.
They are finally reported as coming from fish captured considerably later than the correct
ones.    These difficulties have been treated more fully in Hart (19386).
TAGS APPLIED.
During the 1939 season only 2,370 tags were used and all of these were placed in pilchards which were tagged and released off the coast of southern Washington and northern
Oregon between August 6th and August 11th. The details of the tagging are shown in
Table I.
Table I.—Summary of Tagging, giving Reference Numbers, Dates, Numbers of Tags
inserted, Locality of Release, and Serial Numbers of Tags used.
Tagging
Reference
No.
Date.
No.
Tags.
Place Fish released.
Serial Number, including
Tags used (P.).
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
1939.
Aug. 6
Aug. 6
Aug. 7
Aug. 11
Aug. 11
Aug. 11
298
298
388
392
498
496
20' mi. W. North Head.	
12 mi. S.W. Willapa Bay	
15 mi. S.W. Destruction Is	
6 mi. W. Tillamook Rock Lt..
8 mi. W. Tillamook Rock Lt.-
10 mi. W. Tillamook Rock Lt.
15001-15100, 17301-17500.
15101-15300, 17101-17200.
15301-15700.
15701-16100.
16101-16600.
16601-17100. K 40
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 41
RECOVERIES.
Only five reduction plants operated in British Columbia during the 1939 season and they
were successful in processing only some 5,200 tons of fish. From this amount six Canadian
tags put out in 1939 were recovered and two from 1938 taggings. Five California tags were
recovered by magnets installed in British Columbia plants. Magnets installed in Washington,
Oregon, and California returned thirty-six Canadian tags, of which two had evidently lain
in the plants without being noticed since the previous season. In Table II. a summary is given
of all the tags recovered by British Columbia plants or put out by Canadian investigators.
Table II.—Summary of Tag Recoveries during the 1939 Season in British Columbia and of
Canadian Tags during the 1939-iO Season in California, giving the Year of Tagging and
the Political Division making the Recovery.
Washington.
Oregon.
California.
British
Columbia.
Total.
Canadian tags—
1936             	
0
2
4
14
0
0
0
0
8
0
1
1
3
1
2
0
0
2
6
0
5
1
1937  -     -	
1938  -    	
1939  	
3
9
29
2
5
49
The tags recovered by British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon plants were all reported
from southern Washington or northern Oregon. Three of the California returns of Canadian
tags were by San Francisco plants and one each by plants situated at Monterey and Wilmington.
One tag was recovered after having been out for approximately three and a half years.
The only conclusion of value to be drawn from the returns for the 1939-40 season is the
confirmation of the regular seasonal interchange of fish between the California sardine-fishing
grounds and the fishing-grounds exploited by the British Columbia pilchard fleet. The small
numbers of tags which have been recovered make calculations of fishing intensities and of fish
populations of no significance.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The pilchard-tagging programme is being pursued under a joint agreement between the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Department of Fisheries of the Province of
British Columbia. Acknowledgment is made of the financial support of the organizations and
of the interest and support of Dr. W. A. Clemens, Director of the Pacific Biological Station,
and Mr. George J. Alexander, Assistant Commissioner of Fisheries in British Columbia.
The work has enjoyed the co-operation of fisheries officers in the States of Washington,
Oregon, and California, who have returned tags and freely exchanged information concerning
their pilchard-fisheries.
Returns made in British Columbia have depended upon the good-will of the companies
conducting reduction operations and of the plant crews. Their help is gratefully acknowledged.
Finally, thanks are due to Mr. L. Quickenden, who has carried out the tagging-work. To
this work the help of Captains Gordon Wilks and John Dale has contributed.
REFERENCES.
Hart, J. L.    Tagging British Columbia pilchards  (Sardinops cssrulea  (Girard)) :   Methods
and preliminary results. Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department, 1936, 49-54,1937.
Hart, J. L.    Tagging British Columbia pilchards  (Sardinops cmrulea (Girard)) :   Insertions
and recoveries for 1937-38.    Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department, 1937, 57-63,
1938a.
Hart, J. L.    The efficiency of magnets installed in British Columbia reduction plants in recovering sardine-tags.    Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Progress Reports Pacific,
No. 38, 16-18, 19386.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1937-38.    Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries
Department, 1937, 64-90, 1938. K 42 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
THE TAGGING OF HERRING  (CLUPEA PALLASII)  IN BRITISH
COLUMBIA:   INSERTIONS AND RECOVERIES
DURING 1939-40.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., and Albert L. Tester, Ph.D.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS.
Page.
Introduction  42
Tagging methods  42
Tagging  48
Recovery methods '. .  48
Equipment  48
Plants making recoveries  49
Efficiency tests  49
Recoveries j  50
Induction detectors  50
Magnets  50
Stability of populations and movements of herring  59
Intensity of fishery  61
Tagging technique  62
Summary of results  62
Detailed list of tags inserted during 1939-40 ,  63
Acknowledgments  63
References  64
INTRODUCTION.
This is the fourth annual report on herring-tagging carried out in British Columbia to
investigate the validity of local populations of herring as defined by racial studies and to
determine the amount of intermingling between them. The methods employed have for the
most part been dealt with in detail in the three previous reports (Hart and Tester, 1937;
1938; 1939), but are briefly summarized here for the convenience of those who have not had
occasion to examine the earlier papers.
TAGGING METHODS.
In general, tagging methods were the same as those used in the previous year. Fish were
obtained from commercial seines, from salmon-trap nets, by the use of bait purse-seines, or by
the employment of a large dip-net. Fish were held pending tagging in a bight of the seine,
in slat live-boxes, or in the bait-tank of the " Whiff " described in last year's report.
The methods listed in last year's report (Hart and Tester, 1939) of inserting the tags
were used again during the past season. Some of the tags were inserted by the use of a
tagging-gun (Hart and Tester, 1938). Most of the herring were tagged by holding the fish
in one hand and manipulating the tag with the other, as illustrated in Hart and Tester (1937).
The remaining method involved one tagger holding the head and tail of the fish in his gloved
hands while the other made a slit through the abdominal wall and inserted the tag.
The methods of capture and the tagging methods employed are indicated in Table I. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 43
Table I.—Summary of the Tagging Data for Returns made during the 1939-1,0 Fishing Season
and for Tags inserted during the 1939-1,0 Fishing Season and the 191,0 Spawning Season.
Tagging
Code.
2C
2J
2K
2L
2M
2N
20
2Q
2S
2T
3A
3B
3E
3F
3G
3H
31
3J
3K
3L
3M
3N
30
3P
3Q
3R
3S
3T
3U
3V
3W
3X
3Y
4A
4B
4C
4D
4E
4F
4G
4H
41
4J
4K
4L
4M
4N
40
4P
4Q
4R
4S
4T
4U
4V
4W
4X
4Y
4Z
4AA
4BB
4CC
4DD
Date.
Oct. 18, 22, 23, 1937-
Mar. 11,1938 	
Mar. 12, 1938	
Mar. 21, 1938	
Mar. 25, 1938 	
Feb. 25,1938	
Mar. 7, 8,1938	
Mar. 16, 17, 1938	
Apr. 2, 3, 1938	
Apr. 22, 1938—	
Oct. 1, 1938 	
Oct. 11, 13, 1938	
Dec. 16, 1938	
Jan. 11,1939	
Jan. 12, 1939	
Jan. 12, 13, 14, 1939	
Jan. 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 1939-
Mar. 6, 7, 1939 	
Mar. 2, 5, 1939	
Mar. 8, 1939. - 	
Mar. 9, 1939	
Mar. 20,1939	
Mar. 26, 1939	
Mar. 29, 1939 	
Mar. 11, 1939 	
Mar. 19, 1939	
Mar. 22, 1939	
Mar. 25, 1939	
Mar. 7, 1939	
Mar. 19, 1939	
Mar. 21, 22, 1939	
Mar. 28, 1939	
Mar. 29, 1939. 	
Oct. 6, 1939. 	
Oct. 8, 1939	
Nov. 9, 1939 	
Feb. 15, 1940i	
Feb. 17, 1940	
Feb. 27, 1940'.	
Mar. 3, 1940-	
Mar. 8, 1940'	
Mar. 9, 1940'.	
Mar. 4, 5, 1940—	
Mar. 13, 1940	
Mar. 17, 18,1940	
Mar. 19, 1940'.	
Mar. 21, 1940.	
Mar. 23, 24, 1940	
Mar. 16, 17, 18, 1940
Mar. 18, 1940	
Mar. 19, 1940	
Mar. 20, 1940 	
Mar. 21, 1940	
Mar. 24, 1940	
Mar. 9, 1940.	
Mar. 18, 1940	
Mar. 20, 1940-	
Mar. 21, 1940.	
Mar. 23,1940	
Mar. 28, 29, 1940'..
Apr. 5, 1940	
Apr. 7,1940	
Apr. 3, 5, 6, 7, 1940-
No. of
Tags
inserted.
1,257
1,293
995
1,198
1,395
699
791
799
1,196
797
1,454
1,078
1,000
197
798
755
1,195
1,299
945
1,000
997
1,000
999
997
1,297
2,192
1,797
899
1,494
1,599
1,491
681
682
897
298
197
200
200
1,200
1,499
987
1,199
1,799
1,197
1,797
1,000
999
500
1,150
1,000
1,199
996
1,100
1,595
300
1,399
1,499
800
798
1,397
998
997
500
29,697
Method of
Capture of
Fish.*
CS.
B.S.
B.S.
B.P.
B.S.
S.S.
S.S.
S.S.
S.S.
Weir
S.T.
CS.
CS.
CS.
CS.
CS.
CS.
CS.
S.S.
D.N.
S.S.
B.S.
S.S.
S.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
CS.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
CS.
CS.
S.T.
CS.
CS.
CS.
CS.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
CS.
D.N.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
CS.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
Weir
Tagging
Method.t
G
G
G
G
G
G
G, K'
G, K'
G
G
G, K'
G
G
G
G
G
G
G, K'
G, K°
G, K°
G, K°
G, K°
G, K°
G, K°
G, K°
G,K"
G, K°
G, K"
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'
K'
G, K'
G
G
G
G
G
G, K"
G, K"
G, K"
G, K"
G, K'
G, K';
G, K"
G, K"
G, K"
K'
G, K'
K'
K'
K'
K'
K'
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'
G, K'
K'
G, K"
G, K"
K'
Place of Tagging.
Swanson Channel.
Queens Cove, Esperanza Inlet.
Plumper Harbour, Nootka Sound.
Winter Harbour, Quatsino Sound.
Bella Bella, Milbanke Sound.
Ganges Harbour.
Horswell Point, near Nanaimo.
False Narrows, N.W. side.
Union Bay, Baynes Sound.
Birch Bay, near Blaine, U.S.A.
Off Sooke.
Swanson Channel.
Swanson Channel.
Boat Pass, Nootka Sound.
S.E. Arm, Quatsino Sound.
Tuck Inlet, near Prince Rupert.
Kwakshua Passage, Calvert Island.
Laredo Inlet.
Departure Bay, near Nanaimo.
Off north end of Qualicum Beach.
Kuleet Bay, near Ladysmith.
Gap, Nanaimo Harbour.
Pender Harbour.
Dodd Narrows, near Boat Harbour.
Rivers Inlet Cannery.
Campbell Island, near Brown Narrows
(Browns Pass).
Duncan Bay, near Prince Rupert.
Butler Cove, near Prince Rupert.
Toquart Bay, Barkley Sound.
Off Markale, Kyuquot Sound.
Kendrick Arm, Nootka Sound.
Matilda Inlet, Clayoquot Sound.
Sydney Inlet.
Otter Point, near Sooke.
Swanson Channel.
Swanson Channel.
Lagoon Bay, Queen Charlotte Islands.
Skaat Harbour, Queen Charlotte Islands.
Kuleet Bay, near Ladysmith.
Ganges Harbour, Saltspring Island.
Off Lantzville.
Nanoose Bay, at black buoy.
Laredo Inlet.
Deep Bay, Baynes Sound.
Cutter Creek, near Minstrel Island.
Shoal Harbour, Gilford Island.
Bend Island, Clio Channel.
Von Donop Creek, Cortes Island.
Whitepine Cove, Clayoquot Sound.
Refuge Cove, Sydney Inlet.
Kendrick Arm, Nootka Sound.
Queens Cove, Esperanza Inlet.
Clanninick Cove, at entrance to Kyuquot Sound.
Winter Harbour, Quatsino Sound.
Rivers Inlet Cannery.
Campbell Island, near Brown Narrows.
Big Bay, near Prince Rupert.
Butler Cove, near Prince Rupert.
Lake Island, Milbanke Sound.
Head of Toquart Bay, Barkley Sound.
Melanie Cove.
Cahnish Bay.
Seal Rock, Hood Canal, Washington.
* c.S.—commercial seine ; B.S.—bait-seine ; B.P.—bait-pound ; S.S.—shore-seine ; S.T.—salmon-traps ; D.N.—
dip-net.
■f G—gun ; K'—fish held with one hand while knife and tag are manipulated with other hand; K°—fish held by
one man while another manipulates knife and tag;   K'°—both types of knife-tagging used. K 44
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Quesen C/h&r/o/-f-e   ^ot-rr?ry
i>
£SjOS/-^>/y^^ /r?/c
-s*<j?   /Bsftsffe Cans
1/ci.c/xrt.e 7-
0     r33£26s£T1crC>s7   y>/^/~>f- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 45 K 46 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
/2/XO/7     <s/?f-/-r3/7ce
r?X     J3'<7 £><?y -ct-^O-^i
3£   JJunc^s? £t^y 'lCj —~
-5V/     TC/Crk   //7/tS*
/te/AS^^     jgt/r*>x\JZ r
sr.^y Svt/es- «5K<f
s/s-^r/f
£>  Z&g'oo/i  />sy BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 47
BPITISH
COLUMBIA
fSo/-f/?er/7 sheet
/-^z-ecZb   ^-ct/nc/ 7      /
Qyge/7   (?/%3/-/o f fe &ow-7cy- K 48
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
TAGGING.
Two noteworthy changes from the previous year mark the tagging operations carried out
during the 1939-40 season. The first change is in the curtailments of tagging on the fishing
grounds during the fall and winter months, especially on the south-east and west coasts of
Vancouver Island and in northern British Columbia. The second change is in the extension
of tagging operations to the Queen Charlotte Islands and to the spawning-grounds among the
islands and inlets in the southern part of Queen Charlotte Sound. The Queen Charlotte
Island tagging was carried out on the fishing-grounds and must be regarded only as exploratory. Both of the new tagging areas are close to the sites of newly developed fishing areas.
Tagging was particularly successful on the west coast of Vancouver Island where fish were
tagged in seven different localities, including each of the important inlets.
The data for tagging are given in Table I. and Table VII. Table I. presents a summary
of the more important information for all taggings from which returns were made during
the 1939-40 season and for all new taggings made during the same period. All tagging
localities are indicated on the accompanying maps. Table VII. gives the identification numbers for all the tags used during the 1939-40 season, with the reference code and certain
details of tagging. Similar information for previous years has been published in previous
reports and is not repeated. A summary of all the tagging operations to date is given in the
following tabulation:—
Locality.
1936-37.
1937^38.
1938-39.
1939-40.
Fall and Winter.
1,500
7,090
1,199
4,086
2,798
1,454
2,525
1,094
2,494
755
897
495
1,799
5,279
6,684
,1,395
400
Spring.
Strait of Georgia  (including Puget Sound and north to Nodales
1,898
6,587
9,077
3,796
8,437
2,497
2,299
West coast of Vancouver Island —    	
5,692
5,947
3,489
2,696
16,180
21,441
27,041
29,697
RECOVERY METHODS.
Equipment.
The same principal methods for recovering tags as were used in the previous season were
employed during the 1939-40 season. Induction detectors were operated at Ucluelet and
Nootka, but as neither unit gave continuous good performance only two recoveries were made
at the former and twelve at the latter plant. The apparatus is fully described in previous
reports (Hart and Tester, 1937;  1938;   1939).
