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PART C ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR THE YEAR ENDED… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1939

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 PART O
ANNUAL REPORT
OP   THE
MINISTEE OE MINES
OP  THE   PROVINCE   OP
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FOR  THE
Year Ended 31st December
1938
PRINTED by
authority of the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chables F. Banf ield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1939. BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Hon. W. J. Asselstine, Minister.
John P. Walker, Deputy Minister.
James Dickson, Chief Inspector of Mines.
D. E. Whittaker, Provincial Analyst and Assayer.
P. B. Preeland, Chief Mining Engineer.
R. J. Steenson, Chief Gold Commissioner. ^£        <lfc*7*^ •    _.  ■*.--••■   *       __(w!^HS__L'i--i--V:V^ri
Operation of Venture Exploration Company (East Africa), Ltd.     Drag-line set-up
at old townsite of Germansen.
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Mobile digging and sluicing plant of Canamco, Ltd., in  operation  on Fraser River,
5 mill- above Quesnel. V
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a O NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 3
PART G.
NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT.
BY
Douglas Lay.
SUMMARY.
During the year the chief activity centred on lode- and placer-gold properties. An
increase in lode gold resulted from the steady operation of Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining
Company, Limited, and Island Mountain Mines, Limited. The former company stepped up
its daily milling rate to 275 tons, while the latter maintained its normal milling rate of about
125 tons daily. There was considerable activity in the area extending from Cow Mountain
to Round Top Mountain and thence to Yanks Peak. With the provision of transportation
facilities into this area greater activity is anticipated.
In the Hixon Creek area the Quesnelle Quartz Mining Company, Limited, installed a
25-ton test-mill for the purpose of sampling their property.
Lode-gold development in the Uslika-Aiken Lake area north-west of Manson Creek is
awaiting transportation facilities which were commenced this year with the construction of
about 70 miles of winter road.
The Cariboo district and Manson section experienced the driest season for very many
years. It hampered both large and small placer operations and its effects will be reflected
in the output.
This year marks the keenest search to date for dredging and drag-line properties. The
interest is evinced almost solely by Californian interests, and there is every likelihood that
possibilities in connection with such enterprises will be closely investigated.
A new type of drag-line plant, characterized by mobility, and a digging unit separate
from the recovery unit was tried out in the Cariboo this year. This type of plant was
evolved in California for use on areas with insufficient yardage to justify dredging and the
results of the operation initiated in the Cariboo will be watched with interest.
In the Manson section large-scale hydraulic operations were carried out by Venture
Exploration Company (East Africa), Limited, following completion of flume and ditch-line
that conveys water from the upper part of the Germansen River to the company's property
at the lower part of this river. Germansen Mines, Limited, planning material increase in
hydraulic operations, commenced the construction of a large ditch-line—the largest in this
district—to convey approximately 200 cubic feet of water per second from the South Fork of
the Germansen River to the property. This ditch-line will be not less than 15 feet wide in
the bottom, and is being dug by a bulldozer working in conjunction with a power-shovel.
After remaining inactive since 1922, the Silver Standard mine at Hazelton was reopened
in May by Canadian Cadillac Gold Mines, Limited. Towards the end of the year, after
cleaning out existing workings, renovating camp buildings, and repairing roads, the company
installed an air-compressing plant.
A new development of interest is a cinnabar property at Pinchi Lake, near Fort St.
James, staked by A. J. Ostrem, of Fort St. James. Discovery of this mineral was made by
J. G. Gray, of the Geological Survey, Canada. (See Paper 38—14, 1938.) This is the first
recorded occurrence of this mineral in place in the north-eastern part of the Province.
Considerable activity was manifested by individual operators in the Omineca Mining
Division, and a number took advantage of the benefits accruing under the Government's ore-
purchasing scheme, and made shipments to the sampling plant at Prince Rupert.
Coal-mining was carried on at the Bulkley Valley Colliery, near Telkwa.
The writer desires to express his cordial thanks for the co-operation and kind hospitality
extended by prospectors and mine operators in the course of his duties. C 4
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
LODE-GOLD DEPOSITS.
Manson Creek Area.
Introduction.
Manson Creek area is defined to include the drainage areas of the Manson and Germansen Rivers. It excludes the Wolverine Range, which borders the area on the east.
The area lies in the eastern part of the larger Manson section, a strip of country about 15
miles in width, that lies south of the Omineca River and extends from Takla Lake to the
Manson Lakes.
Since the discovery of gold in 1869, mining activity in the Manson Creek area, as in the
western part of the Manson section, has centred almost entirely on the placer deposits, to
which it is still confined. However, a large number of quartz veins are exposed in the area,
and as the placer deposits considered by themselves, although distributed by glaciation,
indicate derivation from a local source, an examination of the chief exposures of the quartz
veins was made during the year. This included a reconnaissance which throws considerable
additional light upon two well-known apparent anomalies in placer occurrence; namely, the
fact that important placer deposits are not found either on (a) the Manson River above
Kildare Gulch, or (6) the north-eastward-flowing part of the Germansen River, with one
exception.
LEGEND
Batholithic   RocKs
Motor-truck roads
are shown by lightf
broken lines  thus :
Miles
Manson Creek Area.    Heavy broken line bounds area examined in 1938.
The area examined is shown on the accompanying map and includes all the most
important placer deposits in Manson Creek area, although placer occurrence is known on
Big Wolverine  (Jackfish)  and Evans Creeks.
The area may be reached by the road now in course of construction between Fort St.
James and Slate Creek, a distance of about 120 miles. The road is now passable throughout
for motor-trucks and, in dry weather only, for passenger-cars with high clearance. The
journey from Fort St. James occupies about twelve hours. At Slate Creek the road joins a
local road system passable for cars, whereby all important properties are readily reached.
Alternatively, this area may be reached in about one hour by aeroplane from Fort St.
James;   good landings are offered by Germansen Lake and by the stretch of quiet water on NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 5
the Omineca River at Germansen Landing. Landings are also regularly made on the first
Manson Lake, but events have demonstrated that landing on Wolverine Lake cannot advisedly
be made.
There are two post-offices, Manson Creek on the right bank of Slate Creek, about half a
mile above the mouth, and Germansen Landing on the Omineca River, at the mouth of the
Germansen River. At both, there is a weekly mail delivery by aeroplane during the summer
months, and at Germansen, the camp of Venture Exploration Company (East Africa),
Limited, there is a telegraph-office.
Geological maps of the area, together with an account of the general geology and placer
occurrence therein, are found in Geological Survey, Canada, Summary Reports, 1927 and
1933, Part A. A topographical map of the area, Manson River Sheet (East Half), Map
446a, was published this year by the Bureau of Geology and Topography, Department of
Mines and Resources, Ottawa. The names of creeks and rivers in this report are those
given in maps of the Department of Lands, British Columbia. Names in brackets after
these are taken from Map 446a.
The Annual Reports, Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1933 and 1936, contain a
general account of the Manson section and detailed accounts of certain placer deposits on
the Germansen and Manson Rivers.
Topography.
The area is mountainous, but the mountains, although reaching elevations of over 5,000
feet, have rounded or flat and rolling summits. Dissection by the contained streams is deep,
the maximum relief exceeds 2,000 feet.
The pattern of the drainage system is remarkable. Both the Germansen and Manson
Rivers occupy valleys, which form large U-bends, with the closed ends towards and within
a few miles of each other. These valleys are connected by two wide valleys, Slate Creek and
McCorkell Valleys. A wide master-valley, Big Wolverine Valley (Jackfish Creek Valley),
connects the Manson River and Omineca River Valleys. The floor of Big Wolverine Valley
(Jackfish Creek Valley) is actually 30 feet below the Manson River at the mouth of Dry
Gulch. However, the lakes in it drain into the Manson, owing to the fact that the river
falls away rapidly down-stream. The Big Wolverine (Jackfish Creek Valley) and Manson
River Valleys form a straight continuous valley for over 20 miles.
The region is covered with heavy timber-growth and dense vegetation, save at the higher
summits. Owing to the fact that the rivers and all their tributaries are involved, with all
other Arctic-slope drainage, in the master-rejuvenation in progress on the Peace River, an
extensive system of post-Glacial gorges and canyons has been incised. They reveal the
formation at a number of points, and afford excellent cross-sections of it. Above the gorges
the valleys are generally wide.
The area is flanked on the east by the more rugged and lofty Wolverine Range, to which
it bears much the same topographic relationship that the Barkerville area does to the
Cariboo Mountains.
Glacial Geology.
That an ice-sheet overrode the area is definitely proved by the fact that on the flat
granite summit of the mountain at the head of Lost Creek (named " Lost Creek Mountain "
on the accompanying map), at 5,300 feet elevation, erratics of black carbonaceous limestone
were found. The indicated movement of the ice-sheet is therefore presumably south-eastward
as this formation outcrops abundantly to the north-west. In the account of the formation
flanking the Wolverine Range north of this point, given in Geological Survey, Canada,
Summary Report, 1933, Part A, no mention is made of this black carbonaceous limestone,
which, if present there, would indicate a southward movement of the ice-sheet.
The accumulation of ice was great; large volumes of water with correspondingly greater
power, must have flowed during the retreats of ice. A striking instance of this is demonstrated on Boulder Creek. The valley of this creek is floored with enormous granite boulders
(which, incidentally, are a great impediment in the way of working the good placer-ground
on this creek), borne by the valley glacier from the large stock of granite at the upper reaches
of the creek. Large pot-holes, several feet in diameter and depth, have been formed in
some of the boulders in this assemblage by the post-Glacial water. The immense empty
gorges incised on Government Creek, and adjacent to this on the right bank of Manson River C 6 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
and at other points, also indicate the great carrying power of the post-Glacial streams. With
such volumes of water flowing it is evident that any once-existent glacial debris has been
partly removed from the lower-lying parts of the area.
Bed-rock Geology.
The area borders the eastern flank of the Eastern batholith, a granitic mass trending
north-westward, and extending from the eastern part of the Cariboo district, through Mount
Milligan and Baldy Mountain, and the headwaters of the Osilinka, Mesilinka, and Ingenika
Rivers, to the Two Brothers Lake region. Close to this area it is deeply unroofed, and
outcrops prominently and continuously for many miles south-east of this area to Mount
Milligan and north-west across the Omineca River from Duck Creek onwards. In the southeastern part of the area, that part enclosed by the U-bend of the Manson River, there are
three large stocks and other smaller ones. This fact, coupled with the intense hydrothermal
rock-alteration and recrystallization, can leave but little doubt that the remaining cover of
roof-rocks is thin. The cover, so far as could be determined, probably increases in thickness
in the north-western part, in the area drained by the Germansen River.
There is a noteworthy absence of any extensive dyking, but at a number of points definite
evidence is afforded that the older rocks of the area are intruded by the batholithic rocks.
Apparently intrusion to some considerable extent consisted in injection of magma along
planes of schistosity, and recrystallization, accompanied by intense hydrothermal alteration
of volcanic rocks.
Within the area examined there are belts of schistose sediments, hydrothermally-altered
rocks, volcanic flow-rocks, tuffs, and serpentine. The sediments consist mainly of quartzite,
fissile, grey and black carbonaceous limestone, and argillite. This assemblage is considered
by the Geological Survey, Canada, to be of Palaeozoic age. Much of the so-called " slate " of
the area is black carbonaceous limestone that bears a strong superficial resemblance to slate,
because of its highly-developed cleavage and colour. These rocks strike from north-west
almost to west, and generally dip northward in the south-east part of the area, but on the
Germansen River the dip is mainly southward and only occasionally northward. The dip is
steep, generally over 60 degrees. Some members of the assemblage have undergone intense
hydrothermal alteration and carbonatization and weather to a rusty-red colour. When so
altered they may contain quartz and in places show large patches of a green-coloured mineral,
chlorite. A number of samples of this green mineral were analysed and found to contain
about 0.1 per cent, nickel. Frequently the altered rocks contain numerous quartz gash-veins,
some of quite large size. Some of these veins are barren, some are mineralized with pyrite
and small amounts of galena and sphalerite, and others mainly with tetrahedrite.
This alteration extends across wide bands, in some cases hundreds of feet in width. The
excellent cross-sectional exposures of the formation afforded by the gorges incised by Manson
and Germansen Rivers and by Lost Creek well illustrate the striking contrast between these
rocks and the adjoining sediments and other rocks.
Some outcrops resemble dolomite, and contain magnesium and calcium carbonates. The
igneous origin of the primary rock is, however, indicated by several exposures. On the right
bank of the Manson River, near Elmore Gulch, exposures of andesite grade into a recrystal-
lized form, merging finally in the highly-altered rock. On Boulder Creek chlorite schists
merge in a highly-altered rock of the same type, in which small granite tongues are plainly
visible. At the upper part of Government Creek, a band of serpentinized rock merges in
the highly-altered rock.
It is therefore quite possible that some of these highly-altered bands may be in whole
or in part sills. Exposures strongly suggestive of sills occur at the following points: On
the right bank of Slate Creek, about 2 miles above the mouth, a band about 1,000 feet in
width is exposed; in the north-eastward-flowing part of Germansen River; and in one of the
hydraulic pits of Germansen Mines, Limited, where a band, only a few feet in width, conforms
in strike and dip with the enclosing schistose argillite. At the first-mentioned point, the
extensive display of green-coloured mineral is striking. Microscopic examination by the
departmental staff indicated that such a rock might be hydrothermal alteration of, or vein-like
material traversing, serpentinized ultrabasic rocks. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 7
Many of these highly-altered rocks are medium to coarsely crystalline, and may be
described as quartz-carbonate-chlorite rocks. On microscopic examination they are seen to
be composed of quartz, ankeritic dolomite, and green chlorite. As previously mentioned, a
number of samples of the green mineral were analysed and found to contain small amounts
of nickel up to 0.18 per cent., which is suggestive of original identity as serpentine. The
green-coloured mineral in these rocks is frequently mistaken for either garnierite or malachite.
Similar rocks on the south side of the Middle River are described and classified as altered
intrusive serpentine in Geological Survey, Canada, Paper 38-10, 1938, pages 11 and 19.
Although the rocks described are undoubtedly the result of hydrothermal alteration, it is
desired to point out that in Tertiary time, the percolation of ground water in the upper parts
of serpentine would yield outcrops closely resembling dolomite. There are small deposits of
calcareous magnesite tufa at the present time, on and near outcrops of serpentine, adjacent to
the Germansen River. A sample from one of these was analysed and contained: Magnesia,
23.38 per cent.;   lime, 18.66 per cent.
The limestone in the area, with the exception of one outcrop, is schistose, thinly
bedded, and grey to black in colour. The black limestone is carbonaceous, and superficially
simulates slate, in outcrops where cleavage is well developed. This limestone shows no
evidence of hydrothermal alteration. The exception, massive limestone, is in a prominent
outcrop on the left bank of Slate Creek, about 3 miles above the mouth. This outcrop is
white in colour, finely crystalline, and contains a small amount of a green-coloured mineral
of pearly lustre. This rock most closely resembles a sediment of all those observed containing
the green mineral.
The evidence is, therefore, that these highly-altered rocks are mostly of igneous origin,
either volcanic or intrusive.
Serpentine frequently occurs within the area; some is mineralized with pyrrhotite
containing a small amount of nickel. It quite possibly results from the alteration of an
ultrabasic intrusive. Other exposures are possibly alteration phases of ultrabasic flow-rocks.
Asbestos is found in serpentine at the head of Elmore Gulch and in the lower canyon of
Germansen River. Small deposits of calcareous magnesite tufa occur on the west valley-slope
of the Germansen River at Mill Creek, and in the lower canyon
Quartz veins, although most numerous in the volcanic and hydrothermally-altered rocks,
also occur in the sediments. They range in width from a few inches up to 16 feet. The
largest veins observed are those on Boulder Creek. With few exceptions, the veins are lensy
and discontinuous. Some are essentially of gash-vein type, having frozen walls and no
regularity of strike or dip. Others strike and dip with the enclosing formation, or abruptly
turn across it.
Many quartz veins are barren or nearly so; mineralization is heavy in only a few. The
best mineralized veins are those exposed west of Blackjack Gulch, on the north-west slopes of
Lost Creek Mountain, on the property formerly named Black Hawk.
The character of the mineralization divides the veins into three types: (1) Those
mineralized with pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite, or one or more of these
minerals, as all are rarely present in any one exposure; (2) those containing chiefly
tetrahedrite or a noticeable amount of this mineral; (3) those containing a pyrrhotite-
sphalerite-galena mineralization confined to veins on one property, formerly named the
Black Hawk.
The distinction between these three types is of fundamental importance, irrespective of
the degree of mineralization, because it is only veins of type (2) that are pronouncedly
auriferous. The other types were found to contain insignificant amounts of gold. Veins of
type (2) were observed only in the highly-altered rocks. It is to be noted, however, that
very little work has been done on the quartz veins, except in the case of one property, and
at only two has a small amount of underground development been carried out.
The group of rocks, with its contained quartz veins, has undoubtedly a direct bearing on
the placer deposits of the area. It supplied the gold for the formation of commercial placer
deposits on bed-rock in Tertiary time, and may be correctly described as the " Manson Creek
Gold Belt." In fact, the area well illustrates the interdependence of lode-gold and placer
occurrence. The evidence of this is obscured, although by no means obliterated by the effects
of glaciation. C 8 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
Although examination during the present year was mostly confined to the area shown on
the accompanying map, it is apparent that the width of this belt of rocks is limited in the
south-eastern part of the area. On the north-east it is terminated by the Wolverine Range
and on the south-west by a batholithic mass, which outcrops on both sides of the Manson
River. In the north-western part of the area, between the upper canyon on Germansen
River and a point about half a mile above Horseshoe Creek, massive greenstone outcrops on
both sides of the river. This rock does not evince the same degree of metamorphism as the
rocks of the " Manson Creek Gold Belt," and may be intrusive into them. Intercalated
schistose, black carbonaceous limestone, and altered rocks are exposed at the head of the
upper canyon of the Germansen River. The altered rocks contain small quartz veins. This
assemblage resembles the rocks of the gold-bearing belt.
It is significant that the South Fork of the Germansen River (South Germansen River),
contained in a valley of mature relief, apparently does not erode a gold-bearing terrain, as
no important placer deposits are reported on it.
Summary.
The important points may be summarized thus;.—■
(1.) Of the large number of veins sampled, only a few contain appreciable gold values.
These veins, with one exception on Slate Creek, occur at two different parts of the Germansen River: about 3,000 feet up-stream from the point at which the river turns sharply
to the north-west; and near the head of the lower canyon, about 3% miles above the mouth
of the river. These veins are all of type (2) mentioned previously, that is they contain
chiefly tetrahedrite, or a material amount of this mineral. They occur in highly-altered
rocks, possibly in sills in the volcanic rocks.
(2.) Although no veins were found to carry commercial values, there seems every
justification for close prospecting in the regions where distinctly encouraging values have
been found in the mineralization exposed at the points indicated.
(3.) In general, the covering of the underlying batholithic rocks has been deeply eroded
in the south-eastern part of the area, and therefore, aside from specific discoveries, the
north-western part, where erosion does not appear to have removed such a thickness of
cover-rocks, offers greater promise. In the south-eastern part, however, the south-eastern
slopes of Skeleton Mountain are worth prospecting.
It is important to note that prospecting is greatly simplified by the fact that the conspicuous rusty-red outcrops reveal the promising host-rock. It merely remains to search
such for quartz veins containing tetrahedrite.
(4.) All the placer-bearing streams of the area cut across the belt of schistose rocks, but
unless the hydrothermally-altered bands, with their contained quartz veins, are cut, the placer
deposits are unimportant. The Manson River above Kildare Gulch does not cut these bands
and placer deposits are markedly less rich, whereas down-stream the altered bands are
prominently exposed on both banks of the river, and some of the best placer deposits of the
area were originally found in that part.
(5.) In the north-eastward-flowing part of the Germansen River, from a point about
half a mile above Horseshoe Creek down-stream, the river cuts the gold-bearing formation,
from which assays of samples of mineral gave good gold values, and yet, with one exception,
the river is devoid of placer deposits. This anomaly is explained by the fact that this part
of the river occupies a post-Glacial channel. A former channel, not cut by the river, is
definitely indicated as lying buried in the left bank.
Quartz Veins.
A detailed account of the various veins examined is given in the paragraphs that follow.
It should be noted that only ten mineral claims are in good standing at the present time in
the entire area. No owner was on his property at the time of this examination. Consequently, from available information it is not possible to identify, with certainty, the present
ownership of the exposures examined.
In all veins examined samples of selected mineral were taken in order that the contrast
between the different types of veins might be emphasized. This point is of particular
importance. The context shows that some additional samples were taken, where considered
advisable, across full vein-widths. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 9
Boulder Creek.
Note.—The following account adheres to creek nomenclature given in the Department of
Lands map (and in the accompanying map). To avoid confusion, alternative names given
in Map 446a are not inserted.
Boulder Creek rises in meadows in the wide pass between Lost Creek Mountain and
Skeleton Mountain, and flows south-eastward into the third Manson Lake. Down-stream
from the pass the gradient steepens, the valley narrows, and for part of its length the creek
is contained in a gorge. Below the gorge the valley widens towards the point of mergence
in the Manson River Valley.
About 2 miles above its mouth the creek receives a tributary, the South Fork, which
flows north-eastward at the south-eastern base of Lost Creek Mountain. The volume of
water in the South Fork is considerably in excess of that in Boulder Creek. Immediately
above its junction with Boulder Creek, the South Fork is contained in a deep and narrow
gorge, some hundreds of feet in depth, incised in granite. The granite intrudes the chlorite
schist at the lower end of the gorge, which continues up-stream for more than half a mile.
The granite in the South Fork Gorge is so jointed that it disintegrates in large cube-shaped
masses, of which the talus slopes in the gorge are largely composed.
The formation is well exposed on Boulder Creek and consists of chlorite schist, which
strikes from north 60 to 80 degrees west, and dips 60 degrees north-eastward. Rarely is the
dip towards the south-west. The chlorite schist is intruded by small tongues of granite on
the higher reaches of the creek, and shows intense metamorphism and a greater amount of
chlorite.    Granite also intrudes the formation on the South Fork.
The largest quartz veins observed in the Manson Creek area occur on Boulder Creek.
The mineralization is confined to small bands, and is generally sparse, save in one instance.
The mineralization is chiefly galena and pyrite, but one or two veins contain a small amount
of chalcopyrite. No pronounced gold values were found in the mineral in these veins. All
vein-exposures examined are on the banks close to the creek.
