Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1939

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0308772.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0308772.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0308772-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0308772-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0308772-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0308772-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0308772-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0308772-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0308772-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0308772.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
of the
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 318T, 1938
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED bt
authority of the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the -King's Most Excellent Majesty,
1939.  To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for the year
ended December 31st, 1938, with Appendices.
GEORGE SHARRATT PEARSON,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia. Honourable George S. Pearson,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Fisheries
Department for the year ended December 31st, 1938, together with Appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEO. J. ALEXANDER,
Assistant Commissioner. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1938.
Page.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Province in 1937     7
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries shows a Substantial Increase in 1938      8
Capital, Equipment, and Employees     9
Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia for 1938     9
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts  10
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry in 1938  17
Other Canneries  (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish)  18
Mild-cured Salmon  19
Dry-salt Salmon  19
Dry-salt Herring  19
Halibut Production    20
Fish Oil and Meal  20
Conditions of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  21
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.  (No. 24.)   (Digest)  22
Pilchard and Herring Investigations _.  23
International Fisheries Commission  25
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission  26
Digest of the Report of the British Columbia Salt-fish Board, 1938-39  27
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.   (No. 24.)   By Wilbert A.
Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo  29
Tagging British Columbia Pilchards (Sardinops cxrulea (Girard)) :   Insertions and
Recoveries for 1938-39.    By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station,
Nanaimo  42
Tagging of Herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:   Apparatus, Insertions,
and Recoveries during 1938-39. ' By John Lawson  Hart,  Ph.D.,  and  Albert L.
Tester, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo  51
Annual Report of the British Columbia Salt-fish Board, 1938-39  79
Report on the Inspection of Salmon-spawning Grounds,  1938.   By Major J.  A.
Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries  85  REPORT OF THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1938.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF THE
PROVINCES, 1937.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1937 totalled $38,976,294.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of $16,155,439, or
41% per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1937 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second in rank, by
$6,925,605.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1937 was $1,076,095
less than in the previous year. There was a decrease in the value of salmon amounting to
$1,479,439.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1937 was $21,046,644, or
nearly 47 per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the total
invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1937, $9,207,478 was employed in catching and
handling the catches and $11,839,166 invested in canneries, fish-packing establishments, and
fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1937 was 16,767, or
20 per cent, of Canada's total fishery-workers. Of those engaged in British Columbia, 11,184
were employed in catching and handling the catches and 5,583 in packing, curing, and in
fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries in British Columbia in 1937
was 1,222 less than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery
products of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1933 to 1937, inclusive:-—
Province.
1933.
1934.
1936.
1936.
1937.
$12,001,471
6,010,601
3,061,152
2,089,842
2,128,471
1,076,136
842,346
186,417
144,518
17,100
$15,234,335
7,673,865
3,679,970
2,218,550
2,306,517
1,465,358
963,926
219,772
245,405
14,625
$15,169,529
7,852,899
3,949,615
2,852,007
1,947,259
1,258,335
899,685
252,069
225,741
20,725
$17,231,534
8,905,268
4,399,735
3,209,422
2,108,404
1,667,371
953,029
367,025
309,882
13,385
$16,155,439
Nova Scotia ...  	
New Brunswick	
Ontario  	
9,229,834
4,447,688
3.615,666
1,892,036
870,299
527,199
Alberta - - — -	
433,354
8,767
Totals	
$27,558,053
$34,022,323
$34,427,854
$39,165,055
$38,976,294
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The  total  marketed  value  of  each  of  the  principal  species  of  fish  taken  in   British
Columbia for the years 1933 to 1937, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
$9,184,090
1,391,941
$12,402,042
797,390
36,439
628,982
549,910
324,669
33,402
$12,099,275
860,349
80,513
580,031
670,328
382,490
61,886
$13,387,344
943,568
96,311
1,142,397
667,313
418,142
88,422
$11,907,905
Halibut	
1,094,214
95,842
738,522
77,464
215,796
52,699
1,181,466
Pilchard   - — - — —
902,619
318,769
95,371
$11,660,512
$14,772,834
$14,734,872
$16,743,497
$15,696,186 Q 8
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Species.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
$11,660,512
41,443
34,296
27,737
19,609
25,670
5,208
5,629
3,428
4,916
5,006
1,048
2,483
771
1,180
1,062
1
|    $14,772,834
44,057
32,325
•     34,921
17,758
38,922
2,400
5,216
6,607
3,334
8,423
3,391
1,406
2,872
1,134
207
[    $14,734,872
65,862
44,525
30,808
25,492
41,609
$16,743,497
53,497
38,855
37,019
9,827
59,687
34
3,332
13,875
7,633
7,621
2,053
982
3,233
803
69
$15,596,186
95,251
52,188
33,201
15,430
36,199
Black cod     ....
Soles	
Shrimps..   	
3,773
10,409
5,054
9,578
6,936
1,094
3,363
1,110
170
2,339
7,990
3,722
3,523
Smelt   	
1,386
923
Skate  	
Oolachans          	
2,438
337
Trout   ....	
Graynsh, etc.—
68
34,745
34,906
172,201
5,664
1,933
1,274
Oil    	
Meal  	
13,783
26,299
110,030
7,060
4,301
26,272
45,597
183,738
547
2,374
23,744
22,924
105,360
1,671
31,175
38,776
26,740
220,251
12,431
Miscellaneous   _.	
4,327
Totals -  	
$12,001,471
$15,234,335
$15,169,629
$17,231,534
$16,155,439
Previous to 1934 the totals for halibut included landings at British Columbia ports by
United States vessels, whereas for 1935 and onwards the landings by United States vessels
are excluded from the statistics.
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES  SHOWS A SUBSTANTIAL
INCREASE IN 1938.*
The dollar value of British Columbia's fisheries in 1938 amounted to $18,725,591, which
is an increase of $2,570,152 when compared with $16,155,439 in 1937. These totals represent the value of the fish as marketed, whether sold for consumption fresh, canned, cured,
or otherwise prepared. British Columbia is still the leading Province of Canada with respect
to fisheries production, the salmon-fishery being a paramount factor in contributing to its
position.
The marketed value of the salmon-fishery in 1938 amounted to $14,544,126 and showed
an increase of $2,636,221 or 18 per cent, over the year previous. The chief product of the
salmon-fishery is canned salmon, which totalled 1,707,830 cases valued at $12,267,465. Compared with the preceding year, the salmon-pack shows an increase of 199,253 cases and an
increase in value of $3,005,477.
Canned salmon exports in 1938 amounted to 488,400 cwt. (approximately 1,017,500 cases),
the value of which amounted to $7,128,194. The United Kingdom and Australia provided the
chief markets for Canadian canned salmon, the former importing 356,917 cases (171,320
cwt.) and the latter 280,481 cases (134,631 cwt.). In 1938, 1,734,664 cwt. of salmon were
landed by British Columbia fishermen, an increase of 42,928 cwt. over the preceding year.
Halibut, pilchard, herring, ling cod, clams, and grayfish are other important kinds of
fish, having a product valued at $100,000 or more. The quantity of halibut taken by British
Columbia fishermen represents 74 per cent, of the total for Canada, and the entire British
Columbia catch of this fish was marketed for consumption fresh. Herring are chiefly canned,
dry-salted, and reduced to meal and oil, while pilchards are similarly canned and reduced to
meal and oil. The grayfish-catch produced large quantities of meal and oil. There were
310 whales landed in 1938 compared with 317 in the preceding year. The total value of the
products, bone-meal, oil, and fertilizer, for 1938 amounted to $184,074, compared with $220,251
in 1937, showing a decrease of $36,177. BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 9
The quantity of all kinds of fish taken by British Columbia fishermen during the year
(including shell-fish but exclusive of fur-seals and whales) amounted to 4,562,864 cwt. and
the total value at the point of landing for all kinds, including fur-seals and whales, was
$8,668,566, compared with a catch of 4,954,195 cwt. and a landed value of $7,837,930 in 1937.
CAPITAL, EQUIPMENT, AND EMPLOYEES.
In Primary Operations.
Capital.—The amount of capital invested in the vessels, boats, and fishing gear used in
catching and landing the fish during the year  1938 was  $9,000,244,  a  decrease from the
preceding year of $207,234.
Employees.—The men employed in the fishing operations numbered 10,314, a decrease
from 1937 of 870.
In Fish Canning and Curing.
Capital.—The capital investment of the fish canning and curing establishments was valued
at $15,065,019, of which $11,597,913 or 77 per cent, is credited to the salmon-canneries. The
total number of establishments in operation in 1938 was seventy-five; this total comprising
thirty-eight salmon-canneries, nineteen fish-curing establishments, ten reduction plants, four
clam-canneries, two miscellaneous fish-canneries, and two freezing plants. Compared with
the preceding year, the total number of establishments shows a reduction of ten.
Employees.—The fish canning and curing branch of the fisheries industry of British
Columbia gave employment in 1938 to a total of 6,103 persons, compared with 5,583 in the
preceding year.
* Note.—The above figures are taken from the advance report on British Columbia Fisheries, Dominion Department of Statistics, Department of Trade and Commerce.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR 1938.
The total pack of all species of salmon canned in British Columbia in 1938 amounted to
1,707,798 full cases. This exceeds the 1937 pack by 198,121 cases. The 1938 total pack was
68,825 cases above the average for the five years 1933-38 and 223,135 cases above the ten-
year average 1929-38, inclusive.
The 1938 pack consisted of 447,450 cases of sockeye, 15,536 cases of springs, 1,036 cases
of steelheads (trout), 301,081 cases of cohoe (which figure includes 27,417 cases of blue-
backs), 400,876 cases of pinks, and 541,819 cases of chums.
Examination of the pack figures by species shows that the sockeye-pack of 1938, totalling
447,450 cases, was the largest pack of this species since 1930 when the pack was 477,678
cases. In 1938 the sockeye-pack was 121,614 cases greater than in 1937 and 64,174 cases
above the five-year average 1934-38. The pack in question was also 96,524 cases above the
average for the ten-year period 1929-38, inclusive.
The pack of spring salmon in the year under review, amounting to 15,536 cases, was 638
cases less than in the previous year and 7,116 cases below the five-year average. In 1938
the pack of this species was also less than the average for the previous ten years—1929-38,
inclusive—by 13,556 cases. In considering the spring-salmon pack it should be pointed out
that the pack figures for this species are not necessarily indicative of the quantity of spring
salmon available in the year in question, as the quantity canned in any year is conditioned by
the requirements of the fresh, frozen, and mild-cure trade.
While steelheads are trout and not salmon, a few are caught and canned each year incidental to salmon-fishing and on this account the quantity so canned is included in the figures
of the canned-salmon pack. In 1938 there were canned 1,036 cases of steelhead trout compared with 844 cases the previous year. v
The pack of canned cohoe in 1938, amounting to 301,081 cases, is the largest pack of this
species on record and exceeds the previous record pack in 1935 by 69,589 cases, fn considering these figures, however, it should be noted that the 301,081 cases of cohoe include 26,828
cases, the salmon for which were imported from Alaska. Notwithstanding these Alaska fish,
however, the pack produced in British Columbia is still the largest of this variety ever
recorded. The cohoe-pack in 1938 was 76,832 cases above the average for the five-year period
1934-38, inclusive, and 105,163 cases greater than the average for the ten-year period
1929-38, inclusive. Q 10 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
The pink-salmon pack in 1938, amounting to 400,876 cases, was 190,659 cases less than
were canned in 1936, the cycle-year, and 104,985 cases less than the five-year average
1933-38, inclusive. The 1938 pack was also considerably less than the average for the ten-
year period 1929-38, inclusive.
The chum-salmon pack in 1938, amounting to 541,819 cases, was 94,059 cases above the
pack of this variety in 1937 and 39,849 cases greater than the average for the five-year
period 1933-38, inclusive. In the case of chum salmon, however, the canned-pack figures for
any given year do not necessarily indicate the quantity of fish available, as large numbers
of chum salmon are frozen and dry-salted. The demand created by these latter-mentioned
outlets have considerable bearing on the quantity canned.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River System.
Sockeye Salmon.—The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in the season 1938 amounted
to 321,445 cases. Of this amount 186,794 cases were canned in British Columbia and 134,651
cases were put up in the State of Washington. The percentages of these two packs are 58
and 42 respectively.
The Canadian pack of sockeye on this river in 1938 of 186,794 cases is compared with
a pack of 189,238 cases in 1934, the cycle-year, while the American pack of 134,651 cases in
1938 is compared with a pack of 352,579 cases in 1934. The percentages of the 1934 packs
were 28 and 72 respectively. In the latter year the combined Canadian and American packs
amounted to 491,817 cases.
It will be noted from the above figures that the total Fraser River sockeye-pack in 1938
was 170,381 cases less than in 1934, the cycle-year, but the catch by Canadian gear was
47,556 cases greater in 1938 than in 1934.
The percentages of Fraser River sockeye caught by Canadian and American gear for
the past eleven years is tabulated below for convenience:—
Year.
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
The year 1938 was the cycle-year for what has become known as the " late run " of sockeye to this river system. There is no doubt that this so-called " late run " is a very important
factor in the catch of sockeye on the Fraser River. The following weekly pack figures, compiled from the weekly pack reports of the Federal Department of Fisheries, indicate the
importance of this late run:—
Fraser River Sockeye-pack by Weeks. Packed for Week.
Week ending. Cases.
July 2nd   3
July 9th         559
July 16th      2,135
July 23rd  .     3,136
July 30th      4,468
August 6th  :     4,689
August 13th      6,696
August 20th   18,760
August 27th   34,964
American.
Per Cent.
.   .   ...     68
Canadian.
Per Cent.
32
64
36
...   .                                      78
22
...               .    .                                            68
32
  55
45
71
29
                               72
28
    ...   ...   ...                                                       47
53
25
75
            38
62
  42
58 BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 11
Packed for Week.
Week ending. Cases.
September 3rd   31,830
September 10th   42,297
September 17th      4,724
September 24th       	
October 1st   1
October 8th      8,128
October 15th      4,925
October 22nd      1,259
October 29th         271
November 5th         463
November 12th   23
It will be noted that the largest canning week was that of September 10th. The season
was temporarily closed to sockeye-fishing from September 10th to October 3rd, which, no
doubt, accounts in part at least for the abrupt falling off of the pack figures after October
3rd. Heretofore in the years in which no late run to the Fraser River occurs, the peak of
the season's sockeye-pack is usually between August 8th and August 20th. It would appear
from the above table that the two distinct sockeye-runs pass through the commercial fishing
area, the first between August 13th and August 27th and the later run, probably overlapping
the first, between August 27th and September 3rd and reaching a peak on September 10th,
at which date, as noted above, the season was closed. That there were still some sockeye
which had not yet ascended the river is evident from the pack figures for October 8th, as the
fishing season was reopened on October 3rd.
The Canadian pack of Fraser River sockeye in 1938 was the largest of the Canadian
packs of this species on the Fraser River since 1914, in which year the Canadian pack
amounted to 198,183 cases. As pointed out above, however, the total pack in 1934, the cycle-
year, exceeded the pack of 1938 by 170,381 cases.
When considering the canned-salmon production figures for a river system, the pack
figures must be considered in conjunction with the escapement to the spawning-beds. In the
Appendix to this report there is published a " Report on the Conditions of the Salmon-
spawning Grounds," by courtesy of Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries
for British Columbia for the Federal Department of Fisheries. The reader is referred to
this report and particularly to those sections dealing with the conditions prevailing on the
sockeye-salmon spawning-grounds located above Hell's Gate. The Chilko Lake and Shuswap-
Adams River Districts are the most important of the sockeye-spawning areas in the upper
Fraser River and it will be noted that both of these areas were particularly well seeded in
1938. On the Chilko Lake spawning-grounds it is estimated that the escapement showed an
increase of 100 per cent, over the brood-year of 1934. In the Shuswap-Adams River District
the quantities of spawning sockeye were estimated to be four or five times greater than in
the cycle-year 1934, and in that year the seeding in the Shuswap-Adams River District was
considered as excellent.
Spring Salmon.—The Canadian pack of this species in 1938 on the Fraser River
amounted to 4,308 cases. This was 1,136 cases less than in the year previous and very much
below the five-year average. The packs of spring salmon on the Fraser River for the immediate past five years were as follows: 1937, 5,444 cases; 1936, 15,126 cases; 1935, 9,401
cases; 1934, 16,218 cases. In the case of spring salmon the canned-pack figures for this
variety are not altogether indicative of the size of the run as spring salmon finds an outlet
in many other markets. Reports indicate that the escapement of spring salmon to the
spawning-grounds was normal.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack on the Fraser River in 1938 amounted to 27,127 cases,
compared with 11,244 cases in 1937 and 28,716 cases in 1936. In 1935, the cycle-year for
this species, the pack amounted to 24,950 cases. According to reports from the spawning
areas the escapement of cohoe to most of the spawning areas adjacent to the Fraser River
was above normal.
Pink Salmon.—This species only frequents the Fraser River every second year, the runs
coinciding with the odd-numbered years. There was no run of pinks to the Fraser River
in 1938. Q 12 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
Chum Salmon.—In 1938 there were canned on the Fraser River 58,778 cases of this
variety, compared with 20,878 cases in 1937, 31,565 cases in 1936, 8,227 cases in 1935, and
104,092 cases in 1934. In the southern portion of British Columbia chum salmon are in
demand for freezing and salting which fact, no doubt, is responsible for considerable fluctuation in the canned-salmon pack figures for this species. In most areas tributary to the
Fraser River the chum-salmon escapements to the spawning-beds were considered satisfactory.
In comparing the canned-salmon pack figures for the Fraser River for the years 1936 to
1938, inclusive, with previous years, the reader's attention is drawn to a change made in
allocating the pack figures since 1936. Previous to that year all Johnstone Strait caught
sockeye were credited to the Vancouver Island District. In order that each principal watershed might be credited with the proper amount, regardless of where the fish were caught and
due to the continued growing practice of transporting fish from the district where caught to
be canned in another, the Provincial Department of Fisheries in 1936 required the salmon-
canners to submit a return showing the location where the fish were taken, together with
the quantities of the various species canned. All canners now make this return and, as a
result, the Department has been able to present figures more truly indicative of the production of the various salmon-producing rivers.
Skeena River.
The total pack of all species of salmon on the Skeena River in 1938 amounted to 190,806
cases, which was 58,168 cases greater than in the preceding year. The 1938 pack consisted
of 47,257 cases of sockeye, 4,318 cases of springs, 42 cases of steelheads, 52,821 cases of
cohoe, 69,610 cases of pinks, and 16,758 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack on this river in 1938—amounting to 47,257
cases—was 4,766 cases greater than in the previous year, but was 23,398 cases less than
were packed in 1934, the cycle-year for the four-year-olds of this run. In 1933, which was
the cycle-year for the five-year-old fish comprising this run, the pack amounted to only 30,506
cases. The 1938 pack of sockeye on the Skeena River was less than the five-year average
for 1934-38, inclusive, by 11,794 cases.
The comparatively small pack of sockeye on the Skeena River in the year in question
was not unexpected. In his " Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon,"
Paper No. 23, which was published in this Department's annual report for 1937, Dr. Clemens
stated that, " The sockeye of the Skeena River mature for the most part at four and five years
of age. The return of 1938 will, therefore, be derived from the spawnings of 1933 and 1934.
In the former year the pack was 30,506 cases, the smallest on record, and the escapement
relatively small. In the latter year the pack was 70,655 cases and the escapement was
reported as not being ' adequate.' In view of these facts the inevitable conclusion is that
the return of 1938 will be small."
Generally speaking, the escapement of sockeye to the upper spawning areas of the
Skeena River is reported to be fairly satisfactory. It would appear that the Federal
Department of Fisheries' regulation, which provided for the moving of the fishing boundary
farther down-stream, and also the regulation providing a shortening of the fishing season,
are accomplishing some beneficial results in permitting greater numbers of sockeye to reach
the spawning areas than would otherwise be the case. It would seem, however, that if this
run is to be improved materially there can be no slackening of the present conservation
measures in the near future. Indeed, it may be necessary to further curtail the commercial
catch if the sockeye runs to this river are to be rehabilitated.
Spring Salmon.—Springs were canned on the Skeena River to the extent of 4,318 cases
in 1938, compared with 4,401 cases in the year previous. The 1938 pack may be considered
as normal on the basis of packs for this species in recent past years. As pointed out elsewhere in this report, spring salmon find an outlet in other competing markets, hence the
quantity canned is subjected to wide fluctuations. The escapement to the spawning areas
is considered as generally satisfactory,
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 52,821 cases of cohoe canned on the Skeena River in 1938,
which are almost as many as were canned on this river in the record year 1934, when the
pack amounted to 54,456 cases. The packs of this species on the Skeena River in recent
past years were as follows:    1937,  15,514 cases;    1936, 25,390  cases;    1935, 23,498 cases; BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 13
1934, 54,456 cases; 1933, 39,896 cases. In addition to the 52,821 cases of cohoe canned on
the Skeena River in 1938, there were imported from Alaska 26,828 cases, many of which
were canned in the Skeena River canneries.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1938 amounted to 69,610
cases, which was 10,210 cases greater than in the year previous but was 21,779 cases less
than in 1936, the cycle-year for this run. It is also very much below the average for this
species for a number of years past. The packs for recent past years, commencing in 1930,
were as follows: 1930, 275,642 cases; 1931, 44,807 cases; 1932, 58,261 cases; 1933, 95,783
cases;   1934, 126,163 cases;   1935, 81,868 cases;   1936, 91,389 cases;   1937, 59,400 cases.
Major Motherwell's reports of conditions prevailing on the spring-salmon spawning-
grounds indicate that the supply found there was satisfactory.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of this species on the Skeena River in 1938 amounted to
16,758 cases, which was 5,947 cases greater than in the year previous and 1,461 cases
greater than in 1936, but was 7,630 cases less than in 1934, the cycle-year. The Skeena
River is not a heavy producing area for chum salmon.
Nass River.
The total pack of all species of salmon canned on the Nass River in 1938 amounted to
113,970 cases. This was 64,928 cases greater than the total pack for the year previous,
but was 25,605 cases less than in 1936. The 1938 pack of canned salmon on the Nass River
is made up as follows: Sockeye, 21,462 cases; springs, 773 cases; steelheads, 188 cases;
cohoe, 14,159 cases;  pinks, 61,477 cases, and chums, 15,911 cases.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack on the Nass River fluctuates widely from
year to year. The pack of this species in 1938 amounted to 21,462 cases, which was 3,895
cases greater than in 1937. In 1935 the pack was 12,712 cases and in 1934 28,701 cases,
while in 1933 there were packed only 9,757 cases on this river. Due to the complicated nature
of the age-groups comprising the sockeye-runs to the Nass River, it is difficult to compare
the packs on a cycle-year basis. It may be noted, however, that the 1938 pack of sockeye
on the Nass River was only 339 cases less than the average for the five-year period 1934-38,
inclusive, and 2,230 cases greater than the ten-year average 1929-38, inclusive.
Reports from the spawning-beds indicate that the escapement of this species was heavy.
Spring Salmon.—The spring-salmon pack on the Nass River is never a large one. This
variety, generally speaking, is caught and canned incidental to the pursuit of other species.
The pack of 773 cases, however, was considerably less than in 1937, when 1,251 cases were
canned.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack for this river in 1938, amounting to 14,159 cases, was
well up to average compared with recent past years. In 1937 the pack was 12,067 cases;
in 1936, 11,842 cases; in 1935, 21,810 cases; in 1934, 9,935 cases. In 1933 the cohoe-pack
fell to a low of 3,251 cases.
Reports from the Federal Fisheries officers inspecting the spawning-beds indicate that
the escapement of this species was unusually large in 1938.
Pink Salmon.—The pack of pink salmon,  amounting to  61,477 cases, although 14,411
cases less than in 1936, the cycle-year, must be considered as fairly satisfactory when it is
recalled that the cycle-year  1934  produced a  pack  amounting to  only 32,964  cases.    The
. escapement to the spawning-beds was reported as being satisfactory, although the seeding
was not quite as heavy as in 1936, the brood-year.
Chum Salmon.—This species is never packed in large quantities on the Nass River.
The pack of 15,911 cases in 1938, therefore, must be considered as satisfactory and is
compared with 10,080 cases in 1937, 20,621 cases in 1936, 17,481 cases in 1935, and 2,648
cases in 1934.    The escapement to the spawning-beds was reported as being very good.
Rivers Inlet.
The total of all varieties of salmon canned on Rivers Inlet in 1938 amounted to 122,363
cases and consisted of 87,942 cases of sockeye, 1,209 cases of springs, 105 cases of steelheads,
16,285 cases of cohoe, 9,063 cases of pinks, and 7,759 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack of 87,942 cases was 3,110 cases greater than in
the previous year.    It was also 11,019 cases greater than in 1934 and 4,435 cases greater Q 14 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
than in 1933, these latter two years being the brood-years from which the run of 1938 was
derived. All things considered, the 1938 pack must be considered as being reasonably
satisfactory. The pack of 1933, consisting of 83,507 cases, was a medium-sized pack and
in that year the escapement was reported as very good. In 1934 there was a pack of
76,923 cases, while the escapement was only average.
The runs of sockeye to Rivers Inlet consist of four- and five-year-old fish. The factors
which determine the age of maturity are not definitely known; therefore, it is impossible
to determine what proportion of the progeny of a given year's spawning will return as
four-year-old fish and what proportion will return as five-year-old fish. Taking everything
into consideration, a medium-sized pack of sockeye salmon in this inlet in 1938 was all that
could be reasonably expected. The 1938 pack was 1,725 cases greater than the average
for the five-year period 1934-38, inclusive, and was 2,924 cases greater than the average
for the ten-year period 1929-38, inclusive.
Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the sockeye-seeding of 1938 was
better than usual.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are never a large factor in the total Rivers Inlet
salmon-pack, this species being caught incidental to fishing for other varieties. The pack
of 1,209 cases in 1938 is compared with 917 cases in 1937, 582 cases in 1936, 429 cases in
1935, and 436 cases in 1934.
Cohoe Salmon.—The pack of cohoe salmon in Rivers Inlet in 1938, amounting to 16,285
cases, is the largest pack of this species recorded for Rivers Inlet in recent past years.
The 1938 pack is compared with 6,012 cases in 1937, 7,123 cases in 1936, 8,375 cases in 1935,
4,852 cases in 1934, and 3,446 cases in 1933. Reports from the spawning-beds indicate that
the cohoe-supply was found to be somewhat better than usual in this area.
Pink Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is considered chiefly as a sockeye-fishing area and most
other varieties canned here are caught incidental to the sockeye-fishery. The pink-salmon
pack of 9,063 cases is 1,527 cases greater than the pack of this variety in 1937, and is
compared with 6,432 cases in 1936 and 4,554 cases in 1935. It is interesting to note that in
1938 the pink-salmon pack in Rivers Inlet was the largest since 1930, when 18,023 cases
were canned. Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement of this
species was rather poor.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chums in this inlet amounted to 7,759 cases in 1938, which
is 1,656 cases less than in the year previous and 3,746 cases less than in 1936. The escapement of chums to the spawning area was reported as being poor.
Smith Inlet.
The total pack of all varieties of salmon canned in Smith Inlet in 1938 amounted to
44,921 cases, comprised as follows: 33,894 cases of sockeye, 68 cases of springs, 64 cases of
steelhead, 1,058 cases of cohoe, 1,761 cases of pinks, and 8,706 cases of chums. Like Rivers
Inlet, Smith Inlet is considered primarily a sockeye area. The other species canned, with the
exception of chum salmon, are taken incidental to the sockeye-fishery. In the case of chums,
however, these are principally taken in seines in the fall of the year after the gill-net sockeye-
fishery is over.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack in this inlet in 1938, amounting to 33,894 cases, is
the product of the spawning of 1933 and 1934. In the former year the pack amounted to
37,369 cases, while in 1934 the pack amounted to 14,607 cases. In both these cycle-years the
escapement was reported to have been most satisfactory. The 1938 pack of 33,894 cases is
compared with 25,258 cases in 1937, 12,788 cases in 1936, 31,648 cases in 1935, 14,607 cases
in 1934, and 37,369 cases in 1933. Reports from the spawning-beds indicate that the escapement was most encouraging.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are never packed in large numbers in this district and
the pack of 68 cases is compared with a pack of 21 cases in the year previous.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe, like spring salmon, are not a factor in the Smith Inlet pack. In
1938 there were 1,058 cases of this species canned compared with 241 cases in 1937, 310 cases
in 1936, and 1,201 cases in 1935.
Pink Salmon.—The remarks contained in the above paragraphs relating to spring and
cohoe salmon also apply to pinks.    There were 1,761 cases of pink salmon canned in Smith BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 15
Inlet in 1938, compared with 483 cases in 1937 and 65 cases in 1936.    In 1935 the pink-pack
amounted to 4,554 cases.
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are caught with seines in the fall of the year in Smith
Inlet. The quantity packed in any year is not necessarily indicative of the number of this
species available, as the fishing effort is more or less controlled according to the demand.
The pack of chum salmon in 1938 amounted to 8,076 cases, compared with 9,494 cases in the
year previous. In 1936 there were 1,653 cases of chum salmon canned, while the pack in 1935
amounted to 12,427 cases.
Chum salmon spawn in a very small portion of the spawning areas adjacent to Smith
Inlet. Reports indicate that the escapement of chums was quite good in the year under
review.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Salmon-canning in the Queen Charlotte Islands is confined almost exclusively to the
pink and chum species. Other varieties canned in this district are caught incidental to the
pink and chum fishery. In 1938 there was a total of 115,695 cases canned of all varieties,
particularly pinks and chums. The former pack amounted to 57,952 cases while the pack
of the latter amounted to 40,882 cases.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon are caught in the Queen Charlotte Islands only in every
alternative year, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered years. In this district 1938
was the pink-salmon year, the pack amounting to 57,952 cases compared with 89,355 cases
in 1936 and 53,398 cases in' 1934. It will be recalled that in 1930 pink-salmon fishing in the
Queen Charlotte Islands was very, very heavy, the pack in that year amounting to 224,902
cases. There is no doubt that this large pack was a heavy drain on the fishery as the pack
in 1932—the cycle-year—was almost a complete failure. In that year only 2,415 cases were
packed. While the 1938 pack is somewhat below the pack of 1936 and is still very much
less than might be desired, it would appear that the escapement of this species to the
spawning-grounds in 1938, generally speaking, was found to be adequate. The pink salmon
taken adjacent to the Queen Charlotte Islands are of exceptionally fine quality, and it is to
be hoped that conservation measures by the Federal Department of Fisheries will be continued on a scale which will bring this district back to something like its former productivity.
Chum Salmon.—In 1938 there were 40,882 cases of chums canned, compared with 72,689
cases in the year previous and 69,304 cases in 1936. The pack in 1935 amounted to 86,298
cases while in 1934 there were 38,062 cases canned. The reports from the spawning-beds
indicate that in the Cumshewa District the seeding of this species was good. In the other
areas, however, the spawning was less than what might be desired and is reported to be only
fair.
