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SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1937-1938 BY THE… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1939

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Full Text

 SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF  THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1937-1938
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chabi.es F. Baneield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1938.  To His Honour Eric Werge Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg respectfully to present the Sixty-seventh Annual Report of the Public Schools of
the Province.
G. M. WEIR,
Minister of Education.
December, 1938.  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
1397-38.
Minister of Education:
The Honourable GEORGE M. WEIR.
Deputy Minister and Superintendent of Education:
S. J. Willis, B.A., LL.D.
Assistant Superintendent of Education:
D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Ph.D.
Inspectors of High Schools :
J. B. DeLong, B.A., Vancouver. A. Sullivan, B.A., Victoria.
Inspectors of Elementary and Superior Schools:
J. E. Brown, M.A., Cranbrook. A. S. Matheson, B.A., Kelowna.
F. G. Calvert, Vancouver. A. F. Matthews, M.A., Kamloops.
T. G. Carter, Penticton. A. E. Miller, Revelstoke.
E. G. Daniels, B.A., New Westminster.        fH. M. Morrison, Ph.D., Prince Rupert.
*H. C. Fraser, M.A., Victoria. H. McArthur, B.A., Kamloops.
f C. J. Frederickson, B.A., Prince George. H. H. Mackenzie, B.A., Vancouver.
W. G. Gamble, B.A., Victoria. W.  A. Plenderleith, M.A., Ps.D., D.Paed.,
G. H. Gower, M.A., Courtenay. Nanaimo.
fT. W. Hall, Abbotsford. |A. S. Towell, M.A., Pouce Coupe.
F. A. Jewett, B.A., Nelson. f K. B. Woodward, B.A., B.Paed.,
V. Z. Manning, B.A., Vancouver. Prince George.
* Died, November 3rd, 1937.
t These men also inspect the High Schools in their districts.
Municipal Inspectors of Schools:
George H. Deane, Victoria. W. Gray, M.A., North Vancouver.
R. S. Shields, B.A., New Westminster. C. G. Brown, M.A., Burnaby.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Officer in Charge of Technical Education:
John Kyle, A.R.C.A.
Director of Home Economics:
Miss J. L. McLenaghen, B.Sc.
Officer in Charge of High Correspondence School:
J. W. Gibson, M.A., B.Paed.
Officer in Charge of Elementary Correspondence School:
Miss Anna B. Miller.
Organizer of School and Community Drama:
L. Bullock-Webster.
Registrar:  J. L. Watson, B.A. Officer in Charge of Text-book Branch:  P. G. Barr.
Chief Clerk:   R. D. Smith.
STAFFS OF THE NORMAL SCHOOLS.
Vancouver: Victoria:
A. R. Lord, B.A., Principal. V. L. Denton, B.A., D.C.L., Principal.
A. Anstey, B.A. B. S. Freeman, B.A.
W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A., F.R.S.A. H. L. Campbell, B.A., M.Ed.
H. B. MacLean. John Gough, M.A.
A. E. C. Martin, B.Sc. Miss H. R. Anderson, M.A., Ph.D.
J. M. Ewing, B.A., D.Paed. F. T. C. Wickett, A.R.C.O.
T. R. Hall, B.A. Mrs. N. E. Murphy, B.Sc.
Miss L. G. Bollert, B.A. Miss Barbara Hinton.
Miss M. McManus, B.Mus., M.A. Model School:
Miss Isabel Coursier. Miss Isabel M. L. Bescoby, M.A.
Miss Margaret Maynard, B.A. Miss Marion James.
School for the Deaf and the Blind:
C. E. MacDonald, LL.B., B.S. in Ed., Principal. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Superintendent of Education        7
Report on Normal Schools—
Vancouver     31
Victoria     32
Report of the Director of the Summer School of Education    33
Report of the Officer in Charge of Technical Education    41
Report of the Director of Home Economics    47
Report of the Superintendent of Schools, Vancouver     48
Reports of Municipal Inspectors—
Victoria     55
New Westminster     56
North Vancouver (City and District) and West Vancouver     58
Burnaby     60
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind     62
Reports of Officers in Charge of Correspondence Schools—
High School and Vocational Courses    63
Elementary School Courses     66
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Text-book Branch     68
Report on Work of Adult Education     71
Report of Director of Recreational and Physical Education     76
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust  '.     82
Report of Commission on " Education of Soldiers' Dependent Children Act " .     84
Report of Organizer of School and Community Drama _ j,     85
Statistical Returns—
High Schools (Cities)     88
High Schools (District Municipalities)  101
High Schools (Rural Districts)    106
Superior Schools  (District Municipalities)  110
Superior Schools (Rural Districts)  111
Junior High Schools (Cities)  116
Junior High Schools  (District Municipalities)  123
Junior High Schools (Rural Districts)  124
Elementary  Schools   (Cities)   126
Elementary Schools (District Municipalities)  158
Elementary Schools (Rural Districts)  177
Elementary Schools (Community Districts)  196
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each City  197
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each District Municipality  200
Enrolment   (Recapitulation)  203
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts _■_  204 REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF
EDUCATION, 1937-38.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., December, 1938.
To the Honourable George M. Weir,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Sixty-seventh Annual Report of the Public Schools
of British Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1938.
ENROLMENT.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 118,431 to
120,360 and the average daily attendance increased from 104,044 to 106,515. The percentage
of regular attendance was 88.49.
The number of pupils enrolled in the various classes of schools is shown hereunder:—
Schools.
Cities.
District
Municipalities.
Rural
Districts.
Community
Districts.
Total.
High Schools	
Superior Schools	
Junior High Schools.-
Elementary Schools...
16,420
8,437
44,392*
4,380
878
1,051
19,610f
1,782
3,137
676
19,075
622
22,682
4,016
10.164
88,699
Totals, 1937-38..
Totals, 1936-37-
69,249
25,919
24,670
522
120,360
69,109
25,165
23,653
504
118,431
* These figures include an enrolment of 89 pupils in the Provincial Government School for the Deaf and the Blind.
t These figures include an enrolment of 70 pupils in the Provincial Model School.
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the—-
High Correspondence School classes, regular students (exclusive of
the  586   officially  registered  in   high,   superior,   or  elementary
schools)  	
Elementary Correspondence School classes, regular students	
Night-schools  	
Adult education—-
Vocational classes  (Dominion-Provincial Youth Training
Plan)         1,186
Vocational  classes for unemployed   (Provincial  Government)   	
Classes in Mining for Prospectors	
Students.
1,159
1,047
7,649
High Correspondence School, Technical-Vocational courses
Elementary Correspondence School 	
Community Self-help Groups
329
694
540
140
1,691
Recreational and Physical Education classes  21,631
Normal School, Vancouver
Normal School, Victoria _
Victoria  College
University of British Columbia
26,211
103
74
222
2,481
Total
38,946 J 8
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS BY GRADES AND SEX.
Grade.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
Grade I        .
7,059
6,208
5,868
5,874
5,630
6,083
6,157
5,611
4,957
3,595
2,362
1,630
217
6,099
5,584
5,481
5,742
5,229
5,866
5,770
5,738
5,083
3,745
2,684
1,841
247
13,158
11,792
11,349
11,616
10,859
11,949
11 927
Grade II               .
Grade TTT
Grade IV ..        .
Grain VI       •
Grade VII.         .     " _    .          ....   .     .
Grade VIII ~~  	
11,349
10,040
7 340
Grade IX  .. .
Grade X       	
GradoXT.
6,046
8,471
464
Grade XII.                ~   .   .
Totals         —   .         	
61,251
59,109
120,360
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS AND PUPILS ACCORDING TO THE  DIFFERENT
CLASSES OF SCHOOLS AND DISTRICTS.
The number of teachers employed in the different classes of schools, the number of pupils
and the percentage of the pupils enrolled in each class of school, and also the average number
of pupils per teacher are shown below:—
Schools.
(LI'S
cs
-n  rn
O  U
**n  H
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V u
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rt c oi
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463
129
84
22
118
224
28
20
1,171
535
900
20
113
30
13
67
7
5
118
23
2
576
159
97
22
118
291
35
25
1,289
558
902
20
16,420
4,380
1,782
878
3,137
8,437
1,051
676
44,392
19,610
19,075
522
13.64
3.64
1.48
0.73
2.61
7.01
0.87
0.56
36.88
16.29
15.86
0.43
35
34
21
40
27
38
38
34
38
36
21
26
30
27
18
Superior schools (district municipalities) _ 	
34
23
33
34
31
33
32
19
21
Totals          -  —	
3,714
378
4,092
120,360
100.00
32
28
* These figures include 19 teachers employed by the Provincial Government and 89 pupils enrolled in the Provincial
Government School for the Deaf and the Blind.
f These figures include 2 teachers employed by the Provincial Government and 70 pupils enrolled in the Provincial
Model School. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
J 9
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES.
The following table shows the number of teachers of each sex employed and also the
number of certificates of each class:—
Schools.
o
1
3
X3
d
<
JH
c
o
U
QJ
Ul
X
u
QJ
JH
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a.
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"o
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fi.
Ul
ai
bJ)
fi
rt
X
o
x-
W
QJ
•«
s
'rt
§
ft,
i
0
455
132
84
2
15
139
11
12
156
25
31
11
2
5
11
76
70
13
5
653
317
550
4
1
9
26
8
1
2
374
198
310
16
1
27
10
10
2
1
2
103
25
8
71
10
5
60
8
1
4
3
17
375
86
70
8
55
151
17
12
308
161
313
1
201
73
27
14
63
140
18
13
981
397
589
19
576
159
97
Superior schools (district municipalities)—	
22
118
291
Junior high schools {district municipalities)...
35
25
Elementary schools (cities) *   	
Elementary schools (district municipalities) t
1,289
658
902
20
Totals, 1937-38 -   _-_-	
1,062
1,717
945
48
5
291
24
1,557
2,535
4,092
Totals, 1936-37	
1,012
1,642
1,021
47
2
276
25
1,496
2,529
4,025
* These figures include 19 teachers employed in the Provincial School for the Deaf and the Blind.
t These figures include 2 teachers employed in the Provincial Model School. J 10                                      PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHERS BY SEX AND EXPERIENCE.
The following table gives a classification by sex and experience of the teachers in the
Province for the school-year 1936-37.    (The table was prepared by the Dominion Bureau of
Statistics.)
City Schools.
District
Municipality
Schools.
Rural Schools
of more than
One Room.
One-room Rural
Schools.
All Schools.
■&
QJ
'rt
i
QJ
ft.
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QJ
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V
1
ft,
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ft.
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rrt
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a
3
ft.
•«
o
H
•rt
QJ
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s
QJ
ft.
s
o
E-,
Experience where teaching—
15
27
42
11
22
33
10
23
33
19
39
58
55
111
166
1 yr. and under 2 yrs	
68
130
198
45
74
119
65
66
131
86
142
228'
264
412
676
2 yrs.         „        3   „ 	
54
82
136
30
45
75
34
70
104
44
83
127
162
280
442
3   „
4   „	
48
70
118
13
44
57
28
34
62
25
38-
63
114
186
300
4   „
5   „ 	
23
33
56
10
20
30
16
14
30
13
29
42
62
96
158
5   „
6   „	
25
30
55
6
21
27
9
18
27
4
19
23
44
88
132
6   „
7   „	
36
56
92
17
28
45
14
19
33
4
15
19
71
118
189
7 „
8 „
8   „ 	
37
61
76
92
113
153
12
13
27
33
39
46
16
18
23
13
39
31
4
3
11
8
15
11
69
95
137
146
206
241
9   „	
9   „
,      10   „ 	
49
67
116
17
26
43
2
12
14
3
3
6
71
108
179
10   „
,      15   „	
171
278
449
50
99
149
8
22
30
2
5
7
231
404
635
15   „
,      20   „ 	
93
208
301
17
35
52
4
5
9
2
2
114
250
364
20   „
,      25   „ 	
46
85
131
4
17
21
50
102
152
25   „
,      30   „	
33
67
100
2
4
6
35
71
106
30   „
35   „ 	
7
11
18
1
1
7
12
19
35 yrs. and over —	
3
3
6
3
3
6
35
35
12
3
15
2
2
4
49
5
54
Total
804  | 1,315  |2,119  | 259
499
758
224
319
543 | 209  | 396
605
1,496   | 2,529   | 4,025
Total experience—
4
7
11
3
12
15
3
7
10
8
15
23
18
41
59
1 yr. and under 2 yrs...	
14
46
60
20
42
62
15
26
41
53
75
128
102
189
291
2 yrs.         „        3   „ 	
18
44
62
17
33
50
22
36
58
36
62
98
93
175
268
3   „
4   „ 	
40
47
87
12
34
46
18
30
48
22
41
63
92
152
244
4   „
5   „	
29
26
55
12
18
30
22
20
42
13
30
43
76
94
170
5   „
6   „ 	
35
34
69
18
18
36
16
18
34
11
22
33
80
92
172
6   „
7   „ 	
25
46
71
14
26
40
17
16
33
11
29
40
67
117
184
7   „
8   „ 	
23
44
67
5
27
32
13
13
26
6
22
28
47
106
153
8   „
9   „ 	
30
55
85
13
28
41
17
26
43
8
19
27
68
128
196
9   „
10   „	
41
68
109
14
29
43
8
23
31
10
7
17
73
127
200
10   „
15   „ 	
199
307
506
63
121
184
47
74
121
12
37
49
321
539
860
15   „
,      20   „ 	
123
235
358
21
43
64
13
21
34
4
20
24
161
319
480
20   „
,      25   „ 	
59
166
225
15
35
50
3
4
7
6
8
14
83
213
296
25   „
,      30   „	
50
92
142
8
21
29
4
2
6
2
4
6
64
119
188
30   „
35   „	
40
71
111
8
5
13
2
3
5
4
1
5
54
80
134
35 yrs. and over 	
39
27
66
4
4
8
4
4
1
2
3
48
33
81
Unspecified  —	
Totals  	
35
35
12
3
15
2
2
4
49
5
54
804  [1,315  |2,119  [ 259  | 499  | 758
224  | 319  | 543  | 209  j  396  | 605
1,496  | 2,529
4,025
NEW SCHOOLS.
High schools were established in Cowichan Lake, Greenwood, Robson, Westbank, and
Wynndel School Districts;   junior high schools at Kimberley, Richmond, Vancouver North
City, Vernon, and Victoria;   and superior schools at Abbotsford  (Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford
Educational Administrative Area),  Bralorne,  Castlegar,  Copper Mountain,  Falkland,  Mt.
Lehman (Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Educational Administrative Area), Stillwater United,
and Ymir.
Elementary schools were opened for the first time in the following districts:—
Name of School District.                                                                                  Electoral District.
Fort Geore-e.
.Lillooet.
Franklin Riv
Pivers Tnlet
er                          Alberni-]
Nanaimo.
     Mackenz
ie.
Signal Butte                   Kamloop
s. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
J 11
COMPARISION OF ENROLMENT AND EXPENDITURE FOR PUBLIC EDUCATION.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province for various years since 1877-78 and also the
cost of maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—•
School-year.
0JT3
,H   QJ
"3-2 1
Z& o
•qj
o
X
Is
•W.S
O  Jh
d.3
za
si
ci o
be g
ox
*H  O
ba ,h
bae
oj
o
C
qj     rt
bo   -9
g  HjC
o?e £
> rt hh
QJ           QJ
s   1
HH           CQ
qj    e
CJ           QJ
tH          HH
Ph 0<1
Government
Expenditure
for
Education.
Total
Expenditure
for Public
Schools.
1877-78
56
69
128
267
429
607
816
1,597
1,859
2,246
3,118
3,668
3,784
3,854
3,948
3,959
3,912
3,873
3,942
3,956
4,025
4,092
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
374
575
744
788
792
803
811
830
821
827
762
773
763
741
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
62,263
67,516
94,888
108,179
109,588
111,017
113,914
115,919
116,816
115,792
117,233
116,722
118,431
120,360
1,395
1,383
3,093
7,111
11,055
16,357
23,195
43,274
49,377
54,746
77,752
91,760
94,410
96,196
99,375
103,510
104,978
103,389
101,893
101,573
104,044
106,515
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
79.30
81.09
81.94
84.82
86.17
86.65
87.23
89.29
89.86
89.30
86.91
87.27
87.85
88.49
$48,411.14*
60,758.75*
113,679.36*
174,775.43
290,255.26
473,802.29
544,671.60
1,663,003.34
1,885,654.11
1,653,796.60
3,176,686.28f
3,532,518.95$
3,765,920.691
3,743,317.08*
3,834,727.19*
4,015,074.371
2,849,972.02*
2,611,937.80*
2,835,040.74*
2,972,385.04*
3,277,660.23*
3,524,962.69*
1882-83      ..                	
1887-88..—	
1892-93.....	
1897-98   -	
1902-03   	
1907-08- - 	
$215,056.22*
425.555.10
604,357.86
1,220,509.85
1912-13  	
1913-14 -. -	
1917-18 --	
1922-23 	
4,658,894.97
4,634,877.56
3,519.014.61
7,630,009.54*
1927-28.  	
1928-29 - -  	
1929-30  - --	
1930-31-- - 	
1931-32   -. -   -
1932-33 -   -	
9,261,094.98*
11,149,996.27*
10,008,255.66*
10,061,387.99*
9,719,333.81*
8,941,497.34*
1933-34. -- 	
1934-35- 	
1935-36	
8,213,369.04*
8,458,156.00*
8,775,353.78*
1936-37	
9.593,562.64*
1937-38- -	
10,193,367.08*
* The total expenditure for public schools was borne by the Government.
f This amount does not include the expenditure   (not available)   made for incidental expenses  in  city school
districts.
t This amount includes the annual grant from the Government to the Provincial University.
COMPARISON OF ENROLMENT AND COST PER PUPIL TO PROVINCIAL
GOVERNMENT.
The following table shows the enrolment during the last twelve years and also the cost to
the Provincial Government of each pupil:—
School-year.
Enrolment
at High
Schools.
Enrolment
at other
Public
Schools.
Total
Enrolment.
Percentage
at High
Schools of
the Total
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Average
Daily
Attendance.
1926-27...  	
1927-28  	
1928-29... 	
1929-30. - -	
1930-31-  	
1931-32    -	
1932-33 	
1933-34 -- 	
1934-35- - --
1935-36	
1936-37 - - -:.	
1937-38 - —	
12,906
13,516
14,545
14,675
16,197
18,134
18,552
18,932
19,969
21,119
22,338
.      22,582
92,102
94,663
95,013
96,342
97,717
97,785
98,264
96,860
97,264
95,603
96,093
97,778
105,008
108,179
109,558
111,017
113,914
115,919
116,816
115,792
117,233
116,722
118,431
120,360
12.29
12.49
13.27
13.22
14.21
15.64
15.80
16.35
17.03
18.09
19.71
18.76
26.40
26.92
28.32
28.07
28.03
29.62
21.55
19.51
20.40
21.35
22.93
24.05
31.41
31.74
33.03
32.79
32.74
33.18
23.98
21.85
23.47
24.46
26.10
27.18 J 12
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
COST PER PUPIL, ON VARIOUS BASES, FOR THE SCHOOL-YEAR 1937-38.
Grand total cost of education $10,193,367.08
Less—
Grant re salaries of faculty of Victoria College  $4,328.98
General grant to Victoria College  5,000.00
Grant to University of British Columbia  406,800.00
Normal School, Vancouver  35,178.33
Normal School, Victoria  32,357.89
Cost of Night-schools  22,316.97
Correspondence Schools—
High School   35,969.13
Elementary School   13,918.76
Adult education   74,299.33
         630,169.39
$9,563,197.69
79.45
.42
89.78
.47
2,894,793.30
24.05
Net cost for total enrolment of 120,360 pupils.
Cost per pupil for year on total enrolment.
