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BC Sessional Papers


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Printed by Chakles P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1940.  To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1939.
k. c macdonald,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 15th, 194-0.  CONTENTS.
Report of Deputy Minister  7
Report of Markets Branch  27
Report of  Horticultural  Branch  34
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist  56
Report of Provincial Entomologist  62
Report of Provincial Apiarist  63
Report of Dairy Branch  65
Report of Live Stock Branch  68
Report of Recorder of Brands  77
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector  79
Report of Poultry Branch  81
Report of Field Crops Branch ;  84
Report on Soil Surveys  90
Report on Women's Institutes Branch  92
Reports of District Agriculturists—
Prince George and Nechako Valleys District  94
Bulkley and Skeena Valleys District  103
Williams Lake and Cariboo District  108
Peace River Block District  114
Kamloops and Nicola District  116
Salmon and Columbia Valley District  121
Lower Mainland District  124
Grand Forks and Boundary District  131
No. 1.  Greenhouse Surveys, 1923-39 .  134
No. 2. Soil-testing by Spurway Method, 1939  135
No. 3. Threshermen's Returns, 1938  141
No. 4. Hybrid Field Corn—Dry-matter Content and Yield Tests, Okanagan, 1939  142
No. 5. Summary of Premises graded and Cattle tested under " Milk Act "  143
No. 6. Summary of Premises visited and Cattle T.B.-tested  143
No. 7. Monthly Movements of Grain Screenings, 1939  144
No. 8. Exported Plant Products, 1939  145
No. 9. Exported Nursery Stock  146 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICERS.
Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A., Deputy Minister.
J. A. GRANT, Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Thornborrow, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
C. P. L. Pearson, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Senior Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
A. H. Shotbolt, Exhibition Specialist, Victoria, B.C.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Survey, Kelowna, B.C.
James S. Wells, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. W. White, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
C. B. Twigg, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Creston, B.C.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm, B.C.
John Tait, District Field Inspector, Summerland, B.C.
John A. Smith, B.S.A., Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
G. L. Foulkes, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
V. Tonks, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Vernon, B.C.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Foster, M.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Saanichton, B.C.
Max Ruhmann, B.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist, New Westminster, B.C.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Walter Sandall, Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Instructor, Kelowna, B.C.
F. Overland, Dairy Instructor, Vancouver, B.C.
G. H. Thornberry, Assistant (Milk Records), Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. M. Sparrow, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. J. D. MacDonald, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. D. H. McKay, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
George Pilmer, Brand Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
R. Cahilty, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
Donald Sutherland, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
R. G. Sutton, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
Shirley G. Preston, M.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
James Travis, District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C. REPORT of the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.
The Honourable K. C. MacDonald,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture
for the year ended December 31st, 1939.
At the third session of the Nineteenth Legislature amendments to the " Fruit, Vegetables,
and Honey Grades Act " and the " Sheep Protection Act " were passed, and new legislation
entitled " Horned Cattle Purchases Act " was enacted.
"Fruit, Vegetables, and Honey Grades Act."—The recent amendment makes it obligatory
for any person handling or dealing in fruit, vegetables, or honey to keep in the English
language a complete and detailed record of his transactions. The penalties included in
section 8, subsection (1), of the Act respecting the grading of fruit, vegetables, and honey,
passed in 1937, apply in this connection.
" Sheep Protection Act."—This amendment permits of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council designating and defining areas within the Province as special sheep protection areas, and
it provides for the impost of annual licence fees to be paid by every dog-owner in any special
sheep protection area, with licence fees being fixed in different amounts for different breeds
of dogs according to their probable propensity to destroy or worry sheep. This amendment
requires any municipality included within a special sheep protection area to adjust the dog
licence fees on the basis set forth in the Provincial regulations applicable within such special
sheep protection area.
" Horned Cattle Purchases Act."—This is an Act respecting the disposition of price
deductions made on the purchase of cattle with horns. The preamble sets forth that as
cattle with horns are a cause of damage to other cattle with which they are in contact; as
buyers of cattle have already adopted a practice whereby the price paid for cattle with horns
is less than the prevailing price paid for cattle without horns; and as the object of this
practice is to encourage farmers to dehorn their cattle and thus prevent damage to other
animals, the enactment follows that every dealer who purchases cattle with horns shall pay
to the vendor the current market price for cattle without horns less the sum of $1 per head
for each head of cattle with horns so purchased. It is required that stock-dealers make
returns to the Minister of Agriculture submitting complete information regarding the number
of horned cattle purchased and shall remit the moneys due.
The Act provides that a fund equal to the moneys so collected may be used for the payment of such expenses for the improvement of live stock as may be approved by the Minister,
and for the payment of expenses incidental to the administration of the Act.
It also permits of regulations being made as to the procedure to be followed, the forms
to be used, and provides a penalty for failure to comply with the provisions of the Act or
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—In the report of the Department of Agriculture for 1938
information was given regarding regulations dealing with the problem of equine encephalomyelitis. During the current year the regulations were amended to prevent the importation
into British Columbia of horses from outside points, except under permit issued over the
signature of the Minister of Agriculture for British Columbia. The enforcement of these
regulations practically stopped the movement of horses into the Province at Interprovincial
and International border points. This discontinuance of the movement of horses, together
with the co-operation of horse-owners vaccinating many thousands  of their horses in the B 8
Southern Interior and Peace River Districts, has resulted in British Columbia being practically free from sleeping sickness of horses throughout the year.
At the middle of October the regulations were relaxed to allow of horses being imported
under permit. It is anticipated that further vaccination and restriction of horse movements
may become necessary with the approach of warm weather next Spring. Arrangements are
now being made for supplies of equine encephalomyelitis (chick) vaccine to be made available
to horse-owners at the same reasonable price that obtained in 1939.
Regulations under the " Beef Grading Act " of 1937 came into effect in the Greater
Vancouver area of the Lower Mainland in the fall of 1938 and in the twelve months that
have passed the benefits of the provisions of that Act are being clearly seen by producers
and consumers alike. During the year a total of 72,136 beef carcasses have been inspected,
graded, and sold within the area. Of these the report shows that 24,975 carcasses graded
" A " and " Al " and 24,303 graded " B." There were in all 5,988 'rejected, while the balance
of 16,870 were contained among the lower grades of steer, heifer, and cow carcasses.
Only eight prosecutions were found necessary in connection with firms failing to comply
with the Act or regulations and in each of the eight prosecutions convictions were secured and
imposed. The regular inspection service under Federal and Provincial Departments of
Agriculture was augmented in June by the appointment of an additional temporary Inspector.
The following table shows the graded and branded beef carcasses at Greater Vancouver
slaughter-houses in twelve months ended November 30th, 1939, and covering a period within
which the " Beef Grading Act " has been operating in this Lower Mainland area :■—
Animals killed.
B Cow.
C Cow.
D Cow.
Dec. (4 weeks)..
Jan. (4 weeks).
Feb. (4 weeks).....
March (4 weeks).
April (5 weeks) —
May (4 weeks)	
June (5 weeks).—
July (4 weeks) .
Aug. (4 weeks)*-
Sept. (5 weeks) t.
Oct. (4 weeks) f....
Nov. (5 weeks) J ..
338 |
249 |
4.7 |
280  I
335    |     387
370    |
* 80 per cent, grass cattle this period.
t 100 per cent, grass cattle this period.
X All grass cattle with some Alberta stubble or short feds. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 9
By Order in Council No. 830, passed on June 21st, 1939, five plants which, following their
introduction into British Columbia, have become troublesome weeds, have been added to the
list of noxious weeds, by authority of section '28 of the " Noxious Weeds Act."
These plants are as follows:—
Russian Knapweed (Centaurea repens L.).
Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.).
Forked Catchfly (Silene dichotoma Ehrh.).
Tall Buttercup  (Ranunculus acris).
Marihuana (Cannabis sativa L.).
During the past summer 1,014 cattle-owners on Vancouver Island petitioned the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture for the recommendation to the Federal Minister of Agriculture for the establishment of a restricted T.B.-free area covering the agricultural sections
of Vancouver Island from Campbell River south, including adjacent island on which dairy-
farming is carried on. The request was forwarded to Ottawa and at the end of the year
notification has been received that the T.B.-free area is established and that Veterinary
Inspectors will arrive immediately after the New Year to commence the tuberculin-testing
of the cattle and the inspection of farm premises. The boundaries of the Vancouver Island
restricted T.B.-free area are as follows:—
Commencing at a point on the shore-line of the west coast of Vancouver Island where it
is intersected by the 48° 30' parallel of latitude; thence due south in the Straits of Juan de
Fuca to the International Boundary; thence easterly and northerly along the International
Boundary to the junction of the said boundary and the 49° of latitude; thence north-westerly
along the middle channel of the Straits of Georgia, passing west of Lasqueti Island, to the
entrance to Discovery Passage; thence north-westerly along the middle channel of Discovery
Passage to the mouth of the Campbell River; thence up-stream along the centre of Campbell
River and passing through Lower Campbell Lake and continuing south-westerly along the
centre of Campbell River to a point where it is intersected by the 50° of latitude; thence
westerly along the 50° of latitude to the westerly boundary of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo
Railway Belt; thence south following the western boundary of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo
Railway Belt to its intersection with the 48° 30' parallel of latitude; thence westerly along
the 48° 30' parallel of latitude to point of commencement.
In the thirty-third annual report of the Department of Agriculture for 1938 an outline
of the history of this Department, as prepared by Sydney M. Weston, of the Provincial
Library staff, was published. It is interesting to note that Mr. Weston has completed his
compilation of the publications of the Government of British Columbia from 1871 to 1937.
The information on agricultural bulletins, circulars, and pamphlets is being published, along
with similar information concerning other departments, in a bulletin that will shortly make
its appearance.
The real impetus to agriculture in the North Pacific Coast came in 1839 when the
Hudson's Bay Company leased a strip of Alaskan territory from Russia. In the terms of
the lease the Fur Company agreed to pay the annual rentals for a period of years with
agricultural commodities. These were to be produced on farms operated under the Company's direction. Within ten years after 1839 large quantities of cereal grains, peas,
potatoes, and butter were being shipped northward to a hungry market. These commodities
were produced largely on farms in the vicinity of Fort Vancouver, Cowlitz, Nisqually, and
Fort Langley during the early days of the agreement but, with the establishment of Fort
Victoria and the development of agriculture at Fort McLoughlin, crop production was
extended in the regions which are now a part of the Province of British Columbia.
By 1849 farming attained a definite status on Vancouver Island. Prior to that time
Fort Langley had been the real agricultural centre north of the 49th parallel. It was at
Fort Langley that the dairy industry west of the Canadian Rockies was established in 1829,
when two head of dairy cattle were brought over from the Hudson's Bay Company's farms in B 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Oregon territory. It was at Langley that the small-fruit industry was brought into existence
about ninety years ago through the harvest and export of wild cranberries, and the later
planting of tree- and bush-fruits.
It was in 1849 that Vancouver Island was formally erected into a colony, and the situation from an agricultural view-point is briefly and interestingly stated by Miss Margaret A.
Ormsby in an article which appeared in the September, 1939, issue of " Scientific Agriculture," published at Ottawa.    Three paragraphs from her article read as follows: —
" Apart from the company's farms, there was little private enterprise. In 1849 the
renewal of the charter of the Hudson's Bay Company had granted to the company the whole
of Vancouver Island on condition that it be colonized. But settlement was slow, since the
regulations of the company stated that every purchaser of 100 acres had to bring out from
England five labourers or three married couples. Moreover, the company retained 10 square
miles of land in and around Victoria and fixed the price of land at one pound an acre. Across
the Gulf of Georgia free grants were being made in Oregon. At the time of Governor
Blanshard's departure from the colony in 1851 there were only 15 independent settlers, and
by 1856 the number had only increased to 300. But in the spring of 1858 there was a sudden
influx of nearly 30,000 miners on their way to the newly discovered Fraser River gold-
" As Victoria became a metropolis, there immediately developed a great demand for farm
products. To satisfy it, the colonists of Vancouver Island tilled virgin land, and the colonists
of British Columbia cut dense underbrush, drained marshes, and planted crop". The first
application for farming land on the mainland was made in November, 1858, when W. K.
Squires applied for a grant of 100 acres on a Fraser River island opposite Hope. He received
a lease, pending legislation permitting the sale of land. Shortly afterwards Governor
Douglas issued the first pre-emption ordinance enabling the per-emption of 160 acres of land
with the right to purchase at a price of 10 shillings an acre.
" Royal Engineers were sent out from England to build roads so that commerce and
industry might flourish in British Columbia. New Westminster became the centre of settlement on the mainland. Around it were gardens and cornfields carved from the wilderness.
All products sold at the mines brought fabulous prices. The discovery of the Cariboo gold
fields in 1859 led to further immigration and to the expamicn of the settlements of merchants
and traders. The construction of the great wagon-road to the Cariboo gave access to the
market, and agriculture received its first great impetus."
Introduction of Broom-see_s.
In 1849 there was introduced to Vancouver Island from Scotland, by way of the Hawaiian
Islands, several seeds of the broom plant (Cytisus scoparius) which have been so prolific
that broom is now regarded as one of the troublesome weeds on parts of the mainland of
British Columbia as well as on large sections of Vancouver Island. Briefly, the story of the
introduction of broom to Vancouver Island is that Captain W. Colquhoun Grant, who came
to Victoria in 1848, acquired a large tract of agricultural land on Puerto de Revilla Gigedo,
now called Sooke. He called the place " Mullach Ard " meaning in Gaelic " Hill Top." He
cultivated a few acres of land and stocked it with hogs, horses, and cattle. It was his plan
to establish a Highland colony with a Gaelic schoolmaster and a Scottish piper. In 1849
Captain Grant visited the Hawaiian Islands and secured from a recent arrival from the
British Isles half a dozen seeds of the Scotch broom. He brought them to Sooke where they
were planted. The broom flourished at " Mullach Ard," and seeds from these original plants
were gradually scattered far and wide, by natural agencies, in the Coast districts of British
Columbia and in the State of Washington.
Broom is not the only troublesome plant that has been brought to the North Pacific
Coast for sentimental reasons. According to Norman G. Buhn, an Agricultural Commissioner in California, the wild gorse (Vlex Europeans) was brought to California about fifty
years ago by an English settler living at Caspar. He sent to England for a few of the seeds
which he wished to plant for a hedge in his garden to remind him of his former home. The
seeds arrived and were planted; the plants thrived in their new home. After a few years
the seeds began to scatter along a waterway where they found ideal growing conditions in
the uncultivated area.    Within the course of a few years the furze, or gorse, had spread over DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 11
a large area of good land. From that introduction seeds were brought north and now the
wild gorse may be found in many coastal sections of British Columbia.
Other weed plants similarly introduced to British Columbia include ox-eye daisy
(Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum L.), the seeds of which were brought to a Cowichan farm
on Vancouver Island about 1859 by an English settler who was home-sick for the sight of
daisies in the meadow fields, such as he had known in his boyhood in the Old Country. The
seeds of the dandelion were imported from Ontario by a settler who took up property in the
Interior of British Columbia shortly after the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Although he sowed the seeds in his garden and intended that they should be kept under
control, it was only a matter of a very few years before dandelions were flourishing throughout the surrounding district. The Russian thistle (Salsola Kali L.) was not introduced into
British Columbia for sentimental reasons, but was brought in as a forage plant upon the
recommendation of an agricultural lecturer, attached to an institution of learning in a
neighbouring country. The Russian thistle has far exceeded the claims made for it by the
lecturer and it has spread over thousands of acres of range and farm land in the Southern
Interior of British Columbia. Wild carrot (Daucus Carota L.) and oyster-plant (Tragopogon
porrifolius L.) are both garden escapes that have taken possession of unfilled lands in some
of our best agricultural areas.
These weeds are not mentioned because of particular historical interest, but rather with
a view to reminding farmers and gardeners of the desirability of guarding against the
introduction of new weeds, at the same time carefully maintaining control over the spread
of weeds that may have been introduced already.
Early Hog-raising.
In the spring of 1849 there arrived on Vancouver Island in the barque " Columbia " the
Rev. R. J. Staines, who became the pioneer swine producer in the infant colony. The Rev.
Mr. Staines acquired a strip of farm land near Victoria and engaged in hog production on
a fairly large scale. He used local hogs purchased from the Hudson's Bay Company for his
foundation stock but he improved his herd by the introduction of new blood from California
and Oregon territory and also from the Hawaiian Islands. His hogs were sold directly to
the operators of schooners calling at Victoria and breeding stock was sold to neighbouring
For ninety years hog production has engaged the attention of farmers on Vancouver
Island and adjacent islands, and perhaps in those ninety years on one occasion only (the
occasion of the uprising on San Juan Island in 1859, which was directly connected with a
British settler's hog straying into an American neighbour's garden and which resulted in
the joint occupation of the San Juan archipelago by American and British forces, with the
final cession of these islands to the United States) has any year stood out more definitely
than the year 1939 in the interest being taken throughout the whole of this Province in the
development of a substantial hog industry. Indications are that the farmers of British
Columbia are seriously engaging in the extension of their hog production with a view to
producing bacon and pork in quantities sufficient for domestic needs.
Eighty Years' Progress in Cariboo.
During the present summer the residents of Cariboo District have celebrated the eightieth
anniversary of the finding of placer gold in the gravels beyond Quesnel and Barkerville.
Combined with this celebration was recognition of the early historical efforts of individuals
who came into the Interior country along with the miners and remained as pioneer farmers.
According to Mr. J. B. Leighton, of Savona, B.C., the growing of apples east of the
Cascade Mountains was initiated by an Italian by the name of Lorenzo, who opened a
stopping-place at the Fountain, 9 miles north-east of Lillooet, in 1859. Lorenzo was well
pleased with his location and saw possibilities for the production of berries and tree-fruits.
He persuaded three of his relatives in Italy to emigrate to this country and he had them
bring with them grape-cuttings and other horticultural materials, which were planted in
1862. From Oregon he had secured his first apple-trees, which are believed to have been
propagated from the original trees grown from seeds planted at Fort Vancouver in Oregon
territory in 1827.    Lorenzo's garden and orchard were flourishing in the early '60's—at the B 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
same time that Jonathan Hoiten Scott's tobacco plantation was producing revenue across the
river from Lillooet.
In the 1938 report of this Department full information is given regarding the placing
of a bronze plaque over the grave of the late J. H. Scott. This year we are able to record
the placing of a bronze plaque over the grave of one of the best-known residents of the
Cariboo district. The tablet to the memory of the last survivor of the " Evans Party,"
which came from Wales in 1863, is affixed to a boulder taken from a placer-stream and
suitably placed in the old graveyard adjacent to the little hamlet of Stanley, on Lightning
Creek.    The tablet reads as follows: —
Harry Jones
Born Carnarvonshire, Wales,
September 29th, 1840
with " Welsh Adventurers " arrived B.C. June, 1863.
Last survivor of famous " Evans Party "
and one of Cariboo's best known and best loved pioneers.
Represented Cariboo in B.C. Legislature 1903-1909.
Died February 25, 1936.
Buried at Stanley, B.C.
In his long period of residence in the Cariboo District Harry Jones was a friend to the
farmer as well as to the miner. During his lifetime the cattle industry of the Interior was
built up and for fourscore years cattle-raising has been one of the chief occupations of many
of those who came to the Cariboo, Kamloops, Nicola, and Princeton Districts searching for
placer gold. Of late years sheep-raising and mixed farming have been gaining in prominence; agriculture in its many lines flourishes or recedes according to the prosperity or
adversity encountered by the miners. Thus all the residents of the Cariboo District have
this year joined in honouring the memory of those who opened up the country in 1859.
Early Farming on Vancouver Island.
Few remain of the men who worked on Vancouver Island farms in the pioneer days of
seventy-five years ago. It is therefore interesting to have the following pen-picture of farm
operations written for the 1939 annual report of the Department of Agriculture by John N.
Evans, who, for many years, has been an honoured resident of the Cowichan District, near
Duncan, V.I.    Mr. Evans's report reads as follows:—
" Not very much land was cleared on the Island when I arrived. Some of the land
around Victoria you may describe as oak openings. There were a few oak trees with the
rest of the ground covered with scrub-oak which had to be cleared out to make it fit for the
plough. It was as slow clearing as thickly timbered pine, the roots being hard to cut.
Under present clearing methods, with powder available, the pine land could be cleared
cheaper than with the manual labour for scrub-oak.
" I worked about two years for the late Harry King, who rented the Church Farm,
Cedar Hill, from Bishop Hills, Bishop of Columbia. Only a very few acres were cleared and
clearing in 1864 was entirely by manual labour, no stumping-powder being available, so the
development of farming land was very slow. The implements and tools at that time were
primitive—ploughs were small and light, of American manufacture, too light to break new
land. One could not hold the plough to its work in furrows, but it was handy to throw
around stumps; the mould-board was very short and could only scratch the ground. Then
the harrow was pretty well homemade by taking poles and forming a triangle by halving the
ends of the poles, pinning them together, boring holes in the poles, taking care to calculate
so the teeth when driven into the hole did not follow in the same track as the one ahead.
Before using the harrow after the ground was ploughed we sowed the grain, broadcasting it
by hand, and sometimes we would have to wait a few days before we could sow, on account
of wind.
" In harvesting the crops in the early 60's the hay was all cut with scythes and after
the top side was wilted enough a hay-fork was taken and we turned it over for the other
side to wilt. When wilted, or dry enough, it was put up into what we called in those days
' cocks,' I think to-day some call them ' stacks.' The size of the cock was built according to
the length of time they would stay out until we would be ready to haul the crop in. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 13
" For cleaning the grain there were fanning-mills to be had but they cost money and
pioneer settlers did not have much. We were never beaten—our threshing-floors had generally a door on each side so if we watched for a little wind, opened the doors, had the grain
in a pile, took a scoop and shovel, throwing up the grain so the wind would catch it, the
grain being the heaviest would drop and the chaff would blow away farther off. Then came
" When I left the Old Country in 1864 steam threshers were coming into general use;
it was many years later they made their appearance on Vancouver Island but we had a
horse power here which I don't think ever invaded the old land—the tread power—more
power to the horse but very hard on the horse. Our stock in 1864 was just common scrub
stock.    In all classes of stock great improvements have been made, especially in dairy stock.
" In 1890 when I settled in Cowichan there was only one team of horses and one wagon
in the whole district. They were owned by the Drinkwater brothers, who had brought them
all the way from Ohio in the United States. They were Englishmen who had first settled
in Ohio then moved to Oregon before coming to Somenos. What a debt of gratitude the
settlers who came with them in 1862, and afterwards, owed to them for assistance and
advice. The rest of us had oxen and sleds; some would pick up an axle and cut out blocks
from a tree and use the axle to make a block-wheel cart and would hunt up some old iron
hoops and nail around the block-wheel to hold it from going to pieces. In those days the
road was simply a track cut through the forest. Many settlers lived miles away from
neighbours and I don't estimate in 1870 there were more than 100 settlers in the whole
district including Chemainus.
" The first white settler in Cowichan was old John Humphrey, who was known as Jack.
In the early days in the United States they used to say ' Jack ' was more democratic than
' John ' or ' Johnny.' He settled in this district in 1857. The next white settler was the
Rev. Father Rondoult who arrived in 1858. In 1870 he built the old stone church which
to-day stands as a memorial to one of the finest Christians who ever came to the district—
a friend to all, an enemy to none. He did wonderful work among the Indians and at his
death they came from all over the Province and from Washington State to attend his funeral
and pay their last respects.
" In 1862 the great influx of settlers came in—the year of the big Cariboo gold rush.
The settlers were not affected by the gold rush and came in to build homes for themselves.
I witnessed the Leach River rush in 1864 as I was working on the construction of the Craig-
flower Road at the time; it now forms part of the Island Highway. A small nugget was
picked up on Leach River, taken into Victoria and the city went gold mad and Craigflower
Road was black with men rushing to the new Eldorado. All the men except an old Scotchman and myself dropped their tools and joined in the stampede.
" When this road work was finished I returned to Victoria and likely could have secured
an inside store job but had come to British Columbia to get into the great open spaces.
I tried to get work at several places, among them the farm of Mrs. John Work, of Hillside,
who wanted a man for outside work. I had been sent to her by her son-in-law, Roderick
Finlayson. She needed a man but I must ' secure a reference from Mr. Finlayson,' which
I declined to do and therefore did not get the job. I crossed the road to Hillside farm which
was owned by Mrs. Work but rented to a Canadian by the name of Carter. It was mid-day
and they were in from the fields for their dinner, now called lunch. When Carter asked if
I could bind oats I said I had bound oats in the Old Country and no other reference was
asked for. I dined with them and then went out to the field with the cradler. The Old
Country way of making a band was a very slow way which the cradler soon noticed and
showed me how to make one in the American way. I quickly caught on and was soon able
to keep up with him.    After we were through the cutting I then went to work for Harry King.
" The land was heavily timbered, especially in Cowichan. The site of the present City
of Duncan was a dense forest when I first knew it. On the east side of the railway tracks
it was covered with a growth of alder and maples. In order to clear the land we would
first chop and pile all the small undergrowth, then the smaller trees were cut to fall upon
the brush piles; we trimmed off the limbs and piled them also on the brush piles; also the
trees were cut in lengths while green as it was easier and quicker than when they were dry.
Then we would continue to chop down the larger trees, leaving the old monarch of the B 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
forest until last.    If they were burnt down we would see that the fire did not spread until
we were ready to burn the slash."
This brief statement from the pen of one of the few survivors of the colonial days of
seventy-five years ago is reproduced in sincere appreciation of the spirit and energy of those
pioneers who overcame heavy odds in making farms in a land of forest giants.
In view of war conditions and as certain of the District Farmers' Institute meetings were
held at too late a date for reports of Advisory Board Member selections to be received at
Victoria prior to the opening date of the Legislature, the usual custom of calling together the
members of the Advisory Board for conference at Victoria was not followed. However, the
Select Standing Committee on Agriculture expressed the wish to discuss agricultural matters
with competent individuals and accordingly arrangements were made for the attendance of
members of the Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board, the Provincial Feeds Standards
Board, the Agricultural Production Committee, and officials of the Department of Agriculture
to meet the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture. The report of the Select Standing
Committee on Agriculture referring to the meetings held in November, 1939, reads as
" Your Committee, authorized by Resolution of the Legislative Assembly, dated November
13th, 1939, ' to call members of the British Columbia Agricultural Production Committee, the
Fertilizers and Agricultural Poisons Board, and the Feeds Standards Board, with a view to
securing information on matters affecting the agricultural welfare of the Province and to
report its findings to this House,' held three sittings.
" The Agricultural Production Committee presented statements covering its activities
and those of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture directed toward increased
production of commodities that will be required in large quantities during the war and
subsequently.    Your Committee was impressed with the comprehensive information presented.
" The Fertilizers and Agricultural Poisons Board submitted information covering precautionary measures taken with respect to manufacture of commercial fertilizer mixes for
sale within the Province and measures regulating the export of commercial fertilizers.
Your Committee is convinced that the Fertilizers and Agricultural Poisons Board is acting
in accordance with a programme that will be advantageous to agriculture yet not detrimental
to the fertilizer trade.
" Senior officials of the Provincial Department of Agriculture, were heard on matters
relating to production, transportation, and marketing of foodstuffs, as well as certified and
registered seeds. It is the opinion of your Committee that the several branches of the
agricultural industry in this Province are being directed along lines that will ensure adequate
production of essential foodstuffs during the war period, and that future normal requirements
of agricultural commodities are being kept in mind so that marketing complications may be
avoided after the conclusion of hostilities.
" Your Committee feels that its deliberations during the present Legislative Session have
been more than usually instructive and informative."
Within a week after the outbreak of the war in September, 1939, the Honourable K. C.
MacDonald, Minister of Agriculture, named an Agricultural Production Committee, the
personnel of which includes: J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister, Chairman; Ernest MacGinnis,
Assistant Markets Commissioner, as Secretary; and George H. Stewart as Statistical Adviser.
The heads of the several branches of the Agricultural Department are included in this Committee to deal with phases of the industry under their immediate supervision.
Without delay the Committee set to work to secure agricultural data and information
that could be passed on to the farmers with a view to assisting them in the production of
commodities that are likely to be of prime importance to Britain and her Allies during the
period of the war. Periodically since the middle of September informative circulars have
been addressed to Farmers' Institutes, Women's Institutes, agricultural organizations,
individual farmers, and the Press.
In his instructions to the Agricultural Production Committee the Minister stressed the
need for developing a spirit of co-operation among the producers and the laying of definite DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 15
plans for economical increase in the production of foodstuffs. He also suggested that
emphasis be placed on the elimination of waste, the conservation of good seed stocks and the
application of sound farming principles in all branches of the industry.
When Provincial agricultural representatives were called to Ottawa to confer with the
Agricultural Supplies Committee in late September, it was found that British Columbia was
the only Province in which the Minister had already acted in naming a Committee and giving
it direction in a definite and important project of increased agricultural production.
Root and Vegetable Seed Production.
The production of root and vegetable seeds to meet Canada's requirements was given
early attention. Data regarding present seed-supplies in Canada and probable importations
in 1940 were secured. In some lines it was found that stocks in hand or on order will be
adequate for the 1940 and 1941 requirements, but there are definite indications of scarcity of
seeds of carrots, beets, parsnips, turnips, cabbage, cauliflower, peas, lettuce, spinach, and
several other biennial and annual crops; that is, shortages are indicated, providing present
war conditions continue to exist for two years or longer.
In view of the probable situation the Minister authorized the Agricultural Production
Committee to arrange for the purchase, storage, transportation, and distribution to suitable
growers of such stocks of roots and stecklings of the above-mentioned biennial crops as were
available and had received approval under Federal Government and Canadian Seed-growers'
Association's standards for certification and registration. Under the direction of Mr. W. H.
Robertson considerable tonnages of such accredited roots have been secured and these will
be used for the production of seed-crops in 1940. In this work Mr. Robertson has the full
co-operation of the British Columbia Seed Board members, who are co-operating closely with
the Agricultural Production Committee.
In addition to this definite programme for vegetable-seed production, a number of
Fraser Valley farmers who this year produced mangel-crops from registered and certified
seed have volunteered to hold quantities of their roots in storage with a view to planting them
for seed production, if conditions in spring indicate the wisdom of this course. Under joint
Federal-Provincial Seed Subvention Policy a price of 15 cents a pound is guaranteed to
farmers for their 1940 mangel-seed crop.
Plans have also been made for the growing in British Columbia of sugar-beet seed, and
foundation seed of a leaf-spot resistant variety has been secured for distribution. The
growers in this case will also be guaranteed 15 cents a pound f.o.b. Vancouver for their
sugar-beet seed-crop in 1941 under the Federal-Provincial Subvention. The present appears
to be the logical time for British Columbia farmers to launch out into the supervised and
carefully directed production of Canada's root and vegetable-seed requirements.
Opportunity for Bacon Industry.
In early October it became evident that the export of bacon from the Eastern Canadian
Provinces and the Prairies would likely divert this commodity from the consuming centres of
British Columbia. For a number of years there have been abortive attempts made to build
up the swine industry in British Columbia, but it has required war conditions to direct the
attention of many farmers to the opportunity and the importance of hog production.
By direction of the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture, the Provincial Department
joined with the Dominion Department in a Sow Distribution Policy which permits of the two
Departments assuming transportation costs on groups of twenty sows or more purchased by
five or more farmers in any agricultural district, where suitable feeds are available and
conditions warrant the expansion of swine production. It is estimated that, under this joint
Federal-Provincial Policy approximately 1,000 mature sows, together with fifty boars of good
quality and breeding, will have been ordered by farmers in this Province up to the end of 1939.
One of the most satisfactory features of this policy is the enthusiasm of the farmers who
are preparing to participate in the raising of bacon-type hogs with a view to satisfying the
demands of the British Columbia market and to holding that market when normal post-war
conditions return.
The Departmental policy of paying 50 per cent, rebate of the delivered cost of Cyanogas
used by Institute members and others for the reduction of marmots, ground-squirrels, gophers, B 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
and other burrowing rodents is still in operation. However, the current year's purchases
by farmers of Cyanogas has declined below the purchases of 1938; the Department in the
former year having paid rebates to the amount of $506.20 while this year the rebates paid
amount to only $456.13. There may be two reasons for this decline in Cyanogas purchases.
One may be that the material has been used in former years to such good advantage that
burrowing rodents are considerably less destructive in cultivated areas than they were when
the policy was instituted five years ago. Another reason may be that in some areas farmers
are extending the use of poison-bait mixtures. In either case the cost of rodent-eradication
has decreased but the policy is being maintained.
Though in all of the Institute Districts the Farmers' Institute movement continues to
be progressive, it would appear that the Kamloops District " D " has shown particular
activity. Several interesting experiments are in that area being developed by the District
Secretary and they are receiving the whole-hearted support of the executives and members
of the seventeen Institutes within the district. One particular project is an " Achievement
Shield " for which the several constituent Institutes compete annually. This year it was
won by the Chinook Cove-Chu Chua Farmers' Institute.
By joint arrangement between this Department and the Newgate Farmers' Institute a
boundary fence has been constructed from the Kootenay River westward for a distance of
approximately 5 miles. This boundary fence, constructed of woven wire supplied by the
Department and labour contributed by Farmers' Institute members, will prevent much
of the straying of live stock between the State of Idaho and the Province of British Columbia
which has been troublesome during recent years.
In October of this year an experimental quantity of wild-rice seed harvested in Manitoba
and shipped to British Columbia in moist condition was distributed among District Agriculturists in the Okanagan Valley, Shuswap Lake District, Cariboo, and Nechako and Bulkley
Valleys for seeding in shallow lakes. The agricultural officials have been asked to keep
records of any growth of wild rice that may result from this seed.
On Vancouver Island wild rice was sown in several lakes on Saanich Peninsula and in
the Sooke and Cowichan Districts. Provincial Game Wardens have been informed of the
different seedings that we made and the outcome will be reported next year.
In securing this seed the Department of Agriculture had the co-operation of B. W. Cart-
wright, Chief Naturalist of Ducks Unlimited (Canada), of Winnipeg, and the seed was
harvested and donated free of charge to the Department by Messrs. Holliday, Williams, of
Pointe Du Bois, Manitoba.
A stencil, dealing with Wild-rice Growing, has been issued by the Field Crops Branch
of this Department and is available to inquirers interested in this native crop which provides
feed for wild water-fowl.
Several years ago through the courtesy of F. Dickinson, M.S.A., West China Union
University, Chengtu, Szechwan, China, a number of plants of the Mao li tsi were sent to
Canada for experimental purposes, but none of these plants survived the long Trans-Pacific
voyage and the change in climatic conditions; however, as a result of the attempt to
establish Mao li tsi plants in British Columbia, a small quantity of the ripe fruit was forwarded to Victoria by Mr. Dickinson on request. The seeds of these plants were sown under
glass in 1936. The seedlings grew rapidly but it was found that the young plants were not
able to withstand strong sunlight. Only a dozen of the plants grown from seed are known to
have become established on Vancouver Island. Two of these are growing at 1949 Waterloo
Road, in Saanich; one is growing on the north-east corner of Watson and Dean Streets, in
Saanich; seven are growing on the south-west corner of Vining and Belmont Avenues,
Victoria. These plants have been in their present locations for four years and are making
thrifty growth, but none of the plants have as yet bloomed.
The Mao li tsi fruit is unknown in Canada and it is hoped that the success in establishing
the plants, which are shade-loving climbers, may result in fruit of this kind being produced
on Vancouver Island. The Mao li tsi is known to botanists as Actinidia chinensis and this
species is dioecious. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 17
Under Tariff 145 of the Canadian Freight Association, a total of 1,189 feed-grain
certificates covering feed-grains and mill-feeds imported mainly from Alberta have been
issued by this Department during the year 1939. These feed-grain certificates were largely
issued by Mr. Walter Sandall, of the Vancouver office of this Department, up until July, but
since that date all feed-grain certificates are being issued from the Victoria office.
In connection with feed-grain movements under C.F.A. Tariff 145, the following Report
No. 2 of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture, which was made to the Legislature
on November 28th, 1939, is of interest:—
" Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture, authorized by amending Resolution
of the Legislative Assembly, dated November 24th, ' that this House instruct the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture to make an examination of the operation of Canadian Freight
Association Tariff No. 145 and to report its findings and recommendation to this Legislature,'
reports as follows:—
" The tariff in question was brought into effect on March 10th, 1933, and has been
amended by several subsequent supplements.
" The purpose of the tariff is to permit feed-grains being transported from Prairie
production points to British Columbia coastal areas.
" Cereal-grains of specified feed-grades, as well as mill-feeds, are carried under this
special freight tariff when covered by certificate signed by the Deputy Minister of Agriculture
for British Columbia.
" Evidence submitted indicates that individual farmers and farmers' organizations are
taking advantage of the special feed-grain freight rates in increasing numbers.
" The existence of the special freight rate available under Canadian Freight Association
Tariff No. 145 has been well advertised throughout those sections of British Columbia in which
these rates apply."
In accordance with the provisions of the " Eggs Marks Act " mentioned on page L 21
of the Annual Report of this Department for 1938, the following information has been
provided by Walter Sandall, Chief Provincial Egg Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver, and by
John Noble, Federal District Inspector at Victoria. The arrivals reported during the year
total as follows:—
Port of Victoria:   10 doz. eggs for hatching purposes from U.S.A. and 176 cases of
salted eggs from China.
Port of Vancouver:   2% doz. eggs for hatching purposes and 2 cases commercial
eggs from U.S.A.;   582 cases of salted eggs from China.
The salted eggs imported from China are used solely by the Chinese residents in Canada
for medicinal and flavouring purposes.
Two standard cases of eggs from Seattle, Wash., consigned to Yukon Territory, were
intercepted at Vancouver, B.C., and held until the provisions of the Act had been complied
Publications distributed during the year 1939 amounted to 41,039, being an increase of
1,092 over last year. Heading the list was Bulletin 83, " Preservation of Food," with 1,521
copies sent out; next was Bulletin 60, " Swine-raising in B.C.," revised copy, with 1,224
copies leaving the office.
Mimeograph stencils run off in our office and distributed in British Columbia totalled
40,295 copies; Live Stock Branch alone sending out 10,400 copies. According to J. S. Wells,,
senior clerk, the following is the list of the publications printed during the year:-—
Natural and Artificial Incubation and Brooding Bulletin No. 39.
Farm Account Book.
Fruit Spray Calendar.
Weeds and their Control Bulletin No. 106.
Care of Milk on the Farm Dairy Circ. No. 36.
Care and Feeding of Dairy Cattle Bulletin No. 67.
Care of Poultry Manure Poultry Circ. No. 34. B 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Field Crop and Garden Spray Calendar.
Tomato-growing in B.C Hort. Circ. No. 65.
Cantaloupe-growing in B.C Hort. Circ. No. 69.
Potato-growing in B.C Bulletin No. 86.
Poultry Rations for Chicks and Layers Poultry Circ. No. 19.
Certified Milk and Butter-fat Records, 1938  Dairy Circ. No. 37.
Hen Batteries for General Farmers  Poultry Circ. No. 37.
Eighth List of Dairy Sires Dairy Circ. No. 38.
How Eggs are formed  Poultry Circ. No. 38.
List of Publications.
Cottage Cheese Dairy Circ. No. 3.
Farm Cheese Dairy Circ. No. 2.
Care and Management of Sheep Bulletin No. 99.
Climate of B.C., 1938.
Agricultural Statistics, 1938.
Annual Report, 1938.
In March of this year a Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board was appointed for
British Columbia by the Honourable K. C. MacDonald. This Board is composed of officials
of the Federal and Provincial Departments of Agriculture, the University of British Columbia, and a representative of the fertilizer trade. The appointments were made with the
approval of the Federal Minister of Agriculture and the President of the University of
British Columbia. Authorization is contained in Order in Council P.C. 3124 regarding the
sale of fertilizers.    The personnel is as follows:—
G. M. Stewart, District Supervisor, Dominion Department of Agriculture, Vancouver.
Dr. J. Marshall, Dominion Entomological Laboratory, Vernon.
E. M. Straight, Superintendent, Experimental Farm, Sidney.
;                W. H. Hicks, Superintendent, Experimental Farm, Agassiz.
Cecil Tice, Field Crops Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
W. H. Robertson, Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
F. W. Smeltz, Representing the Fertilizer Trade, Vancouver.
Dr. G. G. Moe, Professor of Agronomy, University of B.C., Vancouver.
Dr. D. G. Laird, Professor of Soils, University of B.C., Vancouver  (Secretary).
The Fertilizer Board has recommended that the number of fertilizer mixes offered for
sale in British Columbia be reduced to fifteen. Their recommendation has been accepted by
the Provincial Minister of Agriculture and forwarded to the Federal Minister for adoption.
The mixes approved are: 0-12-10, 0-10-16, 2-16-6, 2-10-8, 2-19-0, 3-10-8, 4-10-10, 4-12-4,
5-10-5, 6-7-4, 6-7-10, 6-10-10, 6-20-16, 6-30-15, and 9-27-9. In addition, the Board recommends the products as listed and the provisions set forth in Part 2 of the Regulations under
the " Fertilizers Act "—Acts, Orders and Regulations, No. 9.
The Minister of Agriculture has also named a Fertilizer Counsel which will deal with
applications for special mixes and may be received from either consumers or producers.
The Fertilizer Counsel includes Mr. G. M. Stewart, representing the Federal Department of
Agriculture; Mr. F. W. Smeltz, representing the fertilizer trade; Mr. J. W. Eastham, representing the Provincial Department of Agriculture; and Dr. D. G. Laird, representing the
University of British Columbia.
This year the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association has completed fifty years of
active endeavour in behalf of the producers of tree-fruits, small fruits, and vegetables in
British Columbia.
The Association was organized at Vancouver in 1889 and since its inception its directorate has included many outstanding men in the civic and agricultural life of the Province.
Following a practice of several years Mr. Robert Murray, of 2850 Colquitz Avenue
Victoria, has again made available to farmers and settlers throughout British Columbia
through the Provincial Department of Agriculture, many thousands of packets of seeds of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 19
annual, biennial, and perennial flowering plants. He has also presented, free of charge, to
the Department for distribution many hundreds of roots of German iris and tubers of a
great assortment of dahlia varieties. These roots and tubers are distributed through the
Field Officials of the Department of Agriculture, mainly in Central British Columbia and in
the Peace River Block, where perennial borders and home surroundings of real beauty are
being developed by nature lovers who highly appreciate the voluntary assistance of Mr.
Murray, who was formerly an official in the Provincial Department of Agriculture.
The agricultural industry of British Columbia was well represented at the World's Fair
held in San Francisco this year. Examples of our fruits, vegetables, and seeds were on display, along with photographs and other materials illustrating the agricultural possibilities
of this Province.
In the live-stock classes British Columbia's entry of pure-bred Clydesdale mares and
stallions won premier awards and brought distinct credit to the horsemen of this Province.
In the sheep classes a car-load of Suffolk sheep entered by the B.C. Pure-bred Sheep-
breeders' Association secured fourteen awards from the Exposition, including three first
prizes, as well as an award from the Suffolk Sheep Society of America.
Incidentally, this year the Canadian Pacific Exhibition at Vancouver has provided
classes for Kerry Hill sheep in their annual catalogue. Kerry Hill sheep were first brought
to British Columbia by joint arrangements between the Provincial Department of Agriculture
and the Empire Marketing Board in 1930.
Provincial Poultry Flock Approval work is now approaching completion. More than
115,000 birds have been blood-tested during the autumn of 1939 and these birds are now
eligible as producers of hatching-eggs under the Provincial Flock Approval plan.
In addition to these birds which will supply eggs for the commercial hatcheries, upwards
of 100,000 birds have been blood-tested under Federal R.O.P., and their progeny will be
available to producers of day-old chicks in the spring of 1940.
British Columbia's poultry industry has made marked expansion in 1939 and through
the joint efforts of the Federal and Provincial Departments of Agriculture and the University
of British Columbia a splendid service is now offered to flock-owners in this Province.
In recent years fire has swept over great areas of logged-off lands in the Campbell River
District of Vancouver Island. In order that information regarding the establishment of
legumes on such denuded and fire-swept areas might be available, the Provincial Department
of Agriculture seeded down suitable areas with an alsike clover-timothy seed mixture on a
greater part of the acreage. In addition, smaller areas were sown to sweet clover (Melilotus),
to white Dutch clover (Trifolium repens), and to Australian subterranean clover (Trifolium
subterraneum). All of these several clovers have made satisfactory growth in 1939 and their
condition at the end of the year is reported on by the official who was responsible for the
" Acting under instructions approved by the Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister of
Agriculture, an area of approximately 1,800 acres of burned over, logged-off land in the
Campbell River District of Vancouver Island was seeded to timothy and alsike clover mixed,
sweet clover, white Dutch clover, and subterranean clover by Mr. Lance Todhunter between
the dates of February 13th and March 24th, 1939. An inspection of the area was made on
July 30th by Walter Sandall and on November 28th, 1939, by Mr. Todhunter, in company of
Mr. Cecil Tice, Field Crops Commissioner.
" In the first two blocks seeded to subterranean clover a good catch was noted, and
although the inspection was made at a rather late date in the season the plants (which are
annuals) were still vigorous and healthy. There were many seed-burrs in evidence on the
plants, which on examination were found to contain seeds, many of which had already found
coverage in the soil and taken root.