About a quarter of a mile down-stream from the junction of the South Fork, on the left
bank of the creek, a large quartz vein of maximum width of 10 feet is exposed for a length
of 180 feet along its strike. This vein has free walls, and conforms in strike and dip with
the enclosing chlorite schist, which at this point strikes north 56 degrees west and dips 60
degrees to the north-east. This vein, the largest continuous exposure of quartz observed
in the area, shows little mineral.
On the same side of the creek, 1,500 feet below the junction of the South Fork, a quartz
vein 5 feet in width is exposed for a short distance. It strikes north 86 degrees east, dips
65 degrees south, and cuts across the chlorite schist.    It contains muscovite but no sulphides.
On the right bank of the creek, about 1% miles above its mouth, there is a small rock
knoll about 40 feet in height, and whose dimensions at the top are about 75 by 50 feet. Three
intersecting quartz veins outcrop on the apex and sides. The largest, 12 feet in width, has a
vertical dip, strikes north 69 degrees west, and is exposed at the top of the knoll for a length
of 50 feet. It intersects another quartz vein about 5 feet in width that outcrops on the east
side of the knoll, strikes north 61 degrees east and dips north-west. This latter vein is intersected by a small quartz vein, 12 to 18 inches in width, also outcropping on the eastern side
of the knoll. The two larger veins are oxidized and show no material amount of sulphides.
The smallest vein contains a band of galena about 2 inches in width, a sample of which
assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 30 oz. per ton; lead, 48 per cent. The walls of these veins
are mainly free.
There is a caved open-cut on the left bank of the creek about 700 feet down-stream from
the last-mentioned exposure. It is in highly-oxidized rock. Beside the open-cut is a small
pile of little pieces of massive pyrite containing galena, somewhat suggestive of replacement
mineralization. A sample of this assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 1.4 oz. per ton; copper, nil;
lead, 3 per cent.
Down-stream 660 feet from the last exposure, on the left bank of the creek, a vein 5.5
feet in width conforming in strike and dip with the enclosing chlorite schist is exposed by
natural agencies and one open-cut for 50 feet along its strike. Mineralization consists of
pyrite and galena. A sample taken from the open-cut across a width of 2.5 feet assayed:
Gold, trace;   silver, 4.4 oz. per ton;   copper, nil;  lead, 4 per cent. C 10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
About 750 feet down-stream from the last exposure, on the right bank of the creek, on
the face of a steep rock-bluff, natural exposures aided by open-cutting and stripping 35 feet
above creek-level expose a quartz vein along its dip. The vein is 12 to 16 feet in width,
strikes north 43 degrees east, dips 60 degrees south-east, and cuts across the enclosing
chlorite schist, which strikes north 80 degrees west and dips 60 degrees north. It is oxidized,
has free walls, is exposed along its dip over a vertical range of 40 feet, and is accessible only
at the level of the open-cut. Mineralization consists chiefly of galena with some pyrite, and
is more abundant in the open-cut. A chip sample taken across 12 feet assayed: Gold, trace;
silver, 15.5 oz. per ton; lead, 3.2 per cent. However, in the absence of further investigation
this sample cannot be taken as representing the average vein-width.
Adjoining the vein on the hanging-wall side for a distance of 75 feet, there is a
succession of closely-spaced lensy quartz veins, which in part follow and in part cut across
the planes of schistosity of the enclosing formation. Some of these veins contain small bands
3 inches in width chiefly of galena, but the total amount of mineral present is small. A
sample of one of these bands assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 75.6 oz. per ton; lead,
36 per cent. The samples taken indicate that although only low gold values are present, the
silver-lead ratio is noteworthy.
Lost Creek.
Lost Creek rises in a large basin on the north slopes of Lost Creek Mountain and flows
northward. The basin becomes gorge-like at its lower extremity, and from it the creek
emerges to flow across a wide depression trending east and west across the mountain. It
then enters a lower gorge, the rims of which rise abruptly from the depression. The lower
gorge is roughly 5,800 feet long. It ends abruptly at the instream edge of an extensive
rock-bench along the right bank of the Manson River.
The rock exposed in the upper gorge is argillite. In the lower gorge bands of hydrothermally-altered rocks alternate with bands of grey to black fissile limestone and argillite.
Some apparently barren lensy quartz veins up to 5 feet in width are exposed at several
points. Lensy quartz veins mineralized with a little galena and pyrite outcrop at a point
440 feet up-stream from the mouth of the creek, on the steep west rim of the lower gorge.
Three lenticular quartz veins are exposed by a caved open-cut at a point 100 feet above creek-
level, on the steep west rim of the gorge. They occur in hydrothermally-altered rocks, strike
north 62 degrees west and dip 70 degrees north-east. They range in width from 6 to 30
inches and are sparsely mineralized with galena and pyrite. A sample of selected mineral
assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton. An adjoining open-cut a few feet above this
point exposes two veins of irregular strike for a length of 18 feet. They are only a few feet
apart, and range in width from 14 to 34 inches. Distant 138 feet in a direction due east,
another open-cut exposes a vein with a vertical dip. It ranges from 15 inches to 3 feet in
width, and has two small spurs. Small bunches of galena have been found in this vein, and
there is a small pile of mineral at the mouth of the open-cut. A sample of mineral assayed:
Gold, trace; silver, 10.2; lead, 18 per cent. A few feet above creek-level below these open-
cuts, a short adit 20 feet in length, driven by placer-miners, exposes a small quartz vein 4
inches in width.    A sample of this assayed:   Gold, trace;   silver, 0.8 oz. per ton.
A number of quartz lenses are exposed at different points in the schistose sediments on
Manson River between Slate Creek and Dry Gulch. Most of them are barren. On the right
bank of the river opposite the mouth of Dry Gulch are several oxidized quartz veins which
contain a small amount of pyrite. They conform in strike and dip with the enclosing
argillite and range in width from 1 to 3% feet. Samples were taken from two of the best
mineralized of these, and assayed:   Gold, nil;  silver, nil.
Lost Creek Mountain.
tost Creek Mountain is one of the highest mountains in the area, the elevation of the
flat rolling summit, composed wholly of granite, is 5,300 feet.
A group of claims, formerly named Black Hawk group, and formerly owned by Germansen Development Syndicate, Limited, now defunct, is west of Blackjack Gulch, on the
north-western slopes of Lost Creek Mountain. The present ownership is not known. It is
reached by following the wagon-road from the end of the motor-road at Mosquito Lake to
Blackjack Gulch, whence a trail, 1% miles in length, ascends the 20-degree mountain-slope
to a cabin on the property at 4,125 feet elevation. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 11
Near all the mineral showings save one, the mountain slopes at about 10 degrees, but
falls away more sharply in the region of the lowest showing. It is covered with light timber-
growth and dense vegetation.
A number of quartz veins, ranging in width from 15 inches to 5 feet, occur within a belt
650 feet wide. Six of these strike north-eastward, with steep dips either to the south-east or
to the north-west. One vein strikes west of north with a north-east dip. Strike and dip of
two other veins are not determinate from the exposure. Another exposure may be of one
quartz vein or two lenses en echelon. The vein-walls are free, and generally the veins are
well-mineralized; in two, the mineralization is heavy. The mineralization consists chiefly of
pyrrhotite with smaller amounts of pyrite, galena, and sphalerite. Gold values are insignificant, but the amount of silver associated with this mineralization is unusually high. This
type of mineralization was observed nowhere else in the area. The host-rock is massive
recrystallized andesite.
The early history of this property is not known to the writer, but the age of the cabin
on the ground indicates that it must have been staked many years ago. It was restaked in
1931, and Germansen Development Syndicate, Limited, was incorporated in that year for the
development of it and other properties in the Manson Creek area. The company, in 1931,
cleared out and extended some of the open-cuts, but let the property lapse. It is believed to
have been subsequently restaked, but from the information available the present ownership
is not known.
The surface showings all lie between elevations of 4,120 and 4,185 feet. Two veins are
exposed naturally, and the remaining exposures are in open-cuts or surface-stripping.
The showings all lie in a south-westerly direction from a short adit which is a convenient
reference point and is the only underground working.
The adit, 18 feet in length, is driven at elevation 4,135 feet on a bearing of south 23
degrees west. It follows a well-mineralized quartz vein 18 inches in width, which is exposed
at the portal and which dips at a steep angle to the north-east. At the face, other small
quartz stringers are exposed, together with the vein which has narrowed to a stringer 3
inches wide. Mineralization in the vein at the portal is locally heavy, and consists chiefly
of pyrrhotite and pyrite, with a small amount of sphalerite. A sample of selected pieces of
mineral from a small pile at the portal of the adit assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver,
43.6 oz. per ton;   copper, nil;  lead, nil;  nickel, nil.
A quartz vein 18 inches in width outcrops at 4,155 feet elevation and 18 feet in a direction
south 79 degrees west from a point vertically above the face of the adit. It is sparingly
mineralized with pyrite and pyrrhotite.    Strike and dip are not clear from the small exposure.
Distant 72 feet in a direction south 79 degrees west from a point vertically above the
face of the adit, at 4,155 feet elevation, an open-cut 2 feet deep and 6 feet long exposes small
bodies of slightly mineralized quartz at each end. They might be two parallel veins, each
about 3 feet in width, striking north 11 degrees east, dipping steeply easterly, or quartz lenses
occurring en echelon.
Distant 15 feet in a direction south 79 degrees west from the last open-cut, at the same
elevation, surface-stripping exposes for a distance of 21 feet along its strike a quartz vein
striking north 19 degrees west and dipping steeply north-eastward. The exposed width
ranges from 3.5 feet to 5 feet, but both walls are not exposed at any point and the average
width may be 5 feet. This vein is well mineralized with pyrrhotite, pyrite, galena, and
sphalerite. It is considerably oxidized, and the walls are free. A sample across a width of
5 feet at the point of best mineralization assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 40.8 oz. per ton;
copper, nil; lead, 3 per cent.; zinc, 3 per cent.; nickel, nil. Another sample taken across 3.5
feet at a point 8 feet north-west of the last sample, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 4 oz. per ton;
copper, nil;  lead, nil.
Distant 245 feet in a direction south 70 degrees west, an open-cut at 4,180 feet elevation,
40 feet in length and 10 feet deep at the face, is driven on a bearing south 19 degrees west.
A few feet from the mouth the open-cut intersects and subsequently follows a well-mineralized
quartz vein, strike north 31 degrees east, dip 78 degrees south-east. Where encountered the
vein is 3 feet in width but narrows to 19 inches at the face of the open-cut. For 33 feet
beyond the face the vein is exposed by surface-stripping. Its average width is 19 inches and
it is heavily mineralized, chiefly with massive pyrrhotite.    A sample representative of the C 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
most heavily mineralized parts of the vein, taken at different points along its strike, assayed:
Gold, trace;  silver, 3.4 oz. per ton;  copper, nil;  nickel, nil.
Distant 120 feet in a direction south 87 degrees west from the last-described open-cut,
at 4,185 feet elevation, a quartz vein 18 inches in width, somewhat oxidized and sparsely
mineralized, is exposed for a few feet along its strike by surface-stripping. This vein strikes
north 31 degrees east and dips south-east at a steep angle. The south-west continuation of
the vein is apparently exposed by two open-cuts, respectively 45 feet and 70 feet from the
surface-stripping. Of these open-cuts the former, now much caved, exposes the vein for a
distance of 10 feet along its strike, at a point where its width is 4.5 feet. In it the vein is
honeycombed, and well mineralized with pyrrhotite and some sphalerite. A sample of selected
pieces of the mineral exposed assayed: Gold, nil; silver, nil; copper, nil. This open-cut
exposes another vein lying a few feet to the north-west, of similar strike dipping north-west
and 15 inches wide. The open-cut at a distance of 70 feet from the surface-stripping is much
caved but exposes a south-eastward dipping vein.
A small body of quartz outcrops at 4,120 feet elevation and 228 feet in a direction north
60 degrees west from the surface-stripping last mentioned. The exposure is small but may
represent an unmineralized vein about 3.5 feet in width. Strike and dip are not clearly
indicated.
Slate Creek.
. A property formerly named Fairview and formerly owned by T. Rush, of Prince George,
the present ownership of which cannot be identified by the writer from available information,
is on the left bank of Slate Creek, about a mile above its mouth. The wagon-road leading
from Slate Creek through the McCorkell Valley to the Germansen River passes through the
property, and the distance from Manson Creek post-office is about three-quarters of a mile.
The property lies on the lightly-timbered, gently-sloping left rim of Slate Creek Valley.
The formation exposed at this point is hydrothermally-altered andesite which contains narrow
lensy quartz veins. One of them increases in width from 1.5 feet to a maximum of 6 feet
and then narrows to 1.5 feet. It outcrops at various points on the gently-sloping valley-rim.
It is irregularly mineralized with chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, azurite, malachite, and a green-
coloured mineral, chromiferous chlorite. A similar green mineral is also prevalent in the
host-rock. This vein strikes from north 44 degrees west to north 14 degrees west and dips
almost vertically. The walls are partly free, partly frozen. The vein is exposed by two
trenches running along its strike. One trench is 30 feet in length, 5 feet in width, and a
maximum depth of 10 feet. It is on a bearing of north 44 degrees west, and exposes the
vein more or less continuously for 30 feet, the maximum width is 1.5 feet. A gap of 15 feet
separates the first from the second, the length of which is 89 feet, depth 3 to 10 feet, width
5 feet, and bearing north 14 degrees west. In the central part of the second, the quartz vein
swells to a maximum width of 6 feet, which is maintained for only a few feet and then
narrows to 1.5 feet. The best mineralization occurs at the wide point, although it is patchy,
and the percentage of mineral in the whole vein is small. The trench beyond the wide point
of the vein exposes poorly mineralized quartz 1.5 feet wide for a distance of 29 feet. A
sample of selected mineral from the best mineralized part of the vein assayed: Gold, 0.28 oz.
per ton; silver, 22.3 oz. per ton; copper, 1 per cent. A long trench in a north-easterly
direction does not expose the vein.
Although no exposure at this property is commercial, the fact is brought out that it is
the veins of type (2) in the altered rocks, and containing tetrahedrite, that carry appreciable
gold values in the Manson Creek area. The advisability of further prospecting in this
region is indicated.
Germansen River.
Transportation routes in this region are described in detail in the Annual Report,
Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1936.
Appreciable gold values in mineral in quartz veins of type (2) have been found in two
parts of the Germansen River.
(a.) On both sides of the Germansen, where it makes a sharp local bend, about 3,000
feet from the down-stream end of the north-eastward-flowing part. The river cuts a wide
band of hydrothermally-altered rocks containing abundant chlorite.    The altered rock at NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 13
some points strongly resembles a quartz-feldspar intrusive. On the left bank of the river at
this point occurs a ramification of quartz gash-veins of various widths and of irregular strikes
and dips. The largest of these veins is 5 feet wide. The veins are only slightly mineralized
with tetrahedrite and stained with malachite. Very little work has been done at this outcrop.
A sample of selected mineral, taken by the writer from these veins at this point in 1931,
assayed: Gold, 0.44 oz. per ton; silver, 47 oz. per ton; copper, 1 per cent. A group was
staked at this point, named the Mother Lode group, in 1931 by the now defunct Germansen
Development Syndicate, Limited.
Several small quartz veins are exposed on the opposite side of the river, about 300 feet
down-stream from this point on a claim formerly known as the Flagstaff. From one, 15
inches in width, a sample of selected mineral taken by the writer in 1931 assayed: Gold, 0.10
oz. per ton; silver, 18 oz. per ton; copper, 1 per cent. Mineralization is tetrahedrite with
malachite staining. A sample of float picked up on the steep bank of the river below these veins
assayed: Gold, 0.6 oz. per ton; silver, 38 oz. per ton; copper, 5.1 per cent. Mineralization
consisted essentially of tetrahedrite.
(6.) In the north-westward-flowing part of the river, near the head of the lower canyon,
about 3% miles above the mouth of the river. Near an intrusion of diorite a wide bank
of volcanic rocks shows considerable shearing and local intense serpentinization. A group of
claims in this region was examined in 1931, and the report thereon, published in " Lode-gold
Deposits of British Columbia," Bulletin No. 1, 1932, is reproduced herein:—
" Three intensely altered and silicified zones, each about 12 feet in width and about 500
feet apart, strike in a north-west and south-east direction and can be discerned on both sides
of the river. Within these altered zones are developed quartz veins, which show a mineralization of chalcopyrite, grey copper (tetrahedrite), and malachite, with promising values in
gold, although no .noteworthy vein-continuity is apparent.
" On the east side of the river, about 100 feet above the river, one of the altered zones
mentioned shows a quartz vein 2 feet in width, mineralized with grey copper (tetrahedrite),
chalcopyrite, and malachite. A sample across 2 feet assayed: Gold, 0.8 oz. to the ton; silver,
1.6 oz. to the ton; copper, 0.2 per cent. Exposure is by open-cut. The vein strikes north 39
degrees west and dips steeply north-east. A sample of a small pile of ore lying by the
open-cut assayed: Gold, 0.32 oz. to the ton; silver, 15.2 oz. to the ton; copper, 0.4 per cent.
About 40 feet vertically below the open-cut, a crosscut-adit, 62 feet in length, run on a
bearing north 41 degrees east, passes through a quartz vein 5.5 feet in width, which may be
the downward continuation of the vein exposed by the open-cut mentioned, but this shows
but little mineral and a sample across the full width of the vein assayed traces only of gold,
silver, and copper.
" On the east side of the river, and 575 feet above the latter, an adit 15 feet in length
preceded by 20 feet of open-cut is run on a bearing north 66 degrees east, crosscutting one
of the altered zones previously referred to. This exposure shows a certain amount of quartz
with a little chalcopyrite. A sample of a small pile of mineral lying by this working
assayed:   Gold,  0.30 oz. to the ton;   silver, 0.1 oz. to the ton;   copper, trace.
" Distant from the above working about 3,000 feet in a north-west direction, and 135 feet
below it, an altered zone 11 feet in width shows a width of 5 feet of quartz and brecciated
country-rock, but little mineral is in evidence.
" On the opposite side of the river, at a slightly higher elevation, in the same altered
zone, an adit has been run a distance of 21 feet in the zone, bending to the right at the face
and passing apparently out of the zone. Silicification and alteration of the country-rock ii
intense in the zone, and a green mineral apparently chlorite is much in evidence, together
with a little malachite. A sample from the adit across a width of 2 feet at the most
promising-looking place disclosed a trace only of copper, and no gold, silver, or nickel values."
On the left bank of the river, just below the junction of Plug Hat Creek, there is exposed
a large quartz vein 10 to 12 feet in width, which appears to conform in strike and dip with
the enclosing schistose sediments, although the latter are cut by numerous spurs of the vein.
This vein was formerly covered by the Sunset group, which has now lapsed. A report
thereon, published in " Lode-gold Deposits of British Columbia, Bulletin No. 1, 1932," is
reproduced herein:—- C 14 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
" The vein is sparsely mineralized with pyrite, chalcopyrite, and copper-stain. The
foot-wall is a carbonaceous schist and an adit just above water-level follows the vein for a
distance of 120 feet. For the first 45 feet the bearing is north 82 degrees west, and for the
remaining distance the bearing is south 56 degrees west. The adit exposes the foot-wall
rock for almost the entire distance, but it is doubtful if the full vein-width is exposed. At
the face of the adit the vein appears to be mainly in the back. A sample of selected portion
of mineral assayed:   Gold, trace;   silver, 0.6 oz. to the ton;   copper, 1 per cent."
Bearing of this Examination on Placer Occurrence.—The following facts disclosed by this
examination have an important bearing on placer occurrence in the area:—
(1.) Certain topographic features on the Germansen River, not previously known, came
to light, and are considered to have an important bearing on placer occurrence on this river.
They are:—
(a.)  North of Plug Hat Creek, a large depression, the lower part of which is
occupied by Harding Creek and a morainal lake, trends more or less parallel
to the Germansen River.    The depression merges northward in the flat terrain
flanking the Omineca River, but southward becomes pronounced, and about
half a mile west of the river, ellipsoidal outcrops of volcanic rock form its west
rim.    This large depression with its westerly rock rim is considered an important   feature   and   its   presence   may   assist   in   localizing   the   down-stream
continuation of the intricate buried former channel-system of the Germansen
River.
(6.)  Just up-stream from, and opposite, Mill Creek, at the upper end of the placer-
mining lease of Chester Scott, at an elevation of 330 feet above the river, a
very definite depression, about 300 feet in width, bounded by high rock-rims,
passes entirely outside and east of the present valley of the river, and again
joins it at the head of the lower canyon.    This is definitely an early channel-
segment of the river.    Its length is about 1%  miles, and its original downstream continuation undoubtedly lay west of the canyon.
(2.)   It is desired to amplify reasons previously given for the paucity of important placer
deposits on the Manson River above Kildare Gulch and on the north-eastward-flowing part
of the Germansen River.
An examination was made of the north-west slopes of Lost Creek Mountain to a point
3 miles above Kildare Gulch. This disclosed that although the formation consists of alternating bands of volcanic rocks and argillite, the former are massive rather than schistose.
These volcanics do not exhibit the hydrothermal alteration which characterizes not only the
host-rocks containing the quartz veins with mineral of pronounced auriferous content, but
which is also the formation eroded where the best placer deposits are found. Further, it
was apparent that the region is close to the main batholithic mass.
With reference to the paucity of placer in the north-eastward-flowing part of the Germansen River, down-stream from Horseshoe Creek: This examination disclosed that the
formation eroded is of distinct promise for the discovery of auriferous quartz veins. There
is every reason to anticipate that in the absence of ice-scour, gold-bearing bed-rock gravels
would be found in a Tertiary channel incised in such formation. The paucity of placer
deposits is readily explained by the fact that the present channel of the river in this region
is definitely not of Tertiary age. Local topographic features indicate that an extensive
segment of a former channel lies buried in the left bank of the river. This buried channel
may not be older than Pleistocene. The Germansen River in this region now occupies a
channel completed in post-Glacial time, although incision may have commenced in the
Pleistocene.
(3.) It is desired to draw attention to the significance of the points at which mineral
of pronounced gold content occurs in veins, in relation to any buried channel system there
existent. This is particularly evident in the north-eastward-flowing part of the river, downstream from Horseshoe Creek, and in the north-westward-flowing part of the river, near the
lower canyon. In the latter case the argument appears to apply with particular force,
inasmuch as there is much to suggest that west of the canyon in this region the members of
the intricate buried channel system are likely to unite. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 15
PLACER-GOLD DEPOSITS.
Horsefly Area.
Introduction.
Horsefly is reached by a motor-road 31 miles in length, branching from the Cariboo
Highway half a mile north of the 153-mile House; the distance from Williams Lake is 45
miles. There is a good system of local motor-roads in the area that gives access to all the
more important properties.
