Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1939]

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0314051.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0314051.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0314051-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0314051-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0314051-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0314051-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0314051-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0314051-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0314051-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0314051.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA
ANNUAL  KEPOBT
LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES
of the
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
for the
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1938
HON. A. WELLS GRAY, MINISTER OF LANDS
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY  OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY,
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1939.  Victoria, B.C., September 23rd, 1939.
To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey
Branches of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1938.
A. WELLS GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
Victoria, B.C., September 23rd, 1939.
The Honourable A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1938.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
•    TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     5
Revenue       5
Sale of Town Lots     6
Pre-emption Records      7
Pre-emption and Homestead Exchanges     7
Land-sales      8
Land Inspections      9
Summary  .  10
Letters inward and outward  11
Coal Licences, Leases, etc.  11
Crown Grants issued  11
Total Acreage deeded  11
Home-site Leases   12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., September 23rd, 1939.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended
December 31st, 1938.
From an analysis of the figures presented it will be noted that there is practically no
difference in the volume of business transacted during the previous year.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT OP REVENUE, YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1938.
Land-sales.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Under " Taxation Act "—
$6,412.39
1,700.95
7,275.42
30,353.38
$5,412.39
Under " Land Act "—
$17,065.36
11,592.27
4,735.98
433.88
7,110.93
225.55
18,766.31
18,867.69
35,089.36
433.88
7,110.93
225.55
$44,742.14
$41,163.97
$85,906.11
Sundry Revenue.
Under " Land Act "—
$80,294.92
5,987.08
356.35
14,200.33
687.14
970.00
86.50
279.91
$80 294.92
6,987.08
Survey fees—
Under " Land Act "  $856.35
$694.12
987.00
1,050.47
15,187.33
687.14
932.47
120.00
2,468.87
1,902.47
206.50
2,748.78
Totals      _.
$102,862.23
$5,202.46
$108,064.69 Y 6
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Coal licences	
Coal rentals	
Sundry fees	
Lieu of work-	
Totals .
$2,700.00
7,147.71
1,130.00
200.00
11,177.71
$2,700.00
7,147.71
1,130.00
200.00
$11,177.71
Sundry Receipts.
Maps, blue-prints, etc...
Miscellaneous 	
Interest, Southern Okanagan Land Project	
Revenue from lands transferred from the Dominion .
Totals- 	
$9,377.82
122.72
12,231.62
12,139.57
$33,871.73
$3,065.76
$3,055.76
$9,377.82
122.72
12,231.62
15,195.33
$36,927.49
Summary of Revenue.
$44,742.14
102,862.23
11,177.71
33,871.73
$41,163.97
5,202.46
$85,906.11
Land revenue   —	
108,064.69
11,177.71
3,055.76
36,927.49
Totals 	
$192,653.81
$49,422.19
$242,076.00
Summary of Cash received.
Revenue  	
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern  Okanagan  Project.
Houses, South Vancouver..	
" Better Housing Act "—
Principal —
Interest	
Land Settlement Board—
Land sales... „	
Loans   	
Refund of advances and refund to votes, etc.
Totals 	
39,357.80
388.52
55,550.00
37,057.86
53,341.25
25,711.68
1,057.70
$405,118.62
9,422.19
$49,422.19
$242,076.00
39,357.80
388.52
55,550.00
37,057.86
53,341.25
25,711.68
1,057.70
$454,540.81
SALE OF TOWN LOTS DURING 1938.
Disposal of 123 lots placed on the market at previous auction sales:—
24 lots at Oliver  $3,525.00
15 lots at Osoyoos  2,050.00
4 lots at Trail j  775.00
15 lots at West Quesnel  760.00
12 lots at Zeballos  650.00
6 lots  at  Princeton  310.00
4 lots at Trout Lake  285.00
2 lots at Prince George   250.00
3 lots at Blue River  215.00
3 lots at Kimberley  175.00
And 35 lots in twenty-three other townsites  3,047.00
Total  $12,042.00 LAND-SALES.
Y 7
During the year an auction was held disposing of quite a number of lots in an addition
to Zeballos; and chiefly for the purpose of making lots available as required, rather than
from any immediate demand, seven other auctions were arranged and a total of 111 lots sold
as follows:—
29 lots at Zeballos :.. $2,045.00
8 lots  at  Trail     1,830.00
15 lots  at Hope     1,400.00
14 lots at Hedley	
6 lots at West Quesnel..
1 lot at Vancouver	
2 lots at Willow River...
36 lots at Smithers	
585.00
410.00
400.00
235.00
180.00
Total  $7,085.00
Southern Okanagan Project sold 20 parcels, comprising 172.8 acres, the purchase price
being $9,455.50.
In the University Hill Subdivision in Lot 140, New Westminster District (Endowment
Lands), one lot was sold, price $1,305; one parcel leased to the City of Vancouver for school
purposes for a rental of $100 per annum; and seven improved repossessed properties were
disposed of for $38,436; while two leaseholders were allowed to convert their leases to agreements to purchase, the price of the two lots being $1,473.75 and $1,856.25 respectively.
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1938.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Pre-emption
Records
cancelled.
Certificates
of Purchase
issued.
Certificates
of Improvements issued.
1
40
19
6
27
4
5
19
9
194
44
8
50
7
11
5
6
1
2
5
27
1
2
23
18
36
8
5
39
19
340
42
12
50
11
1
6
12
3
28
1
19
14
8
11
3
42
4
29
98
174
36
42
29
10
60
9
10
2
59
15
1,114
Atlin                             	
21
1
13
Golden	
Kamloops. 	
17
76
28
Quesnel     —
20
6
Telegraph Creek	
Vancouver.— 	
Victoria   	
Totals..   	
466
667
1,817
PRE-EMPTION AND HOMESTEAD EXCHANGES.
Under 1934 Amendment to " Land Act."
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938..
No.
41
21
37
10
Total 109 Y 8 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
LAND-SALES, 1938.
" Land  Act "  Acres.
Surveyed (first class)     786.49
Surveyed (second class)  2,518.61
Surveyed (third class)      572.66
3,877.76
Unsurveyed       480.25
Total    4,278.01 LAND INSPECTIONS.
Y 9
00
CO
OS
XIX
fc
o
►—<
H
O
H
Ph
XIX
fc
r—I
Q
fc
<J
5
*#
CM
■*$
r-l
on
©
«1
CM
ft
in
on
IN
10
OS
-i
t--
on
99
c
rt        1    Oi    N             COt-©             NMMl'NHNt-O!.        itOt-
CM
o
|   rt                      rt             CM                               rH             rH    CO             CM    rH                 |
H
1-1
CM
!       i   O.               I   O       !   Oi       !   ©   CM   CO   rt   ©       1  ■*   N   *   H       !   CM   O
■-J"
to
Q
i          i                    1         i                    i                    1                                               y-H          ,
CO
1      It-      1      100      !"*      1      1  rt  Ifl ■#  H ^  O  H      :   -#      1  fc-  W
CO
Q
!      i   CO      1
i cm    ;
CM                 ©          rt CQ      1  rt                 C-;
CO
rn\
1         I     ;             i         I                    1                    1         |                                    IN                                          [                    1
CO
!       1   \f>       !       IN       ICO       !   H   rt   H   13   IO   3!       !   w   w   (C           O   Ifl
CM
Oi
o
: ^     :             "=r       10 ©
tr-   CM               !   CM
t-
O
                        H
t-
9
-*       1 rt       1       !   CC   LO   <0       1       !       lrtC0©lOtr-OCMCa       !W
rt
: cm    !
i»
IO
_o    ; cm    i
!   rt  CM   ©  CO  tr   ©      !_o      1   W  N
I
©
US        rt
©   IO           CO       1               1
«!
"                    '                 '                 ■>!                      rH    rH                          i                 i
^
to
tOt-t-      !i-l      1  fc* A  CO  04      ICO      !   CM      Irtfc-
CO
3
rH    (M        1                 \    rH             rH
il.                                   j                 i                      rH                 ,                 i                 i
<N
_
C
3
!      1   O   fc*      !      itOrt      1             lONtOt-      ',   rH      !t0             1  US
rt
!   *"*
|   CO   rH       1
rt rt ro
©
>>
I       !       !   tt   rt   IO   N   rt       !       !   <C   t-   »   O   M       1   rt       i   CO       !   to   to
to
a
_j
•*}"        1    CO        1
1 eo     1  _.   h
t-
ft
1-4
«!
A
1     1      1      1      I  rt     1      1      1      1 CO     1     I  O rt     t      1      1  tH     !      1
«
ti
s
M        !        !                 1    rH        1    rt        I    CM        1   A        \    rH    rH
!      1      1      !   CM
©
!             1             1  Oi
©
fc
1        '        '        '                 '                 '                 ''                                             	
CM
d
tO       !   ©               'CO       IrtNlOO-tD       1   tO   ■**   **   i-C   0)       !       !   (C   N
1
©
hi
>>
i
s
bo
<
y
0)
^
c
E
(
<
.1
<
r
c
1
t
c
i
t
1
!
r
<
DC
C
r
rX-
fc
-
!
c
_
a
£
C
1
1.
s
t-
e
j
E
_*
C
J
a
J
+■
«
C
a
SB
C
c
.
p-
a
(
c
C
<
5
P-
a
6
s
t
~
p-
1
(
c
rl
8
B
G
a
C
*•
s
■
QJ
0
1
1
E
U
r=
|
a
ri
a
>
P
c
t
c
>
1
C
E
>
*
X
C
3
>
a
*
c Y 10
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
r*H
Ph
<
a
a
G_
rt    OO    rt    tr-    IT
"Tjl     IO      IO     IO      ©     «
tOOOt-CO©rt©f-OCOCM
lO    C
coot—  o  cr. h  co ^
c
lOCOrttOCMCMCMi—l    ©    tO    CO
■*   C*  fc-   -*• rt   rt   rt             ,JK«
.
■*   rt   CO   ©   „■
CM
co   N. <P
00
CM
CO   ©   tr-
00
CO
©
t-    CM    ©
t-
H- rt   t>
CO
©   CM   rt
CM
LO
CO
w
to
to
CM
CM
COt~rt-*COCM©CMU_COt-
tOCM©tO©t-LOCOCOrt-«*
COrtrttJ-©           IO   rt   C
.
rtlOCOCMrtTjiOirtO©OJ
fc-
Oi
•# e* co -* o rt- *-
rt   ©   U
©
■*     rt      OS     W      gj
rt       rt       ©
1-1
J   (D   M
^.     rt"   ©"
fc"
CM   rt   r-
t-
t-    OJ    rt
r"1
CO
**
co"
©
CO
CM
•se-
t-tO©COCM0Ot-t-©©_-
**Ir-_Ort-^'rtlOrt'«*COt-
.
t-C-HCOO-*-*_.lON«5
rtO©CMrtlO©"tf-*fc-©
CM
-J
CM   00   CO   -4
CO    t-*   If
to
CO
©
» ^ ■> «* 00
rt   rt   ©
7-1
lo w- *-;
rt    rt     ©
CO
LO     rt    1-
to
■*    CM    rt
©
co"
to
LO
&9-
© u:
©   CM   C
CM    H    UJ    C!    H   a
C.IOOHHHOt-COMt*
_e
"1
fc-  OS   i-
©    OJ             t-    ©    t-
'*C-©rt'*M<©COCOt-©
IT
0J
ec
rH    i-
co •_ «
LO
CO
rt   OJ   jj
CM
oJ  ■". 1
LO    to    C
rt*  rt"   t-
OJ    CM    X
©
CO
©    y-H    y-
©
CO
CO   CM   rt
©
CO
CO
tr-*
t-
tr-
CM
+•.