Cohoe Salmon.—The pack of cohoe salmon in Queen Charlotte Islands in 1938 amounted
to 16,616 cases. The pack of this variety is never very large in the Queen Charlotte
Islands. The figures for 1938 are compared with 4,631 cases in 1937, 19,920 cases in 1936,
5,461 cases in 1935, and 8,315 cases in 1934. The cohoe-seeding was reported to have been
satisfactory.
In addition to the above, there were canned 179 cases of sockeye and 66 cases of springs
in this district in 1938.
Central Area.
The Central Area includes all the waters from Cape Calvert to the Skeena River and
adjacent waters, exclusive of Rivers Inlet. The total pack of all varieties in this area for
1938 amounted to 351,798 cases, consisting of 36,178 cases of sockeye, 540 cases of springs,
433 cases of steelheads, 56,716 cases of cohoe, 130,842 cases of pinks, and 127,089 cases of
chums. In the previous year the total pack in this area amounted to 265,065 cases, while in
1936, the cycle-year for the pink-run, the total pack amounted to 420,496 eases.
Sockeye Salmon.—The principal fishing areas for sockeye salmon in the Central Area
are Fitzhugh Sound, Burke and Dean Channels. The pack of this species in this area in
1938 amounted to 36,178 cases and must be considered as a satisfactory pack. The 1938 pack
was the largest in this area since 1930, when, in the latter year, the pack of sockeye amounted
to 39,198 cases. The 1938 sockeye-pack also exceeded the five-year average for this area
by 6,874 cases. Reports from the various sockeye-salmon spawning areas adjacent to this
district would indicate that the seeding, generally speaking, was very good. Q 16 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack in the Central Area, amounting to 56,716 cases, was
one of the largest ever recorded for this area and was the largest pack of this species taken
in the Central Area since 1930, in which year the pack amounted to 54,327 cases. The packs
of this species for the intervening years were as follows: 1931, 10,806 cases; 1932, 41,172
cases; 1933, 33,471 cases; 1934, 53,850 cases; 1935, 41,831 cases; 1936, 45,824 cases; 1937,
25,009 cases. Reports from the various spawning areas adjacent to this district indicate
that the number of spawning cohoe observed on the grounds was satisfactory.
Pink Salmon.—In 1938 there were packed in this district 130,842 cases of pink salmon.
This figure is compared with 246,378 cases in 1936—the cycle-year—and 157,336 cases in
1934. It will be recalled that the pink-pack in 1932 was a very small one, amounting to
only 80,034 cases, compared with a pack of 376,084 cases in 1930. If the increased pack
in 1938 is indicative of the total number of pink salmon frequenting this area it would
appear that this cycle is improving. Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that,
generally speaking, the seeding of this species in the principal spawning areas was not
all that was hoped for and might have been better, although in the northern portion of the
Central Area the pink-run is reported as quite heavy in most of the streams.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack in the Central Area in 1938 amounted to 127,089
cases, compared with 110,493 cases in the year previous. The 1938 pack was the largest
pack of this species put up in the Central Area since 1933, in which year 128,602 cases
were canned. Compared with the packs of recent past years, the 1938 pack of chum salmon
must be considered as satisfactory. It was reported that the escapement of chum salmon in
this district was considered as generally satisfactory.
In addition to the above specifically mentioned species, there were packed 540 cases of
springs and 433 cases of steelheads in the Central Area in 1938.
Vancouver Island.
The total canned-salmon pack credited to the Vancouver Island District in 1938 amounted
to 458,554 cases, compared with 608,798 cases of all species in 1937 and 599,746 cases in
1936. The pack of all varieties in this district in 1935 amounted to 469,427 cases. The
total pack credited to the Vancouver Island District in 1938 consisted of 27,965 cases of
sockeye, 4,254 cases of springs, 190 cases of steelheads, 89,471 cases of cohoe, 70,108 cases
of pinks, and 266,566 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The total sockeye-pack credited to Vancouver Island in 1938 amounted
to 27,965 cases, compared with 25,427 cases in the year previous and 34,431 cases in 1936.
Due to the widely separated sockeye-spawning areas embraced in the Vancouver Island
District, the reader is referred to Major Motherwell's report on the salmon-spawning areas
which is published in the Appendix to this report.
Spring Salmon.—The pack of spring salmon credited to the Vancouver Island District
in 1938 amounted to 4,254 cases, which was considerably above the pack for the previous
year which amounted to 2,359 cases. In comparing the pack of springs, one year with
another, it should be remembered that the pack figures for this species are not indicative of
the quantities available, as spring salmon finds its largest outlet in the fresh- and frozen-fish
trade.
Cohoe Salmon.—The pack of cohoe in Vancouver Island District for 1938 amounted to
89,471 cases. These figures include 27,417 cases of bluebacks. The pack of this species in
1937 amounted to 58,244 cases and in 1936, 90,625 cases, while the pack of cohoe in 1935
was 104,366 cases.
Pink Salmon.—There were 70,108 cases of pink salmon canned in the Vancouver Island
District in 1938, compared with 318,780 cases of this species in 1937, 82,028 cases in 1936,
and 191,627 cases in 1935. In comparing the 1938 pack of pink salmon with the pack of this
species for 1937, it should be noted that the pack in 1937 was an exceedingly large one.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chum salmon in the Vancouver Island District in 1938,
amounting to 266,566 cases, was greater than the year previous when 203,900 cases of this
species were canned, but was less than in 1936 when the canned-pack amounted to 347,951
cases. In 1935 the pack of chums for this district amounted to 143,960 cases, while 210,239
cases were canned in 1934. In the Vancouver Island District chum salmon are in demand
by the dry-salters and also for freezing purposes.    The quantity canned is conditioned to BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 17
some extent by the demand created by these other outlets. As stated above in respect to
sockeye, the reader should refer to Major Motherwell's report on the condition of the salmon-
spawning areas for detailed information in respect to escapements.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S  SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY, 1938.
There were thirty-eight salmon-canneries operated in British Columbia in 1938, compared
with thirty-seven in the year previous. The canneries operated in the various districts were
as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands  .     4
Nass River      2
Skeena River      6
Central Area  .     4
Rivers Inlet      5
Smith  Inlet      1
Johnstone Strait  1     3
Fraser River and Lower Mainland   10
West Coast of Vancouver Island  .     3
A comparison of districts with the previous year shows that in 1938 there were three
more canneries operating in the Queen Charlotte Islands, one less on the Skeena River, and
one less on the west coast of Vancouver Island than in 1937. In the other districts the
same number of canneries were in operation in 1938 as in the previous year.
Pink salmon appear in the Queen Charlotte Islands each alternate year, the run
coinciding with the even-numbered years. The cycle-year for pinks in this district was 1938
and no doubt accounts for the increase in canning activities in this district. On the Skeena
River one consolidation took place, the packs of two canneries which had heretofore been
operated by one company were canned in one of this company's canneries. On the west
coast of Vancouver Island one cannery which operated in the year previous was closed and
the fish caught by that company's gear were canned at another cannery in the vicinity.
Probably the most outstanding happening which occurred in connection with the salmon-
fishing season of 1938 was the failure of the fishermen and canners to reach an agreement
as to salmon prices before the commencement of the fishing season. Negotiations were commenced fairly early, but the difficulties were so great that an agreement could not be reached
and, as a result, for the first time in history the fishermen and canners found it necessary
to invoke section 25 of the " Fisheries Act " and ask for arbitration. Under this section of
the Act, if a dispute or difference as to fish prices is not settled before the first day of May
in that year, the dispute or difference may be referred to arbitration. The fishermen named
Mr. A. W. Neill, M.P., as their representative on the Arbitration Board, while the late
Mr. R. R. Payne represented the canners. The Commissioner of Fisheries named Mr. Justice
Denis Murphy as chairman of the Board. Several sittings of the Board were held previous
to the opening of the fishing season, but due to the complicated nature of the problems
involved it was obvious that the sittings of the Arbitration Board would be prolonged. After
several sittings Mr. Justice Murphy found it necessary, due to pressure of Court business,
to ask to be relieved. At the same time, on account of ill-health, Mr. Payne also requested
to be relieved. Due to this necessary change in the personnel, the Commissioner of Fisheries
held several meetings with the canners and fishermen separately and, as a result of these
meetings, a settlement was reached, the basis of which was that the canners would pay to
the fishermen the previous year's prices for sockeye salmon caught in the area in which
these prices were in dispute. There was no loss of fishing-time occasioned by the dispute
between the fishermen and the canners, with the exception of one day at Rivers Inlet at
the beginning of the season.
From observations made during the price negotiations and later at the hearings of the
Arbitration Board, it would seem that neither the fishermen nor the canners will, in the
near future, submit a question of this kind to an arbitration board for settlement, due to the
complexity of the means of arriving at fish prices.
In the pages of this Department's annual report attention has been drawn to the
increasing number of fishermen actually engaged in fishing, while there has not been, nor can
there  be  a  corresponding  increase  in  the  total  number  of  salmon  caught  in  any  given
2 Q 18 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
season. Consideration of these facts simply means that the total number of salmon taken
in a given year are distributed among a greater number of fishermen. Obviously, if the
fisherman's seasonal earnings are to remain the same as in previous years, the price per
salmon must be increased in accordance with the increase in the number of fishermen
engaged. On the other hand, the salmon-canners are forced to sell their product very
largely in export markets and must compete with world prices. This definitely limits the
price the canner can afford to pay for raw salmon.
A consideration of the above facts indicates that if the individual fisherman's earnings
are to be commensurate with his labours, and if the canner is to receive a reasonable profit on
his operations, then some form of limitation of the number engaged in catching fish is an
obvious solution. The problem is a very pressing one, and one which should receive the
thoughtful consideration of the fishermen themselves, their organizations, and the canners.
The problem must be settled if the industry is to profit as it should and any permanent
settlement must be based on a realization of the fundamental facts involved.
The 1938 fishing season in the northern districts commenced on Sunday, June 26th.
Early reports from the fishing-grounds indicated that the season got away to a fair start
on the Nass and Skeena Rivers, but inclement weather interfered a good deal with early
fishing. Rivers and Smith Inlets opened with good sockeye-fishing after the first week;
bad weather continued on the Skeena and Nass Rivers, which reduced the fishermen's
catches somewhat. In Rivers Inlet, while the season opened fair, nevertheless it was not
until the latter part of July that fishing could be considered as good. The reader is
referred to the report of the canned-salmon packs in the various districts for a more detailed
account of the district catches for the season.
Very little time was lost during the fishing season due to labour troubles. On the
Skeena and Nass Rivers the fishermen lost no time, while at Rivers Inlet a few days were
lost at the beginning of the season due to lack of a proper understanding in connection with
an application for arbitration. Seine fishermen working off Nimpkish River also lost some
few days fishing at the beginning of the season; otherwise the 1938 fishing season was free
from loss of time due to labour disputes.
One of the outstanding features of the salmon-fishing season in 1938 was the exceptionally large pack of cohoe and the large size of the individual fish, together with a very fine
quality of this species. At Rivers Inlet it would appear that the small size of the sockeye,
noticeable in the catch of the previous year, was entirely lacking in 1938, the individual
fish comprising the run being of normal size.
OTHER  CANNERIES   (PILCHARD,  HERRING,  AND   SHELL-FISH).
Pilchard.—The canning of pilchards on the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1938 again
shows a substantial increase over the previous year. The annual increase in the production
of this commodity in recent past years is most encouraging and, no doubt, reflects increased
consumer demand for this product.
In 1938 three pilchard-canneries were licensed to operate and these three canneries
produced a total of 69,653 cases, which was 28,752 cases greater than the quantity canned
in 1937 and is compared with 35,007 cases in 1936. The 1938 pack is also encouraging, particularly, when it is recalled that, as in 1937, the pilchards did not appear off the shores of
Vancouver Island in the early part of the season, again necessitating long hauls from off
the Washington coast, which fact must have considerably increased the difficulty of the
canners. As in 1937, various can sizes were again used in canning this product, which fact
makes available to the consuming public a commodity in a size to meet the consumer demands.
Herring.—The production of canned herring in British Columbia in 1938 amounted to
23,356 cases. This was slightly less than the production of 1937 when 27,365 cases were
canned. The reduction in the quantity canned in 1938 is possibly due to the fact that these
fish were not available in quantity in close proximity to the canning plants in the early
part of the season when the herring are in the best condition. Two herring-canneries were
licensed to operate in 1938.
Shell-fish.—Shell-fish are canned in British Columbia to some extent, but the production
is never large. In 1938 there were 27,054 cases of clams canned, compared with 12,596
cases in 1937. This is a substantial increase over the quantity of clams canned in recent
past years and is, no doubt, the result of a better appreciation by the general public of BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 19
this splendid sea-food. Canned crabs also show an increase in 1938 over the previous year,
the pack in 1938 amounting to 3,504 cases compared with 1,419 cases in 1937. The pack of
canned shrimp in 1938 amounted to 790 cases. There were 2,369 cases of oysters canned
in 1938 compared with 370 cases in 1937. Six shell-fish canneries were licensed to operate in
1938, the same number as were in operation in the previous year.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
The production of mild-cured salmon in British Columbia in 1938 shows a decrease
compared with the pack of the previous year. The quantity canned in 1938 amounted to
2,823 tierces compared with 3,798 tierces in the year previous, while in 1936 the pack
amounted to 1,642 tierces. Five plants were licensed to operate in 1938 compared with six
plants in 1937.
In addition to the above mild-cured salmon, as the term is understood in the British
Columbia trade, there were packed 401 tierces of mild-cured chum salmon under one mild-
cured licence issued for the purpose. This pack was in the nature of an experiment encouraged by the Provincial Department of Fisheries, and reports to date indicate that this pack
has subsequently been sold. This fish was marketed in the Orient and it is hoped that the
experiment will have been sufficiently successful to encourage a greater production in the
future, as this means another market outlet for one of our varieties of salmon which is
generally considered less desirable for canning.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
In 1935 and 1936 the production of dry-salt salmon was controlled by the British Columbia
Salt-fish Marketing Board, which was a scheme set up under the Federal Government's
" Marketing Act." Court judgment ruled that this " Marketing Act " was ultra vires Federal
jurisdiction, and previous to the commencement of the salt-salmon season in 1937 the
operators petitioned the Provincial Government for a scheme under the " Natural Products
Marketing (British Columbia) Act," similar to the scheme under which they had previously
been operating. The members of the British Columbia Salt-fish Board are appointed by
the industry with a chairman designated by the industry and appointed by the Commissioner
of Fisheries. In 1938 this Board again functioned in a similar manner to that of 1937.
The reader is referred to the report of the " British Columbia Salt-fish Board " which is
published in the Appendix to this report.
In 1938 there were seven salmon dry-salteries licensed to operate compared with twenty-
six plants under this category in the year previous. Dry-salt salmon is shipped in its
entirety to Japan. Due to unsettled conditions in the Orient and to the Japanese Government's restriction on export of capital, it was obvious before the commencement of the
season that the quantity of dry-salt salmon which could be sold in Japan in 1938 would be
considerably less than that market had been able to absorb heretofore. On this account
many of the operators pooled their operations in order that each plant licensed might
obtain a sufficient quota from the Board to make the operation economically feasible. The
total production of dry-salt salmon in 1938 amounted to 3,579 tons, compared with 5,523 tons
in 1937 and 8,190 tons in 1936.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
The production of dry-salt herring in British Columbia in 1938 was again regulated by
the British Columbia Salt-fish Board, under the " Natural Products Marketing (British
Columbia) Act." The total production of this commodity is also exported to the Orient,
mostly to China. In recent past years, however, Japan has been taking a fairly large
quantity for re-export to Manchukuo. Continued unsettled conditions in the Orient, particularly in China, and the exchange restrictions referred to in the previous paragraph,
rendered marketing of this commodity a most difficult problem, the result being that production was again drastically curtailed. As a result of this curtailment the quantity of herring
ary-salted in 1938 again shows a decrease compared with the year previous. In 1938,
7,600 tons were produced compared with 10,230 tons in the year previous. Only three dry-salt
herring-salteries were licensed to operate in 1938. As in the case of the salmon-salters, a
number of the operators pooled their herring-salting operations similar to the pooling
arrangements in respect to salt salmon. Q 20 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
The total halibut landings on the Pacific Coast of North America are regulated and
fixed by the International Fisheries Commission. The Coast, for administrative and regulative purposes, is divided into four areas, the principal areas from a production standpoint
being Areas Nos. 2 and 3. The waters off the coast of Washington and British Columbia
correspond with Area No. 2 and the waters off the coast of Alaska correspond with Area
No. 3. Up until the year 1937 the total amount of halibut allowed to be landed from these
two areas was fixed at 46,000,000 lb. In 1938 the Commission raised this amount to
48,000,000 lb., the amount allowed for Area No. 2 being 22,700,000 lb. and for Area No. 3,
25,300,000 lb.
Due to the fact that the total amount allowed to be caught in any given year is fixed by
regulation of the Commission, there is, naturally, little opportunity for a wide variation in
the landings as compared from year to year. In 1938, however, due to the change in the
Commission's regulations permitting the landing of 2,000,000 lb. over what had been the
limit heretofore, naturally the comparison between the 1938 catch and that of 1937 must
make allowances for this allowable increase. In 1937 the total amount of halibut landed
from all areas amounted to 49,517,489 lb., while the corresponding figures for 1938 show that
49,456,835 lb. were landed from all areas. In 1937, Areas Nos. 2 and 3 produced a total
of 48,768,127 lb., while in 1938 these two areas produced 48,750,478 lb. Previous to 1935
very little, if any, halibut was caught in what is known as Area No. 1. The production
from this area in 1937 amounted to 749,362 lb., while in 1938 this area produced 706,357 lb.
The halibut-fishery is shared in by both Canadian and American fishing-vessels. Some
American-caught halibut is landed in Canadian ports while some Canadian-caught halibut is
landed in American ports. The total landings in Canadian ports by all vessels, Canadian
and American, amounted to 18,761,711 lb. in 1937, while similar landings in 1938 amounted
to 19,345,548 lb. In other words, the total amount of halibut landed by all vessels in
Canadian ports in 1938 was 583,837 lb. greater than in the year previous. The 1938 halibut-
catch by Canadian vessels amounted to 12,002,860 lb. compared with 11,733,914 lb. in 1937.
Of the total amount taken by Canadian vessels, 9,402,746 lb. were caught in Area No. 2 and
2,600,114 lb. were taken in Area No. 3.
Based on the unweighted average prices paid for all Canadian landings at the Port of
Prince Rupert, the price paid to Canadian fishermen shows a slight decrease from the year
previous. In 1937 the unweighted average price for Canadian halibut, based on Prince
Rupert landings, was 6.5 cents per pound, while the unweighted average price for Canadian
fish in 1938, based on Prince Rupert landings, was 5.8 cents per pound. Attention is
directed to the fact that these prices are the unweighted average prices for all Canadian
landings at Prince Rupert and should only be used as indicating the trend.
Halibut-liver in 1938 was again in demand by the pharmaceutical houses as a valuable
source of concentrated vitamins. These livers, which formerly were thrown away, have now
become a source of considerable revenue to the fishermen. The value of halibut-livers in
1937 amounted to $475,350, while in 1938 this source of revenue produced $437,300.
The above figures are compiled from information supplied by the International Fisheries
Commission.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
Fish oil and meal are produced in British Columbia from several sources, the principal
source ordinarily being the pilchard-fishery. These fish are caught almost exclusively for
reduction to meal and oil. In recent years considerable quantities of herring have also been
reduced to meal and oil, while fish-offal, cannery waste, and dogfish reduction account for the
remainder of the meal and oil produced, except that from whales.
The fish meal and oil industry has now attained the proportions of a major fishery.
Contrary to widespread belief, the fish-meal manufactured in British Columbia plants is
not used as fertilizer, but is used altogether as a supplementary food for the feeding of
domestic animals, cattle, hogs, poultry, etc. The oil finds a market in various manufacturing
industries, largely in the making of soap, paint, linoleum products, etc. There is also a
continually expanding outlet for certain grades of fish-oil for the feeding of poultry and other
live stock, due to its high vitamin content.    Plants are now established in British Columbia BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 21
capable of producing a refined oil and to supply those requiring an oil of guaranteed vitamin
content.
Pilchard Reduction.—The pilchard-fishery is conducted principally off the west coast of
Vancouver Island. A few years ago fishing activity was confined almost entirely to the inlets
and sounds on the west coast, but the vessels now proceed far to sea for their catches and
this fishery may rightfully be termed a " deep-sea " fishery. Fishing usually commences
about the first week in July and continues until the first fall storms, usually about the middle
of September. In 1938 the pilchard-fishery got away to a slow start, the fishermen proceeding well down the coast of Washington for their catches. Due to the great distances and
the time consumed in transporting fish from where they were caught to the reduction plants,
and also in some measure to inclement weather, it was feared that the 1938 pilchard-fishery
would be a failure. Very late in the season, however, large schools of pilchards were located
off the shores of Vancouver Island and heavy catches were made. This circumstance had
the effect of changing what looked like a certain failure to a season of what may be termed
moderately successful.
The production of pilchard-meal in 1937 amounted to 8,483 tons, while the 1938 production amounted to 8,899 tons. The production of oil in 1937 amounted to 1,709,981 imperial
gallons, while in 1938 this figure rose to 2,215,823 imperial gallons. There were eight pilchard
plants licensed to operate in 1937, while a similar number operated in 1938.
Herring Reduction.—Herring were again permitted to be reduced to meal and oil in
1938 under regulations similar to those in force in 1937. (See this Department's report for
the year 1937.) There were thirteen herring-reduction plants licensed to operate in 1937,
while twelve were licensed to operate in 1938. The thirteen plants in 1937 produced 14,643
tons of meal and 1,333,245 imperial gallons of oil, while the corresponding figures for the
twelve plants operated in 1938 are 18,028 tons of meal and 1,526,117 imperial gallons of oil.
During the herring-fishing season on the west coast of Vancouver Island these fish were
noticeably scarce in Barkley Sound and, as a result, this district was closed to fishing before
the end of December. The catch of Barkley Sound herring was far below the quota allowed.
It is interesting to note, however, that in spite of the fact that few fish were available to the
fishermen in this area, the schools appeared in good numbers early in the spring of 1938 and
adequate spawning took place.
Another noticeable feature of the herring-fishing season of 1938 was the heavy fishing
which took place in District No. 2 in the vicinity of Calvert Island. Heretofore District No. 2
has not been a large producer of herring, except in the vicinity of Prince Rupert, but during
the past few years great activity has been manifest in this district and there is no doubt but
that District No. 2 will continue to be considered as one of British Columbia's principal
herring-fishing districts. As yet no catch-limits have been set in District No. 2, but biological investigations are being conducted in order that information might be obtained as
to the effect of commercial fishing on the herring stocks.
Whale Reduction.—In 1937 two whaling stations were licensed, while in 1938 the same
two stations were again operated. A total of 317 whales were captured in 1937, whereas in
1938 the figure was 310. Of this number 252 were sperms, fifty finback, four humpback, and
four sulphurbottom. The whaling industry produced in 1937 268 tons of meal, 527 tons of
fertilizer, and 662,355 imperial gallons of oil, while the corresponding figures for 1938 are
273 tons of meal, 512 tons of fertilizer, and 543,378 imperial gallons of oil.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Fish oil and meal are produced in lesser quantities in plants
operated on other than pilchards, herring, and whales. These plants operate principally on
dogfish and cannery waste. In 1937 eight plants were licensed to operate in this category
while a similar number operated in 1938. The production of these plants in 1937 amounted
to 2,445 tons of meal and 266,009 imperial gallons of oil, while the corresponding figures for
1938 are 2,059 tons of meal and 186,261 gallons of oil.
CONDITIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS.
Owing to this Department having discontinued making personal inspections of the
various salmon-spawning areas in the Province, we are indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell,
Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, and the officers of his Department who conducted the inves- Q 22 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
tigations, for furnishing us with a copy of his report.    His courtesy in supplying us with
this report is gratefully acknowledged.
Major Motherwell's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-spawning
grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON  (DIGEST).
(No. 24.)
The twenty-fourth paper of the above-mentioned series appears in the Appendix to this
report and is again contributed by Dr. W. A. Clemens, Director of the Pacific Biological
Station at Nanaimo. It will be noted that, unlike previous papers of this series, the Fraser
River sockeye-salmon run is not dealt with in view of the fact that the study of the sockeye
salmon of the Fraser River has been undertaken by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission. No collection of scales and data from the run to this river was made by the
Provincial Department of Fisheries in 1938. The report on the actual analysis of the
runs of sockeye to this river has disappeared from this series of contributions after a
continuous record of twenty-three years.
In the present paper Dr. Clemens points out that the runs of sockeye salmon to Rivers
Inlet and the Skeena and Nass Rivers in 1938 were very much according to expectancy.
The run to Rivers Inlet produced a medium-sized pack of 87,942 cases. The run to the
Skeena was relatively small, yielding a pack of 47,257 cases; while the run to the Nass
yielded a pack which may be considered as medium-sized, namely, 21,462 cases. It is also
pointed out in Dr. Clemens' paper that the history of the sockeye-fishery in British Columbia
has indicated quite clearly the tendency of a fishery to develop beyond the productive capacity
of the stock. •
Rivers Inlet.—The sockeye-salmon run to Rivers Inlet in 1938 produced a pack of
87,942 cases, and the escapement was reported as " better than usual " and better than the
brood-years of 1933 and 1934. The return in 1939 will be the result of the spawnings of
1934 and 1935. In the former year the pack was 76,923 cases and the escapement was
reported as being average. In the latter year the pack was 135,038 cases and the escapement
was regarded as unusually large. Since each brood-year produces four- and five-year-old fish
and since the 1934 spawning has apparently produced a relatively small number of four-year-
olds, according to the records, there should be a fairly large return of five-year-olds in 1939.
Furthermore, as there is usually a fairly high representation of four-year-old fish in the
Rivers Inlet population, there should be a good return of this age-group from the excellent
spawning of 1935. Altogether the prospects, in Dr. Clemens' opinion, would seem good for
a fairly large run to Rivers Inlet in 1939.
In commenting on the sockeye run to Rivers Inlet, Dr. Clemens points out that the
record of this run shows a serious decline in production in the period 1916 to 1921, when
the packs reached such low levels of approximately 45,000 cases. The general trend since
then, however, has been upward, and Dr. Clemens is of the opinion that there would seem
to be good reason to believe that the population of this area is being fairly well maintained,
judging by the packs and the spawning escapements. As the results of investigations on
the relation of the catch to escapement become available, it may be found necessary, however,
to provide for a considerable margin of safety in the escapement to this area.
Skeena River.—In dealing with the sockeye runs to the Skeena River, the history of the
sockeye-fishery of this river is one of steady decline since about the year 1910. Whether
overfishing has been entirely responsible for the situation Dr. Clemens is not prepared to
say at this time, but it is pointed out that it is well known the quickest and most certain
procedure for raising the production level is to reduce the catch to a point where an adequate
escapement is provided for. On this basis certain restrictive fishing regulations have been
put into effect by the Dominion Department of Fisheries in past recent years, and it is
hoped that eventually the balance will be thrown decidedly on the side of escapement and
increased production.
In 1938 the Skeena River run produced a pack of 47,257 cases and the escapement was
reported as very good. While the number of fish appearing on the spawning-grounds is
encouraging, it should be pointed out that the run of 1938 was comparatively small. Taking
the actual counts of fish  in the  streams  tributary to   Babine  Lake,  it  is  estimated  that BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 23
approximately 80,000 fish spawned there. Making liberal allowances for the number of
sockeye appearing in the Babine River, Lakelse Lake, and other areas, it is doubtful if the
spawning population for the entire river system exceeded 125,000 fish. The pack represented
575,000 fish. To illustrate the significance of these figures, it may be pointed out that had
the escapement been equivalent to the catch there would have been four times as many
fish in the streams as were observed and such a number of fish would have been striking.
On the basis of results obtained at Cultus Lake, it is probable that a pack of 150,000 cases
or better cannot be expected on the Skeena River until an escapement of 400,000 to 500,000
fish is provided for, which means an escapement of about three or four times the size of
that of 1938.
The run to the Skeena River in 1939 will be the result of the spawnings of 1934 and 1935.
In 1934 the pack was 54,558 cases. The escapement to the Babine area was considered
" inadequate " while that to the Lakelse area was reported as good. In 1935 the pack was
52,879 cases. The escapements to both the Babine and Lakelse areas were regarded as good,
but subsequently it was reported that severe freshets damaged the spawning-beds in the
latter region. Taking into consideration all the available information, Dr. Clemens is of
the opinion that it would appear that the run to the Skeena River in 1939 will be relatively
small.
Nass River.—To those who have been following this series of papers it is not necessary
to point out that the sockeye runs to the Nass River have been most unpredictable. It is
thought that this condition has possibly some relation to the fishing effort in Alaskan waters.
In general, the production trend appears to have been downward, but the runs of very
recent years have tended toward somewhat higher levels.
The pack on the Nass River amounted to 21,462 cases in 1938. The escapement is
reported as large and the seeding as heavy. The packs for 1912 to 1938, inclusive, have
varied from 5,500 to 39,300 cases, so that of 1938 may be considered as a medium-sized pack.
As has been repeatedly pointed out, the runs to the Nass River have been very erratic and
a reliable prediction is out of the question. However, it is of interest to review the conditions
as they prevailed in the brood-years. The pack of 1934 was very large, amounting to 36,242
cases, and the escapement was reported as good. In 1935 the pack was 12,712 cases and the
escapement was again reported as good. If conditions of production and fishing remain
reasonably stable, Dr. Clemens is of the opinion there should be a medium-sized run in 1939,
possibly much like that of 1938.
PILCHARD AND HERRING INVESTIGATIONS.
The investigations on pilchard and herring have been continued under an arrangement
between the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department.
As was the case during 1937-38, considerable stress has been placed on the tagging-work on
both species, but other studies have been pursued as far as time and resources allowed. The
work has been planned by Dr. J. L. Hart and Dr. A. L. Tester and carried out by them and
their assistants.
Pilchards.
The pilchard-fishing season of 1938 resembled no other since the reduction of pilchards
began in 1925, in that it consisted of two distinct phases rather distinctly separated in time
and exploiting widely separated fishing-grounds. The first phase of the fishery extended
from the last days of July until the middle of August and centred off the Washington coast.
The second phase started during the last days of August and continued well into October,
with occasional catches of pilchards being made in the inlets by herring-fishermen as late as
January. During the second phase of the fishery, activities were confined to the westerly
end of the " west coast " of Vancouver Island. On the whole, fishermen had a better season
than in the previous year.
