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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1940

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister.
H. Cathcaet, Deputy Minister. E. C. Manning, Chief Forester.
REPORT
OF
THE FOEEST BEANCH
FOR THE
YEAE ENDED DECEMBER 31 ST
1939
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY  OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chaei.es P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1940.  Victoria, B.C., February 29th, 1940.
To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1939.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1939.
E. C. MANNING,
Chief Forester. " A great problem is wide and skilful cutting. Cutting there must
be on a large scale, for we are entitled to reap the fruits of our forest
wealth, provided we do not impoverish our successors.
" Cutting must always have behind it a purpose of conservation,
and we must always be mindful of those who come after us and realize
that Canada is a concern which is not going to be wound up in a few
years, but will, by God's grace, endure for many centuries."
—Lord Tweedsmuir. REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
Unprecedented floods; a fire season which, in its very failure to develop more than a
modest risk, threatened serious consequences to the log market; important trade agreements;
mills with more business than they could handle; the biggest raft that ever entered the
Fraser River; a mill and logging camp celebrating its sixtieth anniversary of continuous
operation; fluctuating exchange; plentiful cargo space at normal rates; no cargo space at
any price; quotas and regulation; war scares and full-dress war. These are some of the
features, large and small, for which the year 1939 will doubtless be remembered in the logging
and milling world in days to come. Certain periods of the year promised so much and others
again, so little, that there was no sustained atmosphere characterizing the twelve months as
a whole. Looking back on an accomplished fact, however, 1939 appears to have ranked high
amongst the good years of the industry's history. A record log scale was recorded, a record
export trade, and the year closed with production in all lines at a record level.
During the winter months of the early part of the year most logging camps were closed
and truck-logging was at a complete standstill, due to the state of the roads. Market conditions and bad weather combined to prolong the more or less general closure into March.
Production throughout the early summer was heavy, influenced to some extent, no doubt, by
the possibility of a prolonged fire closure—which failed to materialize. The fire risk was
comparatively moderate and the bush was closed as a protection measure for only one week.
By July, accumulating cedar stocks had become a serious problem and input had been reduced
40 to 50 per cent. By the end of August input had practically ceased, log sales were improving and stocks were considerably reduced. For the remainder of the year camps were
embarrassed and production affected to some extent at the north end of Vancouver Island by
rather disastrous floods; but, on the whole, operation was steady until the seasonal close-down
late in December.
One thousand eight hundred and eighty-three operations were reported active in the Vancouver Forest District, the principal log-producing region of the Province. The total scale
of sawlogs for the Province was an all-time record of 3,155,371,995 feet board-measure. In
only one other year—1937—has the log scale exceeded 3 billion feet. This, incidentally,
brings the total of logs produced since the inception of Forest Branch records in 1912 to more
than 55,410 million F.B.M., representing approximately 197,000 full-time man-years of employment.
In the lumber field prices remained firm throughout a difficult winter, with an upward
trend from March. Business offered throughout the year in record volume. The industry
exists largely on export, and thriving or depressing conditions here are the result of world
conditions as they affect our principal markets. World market conditions are almost entirely
outside the field of local control. The United Kingdom continues to be British Columbia's
best lumber customer and most of the factors affecting the year's business focused there.
Amongst the influences tending to improve business were an early failure of other sources of
supply; the British Government's policy to compensate private owners for loss through air
raids in case of war, which strongly encouraged building; large Government housing schemes;
defence works, which involved the use of large quantities of lumber in hutments and evacuation camps; and, finally, emergency war business. Any one of these in other years would
have been counted of major importance. In the matter of housing, for example, it is stated
that England and Wales at the end of the last war had about 8,000,000 houses. The four-
millionth new house since that time was completed in 1939 and a fair start made on the fifth
million.   "Building in these proportions assumes the status of a major business influence.
The outbreak of war in September put an immediate stop to competitive trade with
England, but existing orders were confirmed and the Government placed additional orders for
more than 190 million feet during the last three months of the year. Unfortunately, shipping
could not be supplied to move that quantity and only about 60 million had been shipped by
late December. Storage facilities for the remainder had developed into a major issue, and
mills were facing the imminent possibility of having to close down with order files full but
with no place to pile their product until such time as it could be shipped.
Ocean freight rates were fairly steady throughout the year. In April there was a sharp
rise in rates for a short period and some concern over a possible shortage, but in May the E 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
situation had eased and from June space remained plentiful until ships were taken over by
the British Government at the outbreak of the war.
Water-borne shipments reached a total of 1,409,052,000 feet, setting a new record. The
United Kingdom retains first place in our overseas markets, having taken about 965 million
feet, or more than 68 per cent, of the total. Sales to the United Kingdom represent an
increase of 223 million feet over 1938, against a total increase of 217 million feet over shipments that year. Our heaviest losses were sustained in China and on our own Atlantic seaboard, where we sold about 40 million feet less than in 1938.
The pulp and paper mills experienced an indifferent year until business began to pick up
in September.    The year ended with all mills operating on full time.
In shingles, the most important of our minor products assuming the status of an important industry in themselves, the Province made and sold more than 3,400,000 squares in 1939
against a ten-year average of about 2,385,000 squares. Of this product, roughly 6 per cent,
is sold in the Province, illustrating the dependence of the timber industry as a whole on
export markets. More than 80 per cent, goes to our best customer, the United States, while
the use of cedar shingles in England is showing promising gains in recent years.
The new trade agreement with the United States, allotting to Canada (which, so far as
shingles are concerned, means British Columbia) a duty-free quota each year of 30 per cent,
of the domestic consumption during the preceding three years, dates from January 1st, 1939,
and became operative June 17th, following assent of His Majesty the King to the " Trade
Agreement Act" at Ottawa on May 19th.
For twenty-one years—from 1913 to 1934—Canadian shingles entered the United States
duty free. From 1935 to 1938, inclusive, imports from Canada were restricted to 25 per cent,
of consumption during the previous year.
Poles, hewn ties, posts, and similar minor products were in moderate demand only. Hewn
ties especially, once the principal " grub-stake " of the pioneer settler, appear to be passing
out of the picture. Preservative treatments, which more than double the life of the tie in
place in the line, and lack of new construction account for the falling off. Production, which
has run close to 4 million in years past, dropped to 719,803 in 1939, while lower prices and
revised contract conditions relative to percentage of grades reduced the average price per tie
to about 35 cents each. At this price only the most expert tie-hack can net " minimum
wages."
A comparatively new arrival in the family of minor products is the Christmas-tree trade,
which has been fast developing into an important seasonal business during the past few years.
Canada produces approximately 6,000,000 trees a year for export, practically all of which go
to the United States, and an estimated 1,000,000 additional for the home market. It is said
that the United States requires some 20,000,000 trees each season. Eastern fir and spruce
and western Douglas fir are the favourites. British Columbia shipped 1,763,000 trees, worth
more than $140,000, in 1939 and the business is capable of being greatly expanded. It provides labour and a cash income during a slack season of the year, and there is no physical bar
to making it a substantial side-line to ranching throughout the greater part of the Province.
Superficially, it has everything to commend it and nothing to condemn it; but in actual
practice, in this Province, to date it has been of doubtful value.
Young stands of natural reproduction ordinarily are too thick and require thinning.
This is the argument commonly used to justify the trade. But thinning is a nice surgical
operation on the forest requiring the judgment of experienced men. It seeks to remove the
poorest and preserve the best to grow into a more valuable crop; the Christmas-tree cutter is
not experienced in thinning and the trade demands the best rather than the poorest. The
business to date has meant the destruction of fine stands of young growth from which the best
has been culled and from which thrifty 20- to 30-foot trees have been felled to secure a 5-foot
tree from the top.
Cutting has been permitted on Crown lands on certain dry sites in the Interior incapable
of producing valuable saw-timber and on two small experimental areas. Apart from these,
permits on Crown lands have been refused. Practically all cutting to date has been on
privately-owned lands.
As stated above, there is no reason why Christmas trees should not be made a permanent
source of income for most ranchers if they will give the matter the little study and attention ^SMs__i^^sS_!_liw**'     ' *
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Wasteful cutting is shown in the accompanying illustrations from
photographs taken on Christmas-tree operations on privately-owned
lands. These show three trees, tops of which were taken for Christmas
trees. There was left on the ground as waste a 12-foot pole, butt
diameter 3M. inches inside bark; a 24-foot pole, butt diameter 6V2 inches
inside bark;   and a 20-foot pole, butt diameter 7V4  inches inside bark.  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939. E 7
it deserves. A natural stand of young growth may be managed to produce an annual crop,
or the trees may be grown in plantations from which the first crop can be cut in five to ten years.
It is felt that it is from such managed properties that the supply must come in future. It is
not likely that we will be able to provide the detailed supervision required for safe cutting on
Crown lands, and such indiscriminate destructive cutting as has been practised to date is not
in the public interest. It is on these young stands that we must depend for our next timber-
crop and their sacrifice as Christmas trees would be short-sighted policy.
A recent Dominion Government bulletin on the subject of Christmas trees,* designed to
give encouragement to the orderly growing and cutting of trees, has been given widespread
and misleading publicity in recent months in abstracts and reviews which purport to show
that Christmas-tree cutting under any circumstances is an unmixed blessing.
Total scale for the Province (sawlogs plus minor products converted to log-scale)
reached the all-time record total of 3,354,895,566 feet board-measure. The advance over
previous high years was modest, however, as on four other occasions total scale has exceeded
3 billion feet.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
The history of personnel and organization since the low of depression years in 1931-32
has been a record of rapidly increasing responsibilities and volume of work, coupled with a
lagging recovery in personnel. The disparity between volume of work and available staff
has been in part the result of recovery in business transacted and in part an altering character in that business, factors which have been discussed at some length in reports of recent
years.
An increase of ten in the permanent staff during 1939—from 233 the previous year to
243—and an increase of three in the permanently employed " temporary " category has done
something to relieve the overload. The added staff consists of three Assistant Foresters, one
Radio Engineer, one Field Supervisor, one Draughtsman, five Clerks, and two Rangers.
As forecast a year ago, the Surveys and Research Divisions were combined during the
year into a single Division of Forest Economics. The consolidation is proving a satisfactory
solution of a number of problems in organization which were beginning to make themselves
felt as the two Divisions developed.
A small new Division of Parks was established to administer Provincial parks newly
placed under the direction of the Forest Branch in legislation enacted in the fall of the year.
The next important development in the line of organization, it is felt, will have to be a
definite raising of the standard of qualifications for the Ranger grade, toward which tentative
steps have already been taken.
The Ranger staff constitutes the backbone of the Service. On them devolves all the
routine field-work of general administration. The Service depends on the Ranger for timber
estimates and appraisals, contract conditions and upset prices for timber-sales, checking of
cut, and insuring compliance with regulations and contract conditions on all cutting; prevention and checking of trespass; grazing administration; organization and supervision of
protection organization and direction of active fire-fighting; together with a host of minor
duties and direct contact with the public. The success with which they have discharged these
varied and responsible duties over a long period of years is worthy of the highest commendation.
We have no record of how these men were selected in the early days of the Service, but
in 1919 a system of selection by competitive examination was instituted. Early examination
records, too, are somewhat sketchy, but tracing back through the sixteen years 1924-39 we
find an unbroken record of strict adherence to the principle of appointments on the results of
these competitive examinations. During this period twenty-five open Ranger examinations
have been held at which 287 contestants were examined. One hundred and forty-six men
qualified, fifty-one of whom received appointments in order of merit. The result has been an
exceptionally well qualified staff.
The Ranger job, however, has developed into something quite different from what it was
twenty years ago. Management concepts and forest-protection methods have made great
strides. Technical factors unthought of in past years assume first importance and the
so-called practical man in the future will be unable to cope satisfactorily with the problems he
* " The Christmas-tree Industry in Canada," Forestry Topic No. 6, 1939 edition. E 8
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
will be called upon to deal with. Existing Ranger staff will, for the most part, be able to
carry on by virtue of long experience and field training. For new recruits we will find it
necessary to turn more and more to men with a background of technical education. Developing along these lines five technical foresters have been drafted into the Ranger staff during
the past three years. This year ten forestry students were employed in temporary capacities
in the part-time forest-protection staff, with a view to training for the Ranger grade at some
later date, and it is proposed to continue this system of employing student assistants. The
probabilities are that in the near future it will be necessary to demand a forestry degree as a
primary qualification for the Ranger grade appointment, or to introduce technical papers in
the Ranger examination, or both.
Since the outbreak of war on September 3rd the five men listed below have left for Active
Service. Their duties are being temporarily taken over by the remaining staff and their
positions held open in anticipation of their return to civil life.
Enlistments, 1939.