The size and undoubted antiquity of the deposits of residual " white channel " gravel,
composed largely of quartz pebbles, contained in the several exposures of the buried ancient
Horsefly River drainage system, has long aroused much interest. The age of these deposits
has been definitely established at points where they are buried under Tertiary volcanic flows.
Some possible connection between the seemingly detached placer deposits of the Miocene,
Ward's Horsefly, and Hobson's Horsefly mines, on which all important history of the area
centres, was sought at the time these properties were operated about forty years ago. It
has since been the subject of discussion, although no major activity has subsequently taken
place in this area.
It is apparent that these ancient gravel deposits—similar to the " white channel " gravel
of the unglaciated Klondyke—invest this area with more than local interest. Apart from
their commercial significance, their antiquity brings up the question of the course of the
river in which they were deposited, at points far down-stream from Horsefly. As the
direction of flow of the large tributaries of the Fraser River—namely, the Quesnel, Cottonwood, Willow, Bowron, West Road (Blackwater), and Chilako Rivers—is not in accord with
that of their present parent stream, a possible reversal of drainage in the Fraser River
Valley is suggested. It is therefore a rational hypothesis that in early Tertiary time a
river, possibly the Horsefly River, may have flowed northward in or adjacent to the present
Fraser River Valley, as a tributary of the antecedent Peace River. It is apparent that the
latter is now in active rejuvenation as far as Summit Lake north of Prince George.
During the year, about six weeks was occupied in a general reconnaissance of the Horsefly River, as far as the mouth of its tributary the Mackay River (formerly named the South
Fork) ; and of McKinley Creek, including Elbow, McKee, and Crooked Lakes. The more
important placer deposits were examined in detail.
As the result of this examination new and important facts were brought to light, but for
reasons made clear subsequently, the buried drainage system is involved. Although its broad
outline can readily be perceived, many details cannot be determined in the course of field-
work. Many important facts regarding the Miocene, Ward's Horsefly, and Hobson's Horsefly
mines are not given in existing accounts of these old operations, and now cannot be obtained.
Consequently, certain inferences are supported only by indirect evidence.
Summary.
For clarity, an outline of the Horsefly River drainage pattern is first given, followed by
a summary of the inferences conveyed by the more important facts ascertained by field-work.
Details follow in the body of the report.
In its broadest aspects, the drainage is by a large river flowing in a region of low relief.
It turns unexpectedly, at right angles to its former course, at a point near Horsefly. The
turning-point is where the upper end of the large valley of Beaver Creek, the dominating
feature of the surrounding topography, virtually merges in the Horsefly River Valley. The
inference is that the Tertiary channel of the Horsefly River lies buried in, or closely adjacent
to, the Beaver Creek Valley.
Although the facts indicate that this view is substantially correct, they also indicate that
the abrupt turn is not due to damming by glacial debris, as might appear at first, but to
volcanism in Tertiary time.
It is further apparent that there were two different periods of volcanism. Following
each, lava dams caused the river to occupy a local course different from its former channel.
The difficulty of deciphering the buried drainage system is further increased by changes
attributable to the Glacial epoch, when temporary channels, differing from those now occupied,
were successively followed owing to damming by glacial debris. Summary of the important conclusions: In Eocene or earlier time, the Horsefly River,
down-stream from Woodjam Creek, flowed in a valley which was continuous with that of
Beaver Creek. This former valley continuation, between that part of the river-valley above
Woodjam Creek and the upper end of Beaver Creek Valley, is now obscured by the Tertiary
formation underlying the elevated plateau on the left bank of the river and at the head of
Beaver Creek Valley.
Prolonged erosion of gold-bearing terrain in Eocene or earlier time was interrupted by
volcanic eruptions that dammed the part of the valley mentioned above, and caused the river
to deviate locally from its former channel. This damming is expressed by the Tertiary
formation mentioned in the previous paragraph. Lakes were formed, probably by actual
damming by erupted lava. A feature of the volcanism was the enormous quantity of volcanic
ash that was deposited in the lakes, producing tuff beds of great thickness.
Contorted beds are overlain by flat-lying beds. It is evident that there were two periods
of tuff deposition and that contortion of beds followed the first period, whereas no great
disturbance followed the second.
As the result of volcanism, the valley down-stream from Woodjam Creek was blocked
with lava. Finally the river worked its way round the obstruction, now expressed in the
form of an elevated plateau, and presumably rejoined its former course in the Beaver Creek
Valley. Evidence now remains of only a part of the deviated course of the river at the time.
This is afforded by the Miocene and Senator Campbell shafts and workings. Proof of
continuation of deep ground up-stream in the vicinity is given by the Keystone-drilling carried
out by this Department in 1919 and 1920.
After prolonged flow by way of the Miocene channel a second period of volcanism was
initiated. The river was again deflected, presumably by further damming by lava, and
followed, it is presumed, down-stream from Horsefly village the channel disclosed by the
workings of Ward's Horsefly and Hobson's Horsefly mines.
It is important to note that both periods of volcanism left that part of the river above
Woodiam Creek unaffected, in so far as causing any diversion of the river from its valley.
The diagnostic value of the volcanic rocks is all-important, since channels incised wholly
in them cannot antedate the volcanism. Thus, such channels as are incised in volcanic ash
or tuff beds and disclosed by the old workings must have been formed either during or
subsequent to the earlier of the two volcanic periods. If bed-rock is not exposed, correlation
must be based upon indirect evidence.
Time intervals were undoubtedly long, as evidenced by the great accumulation of residual
" white channel " gravel in the Miocene and other channels.
The exposures of " white channel " gravel, marked Nos. 1 to 5 on the accompanying map,
occur on the elevated plateau. They are apparently remnants of ancient drainage, by way of
Beaver Creek Valley, that doubtless included the large tributary Moffat Creek, which possibly
had no existence at the time of the first period of volcanism (in Eocene or earlier time).
These exposures at widely-separated points cannot be correlated with any degree of certainty,
as bed-rock is not exposed. Indirect evidence, however, suggests the possibility that the
exposure at Triplet Lake is a remnant of the river drainage antedating the first period of
volcanism and dammed by it. In Gravel Creek Canyon, beds of residual gravel, 2 to 5 feet
in thickness, are overlain and underlain by lava of the second period of volcanism. They
indicate that a flow by way of Beaver Creek Valley was dammed or interrupted by lava.
Topography.
The Horsefly River rises in rugged country, falls at an average rate of 12 feet per mile,
and receives three large tributaries from the south: In down-stream order, the Mackay River
(formerly named the South Fork), McKusky Creek (formerly named the Crooked River), and
McKinley Creek. It should be noted that the last two are streams of approximately the same
size as the Mackay River, and the term " creek " is inappropriate. The ruggedness of the
country at the higher reaches of the river, likewise that of the region drained by its tributaries, decreases progressively down-stream. The wide valley in which the river meanders,
between McKinley Creek and Woodjam Creek, is one of subdued relief and mature aspect.
There are falls in the river just above Harvie Creek, near Sawley Creek, and about 1 mile
below Club Creek.    At the first point the falls are about 8 feet in height.    Near Sawley Creek NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 17
the total drop is 90 feet in a distance of about 275 yards; the fall being in four steps, the
highest of which is about 15 feet. Below Club Creek in a distance of about three-quarters of
a mile, there is a total drop of about 120 feet; the fall is in three steps of which the highest
is about 65 feet.    The length of the rocky gorge below the falls is about 500 yards.
Near these falls the topography clearly indicates that an older channel of the river lies
buried instream, probably in the right bank and at great depth. McKusky Creek occupies a
mature valley and enters the Horsefly a foot or so below its level, with the result that the
water backs up in McKusky Creek for some distance. The valley of McKusky Creek is more
mature than that of Mackay River and it is suggested that McKusky Creek at one time was
the headwaters of the Horsefly River. Both McKusky Creek and the Horsefly flow on
valley-fills and it is evident that originally McKusky Creek entered the Horsefly River Valley
at a lower level.
Two depressions, shallow and wide, at respective elevations of about 750 and 250 feet
above the river, occur in the north rim of the valley and extend east and west from Black
Creek. Both trend parallel to the river for some miles. The former is clearly incised in
rock; both rims are traceable for some miles. The latter is separated by knolls from the
Horsefly River Valley, but these knolls may be of unconsolidated materials. These features
indicate the presence of earlier river-channels the ages of which are quite indeterminate from
facts now known. The higher may be quite old, and continuance of the present operations on
Black Creek will likely yield important information concerning it in the immediate future.
A key feature of the topography is the abrupt closing-in of the wide valley, immediately
below the junction with Woodjam Creek. At that point the river flows to the north of its
former course, and enters what is locally known as the " canyon." In this region the river
is quite shallow, only a few feet in depth, and the valley is incised in intercalated beds of
volcanic tuff and lava. For a distance of about 4 miles this formation is exposed at intervals
in the bed of the river, and bluffs of it up to 100 feet in height extend along the banks. South
of the river there is an elevated plateau between 250 and 350 feet above the river. Below
the " canyon " the valley again widens. Immediately up-stream from Horsefly the river
meanders through an accumulation of glacial debris in the central part of the valley, flanked
by glacial banks up to 60 feet high. When only little more than a mile from the upper end
of the large Beaver Creek Valley, the river turns at right angles to its former course. Beaver
Creek Valley is a master-valley trending north-westerly from this point for a distance of 40
miles to Beavermouth. Beyond, the Quesnel River Valley is continuous with it for another
20 miles. After making the turn, the Horsefly River flows almost due north into Quesnel
Lake. It traverses a region of low relief, save for one discordant feature, seen immediately
up-stream from Hobson's Horse fl,y mine, 5% miles below Horsefly. There the river passes
through a rock-walled gorge incised in tuff beds, the left bank rises quite sharply from the
river to a height of from 125 to 175 feet. Ratdam Creek is contained in a hanging-valley,
and cascades over falls 60 feet in height, which are situated at the end of a deep embayment
in the river-valley 600 feet in length. The falls are incised in tightly-cemented gravel, and
presumably expose the up-stream continuation of Hobson's Horsefly channel.
About three-quarters of a mile east of Horsefly, a depression trends north-easterly
parallel to the river and finally north-westerly, emerging again in the Horsefly River Valley
at the junction with the Little Horsefly River. About three-quarters of a mile east of this
depression, and separated from it by a rock knoll, there is another approximately parallel
depression, which at Arms Lake bends north-westerly, and to the north-west merges in the
other depression.    These may be Pleistocene channels of the Horsefly River.
Bed-rock Geology.
The Horsefly area in the lower reaches of the river is one of very low relief and is
occupied by a number of ranches. Except for these clearings, the lower elevations are generally well covered with vegetation and timber-growth which obscure rock-outcrops. The
formation is exposed mainly at higher elevations.
The formation eroded by the river and its large tributaries in its upper reaches consists
of a north-westerly-striking belt of schistose rocks, chiefly sediments, including slate, argillite,
and quartzite. These contain numerous quartz veins in the area drained by the large
tributaries and are bordered on the west by a band of schistose greenstone.    Adjoining these
2 C 18 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
rocks, down-stream between Club Creek and Woodjam Creek, the formation is seen to consist
of an assemblage of flow-rocks, chiefly andesitic. They do not exhibit the same degree of
metamorphism as the schists and may be of Mesozoic age. The region lies directly along the
trend of the Central batholith which, however, is not continuously exposed in this region.
Igneous tongues intrude the volcanic rocks at several points. The formation changes with
the abrupt change in the topography at Woodjam Creek. Down-stream from Woodjam Creek
for 6 miles below Horsefly the formation, where exposed, consists almost entirely of tuff or
flow-rocks of Tertiary age. In subsequent paragraphs, details are given of the Tertiary
formation exposed in this region. It is considered that upon the correct interpretation of the
topographic change, and of the adjacent exposures of Tertiary formation, rests in large
measure the solution of the complicated Tertiary drainage system of the section.
Slate and quartzite outcrop on the summit and high southern slopes of Big Slide Mountain. Schistose argillite and quartzite are exposed on the right bank of the river almost
continuously between Harvie and Sawley Creeks. Slate is exposed above the mouth of
McKusky Creek, and schistose greenstone below. An extensive area in this region is underlain by sediments. The contact between schistose greenstone and slate occurs just west of
McKee Lake, and was followed in the course of reconnaissance for some miles to the northwest. East of the contact, sediments outcrop at several points between McKee and Crooked
Lakes. The formation along the Mackay River (South Fork) area is thus described in the
Annual Report, Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1938, page 139, "... a well-defined
belt of old sedimentary rocks, for the most part black slates and schists with occasionally
argillaceous limestone. These strike in a general north 50 degrees west direction. On the
western boundary of the sedimentary rocks, granite-mica gneissic rocks are found occurring
interbedded as sills in the slates. A large pyroxenite dyke was noted on the eastern end of
the belt of sedimentaries, near the head of Fraser Creek. Throughout the slates on all the
three creeks examined in detail (Fraser, Slide, and Eureka) occur many quartz veins. These
quartz veins for the most part are only a few inches to a few feet in width, averaging
possibly up to 3 or 4 feet, and occasionally being as wide as 60 feet. They strike north 60 to
70 degrees west, or approximately with the bedding-planes of the slate country-rock, and dip
about 30 to 50 degrees to the west. Several samples . . . were taken, but in all cases
the samples upon assay returned nil for both gold and silver."
Auriferous quartz is known to occur in the vicinity of McKee Lake and is described on
page C 32 of the Annual Report, Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1934, under Timber
Line. At the head of the falls on Sawley Creek, two small slightly-mineralized quartz veins
5 and 8 inches wide respectively are exposed in schistose argillite on the right bank of the
river.    Assays returned insignificant values.
It appears that the quartz veins are largely confined to the sediments, none are known
to occur in the belt of volcanic rocks bordering the sediments on the west. However, they
may be obscured by glacial debris, or if once existent, may have been entirely removed by
erosion. The rocks between Club Creek and Patenaude Creek, are intruded at several points
by tongues of igneous rock. At the upper end of the falls near Club Creek andesite is
intruded by pyroxenite, also near this point by a small acid tongue. At the base of the falls
a porphyritic granitic tongue intrudes andesite and is mineralized with slightly auriferous
pyrrhotite. At 4,000 feet elevation, about a mile east of the East Fork of Black Creek, a
large pyritized quartz-feldspar dyke is exposed, a sample of which assayed a trace of gold.
For a distance of about 4 miles below Woodjam Creek the river in a number of places
flows over beds of white or cream-coloured Tertiary tuff. Outcrops are prominent on the
banks of the river and range from a few feet to 100 feet in height. The tuff contains intercalations of lava. It is overlain by post-Glacial gravel or glacial debris; the total overlie of
unconsolidated material usually ranges from 3 to 6 feet in thickness.
About 1% miles down-stream from Woodjam Creek intercalated lava and tuff beds are
exposed on the left bank of the river. Beds of basalt exposed at river-level are overlain by
tuff beds 30 feet in thickness striking north 37 degrees east, and dipping 60 degrees southeast. The latter are overlain by basalt 6 feet in thickness, which is overlain by tuff beds
capped by 2 feet of gravel and soil.
About a quarter of a mile down-stream from the last exposure tuff beds are exposed on
the left bank for a length of 250 feet and a height of 100 feet above the river.    The lower NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 19
beds, 60 feet in thickness, are intensely folded and overlain by flat-lying beds. The latter
are capped by only 1 foot of unconsolidated gravel and soil.
On the right bank of the river, opposite the mouth of Deerhorn Creek, tuff beds are
exposed continuously for a length of approximately 400 feet. The bank ranges in height
from 25 to 35 feet. These beds are horizontal, and are overlain by 3 to 6 feet of poorly-sorted
post-Glacial gravel and glacial debris. Other smaller outcrops of tuff beds occur in this
vicinity on both sides of the river.
Between Deerhorn Creek and Horsefly the formation near the river is obscured by glacial
debris and vegetation.
At Ward's Horsefly mine, there is a small outcrop of rock identified by microscopic
examination as sandstone.
On the opposite side of the river, at the point shown on the accompanying map, a dove-
coloured, fine-grained diorite is exposed. This rock also forms the bed-rock at Campbell and
Boswell's hydraulic pit.
In the vicinity of Hobson's Horsefly mine, a canyon, 300 yards in length, is incised in
white-coloured tuff beds striking north-easterly and dipping 25 degrees south-easterly. Below
this canyon, on both sides of the river, are outcrops, 5 to 10 feet high, of red andesi+e
porphyry. A small island in the river at this point is composed wholly of it. Tuff beds form
the eastern rim-rock at Hobson's Horsefly mine and apparently directly overlie the andesite
porphyry. In the hydraulic pit some exposures suggest that the tuff beds and lava may be
intercalated, but it is not possible to determine this point, owing to sloughing since hydraulic
operations were suspended. At some points the tuff beds are undeformed and contain fossils,
at others they are contorted.
About half a mile down-stream from Hobson's Horsefly mine, an old adit, now caved and
inaccessible, is stated to have been driven several hundred feet from a point 35 feet above the
river, on its left bank. Examination of the dump at the portal of the adit shows that tuff
beds were encountered.
The elevated plateau lying immediately south of the Horsefly River and west of Woodjam
Creek (on which occur the exposures of residual gravel marked Nos. 1 to 5 on the accompanying map) is largely covered with vegetation and glacial overburden. This obscures rock-
outcrops save locally. Between Triplet and Starlike Lakes there is one small bluff of basalt.
On Moffat Creek the residual gravel (exposure No. 3) underlies the lava, which is immediately
overlain by glacial debris. There are two falls on this creek about 1% miles apart. The
upper falls are incised in basalt, and the lower falls and gorge below in red andesite porphyrv
and breccia. On Gravel Creek beds of residual gravel (exposure No. 5), 2 to 5 feet in
thickness, are both underlain and overlain by basaltic lava. China Cabin Creek, immediately
below China Cabin Lake, has incised a deep gorge in red-coloured porphyritic andesite lava.
A similar lava outcrops prominently on the west shore of China Cabin Lake, adjacent to
exposure No. 5 of residual gravel, and immediately underlies a large part of the bench on the
leases of R. N. and A. B. Campbell at the head of Beaver Creek Valley.
The creeks cascade over falls down the northern and western slopes of this plateau. The
creek canyons are of post-Glacial age. No tuff beds were observed on this plateau west of
Woodjam Creek.
Steeply-inclmed beds of Tertiary tuff are exposed on a large knoll on the right bank o"
Woodjam Creek on Pre-emption Lot 9577. On a north-westerly-flowing tributary of Wood-
jam Creek, and on Woodjam Ridge at 3,960 feet elevation, are exposed fossiliferous tuff beds
containing many plant remains and one small seam of lignite. Another lignite seam, 2 feet
thick, outcrops at 4,000 feet elevation. Tuffs are exposed in the valley of this creek more or
less continuously through a vertical range of 400 feet. The beds are horizontal or nearly so.
At one point lava occurs in the tuff. Immediately west of this creek the summits of some of
the higher-lying knolls are composed of tuff, the elevation of the highest examined being 4,470
feet, or 1,720 feet above the river at the mouth of Woodjam Creek. The south side of the
river was not examined up-stream from the points mentioned. No outcrops of Tertiary lava
or tuff were observed on the north side of the river up-stream from Woodjam Creek. Tertiary
lava is, however, known to cap high peaks at the head of Frasergold (formerly named Fraser)
Creek. C 20 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
The tuff described in the foregoing paragraphs is prevailingly light-coloured, white, grey,
light green, or dove-colour, occasionally it is darker. It is fissile, thinly-bedded, and composed
of fine ejectamenta; occasional beds contain coarse particles up to half an inch in size.
Locally it is fossiliferous and contains beds of lignite. Large pieces of petrified wood were
found in the talus slope at the base of one exposure, and presumably they came from the tuff
beds. Microscopic examination discloses that the tuffs are composed of semi-angular to
rounded quartz grains, fragments of partly devitrified volcanic glass, and a few grains of
altered feldspar. The evidence indicates that these tuffs were formed from ejectamenta
deposited in relatively still water.
Fossils obtained from the tuff beds were forwarded to the Bureau of Geology and
Topography, Department of Mines and Resources, Ottawa, and Dr. W. A. Bell reports as
follows:—
"Lot 2929B: From Woodjam Creek; contains Taxodium occidentale Newberry and
Myrica diforme? (Sternberg)  Chaney.
"Lot B:   From Woodjam Creek;   contains Taxodium occidentale Newberry.
"Lot A: From Hobson's Horsefly Mine has Alnus sp. The species may be compared
with Alnus kefersteinii (Goeppert) Berry from Chu Chua district although the leaf is
considerably larger.
"Lot 2983B: From Horsefly River, 5 miles down-stream from Horsefly; contains Taxo-
d:um duhium (Sternberg) and a leaf of the same species of Alnus as present in Lot B.
" Whilst the flora is meagrely represented by these lots there is little doubt that the age
is not earlier than Upper Eocene or later than Lower Miocene. I am inclined to favour an
Oligocene age, although Berry could doubtless consider the age as Upper Eocene or at most
not later than lower Oligocene. I would say also that the beds of Woodjam Creek are about
the same age as those from Horsefly River."
A fossil fish was also sent in for determination but was considered too fragmentary for
p^siti^e identification. However, Cope has described two species—namely, Amyzon brevipinni
and A. commune—from the Horsefly River and this fish is possibly one or the other.
It is apparent that up-stream from Woodjam Creek the terrain eroded by this river in
Tertiarv time was capable of supplying gold for the formation of deposits of placer on
bed-rock. It is also a fact of interest that channels incised in tuff, such as Hobson's Horsefly
mine, wherein no resorting is evident, contain bed-rock values, indicating the distant
up-s+ream source of the gold. The quartz vein terrain was doubtless the source of the
residual quartz pebbles contained in the several large exposures of " white channel " gravel.
Glacial Geology.
The mantle of glacial debris now remaining in the valley at elevations only a few hundred
feet above the river does not appear to be thick. Round-topped knolls at elevations as high
as 4,500 feet were found to be covered with only a few glacial erratics. The evidence suggests
that the accumulation of ice during the Pleistocene period must have been very thick, and
that it probably covered the very rugged high terrain at the headwaters of the river and its
tributaries. Enormous volumes of water must have flowed down the valley during retreats
of ice. Evidently in the final retreat of ice the river succeeded in clearing its valley to a
large extent of glacial debris, which is now apparently thickest in the immediate vicinity of
Horsefly.
In consequence of the removal of glacial debris, finally effected by post-Glacial water,
there is now revealed in the valley for some miles above Woodjam Creek a picture similar to
that which must have existed at the time of the lacustrine conditions in the Tertiary. In
this part of the very wide valley there are, even now, several small lakes, and it can readily
Ire unde-?tood that a dam at any point would cause the formation of extensive sheets of water
within the valley.