Pilchards caught off the Washington coast showed a slight gradation in length with
latitude, those caught to the south being smaller. Pilchards taken off Vancouver Island
were smaller on the average than those taken at Cape Flattery, but larger than fish taken
at other points on the American coast. On the whole, pilchards were somewhat smaller than
during the previous year. Q 24 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
The pilchard-tagging programme has given definite evidence of a movement of pilchards
from the Washington coast to Vancouver Island. The numbers of returns from tags used at
different times suggest that the movement to Vancouver Island was initiated before tagging
began or that the pilchards migrating from the Washington coast were joined by others
which were not subjected to tagging on their way to Vancouver Island. In any case, the
body of fish making this migration must have been comparatively small and the course of
the migration must have been well offshore, since the fish were not observed by Canadian
fishermen travelling between Vancouver Island reduction plants and fishing-grounds off the
Washington coast. Tagging returns give definite proof that the fishery off the coast of
Vancouver Island was fairly intense since, as a minimum estimate, the fishermen took 17 per
cent, of the available fish during the second phase of the fishery. The recovery of Canadian
tags in California and California tags in Canadian reduction plants is a further confirmation of the interchange of pilchards between the two regions.
A full account of the pilchard-tagging work and the tests made on the efficiency of the
methods employed is to be found as an appendix.
Herring.
The herring-fishery has continued to extend toward the north so that during the 1938-39
season the fishery north of Vancouver Island was considerably in excess of that in the
southern part of the Province. This was due in part to the unprecedented concentration of
herring in Kwakshua Pass—an area never before exploited—and in part to the disappointing
fishery on the west coast of Vancouver Island. In all areas except Quatsino Sound the
catches were most disappointing. The catch on the east coast of Vancouver Island was
approximately the same as during the previous year, but the herring were apparently less
abundant or less available since it took somewhat longer to reach the quota.
It is gratifying to record the extension of the herring investigation into the northern
part of the Province without any material relaxations of the work around Vancouver Island.
Extensive sampling has been carried out on Kwakshua Pass fish and those taken around
Prince Rupert harbour as well as less thorough examinations of the runs around the Queen
Charlatte Islands and other localities. Differences in vertebral count and (or) age composition indicated lack of mixing among the autumn fish at Cousins Inlet, Rivers Inlet, and
Klemtu. A tendency for fish to be younger and smaller during each of the last two successive years is apparent. This may be a result of the development of the fishery; but it is
not believed to be so, as the change is too extreme to have been brought about in three years
by human interference.
Information concerning the abundance of herring must be collected consistently each year
to be of value. Consequently, the collection of catch records and spawning reports has been
continued. These records are not only of value in themselves, but are useful in interpreting
other phenomena connected with the herring fishery and life-history.
Preliminary plankton investigations have suggested that the concentration of herring in
summer and fall in and around Klemtu Passage corresponds to concentrations of small-food
organisms there.
One of the more important problems related to herring is to discover what spawning and
nursery grounds are supplying the commercial fisheries in various localities. As a start on
this problem a study of young herring has been begun. There are indications that the commercial herring-fishery of the east coast of Vancouver Island is supplied by a number of
groups of young, each with its own characteristics and each of which contributes its share
to the supply of maturing fish. There is«not at present, however, any evidence for believing
that these groups maintain their individualities after joining the maturing schools.
For a full account of the results of the herring-tagging programme reference must be
made to the Appendix. It may be pointed out that this part of the work, too, has extended
into the northern part of the Province and that some results are already at hand. The results
indicate a certain amount of movement from one main region to another as two tags used at
Bella Bella were recovered in Quatsino Sound, two tags from the east coast of Vancouver
Island are known to have been recovered from other areas, and two tags from the west coast
were certain^ recovered from the east coast. However, considering the total numbers of
returns, these cases of wandering appear to be practically negligible.    There was no indica- BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 25
tion of movement from Barkley Sound or other west coast areas to fishing-grounds north of
Vancouver Island. Concerning smaller divisions of the coast it appears that in some cases
movement from one fishing area to another is slight and in others general, but the limitation
on the method prevented an accurate study of the question during the past year. Consideration of tag returns indicated a minimum intensity of the fishing of 22 per cent, in Swanson
Channel. This is approximately the same as that for the previous year (21 per cent.), but
owing to differences in methods of calculation may represent a fishery which was considerably
more intensive than in the previous year. Once again definite evidence was obtained of the
movement of herring from Sooke to the Swanson Channel and Trincomali Channel fishing-
grounds.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1938.
Under authority of the treaty of January, 1937, between Canada and the United States,
the International Fisheries Commission continued its investigations of the life-history of the
Pacific halibut and its investigation and regulation of the halibut-fishery. Further improvement in the stocks on the banks was revealed by the investigations.
The regulations governing halibut-fishing in 1938 were similar in most respects to those
issued in August of the preceding year. They again provided for the closure of Area 2 by
means of a last date of fishing and for the closure of Area 3 by a last date of clearance for
fishing supplemented by a subsequent last date of fishing. They continued the provision for
the retention and landing of a limited proportion of halibut caught incidental to fishing
for other species with set lines in areas closed to halibut-fishing. They changed the previous
regulations by increasing the catch-limits in Areas 2 and 3 by one million pounds each, to
22,700,000 and 25,300,000 lb. respectively, and by prohibiting the use of set-nets for the capture of halibut.
The fishing season opened on April 1st in 1938, sixteen days later than in 1937. Despite
the later opening date and the increased quotas, the catch-limits were attained and Area 2
was closed to halibut-fishing upon the same date and Area 3 only ten days later than in the
previous year. Areas 1 and 2 were closed to halibut-fishing at midnight of July 28th, with
catches of approximately 706,000 and 22,923,000 lb. respectively. September 29th was set as
the last date of clearance for Area 3, and the area was closed to fishing at midnight of
October 29th, with a catch of approximately 25,591,000 lb. No halibut were landed from
Area 4, which was closed at the same time as Area 3.
Under the provision for the retention and sale of a limited proportion of halibut caught
incidental to fishing for other species in areas closed to halibut-fishing, permits for Areas 1
and 2 were granted until October 17th and valid until midnight of October 29th. Under these
permits, designed to eliminate wastage of halibut caught incidentally by the cod-fishery,
approximately 280,000 lb. of halibut were landed from Area 2.
Early in December the Commission met with the Conference Board, composed of representatives of the fishing fleets in the different ports, to give the fishermen an opportunity of
presenting their views on matters pertaining to the regulation of the fishery. Many fishermen also availed themselves of the Commission's standing invitation to visit the Commission
laboratory and to learn at first hand the results of the Commission's investigations and the
scientific basis underlying every action of the Commission.
Scientific investigations were continued along the lines required for the fulfilment of the
purposes of the treaty. Current biological and statistical data, forming a system of observation of changes occurring as a result of regulation and serving as a basis for the continued
rational control of the fishery, were collected and analysed. The collection of biological data
at sea made the operation of a vessel necessary.
The condition of the stocks of halibut showed an improvement from the previous year.
The abundance of fish, as indicated by the catch in pounds per unit of gear fished, showed a
further increase all along the coast. The average catch per unit of gear in Area 2, which
includes the grounds off British Columbia, was 70 lb.—9 lb. or 15 per cent, greater than in
1937, 35 lb. or 100 per cent, greater than in 1930. West of Cape Spencer, Alaska, in Area 3,
the catch per unit of gear was 115.5 lb.:—3% lb. or 3 per cent, greater than in 1937, 50 lb. or
77 per cent, greater than in 1930, the last year of unrestricted fishing.
Investigation of the changes occurring in the stocks of marketable halibut as a result of
regulation was continued by sampling the commercial catch as landed at Seattle.    Approxi- Q 26 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
mately 75,000 fish were measured from seventy-three representative trips from different
banks. Otoliths for the study of age composition were taken simultaneously. The measurements failed to produce conclusive evidence of any further increase in the average size of the
fish or in the proportion of larger and therefore of mature fish on the more depleted southern
banks. The maximum proportion of larger sizes, from the stock of young available at the
time regulation began, appears to have been reached and a further increase in the larger
sizes may not occur until the increasing stock of young has had time to grow up. The likelihood of a temporary cessation in the increase of matures was foreseen by the Commission and
is to be regarded as a normal stage in the rebuilding of the spawning stocks on the southern
grounds.
Observation of the effect of regulations upon the production of spawn in Area 2 was
again given special attention. The halibut schooner " Eagle " was chartered and operated in
the vicinity of Cape St. James spawning-grounds as representative of Area 2 from late
December in 1937 to early March in 1938 and from early December in 1938 on into 1939.
During the 1937-38 winter season, 309 quantitative net-hauls were made at 114 stations in
the neighbourhood of Cape St. James. Hydrographic samples and data were also taken to
determine the exact conditions prevailing where the eggs and larva were found. In the
1938-39 season, sixty-six net stations and several hydrographic stations were occupied
before the end of the year.
Analysis of the catches of eggs and larva? during the 1937-38 spawning season indicates
that the production of spawn was somewhat less than in the winter of 1936-37, though still
greater than in the 1935-36 season. Variation from year to year in the production of spawn
by marine fishes is the rule, and the failure of production in 1937-38 to equal that of
1936-37 is less significant than is the maintenance of the increase over 1935-36. Excepting
1938-39, about which information is not yet available, the trend of production of spawn has
been definitely upward from 1934-35.
The investigations of the Commission continued to measure the changes taking place in
the stocks and to explain them. They proved that the condition of the different stocks of
halibut was still improving as a result of regulation.
THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION.
The year 1938 was the first of active work by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission on the Fraser River sockeye. During this year it has organized, formed a staff,
and initiated its programme. It has appointed the members of the Advisory Board, as
required by the understandings attached to the convention establishing the Commission. In
February, 1939, Mr. W. A. Found resigned and was replaced by Mr. A. J. Whitmore, Chief
of the Western Division of the Canadian Department of Fisheries.
The Advisory Board members are:—
Branch represented. Canada. United States.
Purse-seining M. E. Guest. Lee Makovitch.
Gill-netting F. Rolley. Chester Carlson.
Trolling W. A. Hawley. Sevrin Leite.
Sport fishing  M. W. Black. Ken McLeod.
Packing  Richard Nelson. C. J. Collins.
The Commission has, under the Convention, the primary duty of making a thorough
investigation into the natural history of the Fraser River sockeye salmon, into hatchery
methods, spawning-ground conditions, and related matters. In addition, it has executive
powers relating to three main functions—namely, regulation of the sockeye-fisheries, conducting fish-cultural or other operations to assist propagation, and recommending the removal of
obstacles to migration. The first function, regulation, is delayed two cycles of life of the
sockeye, or eight years, by the conditions attached to the treaty. It is therefore apparent
that the main duty of the Commission in this regard must be investigation to lay a proper
basis for regulation when it comes. This is a major task, because scientific facts and
methods are largely lacking. The same is true of the other functions, the opportunity for
improvement over present practice lying largely in the completion of investigations and
experiments not possible until now. Not only is the Commission specifically charged with
the duty of making thorough investigations, but the nature of its functions emphasize the
value of such studies. The most interesting work undertaken during the year has been the collection of the
great mass of already existing information regarding the river system and the past runs of
salmon. For many years officers of the Canadian Department of Fisheries have made useful
reports on the runs and the spawning-grounds. The various Provincial and Dominion
departments having to do with fisheries, water-powers, surveys, forests, Indians, mining,
etc., have been responsible for much information. All this is in process of systematic
organization, to show what conditions past and present are and what the history is of the
runs to each spawning-ground.
A logical continuation of these records is the survey of the river system carried on
during the year by a staff of men trained in fisheries science. The runs of sockeye, the
existing obstacles to migration, etc., were carefully studied in co-operation with the officers
of the Department of Fisheries now stationed on the Fraser. The races of sockeye found in
1938 were sampled and studied as to habits and characteristics.
The survey parties had, however, a further function, that of watching for and recovering
tags placed on sockeye in the commercial fishing areas and at a station just below Hell's
Gate. The Commission used celluloid disks, vivid with red centres and white edges, placed
on the back of each fish, with a reward of 50 cents for return. Unlike previous experiments
in tagging salmon, great numbers were recovered on the spawning-grounds as well as en
route. Of 980 fish tagged at the Sooke traps, 432 were recovered. Some were returned from
the west coasts of Washington and Vancouver Island, 323 from the commercial fishery and
thirty from the Fraser en route, and thirty-one from spawning-grounds after a time en route
of over two months. Of 2,587 fish tagged by a small seining vessel during a month's operations at the mouth of the Fraser, 48 per cent, or about 1,240 were returned, of which 358
came from the Adams River spawning-grounds alone. Of 2,128 tagged at Hell's Gate, 652
were returned en route and from the spawning-grounds, nearly 30 per cent., which is a high
return considering that the fish did not pass through the commercial catch after being
tagged. Approximately a month passed between tagging and recovery. Some were returned
from as far north as the Nechako River.
The tagging showed the time of passage through the commercial fishing areas, the time
spent milling around the mouth of the Fraser, and the time of arrival on the spawning-
ground. It is probable that from such experiments, estimates as to the numbers of fish
escaping up stream will be possible.
At the time this tagging was being done, observers were stationed at the canning centres
to recover tagged fish, take samples of the fish for study of the races present, establish a
basis for collection of statistics, and recover salmon with fins clipped in an experiment begun
four years earlier at Cultus Lake. Over 50 per cent, of all the sockeye taken in the region
were examined, and about 10,000 were sampled for age, size, sex, etc.
Late in the season the weir now at Cultus Lake was used to develop a new means of
estimating the number of spawners present on the beds. By tagging a certain number of
salmon, at the entrance to the lake, it was shown that the proportion of the run tagged could
be determined by examination of the small fraction of the run which could be seen in the lake.
Knowing the number tagged and the proportion it formed of the run, the total numbers in
the run were determined readily. The method was successful and should be usable to
determine the size of the escapement to the tributaries of the Fraser where doubt exists
whether all or even small fractions of the total are seen.
In addition the Fisheries Research Board experiments at Cultus Lake on the effect of
destruction of predatory fish were continued by counts of migrants in and out of the lake, and
by continued fishing.
The year's work suffered severely for lack of funds, but has opened new avenues of
attack on the problems facing the Commission. It must be regarded as successful in attaining its objectives.
DIGEST OF REPORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH BOARD FOR 1938-39.
Decreased purchasing-power on the part of consumers in the Orient, where the entire
pack of British Columbia salt salmon and salt herring is marketed, together with increased
exchange restrictions imposed by the Japanese authorities, both in respect to Japanese territory proper and Japanese-controlled areas in China, made the marketing of salt fish for the
1938-39 season somewhat difficult, as well as having the effect of curtailing sales. Q 28 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
After extended negotiations between the Salt-fish Board and the Japanese authorities,
conducted through the good offices of the Canadian Legation in Tokyo, the Japanese Government finally decided to allocate a lump sum of 1,000,000 yen against which prospective
importers in Japan would be allowed to purchase foreign exchange to pay for salt fish from
British Columbia, this exchange to be applied on the basis of 600,000 yen for salt salmon and
400,000 yen for salt herring.
Since the Salt-fish Board's inceptiqn, sales have been made on a c.i.f. basis—or, in other
words, a delivered price—including, in addition to the value of the fish, the cost of delivery of
same to the Japanese port. As a fixed amount of money was available and as the cost of
transporting the fish represented a substantial proportion of the delivered cost, it was obvious
that a c.i.f. price divided into available funds would produce a much smaller quantity of fish
than if the value of the fish, f.o.b. shipping-points on this side, were used.
In order to secure the maximum production, the Board agreed to authorize the payment of
freight charges at destination for the 1938-39 season, but as the shipping companies had certain commitments, including port charges, stevedoring, etc., at British Columbia ports, they
required that at least 25 per cent, of the freight charges be prepaid. As a consequence, shipments of salt salmon and salt herring to Japanese ports during the 1938-39 season were made
on a c.i.f. basis, but with 75 per cent, of the freight charges payable by importers at
destination.
When the protracted negotiations in regard to the basis for payment were concluded,
and the marketing agencies determined the price at which they were willing to sell, it was
found that the 600,000 yen available to cover the purchase of salt salmon would permit of
the sale of 14,401 boxes, and the 400,000 yen available for the purchase of salt herring would
permit of the sale of 4,940 tons. The shipment of 14,401 boxes of salt salmon in the 1938-39
season compares with 22,843 shipped in the 1937-38 season, and the shipment of 4,940 tons of
salt herring during the past season compares with 8,000 tons in the previous season.
However, taking into account the very strained market situation, and the strict curtailment by the Japanese Government of the amount of money which they would allow to go out
of the country to cover purchases of these commodities, it is apparent that the best deal possible was secured for producers in British Columbia, as with the amount of exchange definitely
determined it was only natural that buyers should endeavour to secure the largest tonnage
possible, and the Board were forced to rule in favour of a restricted quantity, which would
represent a reasonably adequate return for the product, as against allowing the processing and
shipping of a large quantity, which would have produced a very much lower unit in value.
All of the dry-salt salmon produced was, as usual, sold exclusively in Japan. Salt herring
under normal conditions finds a substantial outlet in other parts of the Orient, notably in
Shanghai, for distribution to the large potential market tributary to that city. The same
thing applies to a considerable extent to Hong Kong, which normally would take substantial
quantities for distribution in South China through Canton. Owing to greatly disturbed conditions, both in Shanghai and Canton areas, however, Shanghai late in the season came into
the market for the very minor quantity of 776 tons, and Hong Kong took no fish whatever.
The restricted exchange conditions prevailing in Japan provided an opportunity for
buyers in Manchukuo, who hitherto had got their requirements by transhipment through
Japan, to buy direct; and in December a deal was finally negotiated with buyers in Dairen
for 1,740 tons.    Between 500 and 600 tons of this eventually found its way to Shanghai.
The Salt-fish Board have been giving consideration for some years to the desirability of
finding other outlets, if possible, if British Columbia salt fish is to continue to be marketed in
volume; and have been doing some exploratory work in this direction, notably in South
America and in the Straits Settlements; in both of which areas salt fish in a variety of forms
is consumed in large quantities. The experience of the 1938-39 season has confirmed the
Board in their opinion that definite action in developing new markets must be taken.
The development of new markets may entail certain changes in the methods of processing
and packing. The Board report that they have investigations under way in this regard with
a view to being prepared to make definite recommendations to producers in connection with
the marketing of salt fish in future years. BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 29
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 24.)
By Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
In view of the fact that the study of the sockeye salmon of the Fraser River has been
undertaken by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, no collection of scales
and data from the run to this river system was made by the Provincial Fisheries Department
in 1938. The report on the annual analysis of the runs to this river system thus disappears
from this series of contributions after a continuous record of twenty-three years.
The runs of sockeye salmon to Rivers Inlet and the Skeena and Nass Rivers in 1938
were very much according to expectancy. That to Rivers Inlet produced a medium-sized
pack of 87,942 cases; and that to the Skeena was relatively small, yielding a pack of 47,257
cases; and that to the Nass supplied what perhaps may be called a medium-sized pack of
21,462 cases.
The history of the sockeye-fisheries of British Columbia has indicated rather clearly
the tendency of a fishery to develop beyond the productive capacity of the stock. The Rivers
Inlet record shows a probable serious decline in production in the period 1916 to 1921 when
the packs reached low levels of approximately 45,000 cases. The general trend since then
has been upward and there would seem to be good reason to believe that the population of
this area is being fairly well maintained as judged both by the packs and the spawning
escapements. As the results of investigations on the relation of catch to escapement become
available, it may be found necessary to provide for a considerable " margin of safety " in the
escapements to this area.
The history of the sockeye-fishery of the Skeena is one of steady decline since about the
year 1910. Whether overfishing has been entirely responsible for the situation cannot be
determined, but it is well known that the quickest and most certain procedure for raising
the production level is to reduce the catch to a point where adequate escapement is provided
for. On this basis certain restrictive fishing regulations have been put into effect by the
Dominion Department of Fisheries in recent years, and it is hoped that eventually the balance
will be thrown decidedly on the side of escapement and increased production.
As has been pointed out in previous reports, the sockeye runs to the Nass River have
been unpredictable and it is thought that this condition has possibly some relation to fishing
effort in Alaskan waters. In general the production trend appears to have been downward,
but the runs of very recent years have tended toward somewhat higher levels.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating
the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the fish
migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers, one in large
type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to the right and
below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water. The age-groups
which are met most commonly in these river systems are:—
3i, 4i—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature at the
ages of three and four years respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and mature at
the age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four and
five respectively.
5s, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five and six
respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six and
seven respectively. Q 30              REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1938.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The sockeye-salmon run to Rivers Inlet in 1938 produced a pack of 87,942 cases, and
the escapement is reported as " better than usual " and better than the brood-years  1933
and 1934.
The return in 1939 will be the result of the spawnings of 1934 and 1935.    In the former
year the pack was 76,923 cases and the escapement was reported as average;   in the latter
year the pack was 135,038 cases and the escapement recorded  as unusually large.    Since
each  brood-year  produces  four-  and  five-year-old  fish   and  since  the  1934   spawning  has
apparently produced a relatively small number of four-year-olds, there should be a fairly
large  return  of  five-year-olds  in   1939.    Furthermore,  as  there  is  usually  a  fairly  high
representation of four-year-old fish in the Rivers Inlet population, there should be a good
return of this age-group from the excellent spawning of  1935.    Altogether, the prospects
would seem good for a large run to Rivers Inlet in 1939.
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
42
52
5 3
6.
0
1907   (87,874 cases)      -  	
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
1
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
5
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1908   (64,652 cases)      - 	
1914  (89,890 cases)         .-.
1915   (130,350 cases)                           	
1917   (61,195 cases)     -               .                                        	
1919  (56,258 cases)    	
1921 (46,300 cases) -—   -	
1922 (60,700 cases)      	
1923 (107,174 cases).	
1924 (94,891 cases)   	
1925 (159,554 cases)       ...
1926   (65,581 cases)                                	
1927  (64,461 cases)  	
1928   (60,044 cases).      _	
1929  (70,260 cases)     -	
1930  (119,170 cases)    ......
1931   (76,428 cases)               	
1932   (69,732 cases).     ~	
1933  (83,507 cases)	
1934 (76,923 cases)   _.
1935 (135,038 cases) 	
1936 (46,351 cases)	
1937   (84,832 cases)     	
1938  (87,942 cases) .-	
(2.) Age-groups.
The material for this year's analysis was  obtained from  1,469  individuals  taken  in
fifteen random samplings from July 12th to August 5th.    The 42 age-group is represented
by 398 individuals or 27 per cent.;  the 52 by 1,023 or 70 per cent.;  the 53 by 9 or 1 per cent.;
and the 63 by 39 or 2 per cent.    In addition there is one female of the 62 age-class—7V2 lb. and
27 inches—and not included in the tabulations and calculations.    The outstanding feature BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 31
of the age-group representation in 1938 is the low percentage of four-year-old fish. It is
interesting to note that the spawning of 1933 was evidently a successful one in that 60 per
cent, of the run in 1937 consisted of four-year-old fish and 70 per cent, of the run in 1938
was comprised of five-year-old fish.
Table II,
-Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1938, grouped by
and by their Early History.
Age, Sex, and Length,
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
5
2
E
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
ta
0
20	
1
1
201,4	
2
2
21   	
8
9
15
13
1
1
1
24
2iy,    	
24
22 	
38
39
1
1
79
221/, •	
14
19
1
5
1
40
23   	
56
16
61
21
6
7
29
14
1
1
1
153
23V2   __
60
24
21
7
21
7
26
6
83
48
1
1
151
24V-   	
70
25	
8
3
29
112
2
154
25%  	
6
1
21
91
4
123
26	
9
1
57
144
3
3
13
230
26y2	
37
63
1
101
27     	
2
66
23
70
5
1
1
143
2714 	
25
28 	
25
17
1
43
281/,	
16
2
18
29    	
5
15
2
22
29%	
2
1
3
30...	
1
2
3
Totals	
196
202
329
694
5
4
15
24
1,469
.\ve. lengths   .
23.1
22.8
26.6
25.5
24.9
22.1
27.5
25.6
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of both sexes of the four- and five-year-old classes are very high,
those for the latter being the highest on record (Table IV.). On the other hand, the
average weights for the 42 age-group are below the average of the past twenty-three years
while those for the 52 group are practically identical (Table V.). The data concerning the
distribution of lengths and weights are given in Tables II. and III.
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 545 and of females 924, percentages of
37 and 63 respectively. In the four-year age-class the sexes are approximately equal, 196
and 202, but in the five-year age-class the number of females is approximately double that
of the males, 329 and 694. As will be seen in Table VI., the average percentages of the males
and females in the Rivers Inlet run for the past twenty-four years are 50:50. Q 32
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
Table III.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1938, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
42
52      .
h
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
*t>
O
H
8%	
4	
4%	
5	
5%.	
6 	
6%	
9
42
70
34
23
8
7
2
1
8
71
68
34
16
5
1
7
12
29
36
35
44
60
48
32
15
6
4
10
16
62
95
123
118
115
96
43
9
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
5
2
3
2
2
1
2
1
1
6
7
4
2
18
126
164
145
164
174
167
7	
7%    -  	
8 	
170
166
9S
8%      	
9 	
9%	
44
24
8
10                	
4
Totals-	
196               202
329
694
5
4      [         15
24
1,469
Ave. weights
4.7      |        4.5
1
7.1
6.4
5.8
4.0                8.2
6.7
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the 4i and 5%
Groups, 1912 to 1938.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912                                                   ~	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
22.1
22.3
22.6
22.7
21.9
22.4
22.1
22.4
22.4
21.0
22.0
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
22.8
22.2
22.6
22.0
22.4
22.0
22.2
22.4
20.9
21.9
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.6
26.1
25.2
26.0
25.2
25.2
25.5
25.6
25.8
24.6
24.5
24.6
1913
25.2
1914              	
25.2
1915              ...                                                                                            	
25 1
1916                                                           	
25.0
1917                                            	
24.4
1918   	
24.5
1919     ._.  	
24.4
1920    	
25 0
1921     	
24.2
1922           	
24 2
1923                           	
1924                         	
1925                   	
1926	
1927	
1928             	
25.2
25.3
25.2
1929             	
1930               	
1931    ...	
1932    ..                      	
24.6
24.7
25.0
25.1
23.4
24.0
1933    ..	
1934    __	
1935           	
1936 -	
1937 	
22.4
22.4
25.3
24.7
1938 	
23.1
22.8
26.6
25.5 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 33
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the 42 and 5i
Groups, 1914 to 1938.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914  	
1915                      	
5.4
5.3
5£
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.0
4.9
4.5
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.5
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.0
4.8
4.8
4.6
4:7
4.6
4.6
4.3
4.1
4.4
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.6
7.5
6.7
6.5
7.3
7.3
6.9
7.9
6.1
6.8
6.6
1916  -	
6.7
1917.                    	
6.2
1918                       	
6.7
1919                      .	
5.9
1921     	
1922	
1923                                                          	
6.0
7.0
5.9
1924	
6.1
1925            .     ...	
6.2
1926  	
1927  	
1928	
6.3
7.6
6.7
1929                                                        	
6.7
1930     	
1931	
6.9
6.4
1982                                                                    	
6.5
193 3                                                                    	
6.6
1934             	
6.7
1935                                                       	
6.1
1936 	
6 7
1937	
5 8
5.0
4.9
7.0
1938 	
4.7
4.5
7.1
6.4
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
42 and 52 Age-groups, 1915 to 1938.
42
5
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
65
63
79
77
74
63
66
71
74
66
63
68
63
57
56
59
54
56
55
63
43
61
49
35
37
21
23
26
37
34
29
26
34
37
32
37
43
44
41
46
44
45
37
57
39
51
43
39
49
41
48
40
38
31
31
34
32
35
30
36
37
33
28
32
27
39
20
28
32
57
61
61
59
52
60
62
69
69
66
68
64
70
64
63
67
72
68
73
61
80
72
68
45
49
48
66
58
49
51
61
62
50
41
51
62
50
53
47
47
47
42
49
53
32
48
37
55
61
1917	
52
34
1919	
42
51
1921	
49
39
1923                                            	
38
50
59
1926.      	
49
38
50'
1929                                            '
47
1930 -
53
1931                                                  -	
53
1932                  	
63
1933                     -              	
68
1934                 ....             	
51
1935               	
47
1936                           - - - —-
68
1937                                	
52
1938               .    ... -
63
37
35
65
50 Q 34
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1938.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The Skeena sockeye run produced a pack of 47,257 cases and an escapement reported as
very good. While the number of fish appearing on the spawning-grounds is somewhat
encouraging, it may be pointed out that the run of 1938 was comparatively small. Taking
the actual counts of fish in the streams tributary to Babine Lake, it is estimated that
approximately 80,000 fish spawned there. Making liberal allowances for the numbers of
sockeye appearing in the Babine River, Lakelse Lake, and other areas, it is doubtful if the
spawning population for the entire river system exceeded 125,000 fish. The pack represents
575,000 fish. To illustrate the significance of these figures, it may be pointed out that had
the escapement been equivalent to the catch there would have been four times as many fish
in the streams as were observed and such a number of fish would have been striking. On
the basis of results obtained at Cultus Lake, on the Fraser River, it is probable that a pack
of 150,000 cases or better cannot be expected on the Skeena until an escapement of 400,000
to 500,000 fish is provided for;  that is, about three or four times the escapement of 1938.
The run to the Skeena in 1939 will be the result of the spawnings of 1934 and 1935.
In 1934 the pack was 54,558 cases. The escapement to the Babine area was considered inadequate while that to the Lakelse area was reported as good. In 1935 the pack was 52,879
cases. The escapements to both the Babine and Lakelse areas were recorded as good, but
subsequently it was reported that severe freshets damaged the spawning-beds in the latter
region. Taking into account all the available information, it would appear that the run to
the Skeena River in 1939 will be relatively small.
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
(108,413 cases)..
(139,346 cases).
(87,901 cases) ...
(187,246 cases)..
(131,066 cases)..
(92,498 cases) ....
(52,927 cases) —
(130,166 cases).
(116,553 cases)..
(60,923 cases).-
(65,760 eases)....
(123,322 cases)..
(184,945 cases )..
(90,869 cases)-.
(41,018 cases) —
(96,277 cases)—.
(131,731 eases).
(144,747 cases)..
(77,784 cases)-.
(82,360 cases)....
(83,996 cases)....
(34,559 cases) —
(78,017 cases)....
(132,372 cases)..
(93,023 cases)....
(59,916 cases) —
(30,506 cases)....
(54,558 cases) —
(52,879 eases)-.
(81,973 cases)....
(42,491 cases)-..
(47,257 cases) —
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
18
5
6
4
8
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5 (2.) Age-groups.
Scales and length, weight and sex data were obtained from 1,268 fish from July 14th to
August 17th in twenty-three random samplings. The 42 age-group is represented by 808
individuals or 64 per cent.; the 52 by 195 or 15 per cent.; the 53 by 201 or 16 per cent.; and
the 63 by 64 or 5 per cent. In addition there is one individual of the 32 age-group, four of
the 43, and one of the 64; these are not included in the tabulations or calculations. The
four-year-old fish form the predominant group in the run. The five-year-old fish are about
equally distributed in the 52 and 53 age-classes, the former with the unusually low percentage
of 15 and the latter with a rather high percentage of 16 (Table VII.).
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of both sexes of all the age-groups are slightly below the averages
of the past twenty-six years.    The average weights are slightly below the averages of the
past twenty-four years in five cases, equivalent in two and above in one  (Tables VIII., IX.,
X., and XL).    There are no features of particular significance in the length and weight data.