L. F. Swannell, Assistant District Forester, Prince George.
W. Hall, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
H. Casilio, Draughtsman, Victoria.
N. H. Wharf, Clerk, Victoria.
C. V. Smith, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
Distribution of Force, 1939.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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Personnel and Enrolment.
Forest Development Projects, October, 1938, to October, 1939, and National Forestry
Programme and Youth Forestry Training Plan, June to September, 1939.
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5,705 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939. E 9
FOREST DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, 1938-39.
Another year of constructive work has been completed by the Forest Development
Projects, inaugurated in the fall of 1936 under the supervision of the Forest Service.
Designed as a relief measure to alleviate unemployment, the plan has returned excellent
dividends in the work accomplished and in building up the morale of the men in camp. This
improved morale is due principally to their realization of the constructive value of their own
efforts, to considerate treatment, and to the attitude of the public, who regard them as
labourers in a forestry camp completing worth-while work. Credit for the progress of work
can be given to the foremen and sub-foremen who were, for the greater part, Assistant
Rangers with years of Forest Service experience.
As in previous years, the primary cost of the programme was borne equally by the Labour
Departments of the Dominion and Provincial Governments, with certain administration costs
borne entirely by the Provincial Government. Selection and enrolment of men was taken care
of by the Provincial Labour Department.
Regularly enrolled men were paid at the rate of 30 cents per hour, with an additional
5 cents per hour being paid to straw-bosses appointed from the enrollees. Board, lodging,
and transportation were charged for at the rate of 75 cents per day in camp. Flunkies and
bulleooks were paid at the rate of $30 per month and board. A portion of each enrollee's
pay was deferred until completion of period of employment and then made payable in $4
vouchers which could only be cashed at the rate of one voucher per week.
A maximum of 1,313 enrollees was employed at one time, this being during the winter
when nineteen projects were in operation. With the inauguration of a summer programme of
five Rehabilitation Projects for unemployed returned soldiers and the establishment of thirteen
other projects, four of which were in the Nelson Forest District, a total of 4,441 regularly
enrolled men passed through the various camps. These men accomplished 221,104 man-days
of work, the main classifications of which were as follows:—
(1.)  Park Development, 52.2 per cent, of total man-days.
(2.)   Forest-protection, 31.8 per cent, of total man-days.
(3.)   Forest Experiment Stations and planting, 16 per cent, of total man-days.
Park areas on which improvement and protection work was undertaken included John
Dean Park, Thetis Lake Park, Glintz Lake, Englishman River Falls, Little Qualicum Falls,
Stamp Falls, Medicine Bowls, Elk Falls, Mount Seymour, Cultus Lake, Capilano Canyon,
Kokanee, and King George VI. Parks. Particular attention was given to reduction of fire-
hazards in the vicinity, and to the rendering of these areas more accessible for the general
public by improvements and construction of highways.
Development of a new Forest Nursery at Campbell River was started, in addition
to the continuation of improvement-work at the Green Timbers Forest Experiment Station
and the University of British Columbia Demonstration Forest. An extensive planting programme was carried out in the vicinity of Campbell River.
The most important phase of forest-protection work undertaken was the opening-up of
abandoned railroad grades into particularly hazardous areas, making them accessible for
forest-protection mobile equipment. Snag-falling was undertaken from nearly all camps, and
the success of this work indicates that even greater attention can be paid to this important
phase of fire prevention and suppression.
Number of projects  26
Enrolled at one time (maximum)         1,313
Total men enrolled       4,441
Man-days worked (supervisory included)  232,405
NATIONAL FORESTRY PROGRAMME AND YOUTH FORESTRY
TRAINING PLAN, 1939.
A forestry programme designed for youth training is not a new undertaking for British
Columbia. The idea germinated in 1935 when this Province stimulated public interest in
forest activities by opening its Forest Experiment Stations, its forest parks, and its forest
reserves to nearly 500 young men who were enrolled in furtherance of protection and conservation policies in the first Province-wide Young Men's Forestry Training Plan conducted
in the Dominion. E 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
During the past five years 3,100 young men have received the advantages of the practical
training provided. In 1939 a total of 860 young men were enrolled, of whom 555 were part
of the Dominion-wide National Forestry Programme, the remainder a partial continuation of
British Columbia's Youth Forestry Training Plan. The National Forestry Programme, so
ably sponsored by the Dominion Government, culminated British Columbia's four previous
seasons' efforts in this " public relations " programme and provided many more young Canadians with an opportunity to learn the " why " and the " how " of our forest resources.
Enrollees were selected by a Board which consisted of a representative of the Dominion
Government, a representative of the Provincial Labour Department, and a representative of
the Provincial Forest Service. Enrollees were from 18 to 25 years of age, generally with
some high-school education and five years' continuous residence in British Columbia. Preference was given to applicants whose families were in necessitous circumstances.
Enrollees were paid at the rate of $1.75 per day worked, with a deduction of 75 cents per
day for board, lodging, and transportation. Payment of 50 cents per day was deferred until
the end of the programme, the remainder paid monthly. Ranger Assistants resident at home
were paid $45 per month, with expenses when away from headquarters. Uniforms were
issued to all enrollees except Ranger Assistants, half of the cost being borne by the programme, the other half by the enrollee. The issuing of uniforms with suitable badges was
an entirely new departure and was more than favourably received by all enrollees.
During the training period 42 enrollees secured other employment, 52 enlisted for Active
Service, 25 left for advanced education, 19 left through injury or sickness, 33 quit for no
specific reason, 20 were discharged, and 669 were laid off on the termination of the project.
For the two-thirds of the project enrollees enlisted from the Lower Coast area of the
Province three clearing centres were established, one at the University of British Columbia
Demonstration Forest, one at the Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station, and one at the
new Campbell River Forest Nursery. At these clearing stations all enrollees were required
to pass a probationary work period of two weeks before being sent out as improvement crews
throughout the Province. The Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station near Prince George
served as a clearing centre for the Northern Interior of British Columbia. During the probationary period at the Forest Experiment Stations, and at the other projects later in the
season, special instructors carried out a series of lectures on elementary forestry and citizenship, in many cases augmented by moving pictures.
Eighty-four enrollees were regularly employed at the four Forest Experiment Stations.
At the University of British Columbia Demonstration Forest, road maintenance and forest-
stand improvement were undertaken and improvements were completed at the fish-hatchery
in Stanley Park. At the Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station, trail maintenance,
renewal of a boat-house float, and miscellaneous station maintenance and research assistance
was the main work. At the Campbell River Forest Nursery the enrollees were preparing the
new nursery-site by clearing and cultivating the soil, building a water reservoir, and laying
pipe for a sprinkler system. At the Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station, road maintenance and miscellaneous improvement work were carried on.
Forty-seven forest development and protection projects, each with a personnel of from
ten to twenty-five enrollees, were assigned to the five Forest Districts of the Province. These
field crews constructed 13% miles of new truck-trail and repaired 28 miles; constructed 92
miles of new pack-horse trail and repaired 71 miles; constructed 38 new foot-bridges and
repaired 17; strung 4 miles of telephone-line; and felled 2,092 snags over an area of 65 acres.
Seven cabins, one lookout tower and other structures were erected or repaired.
Park improvement and development work was undertaken in Garibaldi, Tweedsmuir, and
Mount Seymour Parks, and also on the Forbidden Plateau, Grouse Mountain, and in the
vicinity of Alouette Lake. Here in the parks, where the public will be seeking its favourite
recreation—hiking, ski-ing, fishing, camping, swimming, or boating—the enrollee has received
instruction in the construction of signs, fireplaces, picnic-tables, trails, and ski-runs.
Work was continued at the Dominion Forest Entomological Station at Lumby. A new
departure was the construction of cattle runways through beetle-killed timber in the vicinity
of Savona and Quilchena.
In the allocation of projects throughout the Province the Forest Service did not overlook
the opportunity of assisting important work being undertaken by the  Game  Department. NATIONAL FORESTRY PROGRAMME AND YOUTH FORESTRY TRAINING PLAN.
Complete uniform issue inaugurated 1939.
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Building water reservoir on Campbell River Forest Nursery. forest development projects.
Bridge across Campbell River at Elk Falls Park, for access to Sayward Forest for protection
and planting purposes.
'-',
!
ill
im
planting crew, vicinity Elk Falls Park. PARKS.
rnr mam..: %   -
Improvements, John Dean Park.
-
*"-. jfe.
■  **            '4f llfl"**#i'. ",:'J;
J
'•-•.-!.                       *                     i^HEaBnifl
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,  '
■iaciifl?_^__i'*
■■,        - f '^ "'"''"IP?;;,;;                  : -
~l'k
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•> *-'            •j*!
j*y?   *-•' _--. -
.,». E   _'- _ ^ } ._ ..
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Entrance, John Dean Park.  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 11
Although separate, these two departments have many common interests. Under the direction
of the Game Commissioners, crews opened up trails into game country, cleared streams to
allow through passage of fish, improved spawning-grounds, and did valuable work at several
fish-hatcheries throughout the Province.
One hundred and thirty-one enrollees were attached as Assistants to Forest Rangers and
twenty-one to Game Wardens throughout the Province, in addition to five specially selected
and trained enrollees who acted as Park Attendants in the more frequented and developed
Forest Service parks. These Assistants again proved of inestimable value to the Forest
Service and in their diversified work received a valuable training.
PARKS.
For many generations the people of North America " couldn't see the forest for trees."
Trees mean logs and logs mean lumber; and both mean employment, trade, and wealth. The
forest, on the other hand, means not only logs but climate, moisture, soil conservation, water-
control, fur, game, fishing, aesthetic values, recreation, and health. These supplementary
values are imponderables, but quite possibly of an aggregate social value in excess of pure
commercial values. Any forest administration, therefore, that fails to give them a place in
management plans is only half aware of its responsibilities. Amongst these values recreation
bulks large and, with an ever-increasing tendency for people to congregate in cities, it is likely
to assume even greater importance from a national health standpoint. Parks, especially
forest parks, are something more than mere beauty-spots or picnic-grounds.
British Columbia has not been unmindful of these things and by last year had already
reserved some forty-one park areas scattered throughout the Province and aggregating more
than 6,370,000 acres. At the 1939 session of the Legislature these and any parks created
hereafter were placed under the administration of the Forest Service. The legislation takes
the form of an amendment to the " Forest Act."
It is not intended to undertake any expensive programme of park improvements at the
present time, but the present move will enable a long-term development plan aimed at definite
objectives, and the planned reservation of most desirable park areas while they are still in
public ownership and most readily available. It will also ensure the closest possible correlation between park administration and the more extensive forest recreation uses which are
bound to develop side by side. E 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST ECONOMICS DIVISION.
As mentioned in an earlier section of this report dealing with " Organization and Personnel," the former Research and Surveys Divisions have been amalgamated to form the
Forest Economics Division. This consolidation is working out satisfactorily and an improved
integration of effort is being attained. During the past year the personnel has been strengthened by the addition of a qualified plant physiologist and a soils specialist. On the other
hand we have to report the loss of two experienced technical officers, one to the Army and
the other to the Industry.    One officer was also transferred to the administrative field staff.
Forest Surveys and Working-plans.
Forest Surveys.—Forest surveys were completed on 2,705,000 acres as follows:—
Acres.
Douglas Forest and Harrison drainage      685,000
Quatsino Inlet region  1,271,000
Okanagan drainage      749,000
Total .  2,705,000
Final maps, estimates, and working plans are now being compiled for each of the above
areas.
It is significant to note that for all current projects the forest-cover and other essential
data were plotted from vertical air photographs prior to commencing field-work, thus providing the field parties with detailed maps of the territory to be surveyed. Consistent with
this improved procedure it is anticipated that forest survey technique will undergo basic
modifications in the near future.
A further development involved providing the personnel of the Quatsino survey with a
Research Forester to conduct special silvicultural studies which normally constitute part of
the duties of the regular field party.
In addition to the forest surveys enumerated, an exploratory reconnaissance was made
of the proposed Dome Forest in the Fort George Forest District. The primary object of this
project was to obtain forest-cover and ground-control data essential to the execution of an
air survey over this and adjoining territories. The preliminary report was completed for an
area involving 256,000 acres.
Mapping technique has been improved by the introduction of a standard base grid and,
as a result, forest survey maps in future will be prepared on a quad basis of 20 minutes in
longitude and 15 minutes in latitude.
A new development concerned the application of the silk screen process to the colouring
of small-scale forest survey maps (2 miles to 1 inch). This has proved very satisfactory,
even when an unusual amount of detailed forest types were encountered.
The increasing demand for resources data and forest survey maps, particularly from
logging operators, private forest agencies, and other Government departments, is becoming
significant. Concurrent with the increased use of vertical air photographs in forest survey
procedure, it is anticipated that the demand for this service will continue to expand.