Glacial striae were found west of Black Creek, at an elevation of 650 feet above the river.
They indicate a westward movement of ice within the valley.
Tertiary-drainage History.
The Tertiary rocks of this area are of fundamental importance. Upon them hinges the
correct  interpretation  of the  Tertiary-drainage  history.    A  review  is  therefore  given  of NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 21
information published by the Geological Survey, Canada, concerning the two periods of
volcanism, separated by one of sedimentation, exemplified more especially in the Fraser River
Valley.    It is considered that similar periods are found in the Horsefly River Valley.
In the Fraser River Valley the two periods of volcanism are represented by the Lower
Lavas and the Upper Volcanics, and the intervening period of sedimentation by the Fraser
River formation.
The Lower Lavas were assigned by Dawson to'the Miocene, and were divided by him
" into two portions separated by a period of sedimentation during which certain fine-grained
tuffaceous beds were deposited." These Lower Lavas, with details of a section with intercalated tuffs including white volcanic ash, are described by Reinecke on pages 11 and 12 of
Memoir 118, Geological Survey, Canada, 1920. Reinecke also described the Upper Volcanics
on pages 17 and 18, and the intervening Fraser River formation on pages 13—17 of the same
publication.
Cockfield has, however, shown that the age of the Fraser River formation is late Eocene,
and that of the Lower Lavas, Eocene or earlier (Summary Report, 1931, Part A 1, Geological
Survey, Canada, page 59), and also confirms Reinecke in assigning the Upper Volcanics to
the Miocene  (Summary Report, 1932, Part A 1, Geological Survey, Canada, page 85).
The Upper Volcanics consist mainly of fresh-looking, flat-lying, or gently-inclined olivine
basalt that is black in colour. They occur either in topographically high positions, capping
valley-rims, as for example in the Fraser River Valley and on Moffat and Gravel Creeks; or
as valley-fill, for example in the lower part of the Beaver Creek Valley, described by Cockfield
and Walker in Geological Survey, Canada, Summary Report, 1932, Part A 1, page 84. No
white tuff has been found in the Upper Volcanics.
The Lower Lavas, considered in the aggregate, are less basic and are more disturbed than
the Upper Volcanics. They also evince a greater degree of metamorphism. It is considered
that the assemblage of purple or reddish-coloured volcanic rocks exposed at the lower falls
on Moffat Creek and in the gorge below these falls, at China Cabin Creek Gorge, on the
leases of A. B. and R. N. Campbell, at the upper end of Beaver Creek Valley, in and adjacent
to the Horsefly River at Hobson's Horsefly mine, and in the hydraulic pits at this property
can be correlated with the Lower Lavas. At the last point some of the lava appears to be
intercalated with tuff beds, but owing to the highly-disintegrated condition of the exposures
it cannot be exactly determined. Some of the above-mentioned exposures are much altered
andesite, some are tuffaceous, some porphyritic with phenocrysts of plagioclase feldspar, and
some are breccias. A large amount of reddish-brown hematite is present in all, and at some
points they contain native copper. The intercalated lava-flows in tuff beds belong to the
Lower Lavas.
The sharp distinction between the eruption of the Lower Lavas and sedimentation may
not be found in the Horsefly area to the same extent as it is in the Fraser River Valley, but
the evidence is strong that the river was involved in both periods of volcanism. No exposures
of the Upper Volcanics were observed capping tuff beds. In the Horsefly area exposures
indicate that eruption of the Lower Lavas at first alternated with tuff deposition. Later,
there was a long period of tuff deposition when lava eruption practically ceased. The whole
period, represented in this area by eruption of the Lower Lavas and deposition of all tuff beds,
is thought to correspond with the Lower Lavas and the Fraser River formation in the Fraser
River Valley. The topographic and geographic position of exposures is significant. For
example: The low topographic position of the Lower Lavas at the head of Beaver Creek
Valley indicates that they blocked the valley; the Upper Volcanics on Gravel Creek, with
intercalated exposures of residual gravel, indicates blocking of this valley at a down-stream
point at a later period.
From the foregoing it is evident that exposures of bed-rock are fundamental to determination of the age of the channel system. Thus, the bed-rock of a channel interrupted by the
first period of volcanism must have been incised in formation older than the Lower Lavas.
In the absence of exposure of bed-rock, age-determination can only rest on indirect evidence,
taken in conjunction with the nature of the contained gravel.
In this connection reference is invited to the description given in this volume of a river-
channel, under " Property of R. Blair." The exposure is of a river-channel incised in rocks
of Carboniferous age. The gravel contains lava beds correlated with the Lower Lavas. The
suggestion is that the river was dammed by lava at the time of eruption of the Lower Lavas. C 22 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
History.
All important history centres on the three old properties, the Miocene, Ward's Horsefly,
and Hobson's Horsefly mine, as they have for the sake of brevity long been termed. Their
full names are, respectively, the Miocene Gravel Mining Company of Cariboo, Limited;
Horsefly Gold Mining Company, Limited; and Horsefly Hydraulic Mining Company, Limited.
At all these properties operations were terminated between the years 1899 and 1902, and
subsequently no major activity has developed in the area.
A small amount of Keystone-drilling was done about 1902 on Moffat Creek by R. T.
Ward, and in 1911 in the area contiguous to Ward's Horsefly mine by an eastern syndicate.
At the latter property a short-lived renewal of activity by the International Dredging and
Exploration Company took place in 1918, in which year B. R. MacKay, of the Geological
Survey of Canada, made an examination of the area, an account of which is given in Summary Report, 1918, Part B, Geological Survey, Canada, pages 54 and 55. In 1919 and 1920 a
campaign of Keystone-drilling, in the vicinity of Ward's Horsefly mine, was carried out by
this Department, full information of which is given in the Annual Reports, Minister of Mines,
British Columbia, 1919 and 1920. This disclosed rich ground only in one hole, but hole No. 1
located the up-stream continuation of the Miocene channel.
In subsequent years activity was largely confined to individuals, chiefly R. N. Campbell,
G. Kuchan, A. N. Walker, and others, whose efforts have afforded valuable information at
several different points. In 1930, following some preliminary shaft sinking, G. Kuchan, J.
Mikklesen, and associates carried out some deep Keystone-drilling at the exposure of residual
gravel at Triplet Lake. This work is stated to have found encouraging gold values extending
to considerable depth. In 1934 R. W. Tarp installed a suction-dredge on the river below
Hobson's Horsefly mine and subsequently a drag-line at the same point. These operations,
however, were not of long duration.
This year, interest in the area was revived by the operations of Sig Johnson and
associates on Black Creek (subsequently described in detail), which disclosed important facts
bearing on dredging possibilities.
Detailed accounts of the early operations at the Miocene, Ward's Horsefly, and Hobson's
Horsefly mines will be found in the Annual Reports, Minister of Mines, British Columbia,
for 1902, 1918, and 1920. It is unfortunate, however, that certain important information
concerning these properties is lacking and cannot now be obtained owing to inaccessibility of
workings. In only one case, apparently, has a map of the workings been preserved. Comment herein given concerning these properties is based upon particulars of workings given in
the reports cited, together with such other information as could be secured from first-hand
observation.    Details considered to be unimportant are omitted.
It is important to note that the workings of this property consist of two
Miocene Mine, deep shafts, not one, as is generally supposed. These are known as the
Miocene and the Senator Campbell shafts. (The latter, named after the
late Senator R. H. Campbell, manager of the company concerned, should not be confused with
other shafts marked Campbell shafts on maps of Ward's Horsefly mine in early reports.)
Both these shafts are situated in the village of Horsefly, the former at the western end and
the latter 1,500 feet to the north-west. They are at approximately the same elevation, as
shown on the accompanying map, and are on an extensive bench on the left bank and about 25
feet above the Horsefly River.
Both shafts explore the deep Miocene channel, whose eastward continuation up-stream is
plainly indicated by Keystone-drill hole No. 1 put down by this Department in 1919. The
westward or down-stream continuation of the channel is not known from direct evidence, but
is inferred, from evidence cited later in this report, as having been by way of Beaver
Creek Valley.
The Senator Campbell shaft was sunk in 1897, and in the Annual Report, Minister of
Mines, British Columbia, 1902, is thus described: "The shaft was sunk vertically for about
275 feet, when it struck bed-rock, which was found to be still pitching deeper. This shaft
was continued 50 feet deeper into bed-rock, at which point, 325 feet below the surface, a drift
150 feet long was set off to and into the gravel, but the bed-rock was still found dipping to
the west. From the bottom of the shaft an incline, 200 feet long and gaining 125 feet in
depth, was put down in the country-rock, and another drift was run to the gravel, which was NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 23
found in a distance of 60 feet, but with bed-rock still dipping away at an angle of 30 degrees.
At this point, 450 feet from the surface, very fair prospects are said to have been obtained
from the gravel, but no further work was done here, and the shaft was abandoned."
The Miocene shaft was sunk vertically in 1899 to a depth of 490 feet, bottoming on rim-
rock sloping at 15 degrees. It was deepened in rim-rock to a total depth of 555 feet, at which
point a crosscut, 500 feet long, was driven in the direction of and under the channel. From
this crosscut raises 20 and 15 feet high reached the channel at points 400 feet and 500 feet
respectively from the shaft. When the second raise holed through to the channel, " there
was a rush of water and gravel, which drove the men out, but they managed to bulkhead
the crosscut."
Unfortunately this operation was abandoned immediately after this untoward occurrence,
when slight additional expense possibly would have given access to bed-rock, on which the
chief concentration of gold values was logically to be expected. " In sinking this shaft the
gravel was found to be capped with about 100 feet of blue clay, and nearly 400 feet of gravel
was passed through containing gold but not in paying quantities. The gravel is free and
very uniform in size, being composed almost entirely of smooth, worn, white quartz pebbles.
As seen on the dump, the gravel from this shaft is particularly noticeable, first for its light
colour, occasioned by the absence from the quartz of all pebbles of slate or basaltic rock, and
secondly for its remarkably uniform size, while the individual pebbles are rounded and not
flattened. In all these points it varies materially from the wash as seen at Ward's Horsefly
hydraulic or at Hobson's Horsefly." (Annual Report, Minister of Mines, British Columbia,
1902.)
Unfortunately no maps of these shafts are available, and reports do not state the
bearings of the various underground workings. This information would have thrown additional light on the direction of the channel and of the character of the bed-rock. At the time
of the present examination, samples were obtained by digging in the dumps at the collars of
both shafts. Microscopic examination of these revealed that the formation encountered in
the workings from both shafts were undoubtedly either volcanic ash or tuff. As these dumps
have been exposed to the weather for forty years, it was not possible to differentiate between
the two rocks.
The down-stream course of the Miocene channel is indicated as having been by way of
the Beaver Creek Valley, because the exposures in Gravel Creek Canyon demonstrate that a
stream-flow was dammed at that point by lava of the second period of volcanism. Although
the exposure cannot be positively identified as that of this channel, and might be that of its
tributary Moffat Creek, the view is supported that a flow by way of Beaver Creek Valley,
following the first period of volcanism, was finally arrested and diverted by the second period
of volcanism. Presumably it was the second volcanic eruption that locally diverted the
river from its former path.
There is insufficient evidence to determine if upon abandonment of the Miocene channel,
the river flowed by way of Ratdam Lake before following the Ward's Horsefly-Hobson's
Horsefly channel. There is residual gravel on the north shore of Ratdam Lake that may
indicate such was the case.    This point can only be determined by additional field-work.
Up-stream from the Senator Campbell shaft, the Department's Keystone-drill hole No. 1,
topographic features, together with consideration of the conditions then obtaining, indicate
that the course of the channel approximately coincided with the edges of the plateau that
lies west of the river down-stream from Woodjam Creek. Down-stream from Woodjam
Creek, therefore, the channel presumably lies deeply buried, somewhat north-east of the
present river, although approximately parallel with it. Up-stream from Woodjam Creek
the channel must lie within the present valley.
There seems no reason why gold should not be found in the bed-rock gravel of this
channel. However, it should be borne in mind that creeks, not rivers, are the agencies
whereby bonanza concentrations of placer gold are laid down on bed-rock. Nevertheless, it
is known that there are gold values in the bed-rock gravel in Hobson's Horsefly mine. In
the Miocene channel better bed-rock values than the latter might justifiably be expected, as
the gravel represents more prolonged erosion of the same terrain. Access cannot now be
gained to any workings of this mine, consequently particulars given here are taken from the
Annual Report, Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1902. C 24
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
This operation is on Pre-emption Lot 504, a ranch owned by A. F. Dogherty,
Ward's on the left bank of the Horsefly River, immediately down-stream from the
Horsefly Mine,   village of Horsefly.    Placer-mining Leases Nos. 2884 and 2923, standing
in the names of A. Carfrae and C. R. Carfrae, of Horsefly, now cover the
site of the earlier hydraulic operations.
The property is readily accessible and is reached from Horsefly by a motor-road a few
hundred yards in length.
The region embraces a low-lying area of considerable extent on the left bank of the
river. In this section the river has been deflected considerably east of its original course
by deposition of tailings.
The river is flanked by an extensive bench only 5 to 10 feet above it and a smaller one
about 25 feet above. The area is covered partly with grass, partly with brush, and partly
with a few stands of light timber. Ward's Horsefly hydraulic pit is at the up-stream end
of this ground.
PLAN
.-'-Xarnpbell&Boswell
f HydrauiicFit-l'-gg
Senator Campbell 5ha
"Miocene Shafb ^
Indicated course of _»-•"*\pt «
"MiDcene" channel     ■^S^jraer.
Main,--'
Roactf
. /El.2630'
CAjn valley^
IDB-Mile>
Road' '-
Hobson Ditch-line El.2820
POSTIILAT0RY CROSS-SECTION ALONG A-B
(based upon examination of pit-face, one
exposure of bed-rock and available
accounts   of Ward's  operations)
1 ion
Scaled
Post-Glacial silt 2-5'thick .Barren overlie piped off by Ward
.-Cross-bedded Glacial gravels about 15     /     xnmp ^nnerfinai rprpnt
thick containing manyyiarge boulders    /    /|°^flsS^rS old""'
Shaft at face" of pit"" _^--_.V auriferous gravels.
B
River
__r________i
TTTTTTTTTTr
.:_.J^__..T.HrT__
westshaft
Auriferous gravels 40-6Q'thick at
pitface_no exposures of these
gravels are open to examination.
Irregular hummocky bed-rock (Tertiary
Sandstone} with pre 'ailing westerly slope
now exposed in pitat   me point only.
Ward's Horsefly Mine and neighbouring properties.
Much information concerning the exact nature of the material encountered and removed,
by Ward's operations is now lacking, and accounts are somewhat conflicting in certain
important details. Consequently the views expressed herein are subject to limitations,
although in part they are supported by first-hand observation.
The placer occurrence is apparently part of a largely buried river-channel incised in
sandstone. The sandstone, although irregular to some extent, dips westward and away from
the river at an angle ranging from 10 to 30 degrees. The upper part of this buried deposit
has been resorted and enriched due either to passage of inter-Glacial waters over it or to the
fact that the channel crossed the Miocene channel. It is inferred that originally the exposures
gave a cross-sectional view of part of a buried channel of great indicated width. The channel
trended northward, and only part of the eastern rim with its overlying gravels was revealed.
Similarity of the cross-section of such channel to that exposed at Hobson's Horsefly mine, 5
miles down-stream, is evident.
Originally, rich bed-rock gravel was, according to reports, discovered in the bed of the
river at " Harper's Bar," the barren glacial material having been entirely removed by the NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 25
river. The prevailing westerly slope of the rim-rock, and an increasing thickness of barren
overlie, defeated first the efforts of the earliest miners, and later those of R. T. Ward, to
follow the pay-gravel for more than a short distance instream and westerly. It is to be
noted, however, that all early and late investigation was directed on the assumption that
the rich gravel encountered in this region originated from an earlier and resorted westerly-
flowing channel. No investigation, save the Soda Creek shaft (mentioned subsequently),
was directed towards ascertaining if this gravel continued northward.
Ward's operations consisted of hydraulicking, followed by elevation of gravel by hydraulic
elevator to the sluice-flume. These operations are stated to have resulted in the recovery of
gold to the value of $500,000. In 1911 an Eastern syndicate Keystone-drilled the area
contiguous to this ground. This was followed by the installation of a drag-line by the
International Dredging and Exploration Company in 1916. The operation apparently involved
the reworking of tailings from the previous work. Keystone-drilling was undertaken by the
Department in 1919 and 1920, a full account of which will be found in the Annual Report,
Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1920. This disclosed important values in only one hole,
No. 4c, at the edge of the river on the left bank. Attracted by the values in hole 4c, different
individual operators made two unsuccessful attempts to sink shafts in its immediate vicinity.
These shafts are known as the " West " and " Sugarman " shafts. In 1936, interest in the
region was revived by the fact that A. N. Walker and associates, under agreement with the
leaseholders, unwatered the old Soda Creek shaft on Placer-mining Lease No. 2923. It is
stated that in the sixties this shaft was sunk to a depth of 75 feet. A. N. Walker reports
that on reopening the shaft values of several dollars per cubic yard were encountered at
some points. Operations were discontinued, after a considerable amount of drifting was
cl^ne, he-ause of the expense of working under adverse conditions. Unfortunately this shaft
was under water and could not be examined.
The face of Ward's hydraulic pit indicates that a thickness of from 15 to 20 feet of
barren overburden must have been piped off before pay-gravel could be elevated to the sluice.
It is further evident that immediately down-stream from Ward's hydraulic pit this overburden
has been largely removed by post-Glacial water. The collar of the Soda Creek shaft is at
the southern extremity of the low-lying part of the area.
An examination of the face of Ward's hydraulic pit shows, at the top, a thickness of
from 2 to 5 feet of silt; underlying this is about 15 feet of cross-bedded gravel containing
numerous large boulders; and below is now visible only the top of the resorted auriferous
gravel, known locally as " blue gravel." The " blue gravel " was mined by Ward and the
early miners. It rests on bed-rock and it is stated gradually increases in thickness away
from the river until it reaches a maximum of 40 to 60 feet at the pit-face. Microscopic
examination of a specimen from the one exposure of bed-rock now remaining in the pit shows
it to be a fine-grained, iron-stained sandstone composed predominantly of semi-angular to
rounded quartz grains.    The bedding could not be seen in the small exposure.
The uppermost layer of silt exposed at the face of Ward's pit is undoubtedly of post-
Glacial age, and the underlying cross-bedded gravel with large boulders is Glacial. The
underlying resorted gravel, the auriferous " blue gravel," is considered possibly to be of
inter-Glacial age. The post-Glacial silt betokens sluggish movement of the waters at the
time. When the down-stream obstruction was removed, rapid cutting resulted in the more
or less complete removal of the underlying glacial materials down to the top of the inter-
Glacial gravel;   e.g., down-stream, near the Soda Creek shaft.
Available accounts, although somewhat conflicting, indicate that the auriferous gravel
was richest in its upper part, and that this was more pronounced at instream points, although
values were also encountered immediately overlying the bed-rock. This may indicate resorting
of the upper gravel of this channel by inter-Glacial water, or enrichment may be due to the
intersection of the Miocene channel.
It is notable that the lowest point of the gently-sloping bed-rock of this channel is far
below river-level, and that the centre of the channel must be lower still, whereas it is probable
that the bed-rock of Hobson's Horsefly is above river-level. Early accounts of Ward's
operations emphasize the similarity between its gravel and those of Hobson's Horsefly mine.
The bed-rock at Hobson's Horsefly mine is higher than at Ward's Horsefly and this would
suggest a southward flow;   however, the evidence available indicates that the flow of the C 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
drainage system was northward. Therefore the higher bed-rock at Hobson's Horsefly mine
suggests it is a different channel or that, if the same, warping or faulting has elevated it.
Ratdam Creek cascades over falls in the cemented gravel of Hobson's Horsefly channel
60 feet in height, indicating rejuvenation of the drainage system after deposition of gravel.
The rich gravel of Ward's Horsefly mine presumably resulted from a resorting of upper
gravel strata of this channel in one or other of the two ways mentioned; Hobson's Horsefly
channel was not so affected.
It seems reasonable to assume that gold values in the Miocene channel would be mainly
confined to gravel immediately overlying bed-rock, and therefore below the reach of the
resorting influence of the water of Ward's Horsefly channel. If such were the case, resorting
must be attributed to inter-Glacial water.
It is desired to emphasize the fact that opinions expressed concerning Ward's Horsefly
mine, and its possible relationship to Hobson's Horsefly mine, can only be regarded as
tentative, because important criteria have now been entirely obliterated. For example, it is
not now evident, from exposures, that the picture originally presented at Ward's Horsefly
mine was that of part of a large channel resting on bed-rock sloping gently west (away from
the river), although it is not, of course, suggested that such was not originally evident. On
the other hand, it is now evident from exposures in Campbell and Boswell's hydraulic pit
that on the right bank of the river, almost directly opposite, part of a large channel with
bed-rock sloping gently eastward is exposed. The possible relationship of this to the Hobson's
Horsefly channel is a matter for consideration and is discussed in the paragraphs immediately
following.
Operations of R. N. Campbell and W. J. Boswell.—In connection with the foregoing
discussion regarding Ward's Horsefly mine, the results obtained on the opposite side of the
river by R. N. Campbell and W. J. Boswell are informative.
Following Keystone-drilling by this Department in 1920, that indicated comparatively
shallow ground immediately north of the deep Miocene channel, R. N. Campbell and W. J.
Boswell, deriving a water-supply from a small lake, opened up a hydraulic pit on the right
bank of the river and about 385 feet distant from it. The pit is about 35 feet above river-level
and is shown on the accompanying map. The pit exposes 6 feet of mainly glacial material,
overlain by 2 feet of river-silt, and underlain by 2 feet of coarser semi-residual gravel which
rests on bed-rock. The bed-rock gravel in part presumably originated from the Miocene
channel.
The rock is water-worn and slopes at a gentle angle away from the river towards a high
bank of glacial gravel flanking the river. This slope of the rim defeated the efforts of
Campbell and Boswell to follow the pay-gravel eastward and instream. It is reported that
fair values were encountered. The rim-rock at this point is fine-grained diorite. Precisely
similar rock outcrops at several points, in a distance of about 300 feet, on the right bank of
the river, south-west of the hydraulic pit.
Near by, to the north and south of this point, are older workings, adits, and shafts, now
caved, that indicate early miners did considerable prospecting in this region.