(4.) Proportions of the Sexes.
During the past years it has been the practice in dealing with the proportions of the
sexes to consider only the 42 and 52 groups, because they have usually formed 85 to 90 per
cent, of the run. This year, with the 53's having a percentage representation of 16, the
percentage figures for total males and females as given in Table XII. do not exactly represent
the proportions of the sexes for the whole run.
The total number of males in the samplings is 566 and of females 702, percentages of
45 and 55 respectively. The percentages when only the 42 and 52 age-groups are considered
are 42 and 58 respectively. The females outnumber the males in the 42 age-group as they
have done consistently in recent years, being represented by a percentage of 60. On the
other hand, the males slightly outnumber the females in the 52 age-group with a percentage
of 51. It has been rare for the males to be in the majority in this age-group (Table XII.).
In the 53 age-group the females slightly outnumber the males while in the 63 age-group the
number of males is double that of the females.
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1938, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
0
EH
18Vi 	
1
1
19	
1
1
19i/o	
20   	
3
6
1
10
201/2-..
2
10
12
21
10
14
33
25
3
5
5
5
51
2iy>	
49
22       	
35
25
117
80
2
5
1
11
9
15
19
1
184
22%	
136
23	
66
111
3
9
14
18
4
225
231/2	
44
51
2
6
15
11
1
1
131
24   	
63
39
12
18
12
11
2
6
163
24%  	
31
9
8
21
4
2
5
2
82
25	
22
6
1
27
15
16
7
16
2
8
3
10
9
3
1
103
251/2	
43
26  	
13
8
2
4
8
2
37
26y2   	
3
6
2
2
1
14
27— - 	
5
1
3
1
5
1
16
27% - -	
4
1
6
28	
1
1
28%	
1
	
1
2
29   	
1
	
	
1
291/. 	
30	
1
1
Totals	
325
483
100
95
98
103
43
21
1,268
Ave. lengths	
23.3
22.5
25.3
24.4
23.6
23.1
25.6
24.3
	 Q 36
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1938, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
cd
•iS
O
2%... ~	
1
1
2
3 	
2
9
2
.   30
4
1
2
5
8%.. - -- 	
45
4 	
33
111
.4
12
15
1
176
4»/2 -	
55
154
6
5
17
20
3
260
6.	
81
113
5
11
16
28
1
255
51/2	
65
52
6
10
18
23
2
7
183
6	
46
18
21
22
11
10
11
3
142
6%	
24
1
16
20
11
1
9
82
7-	
5
18
13
7
1
7
2
53
7%	
3
15
6
1
1
4
2
32
8 	
1
1
5
3
3
1
1
1
4
3
2
16
8%	
9
9 	
4
	
2
	
6
91/2 	
1
	
1
	
2
Totals-	
325
483
100
95
98
103
43
21
1,268
Ave. weights	
5.2
4.6
6.6
6.1
5.3
5.0
6.9
5.9
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1938.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912                                        	
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23.8
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.8
23.9
23.3
22.9
23.1
23.5
23.4
23.2
23.8
23.1
23.8
23.5
23.5
22.9
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.3
22.8
23.4
23.3
22.8
22.7
22.7
23.1
22.7
22.8
23.2
22.9
23.2
22.9
26.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2
25.5
25.9
25.7
26.2
25.2
25.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.7
25.3
25.5
24.7
25.7
25.2
26.1
26.3
26.3
26.0
26.2
25.2
24.7
25.1
25.0
25.0
24.7
25.0
24.8
25.3
24.2
24.4
24.5
25.2
24.7
24.8
24.8
24.7
24.7
23.9
24.8
24.4
25.2
25.2
25.2
25.2
25.1
24.5
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
24.2
23.8
23.9
24.7
24.1
24.6
24.1
23.5
23.8
23.5
23.8
24.1
24.3
25.2
23.6
24.4
24.9
23.4
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.3
23.8
23.5
22.8
22.8
22.4
23.1
22.8
23.4
24.1
22.8
23.5
24.1
25.6
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
25.6
25.8
26.8
26.0
26.2
25.6
25.5
24.6
25.8
25.4
26.4
26.0
26.2
26.3
26.9
1913                           	
1914 	
1915                   	
24.4
1916                         	
24.8
1917                         	
1918                               	
1919                                  ,       .     	
1920                             	
1921      	
1922   - 	
1923- 	
1924  —
1925 —
1926-  	
1927  	
1928 	
24.2
24.1
24.4
24.8
24.8
25.0
24.9
24.7
24.3
23.2
24.7
24.4
25.3
24.9
25.1
25.0
25.5
1929	
1930   ■	
1931  	
1932 	
1933  	
1934  -
1935  -  - 	
1936	
1937- — --	
23.7
23.1
25.8
24.8
24.'
23.3
25.7
24.7
1938	
23.3
22.5
25.3
24.4
23.6
23.1
25.6
24.3 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 37
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1938.
Year.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914 —- —	
5.9
5.3
7.2
6.3
1915 	
5.7
5.2
6.8
6.2
5.9
5.2
6.6
6.0
1916 	
5.4
5.1
7.1
6.3
5.8
5.4
7.1
5.9
1917 	
5.3
5.0
6.4
6.0
5.5
5.2
6.3
5.8
1918	
5.8
5.3
6.9
6.4
5.7
5.3
6.6
6.1
1919 	
6.1
5.5
7.0
6.2
6.1
6.4
6.9
6.3
1920 -	
5.6
5.1
7.2
6.4
6.3
5.1
7.3
6.3
1921	
5.7
5.1
6.4
5.7
5.8
5.1
6.0
5.6
1922	
5.4
5.1
6.5
5.7
5.5
5.1
6.2
5.7
1923	
5.3
4.9
6.3
5.7
5.3
4.8
6.3
5.4
1924	
5.6
5.0
7.0
6.3
5.9
5.1
6.6
5.8
1925	
5.1
4.7
6.5
5.8
5.5
4.9
6.9
5.4
1926  - -
5.3
5.1
6.5
5.8
5.9
5.2
6.9
6.2
1927 —
5.4
5.1
6.5
5.9
5.4
5.0
6.0
5.8
1928 	
5.0
4.6
6.4
5.8
5.0
4.6
6.5
6.8
1929   	
4.9
4.7
6.8
6.2
5.6
4.9
6.8
5.7
1930	
5.4
5.1
6.7
6.0
5.6
5.0
6.8
5.8
1931   -	
5.4
5.1
6.8
6.3
5.5
5.0
6.9
6.0
1932  	
5.4
4.9
6.9
6.1
6.0
5.0
6.8
5.9
1933 	
4.9
4.7
7.1
6.3
5.7
5.0
7.1
6.3
1934 .....
5.7
5.2
7.7
6.6
6.7
5.8
7.7
6.2
1935 	
5.1
4.9
7.4
6.5
5.5
4.7
7.2
6.4
1936	
5.6
5.2
7.3
6.6
6.1
5.5
7.4
6.2
1937	
4.9
4.6
6.4
5.8
5.7
5.1
7.0
6.1
Average weights _	
5.4
5.0
6.8
6.1
5.7
6.1
6.8
6.1)
1938	
5.2
4.6
6.6
6.1
5.3
5.0
6.9
5.9
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
42 and 52 Age-groups, 1915 to 1938.
Year.
4
2
E
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1915 	
56
44
45
56
49
51
1916  	
70
30
43
57
55
45
1917  	
66
34
48
52
60
40
1918	
63
37
46
54
57
43
1919 	
53
47
46
54
49
51
1920  -       	
41
59
37
63
38
62
1921   -  	
44
56
44
56
45
55
1922 -  	
52
48
41
59
50
50
1923 ..... - - —	
60
40
37
63
52
48
1924  	
50
50
43
57
45
55
1925   	
57
43
42
58
50
50
1926       	
40
60
43
57
42
58
1927 - -	
45
55
41
59
44
56
1928        	
48
52
45
55
46
54
1929       -	
50
47
50
53
46
56
54
44
50
53
50
1930	
47
43
57
39
61
44
56
1932	
47
53
63
37
54
46
1933   -        	
48
52
40
60
45
55
1934          	
42
58
33
67
39
61
1935    	
41
59
32
68
40
60
1936   -	
38
62
36
64
39
61
1937  	
45
55
39
61
42
58
1938 -	
40
60
51
49
42
58
Average	
49
51
43
57
47
53 Q 38
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1938.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The pack on the Nass River amounted to 21,462 cases. The escapement is reported as
large and the seeding as heavy. The packs from 1912 to 1938, inclusive, have varied from
5,500 to 39,300 cases;  so that of 1938 may be considered as a medium-sized one.
As has been repeatedly pointed out, the runs to the Nass River have been very erratic
and a reliable prediction is out of the question. However, it is of interest to review the
conditions as they prevailed in the brood-years. The pack in 1934 was very large, amounting
to 36,242 cases, and the escapement was reported as good. In 1935 the pack was 12,712
cases and the escapement was again reported as good. If conditions of production and
fishing remain reasonably stable there should be a medium-sized run in 1939, possibly much
like that of 1938.
(2.) Age-groups.
The analysis of the run of 1938 is based on data for 1,378 fish collected in twelve random
samplings between July 18th and August 19th. The 53 age-group predominates as usual
with 969 individuals or 70 per cent. The 42's are represented by 281 fish or 21 per cent.;
the 52's by 56 or 4 per cent.; and the 63's by 72 or 5 per cent. In addition, there are two
individuals of the 64 age-group, both males, one 5% lb., 24 inches, and the other 7% lb.,
26 inches; these are not included in the tabulations or calculations.
The representations of the age-groups in 1938 do not present any unusual features
(Table XIII.).
Table XIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
from 1912 to 1938 and Packs.
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
(36,037 cases).
(23,574 cases)-
(31,327 cases).
(39,349 cases).
(31,411 cases).
(22,188 cases).
(21,816 cases).
(28,259 cases).
(16,740 cases).
(9,364 cases) —
(31,277 cases).
(17,821 cases).
(33,590 cases).
(18,945 cases).
(15,929 cases).
(12,026 cases)-
(5,540 cases)—
(16,077 cases).
(26,405 cases).
(16,929 cases).
(14,154 cases).
(9,757 cases) —
(36,242 cases) .
(12,712 cases).
(28,562 cases).
(17,567 cases).
(21,462 cases).
Percentage of Individuals that spent
One Year in Lake.
Four Years
old.
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
Five Years
old.
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
Two Years in Lake.
Five Years
old.
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
Six Years
old.
2
2
10
1
6
2
2
13
4
3
6
3
6
7
3
4
6
10
6
5 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 39
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of both sexes of all the age-groups is somewhat less than those of
the averages for the past twenty-six years. The difference is considerable in the cases of
the 53 age-group and of the males of the 63.
The average weights are very slightly below the general averages except in the case of
the females of the 42 and the males of the 52 age-groups (Tables XIV., XV., XVI., and
XVII.).
(4.) Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 605 and of females 773, percentages of
44 and 56 respectively. The representation of the males is slightly below the average for
the past twenty-four years—namely, 47. Examination of the data shows that the percentage
of the males in the dominant 53 age-group was low (40 per cent.) while in the age-groups
less well represented numerically—namely, 42, 52, and 63—the percentages of the males in
each case were slightly higher than those of the females (Table XVIII.).
Table XIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1938, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number op
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
42
52
h
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
21	
5
2
30
11
35
16
27
4
10
2
1
4
14
11
35
11
36
15
6
3
3
2
4
2
5
2
2
3
6
1
1
1
2
1
9
4
2
3
1
2
2
1
3
2
14
11
52
28
97
45
86
27
25
2
1
2
10
9
47
41
164
69
138
43
43
6
4
2
1
4
2
7
2
13
3
6
2
3
1
4
1
6
5
7
1
2
2
21% 	
6
22  	
32
22%  - 	
24
23                               ....           	
133
23% _           	
75
24
302
24%            	
136
25     _	
283
25%	
103
26	
168
261A
44
27	
54
27%   —	
28   	
28%      —	
29     -
6
13
1
5
29%                 —    -
30           .. ..              	
1
Totals                     	
142
139
29
27
392    |      577
42
30
1,378
24.1
23.5
26.0'    1     24.8
25.2     1     24.4
26.6
26.1
	 Q 40
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1938, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of
Individuals.
4
2
52
h
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
5
0
3%                       	
9
15
40
38
26
8
6
1
1
21
38
49
18
10
1
2
1
4
5
2
2
4
4
2
3
1
5
7
8
4
2
3
13
51
77
107
79
48
14
1
18
83
166
178
95
27
7
2
1
1
6
6
13
3
7
4
1
2
1
3
9
5
5
5
2
i
tv>      -      	
34
5......
134
5V„
303
6
357
6%         	
274
7
141
7«.
84
8
28
s«.
11
9
e
91/,             -                      -   -   -
4
Totals
142
139
29
27
392
577
42
30
1,378
5.9
5.8
7.4
6.3
7.6
6.8
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1938.
Year.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.5
24.9
24.6
24.9
24.9
24.9
23.8
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.5
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
23.8
23.9
23.7
24.1
24.0
24.1
23.3
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.1
25.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
26.5
26.4
27.1
26.9
27.3
26.8
26.0
25.1
24.8
25.1
25.2
26.0
24.7
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.4
25.7
25.2
25.8
25.9
25.9
25.8
24.6
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
26.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
26.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
26.1
26.6
25.9
26.3
26.5
26.6
25.0
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
25.3
25.6
25.2
25.4
25.2
25.6
24.2
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2
27.9
28.2
28.3
28.4
28.6
28.9
28.3
27.2
25.6
1913
1914
25.6
191S    _	
1916
1917      -    -               -            	
1918
1919    _	
26.7
lPiW
1921
26.2
1922
1923
26.5
\WA
1925 __
25.4
27.0
26.5
1926
1927      	
1928
1929      .                                  _   ..       .
26.2
26.8
27.1
27.1
27.9
87.1
27.6
27.1
26.3
1930     	
1931
1932      _    -
1*SW
1934  _      	
1*35
1936
1-937
24.5    |      23.7
26.2
25.1
26.1
25.3
27.6    |      26,3
1*38 	
24.1
23.5
26.0
24.8
25.2
24.4
26.6
26.1 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 41
Table XVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1938.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914            -	
6.2
5.6
6.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
6.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
6.2
6.7
6.1
6.5
5.5
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
6.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.6
5.4
5.9
5.2
5.7
5.2
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.4
7.5
8.1
8.4
7.8
7.8
6.8
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
6.5
6.8
6.6
7.0
7.3
6.5
7.1
6.1
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
7.1
6.8
7.3
7.0
7.6
7.0
7.6
6.2
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.5
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.7
6.1
6.7
5.5
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.6
8.2
8.3
8.7
8.4
9.4
8.4
8.7
7.8
6.8
1915
6.5
1916           	
6.4
1917            	
6.4
1918             	
6.7
1919           	
6.7
1920	
7.0
1921                  	
6.6
1922           	
6.6
1923.    .-   -	
6.8
1924                               	
6.5
1925             	
6.3
1926             	
7.1
1927                -
7.0
1928 _
6.6
1929 -
1930            	
6.8
7.2
1931	
7.4
1932              	
7.5
7.9
8.1
1935	
7.4
7.5
7.0
Average weights - —
6.0
5.4
7.2
6.4
6.9
6.2
8.0
6.9
5.9
5.8
7.4
6.3
6.5
5.8
7.6
Table XVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
tot ^2, 53, and 63 Age-groups, 1915 to 1938.
Year.
4
2
5
2
5
8
6
3
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915
55
61
55
52
53
46
40
36
43
55
58
43
39
50
48
49
49
49
49
48
39
42
56
51
45
39
45
48
47
54
60
64
57
45
42
57
61
50
52
51
51
51
51
52
61
58
44
49
49
61
47
40
48
39
45
32
43
44
52
44
54
48
51
43
53
46
56
51
40
35
43
52
51
39
53
60
52
61
55
63
57
56
48
56
46
52
49
57
47
54
44
49
60
65
57
48
52
50
46
50
46
40
47
46
47
47
45
44
45
42
44
40
43
45
47
50
39
43
60
40
48
50
54
50
54
60
53
54
53
53
55
56
55
58
56
60
57
55
53
50
61
57
50
60
53
68
58
70
54
66
54
64
60
67
68
57
61
62
58
63
70
72
76
58
71
60
56
58
47
32
42
30
46
34
46
36
40
33
32
43
39
38
42
37
30
28
24
42
29
50
44
42
52
55
47
51
48
42
46
44
46
48
49
46
46
46
46
43
47
48
49
50
42
43
51
44
48
45
1917            	
53
1918            	
49
1919 _.   .
52
58
54
1924	
62
1927           _ —
54
1928                    	
54
1929	
54
1930             -	
57
1932            	
52
1933                     -.
51
1935                   _	
58
1*36
57
49
1«38 --	
56
Average  	
49
51
46
54
45
55
62
38
47
53 Q 42 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
TAGGING BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARDS  (SARDINOPS C&JRULEA
(GIRARD)) :   INSERTIONS AND RECOVERIES FOR 1938-39.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS. Page.
Introduction  42
Methods  42
Tags applied  43
Recoveries  43
Returns from the taggings of 1938  45
Returns from the taggings of 1937 and 1936  45
Movements of pilchards...  46
Between California and Washington and British Columbia  46
Washington to Vancouver Island  46
Along the coast of Vancouver Island . .  47
Intensity of the fishery  47
Washington coast fishery .  47
Vancouver Island fishery  48
Recovery of California tags .  48
Technique  49
Acknowledgments  49
References <  50
INTRODUCTION.
The pilchard tagging and tag recovery programme was continued through its fourth
season during 1938. Results for previous years (Hart, 1937; 1938) have established that
there is an interchange of individuals between the sardine-fishing grounds of California and
the pilchard-fishing grounds of British Columbia. The programme is being continued in an
attempt to establish the degree of generalness of the movements observed and to learn more
detail concerning the migrations of the fish. The present report describes the work done
during the past year and recent tag recoveries. The discussion of results and the calculations
based on them are in many cases to be regarded as illustrations of the use to which tagging
data may be put rather than presenting final conclusions.
METHODS.
The methods used during the 1938 season were similar to those employed during the
previous year, as discussed in Hart (1937; 1938). Fish from commercial purse-seines were
tagged from the seine-skiff by the use of a tagging-gun (Hart and Tester, 1938; Hart, 1938).
As a check on the mortality produced by placing tags in pilchards with the gun, part of
the fish from some schools were tagged with a knife, as previously described  (Hart, 1937).
Tags were of the same type and dimensions as used in previous years.
Recoveries, too, were made by the same method as in previous years. Electromagnets
in the meal-lines (Hart, 1937) of the seven reduction plants operating removed the tags
from the dried unground meal. A number of tags were found in irregularities in the
conveyers or in the driers of reduction plants. Rewards of 50 cents were paid to plant
employees for recovering the tags and returning them with information concerning time
and place the fish were caught. The great weakness of the method is that sometimes tags
are held up for a greater or shorter time in their passage through the plants. When they
finally are recovered they are reported from fish captured later than the correct ones. The
difficulty has been teated more fully elsewhere (Hart, 1937;   19386).
A few tags were recovered by the induction detector installed at Nootka (Hart and
Tester, 1939), but difficulty was encountered by the fish rolling down the chute instead of
sliding. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 43
Through the co-operation of the State fisheries departments of Washington, Oregon,
and California, Canadian tags recovered in United States reduction plants have been
returned with the pertinent data.
TAGS APPLIED.
During the 1938 season 4,982 tags were inserted in pilchards. The tags were inserted
in two series. Two thousand four hundred and eighty-nine were used between July 28th
and August 2nd off the coast of Washington and 2,493 were used between September 3rd
and 11th in the inlets and off the coast of the north-westerly end of the west coast of
Vancouver Island.    The details are shown in Table I.
Table I.—Summary of Tagging, giving Reference Numbers, Dates, Numbers of Tags
inserted, Locality of Release of Fish, Technique, and Serial Numbers of Tags used.
Tagging
Reference
No.
Date.
No.
Tags.
Place Fish released.
Tagging Technique and Serial Nos. of
Tags used (P.).
1938.
I.
■ July  28
200
15 mi. S.W. Quillayute R	
Gun, 11001-11200.
II.
July  28
299
10 mi. S.W. Quillayute R	
Knife, 10701-11000.
HI.
July   29
498
15 mi. S.W. Destruction Is.	
Gun, 10501-10700 ;   knife, 10201-10500.
IV.
July  29
499
12 mi. W.S.W. Destruction Is..
Gun, 10001-10200, 12401-12500;   knife,
12201-12400.
V.
Aug.    1
497
10 mi. S.xE. Quillayute R.
Gun, 11301-11400, 11501-11700;   knife,
11401-11500.
11201-11300,
VI.
Aug.    2
496
4 mi. S. Quillayute R 	
Gun, 11701-11800, 11901-12200;   knife,
11801-11900.
vn.
Sept.   3
400
Camp Bay, Nootka Sd	
Gun, 13401-13500, 13701-13800;   knife,
14501-14600.
13801-13900,
VIII.
Sept.   5
500
Ofl Winter Har., Quatsino Sd.
Gun, 13101-13300, 14901-15000;   knife,
13301-13400.
12701-12800,
IX.
Sept.   6
199
Koskeemo Har., Quatsino Sd.-
Gun, 14201-14300;   knife, 12601-12700.
X.
Sept.   6
198
Koprino Har., Quatsino Sd	
Gun, 13901-14000, 14401-14500.
XI.
Sept.   6
200
Kultus Cove, Quatsino Sd—	
Gun, 14301-14400, 14701-14800.
XII.
Sept.   8
498
10 mi. S.W. Nootka Lt.     	
Gun, 12501-12600, 12801-13100, 14001-14100.
XIII.
Sept.   9
298
Ofl Bligh Is., Nootka Sd	
Gun, 13601-13700, 14101-14200, 14801-14900.
XIV.
Sept. 11
200
3 mi. E.S.E. Cape Cook	
Gun, 13501-13600, 14601-14700.
RECOVERIES.
This report covers the recovery of 344 tags. If the first series of taggings off the
Washington coast is considered separately from the second series off Vancouver Island the
returns may be summarized in the following way:—
Recoveries of Canadian tags used off the Washington coast in 1938:—
Returns from off the Washington and Oregon coasts—
By Vancouver Island plants  19
By Washington plants  23
By Oregon plants  6
Returns from off the British Columbia coast, all by Canadian plants  5
Returns from the California coast by California plants  2
Recoveries of Canadian tags used off the coast of Vancouver Island in 1938:—
Returns from off Vancouver Island, all by Canadian plants  215
Returns from off the California coast by California plants  15
Recoveries of Canadian tags used off the Washington coast in 1937:—■
Returns from off Vancouver Island, all by Canadian plants  7
Returns from off the Washington and Oregon coasts—
By Vancouver Island plants  3
By Washington plants  1
By Oregon plants j  1
Returns from off the California coast by California plants  2
Recoveries of Canadian tags used off the coast of Vancouver Island in 1936:—
Returns from off the Washington and Oregon coasts by Oregon plants... 1
California tags recovered by Canadian plants  41
Oregon tags recovered by Canadian plants  3
Total-
344 Q 44
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 45
Returns from the Taggings of 1938.
The recovery of tags from the tagging of 1938 is shown in detail in Table II. _
Table II.—Recoveries of Canadian 1938 Tags according to Tagging and Political
Division of Recovery.
Tagging
No.
British
Columbia.
Washington.
Oregon.
California.
Total.
Tags
used.
Returns per
1,000 Tags.
First Series—
1.              	
7
2
3
0
0
1
1
0
11
3
200
299
55
II 	
10
Ill	
2
4
1
1
8
498
16
IV 	
5
6
1
0
12
499
24
V.
5
3
4
6
3
0
0
0
12
9
497
496
24
VI  -	
18
Second Series—
VII         	
30
..
0
30
400
75
VIII 	
35
1
36
500
72
IX	
21
1
22
199
111
X 	
11
1
12
198
61
XI.
22
19
1
5
23
24
200
498
115
XII  	
48
XIII  -	
48
4
52
298
174
XIV	
29
-
2
31
200
155
Totals-—	
239
23
6
17
285
4,982
It is evident from the table and the summary that a much higher proportion of the tags
used were returned from the second series of taggings. Several explanations may be offered
for this observation. It is possible that the difference is due to some more or less unconscious
change in technique, and it has been suggested that a smaller loss in tagging fish in the
Vancouver Island inlets as compared with tagging in the unprotected waters off the Washington coast may have led to the difference. Two taggings were completed in outside waters
in the second series. One of these did in fact give a very low return (48 per thousand tags),
almost comparable with the average for the first series (22 tags per thousand), but the
other yielded 155 tags per thousand; so it appears that the difference in mortality resulting
from tagging in inlets and open water cannot be held entirely responsible for the difference.
Approximately three times as much pilchards were caught off the west coast of Vancouver
Island as were caught off the Washington coast and this might be regarded as an explanation
of the returns. However, it must be borne in mind that the Washington coast fish were
tagged first and were liable to recapture during the whole season instead of during just the
latter part of it as was the case for the Vancouver Island fish. Evidently the difference in
the amounts of fish caught in the two main fishing areas cannot in itself account for the
differences in the proportions of the tags returned.
A third explanation of the returns is possible. In tagging investigations the number of
returns can be expected to be large when the number of fish is small, and small when the
number of fish is large. It may be, therefore, that fish were more abundant off the Washington coast than they were in British Columbia waters. The reference to abundance is
not to be confused with availability. It is suggested that during the first weeks of August
reasonably large amounts of pilchards were off the Washington coast, even although they
were comparatively difficult to observe or catch. In September and October, off Vancouver
Island, it is suggested that although fish were comparatively easy to observe and catch
(i.e., available) they were not present in very large amounts. The abundance of pilchards
off the west coast of Vancouver Island is dealt with further in regard to intensity of fishing.
Returns from Taggings of 1937 and 1936.
Fourteen tags from the 1937 tagging were recovered during the 1938 season. Of these,
ten were recovered by Canadian plants, one each by Washington and Oregon plants, and two
by California plants. The return of year-old tags is in considerable excess of that for former
years, as is indicated in Table III.    As the ten tags were recovered by plants having a Q 46
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
composite efficiency lower than that of former years it is believed that the increase is real.
The catch figures given in the table show that part but not all of the difference between 1938
and the previous year may be accounted for by the larger number of tags used in 1937 and
the greater tonnage of fish processed in 1938.
Table III.—Data concerning the Recoveries of Canadian Tags out for
a Year or more.
Season of Tagging.
Season of
Recovery.
No. of
Tags used.
No. of
Canadian
Recoveries.
Approximate
Canadian catch
in Recovery
Year.
Total
Recoveries.
1935 	
1936
1937
1938
1938
978
2,535
6,936
2,535
2
2
10
1
38,000
48,000
52,000
52,000
2
3
14
1
1936 -	
1937	
1936  	
During the 1938 season a tag put out in 1936 was recovered. This is the first time a
Canadian tag which has been out for two years has been recovered.
All three returns of tags put in by the Oregon Fish Commission were of fish which
had been tagged approximately a year ago off Heceta Head and the Siuslaw River.
MOVEMENTS OF PILCHARDS.
Between California and Washington and British Columbia.
Again proof is offered of the movement of pilchards from the waters of southern and
central California, where they are called sardines, to the fishing-grounds exploited by
Canadian fishermen. Forty-one California tags (Janssen (1939)) were recovered from fish
released at various points between the Farallon Islands and La Jolla. All of them had been
out for more than six months, many for more than a year, and one for two and one-half
years. Of the forty-one tags, fifteen were recovered from fish caught off the Washington
coast and twenty-six from the west end of Vancouver Island. Consideration of the efficiencies
of the various plants and the amount of fish processed by each does not indicate any significant difference between the concentrations of tags in the fish on the two fishing-grounds.
In the report for the previous year attention was called to the speeds of travel of
pilchards on northward and southward migrations. The speed of the fastest movement
southward was calculated as 3.5 miles per day, as compared with a northward migration
rate of 9.2 miles and an average of 5 miles per day (from Janssen, 1938, data). These data
suggested a rapid northward migration in spring and early summer followed by a slower
return trip in autumn and winter. This year the southward migration rate for the quickest
returns may be calculated as around 7.3 miles per day. Considering this as a minimum
estimate it is quite comparable with the 9.2 rate as established for the northward migration
in a previous year.
Magnets in California reduction plants were instrumental in recovering seventeen
Canadian tags used during 1938 and two tags from the previous season. Two of the
seventeen tags originated from fish tagged off the Washington coast as compared with
fifteen from fish tagged off the Canadian coast. The difference is greater than would be
expected on the basis of chance if the tagged fish from the two northern fishing-grounds were
represented in the California waters in numbers proportionate to the number of tags used.
Six Canadian 1938 tags were recovered in San Francisco, five in Monterey, and six in
the San Pedro area.    Both 1937 tags were returned from San Francisco.
Washington to Vancouver Island.
Five tags inserted off the Washington coast were reported as being recovered off the
west coast of Vancouver Island. It is possible that some of these represent tags which are
wrongly reported because of being held up in passing through the reduction machinery.
One recovery is probably and another quite possibly explained in this way. However, one
return was made by a plant which did not operate on fish caught off the Washington coast BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 47
and two other returns give every indication of being valid. These returns taken together
provide absolute proof of a movement of pilchards from the Washington coast fishing-grounds
to the west end of Vancouver Island during August, in spite of the fact that such a movement
was not observed by the fishermen. It is suggested that the north-westerly movement took
place too far offshore to be noticed by boats plying between Destruction Island and Vancouver
Island reduction plants.
Considering the number of tags returned from each series of taggings from fish captured
in the British Columbia grounds, it is apparent that only part of the pilchards which were
off the Washington coast moved north to the west coast of Vancouver Island. Certainly
not more than five Washington coast tags and possibly not more than three were recovered
from Vancouver Island fish. This, compared with the 215 returns from the Vancouver
Island taggings, presents a strong case for believing that a comparatively small part of the
Washington coast fish moved to the westward. In this connection attention may be drawn
to the returns by California plants of the two series of taggings. It is obvious that if the
difference in the numbers of returns is to be credited to a splitting of the population in
migration the explanation must be extended to account for the presence on California
fishing-grounds of more Vancouver Island pilchards than Washington coast fish.
Along the Coast of Vancouver Island.
The movements of pilchards around the coast of Vancouver Island has already been dealt
with in a Progress Report (Hart, 1938c). The results are repeated as follows: Several
recoveries which are believed to be authentic have been made of tags used in Nootka Sound
in each of the following places—Sydney Inlet, Estevan Point, Nootka Sound, Esperanza
Inlet, and Kyuquot Sound. Tags inserted off Nootka Light were recovered in considerable
numbers in Nootka and Kyuquot Sounds and, to a less extent, at Cape Cook. Tags used at
Cape Cook were returned in seven cases from Kyuquot Sound and in smaller numbers from
Sydney Inlet, Nootka Sound, Esperanza Inlet, and Klaskish Inlet. Tags applied to pilchards
in Quatsino Sound were returned most frequently from Esperanza Inlet and Kyuquot Sound,
but other returns believed to be authentic were reported from Lennard Island, Sydney Inlet,
Estevan Point, Nootka Sound, Ououkinsh Inlet, Cape Cook, and Quatsino Sound. Even
although in a few cases the apparent diversity of returns may have arisen from the deficiencies
of the recovery method, it is evident that movements around the Vancouver Island coast were
very general.