"W
tO    IN    ©    OJ    O-    CS
tO    rt    ti
1
00©CO-O©COCOO3t-©t-
tO    Oi    IO    CM    Cr
rt © «
;
tr-00©CMLOCOtOc0tr-O>rt
-r.
to   r-
^  ©  to
rl   rl   CO
© "=. c
-31    LO    C
M<
» 1 to
rt   rt   ©
1-1
CO   to   CM*
©
tr
•*    rt    i-
©
CJ
CM   CM   OJ
•"*
cs
o.
H
to
00
CO
CO
CM
t»
«r
++
CC
0"
■^
ie
e.
rt a
:
lOCOrtCOCM-OLO©©©©
C
c\
K
t-
© a
CO   00   oc
OOtOrtlO-O-OCMtr-OOOCM
CO
CM
©
CC
t-   C
©
00
OS   «l   tt
©  ©  1(
cc
T*
CJit-  fc-
rt           00
CM
CO        .   ^
rt    LO    CM
tc
Cv,
rt    r-
©
LO
CM    CM    CM
tr
e»
©
CM
60-
■M-
©
•*«
IO    IT
e
to c
t- c
t-   tr
CM©^LO©tr-'nHC^
CO    ©    CM
CC
LC
C"
~
c
Cf
cv
rH    "^
io   i-
©   CO   LO   ©   t-   K
LO    C\
tO   03   ©
CM
o-
t- o»
O1
te
Cv
f-
LT
oc
0
tc
,
CS
N    t"   Tf    r
rt           Co"
rH
<«   *°   "*
rt   to* -^
©
•<
0.
I-
©
LO
CO^  CM   CO
iH
O
H
00
CO
CM
&?•
V
-<f   CO
IT
t-
CM
c
© -*
to e
rt  c^
rtCO-^t-CMCO-OCOO-
0
IC
Oi
cc
to   c
ec
fc-
.
-*#    rt   **   CM   -*   ©   t-
00   ©   LO
c-
r-
<C
e
© c
;           ,
"^
T.    ©   lO   Cv
y-H
© « 1
c<
CC
04
^J
CM
CO    CO   Oi
©
tr
CC
o
c
CO
©
to
CO   CM   rt
^
CC
rH
to
CO
69-
ee-
««
oc
t- fr
LC
<M    T.
©
e\
)
-*
■^f
CM    CO    CO    Lf"
©    C-'
eq -* rn
04
CM
ee
IN
£
t-
-H te
oc
K
OO
CO    rt    OJ    Cr"
e*
t-    CO    CO
ec
ec
e
OC
ec
CN
t-
<r
o
■*
CM   CO   C^
r-
LO    «
LO
«
c.
o
C-
rl   CM*
CO
©
e>
e*
©
©
rt  ©J   rt
OC
CM
CO
•«*
CO
e»
«J-
*
•f—
CM
te
fc-
CC
<.
OJ
1-
rt    IT
i_-
cr
>4
OJ
0
CO   rt   <3
(C
<r
CO     r—
©
If
CM
t
C
LC
O
er
ec
CV
t-
CO    LO    CC
a
©   _r
CO
CC
oc
a
X
c
IT
^
tO    ■<*■    r-
LO     t"
00
©
a
rl   ©"
CO   oc
©
_c
LT
©
©
oo"
CO
£/_-
6*
EG
03
a
■+J
c
P
cu
Oi
QJ
a
0
a
£
a.
c
a
>
0
P
>
g
p
c
-C
>t
a,
0
rZ
T3    QJ
ft
2
r
-c
ft
h
P
ft
cy .__
'   c
1
j
P
P
01
C
QJ
*5
QJ
y
C
e
i
p
p
"3 .£
QJ   "H
>     QJ
'S .£
O      QJ
QJ     t.
~
c
c
c
cc
0)
+3
C
a
E_
C
ft
g
a
4
0.
a
P
CC
a
cr
B
4
cc
01
"5
CJ
i
c
ft
ti
C
0
0
c
a
CC
e
fa
4j   +_
01    g
91
q
B
a
CO
0
t
01
z
c
a
e
Stf
c
CO    /j
c
a
B
60   3    0
D
QJ      *H
ax
£
s
rt
ft
(3
>
EC
u
E
JC
JC
§ * ?
>
fa
0
J
d   »
XIX
fa
t
+
£
-3
t_
—i    0)
0.
i
I
t
x
OJ   «
"£
0
0
C
rf   >
O   -*->    0
c
'3
> I
ft
0)
%
ft
0
C
P
O    OJ
o
ti
ft
Oi
01
fa    O    O
p
c
QJ     QJ
QJ
ft
u
0
U
H
C
w
O
P.
A
k
Ph
0
0
u
EH
O
cn
O
rt
frt
rl
. CROWN GRANTS ISSUED. Y 11
STATEMENT OF LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1938.
Lands Branch.
Letters inward   22,263
Letters outward  :  19,662
Letters of Inquiry, 1938.
January  ;  265                August   94
February   256                September    123
March   175                October    94
April    110                November   100
May   110                December   116
June    123  ■
July    104 Total  1,660
MINING LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 1938.
Licences under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Area
No. (Acres).
Original licences issued   14 7,382.20
Renewal licences issued     7 3,414.00
Totals     21 10,796.20
Leases under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
New leases issued     6 3,229.00
Renewal leases issued   11 5,437.50
Totals     17 8,666.50
Sundry Leases under the " Land Act."
Leases issued   229 24,535.59
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1938.
Pre-emptions   180
Dominion homesteads   121
Purchases (other than town lots)   161
Mineral claims   220
Town lots   188
Reverted lands (other than town lots)   54
Reverted town lots   37
Reverted mineral claims   73
Supplementary timber grants   14
" Dyking Assessment Act "   3
" Public Schools Act "   3
Miscellaneous    9
Total  1,063
Applications for Crown grants   1,162
Certified copies   6
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims given..     128
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions   25,810.67
Dominion homesteads   19,478.19
Mineral claims (other than reverted)      8,589.26
Reverted mineral claims     2,281.00
Purchase of survey Crown lands (other than town lots)      6,835.25
Purchase of reverted lands (other than town lots)      2,054.38
Supplementary timber grants  ...     1,295.54
Total   66,344.29 Y 12
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
HOME-SITE LEASES  (NOT EXCEEDING 20 ACRES).
No.
Total Annual
Revenue.
Fiscal Year
ended.
8
12
11
31
23
24
18
26
15
29
49
6
67
197
264
55
209
$522.55
636.45
759.95
980.05
1,246.65
1,302.52
1,391.72
1,440.25
1,468.90
1,557.40
Leases issued, April 1st, 1930, to March 31st, 1931	
March 31st, 1931
Leases issued, April 1st, 1931, to March 31st, 1932	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1932, to March 31st,. 1933	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1933, to March 31st, 1934	
March 31st, 1932
March 31st, 1933
March 31st, 1934
Leases issued, April 1st, 1934, to March 3lBt, 1935	
March 31st, 1935
March 31st, 1936
March 31st, 1937
Leases issued, April 1st, 1937, to March 31st, 1938 	
March 31st, 1938
Leases issued, April 1st, 1938, to March 31st, 1939  -
March 31st, 1939
Total revenue received from April 1st, 1929, to March
31st, 1939  _ 	
$11,306.44 PAET II.
SURVEY BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Surveyor-General  15
General Review of Field-work  16
Office-work   16
Report of Survey Branch   17
Table A—Summary of Office-work  17
Table B—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps  18
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps  19
Report of Geographic Division  22
Table D—List of Lithographed Maps  24
Reports of Surveyors—
Topographical Surveys, Vancouver Island  (R. D. McCaw)   26
Topographical Surveys, Vancouver Island (A. J. Campbell)   27
Topographical Surveys, Vancouver Island (N. C. Stewart)   29
Topographical Surveys, Vancouver Island (G. J. Jackson)   31
Triangulation Survey, Vancouver Island (F. C. Swannell)   33
Land Survey, Peace River District (D. Cran)   35  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., January 3rd, 1939.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1938.
The field-work of the Survey Branch may be divided into three main classes: (1) Triangulation, this being the best and cheapest means of determining the true position of main
features and of placing a rigid foundation under all other surveys; (2) topographical surveys,
now mostly carried on with the aid of aerial photography, with ground control supplied by
minor triangulation and the surveying camera; (3) cadastral surveys, in preparation for
settlement.
The appropriation voted for surveys, though about one-third of the average of the past
twenty years, took care of all urgent needs in connection with settlement and permitted a full
season in the field for our topographical survey staff. It did not, however, permit any extension of our triangulation nets in the northern half of the Province—foundation-work needed
there to guard against mistakes in planning transportation and development. The project of
a highway to Alaska is steadily coming to the fore and for the intelligent consideration of
routes much more topographical information than we now possess is required. There is an
old and proven railway-construction maxim, " The cheapest tool with which to do grading is
the transit."
In British Columbia, with its high relief, immense areas do not require the costly detailed
subdivision necessary elsewhere. The blanket of protecting water-vapour in the atmosphere
decreases rapidly with altitude, so radiation of heat becomes excessive and the consequent
night frosts confine agriculture to the lower levels. Twenty-seven hundred to three thousand
feet is, for example, the upper dependable limit for mixed farming in Cariboo. The Province
has immense resources in grazing lands, timber, mineral, and water-power at levels above
3,000 feet. Altitude affects every activity, and in this country maps without contour-lines
lose half their value. With our great area and small population low-cost mapping methods
are essential if the work is to be done at all, and a finished job in one season over the area
dealt with is necessary—mountain transportation being costly. A combination of triangulation, ground photography, and aerial photography, experimented with and worked out here,
has solved this problem of permanent mapping with low cost for us, with the result that large
areas of the Province abundantly justify such mapping. At this date we have satisfactory
topographical maps covering one-seventh of the Province, and at the present rate of progress
it will take 150 years to cover the entire area. That a speeding-up of this work would be
justified may be indicated by the fact that 1 mile of mountain highway thereby saved would
pay for 1,000 square miles of topographic mapping.
A list of maps published and those now in course of preparation is appended under the
heading " Geographic Division " and this service is meeting the most urgent needs.
As usual the closest co-operative contact was maintained with the Dominion Government
survey operations in the Province so that there should be no duplication of effort. In the
belief that accurate mapping, no matter by which Government carried out, is of great value
to the Province, we give all possible assistance in the way of information, land-ties, etc., to all,
and in turn we have had much help from the photographic units of the Royal Canadian Air
Force, as well as from the Surveyor-General and heads of the Geodetic, Hydrographic, and
Geological Surveys of the Dominion. Under a rather informal but mutually beneficial
arrangement much aerial photography on Vancouver Island and in Cariboo has been carried
out by the Royal Canadian Air Force, the necessary ground work has been done by the topographers of the Provincial Surveys Branch, which also plotted the maps from the aerial and
ground work; these maps were then sent to the Surveyor-General at Ottawa and were published in their well-equipped lithographic plant as sheets of the National Topographic Series;
the Province bore only the cost of the ground work and plotting—a fair division of costs as
the resulting published maps serve the purposes of the Department of National Defence, the Y 16 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
Geological Survey, and of the Province. It is hoped that this arrangement can continue as
each service is performing the work it can do most efficiently and the benefits are about proportional to the respective costs.
GENERAL REVIEW OF FIELD-WORK.