" Two other areas seeded to subterranean clover were not so promising, although a fair
number of plants were seen which were also carrying seed-burrs.    A few plants were located B 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
in a fifth area but were very scattered. These, however, were also bearing seeds and, provided the winter is favourable, should in another year provide good pasture.
" The catch of sweet clover was somewhat disappointing and what plants survived did
not do so well. This being a biennial legume, it does not flower or produce seed until the
second year, consequently seed may be looked for in 1940. The stalks were shattered and
had apparently been heavily grazed by deer, which are numerous in the vicinity.
" In all areas the catch of white Dutch clover was most encouraging, the plants being
healthy and bearing numerous seeds. The football-field at the entrance to Elk Falls Park,
which had been cleared and graded, was also seeded to white Dutch clover. Here the catch
was excellent and, although bearing evidence of having been grazed heavily by deer, there
was evidence of seed production and the prospects of reseeding were good.
" There is approximately 800 acres of timothy and alsike from Forbes Landing road
south, where an excellent catch and growth were noted. The timothy had attained a height
of from 2Vz to 3 feet and the plants were vigorous and healthy. At the time of the visit all
seeds had been scattered from the heads and the seed had germinated. New growth was
from one-quarter to three-quarters of an inch in height. It was also noted that the growth
of grass and clover had almost entirely overcome the growth of bracken which is most persistent in the district. The clover which was seeded with the timothy was also an excellent
catch.    The plants were well developed and healthy.
" The area from Forbes Landing road north to Elk Falls, which was seeded chiefly to
timothy and alsike, proved very disappointing; the catch being very spotty with plants not
well developed and, with the exception of the football-field, very few clover plants were found.
" There were four test-plots seeded in this part, none of which at the time of the visit
showed any growth, with the exception of the odd plant of timothy. The soil here, however,
was perhaps more sandy with less plant-food available than on the south side and it lacked
moisture-holding ability. Three test-plots on the extreme south of the seeded area showed
an excellent growth of timothy and alsike. The subterranean clover plot was spotty, but the
plants noted were all healthy and showed evidence of reseeding."
The number of Farmers' Institutes which are actively co-operating with the British
Columbia Chamber of Agriculture continues to increase and the publication " Country Life
in B.C." is recognized as the official organ of the Farmers' Institutes. District conventions
have been held in all ten of the areas designated by the Minister and resolutions to the
number of 108 have been forwarded to the Secretary of the Advisory Board of Farmers'
Institutes from these annual conferences.
One of the features of Farmers' Institute conventions in 1939 has been the discussion of
the Youth Training Schools which have been held in a number of agricultural centres. These
Youth Training Schools are under the immediate supervision of Dr. G. M. Shrum, Director
of Extension of the University of British Columbia, and they are jointly financed by Federal
and Provincial Governments from Unemployment Relief funds. These schools have enabled
young men and young women to secure practical information on home-crafts and farming
methods and with the practical training the underlying theory in each case has not been
Farmers' Institutes and Women's Institutes have co-operated with the Director in planning for the schools, in maintaining an interest in the school programme and in retaining
association with the young people following the closing of the short courses. The continued
interest shown in Youth Training work by adults, as well as by the boys and girls who are
enrolled as students, is decidedly encouraging, and with the opening of the new school-year
this autumn the interest of all concerned in the movement is even more apparent than it was
a year ago.
Another feature of interest in connection with Farmers' Institute conferences relates to
the establishment of study groups that are being developed in the more progressive agricultural communities as a result of the passing at the 1938 session of the Legislature of the
" Credit Union Act." Farmers' Institutes are definitely interested in the developing of
Credit Unions and they realize that before success can be achieved in this matter considerable
study is required. With that in view thought has been given during the present year to the
establishment of study groups. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 21
Following the outbreak of war in September and the appointment by the Honourable
the Minister of Agriculture of an Agricultural Supplies Committee for this Province, Farmers'
Institutes have been kept aware of developments and changing situations at frequent intervals.
Many of the Farmers' Institutes have shown their readiness to follow production programmes
that are laid before them. This is particularly true in connection with the plans for increased
production of vegetable, root, and legume seeds and with increase in bacon-hog production.
These matters will be referred to in the reports of the Provincial Horticulturist and the Live
Stock Commissioner.
Regarding the business dealings of Farmers' Institutes, the following brief summary
prepared by the Secretary of the Advisory Board gives a fair statement of the situation:-—
The full examination and analysis of Farmers' Institutes activities cannot, of course, be
completed until well on in each succeeding year. For the year 1938 the financial statements
and reports of 135 Institutes show varying degrees of activity in co-operative work for their
members, this total comparing favourably with 122 Institutes in 1937 and 105 in 1936.
It is a matter of interest to note that in 1938 nine out of the ten districts into which
the Province is divided for Institute purposes showed an increase in their receipts and expenditures; some of the increases being considerable, such as in District "C" +34 per cent.,
District " D " +30 per cent., District " E " +28 per cent., etc.
The total figures for these 135 Institutes compared for 1937-38 are as follows:—
Increase or Decrease.
Per Cent.
+ 19.4
+ 14.0
+ 2.0
+ 4.9
Stumping-powder (fuse and caps)  	
+ 5.7
+ 18.3
Seed, Feed, Fertilizer, Groceries, etc.
The 5-per-cent. increase in the total handled brings the figure for above items to
$135,128.99. The districts leading in this work are District "F" (West Kootenay),
$53,912.34; District " E," $50,967.22; and District " B," $12,722.77. Individual Institutes
largely contributing to these substantial figures were Otter District Farmers' Institute,
$40,186.01, and Creston Farmers' Institute, $38,667.25.
,236.40, an increase of some $9,000, covers a wide range,
Land and surveys   $928.06
Pure-bred sires   468.78
Seed-cleaning   and   machinery   666.98
Tie contracts   30,355.55
Wood-sales   397.80
This heading, amounting to
Binder-twine       $132.31
Buildings      2,386.31
Competitions         303.14
Donations         671.59
Fall fair expenses and
prize money     5,736.32
Fruit-crates  ,.     1,009.46
Nineteen Institutes either operated Fall Fairs or contributed to same; ten Institutes
spent money on seed-cleaning; ten institutes in the Bulkley and Nechaco Valleys operated
tie contracts for members, the largest—South Bulkley—amounting to $5,611.24, the average
being slightly over $3,000.
Stumping-powder, etc.
Stumping-powder purchases in 1938 reached 10,514 cases valued at $48,640.50; for the
year just closing the purchases amounted to 9,609 cases worth $44,323.94, at the special
Farmers' Institute price quoted by the Powder Company. B 22
Under an arrangement between the Powder Company and this Department, members of
Farmers' Institutes and similar organizations are able to purchase their powder at the carload rate in less than car-load lots, which is approximately $2.25 a case less than paid by
those persons who are not members of Farmers' Institutes. Under this policy and since
January 1st, 1920, until the 31st of December, 1939, members of Farmers' Institutes have
purchased 207,765 cases valued at $1,254,247.76.
Changes in the staff of the Department of Agriculture include:—
L. W. Johnson, Senior Clerk, granted temporary leave for military services, October
1st, 1939.
Miss Emily L. Drummond, Stenographer, granted sick leave to December 31st, 1939.
John A. Smith, B.S.A., appointed Field Inspector at Penticton, November 1st, 1939.
John E. Porter, appointed Junior Clerk, September 13th, 1939.
Miss E. Lyons, appointed Stenographer for Penticton office, March 1st, 1939, in place of
Mrs. W. Louie, resigned.
Miss Helen Querns, appointed Stenographer for the Kamloops office January 1st, 1939,
in place of Miss Mabel McMillan, resigned.
In reporting on the activities of boys and girls engaged in junior club projects, Mr. S. S.
Phillips, Club Secretary, presents the following list, showing the number of projects undertaken in 1938 and 1939:—
Beef calf	
Alfalfa —  	
A comparison of the above figures shows a big increase over 1938.    The greatest increase
was in the poultry project and also a substantial increase is noted in the dairy project.    All
projects, with the exception of sheep and swine, show increased membership in 1939, swine
showing a drop from eleven clubs with ninety-three members to eight clubs with eighty-four
members. __       _
New Projects.
Alfalfa clubs were included in the list of projects undertaken for 1939. Two clubs were
organized in the Cariboo, with thirty-three members. No reports have been received on the
activities of these clubs. The prize awards will be made next year when the plots have been
inspected and scored.
Grain Projects.—The two grain clubs—Richmond and Delta—achieved notable success
this year. The crop grown was certified seed-oats. The generous co-operation of the
Dominion Seed Branch was largely responsible for the success of these clubs. The clubs
were organized through the efforts of Mr. D. W. Thompson, of the Plant Production Service,
co-operating with Mr. R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist. The field inspections, judging
of seeds, and scoring of record sheets and oral examinations were done by Mr. Thompson.
The crop was sold to Buckerfields, Limited, netting the two clubs approximately $6,000. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 23
The following pictures show the secretaries and presidents of the two grain clubs. Left to
right: Roland Savage and Donald Montgomery, of the Delta Club, and Jack Savage and
Stephen May, of the Richmond Club.
Junior Activities at Provincial Exhibitions.
A great deal of interest is shown by the public in the junior farmer activities featured
by Exhibition Associations. These activities include stock-judging competitions, poultry-
judging, judging of potatoes and seeds, showmanship contests, rope halter-making contests,
etc. At the Vancouver Exhibition a stock-judging competition was held on August 28th,
1939. Seven teams with a membership of twenty-one took part in the team competition.
Forty-one junior individuals and five senior individuals entered the contests.
At Armstrong Exhibition swine- and dairy-judging competitions were held on September
14th, with sixteen juniors and twelve seniors competing in the swine-judging competition
and the same number of juniors and seniors also competing in the dairy-cattle judging
On September 20th interclub competitions were held at the Chilliwack Exhibition. The
results of contests were as follows:—
Interclub Competition, Pure-bred Jersey Cattle (four clubs competing) —
First, Mission Jersey Club.
Second, Chilliwack Jersey Club.
Third, Agassiz Jersey Club.
Fourth, Langley Jersey Club.
Interclub Competition, Pure-bred Ayrshire Cattle  (three clubs competing) —
First, Chilliwack (East) Ayrshire.
Second, Langley Ayrshire.
Third, Chilliwack (West)  Ayrshire.
Interclub Competition, Grade Calf  (seven clubs competing) —
First, Chilliwack Jersey.
Second, Chilliwack Guernsey.
Third, Whatcom Road Calf Club.
Fourth, Langley Calf Club.
Fifth, Abbotsford Calf Club.
Sixth, Agassiz Calf Club.
Seventh, Matsqui Calf Club.
Interclub Competition, Poultry  (three clubs competing) —
First, Langley Rhode Island Red Club.
Second, Langley White Leghorn Club.
Third, Langley Barred Rock Club.
In the poultry-judging competition there were eight contestants;   in the showmanship of
dairy calves competition there were fifty-five entries and in the stock-judging competition
forty contestants. B 24
Left to right:
Chris. Hagelstein, Ralph Huene,  G.  L.  Landon, Douglas Hopkins,
and Sandy McLean.
Elimination Contests.
Provincial elimination contests for the purpose of selecting candidates to represent
British Columbia in the Junior Judging Competitions at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair
were held at the Vancouver Exhibition and also at the Interior Provincial Exhibition at
The poultry elimination contest was held at the Vancouver Exhibition and was conducted by Mr. G. L. Landon, District Agriculturist at Grand Forks. The winners of this
contest were Ralph Huene, R.R. 1, Coghlan, and Douglas Hopkins, R.R. 1, Langley Prairie,
both are members of the Langley Poultry Club. The attached picture shows the two members of the team with the club organizer and coach.
The potato-judging elimination contest, which was also held at the Vancouver Exhibition,
was conducted by Mr. H. S. MacLeod, District Inspector, Plant Protection Division, Seed
Potato Certification, 514 Federal Building, Vancouver. The winners of this contest were
Charles Freeman and Gordon Davis, Milner, members of the Langley Potato Club, who were
coached by Mr. S. Gray.    The members with their coach are shown in the attached snapshot.
Left to right:   S. Gray, Chas. Freeman, and Gordon Davis. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 25
The elimination contest for dairy-cattle judging was held at the Armstrong Exhibition
on September 12th. The winners of this contest were David Hopkins and Ralph Lockhart,
both of Armstrong.
The swine-judging elimination contest was also held at the Armstrong Exhibition; the
winners being Vernon McCallan and James Thornton, of Armstrong, who were members of
the Armstrong Swine Club. The picture, from left to right, shows members of the dairy-
and swine-judging teams.
Left to right:   David Hope and Ralph
Left to right:   Vernon McCallan and
James Thornton.
The teams in the four projects were exceptionally well trained and it was obvious to
the examiners that they would have ranked high at Toronto. The cancellation of the Royal
Toronto Winter Fair was a disappointment to every one concerned. In recognition of the
accomplishment of the eight elimination contest winners the Honourable K. C. MacDonald,
Minister of Agriculture, authorized the presentation of a cheque to each of these young men.
The presentation to the winners of the dairy and swine projects was made by the Minister
at a banquet held in their honour during the time of the Fat Stock Sale at Kamloops in
December. The presentation of the cheques to the winners of the potato and poultry projects
was made at the Boys' and Girls' Club Banquet held at Langley on November 17th, 1939.
Interest in club-work continues to grow, as shown by the increase in the number of clubs
organized this year. The arrangement for the payment of prize awards with the Dominion
Livestock and Poultry Divisions will save the Department approximately $1,000 this year
and has not interfered in any way with Provincial supervision. It may be necessary to
curtail the organization of a number of baby-chick clubs this year. This could be done by
eliminating the grant of $1 per member for the purchase of baby chicks or by reducing the
grant from $1 to 50 cents per member. It is my impression that it will not be necessary at
present to discontinue the grant to potato-club members for the purchase of certified seed-
potatoes as we had only seventeen potato clubs this year and a large increase is not
With the approval of Mr. L. S. McLaine and the District Inspector in charge a brief,
summarized report of the activity of the Federal Department of Agriculture has been supplied by Mr. A. J. Fuller, covering imported nursery stock and plant product interceptions
at the Port of Vancouver for 1939.    Mr. Fuller states that:—
" With the co-operation of the Dominion and Provincial Forestry Departments and the
City Parks Board, the European pine-shoot moth found infesting an area in the South
Granville Street district—as reported last year—has apparently been cleaned up. One
hundred and forty-three pines, comprising 86 lodgepole, 18 mugo, 32 white, and 7 miscel- B 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
laneous pines were sprayed and clipped, and 81—chiefly lodgepole—were dug up and burned.
This work is being followed up this spring.
" One hundred Maglio plum-trees from Nelson were refused certification to the U.S.A.
The trees were infested with the European fruit-scale (Aspidiotus ostrieformis), mealy bug,
and red spider, and have now been planted at Mr. Maglio's local nursery on the Pacific
Highway under quarantine.
" The first recorded export shipment of 1,000 sacks of table potatoes went forward to
Australia for re-export in August. Also for the first time several other large shipments
were made to New Zealand.
" Negotiations are under way to inspect all mills, grain warehouses, and seed merchants'
premises with a view of cleaning up stored-product insects.
" Special care is being exercised with inspection and certification of fruit and vegetables for export to protect our present and future markets. The Dominion Fruit Branch
is co-operating with this Division in this work.
" A survey of certain areas in the Okanagan District has taken place to ascertain the
extent of the distribution of San Jose scale.
" Shipping News.
" During the year 2,330 deep-sea and coastwise boats docked at Vancouver. Fifty-six
brought nursery stock and 474 brought plant products as part of their cargo, shipped and
transhipped from many parts of the world. We continue to meet all passenger and the
majority of the freight-boats. Two hundred and twenty-nine passengers, disembarking at
Vancouver, were found to be in possession of nursery stock or plant products; some of which
were allowed entry and others confiscated and destroyed, being prohibited entry into Canada.
" Imported Nursery Stock.
" Assorted fruit-trees, ornamental  shrubs,  plants,  etc.,  numbering  4,307,166,  in  3,692
containers, valued at $70,657.70, were inspected.    This necessitated 1,323 inspections.    About
one and a quarter million bulbs over 1938 were imported.    The imported nursery stock is
listed under the following headings:—
Assorted fruit-trees        22,755
Assorted small fruits         26,468
Assorted ornamental trees and shrubs        46,187
Roses           45,707
Fruit seedlings         255,784
Ornamental seedlings         21,011
Assorted plants           35,515
Assorted roots       177,987
Assorted bulbs   3,667,493
Scions    8,259
Peach pits  (lb.)          4,415
Aquatic seeds (lb.)   102
Onion sets (lb.)   1
" The countries of origin were chiefly the British Isles, Europe, New Zealand, Australia,
Japan, and the United States of America.
" Interprovincial Nursery Stock.
" Nursery stock imported into British Columbia from Provinces east of Manitoba and
inspected by this Department:—
Assorted fruit-trees  .  152
Assorted small fruits   2,638
Assorted ornamental trees and shrubs  580
Rose-bushes    1,174
Fruit seedlings .  277
Ornamental seedlings   204
Assorted plants   2,078
Assorted roots     2,493
Assorted bulbs   30,661
Rose eyes for budding     2,200 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 27
" Five hundred and sixty-nine shipments, containing 42,493 assorted plants, roots, etc.,
in 551 containers, valued at $2,535.11, were inspected. A large portion of the shipments
this year arrived by parcel post.
" Nursery stock imported into this Province from Manitoba and points west is taken
care of by Mr. Eastham and Mr. Sandall.
" This year the stock arrived in excellent condition; only 100 iris bulbs were condemned
for eel-worm, 5 crocuses for hard rot, and 3 grape-vines for Phylloxera.
" Three hazel-nut trees were intercepted and destroyed as they are prohibited entry into
British Columbia under Regulation No. 5 (Domestic).
" Interception of Nursery Stock, 1939, from Foreign Countries.
" There were 83 assorted fruit-trees condemned for bark canker, Gummosis, San Jose
scale, root-gall, hairy-root, pear root-aphis, bud-mite, sour-sap, Bacillus amylovous, and Glo-
cosporium perennans; 199 assorted ornamental trees and shrubs for Chionaspis furfura,
Aspidiotus forbesi, Aspidiotus camellias, Diaspis carueli, Aspidiotus ostrseformis, Aspidiotus
Euonymus, Lepidosaphes ulmi, Aulacaspis pentagona, and Coryneum, sp.; 5,619 assorted
bulbs for Meroden equestris, eel-worm, Rhizopus necans, Botrytis, chalk disease, mites,
hyacinth yellows, Penicillium mould, bacterial dry, basal, and hard rot; and 102 tubers for
eel-worm and bacterial soft-rot.
" Prohibited Entry.
" Under Regulation No. 14 ( Foreign), 6 peach-trees from U.S.A. were prohibited entry;
8 shrubs and plants from Japan under Regulation No. 12 (Foreign) ; 8 lb. of potatoes from
Sweden and 1 lb. of potatoes from Ireland under Regulation No. 3 (Foreign); and 2 lb. of
wheat from Japan under Regulation No. 18 (Foreign).
" Imported Plant Products intercepted and condemned.
" There were 174 boxes of tomatoes from Jamaica condemned for Anthraonose and
Alternaria macrosporium; 13 boxes of pears for codling-moth; and 1,400 lb. of Washington,
U.S.A., potatoes for bacterial wilt and Fusarium oxysporum atro purpurrium.
" As far as we know this is the first instance of bacterial wilt found in potatoes imported
into British Columbia, and none has ever been found in potatoes grown in this Province.
" In all, 181 crates of cabbage were refused entry infested with Brevicoryne brassicx.
" Many shipments of grains, cereals, and dried fruit were found infested with various
stored product insects.    These are fumigated and released after a second inspection."
A table showing exported plant products is given in Appendix No. 8 and a table of
exported nursery stock in Appendix No. 9.     ,
J. A. Grant, Commissioner.
The marketing of farm products for 1939 has been generally satisfactory. It has been
a year of heavy production in all lines of exportable produce and new records have again been
established in several commodities. The three Prairie Provinces are still our most profitable
market and as a heavy grain-crop, estimated in value at $250,000,000, has been harvested
this year these markets have absorbed more of our products than usual.
Part of the increase in trade can be attributed to a central selling policy put into practice by Interior tree-fruit growers and which has given satisfaction to both distributers and
growers. This experiment resulted in greatly stabilizing the market and an effort was made
to widen its scope and further stabilize it in the producers' interest.
Heavy rains in June were responsible for the heavy grain-crop, but its effect upon shipments of berries and cherries to Prairie points had a destructive effect and lessened the
volume consumed. The wet conditions in British Columbia during berry-shipping time compelled growers to process the berries that were unfit for shipment in an SO, solution and
this resulted in a record in shipments of processed berries to the United Kingdom markets
where a heavy demand developed. The fresh-berry crop was practically all sold under a
one-desk system without coming under the " Marketing Act." This has been the system used
over a period of years and growers know that in this system of marketing lies their only hope
of volume distribution and the best possible price realized. B 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Forced rhubarb was marketed independently and shows a decrease in volume and lower
prices than last year, and these remarks apply to the sale of hothouse cucumbers and
tomatoes, both of which show unsatisfactory distribution at lower prices than 1938.
Coast and Interior Vegetable Boards have experienced a satisfactory year and prices
realized have been fully as good as last year, with a market assured for all the tubers available this year.
The Markets Branch has been reorganized and Mr. Ernest MacGinnis has been added to
the staff as Assistant Markets Commissioner.
Some drastic changes were made that affected fruit and vegetable growers and especially
potato-growers. A trade treaty between United States and Canada came into force and
greatly reduced tariffs on fruits entering Canada. Competitive potatoes are now on the
free list for ten and one-half months in the year without securing a countervailing arrangement for Canadian exporters. This arrangement upset the new potato market of British
Columbia, as the earliest potatoes are ready ahead of the enforcement of the tariff on June
15th until about July 20th. By this change the consumers' price is now set by American
competition instead of being set by the growers' Boards. During the first six weeks of the
regular potato marketing the price in British Columbia was the price that Mount Vernon,
Washington, could lay down potatoes in Vancouver.
The declaration of war in September altered the marketing outlook and the adverse
exchange against United States importations made good any protection that the treaty
displaced. Export potatoes were in demand from New Zealand and restricted only by shipping space available. This unusual demand cleaned up the second-crop potatoes. Prairie
growers of potatoes have supplied their home needs in late potatoes for some years past, but
owing to intense heat in July the first growth of potatoes was destroyed and the second
growth did not fully mature, and these immature potatoes will not last after February, when
any surplus in British Columbia will be drawn on to meet Prairie demands until the 1940
crop is ready.
Apple restrictions on the United Kingdom market have left more than the normal holdover at this date, or about 1,642,000 boxes left unsold or 200,000 more than last year at
this date.
Onions produced an unusually heavy crop, which totalled 13,000 tons or about 6,000 tons
over regular market needs. A selling campaign is being organized in an effort to dispose of
these heavy surpluses.
Returns from the sale of forced rhubarb were again disappointing, as prices were
slightly lower than the low prices ruling for the 1938 crop. The Prairie shipment—approximately twenty cars—was similar in volume to 1938 and prices about the same.
Vancouver consumed 20,000 crates at slightly lower prices than 1938.
The  field-rhubarb  crop  was  marketed through  the  usual  distributer  and  his   Prairie
agencies, and owing to the early season on the Prairies the volume shipped was the lowest for
the past three years.
Year. shipped.
1937      73
1938      60
1939      51
The following quotation from the shippers' report describes the weather situation:—■
" From April 24th until after rhubarb shipping was completed the average Prairie temperature ran from 60° to 80°, which was much in excess of the Coast temperature.    This
naturally brought on Prairie rhubarb quicker than ever before."
The average price for the fifty-one cars in 1939 was 77% cents per box of 40 lb. f.o.b.,
against 74% cents in 1938 for sixty cars.
Weather conditions were favourable for growing and produced a very heavy crop. Rain
accompanied with cool weather continued during the shipping period with only one clear day
in June (the strawberry-shipping month). There was not one really good car shipped from
the Lower Mainland during the entire strawberry season. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 29
The distributing agency kept in close contact with shippers and distributing brokers so
that all knew what was going on daily. In all, 158 cars of the main crop were shipped.
The first cars rolled on June 6th and the last on July 11th.
For the past three years late-ripening berries such as everbearing strawberries and
raspberries have been assembled and shipped with loganberries, blackberries, and currants
and shipped in car-lots. These cars find their market at Prairie points and three cars were
shipped to Montreal and Toronto. This year forty-five cars were shipped from the Lower
A total of 5,266 crates of loganberries were shipped in raspberry cars and netted
shippers $1.03% per crate; 27,829 crates of late everbearing strawberries were included and
averaged to shipper $1.40 per crate.
In 1938, 26,989 crates of everbearing strawberries were shipped and in 1939 the total
was 31,618 crates.
These berries are an out-of-season specialty and collide with seasonable deciduous fruits
from other parts of the Province.
Blackberries are not popular on Prairie markets. In 1938 the volume sold in cars was
8,257 crates at 82 cents, and in 1939 the amount was 6,283 crates at 98 cents.
The car-lot movement was as follows:—
Lower Mainland 	
Vancouver Island  :	
Wynndel      20
Total  158
The following table shows the distribution of both car-lots and L.C.L.  shipments   (in
crates)  to the five main distributing-points:—
Edmonton —  	
Reports from the above points all indicated heavy loss from mould due to rain at shipping-point.    Prices to the association averaged $1.37%.
The outlook is for greater U.S. competition in berries on Prairie markets and an
increased crop of berries for shipping in 1940, as with a similar crop to 1939 better shipping
weather is likely to obtain and with prospects uncertain for processed-berry demand from
the United Kingdom and much of the success or failure of marketing the 1940 berry-crop will
depend on the United Kingdom demand for SO, strawberries and raspberries.
The total shipment of raspberries .by car-lot was as follows:— Cars
Lower Mainland   39
Kelowna    10
Wynndel      1
Total  50
In 1938, sixty-six cars were shipped, all from the Lower Mainland. The average price
to associations was $1.63% against $1.50 for 1938.
For the past few years raspberries have met low-priced California peach competition,
which retailed below $1 per box and weakened the raspberry demand. They also overlap
the British Columbia and Ontario cherries on the market. B 30
Shipments of L.C.L. to the following points were as follows:—
Crates in Cars
(Ten cars from Kelowna not included.)
Lower Mainland.
Vancouver Island.
Practically the whole pack has been marketed, mostly in the United Kingdom.
The committee on marketing, appointed by the B.C. Fruit-growers at their annual convention, held at Vernon early in 1939, decided to take a vote of the growers on the question
of central selling. This vote resulted in over 90 per cent, of the growers endorsing it and
immediately this committee met the shippers, who also endorsed it for domestic sales, and
signed a contract to that effect, good for the 1939 crop sales.
The Interior Fruit Board placed the Tree Fruits, Limited, at the disposal of the " Board
of Governors." The 1939 domestic sales were made on a central selling plan. The shippers
agreed to a 3-cent-per-box levy to pay for marketing. The " Governors " appointed a sales
manager and assistant.    This levy will meet all expenses of selling the 1939 crop.
The experiment so far appears to be satisfactory and its further extension has been
recommended by the 1940 meeting of the B.C. Fruit-growers' Association, held at Penticton
early in 1940.
The selling plans were hurriedly made and its success was partially due to the co-operation of the buyers, who seemingly prefer a stabilized market which the central selling plan
was successful in bringing about.
Another feature of the 1939 season was an investigation by F. A. McGregor, Commissioner, " Combines Investigation Act," who submitted a report that certain firms in Manitoba
and British Columbia operated a combine within the meaning of the Act. This was followed
by the commencement of proceedings against the firms and persons named which at time of
writing is before the Court. The finding of the Court may influence the future selling plans
of the Interior Tree-fruit Board. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 31
There was a heavy crop of nearly all tree-fruits to market, especially apples, peaches,
and prunes, which will be shown by the following table showing the amounts marketed in
1939, 1938, and 1937. The 1937 and 1938 figures are taken from the records of the Tree-fruit
Board, showing the exact shipments.    Some of the commodity sales are incomplete for 1939 :•—
It was known that Washington had a bumper crop of prunes and the trade was well
canvassed for orders. British Columbia was ten days later than usual and this allowed
more Washington prunes in ahead of the dump tariff application. Prices of Washington
prunes fell from 46 cents per box to 33 cents when dump was applied and quotations as low
as 23 cents f.o.b. were quoted in Washington. This had a depressing influence on British
Columbia prices. British Columbia had a crop of 330,000 boxes and of these about 30,000
were dumped at the end of the season. There were over 200,000 boxes of Washington prunes
sold on Prairie markets.
The following are the figures up to September 23rd on plums and prunes in cases:—
Grand Forks.
84,433                       379
Final figures will show the Italian prune sales to the end of the year were approximately
300,000 cases.    Prices ruled considerably lower than 1938.
Total prunes sold in the area— Cases.
1938     252,304
1937  ,  229,630
Early plums—
The peach-crop in 1939 exceeded any previous crop in volume.
Okanagan    412,127
Nelson         1,313
Creston   50
Total for area—
366,577 B 32
Apple Movement—Export Shipment to December 31st, 1939.
South America    	
Domestic Shipments.
British Columbia       *	
Apples unsold December 31st-
Tree-fruits processed, 1939.
Lower Mainland.
Vancouver Island.
The vegetable market, like nearly all other agricultural products, has resulted in low
prices due to heavy crops and unbalanced offerings at peak of each commodity season. The
Coast Vegetable Board controlled only potatoes while the Interior Board controlled all
Products handled.
The onion-crop of the Interior exceeded normal production by about 4,000 tons and the
surplus over estimated domestic needs is still unsold. For the purpose of showing volume
handled by the Interior Board from the beginning of the season to December 1st, 1939:—
Beans (lb.)      15,091 Lettuce (flats)          574
Beets (tons)   23 Marrow (tons)    5%
Bunched vegetables (doz.)    12,159 Onions  (tons)         4,794'-^
Cabbage (tons)          470 Parsnips (tons)   3%
Cantaloupe  (cts.)       25,881 Peas (lb.)      23,493
Carrots  (tons)    207 Peppers   (lb.)       76,711
Cauliflower  (doz.)    477 Potatoes   (tons)         4,379
Celery (tons)    66% Pumpkins (tons)   2
Citron  (tons)    3% Silverskins  (lb.)      78,991
Corn (doz.)        2,048 Squash (tons)    18
Cucumbers (p. box)      83,471 Tomatoes, S.R. (4B) ...... 230,918
Eggplant  (lb.)         2,728 Tomatoes, S.R.   (lugs)...    84,886
Gerkins, dills, etc.  (lb.)...      2,785 Tomatoes, green (p. box)       9,655
Chinese vegetables (lb.)..    10,026 Turnips  (tons)    13%
Lettuce, (cts.)      18,138
The potato-crop for 1939 shows a considerable increase in tonnage at Coast points and
a slight decrease at Interior points. The Oriental and Australasian demand has been heavier
than for several years, due to partial failure of potato-crop there owing to excessive heatwave last summer. This shortage will take up all the Coast surplus. Prices will average
Coast growers slightly over $20 per ton. Interior growers should average a like amount.
Early potatoes from June to September 1st show an increased local sale and from September
1st to December 31st the figures for the past two years are:—
Sold in Greater Vancouver and Victoria—
1938    95,587
1939  122,542
1938     46,400
1939     44,778
Some changes in minimum loads were arranged with the express companies. Lowering
the rates to most Alberta points to $2 per 100 lb. and a flat rate of $2.25 to Saskatchewan
and Manitoba points helped greatly in berry-distribution this year. An application for a rate
to Northern Alberta and Peace River Districts was turned down by the Traffic Association,
but as this is an important matter a new application will be made in 1940.
The Flin Flon and Le Pas Districts might absorb two cars of strawberries in 1940 and
it is hoped that the two Canadian railways will be able to agree to this for the coming season.
Another district  (Lloydminster and Vermilion)  formerly served by L.C.L. can absorb
part-cars on the stop-in-transit plan.    Some conflict between Edmonton and Saskatoon jobbers
as to territory needs adjusting to take advantage of the express rate of $2 per 100 lb.    The
minimum load for berries has been increased to 18,500 lb. per car.
3 B 34
In Edmonton, Calgary, and Saskatoon a few dealers who receive berries on consignment
without any set selling-price have been a constant worry to the brokers in charge of berry-
distributions. These dealers manage to secure enough berries to step out with a lower-than-
prevailing price and force distributers to set a price below what market would pay. A few
growers who ship on consignment defeat the purpose of all other growers, which is to stabilize
berry prices.
The demand for SO2 berries in the United Kingdom this year afforded a much-needed
outlet for strawberries and netted growers as much or more than was paid for berries sold
on the fresh-fruit market.
Two visits to Prairie points were made during the shipping season in order to make
first-hand contact with selling brokers there and to confer with our Bulletin Correspondents
on their reaction from the consumer and the trade as to packages, packing, and the condition
of fruit and vegetables on arrival.
On the second visit Mr. Ernest MacGinnis made his introductory trip as Assistant
The Markets Bulletin was issued every Tuesday and sent out to the Press, to correspondents, and to leaders in selling movements.    In all 1,200 were distributed.
At the close of the year no specific information is available as a guide to farmers on
what to purchase in excess of normal as war-time production.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist.
Climatic conditions during the past year in the various horticultural sections of the
Province have, on the whole, been most satisfactory. The winter was comparatively mild,
very few points reported below zero temperatures and then but for short periods. Rain and
snowfall were up to the average. The early spring was cold and rather backward, but
unusually warm weather in April hastened plant-growth with the result that the apple-
blossoming period was about the same as in 1938. Considerable rain fell during the late
spring and wet weather continued until about the middle of July. Following this period was
a prolonged spell of hot, dry weather. Although rain was experienced during the early fall
the general climatic conditions were excellent for the harvesting of all crops. During November and December heavy rains were recorded, resulting in flooded conditions in some of the
Coast areas.    In all sections, however, no low temperatures have been experienced.
The tonnage of tree-fruits throughout the Province tends to increase, and while there
are slight variations from year to year, the general tendency is upward.    This is shown by
the figures submitted in the following table, which gives the actual production for the years
1929 and 1938 as well as the estimated production for 1939.
Apples (boxes)	
Crab-apples (boxes)	
Pears (boxes) 	
Plums and prunes (crates) .
Peaches (crates) —	
Apricots (crates)  	
Cherries (crates) —
B 35
Small Fruits.
All small fruits came through the winter in very satisfactory condition. The dry period
during the early spring undoubtedly hindered the development of strawberries and the wet
weather during the picking made conditions difficult for satisfactory harvesting. Moist conditions, however, at this time did increase the crop of raspberries, loganberries, and other
cane-fruits. The Coast sections report a crop of all small fruits equal to that of 1938. In
the Kootenay District the crop was smaller, due probably to the discouraging conditions of
last year when considerable acreage was ploughed under or neglected. While prices on the
whole showed a downward tendency, an encouraging feature is the fact that considerable
tonnage was processed. At the present time there is less of this processed article on hand
than is usual at this time of year, which would indicate a favourable outlook for the sale of
next year's crop.
The cane and vine growth has been most satisfactory during the past season, but the
mild fall and early winter conditions may not have been conducive to the suitable maturing
of the plants.    A cold winter may cause injury and perhaps some loss.
The present status of the industry is indicated in the following table, showing the production of 1929, 1938, and the estimated production for 1939:—
Strawberries (crates).
Raspberries (crates)...
Blackberries (crates)..
Loganberries (lb.)	
Gooseberries (lb.)	
Red and black currants (lb.)...
Grapes (lb.).
The range of soil and climate found in this Province makes it particularly suited to the
production of a complete line of vegetable-crops. This is noticeable in the early spring and
late fall crops which are grown for the local and Prairie markets. In addition to the outdoor
crops, there is an extensive acreage devoted to greenhouse crops such as tomatoes and
The acreage under glass is shown in the section of this report dealing with 1939 surveys.
The acreage devoted to some of the principal outdoor crops is given in the following table:—
1938 1939
Estimated Estimated
Kind. Acreage. Acreage.
Tomatoes   3,331 2,364
Onions  1,406 1,554
Lettuce       541 598
Celery       328 331
Cucumbers       192 161
Cabbage        504 531
Cantaloupes       232 255
The tomato acreage shows a material decrease from that of 1938. Last year's prices
were low and the cannery demands limited; the result was that growers planted out less
acreage than formerly. Growing conditions also during the past season were not the best
and the crop was lighter than for a number of years. The acreage in onions was larger than
in 1938 and the crop heavy. At the present time there is a large tonnage that has not been
Greenhouse production of vegetables has been satisfactory but this year there was no
market control, which resulted in indiscriminate selling and the lowest prices for a number
of years. B 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Peas were produced in a number of centres as in past years. On Vancouver Island as
well as in the Fraser Valley peas were grown under contract for firms engaged in putting up
frozen peas. In the Fraser Valley there was an increase in the planting of peas for the
early market. In addition there were about 1,300 acres under contract to the canneries.
The acreage devoted to dry peas in this section was small due to the prevalence of pea-moth.
In the Interior districts the acreage devoted to peas for dried-pea purposes shows a substantial increase.
The planting of blueberries in the Fraser Valley area has been carried on for a number
of years. While the acreage and tonnage are still of minor importance, this crop seems to
have future possibilities. A trial shipment of blueberries was made during the past season
by Mr. G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, to Mr. M. B. Davis, Dominion Horticulturist,
Ottawa. The following statement on this crop as well as the report on the shipment made
is quoted from Mr. Clarke's annual report:—
" Plantings of the high bush varieties of blueberries are gradually increasing on Lulu
Island and a few small planting trials have been set out by growers in other parts of the
Fraser Valley. These varieties ripen towards the end of July and during August and are
favourably received on the fresh-fruit market. This year commercial shipments were made
to Saskatchewan and the limited supply was marketed to advantage. A trial shipment of a
crate of mixed varieties was shipped to the Dominion Experimental Farm, Ottawa, and
arrived in good condition. The total production of these high bush varieties is about 10 tons.
A copy of the report by Mr. M. B. Davis, Dominion Horticulturist, is attached.
" The following are copies of letters received from Mr. M. B. Davis:—
August 23, 1939.
I beg to acknowledge receipt of your favour of August 15th and also receipt of the mixed
crate of blueberries, which you so kindly forwarded. The blueberries all arrived here in very
excellent condition indicating the tremendous possibility for the shipment of this fruit long
distances. There was practically no spoilage in any of the boxes and I immediately had
them examined and sampled, and I am attaching herewith a report as a result of this first
sampling. The rest of them were placed in storage and I looked at them yesterday and they
were still in remarkable condition after having remained at 32 degrees for about a week. I
am going to hold them until Friday when I expect our Blueberry man from Nova Scotia to
be with us, and may forward you his comments on them at a later date.
August 29, 1939.
With further reference to the blueberries which you forwarded here, we examined these
again Saturday, after having been in cold storage almost a fortnight. Most of them were
still in excellent condition, but there were two that were outstandingly firm, namely, Scannell
and Adams seedling. I ate the last of the ones I took home at noon today and they certainly
were still very firm and of good quality. I was quite enthused over the possibility of these
things, and hope that it will be possible to expand their production in B.C. to a considerable
" Notes re Blueberries received by Express from Lulu Island, B.C.
" In general all varieties arrived in excellent condition. The berries were firm, the boxes
quite full, and the appearance of the shipment splendid.    Every box was marketable.
" Examination of the several varieties revealed the following:—
" Scannell.—Berries in perfect condition, moderate size. Flavour pleasantly sweet and
slightly aromatic.
" Shirley.—Berries a little soft although still marketable, very large. Flavour decidedly
"No Name (Seedling).—Berries a little soft, very large and attractive in appearance.
Flavour sweet.
" Cabot.—Berries in good condition and quite firm. Medium size. Flavour mildly subacid.
" Pioneer.—A few shrivelled and soft berries, medium size. Outstanding flavour, sweet
and pleasantly aromatic.
" Concord.—A few shrivelled and soft berries, very large. Flavour sweet and somewhat
" June.—A few soft and shrivelled berries, large size.    Flavour decidedly sweet. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 37
" Rubel.—Berries in perfect condition, firm and very attractive in appearance, medium
size.    Flavour sub-acid, sharp but pleasant.
" Grover.—A few soft berries, but bulbs in good condition, medium to large size. Flavour
pleasant, sub-acid.
" Adams.—Berries in perfect condition, firm and attractive, quite large. Flavour very
mildly sub-acid, pleasant."
Greenhouse Survey.
A survey is made every two years by the Horticultural Branch of the area devoted to
glass in the Province. The survey made during the past season indicates that there are a
total of 572 growers who make all or part of their living from greenhouse crops. The total
area under glass is 5,422,827 square feet. A detailed statement showing number of growers
and square feet in glass from 1923 to 1939, inclusive, is given in Appendix No. 1.
Bulb Survey.
A survey of the bulb industry was made this year. The first survey made in 1929 showed
159 acres; the 1939 survey 257 acres, an increase of 62 per cent. The following table gives
in detail the acreages devoted to the different kinds of bulbs in the years that surveys have
been made:—
B.C. Bulb Acreages, 1929-39.
22 y2
Iris (bearded) 	
203 V-.
62 per cent, increase in 10 years.
The Horticultural Branch makes a survey of the tree-fruit industry in the Okanagan
and Kootenay Districts every five years. The last survey was made in 1935. The next
survey, it is hoped, will be completed by the end of 1940. Due to the extensive nature of
this work a start was made this fall in certain areas.
The principal flower-seed producing areas are to be found in the southern section of
Vancouver Island. The major portion of this seed is grown on contract for Old Country
markets, and the total acreage varies little from year to year.
The production of vegetable-seed is fairly widely distributed and considerable acreage
is to be found not only in the Coast sections but in other parts of the Province. Some idea
of the value of the industry is shown by the following figures compiled for the 1938 crop:
Flower-seeds, $26,071; vegetable-seeds, $48,420.67. In 1939 there was a considerable increase
in the acreage devoted to vegetable-seed production and values will therefore be higher. At
the present time these figures are not available. It is worth noting in this connection that
the increase in vegetable-seed production has been in the registered and certified seed grades
rather than in the ordinary commercial grades.
Since the passing of the " Seed-growers' Protection Act" in 1935 authorizing the formation of seed-control areas there has, up until 1939, been only one area formed, namely, Grand
Forks. This year two new areas were formed—the Vernon Seed-control Area and the
Okanagan Landing Seed-control Area. There is a possibility of a fourth area being formed
during the coming year at Lavington. B 38
With regard to seed production it should be noted that the convention of the Canadian
Seed Growers' Association was held in Victoria in June. This is the first time since 1927
that this organization has met in British Columbia. As this group is fully aware of the
increasing importance of vegetable-seed production-work in the Province, a considerable
amount of time was devoted to papers and discussions dealing with vegetable-production
work.    This was greatly appreciated by local seed-growers.
Pruning demonstrations were held in the various sections of the Province and were
similar to those which have been held in the past. The number held and number in attendance is shown in the following table:—
No. of Demonstrations.
No. of Pupils.
The potato-beetle control-work in the East Kootenay was carried out as in previous years
and was again under the supervision of Mr. A. McMeans. The following are a few notes
taken from the report of Mr. McMeans on the work in that area and according to districts:—
" Creston.—Potato-beetles very abundant. Distribution of dust very good. Progress
seems to be gained in the Wynndel and Sirdar sections.
" Grasmere, Roosville.—Beetles fairly numerous but less than last season. Distribution
of poison-dust very good.
" Bull River, Fort Steele.—Control fairly well carried out.
" Wardner.—An increase in acreage has again taken place, chiefly by Chinese growers.
Beetles not very bad.
" Fernie.—Some headway is being made in this district. Poison-dust distribution could
hardly be improved on.
" Jaffray-Sand Creek.—Beetles very bad in this district but distribution of poison-dust
was good.
" Dorr.—More beetles than last season.
" Baynes-Waldo.—Beetles more numerous than last season.
" Elko.—Beetles rather scarce.
" Cranbrook.—A large percentage of the potato acreage in the hands of Chinese growers.
Beetles numerous, more so than last year.
" Outbreaks, New and Recurring.—There were new or recurring outbreaks of beetles
reported the past season.
" On July 26th two live adult beetles were brought into Mr. Twigg's office at Creston.
These beetles were found on the Karpowich Ranch which lies along the Kootenay Lake
between Boswell and Ginol. On August 1st I accompanied Mr. Twigg to this ranch but could
find no trace of beetles.
" On July 31st I received word of an infestation of beetles at Sheep Creek, Premier Lake.
Took along some poison dust and found a slight outbreak in this section.
" The past three seasons this section has been free of beetles. There are six growers
in this area and all seemed to have about the same amount of infestation. Three of these
growers are over a mile apart, with intervening woods between, yet these growers seem to
have about the same percentage of infestation.
" On August 26th the Game Warden at Invermere reported that there was an outbreak
of potato-beetle at Canal Flats. On August 31st when on my way to judge at Invermere
Fair I made a close inspection of this district and found two parties who stated they had DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 39
potato-beetles but that they had hand-picked them. These beetles were in small town plots
lying west of the business section. One of the parties stated that she knew ' potato bugs '
from Ontario experience.    The other lady said she knew them from Bull River experience.