Examination of tag returns for days on which five or more tags were recovered by the
same plant showed a tendency for the tags to come from one or two taggings. Since many
of these tags had been out for two weeks or more, and the fish were recaptured far from the
place of tagging, it seems apparent that in spite of the evident mixing of pilchards off the
west coast there is a tendency for small groups of fish to stay together.
Although small groups tend to remain together, it is patent that schools break up and the
fish in them reach widely separated points. This is amply illustrated by the returns for west
coast reduction plants during the 1938 season and possibly even better by the returns of five
tags applied at the Muchalat Arm. On January 7th two tags were recovered from pilchards
caught at the locality where the fish were originally tagged. On each of January 1st, 12th,
and 13th one of these tags was recovered from sardines delivered to California reduction
plants.
INTENSITY OF THE FISHERY.
Tag returns may be used to obtain general impressions of the extent of exploited fish
populations and of fishing intensity. In general, estimates of populations are likely to be too
high and those of fishing intensity correspondingly low, because most of the potential errors
tend in that direction.
Washington Coast Fishery.
Of the tags used off the Washington coast, nineteen were recovered in British Columbia
reduction plants. These may be considered as being recovered from the fish captured off the
Washington coast after half the tags were applied; that is, from approximately 11,000 tons.
Calculations based upon the efficiencies of the different reduction plants in recovering tags
and upon the tonnages handled by each show that the number of tags actually recovered is
rather less than 80 per cent, of the number entering the plant.    In other words, not nineteen Q 48 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
but twenty-four or twenty-five tagged fish were caught by the fishermen. If the tagged fish
do not behave differently from other fish this means that Canadian fishermen caught
24.5/2,489 or about 1 per cent, of the fish on the grounds, and that the total amount of fish
would be in the neighbourhood of 1,100,000 tons. British Columbia and Washington boats
together caught some 40,000 tons of pilchards off the Washington coast, which, according to
these calculations, constitutes some 3% per cent, of the fish on the grounds. This does not
take into consideration the take by Oregon fishermen who fished the same grounds to a considerable extent.
Similar calculations based on the recovery of Canadian tags by reduction plants in the
State of Washington give results which are1 in remarkably close agreement with those based
upon British Columbia recoveries. The Washington calculations (Shuman, 1939) are based
upon twenty-three tags recovered by magnets having a composite recovery efficiency of 43.4
per cent. The fishermen may, accordingly, be calculated to have taken fifty-three tags in
their 26,500 (circ.) tons of fish. This indicates a population of 26,500 X 2,489/53, or between
1,200,000 and 1,300,000 tons.
Vancouver Island Fishery.
Some 30,000 tons of pilchards were caught after half of the tags of the second series had
been inserted. From these fish 215 tags were recovered during the season by British Columbia
reduction plants. Consideration of the efficiencies of and tonnages handled by the various
plants indicates a composite efficiency for the recovery of these tags of somewhat less than
60 per cent. In other words, between 372 and 373 tagged fish entered the reduction plants to
lead to the recovery of the 215 tags. From this the total population off Vancouver Island
may be calculated as 30,000 X 2,493/372, or 200,000 tons. This value is calculated from the
returns of all the Canadian plants and is, consequently, affected unduly by any error which
might apply to one plant only. To avoid affecting the results by error of this kind a
" median " value was obtained by averaging the total populations as calculated from the two
plants which gave the least extreme values. This gave a result of approximately 225,000
tons. Using this last figure as a basis for calculation and considering the total catch of
pilchards off Vancouver Island as 38,000 tons, the intensity of the fishery may be calculated
as 38,000 X 100/225,000, or 17 per cent. That is, Canadian pilchard fishermen took 17 per
cent, of the fish on the grounds.    As already pointed out, this is a minimum estimate.
In foregoing discussions it has been assumed that because some of the fish from the
Washington coast are known to have moved to "Vancouver Island waters that all of the Vancouver Island fish originated from that source. The number of Washington coast tags (one
to five, probably three or four) as compared with Vancouver Island tags is too small to allow
that explanation without qualification. It would appear that either the movement of fish
from the Washington coast to Vancouver Island started before tagging was begun, or that a
comparatively few migrants were joined by a larger body of untagged fish before the Vancouver Island fishery started.
Recovery of California Tags.
In the report on pilchard-tagging in the 1937 season (Hart, 1938) a calculation was
made of the number of California tags recovered per 1,000 tons of pilchards handled by each
plant, and this was compared with a corresponding figure calculated for Californian recoveries
of their own tags. It was found that on the average 0.44 California tags were recovered
from each 1,000 tons of pilchards during the 1937 season. A corresponding calculation for
the 1938 season yields the result 0.79 tags per 1,000 tons of fish processed. This figure is
directly comparable with that of the previous year and the significance of the difference is
attested by the fact that when the individual plants are considered separately the returns
in 1938 are higher in all cases. (When these figures are corrected for plant efficiencies they
give the results—1937, 0.69; 1938, 1.2.) A complete explanation of the change is not readily
obtained. No doubt the increased number of California insertions is largely responsible for
much of the change, since twenty-four of the forty-one California recoveries (0.46 tags per
1,000 tons uncorrected, 0.68 corrected) were tags available for capture during the previous
year and the remainder consists of new tags.
In view of the number of unknown factors involved, the comparison between British
Columbia and California returns does not now appear in order. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 49
TECHNIQUE.
Experiments have been made to test the efficiency of some of the operations involved in
tagging programmes and some of the recoveries appear suggestive in this connection.
The general procedure in making an attempt to assess the relative mortalities caused by
tagging-gun and tagging-knife has been described under " Methods." The results are shown
in Table IV. The figures in the last row indicate a somewhat higher efficiency for the
technique involving use of the gun, but it is evident from a more detailed examination of the
table comparing only taggings in which both techniques were used that the difference is not
real.    An examination of the return from California shows the following:—
Gun, Knife.
First series L ,       1 1
Second series     14 1
which superficially appears significant. However, examination of the results shows that of
the fourteen second series gun-inserted tags only one was of a fish tagged at a time when the
knife was used. It is believed that no significant differences result from the employment of
the two tagging methods and, consequently, the more convenient method may be employed.
Table IV.—Comparison of all Returns from 1938 Taggings by Gun and Knife.
First Series.
Second Series.
Gun.
Knife.
Tagging
No.
Gun.
Knife.
Tagging
No.
Tags
used.
Tags
recovered.
Tags
used.
Tags
recovered.
Tags
used.
Tags
recovered.
Tags
used.
Tags
recovered.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
200
0
198
299
297
396
11
1
9
5
7
0
299
300
200
200
100
3
7
3
7
2
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
200
300
99
198
200
498
298
200
17
22
7
12
23
24
52
31
200
200
100
0
0
0
0
0
13
14
15
Totals 	
1,390   •
33
1,099
22
1,993
188
500
42
Tags recovered
24
20
94
84
Two pilchards tagged by gun on September 9th were recovered on November 30th by
Dr. A. L. Tester, operating an induction detector at Nootka. They showed no sign of permanent injury and the wounds through which the tag had been inserted were completely
healed, distinguishable only as very small scars.
The tags used in 1937 were inserted in twenty-two lots, of which four yielded no
recoveries. Of the fourteen 1937 tags recovered during the current year none came from
those four taggings. This result is not of high significance, but it may indicate that certain
taggings are not productive of returns owing to unperceived peculiarities of the conditions
under which tagging is carried out.
The results of an examination into the efficiency of different British Columbia plants in
recovering pilchard tags has been published elsewhere (Hart, 1938a). They showed that
efficiencies ranged from 34 to 89 per cent, and that tags might be recovered as late as forty-
five days after entering the plant, although 78 per cent, of the tags recovered were recorded
within two days of that time. In some cases when two tests were made there was considerable difference in the results of tests on the same plant. It may be noted here that a late tag
recovered from the Ceepeecee plant raises the figure for its efficiency in tag recovery to
62 per cent.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
Once again the pilchard-tagging work has enjoyed the hearty co-operation of many of
those connected with the fishing industry.    Firms operating reduction plants have facilitated Q 50 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
the installation of recovery magnets in their plants and the crews have been active in recovering tags and returning them for identification.
Mr. L. Quickenden again has carried out the work of tagging. Grateful acknowledgment
is made of his help and that of the seine-boat and tender skippers with whom he worked—
Captains John Kasulandish, V. Mercer, John Dale, and Gordon Wilks.
The co-operation of officials in California, Oregon, and Washington in exchanging
tagging information and in returning tags is much appreciated.
The research has been carried out under a joint arrangement between the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department of British Columbia.
Acknowledgment is made of the financial assistance of both and of the interest and support
of the respective executive officers concerned, Dr. W. A. Clemens and Mr. George J. Alexander.
REFERENCES.
Hart, J. L. Tagging British Columbia pilchards (Sardinops cserulea (Girard)): Methods
and preliminary results.    Report, B.C. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1936, 49-54, 1937.
Hart, J. L. Tagging British Columbia pilchards (Sardinops cserulea (Girard)): Insertions
and recoveries for 1937-38.    Report, B.C. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1937, 57-63, 1938a.
Hart, J. L. The efficiency of magnets installed in British Columbia reduction plants in recovering sardine-tags. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Progress Reports Pacific,
No. 38, 16-18, 19386.
Hart, J. L. The early returns from pilchard tagging off the west coast of Vancouver Island
in 1938. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Progress Reports Pacific, No. 38, 18-20,
1938c.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester. The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1937-38. Report, B.C. Commissioner of
Fisheries, 1937, 64-90, 1938.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester. The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1938-39. Report, B.C. Commissioner of
Fisheries, 1938, 51-77, 1939.
Janssen, J. F. (Jr.). Northern recovery of California sardine-tags. California Fish and
Game, Vol. 24, No. 1, 70-71, 1938.
Janssen, J. F. (Jr.). 1938 recoveries of California sardine tags in northern waters. California Fish and Game, Vol. 25, No. 1, 47-48, 1939.
Shuman, R. F. The recovery of tags from commercial pilchard landings in the State of
Washington during 1938. Report, Division of Scientific Research to Director of Fisheries, 11 pp., 1939. BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 51
THE TAGGING OF HERRING   (CLUPEA PALLASII)   IN BRITISH
COLUMBIA:   APPARATUS,  INSERTIONS,  AND
RECOVERIES DURING 1938-39.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., and Albert L. Tester, Ph.D.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo.
CONTENTS.
Page.
Introduction  51
Tagging methods  52
Tagging equipment  52
Catching and handling fish :  52
Inserting tags in fish  53
Tagging  53
Tags inserted during the fall and winter of 1938-39  55
Tags inserted during the spring of 1939  60
Recapitulation .  60
Recovery apparatus  60
Detectors at Galiano Island and Ucluelet  62
Nootka detector :  62
Magnets  63
Recovery of tagged fish by detectors  65
Recovery of tags by magnets  66
Stability of populations  69
Movements of herring  70
Sooke to Swanson Channel—influence of the tides  70
Sooke to Barkley Sound       73
Swanson Channel to Trincomali Channel  74
Intensity of the fishery  74
Tagging technique  75
Discussion and summary of results  75
Table VI  77
Acknowledgments  78
References  78
INTRODUCTION.
In the autumn of 1936 an experiment in herring tagging and recovery was begun in
southern British Columbia. This experiment, involving the use of internal iron tags and
their recovery with a specially designed induction detector, gave results which indicated
the suitability of the method for studying herring populations under the conditions current
in southern British Columbia. Consequently a programme involving these techniques was
developed: (1) To investigate the integrity of so-called local populations as determined by
racial studies (Tester, 1937) ; (2) to determine the nature and extent of herring migrations;
(3) to give some information on the intensity of fishing; and (4) to help interpret other
features of the herring-fishery.
Published reports on the work in previous years (Hart and Tester, 1937; 1938) have
demonstrated, among other things, the movement of fish from the Strait of Juan de Fuca to
the fishing-grounds on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island; the fact that there is a
certain amount of migration from one fishing area to another, although there is a definite
tendency for fish to return to the same area; and have given indications that on the east
coast in 1937 a minimal estimate of the intensity of the fishing was 21 per cent.
The present report adds further data to those already obtained and records the extension
of the work into the area north of Vancouver Island.    Additions to equipment and changes Q 52
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
in technique are described in some detail. Tags recovered during the 1938-39 season are
recorded and discussed, and a list is presented of the tags used since the preparation of the
last report.
TAGGING METHODS.
Tagging Equipment.
Knives and guns used for tagging were of the same design as those used in previous
years  (Hart and Tester, 1938).
The floating pound already described (loc. cit.) was again used for retaining herring
from commercial nets for tagging. This proved difficult to handle during the bad weather
prevalent during the early part of the herring season. At the end of the season a successful
trial was made using the 36-foot live-well boat " Virago Point " for this purpose. Later the
34-foot salmon-troller " Whiff " (Fig. 1) was used most satisfactorily for tagging.    Her hold
Fig. 1. Boat fitted with bait-tank as used in tagging herring.
(B)   Bait-tank.
was fitted with a bait-tank 5 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 4% feet deep, supplied with salt
water by a pump operated by the main engine at a speed sufficient to fill the tank in 25
minutes. This arrangement had all the advantages of a live-well boat and the additional
one of greater seaworthiness.
To retain fish for tagging bait-boxes were used similar to those commonly employed for
holding live ling-cod bait. One of these boxes made out of 3% -inch slats set about % inch
apart was 6 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 3 feet deep. Two smaller boxes made from 2%-inch
slats set about % inch apart were 5 feet long, 2 V2 feet wide, and a little more than 2 feet deep.
Catching and Handling Fish.
All the fish used for tagging during the fishing season were caught in commercial purse-
seines. They were either tagged directly from the seines or transferred to one of the
retainers described above for tagging as soon as was convenient.
All the other herring tagged were captured in beach- or purse-seines, or with a dip-net.
One lot was seined in the heart of a salmon-trap; some were tagged directly from the partly
dried-up seine while the boats drifted, whereas others were transferred to bait-box, bait-tank,
or live-well for retention until they could be tagged. In all handling care was taken to avoid
rough treatment such as would knock off scales, and to avoid overcrowding which might lead
to smothering. BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 53
Inserting Tags in Fish.
All of the tags used during the fishing season were inserted with the tagging-gun as
described in Hart and Tester (1938). In the spring tagging an effort was made to estimate
the relative efficiency of the tagging-gun by tagging some fish from each lot with the gun and
some with the knife. Three different methods of using the knife were employed. On the
west coast of Vancouver Island the fish were held with one hand and tagged with the other,
as described and figured in Hart and Tester (1937). In the Strait of Georgia one tagger held
the head and tail ends of the fish in his two hands, exposing part of its side to the other
tagger who made the incision and inserted the tag. The method used in central and northern
British Columbia was similar, except that the first tagger held the fish against a board.
During most of the tagging cotton gloves were worn on the hands coming in contact with
the fi8h- TAGGING.
A summary of information on the tagging of fish from which tags were returned during
the 1938-39 season and of all the tagging done during 1938-39 is given in Table I., with the
identification code for concise reference. The detailed data on tagging technique are being
withheld until such time as it will be possible to discuss the results and conclusions of the
experiments.
In Table VI. is given a complete list of the identification numbers of the tags inserted
during 1938-39, together with certain other details of tagging. General tagging localities
may be determined by using the code to refer to Table I. Similar information for previous
years has been published in former reports and is not repeated. Q 54
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
Table I.—A Summary of the Tagging Data for Returns made during the 1938-39
Fishing Season and for Tags inserted during the 1938-39 Fishing Season and the
1939 Spawning Season.
Tagging
Code.
Date.
No. of Tags
inserted.
Place of Tagging.
IA
1C
IE
II
IK
IL
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
2G
2H
21
2J
2K
2L
2M
20
2P
2Q
2R
2S
2T
3A
3B
3C
3D
3E
3F
3G
3H
31
3J
8K
3L
3M
3N
30
3P
3Q
3R
3S
3T
3U
3V
3W
3X
3Y
3Z
3AA
Oct. 6, 7, 8, 1936	
Oct. 17, 19, 20', 1936-
Mar. 4, 1937	
Mar. 17,1937	
Mar. 19, 1937 	
April 25, 1937	
Sept. 25, 1937	
Oct. 9, 1937	
Oct. 18, 22, 23, 1937-	
Nov. 9, 10, 12, 1937	
Nov. 18, 25, 1937 	
Nov. 21, 23, 28, 1937	
Nov. 23, Dec. 1, 4, 1937..
Mar. 7, 8, 1938-
Mar. 9, 1938	
Mar. 11, 1988 ....
Mar. 12, 1938—
Mar. 21, 1938	
Mar. 25, 1938—
Mar. 7, 8, 1938-
Mar. 15, 1938....
Mar. 16, 17, 1938-
Mar. 23, 1938	
April 2, 3, 1938—
April 22, 1938	
Oct. 1, 1938	
Oct. 11, 13, 1938...
Nov. 25, 1938	
Dec. 5, 7, 9, 10, 1938..
Dec. 16, 1938...
Jan. 11,1939-
Jan. 12, 1939...
Jan. 12, 13, 14, 1939	
Jan. 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 1939-
Mar. 6, 7, 1939. 	
Mar. 2, 5, 1939. 	
Mar. 8, 1939 	
Mar. 9, 1939	
Mar. 20, 1939	
Mar. 26, 1939. 	
Mar. 29, 1939.	
Mar. 11,1939.  	
Mar. 19, 1939	
Mar. 22, 1939	
Mar. 25, 1939	
Mar. 7, 1939	
Mar. 19,1939  	
Mar. 21, 22,1939	
Mar. 28, 1939	
Mar. 29, 1939	
Mar. 28, 1939	
April 15, 1939	
2,392
2,398
700
1,000
798
1,198
499
700
1,257
2,829
700
1,298
800
2,299
899
1,293
995
1,198
1,895
791
497
799
500
1,196
797
1,454
1,078
99
447
1,000
197
798
755
1,195
1,299
945
1,000
997
1,000
999
997
1,297
2,192
1,797
899
1,494
1,599
1,491
681
682
497
162
Swanson Channel.
Swanson Channel.
Horswell Point, near Nanaimo.
Blind Entrance, Kyuquot Sound-
Head of Ewin Creek, Nootka Sound.
Head of Tod Inlet, Saanich Inlet.
Off Sooke.
Off Sooke.
Swanson Channel.
Swanson Channel.
Rainy Bay, Barkley Sound.
Effingham Inlet, Barkley Sound.
Imperial   Eagle    Channel    (Middle   Channel),
Barkley Sound.
Macoah Passage, Barkley Sound.
Calm Creek, Clayoauot Sound.
Queens Cove, Esperanza Inlet.
Plumper Harbour, Nootka Sound.
Winter Harbour, Quatsino Sound.
Bella Bella, Milbanke Sound.
Horswell Point, near Nanaimo.
False Narrows, S.E. side.
False Narrows, N.W. side.
Departure Bay, near Nanaimo.
Union Bay, Baynes Sound.
Birch Bay, near Blaine, U.S.A.
Off Sooke.
Swanson Channel.
Vernon Bav, Barkley Sound.
Trincomali   Channel,   off   Porlier   Pass,   Reid
Island : and Stuart Channel, off Fraser Point.
Swanson  Channel.
Boat Pass, Nootka Sound.
S.E. Arm, Quatsino Sound.
Tuck Inlet, near Prince Rupert.
Kwakshua Pass, Calvert Island.
Laredo Inlet.
Departure Bay, near Nanaimo.
Off north end of Qualicum Beach.
Kuleet Bay, near Ladysmith.
Gap, Nanaimo Harbour.
Pender Harbour.
Dodd Narrows, near Boat Harbour.
Rivers Inlet Cannery.
Browns Pass, near Bella Bella, Milbanke Sound.
Duncan Bay, near Prince Rupert.
Butler Cove, near Prince Rupert.
Toquart Harbour, Barkley Sound.
Off Markale, Kyuquot Sound.
Kendriek Arm, Nootka Sound.
Matilda Creek, Clayoquot Sound.
Sydney Inlet.
Holmes Harbour, north end of Puget Sound.
Gorge, Victoria. BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 55
Tags inserted during the Fall and Winter of 1938-39.
As in the previous two years, herring were tagged at Sooke from the salmon-traps. This
was done on October 1st, prior to the opening of the regular herring-fishing season on the
south-east coast of Vancouver Island. The fish were seined in the heart of the trap, tagged
as quickly as possible, and released near the traps. One thousand four hundred and fifty-four
tags (3A) were applied in one day.
In the early part of the fishery off the south-east coast of Vancouver Island the fishing
was carried on in Swanson Channel. The floating pound was used there to apply 1,078 tags
for the 3B taggings, but proved difficult to handle under adverse weather conditions. Its use
was, accordingly, abandoned for the later taggings at Trincomali Channel and Stuart Channel
(3D), when the fishery extended into other waters. There, the 447 fish tagged were dipped
directly from the seines while they were being dried up. The last tagging of 1,000 fish at
Swanson Channel (3E) involved the use of the live-well boat. The fish were dipped from the
seine into the live-well where they were held pending tagging.
Tagging was carried on in three localities on the west coast of Vancouver Island. In
Barkley Sound (3C) 99 fish were tagged; in Nootka Sound (3F) 197 fish were tagged; and
in Quatsino Sound (3G) 798 fish were tagged. All of these fish were taken from commercial
seines by taggers working from the seine-skiffs.
In central British Columbia taggings were made during the fishing season at Kwakshua
Pass (31) and Laredo Inlet (3J). At Kwakshua Pass 1,195 fish were tagged from the commercial seine. This operation was facilitated by the fishermen holding fish partly dried-up
while waiting for tenders. Of the 1,299 fish tagged at Laredo Inlet some were tagged direct
from the commercial seines and some were held for tagging in a large dip-net.
In northern British Columbia 755 fish were tagged directly from commercial seines at
Tuck Inlet (3H) during three successive days. Q 56
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
t>
A/oo/'Jc^    ^Gt/zycf '
UCLU£LEr BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 57
British Columbia
outhekn     Sheet Q 58 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
SA/    Tack  /'/?/&■/•
ST   &tsf/es-
D/XON    EHT/2AA/CE
9
HECATE
CHA/SLOTTE
^TrQA/T
P^scofj
/SLAA/DS BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 59
British    Columbia
3J2 £roj>v/7s:  />£>SS&&&   j
Otsetrn   (T/7j?rJoff<s   s&<l//?c/ Q 60
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
Tags inserted during the Spring of 1939.
Around the Strait of Georgia six lots of tags were inserted in fish which were spawning
or about to spawn. Some of these (Qualicum Beach (3L), Kuleet Bay (3M), Pender Harbour (30), Dodd Narrows (3P), and Departure Bay (3K) in part) were captured in a beach-
seine or dip-net, transferred to the bait-box or bait-tank, and tagged at once. Part of the
fish (500) for the Departure Bay tagging (3K) were captured in a bait-seine and held for a
day before tagging. The fish tagged in the Gap at Nanaimo Harbour (3N) were taken in
a commercial bait-seine. In Holmes Harbour (3Z) 497 herring were tagged by Mr. L. Royal.
These fish were taken from a weir built to catch herring for bait purposes. A small tagging
of spawned-out and spawning herring was carried out in the Gorge at Victoria (3AA).
These fish, taken in a large commercial beach-seine, were not in very good condition, partly
owing to cuts which were presumably inflicted by jigs.    In all, 6,587 tags were inserted.
On the west coast of Vancouver Island fish were tagged in five localities. At Toquart
Harbour (3U) in Barkley Sound, Markale (3V) in Kyuquot Sound, and Kendrick Arm (3W)
in Nootka Sound the herring were caught in a small bait-seine from which they were tagged,
although part of them were transferred to the bait-box and tagged later at Toquart and
Markale. At Matilda Creek (3X) and Sydney Inlet (3Y) the fish were caught in a large
commercial bait-seine and were all or nearly all transferred to the bait-box for tagging. On
the west coast of Vancouver Island 5,947 tags were used.
Two taggings were completed on spawning fish in central British Columbia. These two
taggings, from herring caught with and tagged from the small purse-seine at Rivers Inlet
Cannery (3Q) and Browns Pass  (3R), accounted for 3,489 tags.
In northern British Columbia two taggings were made. At Duncan Bay (3S) fish were
captured with and tagged from the small purse-seine. In Butler Cove (3T) herring were
obtained from a commercial bait-seine and were held in a live-box pending tagging. In all,
2,696 tags were inserted during the spawning period in northern British Columbia.
Recapitulation.
All the tags inserted to date may be summarized according to season, locality, and number,
as follows:—
Locality.
1936-37.
1937-38.
1938-39.
Fall and Winter.
1,500
7,090
1,199
4,086
2,798
1,464
2,525
1,094
2,494
756
Spring.
1,898
5,692
5,279
6,684
1,395
6,587
5,947
3,489
2,696
Totals     	
16,180'
21,441
27,041
RECOVERY APPARATUS.
Two principal methods were employed for recovering tags. The first of these removes
the tagged herring from a chute in the unloading conveyers at the saltery or reduction plant.
It depends upon the disturbance created when the tag in a fish passing through the magnetic
field of one of a pair of balanced electric coils initiates a series of electrical events which culminate in the by-passing of the tagged fish through a trap-door moved by a compressed-air
piston. This apparatus, called an induction detector, has been fully described in previous
reports (Hart and Tester, 1937; 1938). Tag-recovery by this equipment has the advantages
that there is absolutely no doubt concerning the point of origin of the fish and the whole
tagged fish is available for examination. The disadvantages lie in the expense of the installation and in the necessity that an investigator be in constant attendance. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 61
The second principal method of tag-recovery is by the use of electromagnets placed in a
short chute between the drier and grinder of a reduction plant. Installations of this type
have been described and figured in Hart (1937) and the arrangements for obtaining recovered
tags have been dealt with in Hart and Tester (1937). At two plants where there was
insufficient space to install magnets of the type usually used, experimental magnets with
curved poles were installed in the bottoms of the screw-conveyers between the driers and
grinders. This type of recovery magnet did not give satisfactory results, although it was
instrumental in recovering some tags. The disadvantage of magnet returns in that there is
frequently an element of doubt concerning the actual point of origin of the fish has been
pointed out in previous reports. This must be taken into consideration in dealing with the
results. The use of magnets for tag-recovery has an advantage in the large number of
recovered tags available for consideration at moderate expense.
Fig. 2. Trap in which many herring-tags were recovered at Ucluelet. (CC) Case for worm-conveyer from
drier; (A) by-pass; (T) trap for metal with clea.ing-
doors (D) ; (B) blower to cyclone; (P) discharge from
cyclone;    (M)   magnet;    (G)   grinder.
A third method by which tags were recovered at one plant is worthy of mention. A
cyclone was installed in the Ucluelet plant to cool the meal before grinding. In order to save
the fan-blades a trap to remove metal was installed below the place where the meal was taken
from the conveyer (Fig. 2). A large proportion of the herring-tags at the Ucluelet plant
were recovered by this trap, from which they were readily removed by the use of a magnetized
steel bar. It is worthy of note that, owing to the greater weight of herring-tags, a much
higher proportion of them were recovered by this trap than was the case for pilchard-tags
(which have about half the weight).
At other plants tags were taken in varying numbers from irregularities in the conveyers.
In still others the design of the plants was such that the tags failed to pass directly through
the drier, with the consequence that many tags were recovered from that source.
One tag was recovered by a fisherman cutting up herring for bait. Q 62
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
The Detectors at Galiano Island and Ucluelet.
The induction detector at Galiano Island was operated again for the first six weeks of
the fishing season. Although the set-up was essentially the same as that used the previous
year and described in the reports for 1936 and 1937, one change was necessary in that the
solenoid air-valve needed replacement. As larger air-hoses had to be used this led to an
unknown decline in efficiency, as it proved impossible to perfect the timing with the altered
equipment.    Twenty-eight recoveries were made by this unit during its period of operation.
The installation at Ucluelet (Fig. 3) had two alterations from the condition described in
the report for 1937. In the first place, changes made in the reduction plant conveyer system
permitted the installation of a somewhat longer chute than that employed in the previous
year. The chute was pivoted to facilitate timing the equipment. The second alteration consisted of the installation in the mercoid-switch circuit of a system of condensers and resistances
Fig. 3. The unloading machinery and control-room at Ucluelet. (B)
Marine leg; (C) pivoted conveyer; (R) fixed conveyer; (N) control-
room for tag-recovery equipment.
which could be adjusted to keep the circuit open for any required length of time (delayed-
action relay). In spite of these improvements it proved very difficult to get satisfactory
timing with the unit. Difficulty was experienced also with condensers placed in the line
to remove " noise " which, instead, stored up charges induced by the operation of the conveyer
and released them at frequent irregular intervals. This caused so much disturbance to the
proper working of the set that it was frequently impossible to operate. Very few fish were
captured after the trouble was located and removed. Only five tags were recovered by the
Ucluelet detector.
The Nootka Detector.
In November the electrical apparatus and air system of the Galiano unit were transferred to the Nootka plant of the Nootka Packing Co. (1937), Ltd. There they were connected to a trap-door system which was adapted to the particular arrangements of the Nootka
conveyers. This installation, while similar in principle to that in use at the other plants,
differed considerably in detail. In order to obtain the necessary drop it proved necessary to
bring a sloping conveyer down to dock-level and to have the unloaded fish slide down a chute
fixed above the conveyer at a less steep slope. The essential features of this installation are
indicated in Figs. 4, 5, and 6. Some difficulty with timing and with pick-up interference was
experienced with this unit also. However, for part of the season it gave satisfactory service
and it was instrumental in recovering thirty-four tags. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 63
Fig. 4. Diagram of the Nootka detector installation. Herring are unloaded from the hold of the boat (A),
pass up the marine leg (B) and along the pivoted conveyer (C). They then fall to the chute (D) which is placed
above the slats of the elevator (K). They slide down the chute past the canvas baffles (E) which retard their
speed, through the coil (F), over the trap-door (G), and drop to the elevator (K), which transports them into the
plant. When a tagged fish passes through the coil (F), the trap-door (G) opens and the tagged fish, along with
several others, passes through the trap-door and down a short copper chute into the bin  (H).
MAGNETS.
Herring-meal was passed over four of the seven magnets which were effective last year in
recovering herring-tags. The companies owning the plants, the name and location of the
plants, and the number of tags recovered by each plant (on the magnet or otherwise)
follow:-—
British Columbia Packers, Limited, Kildonan, Barkley Sound     45
Banfield Packing Co., Ltd., Ucluelet, Barkley Sound     66
Nootka Packing Co. (1937), Ltd., Nootka, Nootka Sound  119
Nelson Bros. Fisheries, Limited, Ceepeecee, Esperanza Inlet  169
A few herring-tags were recovered during the pilchard season by plants which operated
on herring in 1937-38 but not in 1938-39, as follows:—
British Columbia Packers, Limited, Ecoole, Barkley Sound.... 1
Nelson Bros. Fisheries, Limited, Toquart, Barkley Sound-
British Columbia Packers, Limited, Hecate, Barkley Sound-
Tags were also recovered by new magnets of the usual type installed at:
British Columbia Packers, Limited, Imperial, Steveston.