Most of the recoveries were made by the use of electromagnets placed in the meal-chutes
leading into the grinders. (See Hart, 1937, for methods of installation, and Hart and Tester,
1937, for an account of the arrangements for having tags returned.) Through the co-operation of the operating companies it has been possible to replace the curved-pole type of magnet
used in the bottom of worm-conveyers as described in Hart and Tester (1939) with the usual
type of proven usefulness. In three plants using alternating current, direct current had to be
obtained. This was done in two cases by rectifiers (one tungar and one rotary) and in the
third case by driving a small direct-current generator from the shaft. In several plants a
second magnet has been installed to meet the requirements of additional installations. The
trap for removing metal from the meal-line of the Ucluelet plant (Hart and Tester, 1939)
operated for a part of last season.    At other plants tags were occasionally recovered from BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 49
Fig. 1. Overhauling the seine after tagging at Toquart Bay, Barkley Sound.
:1
1:
:;WiV-'   'V    ■ :
.<*>«»•*
Fig. 2. Grinder which ejects tramp metal, including
tags, from the meal. K 50
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
joints in the conveyer.    None of these returns has been distinguished from returns made by
the magnets.
A special type of California Press Manufacturing Company grinder, installed at the
British Columbia Packers Alert Bay plant (Fig. 2), is designed to discharge tramp metal at
one end. This grinder was effective in recovering eight tags during the season and tests
indicated that its efficiency in making recoveries was comparable to that of plants in which
magnets were installed. In summarizing the results these returns have been treated as
magnet recoveries.
Plants making Recoveries.
There follows a list of the plants making recoveries, along with the names of the companies operating the plants, the location of the plant, and the number of recoveries made by
each:— No. of
Recoveries.
Alert   Bay;    Alert   Bay,   Queen   Charlotte   Sound;    British   Columbia
Packers, Limited       8
Butedale;   Princess Royal Island;   Canadian Fishing Company, Ltd     87
Ceepeecee;   Esperanza Inlet;  Nelson Bros. Fisheries, Limited     87
Kildonan;   Barkley Sound;   British Columbia Packers, Limited     26
Namu;   Fitzhugh Sound;   British Columbia Packers, Limited  104
Nootka;  Nootka Sound;   Nootka Packing Co. (1937), Ltd  110
Pacofi;   Queen Charlotte Islands;   British Columbia Packers, Limited-      2
Port Edward;   Port Edward, Chatham Sound;   British Columbia Packers, Limited     74
Imperial;   Steveston;   British Columbia Packers, Limited     90
Tucks Inlet;   Tuck Inlet;   Tucks Inlet Packing Co., Ltd     45
Ucluelet;   Ucluelet, Barkley Sound;   Banfield Packing Co., Ltd     54
One tag was recovered when the herring bearing the tag was being split for kippering.
Efficiency Tests.
In making use of information obtained from the recovery of herring-tags, two types of
information are required. First, it is necessary to know what proportion of the tags which
enter the plant in fish are recovered by plant crews and turned in for examination. Second,
it is necessary to have some idea of the interval between the time a tagged fish enters the
plant and the time the tag is recovered from the magnet. If such information is not available, deductions concerning movements of fish cannot be made with adequate certainty.
Information on percentage recovery and length of time for recovery was obtained by
placing known numbers of herring tagged with test tags in conveyers and fish-bins of the
various plants and keeping careful records of the recoveries. The results are shown in
Table II.
Table II.—Summary of Information obtained by Efficiency Tests conducted in British Columbia
Reduction Plants using Fisheries Research Board of Canada Herring-tags.
Plant
Percentage
Herring-
tags
recovered.
Percentage of Recovered Tags, eecovered in
Longest Time
after which a
Return was
made.
No. of
Tags used
in
Testing.
No.
Code.
1 Day.
2 Days.
3 Days.       1 Week.
2 Weeks.
Tests.
A
I
82                100
1 day
50
1
B
68                    0                    0
0
41
W
18 days
40
2
C
100                    38                   42
42
88
100
10 days
24
2
D
66                      0                      0
0
91
91
214 days
50
1
E
24  ,                 18                   18
18
45
91
20 days
45
3
F
88                   13                   30
34                   68
89
32 days
60
5
G
(No tags actually returned.     A few badly battered tags
reported as
recovered.)
45
3
H
98                   97         1         97
100
.
.
3 days
40
2
1
90                   58
78
89
92
92
36 days
40
2
J
95                   89
100
2 days
40
2
K
70                 100
1
1 day
20
1 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 51
The table shows efficiencies ranging from 24 to 100 per cent. The 24-per-cent. estimate
of efficiency at plant E is not believed to be a true estimate of the efficiency of the plant in
returning tags. It is believed that the plant crew, knowing that no rewards were to be paid
for test tags, were relatively indifferent as to whether or not the tags were turned in in the
usual way. It is unfortunate that such situations are occasionally encountered in a relationship where encouraging co-operation is the rule. From other considerations it is evident that
the efficiency for plant E is not less than 60 per cent, and probably comparable to the more
efficient plants for which the data are satisfactory.
The relationship between time and the return of tags shows great variation between
plants. In some, all the tags were recovered in one or two days. In others, no tags were
reported until three days or a week after the commencement of the test. In still others the
last tags to be found on the magnets were recovered after more than a month of active operation. That these findings must be given careful consideration when interpreting the tagging
returns is evident.
RECOVERIES.
Induction Detectors.
Fourteen fish were recovered by induction detectors. All of these'were fish which had
been tagged six months or more. Five tags were recovered from Kwakshua Passage fish and
all of these tags had been put in fish in the central area. The recapture in Quatsino Sound
of a herring tagged in Baynes Sound in the spring of 1938 was interesting in that it offers
proof of migration from one major fishing area to another. Four fish tagged at Toquart Bay
in the spring of 1939 were captured in Barkley Sound during the 1939-40 fishing season.
Fish tagged in Kyuquot Sound and Nootka Sound in the spring of 1939 were both recovered
in Nootka Sound during the following fishing season. The results are summarized in Table
III. The induction-detector returns are included in the following section in the discussion of
the returns from each tagging.
Table III.—Tags recovered by Induction Detectors during 1939-iO.
Place and Month of Tagging.
Place of
Capturb
Code.
cd
tt   .
x y
at tin
£i tt
tt tit
tr tft
?, tt
o
tt  .
'trt-tt
■s c
8 3
tt o
am
2-6
a s
dm
tt  .
HH   tt
° a
Ztn
Total.
2M
2S
Bella  Bella,   March,   1938—    .
Bavnes  Sound,   April,   1938 	
1
1
3
1
4
2
2
1
3J
Laredo Inlet, March, 1939    	
3R
3U
Campbell Island,  March,  1939     .
Toquart Bay, March, 1939  	
3
4
3V
Kyuquot Sound, March,  1939   	
3W
Nootka Sound, March, 1939 	
14
Magnets.
Since the preparation of the last report, 688 tags have been returned which are considered
as having been recovered by magnets. The difficulties in making use of such returns have
been dealt with in previous reports and are illustrated quantitatively in the section of the
present report on efficiency tests of magnets. They necessitate a rather full and laborious
treatment of the data and this is given in the following paragraphs, in which the returns from
each tagging are discussed separately.
Swanson Channel (2C): One tag reported from Deepwater Bay. The report is probably
correct. However, Kwakshua Passage and the east coast of Vancouver Island are improbable
but possible sources, with Barkley Sound and Queen Charlotte Sound highly improbable
sources. K 52 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Esperanza Inlet (2J) : One return reported from Nootka Sound. The report is probably
correct, but Ououkinsh Inlet and Barkley Sound are remotely possible sources.
Nootka Sound (2K) : Two returns were made. One was reported from Kyuquot Sound
and probably originated there or in Nootka Sound, although Kwakshua Passage and Queen
Charlotte Sound are possible sources. The other tag was reported from Barkley Sound. It
either originated from Barkley Sound fish or from fish taken on the east coast of Vancouver
Island.
Quatsino Sound (2L) : Two recoveries from this tagging were made by the same plant.
One tag was recorded as coming from Kyuquot Sound and the other from " Namu and Quatsino." These localities with Nootka Sound and possibly Queen Charlotte Sound represent the
possibilities. It is worthy of comment that the plant making this recovery processed 93 per
cent, of all the Quatsino Sound fish captured.
Bella Bella (2M) : Eighty-one recoveries were made by magnets and one by induction
detector. Sixteen of the returns were reported as coming from Kwakshua Passage, but some
of the tags might have originated in fish from other localities, such as Nootka Sound, Kyuquot
Sound, Quatsino Sound, Deepwater Bay area, Prince Rupert Harbour area, the southern part
of Queen Charlotte Sound, and even the south-east coast of Vancouver Island. It is believed
that most of these -returns are correctly reported. The induction-detector return was a
Kwakshua Passage fish. Fifty-seven 2M tags are reported as coming from Laredo Inlet.
Although it is possible that some of these returns originated from any of the localities listed
above, including Kwakshua Passage, it is believed that most or all of them originated as
indicated. The remaining eight tags are recorded from such places as Prince Rupert Harbour, Tuck Inlet, Kyuquot and Nootka Sounds, Jackson Passage, and Klemtu. It is possible
or even probable that the Klemtu return was a hold-over from the previous season. Among
all of the rest there is only one case in which the chances are not good that the tag originated
with fish taken in Kwakshua Passage or Laredo Inlet. In the one excepted case the fish may
have originated either at Laredo Inlet or at Prince Rupert Harbour. The evidence indicates
that the 2M tags were distributed more or less uniformly between the fish taken in Kwakshua
Passage and Laredo Sound.
Ganges Harbour (2N) : One tag was returned from the east coast of Vancouver Island.
It was doubtlessly correctly reported. There were no returns from this tagging during the
1938-39 season.
Horswell Point (20) : One tag was recovered. It was reported, probably correctly, from
Deepwater Bay, although the east coast of Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Sound, and
Kwakshua Passage are other possibilities.
False Narrows (2Q) : Two tags from this tagging were recovered on the same day.
They are recorded from Nanoose Bay and it is practically certain that they came from some
place on the east coast of Vancouver Island, although Queen Charlotte Sound is a remote
possibility.
Baynes Sound (2S) : There were five recoveries from this tagging by magnets and one
by an induction detector. Of the magnet returns, three are reported from the east coast of
Vancouver Island. One of these is certainly correct and the two others are probably so. The
two remaining magnet recoveries are reported from Deepwater Bay. The localities for both
of these are probably correct, although the east coast of Vancouver Island and Barkley Sound
are possible sources for one and there is some chance of the other having come from one of
the following localities: east coast of Vancouver Island, Kwakshua Passage, Laredo Inlet,
Queen Charlotte and Barkley Sounds. The induction-detector return was from Quatsino
Sound.
Birch Bay (2T) : One recovery was reported from east coast of Vancouver Island fish.
The reported locality of recovery is probably correct, although Queen Charlotte Sound is a
possible source.
Sooke (3A) : There have been four recoveries from this tagging. One is reported from
Nanoose Bay herring and certainly originated on the east coast of Vancouver Island. One is
reported from Barkley Sound and may have been returned with Nanoose Bay fish, and another
is reported from Nanoose Bay but may have originated with Barkley Sound fish. One 3A tag-
is reported from Deepwater Bay fish, probably correctly, although Barkley Sound and the east
coast of Vancouver Island are possible sources. BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 53
Swanson Channel (3B) : Four tags of this group were recovered. Three of them were
reported from east coast of Vancouver Island herring, probably correctly, although one may
have originated from Barkley Sound fish and the two others from fish taken in the Queen
Charlotte Sound area. The fourth tag was reported from Barkley Sound fish, but it may
have entered the plant with fish landed from the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Swanson Channel (3E) : One return was made and reported from Nanoose Bay. Some
locality on the east coast of Vancouver Island is almost certainly correct, although Queen
Charlotte Sound is a possible source.
Nootka Sound (3F) : One return was reported from Kyuquot Sound fish. Nootka and
Queen Charlotte Sounds and Kwakshua Passage are the other possible sources in order of
probability.
Quatsino Sound (3G) : There were two returns from this tagging reported from Kyuquot
Sound and Deepwater Bay. Other probable sources are Kwakshua Passage and Quatsino
Sound, with possible sources Nootka Sound, Sydney Inlet, and Queen Charlotte Sound. The
plant making the two recoveries was the one which processed 93 per cent, of the fish from
Quatsino Sound.
Tuck Inlet (3H) : Four tags were recovered from this tagging. Of two reported from
Tuck Inlet one is certainly correctly reported and the other is probably so, although Kwakshua
Passage and Laredo Inlet are possible sources. One tag reported from Kwakshua Passage
might equally well have come from Prince Rupert Harbour fish, or less probably from Laredo.
The fourth tag was reported from Laredo Inlet. If the tests conducted on the plant adequately represent the possibilities for error, this report is correct. Otherwise Prince Rupert
Harbour is a possible source.
Kwakshua Passage (31) : Twenty tags were recovered. Two of these were reported
from Klemtu, but probably represent hold-overs from the preceding season. Eleven were
reported as coming from Kwakshua Passage fish, but may have originated from the Alert Bay
area (improbable), Laredo Inlet, Prince Rupert Harbour, or from the northern inlets on the
west coast of Vancouver Island. It is believed that most or all of these tags are correctly
reported. Four tags are reported (three of them evidently carelessly) from Kyuquot Sound.
Any of these tags could readily have originated from fish captured in Kwakshua Passage, or
somewhat less probably from such west coast localities as Nootka Sound and Quatsino Sound.
Barkley Sound and Queen Charlotte Sound are remote possibilities. Two tags of this lot are
reported from Laredo Inlet. These reports are probably correct, although many other areas
may have produced the fish carrying the tags—namely, Queen Charlotte Sound, Deepwater
Bay, Kwakshua Passage, and Prince Rupert Harbour. One 31 tag was returned as coming
from Nootka Sound fish. The return is probably correct, although Ououkinsh and Barkley
Sound are other possible sources. In any case, the tag could not have originated in fish taken
in central British Columbia. There was definite evidence of a tendency for 31 tags to be
returned early in the fishery of central British Columbia—i.e., while the fishing was centred
at Kwakshua Passage.
Laredo Inlet (3J) : Eighty-two 3J tags were recovered by magnets and one by induction
detector. Sixty-five of these tags were reported from Laredo Inlet. As the run of Laredo
fish was the last large run of the herring season, consideration of the weaknesses of the
recovery method will necessarily indicate many other possible sources for these tags, including
all of the principal fishing areas in British Columbia. It is possible that some of the tags
have originated in areas other than in central British Columbia, but it is noteworthy that no
3J tag has been recovered under circumstances which render it impossible or even improbable
that its source be central British Columbia. Two tags reported from Klemtu are probably
hold-overs from the previous season. One 3J tag reported from Belleisle Sound may have
originated there, but fishing-grounds in central British Columbia such as Klemtu and Ocean
Falls appear more probable. Six tags were reported as coming from Kwakshua Passage.
The source so reported in all cases seems to be probably the correct one, but other possibilities
exist as follows: two of the tags might have originated from fishing-grounds in Queen Charlotte Sound or less probably in other fishing-grounds in central British Columbia; Nootka and
Kyuquot Sounds (and more remotely Barkley Sound) are possible sources for two of the tags;
Prince Rupert Harbour, and Prince Rupert Harbour and Laredo Inlet, respectively, are
possible alternatives for the other two tags reported as coming from Kwakshua Passage. K 54 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Three 3J tags were reported from Jackson Passage. Consideration of the way in which tags
are returned by the plant recording the recoveries makes it fairly certain that these tags
entered the plant while Laredo Inlet fish were being processed. Kwakshua Passage, Queen
Charlotte Sound, Prince Rupert Harbour, and other areas in central British Columbia represent the other possibilities in order of importance. Five 3J tags were reported from Prince
Rupert Harbour or Tuck Inlet. Of these, two probably, and quite possibly all, entered the
reduction plant in fish captured in Laredo Inlet. The fish carrying a 3J tag which was
recovered by an induction detector was taken at Kwakshua Passage. There was a well-
marked tendency for 3J tags to be taken toward the end of the season—i.e., during the period
of heavy fishing in Laredo Inlet, and more particularly the last two or three weeks of the run.
Departure Bay (3K) : There were five recoveries. Four were reported from the east
coast of Vancouver Island. Two of these reports were obviously correct. In the case of the
other two there is a very slight possibility that the tags entered the plant with fish from
Queen Charlotte Sound. One tag was reported from Barkley Sound fish. That locality may
be correct, although east coast fish are a possible source of the tag.