" On August 16th, when at Fernie, it was reported to me that Tom McGovern, of Michel,
had potato-beetles in his small town lot. I made close inspection of the neighbourhood but
could find no trace of same. No one at home, inquired next door, no one at home, and other
next-door lady said she didn't know anything about it.
" The greatest care should be given next season to these various outbreaks."
In the Grand Forks district the control-work was carried out by Mr. M. H. Ruhmann,
Provincial Entomologist. As far as can be ascertained the beetle has been well controlled
and there is only one place where infestation may occur next year. This area will be closely
Mr. E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, reports satisfactory control in the Thrums and
Salmo areas with no new outbreaks. Although eradication at these points appears to have
been secured, inspections will be made in 1940.
Potato Psyllid.
In 1938 the finding of potato Psyllid was reported in the East Kootenay District by Mr.
Manson, of the Dominion Entomological staff, Lethbridge Division. This year a survey was
made of this area by Mr. Manson in company with Mr. Ward and Mr. McMeans. The report
of this survey intimates that no Psyllids were found.
Winter and spring inspection for fire-blight was undertaken in the Okanagan Horticultural District. The results of this inspection are well worth the time expended and result
in holding fire-blight in check. Details as to districts and acreage inspected are given in the
following table:—
Fire-blight Inspection Report, 1939.
Total Acres
Inspected and
San Jose Scale.
The presence of San Jose scale is still reported in the districts mentioned in the 1938
report and has also been found during the past year in the Kelowna District. Due to the
fact that this pest is becoming more scattered the quarantine regulation governing movement
of fruit from infested sections was lifted. This winter all growers known to have San Jose
scale in their orchards will be notified that certain lime-sulphur or oil sprays will have to be
applied. All infested orchards will be inspected during the growing season and also the fruit
from such orchards will be inspected in the packing-houses. Should scale be found on fruit
from these orchards no export certificate will be issued on such fruit.
Pacific Mite.
For the first time the finding of Pacific mite was recorded in British Columbia. The
nursery where the infestation was found was quarantined to the extent that the movement
of trees was prohibited until all stock had been dipped in a winter-strength solution of
Since the first infestation was reported, a new infestation has been reported in the Oliver
District. Mr. R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, in his annual report makes the following statement regarding this outbreak:   " Just how widespread the infestation has become is B 40
difficult to say but there is at least 50 acres quite heavily infested and possibly another 150
lightly infested. The arrival of this new pest is going to increase the growers' problems;
apparently no satisfactory spray programme has been worked out to control it. Steps have
been taken to give the growers the best possible information on its control and in addition
experimental work is being outlined for next season. This pest is apparently spread largely
by wind and has moved rapidly north from the Wenatchee District where it was discovered
in 1930."
Nursery Inspection.
In an endeavour to see that nursery stock sold to growers is as free as possible from
insect pests and diseases nursery inspections are made at digging-time. The following table
indicates the number of trees of different kinds of fruit that were inspected during the past
year and the number condemned:—■
Totals                                 ..	
Twenty-nine nurseries inspected; 38 inspections made; 1.3 per cent, of the stock
inspected was condemned.
In 1939 there were 106 nursery licences issued in the proportion of 78 licences to
nurserymen and 28 to agents.
Lettuce Variety Trials.
Lettuce trials have been carried out for a number of years in different sections of the
Province. This is undertaken with a view to establishing the best variety or varieties of
lettuce that may be recommended for fall and spring planting in commercial producing areas.
On Vancouver Island the work of trying out new varieties of lettuce was under the
supervision of Mr. E. W. White, District Horticulturist, who reports as follows:—
" Seed of five varieties of lettuce—namely, Imperial No. 152, Imperial No. 847, Imperial
No. 850 (new), Imperial D, and New York No. 515—supplied by the Ferry Morse Seed Co.
was given to W. E. G. Russell, R.M.D. 1, Royal Oak, on March 29th for trial purposes. The
seed was planted within a few days. An examination on May 1st showed an excellent
germination with all varieties except Imperial No. 850, which was a new variety being tried
this year. Transplanting took place on May 28th and the first heads were ready for cutting
on July 21st.
" The Imperial No. 850 was the first variety ready for cutting and, according to Mr.
Russell, the best of the five varieties. Imperial No. 152 came in at the same time, but was
not quite as good as Imperial No. 850. Imperial No. 847, New York No. 515, and Imperial
D were later and, while producing good heads, were not up to Imperial No. 850 or Imperial
No. 152."
Similar work in the Fraser Valley was in charge of Mr. G. E. W. Clarke, District
Horticulturist.    The following was taken from Mr. Clarke's annual report:—
" The testing of new varieties and strains of lettuce has been conducted for a number
of years and growers are now fairly well satisfied with the varieties proving satisfactory for
the cropping periods throughout the season.
" Nine varieties were received for trials this year.
" The summer plots were grown by Mr. D. G. McLellan, Burnaby. Seeding was made in
the field on April 11th and plants were thinned to a distance of 15 inches in the row. In
making examination on July 3rd and July 13th, twenty plants of each variety were used. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 41
" The following is a summary:—
" Seed-house No. 1.
"Imperial No. 847.—July 3rd: Filling uniformly, none ready to cut. July 13th: 15
firm, 3 fairly firm, 2 not heading, no value. Uniform, compact, medium size, good quality,
no tip-burn.
"Imperial No. 615.—July 3rd:   Strong growth but not developing uniformly.    July 13th:
12 fairly firm, 8 loose and not heading.    Medium to large heads, inclined to be slack, fair
quality, slight indication of tip-burn.
"Imperial No. 44.—July 3rd: Filling uniformly, not ready to cut. July 13th: 14 firm,
2 fairly firm, 3 firming up, 1 not heading. Medium to large heads, good type and quality,
no tip-burn.
" Seed-house No. 2.
"Imperial No. 152.—July 3rd: Good growth and developing fairly evenly. July 13th:
15 fairly firm to firm, 5 not heading. Medium size, compact and mostly firm, good quality,
slight tip-burn.
"Imperial No. 850.—July 3rd:   Good growth but not developing uniformly.    July 13th:
2 firm, 8 fairly firm, 6 firming up, 4 not heading.    Medium to large heads, uneven in maturity,
fair type and medium in quality.    No tip-burn.
"Imperial D.—July 3rd:   Good growth, somewhat slow developing.    July 13th:   11 firm,
3 fairly firm, 6 not ready to cut but heading.    Medium to large heads, good type, compact
and good quality.
" Imperial No. 847.—July 3rd:  Good growth and development fairly uniform.    July 13th:
13 firm, 4 fairly firm, 3 not heading.    Uniform, compact type, medium size, good quality, no
"New York No. 515.—July 3rd: Growth and development fairly uniform. July 13th:
12 firm, 6 fairly firm, 2 firming up, 1 not heading. Uniform, compact type, medium to large,
quality good, no tip-burn.
" The fall plots were grown by Mr. M. Kennedy, Cloverdale. The seeding was made in
the field on July 18th. The plants were thinned to a distance of 16 inches each. Examinations were made on October 9th and the following is a summary of the findings:—
" Seed-house No. 1.
"Imperial No. 847.—October 9th: 3 hard, 9 fairly firm to firm, 2 firming up, 6 not heading.    Uniform, medium, compact, good quality.
"Imperial No. 615.—October 9th: 4 fairly firm, 5 firming up but not ready to cut, 11
not heading.    Heading unevenly, heads inclined to be large, not compact, fair quality.
"Imperial No. 44-—October 9th: 11 firm, 3 fairly firm, 6 not heading. Medium to large,
compact, good type and quality.
" Seed-house No. 2.
"Imperial No. 152.—October 9th: 4 hard, 11 firm to fairly firm, 2 firming; not ready to
cut;   3 slack;  no value.    Medium, compact size, good quality.
"Imperial No. 850.—October 9th: 7 firm, 10 fairly firm, 3 firming; not ready to cut.
Medium to large, compact, and good quality.
" Imperial D.—October 9th: 3 hard, 6 firm, 7 fairly firm, 4 loose. Medium to large,
compact, and fair to good quality.
" Imperial No. 847.—October 9th: 2 hard, 14 fairly firm to firm, 4 not heading. Uniform, medium size, very good quality.
"New York No. 515.—October 9th: 2 firm, 6 fairly firm, remainder not heading. Good
type and quality.
" General Remarks.—The Cosberg lettuce-seed was lost and consequently was not included
in the tests this season.
" Imperial No. 847 and No. 152 have been tested and are gradually being used more
extensively for the late summer and early fall plantings. Imperial D has proven a reliable
heading variety for the fall crop and while inclined to be a little coarse is popular with the
growers in this district. Imperial D sometimes develops satisfactorily as a summer crop but
it has proven more satisfactory for the fall crop. B 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Imperial No. 850, No. 44, and New York No. 515 were tested for the first time this
season. Imperial No. 44 is likely to prove satisfactory, Imperial No. 850 and New York No.
515 while not showing up quite as well are of good type and quality and are worthy of
further testing."
The lettuce-testing work for the Okanagan was carried out by Mr. H. H. Evans, District
Field Inspector. The following is an outline of the work carried out by him this year and
is taken from his annual report:—
" The lettuce-variety project continues several years' work of variety testing which has
proven of much value to the commercial growers in improving their crops through new
introductions proven in these tests.
" Growth conditions for lettuce were excellent during the past season but not as satisfactory from the standpoint of records on tip-burn and frost-resistance.
" Four strains failed to germinate for the spring crop. Two varieties gave a poor stand
in the fall crop and one strain failed to be sown.
" Our sincere appreciation is extended to the several firms, institutions, and individuals
who co-operated in advancing this work.
"Spring Series.—Twenty-seven plots; plants per plot, twenty-five; field planted from
cold frames April 20th;   examinations made June 8th and 19th.
" Varieties and Strains under Test.—Imperial strains No. 152, No. 847, No. 850, No. 615,
No. 44, and D; New York No. 12, three strains; Columbia No. 1 and No. 2, three strains.
New York No. 515, seven strains;   Cosberg, two strains.    T.B.R. Hybrid.
"Seed-house No. 1.
"Imperial No. 152.—June 8th: Heads filling but not firming; none fit to cut; mixed
type. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 95 per cent.; large and coarse; size, four dozen; texture
and quality good;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Good.)
" Imperial No. 847.—June 8th: Heads filling and firming fast; eight fit to cut; excellent
type, fine texture and quality. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 100 per cent.; excellent type and
texture;   size, four to five dozen;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Excellent.)
" Imperial No. 850.—No germination.
"Imperial D.—June 8th: Heads filling fast, firming fair; four fit to cut. June 19th:
Cutting-heads, 90 per cent.; good type, coarse texture; size, five to four dozen; outer leaves
edge-burning;   no disease.     (Good.)
"New York No. 515.—June 8th: Heads firming fast; eleven fit to cut; excellent type.
June 19th: Cutting-heads, 100 per cent.; size, five dozen; fine texture and quality; no
disease or tip-burn;   early maturing;   some heads burst.     (Excellent.)
" Seed-house No. 2.
"Columbia No. 2.—June 8th: Heads filling fast; one fit to cut; excellent type. June
19th: Cutting-heads, 100 per cent.; size, five dozen; good texture and quality; early maturing;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Very good.)
"Cosberg.—June 8th: Heads filling slowly and uneven; fine texture. June 19th:
Cutting-heads, 20 per cent.;   heads slack and not filling;   excellent quality.     (Doubtful.)
"Imperial No. .4.4.—June 8th: Heads filling fast; firming slow; pointed type; fair
texture. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 100 per cent.; size, five to four dozen; texture fair;
quality good;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Very good.)
"Imperial No. 847.—June 8th: Heads filling fast; firming fair; none to cut. June
19th: Cutting-heads, 95 per cent; size, four to five dozen; type mixed; texture coarse;
quality good;   heads large;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Good.)
" Imperial No. 615.—June 8th: Heads not filling; slow developing; type mixed and poor;
coarse and spreading. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 75 per cent.; size, four dozen; texture
coarse;   quality fair;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Doubtful.)
" Massachusetts State College Stocks.
"Columbia No. 1.—June 8th: Heads filling slowly; uneven type and development; fair
texture; spreading head. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 80 per cent.; size, five dozen; medium
compact;  good texture;  fair quality.    (Fair.) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 43
"Columbia No. 2.—-June 8th: Heads filling and firming fast; three fit to cut; small,
compact, round-head type; fine texture. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 95 per cent.; size, five
dozen;   fine texture and quality, not quite solid;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Very good.)
"Cosberg.—June 8th: Heads filling and firming fast; three fit to cut; small, compact
head; good type; fine texture. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 95 per cent.; size, six dozen; fine
texture and quality;   Iceberg type;   not quite solid;   no disease or rots.     (Very good.)
" Summerland Farm Stock.
" TJ3.R. Hybrid.—June 8th: Heads filling and firming fast; three fit to cut. June 19th:
Cutting-heads, 95 per cent.; size, five dozen; type good; texture and quality good; not quite
solid;   no disease or rots.     (Very good.)
" Seed-house No. 3.
"New York No. 515, Strain 199.—Poor germination. June 8th: Heads filling and firming fast; one fit to cut; compact type. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 95 per cent.; size, five
dozen; heads uniform, compact, not quite solid; fine texture and quality; no disease or
tip-burn.     (Very good.)
" New York No. 515, Strain 3-50.—June 8th: Heads filling and firming very fast; five
fit to cut. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 97 per cent.; size, five dozen; very good; compact,
round-head type;   texture and quality very good;   no rots or tip-burn.     (Very good.)
" New York No. 515, Strain 198.—No germination.
"New York No. 515, Strain 14-—June 8th: Heads filling fast, firming fair; one fit to
cut. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 95 per cent.; size, five dozen; good round type, compact
but not solid; texture and quality good; not quite as fast maturing as Strain 3-50; no disease
or tip-burn.     (Good.)
"New York No. 51.5, Strain 1756.—June 8th: Heads filling fast, firming fair; one fit to
cut. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 95 per cent.; in all other respects exactly like Strain 14.
"New York No. 515, Strain 57413.—June 8th: Heads filling and firming fast; three fit
to cut. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 98 per cent.; size, five to six dozen; small, round, compact
type;   not quite solid;   texture and quality very good;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Very good.)
" Imperial No. 615.—June 8th: Heads filling very slowly; late; large and coarse. June
19th: Cutting-heads, 85 per cent.; size, four dozen; compact but not solid; type not uniform;
texture coarse;   quality good;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Doubtful.)
"Imperial No. 847.—June 8th: Heads filling and forming uneven; two fit to cut; type
very ununiform. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 85 per cent.; size, five dozen; compact head;
type mixed;   good texture and quality;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Good but not uniform.)
"Imperial No. 152.—June 8th: Heads large and loose; none to cut; flat head; fair
texture. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 90 per cent.; size, four to five dozen; compact but not
solid;   coarse leaf;  mixed type;   quality good;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Fair to good.)
" Imperial D.—June 8th: Heads filling and firming fair; compact type; coarse texture;
some edge-burn of leaves. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 95 per cent.; size, four to five dozen;
compact head; good type; texture coarse; quality good; no disease, burn of outer and cover
leaves.    (Good.)
" New York No. 12, Strain C.P. 3593.—No germination.
" New York No. 12, Strain C.P. 3620.—June 8th: Heads filling and firming fair; one fit
to cut; good type. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 95 per cent.; size, five dozen; compact but
not solid;   good texture and quality;  no disease or tip-burn.     (Very good.)
"New York No. 12, Strain 57096.—June 8th: Heads filling and firming good; three fit
to cut; good type. June 19th: Cutting-heads, 95 per cent.; size, five dozen; round, compact
type but not solid;  texture and quality good;   no disease or tip-burn.     (Very good.)
" Where two sizes are given for a variety the first figure indicates the heavy run to that
"Fall Series.—Duplication of spring plots. Plants per plot, 50; field seeded, July 27th;
examinations, September 20th and October 6th.
" Trial plots were seeded one week later than the commercial crop, late development being
encouraged to catch frost periods in obtaining resistance records. B 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Growing conditions were excellent through the period. The first frost period was
steady but not severe between September 18th and 25th. The second between October 3rd
and 7th was heavier and the third between October 16th and 25th, when on two nights 14°
and 15° of frost were registered. At this period nearly all plots were overmature, at which
stage frost-resistance is greatly reduced.
"Seed-house No. 1.
" Imperial No. 152.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 100 per cent.; size, five dozen; flat,
round type; solid; very good texture and quality; no frost-injury. October 6th: Fully
mature;   frost-injury slight on outer leaves.     (Excellent.)
"Imperial No. 847.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 98 per cent.; culls, 2 per cent.;
size, five to four dozen; flat, round type; fine texture; sweet, high quality. October 6th:
Heads solid and good condition;   frost-injury slight on outer leaves.     (Excellent.)
" Imperial No. 850.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 80 per cent.; off type and culls, 20
per cent.; size, four dozen; type not uniform; large and well filled but not solid; medium
coarse texture; high quality; no frost-injury. October 6th: Heads of type compact but not
solid;   in good condition;   no frost-injury.     (Good.)
" Imperial D.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 96 per cent.; culls, 4 per cent.; size, five
to four dozen; good round type; solid; coarse texture; fair quality; flavour bitter; no
frost-injury. October 6th: Heads solid, in good condition; large and coarse; no frost-injury.
(Very good.)
" New York No. 515.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 96 per cent.; culls, 4 per cent.;
size, five to four dozen; good round type, fairly solid; fine texture; high quality; no frost-
injury. October 6th: Heads past condition; bolting; frost-injury slight on outer leaves.
(Very good.)
" Seed-house No. 2.
"Cosberg.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 25 per cent.; culls, 75 per cent.; heads
bolting and blown; poor type; texture good; quality fair; slightly bitter. October 6th:
Heads all bolted;   frost-injury slight.    (Not suitable.)
" Imperial No. 44.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 100 per cent.; size, five dozen; flat,
round, excellent type; good texture; mild, high quality; solid; no frost-injury; early.
October 6th: Heads past maturity; frost-injury light to medium on outer and cover leaves.
(Very good.)
"Imperial No. 847.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 100 per cent.; size, five to four
dozen; round head; excellent type; solid; good texture; sweet, high quality; very slight
frost on outer leaves.    October 6th: Heads in good condition; frost-injury slight.     (Excellent.)
" Imperial No. 615.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 98 per cent.; size, four dozen;
large, round, spreading head; compact but not solid; strong grower; later finishing; texture
coarse; quality good but slightly bitter; no frost-injury. October 6th: Heads large, good
condition, not solid;   no frost-injury.     (Good.)
" Massachusetts State College Stocks.
" Columbia No. 1.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 80 per cent.; culls, 20 per cent.; size,
four dozen; large, round-head type, firm but not solid; fine texture; fair quality; slightly
bitter; frost-injury slight on outer leaves. October 6th: Heads bolted and blown; frost-
injury medium.    (Not suitable.)
" Columbia No. 2.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 18 per cent.; culls, 82 per cent.;
size, five dozen; heads blown and bolting; fine texture and quality; frost-injury heavy.
October 6th:   All heads bolted;   frost-injury heavy.    (Not suitable.)
"Cosberg.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 18 per cent; culls, 82 per cent.; size, five
dozen; heads blown and bolting; fine texture and quality; frost-injury heavy. October 6th:
All heads bolted;  frost-injury heavy.    (Not suitable.)
" Summerland Farm Stock.
"T.B.R. Hybrid.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 90 per cent.; culls, 10 per cent.; not
filling; size, five to four dozen; good round type; large but slack; good texture and quality;
no frost-injury.    October 6th:   Heads large and slack;  very slight frost-injury.     (Doubtful.) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 45
" Seed-house No. 3.
"New York No. 515, Strain 199.—'September 20th: Cutting-heads, 94 per cent.; culls, 6
per cent.; size, four to five dozen; heads large and loose, filling but not hardening; round,
pointed type; texture coarse; quality good; no frost-injury. October 6th: Heads in good
condition, filled but not hard;   no frost-injury.    (Good.)
"New York No. 515, Strain 3-50.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 100 per cent.; size,
four to five dozen; heads large and loose, firming slow; high, round-head type; texture
medium coarse; quality fair; flavour bitter; no frost-injury. October 6th: Heads in good
condition, large, not solid;  no frost-injury.    (Fair to good.)
"New York No. 515, Strain 198.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 85 per cent.; culls, 15
per cent.; size, four to five dozen; heads large, well filled but slack; texture medium coarse;
quality good. October 6th: Heads in good condition, well filled but not solid; no frost-injury.
"New York No. 515—Strain 14, Strain 1756, Strain 57413.—September 20th: These
three strains appear so similar in performance that they are grouped. Average of cutting-
heads, 92 per cent.; culls, 8 per cent.; size, four to five dozen; large, high, rather open heads,
filling well but slow hardening; No. 57413 slightly more compact; texture and quality good;
no frost-injury. October 6th: Heads in good condition, well filled but not solid; No. 57413
most compact heads;   no frost-injury.     (Good.)
" N.B.—This series of No. 515 strains may give better performance for a fall crop if
earlier planted. Cool weather conditions favour rapid growth, but retard hardening
" Imperial No. 615.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 80 per cent.; culls, 20 per cent.;
size, four dozen; heads large and loose, filled but slow in hardening; texture coarse but good
quality; no frost-injury. October 6th: Heads in good condition, large but not solid; no
frost-injury (similar to the No. 515 strains).     (Fair to good.)
" Imperial No. 847.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 100 per cent.; size, five to four
dozen; flat, round type, well filled and compact; fine texture and quality; no frost-injury.
October 6th: Heads in good condition, mature; frost-injury medium on outer and cover
leaves.     (Excellent.)
"Imperial No. 152.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 100 per cent.; size, five dozen;
flat, round, compact type, well filled and solid; fine texture; high quality; no frost-injury.
October 6th: Heads in good condition, mature; frost-injury light on outer and cover leaves.
" Imperial D.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 92 per cent.; culls, 8 per cent.; size, five
dozen; round-head, compact type; texture coarse; fair to good quality; slightly bitter;
slight frost on outer leaves. October 6: Heads solid, good condition; frost-injury light on
outer leaves.     (Very good.)
"New York No. 12, P.C. 3593.—September 20th: Poor germination, only 12 plants.
Heads large and loose, fine texture and quality; no frost-injury. October 6th: Heads filled
but slack;   flavour slightly bitter;   frost-injury medium on cover leaves.     (Not suitable.)
" New York No. 12, P.C. 3620.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 80 per cent.; culls, 20
per cent.; size, four to five dozen; heads well filled, compact but not solid; fine texture and
high, sweet quality; no frost-injury. October 6th: Heads in good condition, not hard; frost-
injury medium on cover leaves.     (Good.)
" New York No. 12, 57096.—September 20th: Cutting-heads, 80 per cent.; culls, 20 per
cent.; size, four to five dozen; heads filled, fairly compact, not solid; fine texture and quality;
no frost-injury. October 6th: Heads in good condition, filled but not solid; frost-injury
medium on cover leaves.     (Good.)
" There are a number of varieties and strains in the series showing excellent promise
and worth continuing.
" In addition to the plots, the Seed-house No. 1 and Seed-house No. 3 stocks of Imperial
No. 847 and No. 850 were carried in commercial plots of % acre each. In both spring and
fall crops the No. 847 gave excellent results, giving almost 100 per cent, cut out. In the fall
crop this variety was ready to harvest ahead of the standard No. 152 and more uniform in
development.    The spring performance of the No. 850 was very good but not as uniform as B 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
No. 847; head is larger, coarser, and later. In the fall crop the No. 850 was much later
hardening and not as uniform.
" Plots were checked on October 31st after a steady frost period. The only variety in
fair to good condition from frost-injury was Imperial D; all others showed bad to severe
injury;- many plots were away overmature.
" In the plot series it will be noticed there is a difference in performance of similar
strains or varieties from the different seed sources of supply. This indicates that the source
of seed has a considerable bearing on the performance of any strain or variety."
Codling-moth Control.
Spraying for the control of codling-moth is the major orchard operation in practically
all of the more important tree-fruit districts of British Columbia. The demonstration control-
work is largely centred in the Kelowna District and is under the supervision of Mr. B. Hoy,
District Field Inspector. The following extract from Mr. Hoy's report gives a summary of
the situation and the work undertaken during the past season:—
" This was one of the most difficult codling-moth seasons we have ever experienced. Hot
weather brought growth on rapidly and also moth-emergence. Moths started to emerge in
early May and spraying was commenced at least ten days ahead of normal. There was every
indication of an early and heavy infestation of worms, but the weather turned cooler and
slowed up codling-moth activities. Under normal conditions this change would have been
temporary and after a few days warm weather would have prevailed again. Cool weather
continued until the last week in June and the codling-moth emergence was prolonged. Owing
to few eggs being laid and hatching delayed due to cool weather there were practically no
worms at thinning-time.
" This long emergence and delayed hatching was responsible for very late worms. The
greatest entry of worms in the apples was during the last week in June and the first week
or ten days in July. Wherever three cover-sprays were properly applied there was little
more damage than usual, but in nearly every case where growers depended on only two
cover-sprays there was considerable increase in the number of worms. Though many growers
blame Cryolite, which was used in second-brood sprays, for the increased infestation, it was
poor first-brood control that was responsible for the increase.
" As reported last year spraying equipment is still improving. More new equipment
came in this year, but many growers are still working under a heavy handicap with inadequate equipment.
" Codling-moth bulletins were prepared and broadcast over CKOV by this office three
times a week during May, June, and August. These bulletins were again sponsored by
Canadian Industries, Ltd.
" This office also co-operated with the B.C.F.G.A. in preparing bulletins to be mailed to
all fruit-growers in the Interior. A special bulletin dealing with Cryolite for second-brood
sprays was also prepared and sent to all packing-houses.
" Meetings of shippers and dealers in spray materials were attended with M. S. Middleton
and Dr. Jas. Marshall at Oliver, Penticton, and Kelowna to discuss the codling-moth spray
programme. The main topic of these meetings was the necessity of a change in spray
material to eliminate arsenate of lead in second-brood sprays, in order to reduce the load of
arsenic at harvest. Dealers and shippers were in accord with the change and Cryolite was
adopted practically 100 per cent, by the growers.
" The spreader to use with Cryolite was considered by the Entomological staff and members of the Spray Committee. It was decided, from present knowledge, that soap would be
the most suitable. As 'Red Drum' spreader (a potash herring-oil soap) had been used
successfully in previous tests, it was thought that other soaps might also be suitable, so the
writer tried out four soaps on Newtown trees in the Pridham orchard. The materials tested
were ' Red Drum ' spreader, ' Oliver's Suitable Soap,' ' Oliver's Emulsified Fish-oil,' and ' Lux '
flakes. The liquid soaps were applied at the rates of one-half pint and 1 pint per 100 gallons
of spray and the Lux at 1 oz. to 30 gallons of spray. There was little difference in the
coverage with any of these soaps and the recommendations were finally one-half pint of the
liquid soaps mentioned to 100 gallons of spray or 1 oz. of flake soaps to every 30 gallons.
These recommendations were used generally throughout the Valley. This combination gave
good results. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 47
" The change to Cryolite in second-brood sprays reduced the hazard of having fruit
turned down because of high arsenic or lead residue. Shipments were made to the U.S., and
if arsenate of lead had been used in second-brood sprays this fruit would have been over the
tolerance of 0.01 grains of arsenic per pound of fruit and undoubtedly condemned by the U.S.
" The spraying tests conducted at Kelowna were extended considerably this year. This
Department, with the co-operation of Dr. J. Marshall, of the Dominion Science Service, and
his staff, conducted a large-scale project in the orchards of R. M. Hart and F. R. Borrett to
test the value of three spray combinations in controlling codling-moth with first-brood sprays
" This Department also co-operated with the Dominion Department in conducting small-
plot experiments to test various combinations of the newer types of spray materials. Various
nicotine compounds and Cryolite combinations were u.sed in these tests. Any of these materials that promise to be more effective and suitable to our conditions, providing it is in line
as to cost, will be tried out on a large scale before being recommended to growers.
" This work takes up a great deal of time, but is perhaps the most valuable of all our
activities. The arrangements 'this summer were excellent and allowed of much greater
accomplishment than could be expected of either staff working alone. Codling-moth control
is becoming the limiting factor in the fruit business of the Okanagan and no effort should be
spared in an endeavour to better our present methods. The Agricultural Departments must
keep abreast of the times and lead the way for the growers. More materials are being
placed on the market each year, so only by constant work can we have the knowledge to
make the best recommendations to the growers."
Details of this year's codling-moth spraying projects conducted in co-operation with the
Dominion Department of Agriculture have been submitted in Mr. Hoy's report but are too
extensive to be included in this report.
In addition to the work undertaken by Mr. Hoy, demonstration-plot work was also carried
out in the Penticton area by Mr. R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector. In addition to this
field-work Mr. Murray also again carried on some work in the preheating of boxes with a
view to ascertaining whether or not overwintering codling-moth larva? could be eliminated in
stored boxes.    His report on the work is as follows:—
" This work was started some three seasons ago in an effort to have the overwintering
worms emerge before the boxes went into the orchards. Most of the packing-houses are now
making some attempt to preheat their used boxes. No trouble has been experienced in raising
temperatures sufficiently high to start an early emergence and although it has taken some
little time for the practice to become general all the packing-houses in the district did some
heating this season. The figures for this season's test are taken from three rooms used at
the Penticton Co-operative Growers.
" Heating started May 17th in two rooms and May 23rd in the other and all finished
on June 28th. Eight days' heating were necessary to raise the buildings to a constant
temperature.    The following figures show cost, average temperature, etc.:—
No. of
Length of
Amount of
Cost of
Cost per
43 days
Hoom 1, 66.4° F.
Room 2, 71.4° F.
Room 3, 70.1° F.
" Although no accurate check was made, the peak of the emergence would appear to be
about June 15th, or approximately one month after heating commenced."
In the Vernon District the Vernon city area was sprayed and the cost of this work
charged to the city.
Compulsory spray zones are still operative but as codling-moth is now so general their
value has materially lessened since they were first started about twelve years ago. This year
Mr. Tait, District Field Inspector for Summerland, reports very satisfactory codling-moth
control in Westbank although spray zone regulations were not operative. B 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In the Salmon Arm District excellent results in codling-moth control have been obtained
by Mr. C. R. Barlow in the work undertaken there. The following review of the situation
is taken from Mr. Barlow's report:—
" At Salmon Arm, the area at South Canoe, which was sprayed and banded last year by
your Inspector following the discovery of codling-moth in the fall of 1937, was carefully
checked this year throughout the season. It is gratifying to note that again no evidence of
the presence of the moth could be discovered, and it may be reasonably safely assumed that
this area is now free from the pest.
" In October, 1938, your Inspector discovered another infestation in the orchard of Mr.
R. J. Haney, situated on the main Vernon road and in the centre of the orchard district. It
was decided that an attempt at eradication should be made and, so far as can be ascertained
to date, it would appear that the effort has been successful. The area involved about 8%
acres, on which were 504 trees, mostly of full-bearing age. About half the block was
thoroughly scraped by your Inspector last fall, and the work was completed this spring before
the end of April. Your Inspector, with the co-operation of the grower concerned, made four
applications of arsenate of lead (3 lb.-80 gals., plus ' Fluxit' spreader) on the following
dates: May 17th and 18th (calyx), May 26th and 27th (first cover), June 3rd and 5th
(second cover), and June 15th and 16th (third cover). On June 19th and 20th the trees
were banded with Beta-Napthalene bands. During the growing season inspections of the
fruit on the trees were made by your Inspector from time to time, and at thinning and picking
times a careful watch was kept for any evidence of the worms. At no time could any such
evidence be found. On October 19th and 20th, after the crop was taken off, your Inspector
removed, examined, and destroyed the bands, but was unable to find any indication of the
presence of the moth.
" While it would perhaps be premature to assume that this infestation has been cleaned
up such would appear to be the case, but your Inspector would suggest that the area be
banded again next year, and that a spray programme, to be decided upon later, be carried
out. The banding material necessary was supplied by the Department without cost to the
grower, as also was the arsenate of lead by the Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange. Your
Inspector wishes to acknowledge the excellent co-operation extended to him by both Mr.
Haney and the Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange in the effort to eradicate the pest."
Raspberry Variety Tests.
New varieties of raspberries are constantly being brought to the attention of your
officials. In the hope that a variety may be found that has better commercial value than
those already grown, small plantings are made in the different districts throughout the
Province. Two districts reporting on this work for 1939 are the Salmon Arm and Vernon
Districts. For the Salmon Arm District the following report was submitted by Mr. C. R.
" This work, which was started in the spring of 1936 on the farm of Mr. W. J. Honey,
at Salmon Arm, was reported on at length last year, and reference to that report will show
that out of nine varieties under test, six last year went into the discard owing to various
undesirable characteristics. Of the three varieties which were retained for further test this
year, one, Preussen, was discarded this spring owing to the poor stand of canes, thus leaving
only Newburgh and Chief, with the adjacent commercial planting of Newman 23 as a measuring-stick. It was found last year that both Newburgh and Chief were both satisfactory from
the standpoint of cane-growth, production, quality of fruit, and shipping value, though Newburgh was probably the more promising of the two, being a heavier cropper than either
Newman 23 or Chief, and of better quality than Newman 23. The main object in continuing
the test this year was to endeavour to determine the comparative hardiness of the different
varieties, as hardiness, in this district, is a prime requisite if a variety is to be of commercial
value. Unfortunately for this purpose, the winters of 1937-38 and 1938-39 were so mild that
they provided no test of hardiness, as all varieties of raspberries came through both winters
without winter-injury. It will therefore be necessary to carry on the test until such time as
winter conditions enable some conclusion to be drawn as to the relative hardiness of the
B 49
For the Vernon District Mr. H. H. Evans reports as follows:—
" This is a continuation of the work started in 1932 to study climatic adaptability with
yield and quality comparisons.
" Lloyd George.—For local markets and home consumption this variety has proven
excellent in hardiness, high yield, and quality.    The berry is too soft for distant markets.
" Newburgh.—The plot of this variety came into partial bearing this season. The plants
made good, sturdy cane-growth. The fruit is large, firm, good colour, free slipping, but only
fair quality.
" The Taylor, Marcy, and Indian Summer varieties planted in the spring of 1939 have
made fair growth on plants which survived the growing period. A few berries were borne
on the Taylor, the fruit being large, firm, and fine quality. The growth habit of this variety
is somewhat similar to the Lloyd George.
" There was no winter-injury apparent in any of the test-plots last spring."
It is anticipated that it will be possible to secure a quantity of Washington and Tahoma
raspberry plants for trial in 1940. These are two varieties that were introduced by the
Western Washington Experimental Station at Puyallup in 1938, and apparently have been
very satisfactory in Washington.    They may prove of commercial value in British Columbia.
Sweet Corn Trials.
This work was undertaken principally in the Vernon District and was in charge of Mr.
H. H. Evans, who reports as follows:—
" This work was considerably enlarged over the 1938 series in the testing of new varieties,
strains, and hybrids of sweet corn, with reference to earliness, yield, quality, and general
adaptability to the district. The very cool, showery weather during the early growth period
of the plots caused stunting and purpling of the plants, retarded growth, and gave a very
patchy appearance to all varieties. This was only partially overcome during the later
growth period.
" Considerable injury to plots was caused by the depredations of pheasants. This was
particularly noticeable in all varieties and strains which had a tendency to bear their cobs
within 2V2 feet of the ground. In some instances not a single cob was left to gain full
" It was not possible to conduct canning tests from these plots.
" Plots were Moo-acre each, spacing between rows 36 inches, and between hills 18 inches.
" The following table gives comparative data of performance. Date of seeding, May
5th;   quality and rating points, maximum 10 points each;   25 hills checked in each plot:—
Siveet Corn Comparison Table.
Type and Colour.
Yield in
per Hill.
Ready for
6 ft.
Cobs    large,    high   set,    12-
rowed, yellow ;  grain med.
deep ;   skin thick
Aug. 12
8 0
Golden Bantam (check)	
Ottawa Strains.
7 ft.
Cobs   med.,   high   set,   9-10
rowed;   grain  deep,  rich,
Aug. 20
60-day Golden x Dorinny	
5 ft. 6 in.
Cobs   med.,   med.   high   set,
8-10  rowed;   grain  deep,
Aug. 14
4 ft. 6 in.
Cobs   med.,   low   set,   10-12
rowed ; shallow grain, well-
Aug. 10
4 ft.
Cobs small, low set, 8-rowed ;
grain   med.   deep,   poorly
Aug. 12
6 ft.
4 ft.
Cob    high    set,    large,    14-
rowed ;   shallow grain
Cob low set, good length, 8-
10 rowed ;   grain shallow
Aug. 23
Aug.   7
Delinny  - 	
5.0 B 50
Sweet Corn Comparison Table—Continued.
Type and Colour.
Yield in
per Hill.
Ready for
Ottawa Strains—Con.
Swift Gold- 	
Banting x Golden Bantam,
1931 seed
Goldban _ ___	
Seed-house Stocks.
Topcross Bantam __„	
Topcross Whipples Yellow
Spancross _
Minhybrid _
4 ft.
4 ft. 6 in.
5 ft.
6 ft. 6 in.
7 ft.
6 ft.
6 ft.
6 ft.
deep ;
Cob low set, small, 8-rowed ;
deep kernel;   rich
Cob low set, med. size, 18-
rowed ; deep kernel; rich,
Cob med. high set,
rowed ; kernel deep
Cob high set, med.
10-rowed; kernel
Cob   high    set,    med.
rowed ;   kernel med. deep ;
Cob high set, large, 12-
rowed; well filled; kernel med. shallow; tough-
Cob high set, good length,
8-rowed; kernel deep,
rich ;   skin med. tough
Cob med. high set, med.
length, 8-10 rowed; kernel deep :   skin tough
Aug.   7
Aug.   7
Aug.   7
Aug. 20
Aug. 14
Aug. 16
Aug. 13
" Checks made August 9th and 25th.
" Remarks.—A study of the above table reveals considerable variation in yields. This may have been
influenced somewhat by weather conditions. The range of maturity dates is fairly long. Some of the best early
strains yield their cobs low on the plant and are subject to loss by pheasants. Varieties or strains having a quality
rating of less than 8 or 10 or a general rating of less than 7 can be discontinued. The general rating is based on
type and colour, yield, season, and quality.   This series gave such promise that continuation appears very advisable."
Celery Variety Tests.
Tests with different varieties of celery were undertaken in both the Fraser Valley and
Okanagan Districts. Due to certain conditions the Fraser Valley trials were not very satisfactory. In the Okanagan the trials were at Armstrong and under the supervision of Mr.
H. H. Evans.    His report on this work follows:—
" The object of this variety testing of both yellow and green strains of celery was to
ascertain their adaptability to growing conditions of the Armstrong District, also their
suitability from a marketing standpoint. Spring planting was made of those varieties considered suitable for that period. The fall planting was made of all varieties. Climatic
conditions were quite normal for the growing period of both crops. The spring crop was
allowed to stand in the field until overmature to obtain maturity and bolting information.
The fall crop was allowed to stand until after the first killing-frost period before harvesting
to obtain hardiness information.
" In the spring crop, the Florida Golden variety failed to germinate and was omitted.
" Frame seeded, February 25th;  field planted, April 15th;   50 plants per plot.
" Spring Crop Notes—Final Check made August 8th.
" Seed-house No. 1.
" California Golden No. 14-—Plant of good type, compact, medium height, variegated
foliage;   stalk thick and solid, inclined to split at the base;   brittle;   mild flavour and good
quality;   early maturing;   1 bolt.    (Good.)
" Seed-house No. 2.
" Michigan Golden.-—Plant of fair type, inclined to be open;   short and heavy;  variegated
foliage;   stalk thick, fairly solid, stringy;   quality fair, flavour rather flat;   early maturing;
20-bolted.    (Fair.) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 51
" Golden Pascal.—Plant of good type, medium tall, compact; stalk thin, fairly solid,
stringy;   mild flavour and good quality;   not completely bleached;   8-bolted.     (Fair to good.)
" Yellow Hybrid No. 45.—Plant of fair type, inclined to be open, medium tall, head light,
slow in developing; stalk thin but solid, not mature, still showing considerable green tinge;
brittle, mild, and good quality;   9-bolted.     (Late but good.)
" Morse's Masterpiece.—Plant of fair type, inclined to be open and medium short, still
showing green tinge;   stalk thick, solid, brittle, and good quality;   17-bolted.     (Fair to good.)
"Fall Crop.—Frame seeded, May 3rd; field planted, June 15th. With all varieties
planted, each plot was cut to 25 plants. Observation records were made on September 15th
and at digging on October 14th.    The following notes were made at digging-date:—
" Seed-house No. 1.
" California Golden No. 14 (Golden).—Plant good type, compact, medium tall, bleached
and mature at digging; stalk thick and solid, flavour mild, good quality; heavy suckering;
no frost-injury;  good for early fall shipping;   average weight per plant, 2 lb. 6 oz.     (Good.)
" Secamus Green (Semi-green).—Plant tall, slightly open; stalk medium thick, solid,
brittle, heavy rib, slightly stringy; good flavour and quality; heavy suckering; no frost;
average weight per plant, 2 lb. 6 oz.    (Good.)
" Seed-house No. 2.
"Florida Golden (Golden).—Plant medium tall, good type, slightly open, half bleached,
not as mature; stalk medium thick, solid, slightly stringy, good quality, mild flavour; light
suckering;  no frost-injury;  average weight per plant, 2 lb.;  could ship or pit.     (Very good.)
"Michigan Golden (Golden).—Plant medium short, slightly open, bleached and mature,
early; stalk thick and solid, stringy, flavour flat, quality fair, light suckering; frost-injury
medium heavy;   rot evident in some heads;   average weight per plant, 2 lb. 6 oz.     (Fair.)
"Golden Pascal (Semi-green).—Plant tall, slightly open head, one-third bleach; stalk
thin, solid; texture and quality fairly good, brittle; suckering medium; frost-injury medium
heavy, penetrating down leaf-stalk;   average weight of head, 1 lb. 13 oz.     (Fair.)
" Yellow Hybrid No. 45 (Golden).—Plant short, uneven compact head, half bleach, ready
to ship; stalk thin but solid, brittle, mild flavour, good quality; suckering and frost-injury
very light;  average weight of plant, 1 lb. 10 oz.    Good variety but too short.     (Fair to good.)
"Morse's Masterpiece (Golden).-—Plant medium tall, fairly compact, ready to ship;
stalk thick, solid, very brittle, very good flavour and quality; suckering and frost-injury
slight;   average weight per plant, 2 lb. 6 oz.     (Very good.)
" Crispheart (Semi-green).—Plant tall, fairly loose head, quarter bleach; stalk medium
thick, fairly solid, light rib, slightly stringy; quality fair; strong acrid flavour; slight
suckering;  no frost-injury;   average weight per plant, 2 lb. 3 oz.    (Fair to good.)
"Autumn King (Green).—Plant very tall, compact, no bleaching; stalk medium thick,
solid, brittle, good quality and flavour, medium suckering; no frost-injury; average weight
per plant, 1 lb. 13 oz.    (Good.)
"Salt Lake No. 6519 (Green).—Plant tall, fairly open, part bleach; stalk thick, solid,
brittle, good texture, heavy rib, high quality and flavour; slight suckering; no frost-injury;
average weight per plant, 2 lb. 13 oz.     (Very good.)
"Early Green Hybrid (Green).—Plant medium tall, in all other respects is similar to
the Salt Lake variety;   average weight per plant, 2 lb. 6 oz.     (Very good.)
" As it was advisable to obtain frost-resistance records on the above series, no storage-
work was possible.    The most promising of the varieties should be carried another year to
obtain storage information."
Vetomold Tomato Trials.
This work was under the supervision of Mr. E. W. White, District Horticulturist, who
has submitted the following report:—■
" On June 30th the Horticultural Experiment Station, Vineland Station, Ont., announced
the introduction of a new mould-resisting greenhouse tomato which was given the name of
' Vetomold.' This notice was received on July 5th and this Branch immediately got in touch
with Mr. E. F. Palmer, the Director, in an effort to secure some seed. On July 7th Mr. 0. J.
Robb, in charge of Vegetable Breeding at Vineland Station, forwarded several packets of
the seed, which were received on July 12th.    Within two days seed was distributed to five B 52
growers in this district for trial as a fall crop. Later seed was given to two other growers
for trial as a spring crop.
" This seed was received somewhat late for planting in this district for a fall crop, as
seeding is usually done about May 20th. However, the plants were brought along as fast as
possible and were moved directly from the seed flats into the permanent position in the
greenhouse without transplanting into pots.
" In announcing this variety it was stated that it was absolutely immune to all known
strains of the leaf-mould fungus.    Experience so far has proved that statement to be true.
" The Vetomold tomato resembles greenhouse varieties such as Grand Rapids and Potentate in such characters as vigour, yield, season, and fruit.
" The fruit characteristics are of prime importance in this district, where a large proportion of the crop is shipped to distant markets. Owing to the lateness of planting, the
fruits were late in ripening and none have yet been seen, but some very nice trusses of fruit
were developed.
" The   growers   who   have   this   variety   on   trial   are   very   much   impressed   with   its
possibilities." __ _
Yellow-rust Control.