Exposures are of a cross-section of part of a large channel whose bed-rock slopes gently
eastward away from the river. The significance of this channel is a matter of interest. The
gravel resting on bed-rock is overlain by glacial materials and must, therefore, be of inter-
Glacial or pre-Glacial age. There is no evidence, in the form of a secondary placer deposit,
between Campbell and Boswell's workings and Hobson's Horsefly mine to indicate that the
up-stream continuation of Hobson's Horsefly channel is cut by the Horsefly River. Apart
from this, there is nothing known to the writer incompatible with the suggestion that the
Campbell and Boswell channel might, like Ward's Horsefly channel, be the up-stream continuation of the Hobson's Horsefly channel.
The bed-rock of the Campbell and Boswell channel presumably slopes instream under
the high knoll about three-quarters of a mile wide at its base that separates the river from
the more westerly of the two well-defined depressions trending more or less parallel to the
river, and previously mentioned in paragraphs relating to topography. These two depressions are separated by a rock knoll near Arms Lake. Whether the more westerly of these
has any relationship to the Campbell and Boswell channel is a matter of conjecture. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 27
In the historical summary given on page 32 of " Placer-Mining in British Columbia,"
Bulletin No. 2, 1930, it is recorded that in 1859 the early miners found " Horsefly Creek (now
named Little Horsefly River) leading to Horsefly Lake, and discovered on this creek the
richest placers found up to that time in the basin of the Quesnel." No remaining evidence
of this discovery is known to the writer, but it appears that the Little Horsefly River cut
through an old channel.
In the absence, however, of any definite evidence that the Horsefly River itself cut the
up-stream continuation of the Hobson's Horsefly channel between Hobson's Horsefly mine and
Ward's Horsefly mine, it seems more likely that the channels exposed at these two properties
are parts of the same channel than that the Campbell and Boswell channel is related to the
Hobson's Horsefly. At the same time, the latter possibility can not be overlooked, although
the supporting evidence now obtainable is meagre. It is to be noted, however, that this
alternative correlation does not affect the main outline of the drainage history of the Horsefly
River.
This property was originally operated by the Horsefly Hydraulic Mining
Hobson's        Company,  Limited,  of which the late  J.  B.  Hobson was  manager.    The
Horsefly Mine,   ground is now covered by leases held by G. Kuchan and associates.    It is
situated on the left bank of the river about 5% miles down-stream from
Horsefly, and is reached by a motor-road from Horsefly.
The topography offers a sharp contrast to that at other near-by points along the river.
The left bank of the river rises quite sharply from the water's edge to a height of between 150
and 175 feet. The opposite bank does not exceed 50 feet in height and rises much less sharply
save in the canyon mentioned below. Immediately above the property the river flows
through a canyon about 300 yards in length, incised in tuff beds that strike north-eastward
and dip south-eastward at 25 degrees. Below the canyon for some hundreds of feet the river
flows over a red-coloured porphyritic volcanic rock which also forms a small island in- the
middle of the river. It is also exposed on both banks of the river below the canyon. Near
the head of the canyon Ratdam Creek enters the river in a deep embayment, extending
instream but little above river-level for a distance of 650 feet. At this point the creek
cascades over falls of a total height of 60 feet. The creek is incised in tightly-cemented
gravel, evidently the up-stream continuation of the gravel deposit exposed down-stream on
this property.
The placer deposit is a buried river-channel, incised in tuff, lying immediately adjacent
to the Horsefly River but separated from it by a high rim composed mainly of tuff and
volcanic flow-rock. The hydraulicking operations in the main pit expose the channel at a
point where its down-stream continuation diverges to the north-west (away from the river).
Up-stream the rim can be traced to within a short distance of Ratdam Creek, as shown on
the map accompanying this report. Above Ratdam Creek the subdued relief of the region
and absence of informative exposures make it difficult to trace the channel up-stream. Had
the channel been intersected by the river between that point and Ward's Horsefly mine, it is
probable that there would be evidence of it in the form of a gold concentration in the bed
of the river and gravel deposits on the banks. The inference is, therefore, that the channel
continues up-stream just west of the present river, and the available evidence indicates that
it is possibly the down-stream continuation of the channel exposed at Ward's Horsefly mine.
The excellent exposure of this channel in the main hydraulic pit reveals for several
hundred feet the eastern rim sloping at an angle of only a few degrees. A maximum thickness of somewhat over 100 feet of fine well-sorted gravel rests on the bed-rock. It is
composed almost entirely of pebbles of the same formation as is cut by the Horsefly River
above Woodjam Creek. The proportion of quartz pebbles amounts to about 15 per cent,
(by volume) of the whole. There are very few boulders and no large ones. The gravel is
overlain by boulder-clay and glacial material 5 to 35 feet in thickness. A noticeable amount
of lignitized driftwood is present in the gravel strata. The bed-rock gravel and that immediately above it is tightly cemented. Petrified wood, cemented within gravel lying on rim-rock,
has been formed by circulating carbonate solutions.
The first attempt at operation was by hydraulicking. It was defeated by the cemented
gravel and lack of dump for tailings. Finally, the cemented gravel was drifted and milled
in a stamp-mill.    An adit was run from the hydraulic pit, at a point 30 feet above the river, C 28
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 29
for a total distance of 1,350 feet. Early accounts of this property state that at 550 feet from
the portal, " The surface of the bed-rock was down to the track-level of the tunnel, but it soon
rose again." It therefore appears likely that the bed-rock of the channel at this point is
possibly somewhat above, and certainly not far below, the level of the river. The cross-
sectional dimensions of the channel are such that very slow cutting is indicated, further
shown by the nature of the gravel, which may be termed " semi-residual." These features,
differing fundamentally from those of Pleistocene channels, suggest that it is of pre-
Glacial age.
As previously mentioned, the evidence in this vicinity indicates that a block was uplifted
and tilted south-east as demonstrated by the attitude of the tuff. In the Annual Report,
Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1897, it is reported that the gravel shows evidence of
disturbance subsequent to its deposition. This is no longer apparent. For these reasons it
is considered a Tertiary channel, but younger than the Miocene channel, and that its upstream continuation is possibly the channel exposed at Ward's Horsefly mine. The difference
in bed-rock levels at the two properties is attributed either to faulting or warping. Downstream from Hobson's Horsefly mine, although the course of the channel is purely conjectural,
it seems most likely that it continued north-westward before finally rejoining Beaver
Creek Valley.
Up-stream from Ward's Horsefly mine the course of this channel, although supported by
indirect evidence only, probably coincided with that of the Miocene channel, but at a
higher level.
The gold values in the gravel are largely confined to the few feet immediately overlying
bed-rock; they also occur in the bed-rock itself. The values are clearly shown by the particulars given in the Annual Report, Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1902, in which it is
stated that " in the progress of opening up the mine as a drifting proposition, some 9,900
tons of gravel, soft bed-rock, etc., mined in the various drifts were put through the stamp-
mill and produced $14,564.21, or about $1.46 per ton." It will be noted that the value is the
recovered value, the price of gold then was $20.67 per ounce.
The present owner of this ground, since acquisition some years ago, has mined a considerable yardage of rim-rock gravel immediately adjacent to the face of the hydraulic pit.
These workings are shown on the accompanying map. He states that values in the area
mined are about $3 per cubic yard, at the present price of gold.
That this channel bends north-westward near the main hydraulic pit is proved not
only by appearances at the north end of the pit, but also by another hydraulic pit, the West
pit, opened up from the river immediately down-stream, by E. J. West and associates in
the years 1909 to 1913. Although there has been much sloughing in this pit it exposes gravel
of a totally different character, resting on reddish andesitic rim-rock. This gravel is overlain by much glacial material, and therefore presumably was deposited by an inter-Glacial
stream. Remnants of similar gravel are to be found on small rock-benches at points upstream. The benches are cut in the rim-rock, dividing the Hobson's Horsefly channel from
that of the present river.
" The total amount of material mined by E. J. West is said to have been 390,000 cubic
yards, of which 40,000 cubic yards was gravel which yielded 25 cents to the yard, the
remainder being clay, etc., which ran less than 2 cents to the yard." (Annual Report,
Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1913, page 62.)
Many years ago the belief existed that what may be termed the continuation of the
" West Channel," described above, lay buried- instream and west of the river at down-stream
points.' An adit, known as the " Thompson tunnel," was driven about 35 feet above the
river at a point about half a mile down-stream. This adit, which has now caved, is stated
to have been driven for a considerable distance and then abandoned. Examination of the
dump at the portal reveals that tuff beds were encountered.
Opposite, and for a considerable distance down-stream from Hobson's Horsefly mine, G.
Kuchan reports that good gold values are found in the bed of the river. It is reasonable to
assume, in the first place, that such would be the case, as the river almost certainly cut across
gravel lying on high parts of the east rim of Hobson's Horsefly channel, and effected a
reconcentration of gravel contained in the inter-Glacial " West Channel." Furthermore,
there has undoubtedly been a considerable deposition of fine gold resulting from disintegra-
li tion of cemented gravel, the tailings from the hydraulic operations at Hobson's Horsefly mine.
Whenever the stage of water permits, the owner of this ground reports satisfactory results
by shovelling the gravel, within reach at the edge of the river, into a sluice-flume supplied
with water from a near-by source.
In this region of reconcentration, although there are glacial banks on the right bank,
the left bank is low and the valley wide, so that opportunities for wing-damming are good.
Some drilling done at this point two years ago is reported to have yielded encouraging results,
and the region merits investigation.
In this part of the river, R. W. Tarp installed a suction-dredge in 1934, and subsequently
a drag-line, but these operations were only of short duration.
Two placer-mining leases at the extreme head of Beaver Creek Valley,
Leases of       owned by R. N. and A. B. Campbell, of Horsefly, are under option to A. N.
R. N. and A. B.  Walker and associates, of Horsefly.    The property is on the south slope
Campbell. of Beaver Creek Valley, immediately east of China Cabin Creek, which
flows from China Cabin Lake, elevation 2,725 feet, into Beaver Creek
Valley. (" China Cabin " is an old cabin, now an historic landmark, situated at the junction
of the Beaver Valley road with the main road.) The main road from Williams Lake to
Horsefly passes through the property, which is distant about 1% miles from Horsefly. A
short branch road, about 300 yards in length, leads from the main road to the workings on
the south side of the valley.
The chief topographic feature is a bench at an elevation of 2,695 feet, between 300 and
400 feet in width, narrowing at one point to about 70 feet, and about 2,000 feet in length.
It lies about 65 feet above the floor of the Beaver Creek Valley and trends in a general
direction north 73 degrees west, approximately parallel to the valley and on its south side.
The bench is lightly-timbered and slopes down to' the valley at an angle of about 14 degrees.
The ground rises rather more sharply at the back of the bench to the plateau-level about 125
feet above it (elevation 2,820 feet), on which the old Hobson ditch-line is situated. This
ditch-line was constructed over forty years ago to carry water from Moffat Creek to Hobson's
Horsefly mine.
The bench is mainly covered with vegetation, but the formation is exposed at several
points: above the bench on Hobson's ditch-line; on the slope at the back of the bench in the
central and south-eastern parts; at the eastern and central part of the bench; on the slopes
below the bench; and is well exposed in the gorge incised by China Cabin Creek immediately
below China Cabin Lake.    Exposures are of reddish-coloured andesitic porphyry and breccia.
The placer deposit is a post-Glacial concentration in gravel overlying boulder-clay, save
at some points, where it immediately overlies the volcanics.
After discovering the ground in 1936 R. N. Campbell, the discoverer, and his associates
carried out a large amount of preliminary testing by ground-sluicing. A supply of water
for this purpose was conveyed from China Cabin Lake by a flume and ditch-line built along
the slope about 20 feet above the bench.
In 1937 these leases were optioned by O. T. McShane, who devoted the entire season to
testing the gravel systematically by sinking about thirty-five shafts and separately washing
the entire yardage from each shaft. The object was to ascertain the average values down
to the boulder-clay or bed-rock. All shafts were stopped after boulder-clay was reached.
The greatest depth of any shaft was 18.5 feet, most were considerably less. The shafts were
sunk at about 100-foot intervals on cross-sectional lines from 300 to 350 feet apart.
This year an option was secured by local interests—A. N. Walker and associates—who
took advantage of the old Hobson ditch-line, a happy feature of this property, inasmuch as
Moffat Creek affords a large supply of water. The ditch-line was repaired, hydraulic plant
installed, and operations commenced. By the end of September upwards of 5,000 cubic yards
had been hydraulicked from a pit in the central part of the leases.
The auriferous material overlying the boulder-clay or bed-rock consists of poorly-sorted
fine and coarse gravel containing quartz pebbles and boulders. The minimum depth of the
overlying auriferous material is about 2 or 3 feet. The maximum depth is not known, but
the shafts proved a thickness exceeding 18 feet in the western part of the ground. Average
values are not known to the writer, but it is stated that from 162 cubic yards of gravel taken
from one of the preliminary pits 6 oz. of gold was recovered. The gold, although fine, is
stated to be easily recovered in a sluice-flume. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 31
As the bench is 65 feet above the floor of Beaver Creek Valley there is dump for
hydraulicking, unless the top of the boulder-clay is found to be unduly low at certain points
in the western part of the bench.
There must have been a large, temporary flow of water down Beaver Creek Valley during
the melting of the ice, and post-Glacial gold concentrations on this property were formed by
it. It is also stated that values meriting investigation exist at various points in the gravel
on the north slope of Beaver Creek Valley.
Black Creek.
Black Creek has engaged attention at different times, not so much because of the superficial placer deposits found in the bed of the creek, but because these deposits apparently
resulted from a large buried channel that crosses the creek at right angles. The underlying
presence of this channel is indicated by a pronounced but shallow depression whose surface
lies about 750 feet above the Horsefly River. This channel is described in greater detail in
the subsequent text.
The creek cuts across another wide depression which can be traced eastward and westward for some miles. It lies about 250 feet above the Horsefly River and appears to represent
a former channel of it. It is separated from the Horsefly River Valley by knolls covered with
gravel and is entirely floored with unconsolidated material. No investigation of it has yet
been made so far as is known. There is no evidence that it is incised in rock or that it is
of pre-Glacial age. It might possibly be of Pleistocene or later age, and might have been
of brief duration, representing a flow of the river diverted from its course by the accumulation
of glacial debris that must have formerly occupied its valley.
These channels, however, invest this region with interest because they invite further
investigation to determine if dredging possibilities are presented.
Five leases held by G. Armes, M. Armes, A. Amies, H. Armes, and G.
Leases of Sig    Hockley are under option to Sig Johnson and associates, of Horsefly.    The
Johnson and     leases are on Black Creek, about 1 mile above its mouth.    They cover a
Associates.       length of 1 jnile and a total distance of 1 % miles east and west of the creek.
The property is reached by a motor-road about 1 mile in length.    It branches
from the Horsefly-Black Creek road, at a point close to the end of the latter.    The total
distance from Horsefly is about 19%  miles.
Black Creek flows due south and drains the steep south slope of Black Mountain. Near
the leases it cuts across a pronounced wide but shallow depression. The depression is about
750 feet above the Horsefly River, occupied by small muskegs, trending east and west across the
creek. The creek then enters a short rock-walled canyon, from, which it emerges to enter
another canyon after flowing for a short distance in a valley in which no formation is exposed.
The lower canyon, an outstanding topographic feature, is V-shaped, save in its upper part,
and incised to a maximum depth of 175 feet. At the end of the lower canyon, before joining
the Horsefly River, the creek flows across another wide depression occupied by extensive
meadows, at an elevation of about 250 feet above the river. This depression is separated
from the valley of the Horsefly River by gravel-covered knolls. It lies outside the above-
mentioned leases.
The region is well covered with second-growth poplar and spruce, and underbrush.
There are only occasional stands of good timber, as a bush fire swept through this area
some years ago.
Where exposed the formation consists of andesite. There are three types of placer
occurrence at this property: (a) A buried river-channel, presumably a former channel of the
Horsefly River; (6) a buried creek-channel, trending south-eastward, apparently cut by
Black Creek between the canyons; (c) placer deposits lying in the bed of the creek, and
resulting from the reconcentration by Black Creek of either of the two first-mentioned.
(a.) The buried river-channel is indicated as underlying the wide, shallow depression
mentioned. It is evidently a former channel of the Horsefly River, and was traced during
the present examination westward as far as Patenaude (Marten) Lake and eastward to the
Horsefly River Valley, a total distance of about 7 miles. It could possibly be traced farther
westward, but time for doing so did not permit. Its eastward continuation, if such exists,
beyond the Horsefly River Valley is not clear owing to the gap in the terrain due to erosion C 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
by the river. Where cut by Black Creek, the depth from the surface to bed-rock has been
determined by the drilling undertaken by the present operators of this property to be somewhat under 100 feet. The channel is undoubtedly incised in rock, because the south rim can
be traced for a considerable distance east and west of Black Creek. East of the East Fork
of Black Creek the depression lies north of a prominent rock knoll that separates it from
the Horsefly River Valley. Assuming that the stated depth of bed-rock is correct, it is
evident the bed-rock cross-section of the channel is wide and shallow, indicative of its slow
cutting and age. It may quite possibly be a Tertiary channel, whose gravel is not exposed.
Well-rounded quartz pebbles on the east shore of Patenaude Lake suggest a Tertiary channel,
but any definite opinion as to age cannot be given until further information is gained. There
is but little evidence of the gold values contained, beyond the fact that the channel is
auriferous. It is cut not only by Black Creek but by the East Fork of Black Creek, and on
both creeks old workings exist at or near the point of intersection. Reasons are given below
why the results of Keystone-drilling in 1918 are not conclusive.
(6.) Part of a former channel of Black Creek is indicated as lying buried in the right
bank of the creek near the lower end of the upper canyon. The former channel is apparently
crossed obliquely by Black Creek. Its general trend is south-easterly, and its continuation
may therefore lie in the left bank of Black Creek. Between the point of apparent intersection and the head of the lower canyon the depth to bed-rock on Black Creek is unknown. It
has not yet been bottomed by the hydraulic operations. The down-stream continuation merits
careful investigation.
(c.) Placer deposits in the bed of the creek were worked by early miners. Some were
unworked; present operations are at or below the points of creek intersection of deposits
(a) and (6).
The earliest operations on this creek were apparently those of early miners, mainly
concerned with the superficial deposits in the bed of the creek. At that time three adits,
all now caved, were driven in the right bank of the creek at or close to creek-level. One is
below the upper canyon in the gap in the rim-rock, in the buried segment of the former
channel of Black Creek, and the other two lie close together at the upper end of the upper
canyon; the purpose of these last two was evidently to investigate the buried river-channel.
In one of the latter it is stated that values of Vz oz. to the set were obtained. The results
apparently did not invite continuation of the adits, or they were discontinued because of
difficulties   encountered.
In 1918 P. Fraser, for the Western Mines Exploration Syndicate, of Vancouver, put
down five Keystone-drill holes at right angles to the direction of the channel at the top of
the east valley-rim of Black Creek. In the Annual Report, Minister of Mines, British
Columbia, 1918, it is stated that drilling did not disclose appreciable gold values, but that
the deepest hole did not reach bed-rock. It is desired, however, to point out that if this
channel is an old channel it is entirely reasonable to suppose that the gold would be mainly
concentrated on and near bed-rock, and the upper gravel is likely to consist largely of glacial
material, which is unlikely to carry appreciable gold values. The drilling was inconclusive
because of the uncertainty of holes that did not reach bed-rock, and the incompleteness of
one cross-section of holes. It is possible, of course, that this channel may have been eroded
by ice. Some distance west of Black Creek glacial strise indicating westward movement of
ice were found in the rock forming the south rim of this channel. The continuation of the
present operations on this creek should, however, afford much valuable information concerning this river-channel.
In 1927 this ground was owned by G. Mackeracher, and was in that year operated by him
in a small way. In the following year the ground was acquired by Rountree Mines, Limited,
plant was installed and hydraulicking commenced at the upper end of the lower canyon.
Attempts to reach the bed-rock of the creek at that point failed then, and subsequently, in
spite of efforts to reach it by blasting out a trench in the canyon and so lowering the sluice-
flume. Hydraulicking was continued up-stream above bed-rock, but was discontinued after
a few years.
In the early months of this year an option on the ground was obtained by Sig Johnson
and associates, who first did some drilling with an Airplane drill (obviously the first
necessary step)  in that part of the creek where it crosses the buried river-channel.    It is NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 33
'stated that bed-rock was found at quite shallow depth, indicating that the bed-rock of the
river-channel is somewhat under 100 feet below the surface, as given on the accompanying
map. Accordingly preparations were made to hydraulic the bed of the creek and as much
of the river-channel as it is found possible to reach. A storage-dam was constructed upstream from the crossing of the river-channel, and the pipe-line was moved and installed in
the new position. The monitor is set up at the south rim of the river-channel—that is, at
the upper end of the upper canyon.
Undoubtedly the operations have been of very great informative value, and have greatly
heightened interest in the possibilities of the exposed buried river-channel and, indirectly,
in the lower buried channel.
Unfortunately, the water-supply is not suitable for any major hydraulic operation.
Present operators derive the supply from Black Creek alone, and there is no satisfactory
storage on the steep terrain whereby the run-off can be controlled.
The present abnormally dry season has greatly impeded the progress of the present
operations, the results of which are likely to reveal facts of great importance.
Residual Gravel Exposures.—The widely-separated exposures of residual gravel, numbers 1 to 5 on the accompanying map, on an elevated plateau, are doubtless remnants of the
Tertiary drainage of the Horsefly River and its tributary Moffat Creek. There are a number
of reasons, however, apart from the fact that they are widely separated, why correlation
cannot be made with any degree of certainty, and why inferences from these exposures must
be drawn with caution. Moreover, as has been previously mentioned, a block to the north of
Horsefly has been uplifted and tilted south-east. It is also quite possible that Moffat Creek
had no existence in Eocene time, when interruption to flow was first occasioned by eruption
of the Lower Lavas. Again, distance between the exposures increases uncertainty attaching
to attempts to correlate.
There appears nothing incompatible with the suggestion that a large river resists with
great obstinacy attempts to turn it aside from a former path. Some of these exposures may
possibly be remnants of a path followed by the river after damming and before it was caused
to flow by way of the Miocene channel. In that event there must be an underlying, still more
deeply-buried remnant of the Horsefly River system antedating the extrusion of the Lower
Lavas. The bed-rock of such a channel would be incised in an older formation than the
Lower Lavas;   an example is seen at the " Property of R. Blair."
Infallible proof of age can only be afforded by exposures of bed-rock (lacking in the
case of all these exposures) considered in conjunction with other facts.
The known facts as to these exposures and the inferences that may be reasonably drawn
therefrom are:—
Rock-exposures on or near the summit of the elevated plateau, although few in number,
as the plateau is covered with dense vegetation, are invariably olivine basalt of the Upper
Volcanics series, whereas on the northern and western slopes they are andesitic rocks of the
Lower Lavas, and at the north-eastern base are inclined lava and tuff beds.