Qualicum Beach (3L) : Twelve tags from this lot were recovered. Three of the tags
were reported from the east coast of Vancouver Island (Nanoose Bay). Some locality on the
east coast is probably correct for these tags, although Queen Charlotte Sound is a possible
source. Two tags were reported from Barkley Sound. These reports may be correct,
although the east coast is a likely source for one and a possible source for the other. Three
Qualicum tags were reported from Laredo Inlet. All of these returns may have come from
one or both of east coast or Deepwater Bay fish, but, considering the results of the tests made
on the plants, it does not seem very probable that one of the returns can be explained by
delay in the tag passing through the plant. Other possible sources are Queen Charlotte Sound
and Prince Rupert Harbour. It may, however, be noted that no 3L tags were recovered by
any of the three plants which processed no fish from areas south of Queen Charlotte Sound.
Four tags were reported from Deepwater Bay fish. All of these reports are probably correct,
although other localities such as the east coast, Barkley Sound, Kwakshua Passage, and Queen
Charlotte Sound are possibilities.
Kuleet Bay (3M) : Six recoveries were made. Three of the recoveries were reported
from localities on the east coast of Vancouver Island. These reports are probably correct,
although Barkley Sound is a possible alternative for two of the tags and Queen Charlotte
Sound for the other. Two tags were reported from Barkley Sound. In one case east coast
fish are possible, and in the other, probable, alternatives. The remaining tag was reported
from Seymour Narrows (probably referring to Deepwater Bay). This report is most likely
correct, but Barkley, Nootka, Quatsino, and Kyuquot Sounds and Kwakshua Passage are also
possible sources.
Nanaimo Harbour (3N) : Five tags were reported. Three were recorded from fishing-
grounds on the east coast of Vancouver Island. These reports are probably correct, although
Queen Charlotte Sound is a conceivable source for two of the tags and Barkley Sound is
reasonably likely for the other. The two remaining tags are reported from Deepwater Bay.
Both of these reports are probably correct, although possible alternatives for one are Kyuquot,
Nootka, Quatsino, and Queen Charlotte Sounds, Kwakshua Passage, Sydney Inlet, and Prince
Rupert Harbour, and for the other the east coast of Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte and
Barkley Sounds, and Kwakshua Passage.
Pender Harbour (30) : There were twenty-eight returns from this tagging. Twenty-
three of these returns were reported from the east coast of Vancouver Island. Concerning
many of them there can be no reasonable doubts. Others had possible alternative sources in
Queen Charlotte Sound, Barkley Sound, and even Kwakshua Passage and Deepwater Bay.
Four tags were recorded, probably correctly, from Deepwater Bay. Barkley and Queen Charlotte Sounds, the east coast of Vancouver Island, and Kwakshua Passage are possibilities for
one or more of these tags. One 30 tag was reported from Barkley Sound. It may have
originated there or from east coast fish.
Dodd Narrows (3P) : Seventeen tags were returned. Fourteen were recorded from the
east coast of Vancouver Island. No doubt most or all of these reports are correct. However,
other possible sources for some of the tags are Barkley and Queen Charlotte Sounds, Kwakshua Passage, and Deepwater Bay.    One tag was reported from Barkley Sound, but quite BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 55
2M
Fig. 3.    The weekly return of tags inserted at Bella Bella  (2M), Kwakshua Passage  (31), Laredo Inlet (3J),
and Campbell Island (3R), in relation to the weekly catch from Kwakshua Passage and Laredo Inlet. V
K 56 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
possibly originated with east coast fish. One tag was reported from Kwakshua Passage or
Queen Charlotte Sound, but might equally well have come from the east coast of Vancouver
Island or Deepwater Bay. One tag reported from Laredo Inlet might have come from Deep-
water Bay or, less probably, from any of the other localities mentioned in this paragraph.
Rivers Inlet (3Q) : One Rivers Inlet tag was recovered. It was reported from Kwakshua Passage fish, which is probably correct, but it might have returned from Nootka,
Kyuquot, or even Barkley Sounds.
Campbell Island (3R) : From this tagging 118 tags were recovered by magnets and three
by induction detectors. Seventy-eight of these tags were reported from Kwakshua Passage
or Fitzhugh Sound. Of these, fifty-two may be considered correct with reasonable certainty.
The others have alternative localities as follows: Laredo Inlet, two; Kyuquot, Nootka, Quatsino, and Queen Charlotte Sounds, four; Kyuquot, Nootka, Barkley Sounds, thirteen; Laredo
and Tuck Inlets, two; Prince Rupert Harbour and Laredo Inlet, five. Twenty-seven were
reported as being recovered from Laredo Inlet. It is believed that most of these tags are
correctly reported, although some may have originated in Kwakshua Passage or even in other
localities. It has been pointed out that, owing to the part of the season in which the Laredo
run occurred, the number of possible alternative sources is high. A summary of them
follows: Kwakshua and Queen Charlotte Sound, eight; Kwakshua, Queen Charlotte Sound,
and Prince Rupert Harbour, ten; Kwakshua, Queen Charlotte Sound, Seymour Narrows, two;
Kwakshua and Tuck Inlet, one; Kwakshua, Tuck, and Kent Inlets and Wales Passage, two;
Kwakshua Passage and Prince Rupert Harbour, three; Kwakshua Passage, Nootka, Kyuquot,
Quatsino, and Queen Charlotte Sounds, one. Nine tags were reported from one or another
of the west coast localities—Quatsino, Kyuquot, or Nootka Sounds. Eight of these had
Kwakshua Passage as a probable alternative and one had Kwakshua Passage and Barkley
Sound. Two 3R tags were returned as coming from fish taken in Prince Rupert Harbour.
They had as alternative sources Kwakshua Passage and Laredo Inlet. One tag was reported
as from " east coast and Alert Bay." An examination of the plant production figures makes
it evident that the tag must have entered the plant with fish from either Queen Charlotte
Sound or the east coast of Vancouver Island, probably the former. It could not have come
from fish taken in central British Columbia. One tag is reported from Deepwater Bay.
Examination of the records indicates that the record is possibly correct, but that Laredo Inlet,
Kwakshua Passage, the east coast of Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Sound, and Barkley
Sound are possible alternatives in descending order of likelihood. It will be noticed that of
the 118 tags recovered one and one only was recovered under circumstances which indicate
the impossibility of a return from central British Columbia. In only a very few other cases
does a return from the central area appear improbable. The three induction-detector returns
were from Kwakshua Passage. Tags from the 3R tagging resembled those of the 31 tagging
in that they tended to be taken early in the central area fishery. Apparently, although they
occurred in Laredo Inlet fish, they were considerably more plentiful among the Kwakshua
herring. The differences between the returns from the four taggings (2M, 31, 3J, 3R) are
shown in Fig. 3. Consideration of the returns for individual plants emphasizes the difference
between 3R and 3J tags still further, as practically all of the early returns of 3J tags were
made by plants which made an early start in operating on Laredo Inlet fish.
Duncan Bay (3S) : Thirty-five Duncan Bay tags were recovered. Twenty-five of these
were reported from Prince Rupert Harbour, Tuck Inlet, or other fishing-grounds in that
vicinity. One certainly, and probably the great majority, of these reports are correct.
Klemtu, Kwakshua Passage, Laredo Inlet, and Queen Charlotte Sound are possible alternative
sources of these tags. Eight tags were reported from Laredo Inlet fish. All of these tags
could readily have entered the plants in fish caught in Prince Rupert Harbour or Tuck Inlet,
and Queen Charlotte Sound and Kwakshua Passage are possible sources. It is worthy of note
that, with two exceptions to be noted later, plants which operated on Laredo Inlet fish but
not on fish from the northern area did not recover 3S tags. One 3S tag was reported from
Bigsby Inlet. The plant reporting this recovery had operated only on Queen Charlotte Island
fish. One tag from this lot was reported as coming from Deepwater Bay fish by a plant which
up to that time had operated on little or no fish from the northern or central area. The
reported locality is the most likely one, although Kwakshua Passage, the east coast of Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Sound, and even Barkley Sound are possible sources. BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 57
Butler Cove (3T) : There were fourteen recoveries from this tagging. Six were recorded
from Prince Rupert Harbour or Tuck Inlet. These reports are probably correct, although
Laredo Inlet, Kwakshua Passage, and Queen Charlotte Sound are the other possibilities in
order of probability. The eight remaining tags are reported from Laredo Inlet. Any of
these may have originated in the northern area. The alternate sources may be summarized
as follows: Prince Rupert Harbour and Kwakshua Passage, two; Prince Rupert Harbour,
Kwakshua Passage, and Queen Charlotte Sound, one; the last-named localities and Klemtu,
four; Prince Rupert Harbour, Kwakshua Passage, Queen Charlotte Sound, Deepwater Bay,
and the west coast of Vancouver Island, one. It may be noted that reduction plants which
processed Laredo Inlet and Deepwater Bay fish but no fish from the Prince Rupert area
recovered no 3T tags. It is noticeable that the earlier runs of fish taken in the Prince Rupert
area evidently contained no 3T tags. Although the fishery began in November, the first 3T
tag was recovered on January 21st and the second on February 15th. At least one tag from
each of the 3H and 3S lots was recovered early in the season.
Toquart Bay (3U) : Forty-seven 3U tags were recovered by magnets and four by induction detectors. Of these, thirty-eight were recorded from Barkley Sound fish. Any, but one,
of these could have originated among east coast of Vancouver Island fish, but this does not
seem probable in view of the negligible return of 3U tags by a plant which operated on very
large quantities of east coast fish and a negligible amount of Barkley Sound fish. Four tags
were reported as coming from the east coast of Vancouver Island. The data on three of
these make it appear possible or even probable that the tags actually entered the plant with
Barkley Sound fish. In the remaining case it is quite evident that the tag must have
originated in fish caught either on the east coast of Vancouver Island or in Queen Charlotte
Sound, with the former being much the more probable. Four tags were reported from fish
captured in Deepwater Bay. It is possible that this locality is correct or that the tags came
from fish landed from the east coast of Vancouver Island, but it seems most likely that these
tags originated in Barkley Sound fish. One tag was reported from Kyuquot Sound. That
locality is probably correct, although other possibilities given in order of likelihood are:
Nootka Sound, Queen Charlotte Sound, and Kwakshua Passage. All four induction-detector
recoveries were from Barkley Sound fish.
Kyuquot Sound (3V) : Fifty-nine tags were recovered by magnets and two by one of the
induction detectors. Thirty-eight of the tags were reported as having been recovered from
fish caught in Ououkinsh Inlet or Kyuquot Sound. Four of these reports are obviously correct; all of the rest may have originated from such other localities as Nootka Sound, Barkley
Sound, Kwakshua Passage, Quatsino Sound, and Queen Charlotte Sound. The last three
localities are considered improbable. The tonnage of Queen Charlotte Sound fish which could
contribute the tags was small and it may be noted that other plants which operated on fish
from Kwakshua Passage and Queen Charlotte Sound did not record 3V tags. Six tags were
recorded from Nootka Sound. Five of these returns are almost certainly correct, but have
Barkley Sound and Ououkinsh as possible alternatives. The remaining tag may be correctly
reported or may have been returned from Kyuquot or Queen Charlotte Sounds or from
Kwakshua Passage. Three 3V tags were reported from Barkley Sound. They must have
originated there or from the east coast of Vancouver Island. Eleven 3V tags were reported
from Kwakshua Passage, Fitzhugh Sound, or Laredo Inlet. All of these may, of course, be
reported correctly, but alternative sources are possible as follows: Kyuquot, Quatsino, and
Nootka Sounds, five; the areas just mentioned and Laredo Sound, one; the same three areas
and Barkley Sound, five. It is believed that most of these returns came from fish captured
on the west coast of Vancouver Island. In any case, no 3V tags were recovered by plants
which did not operate on fish from this source. One 3V tag was reported from Quatsino
Sound. It may be correctly reported, but a number of alternatives are plausible—namely,
Kyuquot, Nootka, and Queen Charlotte Sounds, Kwakshua Passage, and Sydney Inlet. Both
of the induction-detector returns were of Nootka Sound herring.
Nootka Sound (3W) : There were thirty-three 3W tags returned by magnets and two by
the induction detector. Thirteen returns were reported from Nootka Sound. Twelve of these
are almost certainly correct, although Barkley Sound was a possible source. The remaining
return may be correctly reported or the tag may have originated with fish from one of the
following sources:   Kwakshua Passage, Kyuquot Sound, and Barkley Sound.    Nine returns K 58 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
were reported from Ououkinsh Inlet or Kyuquot Sound. Three of these reports are obviously
correct; four have as alternative sources Nootka and Queen Charlotte Sounds and Kwakshua
Passage; and two have as alternatives Nootka Sound, Barkley Sound, and Kwakshua Passage.
It is believed that the majority of these tags are correctly reported. One tag was reported
from each of Quatsino Sound and Deepwater Bay. Either of these reports may be correct,
but the Quatsino tag may have come in with fish from any of the following localities:
Kyuquot, Nootka, and Queen Charlotte Sounds, Kwakshua Passage, and Sydney Inlet. The
" Deepwater Bay " tag may have originated in any of the localities listed or in Quatsino
Sound. Two 3W tags were reported from Barkley Sound. They are probably correctly
reported, but either may have come from fish caught on the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Six 3W tags are recorded from Kwakshua Passage, Laredo Inlet, and one from " east coast
and Kwakshua." Five of these seven returns were made under circumstances which make it
appear likely that they originated in Nootka Sound fish, although Kyuquot Sound and Barkley
Sound are also possibilities. Neither of the other two returns could have originated in the
" Nootka-Kyuquot " region. The alternatives for one are Tuck Inlet and Kwakshua Passage
and for the other the east coast of Vancouver Island, Kwakshua Passage, Queen Charlotte
Sound, and Barkley Sound, in order of apparent probability. The two induction-detector
returns were made from Nootka Sound fish. The evidence indicates rather free mixing of
3V and 3W tags between Kyuquot and Nootka Sounds. There is evidence for believing that
more 3V tags came from Kyuquot Sound fish and that more 3W tags came from Nootka
Sound fish in the records for the two plants which processed fish from these two sources.
One plant reduced most of the Kyuquot Sound fish and it recovered thirty-nine 3V tags and
only nine 3W tags. The other plant handled more Nootka Sound fish and less Kyuquot fish
and returned only seventeen 3V tags and twenty 3W tags.
Matilda Inlet (3X) : Three Matilda Inlet tags were recovered. Two were reported from
Barkley Sound by plants which operated on fish from the east coast and one was reported
from east coast fish by a plant which operated on Barkley Sound fish. It is not possible to
say which of the sources is correct, but the fact that one plant which processed large quantities of east coast herring and a negligible amount of Barkley Sound fish recovered no 3X
tags makes the second possibility appear somewhat more probable.
Sydney Inlet (3Y) : Eight recoveries were made of 3Y tags. Two were reported from
Kyuquot Sound, one certainly correctly. The other had as alternatives Nootka and Queen
Charlotte Sounds, and Kwakshua Passage. A third tag reported from Quatsino Sound had
as alternatives all of the localities mentioned in this paragraph and Sydney Inlet in addition.
Three 3Y tags were recorded from Nootka Sound. These tags are believed to be correctly
reported, although Barkley Sound and Ououkinsh Inlet are possible sources. Two tags from
this tagging were reported recovered from Barkley Sound, but there is very good chance that
they may have originated from east coast fish. Here, as with the 3X tags, the fact that no
tags were recovered by the plant operating on the largest quantities of east coast fish implies
that Barkley Sound is the true point of origin of the tags.
Sooke (4A) : Six 4A tags were recovered by magnets and one was found when the herring was split for kippering. The magnet returns were all recorded from the east coast of
Vancouver Island. These records are all believed to be correct, although Barkley Sound is
a possible alternative for one of the tags and Queen Charlotte Sound for the other five. The
remaining recovery was from a fish recaptured by one of the Sooke salmon-traps.
Swanson Channel (4B): Five returns were made for this tagging. Four were reported
from localities on the east coast of Vancouver Island and these reports are doubtless correct.