Cost per pupil per school-day (191 days)  on total enrolment	
Cost per pupil for year on average daily attendance of 106,515 pupils	
Cost per pupil per school-day (191 days) on average daily attendance	
Net cost to Provincial Government for total enrolment of 120,360 pupils for year
($3,524,962.69—$630,169.39)   	
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil for year on total enrolment	
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil per school-day  (191 days)  on total
enrolment  _■	
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil for year on average daily attendance
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil per school-day (191 days) on average
daily attendance 	
Cost per capita for year on population of 751,000 (1937 estimate)	
Cost per capita per school-day (191 days) on estimated population of 751,000
Cost to Provincial Government per capita for year on estimated population of
751,000  	
Cost  to   Provincial   Government   per  capita  per   school-day   (191   days)   on
estimated population  of 751,000.' 	
.13
27.18
.14
*12.73
*.07
|3.85
f.02
* Computed on net total cost of $9,563,197.69.
t Computed on net cost to Provincial Government of $2,894,793.30.
CHILDREN OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE.
The number of children of foreign parentage attending the public schools of the Province
during the year was as follows:—:
■s
Ul
High schools 	
Superior schools 	
Junior high schools 	
City elementary schools...  	
Elementary schools in district municipalities..
Rural elementary schools 	
Community schools   —
Totals-
231
711
13
238
124
398
1,024
2,124
75
1,490
73
616
4
1
3
111
47
46
17
112
1
123
1
275
517
236
153
178
1,106
537
605
21
3
7
35
27
74
40
22
42
185
112
186
107
58
110
716
862
604
1,540 I 5,577        212     1,046
2,815 I     167
587 I 2,457
33
9
55
166
98
97 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
J 13
Children of Foreign Parentage—Continued.
01
R
d
o
'u
CJ
s
<
e
rt
*^
m
e
<
e
e
E
<J3
e
_rt
UJ
UJ
S
«
Ol
a
«s
■*->
Ol
iZ
*£
Ol
tn
01
■5
o
O
E-,
136
7
95
218
42
80
44
10
29
206
14
48
49
80
32
78
103
119
44
12
79
348
105
80
186
38
178
1,110
104
456
28
31
61
318
146
228
184
77
180
860
383
463
2,072
Superior schools  _ .,
864
1,572
8,728
Elementary schools in district municipalities	
4,146
4,050
517
Totals.,.  	
578
351
461
669
2,072
812
2,147 1             |21,949
1              1
NUMBER OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
The following table shows the number and classes of school districts in which schools were
in operation during all or some portion of the year:—
City school districts     33
District municipality school districts     24
Rural school districts  680
Community school districts       4
Total
741*
* At the time this Annual Report was prepared 289 school districts were under the administration of Official
Trustees.
HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year was 16,420. Of this number, 8,084
were boys and 8,336 were girls.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the number of teachers, and the enrolment for 1937-38 and for 1936-37 in each city are shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Alberni District.
Armstrong 	
Chilliwack High School Area .
Courtenay __ 	
Cranbrook 	
Cumberland  :— —
Duncan —-  	
Enderby — —
Fernie —  	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood —
Kamloops 	
Kaslo  —
Kelowna  -
Ladysmith -
Merritt  	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster .
Port Coquitlam	
Port Moody — —
Prince George —
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke -—	
Rossland - —
Salmon Arm High School Area-
5
4
11
3
7
4
4
2
5
3
2
7
1
6
5
2
6
7
25
3
1
4
8
6
4
5
7
4
14
3
9
4
4
2
9
1
6
7
3
13
8
34
3
1
187
120
411
82
203
98
120
50
115
79
20
226
27
185
147
77
194
240
884
65
23
108
301
161
106
131
160
105
386
81
200
55
102
84
196
17
179
128
66
259
238
1,128
63
22
116
306
165
97
122 J 14                                        PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
High Schools—Cities—Continued.
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
1
1
12
1
1
1
1
11
264
15
6
31
1
14
320
17
7
42
12
339
9,781
561
196
1,171
10
335
9,453
605
277
1,376
Vernon — ...
Totals          ...   .                       	
44
468
576
16,420
16,529
HIGH SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality high schools for the year was 4,380.    Of th'.s
number, 1,955 were boys and 2,425 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the years
1937-38 and 1936-37 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Abbotsford :    Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford  Educational
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
7
28
5
4
2
7
9
6
10
1
6
5
9
37
5
4
2
9
9
6
15
1
10
7
224
1,088
144
125
47
287
252
190
364
17
189
158
551
95
431
218
274
922
124
118
46
265
238
167
352
13
201
262
553
79
351
192
Delta                           	
Maple Ridge    	
Oak Bay	
Penticton   ..-   	
Sa«T,i^
19
20
4
12
5
5
14
6
Surrey               	
Totals  	
20
130
159
4,380
4,157
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural high schools for the year was 1,782.    Of this number, 825
were boys and 957 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the years
1937-38 and 1936-37 are shown in the following table:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
6
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
6
1
2
41
18
38
40
43
29
143
12
35
38
16
39
17
40
44
107
23
28
Britannia Mine .-.. -	
Canyon         .
Cobble Hill	 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
J 15
High Schools—Rural Districts—Continued.
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37
Golden   	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
2
2
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
4
3
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
5
1
1
4
2
7
2
2
4
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
5
3
2
2
1
1
2
4
2
3
2
1
2
3
1
1
2
31
60
18
35
. 33
29
121
31
28
64
36
21
16
36
52
25
34
131
92
41
25
15
18
39
46
41
63
35
14
32
52
25
27
17
62
26
38
30
170
32
Lumby      	
26
49
33
New Denver	
14
North Bend 	
19
40
Oliver	
38
18
40
Powell River 	
92
73
42
32
Robson 	
Rolla 	
18
Rutland	
31
57
40
51
44
Telkwa  	
17
Tsolum	
46
University Hill	
41
Vanderhoof 	
16
Wells    .
20
Totals .....  	
45
84
97
1,782
1,652
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality superior schools during the year was 878.
Of this number, 459 were boys and 419 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1937-38 and 1936-37 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Abbotsford:   Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Educational
2
1
1
11
7
4
11
7
4
444
289
145
270
Delta  	
136
Totals...      	
4
22
22
878
406 J 16
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural superior schools for the school-year was 3,137. The number
of boys was 1,619, of girls 1,518.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the
enrolment for the school-years 1937-38 and 1936-37:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
3
5
3
3
2
4
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
2
2
3
4
5
3
3
3
2
3
5
3
3
2
4
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
2
2
3
4
5
3
3
88
35
95
170
60
88
41
146
59
79
43
64
58
33
74
157
43
48
24
111
45
47
57
103
77
59
55
61
59
62
82
39
104
38
84
83
62
60
74
105
108
74
83
79
Bowen Island   	
Bralorne    	
Brechin .  -  	
38
146
72
88
Canal Flats                             	
52
Castlegar      - 	
Cedar, North  	
Chase     	
57
79
49
110
Falkland  -   	
39
Fort St. John   	
68
130
46
49
Hazelton, New.-  	
24
82
46
41
57
79
78
McBride    — 	
66
60
72
46
Procter   	
41
93
Silverton    -	
51
Stillwater United    —
78
80
105
118
67
Yahk United	
Totals  -	
43
118
118
3,137
2,808 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
J 17
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city junior high schools was 8,437. The number of boys was 4,350,
of girls 4,087.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the
enrolment for the school-years 1937-38 and 1936-37:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Duncan	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
1
5
6
9
2
9
8
10
26
3
117
11
9
14
5
6
12
2
11
8
13
34
5
154
12
12
17
157
217
306
32
333
309
365
988
78
4,344
386
371
551
171
213
Kamloops  '
Kaslo  	
298
30
309
228
Nelson— — 	
359
680
88
Vancouver   	
4,531
Vernon
	
Totals   	
18
229
291
8,437
6,907
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality junior high schools was 1,051. Of this number
521 were boys, and 530 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1937-38 and 1936-37 are given in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Penticton  -	
Richmond 	
1
1
1
9
12
7'
12
13
10
328
430
293
312
308
Totals 	
3
28
35
1,051
620
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural junior high schools was 676. The number of boys was 334,
of girls 342.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1937-38 and 1936-37 are given in the following table:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
2
6
3
8
1
2
6
5
11
1
38
228
63
290
57
42
Kimberley 	
64
302
Saanich, North, Consolidated   —.	
30
Totals            	
5
20
25
676
438 J 18
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
SUMMARY OF ENROLMENT IN HIGH AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The following is a summary of enrolment in high and junior high schools:—
Number
of
Pupils
enrolled.
Boys.
Girls.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Number op Pupils in Grades.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XIL
.2 G S
3-S-2
High schools:
Cities	
District municipalities  	
16,420
4,380
1,782
8,084
1,955
825
8,336
2,425
957
14,028.18
3,757.48
1,517.27
4,636
1,463
500
5,216
1,295
669
3,657
945
394
2,485
649
310
426
28
9
22,582
10,864
11,718
19,302.93
6,599
7,080
4,996 | 3,444 |      463
Junior high schools:
Cities 	
District municipalities. 	
8,437
1,051
676
4,350
521
334
4,087
530
342
7,551.26
939.12
617.09
3,111
384
247
2,948
351
226
2,378
316
203
	
	
	
10,164 |    5,205
4,959
9,107.47
3,742
3,525
2,897
 1 -	
32,746
16,069
16,677
28,410.40
3,742
3,525
9,496
7.080 ! 4.996
3.444 1       463
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 44,392. Of this number, 22,745 were
boys and 21,647 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1937-38 and 1936-37 are given in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Alberni	
Armstrong—
Chilliwack.....
Courtenay—..
Cranbrook.....
Cumberland-
Duncan	
Enderby	
Fernie —
Grand Forks .
Greenwood—
Kamloops.	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
Ladysmith	
Merritt	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster-
Port Alberni	
Port Coquitlam	
Port Moody -
Prince George.	
Prince Rupert	
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm	
Slocan 	
Trail-Tadanac-
Vancouver	
School for the Deaf and the Blind-
Vancouver, North	
Vernon  	
Victoria  - —
Totals ..
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
2
6
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
4
53
1
3
1
14
118
11
12
9
14
11
10
10
2
15
2
18
18
18
48
14
7
4
9
21
14
14
4
2
40
695
9
23
18
1,195
6
13
12
11
14
11
10
3
9
10
2
15
2
19
18
19
48
14
7
4
10
23
14
15
4
2
43
762
19
23
19
91
235
460
483
351
526
407
425
121
316
353
52
559
45
715
357
236
647
710
1,940
560
267
166
323
803
469
554
144
65
1,514
25,496
89
858
746
3,400-
211
449
458
326
523
415
394
107
359
371
551
51
681
344
269
677
693
1,984
530
256
154
329
822
493
500
131
67
1,388
25,970
92
1,223
936
3,839
1,289      44,392
45,593 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
J 19
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality elementary schools was 19,610. The number
of boys was 10,214, of girls 9,396.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the
enrolment for the school-years 1937-38 and 1936-37:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1937-38.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Abbotsford;   Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Educationl
Administrative Area  _ __ 	
Burnaby 	
Chilliwack  -	
Coldstream  	
Coquitlam    	
Cowichan, North-
Delta...	
Esquimalt	
Kent— 	
Langley	
Maple Ridge.
Mission..	
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
Penticton	
Pitt Meadows .
Richmond-	
Saanich 	
Salmon Arm...
Summerland.—
Surrey	
Vancouver, North-
Vancouver, West—-
12
19
15
2
5
2
8
1
3
15
7
9
2
1
1
1
7
15
8
1
22
5
2
28
104
41
3
14
2
16
10
7
30
32
22
16
2
18
6
34
48
10
8
50
20
14
Totals-
28
118
42
3
14
2
16
12
7
30
32
23
17
2
19
6
10
8
50
20
14
558
1,084
4,196
1,400
92
537
70
495
367
218
1,177
1,086
642
613
67
694
194
1,240
1,673
289
313
1,938
676
549
1,349
4,229
1,317
115
517
58
513
371
227
1,184
1,024
643
611
59
677
186
1,519
1,740
299
304
1,827
667
546
19,610
19,982
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
The number of schools, the number of pupils enrolled, and the number of teachers employed in the elementary schools of the rural districts were as follows:—
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Pupils.
Boys.
Girls.
Number of
Teachers
employed.
698
19/075
9,861
9,214
902
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—COMMUNITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
The number of schools, the number of pupils enrolled, and the number of teachers employed in the elementary schools of the community school districts were as follows:—
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Pupils.
Boys.
Girls.
Number of
Teachers
employed.
11
522
284
238
20 J 20
PUBLIC SCHOOLS
REPORT, 1937-38.
NUMBER OF TEACHERS IN EACH CLASS OF S
The following table shows the number of teachers in each class o
years 1937-38 and 1936-37:—
Class of School.                                                                                              Year 19
High schools:
. •.-.                 Cities        5r
-.«.•--           District municipalities __„_      11
CHOOL.
f school for the
37-38.      Year 1936-
'6                566
>9                149
>7                  87
3
!2                  11
8                111
11                237
,5                  18
•5                  15
59             1,313
.8                580
>2                917
0                  18
school-
37.
oted in
Rural districts	
c
Superior schools:
Cities . ~ - .   -       ..   	
District municinalities	
<
"Rural districts     _
           1]
Junior high schools:
Cities               _ 	
      2<
District municiualities	
Rural districts	
        S
Elementary schools:
Cities    - -      ......_    ..   	
  1,24
District miinicinalities __   _  __   	
    __     5J
"Rural districts ____
      9(
f!nmmnnitv school districts    __  _   .
       5
Totals
. 4.0<
»2             4,025
irly salary   (qu
SALARIES.
The following table shows the highest, lowest, and average ye;
dollars only)  paid to teachers during the school-year 1937-38:—
High Schools.
Junior High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities.
$2,200
2,200*
1,650
2,500
1,800
2,080
1,418
2,900
2,070
1,510
2,900
1,800
2,515
1,950
2,000
2,250
3,600
3,281
2,325*
1,700
1,700
1,500
1,880
2,620
2,577
2,100*
1,200
$1,300
1,275*
1,200
1,400
1,200
1,280
1,200
1,440
1,300
1,200
1,600
1,800
1,400
1,200
1,200
1,397
1,800
1,464
1,550*
1,200
1,700 -
1,200
1,250
1,360
1,450
1,350*
1,200
$1,631
1,540*
1,383
1,621
1,381
1,518
1,309
1,706
1,685
1,355
2,020
1,800
1,711
1,530
1,467
1,569
2,462
2,399
1,720*
1,367
1,700
1,300
1,431
1,761
1,814
1,698*
1,200
$1,250
1,500
1,775
1,300
2,000
1,452
2,900
2,880
1,100
$1,100
1,300
1,200
1,250
1,150
1,100
1,450
1,100
1,100
$1,130
1,442
1,455
1,275
1,353
1,350
1,979
1,643
1,100
$1,700
1,800
1,950
1,850
2,565
1,875
1,800
1,417
1,250
1,850
1,200
2,250
1,050
1,900
1,850
1,160
1,265
2,784
2,450
2,375
1,300
1,200
1,904
1,800
2,350
2,200
1,848
1,100
$850
850
780
780
1,001
780
800
830
1,100
925
850
1,050
1,000
950
1,000
1,000
895
1,248
845
980
855
900
800
960
960
900
1,170
900
$1,058
1,203
1,152
1,164
1,259
1,156
1,001
1,082
1,186
1,111 '
983
1,348
1,025
1,205
1,205
1,045
1,187
1,476
1,320
1,247
985
992
1,121
1,186
1,234
1,233
1,339
1,000
Courtenay.. 	
Duncan    	
Fernie __	
Greenwood	
Kaslo -
Ladysmith  r 	
Nanaimo 	
Port Coquitlam 	
Port Moody 	
Prince Rupert  _. —-
Revelstok e   -
Rossland. _ -
Slocan   ,-
* These figures refer to High School area. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
J 21
Salaries—Continued.
High Schools.
Junior High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
$3,577
4,026
2,500
2,677
3,421
$1,470
1,372
1,280
1,330
1,383
$2,004
2,554
1,848
1,792
2,460
I
$2,800
3,550
1,800
2,620
2,710
$1,050
817
900
850
891
$1,363
$4,026
2,110
2,677
2,799
$1,100
1,100
1,100
1,353
$1,958
1,511
1,536
2,040
1,641
Vancouver, North	
1,317
1,230
Victoria 	
1,663
$4,026
$1,200
$2,275
$4,026
$1,100
$1,790
$3,550
$780
$1,506
District Municipalities.
Abbotsf ord:    Matsqui-Sumas-
Abbotsford Educational Ad-
$1,450
2,610
$1,250
1,200
$1,300
1,567
$1,150
2,400
1,495
1,075
1,244
1,075
1,560
2,515
1,250
1,100
1,500
1,800
3,000
1,000
1,930
1,150
1,859
2,000
1,100
2,100
1,190
1,850
2,000
$820
780
780
850
800
900
780
1,200
850
780
780
800
1,100
850
850
820
780
780
900
850
780
950
1,152
$879
1,190
941
958
988
987
Delta   	
1,400
2,336
1,350
2,000
1,750
2,000
3,100
1,300
2,660
1,200
1,575
1,300
1,200
1,200
1,220
1,690
1,300
1,294
1,300
1,853
1,325
1,319
1,317
1,475
2,362
1,300
1,668
.   926
1,445
Kent              	
	
971
876    .
928
	
1,002
Oak Bay	
1,623
925
Penticton. ___ 	
$1,699
$1,110
$1,356
1,121
918
1,962
2,500
1,200
1,200
1,504
1,740
1,525
1,338
1,516
1,100
1,255
1,011
1,097
930
2,100
1,950
1,200
1,200
1,125
870
1,268
Vancouver, West	
For  all  district munici-
2,670
1,840
2,117
1,820
1,485
1,628
1,459
p alities  	
$3,100
$1,200
$1,608
$1,820
$1,100
$1,390
$3,000
$780
$1,138
Rural Districts.
$3,100
$1,200
$1,529
$2,000
$1,100
$1,399
$2,350
$780
$981
Community  Districts.
1
i
$1,125
$840
$967 J 22
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
Salaries—Continued.
Superior Schools.
Highest
Lowest
Average
Salary.
Salary.
Salary.
$1,300
$820
$953
1,650
1,200
1,350
1,100
905
1,003
1,500
1,000
1,167
1,450
780
950
1,250
900
1,017
'   1,750
1,200
1,400
1,270
950
1,110
1,250
950
1,062
1,200
800
950
1,200
900
1,000
1,760
900
1,133
1,200
950
1,075
1,500
1,050
1,275
1,100
860
980
1,200
1,000
1,100
1,100
780
907
1,260
960
1,035
1,100
780
940
1,200
1,000
1,100
1,100
780
940
1,600
950
1,183
1,400
1,080
1,240
1,250
850
1,050
1,100
800
900
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Abbotsf ord:   Matsqui-
Sumas-Abbotsford Educational Administrative
Area	
Ashcroft   	
Bowen Island. 	
Bralorne..	
Brechin. -	
Burns Lake  -	
Campbell River 	
Canal Flats 	
Castlegar— 	
Cedar, North 	
Chase 	
Chemainus -
Coalmont  	
Copper Mountain _...
Falkland	
Fort Fraser  	
Fort St. John	
Fruitvale 	
Gabriola United 	
Hazelton. .-
Hazelton, New	
Hope 	
James Island	
Kaleden    -
Kennedy (Delta)	
Lantzville—	
Lillooet. -	
Malcolm Island	
McBride..  	
Mt. Lehman: Matsqui-
Sumas-Abbotsford Educational Administrative
Area.— —- 	
Oyster, North	
Pouce Coupe (Peace)	
Pender Island 	
Pioneer Mine- 	
Port Alice - 	
Procter-   -	
Salmo 	
Silverton	
Sooke  	
Stewart  	
Stillwater United	
Wellington-	
Wellington, South	
Williams Lake-	
Woodfibre  -	
Yahk United 	
Ymir  —
For all superior schools
$1,100
1,300
1,102
1,200
1,100
1,100
1,150
1,100
1,250
1,400
1,260
1,300
1,300
1,200
1,600
1,100
1,260
1,100
1,475
1,350
1,200
1,100
$1,760
$875
950
841
800
830
780
930
850
880
850
880
900
1,000
900
1,100
900
960
850
900
1,010
1,000
840
$987
1,067
928
967
943
940
1,003
975
1,027
1,083
1,070
1,283
1,150
1,000
1,267
1,000
1,110
967
1,094
1,145
1,100
927
$1,052
The average yearly salary paid to teachers employed in all public schools (high, superior,
junior high, and elementary) of the Province for the school-year 1937-38 was $1,430; to
teachers employed in all high schools, $2,069; to teachers employed in all superior schools,
$1,052; to teachers employed in all junior high schools, $1,726; to teachers employed in all
elementary schools, $1,229;   and to teachers employed in all community schools, $967. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
J 23
SALARY CLASSIFICATION.