Erosion subsequent to the eruption of the Upper Volcanics has probably left only a thin
veneer of them on the summit. It is likely that the residual gravel exposures are remnants
of channels partly incised in the Lower Lavas. Bearing on this point is the fact that, about
thirty-five years ago one hole was drilled by R. T. Ward in the residual gravel at locality 3,
on Moffat Creek, just above the lower falls. It is stated that a volcanic rock was struck at
a depth of 80 feet which contained material amounts of native copper. No gold values were
found to overlie this rock. Although details beyond the facts given are lacking, it seems
evident that the formation reached was the Lower Lavas. However, it does not necessarily
follow that true bed-rock was reached, as the formation encountered might quite possibly,
even probably, have been a lava-flow intercalated with the gravel. The fact that no values
were encountered on bed-rock might even be cited as an indication that bed-rock had not been
reached, as the existence of no gold values on true bed-rock seems improbable. In fact, it is
hardly assuming too much to say that available information concerning this drilling indicates,
if anything, damming by the Lower Lavas, as true bed-rock could hardly be expected at the
shallow depth cited.
In 1930 some Keystone-drilling was carried out by George Kuchan, J. Williams, and J.
Mikklesen at Triplet Lake, locality 2. This followed the sinking of two shafts by way of
3 C 34
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
Storage Dam
EO'x 15'El. of crest 3530
._>• Top Of v
-.Creek-valley
I. El. 3550'
North rimff. ,
BURIED//?/ iRIVER-CHANNEL
■   -Fiovyrt/ __?;■'.- South rim
Scale
Head of
Upper Rock-canyon
El. 3380'(the same,
as that of Old Adit
600
1 Feet
Note: Airplane drill holes with depth
to bed-rock shown thus.--    ex—io'
Elevation of Horsefly River at
mouth  of  Black Creek - 3775 ft.
\c\___-Lower    %,/Vf
«&»,¥*' w i; upper RocK.^_^«r5,
\^x>    -canyon
» % fs Lower Rock-canyon
111    El. 3200'
'\<$&b<i   Camp bldgs.
%>l'f%t*£.   El 3250
£•'<_% ""^i-Road
Sketch-plan of Horsefly Area and detail along Black Creek. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 35
preliminary testing. One shaft, it is stated, reached a depth of somewhat over 40 feet and
encountered a seam of lignite in the residual gravel. Exact drilling-data are not known to
the writer, but it is stated that good values were encountered to a considerable depth below
the surface. Below the auriferous gravels much lignitized material was met. Sulphurous
water also, it is reported, issued from the drill casings. Sulphurous water was also observed
by the writer at the time one of the shafts was being sunk some years ago. Possibly this
originates from the decomposition of iron sulphide and its reduction by organic material.
The presence of lignite and the residual gravel affords evidence of the Tertiary age of these
deposits.
The reported presence of gold values in the upper strata is worth investigating. It is
conceivable that sufficient yardage and values for a drag-line or dredging operation might
be demonstrated, as there is a large area of residual gravel uncapped by volcanic rock. It
is understood that one hole reached a depth of nearly 200 feet. The lignitic material
encountered below the auriferous strata might indicate temporary lacustrine conditions.
Available information at this exposure is not discordant with the view that this might
be a remnant of the Eocene channel of the river, dammed by the Lower Lavas and subsequently restored to its original course, before it was compelled to follow the Miocene channel.
The Lower Lavas are not, of course, exposed, but the reported lignitic material suggests an
arrested flow and their possible underlying presence. Presumably the once-existent capping
of Upper Volcanics has been removed by erosion.
Exposure No. 4, on the south-west shore of China Cabin Lake, is in contact with reddish-
coloured andesitic volcanic rock of the Lower Lavas. Quite possibly the channel rims, at any
rate, are incised in that formation.
The one conclusive exposure is on Gravel Creek Canyon, previously described, where beds
of residual gravel and intercalated lavas, of Upper Volcanics age, undoubtedly indicate a flow
dammed by these lavas.    The thickness of the overlying basalt suggests complete stoppage.
Whether it is an exposure of the buried Horsefly River or its tributary is immaterial, as
the presence of either indicates a flow at the time down the Beaver Creek Valley. This
exposure, considered in conjunction with valley-fill occurrences of the Upper Volcanics at
down-stream points (mentioned in Geological Survey, Canada, Summary Report, 1932, Part
AI, page 84), and exposures of the Lower Lavas at up-stream points (on leases of A. B. and
R. N. Campbell), strongly supports the view that the flow in this valley was interrupted by
two volcanic periods.
Evidence of Down-stream Continuation of Tertiary Horsefly River.—-The possible presence
of the buried Tertiary Horsefly River at down-stream points in the Beaver Creek Valley is
suggested by placer deposits on Big Lake Creek (flowing northward into the valley) and by
residual gravel exposed in Quesnel River Valley by early hydraulic operations three-eighths
of a mile down-stream from Beavermouth. Additional facts must be secured before a former
northward continuation of this river, in or adjacent to the Fraser River Valley, can be proved.
It is significant that there is an ancient valley close to the Fraser River Valley on its east
side. This valley is now occupied by Dragon and Ten-mile Lakes and the lower part of
Canyon Creek. Evidence of a buried river crossing the Cottonwood River is cited on page
C 19 of the Annual Report, Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1936. Pertinent, doubtless,
also is the presence of " Rich Bar " on the Fraser River, about 7 miles below Quesnel. The
placer deposits of this bar, which engaged the attention of the early miners, are possibly due
to the intersection of an ancient channel by the Fraser River. This view finds support in
the evidence of the buried river-channel cut by Baker Creek, and described in this volume
under " Property of R. Blair." It is possible, of course, that two different channels may
have been occupied at different periods, in or near the Fraser River, owing to disturbances in
Tertiary or earlier time.
Note re " Concretions " in the Horsefly River Valley.—A few comments seem to be called
for respecting the curious disk-like objects, frequently found in the gravel in this valley.
Although similar objects obviously originating in the same way are known to occur in other
valleys, they are of some diagnostic value in correlating widely-separated channel-remnants
of this river. The objects referred to consist, in most cases, of disks of laminated material
about half an inch and upwards in thickness, locally termed " teapot-stands," for which
purpose they are well fitted.    In some cases they are spherical segments composed of similar C 36 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
laminated material. Both types may or may not have a hole directly in the centre. These
objects have been quite erroneously deemed " concretions," and have attracted considerable
attention as they have an artificial appearance, accentuated in some cases, by remarkable
approach to a circle. Similar but smaller objects, almost invariably with a hole in the centre,
occur in immense numbers on Pesika Creek, a tributary of the Finlay River. A great many
of these objects are being produced to-day on the Nechako River, a few miles from Vanderhoof. A visit some years ago to a clay deposit near there, aided by the investigation of the
owner, G. Ogston, afforded convincing proof of the way in which these objects are produced.
Invariably a great gulf of time is associated with the operation of mineral-forming processes;
consequently, it is indeed surprising to learn that the time occupied in forming these objects
is only a few seconds.
The required setting for their production is a bank of thinly-bedded material, slightly
plastic, such as clayey slum, adjacent to a creek or river, but standing somewhat back from
the water, so that there is a talus slope of considerable length at the base of the bank.
Pieces of the bank become detached, roll down the talus slope and reach the bottom in the
form of a cylinder, with more or less rounded ends. A high bank produces cylinders of
smaller diameter than a low bank, as the rolling process is continued longer. In a number
of cases, by pure chance, a cylinder is produced in which the lamina? are exactly at right
angles to the long axis of the cylinder. Those that fail to reach the water dry out and split
into a number of disks; the ends of the cylinder form the spherical segments. The disks
and spherical segments harden, some are buried in situ, and in time become well indurated.
Some disks, near the water, become fashioned by wave action into fantastic shapes. These
have been erroneously deemed " fossils " by some.
. In some cases a root of grass or other vegetation growing in the laminated material is
detached with the piece that rolls down the talus slope. In some, this piece of root lies
lengthwise in the centre of the cylinder formed. In such cases when the cylinder splits open
on drying the root decays, and the result is a number of disks with a hole in the centre.
These objects could obviously be formed at any period given the right conditions, but in
Pleistocene and post-Glacial times doubtless the number of slum deposits favoured their
production.
Baker Creek.
A discovery claim, owned by R. Blair, of Quesnel, is at the lower end of
Property of      Baker Creek Canyon, near the south boundary of Pre-emption Lot 8651.
R. Blair. The property is 3% miles from Quesnel, and is reached by a road passable
for cars. It follows Baker Creek Valley at creek-level, leads directly
across this property and extends 1% miles farther, to the hydro-electric plant of Quesnel
Light and Power Company.
Baker Creek, at a point 1% miles above the property, is contained in a narrow rock-
walled canyon incised to a depth of many hundreds of feet in the Fraser Plateau. Downstream the canyon becomes a gorge which merges in the wider valley. Both rock-rims are
frequently and prominently exposed until they end and more or less abruptly at the lower end
of this property, which marks the mouth of what is known as " the canyon." Farther downstream, for about half a mile, low-lying rock benches flank the creek; beyond, it winds
through much glacial debris which mainly conceals the underlying formation. The valley is
lightly timbered;  the underbrush is dense save where the formation outcrops.
The geology is described by Reinecke in Geological Survey, Canada, Memoir 118, 1920.
In the region examined this year the formation consists of interstratified much-folded
quartzite and argillite (the latter carbonaceous in part) of the Cache Creek series of Carboniferous age. Conspicuous features of the valley are the numerous kaolinized rock-pillars
of this formation on the north-west side of the valley, and the rampart-like exposures of
basalt of the Upper Volcanics series of Miocene age, which cap the valley-rims and immediately underlie a shallow cover of glacial material.
The placer deposits at this property occur as: (a) A buried river-channel, exhibiting
unusual features, cut deeply and approximately at right angles by Baker Creek; (6) post-
Glacial concentrations on low-lying rock benches of Baker Creek, resulting from the intersection of the buried channel by Baker Creek. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT.
C 37
The existence of this buried river-channel has apparently long been known. The Annual
Report, Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1899, records the fact that no work was done
in that year by The Golden Province Mines Company, a company apparently incorporated
for the purpose of investigating this channel. An old adit, known as " Law's tunnel," now
caved, driven in the left bank of the creek and 50 feet above water-level, apparently marks
this early mining effort.
In 1934 R. Blair discovered that the gravel on low-lying rock benches down-stream from
the exposed river-channel was auriferous, and has since prospected at various points on his
discovery claim.
^Top of valley-rim  El.2060^
Falls 3'high
LEGEND: as in Elevation.    iQjf Ml III.
P I    A M -S^* LDW      M
rLAIN /"        Bench /J Dense Vegetation
^South  Boundary   L865K
100        0 IOO       200      300
Scale tsuai
Feet
-Vertical Gravel Banks
175 ft. high
OfMpense Vegetation
^v_C_^__. Tap of valley-rim 400 ft.
abai/e   Baker' Creek
Low  hi Vertical Gravel Banks
Bench/A//        150 ft. high
Property of R. Blair, Baker Creek.
River-gravel with intercalated beds of volcanic agglomerate is exposed near the lower
end of Baker Creek Canyon. It lies on the right bank of the creek, extends for a length of
about 750 feet, and rises almost vertically to a maximum height of 175 feet above the river.
The central part of the channel is obscured by dense vegetation which extends from creek-
level, at 1,660 feet elevation, to the top of the steep valley-slope, at 2,060 feet elevation. At
this point the river-gravel has been almost entirely removed from the left bank of the creek,
which is flanked by a low-lying rock bench, at the back of which are banks of glacial debris.
The ancient gravel strata are faulted in the northern part of the exposure; there are
two faults about 200 feet apart. It is evident that the block between the faults has moved
downward about 10 feet. Owing to inaccessibility, the exact amount of movement could not
be determined. The gently-sloping northern rim of the buried channel is composed of
interstratified carbonaceous argillite and quartzite of the Cache Creek series of Carboniferous
age. It is exposed almost to creek-level, where it is in contact with volcanic agglomerate
and breccia over which the creek flows, and in which it has formed falls about 3 feet in
height.    The rim is exposed to a height of about 90 feet above creek-level, but is obscured by C 38 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
dense vegetation; but as the Cache Creek sediments are exposed at a point 225 feet farther
up-stream, the distance from rim to rim of the ancient channel at creek-level is probably not
more than about 1,000 feet.
The material on the northern rim-rock consists of lignitized pieces of wood resting
beneath clay-beds. Overlying the latter are beds of sub-angular gravel whose pebbles are 3
to 4 inches in diameter and consist mostly of lava. At about 35 feet above creek-level there
is a more or less horizontal bed of volcanic agglomerate about 8 feet thick, in which are
discontinuous veins of a fibrous mineral identified as aragonite, containing some manganese.
This fibrous or columnar mineral is white in colour and translucent. Each vein is 3 to 4 inches
in width and several feet in length, and close examination discloses that a number of veinlets
branch from each vein within the agglomerate. These discontinuous veins occur in practically the same horizontal plane, and offer the curious appearance of slabs inserted at
intervals in gravel strata. The beds of agglomerate weather to leave the contained sub-
angular pebbles in bold relief, so that viewed even from a few feet they closely simulate
gravel-beds, and their real identity can only be determined by close examination. Doubtless,
originally there was one main vein of aragonite, which was ruptured by the faulting subsequent to the extrusion of the lava. The part of this agglomerate bed that was not involved
in the faulting is plainly discernible immediately south of the more southerly of the two
faults;   it also contains a vein of aragonite.
Above the agglomerate bed, extending to the top of the exposure, are finer apparently
well-sorted gravels. Owing to the precipitous nature of the exposure access to all save the
lower parts cannot be gained. Viewed from the opposite bank of the creek this finer, well-
sorted gravel appears to be capped by a thin soil-cover at the highest parts of the exposure,
and near the north rock-rim by a few feet of glacial material.
About 20 feet below the above-mentioned agglomerate bed, in that part of the exposure
immediately south of the more southerly of the two faults, a slightly-inclined bed of
agglomerate occurs within the gravels. It also contains a vein of aragonite 3 to 4 inches in
width, having approximately the same strike and dip as the lava bed.
This exposure indicates that a river approaching lacustrine conditions was dammed, or
at any rate impeded in flow, by extrusion of lava, following which a gentle flow was again
restored. It is clear that the lower part of Baker Creek Canyon was in existence at the
time of extrusion of this lava. The age of the latter is presumably that of the Lower Lavas
of Eocene or earlier age, inasmuch as the Upper Volcanics series, of Miocene age, invariably
overlies the Fraser River formation. In the Fraser River Valley there is no known or recorded
instance of intercalated gravel and lava-flows of the Upper Volcanics series. It is, however,
particularly to be noted that in the report on the Horsefly Area in this volume there is cited
an exposure in Gravel Creek Canyon of intercalated residual river-gravel and lava-flows of
the Upper Volcanics series, which proves that the Horsefly River drainage system was
obstructed by eruption of the Upper Volcanics. In this area, however, indirect evidence
strongly supports the view that obstruction was also earlier, occasioned by eruption of lavas
of the Lower Lavas series. The Baker Creek exposure is particularly informative in revealing conditions which must also have occurred in the Horsefly River Valley. Further light
might also be thrown on the matter by a more detailed investigation of Baker Creek Valley
than was possible at the time of the present examination.
The original direction of flow of water in this channel cannot be proved from the gravel-
exposure itself, as there is no imbrication. A northward flow is, however, indicated by the
direction of the Tertiary valley of Baker Creek. It is not in accord with a southward-
flowing parent stream. Farther down-stream this creek bends around to flow south-eastward,
winding through much glacial debris in a region where it is virtually in the Fraser River
Valley.    This bend is similar to that made by the Quesnel River in the same region.
It is of interest to note that the lacustrine conditions indicated by this exposure also
find expression in the beds of diatomite on Pre-emption Lot 906, and other diatomite deposits
to the north and lignite beds to the west and south. The general course of the channel, so
far as is evident, appears to be northward and southward across Baker Creek. It would
seem that the lacustrine conditions were promoted primarily by volcanic eruptions.
The commercial aspects of this property seem to lie chiefly in the low-lying rock benches
flanking   Baker   Creek,   immediately   opposite   and   down-stream   from   the   exposure   of NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 39
Tertiary volcanics. These benches are underlain by argillite and quartzite of the Cache
Creek series. On these benches may be expected superficial placer deposits resulting from
the resorting of ancient channel gravel by Baker Creek. True bed-rock of the river-channel
may be found under the rock bench on the left bank of Baker Creek, opposite the gravel-
exposure, although the gravel thereon may be overlain by lava flows. A shallow pit exposes
lignite on a low-lying rock bench on the left bank of the creek about half a mile downstream from the channel-exposures. This may possibly mark another point on the rim of
the river-channel and merits further investigation.
The owner reports encouraging values on rim-rock at the .edge of the rock bench opposite
the exposure, but, with the means available to him, has been unable to follow this gravel
instream owing to inflow of water.
No systematic testing of the low-lying rock benches has been carried out. A small
amount of drilling would throw much light upon the commercial aspects.
Distant 100 feet down-stream from the north rim of the river-channel, on the right bank
of Baker Creek, a thickness of 4 feet of fine and coarse well-imbricated gravel, of possible
post-Glacial age, rests on argillite. The imbrication indicates resorting by powerful
northerly-flowing water. Behind this gravel the bank of the creek rises sharply to the top
of the valley, but the nature of the material composing the valley-slope is entirely obscured
by dense vegetation. At a point about 100 feet farther down-stream quartzite outcrops
prominently and marks the end of Baker Creek Canyon. In the absence of further exposures
it is not possible to express a definite opinion concerning the origin of this gravel, but it
seems unlikely that there would be any active circulation of northward-flowing post-Glacial
waters in this region other than those in Baker Creek Valley.
Cottonwood River and Lower Part of Swift River.
During the year about two weeks was occupied in an examination of the Cottonwood
River, up-stream from that part examined in 1936. A general reconnaissance was made of
the lower part of the Swift River, as far as the junction of Sovereign Creek, and the
adjacent country on the north bank of the river.
The area is part of a strip of country some miles in width, trending north-west and
south-east, between Wingdam and Likely, to which attention has previously been drawn in
the publications of this Department. The formation underlying the area examined this year
consists wholly of Mesozoic rocks.
An account of placer occurrences along the Cottonwood River, between the Quesnel-
Barkerville and Prince George-Quesnel Road crossing, and particulars of roads and trails
thereto, is given in the Annual Report, Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1936.
The lower part of the Swift River is reached by the Foster Road, which branches from
the Quesnel-Barkerville Road at a point about 2% miles east of Cottonwood, crosses Lightning Creek at the boundary-line between Pre-emption Lots 437 and 438, and continues to
the Swift River at Placer-mining Lease 2061, somewhat over 2 miles from the starting-point.
The road is passable for cars in dry weather as far as Placer-mining Lease 2061, but onwards
is only a wagon-road. On Placer-mining Lease 2061 the road ascends the right bank of the
Swift River to the plateau, and continues on it for about 5 miles as far as Pre-emption Lot
1235, save for a steep descent to, and ascent from, Sovereign Creek.
An alternative route is by a road, passable for cars in dry weather, which branches from
the highway at Coldspring House, 4% miles east of Cottonwood, crosses Lightning Creek, and
ascends the south bank of this creek to the plateau, where one branch leads to the property
of H. G. Jamieson on Gagen Creek, and the other joins the Foster Road about Wz miles
from Lightning Creek.
The valleys of the Swift and Cottonwood Rivers are continuous; no topographic feature
marks the end of one valley and the commencement of the other. The distinction is one in
name only, the name Swift River being applied to the river above the junction of Lightning
Creek.
Down-stream from the junction of Lightning Creek the Cottonwood River occupies a
wide, well-timbered valley of mature relief. It enters a rock-walled canyon, about 2%
miles in length, commencing at the Quesnel-Barkerville Road crossing. This feature, coupled
with the fact that a deep embayment trends instream north-westward for about half a mile C 40 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
at the head of this canyon, on the north side of the river, plainly indicates that a pre-Glacial
channel-segment of the river lies buried in the right bank. The down-stream end of this
buried channel-segment coincides with the present valley between the 2-Mile and 3-Mile posts.
There, old workings on the right bank of the river, near the boundary-line between the leases
of A. M. Davis and associates, and those of E. McMillan and Mrs. McMillan, indicate the
intersection of the former channel by the river. The canyon is largely, if not entirely, of
post-Glacial age, although incision may have commenced in Pleistocene time.
The formation exposed in the canyon consists of alternating bands of sediments (chiefly
argillite) and volcanic rocks. This assemblage is intruded at several points by tongues of
porphyritic diorite, and at one point by granodiorite. Argillite on the left bank of the river,
between the 2-Mile and 3-Mile posts, is fossiliferous, and at one point contains a well-preserved impression of an ammonite, about 8 by 5 inches. No quartz veins of appreciable size
were observed in the region, although outcrops of existing veins may be concealed by
vegetation or glacial debris.
The Swift River, at and down-stream from Sovereign Creek, occupies a steep rock-walled
gorge 2 miles or more in length and incised to a depth of about 200 feet in the plateau.
Down-stream from the gorge the right bank rises abruptly from the river to the plateau
which flanks it for a further distance of about 1 mile. It then merges in a large flat a few
feet above river-level. The left bank is flanked by a gently-rising valley-slope which opens
out to another large low-lying flat on that side of the river. These two flats are covered by
Placer-mining Leases 2061 and 2062. At the down-stream end of the former, about three-
quarters of a mile above the junction of Lightning Creek, the river flows through a short
low-walled rock-canyon in its valley, which reaches a width of about 1,500 feet in this section.
Lightning and Sovereign Creeks, flowing westward, parallel to each other, between 3 and 4
miles apart, also occupy rocky gorges of considerable length that are incised to a depth of
about 200 feet in the plateau. The one on Lightning Creek ends about 1% miles above its
junction with the river. The canyons and gorges on the Swift River, Lightning, and
Sovereign Creeks are all of post-Glacial age.
The Swift River Valley is well timbered, and rock-outcrops are infrequent on the plateau;
they are obscured by vegetation and glacial debris. The latter is probably not thick except
locally. The formation is well exposed in the gorges and consists of alternating bands of
sediments, chiefly argillite, and volcanic rocks. These rocks are intruded by tongues of acid
igneous rock on the Swift River, and by hornblende-diorite in Lightning Creek Gorge, in the
hydraulic pit on Gagen Creek, and also on Sovereign Creek. Quartz veins do not appear to
be numerous in the region, although they may be obscured by vegetation and glacial debris.
Some are exposed in the hydraulic pit on Gagen Creek;   one vein is 4 feet in width.