One of these tags was recorded from " Namu." The alternative localities are the east coast
of Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Sound, Kwakshua Passage, Deepwater Bay, and Barkley
Sound. Considering the time and place of tagging, the east coast and Deepwater Bay appear
like the reasonable possibilities, but the production records of the plant make all possibilities
appear about equal.
Swanson Channel (4C) : There were four returns from this tagging. Three of them are
recorded, no doubt correctly, from the east coast of Vancouver Island. The fourth return
was made from a Barkley Sound locality, although the plant had processed east coast fish.
It is believed that the tag actually entered the plant with herring caught on the east coast. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 59
Skaat Harbour (4E) : Three recoveries from this tagging were made. All of them are
reported from Queen Charlotte Island localities. These reports are almost certainly correct,
although a wide range of possibilities exists for two of the tags as follows: Prince Rupert
Harbour, Kwakshua Passage, Laredo Inlet, and Deepwater Bay.
Laredo Inlet (4J) : Sixty-two 4J tags were recovered. With one exception, all of these
tags were recorded from Laredo Inlet. There is no doubt whatever but that all of them without exception did so.
One tag was turned in which could not be identified.
Negative evidence from tagging is difficult to interpret and is liable to lead to erroneous
conclusions. It seems worth while, however, to deal briefly with the taggings of the 3
series from which no recoveries were made. These were four in number; 3C, 3D, 3Z, and
3AA. The 3C tagging in Barkley Sound used only ninety-nine tags, so the lack of returns is
not surprising. A similar situation holds for the 3AA tagging in the Gorge at Victoria.
Only 152 fish were tagged and they were in poor condition, so the absence of returns is quite
without significance. Recoveries might, however, be expected from the 3D tagging carried
out late in the fall of 1938 in Trincomali and Stewart Channels. Four hundred and forty-
seven tags were used, of which nineteen were recovered before the close of the season. The
tagging may be compared with the 3B and 3E taggings carried out at Swanson Channel in
the early fall and at the close of the fishing season in 1938 respectively.
Tagging Code.
Tags used.
Recoveries.
1938-39.
1939-40.
3B         ,             	
1,078
447
1,000
88
4
3D           .    	
19                      0
3E-     	
0                        1
While no explanation is offered of the comparative failure of the 3D and 3E taggings to
produce returns in 1939-40, it is believed that the causes are biological rather than technical.
The reason may be related with certain elements of the herring population remaining more or
less distinct and not returning to the fishing-grounds until after the season had closed. The
failure of 3Z tags to produce returns is of interest. This tagging was carried out by Mr.
Royal under favourable circumstances at Holmes Harbour, Puget Sound, using 496 tags.
It would seem that the return of no tags is probably significant, for even the least productive
tagging carried out in the Strait of Georgia (3N) yielded five returns from 1,000 tags.
However, conclusions cannot be made with certainty since differences in tagging technique
may have influenced the results.
In Table IV. the returns have been summarized according to time and place of tagging
and place of recovery. In Table V. the returns from the 1, 2, and 3 series (tags which have
been out for more than six months) are further summarized according to time and place of
tagging and general area of recovery. It should be emphasized here that the results given
in both Tables IV. and V. include some recoveries for which the locality of capture is known
with certainty, and others for which the interpretation of locality of recovery, while reasonably certain, has some doubt attached to it. The authors have interpreted the latter unbiasedly
on the basis of the efficiencies of the magnets and the locality of capture of fish passing
through the plants at and previous to the time of reported recovery of the tag. Reasons for
the various interpretations have been given in some detail in the foregoing detailed account.
In addition, Tables IV. and V. list returns for which it has been impossible to form a definite
opinion as to the origin of the recoveries because of the mixture of fish from several localities
which passed through the plants. K 60
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Table IV.—Summarizing the Supposed Source of Tags from each Tagging producing
Returns during the 1939-UO Season.
(The entries in the table represent the author's interpretation of the data based on the
fish-deliveries to each plant, the plants which failed to make recoveries from certain taggings,
and the behaviour of the plant in returning tags. Entries which are italicized include one or
more returns about which there are no reasonable doubts. Details of the qualifications covering the various interpretations are given in the text.)
Locality of Tagging.
Place of
Capture.
Code.
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Total.
2C
1
2
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1
2
3
1
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3
4
3
23
14
1
1
6
4
4
1,2
3
2
	
1
1
1
1
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5
2
1
2
17
11
7
1
81
1
57
1
2
68
27
62
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25
14
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3
1
1
1
2
1
4
1
2
4
1
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1
8
1
1
1
6
8
1
5
1
1
3
12
8
7
12
7
1
1
1
2J
2K
Esperanza Inlet — —
2
2L
9
2M
Bella Bella	
82
2N
1
20
1
2Q
2
2S
2T
Baynes Sound 	
6
1
3A
4
3B
3E
3F
Swanson Channel—	
Swanson Channel-	
1
1
3G
2
3H
Tuck Inlet	
4
31
20
3J
83
5
3L
3M
Qualicum Beach 	
12
6
3N
5
SO
3P
Pender Harbour..	
28
17
3Q
1
3R
121
3S
3T
Duncan Bay 	
35
14
3U
51
3V
61
3W
35
3X
3
3Y
8
4A
4B
4C
Sooke 	
Swanson Channel	
7
5
4
4E
3
4J
62
1
702 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 61
Table V.—A Summary of the Supposed Source of Tags from Taggings producing
Returns during the 1939-40 Season, according to Major Areas.
(This is a further condensation of part of the information appearing in Table IV.  (1, 2,
and 3 series only) and the same qualifications apply.)
Place of Capture.
i
TS
TS
G
J3
a
Locality of Tagging.
•g*a
o
.m
0
ti
%
Total.
w *
fa
X
m a
C ct
J3
0 g  ti
o o a
^ 1 a
01 H   y
Cfl   ti   QJ
og
Ul  C
1 «
O
CO
Of  tt
a s
3 o
am
■3?
■£ £
0) c
OtJ
SIS
.2°
2;o
o .
CO
o c
S'JS
o   .
45 IT)
C   Qj
Strait of Georgia and Sooke     .
80
1
-
13
94
West Coast of Vancouver Island
2
134
1
29
166
Centra] British Columbia     . _
1
1
271
34
307
Northern British Columbia 	
1
1
42
1
g
53
620
STABILITY OP POPULATIONS AND MOVEMENTS  OP HERRING.
Studies based upon, racial investigations (Tester, 1937) led to the conclusion that free
mixing does not take place between herring occurring on a considerable number of fishing-
grounds in British Columbia. One of the objects of the tagging programme is to test the
validity of that conclusion and to determine the geographical limits within which it is .sustained. If the interpretations of Tables IV. and V. are to be accepted as essentially correct,
tentative information may be acquired on these points.
From Table V. it is clear that the majority of the tags appear to have been recovered
within the general area in which they were inserted. For four major fishing areas—the east
coast of Vancouver Island, including Deepwater Bay; the west coast of Vancouver Island;
the central coast-line; and the northern coast-line—the recovery of " local " tags amounts to
99, 98, 99, and 93 per cent, respectively. This, therefore, supports the conclusions derived
from racial investigations (Tester, 1937; Boughton, 1939) and those derived from previous
tagging-work that the runs to the major areas tend to form distinct units. The small amount
of mixing which appears to have occurred is discussed in the following paragraphs.
A very large majority of the tags inserted at Sooke, on fishing-grounds on the south-east
coast of Vancouver Island, and on spawning-grounds in the Strait of Georgia appear to have
been recovered from fishing-grounds on the east coast and in the Deepwater Bay area just
north of Seymour Narrows. Only one tag is definitely known to have been recovered elsewhere. This (2S, Baynes Sound) was returned with Quatsino Sound fish. There is a possibility (not considered in Tables IV. and V.) that one or more tags also used on east coast
spawning-grounds (3L, Qualicum Beach) were recovered in areas north of Vancouver Island,
but this cannot be verified.
The practically certain recovery of Strait of Georgia and east coast tags from fish caught
in the Deepwater Bay area is a feature of this year's results. This indicates strongly that,
in one year at least, the herring taken in this locality belong to the same population that
supplies the fishery on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island. Herring which spawned on
many grounds on the east coast of Vancouver Island and which occurred during spawning-
time at Pender Harbour and as far south on the west coast of the mainland as Birch Bay,
near Blaine (U.S.A.), contributed to the population. It is interesting to note, however, that
no tags were recovered from those inserted at Holmes Harbour (3Z), which is located at the
north end of Puget Sound.
The recovery of Sooke tags again confirms the movement of fish from the Strait of Juan
de Puca to the southern part of the Strait of Georgia. Whether the northern part of the
population in the Deepwater Bay area arrive by way of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the
Strait of Georgia or whether it came by way of Queen Charlotte Sound remains to be
determined. K 62 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Tags used on the west coast of Vancouver Island appear to have been recovered very
consistently from west coast areas. Three exceptions may be noted. Two tags, inserted at
Toquart Bay (3U) and Kendrick Arm (3W), were recovered with practical certainty from
the east coast of Vancouver Island. One other tag, used at Kendrick Arm (3W), was almost
certainly recovered from the central area.
If the subdivisions of the west coast are considered, there is evidence of a tendency for
tags to be recovered from the areas in which they were used, It would appear that the four
Quatsino tags were returned with Quatsino Sound fish. As already pointed out, considerable
interchange of tagged fish occurred between Kyuquot and Nootka Sounds, but the evidence
appears incontrovertable that the Kyuquot tags were relatively more abundant in Kyuquot
fish and the Nootka tags in Nootka fish. There was some evidence of movement away from
the general area (noted above) and some evidence of limited mixing with Barkley Sound fish
(five 3V and 3W recoveries), but in general the returns were from the Nootka-Kyuquot area.
The tendency for fish tagged in Barkley Sound to return to that area was even more apparent.
Apart from the one recovery from the east coast of Vancouver Island, the only other reliable
record of mixing is one tag (3U) which certainly came from some area north-west of Barkley
Sound, probably Kyuquot Sound.
In contrast to the above is the considerable evidence of movement of fish tagged in the
Clayoquot-Sydney area (3X and 3Y) to other parts of the west coast of Vancouver Island.
A similar wandering was shown last year by the recovery of Calm Creek tags (21) from the
east coast and probably from Barkley Sound. It is interesting to note that in the spring of
both years (1938 and 1939), when the taggings were made, there was but a small run of
spawning fish to the Clayoquot-Sydney area. This fact may be responsible for the large
degree of mixing of the tagged fish with runs to other localities, as there may be a tendency
for very small runs to join other larger runs during the summer feeding period, rather than
to maintain their integrity.
The situation for central British Columbia parallels that on the west coast of Vancouver
Island. The evidence indicates that a great majority but not all of the tags used in this
region were returned from it. One tag put in at Kwakshua Passage (31) is known to have
been recovered from the west coast of Vancouver Island. Another, inserted at Campbell
Island (3R) was most probably recovered from the Queen Charlotte Sound area. Still others,
for which no interpretation is offered, may represent movements from one major area to
another, but in each such case there is also a fair chance that the tag may have been recovered
within the area.
It is interesting to note that there is evidence of some mixing of the runs to Kwakshua
Passage and Laredo Inlet. The exact situation, however, is both complex and somewhat
obscure. There is fairly good evidence that fish tagged while spawning during the spring of
1938 at Bella Bella (2M) contributed to both the Kwakshua Passage and the Laredo Inlet
runs in 1938-39 and again in 1939-40. On the other hand, fish tagged at the close of the
1938-39 fishing season at Laredo Inlet (3J) seem to have been more numerous in the Laredo
Inlet run than in the Kwakshua Passage run during 1939-40, and fish tagged both during
the 1938-39 fishing season at Kwakshua Passage (31) and during the 1939 spawning season
at Campbell Island (3R) appear to have been more numerous in the Kwakshua Passage run
than in the Laredo Inlet run during 1939-40 (Fig. 3). Thus, while mixing seems to have
occurred in both 1938-39 and 1939-40, it seems to have been more limited in the latter season.
Fish which spawned in the Bardswell Group (including Bella Bella and Campbell Island)
appear to have joined both runs in both years, but to have been relatively more numerous at
Kwakshua Passage than at Laredo Inlet in 1939-40.
A considerable number of tags have been recovered from those used in the northern area
of British Columbia. The great majority of these have been returned from fishing-grounds
close to the place of tagging. Of some this is not true. At least one tag inserted at Duncan
Bay (3S) was probably recovered from the Deepwater Bay area of the east coast of Vancouver Island, although it may have originated from any of the major areas except the northern.
Another, inserted at Tuck Inlet (3H), almost certainly came from the central area, and there
is only a slight possibility that it may have come from Prince Rupert Harbour. Still another
tag, inserted at Duncan Bay (3S), definitely came from fish taken on the east coast of the
Queen Charlotte Islands.    The significance of this last return is hard to estimate.    The recovery BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 63
may represent a minor movement such as the other migrations from one major fishing area
to another are believed to be. On the other hand, it must be borne in mind that one tag no
doubt represents many fish and that the plant making the recovery was the least satisfactory
of all from the point of view of the efficiency in recovery.
Of the tags put out around the Queen Charlotte Islands during the fishing season, all
recoveries have almost certainly been made from close to the place of tagging.
INTENSITY OF FISHERY.
Owing to the relatively small numbers of tags used on the fishing-grounds during the
past season, direct calculations of fisheries intensities are not possible. However, some figures
are available which indicate differences in mortality rates in the various major fishing areas.
These are presented below for each major area and show the numbers of tags from each series
which have been returned each year they have been out. The figures presented are the
untreated data. They include recoveries of doubtful origin as well as the few returns from
areas other than the tagging area, and they are open to errors resulting from changes in the
intensity of the fishery and to changes in the efficiency of recovery methods. In connection
with the former, it seems just to say that there have been no changes of significant magnitude. Although quotas have introduced some curtailment, the fishery has taken as much as
possible within limits which have been roughly comparable in the three years under consideration. In regard to the latter, it may be stated that no major changes in tag-recovery efficiencies
have been observed in southern British Columbia. Considerable improvement has been brought
about in plants which operated largely on central British Columbia fish, but these changes
are not sufficient to produce the differences which have been observed between the central
area and southern British Columbia. As the comparisons are between the numbers of returns
of tags which have been out from six months to a year with those which have been out for
eighteen months to two years, differences in the numbers of tags used or the efficiencies of
the various taggings are not possible sources of error.    The data follow.
Locality.
Tagging
Series.
Year of
Insertion
of Tags.
Number of Tags recovered in
1937-38.   I   1938-
1939-40.
East Coast of Vancouver Island .
West Coast of Vancouver Island-
Central British Columbia-
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1936 -37
1937-38
1938-39
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
27
7
45
4
48
0
12
82
0
5
161
82
225
Attention may be called to several features in this tabulation. For both 1 and 2 series
the decline from the first to second year is greater for the west coast than for the east coast.
For both of these areas the decline is greater between the 1938-39 and 1939-40 seasons
(series 2) than between 1937-38 and 1938-39 (series 1). In the central area no decline in
tag returns is indicated—the increase is accounted for by increased efficiency in recovery.
The high return of 3 series tags in 1939-40 in comparison with that of 2 series tags in the
previous year is not to be accounted for by increased numbers of tags used (this is difficult
to show concisely owing to difficulties in assessing the relative returns from fishing-ground
and spawning-ground taggings),but may be a result of improving tagging technique, although
this does not seem probable. These observations are intimately associated with the supply
of fish for the various fishing-grounds. They indicate that mortality (either natural or
fishery, or both) has been higher on the west coast of Vancouver Island than on the east coast
and that mortality on the east coast has been higher than that in the central area during the
short period under consideration. They further indicate that in the two southern major
areas mortality was higher in 1939-40 than in the previous year. It must be stressed, however, that final conclusions in this regard must await the collection of further data. K 64
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
TAGGING TECHNIQUE.
In the report for last year it was mentioned that tests were initiated in the efficiencies
of different methods of inserting the tags in fish. The first year's return for these tags has
now been made and the results are shown in Table VI. The results are not clear cut. In the
case of the taggings carried out by Hart there was a reasonably consistent tendency for
tagging with a knife to be preferable, but the numbers of returns are so small that the
significance of the results is doubtful. In the case of one tagging by Boughton and Quicken-
den there is definite superiority for tagging by gun, but in the others the results are inconclusive or favour knife-tagging. Two of the taggings by Tester show a preference for knife-
tagging, but in the other two no significant differences are indicated.