Provincial Forests.—No new Provincial Forests were created during the year. The
following table shows briefly the summary of Forests, exclusive of scenic forests and experimental stations:—
Region.
Number
of
Forests.
Total Area.
Productive
Area.
Sustained Annual
Yield Capacity.
Accessible.
Total.
17
26
Acres.
5,703,360
12,322,980
Acres.
2,0.4,100
7,805,100
M.B.M.
436,300
242,100
M.B.M.
483,300
377,400
Totals        	
43
18,026,340
9,889,200
678,400
860,700 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 13
Graham Island.—The estimates, forest and topographic maps, and preliminary management recommendations were completed for Graham Island, the north island of the Queen
Charlotte Islands group, in the Prince Rupert Forest District.
The major productive forest regions, exclusive of lands suitable for agricultural development, have been recommended as a Provincial Forest, and particular attention is drawn to the
favourable position of this island, together with Moresby Island, for future sustained yield
management.
The proposed Forest contains a total volume of 5,295,500 M.B.M., 95 per cent, of which
is accessible, and 8,400 acres of immature timber. The sustained annual yield capacity from
accessible stocked areas is estimated at 86,900 M.B.M., which could be increased slightly to
91,200 M.B.M. by including the inaccessible forests. Utilization at the present time is almost
entirely confined to supplying local demands and a limited cedar-pole market, the current
annual output being only 150 M.B.M. However, prior to 1928 logging and lumbering were
active, a considerable volume of high-grade spruce for aeroplane stock, as well as pulp-wood
and other lumber products, having been produced. The area is regarded as a desirable
potential pulp-wood and saw-timber unit. A notable feature of the proposed Forest is the
absence of a serious forest fire problem.
The proposed Graham Forest was found to contain the following:—
Productive Forest Land—
Mature timber— Acres. Acres.
Accessible   211,340
Inaccessible      13,510
Immature timber—
1-10 years old.
11-20 years old..
950
4,210
224,850
21-40 years old       1,520
41-60 years old.
61 + years old ..
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged 	
Burned 	
Deciduous forest	
Non-commercial conifers
1,450
270
1,660
630
580
40
8,400
2,910
Total sites of productive quality      236,160
Non-productive Forest Land—
Scrub 	
Barren  	
Swamp 	
Water 	
Grassland
Total non-productive sites..
496,710
62,170
11,430
14,590
280
585,180
Total area of Forest     821,340
Timber values are estimated as follows (over 11 inches D.B.H.) :—
Species.
Accessible.
Total.
M.B.M.
940,320
2,307,540
1,682,060
105,190
M.B.M.
966,000
2,446,280
1,766,920
116,260
5,035,110
5,295,460 E 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Crown timber represents 57 and 59 per cent, of the accessible and total volumes respectively, and practically all of the remaining timber is held in licences and leases.
" Coast Islands" Working Circle.—-Four small Provincial Forests in the Vancouver
Forest District—namely, Hardwieke, Sonora, and East and West Thurlow Forests—were
reported on and revised forest data provided in order to investigate the practicability of introducing a demonstration working circle in this valuable coastal region. The completion of this
project marks a progressive step in the field of working-plans.
The unit comprises 21,640 acres of mature timber with a total volume of 460,960 M.B.M.
There are, in addition, 30,320 acres of satisfactorily stocked immature forests and 12,610
acres of unsatisfactorily stocked productive sites, the majority of which will remain in this idle
condition unless artificial reforestation is undertaken. The average annual depletion through
logging is 15,700 M.B.M., 48 per cent, of which is from Crown-timber sales, as compared with
an allowable sustained annual yield capacity of 11,000 M.B.M. One outstanding feature of
the area is the high percentage of Crown-owned timber resources.
The four Provincial Forests are proposed as a preliminary working circle for the purpose
of conducting a demonstration project in sustained yield management. It is proposed to
regulate the output from Crown-timber sales in order to maintain a sustained yield balance
and, further, to conduct logging operations in Crown timber in a manner that will best provide for a future crop.
The detailed summary of the " Coast Islands " Working Circle is as follows:—■
Productive Forest Land— Acres.      Acres.
Mature timber          21,640
Immature timber—
1-10 years old      1,290
11-20 years old  16,010
21-40 years old .  12,43Q
41-60 years old .        590
Unsatisfactorily stocked—
Logged   2,740
Logged and burned   4,020
Burned   2,810
Deciduous growth   1,280
Non-commercial conifers   1,760
30,320
12,610
Total productive sites (all accessible)     64,570
Non-productive Forest Land—
Barren  1  210
Alpine and scrub   35,030
Swamp   200
Water  ;  3,060
Total non-productive sites     38,500
Total area   103,070
The timber values, 70 per cent, of which are Crown owned, are estimated as follows (over
11 inches D.B.H.) :—
Species.
Total
(all Accessible).
M.B.M.
112,280
208,430
89,040
38,710
8,070
4,430
Totals ....	
460,960 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 15
Air Survey Operations.—Air survey photographic operations were characterized by
several features contributing to improved results and, although the total area photographed
was slightly less than that done the previous year, it was accomplished in the face of decidedly
less favourable weather conditions.
The charter of a more powerful and adaptable aircraft permitted operations from higher
altitudes, effecting economies in flying-time and number of photographs per square mile. The
quality and accuracy of flying were enhanced by all members of the crew having had at least
one season's previous experience; by the aircraft having better characteristics for smooth and
steady flight and, being a high-wing monoplane, affording better visibility. The efficiency of
the crew was further improved by the use of oxygen at higher altitudes. The use of radio
communication with Forestry Lookouts, survey parties, and other strategic agencies permitted
more effective co-ordination between aerial manoeuvres and weather opportunities throughout
the areas under examination.
Photographic results were improved by the use of new and faster films with " safety "
acetate base, denser filters for haze-penetration, and by making larger prints on special,
distortion-free paper.
Consistent with previous seasons, costs were kept to a low figure per square mile,
probably unique in Canada, and comparing favourably with the lowest figures in the U.S.A.,
where all material and service items are much lower in price.
Areas photographed by this Section during 1939 are listed below, and include two items
done by special request for other branches of the Department of Lands :■—
Project.
Altitude flown.
Area covered,
" Verticals."
No. of Photographs.
Vertical.
Oblique.
Total.
Cowichan Lake (experimental) _	
North Shore, Vancouver, Victoria 	
Sims Creek*   	
Douglas Forest (in part)  	
Okanagan (supplemental)  _ 	
Slocan        	
Prince George-Finlay Forks 	
Rocky Mountain Trench (Finlay Forks North) f
Miscellaneous..-   	
Totals _ ~ 	
Feet.
2,000-16,000
15,500
15,500
15,000
13,000
16,800
8,000
16,800
Sq. Miles.
10
280
30
500
3,300
2,480
6,600
123
226
45
270
38
3,875
21
25
1,539
42
31
30
387
144
251
45
270
38
3,906
30
1,926
42
6,158
6,652
* For Water Rights Branch, Department of Lands,
t For Surveys Branch, Department of Lands.
The season's flying-time is summarized as follows:—
Project.
Transit	
Flying-time in
Hours and Minutes.
     24.41
Photographic flights-
Verticals 	
Obliques 	
Reconnaissance 	
Total
99.00
8.39
2.16
134.36
In the office of the Air Survey Section, compilation of forest type-maps from the Okanagan, Quatsino, and Douglas Forest photography was completed. Preparation of maps from
air photographs of the area west of the Douglas Forest and of the Slocan region is in progress.
During the year nine more Forest Service stereoscopes were built and supplied at special
request to Government and public organizations in the Province. Four other units with
special base were made for the Surveys Branch, Department of Lands. To meet Government
and private demand for copies from Forest Service air-photo negatives, a total of 452 prints
was supplied at cost, representing twenty-five individual orders during the year. Several
special items were supplied upon request, including an air photograph mosaic, and several E  16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
special prints enlarged to a scale of 7 chains per inch from original negatives, scale of 30
chains per inch. The amount and quality of detail exhibited by these large prints is surprisingly good, confirming the excellence of the lens in our air-survey camera.
Forest Resources Inventory.—Field-work and assistance to Forest Rangers was confined
to the Vancouver Forest District. Twenty-three visits were made to Supervisor and Ranger
headquarters and plans made to provide office facilities necessary for the proper care and
maintenance of forest-cover maps.
Cover-mapping technique was thoroughly reviewed and standardized in the Vancouver
District and each Ranger has now been supplied with revised maps of his district. In addition, the Vancouver District headquarters was supplied with new forest atlas maps for areas
not covered by forest-survey maps, the latter having been currently revised for fires and
logging by the District office. The maps in the Victoria office were also brought up to date,
thus completing the project of providing all administrative interests with basic cover-map
data. The office assistance required in Victoria for this work was provided by six Ranger
Assistants through the co-operation of the National Forestry Programme.
It is planned to maintain a current revision of the maps for fires, logging, new information, and errors in order to ultimately provide accurate forest-cover data for the future, which
it is anticipated will be required as the practice of forestry advances in British Columbia.
The Prince Rupert headquarters is almost completely equipped with forest atlas and
forest-survey maps, all of which are being brought up to date by a member of the District
staff. It is anticipated that the mapping project for this District will be concluded during the
coming year.
The recompilation of the forest resources of the Vancouver District for machine tabulation was continued and will be gradually completed as time permits. Records for 262 watersheds have now been placed on punch-cards. The introduction of an " ownership atlas " has
greatly facilitated the work and represents an improvement in compiling forest resources.
RESEARCH.
Mensuration.
A three-man field crew carried out the periodic remeasurement of twenty permanent
yield study-plots located on the adjacent shores and small islands of Johnstone Strait.
Further compilations were made of the data collected in the course of the 1938 alder study
and the stand and site index tables are available on request.
SlLVICULTURAL  STUDIES.
Douglas Fir.—At the present stage of development of forest practice in British Columbia
one of the important problems is how to obtain natural regeneration following logging
in the Douglas fir region. Douglas fir is a relatively intolerant species and therefore
the new crop cannot be expected to begin growing until the old has been partially or completely removed. Should it so happen that at the time of cutting, or immediately preceding
it, the mature trees had borne little or no seed, the regeneration of the area must arise from
seed produced by marginal trees, or from individual or small clumps of trees scattered
throughout. It is therefore highly desirable that there be available information concerning
the periodicity, size, and quality of seed production to be expected. Cone-crops may fail over
large areas through:—
(1.)   Physiological disturbances in the trees caused by the effects of:—
(a.)  Rainy weather at the time of pollination:
(6.)   Large crops in preceding years depleting the amount of energy materials
stored for fruiting;  and
(c.)   Seasonal weather on the differentiation of buds into leaves or flowers.
(2.)   Biological losses, particularly when crops are subnormal, as:—
(a.)  The destruction of the seed by insects in the cone;   and
(b.)   The destruction of seed on the ground by mice and other rodents.
On one area, where observations have been continuous since 1929, there have been two
very poor, five poor, one fair, one good, and two excellent crops.    In other words, there have
been only three effective crops over a period of eleven seasons.    This factor of periodicity
assumes importance in the laying-out of logging operations, and it is anticipated that current FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939. E 17
studies will assist in the prediction of crops so that plans may be made to leave a given
source of seed-supply sufficiently long to serve its function.
The 1938 cone-crop of Douglas fir, hemlock, and cedar being better than average, an
opportunity was afforded to study the rate of regeneration when scattered seed-trees are
left after logging. Observations were made on three tracts on which an average of 1.3 to
3.5 Douglas fir seed-trees per acre were left standing after logging and slash-burning last
year. These trees produced from 800 to 7,000 cones which, upon maturing, disseminated
from about 11,000 to about 130,000 viable seeds. From 86 to 98 per cent, of this seed was
destroyed through the feeding activities of mice, birds, and various other causes, but in spite
of these depredations a sufficient number escaped to provide for the restocking of the area.
At the end of the 1939 growing season between 1,075 and 2,100 Douglas fir seedlings per
acre had survived. In addition, the reproduction of at least three other coniferous species
originated and varying numbers of hemlock, cedar, and grand fir seedlings, up to 1,410,
15,900, and 200 per acre respectively, had survived at the end of the summer. Judged by
present standards these areas may be regarded as satisfactorily stocked. Further mortality
may be expected, especially during the succeeding two or three years, but it is altogether
probable that these losses will be replaced by seedlings which will germinate in 1940 from the
seed produced by the fair crop of 1939.
A new study was initiated this .year when controlled experiments were started in an
attempt to determine, more precisely, the factors affecting the germination of Douglas fir
seed. To date, results indicate that soil temperature is important, whereas light, as such,
is relatively unimportant. On the basis of this experience, experiments which will determine
the favourable range of germination temperatures are now in progress. Observations of
the effect of germinating media are also being carried out; thus far any variation appears
to be closely related to the ability of the media to hold moisture during the critical periods of
germination.