The following table shows the number of teachers in the Province receiving the annual
salary indicated:—■
Salary.
u
o-S
6 %
Zbi
Salary.
OJ
u
Zfn
Salary.
03
H
.   o
o-S
Zt«
Salary.
Cfl
M
tix
O o
£8
Ztn
Below $780
345
144
53
65
126
49
170
27
42
101
25
125
26
39
73
31
141
24
26
57
23
145
23
34
85
26
94
15
21
50
51,581-1,600	
34
38
13
359
38
18
9
32
21
9
31
4
33
25
9
14
9
31
18
8
26
20
6
5
5
13
21
4
6
6
39
5
7
10
9
24
16
6
12
19
8
4
$2,421-2,440	
5
5
14
12
8
7
8
9
6
8
6
28
15
8
3
13
3
17
3
7
1
3
5
1
82
3
4
3
1
3
2
1
13
1
$3 261 3 280
1
6
2
3
1
6
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
$780          	
1,601-1,620. -.
2,441-2,460 —	
781-   800
1,621-1,640	
2,461-2,480	
3,301-3,320—	
3 321 3 340
801-   820	
1,641-1,660	
2,481-2,600
2,501-2,520-	
821-   840	
1,661-1,680	
841-   860..
861-   880	
1,681-1,700	
2,521-2,540.
2,541-2,560 	
3,361-3,380	
1,701-1,720	
-
881-   900	
901-   920	
1,721-1,740	
2,561-2,580	
3,401-3,420	
3,421-3,440	
1,741-1,760 	
2,581-2,600	
921-   940	
941-   960	
1,761-1,780	
2,601-2,620.	
1,781-1,800
2,621-2,640   	
3,461-3,480	
3,481-3,500	
3,501-3,520	
961-   980	
981-1,000	
1,801-1,820 -
2,641-2,660	
1,821-1,840	
2,661-2,680	
1,001-1,020 	
1,841-1,860 	
2,681-2,700   	
1,021-1,040
1,861-1,880
2,701-2,720    	
3,541-3,560 	
3,561-3,580- 	
3 581 3 600
1,041-1,060
1,061-1,080
1,081-1,100-	
1,881-1,900
2 721-2,740
1,901-1,920	
2,741-2,760	
1,921-1,940
1,941-1,960 	
2,761-2,780	
3 601 3 620
1,101-1,120 -	
2,781-2,800 -
1,121-1,140	
1,961-1,980	
1,981-2,000
2,801-2,820 -
3 641 3,660
1,141-1,160
2,821-2,840 	
1,161-1,180
1,181-1,200
1,201-1,220-	
2,001-2,020
2,021-2,040	
2,841-2,860 -	
3 681 3 700
2,861-2,880—	
3 701 3,720
2,041-2,060	
2,881-2,900	
2,901-2,920	
3 721 3,740
1,221-1,240
2,061-2,080    	
1,241-1,260	
2,081-2,100	
2,921-2,940	
3,761 3,780
1,261-1,280	
2,101-2,120	
2,941-2,960	
1,281-1,300
1,301-1,320	
2,121-2,140
2,141-2,160..	
2,961-2,980	
3 801 3 820
2,981-3,000	
3 821-3,840
1,321-1,340	
2,161-2,180.	
3,001-3,020	
3 841 3 860
1,341-1,360	
2,181-2,200	
3,021-3,040	
3 861 3,880
1,361-1,380	
41
2,201-2,220	
3,041-3,060..
3,061-3,080	
3,881-3,900
1,381-1,400	
81
26
46
53
59
48
29
15
40
34
2,221-2,240	
3 901 3 920
1,401-1,420 	
2,241-2,260	
3,081-3,100-	
3 921  3 940
1,421-1,440	
2,261-2,280	
3,101-3,120-	
3,941-3,960
1,441-1,460	
2,281-2,300	
3,121-3,140	
1,461-1,480	
2,301-2,320 	
3,141-3,160	
3,981-4,000
1,481-1,500    	
2,321-2,340 -. -
3,161-3,180	
4,001-4,020 _..
4 021  4,040
1,501-1,520	
2,341-2,360	
3,181-3,200 	
2,361-2,380	
2,381-2,400
♦Total	
1,541-1,560
3,221-3,240
4,050
1,561-1,580	
| 2,401-2,420
3.241-3.260	
* Exchange a
EX.
Minister's Offu
Salaries _.
-id part-time teachers not included.
PENDITURE FOR EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL-YE
,e:
AR 1937-38.
$4,715.00
243.24
1,057.25
$6,015.49
26,170.66
50,799.41
Office sup]
olies 	
Travelling
expenses 	
General Office
Salaries .
$24,265.02
1,621.23
284.41
Office sup
plifis       __
Travelling
expenses   _.
Text-book Branch:
Free text-books, m
aps, etc.     - J 24
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
Correspondence Schools—High:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Revision of courses
Travelling expenses
Science equipment _
Payment to Text-book Branch for special services
Incidentals 	
Less fees 	
Correspondence Schools—Elementary:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses 	
Industrial Education:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses
Grants in aid	
Night-schools 	
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries 	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses 	
Administration (new areas)
Less amount paid by School Boards
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries (less deduction for rent, $468) 	
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses 	
Fuel, light, and water 	
Books, binding, periodicals 	
Allowance to Demonstration School 	
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)
Incidentals 	
Less Normal School fees
$29,621.48
9,439.24
3,492.93
149.65
1,010.73
180.00
3.60
$43,897.63
7,928.50
$11,248.29
2,608.54
61.93
$10,824.89
2,732.62
3,264.83
15,926.33
22,316.97
.. $81,278.79
_ 11,472.99
_ 27,948.66
..    10,666.07
$131,366.51
..      8,754.36
$35,886.62
2,764.87
443.16
2,248.52
1,874.48
1,265.00
1,184.98
1,235.20
$46,902.83
11,724.50
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries (part by Public Works)   $34,811.68
Office supplies 	
Travelling expenses 	
Fuel, light, and water (by Public Works) 	
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works) 	
Transportation of students to outlying practice-schools
Incidentals 	
Less Normal School fees
1,794.91
138.88
2,298.09
1,973.83
145.66
476.69
$41,639.74
9,281.85
$35,969.13
13,918.76
55,065.64
122,612.15
35,178.33
32,357.89 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. J 25
School for the Deaf and the Blind:
Salaries (less deduction for rent, etc., $4,106.53)   $32,518.30
Office supplies   767.81
Laundry and janitor supplies   1,310.14
Travelling expenses   159.52
Fuel, light, and water  2,412.58
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)   2,342.59
Furniture, fixtures, and equipment   1,440.62
Provisions     4,319.56
Special apparatus   174.68
Incidentals   724.16
$46,169.96
Less amount received for board and tuition of pupils from
Alberta          425.00
       $45,744.96
High. Superior. Junior High. Elementary.
Salary grants to cities  $300,296.90        $153,765.76 $563,890.61   1,017,953.27
Salary grants to district municipalities       93,572.55 14,702.00 24,726.29 352,234.01      485,234.85
Salary grants to rural school
districts          72,597.58 78,906.43 15,995.00 617,107.24      784,606.25
Salary grants to community
school districts                       14,775.20        14,775.20
$446,467.03    $93,608.43    $194,487.05   $1,548,007.06
School buildings, erection and maintenance, and special aid to school districts       170,798.05
Education of soldiers' dependent children and expenses        14,717.25
Examination of High School and Entrance classes  $36,071.22
Less fees for examination and certificates     29,134.42
  6,936.80
Conveying children to central schools        91,264.38
School libraries   9,406.03
Summer schools and teacher-training for special certificates  $27,199.65
Less summer school fees    22,346.70
  4,852.95
Official Trustee, Community School Districts:
Salary  . -     $2,400.00
Expenses        1,001.11
$3,401.11
Less paid by districts        1,700.55
Board of Reference        $386.26
Less fees   75.00
Adult education:
Extension and adult education and education of the unemployed.. $32,252.45
Recreational and physical education for youths over school age...   42,046.88
1,700.56
311.26
  74,299.33
Curriculum revision  7,263.14
Incidentals and contingencies   5,210.95
University of British Columbia  406,800.00
Special grant to Victoria College   5,000.00
Total cost to Government     $3,524,962.69 J 26
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
Amount expended by districts, including debt charges:
High.
Cities $1,420,057.79
District municipalities      272,145.45
Rural school districts       151,046.52
Community school districts     	
Superior.
$18,798.86
118,616.35
Junior High.
$656,606.83
83,874.86
46,645.13
Elementary.
^2,679,737.71 $4,756,402.33
606,819.83  981,639.00
603,053.04  919,361.04
11,002.02   11,002.02
$1,843,249.76    $137,415.21    $787,126.82    $3,900,612.60
Grand total cost of education .
$10,193,367.08
EXAMINATIONS.
High School Entrance Examinations, June, 1938.
The High School Entrance Examination was held on June 27th, 28th, and 29th at sixty-
nine centres throughout the Province.
Under the regulations of the Department, promotion by recommendation is granted as
follows:—
"(a.) Entrance pupils attending a public school in a school district where a high or
superior school is in operation and Entrance pupils attending a public school in a school district adjacent to a district having a high or superior school who are reported by their teachers
to have covered thoroughly the work prescribed by the Council of Public Instruction for Grade
VIII., and who are recommended for promotion to high school by a committee composed of the
principal of the school, the principal of the nearest high or superior school, and the Inspector
of Schools, Provincial or Municipal, having jurisdiction in that district, shall be issued
Entrance certificates by the Department.
"(&.) In any other public school, where, in the opinion of the Inspector, the grading of
the pupils is satisfactory, their standing is of a high order, and a teacher of proven worth is
employed, Entrance pupils who are reported by the teacher to have covered thoroughly the
work prescribed by the Council of Public Instruction for Grade VIII. and are jointly recommended for promotion to high school by the teacher and the Inspector for the district, shall
also be issued Entrance certificates by the Department."
The number of pupils who obtained certificates was as follows:—
By recommendation .  6,064
By examination      342
Total
6,406
High School Examinations, 1938.
The following are the results of the examinations held in the various high schools
throughout the Province:—
June, 1938.
Total
No. of
Candidates
Writing.
Writing the Full Examination.
Writing Partial
Examination.
No. of
Candidates.
No. passed
in all
Subjects.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.
No. of
Candidates.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.
Grade XII.
4,935
869
1,472
328
904
153
568
175
3,463
541
2,132
251
Senior Matriculation ,	
Totals-	
5,804
1,800
1,057
743
4,004
2,383 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
J 27
High School Examinations, 1938-—Continued.
August, 1938.
No. of
Candidates
Writing.
No. passed
in all
Subjects.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.
Grade XII   	
1,149
404
716
192
282
Senior Matriculation—    	
121
Totals 	
1,553
908
403
Grade XII.
Of the 346 Grade XII. candidates who secured " complete" standing in the August
examinations, 1938, 197 had written a full examination for the first time in June, 1938, and
obtained partial standing.    Thus, of the 1,472 candidates who wrote the full examination for
the first time in June, 1938, 904+197, or 1,101, completed their standing in one year (1938).
This is 74.8 per cent.
Senior Matriculation.
Of the 73 Senior Matriculation candidates who secured " complete " standing in August,
1938, 45 had written the full examination in June, 1938, and secured partial standing.    Thus,
of the 328 full Senior Matriculation candidates writing the examination for the first time in
June, 1938, 153 + 45, or 198, completed their standing in one year  (1938).    This is 60.4 per
cent.
Scholarships.
Grade XII.
The Royal Institution Scholarships awarded in June, 1938, by the University of British
Columbia to the students who ranked first and second in their respective districts were won
by the following:—■
District.
Name.
High School.
Per
Cent.
Scholarship.
Province
No. 1	
♦Robert Mack Lane. —	
♦John Malcolm Russell Margeson..
(1.) Harry Keith Ralston	
(2.) Beverly Rosalene Mathew	
Oak Bay-
Trail 	
Victoria...
2.
3.
A .
5.
,    6.
,    7-
(1.) Irene Sarina Steeves-	
(2.) Maxwell Patrick Sweeney..
(1.) Edward Gross 	
(2.) Elspeth Campbell Munro—
(1.) Anne Barbara Underhill	
(2.) Betty Helen Morton_	
(1.) Ernest Alfred Boxall	
(2.) Thomas Arthur Horsley—
(1.) Betty Helen Corbould	
(2.) Paul Lim Yuen 	
(1.) Edward Austin Bourne	
(2.) Rebecca Lorine Good	
Strathcona Lodge (Private), Shawnigan
Lake —    	
Powell River -  	
Ocean Falls    	
Britannia, Vancouver	
King Edward, Vancouver	
Prince of Wales, Vancouver..
South Burnaby  	
King George V-, Ladner..
Chilliwack—  	
Kamloops 	
Vernon	
Trail   _	
Creston —  	
92.55
92.55
85.0
88.1
86.5
91.5
91.0
90.8
90.3
89.5
86.7
88.8
85.9
88.7
85.5
$175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
♦ These two students tied for leading place in the Examination.
Senior Matriculation.
The winners of the three scholarships awarded in June, 1938, by the University of British
Columbia on the results of the Senior Matriculation Examination to (1) the two students
obtaining the highest standing in the Province, (2) the student obtaining the highest standing
in districts other than Greater Vancouver and New Westminster, were :•—
Name.
High School.
Per Cent.
Scholarship.
MacLean, Maple Ridge.—    .
89.1
85.4
84.8
$175
175
175 J 28
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
The conditions under which these scholarships are awarded are fully outlined in the
Calendar of the University of British Columbia.
In June, 1938, three additional scholarships established by the University of British
Columbia for students obtaining the highest standing in districts Nos. 2, 5, 6, and 7 were
awarded to the following:—
District.
Name.
High School.
Per
Cent.
Scholarship.
No. 2
Donald Ellis McLellan      	
John Shaw, Nanaimo	
82.9
84.4
$175
„   5
„    6, 7	
Penticton  -  	
176
REVISION OF CURRICULA.
The various committees engaged in the revision of the Programme of Studies, as initiated
in 1935 by the Hon. G. M. Weir, Minister of Education, have completed their work for the
present. When the schools opened in September, 1936, the revised Programme of Study for
Elementary Schools (Grades I.-VI.) and for Junior High Schools (Grades VII.-IX.) went
into effect.
In September, 1937, the revised Programme for Grade X. of Senior High School was
adopted and the revised Programme for Grade XI. came into force in September, 1938. The
revision for Grade XII. will be introduced in September, 1939.
ACCREDITING OF HIGH SCHOOLS.
Accrediting of High Schools was introduced for the first time in this Province during the
school-year 1937-38 under the following special temporary regulations:—
(1.) In the case of high schools enrolling only Grades IX. to XII., accrediting shall be
accorded in June, 1938, to such of these schools as have a staff of four or more teachers
holding the Academic Certificate of this Province, and in the case of schools enrolling only
Grades X. to XII., accrediting shall be accorded to such of these schools as have a staff of
three teachers holding the Academic Certificate. Notwithstanding these conditions, a high
school having only three teachers may also be accredited provided that, by reason of the
outstanding merit of the staff, it is adjudged worthy of this distinction.
(2.) Candidates from a high school referred to in the preceding paragraph (1) who are
certified by the principal to have completed the final course in a subject prescribed for University Entrance, and to have obtained a final standing of " A," or " B," or " C+ " in such
subject, shall be given University Entrance standing in that subject.
(3.) Before a high school shall be granted accrediting under the terms referred to in
paragraphs (1) and (2) hereof, the principal of the high school shall be required to certify
that the regulations concerning time allotments, study periods, health and physical education
have been carefully observed.
In June, 1938, forty-nine of the high schools of the Province were accredited under these
regulations. For the school-year 1938-39 and thereafter more rigid regulations will be
effective. The accrediting of a school shall be for a period of one year and each school
wishing to become accredited must make application annually.
SCHOOL RADIO BROADCASTS.
During the summer of 1937 the Hon. G. M. Weir, Minister of Education, appointed a
committee to investigate the possibility of using radio profitably in schools. This committee,
which was to co-operate with Professor England, of the University of British Columbia, and
with the Regional Advisory Council of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, was composed
of the following persons: Mr. A. Sullivan, Inspector of High Schools (chairman); Mr. A. R.
Lord, Principal, Normal School, Vancouver (secretary); Miss I. M. L. Bescoby, then Officer
in Charge of the Elementary Correspondence School; and the following representatives of
the British Columbia Teachers' Federation: Mr. H. Charlesworth, Mr. W. Morgan, and
Mr. R. H. Bennett. After several months of arduous investigation as to the value of radio in
schools, the most suitable type of programme, the most desirable length of programme, and REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. J 29
the number of schools possessing receiving sets, the committee decided that its theoretical
conclusions should be put to a practical test.
Two programmes were presented weekly for a period of ten weeks, commencing about
the end of March. Ten of these dealt with Music Appreciation, five were dramatizations of
important events in the history of British Columbia, and the remaining five were somewhat
out of the ordinary in that they dramatized simple phases of Elementary Science. All
presentations were designed to assist ungraded and semi-graded rural schools.
It was realized that merely to provide programmes would be of little value and that
something more than passive listening must be secured. Accordingly, about two weeks in
advance of broadcasts bulletins were prepared, mimeographed, and mailed to all schools
where receiving sets were known to be in use. These bulletins contained suggestions for
work to be done before, during, and after the presentations.
Experts in the various subject-matter fields gave their time freely and generously. Miss
Mildred McManus, Vancouver Normal School, with the assistance of Mr. Burton Kurth,
Supervisor of Music for Vancouver, prepared the programmes, scripts, and bulletins for
the Music Appreciation series. Mr. Sherwood Robson, of General Brock School, acted as
announcer, and Mrs. Lorna Campbell as soloist. Mr. J. W. Shore, of Woodland School, and
Mr. Arthur Anstey, Vancouver Normal School, selected and arranged the preliminary data
for the topics in Elementary Science and in Social Studies.
The facilities of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation were placed at the disposal of
the committee without charge. All programmes were presented over the Vancouver station,
CBR, where Mr. J. R. Radford, Regional Representative for British Columbia, and his staff
gave every possible assistance. The radio stations of the British Columbia CBC network at
Kelowna and Kamloops also participated.
In so far as it was possible to discover there were radios in 26 schools at the commencement of the experiment. At its conclusion 195 schools were equipped, in some cases with
loud-speakers in several rooms.
Reports, written and verbal, were received from a large number of teachers, pupils, and
parents.    Members of the committee took every opportunity of visiting class-rooms during
the reception of programmes.    As a result certain conclusions have emerged very clearly:—
(1.)  Education by radio can be of real assistance in certain subjects in less-privileged
areas:
(2.)   No difficulty exists in securing receiving equipment in schools:
(3.)   Passive listening is of little value.    Much better results are obtained by classes
in individual class-rooms than when grouped in an auditorium or other room:
(4.)   Reception from CBR and its affiliated stations is not possible in a large number
of central and northern schools where assistance is greatly needed.
Further experimental broadcasts will be given during the coming year. It is hoped that
their scope will be enlarged and that reception will be possible in a greatly increased number
of schools.
CHANGES IN THE STAFF.
Miss Isabel Coursier, who, since September, 1927, had been Instructress in Health and
Physical Education, first at the Provincial Normal School, Victoria, and subsequently at the
Provincial Normal School, Vancouver, resigned at the end of January, 1938.