Table VI.—Comparison between Returns from Fish tagged with a Knife
and with a Tagging-gun.
Tagging
Code.
Taggers.
Knife-tagging.
■
Gun-tagging.
Recoveries
for which
the Tagging
Method is
uncertain.
Total
Tags recovered.
Percentage
Recovery of
Tags used.
Tags
used.
Tags recovered.
Tags
used.
Tags recovered.
Knife,   j   Gun.
3L
Hart 	
500
499
500
500
7
5
2
17
500
498
500
499
5
1
3
11
12
6
5
28
1.4             1.0
3M
Hart 	
1.0            0.2
3N
Hart 	
0.4             0.6
30
Hart	
3.4            2.2
3P
Hart	
498
11
499
6
17
2.2             1.2
3J
Boughton
and Quickenden	
599
39
600
41
3
83
6.5      j      6.8
3Q
Boughton
and Quickenden	
500
1
797
0
1
0.2
0.0
3R
Boughton
and Quickenden	
1.195
35
997
86
121
2.9
8.6
3S
Boughton
and Quickenden	
898
25
899
10
35
2.8
1.1
3T
Boughton
and Quickenden	
399
5
500
9
14
1.2
1.8
3U
Tester .....
797
1.199
1.291
386
27
50
34
697
400
200
296
24
11
1
4
51
61
35
8
3 i
3 4
3V
Tester   	
4 2             2 8
3W
T :<st.er      	
3Y
Tester	
10             13
SUMMARY OF RESULTS.
The results of the tagging and recovery programme for the 1939-40 season confirm the
results of previous work. There is evidence of a definite tendency for herring not to move
from one major fishing area to another. Within the major fishing areas there is a definite
but less well-marked tendency for herring to be found in the same general locality in successive years. A considerable number of exceptions has been found to these general rules.
Considering the numbers of fish which are covered by the generalization most of these exceptions appear to be relatively unimportant. It is at present impossible to assess the significance of the one exceptional recovery of a tag used near Prince Rupert among fish taken off
the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Major fishing areas have been found to differ in the declines in numbers of tags recovered
in successive seasons. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 65
Table VII.—Detailed List of Tags inserted during 1939-40.
Series H.
56401-
63001-
63501-
63801-
64001-
64201-
69001-
70001-
71101-
71301-
72801-
74001-
75201-
75601-
76001-
76401-
77001-
78001-
79001-
79401-
79801-
80001-
80801-
81801-
81901-
82201-
83501-
84101-
84201-
85101-
85801-
86601-
87201-
90001-
90101-
90201-
90301-
90401-
90551-
90801-
91401-
91701-
92701-
93901-
94901-
96001-
97001-
98001-
98701-
-56800
-63500
-63800
-64000
•64200
-64400
-70000
-71000
-71300
-72800
-74000
-75200
-75600
•76000
-76400
•77000
-78000
-79000
■79400
■79800
-79900
-80800
-81800
81900
-82200
-83500
■84100
■84200
■85100
■85800
86600
-87200
-88200
90100
■90200
90300
90400
■90500
90800
91400
91700
92700
93900
■94900
96000
96600
98000
98700
99400
Date released.
Oct. 6,
Oct. 6,
Oct. 8,
Nov. 9,
Feb. 15,
Feb. 17,
Mar. 8,
Feb. 27,
Feb. 27,
Mar. 3,
Mar. 9,
Mar. 13,
Mar. 17,
Mar. 18,
Mar. 17,
Mar. 18,
Mar. 19,
Mar. 21,
Apr. 5,
Mar. 23,
Mar. 24,
Mar. 4,
Mar. 5,
Mar. 18,
Mar. 9,
Mar. 18,
Mar. 20,
Mar. 21,
Mar. 20,
Mar. 21,
Mar. 23,
Apr. 5,
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr. 6,
Mar. 16,
Mar. 17,
Mar. 18,
Mar. 18,
Mar. 19,
Mar. 20,
Mar. 21,
Mar. 24,
Mar. 24,
Mar. 28,
Mar. 29,
1939
1939
1939
1939
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
1940
Tagging
Code.
4A
4A
4B
4C
4D
4E
4H
4F
4F
4G
41
4K
4L
4L
4L
4L
4M
4N
4BB
40
40
4J
4J
4W
4V
4W
4X
4Y
4X
4Y
4Z
4BB
4CC
4DD
4DD
4DD
4DD
4DD
4P
4P
4P
4Q
4R
4S
4T
4U
4U
4AA
4AA
Where released.
Sooke 	
Sooke	
Swanson Channel..
Swanson Channel-
Lagoon Bay	
Skaat Harbour	
Off Lantzville	
Kuleet Bay	
Kuleet Bay	
Ganges Harbour	
Nanoose Bay	
Deep Bay 	
Cutter Creek	
Cutter Creek	
Cutter Creek 	
Cutter Creek	
Shoal Harbour	
Bend Island	
Melanie Cove	
Von Donop Creek..
Von Donop Creek .
Laredo Inlet	
Laredo Inlet	
Campbell Island, near Brown Narrows..
Rivers Inlet Cannery 	
Campbell Island, near Brown Narrows..
Big Bay	
Butler Cove. — —	
Big Bay 	
Butler Cove —
Lake Island	
Melanie Cove..
Cahnish Bay-
Seal Rock	
Seal Rock	
Seal Rock	
Seal Rock	
Seal Rock	
Whitepine Cove...
Whitepine Cove...
Whitepine Cove-
Refuge Cove	
Kendrick Arm	
Queens Cove	
Clanninick Cove-
Winter Harbour-
Winter Harbour..
Toquart Bay..	
Toquart Bay—	
No. of
Tags used.
399
488
298
197
200
200
987
1,000
200
1,499
1,199
1,197
399
400
399
599
1,000
999
400
400
100
800
999
100
300
1,299
600
100
899
700
798
598
997
100
100
100
100
100
250
600
300
1,000
1,199
996
1,100
597
998
700
697
29,697
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The herring-tagging programme has continued to enjoy the support and co-operation of
many firms and individuals engaged in the fishing industry. We are indebted to the Nootka
Packing Co. (1937), Ltd., and Nelson Bros. Fisheries, Limited, which have supplied boats for
tagging operations. Many thanks are due to the companies and to the crews for their willing
assistance—Captains O. Bruno and L. Gunderson, and Messrs. R. Lund, T. England, A. Peterson, and C. Lutenbach. Mr. S. Vollmers, in charge of the " Whiff," gave valuable assistance
and advice. We are grateful to various fishermen who have provided fish for tagging; to
Mr. Horace Goodrich who supplied fish from the traps at Sooke; and to Mr. Loyd Royal, of
the Washington State Fisheries Department, who carried out the tagging in the Hood Canal. K 66 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Acknowledgment is made of the courtesy shown by the Nootka Packing Co. (1937), Ltd.,
and the Banfield Packing Co., Ltd., in accommodating induction detectors in their conveyer
systems. The co-operation of other companies in installing magnets as supplied and of plant
crews and other employees in attending to recoveries is appreciated.
Again our thanks are due for the invaluable help of Dr. R. V. Boughton, Mr. J. L.
McHugh and Mr. L. Quickenden, of the Biological Station staff, who have each on several
occasions borne the responsibility of carrying out essential parts of the programme.
The programme is carried out under the combined auspices of the Fisheries Research
Board of Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department. Acknowledgment is made of the
help afforded by both organizations and of the encouragement and support of the officers
concerned, Dr. W. A. Clemens and Mr. G. J. Alexander.
REFERENCES.
Boughton, R. V.    Herring runs north of Vancouver Island.    Fisheries Research Board of
Canada, Progress Reports Pacific, No. 42, 12-15, 1939.
Hart, J. L.    Tagging British Columbia pilchards  (Sardinops cxrulea  (Girard)) :   Methods
and preliminary results.    Report,  B.C.  Provincial  Fisheries  Department,  1936,  49-54,
1937.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
Methods, apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1936-37.    Report, B.C. Provincial
Fisheries Department, 1936, 55-67, 1937.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1937-38.    Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries
Department, 1937, 64-90, 1938.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1938-39.    Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries
Department, 1938, 51-78, 1939.
Tester, A. L.   Populations of herring (Clupea pallasii) in coastal waters of British Columbia.
Journal, Biological Board of Canada.    Vol. III., No. 2, 108-114, 1937. BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 67
A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA
CLAM INVESTIGATION.
By D. B. Quayle, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
From the earliest times clams have been an important source of food, and more recently
have become a source of income to the Indians on the British Columbia coast. The abundant
supply of this shell-fish has been utilized by others as well and the maintenance of this
industry is thus of some consequence.
Clams have been dug commercially for nearly sixty years with generally satisfactory
returns to the diggers. Recently, however, there have been persistent complaints of depletion
in certain areas. An investigation into the matter was started by the Fisheries Research
Board of Canada, and it is the object of this report to describe briefly the clam industry and
to discuss its present condition and problems.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to the Provincial Fisheries Department for financial
aid to the investigation and to the Dominion Department of Fisheries and all branches of the
industry for excellent co-operation and aid in many ways.
SPECIES OF CLAMS UTILIZED.
British Columbia waters contain numerous species of clams, but only a very small number
of them are used for commercial purposes. These varieties are the razor-clam and a group
known as the " hard-shell " clams. The razor-clam (Siliqua patula Dixon) is found only on
surf beaches of pure sand on the west coast of Vancouver Island and on the north and west
coasts of the Queen Charlotte Islands and presents a separate problem. The " hard-shell "
clams, which are at present being investigated, are distributed over the whole British Columbia coast, wherever beaches of mixed sand and gravel occur. The most important of these is
the butter-clam (Saxidomus giganteus Deshayes) which is the mainstay of the canning
industry, due to its abundance and to its size. Of minor importance, but also used for
canning, especially in the minced form, is the horse-clam (Schizothaerus nuttallii Conrad)
and the cockle (Cardium corbis Martyn). The "little-neck" or "rock" clam (Paphia
staminea Conrad) is used for the fresh market; its small size and keeping qualities make it
ideal for this purpose. A few of the larger specimens of the " little-neck " clam are taken by
the butter-clam diggers, but in the main two separate fisheries exist. In this report attention
will be confined to the butter-clam fishery, although a good deal of the material presented
applies to both fisheries.
DISTRIBUTION.
In general, all species of " hard-shell " clams are found intermingled on most beaches,
although certain characteristic habitats exist, especially in regard to soil types and tidal
levels. As previously mentioned, clams are found over the whole range of the British
Columbia coast-line, wherever enough sand, gravel, and mud have collected together to form
a beach or pocket of soil among the rocks. Consequently the clam-beds vary from a few
square feet to many acres in extent. The individual beds in the area between Comox and
Sidney, on the east coast of Vancouver Island, are generally quite extensive, whereas those in
the Alert Bay region are nearly all quite small in size. From the beginning of the industry
until 1936 practically all " hard-shell " clams for commercial purposes were taken from the
Comox-Sidney area. From 1936 on, the Alert Bay region has been exploited quite intensively.
Except for one or two seasons, the west coast and the whole area above the northern tip of
Vancouver Island has been untouched.
REGULATIONS.
Various regulations are in force governing the digging of butter-clams. There is a closed
season for the months July, August, and September, but from the standpoint of protection
this closure is of doubtful value and, in any case, the fishery only operates from November to
March or April at the latest. During the last two years there has been a minimum size-
limit to 2y2 inches in length for butter-clams. Previous to that time a size-limit of 1% inches
protected both butter-clams and "little-neck" clams.    If this size-limit for butter-clams is K 68 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
strictly observed by the diggers, the danger of depletion to extinction is minimized and it will
doubtless be an important factor in preventing immediate depletion.
EQUIPMENT.
Clam-digging has always played an integral part in the life of the British Columbia coast
Indians and has remained to a large extent in their hands. Some white and some Japanese
diggers are engaged in the occupation. In the case of the Indians, usually the whole family
takes part; the adult members dig while the women and children pick the clams as they are
uncovered and put them into baskets or sacks. Rowboats, canoes, and gas-boats are used to
reach most of the beaches, although in suitable localities automobiles are used. The digging
equipment for butter-clams consists of a potato-fork—or clam " gun " as it is called—a basket,
potato, or grain sack, and a lantern, for, during the butter-clam, season, which occurs during
the winter, most of the low tides occur during the night. As far as can be ascertained, there
has been no noteworthy change in clam-digging equipment since the industry began.
HABITS OF THE CLAMS.
The presence of clams on a beach is evidenced by the columns (streams) of water ejected
into the air by the clams after the beach has been exposed by the falling tide, and by the
small holes left after the protruding siphons or " necks " are withdrawn below the surface
of the beach when the tide has receded. When these signs are absent, as sometimes they are,
the digger usually knows from experience whether any clams exist in a given portion of the
beach, although abundance can only be determined by trial diggings. Unlike the razor-clam
the " hard-shell " clam is a relatively sedentary organism, and once the clam has burrowed to
the desired depth below the surface of the soil there is practically no movement. The butter-
clam is found down to a depth of about 12 inches, the actual depth depending upon the length
to which the clam is able to extend its siphon. Therefore, as a general rule the larger clams
are found at greater depths than the smaller ones.
DIGGING METHODS.
The digger arrives at the chosen beach two or three hours before the time of low water,
and as soon as the clam-bearing portion of the beach is exposed he begins digging and
follows the tide as it recedes, for clams are usually most abundant at the lower tidal levels.
However, he may move horizontally along the beach as well until he strikes a particularly
productive area. As the tide begins to flood he retreats up the beach until he has passed the
clam zone. Very few butter-clams are found above the level of the lowest quarter of most
beaches when exposed to the greatest extent on the lowest tides. This level, of course, varies
from beach to beach, or even on the same beach.
After the night's digging, which lasts from two to five hours, depending on the lowness
of the tide, the clams are sold direct to a cannery, or to a buyer who either visits the beaches
in a certain area by boat or is located at some central point. If the digger must deliver his
catch, it is usually allowed to accumulate for several days in order to reduce the number of
trips to the buyer. Often one individual may deliver for a number of diggers who are
operating in the same neighbourhood.
HISTORY OF THE FISHERY.
The first record of the British Columbia clam-fishery occurs in the Reports of the Departments of Marine and Fisheries for 1882, when fifty cases of clams, valued at $250, were
canned. Due to the lack of a market for the product, the canning was discontinued during
the period from 1884 to about 1900. During that time production for the fresh market is
assumed to have consisted of " little-neck " clams. In 1900 when canning was resumed, 3,500
cases, valued at $13,500, were put up. However, the trend of the fishery may be better shown
by figures for total production, which are graphed for the period 1906 to 1940 in Fig. I. It is
only during this period that the available figures are strictly comparable.
The data, obtained from the Reports of the Departments of Marine and Fisheries and the
Fisheries Statistics of Canada, are for District No. 3, which includes the waters of Vancouver
Island and of the adjacent Mainland, excluding the Fraser River mouth and Howe Sound.
The data for this district are used for the reason that it has been the main source of " hard- BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 69
shell " clams, the other two districts contributing only small amounts at infrequent intervals.
It should be mentioned also that these figures include all " hard-shell " clams, for, because of
the way in which the statistics are published, it is impossible to determine the production by
species. However, the effect of the other species (little-necks, etc.) on the totals is small,
since the quantities of butter-clams are so large in proportion.
As shown in Fig. I., there has been a gradual increase in the production over the period
1906 to 1934. In 1935 and 1936 a very rapid increase occurred, when production was tripled
in two years, and was undoubtedly due to the opening of an export market for raw butter-
clams in the United States. Prior to 1936, nearly all the clams produced in District No. 3
came from the Comox-Sidney area, so that the increase in production to that date was at the
expense of that area. However, in 1936 the Alert Bay area began to produce and after that
time contributed most of the extra production stimulated by the development of the export
market. The west coast of Vancouver Island added a substantial quantity in the peak year
of 1938, when the total production for District No. 3 was 6,435,200 lb. In the following year
production dropped 60 per cent., probably partly due to the increase of the minimum size-
limit from 1% inches in length to 2% inches, as well as to other factors which cannot be
estimated or even determined, because of the lack of adequate catch statistics.