British Columbia Packers, Limited, Port Edward, Port Edward-
Tucks Inlet Packing Co., Ltd., Tuck Inlet..
217
112
British Columbia Packers, Limited, Pacofi, Queen Charlotte Islands       0 Q 64
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
Fig.  5. Nootka installation.    (C)   Bottom of
pivoted conveyer;
(D)   chute;    (E)   canvas baffles;    (F)   coil;
(K)   lower end of
elevator;    (H)  bin;
(N)   door into room
for detector equipment.
Fig. 6. Nootka installation.    (D)   Side of
chute;     (K)   side  of
elevator;    (G)   end of
open   trap-door;
(L)  copper chute;
(H)  bin. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 65
As the Imperial plant used alternating current a Tunga-r rectifier was supplied to deliver
direct current to the magnet. Although the Tuck Inlet plant has two meal-lines, a recovery
magnet was installed in only one of these. Many of the Port Edward tags were recovered
from the drier.
A few tags were recovered by magnets with crescentic poles installed in the bottoms of
meal conveyers at:—
Canadian Fishing Company, Ltd., Butedale, Princess Royal Island     15
British Columbia Packers, Limited, Namu, Fitzhugh Sound     56
Curved-pole magnets were installed in each of the two meal-lines at Namu.
In all, 892 tags were recovered by magnets.
RECOVERY OF TAGGED FISH BY DETECTORS.
Sixty-seven tagged fish were recovered by the use of induction detectors.
One return was a fish tagged in the spring of 1937. This fish, tagged at Horswell Point
(IE), was recaught at the north end of Trincomali Channel on November 18th.
There were thirteen recoveries of fish tagged during the fall to spring, 1937-38. Two
fish tagged at Sooke (2B) were recaptured at the north end of Trincomali Channel, and one
fish captured and tagged in Swanson Channel (2D) was caught again in the same place
exactly one year later (November 12th). A fish tagged off Horswell Point (20) was taken
in Swanson Channel on October 26th. A fish tagged in Barkley Sound (2G) was recaptured
in Imperial Eagle Channel on December 19th. One herring tagged at Esperanza Inlet (2J)
was recaptured at Scow Bay or Jewitt Cove, Nootka Sound, on January 9th. Two herring
tagged in Quatsino Sound at Winter Harbour (2L) were recovered in the south-east arm
and Koprino Harbour of Quatsino Sound on January 12th and December 17th. Five herring
tagged at Bella Bella (2M) were returned by the induction detector. One of these came from
the south-east arm of Quatsino Sound on January 12th and the remaining four came from
Kwakshua Pass in Calvert Island in the latter half of January.
Table II.—Tags recovered by Induction Detectors during 1938-39.
Code.
Place and Month of Tagging.
Place of Capture.
4J   U
O    r,
O 5
d e3
Si
° ft
O m
t>
ri
Total.
IE
2B
2D
2G
2J
2L
2M
20
2T
3A
3B
3F
3G
31
Horswell Point, March, 1937..
Sooke, Oct., 1937— 	
Swanson Channel, Nov., 1937	
Barkley  Sound, Nov.-Dec,  1937-
Esperanza Inlet, March, 1938	
Quatsino Sound, March, 1938.	
Bella Bella, March, 1938. 	
Horswell Point, March, 1938	
Birch Bay, April, 1938	
Sooke, Oct., 1938  	
Swanson Channel, Oct., 1938	
Nootka Sound, Jan., 1939	
Quatsino Sound, Jan., 1939	
Kwakshua Pass, Jan., 1939	
Totals— —	
1
1*
12
15
33
5 13
16
1
2
1
1
1
2
5
1
1
12
15
4
10
12
* Recovered by a fisherman cutting up bait about five weeks after tagging.    Fish caught off Fraser River.
Of the fish tagged during the current year fifty-three were recovered by tag detectors.
Of the fish tagged at Sooke (3A) twelve were recovered, all from the fishing-grounds around
the south-east coast of Vancouver Island;   ten certainly, and probably eleven, came from
Swanson Channel;   one came from the north-west end of Trincomali Channel.    Fifteen fish
5 Q 66 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
tagged during the first Swanson Channel (3B) tagging were recovered. Of these thirteen
were returned from Swanson Channel, the fourteenth was probably from Swanson Channel,
and the fifteenth came from the north-west end of Trincomali Channel. The four fish
recovered from the Nootka Sound (3F) tagging were returned from Nootka Sound immediately after. Similar situations were apparent for the Quatsino Sound (3G) taggings from
which ten fish were recovered within two days from the same place. From the Kwakshua
Pass (31) taggings twelve tagged herring were recovered between January 23rd and
February 8th.
One fish tagged at Birch Bay (2T) was recaptured off the mouth of the Fraser on
April 22nd and the tag observed when the fish was cut up for bait. It is considered here
since, as with detector recoveries, there is no reasonable doubt concerning the place of origin
of the fish.
The returns of tagged fish by the three induction detectors are summarized in Table II.
RECOVERY OF TAGS BY MAGNETS.
It seems advisable to restate here the principal difficulty in the use of magnets for
recovering tags. In all plants, but to varying degrees, there is a tendency for tags to get
held up in the drier or conveyers so that they are not recovered while the fish in which
they entered the plant are being processed. For this reason the tags are reported from
the wrong load of fish and may be reported from an incorrect locality. Two examples will
illustrate the difficulty. One (2G) herring-tag was recovered during the pilchard season by
a plant which had processed some 1,800 tons of pilchards. There is no reasonable doubt but
that the tag entered the plant toward the end of the 1937 herring season and was not
dislodged from the machinery until shortly before its recovery. Another (2G) herring-tag
was recovered during a run on a load of pilchards in October. This tag may have stuck in
the plant all during the pilchard season (curtailed at that plant), or it may have come in
with east coast herring which had been processed recently. It is really not possible to say
definitely. Because of such uncertainty it seems advisable to present a full discussion of
the returns with a statement of all possibilities. This is done in the following paragraphs,
with the returns from each tagging discussed separately.
It should be noted that in some cases—i.e., II, IK, and 2C—there is a slight possibility
that some of the tags may have been returned after lying in the plants for a full year. In
other cases this explanation of returns appears negligible. Aside from this remote possibility,
there are no reasonable grounds for questioning the accuracy of any reported place of
recovery beyond the possibilities discussed in the comments.
Swanson Channel (IA): One tag was reported from a run of cold-storage fish taken
in Barkley Sound in 1937; the record is possibly correct, but the tag probably originated
from east coast herring, or may possibly have come from Barkley Sound fish of 1938.
Swanson Channel (1C) :   One tag was returned from the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Horswell Point (IE) :   Two tags were returned from the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Kyuquot Sound (II) : Two tags were recovered. One returned at the beginning of
the 1938 pilchard season probably originated in Kyuquot Sound herring taken in the fall of
1937. The other was returned from Kyuquot Sound herring, but may have originated from
Nootka Sound or Sydney Inlet.
Nootka Sound (IK) : Two tags were recovered. One, reported from Galiano Island, may
have originated in Barkley Sound. The other, reported from Quatsino Sound, may have
originated from the Nootka-Esperanza area or Kyuquot Sound.
Saanich Inlet (IL) :   Two tags were returned from the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Sooke (2A) :   Two tags were returned from the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Sooke (2B) ?:   One tag was returned from the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Swanson Channel (2C) : Four tags were returned, three from the east coast. The
fourth was reported from Quatsino Sound, but may have originated from the Nootka-
Esperanza region or Kyuquot Sound.
Barkley Sound (2E): Two tags were returned. One was reported from a run of cold-
storage fish taken in Barkley Sound in 1937, which is probably correct, although Barkley
Sound 1938 and the east coast are possible places of origin. The other was reported from
the east coast of Vancouver Island, but may have originated from Barkley Sound fish. BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 67
Barkley Sound (2F) : Five tags were returned. Two returned during the 1938 pilchard
season originated from Barkley Sound herring of the previous year. Of the other three
reported from Barkley Sound, all may have been recovered from the east coast and two of
these may also have originated from cold-storage fish taken in Barkley Sound in 1937.
Barkley Sound (2G) : Five tags were returned. Four of these were returned during
the 1938 pilchard season and must have entered the plants during the previous herring season.
The remaining one was returned during a run on pilchards taken in Nasparti Inlet containing
no herring, and it would seem that it probably originated from east coast herring. The
possibility that it is a " hang-over " from the previous season may be considered in view of
the other returns recorded here.
Barkley Sound (2H) : One tag was returned from Barkley Sound but may have originated from east coast fish.
Clayoquot Sound (21) : Ten tags were recovered. Two of these were reported from the
east coast, one certainly and the other probably correctly, although Barkley Sound is a
possible locality of origin. Eight of the tags were reported from Barkley Sound, but any of
them may have actually originated from the east coast. No doubt some, if not all, of these
eight returns are correct.
Esperanza Inlet (2J) : Seven tags were returned. Of two reported recoveries from fish
taken on the east coast of Vancouver Island one is certainly correct and the other may have
originated in Barkley Sound. One reported from Sydney Inlet may have come from
Esperanza Inlet fish. One tag reported as coming from Kyuquot fish probably originated in
Quatsino Sound, but may have come from the Nootka-Esperanza or Kyuquot areas. Three
other tags were reported from runs of Quatsino herring, but may have originated from
Nootka, Esperanza, or Kyuquot fish.
Nootka Sound (2K) : Six tags were recovered. One, reported in Barkley Sound, may
have originated from east coast fish. Two reported from Nootka Sound may have come
from Sydney Inlet, Esperanza, or Quatsino areas. One reported from Kyuquot probably
originated in Quatsino Sound but, like two originally reported from Quatsino, may have
originated from Nootka, Esperanza, or Kyuquot fish.
Quatsino Sound (2L) : Eight tags were recovered. Five of these were reported from
Quatsino Sound, but they may have originated from Sydney Inlet, Nootka-Esperanza, or
Kyuquot areas. Three of these tags were reported from Kwakshua Pass in central British
Columbia; these possibly, and it is believed probably, originated in Quatsino Sound, but they
may have originated in any of the regions just mentioned.
Bella Bella (2M) : Fifty-eight tags were recovered. Thirty-five of these were reported
as coming from Kwakshua Pass or, what amounted to the same thing during this year,
" Namu area." Some of these may have had other sources of origin as follows: West coast
areas, sixteen; other areas in central British Columbia, four; Tuck Inlet or Prince Rupert
Harbour, four; east coast, eleven. Twenty-two are recorded from Laredo Sound. Evidence
based on the condition of the tags or the reliability of the plant in producing accurate data on
place of origin of the tags indicates that sixteen of these returns are probably correct.
However, the numbers of these which may have had other points of origin are: Kwakshua
Pass and other areas in central British Columbia, twelve; Kwakshua Pass, Tuck Inlet, or
Prince Rupert Harbour, six; east coast, four. One was reported from Quatsino Sound. It
may have originated from the Nootka-Esperanza area or Kyuquot.
Horswell Point (20) : Four tags were recovered. All are reported from the east coast,
but two of these may have originated in Barkley Sound.
False Narrows (2P) : Eight tags were recovered. Seven of these were reported from
the east coast. One was reported from Barkley Sound, but possibly originated from east
coast fish.
False Narrows (2Q) : Thirteen tags were recovered. Twelve of these were reported
from the east coast. One tag was returned during a run of Barkley Sound fish, but may
have originated with east coast fish.
Departure Bay (2R) : One tag was returned. It was reported from Barkley Sound, but
may have come from east coast fish.
Baynes Sound (2S) : Five tags were returned. Three of these came from east coast
fish.    The fourth was reported from Barkley Sound, but may have entered the reduction Q 68
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
plant with east coast fish.    The fifth was reported from Kwakshua Pass.    It may have
originated there, in the Nootka-Esperanza area, Kyuquot area, or Quatsino Sound.
Birch Bay   (2T) :   Two tags were recovered.    One was recovered on the east coast.
The other was reported from Barkley Sound, but may have originated with east coast fish.
Sooke   (3A) :    Seventy-nine tags were returned.    Seventy-two were reported from the
east coast of Vancouver Island.    Of these, two may have originated in Barkley Sound.    Two
tags were reported as coming from runs of salmon-offal, and two others from a run of
pilchards including no herring taken in Nasparti Inlet.    These tags, too, no doubt came from
east coast herring.    Three tags were recorded from Barkley Sound, but may have originated
in east coast fish.
Swanson Channel  (3B) :   Eighty-eight tags were returned.    Eighty-four were reported
from the east coast, but one of these may have originated in Barkley Sound.    Three tags
were recovered during a run of salmon-offal;  they probably entered the plant with east coast
herring.    One tag was recorded from Barkley Sound, but probably originated on the east
coast.
Table III.—Tags recovered by Magnets during 1938-39.
Code.
Place and Month of Tagging.
Reported Probable Place of Capture.
OM
+>   rt
it at
S >
a 3
Oo
t. C
c. rt
3
■r>
rt
-a
fi-S
■&
■6 rt
w g
_. fi
M u
"S. HJ
° fi
T3
to
-tJ
o
s
CT
fi
m
o
c
tt
rt
ti
vt
rt
Ph
rt
3
at
*
c
HH
0
■V
It
U
rt 3
fi«
t-H   QJ
".5
C-
Total.
H>
P.
wo
£h
«
C
M
rl
E-i P.
e~.
IA
Swanson  Channel, Oct.,  1936	
i*
1
1C
1
IE
Horswell Point, March,  1937  	
2
11
Kyuquot Sound, March, 1937	
2*
2
IK
Nootka Sound, March, 1937	
1*
1*
2
IL
Saanich Inlet, April, 1937 -	
2
2
2A
Sooke, Sept., 1937                	
2
2B
Sooke, Oct., 1937    	
1
1
2C
3
1*
4
2
2E
Barkley Sound, Nov., 1937 	
1*
1*
2F
3*
5
5
2G
Barkley Sound, Nov., 1937	
1*
4*
2H
Barkley Sound,  March,   1938	
1*
1
21
Clayoquot Sound, March, 1938     —
2*
8*
10
2J
Esperanza Inlet, March, 1938— 	
2*
1*
1*
3*
7
2K
Nootka Sound, March, 1938.	
1*
2*
1*
2*
6
2L
Quatsino Sound, March, 1938	
5*
3*
8
2M
Bella Bella, March, 1938
58
4
20
Horswell Point, March, 1938  	
4*
2P
False Narrows, March, 1938 	
7
1*
8
2Q
False Narrows, March, 1938 	
12
1*
13
2R
Departure Bay, March, 1938	
1*
1
2S
Baynes Sound, April, 1938 	
3
1*
1*
5
2T
Birch Bay, April, 1938 	
1
1*
2
3A
Sooke, Oct., 1938                   	
72*
3*
4*
3
79
88
3B
Swanson Channel, Oct., 1938 	
84*
1*
3C
Barkley Sound, Nov., 1938_ 	
5*
1*
6
3D
Trincomali Channel, Dec, 1938 -
16
1*
1*
1*
19
3F
3t
137
3
189
3G
Quatsino Sound, Jan., 1939..—	
52t
3H
Tuck Inlet, Jan., 1939	
	
	
It
4t
171*
176
31
4t
114*
19*
2t
139
37
3J
??
Laredo Inlet, March, 1939.  	
1
37
3
Totals  	
223
25
1
2
4
157
207
82
173
18
892
* Some uncertainty about the source of at least one of the tags included in the entry.    Reference should be
made to the text.
t Reasonable certainty that the reported source is not correct. Barkley Sound (3C) : Six tags were recovered. Five of them were reported from
Barkley Sound and may have originated on the east coast. One of them was recorded from
the east coast and may have originated, and no doubt did originate, in Barkley Sound.
Trincomali Channel (3D) : Nineteen tags were recovered. Sixteen were reported from
the east coast of Vancouver Island. One was reported from Barkley Sound, one from
Kwakshua Pass, and one from a plant clean-up. All of these three may have originated,
and no doubt did originate, with east coast fish.
Nootka Sound (3F) : Three tags were reported from Quatsino Sound. These, no doubt,
originated from Nootka Sound fish.
Quatsino Sound (3G) : One hundred and eighty-nine tags were returned. One hundred
and thirty-seven were returned from Quatsino Sound. Fifty-two were recorded as being
taken from Kwakshua Pass. These may have originated in Quatsino Sound and such is
strongly believed to be the case.
Tuck Inlet (3H) : One hundred and seventy-six tags were returned. One hundred and
forty-five were reported from Tuck Inlet or Prince Rupert Harbour. Twenty-six were
reported from Tuck Inlet or Namu, one from Namu, and four from Laredo Sound. Probably
all of these tags entered the reduction plant with Tuck Inlet or Prince Rupert Harbour fish.
Kwakshua Pass (31) : One hundred and thirty-nine tags were recovered. One hundred
and three of these were recorded from Kwakshua Pass or its equivalent. Eight were
recorded from Tuck Inlet or Kwakshua Pass and no doubt originated at Kwakshua. Fifteen
tags were reported from Laredo Sound or Laredo Inlet, four from Hakai Channel, and three
off Cape Calvert. These may represent movements of the fish, but more probably the tags
originated with Kwakshua Pass fish. One return from each of Prince Rupert Harbour and
Tuck Inlet and four records from Quatsino Sound may have originated at Kwakshua Pass,
and probably did so.
Laredo Inlet (3J) : Thirty-seven tags were recovered. All of these were reported from
Laredo Inlet or its equivalent.
Four unidentifiable tags were recovered.
These returns have been summarized according to tagging place and time, and locality
of recovery, in Table III.
STABILITY OF POPULATIONS.
Tester (1937) presented evidence from racial examinations of herring from many
localities in British Columbia that free intermingling did not take place between populations
of herring on the east coast of Vancouver Island, on the west coast, and to the north of
Vancouver Island. Evidence was also presented which indicated rather stable groups within
these larger areas. The records of tags which have been out for at least six months may
be used as a test of the conclusions drawn from racial studies.
Considering detector and magnet returns together there are fifty-one returns of tags
which have been out for six months or more, from taggings made on the east coast (including
Sooke). Of these, forty-one have been returned certainly from the east coast, two have
certainly been returned from other areas, and there is doubt about the remaining eight.
From the data supplied with the returns there is no special reason for ascribing the returns
to either the east coast or other areas. However, it would appear more reasonable to consider
the uncertain returns as distributed in proportion to the tags concerning which the origin is
certain. In that event an overwhelming majority of the returns (forty-nine out of fifty-one)
are from east coast areas. If the doubtful tags are divided equally between the two groups
the majority of east coast returns is still very substantial (forty-five out of fifty-one).
While it is demonstrated by the tagging-work that herring which are on the east coast
fishing-grounds in the fall or which spawn on the east coast in the spring have a strongly
marked tendency to return to east coast fishing-grounds in subsequent autumns, it is evident
from the tag returns that the fishery exploits a composite population. During the course of
the investigation spawning fish have been tagged on nine different occasions on the east
coast of Vancouver Island (prior to 1939) at various places from Baynes Sound to Tod Inlet
and Birch Bay. Recoveries have been made from every tagging with the single exception of
one rather small one in Ganges Harbour. This shows that the east coast fishery is supplied
by herring which spawn in many places widely separated in the Strait of Georgia. Q 70 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
There were fifty-two returns by detectors and magnets of tags out more than six months
from west coast taggings. There is evidence, however, concerning ten of these that they
were held up in reduction plant machinery and do not constitute valid returns. They are
not, accordingly, considered further. Of the remaining forty-two, twenty-two were certainly-
returned from the west coast and two were definitely returned from fishing-grounds other
than the west coast, while there is uncertainty concerning the origin of the remaining
eighteen. Repetition of the calculations indicated in the foregoing paragraph indicates
majorities of thirty-eight and thirty-one out of forty-two returns from west coast areas.
In all, there were sixty-three returns from Bella Bella (2M) tags. Twenty of these
were definitely from the central area of British Columbia north of Vancouver Island and
two were certainly from outside that area (Quatsino Sound). If the forty-one tags concerning which uncertainty exists are divided as before, the majorities of the returns from central
British Columbia are fifty-seven and forty-one out of sixty-three. The fact that the element
of doubt concerning thirty-one of the forty-one doubtful returns is largely academic, and
that there is reasonable certainty that they originated in central British Columbia, indicates
that the fifty-seven out of sixty-three majority is closer to describing the actual condition.
It is not possible to treat the individual west coast taggings by the method used above
for the larger districts since consideration of the returns shows that there is no or little
possibility of obtaining a return concerning the origin of which there is no doubt. However,
certain general statements are in order concerning some of the taggings. Ten tags were
returned from the tagging in Calm Creek, Clayoquot Sound (21), none of them from
Clayoquot Sound. All of them were returned from the east coast or Barkley Sound. The
returns from the Esperanza Inlet (2J) and Nootka Sound (2K) taggings are capable of
only uncertain interpretation. Three of the thirteen magnet returns were from the east
coast or Barkley Sound—one certainly from the east coast. Five returns are reported from
areas between Sydney Inlet and Kyuquot Sound, although some of these may have originated
from Quatsino Sound fish. It is perhaps significant that the only return concerning which
there is complete certainty (i.e., that made by the detector) came back from the Nootka area.
Five tags from these two taggings were recorded from Quatsino Sound. Any of these may
have originated in other west coast areas, but it seems unlikely that all would have done so.
Seven of the ten Quatsino Sound (2L) tags were returned from Quatsino Sound and it is
believed that the remaining three (reported from Kwakshua Pass) also entered the reduction
plants with Quatsino Sound fish. In any case, no 2L tags were recovered by plants which
operated on Kwakshua Pass herring but did not operate on Quatsino Sound fish.
In summary, it may be said that there is good evidence for the belief that the integrity
of the populations of herring in the major districts is fairly well preserved. On the west
coast of Vancouver Island a considerable amount of movement from one area to another is
manifest, but the extent cannot yet be defined owing in part to the uncertain nature of the
data obtained from magnet recoveries. It appears that the Quatsino Sound population is
fairly distinct, but even it certainly receives some additions from northern areas and possibly
from those to the south-east.
MOVEMENTS OF HERRING.
SOOKE TO SWANSON  CHANNEL.—INFLUENCE OF THE TIDES.
The two previous reports on herring-tagging have shown a movement of herring from
the south end of Vancouver Island near Sooke to the fishing-grounds in the Strait of Georgia
at Swanson Channel and Trincomali Channel near Porlier Pass. These results are fully
confirmed by the returns for the present year in which eighty-four tags put in fish at Sooke
on October 1st were reported as coming from fish captured on the east coast grounds and
eighty-two of these certainly did so. The first of these was recovered on October 12th. As
this represents a maximum time for the migration of the earliest fish and as the distance by
the most direct route is around 50 miles, the minimum speed of migration is rather more than
4 miles a day. The recovery of several tags from east coast fish on magnets at Ucluelet and
Kildonan on October 15th and days immediately following indicates that the movement at
that minimum speed was general. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 71
n
?!
Is
|      . SO
o
200
/SO
/oo
o a
d o a
d o a
3        4S 6 7        8        3        /O       //
Ac//7^/~      *V&^/f£      C./~   7*~/-g,/7/'/7<p'
Fig. 7. The recovery of tags used on the east coast of Vancouver Island in relation to lunar weeks
of the fishery and the availability of herring in Swanson Channel. Q 72 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
■Sys^r?&o/~?      Cr/~7S>S?S7 <s /
T/-/r?co/T7^//       <zr/?^?r7/7<s/
C?f-/?<&/-     -f/s/y/sygr     gr/~otS/?cy(s
s4//   ^'r/r/^/7/'/7C7    prOi/^ofe
/ 2 3 -^ ^ & T S &
Fig. 8. Week of capture and sources of fish handled at Plant A.
SO
//
Tester (1938) found that herring were more available in Swanson Channel during the
first and third quarters of the moon and less available during the full and new moons, and
considered as the most likely explanation that the effect of the moon was through the
strength of the tides and their influence upon influxes of new fish to the fishing-grounds. The
tagging results of the fall of 1937 supported the view that new fish appeared on the grounds
at the times of the first and third quarters. The most recent recoveries as portrayed in
Table IV. and Figs. 7 and 8 also lend support to the explanation of increased availability by
the immigration of new fish to the fishing-grounds. The following features of the curves
seem worthy of notice: In the top panel the weekly average catches made by unit fishing
effort and corrected for weather, etc., with one exception demonstrate the regular alteration
in trend of availability which might be expected by theory. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 73
Table IV.—Distribution of Magnet Returns by Lunar Weeks.
(East Coast Returns lagged One Day from that reported, West Coast Returns
lagged Two Days.)
Availability.
Catch/Seine/Day.
Tags recovered by Magnets.
Lunar Week.
3 A.
3B.
3D.
East Coast only
1 (x) and 2 (x).
E.
w.
E.
W.
1
E.    [   W.
1
E.
W.
Oct.     6-Oct.   12	
Oct.   13-Oct.   19	
Oct.   20-Oct.   26 	
Oct.  27-Nov.    3 ...
135
142
85
67
44
108
51
161
40
178
55
0
0
0
23
0
>3
1
5
0
2
3
0
21
6
9
1
0
1
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
25
10
3
7
4
3
6
3
0
11
6
8
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
13
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
5
1
4
3
6
2
3
4
1
4
2
0
0
Nov. 11-Nov. 17. 	
Nov. 18-Nov. 25 	
0
1
0
Dec.     3-Dec.     9
2
Dec.   lO^Dec.   17 	
Dec.   18-(Dec.  21)  	
4
0
Totals                 	
37
1
79
41
61
1
88
26
16
2
19
1
30
14
2
46
In the centre panel the total of 3A tags recovered shows very high return for the second
and fourth weeks. The first peak is presumably the result of the first entrance of tagged
fish on the grounds. The second peak probably has two explanations: Firstly, a second
group of Sooke fish entering the fishery; and secondly, the commencement of effective action
by the Plant A magnet and the recovery by it of tags accumulated in the drier. The subsequent parts of the curve illustrate the falling-off of returns with time after tagging, and to
some extent they reflect the addition of new Sooke tags to the exploited populations. The
peaks on the 3B tags will have similar explanations, except that falling off may be expected
to play, a more important part and migration on to the fishing-grounds will not be effective.
The curve for 3D illustrates only falling off after tagging. The recorded single tag in week 9
is probably an error due to methods of handling the data. The (1) and (2) tags show no
trend throughout the season, as would be expected from fish which had been tagged long
enough to become thoroughly mixed. It is noteworthy that the fluctuations in returns agree
perfectly with moon phase, and excellently with catch per unit fishing effort. This probably
indicates that for some reason increasing amounts of fish were routed through reduction
plants at times when abundance was high.
In the lower panel the 3A tags, with the exception of the final week of fishing, show a
positive relation between the catch per unit of fishing effort and the number of tags recovered
per thousand tags inserted per thousand tons of fish examined for tags. This agrees with
the observation of the previous season and with what would be expected according to the
theory of movement already outlined. The 3B tags show a reciprocal recovery distribution
to that of the 3A tags. This again is in agreement with the results for the previous year
(where there was one exception) and with the hypothesis under examination. As the 3B
tags are put in on the fishing-grounds any additions to the supply of herring there will result
in a dilution effect on the tagged fish.
Sooke to Barkley Sound.
In the 1937-38 season, certainly one and possibly more tags put in at Sooke were
recovered from Barkley Sound fish.    During the 1938-39 season, plant operations were such Q 74
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
that there was no opportunity for obtaining indisputable records. It is worthy of note in
this connection that a significantly* higher proportion of Sooke tags (3A) as compared with
Swanson Channel (3B) tags was recovered by magnets in plants which operated on Barkley
Sound fish than by the Plant A which did not. This might be taken as indicating that some
3A tags entered Barkley Sound reduction plants with Barkley Sound herring, but other
explanations are equally plausible. For example: There is evidence in Table IV. that the
magnet at Plant A was not operating efficiently during the first three weeks of the herring
season during which the other plants recovered many 3A tags. Furthermore, toward the
end of the season boats bound for the west coast tended to load Swanson Channel fish,
whereas boats loading for Plant A took more fish from Trincomali. Such a difference as
that may have been responsible for differences in the proportions recovered of the two lots
of tags.
Swanson Channel to Trincomali Channel.
Some east coast herring-fishermen are of the opinion that there is no direct movement
of herring between the Swanson Channel fishing-grounds and those in Trincomali Channel,
and some evidence from tag returns of the two previous years seemed to support their
contention. That there is movement of some sort between the two fishing-grounds is
definitely shown by the returns for 1938-39. One fish tagged in Swanson Channel (3B) was
recovered by the induction detector from a load of fish captured at the north end of Trincomali Channel. Three tags (3B) were recovered during a lunar week by a plant which
operated only on Trincomali Channel fish, and in the following week six 3B tags were
recovered during a week in which 140 tons of Swanson Channel fish were processed as
compared with 1,340 tons of Trincomali Channel fish. These returns show without doubt that
fish move from the Swanson Channel grounds to those in Trincomali Channel. It is still
possible, however, that the fishermen are correct in their contention that no direct movement
takes place, for the herring may have moved out through Active Pass up the Strait of Georgia
and back through Porlier Pass or they may have moved from one ground to the other through
the narrower channels among the islands.
INTENSITY OF THE FISHERY.
Tag returns may be used to make estimates of the numbers of fish on the grounds and
hence of the intensity of the fishery. This may be done by making use of the following
calculations: Number of fish on grounds = (catch of fish examined for tags) x (number of
tags used) / (number of tags recovered); the intensity of the fishery = (total catch of
fish)/(number of fish on the grounds). The figures for three reduction plants and the
Galiano detector may be used in making these calculations and the results are set out in
Table V. In considering the results of these calculations several points should be kept in
mind. In the first place, the estimates of fish on the grounds are maximums—i.e., any error
caused by (1) migration of the fish, (2) inefficiencies of recovery methods, and (3) death of
the fish as a result of tagging, will increase the apparent abundance of fish on the grounds.
The high estimates of abundance based on Plant A figures are probably due to the plant's
low efficiency in tag recovery early in the season.    The high estimates for the Galiano detector
* Statistical methods are available which make it possible to calculate the odds against an observed condition
arising by chance. If the odds are as high as 20 to 1 against such an occurrence the condition is said to be
significant; if the odds are more than 100 to 1 against the condition is termed very significant. However, statistics
alone cannot give any information as to what the significance concerns. That can only be learned by an impartial
consideration of all the factors leading to the result obtained and sometimes, as in this case, it is not possible to
arrive at a definite conclusion.
In the present case it can be shown that the distribution of returns shown in the following tabulation from
Table IV. could not happen by chance once in more than 100 trials if the tags from both taggings were distributed
randomly over all of the east coast fishing-grounds and only there. However, as shown in the text, more than one
reasonable explanation of the condition may be offered.