Mr. Ernest Lee, B.A., B.Sc. in P.E., a member of the staff of New Westminster schools
and Supervisor of Physical Education for that city, was appointed, September 1st, 1938, to
take over the work in Health and Physical Education previously carried on by Miss Coursier
and Sergeant-Major Frost at the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
On January 1st, 1938, Mr. C. J. Frederickson, B.A., Principal of Powell River High,
Junior High, and Elementary Schools, was appointed Inspector of Schools and placed in
charge of the Prince George Inspectorate to replace Mr. W. G. Gamble, B.A., Inspector of
Schools, who was transferred to Victoria.
On August 31st, 1938, Mr. B. S. Freeman, B.A., retired on superannuation from the
staff of the Provincial Normal School, Victoria. Mr. Freeman, prior to his appointment to
that staff in August, 1919, had been Principal of Armstrong High School. Teachers-in-
training who received instruction from Mr. Freeman during these nineteen years profited
not only because of his rich scholarship in Natural Science and his keen appreciation of J 30 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
English Literature and Language, but by contact with the calm and poised personality of
a man for whom they had profound respect.
Mr. H. O. English, B.A., B.S.A., of the Victoria High School staff, was appointed to the
staff of the Provincial Normal School, Victoria, on September 1st, 1938.
After almost twenty-eight years' service in the Department of Education, Mr. John
Kyle, A.R.C.A., retired on superannuation on August 31st, 1938. Mr. Kyle was appointed
to the staff of the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver, on November 1st, 1910. On April
1st, 1914, he became Organizer of Industrial Education for the Province. This office he held
until his retirement. Upon him fell much pioneer work in his department, and under his
genial, faithful, and efficient guidance Industrial Education has become firmly established.
On May 16th, 1938, Mr. F. T. Fairey, B.A., Vice-Principal of the Vancouver Technical
School, was appointed Assistant Officer in Charge of Industrial Education, and on September
1st, 1938, upon the retirement of Mr. John Kyle, Mr. Fairey became Officer in Charge of
Industrial Education.
On the same date, September 1st, 1938, Mr. H. A. Jones, a member of the Vancouver
Technical School staff, was appointed Inspector of Technical Classes, Industrial Education.
DEATH OF MR. H. C. FRASER, M.A., INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
It is with deep regret that the death, on November 3rd, 1937, of Mr. H. C. Fraser, M.A.,
Inspector of Schools, is recorded.
After having rendered efficient service in the elementary schools of Vancouver and as
Principal of Chilliwack High School, Mr. Fraser was appointed Inspector of Schools on
August 16th, 1921, and given headquarters at Prince Rupert. In 1931, after ten years'
service in this northern inspectorate, he was transferred to Victoria.
Mr. Fraser was a man of high scholarship, kindly in disposition, conscientious in the
performance of his duties, and deeply interested in the personal welfare of both pupils and
teachers.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education. An Attractive Library Corner.
Div. 1.    Murrayville School, Langley School District.
Mrs. M. A. E. Bilton, Teacher.  PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS. J 31
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF A. R. LORD, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The attendance at the thirty-seventh annual session of the Vancouver Normal School was
as follows:—
Full-course students      90
Three-month students        8
Partial students        5
Total  103
Of the ninety full-course students, three withdrew during the year, eleven failed to
qualify, and seventy-six were granted diplomas.
Students who attend for three months are regularly qualified teachers from the Prairie
Provinces who desire to secure British Columbia certificates. They are admitted for the fall
term only.
Applications for admission are sometimes received from Normal School graduates, with
or without teaching experience, who desire to specialize, usually in Music or Primary work.
They are enrolled as Partial Students.
Miss Isobel Coursier, Instructress in Health and Physical Education, resigned on January
31st, and Sergeant-Major Frost retired on pension, under Department of National Defence
regulations, in April. Mr. Ernest Lee, B.A., B.Sc. in P.E., Supervisor of Physical Education
for New Westminster, will assume full charge of this important work in September. Mr. Lee
possesses an unusual combination of natural ability, professional training, and experience
which promises well for his success.
Changes in administration were in matters of detail only. Two of these, however, proved
valuable enough to deserve mention. During the previous year participation in the Model
School had consisted of three one-hour periods weekly for each student. This experience
proved to be incidental and varied where it was felt that something specific and reasonably
continuous was desirable. The situation was partially met by assigning students to a classroom for a full half-day each week during the autumn term.
The second change altered the date of the second practicum in teaching. The school-
year was divided into two terms of approximately equal length, each terminating with a
practicum of four weeks.
A difficulty is experienced by many teachers and by most novices in providing for a pupil
who is of average or better than average ability in most respects but who is weak in one or
two subjects. During the second term an attempt to provide some training to meet this
type of situation was made. A considerable number of these pupils was selected by the
principal of the Model School and to each of them a Normal School student was introduced.
The student determined the specific nature of the pupil's disability by observation, by experiment, and by use of diagnostic tests and then gave remedial treatment. An exact record
was kept by each student, and this, in effect, became a Case Study of the pupil.
A tribute of thanks is gratefully paid to the teachers and officials of Vancouver, New
Westminster, North Vancouver, and West Vancouver who so graciously provided practice
facilities for our students. The principal and the staff of the Model School have again
provided efficient and generous co-operation which is, in no small part, responsible for
whatever success our students may attain. J 32
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VICTORIA.
REPORT OF V. L. DENTON, B.A., D.C.L., PRINCIPAL.
The session of 1937-38 opened on September 13th, 1937, and closed on June 10th, 1938.
During the year, seventy-four students were in attendance. Of these, two were repeating
the course, and five took refresher courses in order to qualify for a British Columbia certificate.
Diplomas were awarded to sixty-five students, of whom three received honour standing.
The Strathcona Trust Gold Medals for excellence in Physical Training were won by Miss
Ellen Maureen Emery, of Victoria, and Howard Byron Barnett, of Saanich.
The following table presents a summary of the enrolment:—
Women.
Men.
Total.
47
5
1
1
18
1
1
65
Failed	
6
2
1
Totals   	
54
20
74
Practice-teaching was carried on in the municipal schools of Victoria, Esquimalt, Oak
Bay, and Saanich, and in near-by rural schools. The two-roomed Model School was reorganized and now includes Grades I. to VI. It has been found that an average of twelve pupils
to the grade provides excellent demonstration units.
At the end of the school-year Mr. B. S. Freeman, B.A., resigned on pension. During
his nineteen years as an instructor in Science and later as Vice-Principal, his wealth of
knowledge and kindly manner endeared him to the student-body. The staff will miss his
calm, sage counsel, and wish him every happiness in his retirement.
The past year has been notable for the number of extra-curricular activities carried on
by the students. Two of these activities may receive special mention. About half of the
women students enrolled in a Life-saving Class and received their certificates. Instruction
was given by Mr. D. E. Smith, B.A., of Oak Bay Schools, assisted by Mr. T. P. Home. We
desire to thank the instructors who, without remuneration, gave freely of their time in a
very fine and worthwhile endeavour.
The School annual, " Anecho," was arranged, edited, mimeographed, and bound by the
students. One hundred and ten copies were completed at a cost of $40. Additional copies
could have been made for about $12 per hundred. The " Anecho " of this year is outstanding in number and in design of the lino-cuts, which the editorial committee decided to
include. Since work of this nature links up with every phase of school activity, it is hoped
to carry on with small editions of " Anecho " from time to time throughout the school-year.
Although the number of students enrolled remains low, this situation has been of
advantage during the process of introducing the new curriculum. We feel that the students
graduated from the Normal School have received a large amount of personal supervision
and that School Boards and parents are securing better trained and more efficient teachers. SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION.
J 33
SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION.
REPORT OF H. L. CAMPBELL, B.A., M.Ed., DIRECTOR.
A Provincial Summer School of Education for Teachers was held in Victoria and Vancouver from July 5th to August 6th, 1938.
Courses leading to the new specialist certification in Music, Art, Commerce, Industrial
Arts, and Physical Education were offered for the first time.
In other fields a number of courses, not previously offered in Summer School, were
included in the programme. Some courses, offered previously, were discontinued for the
time being at least.
The new courses were:—
No.      4. Modern Educational Experiments.
No.    20. Growth and Development of Children.
No.    21. Mental Hygiene and Behaviour.
No.    22. Principles of Guidance.
No.    31. Rural School Problems.
No.    33. Introduction to Educational Supervision.
No.    93. Reading and Language in the Primary Grades.
No.    94. Problems in Primary Methods.
No. 104. Elementary Science.
No. 116. Early Civilizations.
No. 202. Applied Art in Home Economics.
No. 212. Children's Literature.
No. 213. Cataloguing and Classification.
COURSES AND ENROLMENT.
The Summer School of Education operated courses in Victoria and Vancouver. The
departments of the School operating in Vancouver were: Art, Commercial, and Technical
Teacher-training.
Courses.
Instructors.
Enrolment.
25
50
16
28
176
873
Totals                              .     .
75
44
1,048
The courses offered were grouped into divisions or fields,
were as follows:—
The courses and enrolments
History and Philosophy of Education: Enrolments.
No. 1. Principles and Technique of Teaching  254
No. 2. The New Curriculum:   Its Objectives and Procedures     47
No. 4. Modern Educational Experiments     29
Psychology and Measurement:
No. 10. Educational Psychology	
No. 11. Educational Measurement (Section A)	
No. 11. Educational Measurement (Section B)	
Individual Development and Guidance:
No. 20. Growth and Development of Children	
No. 21. Mental Hygiene and Behaviour	
No. 22. Principles of Guidance	
Organization and Administration:
No. 30. Class-room Organization and Management-
No. 31. Seminar:   Rural School Problems	
No. 33. Introduction to Educational Supervision	
3
187
49
41
123
93
83
30
59
29 J 34 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
Graphic Arts: Enrolments.
No. 50. Art in the Elementary School  33
No. 51. Art in the Junior High School Grades  17
No. 52. Art Appreciation   . .  150
Practical Arts:
No.    60. Practical Arts   116
No.    61. Practical Arts   116
No. 202. Applied Art in Home Economics ,  28
English:
No. 72. Senior Matriculation Literature ,  34
No. 73. Senior Matriculation Composition   18
Mathematics:
No. 80. Elementary School Arithmetic  30
Primary Education:
No. 90. Principles of Primary Education  41
No. 91. Primary Observation and Laboratory  65
No. 93. Reading and Language in Primary Grades  136
No. 94.  Seminar:   Problems in Primary Methods  15
Science:
No. 104. The Teaching of Elementary Science  43
Social Studies:
No. 110. Methods in the Social Studies  23
No. 111. Methods in the Social Studies  23
No. 113. Senior Matriculation History  31
No. 116. Early Civilizations   38
Commercial Teacher-training  (Vancouver):
No. 120-122. Stenography Principles and Methods  18
No. 121. Stenography Practice   10
No. 123. Typewriting Theory and Methods  23
No. 124. Typewriting Practice   19
No. 125-126. Elementary Book-keeping   11
No. 125-127. Book-keeping Theory and Methods """"' 14
'•] '■    No. 126. Book-keeping Practice   11
  '       No. 128-129. Business Law, Correspondence, etc.   14
No. 130. Commercial Arithmetic  9
No. 132. Accounting  10
No. 133. Office  Routine    10
Music Education:
No. 140. Music in the Primary Grades  62
No. 141a. Music in the Intermediate Grades  64
No. 141a. Music in Rural Schools  47
No. 142. Creative Music   31
No. 143. Choral Music and Conducting :  44
No. 148. Choral and Instrumental Ensemble  19
No. 154. Music Problems in the Schools ._  10
Physical Education:
No. 160. Introduction to Physical Education  37
No. 162. Play and Playgrounds  32
No. 164. Anatomy and Physiology  23
No. 167. Elementary Physical Education Laboratory  71
No. 168. Advanced Physical Education Laboratory  35
No. 170. Fundamental Rhythm  62
No. 171. Sports' Education, Coaching, Refereeing  62
No. 174. Elementary   Folk-dancing     75
No. 177. Recreational Activities  40 SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. J 35
Art Teacher-training (Vancouver) : Enrolments.
No. 183. Pictorial Composition and Art Appreciation  52
No. 184. Clay Modelling    57
No. 185. Blackboard  Drawing   57
No. 186. Crafts     61
Home Economics:
No. 200. Curriculum and Methods in Home Economics  20
No. 202. Applied Art in Home Economics  28
Library Education :
No. 212. Children's Literature   23
No. 213. Cataloguing and Classification  26
Industrial Arts  Teacher-training  (Vancouver) :
No. 228. Educational   Woodwork     39
No. 230. Educational Sheet and Art Metalwork  29
No. 231. Farm Mechanics   39
No. 232. Educational   Machine-shop   Work  47
No. 240. Elementary Sheet-metal Work :  29
No. 241. Educational  Metalwork-machine  Practice  35
No. 242. Elementary   Machine-shop   Bench-work  35
High  School  Wood-turning       5
High School Design       2
High School Machine-shop  10
Total of Student Courses in 1938  3,438
Total of Student Courses in 1937  2,718
Detailed course prescriptions will be found in the 1938 bulletin of the Summer School of
Education, published by the  Department of  Education.    Schematic  outlines  showing  the
content of each course are on file in the Summer School office.
REGISTRATION.
An analysis of the registration reveals the following information concerning those in
attendance:—
Teaching Experience:
Less than 1 year    34
From 1 to 3 years  443
From 4 to 6 years - .     89
From 7 to 9 years _ _     99
From 10 to 12 years 1  102
More than 13 years  231
Not  reported   „    50
Total     1,048
Class of Certificate:                                                                     Interim. Permanent. Total.
Academic       19 47 66
First-class  ,  276 239 515
Second-class    __ . ZZ  114 240 354
Third-class    9 9
Special   . ,. -    23 34 57
Not reported .'_     25 22 47
Totals   457 591 1,048
University Degrees:
Bachelor of Arts     74
Bachelor of Science „    32
Master of Arts      5
Bachelor of Commerce       1
Total   112 J 36 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
Class of School:
Teaching in rural schools  403
Teaching in district municipality schools  196
Teaching in city or town schools  351
Not reported      98
Total     1,048
Attendance at Summer School:
Those reporting attendance in 1932 _     32
Those reporting attendance in 1933    38
Those reporting attendance in 1934     69
Those reporting attendance in 1935     74
Those reporting attendance in 1936  128
Those reporting attendance in 1937  390
From the data given in the foregoing tables, it would seem that the following conclusions
might be drawn:—
(a.)  Teachers with many years of teaching experience are attending Summer School
in large numbers that they may give full effect to the present curriculum.
(6.)   The  majority of the teachers  in  attendance  at  Summer   School  were there
voluntarily and not because of any legal requirement,
(c.)   The majority of the teachers in attendance at Summer School were experienced
teachers from graded municipal schools.
FACULTY.
A very able group of lecturers was engaged for the session. All but three of these were
members of the teaching profession in British Columbia.
The visiting lecturers were: Ernest W. Tiegs, M.A., Ph.D., Dean of the University
College, University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Daniel H. Kulp II., A.M., Ph.D.,
Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York; and R. R. G. Watt, A.M., Ed.D., Professor, Department of Tests, Measurements, and Vocational Guidance, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles.
Members of the Faculty were as follows:—
Abercrombie, W. T., B.A Vice-Principal,  Grandview High  School
of Commerce, Vancouver.
Alsbury, A. T., B.A Magee High School, Vancouver.
Amess, F. A., Dip. V.S.D.A.A Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver.
Bescoby, Miss Isabel, M.A Model School, Provincial Normal School,
Victoria.
Bruce, Graham, B.A Vice-Principal, Fairview High School of
Commerce, Vancouver.
Bulley, Stanley, A.R.C.O., L.R.A.M..Supervisor of Music, Victoria.
Dailey, Miss Helen S Primary Specialist, Nanaimo.
Ewing, J. M., B.A., D.Paed Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Gatewood, Miss Frances, Dip.
V.S.D.A.A Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver.
Gibbard, J. E., B.A Magee High School, Vancouver.
Green, Mrs. Irene V., B.Sc John Oliver High School, Vancouver.
Greenway, Miss Rena Primary Specialist, North Vancouver.
Hall, T. R., B.A Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Hall, Miss Unina F., B.A Art Specialist, Vancouver.
Handley, Miss A Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver.
Henderson, Miss Florence M Practical Arts Specialist, Vancouver.
Heywood, Robert H., B.A Commercial Specialist, Victoria.
Hind, George Simon Fraser School, Vancouver.
Hinton, Miss Barbara Graduate,   Sargent   School   of   Physical
Education, Provincial Normal School,
Victoria. SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. J 37
Johnston, Miss Effie Primary Specialist, Vancouver.
Jones, Harry A   Vancouver Technical School, Vancouver.
King, Miss Hazel H Graduate,   Carnegie   School   of   Library
Science, Public Library, Victoria.
Kulp, Dr. Daniel H., IL, A.M., Ph.D.Teachers' College, Columbia University,
New York.
Le Cocq, Miss Doris, A.R.M.S Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver.
Lee, Ernest, B.A., B.Sc Director, Physical Education, New West-
mister.
Martin, A. E. C, B.Sc Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Matheson, A. S., B.A Inspector of Schools, Kelowna.
McAlpine, Miss Ruth, B.Sc Junior High School, Nelson.
McArthur, Harold, B.A Inspector of Schools, Kamloops.
McManus, Miss Mildred, Mus.B.,
M.A Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Napier, Mrs. E. M. E., M.A., B.L.S. Public Library, Victoria.
Norie, Miss A Public Library, Victoria.
Parfitt, Ivor Music Specialist, Kitsilano High School,
Vancouver.
Parkes, Miss Jessie F Supervisor, Needlework, Vancouver.
Quayle, Thomas A Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Administrative Area.
Russell, Albert Instructor, Technical School, Vancouver.
Scott, Charles H., Dip. G.S.A Director, Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver.
Smith, Harry L., M.A Principal, Victoria High School, Victoria.
Tiegs, Dr. Ernest W., M.A., Ph.D...-Dean, University College, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles.
Ustinow, P. V Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver.
Watt, R. R. G., A.M., Ed.D Professor, Department of Tests, Measurements, and Vocational Guidance,
University of Southern California, Los
Angeles.
Weston, W. P., A.R.C.A Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Williams, William J Technical School, Vancouver.
Wishart, Alfred Technical School, Vancouver.
LIBRARY.
Before the opening of the session each instructor was required to submit a list of the
most important reference books for his course. These books were borrowed or purchased
and placed " on reserve " in the Library and might be taken out by students for one-hour
periods or for overnight.
The Library contained over 2,000 volumes of the most important reference books and
remained open from 8 o'clock in the morning until 10 o'clock at night.
Thanks are due to those in charge of the following institutions for their generosity in
lending books to the Summer School Library:-—■
Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Provincial Normal School, Victoria.
Provincial Legislative Library.
Provincial Library Commission.
Victoria Public Library.
Victoria Teachers' Professional Library.
Victoria High School Library.
Office of Provincial Director of Home Economics.
Office of Curriculum and Technical Adviser. J 38 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
BOOK AND MAGAZINE DISPLAYS.
A book display comprising the text-book, reference book, and professional book offerings
of leading educational publishers was held in the school for the duration of the session.
Over 2,200 visits to the room by teachers and faculty members are recorded.
An educational magazine display comprising the leading Canadian,* British, and American
educational periodicals in both general and specific fields was held in connection with the book
display.    Over one hundred educational periodicals were available for examination.
The following firms submitted exhibits of educational books:—
The Macmillan Company. Thomas Nelson & Sons.
J. M. Dent & Sons. Little, Brown & Company.
Ginn & Company. Allyn & Bacon.
W. J. Gage & Company. Webster Publishing Company.
ART AND MUSIC.
In addition to the courses regularly offered in these fields, an excellent series of Art and
Music Appreciation lectures and Art displays were provided during the session. No fee was
charged for these, and many students, not taking courses in these subjects, welcomed the
opportunity of attending.
LABORATORY SCHOOL.
A demonstration class of Grade I. and Grade II. children was in operation for the
duration of the session. In this an attempt was made to create a class-room situation in
harmony with the ideals of the curriculum. The techniques of instruction were those advocated in the methods courses and in the Programme of Studies.