Since 1936 the diggers in the Comox-Sidney area have felt the supply of clams was
becoming seriously reduced, as evidenced by lower individual returns. However, as indicated
above, the increases in total production for the whole district did not cause increases in production in that area large enough to be the sole cause of a rapid decline in abundance. Preliminary investigations, including interviews with diggers and examination of beaches, have
indicated the likelihood of a reduced abundance, though to what extent is not known.
NEED FOR CATCH STATISTICS.
The object of the investigation is the accumulation of sufficient data to permit efficient
regulation of the fishery. Necessary for this is the knowledge of what fishing intensity on
the stocks of clams in the various areas will produce a maximum sustained yield. This
requires information on the size of the stocks, coupled with a thorough understanding of the
biology of the various stocks of clams.
It is known that measures of relative abundance only can be obtained and they are valid
only when compared to like values. Isolated figures of this nature have no meaning. From
the determination of the trend of the fishery in terms of relative abundance, it should be
possible to understand some of the causes of change in production and to adjust the fishery
when the level of maximum sustained yield is known.
Total production figures are of no value in estimating the supply or abundance of clams.
Production may be low because of a reduced digging effort or because of a low level of abundance. Production may be high because of a high digging effort or because of a high level
of abundance.
As a measure of relative abundance the catch per unit of gear or of effort has been used
in the study of a number of fisheries and it is considered that the method may be used
successfully in the study of the British Columbia " hard-shell " clam fishery. The catch per
unit of effort assumes that the fraction of the total population of clams taken by the fishery
is proportional to the effort expended by the diggers. Thus in any one year the average catch
per unit of effort is a constant fraction of the population of clams existing on the beaches in
that year, and as such it may be used as a measure of the abundance of clams in that year.
The logical unit of effort in the case of the British Columbia clam-fishery is the catch per
man-tide; that is, the quantity of clams dug by one man during the low tide of one day. A
number of criticisms may be made on this choice of unit. The diggers vary in their ability,
experience, and industry. Some diggers receive aid, as in the case of most Indians, where the
whole family takes part, whereas other diggers have no such aid. Since there are more clams
at lower tidal levels, the height of the tide will affect the availability of clams, as does the
weather, which affects the ease and speed of digging as well as the level of the tide. However, most of these factors are constant from year to year, or if the sample is large enough
their effect may be small.
Unfortunately, due to the fact that the only statistics available are those for total production, the catch per man-tide cannot be calculated from the past records. K 70
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
However, a system of catch statistics that would provide the necessary information for
the future has been instituted with the co-operation of the Dominion Fisheries Department.
The substance of the method is that, with each delivery of clams, the number of diggers
(forks), the number of tides, and the beach on which the clams were dug is reported to the
clam-buyer, who records this information, along with the quantity of clams, first on the weight
slip and later, at his leisure, on forms provided for the purpose. Possibilities of error exist
in this data due to inaccurate reporting both on the part of the buyer and the digger, but it is
believed that, in the main, the results are fairly reliable.
YEAR  1906
-10
Fig. I. Production of " hard-shell " clams in District No. 3, British Columbia,    Data from reports of
the Departments of Marine and Fisheries and the Fisheries Statistics of Canada.
So far this information on catch per man-tide has been only obtained for the 1939-40
season, and only for some areas. These results, which include approximately 60 per cent, of
the total catch, are presented in Table I. The areas in the table are designated by the name
of the place where the buyer was located. Old Village, Alert Bay, and Chatham Channel are
three sections of the Alert Bay area. Chemainus and Sidney are in the Nanaimo-Sidney area.
The total catch is arrived at by summing all the deliveries from all the beaches in each
locality. The total man-tides are calculated by multiplying the number of diggers by the
number of tides and summing all of these for all of the beaches in each locality. The data
show in average catch a difference of 67.3 lb. between the Alert Bay and Comox-Sidney areas.
The analysis of the cause of this difference must await the accumulation of more data, both
statistical and biological.
Table I.—Catch per Man-tide from certain Areas in District No. 3, British Columbia.
Area.
Total Catch.
Total Number
of Man-tides.
Average Catch
per Man-tide.
Old Village    ...	
Lb.
584,000
246,270
556,260
202,050
181,080
2,780
1,426
2,704
1,684
1,312
Lb.
206 2
Chemainus. — —	
120.0
138 0 BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 71
As a supplementary measure to the catch per man-tide in indicating a change in relative
abundance, the size and age composition of the commercial catch is considered useful.
Samples of the commercial catch of the 1939-40 season have been collected at various buying
points. These have been worked up but, like the catch per unit of effort, the results of a
single year's sampling have little or no meaning and, consequently, they will not be reported
at this time.
After considering carefully both the biological and statistical results that have been
obtained to date, and with full realization of their significance, it is believed that the British
Columbia " hard-shell" clams are in no immediate danger of becoming extinct, or even
depleted to a point beyond which recovery may not be made within a reasonable length of
time. It is also felt that, though some depletion may have occurred in certain areas, the data
at hand at the present time are insufficient to warrant making suggestions for possible alleviation of the situation. K 72 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH BOARD,
1939-40 SEASON.
We have the honour to submit herewith a report in respect to the marketing conditions
obtaining for dry-salt salmon and dry-salt herring during the 1939-40 season; these products
being controlled for marketing purposes by a scheme under the " Natural Products Marketing
(British Columbia) Act," and administered by this Board.
ORGANIZATION.
The following appointments to the Board were recorded at a meeting held on September
7th, 1939:—
Appointed to represent the Meal, Oil, and Salt-fish Section of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association (British Columbia Division) :—
Mr. R. Nelson, 325 Howe Street, Vancouver, B.C., and Mr. G. R. Clark, foot of Gore
Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Alternates:   Mr. S. M. Rosenberg, 525  Seymour Street, Vancouver, B.C., and Mr.
A. J. McCallum, Pier 12, Seattle, Wash.
Appointed to represent the Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited:—
Mr. K. Kimura, 217 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C., and Mr. R. Suzumoto, 193
Hastings Street East, Vancouver, B.C.
Alternates:   Mr. T. Matsuyama, 467 Powell Street, Vancouver, B.C.;   Mr. I. Sigi-
yama, foot of Campbell Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.;   and Mr. S. Kajiki, 219 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Mr. Hugh Dalton, of Vancouver, B.C., was reappointed by the Commissioner of Fisheries
as Chairman of the Marketing Board and Mr. L. Richmond continued as Acting-Secretary.
During the period under review, a total of eleven meetings were held. Messrs. Nelson,
Clark, and Kimura attended all meetings. The Chairman was present at seven, and Mr. T.
Matsuyama and Mr. R. Suzumoto attended four and two meetings respectively; and Mr. S.
Kajiki attended one meeting.
GENERAL MARKET SITUATION.
At the commencement of the 1939-40 season, the market outlook was not encouraging.
The Marketing Board immediately set to the task of ascertaining the sales possibilities of the
regulated products in the Orient—namely, Japan, China, North China, and Manchukuo—
where in recent years practically all of the pack has been sold; all salt salmon being marketed
in Japan, while salt herring is shipped to all points mentioned. These territories again
appeared to be the only markets for the disposal of British Columbia salt fish, and, in view
of the continued unsettled conditions in the Orient, the disposal of the product presented some
difficulties.
With particular reference to the Japanese market, it will be remembered that for three
years Japan has maintained strict control of her foreign exchange under an import licensing
system, and for the season under review the same difficulties in obtaining the necessary exchange to cover letters of credit as were experienced last season again arose.
Unfortunately, due to the existing conditions in China proper, no dry-salt herring was
sold to points such as Shanghai and Hong Kong, which in previous years were our largest
consumers of this commodity.
Obviously, the whole matter of the quantity of salt fish to be disposed of in the Oriental
market devolved upon the ability of the buyers to obtain import licences and establish the
necessary credits to cover purchases. The matter of supervising credit arrangements was
one of the Marketing Board's major duties, and credits were established only after extended
negotiations with the buyers in the Orient.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
At their meeting on September 7th, 1939, the Board reviewed the whole marketing
problem. Up to that time, no indication had been received from Japan regarding the amount
of exchange available for the purchase of salt fish, this information naturally having a direct
bearing on the quantity which might be sold and, as the packing season was about to com- BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 73
mence, the Provincial Department of Fisheries was advised of the position and concurred in
delaying the issuance of salmon dry-saltery licences, so as to prevent fish being packed before
letters of credit were established, and to avoid the danger of the Board being placed in the
position of having to authorize consignment shipments.
However, in view of the decision of the Government not to issue salmon dry-saltery
licences for the current season, no further action on the part of the Board in this connection
was necessary, inasmuch as the duties of the Marketing Board commence only after the Provincial Government have issued plant licences for the production of the regulated products.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
During the negotiations with buyers early in September in regard to providing funds for
the purchase of salt salmon, information was received (on September 16th) that the Japanese
Government were willing to release 1,000,000 yen on the same terms and conditions as last
year, which would represent 600,000 yen for salt salmon and 400,000 yen for salt herring, or
approximately $156,000 and $104,000 respectively, for the current season. It was not until
October 19th that the amount of 400,000 yen for purchases of salt herring was finally confirmed and letters of credit established on the basis of 300,000 yen for October-November-
December shipments and the balance of 100,000 yen during January-February, 1940.
These funds were utilized to cover a block sale of 3,687 tons to one buyer in Tokio, at an
average price for the season of $25.50 per ton, U.S. funds, f.o.b. Vancouver, which price
included 25 per cent, of the ocean freight prepaid (marine and war risk insurance for the
buyer's account), any increase in freight over $10 per ton to be for the account of the buyer.
As the average price for the 1938-39 season on the same terms was $22.89 per ton, U.S. funds,
this represented a substantial increase for the producers.
Buyers subsequently came into the market for additional quantities, and eventually a
total of 38,507 boxes or 7,701% tons was shipped to Japanese buyers during the season under
review, at an average price of $25.50 per ton, U.S. funds, f.o.b. Vancouver. Of this quantity,
approximately 620 tons was for transhipment to Tsingtao, North China, and 600 tons for
transhipment to Dairen, Manchukuo.
No direct shipments of dry-salt herring were made to Shanghai or Hong Kong during the
past season. The Shanghai buyers displayed interest in the business too late in the season
to obtain supplies; while Hong Kong buyers were not interested, due to existing conditions
in that market.
The production and marketing of the total quantity mentioned was carried out under a
complete pooling arrangement among the plants.
The marketing of all dry-salt herring was again handled by the agents appointed by the
Board for the season, namely:—
The Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited, 217 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Producers' Salt Fish Sales, Limited, 608 Marine Building, Vancouver, B.C.
The Marketing Board's charge of 15 cents per box was collected by those agents at the
time of shipment, when a Marketing Permit is issued by the Board to cover all exports.
NEW AND PROSPECTIVE MARKETS—DRY-SALT HERRING AND SALMON.
The Board has continued its efforts to develop markets for salt fish other than those
presently or formerly existing in China and Japan.
A particular effort was made to introduce salt herring into the Straits Settlements and
Federated Malay States, served through Singapore, with a view to securing a portion of the
very large trade in salt fish carried on in that area. The statement appended hereto showing
the imports of dried and salted fish imported into Malaya during the years 1936, 1937, and
1938, and the first eleven months of 1939 indicates the size of this market, and in the opinion
of the Board justifies special efforts to secure at least part of this business. Although
samples dispatched were favourably received and a special type of container was developed
to meet the wishes of the prospective buyers, the latter did not find themselves, during the
past season, in a position to pay a price for the product which would have represented an
adequate return to producers. As a consequence, no business developed. The area in question appears to offer the best prospective outlet for a substantially increased export and
efforts to develop that market will be continued. K 74
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
South American countries, particularly on the East Coast, are also substantial importers
of salt fish in various forms, and with a view to exploring possibilities for the British Columbia product in those countries the Board in May last retained the services of Mr. J. H. Budd,
a gentleman of many years' experience in business in different South American countries.
Mr. Budd visited Panama, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. Mr. Budd's contacts
indicate the possibility of substantial business in Argentina if exchange difficulties can be
overcome, and in Brazil if it is found possible at this end to produce a pack which will better
withstand lengthy transit through the tropics. The latter applies also to a lesser extent to
Peru. War conditions, and the shutting-off of normal sources of supply of salt fish to East
Coast South American countries, should enhance prospects for export of our product to those
countries. The development of this business will continue to have the close attention of the
Board.
In conclusion, it is the desire of the Marketing Board to take this opportunity of thanking
the Canadian Government Trade Commissioners at the various outposts of trade for their
continued assistance during the past season, both in respect to current transactions and the
development of new markets. We would also like to express our appreciation at this time for
the co-operation received from the Provincial Department of Fisheries, which has greatly
assisted the Board in discharging its duties.
Respectfully submitted.
BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH BOARD.
Hugh Dalton, Chairman.
R. Nelson, Member.
G. R. Clark, Member.
K. Kimura, Member.
R. Suzumoto, Member.
L. Richmond,
Acting-Secretary.
Vancouver, B.C., April 2nd, 194.0.
Imports into Malaya—Fish, Dried and Salted.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939 (1st 11
Months).
Quantity.
Value.
Quantity.
Value.
Quantity.
Value.
Quantity.
Value.
22,309*
19,344*
7,311*
S. $
2,032,476
2,745,201
2,386,373
21,390*
18,016*
7,458*
S. $
2,038,250
2,802,949
2,598,789
22,585*
22,849*
5,374*
S. $
2,078,668
3,529,049
1,546,696
17,963*
24,085*
5,168*
S. $
1,607,355
3,374,870
1,411,952
Total (in tons of
2,240 lb.)    	
48,964
54,840
274,198
7,164,050
46,864
52,488
262,438
7,439,988
50,808
56,905
284,525
7,154,413
47,216
52,882
264,410
6,394,177
Total (in tons of
2,000 1b.)       	
Total (in boxes of
400 1b.)	
* Tons of 2,240 lb. BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 75
REPORT ON INSPECTION OF SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS,  1939.
By J. A. Motherwell.
GENERAL.
Due to the unusually keen demand for salmon, as the result of war conditions, particular
attention was required during this season to see that proper escapements of the several
varieties of salmon were permitted. The situation, however, was considerably assisted by the
unusually heavy fall rains over most of the British Columbia coast. This resulted in larger
percentages of the runs passing to the spawning-grounds, as, owing to the streams being full
of water, the salmon were not obliged to wait near the mouths for better conditions. This
situation applies particularly to the chums.
The heavy rains resulted in the scouring of spawning-beds in some areas and it is quite
probable that considerable damage has been done in some streams which will require attention
in the next cycle-years.
The unusually wet weather brings further problems in the way of obstructions in streams.
The higher the water the greater the quantity of logs and other debris passing down-stream,
with the danger of forming impassable obstructions to the ascent of salmon. However, with
the present system of annual inspection of all salmon-streams by the local officers, with a view
to obtaining information as to the adequacy of the spawning and the presence of obstructions
in the streams, and with the facilities for the removal of any obstructions found, it is expected
that all situations of this nature will be adequately dealt with at the proper time.
A detailed report covering the several areas follows:—
QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.
The very small run of sockeye to this area again made its appearance. It is not of
commercial value, however.
The pink-supply on the spawning-grounds was found to be light compared with previous
years. This was an " off " season for pinks in the Queen Charlottes and the escapement was
expected to be small.
The supply of chums generally was found to be disappointing, although the run to
Masset Inlet was unexpectedly heavy.
NASS AREA.
The early seeding of sockeye is reported as heavy in the Meziadin Lake area, the main
spawning-ground, all shores of the lake being well covered with spawning fish and numbers
showing in the lake. The supply of the late run was also good. The total sockeye spawning
was very satisfactory.
The early run consists of fish observed on and in the vicinity of the spawning-grounds
in the lake, whilst the late run is that observed still proceeding up Meziadin River at the time
of the inspection.
There was a light supply of spring salmon found and the cohoe were only commencing
to arrive at the time of the inspection.
The fishway was found to be in good condition, although the cribbing showed some signs
of decay.