Re-examinations were continued on the plots established to study seedling survival,
seasonal height-growth of young stands, seed-spotting, and the rate of natural regeneration
on cut-over land. At the present time there is being prepared a detailed report on the
factors influencing natural regeneration on logged and burned cut-over land of the Coast
forest types. It is expected that this manuscript will be ready for publication during the
coming year.
Hemlock.—In conjunction with the forest survey made this year in the area tributary
to Quatsino Sound, Vancouver Island, an opportunity was taken to make a preliminary
study of the reproduction of western hemlock and its associates, western red cedar, Sitka
spruce, and amabilis fir (balsam). The future importance of hemlock, especially as a potential and continuing source of pulp-wood, warranted an investigation of the condition of the
areas already logged and of the factors controlling the establishment of reproduction, in
order that proper silvicultural measures may be maintained as the need arises, to ensure the
productive state of cut-over land.
Exclusive of cuttings to satisfy the requirements of local residents, pulp-wood logging
has been in progress each year from 1917. Upon examination it was found that approximately 90 per cent, of the cut-over areas were satisfactorily stocked under present management standards. The general condition of the reproduction is good by comparison with other
forest regions.
Hemlock is the chief component of the reproduction, as it was in the original forest.
The strong inherent reproductive capacity of this species, together with the favourable
climatic conditions in the Quatsino area, are probably responsible for the satisfactory state
of regeneration. Moderate temperatures and a fairly abundant rainfall, which is not broken
by a critical summer drought period, tend to minimize initial seedling losses. Mortality rates
are ordinarily highest in the early years of life.
Hemlock, being a tolerant species with respect to light requirements, is capable of
reproducing under its own shade and actually many seedlings become established under the
old growth forests. Their number is reduced during the course of logging and some die
afterwards as a result of exposure. It was found that the proportion of reproduction established after logging to advanced regeneration increased with the number of years following
logging, and after ten years might amount to 75 per cent, of the total.
2 E 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
From the standpoint of securing the regeneration of a second crop in this area the old
forest may be removed either by clear-cutting, as under present logging practice, or by some
form of selection cutting, whereby the old forest is removed in successive stages. If the
clear-cutting system is continued, the individual areas opened up at any particular period
must not be too large, else there may be a partial failure in securing an adequate stocking
due to the marginal seed-supply being too far removed. One important advantage of the
clear-cutting system as against some form of selection system, is that it produces less limby
and better formed trees, owing to the even-aged condition of the stand. A forest of many
ages is produced by selection cuttings. High quality timber is, of course, desirable, whether
it is to be used for pulping purposes or for the production of lumber.
Owing to the low fire-hazard in the Quatsino territory, slash-disposal by burning has
not been practised, but several logged areas have been accidentally burned. Reproduction
was observed to be mostly satisfactory, but its establishment is delayed by several years.
Repeated fires may lead to very unsatisfactory conditions as expressed by low stocking of
reproduction and by deterioration of the site. Although logging debris may cover at least
50 per cent, of the areas immediately after logging, it does not appear to be a serious
impediment to regeneration, except in areas with very heavy accumulations, especially at
cold-deck sites and at home-tree landings. At these points burning might be advantageous.
Through decay, however, logging-slash is gradually reduced and after ten years seldom
covers more than 20 per cent, of the area.
Shrubs, especially where densely concentrated, tend to reduce the number or even
eliminate seedlings over small areas just as logging-slash does. The density of underbrush
increases with the years following logging. Although preventing the development of a uniformly closed stand of trees, it does not prohibit, except in small local areas, the development
of forests sufficiently stocked for our present stage in forest culture.
In 1907 large tracts of forests were wind-thrown and some of these areas were burned
over in the following year. More than 90 per cent, of the first condition is satisfactorily
stocked and an even higher percentage of the latter.
It is apparent, owing to the ease of securing reproduction and the prevailing high
growth rate, that the region is ideal for continuous forest production, comparing favourably
with the best areas elsewhere throughout the world. For the immediate future, silvicultural
studies are not dictated by any pressing problem, particularly by comparison with the
urgent need for research-work in other regions.
Soil-studies.—As reported last year, a detailed classification was made of the soils of
part of the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station. During the year the remainder of the area
was classified and further data gathered which point to site class being closely related to
the soil-moisture available during critical periods. Attention was also directed to the
development of a suitable method for obtaining continuous moisture measurements.
In co-operation with the Department of Agriculture, a soil-survey was made of 21,000
acres in the vicinity of Campbell River. Subsequently the latter Department classified the
area and designated 14,000 acres as absolute forest land and 7,000 acres as potentially arable.
The policy of making a soil-survey prior to planting has been adopted in connection
with all reforestation projects. Sixteen hundred acres north of the Campbell River and
west of Elk Falls were examined and about 95 per cent, of its area classed as forest land.
A second block of 3,100 acres, lying on the opposite bank of the river, was also recommended
for reforestation.
Cutting Plans.—During the past year, work of a co-operative nature has been carried
out with certain of the logging concerns on Vancouver Island, the aim being to institute
logging practice conducive to the greatest degree of natural regeneration possible under the
economic limitations involved. This represents a new type of project and lack of experience
or precedent has made it necessary to proceed slowly. No report is possible at this time,
since the activities to date have been merely preliminary to the main study.
Pathology.—Two members of the forest pathology staff, Dominion Department of Agriculture, were transferred from Ottawa to British Columbia for several months last summer.
Their work, for the most part, was of an exploratory nature in preparation for a programme
of research in the event that the Federal department establishes a permanent forest
pathology service in  this  Province.    Close  co-operation  existed between these officers  and FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939. E 19
the members of our research staff and some interesting data were gathered on a new root-
rot which causes rather serious damage in some of the immature Douglas fir stands on
Vancouver Island. Further study of this disease alone is urgent, since the pathologists did
not find it in similar stands on the Mainland, and it may very well be that a greater mixture
of coniferous tree species in those forests prevents the pathogene from spreading over an
appreciable area. -,--,-_ ^^-_m   „-
FIRE-CONTROL.
Fire Weather Studies.—This project was initiated several years ago, but an organized system of observations was not feasible until 1938, when, with the co-operation of the
field staff and the assistance of the Y.F.T.P., consistent records were started at strategic
points throughout the Province. Revision of technique and the location of recording stations
is still necessary in order that truly comparable records may be obtained. In the meantime
the Douglas fir belt of the Coast has proved an ideal experimental area, being compact and
offering better opportunities for keeping records than any other section of the Province.
The data from this region will prove invaluable in supplying the fundamental information
basic to studies of fire-control.
The origin of fires and their subsequent behaviour is influenced by numerous factors,
some of which cannot be measured directly. In this regard the experience of research
organizations in the United States was of assistance in directing our attention to those
factors for which reliable and consistent measures could be obtained. Daily records have
been kept for the minimum relative humidity, minimum fuel-moisture content (as registered
by the %-inch Douglas fir sticks), average afternoon wind movement, and condition of the
herbaceous vegetation. Of these factors, fuel-moisture proved to have the closest relationship to inflammability, as measured by fire origin. With a decrease in fuel-moisture, a
remarkably consistent increase in fire occurrence is evident throughout all Ranger Districts.
While relative humidity is admitted to have an effect upon fuel conditions, it has been found
that the occurrence of low humidity is in itself not necessarily an index of inflammability.
In addition, the serious fires that occurred while humidity was considered safe indicated that
this factor considered singly was inadequate as a measure of fire danger.
Having demonstrated an ability to measure dangerous conditions, the present problem
is to devise some means of predicting when such conditions will occur, and information is
now being gathered that will assist in the solution.
It appears possible that a relative index of the severity of a fire season may be obtained
by a summary of fuel-moisture content throughout the summer. For example, the 1938
season on the Coast and the 1939 season in Kamloops were both recognized as severe from
the standpoint of fire-suppression activity. Records show the mean minimum fuel-moisture
content throughout the summer to be 9.2 and 9.3 per cent, for the 1938 Coast and 1939
Kamloops seasons respectively. By comparison, the 1939 figure for the Coast is approximately 13 per cent., and this was reflected in a much more favourable fire season.
Detection Planning.—A two-year study of conditions in the Vancouver Forest District
culminated in a revised network of primary lookouts designed to directly control the high-
risk areas along the Coast. Changing conditions rendered it necessary to abandon four
established lookouts and to recommend nine new points, of which six are already in use and
buildings erected. It is anticipated that, under normal visibility conditions, the system will
give early reports on at least 85 per cent, of the fires originating in this area. The remainder
generally occur in such a scattered fashion that the additional expense of adding further
lookouts for their detection could not be justified at present. Reduced visibility due to the
smoke haze created by large fires is of extreme importance, and the problem is now being
studied with the object of projecting a network of strategically placed secondary lookouts to
supplement the primary system during such periods.
A similar study was started in the Nelson District and two fieldmen mapped the areas
directly visible to all existing lookout stations as well as potential sites. From these maps
a final network will be chosen which will control the greatest possible area, with particular
attention being given to centres of high risk. An analysis of past fires is being made,
during the course of which the point 'of origin of each fire is plotted on a map and the
approximate time of detection recorded. From these data it will be possible to determine in
which areas the detection system has been unsatisfactory, and reference to the visible area
maps will indicate the points which would best be able to correct the deficiency. E 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The combination of severe lightning and man-caused risks in the Nelson District renders
the problem rather more difficult than elsewhere in the Province. A more flexible type of
system is necessary and, in addition to a network of primary stations to control the human
agency risk, provision must be made, at the approach of lightning activity, to expand the
system rapidly by means of numerous secondary points in order that the earliest possible
information on fire origin may be obtained.
Lookout Photography.—One of the more recent developments in forest-protection technique has been the use of controlled photographs for lookout points. A modern survey
camera with a few special adaptations is used for this work. Eight views are taken, each
including a horizontal angle of 50 degrees, so that the full panorama is completed with an
overlap of 5 degrees per photograph. These views are enlarged and an angular grid is
photographically superimposed. Thus, when the lookout-man reports a fire by azimuth and
vertical angle, the forest officer can pick up the photograph and see at a glance the location
of the fire and the adjacent forest conditions.
One man was assigned to this work during the summer of 1939 and eighteen stations
were completed, bringing the total number of lookouts so equipped throughout the Province
to forty-four. The lookouts photographed to date in the various Forest Districts are as
follows:—
Vancouver:    *Alberni,   Bainbridge,   Bruce,   Benson,   *Courtenay,   Cowichan   Lake,
Langford,  Little  Mountain,   Matheson,  Pocahontas,  Rosewall,   Sonora,   South
Texada, and Upper Campbell.
Kamloops:   *Baldie, B.X., *Fadear, *Granite, *Lolo, *Mara, and Sugar.
Nelson:   Beaver, Casey, Caven, Goat, Glory, Lavina, Lindsay, MM No. 20, Moyie,
Saddle, Swansea, and Thompson.
Prince George:   *Churchill, *Dome, *Fraser, *Longworth, *McBride, *Mouse, *Pilot,
*Pope, and *Sinkut.
Prince Rupert:   *Boer and *Black.
* Indicates 1939 photography.
REFORESTATION.
Nurseries.—The Green Timbers nursery attained its full capacity this year, when 650
seed-beds were sown and 6,000,000 trees brought through their first growing season. The
cold, backward weather during the latter part of May and the month of June retarded
growth to such an extent that germination did not get fully under way until early in July.
Thereafter growing conditions were most favourable and, by the end of the season, the
seedlings had reached normal size. In addition, approximately 1,200,000 trees were weeded
and cultivated during their second season, ready for planting in the spring of 1940.
At Campbell River the development of the new nursery went forward rapidly. The
land was ditched, levelled, and cultivated preparatory to the sowing of seed-beds in the spring
of 1940. Improvements consisted of the construction of a 20,000-gallon reservoir and the
installation of pipe for the sprinkling system.
Planting.—The planting programme was the largest ever conducted, and 1,014,300 trees
were planted on 1,118 acres at various points on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland.
This brings the total to date, for the number of trees and acres planted, to 1,923,200 and
2,309 respectively.
The ownership status of t
he reforests
ition proje
_ts to date
is as folio
ws:—
Status.
Previously planted.
1939 Projects.
Totals to
Date.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Trees (in
Thousands).
Acres.
Crown lands—
528.6
287.5
55.8
37.0
Nil
473.1
605.0
76.3
37.0
NU
72.6
816.6
99.4
5.0
20.7
28.6
948.0
116.0
5.0
20.0
601.2
1,104.1
155.2
42.0
20.7
501.7
1,553.0
Private companies    .