THe spraying-work carried on in the Fraser Valley raspberry districts has been supervised by Mr. G. E. W. Clarke, who submits the following report on the work carried out
during the 1939 season:—
" In past years yellow rust of raspberries has been prevalent and in some seasons more
severe than in others. Injury to canes has been attributed to the prevalence of the disease
and control measures started in 1938 were continued this year.
" This spray-work has been conducted in co-operation with Mr. W. Jones, of the Dominion
Plant Pathology Laboratory, Saanichton, B.C.
" The plot is a planting of Cuthbert raspberries on Mr. K. Baker's place, Abbotsford, B.C.
" Each test was made in quadruplicate on sections throughout the plots.    Each section
is about 25 feet of row.
" Two sprays were applied;   the first on March 23rd as crown growth was commencing
and buds were breaking.   Heavy rain fell during the night of the 23rd and all day on the 24th.
" The second spray was made on April 24th and 27th.    Cane-growth was about 6 inches
high—lateral growth between 2 and 4 inches.    Heavy rain during the afternoon prevented
spraying all plots.    April 25th and 26th were wet, clearing and fine on the 27th.
" The following were the sprays used:—
Bordeaux mixture  4-4-40.
Micronized  burgundy   1 lb. to 20 gals, of water.
Bordinette  1 lb. to 20 gals, of water.
Wettable sulphur  8 lb. to 100 gals, of water.
Lime-sulphur  1 gal. to 15 gals, of water (first spray).
1 gal. to 40 gals, of water (second spray).
" Lethalate (one teaspoonful per gallon) was used as a spreader with lime-sulphur and
the Bordeaux sprays.
" The following is a summary of examinations made of the plots on May 9th and 14th:—■
Current Growth.
No. of
Rust index :   l=rust general on lower leaves.
0.5—50 per cent, lower leaves affected.
0.25=_very slight infection.
trace-_a few rust spots on the leaves.
Canes with
tr.-O. 5
tr.-O 5
Per Cent.
Wettable sulphur         - ...
" Results.—Yellow rust during the past two years has been less prevalent than in the
previous two or three years; consequently, injury attributable to rust on the check plots is
not marked.
" The rust infection on fruiting canes was practically nil this season.
" In view of the light rust infection it is difficult to make definite recommendations and
it would seem that under ordinary conditions spraying of raspberries for the control of yellow
rust is not to be recommended as necessary at present.
" Bordeaux mixture and the copper compounds are promising and in seasons of severe
infection might prove of value, particularly in the early spring as crown-growth commences.
" Lime-sulphur has not given as satisfactory indications of control as Bordeaux and in
addition lime-sulphur sprays, even at the weaker dilutions, cause burning of the tender growth
and foliage."
Orchard Cover-crop Work.
The maintenance and improvement of orchard soil conditions is becoming of increasing
importance, and particularly in view of the fact that cover-crops are becoming more difficult
to grow. With this in mind, work was started this season in the Penticton area with a view
to ascertaining the best cover-crop to grow and the most satisfactory way of handling the
same. Mr. R. P. Murray, under whose supervision this work was conducted, makes the
following report on the trials conducted in 1939:—
" Due to the difficulty of getting sweet clover or alfalfa to give a satisfactory stand in
mature orchards, particularly where the planting is close and the ground heavily shaded, it
was felt that some work should be done to try and find an annual crop that would help to
remedy the situation. An orchard was selected, shaded so heavily that about the only weed
that would flourish was the common chickweed. Plots were laid out, the orchard was disked
and harrowed, and the various crops broadcast in the recommended amounts per acre and
the seed harrowed in. The following crops were used: Fall rye, fall wheat, barley, buckwheat, oats, spring rye, Sudan grass, soy-beans and spring rye and spring vetch together.
From observations made throughout the growing season it would appear that fall rye, fall
wheat sown in the spring, or buckwheat gave the heaviest yield. The buckwheat made very
good growth in shade, but as the stems are rather tough and woody they would probably take
quite a time to break down and the trees would possibly need a little extra fertilizer, such as
sulphate of ammonia, to offset this condition.
" By sowing the fall rye and fall wheat in the spring, the crop did not head and consequently no heavy coarse straw was formed, although the plants of these two crops gave quite
a heavy growth of material that could easily be broken down with a disk.
" Spring rye, barley, and oats all grew fairly well, but headed out quite early in the
season and did not produce the amount of straw that the fall rye or fall wheat or buckwheat
produced. Sudan grass, soy-beans and spring vetch were practically a failure, while spring
vetch with spring rye was not any better than the spring rye itself. This is only the result
of one season's work, and should, if possible, be continued with additional trials of legumes,
such as sweet clovers and alfalfa, using different methods of seed-bed preparation and drilling
in the seed rather than broadcasting. In this way the seed could be placed at a uniform
depth, all the seed would be covered and the irrigation-ditches placed so that the young plants
could be assured of sufficient moisture during the early stages of growth."
Tree-fruit Pollination.
The following briefly outlines the work conducted in the Penticton District during the
past season:—
" Following up work done in the previous year, Mr. J. A. Smith extended pollination
trials in the spring of 1939. Apparently weather conditions at blossom-time were very
favourable for pollination and all varieties carried normal crops. As this district is rapidly
cutting down the number of 'off' varieties, pollination troubles can be expected and this
work should be continued to find out just what combinations of the remaining varieties can
be expected to give normal crops in seasons when pollination may be poor. As has been
pointed out, the increased spraying programme has made it almost impossible to carry bees
throughout the season in an orchard and it can be expected that a lot of our native insects
that may be useful in pollination are also being destroyed by this heavier spraying." B 54
Orchard-fertilizer Work.
The use of commercial fertilizer in the maintenance of orchard soil fertility is general
in all fruit districts. Definite recommendations, however, are difficult and the application of
both simple and complete fertilizers depends to a large extent upon the soil condition of the
individual orchard. Work along this line has been conducted in different sections of the
Okanagan as well as in different Kootenay districts.
Apple-scab Sprays.
The work carried out this year is a continuation of similar work undertaken in past years
in both the Northern Okanagan and Kootenay areas. In the Okanagan the work was supervised by Mr. H. H. Evans, who reports as follows:—
" This is a continuation of our scab-control work of previous years. Scab infestation
was very light in the district the past season. The only plots in our series showing slight
scab were the checks. This leaves nothing for comparison so the tabulation table is omitted
for the past season.
" The following notes cover briefly the main features and observations of the work:—
" Materials used were: Lime-sulphur, Kolofog, Microsul, micronised wettable sulphur,
zinc sulphate, calcium and lead arsenates, Lethalate and Fluxit spreaders.
" Twelve plots comprised the series with materials being used in varying strengths and
" There was slight leaf-edge burning after the pre-pink spray with lime-sulphur and
lead arsenate combination. In the heavy Kolofog and lime-sulphur combination there was
slight leaf-edge burn and calyx injury after the calyx application. In the lime-sulphur-zinc-
sulphate plots, russeting of the fruit occurred on the heavy-strength plot.
" Slight stunting and lighter colour of foliage was observed in the straight lime-sulphur
plots. All neutral sulphur combination plots had a good appearance. This being the off-crop
year for this orchard, performance of trees was variable."
The following dealing with scab-control work in the Kootenay is submitted by Mr.
E. C. Hunt:—
" Although apple-scab as a whole was not as bad as in many seasons, it was still much
more prevalent than in 1938. Neither the sprayed nor unsprayed orchards were as free of
the disease as last year. However, where four sprays were applied at the proper time and
thoroughly done, little scab could be found on the fruit at harvesting-time.
" Your assistant again carried on a number of apple-scab control-spray tests this past
season at Sunshine Bay and Willow Point. The main object of the tests this year was to
find out the value, if any, of zinc sulphate, the combination of lime-sulphur and calcium
arsenate spray mixture.    The following table shows the project and the results:—
Variety—Mcintosh Red, Sunshine Bay, Appleton Bros. '
L.S. 1-40, plus cal. arsenate 2 lb., plus zinc sul. % lb.—. —	
Check, unsprayed 	
" Each plot received four sprays with the same materials and strength as listed under
each plot, and were applied on the following dates: Pink, May 9th; calyx, May 23rd; first
cover, June 8th; and second cover, June 23rd. There were six Mcintosh Red and six
Jonathan trees in Plots 1, 3, and 4, while only three trees of each variety were sprayed in
Plot 2.    The fruit on the Jonathan trees was showing a lot of russet at picking-time, and DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 55
of a much more severe nature where the zinc sulphate was used, and especially where used
at the strength of 4 lb. to the 40 gallons of the spray mixture. No scab-infections were
found in any of the plots on the Jonathan fruit. Results from the table given above show
that little, if any, better results were had in the control of apple-scab where lime-sulphur was
used at the rate of 1 gallon to 40 of water over 1 gallon to 60 of water, nor did the zinc
sulphate add any fungicidal value to the mixture, but did cause a lot of russeting to the fruit,
even on the Mcintosh Red where the larger quantity was used. The weather was of the
kind that was favourable to foliage-injury where lime-sulphur was used, and much more
foliage-injury occurred this year in all the plots, both at Sunshine Bay and Willow Point,
as well as throughout the district as a whole. The zinc sulphate did not in any case lessen
the foliage-injury when used in the combination sprays listed in the above table; in fact, it
seemed to increase the trouble or injury. At Willow Point, where the lime-sulphur was used
at the rate of 1 gallon to 60 of water, plus 2.5 lb. of calcium arsenate for the control of
apple-scab, the results were even better. All the apples on one tree were counted in this test
and out of a total of 2,516 apples on the tree, only four were found that had any trace of
scab on them—just about 100 per cent, clean."
Mealy-bug Sprays.
The work is carried on in the Kootenay by Mr. E. C. Hunt in cooperation with Science
Service officials of the Dominion Department of Agriculture. The following resume of the
work done is taken from Mr. Hunt's report:—■
" Mealy-bug infestation is on the increase and is spreading each year to new areas. At
the present time there is hardly any section of the district that is free of this insect. Your
assistant, in co-operation with the Dominion Entomologists, has carried out a number of
experiments with different spray material and combinations for the control of this insect in
the Kootenay District. This work has extended over a period of about five years. For the
past two years the work has been carried on at Harrop, in Mr. E. W. Slater's orchard. As
far as the results go, we found that a 5- to 6-per-cent. actual oil dormant spray still gave
quite satisfactory control of the mealy bugs if thoroughly applied. Also that a 4-per-cent.
actual oil, plus lime-sulphur 1 to 15, gave a slightly better control than the oil alone and had
a more lasting effect, but the cost was higher. ' Elgetol' in 1939 gave the best control, but
is expensive in its present form. ' Dowspray Dormant' was also a satisfactory spray material that gave very good control under a one-year test. The other materials mentioned above
have been tested out for two years or longer. Other materials tested out and in different
combinations did not give as good control as the ones listed above. It is hoped that the work
will be carried on for another year at least, as a cheaper spray mixture is needed in the
control of this insect."
The foregoing deals with some of the principal demonstration projects conducted by
officials of the Horticultural Branch during the past season. An outline of all such work
undertaken is summarized in the following statement:—
Vancouver Island.... Strawberry Plant Selection-work; Boysenberry Trials;
Grape Variety Trials; Rhubarb Trials; Raspberry Trials; Thornless Loganberry Trials; Lettuce
Trials;   Greenhouse Tomato Trials.
Lower Mainland Corn  Variety   Trials;    Lettuce   Trials;    Spraying  for
Yellow Rust; Raspberry-plot Work; Celery Trials;
Strawberry-spraying Work; Turnip-seed Weevil-
control;   Cyclamen  Soft-rot Control.
Okanagan Test of Hardy Intermediate  Stocks;   Test of Dwarf
Apple Stocks; Test of Boron on Prunes; Testing varying amounts of Boron; Apple-scab Sprays;
, Orchard-fertilizer Work; Codling-moth Spray
Trials; Preheating Apple-boxes; Methyl Bromide
Treatment of Codling-moth Larva?; Pollination
Studies; Orchard Cover-crop Work; Raspberry
Variety Trials; Lettuce Variety Trials; Lettuce-
fertilizer Tests;    Celery Variety Trials;   Testing B 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Rare Elements on Onions and Celery;   Sweet Corn
Variety Trials;   Greenhouse Tomato Trials.
Kootenay Mealy-bug Control Sprays;   Apple-scab Sprays;   Boron
Tests   on   Raspberries;    Orchard-fertilizer   Work;
Raspberry Variety Trials.
Reports dealing with crop estimates and other phases of horticultural work in the
Province are frequently requested of officials of this Branch. Fruit and vegetable crop
statistics are compiled each year for the Statistics Branch, to be used in making up the
final production figures for the Agricultural Statistics Report. Estimates of the tree- and
small-fruit production are compiled during the months of June, July, August, and September.
In addition, the Horticultural News Letter is issued every two weeks from May 19th to
September 9th. The information contained in this letter is forwarded to the Vernon office
from all local Horticultural offices. It is then edited by Mr. M. S. Middleton, District
Horticulturist, before being compiled and mailed.
A fairly complete list of horticultural publications are available either from the Victoria
office or from any of the district offices. These publications are revised from time to time
as well as the list being added to as further information is required.
Your Horticulturist would at this time like to acknowledge the co-operation which he has
received at all times, not only from members of his own staff but from officials of other
branches, as well as from members of the Dominion Department of Agriculture and the
Agricultural staff of the University of British Columbia.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist.
Special delivery-tags, totalling 1,190, were issued to Prairie nurserymen during 1939, of
which 1,065 have been accounted for to date. In addition, 100 tags were issued for greenhouse stock. Of the orders filled under these tags 181 contained bulbs, 603 ornamentals, 88
fruit-trees, 155 small fruits, 130 rhubarb and asparagus, and 76 grape seedlings. These
orders represent nearly double the number in 1938. In addition, 80 shipments not provided
with special delivery-tags were inspected at Vancouver. With the exception of some shipments of bulbs and corms, these were small orders or non-commercial sendings of ornamentals
and wild plants, etc.
Leafy Spurge (Euphorbiacese).—In the older literature this has generally been referred
to Euphorbia Esula L., but more recently to E. virgata, Walldst & Kit. The specific differences in any case are very slight. This is undoubtedly the most serious agricultural weed
amongst the new aliens to be recorded this year. It is a strong-growing perennial of European origin, 1 to 3 feet high, with extensive, creeping, woody root-stocks. Stems clustered,
stout, and very leafy. Leaves rather pale green, alternate, narrow (linear to lanceolate),
with a smooth edge. Flowers small, greenish yellow, and mostly in a terminal umbel. The
plant has also the 3-seeded capsule and milky juice common in the family. Specimens were
sent in from near Kamloops by Mr. C. Tice and from Grandview Flats, near Armstrong, by
Mr. H. H. Evans.
Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora Cav.) Compositae.—A coarse quick-growing annual, 1 to
3 feet high. Leaves opposite, ovate, 3-nerved, 1 to 3, inches long, toothed and stalked. Heads
numerous, small   (%-inch diameter or less)   on  slender stalks.    Ray flowers small, white; DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 57
disk flowers yellow. This plant is stated to be a native of tropical America, but must be very
adaptable as it is recorded as naturalized as far north as the State of Maine. A fragmentary
specimen, identified somewhat doubtfully as this plant, was sent in from New Denver in 1938.
A request that the plant be searched for again this spring brought no response and it is to
be presumed that it has disappeared. This summer, however, an infestation was found on a
farm at Langley. The seed is thought to have been brought in with flower seeds from California in 1936 and to have spread from there to the farm. The farmer writes " It is a
miserable thing to deal with as it grows so very rapidly, matures (seed) on even the smallest
plants within a day or two, and it is difficult to kill as it possesses a relatively large root-
Dandelion-leaved Hawksbeard (Crepis vesicaria L. var. taraxacifolia (Thuill.) Thell.;
C. taraxacif olia Thuill.) Composite,.—There does not seem to be any recognized English name
for this species so the English translation of the species name has been used to designate it.
It is a native of Western Europe and Northern Africa, and is distinguished from all other
species known to occur in the Province by having a slender beak to the achene, equal in length
to the body of the achene. This plant has become very abundant in and around Nanaimo.
It may be annual, biennial, or occasionally perennial from a vertical more or less woody
tap-root, and reaches a height of 30 inches or more. The leaves are mostly basal; the stem
much branched above and bearing a large number of dandelion-like heads. The fruiting
pappus is well-developed, giving ample opportunity for distribution by the wind. While this
is mainly a weed of waste ground, roadsides, and fence-corners, it has also begun to invade
meadow land. The " seeds " apparently develop early and are mostly matured and scattered
by haying-time so that cutting the crop does not interfere with its spread. There were
patches of meadow land seen in which this weed was more plentiful than grass or other
foraee plants.
Tall Saltbush (Atriplex rosea L.) Chenopodiacea..—This plant, of Old World origin,
differs from the common orache (A. patula) in its silvery scurfy foliage and from the silvery
orache (A. argentea) which occurs sparingly in the Dry Belt by being larger in all its parts
and by the leaves being coarsely and irregularly toothed. The reddish-coloured foliage from
which the species name is derived has not been noticed but may be a fall condition. Plants
vary much in form and size according to conditions. Frequently they are only a few inches
high and almost unbranched. Under more favourable conditions it may make a bush of 3
feet in height or more, and as much in diameter, branched from the base, with very numerous,
slender, spreading branches. St. John's " Flora of S.E. Washington " gives the maximum
height as 6% feet, but no specimens have been noticed here approaching this size. It is an
annual and often associated with alkali conditions. It has now become very abundant on
waste land, roadsides, orchards, etc., around Penticton and south to the Boundary. We have
also specimens in the herbarium from Enderby, so that it is probably quite widely distributed
in the Dry Belt, though it has not been collected in the Columbia Valley. Although it is
capable of making great growth in a season and produces large quantities of seed, it does
not seem to have been reported as giving trouble in cultivated land.
Bassia hyssopifolia (Pall.) Kuntze. Chenopodiacea..—This annual plant somewhat
resembles certain species of Goosefoot in general character, but, instead of being mealy, is
densely hairy, especially the inflorescence. The fruit is very characteristic, being furnished
with red hooked spines. Plants may reach a height of 3 feet and usually have a characteristic
pyramidal habit, a number of branches arising near the ground-level and growing out horizontally for some distance before turning upwards. This gives the plant considerable
" smothering " power over adjacent competitors. It is now very abundant in the Southern
Okanagan, especially around Penticton. Mr. Groh, of the Division of Botany, Ottawa,
informs me that it is abundant around Kamloops and as far west as Ashcroft and Spatsum.
Specimens were sent to both the University of British Columbia and the Division of Botany
from Monte Creek as long ago as 1926, but apparently no specimens have been sent in to the
Department from farmers or district representatives who were concerned with it as a weed.
Possibly, therefore, in spite of its habit and rapid spread, it may not persist under cultivation.
Wall Lettuce (Lactuca muralis Fres.) Composite..—This European plant is not exactly a
recent introduction as there is a specimen in the herbarium of the Provincial Museum collected
in 1919, but its spread does not seem to have been recorded.    In Britain it is a rather rare B 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
plant and occurs chiefly on and around ruins, hence the name. In this country it is mainly a
woodland plant and has taken possession of many woods around Victoria and extending north
at least as far as Shawnigan Lake. It is also plentiful in the woods around Garibaldi Station
on the P.G.E. Railway. While, from its shade-loving nature, this plant is not likely to become
of agricultural importance, the extent to which it is crowding out the native plants in such
places as Goldstream Park is a matter of concern to lovers of the native flora. Unfortunately
there does not seem to be any practical means of combating its spread.
Russian Knapweed (Centaurea repens L.).—This has now been reported from Barnhart
Vale, Lillooet, Vernon, Summerland, Penticton, and Cawston. At the last-named place a
rather interesting observation was made. The infested field has an orchard along one side
and into this the Knapweed as well as Hoary Cress (Lepidium Draba) has spread. The Cress
seemed to flourish equally well out in the open or in the shade of the trees, but it was quite
noticeable that the Knapweed became much weaker and more straggling when shaded. This
suggests that a tall quick-growing crop which shades the ground heavily—e.g., corn or
sunflowers—might be useful in keeping the weed in check.
In last year's report the prevalence of Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.) in
the Bridesville District was recorded, the plant extending west to near Anarchist Mountain.
In collecting around Osoyoos last September it was found that it had spread along the bottom
of the creek-beds which come down from Anarchist Mountain, almost down to Osoyoos Lake,
although no specimen was found on the open range. Evidently the Osoyoos climate is too
dry for it except under special conditions, but following the creek-beds it may reach the
irrigated land near the lake. Quite probably the burs have been carried in the fur of rodents.
The weed is chiefly of importance where sheep are kept, the bur fouling the wool, so is not
likely to be especially troublesome in the Southern Okanagan.
Arrow-grass  (Triglochin) Poisoning.
Triglochin maritima L., the sea-shore arrow-grass, is widely distributed in British Columbia from the coastal marshes of Vancouver Island to the Columbia Valley, occurring in the
Interior around alkali sloughs and moist places. T. palustris L. is much less frequent; both
contain the same poison, hydrocyanic acid. What appears to be an authentic case of poisoning of horses by this plant occurred at Okanagan Falls. Most of the cases of poisoning have
been reported from inland states—e.g., Nevada, Utah, Wyoming. In driving from Nanaimo
to Comox in June, T. maritima was found to be abundant in all the coastal marsh examined,
yet suspected cases of poisoning in this area are rare if they occur at all. An interesting
observation in this connection was made on a farm at the mouth of the Nanaimo River.
Inside the dyke were large patches of arrow-grass eaten down by stock. Both dairy cattle
and horses pastured in the field, but the owner stated he had never seen any symptoms of
poisoning in either. The reason for this difference in properties is not clear. It seems to
be accepted, however, that some plants which contain hydrocyanic acid—e.g., sorghum-
become much more dangerous under drought conditions. Possibly greater succulence and
more rapid growth in the Coast marshes, as compared with the slough edges or low spots
where the plant occurs in the Interior, or greater dilution with other forage may be a partial
explanation. However, cases of poisoning from this plant seem rare in British Columbia in
spite of its wide distribution.
Many new sheets have been added during the past year. The collection of grasses now
includes probably 75 per cent, of those recorded in Henry's Flora as well as a number of
additional records. Good series have also been made of the chief agricultural weeds to permit
of identification of fragmentary or immature specimens. A considerable number of sheets
have been mounted for the office of the Field Crops Commissioner, and a beginning made in
preparing mounts of some of the worst and not generally known weeds for distribution to
district representatives. Many specimens have been contributed to the herbarium of the
Provincial Museum, including several which are new records of indigenous plants.
In the field of plant diseases the following summary of the report of Mr. W. R. Foster,
Assistant Plant Pathologist, indicates the new problems that are being studied. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 59
In the annual report for 1938 particulars are given of experiments with borax and boric
acid for control of what was thought to be drought spot in Bosc pears. The results as given
in Table 1 of that report show no improvement from the addition of boron to the soil. It
now appears probable that the deformity and pitting of the fruit of Bosc pears on Vancouver
Island is not of nutritional origin, but is due to a virus. A paper by J. R. Kienholz, in
" Phytopathology," March, 1939, entitled " Stony Pit, a Transmissible Disease of Pears,"
describes a disease closely resembling the one on Vancouver Island. Specimens sent from
here to Dr. Kienholz were considered by him as probably affected by the same type of trouble
as the one dealt with in his paper. The following are the symptoms of the disease as given
by Dr. Kienholz:—
" Stony pit can best be identified by the symptoms on the fruit. The first indication of
the trouble on Bosc pears appears in from ten to twenty days after petal-fall and consists of
dark green areas just under the epidermis of the fruit. The lack of growth in these areas
and the rapid development of the surrounding tissues results in deeply pitted or deformed
fruit at maturity. The borders of the deformed areas sometimes remain dark green and
suggest the halo encircling certain virus spots on other plants. The tissue at the base of
these pits generally becomes necrotic or corky, and in severely infected fruits, a concentration
of the corky tissue occurs near or within the ' grit cell ring.' The most striking feature of
the diseased fruit, however, is the production of numerous sclerenchyma cells beneath or
surrounding the pitted areas. Fruit bearing several pits become gnarled and so woody that
they are difficult to cut with a knife. One or all fruits on a tree may show the pitted
Nurserymen should exercise every care in the selection of Bosc scion wood or buds since
the disease is easily spread by diseased grafts or buds. According to the results in Oregon,
Bartletts top-worked on diseased Bosc trees have produced healthy fruit for five consecutive
years. It is, of course, possible that in such cases the Bartlett may carry the disease without
showing the symptoms. Until this point has been determined it would not be advisable to
use buds or scions from top-worked diseased trees.
These have been carried out for several years at Armstrong with the co-operation of
Mr. H. H. Evans. In 1939, for the first time, the amount of bunt that developed in the
different varieties was too small to have any comparative significance. The detailed results
are therefore omitted. An experiment with a series of chemical seed treatments against
soil-borne bunt also failed to give any results of value for the same reason. This coming
season a number of new hybrids between Dawson Golden Chaff and Ridit will be tested for
bunt resistance and yield. Plots have also been laid out for demonstrating the influence of
date of seeding on bunt infection.
Varietal Resistance of Spring Wheat to Black Chaff caused by Bacterium translucens
undulosum S. J. et R., at Creston, August, 1939.
Variety. Black Chaff.
Apex    Severe.
Renown -  Severe.
Regent -  Moderate.
Garnet  Slight.
Reward  Slight.
Red Bobs  Free.
Marquis  Free.
Thatcher  Free.
Canus  Free.
C-26-44.7  Free. B 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Comparative Resistance of Clover, Sanfoin, Trefoil, and Vetch to Wilt caused by
Sclerotinia trifoliorum, March, 1939.
Plants affected by Wilt.
Subterranean Clover Ott. 1559   Free.
Early Red Clover ;  40 per cent.
Sanfoin   60 per cent.
Birdsfoot Trefoil   15 per cent.
Yellow Trefoil   35 per cent.
Crown Vetch   Free.
1. Dark-berry of Cotoneaster.—Dark-berry of Cotoneaster horizontalis Decne is a disease
caused by Phytopthora cactorum (Libert & Cohn) Schrot. The ornamental value of this
shrub is much reduced because the bright red berries become discoloured, turning a light grey
to black. Dark-berry has a widespread distribution on this common shrub in the coastal
districts of British Columbia. Fourteen species of Cotoneaster were examined for the disease
but horizontalis was the only one badly infected. The following species were practically
free in 1938:—
Cotoneaster adpressa Boid. Cotoneaster Francheti Bois.
Cotoneaster microphylla Wall. Cotoneaster racemiflora Koch.
Cotoneaster thymifolia. Cotoneaster pannosa Franch.
Cotoneaster humifusa (dammeri). Cotoneaster frigida Wall.
Cotoneaster rotundifolia Wall. Cotoneaster salicifolia.
Cotoneaster Simonsii Baker. Cotoneaster nitens.
Cotoneaster divaricata Rehd. & Wils.
Identification of the fungus was confirmed by the Imperial Mycological Institute at Kew.
Most diseases due to this fungus are controlled by copper fungicides. As infection appears
to begin with the fall rains a spray or dust with a standard copper fungicide is recommended
in August.    Later applications may be given in September and October.
2. Canker of Filberts (Phomopsis revellens van Hohn).—This fungus was isolated from
active cankers in a filbert planting at Whonnock. This planting had been neglected and a
grass fire had gone through it the preceding season. It was difficult, therefore, to form any
estimate of the amount of damage being done by the fungus. There were, however, branches
girdled by cankers which apparently had no connection with previous injury by fire. In a
few cases a tree had died but whether primarily from fire or fungus was difficult to determine.
Specimens of cankers were sent to Mr. Foster who isolated the fungus.
3. Diplodina Eurhododendri Voss, causing a leaf spot of cultivated Rhododendrons, was
found in a nursery on Vancouver Island. This fungus has been reported from Britain but
not as a serious pest.
4. Cytospora ambiens Sacc. was isolated from bark of twigs and branches of Cotoneaster
Simonsii Baker. A number of Cotoneasters have been killed, presumably by this fungus, in
and around Victoria.
5. Halo-blight of beans (Phytomonas medicaginis Sack. var. phaseolicola Burkh.), although
not previously recorded from British Columbia, was found at a number of places, namely,
Grand Forks, Vernon, Langley Prairie, Vancouver, and Sidney. Nearly all the reports were
from crops grown from seed purchased from registered seed-growers in Ontario.
Rot in Greenhouse Tomatoes.
During November, 1938, a soft, watery rot developed in car-load lots of greenhouse
tomatoes, resulting, in some cases, in complete loss of a shipment. Investigation showed that
the rot was due to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. High humidity in the greenhouses and in
the railway storage and shipping cars favoured the development of the fungus. Losses
during November, 1939, have been very slight as compared with those a year ago, apparently
due to better drying-off of shipments and cars. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 61
Fertilizer Experiments at Creston.
(In co-operation with Mr. J. R. Thorpe, Superintendent of the Sub-experiment
Station at Creston.)
In response to requests from a number of farmers in the district an investigation was
begun to determine:—
(1.)  The effect of different chemical fertilizers on the yield and quality of wheat:
(2.)  The cause of floret sterility which has been causing serious reduction of yields
on reclamation lands.
The different chemicals were seeded with the Red Bobs wheat on May 20th with a Kemp
rod-row seeder, on poor soil.    Each plot consisted of five rows 1 foot apart and 18.5 feet long,
each  treatment being  replicated  four  times.    The  nitrogen,  phosphate,  potash,  nitrogen-
potash,  phosphate-potash,  nitrogen-potash  and  nitrogen-phosphate-potash  fertilizers  were
applied at the rate of 100 lb. per acre.    The boron, manganese, copper, zinc, and molybdenum
were applied at the rate of 30 lb. per acre and sulphur at 100 lb.
The average yield for each treatment is given in the table. The nitrogen-phosphate-
potash-manganese fertilizer gave the highest yields. Copper, zinc, or sulphur did not appear
to have effect on the yield. Molybdenum and boron reduced the yield. Nitrogen-manganese
and nitrogen-phosphate-potash increased the yield. Further work will be necessary before
making any recommendations. It is known that manganese is much more likely to be deficient
or insoluble in alkaline soil.
The Effect of Different Fertilizers on the Yield of Red Bobs Wheat at Creston in 1939.
Check, no treatment     .
Average Yield
in Bushels.
_.     19.2
P        ....   _  	
    .. 13.8
..... 22.9
N.P.K. Cu.  	
N.P.K.B. • ,	
 '  11.5
P. = Calcium acid phosphate.
K. = Potassium sulphate.
Mn. = Manganese sulphate.
Cu.__: Copper sulphate.
Zn.__Zinc sulphate.
Mo.--Sodium molybdate.
B. = Borax.
A series of soil tests was made of soils collected by Dr. J. S. Bankier from farms in the
Fraser Valley on which red-water occurs and farms in the same areas which are free from
the disease, in the hope of finding some soil factor associated with the incidence of the disease.
The soils were tested for pH and qualitatively for chromium, cerium, lead, thallium, barium,
strontium, copper, molybdenum, cadmium, and boron. No consistent difference was found in
the pH of soil from disease-bearing and disease-free farms, nor was the presence or absence
of any of the above elements found to be correlated with the occurrence of the disease.
Thanks are due to Mr. John Aldous, of the Dominion Pathological Laboratory at Saanichton,
for his help in this project, which although negative in its results entailed the expenditure of
considerable time and labour. B 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Max H. Ruhmann, B.A., Entomologist.
The major project during the year was the eradication of the Colorado potato-beetle
from the Grand Forks District. This outbreak developed in 1936. Smaller outbreaks were
reported from Thrums and Salmo in 1937. No larvae or beetles have been reported from
Thrums or Salmo since 1938, but a small infestation still persists at Grand Forks. A detailed
report of the work on this outbreak has been submitted.
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).—This insect is generally distributed
in every Canadian Province except British Columbia. In this Province this pest has been
confined to the East Kootenays, where it has been established for a considerable number of
years. The Provincial Department of Agriculture in attempting to confine the infestation
to the East Kootenays is distributing calcium arsenate dust to potato-growers free of charge,
and lending them dusters to treat infested potatoes.
Reports being received indicate that where growers are applying the poison dust to
infested potato-crops excellent control is being obtained. It appears, however, that a number
of growers have neglected to treat their infested crops, which have consequently suffered
severely. Unfortunately, the resultant loss is not confined to the grower who failed to treat
his crop. His neglect results in reinfestation of his neighbours' treated crops and materially
aids in the wider distribution of this pest.
The incipient outbreaks at Salmo, Thrums, and Grand Forks all developed on Doukhobor
property, presumably through seed-potatoes brought in from infested Prairie districts. There
are a number of districts in British Columbia well suited for the production of certified seed-
potatoes and British Columbia growers should be induced to produce sufficient seed-potatoes
to at least supply British Columbia requirements, and eliminate as far as possible the
introduction of seed-potatoes from districts known to be infested by the Colorado potato-beetle.
Blister-beetle (Epicauta maculata).—This beetle was very active in the Boundary country
during the late summer, particularly attacking potatoes, and was the cause of many reports
of infestation by the Colorado potato-beetle.
Potato and Tomato Psyllid (Paratrioza cockerelli).—This insect has been reported as
spreading across the boundary from Alberta to British Columbia. This might become a
serious pest.    No specimens have, however, been recorded in British Columbia this year.
Wireworms (Elateridse).—Wireworms were active generally in the Province and were
particularly destructive to grain-fields at Bridesville and onions and potatoes at Grand Forks.
Cutworms (Noctuidie).—Cutworms were quite active generally in the Province. Truck-
crops at Kamloops suffered most severely.
Codling-moth (Carpocopsa pomonella).—Adults of this moth were flying quite early in
the spring and were observed when apples were in bloom. A cold, wet June in the Interior
checked development and the majority of the first-brood worms appeared very late. A short
second brood resulted and probably a heavy carry-over of first-brood worms to 1940.
Thrips (Thrips tabaci).-—Thrips were quite active on onions at Grand Forks. Many
fields required treatment to prevent severe loss.
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus).—This scale insect is gradually extending its
range in the Interior fruit districts. The following districts are now known to be infected:
Kaslo, Osoyoos, Cawston, Keremeos, Inkameep Indian Reserve, and Kelowna.
Infection was reported at Kelowna in the fall of 1938, the scale having been found on
export apples from this district. Much time was given by both the Dominion and Provincial
entomological branches to locate the point of infestation. The original point of infestation
in the Kelowna District was located in August of this year and was found to be in a noncommercial orchard. Infestation has been present in this orchard for a number of years
and is gradually spreading to adjoining commercial orchards.
Seed-corn Maggot (Hylemyia cilicrura).—This appears to be a new record for the
Interior of British Columbia. A severe local infestation was noted on a commercial planting
of beans at Lavington. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 63
Pacific Mite (Tetranychus pacificus).—This is a new record for British Columbia.
Infestations were located by officers of the Dominion entomological staff in the Interior.
Pea-weevil (Mylabris pisorum).—This weevil was quite general in the Interior, particularly in kitchen gardens. Inquiries indicated that infested seed had been purchased in local
stores where the seed was sold in bulk, presumably not obtained from the regular seed-houses.
Box-elder Bug (Leptocoris trivittatus).—This insect was unusually numerous this fall,
causing much annoyance by entering houses in large numbers to hibernate.
European Earwig (Forficula auricularia).—This insect, known for many years in Coast
districts, has made its appearance at Creston.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist.
No extremes or wide fluctuations of temperature disturbed the even clustering of
wintered-over colonies in 1939, resulting in a minimum of winter loss and light consumption
of stores. Spring brood-rearing started early with favourable conditions throughout the
Province as bees were able to gather nectar, beginning with the early willows and continuing
with hardly a check through dandelion, maple, and fruit-bloom. By the end of May, colonies
already averaged a surplus of 40 to 60 lb. of honey with prospects for a record crop.
Unfortunately, cool and cloudy weather in June, with intermittent fine days, checked this
prosperity and induced excessive swarming. The latter part of June and nearly all of July
continued cloudy and wet, the worst possible conditions during the months when the main
honey-flows from clover, etc., are usually obtained. Many swarms, with no reserves of stores,
died of starvation in July, and other colonies were so weakened that recovery was impossible
in time to secure a fair surplus from the later honey sources on the Lower Mainland and
Coast districts. The latter part of summer was hot and dry and a light surplus was obtained
in fireweed areas. In the Interior, or Dry Belt, conditions were not so serious as crops
depending on irrigation, such as alfalfa and sweet clover, yielded nectar freely during the
latter part of the season, resulting in fair to normal crops in most districts. The total honey-
crop for the Province was, therefore, about 65 per cent, of normal. Appended herewith is
the estimate, by districts, totalling 1,004,880 lb.
Estimate of Honey-crop for 1939.
Okanagan, Shuswap, and Thompson Valleys 	
An early start was made in the work of inspecting apiaries for the control of contagious
bee diseases. District Inspectors were able to make considerable progress through the opportunity afforded by suitable weather conditions as early as the middle of March. A number
of diseased colonies, some of which had died during winter, were thus eliminated as potential
sources of infection by burning, attention being first given to known diseased areas. Systematic district inspection was well advanced during April and May when almost every day could
be utilized, but unfavourable weather slowed up the work on the Lower Mainland for the
next two months.    An almost complete inspection was made, however, by the close of the B 64
season within the districts where resident local Inspectors were employed.    The following is
a summary of the field-work done in this respect:—
A. W. Finlay  _	
W. J. H. Dicks   	
128     •
J. F. Roberts   	
The number of apiaries and colonies examined was considerably in excess of any previous
year, while the percentage of disease found was somewhat less. A further continued reduction in the prevalence of disease is anticipated with the resumption of apiary inspection in the
State of Washington. The territory adjacent to our southern boundary has been without
inspection for several years, and our Inspectors have had difficulty in controlling recurrent
outbreaks originating across the International Boundary-line. A preliminary survey of
apiary conditions in Whatcom County showed approximately 50 per cent, disease. Finances
are now available for cleaning up this territory and this work already has been started and
will be continued effectively. The utmost cordiality exists between the State officials responsible for the supervision of apiary inspection and those of this Province, and preparations are
now in progress to conduct joint inspection simultaneously in area clean-up work along the
The annual visit of your Provincial Apiarist to outlying districts of the Province was
carried out as usual with the co-operation of the various District Representatives of the
Department. An outbreak of disease in Kamloops City proved to be of local origin and was
promptly cleaned up with the assistance of Don Sutherland, District Agriculturist. A close
inspection of surrounding territory and the Ashcroft-Lytton District showed the Lower
Thompson to be free from disease. The only other outbreak of disease reported from districts
without local inspection appeared near Salmo, where twenty colonies in four apiaries were
found dead from American foul-brood. All belonged to Doukhobors and of the twelve apiaries
found in the district, only one was registered.
In the Creston area, bee-keeping has increased rapidly and over 400 colonies were
examined here with the assistance of C. B. Twigg, District Horticulturist. Seven colonies
were found diseased in three apiaries and destroyed at once. No disease appeared beyond
Creston in the eastern boundary.
Applications for registration of 350 new apiary locations were received during 1939
and seventy-five cancellations were recorded, leaving a registration list of 4,282 apiaries.
As most of the cancellations are reported by the District Inspectors, it is obvious that
bee-keepers are more careful in registering their apiaries than in cancelling any that are
discontinued. Recommendations have been made to change the form of registration to
remedy this condition and improve the basis of statistical estimates.
Correspondence included the receipt of 803 letters and 777 were sent out. Microscopic
examination of 105 smears and samples of diseased brood-combs were made and reports of
bacterial diagnosis sent out with instructions for treatment, where necessary, a detailed list
of which is on file in Apiary Office.
Owing to the partial failure of the honey-crop in various sections of the Province, the
exhibits in the honey sections of the fall fairs were not quite up to the standard of excellence
of last season, although still an attractive feature of the larger fairs of Vancouver and
Victoria.   The wide variation in quality included some of the lowest and highest ever exhibited. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 65
The value of fall fairs as a medium of advertising British Columbia honey was again exemplified at Vancouver Exhibition, where, almost as soon as the judging was completed, not only
were most of the exhibits sold, but the crops of some of the exhibitors contracted for. The
larger artistic displays in the commercial classes were purchased by the leading stores in
Vancouver and, at the close of the Fair, rebuilt for display in their store-windows, while tons
of honey were sold inside. At the Victoria Exhibition, the honey exhibits were more uniform
in quality and of high grade but lacking in the artistic arrangement so attractive to the public
as featured at Vancouver.    Competition was keen and judging was very close in some classes.
In addition to the summer field meetings attended by your Inspectors, lectures and
addresses were given by request at various winter meetings of Associated Bee-keepers and
were appreciated. Your Provincial Apiarist was privileged to attend a conference of leading
bee-keepers of the Dominion at Lethbridge, Alberta, in June, where investigation into the
problems connected with package-bee shipments into Canada and the supersedure of queens
was carried out and improvements suggested. At the National Bee-keepers' conference held!
at Sacramento, California, several addresses were given by your Provincial Apiarist, details;
of which will appear in the leading bee journals. A motion-picture film, partly in technicolour,
prepared by the Department of Agriculture at Victoria, illustrating British Columbia beekeeping, was shown for the first time at the National conference and was greatly appreciated
both for its interest and educational value by the hundreds of leading bee-keepers from all
parts of the United States and Canada.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Commissioner.
The season has not been very beneficial to the dairy industry. The feed shortage of the
previous year resulted in scantier rations during the winter and dairy cattle, generally, in
the spring of 1939 were in poorer condition than usual. In some Interior sections particularly,
several months were required to restore cows to healthy vigour with, consequently, a slackened
production of milk. Spring pastures were not early; much wet weather prevailed in the
summer months. Generally, the hay harvest suffered greatly owing to this cause, and its
nutritive quality as a dairy feed has been perceptibly lowered. Other crops have yielded
well enough and no shortage exists at the present time.
Prices received by the dairy-farmer during most of the year were low. The outbreak
of war has increased returns since October, but no relation existed between the sudden rise to
consumers for butter and prices paid to producers for butter-fat. Speculators, operating
promptly as war was declared, are responsible. More incentive to milk cows exists at present
than earlier in the year. To what extent production has been affected by the sales of dairy
cattle to points outside the Province during the past three seasons is difficult to compute.
Twenty-five butter-factories, four cheese-factories, two condenseries, one milk-powder
plant and two casein plants have operated during the year. A few large plants specialize
in ice-cream manufacture for the wholesale trade. A number of small plants manufacture
and retail and, in addition, several creameries wholesale ice-cream as a side-line. Two new
dairy plants came into operation in the Interior this summer and a new creamery is contemplated for next year.
All factories and milk plants have been called on regularly by officials of this Branch.
Equipment and methods pertaining to grading and testing of milk and cream supplies have-
been thoroughly inspected. Results of check-tests for butter-fat of milk and cream have
been promptly forwarded to producers. Sanitation, storage, and methods of manufacture
have been regularly scrutinized and discussed and recommendations made when necessary.
There is in evidence a great general improvement in handling and treating equipment and
methods in the past decade. Considerable capital has been invested in new equipment in
recent years and modern dairy machinery is to be found in all leading dairies.
The quantity of creamery butter manufactured annually has for several years remained
approximately 6,000,000 lb. The diversion of milk-supplies to the manufacture of evaporated
milk and of cheese, both products at present more remunerative than butter, has prevented
creamery butter totals from showing the increase which might reasonably be expected. The
quality of creamery butter, generally, has greatly improved.
Very good grade percentages are to-day secured from the Federal graders on Provincial
butters passing through Vancouver. There remains in the neighbourhood of several of the
smaller creameries a continued demand for a butter fresh from the churn and this still
results, though less than formerly, in two seemingly different types appearing before the
Of the butter distributed in British Columbia to the total of approximately 17,000,000 lb.,
about 52 per cent, is of Provincial manufacture, and includes creamery butter from other
Provinces and foreign, as well as local dairy butter.
The manufacture of cheese has increased considerably during the year. There appears
to be much interest in cheese-making at present and it is likely that at least one new factory
will open next spring in the Interior. Manufacture in the past has been most irregular,
depending largely on prices obtaining for other dairy products.
The average annual distribution of cheese in British Columbia for several years has
been approximately 1,550,000 lb., 50 per cent, of which was largely cheddar, derived from
our Eastern Provinces. The remainder included cheese of local manufacture and imports
from abroad. The factory cheese made here is principally cheddar, but has varied greatly in
quantity, representing roughly three-fifths of the remainder. The rest represents the fancy
and more unusual kinds imported from Europe and the United States. Several farm dairies
make cheese of different varieties which is marketed very successfully.
The output of evaporated milk during the season is the greatest to date for the Province
and shows an increase in cases of about 10 per cent, over last year. Much of this is exported,
some to Europe and a smaller quantity to the Orient. The trend of prices during the year
has offered encouragement to condensing operations. The quantity of skim-milk powder
produced is also greater than in the previous season. Casein manufactured is rather less
than during last year.
The dairy exports of British Columbia manufacture so far have been entirely of this
class of product.    The value of these exports is about $500,000 annually.
The season opened most unfavourably for the ice-cream trade; chill, wet weather
prevailing well into summer. Later, with the advent of greater warmth, normal sales volumes
were attained and even surpassed. A total production only slightly greater than during 1938
has occurred. As an outlet for butter-fat, ice-cream does not offer to the dairy farm an
opportunity commensurate with the value of the finished product. Butter-fat is but one of
several ingredients and much skilled labour and expensive machinery are utilized in the
elaboration of the final article. As a seasonally remunerative product it assists greatly in the
economy of many dairies.