Four survey parties were engaged on photo-topographical control-work on the west coast
of Vancouver Island, these parties being in charge of Messrs. McCaw, Campbell, Stewart, and
Jackson, all British Columbia Land Surveyors of the permanent staff. Mr. F. C. Swannell,
B.C.L.S., was in charge of the main control triangulation assisting the above parties, and in
all about 1,500 square miles was covered in sufficient detail to permit of the publication of
maps on the 1-mile scale with 100-foot contours.
In addition to the topographical work above described, a survey party under Mr. Duncan
Cran, B.C.L.S., of Fort St. John, laid out 140 quarter-sections for settlement in the former
Dominion Peace River Block, and some minor surveys throughout the Province were carried
out by surveyors resident near them.
OFFICE-WORK.
The office staff is divided into three main sections—namely, the Survey Division, the
Geographic Division, and the Topographic Division. Reports compiled by F. 0. Morris and
G. G. Aitken for the Survey and Geographic Divisions, respectively, and reports by the surveyors heading the field parties of the Topographic Division, and by Messrs. Swannell and
Cran are attached hereto.
The tables show little change in the volume of office-work from last year. About 90 per
cent, of the land surveyors of the Province are in private practice, and these surveyors are
responsible for the surveys of mineral claims and other classes of Crown lands. The field-
notes and plans of such surveys are filed in this office and a considerable proportion of the
staff is engaged in checking and replotting these surveys.
The draughting staff is mostly composed of men of long experience and, though the
average age is high, we were fortunate in retaining the efficient services of all throughout the
year. Several apprentice draughtsmen are being trained to carry on the work as age gradually forces the older men into retirement. There is a steady increase in the use of the
Surveys Branch by other departments in the preparation of descriptions and other services
for which our men are well fitted.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Y 17
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEY BRANCH.
This Branch deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to
land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying, checking
survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many
minor activities. In the average day's work it is found necessary to secure and consult 100
documents from the vault.    An efficient blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations
and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and mineral reference
maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are maintained by the
Survey Branch. There are now 188 reference maps and 72 mineral reference maps, making
a total of 260 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—(1) by adding new survey
information as it becomes available, and (2) by renewing same when worn out with constant
use and handling in the blue-print machines—forms a considerable portion of the work of the
Branch. During the year eleven reference maps were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached
hereto, give a list of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1938, Survey Branch.
Number of field-books received
lots surveyed 	
lots plotted 	
lots gazetted 	
lots cancelled 	
mineral-claim field-books prepared
reference maps compiled	
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared
applications for lease cleared 	
coal licences cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber-sales cleared 	
free-use permits cleared	
hand-loggers' licences cleared	
Crown-grant applications cleared
reverted-land clearances 	
cancellations made 	
inquiries cleared
placer-mining leases plotted on maps
letters received 	
letters sent out	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate	
miscellaneous tracings made	
Government Agents' tracings made	
blue-prints made ...
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints from other departments
and public	
Value of blue-prints for Lands Department	
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault
608
633
620
451
9
593
11
138
581
377
31
197
1,778
412
25
1,108
559
1,348
2,360
421
5,689
4,154
1,299
215
150
26,310
5,334.65
.,852.20
29,746 Y 18 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
•t.' oJ&CIJO U-HT3
C'l'C _ c !h -^ u<*>        a
F                                   a o     •>.'3 Pxi a   £
a__         ^                        km£ 'SS'.' -■§ S  -a     <
*«i1        -S                      !««     * .S«2 |„„   §     g
fc_R        n x?    j_             ._H»     ■» 5S          s« a _: S„ 8   8
ro
irt
a
-C
&
■*-<
en
■*-*
0)
5
O
&   -I        SB;   -3(2   -g    .   3g"s §   SS       b*|S     a:- a
s.       f   5.        g.2    2a    °l!     s2la a     §3         l-S-g      fig   &    I
it*   £   gg*   »f|   li   |«|   "»■§! a   ~3      »ig1die.i I   i
I      lis Sii5««g8S§SgS||||||5Ba«o5«oo      g|.    a.g   B|q  .5     g   cq
hi            ■     .   H aj  «  ? 3     w "5w    u .S
m      ,  coooMoocowcoQoaitDMO^totootocDajcowmeoco co      cococo-h   S^c^o     Sw    .     ii   i          P^
W"*      O   NNNNNNNNNNCONNNNCCiWNNWnMfOM CO         COCOcoOq^^/Sft'^    ___»■_-{     >-s
__    ^;£HHHH_-"--tE-<EHEHE-._HEHHH-HE-iE-'-HH--<HH--E-. H         E-E-HEHH^SflaJa;     H jS   O    O   .'.
^   " ^ hcooo w t-woicgn co^iowHH^noioOH wco Ti< ira      «ot-oo       n^^Fc;         *3rt         o
(-(                                                                               r-.(N(M(MWTHi-.WOai-( rHrHHrtft^                OW-M
a
1
I
" . -
fl ^_ M
o              k        H                   a c-                                S
0        S                  5                                    . ^                             £
S                  n          -S                 •     'n   .                                           M o                                        ^
1-1 m                                               j) p.,                                           <h            h ,
6 _j                                o        .5
,' .:     s             -a          si
CQ
a <   S ■«    S       "".S^              .«.- ss-*jju           ?>-S           S
60
hH    C)
?-3
TI
Oh-J
c
0 s
3
0
K3  S
C/_
*« J3
a 5
s
c_   «
^
w
O "O
■s _
c
'3
m
a
J3
0
1-5
■o
d
u
CJ
a
>
>
S Al
«*«
CJ
a,   P*
±3       -1
'3
0    ^5
.a     S 0
O
U    01
H H £0
■0
rr,   m
,-, ■" u 0
T)
a •«
° tz.°
C
cu   O
e
H§1-olio's 1..^ss° .iiNiBlsi8™aSJfd3B5-rf5l1ig|,S-T
L^-lr&ilt&iiiiIIiiSlm iil^r&^-il|i|i!i^
^^_J « ©J S* S* P  3  > G.-'h «^«-H-S^3firtNffl!«Mo  3   S        qj   ridSM'Soo.Socw
H<!P4^wpPh.wOEHPHO^fflWPnWMwO^Wfr,OOU^P.cow     w mh^O^MM^^<1M
OT.o>QOiT)ioio5(DO)doTiIcJ©Ti'o.cs^'do.o.doio.oS^dod©      0^0000000000
.   a30)(OtDOO.©©t»ffl<0000>tOa)ffltDtOO)00(DtDOtD©OaiCOOOOO 00000000000000000
^£HHHHHHHEHHHHHHE-<E-iHEHEHEHe-iE-(EHE-iH£-iE-'--'E-»H£-iE-t EHHHEHE-tHHHH^'HE-'
OOWCO^lOOOt*(»H03 0lOTtit>NHCO«OlOHOCIlO^.N0 01M«0)t>   O t-   «  (O  O O  N  00  Ui H  (D OI CO
rHiHOa tHt-(t-(»H THtHrHrH iH rHrH '   rU
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. Y 19
2     a e
<5    £ ° o                                                       >
3 oi '£                         .                                  3                  *             ,;
«i 3      o .2              g ficS                 •&    "S   .         °        S
t_m b w^j.r-^          T? <-   .      n_          .*> -n ~ m           _, :3
&   c.gcj       h.l>il5««    §s»£c i_-3«       8   Isgs    °t *•-.£;       S.S
Msl^^S-^^-SKlgglo^lg     In     c.gll^»^"|<Sgl»o?^c.^    $£*
^|"S>gMM:g>gog£SS«§!3i3>5__'3     W83'Bl«^|0.te»£^-gp.-f4J-B      »g-g
rtj     (j   ^
I    sl s s«^a««^^sjp jrsga-sa I|^ § B-| I a«11" **1 *-g1ls !lif 11
o
z
fa ftta ftft<«,S^ M rtHfioho^tHWfl       S^rtg^rrtrtajpt^ri^^o^ri_c5J3r__Jrtc.3cu^=3
(8 ...       .     .
6  <3 m    -<n    hh    .    . <«! M    . <: m u a h    •       <Jmo    . H W    •<!    •    . <1 m u    . < M    . < m d   .    .<!    . -^
J      Zt-.OOCOOOOiOOJOHHHNNNCgWWM MWM^<^^___-t-..M(»C001<_0)0lOHHHN
*$ rH-Hi-t>HrHWrHvHCNICMlM(NlMCNllMCNl(MlM(M CN_JN-J:-3C<103-3C<i:-aC<]_j;W_q_a_l-j;0}-j;04C-COCOCOC-
H
S5
H
s
I
W
S » -3 .
3      j B?. ft Br *
__ &    . j
K1^
C3
c 2
(- XIX
5.
utherly)
nd Great
Clayoquo
dSs'C S Jl ^ M      . S
.2 .     »*       _» S & a .-£
■on §«£o S*V3 _ a csP> ^^
Co, 3._-.in >Ch C f^^. ^J -3
null!!!! i« ini hi an. mnmmlu
wspjni«i iii>i i. iiiPipi5ii.isiiiiiiiii
i1iIi.6.!l...»-3.it 1, .Jni«4|c..3_.i.i-tt.... Y 20 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
m
A
o
Eh
eg o ooe
cd      5 -^ __ _9 _l
60    S o aa S
3     W 3 SSg
rH tf
c.     h „; rS K 4 _ a, S     a
3 ~ B a Ph
>-1
pq
• ^^g
"3    Z • I oil S -S 5     s 5     > . | -oh
•H.45J c W B       II T^                    <o 02     J 0,-S cu S g^      § gg
ms~, o Smc. -hCb jrt               "3d r?5„s.S3M°  ■£ "^^s"
i2rH^ O -    CSj-a II          •" .8    M <_                 Jft ...SflM"          S.O "2         •»
1_   i i    ** (_J jjn,   ^ II           ., .21 S                      O •   CO   B   g ^ (—I ffi         C ■*->   >i Jr _^ B 11  O
S.   •    « j- ftB>"i S'hC. ^ « 3             . w >> <"  3 _ 3  .. ^i 60.2 4- c3 a _. cc ^3 .So
h     -
gs« « iis    c«*   ^£|3   ^   t2a;i'gM7Ji;«gg;-^«
$°°4    M"3l«ffisJd_iS:fl'«iQj^'8  >h..2?-^ -,°'| =^koh«^
•S   S-3M|g ^^ftKS^-sJ^E^Sis^^^cng    k,|c „g^    «,5
I     g-g|l a^oJ. ssbg'gg!|-ig-g«',:!3 «*>*$£*$£§M53lisai>,,Sl|.'§
9    gg-§M jas-giS-alS °§s. .§gSfe>i^-5l^|^^^s&g'sst'g^|^
s jl°i ^g|l!ii.i5|l|ii|Ii^ mil ijEislslifiliii
H        ." .a      B o -iIooS»M'Jto. »!i 5? "J <u £ n o tf >,«a g .3 *<_ 5? ~ o 5 ■_; c. ,_! .m ,5 ." « d J?
o       Joq     [_, fefifflOOMMOHHWMHflffltoKBPfeJl>Hrl<iiMmffi<|o]SoS2BiBojS>aiO!3
Z
M . 	