Community forests   	
Private planting (including farm
192.3
42.0
20.0
908.9
1,191.4
1,014.3
1,117.6
1,923.2
2,309.0 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 21
Seed Collections.—The current cone-crop of Douglas fir, western hemlock, western red
cedar, and lowland fir on the south-eastern portion of Vancouver Island and the Lower
Fraser Valley was better than average, but probably not quite as good as in 1938. On the
Queen Charlotte Islands the crop of Sitka spruce was above average.
Current collections were about half as large as a year ago and, due to a delay in completing the process of seed extraction, it is possible to report only the quantities of cones
collected.    The details are as follows:—
Species.
Douglas fir 	
Hemlock   ..	
Red cedar 	
Number of Bushels
of Cones.
  2,163
        38
        10
Lowland fir
Total.
52
2,263
PUBLICATIONS.
During the past year, articles have been prepared for publication as follows:—
(1.)   Plotting Vertical Air Photographs by Radial Intersection, by W. Hall.
Spruce Regeneration in British Columbia, by F. S. McKinnon.
Mechanical Tabulation of Forest Data, by H. J. Hodgins.
Nursery Practice at the Green Timbers Nursery, by T. Wells.
FOREST BRANCH LIBRARY.
(2.)
(3.)
(4.)
Up to 1937.
1938.
1939.
Totals.
168
2,004
501
118
405
87
28
218
83
314
2,627
Pamphlets, etc.. 	
671
Totals	
2,673
610
329
3,612
54
12,000
54
3,277
56
3,343
18,620 E 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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3   H FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 23
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the Province.
Product.
1933.
1934.
1938.
Ten-year
Average,
1930-39.
Lumber.	
Pulp and paper..
Shingles 	
Boxes	
Doors	
$15,457,000
10,852,000
4,500,000
1,313,000
Piles,   poles,   and   mine-
props	
Cordwood,   fence-posts,
and lagging  —
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using
industry.— 	
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported	
Pulp-wood exported	
Christmas trees	
1,850,000
250,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
2,228,000
55,000
$20,377,000
12,373,000
4,375,000
1,632,000
487,000
1,335,000
485,000
1,320,000
1,100,000
1,931,000
46,000
$24,094,000
12,414,000
8,750,000
1,720,000
1,693,000
810,000
1,453,000
764,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
2,820,000
23,000
$36,160,000
14,950,000
7,800,000
1,629,000
2,718,000
1,434,000
1,489,000
623,000
1,350,000
1,200,000
2,646,000
11,000
$40,638,000
17,214,000
6,875,000
2,122,000
2,971,000
2,346,000
1,459,000
560,000
$36,296,000
11,066,000
6,875,000
1,964,000
1,353,000
1,615,000
1,455,000
560,000
1,500,000| 1,400,000
I
1,400,000| 1,300,000
3,782,000| 3,238,000
5,0001	
I
$50,379,000
16,191,000
8,560,000
2,039,000j
737,000!
$28,626,000
13,625,000
5,742,000
1,712,000
947,000
1,556,000]     1,665,000
1,495,0001    1,511,000
360,000]        640,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
3,852,000
11,000
141,000
Totals .
$39,155,000
$45,461,000
$56,941,000
$72,010,000[$80,872,000[$67,122,000
$88,221,000
1,432,000
1,263,000
2,709,000
26,000
14,000
$59,912,000
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
Ten-year
Average,
1930-39.
237,107
23,492
267,406
26,777
262,123
33,287
276,710
41,443
264,136
53,026
179,639
39,348
216,542
50,870
236,120
33,045
In addition to 249,000 tons of pulp manufactured into paper in the Province, 82,500 tons
were shipped out of the Province during the year.
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1938-39
(in F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1938.
1939.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Gain.
2,304,440,326
112,341,760
2,922,200,904
119,445,737
2,416,782,086
3,041,646,641
624,864,555
18,603,310
64,608,831
137,319,569
141,720,202
15,347,454
65,837,166
128,974,499
103,089,806
Totals, Interior	
362,251,912
313,248,925
49,002,987
2,779,033,998
3,354,895,566
575,861,568 E 24
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II FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 27
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
844
312
388
765
461
1
9
1,038
87
189
469
285
1,883
408
577
1,234
746
4,359
1,390
835
Kamloops	
2,692
2,019
Totals, 1939   	
2,770
10
2,068
4,848
11,295
Totals, 1938 ,„■.„.
2,674
23
1,804
4,501
10,828
Totals, 1937   	
2,404
46
1,932
4,382
11,507
Totals, 1936...	
2,354
35
1,883
4,272
11,138
Totals, 1935	
2,074
59
1,660
3,793
10,081
Totals, 1934	
1,603
87
1,546
3,236
9,486
Totals, 1933   _... ', 	
1,237
67
1,425
2,729
8,121
Totals, 1932       •  	
1,124
37
1,316
2,477
7,273
Totals, 1931-	
1,562
92
1,675
3,329
8,969
Totals, 1930   	
1,932
100
1,862
3,894
8,859
Ten-year average, 1930-39  	
1,973
55
1,717
3,746
9,755
Trespasses.
0J
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u
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tu a
Quantity cut.
B
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QJ    .
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Forest District.
S
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QJ
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76
10
34
35
54
220
33
98
124
96
4,774,926
845,280
178,442
559,512
547,108
21,070
23,958
18,990
27,965
2,835
2,004
149
451
392
151
829
108
2,402
1,767
100
7,073
7
1
18
$10,297.16
1,191.43
70
1,050
38,536
714.75
1,646.26
3,875.40
Totals, 1939       -	
209*
571
6,905,268
94,818
3,147
5,206
46,729
26
$17,725.00
Totals, 1938	
149
816
4,309,030
203,195
3,014
1,185
7,530
10
$9,653.86
Totals, 1937	
156
1,147
8,239,813
143,860
1,607
2,132
35,017
7
$17,439.52
Totals, 1936..-	
153
501
2,067,130
75,272
1,632
2,452
13
$5,243.00
Totals, 1935 	
121
555
3,043,486
50,965
1,283
14,078
3
$6,077.58
Totals, 1934 - —	
101
720
3,270,608
30,555
1,385
4,825
6
$5,401.05
Totals, 1933 	
70
155
1,578,108
41,689
1,413
3,807
2
$2,727.81
Totals, 1932-	
95
368
767,896
35,484
2,140
9,265
14
$3,490.84
Totals, 1931	
84
397
1,579,465
118,704
1,048
12,425
2
$5,633.68
Totals, 1930  ,,	
96
1,000
969,351
165,729
1,457
9,612
4
$7,534.01
Ten-year average, 1930-39	
123
623
3,273,015
96,027
1,812
6,498
	
9
$8,092.63
* Christmas-tree cutting largely responsible for increase. E 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Pre-emption Inspection.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are :■—
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert       153
Fort George 	
Kamloops 	
Nelson  ,	
Totals
1939.
Average, Ten Yrs
1930-39.
316
335
153
213
520
659
667
711
154
171
1,810
2,089
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1939.
Forest District.
Applications for
Hay and Grazing
Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Application to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Vancouver— -  	
No.
2
5
9
39
3
Acres.
106.0
760.0
1,200.0
6,394.6
920.0
No.
8
5
13
38
2
Acres.
498.2
676.0
1,828.0
5,016.6
241.0
No.
38
15
6
31
10
Acres.
2,616.20
2,012.96
808.00
3,080.50
1,247.50
No.
46
9
20
39
15
Acres.
1,716.78
563 80
1,690.10
4,597.30
Totals	
58
9,380.6
66
8,259.8
100
9,765.16
139      I   10 480 RR
Classification of Areas examined, 1939.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
4,937.00
4,012.76
5,526.10
19,089.00
4,321.40
Acres.
1,748.45
1,504.40
3,153.10
6,226.30
770.90
Acres.
3,188.55
2,508.36
2,373.00
12,862.70
3,550.50
Acres.
181
222
148
M.B.M.
1 790 0
2,844.4
Totals	
37,886.26
13,403.15
24,483.11
551
5,460.4 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 29
Areas cruised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-           Poles and
timber             Piles
(M.B.M.).  (Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-ties
(No.).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
400
211
173
372
168
55,131
34,492
22,052
65,862
35,057
214,011
99,520
30,708
65,015
61,406
388,330
1,060,950
262,420
2,739,335
565,910
23,676
3,982
10,671
16,753
12,996
9,730
65,660
84,323
147,054
33,099
Prince Rupert	
18,000
28,800
Nelson.	
214,300
Totals, 1939	
1,324
212,594
470,660
5,016,945
68,078
339,866
261,100
Totals, 1938	
1,486
325,403
482,680
5,747,765
126,329
804,240
169,900
Totals, 1937	
1,471
278,386
633,216
9,658,000
140,820
753,408
160,450
Totals, 1936	
1,415
252,035
464,402
8,535,045
148,606
1,083,746
63,200
Totals, 1935	
1,319
238,952
398,884
5,674,908
114,753
1,164,454
74,700
Totals, 1934	
1,331
223,391
356,264
2,856,619
80,101
1,235,766
73,766
Totals, 1933	
942
169,831
186,418
1,620,112
95,233
549,976
174,861
Totals, 1932	
875
144,769
202,421
1,759,905
68,414
488,655
69,900
Totals, 1931	
818
145,214
297,825
2,629,054
62,680
664,413
142,400
Totals, 1930.	
943
197,065
526,261
10,345,822
26,431
731,640
620,100
Ten-year average,
1930-39
1,192
218,764
401,903
5,384,417
93,144
781,616
181,037 E 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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W  Jh FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 31
Average Sale Price foe Species.
Sawn Timber.
Figures fok 1939.
Figures for
1938.
Ten-year Average,
1930-39.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
122,764,000
81,732,000
105,016,000
57,765,000
26,427,000
8,203,000
18,644,000
19,851,000
2,375,000
$1.49
1.46
1.19
.76
.75
2.09
1.51
.86
.97
154,698,000
58,274,000
57,770,000
69,193,000
19,988,000
6,608,000
20,709,000
22,041,000
6,466,000
$1.46
1.17
1.32
.72
.70
2.05
1.48
.86
.82
994,893,000
388,845,000
492,517,000
500,475,000
164,115,000
64,440,000
158,136,000
81,346,000
67,536,000
$1.29
1.20
1.29
.75
.76
1.85
1.43
.90
.84
Totals 	
442,777,000
$1.25
415,747,000
$1.21
2,912,303,000
$1.15
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1939.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
Xmas
Trees.
Hop-
poles.
Car-
stakes.
238,725,715
26,566,706
46,273,937
36,589,140
38,841,790
570,653
1,552,785
552,273
3,852,774
1,141,080
39,107.62
1,123.50
3,984.03
10,373.57
7,917.40
9,106
91,439
94,395
158,952
81,720
1,050
17,337
6,312
45,167
145,591
585
131
203
9,187
30,272
550
Totals, 1939   ,.
386,997,288
7,639,565
62,506.12
435,611
215,457
39,662
585
681
Totals, 1938	
334,981,454
8,223,100
57,340.70
648,646
175,306
58,354
-—
Totals, 1937
384,628,267
8,603,582
49,980.91
724,483
197,859
Totals, 1936	
286,001,433
5,241,658
62,762.82
813,764
154,630
Totals, 1935 	
193,788,636
3,540,576
38,438.36
851,342
149,959
Totals, 1934	
199,895,549
1,694,470
36,209.24
503,266
84,312
Totals, 1933	
122,275,912
1,337,497
35,840.62
212,824
164,586
Ten-year average, 1930-39	
252,842,785
5,552,161
40,640.08
645,177
181,629 E 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Forest District.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
Vancouver  	
180
44
43
104
90
8,539
569
611
959
1,020
69
3
5
7
7,720
40
41
125
34
17
26
47
23
778
102
215
265
547
17
1
3
3
400
15
Kamloops 	
Nelson  	
77
45
Totals, 1939	
461
11,698
84
7,926
147
1,907
24
537
Totals, 1938	
481
12,159
88
8,184
126
1,406
19
315
Totals, 1937	
434
11,042
80
9,124
131
1,685
16
402
Totals, 1936 	
410
11,401
86
8,859
122
1,699
10
315
Totals, 1935	
384
9,822
93
8,492
96
1,962
16
1,231
Totals, 1934	
349
9,152
82
7,311
129
2,999
13
1,228
Totals, 1933	
296
8,715
78
7,325
134
3,632
22
1,652
Totals, 1932	
293
7,641
45
6,813
139
4,621
13
1,470
Totals, 1931 	
334
10,167
46
7,470
158
4,109
19
1,871
Totals, 1930	
301
11,020
43'
7,164
141
3,204        i      17
1,695
Ten-year average,
1930-39	
374
10,282
73
7,867
132
'[
2,722         j       17
1
1,072 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 33
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.).