For an hour and a half each day teachers observed the work of this class and during
the session each teacher made a detailed case-study of two of the pupils. The observation
period was followed by a discussion period.
EXHIBITION OF PRIMARY PROJECTS.
In connection with the courses offered in Primary Education the students enrolled
worked out a series of integrated activities which could be carried on in every rural school
at little or no cost.
The projects resulting from the activities were placed on display for the benefit of those
not taking the courses.
SUMMER SCHOOL " PLAY DAY."
A gratifying feature of the Summer School was the large enrolment in the Physical
Education teacher-training courses by those who were not seeking specialist certification.
Such an enrolment ensures that there will be physical education instruction of a higher order
in the ordinary class-rooms.
During the concluding week of the session a " Play Day " was held. In the wide range
of non-competitive physical education activities presented many teachers participated who
were not enrolled in the physical education classes.
EXTRA-CURRICULAR FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES.
Every facility was offered the students during the session for attendance at lectures,
concerts,   dramatic  performances,  excursions,   and   social  functions.    The   Department  of
Education withdrew the registration fee of $3 which had been paid by students in previous
years, and initiated an activity fee of $1.50, which admitted the students without payment
of an admission charge to all extra-curricular functions and activities.
The programme of extra-curricular functions was as follows:—
First Week:
Tuesday.—-Opening Assembly.    Address:   Dr. G. M. Weir, Minister of Education.
Wednesday.—Illustrated Lecture:   Basic Principles of Art Appreciation, by W. P.
Weston, A.R.C.A., of Vancouver.
Wednesday.—Dance Recital, by David Tihmar and Dorothee Jarnac, of Hollywood.
Thursday.—Illustrated Lecture:   Birds of the West, by Dorothy Gordon Cox. of
Victoria. I
■ "jrjBay!*
titimiz.
z; ;zi- ■:
HI'
>.
:i  "■-'     -   '■■:■:v^r^M^mmKBt
Laboratory Class.
Book and Magazine Displays. Exhibition of Primary Projects. ^™
JF^ma
Physical Education " Play Day." Physical Education " Play Day.': SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. J 39
 _———, , 1 . ——
Friday.—Illustrated Lecture:   Under Northern Lights, by Sydney R. Montague, of
New York.
Friday.—Opening Summer School dance in the gymnasium.   :
Second Week:
Monday.—Lecture:  New News from Old Asia, by Hillis Lory, of Hokkaido Imperial
University of Japan.
Tuesday.—Illustrated Lecture:    The  Underlying Principles of Design, by  W.  P.
Weston, A.R.C.A.
Wednesday.—Listening Hour and Lecture, by Stanley Bulley, A.R.C.O., L.R.A.M-, of
Victoria.
Wednesday.—Illustrated Lecture:   Sun and Silence in Death Valley, by John Claire
Monteith, of New York.
Thursday.—Lecture:   Some Contributions of Measurement to Teaching and Learning, by Dean E. W. Tiegs, of the University of Southern California.
Friday.—Illustrated Lecture:   Architecture, by W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A., of Vancouver.
Friday.—Weekly dance in the gymnasium.
Saturday.—Nature Ramble with Dorothy Gordon Cox, of Victoria.
Third Week:
Monday.—Illustrated Lecture:   Sculpture, by W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A., of Vancouver.
Tuesday.—Vocal Recital, by Herman Ivaarson,  Norwegian bass-baritone, of New
York.
Wednesday.—Lecture:   Guidance in the Elementary School, by Dr. R. R. G. Watt, of
the University of Southern California.
Wednesday.—Instrumental and Vocal Concert, by the Woodwind Trio of the Seattle
Symphony Orchestra, assisted by Dudley Wickett, tenor.
Thursday.—Listening  Hour and Lecture, by Mildred McManus,  Mus.B.,  M.A., of
Vancouver.
Thursday.—Beach party at Cadboro Bay.
Friday.—Lecture:   Progressive Reconstruction of Education, by Dean Willis L. Uhl,
of Seattle.
Friday.—Weekly dance in the gymnasium.
Fourth Week:
Monday.—Lecture:   The Cruise of the Te Rapunga, by Captain George Dibbern, of
Germany and New Zealand.
Tuesday.-—Illustrated Lecture:   Pictorial Art, by W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A., of Vancouver.
Wednesday.—Lecture:   What is Mental Health? by Dr. D. H. Kulp, of Columbia
University, New York.
Wednesday.—Vocal Recital, by Steven Kennedy, lyric baritone, of New York.
Thursday.—Illustrated Lecture:   Canadian Painting, by W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A., of
Vancouver.
Thursday.—Visit to grounds of Government House.
Friday.—Vocal and Instrumental Concert, by Selma Reyes, violinist, and Maquinna
Daniels, pianist.
Friday.—Weekly dance in the gymnasium.
Saturday.—Beach Ramble at Low Tide with Dorothy Gordon Cox, of Victoria.
Fifth Week:
Monday.—Lecture:   The Curriculum in Relation to Mental Hygiene, by Dr. H. B.
King, Technical Adviser, Department of Education, Victoria.
Tuesday.—Illustrated Lecture:  Art and the Machine, by W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A., of
Vancouver.
Tuesday.—Splash party at the Crystal Garden.
Wednesday.—Lecture:   The Pursuit of Happiness, by Dr. J. M. Ewing, of Vancouver.
Wednesday.—Visit to H.M.S. " York " in Esquimalt Harbour. J 40 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
———————-^—^— _——. •	
Wednesday.—Vocal Recital, by Ellen Repp, Norwegian-American contralto, of New
York.
Thursday.—" Play Day," conducted by Physical Education Department.
Thursday.—Closing dance in the gymnasium.
Friday.—-Piano Lecture-Recital, by Gertrude Huntley Green.
SATURDAY AND EVENING TEACHER-TRAINING CLASSES.
In October, 1937, the Department of Education authorized the organization and operation of Saturday and Evening credit courses for the in-service training of teaching.
All such courses were under the direction of the Summer School of Education but were
operated by the local School Administrator. He undertook to provide a suitable place for
the conduct of the course and an instructor acceptable to the Department of Education.
All courses offered for credit were parallel in content and quality of work done with those
given in the Summer School of Education.
The following courses were in operation during the winter of 1937-38:—
In Vancouver:
Introduction to Physical Education.
Elementary Physical Education Laboratory.
Physical Education Activities.
Advanced Folk- and Character-dancing.
Elementary Folk-dancing.
Practical Arts.
Principles and Technique of Teaching.
Drawing and Painting (partial).
Crafts (partial).
Drawing and Painting (partial).
Commercial Art.
No. 194.    Crafts (partial).
In New Westminster:
No. 166.    School Athletics.
No. 176.    Physical Education Activities.
In Langley:
No.  60-1.  Practical Arts.
No.
160.
No.
167.
No.
176.
No.
175.
No.
174.
No.
60-1
No.
1.
No.
181.
No.
186.
No.
190.
No.
193. TECHNICAL EDUCATION. J 41
TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., OFFICER IN CHARGE.
I have the honour of presenting a report for the year 1937-38 on the work of the
following:—
(a.)  Manual Training (Woodwork) in elementary schools.
(6.)  Industrial Arts  (Woodwork, Metalwork, and Electricity)  in junior and senior
high schools.
(c.)   Technical Option Courses in high schools   ("A" Woodwork and "B" Metal-
work).
(d.)   High-school Commercial and High-school Agricultural Courses.
(e.)   Technical Schools in Vancouver and New Westminster.
(/.)   Vancouver School of Art.
(g.)  Night-schools for Adult Education.
(h.)  Mining Classes.
(i.)  Apprenticeship Council and " Apprenticeship Act."
(j.) Teacher-training.
As this will be my last annual report previous to my retirement after twenty-five years
of organizing and directing Technical Education, I might perhaps be permitted to draw
attention to the work which was being done in the Province when I undertook my duties in
1913. In this way it will be interesting to follow the steady growth and development of the
work, and so provide data from which a prediction may be made of the probable advancement
in the years to come.
In the year 1914 there was a total of 38 woodworking centres in the Province. These
have gradually increased to 132 centres. The staff of instructors then numbered 36 men.
This has increased to 99 men. The number of pupils taking manual training numbered 5,652.
There are now 13,640 pupils participating in the work throughout the Province.
There were no Technical Option Courses in high schools, as the subjects were not then
considered worthy of recognition by the University authorities. No Technical Schools and
no school of Decorative and Applied Art had been established in the Province. There were
no school subjects taught by correspondence, no teacher-training classes for instructors of
manual and technical subjects, no night-schools, no " Apprenticeship Act," and practically
no apprentices.
It may thus be seen that much progress has been made during the past twenty-five years,
in spite of the fact that the system has been of a voluntary nature and dependent upon the
initiative of School Boards. Since courses in Practical Arts have been made compulsory the
increase in all departments has made the duties very much greater and would seem to demand
the time of several men. Nevertheless, I have had great satisfaction in my work as Director
of Technical Education, and will look back with pleasure on the years I spent with helpful
colleagues and a staff of reliable, earnest, hard-working, and progressive men.
MANUAL TRAINING AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS.
(Grades VI. to XII.)
Notwithstanding the increase of junior high schools and the richer manual course, which
is included therein under the heading of " Industrial Arts," there are still centres where
instruction in woodwoik only is given. It is interesting and encouraging to see the brave
attempts which are being made by some of the School Boards in sparsely populated districts
to give the pupils training in woodwork. The larger communities are gradually, although
sometimes tardily, introducing the work into their schools, and one may safely predict that in
a very few years no school will be without its woodworking-shop.
It should be pointed out, however, that the course in Industrial Arts differs from the
Manual-training Course inasmuch as it consists of Woodwork, Metalwork, Electrical Work,
and Draughting, while the Manual-training Course consists of Woodwork only.
The following forty-eight districts in the Province have established either Manual
Training or Industrial Arts Workshops: Abbotsford, Alberni, Armstrong, Burnaby, Chase
River, Chilliwack City, Chilliwack Municipality, Courtenay, Cranbrook, Cumberland, Duncan, J 42 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
Esquimalt, Fairbridge Farm, Fernie, Harewood, loco, Kamloops, Kaslo, Kelowna, Kimberley,
Ladysmith, Langley, Michel-Natal, Nanaimo, Nanaimo Bay, Nelson, New Westminster, North
Saanich, North Vancouver, Oak Bay, Ocean Falls, Penticton, Pitt Meadows, Port Alberni,
Port Moody, Powell River, Prince Rupert, Richmond, Rossland, Summerland, Surrey, South
Wellington, Trail, University Hill, Vancouver, Vernon, Victoria, and West Vancouver.
The total number of individual elementary and junior and senior
high-school shops in the Province number        132
The total number of individual elementary and junior and senior
high-school instructors are  99
The total number of pupils participating are:—
Elementary school   5,455
Junior high school   5,760
Senior high school   2,425
■  13,640
HIGH SCHOOL TECHNICAL OPTIONS "A"  (WOODWORK)  AND
"B"  (METALWORK).
(Grades IX., X., XL, or X., XL, XII.)
The above options embrace the theory and practice of Woodwork and Metalwork, and
they are each accepted by the University of British Columbia in lieu of a second science or a
second foreign language, with credits counting towards admission to the University.
HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION TECHNICAL COURSE.
(Grades IX. and X.)
This course is arranged for those who do not propose to go to University but desire to
obtain the High School Graduation Certificate. Ample freedom of choice is given to school
authorities in rural and urban areas to vary the course from one of a regular art-craft nature
or one having a purely vocational character. It thus appeals to those who desire to lay the
foundation for leisure-time occupations as well as to those who have a clearly defined vocational motive to enter some special trade or industry.
HIGH SCHOOL COMMERCIAL AND AGRICULTURAL COURSES.
Commercial subjects are taught in high schools for distinctly vocational purposes. The
requirements of the commercial world determine the subjects and extent of the course. This
should be emphasized more and more by those who teach commercial subjects. The idea
which is fostered in some quarters that it is necessary for high school commercial pupils to
attend some business college to finish off their commercial education is one which should be
denied emphatically. If the claim is justified in any school, then the staff ought to revise
their work without delay, because a commercial course equal to any business college course
can undoubtedly be given in high schools in accordance with the new Course of Studies.
Commercial subjects are taught in the high schools of Alberni (27), Burnaby (360),
Cumberland (44), Delta (21), Dewdney (11), Duncan (116), Kamloops (90), Kaslo (15),
Kelowna (174), Kimberley (111), Ladysmith (43), Mission City (65), Nanaimo (80), Nelson
(161), New Westminster (230), North Vancouver (158), Oak Bay (31), Oliver (2), Penticton (144), Port Coquitlam (14), Port Moody (66), Prince Rupert (30), Revelstoke (23),
Richmond (260), Saanich (185), Smithers (5), Vancouver (3,262), Vernon (154), Victoria
(436), and West Vancouver (390), making a total of 6,708 students.
The subject of Agriculture is taught in the high schools of Abbotsford (24), Chilliwack
(39), Dawson Creek (43), Dewdney (25), Kelowna (34), New Westminster (36), Oliver (5),
Richmond (44), Saanich (42), Salmon Arm (7), Smithers (1), Summerland (27), and Victoria (22), making a total of 349 students.
Clubs and home projects are featured in this course and, in the near future, there is sure
to be close correlation between the technical course in Farm Mechanics, Agriculture as taught
in high schools, and that practical work which is done on the farm. TECHNICAL EDUCATION. J 43
VANCOUVER TECHNICAL SCHOOL.
The following courses are offered to students of the Technical School:—
(1.) Matriculation Course leading to the Applied Science Courses of the University.—The
sciences taken are Chemistry, Physics, Mechanics, Electricity, and, in addition, shop-work for
one year in each of the following: Printing, Sheet Metal, Machine-shop. Only boys of good
academic standing are permitted to take this course.
(2.) Technical Diploma Course which does not lead to the University.—This is the
popular course for those who wish to prepare themselves for industrial life. The subjects
which are featured are Mathematics, Science, Shop-work, and Draughting.
This course is divided into two sections (Grades IX. and X. and Grades XI. and XII.)
and diplomas are given to those who complete the whole course satisfactorily. In Grades IX.
and X. there are no options, but in Grades XI. and XII. there are two types of courses offered
(" A " and " B "). Boys who have no particular end in view but who wish to continue the
general course begun in Grades IX. and X. take Course " A." Boys who have decided to enter
some definite industry take Course " B."
(3.) Special Courses in Sheet Metal, Machine-shop, Automotive and Diesel Engineering,
Aviation Mechanics, Acetylene and Arc Welding, Electricity, Woodwork, Draughting, Printing, and Cookery.—Those who are permitted to enrol in the above classes are: (a) Boys who
have completed three years of high-school work; (6) youths and men who have been engaged
in industrial work and desire further training;   (c) adults who desire special instruction.
The number of day students attending the Technical School in 1937-38 numbered 1,233,
and at night-school the enrolment was 850.
T. J. TRAPP TECHNICAL SCHOOL, NEW WESTMINSTER.
The above school may be termed a Composite High School, inasmuch as it embraces
courses in senior high, technical high, vocational, commercial, and home-making subjects.
The organization of such a school is no easy matter, but it is successfully accomplished
and the courses of study are appropriate to the requirements of the city and district.
The net enrolment of day students numbered 549.
VANCOUVER SCHOOL OF ART.
For thirteen years this school has carried on its successful work and its organization is
steadily improving.
The most important course is undoubtedly the Diploma Course. This is of four years'
duration, the first two of which are composed of obligatory subjects, after which options may
be selected from the syllabus under the guidance of the Director.
The Merit Certificate Course is one of two years for students who cannot take the longer
course. The first year is composed of obligatory subjects, after which options may be exercised by the student.
Part-time courses in practically all subjects may be taken by those who do not desire
to follow the Diploma or Certificate Courses.
The subjects taken are as follows: Art (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th year), Modelling,
Architecture, Drawing, Design, Silversmithing, Painting, Commercial Art, Life Drawing,
Pottery, Leather-work, Colour-block Printing, Drawing for Teachers, Practical Arts, Basketry, Needlework, and Child Art.
The enrolment at the day classes numbered 70 and at the night classes 391.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
It is at night-schools where the work of adult education, is carried on most effectively.
People only attend and pay fees when they actually wish to obtain information or gain skill.
The selection of instructors should, in all justice to the students, be made with great care
and discernment. Unfortunately, this is where School Boards occasionally fail. Persons
should not be engaged to teach merely because they are out of employment and in necessitous
circumstances, but because of their superior attainments. The fact that he is a successful
workman, in employment and receiving a liberal salary, should count in his favour as an
instructor of others. Nothing is too good for those who give of their time and money to
improve themselves at night-schools. J 44 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
The value of education through night-schools is going to increase with changing conditions. If a seven-hour day were adopted that would make night-school still more necessary
because of the increased hours of leisure.
The subjects taught at night-schools throughout the Province are as follows: Accounting,
Acetylene Welding, Aeronautics, Algebra, Arithmetic, Armature-winding, Art, Art Metalwork, Automobile Mechanics, Basketry, Book-keeping, Building Construction, Business Arithmetic, Cabinetmaking, Chemistry, Child Art, Child Psychology, Choral Singing, Clothing,
Colour-block Printing, Commercial Arithmetic, Commercial Art, Commercial English, Community Singing, Composition, Continuation, Cookery, Current Events, Debating, Design,
Diesel Engineering, Draughting, Dramatic Art, Drawing, Dressmaking, Economics, Electricity, Electrical Engineering, Elocution, English, English for New Canadians, First Aid,
Flower Arrangement, Folk-dancing, French, Geometry, German, Glove-making, Grammar,
Guitar and Violin, Handicrafts, Horticulture, Ignition, Latin, Leather-work, Lettering, Life
Drawing, Lip-reading, Literature, Lumber-grading, Machine Construction, Machine Drawing, Machine-shop, Mathematics, Mechanical Drawing, Metalwork, Mining, Mining Arithmetic, Modelling, Modern Educational Practice, Modern Merchandising, Motors I., Music
(Instrumental and Orchestral), Music Appreciation, Navigation, Needlework, Operatic Training, Oxy-acetylene Welding, Painting, Painting and Decorating, Pattern Draughting, Philosophy, Photography, Physical Education, Physics, Pottery, Practical Arts, Practical Mathematics, Psychology, Printing, Public School Work, Pulp and Paper (Elementary and
Advanced), Public Speaking, Radio Communication, Rug-making, Russian, Salesmanship,
Science, Secretarial Practice, Senior Matriculation History, Sheet-metal Work, Shorthand,
Short-story Writing, Show-card Writing, Sign-painting, Silversmithing, Singing, Spanish,
Speech Correction, Steam Engineering, Swedish, Trigonometry, Typewriting, Weaving, and
Woodwork.
The enrolment in 1937-38 was 7,649.
MINING CLASSES HELD UNDER THE NIGHT-SCHOOL SYSTEM.
The above classes are operated under the joint management of the Department of Mines
and the Department of Education, and for this reason we keep the records separate from
those of night-schools.
An excellent text-book has been written by the Deputy Minister of Mines and this has
aided the class lectures greatly. The text-book has also helped to establish the correspondence
course in Mineralogy, which is gradually gaining favour.
The attendance was 694.
THE B.C. APPRENTICESHIP COUNCIL AND THE "APPRENTICESHIP ACT."
Apprenticeship-training is now established in the following trades: Carpentry, Joinery
or Bench-work; Painting and Decorating; Plastering; Sheet-metal Work; Plumbing and
Steam-fitting; Electrical Work—(a) Shop Section, (6) Construction Section; Automobile
Maintenance—(a) Mechanics, (6) Metalwork, (c) Tire Reconditioning; Sign and Pictorial
Painting; Servicing and Repair of Current-consuming Electrical Appliances; Ship and Boat
Building (including Alterations and Repairs); Jewellery Manufacture and Repair; Lithography;   Machinist Trade;   Pattern-making;   Boiler-making;   Aviation Mechanics.