ce      ,S OHMM^lOCO
M      ZCOt. jj-, _t-c0010HNM'*l._.COfllOHWM'<fl.1to.ca_OHWM^10_t-03(.0000000
^ SO CO to CD!OCOCOt^l>t-t>C-t-t-t-l>t-COOOCOMCOWaiCOCOM010JOi010iC.0101010)HHHHHHW
W
z
H
g II S II    .6
3 s s s   _
Oh ■" Ph **      ■rr*
60 w -- 0)
QJ w h 13
S ^        S> « 3
Q &     > > a
* S'   - t- ii 3 ^   «
n»!     a
S
§11^4 ^ -^^a g     ^§    w-3osg3|<gg|g a"g£«2"§..•$;&s|al
^•S°^^   £    « N^g    g    5    l«"„E^Wt_SSi_    Sis    S">.5«5^«_«05_
= 71   <3__        -3    c.    2   _5   ^«So.npiWStfa^fig'o.S£aJsf?;sp^g
e _?*
3  h  S  &
CO
o. ,|
■  * 13 r^ ^ i_ ^ »    O K    O    fi  -5 J    8® T3   ^
ja-sj a slii s |pia.^g|gll3l||1ls|:3gs7_a|'tH..s|s|s
«... . <   . < n d       . <   .   ,   . «i m d   . < n 6   . «£	
OJCO""#_0 t£> <Ot>00CO OO C3aOHWNNNMMMW^^WOt>OOaOHNMriHit;(Dt-COO)OHW
CO MM M CO COCOCOCO CO C0C0^T*rFT*^-TjH^Tf^^^T#^^Tf^^i_Sl_3__5U3_O-O-^ APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.        Y 21
•2   «   ^ >»*H            _   a  <s T3
;rtt   rtt>ja)Q           *J.S *t_ •
ss^    Iig - g
«3i_  g   a-s. .2 «
■T_J _   w     •   O O ©
a g||*  •§■»•- s i
|-.sg|     -S || c g
||&|S    ~»s I >
IS-SB*    s.1* I h
■9   r+j          bBOu a g
ComP»*   -J"' a 5
— »     ,? 3 5   « n « « £
fc. 5"g " °  ^o-* -S «    <_
gg£«.S£"o. g- _   iS
g3s &3
a a, 3
-a.e S       2      J
o~      2 "J g a P.S o J     g
■h      _ n _, M         W A "C rn
n -. o <u a a o.     o a T    -•
m-S&.se.So a y    cq
<U   g  g T_   60   ..          _;»■*• a
chih»..3 £C-T3 ° 5   t
.   _h a P..S o.j        S
B
>>
B
a
3    j
IS
S § Slr\<
a*    2       *8->*
a
Ul
T3
a
c.   a
0)
A!
OJ _,   •
t5 • IS
B
Hi
3 Ba
Tr!   B
&
Sis-1
w   » r,"      n ™    _.r     i
g > S3     °        . -o W £ n J
a S 3     a     jh.s>o
a    _ "C        a        B a "rj
m  .&  >        . h .3   >,>M "g
crij_       »**      >j+j^       _ «
■h w to     «>    ,£ fc "3 * 5 &q
g^|MS.&^>3icsg-3gSp
£g^;?'|"J ^1^.3.3 g
H.sSg(Sgggg"|g|||*
_jrt 4-,hU_ijOQ)h3hht:
ftDg0O330®T.0(j00^
P   .   B   .        •   .   •   .   •	
t^ral?ito2;--!cHC.^tnoMON
.   OC05C-CJ00 0.03C3ffi(M(M(MCO
oiiiiiTiiiiliiii
Z irjioiootot't-t-t-oaooooHt-o
"    ,HTHr-ltHr-(i-(T-lTHTHTHi-iTH(M(NCO Y 22
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
Maps.
Published.
In Course of Printing.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Lillooet Pre-emptors' Map   	
4,000
July,   1938
3k
3 mi. to 1 in.
11,700
Southerly Vancouver Island, standard edition..
10,000
May,   1938
2a
4 mi. to 1 in.
16,000
In Course of Preparation.
1. Hope-Princeton degree sheet, contoured	
2. Highway and Travel Map of British Columbia
4Q
P.W.D.
3r
4g
3c
Special
2 mi. to 1 in.
20 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
10 mi. to 1 in.
3,100
11,000
3,100
9,000
6. Geological Map—P.G.E. Rly. Resources Survey
of 1929 and 1930	
30,500
Geographic Board op Canada, Naming and Recording.
1938.
Map-sheets, namings reviewed     17
Recommendations to Geographic Board  701
New names recorded  355
Geographical Work for other Departments.
48 items, receipts and value of work  $2,095.01
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps and Gazetteers issued to departments and public  12,325
Maps received into Geographic stock  7,770
Total value of printed maps and Gazetteers issued  $4,002.50
Revenue from printed maps and Gazetteers  $3,629.47
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made .....        2,182
Revenue from departments and public      $413.70
Value of photostats for Lands Department, etc.  $1,306.80
Letters.
Letters received and attended to.
- 1,769
Standard Base Map.
Hope-Princeton Degree sheet, sheet compiled	
Lillooet Pre-emptors' sheet, sheet revision  1
Big Bend Pre-emptors' sheet, sheets compiled, complete  2
Big Bend Pre-emptors' sheet, sheets compiled, not complete  6
School districts, plotted from description  30
Control nets supplied  42 APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. Y 23
Triangulation.
Main, by least-square adjustment, triangles adjusted  44
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations   675
Index-cards,   records  1,090
Triangulation  index-maps I  5
Plan  of hydrographic  survey  triangulation,  west  coast  Vancouver
Island, sheets  drawn  2 Y 24
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
Table D.—List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
Year of
Issue.
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
1A      1   1933
1A
IE
10
lH
IJC
1JD
lJE
ljGL
1JG0
IK
IL
1-2A
2B
20
2d
2b
2f
3a
3b
3C
3d
3b
3f
3g
3h
3j
3k
3m
3p
3q
4a
4c
4d
4b
4g
4h
4j
4k
4L
4m
4n
4p
t4Q
5a
5b
MKMl
MRM2
mrm3
mrm4
mrm5
mrm6
mrm7
mrm8
PWD
MD
9
5
1933
1930
1916
1933
1923
1937
1937
1937
1937
1937
1925
1929
1938
1914
1929
1923
1924
1927
1930
1926
1923
1937
1928
1934
1935
1931
1932
1938
1929
1924
1936
1927
1936
1913
1925
1914
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1931
1939
1916
1929
1929
1929
1930
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
1937
1937
1907
1898
1896
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways, etc.
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways,   etc.    Special  edition  showing  Electoral  Districts,
Redistribution 1932, with 1934 Amendment
British   Columbia.    In   one  sheet.    Showing   Land  Recording
Districts
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen... 	
Cariboo and adjacent Districts
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data..
British   Columbia.    In   one   sheet.    Showing   rivers,
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
and precipitation.
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
railways,
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
and Land Recording Districts.
and Mining Divisions
and Assessment and Collection Districts,
and Land Registration Districts	
and Counties
South   Western   Districts   of   B.C.,   Commercial   and   Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
Central Districts of B.C., Commercial and Visitors	
Land Series—■
Southerly Vancouver Island
New Westminster and Yale Districts .
Northerly Vancouver Island 	
Powell Lake
Bella Coola   (preliminary)       	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography   (preliminary)
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George     — — 	
Nechako       .	
Stuart Lake   	
Bulkley Valley
Peace River   (reissue 1930).
Chilcotin
Quesnel (contoured)
Tete Jaune 	
North  Thompson  _~
Lillooet
Prince Rupert 	
Grenville Channel   (preliminary)
Peace River Block  	
Degree Series—
Rossland Sheet  (contoured)   	
Cranbrook Sheet _.
Fernie   Sheet
Upper Elk River Sheet  _
Windermere Sheet   	
Arrowhead Sheet 	
Vernon Sheet   (contoured)
Kettle Valley   (contoured)
East Lillooet, Economic Geography  (contoured)
Nicola Lake (contoured) 	
Penticton   (contoured)
Lower Fraser Valley  (preliminary)       __	
Hope-Princeton  ( contoured)   	
Topographical Series—■
Omineca and Finlay River Basins, Sketch-map of  	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet  (special)
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), North sheet (special)
Stikine River   (contoured)        	
GEOGRAPHICAL  GAZETTEER  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA	
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
Slocan and Ainsworth   __	
Trout Lake    	
Lardeau River  	
Nelson-Ymir      	
Rossland-Ymir
Grand Forks-Greenwood    „.
Greenwood and Osoyoos    	
Barkerville and Lightning Creek    _.
Miscellaneous—■
Highway and Travel Map of B.C. -  	
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts .
Northern Interior.    (A. G. Morice).. 	
Kootenay District, East, Triangulation Survey of .	
Kootenay District, West, Portion of      _	
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
31.53 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
xz_ m. to 1 in.
*/_ m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
I m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
6,000 ft. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
2.00
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.60
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
«* B
.2 Ha
C    . O
■a g'-s
- u
Cn
o
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.50
.50
.50
2.00
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
$14.00
20.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
18.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
.35 2.50
Free | On ap.
.10 I        .50
.10 I        .50
.10 |        .50
t In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map Number " of map
desired.
We can  supply information  concerning maps of British  Columbia printed and  published  at Ottawa  by  the
Department of Mines and Resources, etc., etc.
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address:—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands, Victoria, B.C. 3rd January, 1939. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 25
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By R. D. McCaw.
Victoria, B.C., January 20th, 1939.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my report on the control surveys for topographic
mapping from air views carried on by me during the field season of 1938.
The area under control comprises parts of National Topographic Sheets 92 B/5, 92 B/12,
and 92 C/9. The north boundary is latitude 48° 45' and the east boundary is longitude
123° 45', connection being made with the Shawnigan, Malahat, and Goldstream sheets of the
Department of National Defence. At the south end we join up at latitude 48° 25' with the
Sooke Bay sheet of the National Defence. The westerly boundary is our work of the previous
year. Aerial photography had been done by the R.C.A.F. previously and we were supplied
with views covering the entire area. The triangulation control was done by Mr. F. C.
Swannell, B.C.L.S., in 1937, and formed a base for our triangulation. The total area controlled is about 360 square miles, which is being mapped at the usual scale of 2 inches to the
mile, with contours at 100-foot vertical interval.
Before proceeding to do the field-work, information regarding existing surveys was
examined. Some preliminary signal and photographic work was also done before the whole
party took the field on June 15th.
The usual photo-topographic control methods were followed by extending the main triangulation and taking the necessary ground photographs. Owing to the rolling nature of the
country in parts, vertical control was augmented by chain-and-compass surveys on trails,
aneroids being used for elevations. These traverses were connected with points identified on
the air views.
In order to do the work as advantageously as possible, the main camp locations were
selected so as to be near the ends of main transportation routes. The outlying portions
were reached from small camps man-packed from the main camps. The first main camp was
located near Logging Camp 10 of the Victoria Lumber and Manufacturing Company in the
flat valley near the source of the Robertson River and Lens Creek. Transportation to this
camp was by the Company's speeder from Cowichan Lake. The next base of operations was
from a camp on the Cowichan River 5 miles west of Duncan. Smoke from forest fires became
very bad at this time and as there was every reason to believe that there might be considerable
delay you instructed me, on July 23rd, to place my party at the disposal of the Forestry
officials at Courtenay to give any assistance possible in fighting the forest fire burning near
there. The party with light equipment went up there on the 24th and remained until July
31st, when we returned south. The third main camp was on the Koksilah River, about 6 miles
west of Shawnigan Lake, located near the end of the Koksilah River Road which extends
westerly from Shawnigan Lake. From this camp surveys were extended westerly to Todd
Mountain and the head of the San Juan River and to Waterloo Mountain and the upper
reaches of the Koksilah River. Camp number four was located at the south end of Sooke
Lake and from this point we worked the various branches of the Leech River. Otter Point
was the location of the last main camp, and from here fly-camps were extended up Muir Creek
and up Jordan River to Jordan Meadows and various photographic stations and traverses
done. Main camp was broken up on September 16th and the balance of the work done from
fly-camps. Smoke from slash fires interfered with the completion of the work to such an
extent that some stations in the vicinity of the Cowichan River could not be completed until
the middle of October.