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir                    	
4,079,524
2,124,471
179,403
73,906,874
25,917,327
11,214,201
117,397
31,063,580
21,743,805
13,660,598
402,899
109,049,978
49,785,603
25,054,202
116,687,953
9,521,796
1,831,132
46,000
236,502
520,296
116,687,953
9,521,796
1,831,132
Lodgepole pine 	
46,000
236,502
Totals, 1939       	
6,383,398
111,155,799
66,870,882
128,323,383
312,733,462*
Totals, 1938   --
4,386,370
98,637,490
74,650,653
81,998,569
259,673,082
Totals, 1937	
4,924,298
114,991,217
66,611,218
83,947,361
270,474,094
Totals, 1936 - -
4,028,567
107,007,342
49,061,362
58,731,564
218,828,835
Totals, 1935	
8,766,098
129,029,692
56,979,194
40,516,782
235,291,766
Totals, 1934	
10,489,155
89,831,736
43,416,151
28,998,709
172,735,751
Totals, 1933	
16,941,207
119,089,573
59,215,094
13,694,960
208,940,834
Totals, 1932  	
18,572,020
87,223,114
44,380,166
15,589,383
165,764,683
Totals, 1931  	
12,886,187
106,331,594
51,909,961
49,048,420
220,176,162
Totals, 1930  	
11,571,481
86,502,990
40,147,841
34,696,715
172,919,027
Ten-year average, 1930-39	
9,894,878
104,980,055
55,324,252
53,554,584
223,753,769
* Of this total, 284,556,885 F.B.M. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege;   28,176,577
F.B.M. were exported under permit from other areas. E 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Forest District.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Vancouver-
Piles                                     	
  No.
 No.
Prince Rupert—
Hewn railway-ties , 	
 _ No.
  ..No.
Fort George—■
Poles _ _          	
Hewn railway-ties _	
 No.
 No.
Kamloops—
 No.
No.
 No.
Nelson—
 _.._ No.
 _ No.
No.
Total value for 1939   	
Total value for 1938 .
2,936,940
460
1,589
6
850
190,062
1,735,189
23,979
22,104
369,855
149
75,353
33,312
84
18
8,032
6,817,000
274,000
98,700
6,671
500,000
1,802,509
65,634
3,058
5,946
45
79
109,255
1,064,921
$293,700
55
11,123
54
43
15,205
158,815
11,409
5,526
29,588
894
32,452
2,665
672
108
642
816,000
123,300
7,900
350
40,000
180,250
3,937
24,464
47,568
202
355
54,630
85,193
$1,947,100
2,936,940
460
1,589
6
850
190,062
1,025,979
256,180
6,910
18
1,032
5,882,000
500,000
1,755,694
18,473
696
1,015,290
709,210
23,979
22,104
113,675
149
75,353
26,402
84
935,000
274,000
98,700
6,671
46,815
47,161
3,058
5,250
45
79
109,255
49,631
$1,698,798 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 35
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued.
1936.
1937.
1938.
1939.
267
85
102
285
73
5
17
13
1,443
11
5
2
2
298
86
129
282
69
3
9
18
1,451
4
1
1
1
258
103
124
272
59
9
6
1,501
3
6
1
198
Crown grants, 1887-1906                                                	
91
Crown grants, 1906-1914	
103
259
61
3
16
6
1,479
1
2
2
Totals                                                                                	
2,310
264
2,352
339
2,342
321
2,221
316
Draughting Office, Forest Branch, 1939.
Number of Tracings made.
Blue-prints
Month.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-     ! Examination
marks.       i     Sketches.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
from
Reference
Maps.
January   -	
February 	
March	
April  	
29
20
24
14
11
19
17
25
8
24
17
23
103
105
118
73
67
88
95
55
56
55
53
75
31
29
32
13
30
28
39
23
13
73
63
34
15
24
21
27
9
25
31
26
10
10
49
22
178
178
195
127
117
160
182
129
87
162
182
154
10
11
9
1
7
July	
9
4
September  - -
3
1
5
4
Totals	
231
943             1            408
269
1,851 E 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Crown-granted Timber Lands.
Area of Private
Timber Lands
Year. (Acres).
1921   845,111
1922   887,980
1923   883,344
1924   654,668
1925   654,016
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
688,372
690,438
671,131
644,011
629,156
602,086
552,007
567,731
1934   557,481
1935   535,918
1936   515,924
1937   743,109
1938   754,348
1939   719,112
Average
Assessed Value
per Acre.
$10.33
11.99
11.62
15.22
40.61
39.77
39.01
38.62
38.41
44.74
43.77
43.73
41.18
37.25
37.13
36.61
23.32
23.05
22.73
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1939.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1938.
Average
Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value
per Acre
since 1938.
70,534
107,879
90,748
26,942
328
9,024
2,595
97,363
3,277
629
12,083
22,468
37,345
199,212
1,074
37,611
— 7,254
— 21,738
— 2,550
— 12,799
*
— 464
*
+ 7,340
— 53
*
— 314
— 110
*
*
— 400
+ 3,106
$45.37
30.59
36.69
5.52
14.99
4.48
7.91
33.31
6.05
5.03
18.32
17.24
13.91
2.16
33.63
38.43
— $0.02
+ 1.95
—  1.34
Fort Steele                              	
+  0.47
1 23
Kettle Eiver                    	
*
Nanaimo ...
— 3.26
Omineca    	
*
*
*
Victoria.— - - 	
— 1.04
Totals	
719,112
—35,236
$22.73
— $0.32
* No change. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939. E 37
FINANCE.
An awakening interest in forest conservation and administrative problems throughout
Canada during the past few years has brought a number of inquiries to the Service regarding
revenue and expenditures on forest account. The accounting systems of the Service have
developed over a period of some twenty-eight years and have, to some extent at least, been
dictated by circumstances. In spite of the fact that all the necessary details are published
in this report each year, it is difficult for interested parties to compile a complete statement
of income and expenditure without some guidance from the Forest Service itself. To remove
this disability the following explanations are made for guidance in this respect hereafter.
The Forest Branch reports its revenue and expenditure in six different sets of accounts,
which will be found in tables or statements immediately following this section, under the
undernoted headings: —
(1.)  Forest Revenue.
(2.)   Forest Expenditure.
(3.)   Scaling Fund.
(4.)   Forest Reserve Account.
(5.)   Grazing Range Improvement Fund.
(6.)  Forest Protection Fund.
Forest Revenue.
See tables, " Forest Revenue." In these four tables are shown in detail by fiscal and
calendar years what the Service considers to be all direct forest income. These sums are
turned in to the Consolidated Fund and their total constitutes the figure used by the Service
in all reports and publications as " Total Forest Revenue." Timber-land Tax is collected by
the Finance Department. It is shown as a separate item in this report but is not considered
to be direct forest revenue. In addition, there accrues to the Government sums derived from
the Forest Protection Tax and from Scaling fees payable to the Scaling Fund, and to these
special funds may accrue small sums from such sources as the sale of outworn equipment.
Scaling fees and Forest Protection Tax are dealt with below.
Forest Expenditure.
See table, "Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year "    This table shows:—
(a.)  The amounts actually spent by the Service from sums voted by the Legislature
for administrative  purposes  under the headings  Salaries,  Temporary Assistance, Expenses, Reconnaissance, Forest Research, Reforestation:
(6.)   Sum total of grant in aid of the Canadian Forestry Association:
(c.)  Sum total of statutory contribution to the Grazing Range Improvement Fund,
the Forest Protection Fund, and to the Forest Reserve Account.
The total of this tabulation is the figure used by the Service for total expenditure in all
reports.    It does not include scaling costs or certain protection costs, and does not show actual
expenditures from the Forest Protection Fund, Grazing Range Improvement Fund, or the
Forest Reserve Account, all of which are explained below.
Scaling Fund.
See statement, " Scaling Fund," starting annual report, 1938.
The Scaling Fund is used to defray the cost of " official scaling " on the Coast. It is
derived from a fee per thousand feet of logs scaled and the fee is adjusted from time to time
to make income balance with expenditure. It is collected to carry on a specific service and is
not considered to be either income or expenditure and does not appear either in statements of
Forest Revenue or Expenditure.
Forest Reserve Account.
See statement, " Forest Reserve Account." The Forest Reserve Account consists of an
annual contribution from Consolidated Revenue of the Province in an amount equal to
3 per cent, of the gross receipts for the year from timber royalty or tax and stumpage. It is
used for certain specific purposes as provided by statute. The total annual contribution is
shown in the statement of Forest Expenditure.    A small credit balance is always maintained E 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
in the Forest Reserve Account and actual expenditures for the year will never exactly equal
this sum accruing.    For exact expenditures see statement of account.    So far as the Public
Accounts of the Province are concerned, the total contribution is the sum spent.    For Forest
Service purposes it would be somewhat more correct to use the sum actually spent from the
Reserve Account. „ _. __
Grazing Range Improvement Fund.
See statement, " Grazing Range Improvement Fund." This fund is set up by statute.
It consists of a sum equal to one-third of the Grazing fees collected each year, plus some minor
sums from such sources as the sale of wild horses. Explanations with regard to the Forest
Reserve Account apply equally to the Grazing Range Improvement Fund.
Forest Protection Fund.
jS-_ statement, " Standing of Forest Protection Fund, December 31st,  ," and table,
" Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st,  "
The Forest Protection Fund is made up of a statutory contribution from Consolidated
Revenue, the receipts from the Forest Protection Tax, and a few minor sums from such
sources as rentals and sale of outworn equipment.
The Government contribution is shown as an expenditure, in the table of expenditures.
The Forest Protection Tax receipts are not shown in the table of revenue, and protection
expenditures over and above the Government contributions (which presumably must be paid
from tax receipts) are not shown in the table of expenses which purports to be total Forest
Branch expenditures. These details can be secured from the Forest Protection Fund
accounting.
The following example is given of a statement of all Forest Service collections and
expenditures as explained above:—■
Collections, Fiscal Year 1938-39.
" Forest Revenue "   $2,982,702.42
Scaling Fund   140,967.08
Range Improvement Fund  212.00
Forest Protection Tax  178,235.52
Forest Protection Miscellaneous   9,763.41
$3,311,880.33
Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1938-39.
Expenses   (table,  " Forest  Expenditure,"  less  sums  paid to
Trust Accounts)   $413,142.05
Scaling Fund .  147,991.85
Forest Reserve Account   61,769.19
Range Improvement Fund  6,483.04
Forest Protection   1,019,023.88
$1,648,410.01
" Total " Forest Revenue for the fiscal year 1938-39, as detailed in the accompanying
tabulation, is $274,823   (8.4 per cent.)   less than the previous year, all of which could be
accounted for in the single item of Royalty.
Gain. Loss.
Leases      $4,356 	
Licences      55,955 	
Royalty  ..     .. $302,587
Tax        2,070 	
Trespass       8,929
Dominion berths        2,969 	
■ Timber-sales       22,745
Grazing       7,168
Miscellaneous   J       1,256 	
$66,606 $341,429
Balance      274,823 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939. E 39
Loss in Royalty, in turn, is accounted for in a falling-off of more than 226 million feet
in the log-scale during the fiscal year 1938-39.
Total log-scale— Feet.
Fiscal year 1937-38   3,027,460,045
Fiscal year 1938-39   2,801,163,720
226,296,325
The loss in log-scale was due largely to an extremely severe fire season in 1938 and to
unfavourable logging conditions during the first three months of 1939 (the last three months
of the fiscal year) and is of little significance. The scale for the calendar year 1939 shows
a healthy increase of 575,861,568 feet over 1938.
Sums received from the various principal sources of revenue show little change. Royalty
maintains its place of first importance. Timber licences continue to wane and timber-sales
to slowly increase.
Collections continue satisfactory at a little better than 99 per cent, of the sums charged. E 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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FOREST REVENUE.
Fiscal Year 1938-39.
Ten-year Average.
Timber-licence rentals   $594,907.74 $605,806.00
Timber-licence transfer fees   1,245.00 1,427.00
Timber-licence penalty fees   40,023.24 31,655.00
Hand-loggers' licence fees   650.00 1,242.00
Timber-lease rentals   65,329.73 66,973.00
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest  1,747.87 924.00
Timber-sale rentals  '. .... 26,213.45 20,800.00
Timber-sale stumpage  ,.  537,965.25 418,428.00
Timber-sale cruising   8,949.11 6,775.00
Timber-sale advertising   1,451.25 1,050.00
Timber royalty   1,578,005.28 1,376,571.00
Timber tax   66,315.99 78,230.00
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)   531.68 566.00
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)  250.43 111.00
Trespass penalties   10,333.43 7,145.00
Scalers' examination fees  425.00 206.00
Exchange   185.09 251.00
Seizure expenses  513.26 969.00
General miscellaneous   3,336.30 3,110.00
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees  26,804.91 24,365.00
Interest on timber-berth rentals   563.41 258.00
Transfer fees on timber berths  39.03 71.00
Grazing fees and interest ,  16,915.97 14,825.00
$2,982,702.42 $2,661,758.00
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands        241,109.96 313,922.00
Total revenue from forest sources  $3,223,812.38 $2,975,680.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.                                          E 43
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST EXPENDITURE, FISCAL YEAR 1938-39.