3A Tags.
3B Tags.
Recovered in plants handling only east coast fish 	
Recovered in plants handling both east coast and west coast fish-
Totals 	
37
61
41
26
67
78
87
165 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 75
are no doubt associated with the decline in its efficiency, and a detailed examination of the log
for that unit shows that such an explanation is quite possible. The estimates of 120,000
tons of fish on the grounds appear to be closest to correct and even they are maximum. This
figure, taken with the 25,000 tons set as a quota for the east coast fishery, gives an estimate
of 21 per cent, for the fishing intensity, which agrees closely with the minimum intensity of
fishing as calculated for the previous year (21 per cent.). These figures are not directly
comparable because no allowance was made for the efficiency of the recovery methods. This
was done for induction detector returns for the previous year.
Table V.—Data and Treatment for estimating Abundance of Fish on Grounds.
Tags recovered.
Tons of Swanson
Channel and
Trincomali Channel
Herring processed.
Percentage
Tags returned.
Maximum Estimate of
Fish on Grounds
in Thousands op Tons.
3A.
3B.
3D.
3Aand3B.
3D.
3A.
3B.
3D.
3A.
3B.
3D.
Plant A 	
Plant B	
Plant C 	
Galiano detector
Tags used	
38
27
15
11
1,454
62
20
7
14
1,078
18
0
1
447
8,840
2,360
1,220
1,990
2,210
?
?
0
2.60
1.90
1.04
0.76
5.80
1.90
0.65
1.30
4.0
340
120
120
260
170
120
187
150
55
The recovery from the very few fish caught in Barkley Sound of six 3C tags out of
ninety-nine used indicated that not only were fish hard to catch but that there were extremely
few fish in the area.
The magnets installed in the northern plants are known to have such low efficiencies that
there is little advantage in making calculations of population abundance. It is perhaps
noteworthy, however, that, during only the latter part of the season, 176 tags of the Tuck
Inlet (3H) tagging were recovered out of 755 used. This indicates a recovery efficiency of
23 per cent.    Obviously the fishing intensity must have been considerably higher.
TAGGING TECHNIQUE.
In the report for 1937-38 evidence was brought forward which indicated that crowding
fish in the pound during tagging operations led to lower returns, and hence presumably a
higher mortality from tagging, even although no deleterious effects were observable during
the tagging operation. It was observed that the number of returns was greater in cases
where the number of fish in the pound did not exceed 500. The results for this year confirm
the previous ones as is shown in the tabulation:— Taggings of less Taggings of more
than 1,000. than 1,000.
Tags inserted   1,657 2,429
Tags recovered   5 0
Statistical tests show that this difference is highly significant as it could occur by chance
only once in more than 100 times. As the fish tagged in smaller lots were more exposed to
the fishery of the 1937-38 season it seems likely that the difference is actually due to
differences in methods of handling the fish and, consequently, the results serve as a warning
against crowding fish during tagging operations.
DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY OF RESULTS.
Considering British Columbia (excluding the Queen Charlotte Islands) as being divided
into four main areas—east coast of Vancouver Island, west coast of Vancouver Island,
central British Columbia, and northern British Columbia—the results of tagging experiments
have shown only negligible movements from one major area to another. In the central and
northern parts of the Province the work has not yet been sufficiently extensive to allow much
opportunity for the detection of such intermingling. Consequently, the results for those
regions are not of great significance. However, the data on the west and east coasts of
Vancouver Island are full enough to indicate that the intermingling of the populations in
those areas with each other or with the central and northern areas is slight. Q 76 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
There is little opportunity of obtaining detailed information concerning lack of movement
between the smaller (fishery) areas on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Concerning
some there is no doubt but that large proportions of the tags turned up in fish caught in
areas other than that of tagging (e.g., Calm Creek). With others there appears to be
reasonable certainty that all of the tags came back from the general vicinity of tagging
(e.g., Quatsino Sound). In the case of still other taggings the returns seemed to indicate
that tags were returned from both the tagging and other areas, but data concerning magnet
recoveries are so uncertain that it is at present impossible to state whether there is a significant tendency for more of these tags to return from the tagging areas than from other
regions.
In the returns for the current year there was ample corroboration of the movement of
herring from the southern part of the Strait of Juan de Fuca at Sooke to the fishing-grounds
in the Strait of Georgia. There is some evidence for belief in a movement of fish from Sooke
to Barkley Sound, but it is readily interpreted in other ways.
During the 1938-39 season there was definite evidence of movements of herring from
Swanson Channel to Trincomali Channel, near Porlier Pass. This is in contrast to the
results of previous years, but it is not necessarily shown that the fish moved by the most
direct route.
Consideration of the intensity of the fishery on the east coast of Vancouver Island
and in the Prince Rupert Harbour area indicates minimum estimates of 22 and 23 per cent.
These, especially the latter, are probably low, but by how much cannot at present be stated. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 77
Table VI.—Detailed List of Tags inserted during 1938-39.
Series
H.
Date
released.
Tagging
Code.
Where released.
No. of
Tags
used.
36301-37500
Oct.
Oct.
Jan.
Oct.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Oct.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Oct.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Jan.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Jan.
Jan.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Jan.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
1, 1938
11, 1938
12, 1939
1, 1938
12, 1939
15, 1939
12, 1939
1, 1938
12, 1939
11, 1939
15, 1939
15, 1939
19, 1939
16, 1939
18, 1939
16, 1939
11, 1938
13, 1938
25, 1938
5, 1938
7,  1938
9,  1938
10, 1938
16, 1938
16, 1938
16, 1938
12, 1939
6, 1939
7, 1939
6, 1939
7, 1939
11, 1939
6, 1939
7, 1939
6, 1939
13, 1939
14, 1939
2, 1939
8, 1939
9, 1939
20, 1939
6,  1939
5, 1939
6, 1939
2,  1939
5, 1939
6, 1939
7, 1939
11,  1939
19, 1939
22,  1939
25, 1939
15, 1939
7, 1939
19, 1939
21, 1939
28, 1939
29, 1939
20, 1939
29, 1939
26, 1939
28, 1939
28, 1939
3A
3B
3G
3A
3G
31
3G
3A
3G
3F
31
31
31
31
31
31
3B
3B
3C
3D
3D
3D
3D
3E
3E
3E
3H
3J
3J
3J
3J
3Q
3J
3J
3J
3H
3H
3K
3L
3M
31
3J
3K
3J
3K
3K
3J
3J
3Q
3R
3S
3T
3AA
3U
3V
3W
3X
3Y
3N
3P
30
3Z
3Z
Off Sooke                  	
1,157
37501 37600
100
37601-37900
300
Ofl Sooke...
198
38101-38300
19"9
38301 38400
99
38401 38500
99
38501-38600
Off Sooke   	
99
38601-38800
200
38801-39000
197
39001 39100
100
39201-39400
200
39401-39600
200
39601-39700
99
39701-39800
100
39801-40000
198
40001-40300
299
40301-40995
679
41001-41100
99
41101-41200
41201-41300
99
41301-41400
100
41401-41560
148
41551-41900
350
42001-42550
Swanson Channel	
550
42601-42700
100
42701-42900
Tuck Inlet 	
188
42901-43000
Laredo Inlet	
100
43801-43900
Laredo Inlet 	
100
44301-44400
100
44401-44500
44501-44700
Rivers Inlet Cannery	
200
44701-44800
100
44801-44900
100
44901-45000
Laredo Inlet 	
100
46001-46300
Tuck Inlet  	
294
46301-46600
Tuck Inlet	
273
46601-47000
400
47001-48000
1,000
48001-49000
49001-49200
49201-49300
Laredo Inlet
100
49301-49400
97
49401-49500
Laredo Inlet	
100
49551-49600
Departure Bay	
50
49601-50000
Departure Bay    _   	
398
50001-50100
Laredo Inlet	
99
50101-50400
50401-51500
Laredo Inlet	
300
1,097
2,192
1,797
899
51501-53700
Browns Pass     	
53701-55500
55501-56400
Butler Cove —	
56801-57000
57001-58500
Toquart Harbour, Barkley Sound
1,494
1,599
1,491
681
58501-60100
60101-61600
61601-62300
Kendrick Arm, Nootka Sound  	
Matilda Creek 	
62301-63000
65001-66000
1,000
66001-67000
67001-68000
68001-68400
68601-68700 Q 78 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The herring-tagging programme has been made possible and pleasant through the
co-operation of many of those connected with the fishing industry.
The British Columbia Packers, Limited, and the Nootka Packing Company (1937), Ltd.,
have accommodated taggers during the fishing season and have provided boats for the spring
tagging expedition. Many thanks are due to the companies for the boats and to the crews
for their ready co-operation—Captains J. H. Achterlonie and T. Dunvick, and Messrs. R.
Mahlus, R. Brock, E. Lund, and J. Devlin. A number of others associated with the fishing
industry have assisted the tagging programme by providing fish, accommodating taggers, or
by helping with the actual tagging operations, and the help of the following is gratefully
acknowledged: Captains John Dale, Gordon Wilks, A. C. Balkwill, and John Kasulandish,
and Messrs. Soren Vollmers and Teddy Gear. Many thanks are due to Mr. Horace Goodrich
for his co-operation in providing herring for tagging from the salmon-traps of the Sooke
Harbour Fishing Company, and to Mr. Loyd Royal, of the Washington State Department of
Fisheries, for carrying out the tagging at Holmes Harbour.
Grateful acknowledgment is made of the Banfield Packing Co., Ltd., and Mr. D. Wilson,
the Pacific Sea Products Exporters, Ltd., and Mr. T. Ode, and to the Nootka Packing
Company (1937), Ltd., for accommodating tag-recovery equipment, and especially Mr. J.
Lysnes, of the last-named company, who contributed largely to the design of the installation
at the Nootka plant.
Plant crews and foremen have co-operated effectively in recovering and returning tags
with the required data.
Thanks are due to Mr. E. Dahlgren, who loaned a pair of matched coils to assist in
locating a source of trouble in one of the induction detectors.
Special acknowledgment is made of the help of Messrs. L. Quickenden and J. L. McHugh
and Dr. R. V. Boughton, of the Pacific Biological Station staff, who have assisted the programme in many ways and who have each at times undertaken work involving independent
decisions.
The programme is carried out under an arrangement between the Fisheries Research
Board of Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department. Sincere acknowledgment is
made of the assistance and stimulation given to the investigation by Dr. W. A. Clemens,
Director of the Pacific Biological Station, and by Mr. G. J. Alexander, Assistant Commissioner
of Fisheries for British Columbia.
REFERENCES.
Hart, J. L. Tagging British Columbia pilchards (Sardinops cxrulea (Girard)): Methods
and preliminary results.    Report, B.C. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1936, 49-54, 1937.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester. The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
Methods, apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1936-37. Report, B.C. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1936, 55-67, 1937.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester. The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1937-38. Report, B.C. Commissioner of
Fisheries, 1937, 64-90, 1938.
Tester, A. L. Populations of herring (Clupea pallasii) in coastal waters of British Columbia.
Journal, Biological Board of Canada.    Vol. III., No. 2, 108-114, 1937.
Tester, A. L. Herring, the tide and the moon. Fisheries Research Board of Canada,
Progress Reports Pacific, No. 38, 10-14, 1938. BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 79
ANNUAL REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH BOARD.
1938-39 SEASON.
After a very active season in facilitating and controlling the marketing of dry-salt
salmon and dry-salt herring produced in this Province, it is believed that this report will
serve to outline such operations of the British Columbia Salt-fish Board as are authorized
under the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia)  Act."
ORGANIZATION.
All appointments to the Board were duly made under the terms of section 3, clauses
3 (a), (b), and (c) of the Scheme.
The Meal, Oil and Salt-fish Section of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association appointed
the following two members to represent that organization on the Board as from October 1st,
1938, to September 30th, 1939:—
Mr. Geo. E. Crawford, foot Gore Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Mr. R. Nelson, 325 Howe Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Messrs. Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited, named two members from their
organization for the same period, as undernoted:—
Mr. K. Shiraishi, 217 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Mr. K. Kimura, 217 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
At the first meeting of the season, held on September 22nd, 1938, it was reported the
Provincial Commissioner of Fisheries had appointed Mr. Hugh Dalton, Vancouver, B.C.,
Chairman of the Board for the twelve months from October 1st, 1938, to September 30th,
1939.
Mr. G. R. Clark was appointed Secretary of the Board at the above meeting and continued in that position until his resignation on November 15th. Mr. L. Richmond has been
the Acting-Secretary of the Board since that time.
During the season under review the Chairman and Mr. R. Nelson have been present at
all but one of the sixteen meetings held; while Mr. K. Kimura has attended all of the sessions. It was necessary for Mr. K. Shiraishi to be in Japan throughout the season and
Messrs. T. Matsuyama and R. Suzumoto, alternate members appointed to the Board by
Messrs. Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited, have attended most of the meetings in
Mr. Shiraishi's place. Mr. Geo. E. Crawford attended seven meetings and Mr. G. R. Clark,
former Secretary of the Board, whose new position affiliates him with the industry, represented Mr. Crawford at the nine meetings which the latter gentleman did not attend.
OPERATION—GENERAL.
It will be helpful to bear in mind that Japan takes all of our dry-salt salmon and the
greater portion of our dry-salt herring shipments. This year Manchukuo became our second
largest customer for dry-salt herring, with China taking third place on this commodity, all
shipments for China being made to the port of Shanghai. A small trial shipment of dry-salt
herring was made to Singapore during the past season. The above-mentioned markets
represent all of the points to which British Columbia salt salmon and salt herring were sold
and shipped during the 1938-39 season.
The greatest single obstacle and difficulty the Board had to deal with during the past
season was that of the restricted exchange contrpl laws of the Japanese Government as
applicable to salt fish. These restrictions were first implemented by Japan in the 1937-38
season against salt salmon and salt herring, but were operated during the period under
review with much greater force. The earliest indication received by the Board was to the
effect that the Japanese Government contemplated issuing exchange permits for both salt
salmon and salt herring for only 600,000 yen. This amount of yen converted at a rate of .28
represents only $168,000, and it was understood that probably 60 per cent, of this sum would
be available for dry-salt salmon and 40 per cent, for dry-salt herring. When it is recalled
that for the previous season $375,060 had been released for dry-salt salmon and $247,665 for
dry-salt herring, it can readily be seen that the situation was very grave, in so far as the
Japanese market for salt fish was concerned. Q 80 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
In addition to the depressing exchange situation in Japan, the fact must be borne in
mind that hostilities between Japan and China were even more extensive than a year ago
at the same time. China, which in the 1937-38 season was our second largest herring market,
had in the 1938-39 season a greatly depreciated currency and consequently a very low
purchasing-power. It was evident that the production of both salt salmon and herring would
have to be severely curtailed, the possibilities being approximately 7,000 boxes of dry-salt
salmon and approximately 50 per cent, of the quantity of dry-salt herring marketed in the
1937-38 season, or in the neighbourhood of 5,000 tons.
Producers were informed of the precarious market position and that it would be the part
of wisdom to proceed cautiously with their production arrangements. All registered producers during the 1937-38 season were also advised that the Board had determined, in view
of the emergency situation apparent for the 1938-39 season, that in the case of any dry-salt
salmon or dry-salt herring producer who did not take out a saltery licence for the 1938-39
season with the Provincial Department of Fisheries his status as a bona-fi.de operator for
future years would not be jeopardized in so far as the Board was concerned.
Since the production and shipment of dry-salt salmon is handled in the early months of
the season, from September to December generally, we shall deal with this product in
particular at this point.
OPERATION—DRY-SALT SALMON.
With the co-operation of the Provincial Department of Fisheries, at Victoria, the final
date for the issuance of salmon dry-saltery licences was set for 12 o'clock noon on Saturday,
October 8th, 1938. Subsequent to that date the Board was advised that seven salmon drysaltery licences had been issued for the 1938-39 season.
It then became the responsibility of the Board to set for each licence-holder his individual
marketable quantity so that both orderly production and marketing might be achieved.
As previously stated, dry-salt salmon is sold entirely in Japan. The Board at all times
was in close touch by letter and cable with the office of the Canadian Government Trade
Commissioner in Tokio, and through his office everything possible was done to have the first
reported amount of exchange available for dry-salt salmon—namely, $100,800—very materially increased. On October 18th the Trade Commissioner at Tokio requested the Board to
furnish him with the quantity and price of salt salmon for the 1938-39 season on the
assumption that $168,000 would be forthcoming to cover this commodity. With this information he believed he could obtain a definite decision from the Japanese Government on this
important matter.
It was determined in view of the increased freight rates and decreased exchange that
last year's average price of $13.25 c.i.f. per box was both fair and reasonable and that 12,500
boxes could be shipped on this basis. An alternative proposal was made by the Board that
if the amount available for salt salmon could be utilized on an f.o.b. basis, with the freight
payable in Japan, then the quantity could be increased approximately 25 per cent.
After extensive exchange of cables with the Canadian Government Trade Commissioner
in Tokio, who was so ably negotiating with the Japanese Government on our behalf, and
consultation with the steamship lines handling salt-fish cargo to Japan, another proposal was
put forward which proved to be the one finally accepted respecting quantity and price for
salt salmon. The steamship lines were agreeable to accepting 25 per cent, of the total
freight payable in advance at Vancouver, which amount they required to cover local stevedoring and wharfage charges, but the balance of 75 per cent, was allowed to be paid in Japan
by the consignee. Under these arrangements the Board permitted the production and
marketing of 14,200 boxes at a net f.o.b. price of $11.75 per box minimum guaranteed
advance, which price included one-quarter of the freight payable by the shipper. The whole
proposal rested on the assumption that the Japanese Government would release exchange
permits to the extent of $168,000 for the importation of dry-salt salmon. It was not until
November 1st that cable advice was received from Tokio definitely stating that the Finance
Department of the Japanese Government would grant permission for the issuance of import
permits up to $168,000 for dry-salt salmon and, further, that the Board's proposal, as outlined
above, was acceptable.
During the very protracted negotiations respecting the amount of exchange which would
be available, packing operations were proceeding fairly rapidly, and at its meeting on October BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 81
24th the Board determined to allocate interim individual marketable quantities to the seven
holders of Provincial plant licences on the basis of 7,000 boxes as a total marketable quantity.
As negotiations progressed with the Japanese Government and it became apparent that an
increase in exchange was going to be made, the Board believed an opportunity should be
given to other producers to take out plant licences and participate in the anticipated increased
marketable quantity. The Board requested the Provincial Government to reopen the privilege of applying for salmon dry-saltery licences. All dry-salt salmon producers of the
1937-38 season were advised on October 26th of the Board's action that there was a reasonable prospect of a limited additional amount of exchange being granted by Japan for the
purchase of salt salmon. Subsequently an Order in Council was passed by the Executive
Council at Victoria reopening the privilege of applying for salmon dry-saltery plant licences
until noon on October 31st. However, no additional applications for salmon dry-saltery plant
licences were received by the Provincial Fisheries Department and the number of licencees
remained at seven for the season.
On November 1st, when the total marketable quantity was increased to 14,200 boxes, the
Board officially set the individual marketable quantities for the 1938-39 season, as follows:—■
Boxes.
River Fish Co., Ltd., Steveston   2,641
Messrs. Takahashi & Yoshida, Steveston   1,254
B.C. Packers, Limited, Steveston   1,205
Mr. H. Tsuchiya, Jervis Inlet   1,793
C. Nakamura & Company, Alert Bay .  2,373
Moresby Island Fisheries, Jedway, Limited   1,641
Green Cove Salteries, Limited   3,293
Total  14,200
It was ascertained that all of the above-named registered producers were in agreement
with both the quantities allocated individually and the basis of price—namely, $11.75 per
box minimum guaranteed advance, which included 25 per cent, of the freight payable at point
of shipment.
Under section 2 of the British Columbia Salt-fish Scheme the following two companies
were appointed by the Board to market the 1938-39 production of salt salmon :•—
Salt Salmon Exporters of B.C., Ltd., 217 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Producers' Salt Fish Sales, Limited, 608 Marine Building, Vancouver, B.C.
The marketing charge levied by the Board on dry-salt salmon was 10 cents per box,
which was payable through the marketing agencies to the Board at the time of shipment.
It developed that a total of 14,401 boxes of dry-salt salmon was produced and marketed
during the past season. DRY-SALT HERRING.
Production.—The production of dry-salt herring was carried on under a complete pooling
arrangement mutually agreed upon by the producers, who all participated in the returns
from sales on an equal basis. The Board determined that 7,500 tons would be the total
marketable quantity for the season, and following are the individual plant allotments to the
three companies licensed by the Provincial Government to operate on the East Coast of
Vancouver Island:—
Tons.
Pacific Sea Products Exporters, Ltd.   3,450
Tanaka & Co., Ltd.   2,550
The Canadian Fishing Co., Ltd.   1,500
Total     7,500
The quantity of dry-salt herring finally produced and sold was 7,476 tons for the
1938-39 season.
Marketing.—Under section 2 of the Scheme the undermentioned companies were appointed by the Board to handle the marketing of dry-salt herring for the season under
review:—
The Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Ltd., 217 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Producers' Salt Fish Sales, Ltd., 608 Marine Building, Vancouver, B.C.
6 Q 82
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
These companies handled the exports of all dry-salt herring. The Board's marketing
charge of 8 cents per box on dry-salt herring was paid through these agencies at the time
of export.
As previously stated in this report, our chief markets for dry-salt herring during the
past season in the order named were Japan, Manchoukuo, China, and Straits Settlements.
We shall review these markets in that order.
Japanese Markets.
The history of the dry-salt herring business with Japan for the 1938-39 season is very
similar to the dry-salt salmon situation, in so far as the matter of Japanese Government's
exchange control is concerned. Concurrently with negotiations to obtain exchange permits
for dry-salt salmon, efforts were under way to obtain exchange permits for dry-salt herring.
Through the untiring work of the Canadian Government Trade Commissioner at Tokio, we
were finally advised on November 1st that the first indicated amount of exchange to be
granted on dry-salt herring importations—namely, $67,200—had been increased to $112,000.
The last-named figure is the total amount up to which exchange permits were granted by
Japan on this commodity.
The same freight arrangements as were made on dry-salt salmon were arrived at on
dry-salt herring and the fish was sold on an f.o.b. basis, with one-quarter of the freight
payable in advance, the 75 per cent, balance of the freight being paid in Japan. In this
way the exchange available for dry-salt herring was utilized to the fullest possible extent.
The Board's objective in recent years has been to consummate a block deal on the dry-salt
herring business for Japan with one buyer or a group of buyers in that country who could
establish an irrevocable letter of credit to cover all sales prior to shipment. After the
amount of exchange available for dry-salt herring was made known on November 1st, considerable cabling took place in order to conclude the business and on November 17th, 1938,
the Board was able to finally approve of a block sale to one buyer in Tokio. The terms of
the business were telegraphed to the Canadian Government Trade Commissioner at Tokio,
and the contract formally negotiated by his office on behalf of the Board. The shipments
made under the terms of the contract were as follows:—
Month.
Tonnage.
Price per Ton.
Exchange required.
1,200
2,061
1,066
564
$26.00
22.90
21.00
19.85
$31,200.00
47,196.00
22,386.00
11,195.40
February-March   — .   -    .  — 	
Totals— —   —	
4,891
$22.894765
$111,978.40
The contract called for the buyer to establish irrevocable letters of credit to cover the
shipments and payments were received against shipping documents in Vancouver. In order
to compare this season's sale of dry-salt herring to Japan with that of last year, in the matter
of price, the average c.i.f. price per ton would be $1 less. The final figure of shipments
amounted to 4,940 tons as compared to 8,000 tons shipped in the 1937-38 season.
Manchukuo Market.
The restricted exchange condition prevailing in Japan no doubt made it more desirable
for the buyers in this territory to make direct importations rather than to receive their
supplies by transhipment from Japan as in former years.
It was not until the middle of December that the Dairen business was finally confirmed
and, as in the case of all other sales which must come before the Board for approval, the
sale was concluded on the condition that irrevocable letters of credit would be established
prior to shipment.
A substantial outlet developed in this market and the quantity shipped was 1,740 tons
at an average c.i.f. price of $30.50 per ton. BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 83
The certainty of Dairen as a direct importing centre has not been proven by this season's
experience, the business being the result of the controlled exchange situation in Japan, which
precluded importers in that country from making large transhipments to Dairen.
Chinese Market.
As a result of the Sino-Japanese conflict, the market in China for dry-salt herring has
been badly demoralized. Prices were cabled on sizeable quantities to the Canadian Government Trade Commissioner at Shanghai, as early as October 22nd, for transmission to the
buyers, but due to the unsettled conditions existing at that time nothing could be done in the
market.
It was not until December 8th that the first firm order was completed for shipment of
200 tons to Shanghai. Shortly after that date other sales were made and the total shipments
of dry-salt herring to Shanghai, the only port in China importing the commodity this year,
amounted to 776 tons, which was sold at an average c.i.f. price of $28 per ton.
When it is recalled that as recently as the 1937-38 season 6,500 tons of dry-salt herring
were sold to Shanghai buyers on a block-deal basis, it will be realized how severely trade in
this essential food product has been demoralized. The chief causes, of course, are the continued hostilities and the weak position of Chinese currency, with the consequent low
purchasing-power of the people in China who generally purchased dry-salt herring in years
gone by, coupled with disruption of transport service into the interior of China, making
transhipment from seaports into the interior practically impossible.
The Hong Kong market, which in past years has been the chief distributing centre for
the South China area (Canton, etc.), has always been a very uncertain market. Quotations
were made to the buyers in Hong Kong early in the season but, due to the war conditions in
Southern China at that time and throughout the entire season, the Hong Kong importers
declined to make any purchases of dry-salt herring. No direct shipments were made to the
port of Hong Kong during the season. In past years fairly good shipments have been made
to this port;   2,400 tons in the 1936-37 season and 800 tons for the 1937-38 season.
Straits Settlements.
British Columbia dry-salt herring has been transhipped to Singapore from other Eastern
points in years gone by, but of late seasons such 'transhipments have been negligible. This
condition is attributed to the growth of racial prejudice between the buyers in Singapore,
who are predominantly Chinese, and certain countries in the Orient.
The amount of fish of all varieties consumed in this area is very large, according to
reports received. Through the commendable efforts of the Canadian Government Trade
Commissioner's office at Singapore an attempt is being made to reopen this market on a large
scale for the direct importation of dry-salt herring from British Columbia.
During the past season 20 tons of dry-salt herring was shipped as a trial order to a
reliable importing house in Singapore. While the full report on this shipment has not been
received, the preliminary information to hand indicates that the dry-salt herring was favourably received. The Board is confident that, after the removal of certain obstacles to this
trade which are chiefly the boycott conditions in Singapore that have been inadvisedly applied
to British Columbia dry-salt herring, by next season the producers may be able to count on
more substantial business being done in this area as an outcome of the direct trial shipment
made in the 1938-39 season.
CONCLUSION.
The evident conclusion which must necessarily be arrived at respecting the dry-salt
salmon and dry-salt herring business for the future, after reviewing the results during the
past season and also of previous years, is the very great need for new and additional markets
for our products.
At the present time the Board has under consideration a proposal to send a representative
to South America in order to make a complete survey of marketing possibilities for dry-salt
salmon and dry-salt herring prior to next season. Particular attention would be given to
the markets of Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, and British Guiana. A
further investigation would be made at Trinidad and other West Indies markets, where Q 84 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
samples have already been forwarded. The Board representative would be able to call at
Panama and possibly other Central American republics en route.
It is believed that our products will take well in the above-mentioned markets if the fish
is packed in boxes of smaller dimensions which would be more suitable to the trade. Further,
the fish will have to be dried as much as possible under ordinary packing conditions, and the
pack of both dry-salt salmon and dry-salt herring developed to suit these new markets. Our
products will no doubt command a higher price when packed in this manner and it is hoped
to increase the volume of business and return on sales to the producers by this effort.
At this point it is only fitting to note with special comment the work of the Canadian
Government Trade Commissioners during the past season in the Orient, and the Board is
sincerely grateful for the splendid work done on its behalf by their various offices. The
Board looks forward with every confidence to the new season, realizing that it has the valued
co-operation of the Canadian Government Trade Commissioners, both in the Orient in securing all the business obtainable, as well as in South America, where it is believed new markets
can be developed for our products.
In closing, it is needless to say that the work of the Board has been carried on in complete
harmony with the Provincial Department of Fisheries, and in summing up it has been a
pleasure for the Board members to serve the industry during the season just closed.
Respectfully submitted.
BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH BOARD.
Hugh Dalton, Chairman.
Geo. E. Crawford, Member.
R. Nelson, Member.
T. Matsuyama, Member.
K. Kimura, Member.
L. Richmond,
Acting-Secretary.
Vancouver, B.C., May 16th, 1939. BRITISH COLUMBIA. Q 85
REPORT ON INSPECTION OF SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS,  1938.
By J. A. Motherwell.
GENERAL.
This year's migration to the salmon-spawning grounds continues to justify the expectation that under present conservation measures, properly enforced, the supply of salmon in this
Province should always be maintained.
Conditions vary from year to year in the way of intensive fishing, freshets, obstructions
in streams, fishermen's strikes, weather conditions, etc., each having its effect on escapement,
but each situation is being properly met by any necessary measures.
During the season under review, whilst there was the usual toll of spawning fish by the
numerous enemies, such as trout, ducks, eagles, and other bird-life, there was also a large toll
taken by bears and wolves. Conditions in this respect are particularly difficult in the short,
shallow streams in the Queen Charlotte Islands, where the bears are undoubtedly on the
increase, resulting in some spawning-streams being entirely denuded of spawning fish.
During the past fall the situation has been aggravated by the depredations of wolves, which
are reported as being greatly on the increase. It is suggested that the usual food of the
wolves is not so plentiful as heretofore and that they are now dependent more on salmon.
It is a fact that during the past fall the inspecting officers have found many cases where
wolves have destroyed large quantities of spawning salmon. This does not, however, apply
to the Queen Charlotte Islands District, where there are no wolves.
The outstanding feature in the salmon runs of this season was the unusually large run
of big cohoes. These large quantities were found practically all along the coast, although the
trollers found difficulty in taking as large a percentage of the run as might have been
expected. For some reason or other, possibly due to the presence of more desirable food, the
cohoes did not take the fishermen's lure as readily as in other seasons.
A detailed report covering the several areas follows. i
QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.
There was the usual small supply of sockeye in the Masset Inlet and Copper River area,
but the run is so small as to be unimportant commercially. An average seeding occurred.
The cohoe seeding was a satisfactory one.
In the case of pinks the supply on the spawning-grounds was found to be adequate,
generally speaking, with exceptionally heavy supplies on some of the spawning-grounds along
the south-east shores of the Islands.
The supply on the Yakoun was good, notwithstanding the fact that the catch was light.
This also applies to the streams at Naden Harbour. In the other streams in the Masset Inlet
area, however, the supply was found to be light.
In the case of chums, a good seeding was observed in the Cumshewa District, but in other
areas the spawning was only fair. By means of extra protective measures a fair percentage
of the run was permitted to escape to the spawning-grounds.
NASS AREA.