Climatic conditions for the season were rather unusual. It is generally anticipated that
there will be considerable rainfall during the summer, but this year there was very little and
the bush became so dry that the fire-hazard was with us continually during July and August,
and utmost precautions were taken with camp fires and smoking. June was a very clear
month with excellent photographic atmosphere, and this condition prevailed until the middle
of July when smoke from forest fires began to give us trouble, and from that date on there
were spells of very smoky atmosphere. The first rain of any consequence fell early in
September, but it was quite inadequate to meet the general need. Y 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
The whole area is mountainous, rising to an altitude of about 3,900 feet in the highest
part, with timber right to the top. The southerly portion is very much broken with many
rock bluffs. The central and eastern portion is more or less of a rolling mountainous nature
with a wide flat valley containing Jordan Meadows at the head of the Jordan and Leech
Rivers. Timber consists mainly of fir, cedar, hemlock, some balsam, spruce, and black pine.
As the area has been cruised recently by the Forest Branch I would refer to their maps for
timber information.
The main industry is logging, but at present timber is being cut over very small areas,
and these, with the exception of the Robertson River tract, are close to main transportation
routes. The largest operation is on the Robertson River and upper Lens Creek, where
logging has been carried on over a number of years by the Victoria Lumber and Manufacturing Company. The logs are hauled down by logging-railway approximately 12 miles to
the east end of Cowichan Lake, and there taken over by the Canadian Pacific Railway and
then to the mill at Chemainus. The Company's camp 10, near which we were camped, had
about 185 men at work during the summer. At Deerholme, on the Canadian National Railway, the Wellburn Company is operating a sawmill, hauling their logs from near-by limits to
the south by truck. Other logging operations were being carried on in adjacent areas west
of Deerholme. Along the Sooke River the Cameron Lumber Company have a sawmill near
Kapoor and were running all season. The Kapoor Company was also in full swing. These
latter works are east of the area in which we were working. On the Leech River considerable
development was being carried on for placer-mining, dams and flumes being constructed to
work on a larger scale than heretofore. Leechtown, on the lower Leech River, was the scene
of much placer-mining years ago. In the vicinity of Tugwell, Kirby, and Muir Creeks at the
south, trucks are used to haul the logs to salt water from the logging operations there.
There are several good trails within the area, leading from the travelled highways. A
main trail over which pack-horses could travel extends from the Koksilah River Road to
Jordan Meadows, a distance of 13 miles from " Burnt Bridge." This trail continues in a
southerly direction to Beer Creek, coming out at the B.C. Electric Company's dam on that
creek. From here there is a good trail down to the Diversion Dam of the same Company,
and there is an outlet from there by the Company's narrow gauge railway to the road system
at Jordan River post-office. From Beer Creek dam this route is on the private property of
the B.C. Electric Railway, and any one wishing to use it must have due permission. About
9 miles from Burnt Bridge, on the Koksilah River-Jordan Meadows trail, a branch trail
forks, leading to the San Juan River. Pack-horses can be used on this trail also. A backpack trail connects this with the Malahat Logging Company's railway at Beer Creek, on the
south side of the San Juan, thus giving a foot route through to Port Renfrew. From the
south end of Sooke Lake a good trail extends north-westerly across the north forks of the
Leech River, over the Survey Mountain ridge to Trout Lake and Jordan Meadows. This
trail is joined about 5 miles from Sooke Lake by a trail from Leechtown. Horses have been
used on these trails. The original trails from the Koksilah River and Sooke Lake into
Jordan Meadows were constructed many years ago as a means of transportation to and from
the meadows, where a rancher named John H. Weeks had pre-empted land years ago. A
great deal of work was done in the way of buildings on the Weeks' place, the remains of
which are still to be seen. The doors, window-frames, and inside fittings and furniture were
all hand-made, of yellow cedar generally, done in a particularly workmanlike manner and
may well be compared with good cabinet-work—and the whole made on the spot miles away
from a mill.
Minor back-packing trails exist, one up Muir Creek, one from the V.L.M. Railway at
Camp 10, going part way down Lens Creek, and another from the same railway extending
over to Harris Creek. Roads are nil, with the exception of the Koksilah River Road which
extends about 2 miles into the area and some short truck-roads near Deerholme.
There was little game seen during the summer, a few deer were noticed in the logging
slash and indications of bear. Trappers state there are wolves, but no evidence of any was
seen. Some blue grouse and willow grouse were seen. Quite a bit of fishing is done in the
Koksilah River and Grant Lake, and other streams and lakes are said to be good. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 27
Our thanks  are  due to  the  Victoria  Lumber  and  Manufacturing  Company, the  B.C.
Electric  Company,  the  Wellburn   Company,  the  City  of  Victoria,  and  the  Public  Works
Department for courtesies extended during the work.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
I have, etc.,
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By A. J. Campbell.
Victoria, B.C., January 8th, 1939.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith present my report on the topographical control surveys carried out
during the season of 1938. The area covered by these surveys is that part of Vancouver
Island lying to the west of Cowichan and Nitinat Lakes and extending to the Alberni Canal.
The greater part of the information obtained will be used in compiling Map-sheet 92 C/15
and the balance will cover parts of Sheets 92 C/9, 92 C/10, 92 C/16, and 92 F/2. When this
winter's office-work is completed the following map-sheets should be ready for tracing:
92 C/9 (in conjunction with R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S.), 92 C/10, that part of 92 C/16 lying
outside of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Land Grant, and 92 C/15. It is to be noted,
however, that we have obtained considerable data that could be used in preparing Map-
sheets 92 C/16 and 92 F/2. The first-mentioned sheet includes Cowichan Lake and, for the
most part, lies in the E. & N. Grant. The second includes the upper part of the Alberni
Canal and the town of Alberni. About 50 per cent, lies in the E. & N. Grant. Both these
sheets cover areas in which there is a good deal of activity either through logging or mining.
For triangulation control the system established last year was extended westerly and
northerly to connect with Geodetic Survey stations in the vicinity of the Alberni Canal, and
all camera stations occupied were tied in to this system. The establishment and occupation
of these stations was in the hands of Mr. F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S., with the exception that
certain stations, contiguous to the west coast, were occupied by us and Mr. G. J. Jackson,
B.C.L.S., who was working in the Barkley Sound area.
These triangulation stations, as well as a number of other points, were occupied with
the camera for the purpose of providing control for the aerial pictures which covered the
area. In addition, and for the same purpose, a traverse of some 31 miles was run from
Cowichan Lake to the Alberni Canal, following, where possible, the old Canadian Northern
Railroad grade constructed just before the war, also along the old tote-road and at times
taking to the bed of adjacent stream. Although this traverse was not completed as quickly
as anticipated, owing to the old grade being heavily overgrown, control was obtained in a
section which was practically impossible to cover from mountain stations and will therefore
be of considerable value.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The area is mountainous, with the mountains, over the greater part, reaching to a height
of about 3,000 feet, with timber to the tops. In the vicinity of Cowichan Lake and northwesterly to the Alberni Canal, the mountains are higher, rising to 5,000 feet, with bare tops.
These afforded a number of very good triangulation and camera stations which facilitated
our work considerably. There are a number of lakes scattered through the area; the largest
is Nitinat Lake, about 12 miles long. Contrary to the belief of a large number of people,
this is a salt-water lake and has a tide of about two feet. As a rule, the streams and rivers
run in narrow, steep-sided valleys. Y 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
FOREST.
The whole of this area is heavily timbered, the stand consisting of cedar, fir, hemlock,
spruce, and balsam, with hemlock the most predominant. In this area—that is, from Nitinat
Lake to the Alberni Canal—it would seem that there is little fir for some distance back from
the coast. It was also noted, in several instances, that the timber-growth on the tops of the
ridges and hills, providing the altitude was below 3,000 feet and not much rock showing, was
larger than on the slopes leading up to these summits. Logging operations are being carried
out at Cowichan Lake, the north end of Nitinat Lake, and at Franklin River, off the Alberni
Canal. At this point I might say these operators—namely, the Industrial Timber Mills,
Limited, Nitinat Lake Logging Company, and Bloedel, Stewart & Welch—gave every assistance they could in the way of transportation and otherwise, and thus saved us much in
labour and time.
There are no burnt-over areas in this section, which would go to show the fire-hazard in
the country contiguous to the west coast of the Island is small.
MINERALS.
There are no operating mines in this area, but evidences that prospectors had been
exploring were noted in different parts. Recently a number of mineral claims were staked at
the head of Corrigan Creek and work is being done this winter to prove the value of the
showing discovered. As is the case on most of the Island, the underbrush and overburden
make it a hard country to prospect.
CLIMATE.
The rainfall on this part of the Island is fairly heavy but is precipitated chiefly in the
winter months, June to September being a comparatively dry period. To offset this during
this dry season fogs are prevalent along the .west coast, and, as the season of 1938 was particularly dry, there was more fog than usual. Practically every day that we were in a position to see out over the coast or Barkley Sound the fog was present. Nevertheless, as a
general rule, the most propitious time for carrying on surveys on this part of the Island is
during this period.
FISHING.
Fishing is carried on extensively along the west coast of Vancouver Island and provides
a livelihood for Indians, local residents, and for a floating population who own their own
boats and move from place to place as conditions warrant. The catch consists of salmon,
herring, pilchard, halibut, and cod, and the fish are handled in local canneries or reduction
plants or else packed in ice and carried by fish-packers to centres such as New Westminster
and Vancouver for shipment.
Trout are reported to be plentiful in some of the lakes and streams, but we were not
able to verify this as we only did a limited amount of fishing which was not very fruitful.
GAME.
During the season little game was seen and amounted to the following: One bear, one
cougar, three deer, three elk, and a few grouse. Practically all of these were noted in the
vicinity of Cowichan Lake. One goat is reported to have been seen several times by loggers
north of Cowichan Lake, but whether the few goat who were imported and turned loose in
that locality have increased or this one is a lone survivor is not known.
ACCESSIBILITY.
Clo-oose is the only post-office in the area covered by the map-sheets or the parts thereof
mentioned, but Youbou, on Cowichan Lake, with Bamfield and Kildonan on Barkley Sound
are not far away. Also the logging camps run what amounts to a post-office as a service
to their employees.
Clo-oose is reached by C.P.R. steamers sailing from Port Alberni or Victoria and, as
there is no wharf there, passengers and freight are put ashore by small boat, if the weather
is favourable. There have been periods of over a month during which it has been impossible
to make a landing. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 29
Nitinat Lake may be reached by a trail a little over a mile long from Clo-oose Beach, or
by a good trail, about 15 miles long, from the head of Cowichan Lake. Tugs and fishing-
boats and fish-packers, at certain stages of the tide, enter the river at the outlet and up to
the lake.
The Dominion Government telegraph-line follows along the coast from Port Renfrew to
Alberni, and to keep this line repaired a trail is kept open. This trail is generally on the
shore and back from the beach, but, where suitable, the beach itself is used. From Bamfield
to Alberni the line is kept in repair from boats and no trail exists. An inferior trail, which
follows the old Canadian Northern Railway grade or the old tote-road, connects the Nitinat
River with the Alberni Canal, covering a distance of 19 miles. This could be made into a
good trail with a comparatively small amount of work.