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Assistance.
Expenses.
Total.
$60,625.89
22,901.65
17,711.63
40,384.62
32,602.15
77,448.05
$48,988.34
19,756.01
6,109.35
16,714.42
12,344.88
14,581.25
$109,614.23
42,657.66
23,820.98
57,099.04
44,947.0'3
$966.97
92,996.27
Totals          	
$251,673.99
$966.97
$118,494.25
$371,135.21
4,000.00
9,077.62
13,999.57
14,929.65
7,308.07
440,000.00
61,769.19
$922,219.31
* Contributions to special funds detailed elsewhere.
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1938	
Collections, fiscal year 1938-39	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1938-39...
Balance, March 31st, 1939  (debit).
Balance, April 1st, 1939 (debit)	
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1939.
Expenditures, 9 months to December 31st, 1939
Balance, December 31st, 1939 (credit)	
$5,577.59
140,967.08
$146,544.67
147,991.85
$1,447.18
$1,447.18
129,771.24
$128,324.06
112,042.28
$16,281.78
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1938	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1938	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1938-39.
Balance, March 31st, 1939  (credit)	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1939   (under subsection (2), section 32), " Forest Act "	
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32
Expenditures, 9 months to December 31st, 1939 ._
$30,196.36
74,907.62
$105,103.98
61,769.19
$43,334.79
65,388.29
$108,723.08
51,844.11
Balance, December 31st, 1939 (credit)         $56,878.97 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 45
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND.
  $10,332.79
Balance, April 1st, 1938 (credit)
Government contribution 	
Other receipts 	
$7,308.07
212.00
Expenditures, April 1st, 1938, to March 31st, 1939..
Balance, March 31st, 1939 (credit)	
Collections, April 1st to December 31st, 1939.
Expenditures, April 1st to December 31st, 1939.
Balance, December 31st, 1939  (credit)	
7,520.07
$17,852.86
6,483.04
$11,369.82
5,654.31
$17,024.13
7,783.81
$9,240.32
STANDING OF FOREST PROTECTION FUND,
DECEMBER 31st, 1939.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1938	
Expenditure, April 1st, 1938, to March 31st, 1939.
$62,592.78
.   1,019,023.88
$1,081,616.66
Collections, tax  $178,235.42
Collections, miscellaneous         9,763.41
Government contribution      440,000.00
627,998.83
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1939.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1939	
  $453,617.83
 .  $453,617.83
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1939  394,573.69
Refundable to votes, 9 months, April-December, 1939 (approximately)    126,000.00
Collections, tax 	
Collections, miscellaneous
Government contributions
Balance (deficit), December 31st, 1939..
$189,175.99
44,283.53
375,000.00
$974,191.52
608,459.52
$365,732.00
Estimated and Known Costs of Forest Protection to other Agencies, 1939.
est District.
Expenditures.
For
Tools and
Equipment.
Improvements.
Patrol.
Fire-
fighting.
Total.
$46,623.00
159.00
$1,350.00
$53,424.00
$22,276.00
27.00
381.00
2,436.00
8,541.00
$123,673.00
186.00
381.00
2,436.00
11,500.00
3,240.00
23,281.00
Totals            	
$58,282.00
$1,350.00
$56,664.00
$33,661.00
$149,957.00
1938  	
Totals,
$75,189.00
$600.00
$65,677.00
$401,422.00
$542,888.00 E 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1939.
Districts.
Patrols
and Fire
Prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$124,583.19
26,153.88
31,363.20
75,663.62
78,886.11
65,724.67*
$47,804.20
5,137.91
7,738.51
13,519.56
19,539.99
10,063.20
$292,629.51
17,182.14
17,913.73
82,034.41
84,662.89
$4,876.71
3,648.40
3,082.75
2,920.27
3,895.03
$469,893.61
52,122.33
60,098.19
174,137.86
186,984.02
75,787.87
Totals —     	
S402.374.fi7     1     15103.803.37
$494,422.68
$18,423.16
$1,019,023.88
* This included purchase and maintenance of trucks, tractors, etc., for use by Forest Development Projects for
which rental was charged.
FOREST PROTECTION.
After the previous abnormal year, 1939 was close to average from a fire-occurrence
standpoint. Total fires were about equal to the ten-year average prior to 1939, but slightly
higher if averaged to include 1939. Fire-fighting costs were more than the ten-year average,
while total damage was well below.
A brief review of the weather conditions shows, as usual, the reason for the kind of fire
season experienced.
Opening with a long, dry spring in most districts, with some high hazard in places, the
fire occurrence in April and May was well over average. This dry spell was broken by
plenteous and continued rain from early June until the middle of July, after which the hazard
increased steadily through August. As usual the fire-hazard was mostly over after the first
week in September.
The above history is illustrated in the table of fire occurrence by months shown hereafter.
It will be noticed that during the months of April, May, and August the fire occurrence was
greater than normal and in June, July, and September -was less.
Lightning has been consistently the most prolific single cause of forest fires over the past
ten years and 1939 was no exception. Similarly the Nelson Forest District is regularly hit
hardest by lightning, and this year an increase from that cause in that district- accounted for
most of the increase in number of fires over the ten-year average. The importance of lightning as a cause of forest fires comes from the facts that it is usually unexpected and it strikes
more often than otherwise in places difficult of access and usually in many places in the one
day, witness August 25th, with ninety-seven lightning fires reported in the Nelson District.
Of the other causes of forest fires as listed for 1939, only smokers and miscellaneous
(known) showed an increase over the ten-year average.
Approximately 70 per cent, of the 1939 fires were human-caused and therefore preventable, whether from legitimate industrial use or carelessness on the public's part. During the
year the usual public relations activities were carried out with a view to teaching the need
of care with fire. Realizing that careful habits can most easily be made permanent in the
young, emphasis has been placed on contact with the school children and youth groups
through distribution of material, lectures, motion pictures, and help to teachers and leaders.
An innovation was a series of cartoon animal stories carried in two of the larger daily papers.
Designed for children they have been received enthusiastically.
The adult group has not been neglected and has been reached through advertising in
newspapers and periodicals, lectures, and moving pictures. The co-operation of commercial
companies was again generous in carrying forest-protection propaganda on merchandise
labels, letter and bill heads. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and many local stations
co-operated generously with timely announcements.
Prevention of accidental fires arising from legitimate industrial use of forest areas
requires both educational and regulative activity. The former is kept up continuously by
the personnel of the Forest Service through personal contact with those using the forest
areas, with gratifying results. At the same time, it is necessary to see that all regulations
with regard to safety devices and precautions are obeyed. During 1939 the efficiency of
inspection was improved but, because of failure by some few individuals to comply with FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939. E 47
safety rules, it was necessary to conduct several prosecutions. However, the total number
of cases was considerably less than in 1938, though still almost double the ten-year average.
Closely allied to preventive measures are those designed to deter the spread of fire or
make it simpler to control. These come mainly under the heading of slash and snag disposal
and are applicable largely to the lower Coast section. Recent amendments to the " Forest
Act " requiring slash-disposal and snag-felling were followed up, with two special expert
officers and the whole field staff co-operating with the operators. As a result practically all
the slash and snags which should have been disposed of were so treated. Total area of slash
burned was 51,603 acres, while snags were felled on approximately the same acreage.
It was found that some few operators, while carrying out slash-disposal by burning as
required by law, refused or neglected to do so in such a manner as to protect adjoining areas
of mature timber and reproduction. As a result, section 113a of the " Forest Act " was so
amended as to enable the forest officers to require the use of proper methods and to require
and enforce reasonable precautions.
The clearing of agricultural land and other areas for human use is another legitimate
use of fire in forested sections that requires great care and control to prevent escape. The
Forest Service maintains control through permits to burn which are issued only after inspection of the area and limit burning to periods of safe weather and under conditions listed in
the permit. That this is no inconsiderable part of the duties of the field officers is shown by
the table of permits issued which shows a grand total of 8,672 for the Province.
In spite of all the care taken by operators, the public, and forest officers, fires occur in
particularly hazardous weather. There are areas of especially high hazard where fires are
more easily set or where, if set, they are either most difficult to control or threaten greater
values in human life, forest areas, or personal property. Sometimes restricted areas and
frequently whole districts are involved. At such times it is imperative that all unessential
activity and travel in the woods be forbidden, which was done in several instances in 1939
as follows:—
Nelson Forest District— Dates closed.
Sheep Creek Valley July 20-Sept. 16.
North Fork Salmon River Aug. 11-Sept. 16.
Kamloops Forest District—
Similkameen River  July 28-Sept. 6.
Watershed District, Summerland Aug. 1-Sept. 6.
Penticton Creek Watershed Aug. 1-Sept. 6.
Larch Hills Forest Aug. 12-Sept. 6.
Vancouver Forest District—
Timber Berth " W " . July 26-Sept. 2.
Vancouver Forest District Aug. 19-Aug. 28.
(Excepting West Coast of Vancouver Island from Toquart Harbour North; East
Coast of Vancouver Island from Squamish North; Mainland and Islands
from Wells Passage and Kingcome Inlet North.)
The operators and general public have accepted the closures as necessary and co-operate
in their enforcement. They are only used where hazard is extraordinarily high and for the
shortest period necessary.
The early detection of fires that start is the second step in effective fire-control. During
1939 the study of detection facilities was continued as detailed under " Research " elsewhere
in this report. The complete mapping of areas visible from existing and proposed lookouts is
the objective. Using these in conjunction with maps showing fire occurrence, hazards, and
values involved will enable the administrative staff to organize the detection facilities to best
advantage.
Further experience with radio equipment, both portable and stationary, has been satisfactory. The light sets introduced in 1937 have made possible more economical establishment
of lookouts than by using expensive wire lines with little sacrifice of reliability, while their
use for communication on the fire-line has been exceedingly valuable. In 1939 there were
purchased and installed thirty portable and twenty-two stationary and launch radio sets. E 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
To carry out the intricate and arduous duties of forest fire prevention, detection, and
suppression requires an experienced, energetic, and highly trained personnel. The first two
attributes are met in the Forest Service personnel through careful selection, largely by competitive examination, but much essential training is neglected through lack of time and
personnel, both to conduct it and to carry on the work while training is being taken. The
high degree of' efficiency of the field staff is attained through individual effort rather than
the more economical method of planned instruction and practice. Notable efforts are made
by senior fieldmen to train auxiliary forces; e.g., practical instruction courses for pump
operators, lookout-men, and timekeepers, but more intensive specialized training and chance
for technical study are needed by the entire field staff. This must be provided if the great
forest wealth of the Province is to be properly protected.
An innovation in 1939 was the use of undergraduates in forestry as student assistants to
the Forest Rangers. This worked out satisfactorily to the Service and to the young men
concerned, the former having well-educated men to assist them who will be of much greater
use in future, while the students secured experience that will be most valuable to them in
their profession.    The same scheme will be continued in 1940.
The continuance of the Youth's Forestry Training Plan and the institution of the
National Forestry Plan provided the working parties with a very satisfactory improvement
programme more fully reported upon elsewhere. From the same source were chosen a number of Rangers' Assistants. These young men, chosen particularly for the work, have been
a source of considerable help to the Rangers and, where employed succeeding years, have
developed into highly useful forest officers. A number have qualified themselves for higher
positions and have been successful in the Assistant Ranger examinations.
A continuance of a youths' forestry training organization in some form will be highly
valuable in the protection of the forests and in building up a robust, keen, and expert body of
young men.
Because of the long periods of time involved in growing a forest we must look far ahead.
The history of the Province to date is encompassed within a century—about the period needed
to grow a merchantable forest—and already many of our more accessible timber districts are
logged out. Within comparatively few years some of the forest areas now considered inaccessible will be required for industry and development. It is not too soon to make provision
for protecting them from fire, and.it should be done at once.
To finance any increase in forest protection organization means an increase in the Forest
Protection Fund. This fund has been operating with a deficit since 1925. Some years of low
hazard have reduced the deficit; e.g., 1937, when it was brought down to $62,592.78, only to
be raised again to $453,617.83 the following year. These recurring deficits are due entirely
to the exigencies of fire-fighting, even though fires in unorganized territory frequently go
unfought.