The usual inspection was made of the Meziaden portion of the watershed, to which the
largest proportion of the sockeye salmon to the Nass proceeds.
It was found that the seeding by the early run of sockeye was heavy, being very similar
to that of the preceding year, better than that of 1933, but not quite as large as the heavy run
in 1934. The later run was also heavy, being better than the late run reported in 1933, but
similar to the good seeding of 1934, and much heavier than that of 1937. Generally speaking,
the seeding of this area was a heavy one.
There was an unusually large run of cohoe salmon, but the inspection in the Meziaden
District was too early to observe just what the actual spawning had been in that portion of
the watershed. However, the local Inspector reports " a very unusual run of cohoes in the
Nass area this season, nobody living here having seen anything like it." Q 86 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
There is no doubt but that the spawning-grounds which are mostly inaccessible from the
standpoint of inspection, are well supplied. The individual fish were also reported to be
unusually large. There was a satisfactory supply of pinks found on the spawning-grounds,
although not quite as heavy as the seeding of 1936, the brood-year. The run was late, which
accounts for the seines not taking larger quantities. The spawning of chums was also very
good throughout the area.
At Meziaden Lake the fishway was found to be functioning quite satisfactorily and the
salmon had no difficulty in passing through.
The spring-salmon seeding was not quite up to expectations.
SKEENA AREA.
The measures taken in recent years at this stream in the way of conservation by means
of moving the boundary nearer to the mouth of the river, and the shortening of the fishing
season, coupled with a voluntary reduction in the number of fishing-boats operated by the
canners, would appear to be bringing the desired results in the way of adequate spawning.
The sockeye escapements to the most important areas, such as Babine and Lakelse, have
been gratifying during the season under review.
On the upper Babine River the conditions were found to be fairly satisfactory, although
on the lower river they were not quite so good. Taking these two areas together, however, the
spawning was found to be equal to that of 1934.
Fulton River, Pierre Creek, 15-Mile Creek, and Morrison Creek, which are the principal
sockeye-spawning areas in Babine Lake District, were fairly heavily supplied with sockeye,
and spawning conditions generally were found to be good.
In the case of cohoes, generally speaking the seeding was quite satisfactory. This also
applies to the spring variety. The inspecting officer sums up as follows: " Babine spawning-
beds, in comparison with other years, have been adequately seeded by a medium to heavy run
of sockeye, a heavy run of springs, a heavy run of cohoes, and a heavy run of pinks. The
only exception to this would be Pierre Creek and the lower Babine River, in regard to
sockeye."
At the Morice Lake watershed a reasonably good inspection was made this fall and apparently at the proper time. A medium heavy run of sockeye was observed on the spawning-
grounds, with quite a heavy run of springs, the latter being large individually.
In the Lakelse Lake area, the principal spawning-grounds for sockeye are Williams,
Schullabuchan, and Granite Creeks. The supply found this year was excellent and better
than that of the brood-year of 1934. There was a fair seeding of springs and a satisfactory
supply of pink salmon found.
LOWE INLET AREA.
The seeding of sockeye is reported at most of the streams in this sub-district as heavy,
and a considerable increase over the cycle-year. There was an unexpected increase in the
supply of cohoes found and the seeding is considered ample.
In the case of pinks the southern portion of the area was rather poorly seeded, but a
comparatively good escapement occurred, due to early closing of fishing. In the northern
portion of the area, however, the pink-run was quite heavy to all streams. Good supplies of
chums were found in most of the spawning-beds in the district, with a few exceptions. On
the whole, however, the' seeding might have been better.
BUTEDALE AREA.
The weather was unusually dry this fall, which made conditions in many of the small
streams difficult and required extra precautions in the way of prohibition of fishing to assure
of sufficient supplies being made available to the spawning-grounds.
The sockeye-supply, however, is reported as larger than usual, with the escapement showing an increase over that of 1934. The escapement of cohoes was much heavier than the
average of recent years.
The spring's are never a big factor in the spawning of the Butedale area, but the supply
was hardly up to normal. BRITISH COLUMBIA.        • Q 87
In the case of pinks, the seeding was reasonably satisfactory and it is expected that it
may result in a satisfactory return two years hence.
The supply of chums was found to be entirely satisfactory.
BELLA BELLA AREA.
The sockeye seeding in this area was found to be satisfactory, largely due to the measures
taken for the purpose of conservation. There was a heavy escapement of cohoes found, the
fish being individually large. This was an " off " year for the pink variety; although, despite
this fact, the seeding was found to be quite heavy.
An abundance of chum salmon was found on the spawning-grounds; in fact, both early
and late runs were found to be very numerous.
BELLA COOLA AREA.
This year's spawning took place under generally favourable conditions. Up to date of
inspection no freshets had occurred and the prospects for reasonably satisfactory results were
good. Encouraging supplies of sockeye were found, being equal to the seeding of the brood-
year. Cohoes, springs, and chums were also well represented on the spawning-grounds and
showed an increase in comparison with recent years. The pinks, on the contrary, were
scarce, the seeding being much below that of the brood-year of 1936.
RIVERS INLET AREA.
The sockeye seeding is reported as being better than usual, and the writer is of the
opinion that under present regulations, properly enforced, there would appear to be no reason
why these conditions should not always obtain.
Rivers Inlet is not considered a good fall salmon area, although the cohoe-supply was
found to be somewhat better than usual; the run of pinks rather poor. This also applies to
the chums.
SMITH INLET AREA.
This area is also primarily a sockeye district and the escapement in the year under review
is reported as being most encouraging. With the present regulations at this point well
enforced, there would appear to be no reason why the supply should not also always be
maintained.
The run of cohoes was somewhat better than average, and the escapement of chums was
quite good to the small portion of the area utilized by this variety.
FRASER RIVER WATERSHED.
Prince George Area.—The escapement of sockeye, whilst not large, was a little better
than the average of recent years. This applies particularly to the streams tributary to
Stuart Lake.
In the Francois Lake system the returns this year were encouraging, compared with
those of recent seasons.
The number of spring salmon appearing on the spawning-grounds was fairly heavy,
comparatively.
Quesnel Area.—A few sockeye only were observed in the Bowron Lake system, and none
at all in the Horsefly or Mitchell Rivers, tributary to Quesnel Lake.
In the Chilcotin system, however, the escapement showed an increase of 100 per cent,
over that of the brood-year of 1934. This, no doubt, was partly the result of the arrangements made whereby Indians were not permitted to take any sockeye whatever on their way
to the Chilko Lake spawning-grounds.
Kamloops Area.—It will be remembered that this cycle has been increasing during recent
years and in 1934 there was a most satisfactory seeding of the sockeye-spawning grounds of
the Shuswap District. This year there was again a large increase; in fact the return was
surprisingly large, notwithstanding the excellent seeding of 1934. The quantities were estimated at four or five times as great as the number appearing in the brood-year.
Adams and Little Rivers are the chief spawning areas and the gravel-beds of these were
literally covered with spawning sockeye.   In the Adams River particularly, in addition to the Q 88 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
distribution along the entire bed, there were large masses along both banks of the stream and
many deep holes were practically full of spawning sockeye.
Although the fishways at the outlet of Adams Lake leave something to be desired, yet
that on the left-hand side functioned reasonably well, resulting in a considerable escapement
to the lake. A resident at the dam informed the writer that she had counted as many as
700 sockeye per hour passing through this fishway at times.
At the mouth of Adams River, at the time of inspection, there were large quantities of
sockeye milling about in the lake, waiting to go up-stream. At Scotch Creek, which had
received practically no sockeye for some seasons past, there was observed a mass of sockeye
which later reached the spawning-beds. This river has had the best seeding for a good many
years.
The physical condition of the salmon was excellent. The fish were, with few exceptions,
unscarred and vigorous, which seemed to show that the conditions at Hell's Gate had presented no difficulties.
In the north branch of the Thompson River a normal run of sockeye was observed at Raft
River, but none at Barriere River. Spring and cohoe salmon, however, were observed in fair
numbers.
Pemberton Area.—It will be remembered that for many years previous to 1936 very few
sockeye were observed in the Anderson-Seton Lake system. In 1936, however, there was an
encouraging return and in 1937 quite a large run appeared. This year, however, there was
only a matter of a few hundred observed and these were mostly in Gates Creek at the head
of the system.
In the Birkenhead River the run of sockeye was quite good, the run being at least equal
to that of the brood-year.    A heavy run of cohoe salmon also reached this watershed.
The cohoe run to the Squamish River and tributaries was the heaviest in years and the
spawning-beds were well seeded. The supply of chums was also found to be very satisfactory.
This also applies to the spring variety.
Hope Area.—The sockeye-spawning grounds in this area are limited, but a good run was
observed to pass freely through Hell's Gate, the water conditions at that point being quite
suitable practically all season. There was no congestion of salmon observed at the Gate as is
often the case.    Only a few sockeye appeared in Kawkawa Lake.
The cohoe-supply on the spawning-greunds is reported as being heavier than that of any
recent year and the chum-salmon spawning was also quite satisfactory.
Chilliwack Area.—Only a moderate quantity of sockeye reached the spawning-grounds of
Chilliwack Lake and its tributaries. The run to Cultus Lake, by actual count, was in the
vicinity of 6,000. The cohoe-spawning was the heaviest in years and the chum-supply was
also satisfactory.
The spring-salmon run was normal.
Harrison Lake Area.—The sockeye spawning is considered satisfactory, compared with
that of recent years. Quite a good seeding was observed at Morris Creek, which is the
principal spawning-ground of the area. Springs appeared in satisfactory quantities in the
usual spawning-grounds of the main channel of Harrison River. Cohoes and chums were
found to be numerous also on the spawning-grounds.
Pitt River Area.—The spawning conditions of sockeye in this area were found to be
normal. This also applies to the spring salmon. A heavy run of cohoe appeared in the
tributaries of the Upper Pitt River.
Lower Fraser Area.—In the Serpentine and Nicomekl Rivers there was found the largest
supply of cohoe salmon seen in several years, and this applies to other streams in the lower
part of the Fraser River system.
In the case of the chums, the seeding was not so satisfactory, apart from the Cultus Lake
area. During the fishing season additional closed time was arranged to permit of a larger
portion of the run to escape the nets. It is expected that the resultant spawning will prove
reasonably satisfactory.
North Vancouver Area.—There was a heavy seeding of chums and cohoes in the streams
tributary to Burrard Inlet. It was an " off " year for pink salmon, but a few were observed
in Indian River. ALERT BAY AREA.
The sockeye spawning was unusually good, due no doubt largely to a strike of fishermen,
which resulted in fishing operations not commencing until June 26th, practically a month
later than usual.
The whole Nimpkish area was splendidly supplied with spawning sockeye. Normal
supplies were also observed in McKenzie Sound, Glendale Cove, and Thompson Sound
spawning-grounds.
The supply of springs was, generally speaking, normal, with heavy runs to the Nimpkish
and Adams Rivers.
The run of pink salmon to Knight Inlet streams was also reported as heavy, particularly
at Glendale Cove. The spawning-grounds of Wakeman River, Thompson Sound, Bond Sound,
and other mainland streams were disappointing, and the supply to Adams River, Keough and
Klucksevi Rivers was not equal to the brood-year of 1936.
The cohoe-supply was, generally speaking, very satisfactory. The mainland streams
were well seeded, but the streams on Vancouver Island were not so well supplied, with the
exception of Quatse River, where there was a heavy run. The size of the individuals is also
commented upon by the inspecting officer.
Practically all the rivers in the area were well supplied with chums. This includes
Seymour Inlet, where some doubt had been expressed as to the escapement.
QUATHIASKI AREA.
The sockeye seeding at Hayden Bay was found to be a considerable increase over that of
the brood-year; and, in fact, this is the fourth year in succession in which increases have been
observed.    The Phillips Arm run compared favourably with that of the four previous years.
The escapement of springs to the streams used by this variety, and particularly to
Phillips and Campbell Rivers, is reported as being very satisfactory. The number of cohoes
on the spawning-beds was greater than for many years. The inspecting officer remarks also
on the large size of the individual fish of this variety.
The pink run, while late, was found to be present in numbers comparing favourably
with the brood-year of two years previously. The chum escapement was found to be better
than for several seasons.
COMOX AREA.
The pink seeding at Oyster River is reported as very satisfactory, being an improvement
of 100 per cent, over the brood-year of 1936. The other pink streams, however, in the area
showed a disappointing seeding, particularly at Puntledge River. The brood-year also was
a poor one and was, no doubt, the result of the disastrous flood in 1934.
The cohoe seeding is reported generally as extremely satisfactory, exceeding anything
anticipated. The only exception was the Puntledge River, where the return is reported as
being below normal. In the Tsoleum River, a tributary of the Puntledge, however, a good
supply was observed.
A good run of chums was observed on the spawning-grounds, the Little Qualicum River
showing the heaviest return of any stream in the district. The closure of fishing in the
waters adjacent to the Comox peninsula permitted a good supply of chums to reach the
spawning areas of Puntledge River. A satisfactory supply also reached the spawning-
grounds of Oyster River. The spring-salmon spawning in Puntledge River compared
favourably with that of 1937. The spawning of steelhead, particularly in Puntledge, Tsoleum,
and Oyster Rivers, is reported as good, but the Big Qualicum supply was not quite so
satisfactory.
PENDER HARBOUR AREA.
Sakinaw Lake is the only sockeye-spawning ground of any importance in the area and
it was found that the sockeye spawning was better than in recent years. The supplies of
springs to the spawning-grounds in the Pender Harbour area were normal.
A good supply of cohoes was observed.
In the case of chums, notwithstanding the heavy catches made by the fishermen, the
escapement to the streams at the head of Jervis Inlet was exceptionally heavy. This being
an " off " year for pinks, only a light seeding occurred. Q 90 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
NANAIMO AREA.
This is not a sockeye area. The springs, however, were found in much larger numbers
on the spawning-beds than in the previous year, although the run of that year was considered
good.
The cohoe-supply was heavier than in recent years, the escapement to the Nanaimo
River watershed being greater than observed for many years, and in the Chemainus watershed the number was greater than usual. The fish in this area also were observed to be
unusually large individually.
Pinks do not frequent the Nanaimo area in any material numbers. The spawning
areas, however, were well supplied with chums.
LADYSMITH AREA.
The information given under the Nanaimo heading applies to the Ladysmith area also,
as they were both inspected together this year due to the fact that the Ladysmith Inspector
was busily engaged elsewhere at the time it was necessary to make the spawning inspection.
COWICHAN AREA.
The supply of spring salmon on the spawning-grounds was lighter than that of the
corresponding cycle, and due to the unusually low water special precautions were necessary
to see that a reasonable quantity escaped the commercial fishermen and the fishing by
Indians for their own food purposes.
There was a good supply of cohoe salmon on the spawning-grounds and a heavy seeding
of chums.
VICTORIA AREA.
An increase in the number of spawning cohoe was observed, compared with other years,
and the size of the individuals was greater. An average spawning of the chum variety
occurred.
The inspecting officer reports American Merganser ducks being particularly numerous
on the spawning-beds. Over seventy of these birds were shot. Some of the stomachs are
reported as being gorged with salmon-eggs and all of those examined contained some eggs.
ALBERNI AREA.
The sockeye-supply to Hobiton Lake is reported as disappointing. An average number
of spawners was found on the Anderson Lake system, and in the Sproat Lake-Great Central
Lake areas the seeding was found to be very good, the run being estimated to exceed that
of the brood-year.
Some changes were made at the fishway at Stamp Falls which made the passage of
salmon much easier.    There was no difficulty experienced at Sproat Falls.
There was a heavy spawning of cohoes in practically all the rivers of any importance
in the area, an exceptionally heavy spawning occurring in the creeks of the Somass River
system.
The seeding of the spawning-grounds by spring salmon was reported generally as being
good.
The supply of chum salmon was found to be very heavy, notwithstanding the lower
average catches by the commercial fishermen.
CLAYOQUOT AREA.
A good spawning of sockeye occurred in Megin River, but the run to the main spawning-
grounds of this species—that is, Kennedy Lake—is reported to have exceeded expectations
and was far heavier than that of the brood-year.
The cohoe-supply was found to be the largest for twenty years, all streams being heavily
seeded with this variety.
The supply of chum spawners was found to be good. NOOTKA AREA.
This is not an important sockeye area but the escapement was normal, with the exception
of Burman River where there was a slight decrease in numbers. The spawning of spring
salmon was much the same as usual.    The cohoe-supply was an average one.
The chief run of salmon is the chum variety, and although the runs were not as great as
hoped for the seeding of the spawning-grounds is reported to be satisfactory.
KYUQUOT AREA.
A very good run of springs was found on the spawning-grounds and an exceptionally
good supply of cohoes, the individual fish being also greater in size. There was also a good
supply of chums observed.
QUATSINO AREA.
This is not an important sockeye area but there was a heavy run of springs to Marble
Creek, which contains 75 per cent, of the spring-spawning area of the district.
The cohoe-supply was above the average and the size of the individual fish larger than
usual.
The pink-supply in the Rupert Arm area is reported as being very heavy. This is the
most important pink area of the district. The supplies to the other spawning-grounds
were light.
The chum-supply was quite satisfactory, the escapement being above average. Q 92
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1938.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoes.
Pinks.
Chums.
Grand Total
(Cases).
186,794
179
21,462
47,257
87,942
33,894
36,178
27,965
5,779
4,308
66
773
4,318
1,209
68
540
4,254
14
188
42
105
64
433
190
27,127
16,616
14,159
52,821
16,285
1,058
56,716
89,471
26,828
63
57,952
61,477
69,610
9,063
1,761
130,842
70,108
58,778
40,882
15,911
16,758
7,759
8,076
127,089
266,566
277,084
Queen Charlotte Islands	
115,695
113,970
190,806
122,363
Smith Inlet... __	
44,921
351,798
458,554
32,607
Totals	
447,450
15,536
1,036
301,081
400,876
541,819
1,707,798
27,417 cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table.
5,312 cases of sockeye caught in State of Washington waters are shown in the Fraser River Pack.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1923  TO 1938, INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
186,794
3,754
554
58,778
63
27,127
14
100,272
3,706
1,738
20,878
94,010
11,244
184,864
6,675
8,451
31,565
62,822
4,205
5,196
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
5,150
11,068
104,092
2,199
11,392
52,465
5,579
65,769
18,298
10,403
14,948
385
16,815
23
40,947
Springs, Red     	
9,740
Chums -	
34,391
92,746
13,901
261
13,307
28,716
8,165
657
Totals.—. 	
277,084
231,848
260,261
216,728
273,139
199,082
126,641
73,067
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
103,692
11,366
9,761
68,946
30,754
25,585
27,879
61,569
3,305
6,699
144,159
158,208
40,520
12,013
29,299
1,173
3,909
193,106
2,881
27,061
795
61,393
7,925
10,528
67,259
102,536
24,079
10,658
85,689
12,783
20,169
88,495
32,256
21,783
13,776
35,385
7,989
25,701
66,111
99,800
36,717
5,152
39,743
2,982
4.648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
31,655
Springs, Red  	
Springs, White  	
3,854
4,279
103,248
Pinks
63,645
20,173
15
Steelheads 	
Totals.   	
277,983
426,473
258,224
284,378
274,951
276,865
212,059
226,869 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 93
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1923 TO 1938, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Skeena River.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
47,257
4,318
16,758
69,610
52,821
42
42.491
4,401
10,811
59,400
15,514
21
81,973
4.55U
15,297,5
91,389
25,390
33
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
126,163
54,456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
28,269
38,649
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
Springs — 	
9,857
3,893
44,807
Cohoes 	
Steelhead Trout        	
10,637
768
Totals
190,806
132.638
218,634
170,420
284,096
185,463
233,711
162,986
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Sockeyes    	
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
58
78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
13
34,559
6,420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
83,996
19,038
19,006
38,768
26,326
582
82,360
30,594
63,527
210,081
30,208
754
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
39,168
713
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
131.731
12,247
16,527
Pinks	
145,973
31,967
Steelhead Trout 	
418
Totals          	
450,377
220,245
298,709
187,716
407,524
348,859
390,858
338,863
Rivers Inlet.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
87,942
1,209
7,759
9,063
16,285
105
84,832
917
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
46,351
5811
11,505
6,4325
7,1222,
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
325
Chums __  	
429
5,089
6,571
32
Totals    -	
122,363
108,782
72.011J
155,671
86,000
93,220
81,709
88,874
'
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
342
989
2,386
1,120
29
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
868
7
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
65,581
685
11,727
12,815
7,286
11
192,323»
496
11,510
8,625
4,946
94,891
545
4,924
15,105
1.980
116,850
Springs   	
599
3,242
Pinks  -	
Cohoes — —	
Steelhead Trout   	
10,057
1,526
Totals... 	
138,980
75,126
81,527
69,773
98,105
217,900
117,445
132,274
' Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu. Q 94
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1923 TO 1938, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Smith Inlet, 1926-38.*
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
33,894
68
25,258
21
12,788
2
28
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
214
2
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
37,369
354
5,068
19,995
8,841
87
25,488
46
Springs, "White.  	
2
1,058
1,761
8,076
64
241
483
9,494
5
3,941
6,953
15,548
48
273
1,148
165
Steelheads-    — -	
20
Totals         ._ 	
44,921
35,502
14,888
49,928
41,256
71,714
27,142
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Sockeyes - —
12,867
122
112
824
133
36
32,057
268
22
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
9,683
18
60
275
853
113
12
33,442
108
178
230
167
19
6
22,682
270
79
2,990
732
2,605
8
17,921
73
89
Cohoes   —
Pinks .— —  	
Chums 	
Steelheads —	
164
689
31
14,094
52,185
11,014
34,150
29,366
18,917
* Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other Districts.
Nass River.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
Sockeyes 	
21,462
773
15,911
61,477
14,159
188
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
28,5621
2,167
20,6202
75,887i
11,842
496
12,712
660
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32.964
9,935
311
9,757
1,296
1,775
44,306
3,261
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
1,439
5,178
8,943
Cohoes	
113,970
49,042
139,675J
78,214
75,213
60,434
85,671
32,881
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Sockeyes 	
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,126
84
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
5,640
1,846
3,538
83,183
10,734
36
12,026
3,824
3,307
16,609
3,966
96
15,929
5,964
15,392
50,815
4,274
375
18,945
3,757
22,604
35,630
8,027
245
33,590
2,725
26,612
72,496
6.481
1,035
17,821
3,314
25,791
44,165
7,894
595
Pinks	
Cohoes.  	
Steelhead Trout	
Totals	
113,460
29,185
104,877
39,828
92,749
89,008
142,939
99,680 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 95
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1923 TO 1938, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Vancouver Island District, 1927-38.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
Sockeyes  - 	
27,965
4,254
266,566
70,108
62,054
27,607
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
32,6961
6,340
347,951
82,028J
90,625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
18,397
4,875
96,642
Pinks                                             —               - 	
172,945
60,019
147
Totals.                 	
458,554
608,798
559,746
469,427
372,347
353,025
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
27,611
10,559
70,629
33,403
35,132
28,596
22,199
4,055
16,329
81,965
26,310
24,638
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1,645
162,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
14,248
2,269
303,474
41,885
23,345
5,249
24,835
6,769
Chums —	
Pinks                             	
220,270
62,561
58,834
10,194
205,930
175,541
340,395
294,854
390,470
373,463
Queen Charlotte and Central Area.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
Sockeyes  —
179
66
40,882
57,952
16,616
31,987
1,781
183,182
97,334
29,640
614
27,584
1,057
168,896
335,733
65,744
373
32,417
750
212,251
95,669
47,292
355
20,438
2,374
155,371
210,734
62,165
733
26,106
4,416
135,590
101,701
33,471
827
21,685
3,514
167,011
82,449
44,977
591
29,071
1,608
34,570
55,825
16,141
466
Totals..	
115,695
342,540
599,387
388,734
451,815
302,111
320,227
137,661
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Sockeyes — —	
39,198
1,852
143,781
600,986
61,418
1,204
35,331
1,020
111,263
136,758
56,938
675
59,852
2,806
341,802
438,298
58,455
609
60,533
7,826
252,230
36,481
47,433
973
62,383*
3,660
348,682
380,243
47,183
973
49,962
5.002
305,256
120,747
40,269
1,520
40,926
4,245
195,357
141,878
26,031
497
24,584
2,711
Chums —.    	
148,727
146,943
Cohoes —  	
29,142
732
Totals  	
848,439
341,873
901,822
405,476
844,114
522,756
408,934
352,839
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet. Q 96
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1923 TO 1938, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Total packed by Districts in 1923 to 1938, inclusive.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
277,084
223,413
122,363
44,921
113,970
458,554
467,493
1,707,798.:
231,848
133,165
108,782
35,502
49,042
608,798
342,350
260,261
218,634
72,0111.
14,888
139,575.1
559,746i
599,387
216,728
170,420
155,571
49,928
78,214
469,427
388,734
273,139
284,096
86,000
41,256
75,213
372,347
451,815
199,082
185,463
93,220
71,714
60,434
353,025
302,111
126,641
233,711
81,709
27,142
85,671
205,930
320,227
73,067
Skeena  	
162,986
88,874
Smith Inlet.       	
14,094
Nass River 	
Vancouver Island 	
32,881
175,541
137,661
l,509,677t
l,864,503i
1,529,022
1,583,866
1,265,049
1,081,031
685,104
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
277,983
450,377
138,980
52,185
113,460
340,395
848,439
426,473
220,245
75,126
11,014
29,185
294,854
341,873
258,224
298,709
81,527
34,150
104,877
390,470
901,822
284,378
187,716
69,773
29,366
39,828
373,463
405,476
274,951
407,524
98,105
18,917
92,749
347,722
844,139*
276,855
348,859
217,900
33,998
89,008
263,904
522,766
212,059
390,858
117,445
11,776
142,939
277,267
604,745
226,869
338,863
132,274
Smith Inlet        .—	
11,979
99,580
191,252
352,839
2,221,819
1,398,770
2,035,629
1,360,634
2,065,190
1,719,282
1,745,213
1,341,677
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet.
t Including 527 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River.
$ Including 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye and 26,828 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE ENTIRE
FRASER RIVER SYSTEM FROM 1894 TO 1937, INCLUSIVE.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
363,967
41,781
395,984
65,143
356,984
72,979
860,459
312,048
240,000
252,000
486,409
499,646
170,889
228,704
974,911
1,105,096
293,477
339,556
State of Washington	
405,748
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
492,000
986,055
399,593
2,080,007
633,033
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.
1911.
204,809
167,211
72,688
123,419
837,489
837,122
183,007
182,241
59,815
96,974
74,574
170,951
585,435
1,097,904
150,432
248,014
58,487
State of Washington..	
127,761
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
186,248
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
123,879
184,680
719,796
1,673,099
198,183
335,230
91,130
64,584
32,146
84,637
148,164
411,538
19,697
50,723
38,854
64,364
48,399
62,654
State of Washington	
Totals .....  	
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
103,200
111,053
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
39,631
102,967
51,832
48,566
31,655
47,402
39,743
69,369
35,385
112,023
85,689
44,673
61,393
97,594
29,299
61,044
61,569
111,898
State of Washington	
142,598
100,398
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
158,987
90,343
173,464
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
1938.
103,692
352,194
40,947
87,211
65,769
81,188
52,465
126,604
139,238
352,579
62,822
54,677
184,854
59,505
100,272
60,259
186,794
134,641
State of Washington	
Totals	
455,886
128,158
146,957
179,069
491,817
117,499
244,359
160,531
321,435 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Q 97
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1923 TO 1938, INCLUSIVE.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
Fraser River	
186,794
47,257
87,942
33,894
21,462
27,965
36,357
441,671*
100,272
42,491
84,832
25,268
17,567
25,427
29,989
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28.562J:
34,4301
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
27,611
21,685
40,947
93,028
76,428
Smith Inlet	
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
Totals.	
325,836
414,809
350,444
377,844
258,107
284,355
291,464
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
103,692
132,372
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
477,678
61,569
78,017
70,260
9,683
16,077
10,340
35,331
29,299
34,559
60,044
33,442
5,540
14,248
26,410
61,393
83,996
65,269
22,682
12,026
24,835
37,851
85,689
82,360
65,581
17,921
15,929
25,070
44,462
35,385
81,146
192,323
33,764
18,945
14,757
16,198
39,743
144,747
94,891
11,435
33,590
16,618
20,579
31,655
131,781
116,850
Smith Inlet	
11,864
17,821
12,006
12,720
Totals 	
281,277
203,542
308,052
337,012
392,618
369,603
334,647
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the year
1936.
* 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye packed at Skeena River are not shown in the above table for the year 1938.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PILCHARD INDUSTRY OF THE
PROVINCE, 1920 TO 1937, INCLUSIVE.
Year.
Total Catch.
Canned.
Used in
Reduction.
Oil.
Meal.
Bait.
1920          	
Cwt.   •
88,050
19,737
20,342
19,492
27,485
■ 318,973
969,958
1,368,582
1,610,252
1,726,851
1,501,404
1,472,085
886,964
120,999
860,103
911,411
889,037
961,485
Cases.
91,929
16,091
19,186
17,195
14,898
37,182
26,731
58,501
65,097
98,821
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
Cwt.
Gals.
Tons.
Bbls.
9,937
1921         -..            -
4,232
1922           -	
3,125
1923	
3,625
1924        _ 	
220,000
940,000
1,310,000
1,560,000
1,654,576
1,468,840
1,456,846
876,700
119,545
845,849
896,586
863,373
930,713
923
1925          	
495,653
1,898,721
2,610i,120
3,997,656
2,856,579
3,204,058
2,561,914
1,315,864
275,879
1,635,123
1,634,592
1,217,097
1,707,276
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,826
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
4,045
1926                             -
2,950
1927      	
1,737
1928          .              -
2,149
1929	
1930       - 	
1,538
926
1931'                            _     	
1,552
1932          -	
1,603
1933                        	
20
1934                             	
40
1935                           	
521
1°3B
580
1937      	
1,045 Q 98              REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1938.
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, 1920 TO 1938  (OTHER
THAN FROM PILCHARD).
Year.
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1920                                         	
Tons.
503
326
485
292
347
340
345
376
417
273
249
340
211
332
268
273
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
666
651
754
780
581
223
631
354
687
527
K1 9.
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,626
3,335
5,647
6,608
5,583
5,028
7,509
13,197
17,147
Gals.
55,669
1921	
44,700
1922                      	
283,314
706,514
645,657
556,939
468,206
437,967
571,914
712,597
525,533
75,461
1923  	
1924  	
180,318
241,376
1925	
354,853
1926             	
217,150
1927                  	
250,811
1928    	
387,276
1929     ......
1930 	
1931   	
459,575
243,009
352,492
1932..   	
231 690
1933   	
509,310
813,724
426,772
763,740
662,355
543,378
497,643
441,735
588,629
1,143,206
1,578,204
1934    :	
1935-...	
1936  '	
1937 	
1938     	
1
Printed by Charles F.
VICTOB
Banfield. Prin
11
IA, B.C. :
ter to the King
)39.
s Most Excellent Majesty.
1,525-639-380  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0308772/manifest

Comment

Related Items