The office-work is well advanced and should be completed before the field season of 1939
opens.
I have, etc.,
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By N. C. Stewart.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1938.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical survey
carried out by my party during the field season of 1938.
The area controlled is situated between latitude 49° 45' and the south boundary of
Strathcona Park and easterly from the 126° meridian to the westerly and southerly boundary
of the Buttle Lake drainage system. Some additional control was obtained in the area north
of Great Central Lake. Approximately 300 square miles will be mapped at a scale of %
mile to 1 inch, with a contour interval of 100 feet.
The field party consisted of W. J. Moffat, B.C.L.S., assistant; A. G. Slocomb, instrument-
man; and seven men. An advance party, under Mr. Slocomb, left Victoria on June 1st for
Herbert Arm, where signals were erected on near-by mountains. The full party commenced
operations at the head of Muchalat Arm on June 14th. Field-work was discontinued on
September 26th.
We were supplied with air photographs taken by the Royal Canadian Air Force. On
account of the very mountainous nature of the country, the control was obtained solely by
triangulation and ground photography. Camera stations were established on thirty-nine
peaks and ties were made to existing triangulation points along the various inlets. The
main triangulation station on Big Interior Mountain was again occupied.
The survey was undertaken from the heads of those inlets of the west coast that extend
within reach of the westerly and southerly portions of Strathcona Park; these were
Muchalat Arm, Shelter Arm, Herbert Arm, and Bedwell Sound. We blazed a trail for man-
packing purposes from Muchalat Arm up the Burman River valley, about 9 miles, and then
up one of its tributaries to the mountains south of Donner Lake. Also from this trail the
mountains between the Burman and Megin rivers were reached. From Shelter Arm we
pulled a dug-out canoe up the Megin River to Megin Lake, establishing two stations on
mountains north of that lake. Other stations were taken near the head of Shelter Arm.
At Herbert Arm we used the road and trails to the Abco mine, and other trails up the Moyeha
and Cotter Creeks that were blazed out by the prospectors. From Bedwell Sound we followed
the old road up Bedwell River about 7 miles; this road was overgrown and all bridges out.
Here again prospectors had made a trail and placed temporary bridges and logs at the old
crossings. Beyond the wagon-road we cut and reblazed the old trail to the Bear Pass, and
blazed a new route from the westerly end of the pass to McBride Lake, connecting with a
good trail to Great Central Lake. Y 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The approach to Strathcona Park from the west coast, via these long arms of the sea
under such ideal weather conditions as prevailed during 1938, is one of remarkable and varied
picturesqueness. Although Herbert Arm is the only one of these inlets actually to extend
into Strathcona Park, the ends of the others are not far from its westerly boundary. The
bare crests of mountains rising abruptly to an average height of about 5,000 feet extend in
irregular masses from the end of these arms to the Buttle Lake watershed. There appears
to be no general trend to the mountains, but there are several groups, causing a drainage
system which is also irregular in shape. None of the mountains in this section had been
named, so temporary names were given to those climbed by us. Near Muchalat Arm the
outstanding mountains are Mount Matchlee (6,033 feet), Mount Splendor (5,794 feet), and
Mount Donner (5,947 feet). At the head of Herbert Arm are Lone Wolf Mountain (4,853
feet), Big Boy (5,008 feet), and Mount Abco (4,989 feet) ; the latter two being peaks of the
mountain on which are located the Big Boy and Abco mines. Along the Bedwell River are
Holy Cross Mountain (5,833 feet), locally named, and Mount Ursus  (4,827 feet).
The main rivers are the Ucona, out of Donner Lake; the Burman, which rises near
Mount Rooster's Comb; the Moyeha, which heads in the divides to the Thelwood and flows
into Herbert Arm; and the Bedwell, which starts at Big Interior Mountain and flows into
Bedwell Sound. These rivers are comparatively small streams, none of them being over 20
miles in length, but they are very steep, except for a few miles from their outlets, where they
have filled in the arms of the sea. Between the Burman and Moyeha is the Megin River,
which drains into Megin Lake and thence into Shelter Arm. There are numerous small
lakes, mostly near timber-line, in the westerly side of Strathcona Park, but no large ones.
Donner Lake, about 4 miles long, is the largest.    Megin Lake is outside the Park boundary.
On the higher mountains there are perpetual snow-fields and small glaciers, the most
prominent crossed during the season is on Holy Cross Mountain. Picturesque waterfalls
were seen on nearly every stream; an outstanding one on a creek rising on Matchlee
Mountain can be viewed from Muchalat Arm.
FORESTS.
The valleys are heavily timbered. The densely timbered portion of the Ucona Valley
is mostly outside the Park boundary. There are some merchantable stands up the Burman
River for about 6 miles; this consists of hemlock, Douglas fir, and cedar, and some very
large spruce near its mouth. Up the Moyeha River, as far as the first main forks, there is
merchantable timber with considerable spruce. Some of the spruce was taken out for airplane construction during the Great War. On Cotter Creek there is a heavy stand consisting
mostly of hemlock, but with some balsam, fir, and large red cedar.
Up the Bedwell River, almost to its source, there is a dense stand of hemlock and balsam,
but not much fir and cedar; this stand is reputed to be suitable for pulp-wood. On McBride
Creek, below McBride Lake, there is a good stand of merchantable timber, but above the lake
the timber is not very good. Although hemlock, fir, and cedar predominate, other varieties
are spruce, white pine, balsom, alder, maple, yew, yellow cedar, and Cottonwood. The merchantable timber grows to an approximate altitude of 3,000 feet, and timber-line is about
4,500 feet above sea-level. In the forests we found an undergrowth of huckleberry, devil's-
club, and salal, but the growth was not as dense as we expected to find on this westerly
watershed. Berries, mostly huckleberry and blueberry, were abundant. Wild flowers grow
profusely, especially along gravel bars and in the alpine areas at timber-line.
MINERALS.
Prospectors were searching for minerals of economic value in most of the area being
mapped. Owing to the difficult nature of the country, nearly all of the prospecting was done
within easy reach of the salt water. We noted signs of mineralization both north and south
of the Burman River and in the Megin Valley. Many prospectors were at work along the
Moyeha River and around the Big Boy and Abco mines at the head of Herbert Arm. Practically the whole of the Cotter Creek valley was staked and the prospecting extended over the
range from Cotter Creek in to the upper reaches of Cypre Creek. Also quite a few claims
were staked between Herbert and Shelter Arms.    Up the Bedwell River, where many years TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 31
ago there was considerable activity in both placer and lode mining, many prospectors were
again at work and according to reports some very good assays were obtained. There was no
activity in the Crown-granted claims, except at Delia Lake where preparations were being
made to extend the old workings.
Some small areas near the mountain-tops showed fossiliferous limestone similar to that
found near Buttle Lake, thus possibly extending the Permian horizon.
CLIMATE.
Our anticipation of a rigorous west coast climate with its rains, fogs, and mists was not
realized, for we were favoured with the finest season experienced in these parts for three
or four decades. When we took the field in the latter part of June, there was still much
snow on the mountain-tops, showing that there is a very heavy snowfall in this portion of
the Island. A further indication of a large rainfall is shown by the great difference between
the high- and low-water marks of the rivers and lakes. During this summer the rivers were
very low, a condition that greatly helped our work. Due to the dry summer the fire-hazard
was great, but the prevailing westerly wind kept our area free from the smoke of the great
fires on the east coast of the Island. A local fire near Nootka, situated west of us, caused
us some trouble about the middle of July.
Slash-burning in September produced smoke conditions so serious that we were forced
to shut down earlier than desired.
GAME.
Game is not plentiful. According to old settlers, some years ago the valleys were full
of deer and bear, but now few are seen. Signs of the existence of the fur-bearing animals,
mink, marten, and beaver, were noted. Game birds, blue grouse, willow grouse, ptarmigan,
ducks, and wild pigeons were seen. Song-birds and the chatter of red squirrels were heard
in the valleys, and in the streams and some I lakes there were trout. McBride and Great
Central Lake are well stocked with trout.
DEVELOPMENT AND RESOURCES.
In the whole of Strathcona Park there is but 1 mile of road—this connects the Abco
mine tramway with salt water at Herbert Arm. There are few good trails, the existing
trails being mostly blazed routes suitable only for man-packing. There is little evidence
that the area between the Ucona and Moyeha rivers has been explored.
Except for mining at Herbert Arm and along the Bedwell River there is absolutely no
development in this area. It is quite possible that mining will increase and a small amount
of logging will be undertaken, but otherwise there appears to be little to attract industry.
There are, however, scenic attractions which, when made accessible, will no doubt prove
valuable.
I have, etc.,
N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By G. J. Jackson.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1938.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical survey made
by me, under your instructions, during the past summer.
The area completed is on Vancouver Island, in the vicinity of Barkley Sound, comprising
all of the Island west of the 125° meridian, which lies south of the 49th parallel, being Map-
sheets 92 C711, 92 C/13, 92 C/14. Y 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1938.
The area has all been covered by vertical aerial views, taken by the Royal Canadian Air
Force. The triangulation was controlled by stations of the Geodetic Survey of Canada.
Elevations were obtained from sea-level.
The party was organized at Victoria and arrived at Bamfield on June 12th, when the
work was commenced. Most of the work was near the water, so a launch was required
during the whole season. Fly-camps were used, when necessary, to reach the hills. The
party was in the field until September 28th, when the smoke got so dense that it was useless
to stay on. ,
The season was most unfavourable for the work in this vicinity, as there were very few
days when the hills were clear of fog. This necessitated many days of waiting to complete
each station. The weather, otherwise, was much better than usual on the west coast, as
there was practically no rain or wind. From July 19th to 26th there was dense smoke which
gradually cleared till the end of the month. Again, from September 14th until the end of
the season, it was very smoky. There was only one fire in the area itself. This, a small one,
was at the head of Pachena Bay.
During the season thirty-four camera stations and six triangulation stations were occupied, 30 miles of traverse were run, and many barometer readings were taken.
Barkley Sound is about 16 miles wide and 12 miles deep; reaching from it are a number
of narrow inlets, the longest being the Alberni Canal, which reaches up to Alberni and is
about 25 miles long. The sound is studded with hundreds of islands, varying in size from
a rock to several square miles. It is surrounded by timbered hills reaching from 2,000 to
3,000 feet elevation, while a few miles north there are many bare peaks much higher.
Permanent settlement is restricted to Bamfield, Ucluelet, and Kildonan. In the fish
season there are several fish-salteries and reduction plants operating.
At Bamfield, on the east side of the sound, there is a small settlement collected around
the cable station, which is the terminus of the Pacific cables. Here there is a post-office,
Customs office, school, several stores and fish-buyers, and also the life-saving station.
Ucluelet, on the west side of the sound, is another settlement with post-office, Customs
office, schools, stores, and cannery, and there are some small farms here.
Kildonan, on Uchucklesit Inlet, is a B.C. Packers' cannery and reduction plant with a
post-office and a good store.
From Alberni there is a mail service to Bamfield and Kildonan three times a week and
to Ucluelet twice a week. There is a C.P.R. boat from Victoria every ten days, and for the
summer months one every five days.
The coast is very rugged and shipping is protected by lighthouses placed at strategic
points on the coast, and in the sound by beacons. At Pachena there is also a wireless station
to give direction to ships in foggy weather.