The agreement, which is signed by the apprentice, his parents, and his employer, calls
for attendance at a night-school in order that the student may both become skilled at the
bench and have a thorough understanding of the underlying principles of his trade. For
most of these courses night-school classes have been established and the instruction given is
meeting with the whole-hearted approval of the apprentices and employers.
It will be readily understood, however, that in small towns it will be quite impossible to
arrange apprentice classes in the various industries which are embraced in the scheme.
Correspondence courses in technical subjects are rapidly being completed so that, no
matter where the apprentice may be practising his calling, he will be able to study correct
methods and gain a theoretical knowledge of his trade which will keep him well in line with
all the work which is being accomplished in larger centres.
The technical correspondence courses which are now available are the following:
Mechanical Drawing and Draughting, Commercial Art, Lettering and Display-card Writing, TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
J 45
Automotive Engineering I. and IL, Diesel Engineering, Practical Electricity, Elementary
Principles of Radio, Aviation I., Aviation II., Prospector's Course in Geology and Mining,
Forestry and Forest Products, House Painting and Decorating, Plumbing, Heating and
Steam-fitting, and Building Construction.
TRAINING OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS.
Classes for training industrial arts instructors and technical teachers are carried on in
the Technical School, Vancouver. The classes meet on Saturdays (during the winter) and
at Summer School.    The training is thus continued uninterruptedly during the year.
The classes are composed of school-teachers holding First-class Certificates and well-
educated, efficient craftsmen. It is from these training classes that instructors are selected
for work required in day-schools, night-schools, and schools for the unemployed.
Summarized Statement of Attendance and Teachers in Evening Vocational Schools
for Period July 1st, 1937, to June 30th, 1938.
Municipality or
School.
o
S a
•3.2.
03 *_J
*_.Q
0 3
_-,»-
O
d
~M   01
o.2
u
cs
W OJ «
-8 S «
E-,£o
4J
C
o
ex
Ul     ~
•3 §2
E-jWu
Number of Individuals
enrolled.
Teachers.
Male.
Female.
Total.
Male.
Female.
Total.
11
3
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
1
2
4
3
1
1
3
6
14
1
16
1
1
1
13
1
1
1
3
1
2
66
13
2
18
6
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
3
5
17
1
14
1
1
1
9
1
1
1
3
1
2
146
27
2
417
121
36
50
22
43
45
50
55
11
30
50
31
15
18
47
113
199
11
265
10
23
20
117
11
20
19
63
50
24
4,269
391
26
10,579
5,762
3,743
2,178
588
1,473
2,598
6,131
2,882
82
1,042
2,430
2,023
242
1,404
2,163
5,955
5,964
66
5,441
135
4,043
938
9,839
1,009
790
724
1,354
1,986
1,784
216,017
17,406
482
122
34
24
14
12
41
23
19
36
1
26
15
20
15
35
70
160
133
20
17
78
11
13
19
42
25
17
2,225
110
2
295
87
12
36
10
2
12
31
19
10
4
35
11
18
12
43
39
11
132
10
3
3
39
7
21
25
7
2,044
281
24
417
121
36
50
22
43
45
50
55
11
30
50
31
15
18
47
113
199
11
265
10
23
20
117
11
20
19
63
50
24
4,269
391
26
5
1
2
1
3
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
3
10
7
	
1
1
8
1
1
1
2
1
2
74
8
2
6
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
4
1
7
1
1
1
25
5
11
2
Chilliwack ___ _ , ,.
Courtenay	
2
2
3
Delta  	
Fernie -— 	
2
2
1
Harewood — — 	
2
1
2
3
Kent       _	
2
Kimberley —- — -
Langley-— - 	
1
1
3
Nanaimo	
Ocean Falls — —-	
Oyster     	
Peace River  	
Pitt Meadows — — 	
5
14
1
14
1
1
1
9
1
Saanich—  	
Saanich, North  	
1
1
3
Summerland 	
Trail  —	
Vancouver.    	
1
2
99
13
Vancouver, North. 	
2
Vancouver, West — -
1
2
124
11,116
124
124
2
2
Victoria— - —	
32
1
41
1
847
17
47,415
257
517
17
330
847
17
36
1
9
45
Totals - -
326
7,649
378,041
4,046
3,603
7,649
187
69
256 J 46
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
Summarized Statement of Attendance and Teachers in Free Mining Classes for Period
November, 1937, to May, 1938.
Municipality or
o
d
ll
EhO
*o
e-s
t]  -J   _
•tj +J m
■3 e g
o oe
H Eo
c
OJ
se
•a "■*
■2 e 2
o o£
hWo
Number of Individuals
enrolled.
Teachers.
School.
Male.
Female.
Total.
Male.
Female.
Total.
Bull River Bridge  	
Burnaby- ' _ _	
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
1
26
80
44
43
57
43
28
23
36
25
38
56
71
40
30
54
509
1,672.4
978
885
536
642
646
322
546
500
516
1,972.5
1,290
786
581.2
416
22
80
41
40
53
33
28
23
36
25
38
56
71
37
25
44
4
3
3
4
10
3
5
10
26
80
44
43
57
43
28
23
36
25
38
56
71
40
30
54
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
—
1
2
Nanaimo - _—	
Pr em ier 	
Vancouver:
Mining 	
Victoria - __  	
Yahk _ 	
Totals    	
22
694
12,798.1
652
42
694
17 TECHNICAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS. J 47
TECHNICAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OF MISS JESSIE McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR.
The gradual change of the school organization from the 8-4 plan to the 6-3-3 or the 6-6
has greatly increased the interest and enthusiasm in Home Economics as a subject in the
school curriculum. Several additional School Boards have registered their approval by
opening departments in Kimberley, Cranbrook, Trail High School, Rossland, Prince George,
Port Alberni, Alberni, North Saanich, Armstrong, and Port Moody. Registration in both
Vernon and Penticton increased sufficiently to make the appointment of a second teacher in
each city advisable. Prince Rupert tried to operate its department with a teacher less, but
the effort has proved unsatisfactory, so that plans are complete for a second teacher next
term. In addition to the above expansion, Revelstoke, Creston, and Princeton are opening
new centres in the fall term.
The securing of qualified teachers for these departments has become a very serious
problem. During July and August, twenty-five teachers received appointments and only
six of these were British Columbia girls. Twenty of these teachers are graduates of
Manitoba University. This year, Manitoba has extended the training of Home Economics
teachers to cover a period of five years, the last year to be spent in the Faculty of Education.
This ruling means that in the spring of 1939 there will be no graduates from that University.
Where, then, is British Columbia to secure its teachers? The need for a Chair of Home
Economics in our University is indeed acute.
The number of students writing Grade XII. examinations in Home Economics decreased
in June, 1938, because several schools took advantage of the privilege of recommendation
accorded to accredited high schools.
Schools are gradually building up Home Economics libraries, so that the idea that
Home Economics is a " prepared " subject is becoming more generally accepted.
At Summer School this year emphasis was placed on the course in B.C. Curriculum and
Methods and the course in Applied Art for Home Economics teachers. The latter was conducted by Miss Unina Hall, B.A., Instructor in Art at King Edward High School. There was
a registration of twenty-seven. The former was taught by Miss Ruth McAlpine, B.Sc,
Instructor in Home Economics at Nelson Junior High School. This course was made more
practical by means of a demonstration class. Twenty teachers took the course, and they were
most enthusiastic. I anticipate evidence of greater efficiency in the various class-rooms due
to these opportunities.
The interest in correspondence courses in Home Economics still grows, and the work of
students who elect this subject as a matriculation option is most gratifying. The practical
tests given in connection with the Foods course show that the instruction is carrying over into
the homes.
The total number of home-economics centres in operation during the    "
year was  106
The total number of home-economics teachers was     94
The total number of pupils taking home economics was as follows:—
In elementary schools  4,950
In junior high schools  4,864
In high schools  2,858
Of these, the total number taking:—
Home Economics (A) was     311
Home Economics  (B) was:      501
Home Economics (C) was      383
Home Economics (CC) was  1,663
The total number of boys taking home economics in high schools was.___     160
The total number of young women in Normal Schools taking home
economics was      114
The total number of young men in Normal Schools taking nutrition
was       49 ; J 48 PUBLIC  SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF H. N. MacCORKINDALE, B.A., SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS.
Progress has been made during the school-year 1937-38. Some services which had been
curtailed during the depression period we were able to restore. Other improvements, long
since overdue, were also introduced into our schools. There is reason for gratification
because of the modest progress made and the endeavour on the part of all, in spite of financial
difficulties, to provide the best education service possible.
SCHOOL ENROLMENT.
For the past four years the total enrolment of the Vancouver City Schools has remained
fairly constant.    Total enrolment:   1934,39,064;   1935,38,923;   1936,38.841;   1937,38,885.
During this period of four years there has been a decrease in enrolment in the elementary-school grades and an increase in enrolment in the secondary-school grades. The
high birth-rate during the years following the war accounts in some measure for this increase
in secondary-school enrolment. It is extremely difficult to predict school enrolment in the
City of Vancouver when one considers that at the opening of the schools in September, 1936,
there were enrolled 2,012 pupils who came from school systems outside of Vancouver, or who
had entered school for the first time and had not previously resided in Vancouver. The corresponding number of new pupils for September, 1937, was 2,227. A large proportion of these
students enrolled in our secondary schools. It is interesting to note the growth of the
secondary-school enrolment in Vancouver since 1929 (the year of amalgamation).
1929. 1937.
Total junior high-school enrolment   4,145 4,250
Britannia and Annex  (Grandview High School of
Commerce)     733 1,190
Lord Byng   378 966
Fairview High School of Commerce and Annex  585 904
King Edward   646 1,407
King George   374 498
Kitsilano   380 659
Magee   759 961
John Oliver  947 1,448
Prince of Wales  230 262
Technical    923 1,168
Total senior high-school enrolment  5,955 9,463
Total increase in high-school enrolment, 1937 over 1929  3,613
This increase of 3,613 is caused by many factors, possibly the three most important ones
being:—■
(a.)  The standard demanded by commerce and industry is the highest it has ever
been.    (Want ads. state " must have high-school education.")
(6.)  There is a growing demand on the part of a large percentage of our young
people to become better equipped by investing in more education,
(c.)  During the past eight years a great number of the youth of the country have
been unable to find employment and they have very wisely continued with their
studies.
SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION.
This is a hardy annual well known to all of us. During the year 1936, at a cost of
approximately $70,350, the equivalent of a thirteen-room addition was added to the Lord Byng
High School. This money was procured from the unexpended balance of school by-laws (the
work for which they were voted having been completed). This temporarily relieved the
situation in the west. SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER. J 49
Overcrowded conditions in our secondary schools have made it necessary to construct
rooms in basements, attics, temporary buildings, and assembly halls.    Because of the bad
physical conditions under which the students and staff of our secondary schools had to work,
the Board of School Trustees felt it their duty to request the Vancouver City Council to submit to the taxpayers a school by-law for $400,000.    This by-law was submitted to the electorate on Wednesday, December 8th, 1937, and was endorsed by a large majority:-—
Number voting " Yes "—13,304.
Number voting " No "—   5,626.
Below are the details of this by-law for $400,000, as submitted to the ratepayers of the
city—
New school-sites   $10,000
(5) Gymnasium at John Oliver High School    35,000
(1) Twelve-room elementary school adjacent to Sixteenth Avenue
and Camosun Street, to relieve conditions at Byng, Langara,
and Kitsilano units     70,000
(2) Four-room elementary school in area bounded by Twenty-ninth
and Thirty-ninth Avenues, Highbury and Camosun Streets     15,000
Furniture and equipment for above items (5, 1, and 2)       6,000
(6) Addition of shops, class-rooms, and gymnasium at Technical
School, equivalent of eighteen class-rooms  125,000
(3) Additions and alterations to Magee High School to provide at
least ten additional class-rooms and woodworking shop  90,000
(4) Alterations to King Edward High School to provide four additional class-rooms on third floor, also addition to gymnasium.. 37,000
Furniture and equipment for above items (6, 3, and 4)  12,000
(The numbers on the left are as they appeared on the by-law as submitted.)
It was very encouraging to learn that the ratepayers of this city, in no uncertain terms,
endorsed the policy of the Board of School Trustees for the extension of secondary-school
accommodation.
Since the endorsation of the extension for secondary-school accommodation by the ratepayers of the city last December, the Board of School Trustees has endeavoured to raise the
necessary funds without success. At the moment, the Federal Government is being solicited
for a loan on the 2-per-cent. self-liquidating basis. The necessary funds for liquidating the
loan can be provided from fees paid by Senior Matriculation, Technical, and Commercial
students. At present it is highly improbable that we shall be able to accommodate these fee-
paying students at the opening of schools in September, 1938. This curtailment of attendance depends entirely on the number of students who will enrol in our secondary-school classes
from places outside the city.    This is indeed a difficult figure to estimate.
BUILDING MAINTENANCE.
The value of the buildings of the Vancouver City school system is approximately
$10,000,000 and the value of the equipment approximately $1,000,000. To maintain this
plant and equipment, we are spending the absurdly small sum of lVz per cent, of the valuation. When one considers the heavy pupil-load of day students, the large number of night-
school students accommodated in the evening, the numerous demands of various adult groups
for public meeting space, it readily follows that the depreciation of these buildings will
inevitably be high. How far would 1% per cent, of the valuation of a piece of private
property, spent on maintenance, go towards keeping our homes and other buildings in a
proper state of repair? This neglect of proper maintenance will some day cost us a great
deal more than it otherwise should. Our budget for building maintenance in 1939 must be
increased, otherwise the expenditure in the future on such a programme of maintenance will
be out of all proportion to the values concerned. A great number of our school plants are
antiquated and out of date. They must be altered in order to enable our schools to give a
programme of instruction somewhere in keeping with that given in almost every other
civilized country of the world.
We have not been able to make many very necessary changes in our plumbing and heating equipment, to alter our class-room lighting by installing modern light-globes so that the
4 J 50 PUBLIC  SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
light may be properly diffused;   to provide in many cases other health facilities so important
in a modern programme for the education of youth.
HEALTH SERVICES.
Tuberculosis Survey, Teachers.—The most outstanding enterprise for the school-year
1937-38 in our medical-health services has been the clinical and X-ray examination of the
chest of every teacher in the Vancouver City school system.
Each teacher had the option of being examined by a private physician or by the Provincial Chest Clinic. It is very gratifying to note that, in the report by the School Medical
Health Officer, not one active case of pulmonary tuberculosis was found. On behalf of the
Vancouver Board of School Trustees, I wish to thank the Division of the Tuberculosis Control
of this Province and the members of their staff for the attention and hard work devoted to
this survey. Of the 1,246 teachers examined, 1,188 were done at the Provincial Clinic and
58 by private doctors. The X-ray plates taken under the direction of private doctors were
submitted to the school medical health authorities for their consideration and report.
Tuberculosis Survey, Beginners.—The third annual examination of beginners (Grade I.)
in Vancouver schools for tuberculosis infection by means of the skin test was made this year
by Dr. James, of the Provincial Division of Tuberculosis Control. Of the total receiving class
of 3,247 in the Vancouver City schools, permission to perform this test was granted by
parents in 1,742 cases, or 53.7 per cent. Of these, 83 were absent at the time of the test, so
that 1,659, or 51.1 per cent., were actually tested.
There was a marked drop in the percentage of positive reactors as compared with previous years. This drop was from 13.2 per cent, to 8.8 per cent. No open or communicable
cases of tuberculosis were found. From our survey this year it is safe to conclude that the
instances of tuberculosis infection in the schools in Vancouver have materially diminished in
the last three years.
Sight-saving Classes.—Under the direction of the medical health services, two sight-
saving classes still continue to function—one for the primary grades, I. to VI., and the other
for the junior secondary grades, VII. to IX. From a survey just concluded, it may be necessary for another class to be started in sight conservation at the beginning of the term in
September, 1938. A special survey was made to ascertain how many pupils were wearing
glasses in the Vancouver schools.    This number was found to be 2,418, or 6.2 per cent.
School Dental Services.—The school dental service in the Vancouver schools has, during
the depression years, been concentrated mainly on the first six grades of the elementary
schools. The staff includes two full-time and two half-time dentists, and two assistants. The
situation in regard to dental services for the upper grades was improved by the opening of a
special half-time clinic by the Vancouver School Board at the Aberdeen School. The services
of two half-time dentists and an assistant were made available by a gift of $500 from the
Kinsmen Club which was duplicated by a special grant from the City Council. This fund
enabled us to keep the clinic open from November to January. The decision of the School
Board to continue the services of the regular clinics in July will further improve the situation
with regard to the upper grades. Special attention to these grades in September will do a
great deal towards regaining much lost ground. .
General.—A great influx of population from outside the city has added materially to the
work of the medical and dental departments. No real epidemics occurred during the year,
although some cases of chicken-pox, mumps, and a mild type of scarlet fever were in places
troublesome.
I wish to record with regret the passing of Miss E. G. Breeze on April 19th of this year.
Her whole life was given in the interest of the health of Vancouver school children. She
entered the service of the Board in 1910 as the first school nurse in British Columbia. She
continued as head nurse until the formation of the Metropolitan Unit in November, 1936,
when she was appointed Director of Public Health Nursing Service for the Metropolitan Area.
Her life was one of continued devotion to duty. She was endowed with special ability in the
work of organization. This gift was of particular value in the organization of the Metropolitan Health Service.
We are very fortunate in being able to appoint Miss M. A. McLellan Acting Director of
Public Health Nursing Service. She has to her credit many years of efficient and faithful
service with the Vancouver City Schools Medical Health Services. BUREAU OF MEASUREMENTS.
This department, under the  direction of Mr.  R.   Straight, has  performed an infinite
amount of service.    Some of the features investigated are as follows:—■
(1.)  Application for transfers.
(2.)   Application for exemption from school attendance.
(3.)  Application for deferred payment of fees.
(4.)   The giving of more than 500 individual intelligence tests for the purpose of
personal analysis (placement in special classes, etc.).
(5.)   The giving of more than 8,000 tests for group intelligence.
(6.)   The testing for achievement of groups from all grades:-—•
(a.)  Group achievement test.
(&.)   The Canada test in arithmetical fundamentals.
(c.)  Arithmetical reasoning.
(d.)  Thorndike-McColl Reading Scale, Form VI.
(7.)   Assistance given the Vancouver General Hospital in group testing of candidates for nursing.
(8.)  Assistance given the Provincial Government School for Deaf and Blind in testing for performance.
(9.)  Assistance given the Provincial Vocational School for Girls in testing students
for general intelligence.
(10.)   Assistance given high-school principals and teachers in editing thousands of
copies of tests in practically every subject.
(11.)   Assistance given in research studies, such as:—
(a.)  Compilation of results of high-school entrance examinations.
(6.)   Analysis of junior and senior matriculation standing,
(c.)   Compilation of home economics tests.
(d.)   Compilation of industrial arts tests.
(e.)   Assistance given in special chemistry tests in co-operation with senior
high school committee on chemistry.
(12.)  During the past year this Department has supplied many of our own examinations and standardized tests to the various inspectors and other officials of the
Department of Education.
VISUAL EDUCATION.
At the beginning of the year 1937, the Board of School Trustees realized that a school
system the size of Vancouver would have to face, in the very near future, the problem of
planning for the use, collection, and distribution of visual aids. Cities in the United States
(such as Oakland and Seattle) and in the British Isles (such as Manchester, Edinburgh,
and Glasgow) were each circulating thousands of items per month through a centralized
bureau for visual aids.
To avoid needless duplication and unnecessary expense, Mr. J. R. Pollock, of the John
Oliver High School staff, was appointed on a half-time basis January 1st, 1937, to organize a
Department of Visual Education for the Vancouver City schools. He has made an excellent
start and has completed a very thorough survey of the whole problem, besides which he has
made many profitable contacts with commerce and industry. It is very gratifying to learn
that the Red Cedar Shingle Bureau of this Province has placed on permanent loan two rolls
of excellent film dealing with lumbering in British Columbia. The Union Oil Company has
also donated more than 1,200 feet of sound film dealing with automobile engines. The Ceylon
Tea Bureau has also contributed two reels of film and two sets of lantern-slides on Ceylon and
its leading industries. Mr. Powell, of the Vancouver Water Board, has also contributed a
set of 160 slides to be used in connection with the teaching of science and related subjects in
our schools.