There have been in operation during the year fourteen cow-testing associations with
eighteen routes. Over 400 herds with more than 8,000 cows have been regularly on test
during this period. Approximately 6% per cent, of the dairy cattle of the Province are
therefore recorded with the Provincial system. The percentage found on the Lower Mainland is much greater, as might be expected, being nearly 12 per cent. Including cows under
R.O.P., from 7% to 8 per cent, of all dairy cows in British Columbia are being recorded.
This percentage, though gratifying, is not nearly high enough to automatically effect improvement of the average cow as now occurs in Sweden and Denmark. To attain cumulative
efficiency the work must be greatly extended. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 67
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia, 1939.
Bulkley Valley	
W. Billeter, Smithers    	
A. H. E. Howell...
Wm. Rose	
J. E. Manning
H. R. Connolly
J. E. Wingrove
H. C. Clark
Leslie McKinnon
G. W. Jess .
R. Macgregor
R. A. Wilson .
W. E. Hawthorne
Malcolm Gibson...
Wm. Hooson	
D. S. Heelas
T. Crowley 	
J. H. Wood.
J. J. Andrews __
J. E. Wingrove ..
R. J. Weir
T. G. M. Clarke ..
W. S. Annis, R.R. 1, Chilliwack	
W. S. Annis, R.R. 1, Chilliwack... 	
W. S. Annis, R.R. 1, Chilliwack -
W. S. Annis, E.R. 1, Chilliwack.. 	
W. E. Mantle, Sandwick
Chilliwack, Route 3  _
Chilliwack, Route 4	
Comox Valley 	
[ 630.00
B. J. A. Campbell, Murrayville	
H. G. Rottluff, Matsqui  	
Okanagan          —
J. P. Munson, Kelowna  	
Richmond-Ladner, Route 1
S. H. Gilmore, R.R, 2, Eburne  	
S. H. Gilmore, R.R. 2, Eburne -	
Salmon  Arm-North  Oka-
600 00
Surrey     -
Vancouver Island (South)
F. McKinnon, Box 11, Cloverdale -J
R. Rendle, 1118 Johnson St., Victoria
I 635.00
The uncontrolled breeding and sale of pure-bred dairy stock, as at present, offers a
tremendous hindrance to dairy-herd improvement. Much pure-bred dairy stock in British
Columbia is of the highest quality as to production, much is of the lowest. Registration,
unfortunately, is granted without discrimination as to productive capacity by the Dairy
Breed Associations and little information is available to would-be purchasers as to the true
dairy quality of stock. It is true that several herds exist, of each of the four principal dairy
breeds, whose females have been constantly on test for many years, but it is also true that
many pure-bred herds have never been on test. There is information available indicating
superior animals of all breeds and information pointing out many inferior. Concerning the
large majority of pure-bred dairy cattle in this Province, records are not forthcoming for
recording is not being carried on and conformation alone must guide the buyer, frequently to
the detriment of his breeding operations.
A measure requiring, after suitable notice, all pure-bred herds of dairy cattle to be
constantly on test, if sales are intended, is occupying the thoughts of progressive dairymen
and if adopted will be productive of immense benefit to the industry. The data so acquired
will distinguish and establish, beyond contradiction, the leading families and strains of dairy
cattle present in British Columbia.
A licence examination course was held for 1939 in Vancouver at the premises of Hoy's
Crescent Dairy, Howe Street, from March 6th to 25th, inclusive.    Sixteen entered for cream-
grading, two others for milk and cream testing only.
Licences issued.
During the year, twenty-seven applicants for testers' licences were examined.    Ninety-
two testers' licences were issued and forty-three combined testers' and graders' with three
single graders' licences.    To fifty-six persons, firms, companies, or associations creamery or
dairy licences were issued.
Verification Tests.
No verification tests were requested during 1939.
Meetings  were  attended  at the  following  places:
Salmon Arm, Vernon, Armstrong, and Lumby.
Delta   (two),  Matsqui,   Chilliwack, B 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Dairy Circulars No. 36, " The Care of Milk on the Farm "; No. 37, " Annual List of Milk
and Butter-fat Records "; and No. 38, " The Eighth List of Dairy Sires," were the publications of the year.
Reports and returns respecting manufactured products and markets, together with
applications and correspondence as to cream-grading, testing, licences, general dairy-work,
milk recording, and dairy sires continue greatly to increase in volume.
Regular returns of manufactured dairy products are received and transmitted in
co-operation with the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Eastern market returns for butter and
cheese from the Dominion Dairy Branch are regularly made available to those interested.
Factory and dairy plant inspection with checking of grades and tests was carried out by
F. C. Wasson and F. Overland, Provincial Dairy Inspectors and Instructors, while supervision
of herd-improvement work with dairy sire listings was in charge of G. H. Thornbery,
Assistant in Charge, Cow-testing Associations.
Wallace R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Commissioner.
The year 1938 was considered an unusual year, establishing almost a record for dry
weather. The year 1939 went to the other extreme, particularly during the first six months.
The unusual amount of precipitation resulted in a somewhat backward spring. The pastures
and ranges were very good in almost every section of the Province. Range cattle did
particularly well and range-cattle herds suffered less from nutritional deficiency as a consequence. The water reservoirs, lakes, and sloughs throughout the range country remained
at a' high level. Cattle went into the fall in good condition. In almost all sections of the
range country proper, cattle are still ranging on the fall and winter ranges at the beginning
of the new year.    Very little feeding has been required up to the present.
A few reports coming in from the Chilcotin, following the experiment with a drift-fence,
indicate that cattle are coming in off the upper ranges where they were held by this fence
in better condition than for some years. Yields of field crops throughout Central British
Columbia, the Lower Mainland, the Okanagan, Vancouver Island, and the Gulf Islands are
well above average. The Field Crops Commissioner and District Officers have been working
closely in co-operation with your Commissioner in trying to fit field-crop needs into live-stock
requirements and some very encouraging results have been secured.
For the last few years live-stock markets and prices in general have been on the up-grade,
with 1937 being one of the best years. With the outbreak of war in early September of this
year, a new impetus has been given to live-stock production and a general stiffening in prices
in almost all classes of live stock has resulted. Farmers, however, should be cautioned
against expecting undue increase in prices for live-stock products since the British Government has, from the beginning of hostilities, gone forward with the pegging of prices of
agricultural products, and while these set prices will be of considerable benefit to the live-stock
people of this country they will not net unusually high returns.
At all meetings held during the latter part of the year dealing with live-stock production,
your Commissioner has endeavoured to draw a picture of the probable future based upon
reports emanating from Dominion Government and British Empire reports. It is quite
evident that so far as swine is concerned, Canada can compete against any country in the
world, and bacon, pork, and pork products is possibly one commodity most needed by the
Empire. While prices for this product have been pegged at approximately 9 cents at the
Atlantic seaboard, which is perhaps scarcely enough for our British Columbia producers, it
is some improvement over what obtained for this product for the last number of years.
In the case of beef we cannot look for much improvement, since countries like Argentina can
underbid Canada on the British market; as a result, this Dominion must continue to take
advantage of the United States market as set by quota. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 69
So far as the sheep and lamb market is concerned, Canada is not an exporting country
and prices secured for this product are usually somewhat above world prices. British
Columbia, of course, imports more than half the lamb consumed, two-thirds of the pork, and
more than half the beef consumed.
Cattle marketings in the Province were about normal until the outbreak of war when
the producers held back in the hope that there might have been some improvement in the
The second annual Sale of Fat Stock and Feeder Cattle and Bulls held at Williams Lake
was an outstanding success, with prices far in advance of the previous year. At this sale
lots of breeding females were picked up by cattlemen from different parts of the Province.
An exceptionally fine lot of fifteen yearling heifers went from the herd of Mr. C. E. Wynn-
Johnson, Alkali Lake, to form the foundation of a herd for Mr. E. C. McGeachey, of Vanderhoof.    These cattle, while unregistered, were of pure-bred Hereford breeding.
This sale is one of the most useful activities held in the Cariboo. It is doing a great
deal to put emphasis upon the educational work being done by this Department. When
cattlemen make entries at these sales and find their stock not bringing the money that the
cattle contributed by other ranchers brings they then realize that there must be something
wrong and they immediately take steps to improve conditions and follow out the suggestions
made by departmental officials.
Credit is due to Mr. G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, for the excellent
work he is doing with this sale. It might be said that the cattle section of this show has
been developed largely through the efforts of such men as Richard Kinvig, now of Canford,
B.C., who not only fathered the idea of a fair at Williams Lake but who was instrumental in
getting market classes for commercial sheep included as a part of the regular fall fair.
This year's sale at Williams Lake was held too late to be of use to the sheepmen. It is
hoped that the management will see fit next year to bring the sale date forward, possibly
three weeks or more, which will again widen out the show to include the usual strong classes
of commercial sheep and assure the possibility of there being good weather.
The Bull Sale this year at Williams Lake was good indeed. Again Shorthorn bulls
brought a good price, averaging well above what obtains at the Kamloops Bull Sale.
Calf-crops throughout the range country this year have been very good indeed, due in
part to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of range cattle and due also
we believe to the continuation of the work of this Branch, which has been carried along a
definite line for the last many years.    Lamb-crops were quite up to normal again this year.
The Vancouver Exhibition Association immediately on the outbreak of war decided not
to hold their regular Winter Fair, which left particularly the beefmen of the Interior of
the Province with a lot of cattle being fitted and no place to show them. The B.C. Beef
Cattle Growers working in conjunction with other live-stock groups finally decided to hold
a show and sale at Kamloops. The cattlemen even offered to show for only ribbons if
necessary. However, financial assistance was secured and one of the best shows and sales in
the history of the Province was held in Kamloops on December 4th and 5th. Seventy-five
cents per pound was paid for the Grand Champion and $55 for the champion lamb. The
top car-load cattle price was 12% cents and the car-loads brought an average of $9.52, and
all cattle groups brought an average of $8.15.
Along with the show of beef cattle was a very good entry of swine and sheep. The
swine brought some very good prices and under our Federal-Provincial Brood Sow Policy
all the good sows in the entries were secured to distribute for breeding purposes. At the
same time two car-loads of sows from Alberta were distributed under this policy.
Horse-breeding in the Province is in a healthy condition with as many mares being bred
as the year previous and definitely above the average of the last few years. The Federal-
Provincial Premium Policy still continues to interest the stallion-owners of this Province
and with the addition of our new " Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act " a decidedly
better type of stallion is being used throughout the Province. There however needs to be a
definite culling out of a large number of the grade stallions that are still being used, to be
replaced by good young registered horses which are now available in goodly numbers at
reasonable prices. B 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Your Commissioner has placed a number of good young stallions throughout the
Province and good reports are being received from the districts where these horses are
standing. Clydesdales, of course, continue to be the breed most easily secured, although
during the year two very good registered Percheron horses went into the Peace River Block
and a very good Percheron stallion came in from the Prairies to the Armstrong District.
Under the new " Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act," seventy-six stallions have been
enrolled this year, There are to date six registered Belgian stallions, one of which has been
given " A " classification, three " B," and two " C." There are sixteen registered Percheron
stallions, five of which classified " A," nine " B," one " C," and one " D." In all there were
twenty-eight registered Clydesdale stallions, twelve of which were given an " A" rating,
six " B," eight " C," and two " D." " D " constitutes an interim certificate for a pure-bred
stallion and " E " an interim certificate for a grade stallion. There are twenty-six grade
stallions enrolled throughout the Province, and, in addition, there are a number of stallions
owned by large ranchers which are not used for outside service and therefore not required
to be enrolled under the Act.
Light-horse breeding has been good, most of the breeding being done in the Okanagan,
Kamloops, and Merritt Districts. The question of control of encephalomyelitis in horses
will be dealt with under the heading of " Nutrition and Animal Health."
As stated previously, the beef-cattle industry has had a very good year with prices
somewhat improved as a consequence of the outbreak of war. The market for surplus cattle
in Canada still continues in the United States under the quota system. British Columbia
continues to import more than half her beef.
Vancouver prices on good steers for January 14th were from $5.50 to $6 a hundred,
continuing at this level through the month of February. On March 11th prices for good
steers were $5.75 to $6.50; March 25th, $6 to $6.75. This price varied but little until early
May with good steers then bringing $6.50 to $7, this price obtaining through May and the
first week of June. In the second week of June with grasser steers coming in the price
dropped to $6.25 to $6.75, this price continuing until the second week of July when good
grasser steers brought $5.50 to $6. The price held at this level during July, with the first
week in August showing good grasser steers at $5.25 to $5.50, this price continuing during the
month. In the middle of September good grasser steers were selling at $6.50 to $7, the last
week of October $6.75 to $7.50, dropping on November 4th to $6.50 to $7 and holding at this
price through November and the first week of December, coming back up again to $6.75 to
$7.25, dropping in the middle of December to $6.50 to $7, and ending the year at $6.75 to $7.25.
Your Commissioner continues to carry on a definite programme dealing with general
range-improvement work amongst range cattlemen. It is the opinion of your Commissioner
that while improvement in prices is of vital importance to the range cattleman, the problem is
outside the field of our work and we accordingly endeavour to deal with the many other
problems facing the industry. The work of your Commissioner has developed to the place
where ranchers now request assistance and advice on their particular problems. Visits to
these ranches and a detailed investigation of their problems is the method of attack followed
by your Commissioner.
In co-operating with the Field Crops Commissioner, your Commissioner attempts to deal
with the important matter of improved feed conditions. Some good trials have been put on
in different ranges testing out reseeding on the open range with such grasses as Crested
Wheat. Reed Canary grass is used on the wet parts. The use of corn and other possible
silage-crops is advocated in order to get more and better winter feed. The use of variety
tests is being undertaken in order to secure the best possible grains for winter feeding. Our
work on nutritional difficulties first instituted in this Province by your Commissioner well on
to a decade ago is still continuing and giving most excellent results.
The establishment of more pure-bred beef herds in the Province continues as a part of
the work of this Branch. During the year seven beef bulls have been placed with small
farmers in different parts of the Province under the Farmers' Institute Policy. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 71
The dairy-cattle industry has had a good year with prices somewhat better than obtained
in 1938. In many sections of the Province, particularly in the Fraser Valley, farmers still
continue to carry on producing little or nothing on their farms for sale excepting whole milk.
With conditions in the world as they are at present your Commissioner feels, and continues
to suggest at every opportunity, the advisability of farmers trying to secure a better balance
in their agricultural activities. If another depression is to follow this war, and in all likelihood it will, the farmer specializing in one line of production is liable to find it difficult to
get along. Very definitely, agriculture should be more diversified in our mixed-farming districts and every farm put to the best possible use, which usually means dairy cattle as the
main effort, with an additional unit of swine, poultry, or sheep, and perhaps a few good brood
mares. Wherever these suggestions have been adopted by farmers co-operating with this
Branch satisfactory results have almost always followed.
The necessity still exists for organized effort to improve conditions which contribute to
the high yearly replacement necessary in the average herd of dairy cows. The cost of producing milk is increased by the complexity of conditions which calls for the removal of so
many cattle from too many dairy herds.
Dairying is gradually developing in several parts of the Province. Central British
Columbia about the Telkwa District is gradually progressing, with possibly some extension in
other Interior sections of the Province. Prices for dairy cattle were good. The United
States of America still continue to draw upon British Columbia for replacement cattle, and
some shipments continue to go to the Orient.
Vancouver prices for No. 1 lambs January 15th, 1939, were $8.50 per hundred, dropping
to $8.25 in the second week of February, holding at this price through March and April, with
the first of the spring lambs coming in the week of May 20th at $12 per hundred. Spring
lambs dropped to $10.50 on June 3rd and held at that price until June 17th, when they brought
$10 straight, holding at this price through June until July 12th when they dropped $1,
selling at $9. On July 19th spring lambs were selling at $8.50, July 26th they had dropped
from $8 to $8.25, holding at this price until August 9th, when No. 1 spring lambs brought $7.25.
This price obtained through August, jumping to $8 on September 13th and $8.50 on
September 20th. Again a rise in price was indicated, No. 1 spring lambs selling at $9 for
October 4th and $9.25 on October 14th, holding at this price until December 2nd, when No. 1
spring lambs brought $9.75 and held at this price until the end of the year.
The industry continues to be faced with its major problem of predatory animals and
attacks from worthless dogs. Sections such as the Cariboo suffer greatly from predatory
animals. In the case of small farm flocks an effort should be made in these districts to confine
the flocks to some tame pasture, preferably inside an electric fence. Some lambs from the
Miocene District that came to the Williams Lake Fair, carried on tame pasture, showed
extremely high fit. Spring lambs off pastures were found to be so decidedly overfitted that
they had slipped. This indicates the possibility for some work being done in establishing
small farm flocks on tame pasture. In that type of country it is questionable whether
ranchers secure the results they imagine they are getting from the wild range, and if an
effort were made to encourage the use of tame pasture in these districts vastly better results
would be secured with these small flocks, and a good deal of the predatory-animal trouble
would be avoided. The other -possibility of getting around this difficulty is to throw these
small flocks into bands of 800 to 1,000 head under the continuous direction of experienced
On Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands, where sheep-killing dogs are found, the use
of electric fence for holding flocks during the night is one possible solution of some of the
trouble. A study of our compensation claim summary for the past three years will illustrate
very definitely the position in which the sheep industry is placed from dog marauders:— B 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Compensation Claim Summary.
With an increase in lamb prices there was a proportionate increase in the value of
compensation paid. In the year 1938, $1,613.25 was paid for sheep as against $2,480 in 1939.
In 1938, $299.65 was paid for poultry as against $176.85 in 1939. In 1938, $19 was paid for
goats as against $37 in 1939.
The total compensation paid in the year 1937 was $1,711.60; in 1938, $1,931.90; and in
1939, $2,693.85. We compensate only for actual killings while in many flocks animals may be
lost and of course cannot be reported on by the police officer investigating the claim.
New impetus was given to this branch of the live-stock industry due to the outbreak of
war with Germany in early September.
Our policy has long been built around the idea of taking care of our own British Columbia
needs. We import $3,000,000 worth of pork and pork products and swine, about 106,000 live
hogs and the balance to 150,000 in pork products. While there has been a small yearly
increase in hogs the results have been somewhat disappointing. This has been due to a
number of causes, namely, many sections well suited to swine-raising lacked volume to make
car-lot shipments possible. In these centres farmers are definitely at the mercy of a local
market which is limited in its requirements at any season. Another factor is the lack of
effort being made to produce coarse grains. Another important factor which contributes to
present lack of interest is the fact that in large areas farmers have followed one-line special
farming—such as dairying—as in the Fraser Valley, where whole milk is shipped to a central
depot regardless of whether the skim-milk was utilized or not. Spasmodic efforts are periodically made by a few in the raising of swine, encouraged by high prices, but interest wanes
when prices fall and good breeding stock is thoughtlessly sacrificed. Departments are as a
result frequently called upon to spend time and money in trying to secure more breeding stock.
At the present time under our Federal-Provincial Brood Sow Policy effort is being
expended in trying to furnish breeding stock to farmers in the Province. At best this policy
must result in some difficulties. The acclimatization of stock is a hazardous matter which
depends upon the experience of the farmer. Then there is the question of disease control;
also the difficulty of securing sires suitable for the best mating.
If swine-raising is ever to be a success in this Province it must be approached from a
different angle by our farmers. The constant appeal is being made to swinemen to make
swine-raising a permanent part of their agricultural activity. Our present campaign in
British Columbia, while it is built to include a war effort, has not changed in years, and it
aims to put sows only on farms where they can profitably be kept during peace time. It is
aimed at discouraging overstocking.
Many farmers have a wrong idea regarding so-called profitable prices. Swine-raising
is one branch of agriculture where attention to detail nets profits. To be successful against
world competition it is necessary to have good blood lines. They must be kept free from
disease and they must be fed and managed properly. Proper market organization is something which requires immediate attention. In this field farmers require to be organized to
make co-operative shipments. In our central market proper official grading is required so
as to encourage the production of the right type.
Our recent campaign has resulted in the bringing in of six cars of gilts. A car went to
Central B.C., one to the Cariboo, two cars to Kamloops and the North Okanagan, and two
cars to the Fraser Valley. Orders are in hand for two cars for the Okanagan and perhaps
another car for the Fraser Valley. Wherever possible gilts are being placed with groups of
farmers formed into Swine Improvement Associations. Such groups receive a free boar
under the policy. Being gathered together as an association under an incorporated Farmers'
Institute they are able to do better work and their efforts can be given better direction and
more assistance can be given and a better product can be produced. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 73
In a district of the Fraser Valley where this Branch was working with a fieldman of the
B.C. Swine Breeders' Association and where some 100 sows were placed, it was found that a
lot of fine breeding stock was being produced and these farmers were definitely swine-
conscious. In many instances these farmers took additional sows under our present programme and are decidedly more experienced in swine-raising than the average farmer.
In our work in the field of swine production it is hoped that the Swine Improvement
Associations established under the policy can be intimately followed in order to keep the
individuals in these associations going along the right line.
The Okanagan District, especially the North Okanagan, looks very encouraging as a
district where swine production will be one of the main activities. Mr. H. E. Waby, District
Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, reports a steady increase in car-load shipments from the Salmon
Arm-Enderby-Grindrod District, which originated with work carried out in that district by
this Branch, also that the Sidmouth-Revelstoke District came forward last year with the first
car-load shipment in the history of the district. Salmon Arm, Mr. Waby reports, increased
from fifteen car-loads in 1938 to twenty-six in 1939, with two additional car-loads from this
district by the end of the year, one buyer alone paying over $22,000 in 1938 to the Salmon
Arm District. Mr. Waby further reports nine car-loads from the Enderby District this year
and additional hogs going from the Enderby District with the Armstrong shipments.
In the section under Nutrition and Animal Health your Commissioner will deal further
with the question of nutrition and disease as it affects the swine industry.
In the field of swine diseases a great deal could be said, but very definitely we must be
prepared to admit that we have more different infections than we realized. While our swine
population is still small and scattered every effort should be made to prevent the establishment of these diseases which contribute so much to the enormous losses encountered in some
parts of the country.
The beef-cattle industry continues to suffer from its quota of disease and disease-like
conditions. Included in those are such diseases as haemorrhagic sep.ica.mia, coccidiosis (so-
called) , necrotic stomatitis, blackleg, tuberculosis, and such conditions as knock-heel, plant-
poisoning, and deficiencies.
Special circulars have been prepared on several of these diseases such as hasmorrhagic
septicaemia, coccidiosis, necrotic stomatitis, blackleg, as well as on malnutrition. The response
of the industry to the suggestions contained in these publications has been excellent and
very definite improvement has been noted. Hemorrhagic septicaemia no longer takes a heavy
toll, neither does necrotic stomatitis. Coccidiosis is still quite a problem. In the case of
blackleg, due to our regulations and our educational work this disease is being held back
from spreading, although it may be expected that it will eventually reach all the stock-
raising districts, but with preventive vaccination this disease need not be feared.
In the case of knock-heel, after several years field trials in different parts of the country
your Commissioner feels justly proud of having discovered and developed a practical, simple,
and cheap method of very greatly reducing losses from this condition. The control on many
ranches has been almost 100 per cent. Along with this control-work has come better
utilization of the inferior timber ranges which up until recently were thought to be of very
little value, especially where cattle were compelled to remain on such ranges throughout the
grazing season.
Along with these improvements, also, have come a decided improvement in calf-crop
percentages, reduction in abortions and retained placenta, and an almost total absence of
dystokia in females, especially 2-year-old heifers. We definitely found a marked improvement in cattle weights, also decidedly earlier finishing of grass cattle.
In the case of T.B. in range herds, some work has been done in the eradication of this
disease. Two large ranges are under control and the percentage of reactors has been greatly
reduced. Other centres are under consideration and only lack of time prevents immediate
With the co-operation of the Chilliwack and District Horse-breeders' Association considerable work was done, particularly in pure-bred studs of horses throughout the upper and
middle portions of the Fraser Valley.    The method of control of equine encephalomyelitis B 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
in race-tracks operating under regulations did much to prevent the spread of this disease to
the farming districts.
While there is much that we have to learn about this disease it is generally agreed that
the present vaccination has proved to be probably one of the outstanding developments in
modern veterinary medicine. Very few vaccines have been so completely efficient as the
new " chick " type encephalomyelitis vaccine.
In the Province of Alberta during the year 1938 it is reported that some 3,000 head of
horses died of this disease. During that year only very small amounts of vaccine were
available and horsemen had to depend upon symptomatic treatment in order to control the
disease. In the year 1939, following a somewhat similar programme to that followed in this
Province, only fifty-two horses died of the disease in the Province of Alberta during the year,
and in all likelihood these cases occurred in unvaccinated horses.
An interesting report comes from Doctors Larimer and Wiesser, in the journal of the
Iowa State Medical Association, with respect to sixteen cases of equine encephalomyelitis in
humans, four of which proved fatal. They also report that these human cases originated
in an area in which equine encephalomyelitis appeared as an epizootic amongst horses.
The horsemen of this Province very definitely owe much to the foresight of the Honourable
the Minister of Agriculture for instituting regulations for the control of the movement of
horses from outside the Province into this Province, also for making available high quality
vaccine at a price within the reach of all horsemen. It is interesting to note that vaccine
manufactured in the United States, our sole source of supply at the present time, was
made available at less than one-third what it could be purchased for in that country.
This, I believe, contributed very largely to the extensive vaccination that was done this
last year.
Our warble-fly programme, starting from a small beginning in the Deep Creek valley six
years ago, under the capable supervision of Mr. H. E. Waby, has developed into one of our
best pieces of work.
In the Lower Mainland, under the systematic direction of Mr. R. G. Sutton, District
Agriculturist, New Westminster, some ten districts came under control, six districts being
under control in 1938. In this area the work is being done by volunteer gangs of workers
under the direction of a captain, each gang being responsible for a small group of cattle. In
the Chilliwack District 1,000 herds totalling about 15,000 head of cattle were done. The
Atchelitz District, which had been under treatment for two years, was taken in with the
Greater Chilliwack District. When it is borne in mind that well on to 15,000 head of cattle
were treated in that one district in a single day under this organization it will give some
idea of the possible good work that could be done in many fields of activity if time permitted
such organization. For further details on the control in that district I would refer you to the
detailed report of Mr. R. G.  Sutton.
In the Kamloops District, Donald Sutherland, District Agriculturist, with the able
co-operation of Mr. J. D. Palmer, of Heffley Creek, carried on an extensive programme of
warble-fly control-work with the range cattle in the Heffley Creek District, extending up the
North Thompson and approaching the Louis Creek District, which was one of our earlier
control areas.
Mr. Waby, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, reports some extension of the work to
include the Carlin District, 500 head of cattle being treated there. He further reports that
practically all the previous areas treated have been proclaimed warble-free with the exception
of a few outside cattle that came into the district, but farmers in the territory have worked
sufficiently long on this programme that they are now taking care to treat these new cattle.
Mr. Waby reports that under his supervision some 5,000 head of cattle have been treated in
the different areas that are now warble-free, which includes the Salmon Arm District,
Sicamous to Enderby, including the original area of Deep Creek and as far west as Notch
In the Prince George District some control-work has been carried out in one district and
is being carefully followed out to completion under the direction of Mr. James Travis,
District Agriculturist, Prince George, who reports that the people in his district are very
well satisfied with the results obtained. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 75
A small area is being continued in the Bulkley Valley under the supervision of Mr.
Shirley Preston, District Agriculturist, Smithers.
An interesting feature of our parasitic control-work came out of some tests made
several years ago in trying to assist stockmen in their losses from the wood-tick (Dermacentor
Andersonii) and the winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus). Ranchers in several sections of
the Province where the wood-tick is prevalent and where losses were frequently quite heavy
are continuing to follow the suggestion first made by your Commissioner that Standardized
Derris be used in the control of this pest. The control method is to brush this powder well
into the hair along the back, shoulders, and particularly back of the head and on the neck,
before they are put out on infested ranges.
After several years' tests in the Heffley Creek District under the direction of Mr. J. D.
Palmer, a very interesting technique was developed by him while working on warble-fly
control. He developed the idea of putting the warble-fly wash over the shoulders and around
the back of the head where wood-ticks are most frequently found, and in every instance he
found the cattle remain free of ticks and no losses were reported. Similar reports came in
to Mr. Palmer from stockmen up and down the valley who had co-operated in the warble-fly
control programme where this warble-fly wash, which contains Standardized Derris, was
placed about the back of the head and about the neck and shoulders. Your Commissioner is
of the opinion that the dry powder would be a safer application, particularly if the weather
was cold, but it is just possible that the wash could be substituted for the dry-powder method
to advantage. Mr. Palmer has agreed to continue this type of application when carrying out
warble-fly control this coming year and it will be interesting indeed to receive his report.    .
A number of ranchers running beef cattle or sheep on range lands of the Southern
Interior have followed our suggestions regarding the use of Standardized Derris powder in
reducing the incidence of tick infestations. One of the prominent stockmen of the Kamloops
area writes as follows:—
" I used 4 lb. of Standardized Derris on fifty head of yearling steers, brushing same in
well with horse-brushes, and received a 50-per-cent. kill. Any of the ticks which were not
well seated to the animals were killed but those which had their heads well buried and
seemed to have drawn enough blood from the animals to be about ready to drop off, it had
no effect on.
" The tick season is early enough in the spring of the year. It seemed hard to get a
powder to penetrate the hair sufficient to kill large ticks (ticks about ready to drop).
" I used about % lb. of Standardized Derris on ten head of 2-year-old steers, and % lb.
on another ten head which I took out of another herd of cattle free of ticks, dusted them
well and put them into the tick-infested area, keeping close watch on them for the month of
April. I put the steers through the chute from time to time but could not get any ticks off
of them at all. The powder seemed to work in close to the skin in time to form a sort of
scurf on the animals which I believe would take considerable friction and moisture to remove.
In plain words, the ticks seemed not to like the powder and would not come in contact with
the animals. I am sure there were sufficient ticks about as I put the animals in the area
shortly after moving the one herd out of said area. As well, a person could look closely into
the grass and find ticks.
" If as a preventive to keep ticks off of animals it should be applied not later than the
end of March."
From a farmer in the Boundary District of the Province the following statement has
been received regarding the use of Standardized Derris powder:—
" We have inspected our stock twice and have found no tick on the stock treated but find
lots on stock not treated. Last winter we had two yearlings, one bull, and three colts that
were just lousy with young ticks. We thought these were cattle and horse lice until a friend
of ours came to the ranch. We showed him these animals and told him that our stock were
very lousy.    He looked at them and said that these were no lice but young wood-ticks.
"When we got this Standardized Derris on March 20th we put this powder on these
animals that were affected with young tick, and it was only a short time until these young
tick were all gone off these animals, and up till now we have found no ticks on these animals
which we treated with Standardized Derris.    The animals which we didn't treat for ticks B 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
have a lot of ticks on them. I also think this would be good to put on sheep, as sheep have
less chance to rub ticks off than other stock have."
In reporting from the East Kootenay District a farmer says of Standardized Derris
" I received the powder and it has been tested to date on about twenty-five cows with
good results. Some of the cows were alive with ticks and in twenty-four hours they were
free from the ticks that did not have a hold. The ones that were filling with blood it did
not seem to affect.
" I am sending you some of the ticks that are in this district. (Dermacentor Andersonii
ticks picked April 25th.)     Hope you receive them."
Our District Agriculturist makes brief reference to his trial of Standardized Derris
powder on tick-infested cattle in the following sentence: " I have had excellent results on
treatment of adult ticks with Standardized Derris even after the ticks have been gorged with
blood and swelled to the size of marbles."
This statement would indicate that adult female ticks, well gorged and ready to reproduce, may be affected through proper application of the product mentioned.
Perhaps the most encouraging report is that received from the south-eastern part of the
Province, where ticks have proved harmful to humans and disastrous to live stock. The
writer of the following has had considerable experience with tick infestations under range
conditions.    He says:—
" The losses with cattle from tick paralysis are chiefly amongst yearlings, sucking calves,
and sometimes older cattle which are in a somewhat poor or weakened condition.
" The ticks form clusters on the animals, usually along the spine, withers, shoulders, or
neck, and also on top of the head just behind the horns. The animal gradually becomes
paralyzed and finally is unable to rise from the ground, where it remains until death unless
it is found and aid given. When animals have been discovered before they have been down
too long, it has been found that by careful removal of all ticks and a vigorous massaging and
working of the animal's limbs after about twenty-four hours the animal shows some sign of
recovery and after being helped to its feet is often able to stand and use comes back to its
limbs.    This recovery applies more to young stock than to cows.
" Whilst the best method of control would be the total eradication of all ticks and their
hosts, such as gophers, etc., it has been found from experiments that with the use of Standardized Derris (a dry powder) the animals can be protected against the ticks clustering by
sprinkling the powder along the back and top of the head. Carefully rub the powder into
the hair and it will be found to work right down to the roots and remains effective for about
two weeks. The best method of application to range stock is to have a long chute into which
about ten or twelve cattle can be placed, with a squeeze at one end. The powder can be
sprinkled on their backs as they pass through the squeeze.
" In the spring of 1938, out of eight yearlings turned out, two were treated about April
3rd, four about ten days later, and two left untreated. Of the six yearlings treated all were
free from tick clusters, whilst of the two untreated one died from tick paralysis and the other
when found was covered with tick clusters and in a very shaky condition.
" In 1939, out of fourteen yearlings ten were treated and four left untreated. The ten
treated ones all came through without any clusters of ticks, and of the four untreated two
were paralyzed but discovered in time for recovery. The third was found with a cluster of
ticks and in a stumbling condition and the fourth one came through all right.
" Whilst the chief losses from tick paralysis occur amongst yearlings, young spring calves
are also very susceptible, though the fact of the mother licking the calf often removes the
ticks. I have found many cases of young calves being affected by tick paralysis and would
certainly recommend that all young calves be treated in the spring, as the powder is in no
way harmful to cattle by licking it.
" Ticks may often be seen crawling about on animals that have been treated, but are
never found to settle and form clusters. Any that may have dug in before the powder is
applied if not killed outright by the powder usually decide to loosen up and move away.
" In conclusion I would state that during the last two years I have had no clusters of
ticks on animals that have been treated, and untreated ones on the same range have always
been covered with ticks." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 77
In the control of the winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) this treatment is definitely
effective and much more so in the killing of this tick than the Dermacentor Andersonii.
There are many factors affecting the efficiency of this treatment which inexperienced workers
do not appear to take into consideration. If live stock are allowed to become heavily infested
with ticks and the female ticks are allowed to completely attach themselves, in the case of
the Dermacentor Andersonii the Standardized Derris does not kill as many as we would like.
While: in some animals treated along the top of the back, neck, and head, a few ticks may be
found occasionally wandering about loose in the hair, in no instance were ticks found to
attach themselves if the Derris was placed on before the animals were turned on to the
infested ranges. We believe this to be a practical suggestion, since in every instance cattlemen can very easily put their cattle through chutes and apply the treatment before the
animals are put on the infested range.
Another interesting feature of this type of control is that on all ranges where the treatment has been applied trouble with cattle lice has disappeared.
During the year 1939, your Commissioner was called upon to do more field-work and
demonstration than during any previous year, and has no hesitancy in stating that the efficiency of any programme in the field and the efficiency of the work definitely requires as close
a personal contact as can be made with the districts and the stockmen within the territory.
As years go by and more contacts are made there is definite evidence of greater confidence on
the part of the stockmen, with the result that more calls are being made upon your Commissioner for advice, suggestions, and help.
The number of meetings and conferences held by your Commissioner greatly increased
this year. When in the office the number of calls has definitely been much increased and it
is extremely gratifying to find local farmers availing themselves of the services of the Live
Stock Branch more and more each year. In adjusting the work of this Branch your Commissioner endeavours to cover the outlying points during a period of the year when weather
conditions permit, leaving the work of the Lower Mainland and Gulf Islands to be done during
the winter months.
Geo. Pilmer, Recorder of Brands.
The number of cattle shipped in 1939 was considerably less than the record number of
50,669 in 1938, the total for the year being 41,595. Decreases were shown in the various
districts as follows: Cariboo, 2,537; Kamloops-Nicola, 2,230; Okanagan-Similkameen, 1,419;
Peace River and Central B.C., 2,806.
The only district which showed an increase was Boundary and South-east B.C., which
shipped 1,059 more than in 1938. In hides the total of 27,271 was practically the same as
shipped in the previous year.    Figures of shipments by districts are shown below.
The only changes during the year have been minor ones, as follows: C. J. Kettyle,
Endako, died, and Mr. A. G. Annan, Endako, was appointed Deputy Inspector in his place on
August 1st. N. E. LePoidevin, in the Government Agency, Fort Fraser, was appointed
Deputy Inspector on September 13th.
The usual co-operation of the Provincial Police has been of great value to the Department not only in the inspection service but in carrying out many investigations.
Special Inspector.—Following a meeting at Kamloops in March between the Ashcroft
ranchers with Inspector Shirras, Constable Boys, and myself, Inspector Shirras recommended
and secured the appointment of Constable Boys to do special patrol-work during the summer
in  the  Clinton-Ashcroft-Kamloops-Nicola  District.    His  principal  work  was  to  check  on B 78
infractions of the " Stock-brands Act " and to see that the police knew and enforced the
provisions of the Act. Constable Boys did excellent work and the Ashcroft Ranchers' Association formally expressed approval of his work and stated that there had been a marked
improvement in conditions.
Slaughtering of Horses.—A new development this year has been the slaughtering of
horses, chiefly in the Ashcroft-Clinton area, and the trucking of carcasses to the Coast for
sale to mink-ranchers. This has meant considerable extra work for the Police and some
practices have arisen which will have to be regulated for the protection of those raising horses.
The amendments made to the Act at the 1938 Session came into force on January 1st,
1939, and required that licences be secured to deal in stock and to slaughter horses for animal
food. Forty-eight licences have been issued to deal in stock and twenty-one licences to
slaughter horses for animal food.
All those who are making a business of dealing in stock, I believe, have been licensed.
The licence is not intended to apply to those ranchers who may buy stocker or feeder cattle
to be branded and absorbed into their own herds and kept for a time before resale, but only
to those who are making a business of buying cattle for resale or to those ranchers who are
buying for a quick turnover or whose principal business is not the raising of stock but buying
and selling.
Inspection fees were reduced and the reduction was much appreciated by cattlemen.
Convictions were as follows:—Branding illegally: Three at Clinton. Dealing in stock
without licence: One at Merritt. Peddling beef without licence: One at Kamloops. Shipping stock or hides without inspection: Three, one at Merritt and two at Hedley. Shipping
beef without Form 4: Eight, seven at Penticton and one at Grand Forks. Driving stock
without giving notice: Two, Penticton and Bridge- River. Slaughtering on range: Three,
two at Lillooet and one at Lytton. Removing hides from place of slaughter: One at
The number of brands recorded, renewed, etc., during 1939 was as follows:—
The percentage of owners renewing their brands in 1939 is 73 per cent., the highest on
record, probably owing to the reduction in renewal fees.
The number of licences issued was: Hide-dealers, 80; slaughter-house, 55; beef-peddlers,
20;  stock-dealers, 47;  horse-slaughterers, 21.
Williams Lake 	
Lac la Hache, Soda Creek, Quesnel   2,087
Clinton,   Lone   Butte,    100-Mile    House,    Lillooet,
Pavilion   5,340
Bella Coola   382
B 79
Cattle and Hide Shipments—Continued.
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.-
Kamloops, Chase
Ashcroft, Lytton
Salmon Arm 	
Vernon, Lumby 	
Armstrong, Enderby
South-east B.C.—
Grand Forks, Greenwood     1,164
Nelson, Creston, etc.       	
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc.         382
Invermere, Golden, etc.         387
Princeton, etc.
Central B.C.—
Prince George, Vanderhoof, etc.
Smithers, Telkwa, etc. 	
Burns Lake 	
Peace River—
Pouce Coupe, Fort St. John, Dawson Creek     1,726
Totals compared.
South-east B.C             	
Anson Knight, V.S., Chief Veterinarian.
Your Inspectors have been on the road practically throughout the summer months dealing
with T.B.-test work and investigating various outbreaks of disease, some of which would be
serious if not taken in time, and many other troubles affecting live stock which are of a
temporary nature.    The diseases more especially dealt with are listed in this report.
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—Considerable time of your veterinary staff, including the
Live Stock Commissioner, was taken in dealing with this disease.    Upon your instructions a B 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
great number of horses have been vaccinated and demonstrations have been held throughout
various parts of the Province. In some districts, especially throughout the Eastern Kootenays,
some 90 per cent, of the horse population was submitted to vaccination during or subsequent
to the visit of Drs. W. R. Gunn and J. D. MacDonald. Throughout the Peace River Block
1,400 horses were vaccinated up to July 1st, and there would be considerable numbers vaccinated after that date by the farmers who were instructed as to the application of the
vaccine. Some 300 horses were vaccinated in the Prince George area, some twenty-five at
Woodpecker, and similar numbers at McBride and Vanderhoof. There was very little if any
vaccination carried out west of the latter place. Throughout Central B.C. and the Peace
River Block there were no reported cases of encephalomyelitis. . Your veterinarian dealing
with the Kootenays reported eight cases, four of which recovered, three died of the disease,
and one died presumably of other causes.
In the Agassiz District practically all the horses in the area were vaccinated against the
disease and a large number throughout the Lower Fraser Valley District. The examination
of horses through the racing season at the race-tracks added to the work of your Inspectors.
All horses were inspected on their arrival at the tracks and checked out again as leaving.
These horses were brought in from the Prairies and the U.S.A. during the racing season.
At times there were over 500 horses at the track and these animals were all inspected at
least twice a week. The horses were all found to be free from disease with the exception of
a few cases of strangles and some shipping-fever.
Approximately 18,000 horses in British Columbia were vaccinated against encemphalo-
myelitis in 1939 and all horses coming from outside the Province to the fall fairs were
examined, these horses being accompanied by certificate of vaccination against the disease.
Pidmonary GSdema.—There was one outbreak of this disease this year in the Lower Nicola
country, this case occurring amongst 100 feeder cattle for the bull sale with the loss of one
head. All the other cattle in this particular feed-lot were injected with pulmonary mixed
bacterin and no further losses occurred.
Coccidiosis.—This disease occurred in a lot of young cattle near Vavenby with no losses.
Instruction was given as to medical treatment, which apparently proved effective.
Arsenic Poisoning.—A few head of range cattle were found dead on an old corral where
it was the practice to dip sheep. The stomachs and empty packages of sheep-dip were sent
to the laboratory at Kelowna. Arsenic was found in the stomachs of the two cows that had
died and also in the packets. Apparently the cattle in this place had visited the vicinity of
the dipping-tank and had picked up some of the refuse left in the packets or on the draining-
boards of the dipping-tank.
Foot-rot in Sheep.—Some 25,000 head of sheep were looked over this past year. All
bands of sheep that had been infected with foot-rot were looked over two or three times before
going on the higher ranges. At the time of drifting to the range they were found free of the
disease and upon examining the same sheep on their return they were still free.
An outbreak of this disease occurred amongst 3,000 sheep in three places near the Pinan-
tan Lake area. This flock of sheep had been clean before. Two of these places have now
been cleaned up and the third is still under quarantine. Your Inspector, Dr. McKay, reports
improvement in the control of this disease and if the owners can be induced to take precautionary measures there is no reason why their flocks cannot be prevented from having a
recurrence of the trouble.
There is a form of this disease also occurring in dairy cattle but not of so active a nature.
Our experience of this trouble amongst dairy stock would lead us to believe that this can
possibly be controlled by ordinary precautions of the owner and by thoroughly isolating
diseased animals until recovery. Usually this disease in dairy cattle does not extend beyond
a few head out of the entire herd. In a number of herds that have been infected in past
years there has been no recurrence of the trouble. Early treatment and sound sanitary
measures are advocated together with the segregation of infected animals.
Infectious Abortion.—Indications of this disease occurred throughout the Province but
probably more pronounced in those sections where the dairy cattle are most populous. This
disease, year after year, is causing farmers whose herds are affected considerable financial
loss. A complete general blood-testing and effective disposal of reactors would tend to curtail
the spread of this disease.    Although we have not the actual number of herds affected, I DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 81
cannot say that the disease is any more prevalent per cow population than in years past.
The owner should take precaution in the purchase of new stock. Isolation and cleansing of
animals that have aborted are advocated.
Urticaria (Nettle-rash).—An urgent call was sent in from Ootsa Lake that three owners
of horses were of the opinion that they had cases of encephalomyelitis to deal with. On
investigation two horses, one belonging to each of two premises, were found to be affected
with the above disease. This disease is of a temporary nature and is not in any way contagious or infectious, being brought on by local conditions such as certain feeds, especially
of the rye class, sudden changes of weather, etc., the evidence showing by swellings over the
cutaneous area. The third case was found to be a definite case of swamp-fever. In this
case the horses were very poorly housed, fed on wild or swampy hay, no grain, and with very
little or no shelter throughout the winter months. These horses were brought in from South
of the Line as settler's effects. It is just possible that they may have harboured the disease
at the time of entry without showing any clinical evidence.