Undoubtedly many fires reaching large proportions, doing enormous damage, and costing
great sums to fight could be suppressed when small if sufficient organized personnel with
adequate equipment and improvements were available.    Until funds sufficient for this are
provided we shall continue to suffer unnecessary loss in resources and fire-fighting costs.
The following tables give the essential information about the 1939 fire season:—
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1939.
Fo est Dist ict.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
1
40
6
50
49
48
12
12
71
82
29
5
12
20
19
41
3
14
131
156
147
5
70
223
302
51
7
3
44
43
2
6
359
32
117
Kamloops 	
Nelson  	
545
651
Totals	
1
145
225
85
345
747
148
8
1,704
Ten-year average, 1930-39  	
80
216
227
438
521
182
10
1,669 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 49
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1939.
Forest District.
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22
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2
10
4
2
2
2
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37
40
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15
14
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5
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110
13
98
27
5
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19
103
6
545
31.99
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52
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146
26
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31
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Totals.    ...
515
305
77
374
111
11
32
88
175
16
1,704
100 00
30.22
17.90
4.52
21.95
6.52
0.64
1.88
5.16
10.27
0.94
100.00
Ten-year average, 1930-39 .
448
307
114
328
131
15
42
124
129
25
1,669
	
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1939.
Fo" est District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent,
of Total.
$41,892.00
240.00
388.00
1,021.00
$400.00
100.00
800.00
18,150.00
$7,150.00
$175.00
$49,617.00
27.92
Prince Rupert  	
20.00
1,744.00
1,626.00
360.00
2,932.00
124,797.00
.21
1.65
104,000.00
70.22
Totals —  	
$43,541.00  |    $19,450.00
$111,150.00
$3,565.00
$177,706.00
100.00
Ten-year average, 1930-39
$_.« 390.nn I    sr)9 n90.no
$73,143.00
$12,624.00
$223,246.00 E 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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» O Q FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 51
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
Total.
515
305
77
374
111
11
32
88
175
16
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
263
269
74
242
107
14
55
20
124
25
524
256
81
321
78
6
29
74
152
26
173
217
65
289
127
11
45
72
97
15
320
312
103
415
117
10
41
65
188
19
285
234
77
197
77
7
32
65
90
18
336
230
156
197
108
18
17
127
64
13
475
470
295
435
243
44
57
355
96
48
892
344
149
294
171
29
39
262
68
23
4,486*
3,079
1,149
3,288
1,319
154
Campers.    	
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
424
1,249
1,292
254
Totals                    ..              	
1,704
2,412
1,193
1,547
1,111
1,590
1,082
1,266
2,518
2,271
16,694
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1939.
Total Fires.
Under Vi Acre.
Vi to 10 Acres.
10 to 500 Acres. Over 500 Acres.
Damage.
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359
21.07
163
45.40
19.15
138
38.44
24.25
50
13.90
22/40
8
2.20
13.10
330
25
4
32
1.87
21
65.62
2.47
9
28.12
1.58
2
6.26
0.90
32
Fort George 	
117
6.87
63
53.85
7.41
38
32.47
6.68
15
12.80
6.80
1
0.85
1.60
112
3
2
Kamloops — _	
545
31.99
221
40.55
25.97
177
32.48
31.10
112
20.50
50.20
35
6.40
57.40
487
42
16
Nelson. 	
651
38.20
383
58.83
45.00
207
31.79
36.39
44
6.80
19.70
17
2.60
27.90
611
24
16
Totals -_ _.
1,704
100.00
851
100.00
5691 	
100.00
223
100.00     61
 |100.00
1,572
94
38
100.00
49.94
33.39
13.1
 |  3.6
92.25
5.52
2.23
Ten-year average,
1930-39
1,669
728
570
371
1,502
111
56
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1939.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
Lightning   	
515
305
77
374
111
11
32
88
175
16
30.22
17.90
4.52
$57,053.99
23,755.01
425.13
24.45
10.19
0.18
27.21
1.22
$43,077.82
177,386.68
1,841.73
11.56
47.58
0.50
Smokers 	
21.95
6.52
0.64
1.88
5.16
10.27
0.94
63,483.18
2,853.41
71,417.25
4,258.15
2,048.98
6,605.62
47,819.32
17,851.35
417.10
19.17
1.14
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
0.54
13,086.67
57,006.43
13,222.77
2,437.71
5.61
24.43
5.67
1.04
1.77
12.83
4.79
Unknown causes-  	
0.12
Totals     -—	
1,704
100.00
$233,324.30
100.0*
$372,724.00'
100.00
. E 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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rH FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 53
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1939, Part I.
Accessible
Merchantable Timber.
Inaccessible
Merchantable
Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Forest District.
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Volume of
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Acres.
261
M.B.M.
1,679
M.B.M.
1,327
$
1,086
Acres.
75
2,585
2,761
M.B.M.
550'
$
40
2,369
1,515
Acres-
1,866
5
493
21,567
10,004
$
9,849
11
72
2,687
3,769
253
7,606
22,591
353
5,447
20,548
2,044
66,587
17,963
2,384
2,443
2,963
13,113
Nelson    .,'
Totals	
6,789
32,129
6,154
27,434
5,421
16,626
3,924
33,935
96,454
3.51
65.90
12.62
14.07
2.80
34.10
2.02
17.54
49 46
69,868
391,189
74,395
374,426
88,978
308,352
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1939, Part II.
Forest
District.
Not satisfactorily
restocked.
Non-   .
commercial
Cover.
Grazing or
Pasture
Land.
Nonproductive
Sites.
Grand Totals.
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Acres.
1,930
40
827
2,768
748
Acres.
2,694
2
408
3,596
1,905
Acres.
233
75
47
23,236
2,933
$
2,448
58
1,655
14,182
2,728
Acres.
1,959
6
138
48,921
42,684
$
979
3
69
20,122
21,003
Acres.
42
17
83
2,977
130
$
6
1
4
149
9
Acres.
3,506
$
1,381
1
1,579
829
Acres.
12,566
145
2,130
111,497
67,130
M.B.M.
2,229
$
15,789
73
62
3,160
2,196
253
10,569
35,704
4,126
Kamloops 	
Nelson- — -
110,435
64,595
Totals	
6,313
8,605
26,524
21,071
93,708
42,176
3,249
169
8,924
3,790
193,468
48,755
195,018
3.26
4.44
13.71
10.80
48.45
21.62
1.68
0.09
4.61
1.94
100.00
100.00
100.00
Ten-year average, 1930-39
21,954
1,144
440,427
391,189
756,267 E 54
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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H FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939. E 55
GRAZING.
The mild winter of 1938-39 was followed by an early spring, but the weather remained
dry through May. This resulted in a retarding of spring forage growth and poor range
conditions. However, the balance of the grazing season was one of the best on record, with
ample rains and warm weather promoting excellent growth well into fall. The result was
a good beef-crop to the ranchers.
Coupled with beef in good condition went prices that were a little better, on the average,
than they have been for some years. Starting with good returns for stock at the Annual
Bull and Fat Stock Sale in March, the prices remained steady with a rise towards the end of
the season. This rise was attributed to the opening of the war and has been fairly well
maintained. Another factor bettering conditions was the American market, which took considerable quantities from the Prairie Provinces, thus relieving the local market.
Prices generally for steers ran from 5 to 6 cents per pound; heifers from 4 to 5% cents;
and cows, 3 to 4% cents.
The market for lambs and wool was also better, with the former bringing around 8 cents
per pound and wool about 17 cents. This is a very material betterment over conditions
prevailing for some years. It is attributed in some degree to better co-operative marketing
and to the war demands for wool.
Although range forage growth was better than in 1938, the trouble with beetle-killed
pine continued over extensive areas. As mentioned in previous reports, many of the summer
ranges are on the high plateaus where the forage grows under extensive areas of lodgepole
pine. In the past twenty years a large proportion of the pine has been killed by insects and
is now falling down. This deadfall is blocking trails and covering up considerable areas of
formerly usable range.
Many fires have occurred in these areas, which are attributed to some irresponsible
parties trying to get rid of the deadfall. In 1939 there were eighty-seven fires thought to
have so originated, some of which burned over wide areas.
Some remedy for the situation has been sought and in 1939 two parties of young men,
hired under the Youth Training Plan, cut trails through deadfall areas to open up the range.
The stockmen concerned expressed themselves as well satisfied with the work done. However,
these trails only touched a fringe of the problem which requires that something be done over
large areas. Further experimental work will be carried out in future in co-operation with
the stockmen to try to find a solution. Encouragement was given to the stockmen through
co-operation with their live-stock associations. Altogether, forest officers met with twenty-
one associations and six Farmers' Institutes, some more than once, to discuss their problems,
settle cases, and decide jointly upon future management of the range.
Range management can only be based on full knowledge of the location, quality, and
quantity of forage, together with the location and needs of the ranches using it. To develop
this knowledge our grazing officers continued the excellent reconnaissance-work carried out in
past years to the extent of 411,000 acres, as follows:— Acres.
Princeton Range      67,000
Griffin Mountain and Hunter's Range      38,000
Criss Creek-Red Lake Range   113,000
Forest Grove Range   155,000
Pinantan Range      38,000
Total  411,000
The completion of each reconnaissance job enables the administrative officers to deal
effectively with a greater number of individual cases of conflict and difficulty on the range.
The extent of these problems may be judged by the accompanying table, showing the total
permits issued. Each of these permits represents an individual -or company dealing in live
animals needing constant attention and care, and ever moving from place to place. E 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Live Stock on Crown Ranges.
During 1939 there were 790 grazing permits issued.    A comparison with the number of
live stock permitted on Crown ranges during the past six years follows:—
Year. Cattle and Horses.
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
69,960
60,864
77,137
77,451
75,022
1939   72,205
Sheep.
36,569
36,902
46,084
42,185
37,060
38,357
An analysis of the 1939 figures above show the following distribution of stock:
1
Location.
No.of
Permits.
No. of Stock under Permit.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
36
113
641
2,053
2,676
64,719
117
175
2,466
26
1,780
36,551
Totals           	
790
69,447
2,758
38,357
Range Improvements.
Under the Range Improvement Fund the usual programme of stock trails, drift and
mud-hole fences, wild-horse disposal, and miscellaneous range improvements were carried
out, including: 23 miles of stock trails; 31 miles of drift-fence; 8 mud-holes; and the
disposal of 109 wild horses.
The statement of the Range Improvement Fund is shown elsewhere in this report. It is
made up of one-third of the grazing fees collected each year and constitutes a general fund
to be used where most needed on the Crown ranges. Because of its small size the policy has
been followed of reserving it for the construction of primary improvements only, that is,
improvements for the maintenance or increase of the forage in quantity or quality. It is
not used for the handling or holding of stock where the above results are not effected, nor is
it used for maintenance of improvements. It is felt that until such time as the demand for
primary improvements decreases the stockmen who benefit from improvements already built
should maintain them. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1939.
E 57
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1940.
Victoria Office.
E. C. Manning..         Chief Forester.
C. D. Orchard Assistant Chief Forester.
G. P. Melrose .         .       Forester—Protection—Grazing.
E. E. Gregg Assistant Forester.
R. G. McKee      ..     .       Assistant Forester.
J. H. Blake Mechanical Inspector.
W. C. Spouse Assistant Mechanical Inspector.
G. A. Playfair Radio Engineer.
E. B. Prowd Forester—Management.
S. E. Marling Assistant Forester.
F. S. McKinnon Forester—Economics.
H. J. Hodgins Assistant Forester.
K. C. McCannel Assistant Forester—Parks and Recreation.
S. W. Barclay Royalty Inspector.
H. H. Smith Chief Accountant.
W. L. Thomas Chief Draughtsman.
Districts.
Vancouver.
C. J. Haddon District Forester.
C. C. Ternan Assistant District Forester.
W. Byers Supervisor of Scalers.
M. W. Gormely Assistant Forester.
W. S. Hepher Assistant Forester.
D. B. Taylor Assistant Forester.
J. G. MacDonald Fire Inspector.
A. H. Waddington Fire Inspector.
Prince Rupert.
R. C. St. Clair District Forester.
L. S. Hope Assistant District Forester.
J. E. Mathieson Fire Inspector.
Prince George.
R. D. Greggor District Forester.
L. F. Swannell (on Active Service)... Assistant District Forester.
H. B. Forse Assistant Forester.
Kamloops.
A. E. Parlow District Forester.
T. A. Clarke Assistant District Forester.
R. R. Douglas Assistant Forester.
C. L. Armstrong Assistant Forester.
F. J. Wood Acting Fire Inspector.
E. A. Charlesworth Supervisor of Scalers.
Nelson.
R. E. Allen  District Forester.
E. W. Bassett   Assistant District Forester.
W. C. Phillips Assistant Forester.
W. Holmgren Fire Inspector. VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1040.
1,325-440-5111  

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