Through the co-operation of the Overseas League, arrangements have been completed
whereby they will deposit over'one hundred documentary films on the British Empire for distribution throughout our school system and the Province of British Columbia. These films
form a very valuable part of our library. J 52 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
Other organizations have also co-operated by loaning visual-education material from time
to time.    Some of these are:—
(1.)  German State Railways.
(2.)  Bausch & Lomb Optical Co.
(3.)  Union Oil Co.
(4.)  U.S. Department of the Interior.
(5.)  Union of South Africa.
(6.)  Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau.
(7.)  National Gallery, Ottawa.
(8.)  National Film Society.
(9.)  Canadian Pacific Railway.
(10.)  Canadian National Railway.
During the summer holidays Mr. Pollock was given the opportunity of visiting some of
the cities where visual education departments have been established for some considerable
time.    Part of his time was spent in studying conditions in the vicinity of Hollywood, where
he attended a convention of the American Institute of Cinematography and was honoured by
being nominated to the Convention Executive.    In this way he was actually introduced to the
motion-picture industry, where he was permitted to study in their laboratories and studios
their particular methods of production.    Before leaving Southern California he also studied
in the Bell & Howell motion-picture factory the details of assembly and repair of the type of
equipment used in our schools.    He has also made arrangements with their library to loan
films to our schools.
Space prevents me from giving a fuller report of the activities of this new department.
The work which Mr. Pollock has accomplished during the past year is certainly worthy
of special commendation. This department offers an excellent opportunity for the Board of
School Trustees and its officials to continue to bring about a closer co-operation between the
business world and education.
THE CURRICULUM.
Progress continues to be made in the carrying-out of the revised curriculum in the Vancouver schools. A large number of teachers who took summer courses last year were in a
much better position to do effective work with the revised course this year. Particularly is
this noticeable in library-work, art, practical arts, music, physical education, and primary
grade procedures.
The establishment of libraries, housed in separate rooms and in charge of one teacher, in
practically all of our schools is decidedly a step of great importance. Interest in this phase
of school activity has grown immeasurably during the past year, not only among pupils but
also among class-room and special-subject teachers. These people are making more and more
use of facilities and teaching aids provided by the library. Many teachers who were placed
in this work are continuing further courses of study at various Universities during the
summer session, a great number of them taking advantage of the courses offered in our own
University.
Each principal is endeavouring to organize his school in such a way that it will interpret
the philosophy of the new curriculum.
MUSIC.
The year has been an unusually busy one in regard to public performance of choral
music.    The outstanding events were:—■
(1.)  The Vancouver Folk-song Festival, October 27th, 28th, and 29th.    On each of
the mornings and afternoons of these three days, over 1,000 children opened
the programmes by singing a group of folk-songs of the British Isles.    On the
the last occasion the singing was successfully broadcast throughout Canada
and the United States.
(2.)   During Education Week, many school choirs contributed delightful programmes
over the radio.    Two concerts, open to the public, were presented at John
Oliver and Kitsilano High School auditoriums.
(3.)  For the Youth Rally at Brockton Point, Sunday, May 15th, a choir of nearly
500 high school boys and girls led the singing, accompanied by an orchestra of
seventy-five instrumentalists. SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER. J 53
(4.)  The B.C. Musical Festival attracted the entry of 110 school choirs this year, a
confirmation of the belief that the non-competitive idea would increase the
interest in the Festival.    Those teachers who take part are convinced that
listening to the comparative singing of the choirs is of invaluable aid in
establishing artistic standards for school singing.
(5.)  At the Kiddies Karnival on June 9th, a choir of 300 children contributed a
group of artistically rendered songs.
The Symphony Society again extended to the children the privilege of attending the final
rehearsal of the orchestral concerts.    This year, Grades VII. and VIII. of the elementary
schools were invited to attend.    Over 5,000 children took advantage of the opportunity during
the season.    In preparation, many of the teachers give special talks to their classes on the
music to be performed at the concerts.
A number of new ventures have been entered upon, some of which may have far-reaching consequences:—
(1.)  In preparation for percussion band activities to commence next September in
Grades I. and II., the Manual Training Department, through the kindness of
Mr.  Hamilton,  did excellent service by manufacturing a large  quantity of
instruments.    It is hoped that in another year the percussion band work may
be carried up to Grade IV.
(2.)   A central library of orchestral music for the use of the high schools has been
inaugurated.    This will also make possible the future organization of a massed
high school orchestra consisting of the competent players from various schools,
a project which will produce splendid educational and artistic results.
(3.)  There has also been started a library of informative books on school music-
teaching which, it is hoped, will incorporate the latest books and ideas contributing to the subject.    These books are to be loaned to the teachers.
(4.)  The music teachers of the junior and senior high schools have banded themselves into an informal club, to meet three or four times a year for the discussion of their problems with the supervisors.    The meetings thus far have
been of great help.
(5.)  The central library of gramophone records has grown to such dimensions and
to such usefulness that it is necessary to transfer the care of this work to the
clerk in the Visual Education Department.    New catalogues have been tabulated to send to the schools.
In the outlines of work now being prepared for next term there is an endeavour to follow
as closely as possible the spirit of the new curriculum.
We all regret the retirement of Mr. Fred Waddington, our Supervisor of Music, who,
with unfailing kindness, courtesy, and thoroughness, so carefully supervised our school music.
His retirement in the middle of the year was felt by all to be a distinct loss to the schools
of Vancouver.
We were very fortunate in being able to procure the services of Mr. Burton Kurth as
successor to Mr. Waddington.
EXCHANGE TEACHERS.
During the year 1937-38 eighteen Vancouver teachers were on exchange in various parts
of the Empire. Our school principals have reported that the teachers who have come to us on
exchange have given excellent service to our system. These exchange teachers have expressed
to me personally their satisfaction with the experience they have gained in our schools and
with the treatment which they have received.
Reports from the exchange teachers of our own staff, together with the reports from
those teachers who have come to us from abroad, are on file in the office. In many cases they
contain some excellent observations and constructive criticism. I am convinced that this far-
sighted policy of the Board has meant a great deal to the system as a whole.
NURSE AND TEACHERS DECEASED DURING SCHOOL-YEAR 1937-38.
Our city school system suffered severe losses when death removed the following: Miss
E. G. Breeze, Mr. F. C. Corry, Mr. J. F. Jakeway, Miss I. M. Kerr, and Mr. R. L. McLarty. J 54 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
TEACHERS SUPERANNUATED DURING SCHOOL-YEAR 1937-38.
The following retired from the service on superannuation; the contribution which they
made to our school system will long be remembered: Mr. S. B. Clement, Miss L. L. Close, Mr.
J. Dunbar, Mr. W. H. Fenton, Miss E. M. Frame, Mr. G. W. MacKenzie, Miss J. C. Turner,
and Mr. F. Waddington.
CONCLUSION.
May I, in conclusion, express my appreciation for the excellent co-operation received
from the Department of Education and its officials.
The successful functioning of the Vancouver school system during the past year can be
attributed to the excellent spirit which has existed among the various bodies concerned, the
Board of School Trustees and its officials, the City Council, city officials, and the members of
the city school staff. REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. J 55
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VICTORIA.
REPORT OF GEORGE H. DEANE, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
I beg to submit the following report on the work of the Victoria public schools for the
school-year 1937-38:—
The establishment of the Central Junior High School required an adjustment of school
districts and the reassignment of approximately 400 elementary pupils who formerly attended
the Central Schools. Fortunately, these pupils were not required to travel unreasonable
distances to school and the reorganization was effected with virtually no protest by parents.
Further, the gradual decrease in enrolment over a number of years permitted the surrounding eight schools to absorb these pupils without any increase of staff. This was the main
part of a general reorganization policy which enabled the Board to reduce the teaching staff
by seventeen teachers.
The year under review had three outstanding features: The introduction of the junior
high school into the Victoria school system; the Survey of the Schools of the Greater Victoria
Area;   and the adoption of a new salary schedule by the Victoria School Board.
The initial success of the Central Junior High School has been due in a large measure
to the efficiency and unsparing efforts of the principal and the staff. The enrolment comprised fourteen divisions, and was increased this year to sixteen divisions. Eventually the
school should accommodate twenty divisions, but such extension will depend upon the improving of the grounds for physical education and the providing of shop facilities at the senior
high school for Grades X., XL, and XI.I. This year's improvements include a covered walk
between the two main buildings, locker accommodation, typewriting equipment, and the
appointment of a full-time stenographer. The extension of junior high school organization
to cover the whole Victoria area will require very careful planning, as the provision of such
facilities in the immediate future will depend mainly on the expenditures involved.
The Survey, arranged by the Department and conducted by a Committee under the
chairmanship of Inspector Gray, extended over a considerable period of the school-year. The
comprehensive report of the Committee, by directing attention to existing deficiencies and by
its suggestions covering improved organization should be of valuable assistance in promoting
educational progress in the schools of Greater Victoria.
For some time the School Board had considered the existing salary schedule defective,
but nothing was done until this year's Board took definite action and adopted a new schedule
which went into effect September 1st, 1938. Opportunity was given to teachers' organizations to express their views on this important subject and careful consideration was given
to the representations of their delegates. Finally, a new schedule was adopted which was
based upon the following main principles:—
(1.)  A schedule should provide salaries and security sufficiently attractive to secure
and retain competent teachers, both male and female.
(2.)  A schedule should encourage and recognize professional advancement by providing higher yearly increments and maximum salaries to those teachers who had
raised their qualifications to satisfy approved standards covering in-service
training.    For this purpose the new schedule is divided into four categories.
(3.)  There should not be too great a difference between elementary and high school
salaries.    Both the elementary school and the high school are equally important
in the school system and both require teachers of broad scholarship and culture.
Also it seems reasonable to presume that younger children require more skilful
teaching and guidance.
(4.)  Economic and social conditions suggest that male teachers be paid higher
salaries than female.
(5.)   The range between minimum and maximum salaries should not cover too short
a period. J 56 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
The new schedule was accepted by the elementary and junior high school teachers, but
to date an agreement has not been reached with the high school teachers' association and
arbitration may be necessary to settle the issue.
Consideration of the year's estimates of expenses again produced conflict between the
Board of School Trustees and the City Council. After several conferences a comprise agreement was reached, the Board making a reduction in order to avoid arbitration. This reduction definitely handicapped educational progress, particularly with respect to technical
education, visual education, library equipment, and improved lighting facilities required to
correct very unsatisfactory conditions. The Board had decided its estimates only after many
hours of careful consideration. The Board is an elective body, enjoying equally with the
Council the confidence of the community, and is just as zealous in performing its duties with
regard to economy, and in future it may be advisable to arbitrate these differences rather
than jeopardize the efficiency of the schools and expose the system to censure.
Attention is also directed to the following:—
(1.)  The diversion of several Grade IX. divisions to the Central Junior High School
released space in the high school which enabled the Board to provide accommodation for a Home Economics unit, comprising a foods laboratory, a dining-
room,  and  a  large  sewing-room.    Adequate  up-to-date  equipment  has  been
provided and the school has now excellent facilities for instruction in home
economics.    Establishment of this centre in the main building of the high
school has more than doubled the enrolment of pupils electing this special
subject.
(2.)  Facilities for providing instruction in commercial options were also improved
by  the  purchase   of   additional   equipment,   which   included   a   comptometer-
machine.
(3.)  A comprehensive programme of clubs, operating in school time, has been introduced both in the junior and senior high school.
(4.)  To provide necessary library facilities the Board adopted a policy which distributed expenditures over a three-year period.    The completion of this programme
will provide all schools with adequate libraries.
(5.)   The Building and Grounds Committee is to be commended for initiating a programme of repairs, including the renovation of class-rooms long overdue.
Victoria College continues to do very satisfactory work.    Miss Humphrey has resumed
her duties after a year's leave, spent for the most part in South Africa.    Certain changes
were made with respect to the Registrar's office organization which should be more satisfactory
to all concerned.    The College enrolment for the current session is 222, distributed according
to domicile as follows:   Victoria, 103;   Esquimalt, 7;   Oak Bay, 37;   Saanich, 43;   Vancouver
Island, 22;   Mainland, 10.
The syllabus for night-schools provided a comprehensive programme of courses and was
organized and supervised efficiently by Mr. Claude Campbell, Director.
The passing of Dr. E. B. Paul last December, removed from our midst a prominent
educationist beloved by all for his scholarly and gentlemanly attainments. Victoria schools
suffered a loss when Dr. Henderson, School Dentist, was granted indefinite leave on account
of injuries received in a motor accident. I wish also to express appreciation of the efficient
manner in which Dr. Sanders performed the duties of School Health Inspector during the
absence of Dr. Anderson, who was granted a year's leave to enable him to take a postgraduate course in Public Health.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF NEW WESTMINSTER.
REPORT OF ROY S. SHIELDS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The year 1937-38 marked a progressive school-year in New Westminster. The Board
of School Trustees, definitely supporting the recommendations of the Department of Education and accepting the responsibility of leadership entrusted to them, have built up a school
system providing for successful pupil-development of which parents should be and are
appreciative.    The elementary, junior high, senior high, and technical high schools, staffed REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. J 57
with highly qualified teachers and equipped with modern facilities, present to pupils the
foundation for future successful citizenship. The opening of the Westside School in the west
end of the city by the Honourable A. Wells Gray, Minister of Lands and Municipalities, on
November 12th, 1937, marked the beginning of a constructive building policy already under
advisement by the Board to meet the needs of a growing city. Through the efforts of
principals, teachers, pupils, and School Board all schools are equipped with radios and, in
some cases, public address systems in the class-rooms. The importance of this feature is
enhanced by the programmes now being broadcast under the direction of the Department of
Education. The policy of the Board in adding skilled interior decorators to its maintenance
crew has been a forward step. Pupil environment has been thereby enriched. All departments of school organization functioned smoothly and more efficiently than in former years.
The Physical Development programme, supervised by Mr. Ernest Lee, of the T. J. Trapp
Technical High School, was effective, and while no spectacular united display was indulged in
the concerted work of the individual schools was excellent. The co-ordination with the
Medical and Dental Departments was noticeable. Each year the School Library is receiving
every assistance from the Board and with the enthusiasm of trained librarian-teachers is
filling the place expected of it in a modern organization of child development. In music an
enviable record has been established, not alone in class-singing but in orchestral and band
work. An outstanding event was the playing of the John Robson Junior High Orchestra of
thirty-six pieces at one of the school reviews. This aggregation of pupils was trained and
led by Mr. Wm. Hudson, of the Junior High School Staff, and is to be congratulated on the
success achieved. The Duke of Connaught and Herbert Spencer Schools also maintained
orchestras. The T. J. Trapp Technical High School band, led by one of the students, Herbert
Houston, has rendered valuable assistance on special occasions. At the Sir Richard McBride
School instrumental music is receiving its proper attention. Special contribution to Vocational Guidance work by members of service clubs working with trained teacher-leaders is
acknowledged.
As usual, when all departments are operating efficiently the results of academic work are
good. This year they were excellent and I wish to express appreciation to all teachers and
pupils. In Senior Matriculation work pupils from the Duke of Connaught High School came
second and third highest in the Province and in Junior Matriculation a pupil of the T. J.
Trapp Technical High School made 87.2 per cent. Expectations point to more than one
Senior Matriculation class next year. The time is not far distant when the organization of
of Junior College work will have to be discussed.
Approved tests were given from Grades I. to XII. and were beneficial to all concerned.
Special days during the year were suitably commemorated, especially May Day, when it
was the privilege and honour of the city to have as guests Lieutenant-Governor E. W. Hamber
and Mrs. Hamber, a former May Queen.
We acknowledge gratefully the hearty co-operation received at all times from the
Provincial Normal School, Principal A. R. Lord and his staff of teachers, and from Inspectors
of the Provincial Department of Education.
The Junior Red Cross organization has been very effective throughout the elementary
and junior high school classes and its influence is increasing.
It is with regret that I report the passing of two valued members of our Board of School
Trustees, Trustee T. H. Barbaree, Past Chairman, and Trustee Norman MacDonald, also a
Past Chairman.    Their services will be greatly missed.
Mr. F. 0. Canfield, Principal of the Lister-Kelvin Elementary-Junior High School, and
Mr. Wm. Nelson, senior Industrial teacher at the T. J. Trapp Technical High School, applied
for and were granted superannuation. These men had been with the New Westminster
schools thirty-six years and thirty-two years respectively. Their contribution to the development of citizenship in the City of New Westminster is beyond measurement. Excellent
teachers, deeply interested in all civic affairs, they truly earned the title " Teacher." Miss
Alice S. Stark, R.N., of the Medical Department, also retired on superannuation after twenty-
two years with the city schools. Her genial disposition and efficiency contributed largely to
the success of our organization;  during her tenure of office the schools were free of epidemics.
Miss Ellen E. Church, of Kelvin Elementary School, exchanged with Miss Ena Butcher,
of London, England. J 58 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
Indications are that this coming vacation more New Westminster teachers than ever
before will take advantage of summer schools. This is a tribute to the teachers and to the
organization of summer-school work.
To the Department of Education we express our keen appreciation for its capable
assistance at all times.
To local organizations, whose interest has ever been constructive, we acknowledge our
debt.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF NORTH VANCOUVER AND THE DISTRICT
MUNICIPALTES OF NORTH AND WEST VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF WILLIAM GRAY, M.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
During the year 1937-38 the administration of the two North Vancouver municipalities
with regard to municipal as well as school affairs continued to be carried on by a Commissioner in place of the usual Municipal Council and Board of School Trustees. The schools of
West Vancouver, on the other hand, were administered by a Board of School Trustees.
NORTH VANCOUVER.
In both the city and the district during the year there has been a noticeable improvement
in conditions generally. The unemployment situation showed an improvement, fewer families
being given relief, and tax collections have shown a slight increase.
Enrolment showed little change over the preceding year, a slight decrease in the number
of elementary pupils being offset by an increase in the number of secondary-school pupils.
In September, a reorganization of the schools of the city took place, the junior high
school plan being introduced. The city pupils of Grades VII., VIII., and IX. are now
accommodated in two junior high schools. Queen Mary School and Ridgeway School now
operate as elementary-junior high schools, each under one principal. In each of these schools
there is an elementary section and a junior high section, the top floor of each building being
utilized, more or less, for the junior high school classes. In Queen Mary School there were
five junior high divisions and in Ridgeway six divisions. To make the best use of the
teachers of special subjects, such as Art, Music, and Physical Training, certain of the
teachers taught classes in both schools. During the coming year, an additional room will
be opened in Queen Mary School and there will be less need of interchange of staff. The
junior high school staffs, as well as the pupils themselves, were enthusiastic about the
reorganized schools, and worked hard and conscientiously to make them a success. One
year's trial of the plan has shown the wisdom of the change, and the results as indicated in
the general attitude of the classes have demonstrated its usefulness. Great credit is due
the teachers for the excellent work they did during the year, despite their heavy teaching-load.
The schools of the District of North Vancouver continue to function as eight-grade
schools. In the first place, no accommodation for the pupils of Grades VII. and VIII. from
these schools is available in the present junior high schools, and in the second place they are
too remote to be considered in such an organization without some system of transportation.
The pupils of these grades, however, are given instruction in Home Economics and Industrial
Arts, similar to that given to the pupils of the junior high schools.
The senior high school receives the pupils from the junior high schools at the end of
Grade IX., but still continues to provide accommodation for the pupils of the District schools
after Grade VIII. The high school is now organized on a subject basis, with greater opportunity for optional courses. For Grade IX. pupils, and for some pupils of Grade X., work
in Home Economics and Industrial Arts was offered. During the coming year this work
will be given as an option to the pupils of other senior grades. A very large Senior Matriculation class was operated during the year, thirty-eight students being enrolled. The results
of the final examinations in this class indicated the fine attitude of the students themselves
and the able instruction being given by the staff. REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. J 59
WEST VANCOUVER.