Roads are few and most of the travelling is done by water. There is a road from
Ucluelet to Long Beach which is used by cars. There is a good trail from Bamfield to
Pachena lighthouse, this continues down the coast along the telephone-line. There is also
a trail from Bamfield to Cape Beale lighthouse.
There is a telephone-line from Port Renfrew to Bamfield, which is connected to Alberni
by a line on the east side of the sound and canal. Another line on the west side joins Alberni,
Kildonan, and Ucluelet.
The whole area is heavily timbered and has a dense growth of underbrush, consisting
of salal and huckleberry. The timber is hemlock, balsam, cedar, spruce, and black pine, with
some yellow cedar on the higher altitudes. Fir is not found growing in any quantity until
the Alberni Canal is entered, and it becomes more plentiful as the canal is ascended. No
logging of any extent has been done on the sound as yet.
All industry depends on the fishing. A large number of trollers operate out of Bamfield
and Ucluelet, while a lot of gill-netters work the sound and canal. Purse-seiners also operate
for salmon, pilchard, and herring in the seasons. There are a number of fish-buyers, canneries, salteries, and reduction plants which take care of the various fish.
At Sechart there are the remains of a whaling station which has been closed for some
years, but evidently operated long enough to practically exterminate the whales in that
locality. TRIANGULATION SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 33
Little agriculture has been attempted, but everything has wonderful growth, as there is
usually plenty of moisture in the growing season. This summer was an exception, as the
country was badly dried out. Water was scarce everywhere and many wells dry. On the
hills it was impossible to find water.
There is little mining activity in the area, although a number of prospects have been
located. The only active one this summer was about 3 miles up Lucky Creek from Toquart
Harbour.    Here a few men were opening up a vein and getting encouraging values in gold.
The climate is very temperate at low altitudes but the precipitation is heavy, being over
100 inches and reaching, it is said, over 300 inches in some of the valleys north of the sound.
It is a very poor game country. There were few signs of deer and bear and no animals
themselves were seen. We only saw an occasional grouse and a few pigeons. Ducks and
geese are said to be fairly plentiful in some of the inlets in the winter. There is some
trapping, the animals taken are mink, coon, marten, and beaver. The fur-seal herd passes
the sound on its migration north and south, and a few are captured by the Indians with
spears.
Trout are fairly plentiful in the rivers and lakes, and salmon run up all the rivers to
spawn. There are also big runs of pilchard and herring. Cod are plentiful, and some
halibut are still caught on the banks off the sound.
The work on the maps is now in progress and the usual plans are being prepared.
I have, etc.,
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
TRIANGULATION SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By Frank Swannell.
Victoria, B.C., February 8th, 1939.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the survey operations conducted
by me during the season of 1938.
The primary object of my work last summer was to extend the triangulation made by
Mr. A. J. Campbell, of the photo-topographic survey, and myself in 1937 northward and
westward, so as to close on geodetic stations and provide the main control for this season's
photo-topographical work. Routes were cut into and signals and cairns erected on Mount
Grey, Sarita, Hankin, Woollett, and Bainbridge. All these were occupied and read; additional readings being obtained by Mr. A. J. Campbell from Grey and Sarita when he occupied
these two for photographic purposes. The geodetic stations Cokely, Handy, and Klitsa were
resignalled and these, as well as the geodetic station Tzartus, were occupied and read during
the season. Edinburgh, Towincut, Whymper, and Prevost of the 1937 triangulation net
were also reoccupied in order to obtain additional angles and a tie was made at Bonilla Point
on the west coast.
In addition to the main triangulation Alberni Inlet was triangulated from Uchucklesit
Harbour to Port Alberni. Some fifty stations were set, most of which are permanently
marked by brass bolts or iron bars. Owing to dense smoke and fog this triangulation was
not fully completed. Two or three stations in the vicinity of Franklin River will require to
be set and read before a rigid connection is obtainable between the geodetic station on Copper
Island and that at Port Alberni. Some 15 miles of traverse was run at Cowichan Lake and
along the E. & N. Railway grade at Cameron Lake in order to tie in land surveys and various
geodetic survey bench-marks.
Sproat Lake was also partially triangulated in order to obtain land ties and more particularly to fix the position of the E. & N. land grant boundary. All this work will provide
control for use in the preparation for Map-sheets 92 C/16 and 92 F/2. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ALBERNI AREA.
Alberni Canal, or, as it should more correctly be called, Alberni Inlet, runs northerly
about 20 miles from the head of Barkley Sound. Its average width is about a mile and it is
generally very deep, the mid-channel depths as far up as Nahmint Bay being over 150
fathoms. Heavily timbered mountains running up to 3,000 feet in altitude start abruptly at
water-level. The shores are rocky, in places rising as sheer bluffs. The only level land is
that formed at creek mouths, particularly at Nahmint River, where there are large tide-flats,
and at Sproat Narrows where the Franklin River and a large creek opposite have formed
deltas constricting the inlet to half its usual width. Smaller flats have formed at Coleman,
China, and Cous Creeks. At the head of the canal the Somass River enters through tide-flats
and a large area-of flatfish, once heavily-timbered, country extends around Alberni to the
base of the Beaufort Range and over to Great Central Lake. Sproat Lake, 13 miles long, is,
except for around its outlet, hemmed in by steep, densely timbered hills rising at its head
into bare mountains, of which Klitsa Peak is the highest.
NATURAL RESOURCES.
Timber is the great natural resource of this region. The Nahmint Valley, almost up to
Nahmint Lake, has been logged off and extensive logging' operations are being conducted up
Franklin River by Bloedel, Stewart & Welch, whose logging railroads extend for some 15
miles up Franklin River. Incidentally, this railroad was of immense service to us in reaching Mount Grey, and I am much indebted to the logging superintendent, Mr. Olsen, for his
courtesy in aiding us in every way.
From Franklin River to Port Alberni large areas have been logged off, while logging is
still being carried on around Alberni, notably at Great Central Lake. On the inlet below
Nahmint Bay there has been nothing but a little desultory hand-logging. The timber consists of hemlock, fir, spruce, and balsam;   hemlock being the predominant type.
Port Alberni, whose prosperity depends entirely on the manufacture and export of lumber, now ranks second in British Columbia for timber export, being exceeded by Vancouver.
The figure for 1938 is 278,355,360 F.B.M. At and adjacent to Alberni are sawmills whose
daily capacity is 1,444,000 F.B.M. Two of these, the Alberni Pacific Lumber Co. and Bloedel,
Stewart & Welch, cut 800,000 feet daily, and the Great Central Sawmills 260,000.
It is interesting to note that the third sawmill to operate on Vancouver Island—Captain
Stamp's mill—commenced cutting at Old Alberni in 1861. In 1862, 8,074,000 F.B.M. and
seven cargoes of spars were exported; in 1863 over 12,000,000 feet, and in 1864, 11,000,000.
This sawmill ceased operating at the end of 1864, the reason given being that the stand of
timber was exhausted!
FISHERY.
Next to logging, fishing is the chief industry along the inlet. Alberni has a considerable
floating population of fishermen. Gill-netting and trolling for salmon proceeds in the inlet
itself, while, according to the season, the boats go to Barkley Sound and the open sea for cod,
halibut, pilchard, and herring. There are canneries and salteries at Kildonan, and many
Japanese fishermen.
MINING.
There has been considerable mining along Alberni Inlet and in the country adjacent
since early days. In 1864 placer gold was found by the Dr. R. Brown Government exploring
party on China Creek, and between $100,000-$200,000 taken out shortly after. This creek
was worked up to about 1895, mostly by Chinamen, and is presumably completely worked out.
Some mineral-claims were being worked in 1934 on a branch creek.
Thirty years ago there was considerable mining activity along the Canal at Nahmint
(Haye's Landing) and farther down near Pocohontas Light and Hand Creek. At present,
however, no mining beyond a little desultory prospecting is being done anywhere near tidewater. Considerable prospecting and staking of claims was done this last year on Corrigan
Creek, a branch of Franklin River. Where the E. & N. boundary crosses Franklin River a
Finn was taking out ore for sampling purposes from a very old adit; by whom sunk we
could not learn. LAND SURVEY, PEACE RIVER DISTRICT. Y 35
ACCESSIBILITY.
Old Alberni and the new and flourishing town of Port Alberni are reached by the E. & N.
Railway and connected with the east coast by road. During the summer months the C.P.R.
steamers call at Alberni every five days, in the winter there is a ten-day service with
Victoria. A small steamer, the " Uchuck," gives a tri-weekly service to all points down the
inlet and in Barkley Sound. Alberni and Bamfield are connected by a Dominion Government
telegraph-line which closely follows the shore.   There is also telephone connection to Kildonan.
GAME.
There is very little game of any kind. An occasional deer was seen along the inlet, one
bear up Franklin River, and we found elk sign on Mount Grey. Grouse and other small
game were very scarce. There seemed to be hardly any trout in Nahmint River, and in
several other streams we saw none much larger than minnows.
CLIMATE.
The summer was abnormally dry and hot and nearly all the smaller streams ran dry.
Even in June we had temperatures as high as 86° F., while for a whole week in July the
thermometer registered from 88° to 92°. The fire-hazard was very great, and owing to this
and the lack of water to operate their donkey-engines, logging operations at Franklin River
ceased early in the summer and did not recommence until September. Owing to the precautions taken no serious fires started in the Alberni area, but our surveying operations were
often brought to a standstill by dense smoke from the Campbell River fire. We were in
addition much handicapped by sea fogs which drove up the inlet from Barkley Sound.
The angles of the main triangulation have long since been placed in the hands of the
computer, Mr. Hutchinson, who has since adjusted and computed the entire net. All points
along Alberni Canal required for the map-sheet now being made were calculated by the end
of the year. The notes and plans showing the traverses and connections to land surveys will
be filed shortly.
I have, etc.,
Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S.
LAND SURVEY, PEACE RIVER DISTRICT.
By Duncan Cran.
Fort St. John, B.C., November 30th, 1938.
LOCATION AND ACCESS.
Townships 82 and 83, Range 14, in part, and S. % Sec. 19-83-13; together with Central
meridian through Township 84, Range 14.
The area divided into quarter-sections is cut through by the deep valley of the Moose or
Alces River. All the land on the east side of this valley is easily accessible from Clayhurst
Post-office, the centre of a small settlement of about seventy-five people and a mile east of the
1938 survey. Clayhurst is between 3 and 4 miles from the ferry across the Peace River.
Mail is brought by truck from Dawson Creek via Rolla. The rail-head at Dawson Creek is
40 to 45 miles from Clayhurst. Although the gradient on the north side of the Peace River
is steep and narrow that on the south side is easy and wide, making the Clayhurst district
advantageously placed for shipping out produce. The land on the west side of the Moose
valley is not yet accessible by road, only by pack-trail, from the ferry, which enters the area
through Section 22, Township 82. A road would have to be graded from the ferry landing
(south of Section 25). Once on top of the main bench the building of roads to any part of
the country west of the Moose-would not be difficult. The west half of this area is bounded
on the south by the Peace River to which there is access by a rough wagon-trail in Section 8. A control meridian was run from the N.E. corner of Sec. 33, Tp. 84, on the 22nd baseline. The N.E. % S. 33 is held by a settler named Jim Good, who obtains his supplies by
wagon from Cecil Lake, about 20 miles westerly. Jim Good's is about 15 miles by pack-trail
from Clayhurst. This is a good pack-trail, except for the fact that a fire this year blocked
some of it with fallen trees. The meridian-line just touched the Moose River 1 mile south of
the base-line and crossed it for the first time at the end of the eleventh mile.
CLIMATE.