The officer who inspected the lower reaches of the river system states that the escapement of sockeye was heavier than in either 1934 or 1935, when the runs were large. The pink
spawning was good for an " off " year. The supply of cohoes and chums was found to be
small and the springs fair.
The runs to the Nass River watershed of the several varieties, particularly the sockeye,
have shown an improvement in recent years and the watershed is in splendid condition.
SKEENA AREA.
The local Inspector states that there is no question but that there has been one of the
greatest escapements of sockeye in the Babine Lake and River sections of the spawning-
grounds this year as has been experienced for nearly a decade.   This also applies to the escape- K 76 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
ment of pinks on the Babine River. The springs have also been very satisfactory, but the
supply of cohoes was found to be light. The Inspector calls attention to the predominance of
female sockeye and also to the fact that until the arrival of the later runs the fish were
individually large.    Speaking generally, the area has received a heavy seeding of sockeye.
Upper and Lower Babine River obtained a very heavy run of pinks and compares favourably with other heavy runs in the experience of the inspecting officer.
Lakelse Lake system is well supplied with sockeye, the quantity observed being greater
than in the cycle-year of 1935.    The pink seeding is also reported as good.
In the Ecstall River system there was a medium run of sockeye, a heavy run of pinks, a
medium run of chums, and a light supply of cohoes. The spring-salmon spawning in Johnson
Creek was very good.
There is no doubt but that the lowering of the fishing boundary on the Skeena River
some 7 miles, four years ago, is obtaining the results desired in the way of increased escapement.
LOWE INLET AREA.
A fairly heavy seeding of sockeye was obtained in most of the streams in this sub-district,
comparing favourably with that of the cycle-year. Wet weather conditions permitted a good
escapement.
The cohoe seeding was not satisfactory and this condition exists also in the case of chums,
although to a greater degree.
Although an " off " year for pinks, the seeding of this variety was larger than expected
and better than that of the brood-year of 1937.
BUTEDALE AREA.
Not an important sockeye area, but the escapement was satisfactory. Good quantities of
cohoe were observed and a fairly heavy escapement of pinks, notwithstanding that this was
the light cycle.    The chum-supply was unsatisfactory.
BELLA BELLA AREA.
In the case of sockeye the conditions were similar to those obtaining in the brood-year of
1935, when the supply found was quite light, apart from the east and west Tuno Rivers, which
received heavy seedings.
The escapement of cohoes, generally speaking, is reported as being light, although good
catches were made offshore. In the Kildidt Sound and Gull Chuck Inlet areas the supply on
the spawning-grounds was good.
In the case of pinks the escapement is considered satisfactory, as the result of special
curtailment of fishing for the purpose of building up this cycle.
The chum escapement is reported as being only of medium intensity, apart from the
Gull Chuck River, where there was a heavy late seeding.
Spring salmon and steelhead trout do not spawn in the Bella Bella area in commercial
quantities.
BELLA COOLA AREA.
Due to fewer fishermen operating at the first of the season, the percentage of escapement
of sockeye was greater than usual and, although the run generally was not heavy, yet the
spawning-grounds were adequately seeded. The supply of springs is reported by the
inspecting officer as the heaviest in his experience, which covers the past nineteen years. The
escapement of cohoes was good and equal to expectations. A very heavy run of pinks was
found, fully equal to the splendid run of 1937.    The chum escapement was below average.
RIVERS INLET AREA.
The inspecting officer reports that the sockeye escapement in this area was at least an
ayerage one and practically on a par with the cycle-year of 1934, but not as great as the
good year of 1935.
The Quap, Genesi, Whonnock, and Waukwash Rivers are reported as being exceptionally
well seeded, bearing in mind the small commercial catch. Conditions observed in the other
streams were not nearly so satisfactory, however, although due to high-water conditions there BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 77
was great difficulty in seeing the salmon. The inspecting officer observes that from Quap
River to the old hatchery, a distance of 6 miles, on October 26th sockeye which had not yet
passed to the spawning-streams were observed in considerable quantities, which leads him to
believe that some of the fish at least were later than usual in ascending to the spawning areas.
The fish were unusually small in size and, no doubt, a considerable portion of the run passed
through the nets. The unusually unfavourable fishing weather during the early weeks of
fishing assisted the escapement also.
This is not a large pink area, but the supply found was better than usual. The cohoe
and chum seeding, however, was disappointing.
SMITH INLET AREA.
High water in this area also interfered with observations of salmon and the number
observed on the spawning-grounds was considerably less than the average. The inspecting
officer, however, feels that the number of sockeye was larger than could be seen under the
difficult conditions of high water.
In view of the escapement during recent years and the protective measures taken, there
appears to be no reason why there should be any failure in this area.
The escapement of spring salmon was normal, the pink-supply heavy, but the supply of
cohoes and chums light.
FRASER RIVER WATERSHED.
Conditions in recent previous cycle-years did not justify expectations of any material
quantity of sockeye, particularly in the upper reaches of the Fraser River system.
Prince George Area.—Compared with recent years Kynoch Creek sockeye-supply showed
considerable improvement. This also applies to the Stellaco River. Other streams showed
very few sockeye. Spawning of springs in the Stuart River system was satisfactory and has
shown continued improvement in recent years.
Quesnel Area.—Approximately 2,500 sockeye were found on the Bowron River beds,
which compares favourably with recent seasons. There was a small increase in the number
of sockeye spawning in the Chilko Lake system, although this was an " off" year. The
increase, no doubt, is largely due to the arrangements this year whereby the Indians took no
sockeye salmon from the Chilko River on their way to the spawning-grounds of this system.
The supply of springs was lighter than usual.
Kamloops Area.—At Raft River, tributary to the North Thompson, sockeye were found
in larger quantities than in the brood-year. At Little River conditions were found comparable with those of the brood-year of 1935, and are satisfactory. In Adams River, however,
the spawning was considerably lighter than that of the brood-year. The spring-salmon seeding was favourable in the North and South Thompson Rivers system. Cohoes were found in
satisfactory quantities in the Adams Lake area. No salmon of any variety were found in
Scotch Creek.
Pemberton Area.—The sockeye spawning was disappointing, the quantity of fish of this
variety found being approximately 50 per cent, of that of the brood-year. The seeding of
springs was light but the cohoe run was reasonably satisfactory.
Hope Area.—The streams in this area obtained an average supply of the several varieties
of salmon usually found. Conditions at Hell's Gate were satisfactory, with the result that
salmon were not unduly delayed in their passage at this very difficult point.
Chilliwack Area.—The usual small run of sockeye appeared in Chilliwack Lake, but the
return to Cultus Lake totalled approximately 72,000 fish, compared with 15,000 in the brood-
year of 1935. The supply of springs was found to be light, but there was a satisfactory
quantity of pinks, with a particularly heavy seeding in Sweltzer Creek and other near-by
tributaries. The cohoe-supply was not better than average. The chum run to Sweltzer
Creek is reported as heavy, but light in other portions of the district.
Harrison Lake Area.—Morris Creek seeding of sockeye was reasonably satisfactory.
Small quantities only, however, were found in other portions of the area. The supply of
springs was light, but the largest supply of pinks observed in years was found. The chum-
supply is reported as being unusually light, except in Squak Creek, where a heavy seeding
occurred. K 78 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
Pitt River Area.—The sockeye spawning was found to be only fairly satisfactory. This
also applies to the springs and chums. The pink run, however, was found to be one of the
heaviest in the last ten years. The cohoe seeding was only reasonably satisfactory, but these
continue to enter the streams for several months following inspection.
Lower Fraser Area.—The Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers, which are primarily cohoe-
streams, were satisfactorily seeded with this variety.
North Vancouver Area.—A heavy run of cohoes spawned in Indian and Capilano Rivers
and Seymour Creek. The supply in Lynn, Mission, and McKay Creeks, which are considerably smaller streams, was light. The pink-supply in Indian and Capilano Rivers and Seymour
Creek was very satisfactory. Chum salmon appeared in the streams in this area in considerably reduced numbers compared with recent years, apart from Indian River, where the
seeding was satisfactory.
Squamish Area.—The cohoe run well into February, but indications would seem to show
an average supply. The chums, however, were found to be less numerous than for a number
of years and the seeding cannot be considered even reasonably satisfactory. A substantial
run of spring salmon spawned in this area.
ALERT BAY AREA.
The Nimpkish area, the principal sockeye-spawning district, was well seeded, notwithstanding the comparatively light catch commercially. Fair supplies were found in the streams
draining into McKenzie Sound, at Shushartie and Nahwitti Rivers. Keough River beds were
only lightly seeded, however. This also applies to the Port Neville and Thompson Sound
portions of the district.
Nearly all streams were well supplied with spring salmon. Whilst the supply of cohoes
was not as great as that of the unusually large preceding year, the seeding, generally speaking, was satisfactory. The pink-supply showed an increase over the brood-year of 1937,
heavy runs appearing at Wakeman River, Adams River, Glendale Cove, Kwatsie and Klucksivi
Rivers. Large supplies of chums were observed in Wakeman Sound, Knight Inlet, Adams
River, and the Salmon Arm portion of Seymour Inlet, as well as Viner Sound.
QUATHIASKI AREA.
There was the largest escapement of sockeye at Phillips Arm River than ever before
seen by the local Inspector at this point. The Hayden Bay escapement was only fair. The
spring-supply was better than that of the previous year when a good escapement was
observed. This also applies to the cohoe variety. For an " off " year for the pink species
the seeding was found to be quite satisfactory. The chum-supply cannot be considered as up
to expectations.
COMOX AREA.
A satisfactory supply of springs was found on the spawning-grounds, particularly in
the Puntledge River. Good supplies of cohoe were also found throughout the Comox district
generally, apart from Puntledge River. The pink return was considered satisfactory, in
view of this being an " off " year. There was a particularly heavy run to Tsolum River,
which showed a heavy increase over the seasons of 1937 and 1938. An adequate supply of
chums was observed in all the main spawning-streams, particularly the Qualicum Rivers.
PENDER HARBOUR AREA.
The only sockeye-stream of any importance is Saginaw Creek, but the spawning was not
up to expectations. An average spawning of springs was observed and an adequate supply
of cohoes. Pinks were abundant in the larger streams, although some of the smaller ones
were poorly seeded. The chum-supply was disappointing, although the percentage of the
runs escaping to the spawning-grounds was high, due to high-water conditions.
NANAIMO AREA.
A good average seeding of springs was found. A good supply of cohoes was also found
on the spawning-grounds, although not equal to last year's abnormally large seeding. The
usual light run of pinks again occurred. The chum seeding was not as good as might be
desired. BRITISH COLUMBIA. K 79
LADYSMITH AREA.
The usual light seeding of springs and quite a satisfactory supply of cohoe was found on
the spawning-grounds.    The usual few pinks also arrived but the chums were disappointing.
COWICHAN AREA.
A good average supply of springs, a satisfactory quantity of cohoes, and an adequate
supply of chums occurred, although the quantity of the latter was not as large as expected.
A better supply of steelhead trout was observed on the spawning-beds.
VICTORIA AREA.
A good supply of cohoes was observed, although the chum seeding, whilst being adequate,
was not as great as expected.
ALBERNI AREA.
The systems frequented by the sockeye are the Somass River, Stamp River, Anderson
Lake in Barkley Sound, and Hobarton Lake in Nitinat Arm. Spawning conditions in the
area under review were found to be very satisfactory and the escapement was good. The
fish-ladder at Stamp Falls operated successfully, although, due to high water, many of the
salmon passed safely over the main falls.
Generally speaking, the supplies of spring salmon were satisfactory, with the seeding in
the Somass and Nahmint Rivers being heavy. The Nitinat supply was disappointing. The
cohoe spawning was excellent, although not quite as good as the unusually satisfactory year
of 1938. The only pink-stream of any particular value is the San Juan River, where a normal
seeding occurred. A satisfactory quantity of chums was observed on the spawning-grounds,
although smaller than in some of the recent years.
CLAYOQUOT AREA.
An adequate seeding of sockeye occurred in the Kennedy Lake system, which is the principal spawning area of this species. A normal escapement was also observed in Medgin
River. The supply of springs found this year and in recent seasons on the spawning-grounds
leads the local Inspector to observe that the number of this variety has increased in recent
seasons. The cohoe-supply was found to be excellent. There is no run of pink salmon, of
any value, to the Clayoquot area. The chum seeding may be considered as satisfactory, as,
due to high-water conditions, a larger proportion of the runs passed to the spawning-grounds.
NOOTKA AREA.
The usual light run of sockeye was found at Gold River and several other small streams.
A normal escapement of springs and an average supply of cohoe was found. The chum seeding is considered adequate.
KYUQUOT AREA.
The usual small supply of creek sockeye was found on the spawning-grounds, although
this run is not of particular value. The escapement of springs was satisfactory and that of
cohoes fair. The pinks do not run in commercial quantities in this district. The chum-
supply was fair.
QUATSINO AREA.
A good average run to Mahatta River occurred, which is the only sockeye-stream carrying a run of commercial value. The spring seeding was above the average and the cohoes
well up to average. The pink-supply compares favourably with recent seasons. The chum
seeding was found to be only fair. K 80
REPORT OP PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1939.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoes.
Pinks.
Chums.
Grand Total
(Cases).
54,296
1
24,357
68,485
54,143
17,833
26,158
16,259
8,355
5,993
36
708
4,857
745
215
655
2,889
69
15
55
83
50
392
132
13,557
3,020
1,996
29,198
10,974
3,880
44,426
123,388
14,658
95,176
2,123
26,370
95,236
12,095
3,978
150,498
235,119
30,150
45,519
2,500
7,773
5,462
2,771
79,384
212,949
82
199,241
50,699
55,946
205,604
83,502
28,727
301,513
590,736
23,095
Smith Inlet
Vancouver Island—..	
Totals             	
269,887
16,098
796
245,097
620,595
386,590
1,539,063
48,209 cases of bluebacks figured in Vancouver Island cohoe.
Vancouver Island tuna-pack, 721 cases.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1924 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
Sockeyes -	
Springs, Red 	
54,296
4,426
1,567
30,150
95,176
13,557
69
186,794
3,754
654
58,778
63
27,127
14
100,272
3,706
1,738
20,878
94,010
11,244
184,854
6,675
8,451
31,565
62,822
4,205
5,196
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
6,150
11,068
104,092
2,199
11,392
52,465
5,579
65,769
18,298
10,403
Chums	
34,391
92,746
13,901
14,948
385
Cohoes	
28,716
16,815
23
Totals.... 	
199,241
277,084
231,848
260,261
216,728
273,139
199,082
126,641
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
Sockeyes 	
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
40,947
9,740
103,692
11,366
9,761
68,946
30,754
25,585
27,879
61,569
3,305
6,699
144,159
158,208
40,520
12,013
29,299
1.173
3,909
193,106
2.881
27,061
795
61,393
7,925
10,528
67,259
102,536
24,079
10,658
85,689
12,783
20,169
88,495
32,256
21,783
13,776
35,385
7,989
25,701
66,111
99,800
36,717
6,152
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
251
13,307
8,165
657
Pinks                             	
31,968
21,401
1,822
Cohoes   	
Steelheads  	
Totals.  	
73,067
277,983
426,473
258,224
284,378
274,951
276,855
212,069 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 81
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1924 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Skeena River.
1939.
1933.
1932.
Sockeyes	
Springs. 	
Chums 	
Pinks 	
Cohoes	
Steelheads	
Totals
68,485
4,857
7,773
95,236
29,198
55
47,257
4,318
16,758
69,610
52,821
42
42,491
4,401
10,811
59,400
15,514
21
81,973
4.551J
15.297J
91,389
25,390
52,879
4,039
8,122
81.868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
126,163
64,456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
205,604
190,806
132,638
218,634       170,420
284,096
185,463
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
233,711
1931.
1929.
1927.
1925.
1924.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums — 	
Pinks 	
Cohoes -
Steelheads	
Totals.
93,023
9,867
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
58
78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
13
34,559
6.420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
19,038
19,006
38,768
26,326
582
82,360
30,594
63,527
210,081
30,208
754
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
39,168
713
162,986
450,377
220,245
298,709
187,716
407,524
348,859
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
390,858
Rivers Inlet.