From the topography it is clear that the region to the east of Swift River has been
subjected to post-Glacial uplift. It is indicated that former north-westward-flowing streams,
on the plateau adjacent to the right bank of Swift River, have been subjected to stream
piracy. In rejuvenating, the Swift River appears to have shifted west of its former cour.e.
Indications of earlier channels of this river exist on the plateau in the form of depressions,
trending more or less parallel to the river, and occupied mainly by meadows and swampy
ground. Chief of these are the " Moose Pasture," immediately south of Sovereign Creek, a
depression about 2 miles in length, in which is situated a lease owned by G. S. Gagen; another
marked depression about 1 mile in length, occupied by a small creek entering Swift River 2
miles below Sovereign Creek; and the depression now occupied by Lost Valley Creek, which
may be the north-westerly continuation of the first-mentioned.
Placer deposits in this area occur as:—
(1.) Post-Glacial concentrations on indurated false bed-rock material, consisting mainly
of inter-Glacial slum and gravel deposits. The Cottonwood River Valley is floored with such
indurated material for a distance of not less than 10 miles, and the Swift River Valley for a
distance of about 1 mile in the part examined.
(2.)   Buried channels, indicated as lying instream on both rivers.
(3.) Post-Glacial concentrations of a different type to that cited under (1) above, and
also buried channels, exhibited at individual properties, such as that of H. G. Jamieson, on
Gagen Creek. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 41
Of these, the first two are the most important commercially, and warrant considerable
investigation.
Both the Cottonwood and Swift River Valleys are underlain apparently for considerable
distances, save in the canyons, by indurated material, chiefly slum and gravel. It is thought
to be mostly of inter-Glacial age, and on it post-Glacial deposits of auriferous gravel of
comparatively shallow depth have been laid down in the bed of the river and on low-lying
flanking benches. Indurated material underlies the Cottonwood River Valley, up-stream from
Pre-emption Lot 9670, as far as the lower end of the post-Glacial canyon, down-stream from
the Quesnel-Barkerville Road crossing, and is possibly present in the valley above this road-
crossing, but time was not available for examination of that part of the river. In the Swift
River Valley, in the vicinity of Placer-mining Leases 2061 and 2062, the bed of the river and
large benches on both banks are floored with indurated slum.
This deposit is important, for although gold values are known to vary widely at the
different points it forms a false bed-rock of wide extent and underlies a large volume of
gravel. Detailed testing is warranted to ascertain if dredging or drag-line possibilities are
offered, either locally or considering the valleys of these rivers as a whole. The physical
properties of the indurated material are favourable to either type of operation.
Because the deposits forming this false bed-rock are well indurated, resemble glacial
rather than Tertiary deposits, and contain small seams of lignite, they would appear to be
mainly of inter-Glacial age. It is, of course, quite possible that some exposures may be
Tertiary. The seams of lignite are of considerable value in tracing this deposit up-stream.
The presence of well-carbonized lignite in unconsolidated material in the lower part of
Lightning Creek Valley, near Coldspring House, has long been known. It is understood that
some lignite was used as fuel in the early days of mining. This lignite was apparently
obtained from the south bank of Lightning Creek, opposite Coldspring House, and detailed
mention is made of it on page 29, Geological Survey, Canada, Memoir 149, 1926. This
exposure has apparently been subsequently covered up, or washed out by the river, as no
evidence of it could be found this year. In 1934, Keystone-drilling for placer on the eastern
part of Pre-emption Lot 443 disclosed lignite beds of great thickness in unconsolidated
material on the north bank of the creek. Last year application was made for rights in this
region, under the " Coal and Petroleum Act," by Consolidated Gold Alluvials of British
Columbia, Limited, with a view to the possible utilization of this lignite as fuel at Wingdam.
This company, in 1937, drove an adit on the right bank of Lightning Creek, about 15 feet
above creek-level, at the base of the flat on which the Keystone-drilling was done. The adit
is 21 feet in length and is driven on a bearing north 5 degrees east, in line with a row of
holes drilled on a due north bearing. It discloses for its entire length interstratified clay
and lignite beds, apparently striking due east and dipping south at 45 degrees. Near the
portal the overlie is only 2 feet in thickness and consists of soil and gravel. Whether this
lignite is in place or not is indeterminate from the exposure. There is a likelihood, however,
that the lower part of Lightning Creek Valley is floored with inter-Glacial deposits.
There is much evidence of early mining of post-Glacial bench deposits. Some of these
are quite extensive, notably on the right bank of the Cottonwood River, somewhat above the
3-Mile post (where the river cuts across its former channel, previously mentioned as lying
buried in its right bank, up-stream from this point) ; on the right bank of Lightning Creek,
up-stream from the mouth for about Wz miles; and on the right bank of Swift River
immediately down-stream from Sovereign Creek. Subsequent to these early operations, the
numerous bars and benches of the Cottonwood and Swift Rivers have long engaged the efforts
of numerous prospectors at favourable stages of water.
On Placer-mining Leases 2061 and 2062 on the Swift River, Keystone-drilling was carried
out by G. A. Dunlop in 1922. In Geological Survey, Canada, Memoir 149, page 177, it is
stated: " In all, thirty-six holes were put down. All the gold is in the surface gravels, which
average 13 feet in thickness and have a maximum depth of about 25 feet. Two or three holes
were put down about 75 feet, but did not reach bed-rock, the surface gravels being underlain
by hard silt and boulder-clay carrying no gold. Mr. Dunlop estimates that the drilling proved
approximately 4,000,000 yards of ground having an average value of 31 cents a cubic yard.
The surface is fairly heavily timbered in places, but a large part is grass land. The surface
gravels are fairly coarse, but contain few, if any, large boulders.    The gold is concentrated
4 C 42 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
mainly on the clay, the surface of which is nearly level, and is mostly flaky, but not very fine,
and is easily saved." A suction-dredge, from which favourable results were hardly to be
expected, was installed on this ground in 1924, but this operation was short-lived. On the
same ground, in 1932, C. H. McDonald installed a Sauerman high-line plant that was not in
operation for any length of time.    Subsequently this ground has lain idle.
In 1932 attention was directed to the plateau immediately south of Lightning Creek by
G. S. Gagen's discovery of rich superficial gravel on the right bank of Gagen Creek. Subsequently, Sovereign Creek Gold Mines, Limited, incorporated in 1934, acquired this ground,
brought in a water-supply by ditch and flume from Sovereign Creek, installed plant, and
commenced hydraulicking. The latter was of short duration, and confined to an area about
500 by 375 feet. This ground was acquired in 1936 by H. G. Jamieson, who has since done
considerable testing. The property is described in the Annual Report, Minister of Mines,
British Columbia, 1934, pages C 28 and C 29.
This year a considerable amount of systematic testing was done by W. J. Noon on the
leases of E. McMillan and Mrs. McMillan, on the Cottonwood River (described in Annual
Report, Minister of Mines, British Columbia, 1936, pages C 27 and C28). A number of
shallow shafts were sunk by the caisson method, followed in the late autumn by Keystone-
drilling.    The result of this investigation is not fully known to the writer.
The origin of the gold in the post-Glacial deposits of this area is a matter of considerable
interest and importance. At certain points it is due to intersections of earlier channel-
segments. Below Wingdam numerous old workings on Lightning Creek indicate the existence
of post-Glacial deposits not attributable to channel intersection.
During the year, the operations of Consolidated Gold Alluvials of British Columbia,
Limited, have demonstrated that the gold in thej-ich bed-rock gravel of Lightning Creek
at Wingdam is of exactly the same character as that in the up-stream higher-lying gravel,
of presumably inter-Glacial age, which constitutes the Sanderson mine. The post-Tertiary
age of the bed-rock gravel has been established by fossil evidence. The rich bed-rock deposits
are indicated as having resulted from resorting of the inter-Glacial gravels. The latter must
have resulted from resorting of glacial material, and the size of the deposit at Wingdam
indicates the large amount of rich debris which must have been resorted.
With regard to a possible local source of gold to which placer occurrence, generally within
the area, might be attributable, reference is invited to the Annual Report of the Minister of
Mines, British Columbia, 1933, pages 115, 116, and 117. It will be noted that the Mesozoic
rocks bordering those of Precambrian age on the west are invaded at a number of points by
stocks and tongues of the Central batholith. Instrusives also occur in the Precambrian rocks.
The fact that in the south-eastern part of this area auriferous quartz veins occur in both
Precambrian and Mesozoic rocks suggests that this may also be the case, at other points,
along the Wingdam-Likely belt.
Six Placer-mining Leases Nos. 3783, 3784, 3834, 3831, 3899, and 3900, held
Leases of       by W. D. and J. W. Jones and associates, of Cottonwood, are situated on
W. D. and J. W. the Cottonwood River at and down-stream from Umiti (Deep)  Creek.    The
Jones and       ground covered lies mostly on the north side of the river, and on Umiti
Associates. Creek. The property is reached either by a go-devil trail, SY2 miles in
length, which branches from the Quesnel-Barkerville Road at the top of
18-Mile Hill, 18 miles from Quesnel, or by a pack-trail, 7 miles in length, which branches
from the Quesnel-Barkerville Road at the bridge across the river and follows the north side
of the latter. The go-devil trail is the only route over which any heavy supplies can be
taken to the property. It crosses the plateau in a northerly direction, descends the river-
valley on a fair grade, and reaches the river opposite Umiti (Deep) Creek.
Up-stream from Umiti (Deep) Creek for somewhat less than a quarter of a mile, and
down-stream from this creek for about half a mile, there is an extensive bench, terraced in
part, that rises above river-level to a maximum height of 35 feet. This, so far as is indicated
by such testing as has been carried out to date, is underlain by indurated material at an
average depth of 10 to 12 feet. The overlie consists of an upper stratum of barren silt up
to 4 feet in maximum thickness, overlying post-Glacial auriferous gravel lying on the false
bed-rock. It is stated that nine pits sunk at various points on this flat indicated encouraging
values.    At certain points near the river considerably better values have, it is stated by the NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 43
owners, been obtained.    At one point, from 800 cubic yards of gravel gold to the value of
$1,200 is reported to have been recovered.
At the back of this bench, west of Umiti (Deep) Creek and about 25 feet above it, there
is another bench, about half a mile in length and about 300 yards in width. It is underlain
at its east end by indurated material and near its west end by altered andesite, a formation
that is prevalent in this region. This higher bench is partly covered by the leases and partly
by one held by David V. Sanders. Rock-exposures on it are scanty, but there is concentration
of gold on the false bed-rock and on the altered andesite. The overlie of well-washed gravel
is from 15 to 18 feet in thickness, with a certain amount of silt and surface soil on top.
Considerable work has been done on the south side of the river directly opposite Umiti
(Deep) Creek. Bench deposits overlie indurated material; values are stated to be good, but
considerable trouble was experienced owing to sloughing of the valley-slopes over working-
faces.
Down-stream about half a mile from Umiti (Deep) Creek a large U-bend of the river
surrounds an extensive low-lying bench on three sides. No great amount of testing has
been done on it, but it is of potential promise and warrants testing. Opposite one side of
this bench, on the north side of the river, there is another low-lying bench of considerable
size, and down-stream on both sides of the river there is a considerable amount of low-lying
bench-ground that warrants testing.
It is considered that sufficient testing has been carried out to date to warrant more
detailed investigation to determine if dredging or drag-line possibilities exist.
One lease, owned by S. Svenson, of Cottonwood, is on the right bank of the
Lease of        Swift River, adjoining Placer-mining Leases 2061  and 2062,  about 2%
S. Svenson.      miles down-stream from Sovereign Creek.    It is reached either by a foot-
trail, about half a mile in length, that follows the right bank of the river
from Placer-mining Lease 2061, or by a branch trail, a few hundred yards from the Foster
Road, that passes along the plateau immediately above the workings, on the right bank
of the river.
The lease covers a somewhat irregular low-lying bench varying in width from 50 to 150
feet, flanking the right bank of the river, at the back of which the river-bank rises sharply
at most points to the plateau, about 210 feet above the river. There is a very marked large
depression trending south-eastward from the river-bank and outer edge of the plateau. It
becomes rapidly shallower and less distinct on the plateau. The region is well timbered and
there are no bed-rock outcrops in the immediate vicinity.
The placer occurrence at this property consists of post-Glacial concentrations on
indurated glacial material immediately adjacent to the river and resorted by the river.
Instream in the pits, auriferous gravel overlies hard-pan and is overlain by boulder-clay and
glacial material. It therefore must be of Pleistocene or earlier age, unless the boulder-clay
has sloughed to its present position after the gravel was resorted by the river. The gold is
fairly coarse, one nugget valued at $4 is stated to have been recovered. The owner states
that when one lot of placer gold weighing 71 dwt. was screened, it was found that 44 dwt.
failed to pass a 16-mesh screen. The coarse character of the gold, coupled with the existence
of the depression in the river-bank at this point, suggests that the source of the gold may
be from a tributary channel, but insufficient work has been done to pass a definite opinion
on this point.
The workings lie along the river-bank within a distance of somewhat over 300 feet. By
using the water supplied by an underground spring, the owner has opened up two pits by
ground-sluicing, aided by shovelling. The face of the down-stream pit exposes 10 feet of
glacial debris overlying a 5-foot stratum of poorly-sorted cemented gravel, which in turn
overlies 15 feet of washed but poorly-sorted auriferous gravel. No bed-rock, true or false,
is exposed beneath the lowest gravel.
The up-stream pit is about 75 by 75 feet in size. The pit-face exposes 2 to 3 feet of
well-washed auriferous gravel underlying 15 feet mainly of boulder-clay, and overlying
indurated finer gravel and clay or hard-pan. About 3,000 cubic yards of material has been
removed from this pit, from which the owner states that about 20 oz. of gold was recovered. C 44 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
At a point 120 feet up-stream from the last ground-sluice pit and 6 feet above river-
level, the face of a 5-foot adit at the end of a 60-foot open-cut exposes hard-pan overlain by
3 feet of washed gravel and 3 feet of surface debris.
Morehead Creek.
The property of this company consists of three claims and two leases,
Priority Mines, situated on Morehead Creek, about 3 miles below Morehead Lake. It is
Ltd. reached by a motor-road, 2V2   miles  in length, which branches from the
main road to Likely, immediately north of Morehead Lake. Morehead
Creek flows from Morehead Lake north-westward in a well-timbered valley of mature relief
for about 2 miles before it is joined by Warran Creek, which drains the extensive flat terrain
to the west. Somewhat over half a mile below this point Morehead Creek cascades over falls,
turns sharply, and from this point to its junction with Little Lake Creek trends north-east
in a steep-sided valley, some hundreds of feet in depth. In this valley the rock-walls are
continuous save for a length of somewhat over 500 feet, commencing 2,700 feet below the
falls. Although the banks of the creek's containing-valley are steep at all points, on the
left bank at the up-stream end a gap in the rock-walls about 250 feet in length is occupied
by a steep bank of clayey gravel. The right bank is flanked by a flat 10 feet above the creek,
about 100 to 150 feet in width, at the back of which is a small bench of maximum width 50
feet, at a height of 40 feet above the creek. Behind this rises the steep eastern valley-slope,
the underlying formation being obscured for a distance of several hundred feet by dense
vegetation. The formation outcrops again on the right side of the creek at the down-stream
end of the low-lying flat where the creek again cascades over falls. The superficial placer
deposits found on this flat engaged the attention of the earliest miners, and to this part of
the creek mining effort has been subsequently confined, and on it the present operations are
centred.
The geology of this region is described in Geological Survey, Canada, Summary Report,
1932, Part A 1, pages 81 and 82, and on pages 101 and 102 an account is given of this
property.
The formation exposed in the vicinity of the workings consists of volcanic rocks.
The placer deposits at this property occur as:—
(a.)  A buried channel of prevailing north-easterly flow, cut obliquely by Morehead Creek.
(6.) Post-Glacial deposits on the low-lying bench on the right bank of the creek near
the intersection of the buried channel. These attracted the attention of the early miners,
and were formed by Morehead Creek in cutting through the upper gravel-strata of the buried
channel, and such overlying glacial debris as must formerly have occupied the valley.
The superficial placer-deposits on the low-lying flat flanking the right bank of the creek
must have been largely worked out by the earliest miners, who left no evidence apparently of
any attempt to reach bed-rock. In the eighties, R. D. Davis endeavoured to reach the bedrock of the buried channel by sinking, at the northern end of the flat. He failed because of
the water encountered. Subsequently a tunnel driven at the base of the falls below the flat
proved to be above bed-rock in the channel. In more recent years the ground was acquired
by S. Prior, who utilized water from Morehead Creek to wash some of the upper gravel
strata. Tn 1933 the property was acquired by Priority Syndicate, which was recently
incorporated as Priority Mines, Limited. This syndicate and company drove a tunnel 150
feet in length, below the former tunnel at 2,625 feet elevation, through the rock that forms
the right bank of Morehead Creek, and penetrated the left rim of the buried channel above
i-ed-rock. A storage-dam was constructed on Warran Creek, and a supply of water for
hvdraulicking brought in by a flume from the top of the upper falls on Morehead Creek.
The penstock at the end of the flume, at 2,805 feet elevation, gives a head at the monitor of
145 feet. By placing a sluice-flume in the tunnel and continuing the sluice-flume beyond the
tunnel in Morehead Creek a further distance of 400 feet a considerable yardage of upper
gravel has been piped out. The maximum depth of the hydraulic pit at the head of the
sluice-flume, below the low-lying flat, is 40 feet. It has been found that to continue hydraulic
operations it will be necessary to lengthen the sluice-flume, owing to the accumulation of
tailings. It is therefore proposed to increase the length by another 1,500 feet, and to put
steel plates in the lower end.    The grade of Morehead Creek to its junction with Little Lake NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT.
C 45
Creek has been ascertained by the management as being 3.7 per cent. No attempt has been
made by this company to reach bed-rock, because it is considered that as bed-rock gravel can
only be mined by some form of drag-line installation, the removal of a large amount of
overlying gravel is the first step necessary. It is therefore the intention to continue
hydraulicking to afford the necessary space to accommodate a drag-line, should investigation
of bed-rock values be found to justify its installation. Encouraging values are reported in
the overlying gravel.
Stippled   area
indicates course of-
oicaces course uw «.
buried  channel. ,,.).  , ^   ^. a>J
LEGEND
Volcanic flaws   V///////A
-Underlying old channel
gravels.    Imbrication
indicates  N.E.flow.
Priority Mines, Limited, Morehead Creek.
It is clear that up-stream from the workings this channel lies buried in the left bank
of Morehead Creek. From examination of the region it seems likely that the up-stream
continuation lies considerably instream from Morehead Creek, in a direction about south 39
degrees west from the hydraulic pit. Down-stream from the workings, the continuation of
the buried channel lies in the right bank of Morehead Creek, and presumably it emerges in
Little Lake Creek Valley. It seems likely that this buried channel is a former channel of
Warran Creek, which was then a tributary of Little Lake Creek. Both rims of the buried
channel are exposed in the hydraulic pit, but the bed-rock is not, and its depth is unknown
beyond that it is below Morehead Creek. It is apparent that the canyon of Morehead Creek
is largely of post-Glacial age, although incision may have been commenced in inter-Glacial
time. Exposures are as yet inadequate for one to form an opinion as to the age of the buried
channel, but the well-imbricated gravel leaves no doubt that the direction of flow was
north-eastward.
It is apparent that within the hydraulic pit and that part of the creek under investigation, all gravel, and any once-existent glacial material, has been well resorted down to the
level of Morehead Creek by this creek. It is only on the north-eastern edge of the hydraulic
pit and at the up-stream end of the low-lying flat that glacial overlie is exposed. It is
heavy at these points, but operations are not now concerned with it.
The cross-section of gravel in the pit shows that hydraulic operations have gone beneath
the range of sorting by Morehead Creek water and have exposed the well-washed coarse and
fine gravel of the ancient channel. These gravels show pronounced imbrication indicative of
an original north-easterly flow of water.    In these gravels are layers of indurated gravel, C 46 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
which serve as false bed-rocks and prevent gold from sinking in the course of hydraulicking.
The overlying gravels, resorted by Morehead Creek, have a maximum thickness of about 22
feet, and are composed of the following strata: At the top, a bed about 4 feet in thickness
of sorted gravel with a few large boulders; below this 6 feet of medium-size and fine well-
washed gravel; below this, a 2-foot bed of sand; and at the bottom about 10 feet of coarser
well-washed gravel. The gravels are derived partly from local rocks and partly from rocks
foreign to the immediate vicinity.
PROGESS NOTES.
LODE OPERATIONS.
BY
J. A. Mitchell.
Cariboo Area.
Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Co., Ltd.—R. R. Rose, general manager; R. E. Vear, mine
superintendent; Les Walker, mill foreman; P. Johnson, master mechanic; C. Boulding,
mill superintendent. During 1938, No. 2 shaft was sunk an additional 54 feet to allow
sinking operations to be carried on at any future date without interrupting operations on
the 1,900 level.    No. 1 shaft was sunk 71 feet and the 1,800 level opened up.
At No. 2 shaft, drifting and crosscutting was continuous throughout the year on the 1,800
and 1,900 levels. As yet no stoping has been started on these levels. The extensions of
several veins were developed on the 1,500 and 1,700 levels and these are now being stoped.
No development on the 1,500 level and the 1,200 level was directed toward testing the ore
possibilities on the hanging-wall of the Lowhee fault in the Pinkerton zone. Some work
was also done on the 1,500 level under the surface outcrops in the Butts zone. The 1,500
main haulage-level was extended along its original course for a distance of 1,194 feet.
A concrete portal extending for approximately 100 feet was erected at the entrance of
the 1,500 main haulage-level.
Underground development during the year consisted of 7,065 feet of drifting, 7,665
feet of crosscutting, 1,281 feet of raising, 125 feet of shaft sinking, and 10,355 feet of diamond-
drilling.
On the average throughout the year 212 men were employed underground, thirteen in
the mill, seventy-nine on the surface, and there were thirty-two salaried officials.
During 1938, milling was at the rate of 250 tons per day for January and February,
and then stepped up to 275 tons per day. During August and September the tonnage was
generally increased to 300 tons per day in October, at which rate it has been maintained.
A total of 102,539 dry tons of ore was milled in 1938, with a production of approximately
42,808 fine ounces of gold and 3,249 oz. of silver.
In the power-house a Clarkson-Thimble exhaust-heat boiler was connected to the 375-k.v.a.
unit.    There are now two of these in operation.
On the surface, additions were made to the machine-shop, dry- and bunk-houses.
Island Mountain Mines Co., Ltd.—M. D. Banghart, manager; T. H. Munn, general
superintendent; E. W. Johnson, mill superintendent; H. Hewat, mine superintendent. The
mine and mill operated continuously during the year. The mill, which has a daily capacity
of 125 tons, treated a total of 44,916 tons of ore during the year and produced 18,351 oz. of
gold and 2,637 oz. of silver.