To describe the climate of this country from records taken this year would show the
district to be very dry with a very hot summer. The rest of the Peace River country experienced considerable drought this year, especially in the spring. The June rains were of very
short duration, and at our camp in Sec. 21-82-14 amounted to probably 2 inches or less. On
August 17th the minimum temperature was 31% degrees and on August 22nd 27 degrees.
These, however, were recorded in the bottom of a coulee in Sec. 15-83-14 and there was no
serious damage from frost reported in the settlement. Ice formed at the end of July at the
camp in Sec. 27-84-14 in a creek-bottom, but this year Good had a fair crop of potatoes on
the higher ground not far from this point. During the summer the thermometer often
reached 80 degrees in the shade, with 90 degrees occasionally, and the latter temperature was
recorded two days running in September. Rainfall in the Peace River District varies considerably in different parts. For example, on my place 10 miles west of Fort St. John last
year there was less rainfall than in other localities, while this year I got the moisture,
resulting in a good crop, better than last year. Also the climate varies considerably from
year to year. This applies to snowfall. In 1931, in February, before a chinook wind came
there was only about 6 inches of snow on the ground. In the early spring of one year since
there was almost 4 feet lying on the ground. The last two winters the snowfall was quite
moderate. At the time of writing there is a depth of snow of about 6 inches, which is being
melted (November 7th) by a south-west wind. Sometimes the severest cold is before and
sometimes after Christmas.
SOIL.
On the whole the soil in this area is not very rich in regard to depth of loam, and there
are some quarters in the north-west part of Township 82 where there is very little covering
of humus due to a great extent to repeated fires. On almost the whole area the soil is characterized by having a subsoil of gumbo or dark-coloured clay that, after the dry weather,
could be taken from the pits and formed into a ball due to moisture content. Above the
gumbo and sometimes reaching the surface there are streaks and patches of whitish clay
which is powdery in places. The soil throughout the land to the west of Clayhurst is
generally good. It was noted that after a fire there was a second growth of fireweed and
grass, its green condition, after so much dry weather, indicating the moisture content of the
underlying gumbo.
TIMBER.
The majority of this area is covered by poplar varying from saplings to 12 inches in
diameter. There are patches of and scattered spruce-trees throughout, clumps of willow and
a small amount of cottonwood, mostly small. The average size of poplar in Sections 20-24,
16, 15, W. y2 14 and 10, Township 83-14, is 8 inches, of medium density, while the land to the
east of this has a lighter and smaller growth of poplar. The poplar on the uplands of 82-14
is mostly scrub with poplar, average 4 inches along the correction-line (east part). There is
a patch of dead standing poplar and green spruce on the east boundary of Section 28-82-14
which is outstanding as a landmark as seen from across the Moose. In the N.W. % Section
23-82-14 there is a patch of jack-pine partly cut. In the S.W. % Section 17-82-14 there is a
heavy stand of poplar, average 6 inches. Sections 3, 4, and 5 have a covering of scrub poplar
and willow on the uplands with a scattering of larger poplar. Spruce up to 12 inches is found
on the west bank of the Moose in patches, especially Sec. 3-83-14.
The meridian through Townships 84 and 83 ran through a heavy stand of spruce up to
16 inches—96 chains in width—from the south part of Section 21 to near the south-east corner
of Sec. 16-84-14. It entered a heavy stand of jack-pine up to 18 inches in Section 3-84-14
and another heavy stand of spruce in the south part of Sections 33 and 34 and north part of
Sections 28 and 27-83-14.    Unfortunately it would appear that a large part of this timber LAND SURVEY, PEACE RIVER DISTRICT. Y 37
has been destroyed by fire which was reported by myself early in August. Later on a high
wind fanned the smouldering fire to a very large conflagration, judging by the smoke which
we saw after we had moved farther south. We passed through several miles of jack-pine and
spruce timber travelling from about Section 6-84-13 to a point about 3 miles from the baseline.
UNDERGROWTH.
The undergrowth in the area west of Clayhurst consists largely of fireweed, red-top grass,
vetch, and some peavine, and rose-bushes are characteristic over practically all the land surveyed. West of the Moose there is a fairly good growth of grass, vetch, and peavine.
Another characteristic of most of the uplands surveyed is the number of grass sloughs,
varying in size from a small patch to 2 or more acres. Most of the grass in these sloughs
is coarse but will make feed if cut early. There are other varieties of grass as well. In the
N.E. Vi of Section 28-82-14 there is a swamp about 25 acres in extent with a growth of buck-
brush and some tamarack and spruce 3 to 4 feet tall. There are quite large patches of swamp
land in the East half of Section 14 and W. % of Section 13-83-14 covered with low willow
brush and grass.    These drain into the upper reaches of the Little Moose.
WATER.
Springs were found at the following places: Centre of S.E. Vi Section 21-82-14; just
north-east of the centre of south boundary Section 20-82-14; in the N.W. Vi, Section 17-82-14;
just south of the north-west corner Section 18-82-14; small spring near south-west corner
Section 21-82-14; two springs in the bottom of the Little Moose valley in south-east Section
12-83-14 and south boundary Section 12; in the N.E. % Section 25-82-14 and in the N.W. lA
Section 15-83-14. At several of our camps we got water from the sloughs. In these sloughs
there is 1 to 2% feet of peat which in some cases was saturated with water even after all the
dry weather. Most of the sloughs, however, were dry by August. In this month the Moose
River consisted of pools of water and a trickle. Pools of water were found in the creek
which runs into the Moose in Section 9-83-14. Boundary Creek which crosses the meridian
abcut a mile and a half from the base-line consisted of pools of water early in August. A
small muskeg in N.E. V* Section 29-82-14 appeared to contain a considerable amount of water
while a fairly deep pond was found just north of north-west corner of Section 18-82-14.
CLEARING.
This varies considerably. The part that is most attractive in this respect lies immediately west of Clayhurst and the clearing becomes heavier as one goes west. The largest open
patch is about 12 acres in the S.E. M, Section 14-83-14. The cost of clearing would vary from
$5 to $50 per acre.
AGRICULTURAL POSSIBILITIES.
In my opinion the lighter soil should first be built up with grasses, alfalfa, or sweet
clover, as grains need a fair amount of humus before they can be successfully grown. This
would apply to quite a large part of the uplands of Township 82 west of the Moose River.
The shallow depressions constituting the sloughs tend to raise the water-table of the surrounding land and the gumbo subsoil retains the moisture for deep-rooted plants. This
season, due to the drought, the crops of grain in the Clayhurst settlement were light, but it
would seem that quite good crops of wheat and oats are grown in years when there is more
rain. The general level or gently rolling nature of the uplands adds to the possibilities for
tillage. Very little of the land is gravelly or rocky. It should develop into pretty good mixed
farming country and its comparatively easy access and proximity to the rail-head would be a
great help. The east bank of the Moose valley and to a smaller extent that of the Little
Moose provide considerable pasture, due to the fact that they are exposed to sun and wind
which remove the snow.
ADJACENT INDUSTRIES.
Until recently a portable sawmill was operated at Clay's about 2 miles north-east of
Clayhurst Post-office. Considerable breaking of land in the Clayhurst district was done this
year. There is a fair amount of land in this settlement under cultivation, considering the
time the settlers have been there, some only since 1931, and the lack of roads up till the time
the ferry was put in this spring. WILD LIFE.
Moose and bear appeared to be very plentiful, with a fair number of deer. Grouse and
prairie-chickens in fair numbers. A flock of young ducks was seen on the pond in the southeast corner of Section 19-82-14. It might be of interest to tell of a bear, about a 2-year-old
brown one, that hung around our camp in Section 15-83-14, becoming so bold as to stick its
head in the cook-tent in an attempt to pull away something to eat. Everywhere through the
woods and in the openings we saw where some moose or bear had " bedded down " and the
scars on the poplar trees made by the moose were very numerous. A considerable number of
fish were caught in the Moose River about a mile south of the base-line, a species resembling
a trout but with black speckles and no red colouring. A man at Jim Good's has a few wild
geese which have become as tame as the domestic variety.    Coyotes were seen on occasions.
ELEVATION AND CONTOUR.
The height of the uplands is about 2,200 feet above sea-level. Clayhurst, about the same
level as the country to the west, is about 800 feet above the Peace River. Generally speaking
the land is level or gently rolling, but the Moose River cuts a coulee, which is over a half mile
wide in most places, with side coulees widening it here and there. The valley of the Moose
River is 75 feet deep at 1 mile south of the base-line. This increases to 345 feet at the south
boundary of Township 84 to about 600 feet 5 miles farther south and to about 700 feet still
farther south (at north boundary of Section 27-82-14). The Little Moose (locally named)
rapidly develops into a deep wide gulch before joining the Moose River. The river-bench
on the Peace River from the east part of Section 22 to near the south-west corner of Section
18 has an average width of a little more than half a mile. This bench is 130 to 170 feet above
the Peace River. It is broken somewhat by banks in Section 16. Above this rises the main
bank of the Peace River to a further height of about 400 feet to a narrow bench. The bank
is broken by coulees which run north-westerly into Section 19.
MARKETS.
As I have stated, this area is favourably situated in regard to transportation, compared
to other parts north of the Peace River. The cost at present for hauling wheat by truck
from Clayhurst to Dawson Creek is 10 cents a bushel. A settler in N.W. % Section 16-82-14
finds a market between there and Dawson Creek for garden produce such as cucumbers and
strawberries.
SURVEY.
The party consisted of myself, Mr. Pattinson, B.C.L.S. (assistant), a packer, cook, and
five to six other men. The point of organization was Fort St. John, but three men were taken
on south of the Peace River. There were seven pack-horses and one saddle-horse. Transportation of these was made by one truck to the ferry. The cost works out at about the same
or a little less than having them brought overland, with the advantage of having an undivided
party. The small ferry-boat, with outboard-motor, through the courtesy of the ferry-men
took the outfit to a landing near the south-east corner of Section 17 while the horses went
overland, the pack-trail being very steep for fully loaded horses from the ferry to the top of
the first bank. We were thus all on the field of operations in one day. Mr. Pattinson joined
the party a little less than a month after commencement of survey. The party during a large
part of the season consisted of ten men as it took two to keep up with the digging of pits, the
dry ground and underlying gumbo making digging of pits to the required depth difficult. We
made three camps to survey as far as the correction-line. It was then necessary to move to
the base-line and, having located a crossing of the Moose, some new trail was cut. This move
was made in two days. Posts were set every mile along the meridian till we commenced subdividing 2 miles inside Township 83-14. Fires in the timber were encountered and it was
necessary to do some fire-control to enable the line to be run. While this was being done a
line was run west to the south-east corner of Township 84, Range 15, as a check on the work
to this point. The last part of the meridian was run when smoke was making it impossible
to see very far, just when long sights to the north were required to check alignment, after
crossing the deep coulee of the Moose. On occasions smoke, combined with fog later on,
delayed running lines till noon. During the season I spent considerable time in locating trail
for moving from one camp to another and in locating camp-sites most favourable for going to work.    The scarcity of water due to the drought made this difficult and sometimes long-
walks were unavoidable.
The third system of survey as set out in the Dominion Manual was generally adhered to,
but standard posts were set at the centre of sections except in two cases.
PLAN.
For the sake of quick reference a plan drawn to a scale of 1 inch to 1 mile accompanies
this report.
PHOTOGRAPHS.
This report is accompanied by twenty-four photographs.
I have, etc.,
Duncan Cran, B.C.L.S.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Prluled liy Charles F. Ban.ikld, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1939.
1,125-1039-1746 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0314051/manifest

Comment

Related Items