Forty-seven stallions were inspected, the majority of these being in the Peace River
Block.    The breeding may be listed as follows:—
Peace River Block.—Percheron:   3 registered, 19 grades.    Shires:   2   (registration
papers not complete and listed as grades).    Clydesdale:   4 registered, 1 grade.
Belgian:  3 registered, 2 grades.    Scrubs:   3.    American saddle-horse:   1.
Central B.C.—Belgian:   2 registered.    Percheron:   2 registered, 1 grade.    Clydesdale:   1 registered, 1 grade.    Morgan:   1 (not registered).
Quesnel.—Percheron:   1 grade.
A number of these stallions listed as grade, and one or two pure-breds, probably do not
add to the quality of horses that your Department is endeavouring to encourage.
Considerable time of your Inspectors has been devoted to the inspection of dairy premises,
' especially in regard to the milk-supply for the towns, cities, and villages throughout the
In this connection, 3,329 premises were visited and 50,336 dairy cattle inspected. Of the
premises visited, 439 are listed under Grade " A," 2,429 under Grade " B," 158 under Grade
" C," and 303 ungraded class.
The " C " and " ungraded "premises are largely made up of parties who keep one or two
cows for their family use but who at the same time requested a T.B.-test of their cattle.
These two classes do not enter into the milk-supply for the general public.
Appended is a list of the districts visited, giving the number of premises in each district,
the number of cattle, and the grading. This data will be found in Appendix No. 5 and
Appendix No. 6.
We find a gradual improvement in the care and handling of milk on the farms and I
believe the consumers of milk throughout British Columbia should feel quite safe in regard to
the sanitary arrangements of the source of their milk-supply. A number of new barns have
been constructed, the latter being equipped with the essential utensils for proper sterilizing,
cooling, and delivery of milk.
Pasturage and crop conditions in the districts visited have been good and the cattle should
go into winter quarters in good condition.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner.
The year was not quite as favourable as the previous for egg and dressed-poultry prices,
the war scares having its effect in hindering trade, especially tourist. Prices for grains and
other feedstuffs were also higher, resulting in drastic selling of breeding and early laying
stock by many breeders unable to carry over fowls during the moulting period. B 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Prices received during the past ten years for eggs per dozen, based on Federal Department reports, have averaged as follows:—
Cents. Cents.
1930  24 1935  16
1931  20 1936  21
1932  15 1937  24'
1933  15 1938  25
1934  15 1939  23
It should be noted that prices quoted are averaged for the three principal sizes—large,
medium, and small.
The feeding of rich rations, together with hot, dry weather and restricted range, again
produced an enormous number of pullets that were in full lay before they were five months
old, with the result that eggs laid were principally pee-wee in size, and these seriously affected
the price just at the period when eggs were getting scarce and prices rising.
In the majority of cases where complaints were heard as to prices it was found that very
few " large " or " medium " eggs were being produced. In the past fifteen years the period
of scarcity and high prices has been shortened. In the past, eggs were scarce and high-priced
from almost October 5th till March 5th. Now the high-price range is from September 5th
till November 5th, approximately.
Hatching results, due to the mild winter weather allowing the breeding stock early access
to range, may be classed as satisfactory, in comparison to those reported after severe wintry
Most of the hatcheries increased their incubator capacity, and in the majority of cases
reported satisfactory prices received for chicks, " started " pullets, and cockerels.
Hatching-eggs were sent to Prairie hatcheries in increased numbers and this undoubtedly
will lead to more competition amongst our own hatcheries for eggs of good quality.
There were many inquiries as to methods of raising and fattening day-old cockerels, both
cross and pure-bred, by beginners. It should be fully realized that table poultry production
is a business that needs far more experience and management than egg production. It
demands more skill and entirely different equipment.
Most of the hatcheries sell cross-bred day-old cockerels as well as pullets, and this class
of stock, properly managed, will produce ideal broilers or fryers. The light-weight fowls,
such as Leghorns and Anconas, are better for the production of squab broilers. For quickest
and most profitable results, the chicks should be fed at least two moist mashes daily and the
range should also be limited, but clean and sanitary.
Most of the chick-sexing work was performed by other than Orientals. This field of
work is very limited and only those with a distinct liking for the job, and with excellent
eyesight, should venture therein.
As usual, on account of the majority of fowls being located in the Fraser Valley District
most outbreaks of disease are reported therefrom. There are still a large number of cases
reported each year where city dwellers, desirous of keeping a few back-yard fowls, have
purchased already diseased birds from hucksters, principally Oriental, and also at public
auctions. In some cases these birds have been purchased from breeders who cull their flocks
regularly of diseased stock. In the majority of cases vent canker or colds and roup are the
principal diseases met with in cull or auction-mart stock.
In giving advice members of the Branch find difficulty in getting breeders to realize the
seriousness of disease amongst their flocks, and, strangely enough, most breeders ask for
remedies that may be bought at steep prices rather than for information on culling and
destroying infected stock.
The principal diseases and numbers of same investigated during the year are as
Paralysis, 72;   T.B., 14;   coccidiosis, 32;   premature moult, 6;   ovarian trouble, 6;
cannibalism, 6;   diphtheretic roup, 21.
Rabbits:   Cannibalism, 17.    Turkeys:   Blackhead, 8;   crop-binding, 4. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 83
Due to lack of culling, many flocks were visited where laying stock was under par and
much thinner than safe. The majority of these cases when examined and investigated turned
out to be pullets that originally started laying too early; in some cases at four months. The
feeding of high protein mashes during the rearing period does not help matters.
The Branch wishes to acknowledge the co-operation of Dr. E. A. Bruce, V.S., of the
Pathological Laboratory at the Dominion Experimental Farm at Saanichton, who has during
the year post-mortemed many fowls delivered or sent them by advice of this Branch.
The Dominion Department has continued its work of grading dressed fowls and, especially with turkeys, has made much headway in educating consumers to appreciate high
quality produce.
As to the breeds used for the choice,table trade, in turkeys, of course, the Mammoth
Bronze variety is the most popular, with White Holland coming along quite nicely.
The Light Sussex and New Hampshire breeds outstripped the Jersey Giant for the heavy
carcass trade, principally at Christmas time. The Game male and Sussex female cross is
still the favourite for high-class roasters and broilers. The only drawback in using a Cornish
Game male for this cross is the likelihood of non-fertility. A second cross of the cockerels
from this cross mated to Light Sussex hens improves the carcass, and also adds the advantage of white flesh. A cross of a cockerel of Old English Game male and a Cornish hen,
mated to the Sussex, is highly recommended.
The fifth year's work started much earlier this year and with favourable weather; Mr.
G. L. Landon and his assistant, Mr. John Smith, inspecting in the Fraser Valley; Mr. H. E.
Waby in the Interior; and the writer on Vancouver Island. As in the past, about 95 per cent,
of the testing was made in the Fraser Valley.
The testing was again conducted at the Laboratory of the University at Vancouver, with
Professor Wood in charge. Under our Provincial Flock Approval policy, about 115,000 birds
were tested this year, and it is noted that more turkey-breeders are taking advantage of this
The White Leghorn breed again led in numbers. A Breeders' Directory is available,
giving names and addresses of hatcheries and breeders enrolled in the Plan. A full and
concise report of the work has been prepared by Mr. Landon.
A grand total of eighty-two clubs (thirty-one more than last year) were formed, thus
beating all records since commencement of club-work.
The following figures show growth compared with last year:—
1938. 1939.
Chick Clubs         34 57
Hatching-egg Clubs         17 25
Number of chicks  5,845 8,490
Number of eggs   2,106 3,094
Langley Prairie District with nineteen clubs heads the list, with Kamloops District a
close second.
The Reds were the favourite breed in the Chick Clubs, with Barred Rocks next choice
and White Leghorns third, and New Hampshires fourth.
In the Egg Clubs the Rock eggs led with ten clubs; Red, seven; White Wyandotte, four;
Light Sussex, two clubs;  and White Leghorns, two clubs.
The clubs were formed by District Agriculturists, Farmers' and Women's Institutes,
Poultry Associations, school-teachers, and others. Many of the club members exhibited at
fall fairs and poultry shows. The Vancouver and Victoria Exhibitions again sponsored
junior judging competitions, assisted by the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture. At both fairs the contestants were out in larger force than ever before. Some very
high scores were made at both fairs by the winners. B 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
As experienced during the last war, there appears to be more interest taken in waterfowl during the past few months. Most of the inquiries have reference to geese, and the
Toulouse breed in particular. The Department has been handicapped somewhat in not being
able to supply the names of many breeders. During the last war prices as high as $5 each
were paid for breeding stock.
Ducks, particularly the heavy layers—Khaki-Campbells, Indian Runners, and Pekins—
have been in good demand, and there has been considerable demand for breeding stock since
war started. Buyers of this class of stock should remember that range is necessary for the
proper keeping of water-fowl. Care should be taken as to size of flock in case of feed-price
inflation during the coming months.
Despite the decline in Prairie-raised stock, and only an average production within the
Province, prices dropped lower than usual for this class of poultry flesh. Dominion grades
were used for practically all of the imported stock. Rearing results were reported as better
than average, and much of this can be accounted for by the very favourable rearing season.
With the co-operation of the Vancouver Rabbit Breeders' Association, the Branch again
published a breeder's directory, and nearly five hundred copies were distributed to inquirers.
As during the past few years, most of the rabbits kept are of Angora stock, with wool as the
main crop. Prices have been fluctuating somewhat due to world conditions, but breeders look
forward to a good season ahead.
The demand for bulletins has kept up, and almost equals that experienced in years
Inquiries from prospective settlers in the U.S.A., principally California, from former
British subjects, have been frequent during the past year. Most of those desiring information
are breeders of large experience.
Poultry shows were held at Vancouver, Ladysmith, and Kamloops, at which points the
Association holding the shows are affiliates of the British Columbia Poultry Association. The
Association published the usual annual breeders' directory.
Several poultry bulletins have been revised and published during the year.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A., Commissioner.
The winter of 1938-39 was very mild and fall-sown crops came through in good condition.
Spring opened up fairly early and spring-sown crops were generally seeded under good
conditions and got off to a good start.
Hay-crops were good, but difficulty was experienced in taking care of them in some
districts due to wet weather. Grain-crops also turned out well and were harvested satisfactorily.
Due to the cool weather at planting-time, followed by a short period of such weather
and dry conditions later, corn was generally below average. In fact in some districts the
corn-crop was the worst experienced for several years.
Root and potato crops were fairly good and seed-crops yielded well.
The work of the B.C. Field Crop Union continues to be appreciated by farmers. Although
there was a reduction in the membership, interest in the Association's work has been
B 85
Due to the fact that the Provincial Seed Fair was cancelled no annual meeting of the
Association has yet been held, and it will probably not take place until March of next year.
During the year thirty-seven distinct tests were made available to members and altogether
238 tests were actually conducted.
Field Corn Test-plots, 1939.
Stage of Maturity.
Minn. 13 (Fore)	
Wis. 570 (Fore) 	
Wis. 525 (Fore)...	
Wis. 455 (Fore)  	
ND241 x 102 x ND230 x 180 (Fore)...
ND255 x 114-3 x ND266 x 284 (Fore)
Rainbow Flint (Clarke) 	
Gehu (Clarke) :	
Minn. 13 (Clarke) 	
Minn. 13 Hybrid E. (Clarke) „
Minn. 13 Hybrid A2 (Clarke).
June 1
June 1
June 1
June 1
June 1
June 1
June 1
June 1
June 1
June 1
June 1
Oct. 19
Oct. 19
Oct. 19
Oct. 19
Oct. 19
Oct. 19
Oct. 19
Oct. 19
Oct. 19
Oct. 19
Oct. 19
Milk to dough, Oct. 6-
Dough, Oct. 5 	
Dough, Oct. 5	
Dough, Oct. 5	
Nearly mature, Oct. 2
Nearly mature, Oct. 2
Milk, Oct. 7 	
Fully mature, Oct. 1—
Fully mature, Oct. 3...
Fully mature, Oct. 4...
Fully mature, Oct. 4—
Tons per Acre.
In view of the need for a constant supply of pure stock seed of cereals in this Province,
this Department early last spring made an arrangement with the Department of Agronomy
of the University of British Columbia, whereby this latter institution would produce certain
definite quantities of pure seed annually, the understanding being that the Department of
Agriculture would purchase such seed from the University at a definite price to be determined
in advance of planting, the Department of Agriculture in turn to undertake to make such
seed available to the farmers of the Province.
Considerable pure seed of Ridit wheat, Storm rye, and Victory oats has already been
made available through this scheme and plans have been laid for a much more extensive
undertaking during the year 1940.
At the beginning of August and just prior to harvest, a field-day was held at the University. This offered an opportunity for all those interested to view the pure-stock seed work
at close range. It is gratifying to be able to report that the field-day was well attended and
pronounced a success in every way. Both the Minister and Deputy Minister of Agriculture
found it convenient to be present, as well as a large number of farmers, including members
of the Field Crop Union and representatives of the University, Provincial, and Federal
Departments of Agriculture.
During the year your Commissioner attended two meetings of the newly-formed Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board. The object of this Board is to standardize the fertilizer
mixes offered to the public and to co-ordinate recommendations for the use of fertilizer for
various crops.
As far as agricultural poisons are concerned, this matter has so far only been dealt with
in a general way by the Committee.
A committee on field crops was announced by the Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister
of Agriculture, in the early spring. Your Commissioner was appointed secretary. The
object of this committee is to deal with matters connected with the selection of certain field
crop varieties and tests with a view to developing later on a system of crop zoning for the
Two meetings of the committee have been held and much valuable ground work has been
undertaken. B 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
District Seed Fairs were held at Dawson Creek, Armstrong, and Smithers. All of these
fairs were well patronized both in number of exhibits and in attendance.
Cereal variety test-plots were conducted on individual farms on Vancouver Island by the
Dominion Experimental Farm at Saanichton, working in co-operation with this Department.
The location of the plots was as follows:—
Place. Kind of Crop.
C. Helgesen, Metchosin  Oats.
E. Balo, Cedar       Oats.
Fairbridge Farm School, Cowichan Station  Oats.
B. Young, Koksilah  Oats.
Halliday Bros., Courtenay  Oats.
McRae Farms, Limited, Qualicum  Oats.
McRae Farms, Limited, Qualicum  Wheat.
McRae Farms, Limited, Qualicum  Barley.
Mr. S. S. Phillips, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, co-operated by assisting in
putting up the seed packages, planting the seed, and in harvesting. A complete report on the
whole undertaking, prepared by Mr. C. E. Jeffery, of the Experimental Farm, Saanichton,
is on file in the Field Crops Office.
A review of Mr. Jeffery's report shows that important data were secured concerning the
yielding abilities of the various varieties under test. It should be pointed out, however, that
these tests should be repeated for a period of years before definite conclusions are reached.
It should also be stated that it was rather late in the season before the work was started
this year and in some cases the soil on which the plots were put out was not properly prepared.
Mr. Phillips reports that " he is of the opinion more responsibility could be given to the
farmer, who is co-operating with these tests, providing care is taken in choosing the operator."
It is felt that these tests when properly conducted, serve a very useful purpose. It
would seem desirable, however, that they should be extended so as to cover all the more
important crops.
Considerable interest continues to be shown in the production of seed. In fact, there
has been an increasing number of inquiries concerning seed production, probably due to the
European War. Many of our field crop seed-supplies, particularly mangel, sugar-beet, and
swede turnip seeds, are imported into Canada from Europe. In view of the fact that these
seeds can be satisfactorily grown in this Province, every effort will be made to increase the
production of them wherever it is deemed desirable. In fact, some action has already been
taken along this line.
During the year, in co-operation with the Dominion Plant Products Office in Vancouver,
the following kinds and quantities of seed were placed with farmers with the object of
encouraging seed production in this Province:— Lb
Alfalfa   200
Alsike    594
Wild White Clover      20
Creeping Red Fescue     12
Since the official seed production figures for 1939 are not yet available, the following
statement shows the kinds and quantities of field crop seeds produced in 1938:—
Kind. Lb.
Mangel        6,050
Timothy   250,000
Alsike     100,000
Red Clover   350,000
Alfalfa      77,000
Creeping Red Fescue   400 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 87
Kind. Lb.
Chewing's Fescue   200
Crested Wheat Grass   5,000
Meadow Fescue     1,000
Field Corn   15,000
Reed Canary Grass  1,520
In order to ensure a succession of crops throughout the season and especially take care
of the feeding problems during late summer and early fall, when pasture is poor, a number
of crops were tested at the following points: Saltspring Island, Sooke, Nanaimo, and
Denman Island. The seed was supplied by this Department and the co-operation of local
Farmers' Institutes was obtained. Mr. S. S. Phillips, who had charge of this work, reports
as follows:—
" The following crops were used:—
" Spring-sown grain mixture, consisting of 55 lb. of oats, 60 lb. of peas, and 30 lb. of
spring vetch.
" Siberian millet.
" Thousand-headed kale.
" Fall-sown grain mixture consisting of 50 lb. Dawson's Golden Chaff wheat, 55 lb.
Austrian winter peas, and 25 lb. common vetch.
" The spring-sown grain mixture did particularly well this season. The Siberian millet
was very disappointing in all cases. The Thousand-headed kale did well, with the exception
of the Nanaimo test, where cattle were allowed to pasture during the early fall. At Sooke
there was a great deal of loss from deer.
" It will not be possible to report on the fall-sown mixture until next season."
The number of soil tests made this year showed a considerable increase over last year.
Most of the soil samples submitted to this office are now tested by the Spurway method.
However, a few samples continue to be analyzed by the Provincial Analyst. Experience
shows that the Spurway method of analysis is satisfactory for general farm purposes and
it also has the added advantage of being much quicker.
Mr. S. S. Phillips, who makes the Spurway analyses, reports that 190 tests were made
this year as compared with 137 last year.
The farmers and gardeners who send in soil samples receive a copy of the report and a
letter giving the fertilizer recommendations when a soil is found to be deficient in one or more
of the essential elements. The recommendations are made by Mr. Paul C. Black, who also
advises how to build up humus deficiency. A complete record of soil tests made this year is
shown in Appendix No. 2.
Your Commissioner has co-operated with the Live Stock Commissioner in connection with
the Dominion and Provincial Swine Policy. It is felt that if this undertaking is to be a
success every encouragement should be given to our farmers to produce the feed required on
their own farms. Although special freight rates are provided in Tariff 145 covering certain
grades of feed, these reductions are not sufficient to make swine production a profitable undertaking in most instances when feed has to be shipped in from outside.
In the case of farmers who have sufficient land, every effort should be made to produce
the feed required for their stock.    This is a much sounder system of farming.
Articles have been written for the newly-formed Agricultural Production Committee and
also for newspapers in the Province dealing with the most suitable feeds for swine production.
Through the co-operation of the District Agriculturists and officials of the Horticultural
Branch, this office compiles an annual statement of the amount of grain and seed threshed. B 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Since the statement for 1939 will not be completed for several weeks, the 1938 statement
is given in Appendix No. 3.
Several of our farmers again exhibited at this Exhibition this year, but the number of
entries was fewer than in recent years. Those who did exhibit, however, brought considerable
credit to themselves and to the Province by capturing several prizes. In three classes—
namely, field peas, timothy, and rye—our exhibitors won first place, as follows:—
Field Peas (Large Yellow).—1, J. Decker, Pemberton, B.C.
Reserve Champion Sample of Field Peas (Large Yellow).—J. Decker, Pemberton, B.C.
Rye.—1, Wm. Rogers, Tappen, B.C.
Hard Red Spring Wheat.—2, W. G. Gibson, Ladner, B.C.; 9, Mrs. A. Kelsey, Erickson,
Durum Wheat.—5, Wm. Rogers, Tappen, B.C. •
Timothy.—1, E. Faure, Telkwa, B.C.;   3, E. N. Bree, Telkwa, B.C.
Following up the work started in 1937 through the co-operation of Dr. S. E. Clarke,
Agrostologist, of the Dominion Experimental Farm, Swift Current, tests with hybrid field
corns and some of the standard varieties were continued in the Okanagan and also extended
to the Cariboo, Lower Mainland, and Vancouver Island.
At the time of preparing this report complete results on all tests are not available.
However, the complete results for three tests conducted in the Okanagan in co-operation with
the Horticultural Branch staff are available and are attached to this report as Appendix No. 4.
Seed drill surveys conducted under the joint auspices of the Provincial and Federal
Departments of Agriculture were continued in the Interior and in the Peace River Block.
The samples were secured in the same manner as in the previous year. Altogether sixty-
one 1-lb. samples were examined for weed-seed content. The official grading was as follows:
Sixteen graded No. 1, twenty graded No. 2, three graded No. 3, and sixteen samples were
A complete summary of the results are on file in the Field Crops Office.
A small quantity of seed of Melana sweet clover, an annual originating at the Dominion
Forage Crops Laboratory at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, was made available for trial purposes
in the Okanagan.    Mr. H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, reports as follows:—
" A one-half acre plot was hand-seeded in rows 1% feet apart, cultivated and irrigated
throughout the season. An excellent stand was obtained and blossom started in early July.
There was no set of seed whatever until late August. The crop was left standing until
mid-October in hopes some seed would mature. This did not occur and the crop was cut and
fed to cattle. The dropping of all early bloom was a repetition of what occurred in 1938 and
creates a difficult problem as regards seed production. As a cover-crop the plant shows
exceptional promise through its rapid, dense, and fine growth-habits. It is also promising as
a fodder-crop and as an annual legume, where alfalfa is not abundant."
Activities in connection with weed-control work were carried on along the same lines as
previous years.
Two Weed Inspectors were appointed for seasonal work in the Peace River Block, but
their time was extended beyond that of previous years to enable them to complete their
inspections of threshing-machines.
Members of the Horticultural Branch staff, as well as the District Agriculturist,
co-operated with this office in carrying on educational work.
Tests with activated carbon bisulphide were continued in the Okanagan. Mr. W. Baver-
stock, Field Inspector at Vernon, reports as follows regarding this work:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 89
" Holes were made in the ground at intervals of 18 inches and the carbon bisulphide
inserted into the ground with the use of the weed-gun, to a depth of between 6 and 7 inches.
After withdrawing the gun, the hole is sealed by scraping in loose soil. The weed-gun idea
of applying liquids to the soil is very much ahead of other methods of application. This
method of application for killing weeds is a very costly one in hard soils as it is impossible
to push the gun into hard clays without the use of some other method of making holes ahead
of the gun. In this experiment a bar was driven into the ground with a heavy hammer
before using the gun to apply the liquid. The plot in the Hitt orchard was located in the
centre of a block of Grimes Golden trees and occupied approximately one square between four
trees. Considerable injury showed up on two trees from the effects of the carbon bisulphide.
This was a morning-glory plot and when the plot was visited some six weeks after the
application, many new shoots were appearing from the crowns. On the Home property the
plot of peppergrass treated was visited at the same time, and there appeared occasional
growth still showing life.    On the Dodd lot there was no appearance of active growth."
Date of
No. of
Type of
Plots visited
October 14th.
S. F. Hitt
R. S. Home
A. Dodd 	
Aug. 30
Aug. 28, 29, 30
Aug. 30
Heavy clay
Very heavy clay
Deep loam
Damage to apple-
trees.    Many
new shoots
No new growth.
appeared to be
dead.    No new
Some tests were also made with sodium chlorate and other chemicals by certain District
Agriculturists, and the results are contained in their reports.
The issuing of permits covering grain screenings is handled by Mr. Walter Sandall,
District Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver, who reports as follows:—
" Permits consist of two specific forms—i.e., one permitting removal of grain screenings
by feed merchants or dealers and the other a feeder's permit which entitles the holder to
remove screenings conditional to prescribed regulations. For the purpose of ascertaining
that the use of screenings will not cause a weed menace, the premises of an applicant for a
feeder's permit are investigated prior to issuing a permit. Such premises are subject to
inspection from time to time.
" Up to the close of the year 1939, twenty-four permits for the removal of screenings
have been issued to feed merchants and dealers entitling them to remove uncleaned and
refuse screenings from local grain elevators and twenty feeder's permits have been issued
enabling the holders to purchase low-grade screenings. The quantity of screenings covered
by each permit varies. It is usual for dealers to obtain permits to cover an anticipated
quantity required throughout the year of issue, at the end of which all screenings permits
expire. A permit entitles the holder to remove uncleaned or refuse screenings from only
the grain elevator or dealer, as stated on the permit. During the year 1939 approximately
9,013 tons of uncleaned and refuse screenings covered by permits for the removal of screenings were removed from British Columbia grain elevators for local consumption. In the
same period approximately 101 tons were distributed to holders of feeders' permits."
Attached herewith (as Appendix No. 7) is table showing the monthly movement of
grain screenings for the year 1939 as compiled by Mr. Sandall from the monthly reports
submitted to his office by managers of all grain elevators and principal dealers within the
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Officer in Charge.
Mapping and office activity was limited by lack of technical assistance in 1939. The
post vacated by the resignation of Mr. R. H. Spilsbury, in December, 1938, was not filled by
the Dominion Experimental Farms Service until September 1st, 1939, when Mr. L. Farstad,
B.S.A., reported for duty.
Field operations during spring and summer of 1939 included classification of an area in
the vicinity of Campbell River, on Vancouver Island; continuance of the soil-survey in the
Central Interior; inspection of a dredging leasehold near Hope; and seepage investigations
in the irrigated lands of the Okanagan Valley. New mapping-work in 1939 amounted to
about 131,000 acres.
In February, 21,031 acres lying between Campbell River and Menzies Bay were surveyed in co-operation with the Forest Branch, Department of Lands. Classification of the
soils and separation of potentially arable from submarginal lands were the objectives. The
submarginal lands are of use to the Forest Branch for reseeding purposes.
This survey, the first classification work to be done on Vancouver Island, is of particular
interest because it introduces a land-use factor for classified lands in the south coast climatic
zone. Under south coast climatic conditions high winter rainfall is succeeded by summer
dryness. Summer dryness combines with coarse-textured soils to yield lack of drought
resistance and inferior cropping values. It is thus possible to separate the soils of the south
coast climatic zone into two textural groups: (1) Texture profiles having insufficient
drought resistance to carry a crop through the dry season without damage, and (2) texture
profiles having sufficient drought resistance to carry a crop through the dry season.
The texture profile holding the marginal position should serve as the boundary which
separates the forest from the farm in the south coast climatic regime. This marginal profile
is selected by investigating the success or failure of agricultural development in the more
settled Lower Fraser Valley soil map-area, where climatic and soil-texture conditions are
comparable to those in the Campbell River District. From these data it is concluded that
sandy loam is the marginal texture. Some sandy loams may be arable while others are
submarginal, depending on profile characters, but profiles with textures coarser than sandy
loam should be regarded as submarginal unless irrigated. On the other hand soils with
loam, clay loam, silt loam, and clay texture profiles have a tendency to support a permanent
agriculture and these are regarded as potentially arable. This principle has been proposed
as the basis for separating submarginal from potentially arable lands in the Campbell River-
Menzies Bay map-area.
The reconnaissance soil-survey of the Central Interior was carried on in the Prince
George District for a period of six months. The area classified in 1939 covers about 110,552
acres.    It lies west of the Fraser River, between Prince George and Summit Lake.
The main potentially arable soil is heavy clay of the Pineview type; the kind of soil
on which the new experimental farm will be located. The area of clay amounts to about
51,125 acres, of which approximately 1,426 acres have been brought to a stage of cultivation.
Development is mainly in the form of small clearings throughout the clay area, some of which
have been abandoned.    Crop yields compare favourably with yields in the Pineview District.
The remaining potentially arable soil types consist of fine textured materials which
occur on the post-Glacial terraces of the Fraser and Nechako Rivers, the flood-plains of
tributary streams, muck, and muskeg. These soils amount to about 16,547 acres, of which
about 1,449 acres are cultivated.
Submarginal land consists of eroded or dissected areas, light sandy soils, stony soils,
gravel ridges, rock outcrop, mountains, and water. These land types cover approximately
42,879 acres.
The total of potentially arable land in the 1939 map-area is about 67,672 acres, of which
about 2,875 acres is or has been cultivated. There are 37 miles of gravelled main roads;
27 miles of secondary roads, mostly ungraveiled; and about 69 miles of ungraded truck or
wagon trails.    The district has three schools in widely separated locations. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 91
In addition to classification of soils, the forest cover has been separated into divisions
named heavy and light clearing. Heavy clearing refers mainly to the original spruce forest
and light clearing refers to the deciduous trees and shrubs that grow up after the spruce
forest has been destroyed by fire. Observations indicate that spruce forest or heavy clearing
is not economic for agricultural development at the present time, owing to the handicap of
high clearing cost. Areas of potentially arable soils in the light-clearing division are the
most suitable for settlement and development. The area of light clearing on the 1939 map-
sheet in potentially arable land is about 34,720 acres. Heavy clearing in potentially arable
soils amounts to approximately 32,952 acres.
The total area classified in 1938 and 1939 contains about 246,441 acres, of which 175,672
acres are potentially arable and 70,769 acres are marginal and submarginal for agriculture.
Total land brought to a stage of cultivation amounts to about 7,475 acres.
In the total area of potentially arable land, light clearing covers about 81,570 acres and
heavy clearing 94,102 acres. This will indicate that 81,570 acres are suitable for present
farm development in 175,672 acres of potentially arable land, only 7,475 acres of which have
been cultivated.
Past development of potentially arable land has largely been a by-product of outside
employment. Under these conditions the majority of clearings were slowly enlarged by
primitive hand-axe methods, and very few homesteads have enough acreage cultivated to
support a family. The cultivated acreage of the district is composed of a large number of
scattered clearings, many of which have been abandoned. In size these clearings range from
5 to 60 acres, with an average of from 10 to 20 acres, and there are very few family-sized
units of 100 acres or more.
Apparently the facilities at the disposal of settlers are not of a kind that promote the
development of family-unit acreages. This is believed to be due mainly to the difficulty of
clearing land. Observations indicate that when several homesteads with 10- and 20-acre
clearings are abandoned in one locality, a remaining settler is assisted by hay-crops from the
abandoned land. It has also been observed that settlers will seek to buy abandoned land at
tax sales in order to secure small cleared acreages, rather than clear the land themselves.
A large number of small clearings with a total of 7,475 acres in a 246,441-acre map-
area indicates the small scale of individual production for sale. This explains the difficulty
of securing a continuous supply of commodities for the local market. Many small individual
crops also lead to a confusion of productive effort which cannot be satisfactorily controlled
in order to ship out a seasonal surplus.
Small individual production also stands in the way of the establishment of processing
industries. With volume insufficient to support new enterprises on a profit-making basis, a
new plant would have to be subsidized until sufficient land has been cleared by hand-axe
methods to provide enough of a given commodity to supply the plant. Such is the history of
butter-making in the Central Interior.
The demand for processing industries will generally be ahead of ability to supply a
sufficient volume of products for them, but repetition of the procedure which finally established a creamery need not occur again. Reoccurrence of this experience can be avoided by
faster and less expensive methods for clearing new acreage, which would pave the way for
Heavy clay soils in the classified part of the Prince George District amount to about
146,125 acres. The heavy clays are the most important soil types in the region, but in some
localities within the clay area a farm water-supply may not be readily secured from wells
or streams.
This difficulty could be overcome by the use of cisterns for the storage of run-off water.
The tight clay substratum will lose little water by seepage. Cisterns are capable of a great
variety of forms, and a little ingenuity will adapt the principle to conditions on the individual
farm. One way of securing water is to gather it from the roofs of buildings during rains,
from which it may be led into a tank. By using a filter-box the water may be conditioned
for domestic purposes. B 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The use of cisterns to store a water-supply is well developed in some parts of the
Prairie Provinces, but at present there are only a few crude examples in the Prince George
District. The farm water-supply is of such importance, however, that the testing of various
cistern designs would be a worthy experimental project. By the use of the cistern it is
possible to bring large areas of potentially arable clay under cultivation that would otherwise
have to be reclassified as forest land, owing to a deficiency of well-water.
In the latter part of the field season an inspection was made of the dredging lease
occupied by Fraser River Golds, Ltd., near Hope, B.C. By means of such inspections it is
the intention to prevent destruction of potentially arable lands by gold-dredging operations.
During early spring and late fall seepage and drainage investigations were undertaken
in the irrigated lands of the Okanagan Valley. In addition to several farm projects a
collection drain was laid out for the Black Mountain Irrigation District, which is now
delivering water into the domestic supply system.
A paper entitled " The Nature of Soil Parent Materials in Southern British Columbia "
was prepared and read at the Annual Convention of the Canadian Society of Technical
Agriculturists, Vancouver, June 19th. This paper, which describes the materials from
which soils in the southern part of the Province were formed, will be published in " Scientific
Classified lands in British Columbia now amount to approximately 1,275,000 acres, only
545,000 acres of which have been disposed of in the form of published reports. However,
work was continued during the winter months on a soil-survey report covering the Okanagan
Valley, which will account for about 435,000 acres of the unreported area.
Mrs. V. S. McLachlan, Superintendent.
The most important work organized by this office during the past year has been my
tours of the Institutes. As it was possible in most eases to give good notice of the intended
visit, the meetings were, as a rule, well attended, and, where distance permitted, Institutes
co-operated most willingly by holding combined meetings or arranging my transportation to
the next one.
Starting in February with a ten-day tour of the North Vancouver Island District, ten
Institute meetings, including Quadra and Denman Islands, were attended. Between meetings
visits were made which resulted in the organization of the Deerholme Institute near Duncan.
In June, after touring the Kootenays and Arrow Lakes Districts and attending the
District Conference at Salmon Arm, Clearwater and Birch Island were visited. Owing to
the very limited postal service in this area, these meetings were less successful but I met
as many individual members as possible. Since this tour the Silverton Institute has been
revived and new Institutes organized at Copper Mountain, Chase, and Upper Clearwater.
In July I went to the Peace River District Conference, travelling by plane with the idea
of saving time and money. Also in the plane were the two guest speakers for the Conference,
Archbishop Rix, of Prince Rupert, and Mr. J. G. Turgeon, M.P. Unfortunately, heavy rains
in the district made it necessary to postpone the Conference for one week and the two
speakers were unable to wait over. Nevertheless,,the meeting was remarkable as over 100
women signed the register. Several Institutes attended in a body and, in some cases, they
had brought non-members, where there was a spare seat in the car or truck, "just to see
what the Institutes did." For some years we have noted in the office that the reports of
the year's work from the Peace River District are models of concise information, and the
Conference explained how this unusual quality had been developed in secretaries, many of
whom are foreign-born or of limited educational advantages. As much work was transacted
in one day at Rolla as many Conferences achieve in two or three days.
A new Institute has now been organized at Lakeview, and during my visit I discussed the
plans for the Dawson Creek rest-room with the committee in charge.    Donations have been DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 93
sent from all over the Province to help this project, and at last hearing the committee were
getting the room into operation.
En route home, all centres were visited along the Bulkley Valley, a district which had
received no visits since 1934. Then through the services of District officials of the Department the return trip was made via Quesnel, visiting five Institutes, all organized since my
last visit. Since this trip new Institutes have started at Lake View, Watch Lake, and
McBride. Conferences have been held in all districts except the Kootenay, where the
meeting called for October was cancelled when war was declared.
In October I attended the Biennial Conference of the Federated Women's Institutes of
Canada, held at Edmonton, when Mrs. H. H. McGregor, Penticton, was re-elected for a
second term as President for all Canada. The meeting unanimously offered to the Canadian
Government the services of the organization to aid in war work in any possible way.
Returning from Edmonton, I visited the new Triangle Institute at Flagstone, and also
Kaslo, to which I had been unable to get during the Kootenay trip, owing to lack of time.
Work for Young People.—Successful Junior Institutes are reported by the Prince George,
Penticton, South Saanich, Saltair, and Squamish Institutes.
Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs were organized by Qualicum, Shirley, Sooke, Midway,
Doe River, Cedar, and Rock Creek. Shearerdale has Calf and Pig Clubs for the young
people. Rock Creek and Vimy have Potato Clubs, Keremeos has an Orphan Lamb Club, and
Patricia has a Guernsey Club with twelve members. Many Institutes have gardening clubs
for the children.
Boy Scouts and Girl Guides are supported by fourteen Institutes, seven of which actually
sponsor the Companies. Willow Point Institute reports proudly that a Guide in their
Company has won the " first Gold Cord award in British Columbia."
Institutes continue to co-operate actively in the Youth Training classes, and in some
cases are following up the work by engaging ex-pupils to give classes under the night-
school provisions. The Comox Institute has made special arrangements to help the girls
follow up the training they received at the classes. Nakusp reports sixty-four pupils at
their Youth Training classes, and at Okanagan Falls eighty-seven pupils registered for the
short course in Home-making. Victoria also had a well-attended Home-makers' course, and
at Surrey the course was so successful that they have asked for another and longer course
to include dressmaking and hat-making.
Handicrafts.—A weaving-school was organized in Victoria by Mrs. J. L. White, with
Mrs. Mary Miggs Attwater as teacher. It proved an outstanding event and has greatly
stimulated weaving in the city and done much to improve the standard of work. In the
spring Mrs. White also organized a weaving exhibition at the Empress Hotel. It was
visited by people from all over this continent, as well as visitors from England. Exhibits
were shown from British Columbia, Washington, California, and as far north as Aklavik.
Sunnybrook Women's Institute has bought a loom for the use of the members. Delta
Women's Institute had a weaving-school with fourteen pupils, one of whom has bought two
looms and finds a good sale for her work. Valley held weaving classes under the direction
of Miss K. Riddle, a Youth Training pupil.
The Craft House at Hope continues to make progress and Mrs. M. A. Barber reports
satisfactory sales during the tourist season. The Institutes around Duncan have started a
similar cottage at Koksilah, on the Island Highway. Mrs. Barber, who is Provincial
Convener of Industries, is again teaching crafts at the Indian School at Lytton.
Fall Fairs.—Twenty-one Institutes report holding fall fairs or co-operating with the
local fair. The Surrey Institute came to the rescue of the local Agricultural Association,
making a donation of $40 to aid the Association in a time of crisis. Keremeos had special
apple recipes classes at their fair with considerable success.
Health Work.—The Othoa Scott Trust Fund has provided treatment for two children
during the year, a girl from Grand Forks and a little boy from Penticton. Foot ailments
have been corrected so that both children can get about more easily. In the case of the
girl, this is particularly important as she will have to earn her own living in a year or two.
Donations continue to come in for the fund and the Trustees are arranging to purchase
another $500 Government bond.
Mrs. H. H. Pitts, Nelson, is still administering the anonymous donation for eye treatment for children in the Kootenays.    Ninety-six children were examined last year, sixty-six B 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
received glasses, and successful operations were performed on four children. Dental clinics
have been held by sixteen Institutes. Hazelmere holding their fourth clinic report that only
twenty-two children needed treatment. In co-operation with the School Board, perhaps the
most satisfactory arrangement has been made at Armstrong. With a payment guaranteed
for 200 children, a dentist has agreed to care for the children's teeth throughout the year,
making examinations at stated intervals and giving any necessary treatment, at a charge
of $2 per child. All parties seem to find the arrangement most satisfactory. At New
Denver the Institute raised sufficient money for the clinic this year, and has a good balance
($129) towards next year's clinic. Here the dentist has guaranteed to look after the teeth
of his patients for four months after the clinic.
Community Betterment.—This is always a strong feature of Institute work and they
can always be relied on to care for victims of fire, flood, or sickness, and their ideas for
further activities are many and various. Winfield provides swimming lessons for all the
children in the community. Okanagan Falls has had the recreation park fenced and trees
planted. Nakusp cleaned up the bathing-beaches, providing tables and adequate sanitary
arrangements. Coghlan made warm quilts for all the bachelors in the community, and
Aldergrove provides brandy for emergencies in the district.
Red Cross Work.—From reports now coming in every Institute appears to be doing this
work and either forming Units or joining existing ones. Mrs. McGregor is also issuing an
appeal to the Institutes to help with work for the sailors both in the Canadian Navy and in
the Mercantile Marine.
Voluntary Registration of Canadian Women.—Mrs. McGregor was made a Dominion
Vice-President of this organization and much of the work of registration was carried out
ih this Province through the Women's Institutes. Everywhere Institutes are eagerly searching for ways of assisting with food conservation and production.
Total number of Women's Institutes      181
Total membership as at June 30th  4,350
New Institutes organized        10
Institutes  disbanded     Nil.
The increase in the grant is very greatly appreciated by the Institutes, 179 of whom
complied with the regulations and received $10 each. The other two Institutes were not
organized in time to receive it.
About 250 copies of the Monthly Bulletin are sent out and continue to be appreciated
by the recipients. During the year 1,710 letters and reports have been received in the office
to date and 836 individual replies sent out, apart from circulars. Requests are received for
information on every conceivable type of women's work from cookery to tanning, many of
them referred to this office from other departments. A good deal of research and inquiry
is frequently required but, through the valuable co-operation of the Public Libraries Commission and the office of the Technical Organizer of the Department of Education, it is
generally possible to provide the information or tell the inquirer where it may be obtained.
Some of these letters come from Women's Institutes in other parts of the Empire.
A new edition of the Handbook was brought out in the summer and is in such demand
that the supply appears likely to be exhausted very soon.
The five book prizes given by the Department for Institute Flower-shows were given
to thirteen applicants.
James Travis, District Agriculturist.
Exceptionally heavy snowfalls occurred during January and February. Snow continued
to pile up with practically no run-off until the end of March. A cool April with alternative
thawing and freezing further delayed spring opening, with the result that seeding was not
completed until the end of May.
Prize-lists announcing the Central British Columbia Seed Fair, Smithers, were prepared
and distributed, and during this period publicity work supporting the local establishment of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 95
Rural Occupational Schools was undertaken. While assisting with judging at Williams Lake
Fall Fair in October your representative attended a conference called by Federal and Provincial live-stock officials to consider policies approved by the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture for
this Province, in which plans for promotion of increased live-stock production were outlined.
In pursuit of these policies special efforts were made to contact farmers in all parts of the
district, with particular emphasis directed toward the Dominion National Bacon-hog Policy.
The 1939 alsike-seed crop throughout the Prince George and Vanderhoof areas threshed
out considerably more than the previous year, despite the fact that there was a shortage of
moisture throughout the month of June. The fact that there was adequate winter snow protection undoubtedly prevented excessive winter-killing, such as was experienced in 1938.
Some consternation was felt during the month of September on account of almost continual rainfall which delayed threshing of coils in the field, very little stacking having been
practised.    Subsequently, there was some loss due to shattering caused by extra handling.
In the alsike-seed producing areas of Pineview, Woodpecker, Salmon Valley, and Vanderhoof a seed-crop of approximately 69 tons alsike and 30 tons alsike and timothy mixtures is
recorded, compared to a total of 35 tons alsike and 20 tons alsike and timothy mixtures in
1938 from the same area.
Prices of this commodity are slightly higher than last year, when growers received 10
cents per pound for No. 1 grade. At the present time approximately 75 per cent, of the local
crop has been marketed at 12 cents per pound f.o.b. Vancouver for No. 1; alsike and timothy,
8% cents;  and timothy and alsike, 6 cents.
According to information supplied by the Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, the
Ontario crop is not nearly as plentiful as previously expected owing to last year's drought in
many localities.
The United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., reports the alsike-
clover seed production about one-fourth less than last year, and it is significant that imports
to that country from the present war zone last year amounted to over 600,000 lb.
The 1938 carry-over for Canada was 250,000 lb. In adding the present year's estimate
for Ontario of 1,800,000 lb.; Alberta production estimated at 150,000 lb.; with preliminary
reports from British Columbia giving an estimate of 20,000 lb. pure alsike and 130,000 lb.
mixtures, we have a total of 2,350,000 lb. to meet an annual consumption estimated at
3,000,000 lb.
Continuing the policy adopted last year of offering northern grown alsike-seed, recleaned
and graded, to approved growers at attractive cash terms, the Field Crops Commissioner
was again empowered to provide a limited quantity to approved growers. A total of 534 lb.
was promptly absorbed by twelve growers. This plan is proving very popular and promises
to be a forward step in advancing the production of pure seed.
Seed-grain Assistance.
In view of reported shortage of reliable seed-grain, a quantity of seed-oats was purchased
for resale to settlers along the Canadian National Railway in Central British Columbia, to
arrive early in April. This car was spotted for unloading and distribution at Fort Fraser
on April 13th and Vanderhoof on April 20th. A total of 697 sacks of certified No. 1 Legacy
seed-oats was distributed to eighty-seven approved growers.
With the exception of the Vanderhoof district, where growers are short of the necessary
supplies for home consumption, potato-crop yields throughout the district have ranged from
fair to good. Growers have harvested sufficient for domestic and live-stock requirements.
A surplus total of upwards of 100 tons will be available for local markets. Prices paid to
growers for good, marketable grade average $36 per ton.
Growing conditions for the past season were far from favourable. The month of June
was altogether too dry. Scattered light frosts occurred in many districts throughout the
season retarding top growth. Early in September killing-frosts caught tubers near the
surface in patches not yet harvested.
Yields of hay are reported back to normal when compared to 1938 crop returns which
were reduced from 25 to 50 per cent.    The present situation is similar to that of 1937.    There B 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
is a sufficiency of mixed hay as well as sheaf oats on hand. Sawmills and lumber camps
contracted for immediate supplies during the early fall, consequently some surplus will be
carried over until next year. The quality of the present crop is excellent. Prices for first
class timothy, which in this district contains a small percentage of clover, are averaging $12
to $14 per ton in bales at point of loading. Last year growers received $20 during this
same period.