,
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
54,143
745
5,462
12,095
10,974
83
87,942
1,209
7,759
9,063
16,285
105
84,832
917
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
46,351
581J
11,505
6,4321
7.122J
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
Chums  —	
944
3,483
7,062
Steelheads  	
29
Totals             	
83,502
122,363
108,782
"2,011J
155,571
86,000
93,220
81,709
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
76,428
325
429
5,089
6,571
32
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
342
989
2,386
1,120
29
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
868
7
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
65,581
685
11,727
12,815
7,286
11
192,323*
496
11,510
8,625
4,946
94,891
Springs 	
Chums  -	
Pinks  -	
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
Totals	
88,874
138,980
75,126
81,527
69,773
98,105
217,900
117,445
* Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu. K 82
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1924 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Smith Inlet, 1926-39.*
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
17,833
44
171
3,880
3,978
2,771
50
33,894
68
25,258
21
12,788
2
28
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
214
2
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
37,369
364
Cohoes .— - .-	
1,058
1,761
8,076
64
241
483
9,494
5
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
5,068
19,995
8,841
Steelheads — 	
87
28,727
44,921
35,502
14,888
49,928
41,256
71,714
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
25,488
46
2
273
1,148
165
20
12,867
122
32,057
268
22
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
9,683
18
60
275
853
113
12
33,442
108
178
230
167 .
19
6
22,682
270
79
2,990
732
2,605
8
17,921
73
39
112
824
133
36
164
689
31
27,142
14,094
52,185
1
11,014
34,150
29,366
18,917
* Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other Districts.
Nass River.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
Sockeyes  — - -
Springs.. -	
24,357
708
2,500
26,370
1,996
15
21,462
773
15,911
61,477
14,159
188
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
28,5621
2,167
20,6201
75,8871
11,842
496
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
9,757
1,296
1.775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14.515
44,629
7,955
10
Totals.  - 	
55,946
113,970
49,042
139,5751
78,214
75,213
60,434
85,671
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
Sockeyes    	
16,929
1,439
392
5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,126
84
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
5,540
1,846
3,538
83,183
10,734
36
12,026
3,824
3,307
16,609
3,966
96
15,929
5,964
15,392
50,815
4,274
375
18,945
3,757
22,504
35,530
8,027
245
33,590
2,725
26,612
Pinks	
72,496
6,481
1,035
Totals .-.-.	
32,881
113,460
29,185
104,877
39,828
92,749
89,008
142,939 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 83
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BJ
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1924 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE—Conid.
Vancouver Island District, 1927-39.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
Sockeyes 	
16,259
2,889
212,949
235,119
123,388
132
27,965
4,254
266,566
70,108
62,054
27,607
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
32,6961
6,340
347,951
82,0281
90,625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
18,397
4,875
96,642
Pinks                       	
172,945
60,019
147
Totals
590,736
458,554
608,798
559,746
469,427
372,347
353,025
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
27,611
10,559
70,629
33,403
35,132
28,596
22,199
4,055
16,329
81,965
26,310
24,638
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1,645
162,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
14,248
2,269
303,474
41,885
23,345
5,249
24,835
6,769
220,270
Pinks        .           	
62,561
58,834
10,194
Totals                  	
205,930
175,541
340,395
294,854
390,470
373,463
Queen Charlotte Islands.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1
36
45,519
2,123
3,020
179
66
40,882
57,952
16,616
2
140
72,689
13
4,631
85
227
69,304
89,355
19,920
Springs  	
63
86,298
1,479
5,461
258
38,062
53,398
8,315
3,575
6,988
278
358
Pinks  ....
2,415
3,805
Totals.... 	
50,699
115,695
77,475
178,891
93,301
100,033
10,563
6,856
Central Area.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
Sockeyes  	
Springs  _ 	
26,158
655
79,384
150,498
44,426
392
36,178
540
127,089
130,842
56,716
433
29,987
1,641
110,493
97,321
25,009
614
27,499
830
99,592
246,378
45,824
373
32,417
687
125,953
94,190
41,831
355
20,438
2,116
117,309
157,336
53,850
733
26,106
841
128,602
101,701
33,471
827
21,685
3,236
166,653
80,034
41,172
591
Pinks 	
Cohoes  	
Steelheads  	
Totals   	
301,513
351,798
265,065
420,496
295,433
351,782
291,548
313,371 K 84
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
•DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1924 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Total packed by Districts in 1924 to 1939, inclusive.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
Fraser     _
199,241
205,604
83,502
28,727
55,946
590,736
375,307
277,084
223,413
122,363
44,921
113,970
458,554
467,493
1,707,7981
231,848
133,165
108,782
35,502
49,042
608,798
342,350
260,261
218,634
72,0111
14,888
139,5751
559,7461
599,387
216,728
170,420
155,571
49,928
78,214
469,427
388,734
273,139
284,096
86,000
41,256
76,213
372,347
451,815
199,082
185,463
93,220
71,714
60,434
353,025
302,111
126,641
233,711
81,709
Smith Inlet 	
27,142
Nass River  - -	
85,671
205,930
Other Districts	
320,227
Grand totals.	
1,539,063
l,509,677t
1,864,5031
1,529,022
1,583,866
1,265,049
1,081,031
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
73,067
162,986
88,874
14,094
32,881
175,541
137,661
277,983
450,377
138.980
52,185
113,460
340,395
848,439
426,473
220,245
75,126
11,014
29,185
294,854
341,873
258,224
298,709
81,527
34,150
104,877
390,470
901,822
284,378
187,716
69,773
29,366
39,828
373,463
405,476
274,951
407,524
98,105
18,917
92,749
347,722
844,139*
276,855
348,859
217,900
33,998
89,008
263,904
522,756
212,059
Skeena  	
390,858
117,445
11,776
142,939
Vancouver Island.	
277,267
604,745
685,104
2,221,819
1,398,770
2,035,629
1,360,634
2,065,190
1,719,282
1,745,213
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet.
t Including 527 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River.
% Including 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye and 26,828 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE ENTIRE
FRASER RIVER SYSTEM FROM 1894 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
Fraser River, B.C.
State of Washington
363,967
41,781
395,984
65,143
356,984
72,979
860,459
312,048
240,000
252,000
486,409
499,646
170,889
228,704
974,911
1,105,096
293,477
339,556
204,809
167,211
Totals	
405,748
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
492,000
986,055
399,593
2,080,007
633,033
372,020
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
Fraser River, B.C.
State of Washington
72,688
123,419
837,489
837,122
183,007
182,241
59,815
96,974
74,574
170,951
585,435
1,097,904
150,432
248,014
58,487
127,761
123,879
184,680
719,796
1,673,099
Totals	
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
Fraser River, B.C.
State of Washington .
198,183
335,230
91,130
64,584
32,146
84,637
148,164
411,538
19,697
50,723
38,854
64,364
48,399
62,654
39,631
102,967
51,832
48,566
31,655
47,402
Totals	
533,413
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
103,200
111,053
142,598
100,398
79,057
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
Fraser River, B.C.
State of Washington .
39,743
69,.369
35,385
112,023
85,689
44,673
61,393
97,594
29,299
61,044
61,569
111,898
103,692
352,194
40,947
87,211
65,769
81,188
52,465
126,604
Totals	
109,112
147,408
130,362
158,987
90,343
173,464
455,886
128,158
146,957
179,069
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
Fraser River, B.C	
State of Washington..
139,238
352,579
62,822
54,677
184,854
59,505
100,272
60,259
186,794
134,641
54,296
43,511
Totals	
491,817
117,499
244,359
160,531
321,435
97,807 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 85
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1924 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
54,296
68,485
54,143
17,833
24,357
16,259
34,514
186,794
47,257
87,942
33,894
21,462
27,965
36,357
441,671*
100,272
42,491
84,832
25,258
17,667
25,427
29,989
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28,5621
34,4301
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
Skeena River.	
59,916
69,732
Smith Inlet  -.	
25,488
14,154
27,611
21,685
Totals —
269,887
325,836
414,809
350,444
377,844
258,107
284,355
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
Fraser River 	
Skeena River	
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
119,170
32.057
26,405
24,784
39.198
61,569
78,017
70,260
9,683
16,077
10,340
35,331
29,299
34,559
60,044
33,442
5,540
14,248
26,410
61,393
83,996
65,269
22,682
12,026
24,835
37,851
85,689
82,360
65,581
17,921
15,929
25,070
44,462
35,385
81,146
192,323
33,764
18,945
14,757
16,198
39,743
144,747
94,891
Smith Inlet. 	
11,435
Nass River   	
Vancouver Island	
Other Districts 	
33,590
15,618
20,579
Totals    	
291,464
477,678
281,277
203,542
308,052
337,012
392,518
369,603
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the year
1936.
* 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye packed at Skeena River are not shown in the above table for the year 1938.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SPRING-SALMON PACK OF THE
PROVINCE, BY DISTRICTS, 1929 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
Fraser River    	
5,993
36
708
4,857
745
215
655
2,889
4,308
66
773
4,318
1,209
68
540
4,254
5,444
140
1,251
4,401
917
21
1,641
2,359
15,126
227
2,167
4,5511
5811
30
830
6,340
9,401
63
560
4,039
429
216
687
6,525
16,098
_J
15,536
 I
16,174
29,853
21,920
1
1934.       [      1933.
1
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
16,218
258
654
8,300
436
164
2,116
1,630
5,579
3,575
1,296
3,297
449
354
841
4,875
28,701
278
4,408
28,269
459
48
3,236
10,559
9,740
854
1,439
9,858
325
122
751
4,055
21,127
131
1,891
7,501
434
290
1,721
3,431
10,004
352
4,324
342
78
1,020
1,645
Totals                —          -	
29,776
20,266
75,958
27,147
36,526
17,765 K 86              REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE COHOE-SALMON PACK OF THE
PROVINCE, BY DISTRICTS, 1929 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE.
i                        1                        1
1939.       I      1938.      |      1937.       [      1936.
1                      1                      1
1935.
13,557
3,020
1,996
29,198
10,974
3,880
44,426
123,3S8
14.658
27,127
16,616
14,159
52,821
16,285
1,058
56,716
89,471
26.828
11,244
4,631
12,067
15,514
6,012
241
25,009
58,244
527
28,716
19,920
11,842
25,390
7,1221
310
45,824
90,6251
24,950
5,461
Nass River  -  -  	
21,810
23,498
8,375
Smith Inlet      ,-
1,201
41,831
104,366
Totals     	
245.097     1     301.081
133.489     1     229.750
231,492
1                        1                        1
1                      1                      1                      1
1934.       I      1933.      |      1932.       |      1931.       I      1930.
IIII
1929.
11,392
8,315
9,935
54,476
4,852
3,941
53,850
78,670
13.901             16.815
8,818
5,335
8,943
10,637
6,571
112
10,806
50,953
25,585
7,091
1,126
29,617
756
1,460
54,327
30,206
40,520
3,805
7,955
48,312
7,062
273
41,172
63,637
2,243
3,251
39,896
3,446
5,068
33,471
60,019
1,202
37,678
1,120
Smith Inlet      ..                      	
275
54 695
35 504
Totals   —_
225.431
159.052
189.031
102.175
1K0 168
173 237
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PINK-SALMON PACK OF THE
PROVINCE, BY DISTRICTS, 1929 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE.
1                          1                          1
1939.       I      1938.       [      1937.       |      1936.
1                      1
1935.
95,176
2,123
26,370
95,236
12,095
3.978
63     ]       94,010
57,952     j               13
61,477    [         8,031
69,610     |       59,400
9,063     |         7,536
1.761      I              483
Ill 328
89,355
75,8871
91,389
6,4321
65
246,378
82,0281
1 479
Nass River.    - —	
25,508
81,868
4,554
4,412
94,190
191,627
Rivers Inlet —  	
Smith Inlet                    	
150,498     |     130,842     |       97,321
235.119     I        70.108     I     318 780
I
Totals	
620,595    |    400,876    |    585,574
1                      1
591,5351
514,966
1934.      |      1933.      |      1932.      |      1931.
1                      1                      1
1930.
1929.
Fraser River   	
2,199
53,398
32,964
126,163
2,815
6.953
92,746
385
2,415
44,629
58,261
3,483
1,148
80,034
33,403
13,307
30,754
224,902
79,976
275,642
18,023
16,615
376,084
89,941
158,208
Nass River   	
44,306
95,783
5,059
19 005
5,178
44,807
5,089
■      824
55,825
81,965
10,342
95,305
2,386
853
135,878
74,001
Smith Inlet      —                                      _
157,336     |     101,701
54,526    !    172,945
     1	
Totals                      	
436 3K4     1     KSB SSK
477,853
!                         t                        I   ' BRITISH COLUMBIA.
K 87
STATEMENT SHOWING THE CHUM-SALMON PACK OF THE
PROVINCE, BY DISTRICTS, 1929 TO 1939, INCLUSIVE.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
30,150
45,519
2,500
7,773
5,462
2,771
79,384
212,949
82
58,778
40,882
15,911
16,758
7,759
8,076
127,089
266,566
20,878
72,689
10,080
10,811
9,415
9,494
110,493
203,900
31,565
69,304
20,6201
15,2971
11,505
1,653
99,592
347,951
8,227
86,298
17,481
8,122
7,136
Smith Inlet    - .—	
12,427
125,953
143,960
Totals 	
386,590
641,819
447,760
597,488
409,604
1934.
I      1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
104,092
38,062
2,648
24,388
895
15,548
117,309
210,239
34,391
6,988
1,775
15,714
677
8,841
128,602
96,642
14,948
358
14,515
38,549
944
165
166,653
70,629
251
68,946
39,010
3,978
5,187
492
1,660
104,771
177,856
144,159
13,801
1,212
392
3,893
429
113
34,570
16,239
4,908
989
Smith Inlet	
113
97,462
162,246
Totals 	
513,181
293,630
306,761
55,997
401,900
424,890
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PILCHARD INDUSTRY OF THE
PROVINCE, 1920 TO 1938, INCLUSIVE.*
Year.
Total Catch.
Canned.
Used in
Reduction.
Oil.
Meal.
Bait.
1920
Cwt.
88,050
19,737
20,342
19,492
27,485
318,973
969,958
1,368,582
1,610,252
1,726,851
1,501,404
1,472,085
886,964
120,999
860,103
911,411
889,087
961,485
1,035,369
Cases.
91,929
16,091
19,186
17,195
14,898
37,182
26,731
58,501
65,097
98,821
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
Cwt.
Gals.
Tons.
Bbls.
1921
	
4,232
1923
	
3,626
1924                                                 	
923
1925
220,000
940,000
1,310,000
1,560,000
1,654,575
1,468,840
1,456,846
876,700
119,545
845,849
896,586
863,373
930,713
986,118
495,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
3,997,656
2,856,579
3,204,058
2,551,914
1,315,864
275,879
1,635,123
1,634,592
1,217,097
1,707,276
2,195,850
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,826
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
4,045
1926                            	
2,950
1927..	
1,737
1928 .	
2,149
1929	
1930	
1,538
926
1931                      	
1,552
1932 	
1933                      	
1,603
20
1934
40
1935                    -
521
1936                        	
580
1937. -	
1,045
1938                           	
310
* Authority: Advance Report of the Fisheries of British Columbia, Ottawa. K 88
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1939.
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, 1920 TO 1939   (OTHER
THAN FROM PILCHARD).
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Year.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1920 	
Tons.
503
326
485
292
347
340
345
376
417
273
249
340
211
332
268
273
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
666
651
754
780
581
223
631
354
687
527
512
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,626
3,335
5,647
6,608
5,583
5,028
7,509
13,197
17,147
12,115
26,129
Gals.
55,669
1921...                                               	
44,700
1922.	
1923     	
1924 	
1925  	
1926	
1927                	
283,314
706,514
645,657
556,939
468,206
437,967
571,914
712,597
525,533
75,461
180,318
241,376
354,853
217,150
250,811
1928               	
387,276
1929                	
459,576
1930      	
1931 	
243,009
352,492
1932  	
231,690
1933  	
1934  	
1935.	
1936        ''
1937     	
1938 	
1939 	
509,310
813,724
426,772
763,740
662,355
543,378
497,643
441,735
588,629
1,143,206
1,578,204
1,157,315
1,990,901
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
rrinted by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1940.
1,325-640-5945

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