The pupils of West Vancouver are accommodated in three schools, Pauline Johnson and
Hollyburn being elementary schools, housing the pupils enrolled in Grades I. to VI., and
West Vancouver Junior-Senior High School providing instruction to pupils in Grades VII.
to XII. Transportation for pupils in the western section of the municipality is provided by
the School Board through the use of municipal buses. Although there has been considerable
building activity within the municipality during the year, the increase in school enrolment
has been only slight. It is expected that the opening of Lion's Gate Bridge over the First
Narrows, giving easy access to Vancouver, will result in an influx of settlers to this very
desirable residential section of the North Shore. One of the major problems facing the
School Board during the coming year will be the planning of additional school accommodation for this expected increase in population. So far as high-school accommodation is concerned, it is generally conceded that it should continue to be centralized and, for the purpose
of future extension, the School Board purchased additional acreage adjoining the present
high-school site. With regard to elementary-school additions, the main question to be
settled is whether to add to the present buildings, involving additional transportation, or to
erect new buildings in the western section, thus reducing the amount of transportation
required.
GENERAL.
Teaching methods and procedures continued to change and to improve during the year
in accordance with the principles laid down in the new curriculum. The teachers generally
are aware of the changes which must be effected if the curriculum is to be carried out
properly. They have taken advantage of evening classes and summer courses to improve
themselves. An afternoon class in Music and one in Basketry was continued during the
winter, while a number of teachers attended the class in Physical Education given on Saturday mornings in Vancouver. Many attended the Victoria Summer School, while all the
elementary principals of North Vancouver and some of the teachers of all three municipalities
attended the University, to work towards a degree. All such efforts have tended to improve
the type of instruction given in the schools.
A survey of reading ability of all pupils from Grade III. through XII. was made in the
spring. Staff meetings were held in all schools to discuss the results of this survey, and all
teachers are aware of the need for remedial instruction in reading. In the high schools,
plans are being made to organize remedial reading classes, and in the elementary schools
remedial instruction is being given by the teachers. Another survey is contemplated during
the coming year to discover what improvement has taken place. The teachers, I think,
realize the importance of this type of remedial work.
The radio broadcasts given under the direction of the Department of Education were
well received. Every school was at some time or another during this period provided with
a radio, and the programmes were given an enthusiastic reception by the pupils. The
teachers realize the value of such broadcasts and look forward to their continuance and
possible extension. The high school in West Vancouver has now a public-address system,
made available through the efforts of the Students' Council in co-operation with the School
Board. By its means, through loud-speakers installed in two class-rooms and the study-hall,
radio broadcasts may be heard and announcements made from the principal's office. Of a
similar nature but less comprehensive is the broadcasting system installed in North Vancouver High School. This is the work of the Radio Club of the school, and is a very fine
amateur project, involving, as it did, very little cash outlay.
To augment the supply of library books, a " Library Week " was held in the spring.
In each school concerts were given, paper-drives carried out, donations of books solicited,
and, in general, the needs of the library brought before the public. The results of these
efforts were supplemented by grants from the School Boards. The school libraries received
much-needed assistance.
The usual Fall Convention of the North Shore Teachers provided an opportunity for
discussions, addresses, and displays of work, which were an inspiration to the teachers.
No evening classes were conducted in North Vancouver during the year, but two day
classes were held for adults, one for boys in Motor Mechanics and one for girls and young J 60 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
women in Housekeeping. Both of these classes were held under the Dominion-Provincial
Plan and were of much benefit to the young people who enrolled. Whether or not these
classes will be resumed during the coming year depends largely on the demand for them.
In West Vancouver, evening classes were successfully carried on in Commercial work,
Woodworking, and Physical Recreation.
The schools of North Vancouver are included in the Metropolitan Health Plan, and the
medical inspection of the school children is well taken care of. In January of this year an
arrangement was made between the North Vancouver Health Unit and the West Vancouver
Board of School Trustees whereby the medical inspection of the West Vancouver schools
would be taken over by the Health Unit staff. After six months' trial of this experiment
the results justify a permanent arrangement. Steps are being taken by the Metropolitan
Health Board to include West Vancouver as a whole in the scheme of their operations.
This move would result in an even better system of health inspection, linking up school health
inspection with other municipal health matters.
In North Vancouver, dental treatment is given to needy school children by the local
dentists, working under the direction of the Health Unit. By means of financial aid from
the Provincial Government, the City and District of North Vancouver, and the local Kiwanis
Club, the scheme is proving very beneficial. Lack of funds alone prevents more work from
being carried on.
Mrs. E. E. MacPherson, after eighteen years of very fine service as teacher in the City
of North Vancouver, retired from the teaching profession.
Appreciation is again expressed for assistance and encouragement given by officials of
the Department of Education, the Commissioner for North Vancouver, the West Vancouver
Board of School Trustees, the teaching staffs, and the Parent-Teacher Associations. A fine
feeling of harmony and co-operation prevailed during the year.
SCHOOLS OF THE DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY.
REPORT OF C. G. BROWN, M.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
I have pleasure in submitting the annual report of this inspectorate for the year 1937-38.
The enrolment for the past year was 5,284. Of these, 1,088 were registered in the high
schools and 4,196 in the elementary schools. The instructional staff consisted of 155 teachers,
31 on the high school staff, 118 on the elementary staff, and 6 employed on both staffs. In the
spring of this year a two-room addition was made to the Sperling Avenue School and a new
division was organized, thus relieving the congestion at the Capitol Hill School.
ORGANIZATION.
In Gilmore Avenue and Kingsway West Schools the platoon method of organization was
introduced with a reasonable measure of success. In the Kitchener Street School a modified
form of the Co-operative Group Plan was initiated, while in the other elementary schools
varying degrees of departmentalization were continued. The high schools have organized
their programmes on the subject basis plan and have consequently been able to offer more
liberal options and to effect a more flexible promotion policy. To aid in the medical inspection
of the schools, two nurses, Miss M. Shand and Miss A. Thorneloe, were added to the staff and
gave efficient assistance in this regard. In May, Burnaby joined the Metropolitan Health
Board and has thus extended its health services still further.
SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS.
Progress has been made this year in Library development. Several schools have made
provision for special library-rooms and have added a number of volumes for reading. In
some schools teachers with special training and interests in library-work have been given
charge of the library activities and have developed a progressive programme. As more
teachers become trained in librarianship, the development of the respective school libraries
will reach a satisfactory level. The Physical Education programme has been well conducted.
Several competent instructors in this branch of work are on the Burnaby staff and the level REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. J 61
of physical education instruction in Burnaby has been definitely raised. A corresponding
improvement has featured the work in Music. Special teachers in some schools, and in many
cases the regular class-room teachers, are conducting an effective programme in music. The
special broadcasts in Music sponsored by the Provincial Radio Committee of the Department
of Education were greatly appreciated and favourably commented upon by the schools during
the year. The Industrial Arts programme was extended during the past year as a result of
the new equipment at the various manual-training centres. The instruction in Practical Arts
was given in several centres by members of the Industrial Arts and Home Economics staff.
While good work was done in the development of skills, yet it was difficult to secure a satisfactory correlation of Practical Arts with the other school subjects.
Measures have been taken to promote facilities for a more extensive programme of
Visual Education. During the coming year ten of the schools will be equipped with projectors
and a central film library will be developed.
PROFESSIONAL STATUS.
An increasing number of principals and teachers are availing themselves of opportunities
to take courses relating to their work and courses in methods and administration. In addition
to taking special classes during the term, several members of the staff have enrolled at the
Summer Schools in Victoria and at the University of British Columbia, and some have sought
their special interests in the Universities in the States of Washington, Oregon, and California.
It has been the policy of the School Board in recent years to appoint, as far as possible,
teachers with the higher academic qualifications in order to have available on the staff
teachers adequately qualified for junior high school work. Gradually this objective is being
reached. On the staff of the elementary schools are seventeen teachers who possess degrees
or academic certificates, sixty-four with first-class certificates, and forty-four with second-
class certificates. It will still be necessary to continue this policy as the demand for secondary
education is increasing.
EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES.
A varied programme of activities has been carried out in the schools of the municipality.
In the elementary schools as well as in the high schools ample opportunities have been offered
to enable the pupils to cultivate their special interests and to engage in wholesome activities.
School bands have been organized at Gilmore Avenue, Nelson Avenue, and Edmonds Street
Schools, and several clubs have been formed throughout the schools. Again this year the
schools put on an excellent exhibition of dances, games, and physical exercises at Confederation Park. I have pleasure also in mentioning the success of Miss Betty Morton, a pupil of
the Burnaby South High School, who secured a University Scholarship in the Junior
Matriculation Examination.
In concluding this report, I wish to take the opportunity of expressing my appreciation
of the advice and co-operation received from the Department of Education. I desire also to
record my appreciation of the sympathetic consideration given to all educational matters by
the Commissioner and his officials. In the daily routine of the schools, I can pay generous
tribute to the zeal and loyal co-operation of the Burnaby teaching staff. J 62
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
THE SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND.
REPORT OF C. E. MacDONALD, LL.B., B.S., in Ed., PRINCIPAL.
ATTENDANCE.
The following table presents a summary of the enrolment for the 1937-38 school-year:-
Deaf and Partial
Hearing.
Blind and Partial
Sighted.
Total.
Boys.
Girls.
Boys.
Girls.
12
27
6
26
1
13
1
3
20
69
Totals —	
39
32
14
4
89
The average age of the students in attendance as at June 30th was slightly under 13%
years.
Of the total enrolment last term 39.3 per cent, were students from the City of Vancouver.
HEALTH.
Aside from such minor ailments and accidents as are common to children, the general
health of those in residence has been excellent. This satisfactory condition is a result of our
programme of directed healthful activities, an abundance of carefully selected and prepared
meals, and the efficient preventive measures practised by our school nurse.
During the school term forty-three children received detailed physical examinations by
Dr. Kenneth Brandon, of the Metropolitan Health Service. Three received specialized eye
and ear examinations, four were given chest examinations, and sixteen received necessary
dental attention. In addition, twenty-seven children were vaccinated for smallpox, fifty were
immunized against diphtheria, and eight were immunized against scarlet fever.
ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL.
As in the past few years, reading and language-work have received major consideration
in all deaf classes. The success of this effort has been evidenced by a very definite upward
trend in all standardized tests administered.
A revision of the course of study for the deaf department prescribes the academic work
through twelve stages. The twelfth stage is now comparable with the public school tenth
grade and makes special provision to meet the entrance requirements for Gallaudet College
in Washington, D.C.
To the vocational programme have been added the following afternoon classes: Upholstery and Furniture Finishing, Art Needlework and Leather-work. The introduction of
these classes has served further to enrich the occupational try-out opportunities of our
senior pupi s. TEACHERS AND OFFICERS.
Because of poor health, Miss Eva McKay resigned from the teaching staff at the end of
last term. Miss Jean Macdonald, a graduate of the University of Toronto and of the Normal
Department of Clarke School for the Deaf in Massachusetts, was appointed to fill the
vacancy.
In October, Mr. Ross Hamilton resigned to resume studies at the University of Saskatchewan. This vacancy was filled by the appointment of Miss Darrel Gomery, B.A., of
Vancouver. At the end of the term, Miss Gomery accepted a scholarship to the Clarke
School for the Deaf for special training in teaching the deaf.
Miss Halldora Sigurdson, girls' supervisor, has been granted leave of absence for a
year of teacher-training in the Ontario School for the Deaf.
In concluding my report, I wish to express my deepest appreciation for the sympathetic
understanding and able guidance of the Superintendent of Education, and to pay tribute to
the Vice-Principal, teachers, and officers for their splendid co-operation and devotion to duty. CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS.
J 63
REPORTS OF OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF CORRESPONDENCE
SCHOOLS.
HIGH SCHOOL AND VOCATIONAL COURSES.
REPORT OF J. W. GIBSON, M.A., B.Paed., OFFICER IN CHARGE.
The enrolment of students in High School and Vocational correspondence courses during
the past correspondence-school year shows a substantial increase over that of the previous
year, being 2,285 as compared with 2,068 for last year. The most significant increase in
enrolment during the year was in the number of regular students, registered in high schools,
who carried from one to three courses by correspondence. The number of these included for
the past year was 586.
It is also interesting to note the increasing number of older students who take advantage
of instruction by the correspondence or home-study method. No less than 1,187 students,
approximately 52 per cent, were 18 years of age or over, and 550 or 24 per cent, were over
21 years of age. This shows that correspondence instruction in British Columbia is definitely
contributing to the work of adult education. No age-limits have ever been established and
the number of people of mature years to register for courses of instruction is steadily increasing.    There is a growing demand for courses specially prepared for adults.
The following table divides the entire enrolment for the year into six groups:.—
Courses offered.
Regular
Correspondence
Students.
Students
registered in
High Schools.
Total.
1,026
398
275
438
142
6
1,464
Technical-vocational courses  _ 	
540
281
Totals....	
1,699
586
2,285
The above total registration of 2,285 includes 1,159 regular high-school correspondence
students, 540 students carrying Technical-Vocational correspondence courses, and 586 students
already officially registered in high, superior, and elementary schools and carrying from one
to three high-school courses by correspondence.
HIGH SCHOOL AND VOCATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE  COURSES  AS  RELATED
TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
Many students who have completed Grade VIII. continue in high-school work at elementary schools.    There are three groups or classes of these:—
(1.)  Those who occupy desks in the school but are registered as full-time correspondence students.
(2.)   Those who take up to three courses only by correspondence and the remaining
courses under class-room instruction.    These students are officially registered
in their local schools.
(3.)  Those who receive instruction in all subjects from the local elementary-school
teacher.
There   are   certain   advantages   and   some   possible   disadvantages   for   correspondence
students  attending  elementary  schools.    It  is  a   distinct  advantage  for  a  correspondence
student to have regular hours for study with practically no interruption.    There is also the
advantage of supervision on the part of the teacher and of association with other students
in games and recreation.    There may be certain disadvantages if there is confusion or discomfort of any kind in the class-room.    There is a tendency for the correspondence student to
give attention to the progress of events or " happenings " during the working hours in the
class-room.    In the New Zealand system correspondence students do not attend local elemen- J 64 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1937-38.
tary schools even when they live quite close to such schools. In this Province there seems
to be a growing desire on the part of the correspondence students to do their work at home.
Of course a great deal depends on the suitability of conditions for study at the student's
home, including all possible means of avoiding interruption. Quiet and comfortable study-
quarters in the home are essential to success and most parents, realizing this, go to much
pains to provide the best possible study environment with rigid adherence to study-hours
without interruption.
CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN HIGH SCHOOLS.
There has been a notable increase in the number of high schools taking advantage of
the opportunity of carrying up to three courses for credit through correspondence. This
plan has resulted in many students being permitted to qualify in subjects not offered in their
local schools. The consent of the high-school principal must be gained before students in
his school may register for correspondence courses. In the larger high schools the occasions
for using correspondence courses are less frequent than in the smaller schools where a wide
range of options is out of the question. Cases of emergency arise from time to time even
in the largest schools and these can usually be solved through correspondence courses.
The courses most frequently asked for by students in the smaller high schools of the
Province are in commercial subjects (Book-keeping, Shorthand, and Typewriting), Home
Economics, foreign languages, and Technical-Vocational. There is a rapidly growing demand
for these last-mentioned courses especially since, for ten of them, credit towards High
School Graduation can be obtained. Students who do not plan to enter University are
encouraged to pursue a course leading to High School Graduation. The courses valid for
High School Graduation credit, but not for University Entrance credit, are: Book-keeping,
Shorthand, Typewriting, Mechanical Drawing (Draughting), Commercial Art, Automotive
Engineering, Diesel Engineering, Practical Electricity, Geology and Mining, Forestry, and
Building Construction. It is hoped that still other technical courses will soon be included
in the credit list.
CORRESPONDENCE COURSES IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS.
It has been highly gratifying to all those associated with correspondence instruction to
note the progress of the work in the public institutions of the Province. Real progress has
been made, but there is room for a large increase in this particular type of work. The
institutions served and the number of students enrolled in each during the past year were
as follows:—■
Number of students enrolled, August, 1937, to July, 1938:—
Vancouver General Hospital      52
Tranquille Sanatorium      32
Victoria Hospitals      15
Queen Alexandra Solarium        2
Oakalla Prison Farm        7
New Haven (Borstal Unit)      19
Girls' Industrial Home        4
Essondale Mental Hospital      2
In each of these institutions there is a supervisor who renders very valuable service in
advising interested students in the choice of courses and in assisting with registration. As
yet we have not had a qualified supervisor at Oakalla, with the result that comparatively few
of the inmates there are carrying correspondence courses.
Students in these Provincial Institutions pay no fees and in most of them books and
necessary supplies are provided.
The work done through correspondence instruction amongst convalescent patients afflicted
with tuberculosis at the Tranquille Sanatorium and in the T.B. wards of the Vancouver
General Hospital and in the two Victoria hospitals is deserving of every encouragement and
support. In the City of Victoria the Victoria Kiwanis Club Association for the Rehabilitation of the Tuberculous has sponsored a re-education programme which includes correspondence instruction as one of its features. Through its unpretentious but well-managed
crafts laboratory and workshop, supplemented by correspondence courses, increasing numbers CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. J 65
of young men and women are receiving valuable training and are becoming more hopeful
as well as self-supporting. This new enterprise stands out as an example of well-directed
practical philanthropy on the part of men of good judgment and good will.
RELATIONSHIP OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION TO
THE NEW CURRICULUM.
The process of adjusting our courses to the new curriculum is progressing satisfactorily.
Our present courses for Grades IX., X., and XI. have been, for the most part, rewritten and
improved. In addition, almost continuous revision is going on with a view to necessary
corrections and general improvement in all courses. During the coming year the Grade XII.
courses will be completely overhauled.
A constant effort has been made, with growing success, to guide students not only to
choose courses that are likely to have a direct bearing upon their chosen vocation but, indeed,
to help them in deciding upon a vocation. In this connection the introduction of technical-
vocational courses has proved of great value to many students. A larger percentage of
high-school students are now choosing courses leading towards High School Graduation and
fewer towards University Entrance. The effect of allotting credit for technical-vocational
courses towards High School Graduation is becoming evident and many high-school principals are advocating the choice of wider options than those offered in the so-called " general"
course leading to University Entrance. It is becoming evident that the real purpose of
High School Graduation has not been fully recognized by some of our students. Too many
seem to be thinking too much about how to secure the requisite number of units of credit to
entitle them to receive a High School Graduation diploma and not enough about their own
educational needs and a definite vocational objective. " What course is there that would
give me another five units that I need? " is a question now too often met. There is urgent
need of intelligently directed vocational and educational guidance.
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CORRESPONDENCE EDUCATION.
An event of considerable interest in educational circles and of very special interest to
those engaged in correspondence instruction was the holding of the first International Conference in Correspondence Education in August of this year in the City of Victoria.
Prominent educationists from many parts of the United States, from the Provinces of
Canada, and from both Australia and New Zealand were in attendance. Almost every phase
of correspondence instruction was discussed and many valuable papers were read by a
number of men prominently associated with.the work in other countries. The editor of the
" B.C. Teacher " referred to the conference as follows:—•
" From the standpoint of the educationally underprivileged and of overworked teachers—
especially those serving in rural schools and in small high schools—few conventions ever held
in Canada, or elsewhere, have been more significant than the International Conference on
Correspondence Education which assembled at Victoria, B.C., on August 22nd.
" Difficulties and disadvantages incidental to education by correspondence are manifest
to all thoughtful persons. On the other hand, however, there are compensating advantages,
and it is highly important that the general public and the teaching body of Canada should be
familiar with them. Extension of correspondence methods and, especially, an increasing
intramural use of supervised correspondence courses for curriculum enrichment and vocational instruction will go far to solve many of the most perplexing problems at present facing
the teaching profession, the various Education Departments, and those to whose service they
stand pledged."
Certainly a somewhat unique honour was conferred upon British Columbia in that our
capital city was chosen as the place of meeting. It was not wholly inappropriate, however,
that such a conference should meet here since British Columbia was first in America to
introduce both elementary and high school correspond