The situation in the immediate vicinity of Prince George and extending southward is
favourable. There is every indication that sufficient feed and seed-grain of oats, wheat, and
barley will be available. Westward throughout the Vanderhoof District severe August frosts
did some damage, with the result that supplies of oat-seed for spring planting might be cut
down. As a precautionary measure officials of the Dominion Plant Products Division
collected a representative number of samples during harvest to be subjected to laboratory test
for germination and report to growers.
Early December reports from local elevator company at this point indicate that only
some 16,592 bushels of commercial oats have been handled and no car-loads have been shipped.
Farmers are reported holding for higher prices. (The season opened with quotations of
$9 to $10 per ton f.o.b. Vanderhoof.) During the first week of December it is estimated that
approximately 65,000 bushels are still in farmers' hands.
Threshers' Returns.
Owners of threshing-machines furnish information regarding the quantity of grain,
grass-seed, clover, etc., threshed by each machine. The tabulated returns are shown opposite
the individual names listed on a separate form accompanying this report. A summary of
the present and preceding year denotes:—
Spring wheat (bu.) 	
Winter wheat (bu.) 	
Oats   (bu.)   	
Barley   (bu.)   	
Peas  (bu.) 	
Rye (bu.) 	
Alfalfa (bu.) 	
Alsike  (lb.)  	
Alsike and timothy (lb.)
Red clover  (lb.)  	
Sweet clover (lb.) 	
Brome  (lb.)  	
Speltz  (bu.)  	
Flax   (bu.)   	
Under the Federal-Provincial Seed Improvement plan, whereby certain districts were
being encouraged to test clovers and grasses for seed production on prearranged terms, the
following allotments were arranged for seasonal planting under recommended cultural
practices;   seed provided by the Federal Department of Agriculture:—
Clover, Red—Ottawa 2-cut— Lb.
E. C. McGeachy, Vanderhoof  35
Samuels Bros., Vanderhoof  40
W. G. Ewen, Vanderhoof  36
N.  Larsen, Vanderhoof  30
Grass, Brome—Parkland (Elite) —
C. Prout, Vanderhoof  60
In co-operation with the Provincial Department of Agriculture the practice of conducting
trials with certain varieties of field crops in order to determine their importance and adaptability to the Central Interior has been continued.    These include:—
Alfalfa, Ladak— Lb.
W. G. Bedwell, Chief Lake     3
A. Miller, Mud River     3 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 97
Clover, Red— Lb.
J. H. Andros, Vanderhoof  22
W. G. Bedwell, Chief Lake  15
Wheat, Spring, Apex—
F. W. Head, Red Rock .    3
Mr. Head reports: "Seeded May 12th, 1939. Stooled well, large heads, slow ripening.
Garnet sowed at same time was cut on August 21st when Apex still green with little sign of
ripening. D. Thompson, Inspector, Plant Products Division, detected a disease and suggested inadvisable to save for seed.    Grain lodged badly before ready to harvest."
In addition to the foregoing, there are some thirty growers throughout this territory,
officially described as District " C," conducting experiments with alfalfas, clovers, cereal
and potato crops, under direction of the B.C. Field Crop Union.
Wild Rice.
Towards the end of October a sample of wild rice furnished by the Provincial Department of Agriculture was received for test planting within game sanctuaries, the object being
to determine if this plant might become adapted to production in local lakes.
During the month of November this seed was planted in suitable waters on the following
properties: E. J. Down, Woodpecker, on a small lake; H. Woods, South Fort George,
Hudson Bay slough;   J. Travis, Prince George, on a small lake, Chief Lake Road.
Seed Improvement.
Field inspected crops for seed registration and certification during the past season, by
inspectors of the Dominion Plant Products Division, are recorded as follows:—
Oats— Acres.
Legacy:   E.   J.   Down,   Woodpecker  10
Victory: G. Cameron, Vanderhoof  45
R. L. Head & Sons, Red Rock  1
A. J. F. Rae, Vanderhoof  10.50
H. G. Striegler, Vanderhoof  5
Olli: E. J. Down, Woodpecker  5
Alaska:   Johnson Bros., Prince George  10
Eagle:     E. J. Down, Woodpecker  5
R. Yardley, Strathnaver  3
Legacy:   R. Blackburn, Prince George  20
R.   Yardley,   Strathnaver  4
Dawson's Golden Chaff:  K. E. Gardell, North Newlands  0.04
Kharkov:   E. J. Down, Woodpecker  10
Red Bobs 222:   E. J. Down, Woodpecker  20
Total number of acres  148.54
Central British Columbia Annual Seed Fair.
The Central British Columbia Seed Fair was held this year at Smithers on November
22nd. Twenty-four classes were provided for and the prize list contained donations from
the Prince George Board of Trade, Burns Lake Board of Trade, Smithers Chamber of Commerce, District " B " Farmers' Institute, and District " C " Farmers' Institute.
A total of sixty-nine entries was recorded for all classes, and awards were fairly evenly
distributed over the two districts.    Mr.  Osborne, staff member of the Rural Occupational
School, Telkwa, took charge of judging exhibits.
During the past season it has been necessary to secure co-operative action in combating
outbreaks of noxious weeds in certain localities, particularly between Marten Lake and
Lejac, near Fort Fraser, on the C.N.R. tracks or right-of-way, also on this system near
Prince George. Superintendent W. H. Tobey and foremen promptly took action where
Perennial Sow-thistle was making an appearance and issued instructions which resulted in
these outbreaks being checked by means of cutting and destroying. In some of the worst
spots chemical weed killer was used with satisfactory results.
Throughout the Woodpecker area Ox-eye Daisy possessed the roadsides and vacant
properties. The Public Works Engineer co-operated in arrangements whereby farmers
worked out taxes and relief by cutting and destroying these weeds. The Officer Commanding,
Prince George Division B.C. Police, also co-operated with Farmers' Institutes and the
District Agriculturist when occasion demanded.
The use of chemicals for purposes of weed-control continues to attract attention and
many inquiries are received concerning their functions and methods of application.
Weed Chemical Experiments.
Increasing interest in the use of chemicals as a means of destroying noxious weeds is
being expressed by the farmers in many districts. Farmers' Institutes and associations are
continually being advised regarding the advisability of securing supplies of material for
members at wholesale rates.
From the small stock of Atlacide kept on hand for educational purposes, demonstrations
were conducted in person on the following places:—■
Beauregard Bros., Salmon Valley—Canada Thistle.
W. Hughes, 6-Mile Meadow—Canada Thistle.
Farmers who have been supplied with small quantities of Atlacide for experimental work
on couch-grass and thistle are:—
W. Hope, Fort Fraser—Perennial Sow-thistle, 4 lb.
H. Goldie, Vanderhoof—Couch-grass, 10 lb.
C. Smedley, Vanderhoof—Couch-grass, 3 lb.
J. Aitchison, Prince George—Couch-grass, 6V2 lb.
E. O. Hutchinson, Woodpecker—Couch-grass, 8% lb.
Reports on the results of these experiments will be available in 1940.
Seed-cleaning Machinery.
Under the auspices of the McBride Farmers' Institute the installation of a Monitor No.
2 mill was completed on March 13th.    When rendering assistance with the'assembling of the
plant, your representative was able to give instruction in the working and operation of the
During  March,   April,   and   May  the  following  quantities   of   grain   and  clover  were
cleaned over this machine for patrons:— Lb
Oats    46,165
Wheat   15,260
Barley      4,250
Clover, Alsike      1,740
The continuance of the system introduced in 1937, under direction of the Provincial
Horticulturist, whereby hardy varieties of apple-trees were placed with a limited number of
selected growers, was slightly interrupted during 1939 due to curtailment of the customary
supplies from the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. The Provincial Horticulturist,
Victoria, has made arrangements with the Dominion officials which will ensure resumption of
this project in 1940. At the latter's instigation a supply of some eighty young trees was
consigned to this point from the Dominion Experimental Station, Morden, Manitoba, to be DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 99
divided amongst four selected growers,
distributed as follows:—
Shipment arrived on April 29th and was immediately
Names of Varieties of Trees.
M. Kerkhoff,
B. F. Lovin,
J. MacKay,
C. Smedley,
Throughout the past season the progress of these trees has been very satisfactory, no
losses were sustained.
With reference to 1937-38 plantings, last reported in 1938, a further check-up will be
made in the spring of 1940.
Iris, Tulips, and Narcissi.
During 1938 numbers of choice varieties of iris roots received from the Coast were
distributed throughout the district. The great variety and choice quality of bloom produced
this year has given much pleasure to many flower lovers and the natural increase by multiplication will continue to provide material for further expansion. During the past season
from the same sources a collection of annual flower-seeds, tulips, and narcissi bulbs were a
further valuable contribution to the beautification of farm-home gardens.
Prince George Horticultural Society.
The Prince George Horticultural Society plays an active part in the promotion of home
and city beautification. In addition to staging its sixth annual Flower Show, the Society
introduced the practice of placing flower-boxes along the business streets, an example which
was speedily adopted by the merchants.
The City Council, co-operating with this Society, approved and assisted in the planting
of Golden Willow 1-year-old shade-trees along the boulevard approach to the city from the
Fraser River bridge to the Canadian National Railway depot. Your representative contributed assistance with these projects and in judging the City Garden Competition, also
sponsored by this Society.
Garden Competitions.
School-garden competitions sponsored by the Parent-Teacher Association, South Fort
George, and the Cariboo Women's Institute, Pineview, were judged during the month of
Early in April of the present year the Provincial demonstration hive was transferred
from the Pineview area southward to the Woodpecker District, where it was established
under the supervision of Walter R. Head, Red Rock, and located close to the main Quesnel
Highway, being readily accessible to visitors. On July 12th, Mr. C. B. Gooderham, Dominion
Apiarist, gave an interesting and instructive address on bee-keeping, using this hive for
demonstration purposes. Mr. Head will co-operate with the Department in an attempt to
carry the colony through the coming winter months.
From a mere handful in 1937 the number of settlers employing one or two hives on
their farms throughout the district has increased to thirty-six, there being approximately
100 hives of bees in operation during the season of 1939. Mr. R. M. Hall, Supervisor,
British Columbia Illustration Stations, was responsible for the introduction of hives on the
Salmon Valley and Strathnaver Stations during the past season.
Live Stock.
Throughout the active working season there was quite a lively demand for agricultural
teams, and more horses of the heavier types were required for logging camps.    No new B 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
stallions entered the district. The Belgian horse " Farceur Boy " served most of its previous
territory around Pineview, Woodpecker, and Mud River before moving via the C.N.R. to
At one time there was some apprehension felt on the part of prospective buyers deterred
from bringing in horses from other Provinces on account of precautionary measures taken by
the Government against encephalomyelitis.    Contacts within the Province were arranged for '
likely customers.
There is a noticeable tendency on the part of some farmers towards feeding and fitting
beef cattle for market. This may be due to some improvement in prices, coupled with the
fact that more feed is being produced on the farms each year. A preference for the Hereford breed is in evidence and a number of select young heifers have recently been brought in
to the Vanderhoof District.    These will form the nucleus of a breeding herd.
With regard to dairy breeds, there is a likelihood that, due to an improvement in prices
for dairy products, some effort will be made to build up quality herds. During the past
season several registered heifers have been brought in to the district together with a few
registered bulls.    These are all of the Ayrshire breed.
The following is a statement (made available through the courtesy of the Canadian
National Railways authorities) of the movement of cattle and sheep over the Smithers Division from January 1st to November 30th, 1939:—
Cattle, 67 car-loads (44 to Vancouver, 20 to Prince Rupert, and 3 to Terrace). Sheep,
3 car-loads (2 to Vancouver and 1 to Prince Rupert).
National Bacon-hog Policy.—As a contribution to the efforts now being put forward to
stimulate production of agricultural products, the farmers of this district were requested to
consider greater production of bacon under the National Bacon-hog Policy as outlined. A
sufficient number of brood sows has been purchased on behalf of applicants to merit future
shipments of car-load lots to outside markets. The distribution of this stock to date is as
follows: Prince George District: Sows, 22; boars, 2. McBride District: Sows, 2; boars, 1.
Vanderhoof District:   Sows, 14.
The campaign directed towards the extermination of gophers throughout the eastern
district has now completed its third year. This district is controlled from centres in and
around McBride, Dunster, Croydon, and Valemount in co-operation with the Farmers' Institutes. Assistance in securing Cyanogas and pumps has been rendered by the Department of
All districts report increasing infestation on vacant lands, timber leases, etc. At the
same time these rodents are being held in check on cultivated land and around farm buildings.
The most satisfactory progress is reported from Dunster, where an additional 100 lb. of
Cyanogas was purchased by the Institute for local members. Trapping and shooting methods
are also employed.
Sleeping Sickness of Horses.
Farmers in all localities of District " C " responded promptly to suggestions submitted
by the Provincial Department of Agriculture, Victoria, advising precautionary measures to
be adopted against a possible outbreak of sleeping sickness of horses.
Farmers' Institutes and key-men throughout the territory were kept posted and advised
well in advance regarding organization of districts, sources of local supplies of chick vaccine,
enlistment of district volunteer committees, places of technical demonstration, and stations
for assembling and treatment. Editors of the local press at Prince George, McBride, and
Vanderhoof devoted generous space towards this campaign, which was conducted smoothly
and efficiently, thanks to the many volunteer workers everywhere who undertook to assist
Dr. Knight, Chief Veterinarian, and his associates in administering treatment. Local drugstores promptly made provision for supplies of vaccine and syringes, and the proprietors
rendered invaluable assistance, particularly with regard to servicing remote districts embracing lumber camps and sawmills. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 101
The greatest horse population of the whole district was centred around the Prince
George area of Pineview, Tabor, Ferndale, and Shelley, where some 456 head received
treatment. All other districts within the boundaries of District " C " contributed an
additional total of 451 head. It is estimated that approximately 75 per cent, of the total
horse population for the district received treatment. No local outbreaks of this disease have
been reported to date.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs and Projects.
The work of organizing clubs among the young people this year was shared by local
leaders to a greater extent than previously. The following centres were able to account for
one or more projects:—
Name of Club.
Kind of Project.
Reid Lake..	
Pineview  —
Thompson and Tabor-
South Fort George	
Dairy Calf 	
Dairy Calf  :	
Beef Calf 	
Calf (non-regulation)	
Poultry (non-regulation)..
School-garden competition
School-garden competition
W. A. Riggs.
S. Zingle.
R. Yardley.
W. Roberts.
Cariboo W.I.
Lily-May Dunn.
Cariboo W.I.
Fall Fairs.
There was a noticeable falling-off in the number of exhibits in all departments where
fall fairs were attended for the purpose of assisting in judging. This circumstance was not
entirely due to seasonal conditions, although throughout, a cold spring, followed by drought
conditions in June, was partly responsible for the shortage. The news of outbreak of war
in Europe coming at fair time disrupted whole communities, causing much distraction. Prearranged fall-fair fixtures were carried through as listed, with interest rallying as the season
advanced. Reid Lake, August 24th; Fort Fraser, September 4th; Prince George, September
5th and 6th;   Quesnel, September 13th;   and Williams Lake, October 17th and 18th.
Field-days conducted by Mr. R. Hall, Supervisor, B.C. Illustration Stations, were
held at the stations located at McBride, J. T. Oakley, operator, July 5th; Salmon Valley,
Johnson Bros., July 11th; Strathnaver, R. Yardley, July 12th. A goodly number of local
farmers and citizens attended the field-days; Salmon Valley topping the list with over 125
persons present.
Mr. C. B. Gooderham, Dominion Apiarist, accompanied Mr. Hall, presenting bee lectures
and demonstrations which proved intensely interesting and instructive to the annually
increasing numbers of bee-keepers from the clover seed-growing districts. Additional demonstrations were conducted by Mr. Gooderham at the apiary of Mr. J. H. Cooper, Salmon Valley,
and at the Provincial Department's demonstrative hive located at Mr. F. W. Head's farm,
Red Rock, en route to Strathnaver. The Department was represented in person from this
office, when assistance with talks and demonstrations was rendered.
District " C " Convention.
The Annual Convention of District " C " Farmers' Institutes was held at Vanderhoof on
July 7th and 8th, at which many delegates and visitors were present. Mr. J. B. Munro,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, attended the
two-day session, contributing valuable counsel and suggestions when the many resolutions
were presented.
Instructive and inspiring addresses were delivered by the Honorary President of District
" C," H. G. Perry, M.L.A.; J. G. Turgeon, M.P., Cariboo; Dr. G. M. Shrum, Director of
Extension, and Dr. G. G. Moe, head of Agronomy Department, both of the University of
British Columbia.
This Convention will be held at McBride next year. B 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Two ploughing-matches were featured during the year, these events being staged
simultaneously at Woodpecker and Strathnaver, respectively, on June 14th, 1939.
Woodpecker Ploughing-match.-—This match entered its third year under the organization
of Mr. W. Coulter, Cloverbank Farm, Hixon, and Mr. Chas. Semerad, Secretary of Strath-
naver-Hixon Farmers' Institute, being held at the farm of E. J. Down, Woodpecker.
The number of contestants stepped up from five in 1938 to seven ploughmen whose
scoring ran high. The prizes were donated by Prince George merchants and citizens, and
included a handsome shield donated by Mr. J. C. Kelly, jeweller, Prince George. Mr. W.
Hope, veteran ploughman and champion of Fort Fraser, assisted in judging the event. Mr.
H. G. Perry, M.L.A., attended during the contest, and when presenting the shield complimented the winner, Mr. V. Flick, of Woodpecker. A large number of residents of Woodpecker, Hixon, and Prince George were in attendance.
Strathnaver Ploughing-match.—This was the first ploughing-match to be held in the
district on the Dominion Illustration Station, and was sponsored by Mr. R. Yardley, operator.
Organized in rather a hurry, the match attracted a great deal of local attention and was
voted one of the most popular and progressive events which had yet been introduced to the
district. It is hoped to make the match an annual event under a complete organization, and
an endeavour will be made to establish an attractive prize-list.
Eight teams entered into friendly competition, with Messrs. J. MacKay, R. Yardley, and
J. Peterson acting as judges.
Land Settlement Board.
Applications for Improvement Credits.—The work of inspection of properties for the
purpose of checking the value and extent of improvements as stated on the application forms,
with report thereon, is carried on continuously throughout the year in co-operation with the
Land Settlement Board, Victoria. These inspections are conducted whenever opportunity
offers, and especially when and where normal official duties are receiving attention.
Assistance to Settlers Agreement.
Applicants for assistance under above plan are considered individually and in close
co-operation with the chief officer in charge of relief.
Purchase of seed-grain, implements, stumping-powder, and live stock, when approved
are usually granted in addition to family subsistance allowance. It is estimated that only
some 30 per cent, of those receiving assistance are actually benefited.
Land Settlement.
A few parcels of farm lands, mostly improved or partially improved, have changed hands
during the year, exchanges being made privately or through real-estate agents. In addition
to these, the local District Superintendent, C.N.R., Departments of Agriculture and Colonization, records nineteen new arrivals who purchased or leased land and thirteen local settlers
who either purchased or leased.
Dominion Experimental Farm.
Press announcements were published in August confirming the purchase of four Pineview
farm properties by the Dominion Government. These properties will be incorporated into an
Experimental Farm located within a few miles of Prince George.
For some years past many expressions of opinion have been voiced locally at Farmers'
Institute meetings and elsewhere regarding marketing of live stock and the practicability of
establishing a small packing plant and cold-storage facilities, but no real investigation
regarding these projects had been formulated.
In order to intelligently study the needs of the community, particularly with regard to
these matters, assistance was proffered in the formation of study-groups, resulting in two
groups being formed, the first on February 1st at Pineview (Prince George) with eight
members and the second at McBride on March 11th with an equal membership. Weekly
meetings were held continuously at both centres, finishing for the season at the end of April. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939.
B 103
On April 26th a joint report was presented during the regular meeting of Prince George
Farmers' Institute, to which delegates from other Institutes and members of local Boards of
Trade had been invited. On this occasion addresses were given by the following members of
the group: W. Kirschke, general review; R. Blackburn, co-operation; L. Bower, cold storage;
J. Travis, credit unions;   L. Proppe, study-groups.
Rural Occupational Schools.
Under the direction of the Department of University Extension the Rural Occupational
School is fast becoming an established and popular annual institution throughout the district.
Some assistance was rendered from this district office in organizing schools at the following
centres:— Pupil
Duration. Registration.
McBride, October 9th     2 weeks 40
Woodpecker, October 23rd j     3 weeks 28
Vanderhoof, November 13th     2 weeks 30
Precipitation Table at Prince George, 1939.
(Figures taken from the records of the Dominion Meteorological Service, Prince George, B.C.)
26 Years.
October  _.
December (to 9th).
+ 0.57
— 0.14
+ 1.78
— 1.00
+ 0.17
+ 8.17
Note.—1933 record rainfall and snowfall year with 27.08 inches for the full year; 1919 snowfall was 135.00
inches. On December 9th excess precipitation over average is 8.17 inches or 46 per cent, increase over normal
precipitation figures.    The rain for December to date would equal over 1 foot of snow.
S. G. Preston, M.S.A., District Agriculturist.
The 1939 season has been the best for the farmers since 1936, both with respect to
pasture and growing conditions, as well as prices to be obtained generally for farm products.
Contributing to the better conditions have been a very mild fall and winter. There was a
good deal of rain in November and there is a better supply of subsoil moisture than there has
been for a number of years.
Pastures were excellent and beef cattle marketed this fall from the range were in good
condition. Dairymen, running short of feed from the dry season of 1938, were rewarded
with a plentiful supply of good pasture throughout the season.   •
Field Crops.
Yields of all crops were excellent, with the exception of timothy-seed and hay in the
Lakes District. There was less spring rain in this area than other sections, which, together
with the dry soil conditions from the previous season, retarded the timothy greatly in
the spring.
The following table shows the yields as taken from the threshers' reports, together with
figures showing the percentage above the 1938 crop and comparative percentage of the
1936-37 average for significant yields (1939 = 100) :— B 104
Crop Yields, 1939 (Incomplete).
Spring wheat (bu.).
Fall wheat (bu.)	
Oats (bu.) 	
Barley (bu.)	
Peas (bu.)	
Eye (bu.)	
Speltz (bu.)	
Alsike clover (Ib.)-
Timothy (lb.)	
Fescue (lb.)	
Brome^rass (lb.) —
Crested wheat-grass (lb.).
There has been no noticeable increase in any crop acreages with the exception of barley.
With the encouragement by the Department for growing this grain for hog feeding, and the
natural suitability of the district for barley, a number of farmers each year are seeding more.
Further, with the hog industry on the increase, we can look for a further increase of the
acreage in barley next year.
A good deal of certified seed-grain was brought into the district in the spring. The
following are approximate amounts and kinds:—
Victory  oats,  certified	
Legacy oats, certified	
Marquis wheat, registered
Red Bobs 222, certified	
Olli barley, certified	
. 3,700
Cost per Bushel
to Farmers.
The Legacy oats was from a bulk car purchased from Peace River District. Most of the
seed was used in the Bulkley Valley, but smaller lots went to Terrace and Kitwanga in the
west and Endako in the east.
The two car-loads of Victory oats were brought in by the Bulkley Valley Seed-growers'
Association, while the others, with the exception of the Legacy oats, were purchased directly
by the growers from Certified Seed Growers in Alberta.
While there has been considerable frost-damage to grain during the season, it appears
there will be sufficient seed for next year, with the possible exception of the Endako section.
It is expected that farmers in the Lakes District and the Bulkley Valley who find themselves
short of seed-grain will be able to secure their requirements without assistance.
Yields of timothy hay and seed in many parts of the district were excellent this season;
most of the hay is still in the hands of the farmers with no immediate prospect of sale.
There is probably 2,000 tons of No. 1 and 2 timothy available for sale. The weather was
fine at haying-time so most of the hay was stored in good condition.
Although the acreage of timothy cut for seed is lower than usual, the high yields to the
acre in the Bulkley Valley have given a total return very near to that of 1937. To date,
approximately 280 tons of timothy-seed have been marketed at 0.05 ^c. per pound net.
The threshers' reports have indicated a total yield of about 1,500,000 lb. of this seed,
but the amounts estimated to be cleaned by the various plants is 830 tons. The original
estimates this season were much below the actual yield. While it was noted that the crops
were very good in the Bulkley Valley, the total estimate was placed at first at 500 tons, then
700 tons, due to the low yields at Francois Lake. The last estimate was still nearly 100 tons
low, which shows the yields to the acre, this year, in the Bulkley Valley, were exceptionally
high. A number of farmers claim as high as 700 lb. to the acre with 400 to 500 lb. being
quite common.    The general run for timothy-seed in this district is about 250 lb. to the acre.
Field Crop Union.
The system of conducting experiments with various crops under the British Columbia
Field Crop Union continues to be popular.    Experiments were conducted in Smithers centre DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 105
for 1939 on more than 40 fields. It was possible to inspect only a few of these tests during
the season. Alfalfa made good progress but was damaged by cutworms in several places.
The same was the case with the Crested Wheat-grass and Parkland Brome, but these latter
made better recovery later than the alfalfa. The orchard-grass and perennial rye, sent for
test on the Experimental Sub-station, made excellent stands. Only one lot of the spring rye
was seeded but made poor progress, despite being seeded on new land. This seed was
received rather late and most farmers had all their land seeded.
Live Stock.
The situation with regard to beef cattle remains annually unchanged. Although the
number shipped is much less than last year, this is due to a large number being sold in 1938
due to lack of feed. Prices were considerably higher this year and the cattle in better
The majority of beef cattle are produced in the Lakes District and, due to the higher
percentage of grass in the native pasture, they hold their condition longer in shipment than
those from the Bulkley Valley, where peavine is the chief grazing feed.
The following is a statement of shipments by carload lots from January 1st to November
30th, 1939, as supplied by Smithers Division of the Canadian National Railways:-—
Cattle, 43 car-loads (21 to Vancouver and 22 to Prince Rupert). Sheep, 3 car-loads
(2 to Vancouver and 1 to Prince Rupert). Included in the above, but not otherwise indicated, are 11 sheep from Smithers to Terrace; 105 sheep from Burns Lake to Prince
Rupert;  and 38 sheep from Forestdale to Vancouver.
One settler at Francois Lake brought in a car-load of Hereford heifers from Alberta.
Should these be handled right they will do much in the future to improve the general quality
of the beef stock in the Lakes District. Each year beef and dairy cattle are becoming
established to those parts best suited to them. The majority of beef cattle are now produced
between Francois and Ootsa Lake, where the range is still plentiful but it is too far to ship
cream satisfactorily; while, on the other hand, the Houston, Telkwa, Quick, and Smithers
areas produce most of the cream and milk marketed at Prince Rupert and the local creamery.
Dairying received an added impetus with the establishment of a creamery at Telkwa—a
branch of the Interior Creamery at Prince George. The operator has been well satisfied
with the returns and informs us that the amount of cream handled has been much higher than
expected for the first season. The storekeepers have co-operated to handle local creamery
butter instead of Alberta butter. For this reason it has been possible to pay a good price
for butter-fat.
Contributing to the supply of cream to the local creamery are the Dutch settlers near
Houston, who came in this spring, also the Swiss in the vicinity of Smithers. The Hollanders'
first move upon their arrival was the purchase of dairy cows, and some were shipping
cream two weeks after they had secured farms.
In the past, Prince Rupert has taken considerable whole milk for city distribution but,
during the past few years, a number of dairies have been established in Prince Rupert, so
that only about half the original amount is shipped from the Bulkley Valley.
On the whole the dairy industry appears quite encouraging, and will no doubt continue
to play a large part in the farm operations of this district in the future. The largest farm
receipts still come from timothy-seed, but shipping cream and whole milk also gives a cash
return. Moreover, the cream-money is obtained every month, while timothy-seed is only a
yearly cash account.
Diseases and Pests.
This season 40 lb. of Derris-powder preparation was supplied by the Provincial Government for application to cattle infected with warbles. This pest does not spread in Central
British Columbia with the same facility as in the range districts and control-means to date
have been singularly effective. No definite information is available this season on the
average numbers found per animal. Those in the Francois Lake District who treated their
cattle in 1938 could not find sufficient evidence of warbles to warrant further application of
Deraten in 1939. Most of those who secured Deraten in the Bulkley Valley took it again
this season, chiefly as a precaution against some appearing. One farmer arriving from the
Prairie with cattle was supplied with Deraten so there was no danger of reinfection. B 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The raising of swine has received a good deal of encouragement through Dominion and
Provincial policies. Following a consultation at Williams Lake on October 19th, where the
B.C. Live Stock Commissioner, a Dominion representative, and the four Central B.C. District
Agriculturists attended, a scheme for promoting interest in this project was evolved.
The support of bank managers and other business-men was solicited and mimeographed
circulars describing the scheme were widely circulated. The scheme briefly described the
necessity for increasing the number of hogs raised and the assistance that would be given in
bringing in good quality brood sows and boars. A car-load of brood sows with three boars
was introduced into the district from McBride to Smithers, of which 18 sows and 1 boar
were for this area.
This is the beginning of a scheme which it is hoped will result in the production of
sufficient swine to allow car-load shipments from this district. The recipients of these sows,
as well as others engaged in raising hogs for market, will be kept supplied with up-to-date
information and advice on care of swine and times to breed so as to organize co-operative
It will be noted in the review concerning shipments of cattle and sheep, that over three
car-loads were marketed during the year from this district. In 1938, the number was only
178 animals. This shows a definite increase in the number produced. Further, L. Cooper,
at Francois Lake, purchased 100 breeding ewes near Kamloops and is prepared to increase
this breeding flock to 200 or as much higher as can be handled. Others in the Francois Lake
District are interested in the scheme and, if it is found that herding and banding of the
flocks reduces the depredations of coyotes and brush-wolves, we can look for a considerable
increase in this line.
Poultry remains much as previously, with the exception of two attempts—one near
Telkwa and one in Smithers—to produce poultry for egg production on quite a large scale.
The use of sawdust-insulated brooder-houses has proven entirely satisfactory and they are
found to be quite cheap to build. These are built 8 feet square of rough lumber, shanty
roof, with two linings of tar-paper to prevent escape of the sawdust. Heat is supplied by
thermostatically controlled coal-heaters. The market for eggs is ordinarily quite remunerative, with Prince Rupert as the chief outlet. The difficulties in producing winter eggs has
discouraged most poultry-raisers, however, in the past.
Through assistance of the Provincial Department of Agriculture, a number of hardy
strains of apple-trees were again distributed to farmers in various parts of the district. In
all, eighty-three 2- and 3-year-old trees were distributed, chiefly to those whose 1937 plantings
were nearly a complete failure. A number of farmers are taking a real interest in these
trees. Of further interest is the fact that, of the 1936 plantings, the first fruit was procured this year. This was " Florence Crab " on the farm of J. G. Donaldson, Telkwa. While
it is rather soon to make definite statements on the suitability of various strains to this
district, it would appear that the hardy crab-apples will withstand the winter satisfactorily,
and also some of the hybrid apples.
On the whole there is little change in small-fruit growing. There are nearly sufficient
strawberries, raspberries, and currants raised for local consumption. This will probably
remain the same unless some outside market is developed. When the Terrace strawberry-
crop is good some is marketed at Prince Rupert, but ordinarily local demand takes care of
any surplus. The early strawberries are brought in from Southern British Columbia much
ahead of the local crop, so by the time these come in the demand is only for a few for canning
or jam.
This season the Department distributed a number of daffodils and tulip bulbs considered
suitable to the district. After consultation with some of the successful flower-growers in the
district, circulars were prepared dealing with the care of bulbs and preparation of the soil
for this district, and the bulbs were planted according to directions. The iris roots supplied
by Robert Murray, Esquire, of Victoria, B.C., and distributed in 1937, came through the
winter very successfully. The earlier strains bloomed in 1939 and all made good growth.
There should be a good showing of these in 1940. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 107
Junior Clubs.
This year the district was represented by six Junior Clubs, of which the following table
shows the type of club, name, and number of members:— Members.
Bulkley Valley Dairy Calf Club     11
Round Lake Dairy Calf Club       7
Uncha Valley Beef Calf Club     10
Danskin Beef Calf Club     11
Uncha Valley Potato Club       8
Woodmere Baby-chick Club .'.       7
Total, six clubs _     54
The calves of the Uncha Valley and Danskin Beef Calf Clubs were judged by Mr. Harry
Bowman, of the C.N.R. Colonization and Agriculture Department, on September 9th. The
former in the morning at the Uncha Valley School and the latter at Mr. Hammerberg's farm
at Danskin in the afternoon. There was a good turnout of visitors and parents on both
occasions, and Mr. Bowman commented enthusiastically on the support given by the parents
and the interest taken in training the calves. Although this is the first season for the
Danskin Club, Mr. Bowman said that the calves were handled and shown better than he had
previously seen in any club in Northern British Columbia.
The Dairy Clubs were judged at Telkwa on September 4th at the " Telkwa Barbecue."
They were transported to Telkwa by truck and judged by Mr. H. Nichols, foreman at the
Experimental Station. A good deal more time is taken up with the Dairy Clubs than should
be necessary, due to the large area from which members are drawn. Results of the training
have this year been more encouraging than previously, so perhaps the labour has been to
good advantage. Mr. A. Howell (C.T.A. Supervisor) will be missed in relation to this work
as his knowledge of cattle and practical dairy methods, as well as his understanding of the
boys and girls, made him an excellent organizer and assistant throughout in all club-work.
The Potato Club at Uncha Valley was managed chiefly by the organizers. Certified
seed-potatoes were used. Directions were supplied at early meetings by the Department as
to care and seeding. Later the Dominion potato inspector visited the farms and gave much
valuable information to the members. While the Rural Youth Training School was in
progress at Southbank the Field Crops Instructor, Mr. C. D. Osborn, devoted two periods to
instruction on potato-growing. Final scoring was done by Mr. E. Stone, Secretary of the
Uncha Valley Farmers' Institute, and Mr. F. Carter, a gardener of that district.
The Poultry Club was scored for seasonal work by this Department and final placing of
birds was made by Mr. C. D. Osborn, of the Rural Occupational School.
In all, the clubs were quite successful this season, and there is a general feeling of
satisfaction toward the educational results obtained. This shows an interest by both children
and parents, which so often has been lacking. Much credit for a revival of interest goes to
Mr. C. J. Killer, Advisory Board member, who has, on every possible occasion, strongly
recommended the support of these projects.
Fairs and Exhibitions.
The annual Central B.C. Seed Fair this year was held at Smithers. The number of
exhibits was higher than either 1937 or 1938. This is still much lower than should be obtained
from a district this size. The official judge was C. D. Osborn, of the University Extension
Department, who was able to do the judging in a very efficient manner.
The value of the seed fair to the district appears yearly more doubtful.    True, a number
of farmers took the opportunity to take the names of growers of good quality seed, also the
attendance was fair and an intelligent interest taken in the exhibits.    Nevertheless, so small
a proportion of the farmers are represented that there seems little actual return for the
expense and trouble of the fair.
r Weed-control.
While not as much time is expended on this branch of the work as should be, attention
has been given to experiments on chemical control of weeds and circulars distributed on
use of clean seed and control of weeds in the field. Of the latter, the local papers have
carried remarks from time to time on the necessity of keeping down the most harmful weeds. B 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In grains and grasses, lamb's-quarters, shepherd's-purse, and stinkweed are the most
troublesome. Mustards and perennial weeds are not widespread. The mustards cause very
little damage and couch-grass, sow-thistle, and Canada thistle in isolated places only. Couch-
grass has been the most common of the perennials and for that reason a number of trials
have been made on spraying with Atlacide. To date, the best results have been obtained
from a spray in the spring just after the heads appear. Fall spraying, despite results in
other parts of the Province, has not been successful. This was tried only in the fall of
1938 and the very dry condition of the soil may have been a limiting factor. It was possible
only to make one late spray this year and that at the Hospital Farm, Hazelton. Three trials
were made there, namely, June 14th, August 22nd, and September 25th. There was over
90 per cent, kill on the June 14th spraying, about 75 per cent, on the August 22nd, with no
results until next spring for the fall spray. A heavy rain immediately after the August 22nd
application no doubt contributed to the unsatisfactory results. The strength of the spray
was.l1/. lb. of Atlacide to 1 gallon of water.
Casual attempts to kill ox-eye daisy, Canada thistle, and perennial sow-thistle have not
been encouraging. The greatest percentage kill was obtained at the early flowering stage,
but a further application the following year still did not completely eradicate the thistles or
ox-eye daisy and it is to be expected, as soon as the effect of the chlorate in the soil has
disappeared, the weeds will again begin to flourish.
The seeding-habit of these weeds in Northern British Columbia is not extensive.
Probably the ox-eye daisy produces the most viable seed and the Canada thistle the least.
This information is gathered from farmers who claim that spread of these weeds in most
cases could be explained from root proliferations and scattering of portions of roots by
implements. But dandelions remain the leading weed throughout the whole of the Central
Interior seed-growing area.
The past two years has seen the placing of a number of Holland and Swiss families in
the Bulkley Valley, as well as a few from the Prairies and States in the Lakes District,
Bulkley Valley, Kispiox, and Terrace. Most of the Swiss and Dutch have had sufficient
funds to make payments on their farms and obtain essential equipment. There are now
about eighteen Swiss farmers near Smithers and Telkwa, and eleven Dutch families at
Houston. They are mostly energetic and the Dutch especially intend to make dairying their
chief occupation. The Prairie settlers, on the other hand, have had little capital but most
of them brought live stock and farm machinery so were able to rent partially improved places
until they could establish themselves.
Rural Occupational Schools.—The University Extension Department again held occupational school classes in the district. These were three-week schools at Francois Lake and
Telkwa and two weeks at Terrace. Bella Coola has also applied for a two-week school but,
if this one is carried out, it will, in all probability, be after the New Year. The best attendance was at Telkwa and the greatest interest by students and adult supporters as well in this
area. The attendance at Francois Lake was fair but a general lethargy, with the exception
of one or two ardent supporters, was noted. The officials claim a good attendance of women
at Terrace but the men were not much concerned with farming instructions and, if it had not
been for the practical engineering courses offered, there would have been very few men
and boys.
These schools have done more than any other form of training to bring out latent
capabilities of the young men and women and this is already reflected in their interest on
the farms and in the homes. Dairying and swine-raising are receiving more attention from
the young people, while the class that attended the seed fair showed a truly intelligent
interest in the varieties and kinds of exhibits. The girls and women are finding means of
decorating their homes, making scarfs, rugs, curtains, etc., which they formerly did without,
and, above all, finding useful outlets for their spare time.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
The year 1939 showed a definite improvement over that of 1938 in the Cariboo and
Lillooet Districts, both as to favourableness of the growing season and  as to monetary DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 109
returns. There was a definite increase in the price-level of beef and some in pork products.
Crops on the irrigated and unirrigated lands produced maximum yields everywhere as a
result of the cool, wet spring and early summer. Weather conditions during the early part
of 1939 were ideal. A cold snap came at the end of January, lasting about ten days into
February, with the coldest temperatures recorded of 35 to 40 degrees below zero. There
was a normal fall of snow, a good part of which fell in February. The general thaw came in
the middle of March. From April to the middle of July heavy rains fell during the whole
of the period. Harvesting conditions were good from then until the latter part of August,
but from this period until the beginning of October rains delayed operations seriously. The
fall and early winter were mild, no snow having fallen by the New Year. On the lower
altitudes the first signs of frost were visible by the middle of September but there were no
hard killing-frosts until the end of October.
Live-stock Industry.
Beef Cattle.—Cattle prices held firm and steady throughout the year, strengthening
while the heavy run was coming on to the market in October. The shipping of cow beef
started in late July with steers coming on in August in unusually heavier numbers than has
ever been the case, primarily because the prices were good at that time and cattlemen were
avoiding the much forecasted drop in price in October. It seems that the steadiness of
prices during the fall was due to a shortage of cattle caused by the drought of 1937 in the
Prairie Provinces, the effect of which is just now being felt in the cattle population of the
west. Much " she " stuff and calves were retained for restocking herds depleted during that
drought. The highest steady prices received f.o.b. Williams La,ke were: Good steers, $5.75 to
$6 per cwt.; heifers, $5 to $5.50; cows, $3.50 per cwt. There was quite a marked demand
for feeder steers; these selling at country points at $5 to $5.50 per cwt. In early August
grassers sold at $1 per cwt. below the prices quoted. Very few cattle in this district were
fed over the winter of 1939, for the reason the dry year of 1938 had cut down the grain yield
very seriously. The higher prices paid this fall played quite a part in curtailing the direct
marketing of cattle on the Vancouver stockyards. Many shippers, who for several years
consigned their cattle to Vancouver commission firms, this year sold at shipping-points or
on the ranch.    Buyers were more numerous and did considerable soliciting at ranch points.
Feeder Sale.—The second annual feeder show and sale held in Williams Lake on
October 19th was another outstanding success, rating as the best of any sales held during
the year in the four Western Provinces. The prices received were for the most part $1.25 to
$1.50 per cwt. stronger than the prevailing prices on the Vancouver market at that time. A
total of 1,229 head of cattle were listed and sold by auction, with a turnover of $66,564.67,
netting approximately $16,000 extra returns which the cattlemen otherwise would not have
received. These extra returns placed in the hands of the cattlemen are the results of keen
competition established by a market which has a sufficient volume of cattle to attract
numerous buyers of all classes. Both large and small operators were represented amongst
the contributors to the sale, it being a show-window to the former and a market to the latter
for his small offering. Many of the small operators have not a sufficient number of cattle to
make a shipment by themselves and, therefore, receive poorer prices as a result. Two
thousand head of cattle could have been handled nicely for this year's sale and the objective
set by the Association was that number, but some of the cattlemen eyed the proposed number
with some degree of suspicion and would not contribute to the sale.
The average prices on the show cattle entered were $7.41 per cwt. on calves; $6.53 on
yearling steers; $6.82 per cwt. on 2-year steers; $5.86 on yearling heifers. The general
averages paid for the show and commercial cattle were as follows: Calves, $7 per cwt.;
yearling steers, $6.34; 2-year steers, $6.64; yearling heifers, $5.55; butcher cattle, $7.09.
It is significant that, for the first time, eighty-five head of feeders went into the Okanagan
over the route via Clinton and Ashcroft. It is hoped that this shipment marks the first of
many to follow into a district which handles over 2,000 feeder cattle per year, but mostly
purchased on the Prairies.
Bull Sale.—On the afternoon of October 20th the annual sale of bulls was held with
fifty-seven registered Shorthorn and Hereford yearling bulls changing hands at an average
price of $179.91. Shorthorns struck a new high of $200, a price for this breed which has
not been realized anywhere in the west since the prosperous days of 1929.    Forty-nine Here- B 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ford bulls sold for an average of $176.06, with the top bull selling at $260. A shipment of
twenty-eight registered yearlings sold at good steady prices with one, a grand bull, selling at
$250. This shipment was easily the best lot of bulls ever brought into Cariboo, the blood of
which will leave a general mark of improvement in the steers to follow.
Range and Feed Conditions.—Spring and early summer weather conditions were ideal
for the production of range. The cool and moist conditions rejuvenated the badly-eaten-out
and otherwise depleted ranges to such a degree that luxuriant grazing could be located anywhere during the season. That area known as the " Military Reserve " on Riske Creek was
fenced during the spring with a drift-fence by the Forest Branch in order to give this overgrazed range some protection and relief from cattle during the summer. The herds which
formerly grazed this area were drifted into virgin wooded country for the summer, with the
result that they were in better flesh than the cattle out of the same herds have been for years.
With a very favourable growing season the grass on the protected range got away to a good
start and was not grazed until after it had gone to seed. By a few years the weakened
plants will have regained their normal vigour and should make one of the best ranges in the
While conditions were ideal for the production of range forage, its quality was not up
to par until late in the season, when it hardened off. Owing to its succulence, cattle did not
seem to pick up as early in the season. The early-marketed cattle had all the appearances of
carrying a good covering of flesh but did not weigh out and the shrinkage was heavy. On
the other hand, the late shipments had higher percentages of well-finished cattle than did
those of the same dates of other years. A few of the cattlemen to the west of the Chilcotin
made trial shipments by barge from Bella Coola to Vancouver in order to avoid the long
drift east to Williams. Lake and to put their cattle through a better grass country while en
route. The advantages gained by this route over the old one have not yet demonstrated
themselves to be sufficiently superior to allow any predictions to be made so far on the route
future shipments will take.
There will be no shortage of hay during the winter, particularly with it being half over
and cattlemen not having fed any of their herds, except calves, on account of the open winter
up till the present.    Hay-crops were heavy all over the district.
Breeding.—The calf-crop percentage for the year was a little below the normal average,
this being accounted for by the dry year of 1938. Generally the " she " stuff did not have
the grazing with which to build up their depleted stores after calving to enable the reproductive system to function. Scanty feed conditions during the breeding season cause a
short calf-crop the following spring. Many of the breeding pastures during 1938 dried up
and could not provide adequate feed for the female herd. Losses on the calving-grounds
during the last spring were not so heavy as in the spring of 1938, owing to the milder winter,
and heifers in calf came through in stronger shape.
With the introduction of electrical fencing and the costs cut by 80 per cent, of that of
the ordinary types it should encourage the establishment of breeding-pastures on ranches
which either have none or one too small to handle the full female herd. This type of fence
does not entail so much labour and can be strung out over rough country, enabling one to
fence a much larger tract than would otherwise be possible under ordinary ranch financial
conditions. This type of fencing offers another valuable advantage by withholding breachy
bulls. A very common complaint voiced by owners is that they cannot hold within their
breeding-pastures such bulls, which otherwise are very desirable as to conformation, or to
keep out inferior ones. There seems to be a general trend during the last year for ranch
operators to purchase better bulls, as was well demonstrated at the auction sale of bulls held
in October. The advantages gained by using registered bulls were made clear to many in
the extra premium paid for quality stuff sold at the feeder sale.
Sheep and Wool.—Sheep numbers in the Cariboo District have reached the point where
they no longer take an important place in live-stock production, except in so far as the
slight part they play in the practice of mixed farming. Sheep-ranching has been abandoned
altogether; although this district offers possibilities in some parts, having unlimited semi-
open range unused by cattle.
Returns from this branch of agriculture have been remunerative enough, but losses from
predatory animals have put the sheep business out on quite a number of mixed farms where a
flock is kept as a side-line.    The electrical fence again may offer some  solution  to  the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 111
problem. It is claimed by some that the coyote and bear will not approach this type of fence
once they have received a jolt. The ease with which it can be put up might permit the
mixed farmer who is troubled in this way to stay with his remunerative line.
The bulk of the lambs shipped out were sold at the time of the feeder show and sale,
with prices ranging from $7 to $8 per cwt. These were sold privately to attending buyers.
With the increased attendance of buyers to the feeder sales the Association has decided to
again put the lambs up for auction at the next sale. Wool was again assembled at Williams
Lake, as well as gathered all along the line of the P.G.E. Railway, and shipped by pool car to
the B.C. Sheep Breeders at the Pacific Coast terminals, New Westminster. There has been a
further drop in the amount of wool shipped.
Dairying.—Butter-fat during the year improved considerably and the dairying industry
has expanded slightly as a result. The prices paid by the Quesnel Creamery per pound of
butter-fat were: January-March, 25 cents; April, 24 cents; May, 22 cents; June-August,
20 cents; September, 24 cents; October, 28 cents; November, 29 cents; and December,
30 cents. The total make of butter-fat from local cream was 98,088 lb.; this make being 8
per cent, over that of last year's. The manager reports that they have the agency for icecream and their sales have been very good during the year, but with greater outlets they are
looking for a bigger turnover in this line next year.
Much more dairying could be done amongst the smaller men who operate mixed farms
on the east side of the Cariboo Highway, where the precipitation is much heavier, permitting
the growing of crops without irrigation. There is, however, a marked expansion in dairy
production in the communities of Lone Butte, Roe Lake, Forest Grove, and Big Lake, along
with a slight increase in the vicinity of Quesnel.
Swine.—Local hog prices have kept up well during 1939, the butchers paying from $12
to $13 per cwt. dressed. Hog production up to harvesting this year had a heavy set-back
owing to the shortage of grain from 1938 on most farms. Threshing was prolonged into
October by adverse weather conditions and made finishing of hogs difficult. While pasturage
assists very materially to make hog production economical, the system on the other hand is
much abused on many farms and ranches in Cariboo because hog-raisers will not feed along
with pasture sufficient grain and skim-milk, and the latter feed where not available is not
replaced by a protein supplement in the form of tankage or fish-meal. Many farmers who
are not in a position to ship cream but who have plenty of grazing available could milk a few
cows for a milk-supply to their young developing hogs. This source of protein is much
cheaper than that purchased through tankage or fish-meal, due to freight costs.
In December fifty-three York select gilts and three York boars were brought into the
district from Edmonton. Twenty of these and a boar were purchased by settlers at Canim
Lake. The others were left at the 150-Mile House with a boar until bred. Every community of the Cariboo is represented in the purchase of these gilts. A swine-improvement
association is being formed with the 150-Mile Ranch as headquarters, and the location where
the boar donated by the Dominion Live Stock Branch will stand for future service to the
There are still quite a number using Berk boars on York sows, but the cross resulting is
only a makeshift in an attempt to gain what should be made up by more generous feeding.
Many feeders here still believe that the thicker, shorter hog, commonly known as the black hog,
is what the butcher wants, not realizing that the select York will sell an average of 8 lb. more
of meat over the counter.
Dressed hogs have been brought in from Edmonton continuously during the year to
supply to the Wells trade. Present plans are to enter the finished litters from the imported
gilts into the feeder sale of 1940 where they will be auctioned off to the buyers.
Horses.—Good draught horses for farm and ranch work are more plentiful now since
more interest has been shown in breeding in the last three and four years. Good sound
horses around 1,500 lb. are selling at prices ranging from $100 to $125. No further importations of stallions were made into the district during the year. With the renewed interest in
horse-breeding of late it will not take long to build up to a point exceeding the demand.
Considerable interest has been shown in saddle-horse breeding but there is still a shortage
of good strong cow horses.    Good horses of this kind sell from $125 to $150. B 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Poultry.—There has been a general increase in the number of poultry kept on farms and
ranches and the industry has been put on a more scientific basis everywhere. Feed up till
harvest time was quite expensive to buy but, on the other hand, eggs sold at steady prices
throughout the year. The lowest price received by the producer was 25 cents per dozen and
the highest was 40 cents per dozen. Young cockerels by July sold at 22 cents to 25 cents per
pound. Turkeys on the local Christmas market sold at 30 cents per pound. More attention
is being paid to sanitation in the keeping of poultry, with the result that diseases which
formerly were quite common are no longer present.
Live-stock Health.
At the beginning of 1939 quite an outbreak of coccidiosis occurred on the ranch of R. C.
Cotton, some sixty head of calves being stricken with the disease. Not a great deal of trouble
with this disease was had on other ranches. Up till the New Year of 1940 there has been no
cases reported. The mild open fall and winter has been very favourable to the calf herd.
A few cases of nercrotic stomatitis were reported in early January of 1939.
There were no cases of blackleg in the vicinity of the 100-Mile Ranch during the last
spring and the calf herd on this ranch was vaccinated in early March, giving the calves protection against contaminated grounds.
All horses between Soda Creek and Quesnel, about 250 in number, were given protecting
doses of encephalomyelitis vaccine against sleeping sickness.
Poison-hemlock caused some losses at 150-Mile House and at Horsefly. The weed known
as horsetail has again poisoned a few horses in the district.
Field Crops.
Hay.—No winter-killing of alfalfa occurred last winter. Hay-crops of all kinds produced an abundance of fodder, both on irrigated and unirrigated ground. The first cutting
of alfalfa was seriously damaged by rains or through delayed cutting, as on some ranches, in
trying to avoid the rains which finished up in the crop turning woody. The second crop,
where the first cutting was delayed, was pushed late into the season when wet weather had
again to be dealt with. Those who made their first cutting, when ready, regardless of the
weather, were through their large-scale haying operations by September 1st, the earliest date
for many years. In some sections the wild-hay meadows did not yield as they did last year
owing to the coolness of the fore part of the season. Baled alfalfa, first crop, sold at prices
ranging from $12 to $15 per ton. There is an abundance of hay everywhere and not much
sale for it.
Potatoes.—Potato-crops did not yield quite as well as those of last* year. The crop got
away to a good start with abundance of moisture in the early summer, but a hot, dry spell
followed, checking the growth seriously at the critical period.
Grain-crops.—Grain yields all over the district were high and good crops were harvested
on land which ordinarily yielded only one-half of a normal crop under average conditions.
Winter losses in fall-wheat stands were negligible. There has been a greater acreage put
down to this type of wheat during the last two years as this crop outyields the spring varieties,
and even if it is of a soft grade the spring wheat does not command any better price on its
superior quality. Phenomenal yields of fall wheat were had, one grower reporting that he
had obtained 4 tons from 1% acres of land which had been summer-fallowed prior to seeding.
Other grain-crops did well everywhere.
Roots.—These crops gave good yields, particularly the swedes, which thrived under the
cool, moist conditions following seeding.
Garden-fruit.—The cool season garden-crops did exceptionally well all over the district,
but the heat-loving crops—such as tomatoes, corn, and the vine-crops—missed the early heat
to drive them. Tomatoes in Lillooet were later maturing this year by three weeks. The
apple-crop in Lillooet was normal and fancy grades brought the grower $1.15 per box. Small
fruits produced normal yields everywhere.
Seed.—The alfalfa-seed crop of Lillooet and Lytton was not as heavy as that of 1938, as
seed-setting requires considerable heat, which this year was not had at the night-time. No
reports have been received to date on the sale of this seed and the price received. The quality
of the seed was slightly superior to that produced in 1938. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 113
One farmer of Kersley this year threshed 300 lb. of Ledac alfalfa-seed. Considerable
seed was lost in the threshing of the alfalfa. He also grows a limited quantity of swede-
seed which finds a ready market locally. Under contract, several growers in Lillooet undertook to grow seed. Registered Pickaninny and Golden Bantam corn was placed with two
growers. Registered Hubbard squash was placed and grown also. This crop did well and
produced a good quantity of seed. Elite Lincoln peas did well, but weather conditions ruined
some of the crop, a fair amount being salvaged.
Ensilage.—An attempt was made to introduce corn for silage production on ranches
located at lower altitudes and protected from summer frosts. Four acres with eight varieties
under test, the seed of which was supplied by Mr. C. Tice, of the Provincial Department of
Agriculture, and Dr. S. E. Clarke, of the Experimental Farms Branch, were sown on the
Douglas ranch at Soda Creek. The table below shows the results of the test of the varieties,
as obtained by taking the green weight of 20 feet of each variety in the row where representative of the average growth:— j.
Rainbow Flint   101
Falconer      66
Minn 23      60
Minn 13     59
N. W. Dent Lethbridge strain      60
N. W. Dent Morden strain    67
Saskatchewan White Flint	
The latter two are dwarf varieties and too early for the length of growing season generally around Soda Creek.
The yield of dry matter per acre of each variety has yet to be determined in order to find
which variety is the most suitable under the climatical conditions. The field was kept well
cultivated throughout the summer, but received a check when irrigation-water was not
applied soon enough following the rains of early summer. A trench silo was constructed
and the crop was ensiled September 25th. Up till then only very slight indications of frost
were visible on the crop, while in parts of the North Okanagan corn had been badly hit by
frost as early as the beginning of September. The silage on this ranch will be used for the
finishing of steers. Further trials but on a much smaller scale were tried on several other
ranches in different locations, one of these being on the Chilcotin River, where the heat of
the summer is intense. A report on this trial could not be obtained as the property is difficult
of access and the crop could not be visited. The corn varieties were also on trial at the
Onward Ranch and at the St. Joseph's Mission, but these plots were checked by frost in
late August.
Insects and Pests.
Annual meetings of the South Riske Creek and Clinton Grasshopper Areas were held on
November 10th and 15th respectively. Both areas were completely free of grasshoppers
this year and no money was actually expended on control-work. In the Clinton Zone $220.80
was spent on the purchase of supplies in preparation for an outbreak.
Cutworms were bad everywhere this year, and many whole gardens and some in part
had to be resown. Those gardeners who used the bait as a control measure early enough
found it an effective remedy against the pest. Their ravages were extended over a longer
period it seemed this year. The usual onion-maggot invasion was checked considerably by
the cool, damp weather of the spring, and many were able to raise onions without a single
In some localities root-rot in both garden and sweet peas has been causing some annoyance.    This condition is largely favoured by the application of an abundance of water.
Pests.—Very little effort is being made in the Horsefly and Roe Lake communities to kill
off the Columbia ground-squirrel which is on the increase. Quite a drive, however, has been
made in the Forest Grove District and their numbers have been greatly reduced this year.
The woodchucks in the vicinity of the 150-Mile House have been exterminated to a point
where they can be handled quite easily.
The coyote menace is very acute to the mixed farmers who allow their small flocks of
sheep to wander about the farmstead unguarded. Bears have not caused the sheepmen or
cattlemen to complain during the last few years.
Three Rural Occupational Schools were held under the University Extension Department; one in May at Lillooet, another at Kersley in October, and the third in December at
Williams Lake. In each case your Agriculturist assisted with the organization of the schools
and co-operated with the staff in every way to make them successful. There was a good
attendance at all the schools.
The experimental orchards started in 1938 under the direction of the Provincial Horticulturist were further extended this year. Thirty-eight apple- and crab-trees were placed
amongst three growers at Soda Creek. Those trees placed in 1938 made vigorous growth,
particularly on the Douglas farm where they received irrigation. Those with Dyas did not
make the same vigorous growth but are coming along quite nicely without irrigation. There
has been no signs of winter-killing.
In the month of April a trip into the Chilcotin District was made with Mr. Tisdale,
Experimental Range Station, Kamloops, to investigate the reseeding possibilities of eaten-
out ranges. A burned-over range at Tatlayoko Lake was inspected and found to have an
ideal seed-bed, so clean had been the burn. Two small test areas were seeded down on the
visit and several lots of seed, 146 lb. in all were left for further trials.
A small plot of crested-wheat grass was established between Redstone and Tatla Lake
on poor dry sandy " pine barrens," the cover on which had been burned bare. In August
when visited this was doing quite well and a number of the young plants were thriving in
the sand.
Clubs.—Registered Grimm alfalfa-seed was distributed to thirty-two club members during
the year, each member doing his own preparation of the plot and his own seeding down. In
the New Year these thirty-two members will be broken up into three clubs.
A Beef Calf Club was organized in the late fall in the Kersley and Australian communities with a purpose to promote winter-finishing of beef on the mixed farms. Seven
members in all were enrolled in this project. It is possible that others will feed a few head
over the winter to add to the number fitted by the young people, so that enough will be
marketed at one time to command an extra premium on the local market.
Some assistance was given the Williams Lake Village Commissioners in planning a
boulevard tree-planting programme for the streets of the town. A start was made on one
avenue, using the hardy native drought-resisting choke-cherry. Advice was given in the
lifting and transplanting of these trees.
The annual meeting of the District " H " Institute was held at Lone Butte on June 29th.
The delegates and visitors numbered 110 and it was one of the best attended meetings ever
held since the District Institute was organized. Several speakers of prominence addressed
the convention and were well received by a keen and appreciative audience. Eight resolutions
were endorsed by the convention. Mr. W. Hogg was re-elected as member to the Advisory
Board, and Mr. E. Greenlee was again made president. Your representative was made
secretary-treasurer.    No new institutes have been formed and one has dropped out.
T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist.
The growing season was exceptionally good, although the harvest and threshing weather
were not all that could be desired, leaving the farmers with a quantity of grain that graded
tough. The average approximate yield per acre was as follows: Wheat, 33 bushels; oats,
45 bushels; and barley, 35 bushels. There will be plenty of seed-grain in the district for the
coming spring, with an abundance of feed for the present winter.
Live Stock.
A tendency to increase the swine production is very marked this year; with the low
price of grain and the good price for hogs farmers are going into hogs, at the same time
keeping the quality up. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 115
Twelve Swine Improvement Associations have been formed, with twelve boars supplied
by the Dominion Department of Agriculture in conjunction with the Brood Sow Policy.
These Improvement Associations are doing much to keep up the standard and quality of hogs
in this district.
Twenty-six brood sows, already bred, have been purchased in this district and nine
sows, not bred, in districts where less than twenty sows were needed for the free boar.
The following is a summary of the live stock shipped by the Dawson Creek Co-operative
Shipping Association from January 1st, 1939, to December 15th, 1939:—
3,637 hogs   $54,555.00
691 cattle     $32,394.00
293 sheep and lambs      $2,051.00
Total   $89,000.00
I estimate that the above would represent practically 50 per cent, of the stock shipped
from this district this year.    One of the buyers has left the district and it is impossible to
get his returns.
There were no  cases of encephalomyelitis  reported  in  this  district  this  year;    many
farmers had their horses vaccinated against this last spring and all due precautions were
taken to stop the disease coming in from other Provinces.
Seed Cleaners and Seed-drill Survey.
The hand-cleaning machines throughout the district which were purchased through the
Federal Provincial Assistance continue to do good work, as will be seen by the seed-drill
survey reports.
Of the sixteen samples of wheat grown in the test-plots at Dawson Creek this year 37 per
cent, were suitable for Grade A, 31.5 per cent. Grade B, and the balance were Grade C.    This
work has done much to improve the quality of the various grains grown in this district and
if a field-day can be arranged for the growing plots this coming year it will prove of still
further help. _ _   _
T.B. Test.
Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector for the Province, visited the district during
the month of June and tested approximately 500 head of cattle for bovine tuberculosis but
found no reactors.
Warble-fly Control.
Three new districts were taken into the warble-fly control area this year. It was very
noticeable that in districts where cattle were treated last year for the first time not nearly as
many warbles showed up this year.
Fall Fairs.
A flower-show was held under the auspices of the Horticultural Society in Dawson Creek
on August 12th, with a very good display of exhibits. This is the second show of this nature
to be held in this district and is going ahead very successfully.
The Kiskatinaw Fall Fair was held on August 16th at Groundbirch. This fair now takes
in the whole district west of the Kiskatinaw River, instead of having three or four small
fairs as in the past; these districts are all co-operating to make this fair a success and a
marked improvement was shown again this year. A school fair was held at Doe River on
August 18th, which was very successful.
An Agricultural and Seed Fair was held in Dawson Creek on October 28th. This fair
takes in the whole British Columbia section of the Peace River District and is showing
considerable improvement each year. There were some exceptional exhibits of grain. These
fairs are growing from year to year and are showing a much keener interest each year.
Much interest was taken in the fourteen garden competitions sponsored this year and far
better gardens were raised than had been hoped for at the beginning of the season.
Crop Competitions.
The two standing-crop competitions were held again this year at Groundbirch and
Progress. These have been very much appreciated by the two districts for the past few
Two very successful field-days were held, one at Beaverlodge, with approximately 200
visitors; the other was at Baldonnel, with over 100 visitors present. Much interest was
taken in these two field-days.
The Boys' and Girls' Clubs are improving from year to year. For 1939, two Beef Calf
Clubs, one Swine Club and one Potato Club were organized, which were far better than in
the past.
Threshers' Reports.    •
Threshers' reports to December 15th show a large increase as compared with the same
period, 1938. The following are the totals: Spring wheat, 749,499 bushels; winter wheat,
1,043 bushels; oats, 672,112 bushels; barley, 60,869 bushels; peas, 242 bushels; red clover,
3,500 pounds; timothy, 500 pounds; flax, 1,441 bushels; brome-grass, 5,700 pounds; sweet
clover, 506 pounds;   and rye, 1,544 bushels.
Farmers' Institutes and other Meetings.
Some forty meetings were attended and addresses given. In many cases motion-picture
films were shown. These meetings were all well attended and much real good has developed
from them.
Three Horse-breeders' Associations have been organized, which are helping to raise the
quality of horses in this district.
Fairly good co-operation from farmers for the control of weeds was found again this
year. It was a considerable help to have the Weed Inspectors' time extended for a longer
period than previously. Two farms in the vicinity of Rolla were found to have hoary cress
this year; everything possible is being done to prevent the spread of this weed and, if
possible, to eradicate it.
Generally speaking, everything has been very successful throughout the district this
year, much being done to improve the seed and live-stock quality. We are going into the
winter with plenty of moisture for the coming spring and although not much fall work was
done, owing to the very wet season, still a considerable area of summer fallow is in good shape.
I very much appreciate the co-operation I have received from all those with whom it
has been my duty and my pleasure to work during the past year.
D. Sutherland, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
Because of the light snowfalls and mild weather feed-supplies were sufficient and, in
fact, at the close of the feeding period there was a surplus left in the Interior. This season
was somewhat similar to 1938, with an early drought period followed by considerable rains
which served to allay the fears of ranchers despairing of adequate range and crop-growth.
April and May were cool, dry months with only three or four light showers, and plant-
growth was hardly perceptible. Fortunately, general rains fell about June 3rd and these
continued throughout the month. This was followed by warm weather and plant-growth
fairly jumped ahead and progressed vigorously. Hot, dry weather continued through July
with the exception of two or three showers at intervals, followed by others occurring in the
middle weeks of September. Since then the weather has continued clear and moderate, giving
perfect harvest conditions, and only light snowfalls have occurred up to the close of the year.
In brief, except for the spring drought, weather conditions throughout the year were ideal
for plant and animal growth in all sections of the Interior, with the possible exception of
the Upper North Thompson Valley.
Plant-growth.—As one might assume from the favourable growth conditions described
in the beginning of the report, plant-growth was greatly improved over that in the previous
year. This was particularly the case with winter wheat, which yielded in the dry-farming
areas almost double the tonnage of the previous year. Spring wheat did not fare so well as
growth was not sufficiently advanced when the hot dry period commenced in July.
The marketable quantity of alfalfa-hay in the district available to the feed firms for
resale amounted to about 6,000 tons, approximately the same as the year previous.    The DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 117
price is down $2 a ton for hay of better quality. Oats and barley yielded 20 per cent, more
than in 1938, with prices at this time up $4 to $6 a ton.
The apple-crop was down in yield from the year previous, with prices at the same level.
Smaller acreages of tomatoes and potatoes gave good yields of higher quality. The potato
price is up, being $25 a ton at this time to the grower. The semi-ripe tomato price was also
improved, supplies were not sufficient later on to meet cannery demands. Cannery prices
were unchanged from the year previous.
Strawberry yields in the North Thompson Valley were much improved in yield and
quality over 1938. Unfortunately vegetable-crops did not show the same response, the
weather being too cool and dry in the first half of the season for optimum growth.
Live Stock.—Sheep and cattlemen report the past season to have been the best for many
years. Stock came off the ranges in excellent condition. One of the largest sheepmen
reports that 3,310 ewes were lambed and from these 4,220 lambs were docked. Losses in
lambs for the season amounted to 132 head, caused by poison-weeds and predatory animals.
Lamb prices averaged 8% cents at Vancouver for the season. This operator's wool-crop
from 3,948 sheep amounted to 34,209 lb. The average fleece weighed 8%o lb. Wool prices
will return 4 cents to 5 cents per pound more to the grower over 1938, and this grower states
that this past season has been the best for the sheep business since 1929. The sheep are in
fine condition, the ranges have more dry feed than usual and the winter up to the close of
the year has been entirely favourable. He estimates the number of ewes to be bred for this
season will be approximately the same as last.
Marketing.—Throughout the year the market for live stock has been fairly stable and
prices have remained on a generally higher level. Throughout the year, good steers brought
$6 to $6.50 in May and June, dropping in July and August to $5 and $5.50. The market
stiffened in September and at the close of the year grass steers were fetching $6 to $6.50 at
shipping-point. Heifers ranged from $5 in May and June, dropping to $4 in August, and
returning to $5.50 in November. There was a steady demand for cows which sold from $3 to
$4.50, depending on quality and season.
The Brand Inspector reports for the year a total of 324 horses, 5,038 cattle, and 2,440
hides shipped from Kamloops District points, as compared with 275 horses, 7,403 cattle, and
2,966 hides shipped the year previous. The difference in the cattle shipments may be
explained by the fact that the possibility of short feed-supplies in the fall of 1938 induced a
general cutting-down of herds. Another factor to be taken into consideration is the outbreak
of war in September, and with prospects of higher cattle prices stockmen are building up
their herds again. A third factor is the beef grading in Vancouver and ranchers are holding
back stock that is not in shape to qualify for the accepted grades. Shipments from the
Nicola District were approximately the same as 1938, totalling some 6,000 head.
Lamb and Mutton Prices.—Owing to the co-operative plan carried out this year between
the sheep producers, prices were held steady throughout the year. Almost the entire lamb-
crop in the Interior went to one buyer. Through this means it was possible for this company
to more or less control the market, and by securing full value for the lambs on the retail
market the company was able to make a good profit, a good portion of which was returned to
the growers by way of a spread over prevailing market values of % cent a pound. It is the
intention of the producers to follow the same programme in 1940. Approximately 60,000
lambs were sold by British Columbia sheepmen to the trade during the year, almost the total
number coming from the Interior.    This is about the same volume marketed the year previous.
Wool Prices.—The British Columbia Sheep-breeders' Association reports a wool clip of
354,601 lb. When the crop is entirely sold returns to the producer will be up to between 5
cents to 6 cents a pound over the 1938 return. Wool will average approximately 17 cents per
pound to the grower.    The clip in 1938 amounted to 360,000 lb.
Export Markets.—Shipments to the United States from Canada for beef cattle were
almost 100,000 head over the previous year, being 178,102 as against 80,150. Dairy cattle
were approximately the same, namely 13,000 as against 12,194. Shipments of calves were
almost doubled, being 80,173 as against 46,370. Of the total shipments of beef cattle, 14,139
Were shipped from British Columbia. This large volume of beef cattle exported is the underlying reason for the healthy Canadian market throughout the year. Unfortunately, at the
close of the year the American price is down and the quota for the last quarter was not B 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
filled. With the Old Country market shut off for beef cattle in favour of processed meats, to
make best use of shipping-space, prospects for the early part of the year are not so promising.
The continuation of good prices will depend upon orderly marketing of cattle from Western
feed-lots and the hope of improvement in the American cattle market.
Shipments of beef cattle to the Old Country dropped from 25,262 in 1938 to 1,161. None
at all are moving at the present time and it is unlikely that any will be shipped until present
British contracts for frozen meats from the Argentine and Australia are filled. There is no
question, however, but that if war continues there will be a place for Canadian cattle, but
this may not occur until the year following.
Annual Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show.
The Twenty-first Annual Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show created a record high for sales;
proceeds of $42,935.42 exceeding the former high made in 1937 by $1,823.41. In all, 456 head
were sold, comprising sixty-nine head of bulls averaging $193.40, as against seventy-six in
1938 averaging $144.34, and 387 head of fat cattle, a gain in numbers over the previous year
of fifty-three head. The seventy-six head of bulls comprised twenty-eight Herefords averaging $243.30, greatly exceeding the 1938 average of $162.50; and twenty-five head of Shorthorns averaging $145.20, compared with twenty-nine head in 1938 averaging $118.45. In
addition, six Aberdeen-Angus bulls were sold at an average of $78.33. In the fat cattle
division, eleven car-loads of fifteen steers averaged $8.03; nineteen groups of five averaged
$7.84; sixty-nine singles brought $8.23 and thirty-one boys' and girls' baby beef calves
averaged $8.54.    This was the largest junior competition in the history of the undertaking.
Annual Horse Show and Sale.
The Second Annual Horse Show and Sale was also entirely successful. By reason of
the ban on Alberta horses it was possible to limit entries to British Columbia horses. In all,
fifty-six were sold at an average price of $118 for a total of $6,600. Of these, fifty-one head
consisted of heavy draught and agricultural horses averaging $116, three saddle-horses
averaging $85, one pure-bred Clydesdale stallion bringing $330, and one horse not guaranteed
serviceably sound selling for $100.
The purpose behind the sale in the beginning was to encourage British Columbia horse-
breeders to grain and fit horses for early spring sale and to develop a market for Interior-
raised horses. The second sale did much to achieve this ambition. Any one who was in
attendance at both sales must have been pleasantly gratified to see the improvement in the
quality and condition of the British Columbia horses entered at the second sale. While the
market for horses at the present time is not very active, there seems to be no question but
that horses in a year or two will come into their own and, in the meantime, through the
encouragement given by the sale, horse production in the Interior has been greatly encouraged
and  developed. — _,
Ram and Fat Lamb Sale.
Help was also given to Mr. S. H. Baker, secretary of the B.C. Sheep-breeders, in holding
the Annual Ram and Fat Lamb Sale. Returns for eighty rams sold amounted to $2,234.50,
an average of $27.93. In addition, 503 fat lambs were put through the ring fetching
$4,047.38, an average of $8.44. At the previous sale seventy-six rams averaged $31.61. The
fat lamb entries were low, sixty in the competitions averaging 8% cents. The rams were
down in price from the previous year. This may be explained through the fact that ranchers
had stocked up with rams at the two previous sales. In addition, the dates this year were
two weeks later, which served to reduce the numbers required, since certain of the ranchers
were not able to wait for the sale and had to buy their rams privately. Furthermore, the
general quality of the rams was not as high. Following the success of the first two sales
the breeders carried over too many low-quality rams for the market. It was noticeable that
any rams of quality found ready bidders and brought high prices. It is possible that the
reception received by the low-quality rams was a lesson that was bound to come and that
future sales will see a stricter culling of ram entries at points of origin.
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale.
Finally, through the cancelling of the Annual Winter Fair in Vancouver, your representative acted as secretary-manager of the Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale held in Kamloops DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 119
on December 4th and 5th. This was undertaken at the desire of the stockmen and under the
sponsorship of the B.C. Beef Cattle Growers' Association, assisted by a grant from the
Provincial Department of Agriculture.
The decision to hold a sale was reached on October 17th. In the short interval between
that date and December 5th all preparations were completed. This was only possible through
the wonderful co-operation received from beef, sheep, and swine producers, an indication of
what can be accomplished when these producers wish to work together. Generous donations
to the prize-list were received from Vancouver and Kamloops business concerns. It was
possible, then, to pay out prizes amounting to $1,107 and meet all expenses, leaving a balance
on hand, although it is very small. Due to the co-operation of the buyers the sale was an
outstanding one in the history of the Province. Considering the fact that very little grain
was given to a big percentage of the stock entered, particularly the beef cattle, entries
brought wonderful prices, averaging approximately 2 cents over the market. Three hundred
and fourteen head of beef cattle sold for a total of $31,684.24; eleven groups of fifteen
averaging $9.52; twenty-five groups of five averaging $8.15; twenty-three singles bringing
$12.34; fourteen Junior Club members at $11.65; with the grand champion single fetching
a record price for the Interior sales from Safeway Stores of 75 cents a pound.
In the sheep division 293 lambs brought $2,813.02 for an average price of approximately
10 cents a pound. The four car-loads of fifty averaging $9.96; four pens of ten, $10.46;
seven pens of five, $10.49;   fifteen singles, $15.66.
The swine competition was one of the finest ever held in British Columbia, With a total
of 176 head on exhibition, which were sold for a total of $3,235.53. Five pens of fifteen,
averaging $8.97; ten pens of five selling for $9.12; five pens of three bringing $9.20; and
twelve singles fetching $10.60.
Total sale returns amounted to $37,732.79. It is expected that Interior stockmen will
attempt to maintain the Christmas show and sale as an annual event.
As a feature of the show programme, winning junior stock judges were entertained at a
banquet following the close of the sale. Presentations were made to the Provincial swine and
dairy judging teams from Armstrong by the Minister of Agriculture.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
A heavy programme of Boys' and Girls' Club-work was conducted throughout the
summer months. In the regular clubs consisting of Kamloops North and Kamloops South
and Westwold Beef Calf Clubs, Kamloops Swine Club, Kamloops Dairy Club, and Westwold
Lamb Club, seventy members completed their season's work at the Kamloops Exhibition on
September 6th and 7th as compared with fifty-two in 1938. In addition, the Kamloops
Poultry and Pet Stock Association organized fifteen Baby-chick Clubs with a total membership of 129. Assistance was given to the Association in organizing these clubs, and through
the summer months the chicks were inspected and scored. The Chick Club Show at the
exhibition completely filled one side of the arena building and was the feature of the exhibition. President of the Poultry Association, Mr. William Brennan; Mr. J. Bann, Vice-
President; and Mr. S. J. Johnson, of Kamloops, who accomplished the greater part of the
work in the organizing of the clubs, are to be congratulated on the success achieved.
Warble-fly Control.
Warble-fly control-work was greatly extended in 1939. Approximately 1,500 head of
cattle were treated, with two large ranchers—namely, Harper and Palmer ranches—entering
into the programme for the first time. Direct assistance was given to these ranches in
treating the cattle. In addition, Black Pool, Chinook Cove, Westwold, and Kamloops areas
were continued. It is noticeable in reports that whereas in the first year warble-fly infestation averages twenty to twenty-four to the animal, in the second year of application the
numbers will drop to from four to six. It is quite evident that if this work can be continued, a few years will see, in the areas treated, the almost complete elimination of this pest.
Additional requests for material received indicates that the "work will be greatly extended
in 1940. B 120 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Short-course School.
Under the sponsorship of District " D " Central Farmers' Institute a short-course
vocational school was held at Monte Creek, March 27th to April 8th, with thirty-four attending. This work cannot be commended too highly and it is to be hoped that additional schools
will be held in 1940. Following the closing of the school an essay contest was conducted and
small cash prizes offered by District " D." Some splendid essays were received bearing on
the experiences gained at the school. First prize was awarded to William Stewart, of
Heffley Creek; second to Doris Devick, also of Heffley Creek; and third to Jean Grant, of
Vinsulla. As the school was held some distance from town it was not possible to obtain
much help and the work of preparing the building for occupancy was of necessity almost
entirely left to your representative. It is hoped that another year local committees will take
on a greater part of the responsibility.
Brood Sows.
As part of the Christmas Show and Sale, 102 brood sows were brought in from Alberta,
displayed at the sale, and through this demonstration of their quality were sold to farmers
throughout the Interior under five Swine' Improvement Associations as follows: Merritt,
Chase, Westwold, Lumby, and Kamloops. A pure-bred boar was supplied by the Dominion
Live Stock Branch and sent out with each group of sows. Following on this demonstration
additional groups are being organized at the present time in the Okanagan.
This number of sows and the boars should provide an excellent foundation for swine
production throughout the Interior. In addition, the swine industry has acquired an additional asset in the Interior in the person of Mr. W. MacGillivray, of Kamloops, who settled in
the district a year ago. Mr. MacGillivray has brought together some of the very best
breeding stock obtainable in Canada. This excellent foundation stock present in the district
is an invaluable asset at this time with the industry being expanded to meet war demands.
Farmers' Institutes.
Your representative acted as secretary of District " D " Central Farmers' Institute.
The annual convention was held on June 26th, with the Minister and Deputy Minister of
Agriculture in attendance. An annual achievement competition was conducted amongst the
institutes of District " D." A trophy was offered for the Institute that best fulfilled during
the year the aims and objects of the organization. A score-card was prepared and issued to
the Institutes to be completed by the secretary and president of each institute. These were
scored previous to the convention. Through the kindness of the Minister of Agriculture a
shield was purchased and awarded for the first year to the Chinook Cove-Chu Chua Institute.
The competition aroused real interest and there is very definite rivalry on the one hand with
the Chinook Cove Institute striving to retain the shield and neighbouring Institutes determined
to win it for themselves. One new Institute is in the process of organization at Canford. The
year was also marked by the revival of the Kamloops Institute, with W. MacGillivray as
president, assisted by a capable executive. The institute has taken a new lease on life and
should prove an active contributor to agricultural progress in the Kamloops district.
About 1,000 lb. of a special poison-bait mixture were prepared and sold at cost to farmers
in the North Thompson Valley. Of this amount 850 lb. were placed through the season
and the balance held over for the coming spring. The bait was entirely successful and badly-
infested sections in the Barriere and Louis Creek areas were almost entirely cleared up of
ground-squirrels and ground-hogs. Aside from the direct saving in crops through the
killing-off of the rodents the district is definitely ahead through the elimination of these pests
which act as secondary hosts to numerous disease-bearing live-stock parasites.
Nicola Grasshopper-control.
The position of secretary of the Nicola Grasshopper-control was again undertaken. Full
reports of the work of the committee have already been forwarded to the department.
Expenditures amounted to $7,8x4.30 as against $10,784,78 in 1938. In addition, supplies were
on hand at the close of the season to permit of conducting control-work for a full month in DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 121
the coming spring. It was the most successful year's operations in the history of the area.
The decision of the committee to purchase a power oil-spraying unit in 1938 was entirely
vindicated by the results achieved. Forty-four egg-beds were staked out in the fall of 1938.
These were treated at regular intervals, commencing the following May, when it was not
possible to spread poison-bait because of weather conditions and by reason of the hoppers
being too small. Successive hatchings of hoppers emerging from the beds were cleaned up by
the oil-emulsion spray. A second spray unit was purchased as the first one could not cope
with the work. As a result, only small numbers of hoppers survived to reach the adult stage.
These were successfully handled at the close of the season by the regular bran poison-bait
with the addition of apple pumice, and in the fall the ranges were practically free of hoppers.
It is expected that very little work will be necessary in 1940, provided it does not happen that
hoppers come in from areas outside the district.
Looking forward into 1940, it is the intention to further extend projects undertaken
during the year, all of which are sound and of economic value to the area. Through the
media of the shows and sales and the respective Live Stock Associations the commercial
production of live stock continues to improve steadily, both in the quality of the stock and
management methods of the producers. In addition, new breeders in each phase of production are developing and the district in a short while, with the exception of dairy cattle, will
be the adequate and chief source of supply of breeding stock for the Province. With this in
mind, attention will be chiefly concentrated on encouraging the introduction of greater
numbers of quality dairy stock; the adoption of more suitable varieties of grains and forage
crops; further extension of the seed industry; and the setting-up of adequate seed-cleaning
equipment at central points in the district;   and, finally, extension of Institute activities.
H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist.
Conditions generally have improved in most branches of mixed farming. Prices have
reached a higher level in some lines than have been obtained for a number of years, and
although the pastures were not as good as usual, the late fall rains and fine weather have
helped considerably to make for easy wintering of live stock. Shipments of hogs from the
Salmon Arm District continue to increase and the price of milch cows improved considerably
over former years. The Salmon Arm Creamery had a slight reduction in butter-fat—about
500,000 lb. as against 515,000 lb. in former years;   average price paid at 25 cents per pound.
Field Crops.
Hay-crops were good and in most sections up to normal yields, but sales and prices so
far are somewhat disappointing. Some first-crop alfalfa was damaged by rainfall but
generally all crops were fairly well saved. Second cuttings went in well and reports are
that crops of hay baled weighed out well. Grain-crops were fair to good but prices generally
low, although prices paid for peas appear to have given satisfaction. Root-crops in some
sections were very disappointing. Weather conditions seem to have affected almost all
crops of field roots, including potatoes. It was noted, however, that those fields having a
normal supply of humus and organic matter stood up fairly well under the abnormal weather
conditions.    All roots, however, were well harvested owing to the unusually open fall.
Live Stock.
Horses.—Horses wintered well with less report of forage poisoning than usual and a
number of districts were organized to inoculate against outbreaks of sleeping sickness. In
the Salmon Arm, Tappen, and Notch Hill districts some 600 horses were treated. One case
of the above disease was reported in Salmon Arm and Dr. McKay was immediately called
in.    No further outbreak occurred.
Dairy Cattle.—Since the outbreak of war and the resulting improved price of butter-fat,
it is noted a considerable increase in the demand for dairy cows and prices for same are
considerably higher than those obtained in previous years—in many instances almost double.
Mineral rations are now being fed consistently and benefits from same can be noted. The
feeding of mineral mixtures to live stock has been consistently stressed by your Department. B 122 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Beef Cattle.—For the first time for a number of years we are able to report improved
prices for beef cattle in all districts covered. From the East Kootenays to Salmon Arm more
satisfactory prices were obtained and a feeling of optimism is evident among those having
beef for sale. Few reports of disease were heard and no outbreak of black-leg reported
in 1939.
Swine.—We are pleased to report a steady increase in the car-lot shipments from
Salmon Arm, Enderby, and Grindrod, and one car from the Sidmouth District during the
winter of 1938-39 for the first time and another about ready to move forward during this
month of December, 1939. Salmon Arm has increased from about fifteen car-loads in 1938
to twenty-six car-loads in 1939, and two more cars are to be shipped the latter part of
December, making a total of twenty-eight car-loads or an average of two car-loads per
month. One buyer paid the producers in Salmon Arm over $22,000 in 1938, so that the
increased revenue from this source is a really worth-while one. Enderby shipped out nine
car-loads this year, with quite a number of Enderby-grown hogs going to Armstrong owing
to favourable shipping dates. It is to be noted that this profitable swine-work was first taken
up by your Department in 1932 by the purchase of young pure-bred sows from the Colony
Farm for the Junior Swine Improvement Association in Salmon Arm, and by the selection
of a truck-load of sows at Armstrong fall fair for the Enderby District. Since that time
increased production has been steadily stressed and credit must be given to the Salmon Arm
Farmers' Institute for furnishing one-third of the prize money for the Salmon Arm Junior
Swine Club. Good sires are constantly being purchased and the quality of hogs continues to
Sheep.—There has been a slight decrease in the numbers of sheep, owing to the ravages
of coyotes, lower prices for mutton, lamb, and wool, but we are pleased to report an increased
interest through improved prices is in evidence and a number of inquiries for breeding stock
were heard.
Poultry.—Flocks in the Salmon Arm-Enderby District have increased and numerous
trouble calls were answered. Farmers continue to look for improved methods of feeding,
rearing, etc., and quite a few farmers in the Salmon Arm, Armstrong, and Vernon Districts
are now supplying eggs from blood-tested flocks. This work having trebled in 1939, prices
for eggs have been satisfactory and continue to hold well, but dressed-fowl prices are the
lowest for some time. Although in 1938 quite a number of calls were made to advise on
blackhead in turkey flocks, very few were had this year, and it would seem that Christmas
turkeys are likely to be much lower in price than usual owing to low Prairie prices, but local
turkeys are likely to receive a premium.
Nutritional Work.—This phase of animal husbandry has been stressed by your Department and good results have been obtained. Cattle and swine are being credited with more
profitable gains and less unthriftiness is to be seen. Mineral mixtures are now available at
reasonable prices and are being freely fed, with resultant profit to the breeder; and
numerous troubles, such as sterility, milk fever, garget, digestive troubles, etc., seem to be
becoming more rare in most communities. By the use of mineral mixtures it is becoming
more apparent that quick profitable gains of swine can be made.
Warble-fly and Pest Control.
In the spring of 1939, Carlin Farmers' Institute requested a meeting to outline plans for
a warble-fly control area and some 500 cows were treated in addition to those districts
already treated. Practically all the areas previously treated have been proclaimed warble-
free, with the exception of any outside cattle that are occasionally purchased. Supervision
of all areas is being continued, some 5,000 head of cattle have been treated from Salmon Arm
to Sicamous back to Enderby, on both sides of the river and including the district of Deep
Creek, and also from Salmon Arm West to Notch Hill. Further work will be undertaken in
1940 west of Salmon Arm. Cutworms were quite bad in some districts and poison-bait
formulas were in demand.
Rodent-control.—Splendid results from the use of Cyanogas are to be noted in the
Salmon Arm, Grindrod, Enderby, and Revelstoke Districts for the eradication of Columbia
ground-squirrels, but in some districts, notably in the East Kootenays, especially in the
vicinity of Newgate, this pest is still quite bad and we have continued to stress the need
of more community use of Cyanogas in this district.    Pocket-gophers are becoming quite a DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1939. B 123
menace both in orchards and all other farm crops. Frequent calls were made for the large
poison-bait formula and many farmers attest its effectiveness. This pest has become a
major problem on a number of farms. Quite a number of farmers have been induced to use
the poison-bait which was supplied to several Farmers' Institutes. Many farmers also
are protecting badgers on or near their farms, having noted their value as an enemy of the
gopher.    Some instances are reported of whole fields being cleaned up by badgers.
Weed-control.—Weed-control is still one of our major problems, but we are pleased to
report that in the last three or four years more farmers are requesting information as to
methods of eradication, especially couch-grass. Several plots were treated again in the fall
of 1938 and practically 100-per-cent. kill was obtained. The Salmon Arm Farmers' Institute
sold 1% tons in the fall of 1938 and purchased 2 tons in 1939, some of which was sold to the
East Kootenays. Advice was given in a number of instances on all noxious weeds, of control
by cultural methods; and the use of Atlacide for the killing of Canadian thistle has been
found quite effective. We are pleased to report a further reduction in price of sodium
chlorate, price quoted at Salmon Arm being $11 per drum of 112 lb.
Local Activities.
An Extension Youths' Training Course was held at Salmon Arm and Revelstoke and
poultry addresses given this course proved very popular and should have good results in
both districts. A keen interest was taken in the work by the Farmers' Institutes and business
of both districts. A Junior Swine Club was again organized at Salmon Arm and the work
well carried out. Also Junior Poultry Clubs at Salmon Arm, Canoe, Grindrod, and Revelstoke, all of which were very successful. Two Junior Potato Clubs were formed, one at
Grindrod and one at Revelstoke. Good results were obtained and members won honours at
the Interior Provincial Show at Armstrong and received worthy comments on some of the
exhibits. We are pleased to report assistance in providing necessary prize money has been
given these Junior Clubs by the Salmon Arm, Grindrod, and Revelstoke Farmers' Institutes.
Special Projects.
As noted, Swine Clubs, Potato Clubs, and Poultry Clubs have again been organized and
all members of each club carried its work through to the end of the season. Potato-club
members all reported a fair profit as also did members of swine clubs. Several Poultry
Club members were successful in selling cockerels for breeding purposes at good prices. In
1937-38 the Mount Cartier District farmers' wives were encouraged to grow flowers and thus
beautify the home. This work was further assisted by the donation of plants and seed from
your Department and we are pleased to report good results have been obtained. Many
homes showing a decided improvement in outside attractiveness and neatness. Numerous
expressions of pleasure have been expressed by the farmers and there is shown a decided
improvement in farm buildings and fences in this district since this work was started.
Considerable time was spent in making inspections under the A.S.A. plan and live stock and
machinery inspected and approved. Many farmers were advised as to improved methods
of farm problems and feeding of live stock and poultry. In a numb