Stoping operations and development were carried out over a vertical range of 750 feet,
from 250 feet above the main or 4,000 level to 500 feet below the main level, with development being vigorously advanced on the bottom or 3,500 level. During the latter part of
the year and the first two weeks of 1939, the main operating shaft was deepened to 1,079 feet
below the collar and additional levels opened at the 3,375, 3,250, 3,125, and 3,000 elevations.
During the year 7,364 feet of drifting and crosscutting, 1,300 feet of raising, 473 feet of NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 47
shaft sinking, 147 feet of shaft stations and pockets, and 23,233 feet of diamond-drilling
were done.
The average number of men employed underground and on the surface throughout the
year was 111 men.
Cariboo Consolidated Mining Co., Ltd.—This property did not operate during 1938.
Cariboo Thompson Gold Mines, Inc.—C. E. Gordon Brown, manager. A small crew,
maximum 10 men, was employed during the year in erecting camp and driving tunnel.
The Cariboo Thompson property adjoins the holdings of the Cariboo Hudson Gold Mines,
Limited, and the camp is below the Hudson mine-road, about 22 miles south of Barkerville.
Comfortable living-quarters were established and other buildings are contemplated. A
321-foot crosscut was driven and intersected the objective, a small quartz vein occurring in a
north-striking fault-fracture which is well mineralized with finely-crushed pyrite. This vein
has been followed by drifts respectively 35 feet north and 98 feet south from the crosscut.
A small fan has been installed to control the ventilation in the drifts.
Cariboo Hudson Gold Mines, Ltd.-—J. D. MacDonald, superintendent. During the year
development-work was continued on the 200 level, a 100-foot winze was driven, and the 250
and 300 levels were started from this winze. A raise-connection on the vein was made
between the 300 and 250 levels.
From the Simlock Creek side the 600 level crosscut, 400 feet below the 200 level, was
driven. This drive intersected several quartz veins including what is considered the downward continuation of the main vein on the 200 level. A raise is now being driven on this
vein between the 600 and 200 levels.
During the year numerous necessary additions were made to the camp. A 100-ton mill
was erected and at the end of the year this mill was treating 50 tons daily.
Bralco Group.—E. Parr, engineer in charge; E. Hansen, superintendent. The Pioneer
Gold Mining Company of B.C., Limited, took an option of this property which adjoins the
Cariboo Hudson. A crew of fourteen men was employed at surface-stripping, but results
were discouraging and the option was relinquished.
Snowshoe Gold Mines, Ltd.—John Matson, mine manager. The Snowshoe is a new operation financed by Fred Wells and associates. The property is 1 mile north of Yanks Peak and
is approximately 7 miles due west of the Cariboo Hudson mine.
An extensive building programme, including bunk-house, power-house, warehouse, blacksmith-shop, and dry was completed during the latter part of the year. A small steam-sawmill
was erected to cut lumber for the camp construction and will be used for future contemplated
extensions to the present camp.
Preparations are being made to carry out an extensive development plan using power-
drills, but to date the main exploration adit has been advanced by hand-drilling approximately
100 feet into the hill.
A Diesel engine and Ingersoll-Rand compressor are on the ground but are not yet
installed.    A crew of twenty-nine men is employed at the camp.
During the year a Government road was laid out from Barkerville over the main divide
to Keithley.    A considerable amount of grading has been completed.
About 250 tons of freight, chiefly mine-supplies, were taken over this road to the
Snowshoe camp. Diesel caterpillar-tractors were used for grading the roads and hauling the
freight.
The development adit now being driven will cross some of the smaller veins and tap the
larger quartz-bodies at considerable depth.
'Cariboo Midas Mines, Ltd.— (Amparo Mining Company, Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A.)
J. B. Knaebal, manager; P. Behnsen, superintendent. In the late fall operations commenced
at this property, which is near the summit of Yanks Peak on the north slope, and an extensive
building campaign was under way at the end of the year.
The present programme calls for a 1,000-foot adit. Fifteen men on three shifts are
employed in driving this heading. A 3800 Diesel and compressor have recently been installed
to supply compressed air to the drills. The adit is in 290 feet and is ventilated by a gasoline-
driven blower and 8-inch vent-pipe.
Supplies at first were freighted in from Barkerville over the road leading to the
Snowshoe mine, but are now brought in via Keithley then to the mine on pack-horses. C 48 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
Quesnelle Quartz Mining Co., Ltd.—T. Norton Youngs, manager; Russell Ross, general
superintendent. In the period from June, when underground operations were resumed, until
the end of the year, the following development-work was accomplished at this mine: 192
feet of drifting; 192 feet of crosscutting; 251 feet of raising. In addition, several stopes
were opened up and equipped with chutes and manways. A complete assay plant is maintained at the property and an intensive sampling programme has been carried out.
During the summer a cyanide plant was constructed and put into operation on November
27th. The milling equipment consists of a 275-ton coarse-ore bin at the head of the surface
tram from the mine-shaft head, a 9- by 15-inch Allis-Chalmers jaw-crusher, and a 40-foot
conveyor to a 100-ton fine-ore bin.
The 4%- by 7-foot Allis-Chalmers ball-mill is driven by a 75-horse-power General Electric
motor and operates in closed circuit with a 3- by 15-foot Dorr Simplex classifier. The
classifier overflow is sent by gravity by a 12- by 19-foot Dorr combination washing-thickener
(top tray), then to two 10- by 14-foot Dorr agitators, and back through the second, third,
and fourth compartments of the thickener before being pumped to the tailings launder. The
gold solution is clarified and treated in a Merrill-Crowe, bog-type, precipitation unit. The
precipitate is refined in a Monarch tilting-pot furnace.
The crushing and grinding units are capable of handling up to 100 tons per twenty-four
hours and although the present tank-capacity is 25 to 30 tons the addition of further thickeners
and agitators would make an increase in tonnage a simple and comparatively inexpensive
matter.
The mill machinery is all electrically driven by 440-volt motors with power supplied from
a 125-k.v.a. generator driven by a 120-horse-power Vivian Diesel engine.
During the year an average of thirty men was employed; eight in the mine, thirteen at
the mill on construction, seven on the surface, and two salaried officials.
Cariboo Yankee Belle Mining Co., Ltd.—W. F. Cameron, manager; C. R. Cameron,
foreman. The main development tunnel, planned to intersect the Corban series of quartz
veins at a depth of approximately 700 feet, was advanced to 1,643 feet from the portal before
operations ceased for the year.
Marriner Group.—L. H. Hinton, engineer in charge. The N. A. Timmins Corporation
took an option on this property during 1938 and did considerable exploratory work in the
form of deep trenches and open-cuts.    It is understood that the option was relinquished.
Golden Ore Syndicate.—Forbes A. Clarke, general manager. At the time of inspection,
three men were employed in driving two short adits.
Bell-Holm Group*—Alfred Holmwood, of Prince George, during the year unwatered a
shaft sunk a number of years ago to explore some intersecting quartz veins of maximum
width 3 feet contained in schistose greenstone. The property is near the north end of the
boundary-line between Pre-emption Lots 1602 and 1601, and is reached by following the
Prince George-Hazelton Road south-westward for a distance of 6Vz miles, at which point a
wagon-road 3% miles in length leads to the property. Sampling disclosed material gold
values at one point.
BY
Charles Graham.
Zymoetz River District.
Some prospecting was done in the Zymoetz and Big Bull groups and small shipments
made from each to the sampling plant at Prince Rupert.
Usk District.
Small shipments were made from the Cordillera and Lucky Luke to the sampling plant.
A lease has been given on the Columario Mine to W. Duncan, of Usk, who expects to
commence work early in the year.
Pitman District.
Grotto Group.—Considerable prospecting has been done and several shipments made to
the sampling plant. Work is being continued through the winter months. This property is
about 6 miles east of Usk.
■  i
* By Douglas Lay. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 49
Hazelton District.
Silver Standard Mine.—Canadian Cadillac Gold Mines, Limited. A. S. Williamson,
manager. This property, from which considerable tonnage has been mined some years ago,
was  reopened.
Nos. 4 and 5 crosscut tunnels have been cleaned up and retimbered. They are now in
good shape.    These tunnels are each in about 950 feet and intersect several veins.
Ore-extraction in previous years had been on the 400 level, No. 4 adit, where considerable stoping had been done.
Some additional work was done on all veins by hand, principally for sampling purposes.
No underground mining operations were carried out.
The old camp was cleaned up and the necessary repairs made to the various buildings.
There is nothing definite yet with regard to a future programme.
Smithers District—Hudson Bay Mountain.
Glacier Gulch.—Campbell, Loveless & Banta continued operations on their claims and
made a shipment of ore. Prospecting was also done on the Snowshoe, Coronada, Victory,
and Empire groups.
Babine Mountain.
Prospecting was done on the Valhalla, Rainbow, Driftwood, Victoria, Lorraine, and
Silver Pick groups.
Telkwa District—Dome Mountain.
Babine Gold Mines, Ltd.—Nothing was done on this property during the year.
Grouse Mountain.
Prospecting was done on the D. & N. and Last Chance groups.
Topley District.
Some prospecting was done on the Gold Group, Golden Eagle, and several other groups
during the summer.
Aiken Lake District.
Croydon Group.—Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited. E.
Brunland, superintendent.
Considerable prospecting was done during the summer, eight men were employed. Work
was discontinued in September when a bush fire destroyed the camp.
Mercury Deposits.
Fort St. James District.
Mercury Group.—0. J. Ostrem, owner. Under option to Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Company of Canada, Limited. Eight men under the direction of E. Brunland
carried on active prospecting on this group. This is being continued during the winter
months.
Antimony Deposits.
Snowshoe Group.—O. J. Ostrem, owner. Some prospecting has been carried on by the
owner on this group.
Tungsten Deposits.
by
J. A. Mitchell.
Hardscrabble Mine.—Columbia Tungstens Company, Limited. A. E. Pike, manager;
D. D. Fraser, consulting engineer. During the early part of the year, underground development was carried on with a skeleton crew of fifteen men. In May the power-house, pilot-mill,
and adjoining buildings were completely destroyed by fire.
Underground work was suspended and rebuilding was commenced during the summer
with the erection of a power-house 24 by 42 feet. The plant installed consists of a 120-
horse-power Ruston Diesel to drive a 100-k.v.a. General Electric generator, and a 60-horse- C 50 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
power Ruston to drive a Holman 312-cubic-feet compressor. Starting equipment and a
small auxiliary lighting plant were also installed.
A new frame structure bunk-house, 24 by 56 feet, was built and a new office building
erected.    All buildings were wired and connected to water-mains.
An electric hoist is being installed and is being equipped with safety devices as required
by law.
Because of suspended operations during the rebuilding period, underground development
was light and consisted of only 80 feet of sinking, 166 feet of crosscutting, and 255 feet of
drifting, a small part of which was in the overburden.
PLACER OPERATIONS.
BY
J. A. Mitchell.
(N.B.—A general shortage of water curtailed the production of placer gold during 1938.)
Cariboo Area.
Consolidated Gold Alluvials of B.C., Ltd.—A. M. Richmond, general manager; E. E.
Mason, general superintendent; J. K. Halley, mine engineer. This company operates the
Wingdam mine at Wingdam;  workings are known as the Sanderson and Melvin mines.
The Sanderson mine-workings are in inter-Glacial gravel at an elevation of 2,960 feet.
Access to them is by one vertical and one incline shaft, both driven in gravel. The pillar-
and-stall method of mining is used, with close timbering. The workings now cover an area
of 20 acres. Haulage is by means of a storage-battery locomotive. About ninety men are
employed. During the year 52,435 cubic yards of gravel was extracted, yielding 7,046 fine
ounces of gold.
The Melvin workings were projected to mine the narrow, deep channel of Lightning
Creek. They consist of a drainage and service level in rock at 2,800 feet elevation, and
drives in the deep channel at 2,875 feet elevation, connected to the former by raises and
sub-levels in rock. Entry is had by a 270-foot shaft sunk in rock. During the year, three
entries were made into the deep channel and 224 linear feet of reef drives and 1,050 feet of
gravel drives were completed. These workings were flooded by the waters of Lightning
Creek on March 22nd, 1938.    Since that date no further work has been done.
Conditions at the Sanderson mine are entirely different; there are no bodies of slum to
contend with and the gravels are thoroughly drained. Provided experienced men are in
charge these gravels can be safely worked without difficulty.
The Sanderson workings are separated from the Melvin workings by an 18-inch reinforced
concrete bulkhead at the top of the connecting raise. The level of the water in the Melvin
workings is kept below this bulkhead by the use of a 500-gallon-per-minute Pomona pump
located at the collar of the Melvin shaft. This is capable of handling the flow but a 1,000-
gallon-per-minute Johnson pump is in reserve for emergency use.
Hixon-Quesnelle Placers, Ltd.—-Brian Briscoe, managing director; A. C. Stewart, superintendent. Fourteen men and a No. 6 monitor under 126 lb. pressure were employed at this
operation at the time it was inspected.
Quesnel Mining Company, Ltd.—Chas. S. Buck, superintendent. An average of thirty-
five men was employed at this operation during the summer.
Deriving water from Spanish Creek, this company has opened up a hydraulic pit on
the Cariboo River, on the Ruby lease, down-stream from Spanish Creek, proving the existence
of a former channel of the river lying buried instream in the south bank of the latter. The
bed-rock is about 25 feet above the river. So far as is known, this is the only hydraulic that
experienced no water-shortage during the year, the supply being adequate for the continuous
operation of one 8-inch and one 7-inch nozzle throughout the season.
Placer Engineers, Ltd.—Ernest F. Lang, manager. It is reported that twelve men and
and one monitor were employed at this operation during the summer.
Bullion Placers, Ltd.—Ray F. Sharpe, general manager; J. A. Ryland, superintendent;
J. Forman, mine foreman. An average of seventy-five men and two monitors were employed
at this operation during the summer.
X	 NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 51
The abnormally dry season resulted in an unavoidable curtailment of yardage-output,
and at the latter part of the season probably would not exceed 1,250,000 yards. The wisdom
of the campaign of Keystone-drilling carried out in recent years has been demonstrated, as
it has been of a particularly informative character, revealing unexpected features, and
enabling future operations to be planned with certainty. The Bullion pit has now holed
through to the upper part of the South Fork pit.
Pine Creek Mining Co., Ltd.—There were ten to twelve men and one monitor employed
during the year.
Burrard Placers, Ltd.—There were ten to twelve men and one monitor employed at this
operation during the year.
Sangdang Placers.—Wm. H. Hong, general manager. A No. 5 and No. 2 monitor under
60 lb. pressure and an average of fifteen men were employed at this operation. As was
general throughout the area, the lack of water seriously curtailed the production. The banks
are up to 80 feet high.
Last Chance Placers.—Wm. Hong, manager. One No. 3 monitor, working under a
100-foot head of water, and three men were employed at this operation. The banks are up
to 70 feet high.
Montgomery Creek Placers.—Wm. Hong, manager. One No. 1 monitor, working under
a 100-foot head of water, and three men were employed at this operation. The banks are up
to 60 feet high.
The Ketch Mine.—Russel McDougall, superintendent. One No. 4 monitor, working under
a pressure of 70 lb., and an average of fifteen men were employed at this property.
Dragon Creek Placers.—Russel McDougall, manager; D. Smith, foreman. One No. 2
monitor, working under a 40-lb. pressure, and a maximum of five men were employed at this
operation.
Eastman Red Gulch Placers, Ltd.—A. F. Eastman, general superintendent. One monitor
and seven men were employed during 1938.
French Creek Hydraulic Placers, Ltd.—Ivan I. Felker, superintendent. This placer is
worked by one monitor at 120 lb. pressure and eight men are employed.
Barkerville Gold Mines, Ltd.—C. A. McPherson, superintendent. Work at this placer
was confined to construction-work and ditch-making.    Nine men were employed.
Slade Placers, Ltd.—Maury Caldwell, superintendent. This placer was worked by one
No. 2 monitor until the water-supply failed. Work was then confined to construction-work.
Three dams were built and the ground is in good shape for next year's operation. Six men
are employed.
McMillan Leases.—-Fraser & Peers, of Quesnel, B.C., acting for Portland interests,
drilled seventeen holes and put down nineteen shallow shafts preparatory to further drilling.
This work ceased when the option was relinquished.
No Name Placer Mine.—Operating for the same account as on the McMillan property,
Fraser & Peers, employing a crew of three men, put down four shafts to bed-rock on this
ground.
A new discovery of coarse gold was made during the year by D. Pearson on a small
creek locally named No Name Creek, flowing north-eastward and eastward into Beaverpass
Creek, north of the mouth of Baldhead Creek. The property is about 3% miles, by the
Beaver Pass trail, from Beaver Pass House. By sinking in old Chinese workings, which
followed post-Glacial gravels down to a false bed-rock of boulder-clay, the owner discovered
coarse gold on true bed-rock only a few feet below the clay. The total recovery to date from
ground-sluicing operations is reported as being very encouraging, including one nugget
weighing 18 dwt. The continuation of operations will doubtless reveal the full significance
of this discovery, which is not now clear from exposures, beyond the fact that it is of
undoubted merit.
Gagen Creek.—Still for the same account, Fraser & Peers, with a crew of men, are
drilling and sinking a shaft on the leases owned by H. G. Jamieson.
Lowhee Mining Co., Ltd.—Chas. W. Lea, general manager; Henry Lea, manager;
Joseph House, superintendent. At the time of inspection two No. 6 monitors were at work
under 65 lb. pressure per square inch. There were twenty-seven men at work, but the
average number of men employed during the 1938 season is reported to be about fifteen. C 52 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
The effect of the dry season was severely felt at this property, at which hydraulic
operations have now been carried on for forty years, the hydraulic pit and sluice-flume now
reach a length of 1% miles.
BY
Douglas Lay.
Cariboo Placers, Inc.—This company, a Seattle incorporation, holds fourteen leases on
the right bank of Antler Creek, adjoining and down-stream from the property of Guyet
Placers, Limited. There is every topographic indication that a former channel of Antler
Creek, some miles in length, lies buried in its right bank at a height of about 260 feet above
the creek. Investigation seems warranted to determine if dredging or hydraulic possibilities exist.
Devil's Canyon.—A new discovery was made during the year by R. R. Moffat, immediately east of Devil's Canyon, on the Quesnel-Barkerville Road. At this point, there is a
considerable amount of meadow-land at the Chisholm Creek-Devil's Lake Creek divide on
both sides of the latter. Early miners worked off post-Glacial deposits situated on top of
the east wall of Devil's Canyon. The new discovery was made at the north end of a
meadow considerably farther instream. A small hydraulic plant was installed by the
owner, water for the purpose being pumped from one of the small lakes in Devil's Canyon.
Canamco, Ltd.—This company, of which E. B. Skeels is president, for some weeks
operated a drag-line plant of modern design on a large bench on the left bank of the Fraser
River, on Pre-emption Lot 502, 5% miles north of Quesnel, after which the plant was moved
to Canyon Creek. This installation, of movable land-plant type, consists of a digging unit
comprising a boom drag-line caterpillar shovel with 1-cubic-yard bucket capacity operated
by a gasoline-engine, and a recovery plant mounted on caterpillar tracks, operated by a
Diesel-electric unit. The recovery plant comprises receiving hopper; double-screen trommel
(holes 1 inch round and % by 1 inch slotted) ; four 36-inch Ainlay centrifugal bowls with
rubber riffles, for recovering gold, taking trommel undersize; sand-pump which stacks the
tailings from the Ainlay bowls; and coarse tailings stacker. In this case wash-water was
pumped from the river by a Jaeger self-priming centrifugal pump. The capacity of this
plant is about 75 cubic yards per hour and four men per shift are required for its operation.
Property of D. B. Wallesen.—Two leases held by D. B. Wallesen on the west side of the
Fraser River, in part situated on Pre-emption Lots 6170 and 82, are 5 miles by motor-road
from Quesnel. Placer occurrence is typical of former river-bar deposition, now expressed in
the form of elevated benches of considerable extent. Much ingenuity is reflected in the
inexpensive and efficient plant devised by the owner for the recovery of gold. This comprises
a mobile bucket-elevator with pulleys on 18-foot centres, delivering gravels shovelled by hand
into its boot at an " A " grizzly, with bars three-quarters of an inch apart, the undersize
passes to a blanket-table covered with expanded metal riffling, 7 feet long, inclined at a slope
of 3 inches in 12 inches. The total power required for the operation of this plant is 4%
horse-power, which includes the power required (3 horse-power) to pump sluice-water from
the Fraser River. The total consumption of gasoline per shift is 4 gallons, and three men
suffice for the operation of this plant, which has a capacity of upwards of 20 cubic yards
per shift.
Operations of A. P. Himmelman.—A considerable yardage was mined by drag-line
installed by A. P. Himmelman on Placer-mining Lease 3150, situated on Pre-emption Lot
716, on the left bank of the Fraser River, between Chimney and Pablo Creeks, and distant
14 miles from Williams Lake by highway and branch motor-road. At this point a bench
approximately 100 feet above the river, of considerable extent, offers excellent dump facilities.
Extensive old workings at the up-stream end of the bench indicate that this was formerly a
favourable point for deposition of gold. During the year gravels were mined to a maximum
depth of 35 feet, which suggests a possible underlying former channel of the river in this
region.
Cottonwood Canyon Gold Mines.—The leases of H. Bellos and associates on the Cottonwood River, described on page C 25, Annual Report, Minister of Mines, British Columbia,
1936, have been acquired by a syndicate named Cottonwood Canyon Gold Mines. A small
hydraulic installation utilizing water from Hush (May) Lake was completed during the year, NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. C 53
giving a head of about 200 feet at the monitor, set up on a rock bench on the right bank of
the river, about 45 feet above the latter, where dump facilities for tailings are good.
Leases of J. Coreau.—J. Coreau, of Cottonwood, holds two leases on Norton and Mary
Creeks, tributaries of John Boyd Creek. The property is reached by a wagon-road 5 miles
in length, which branches from the Quesnel-Barkerville Road at Cottonwood. One lease on
Norton Creek covers the old San Juan mine, reopened a few years ago under the direction of
H. McN. Fraser, but subsequently again closed down after considerable work. The present
owner reports encouraging values in gravels overlying a rock bench about 2,000 feet in length
and somewhat under 200 feet in width on the right bank of Norton Creek.
Manson Creek District.
by
Charles Graham.
Lost Creek.
Dunsmore Gold Mining Co., Ltd.—J. M. Dunsmore, manager. This is an underground
operation, the only one in the district. There is a shaft 90 feet deep on the East Bench of
Lost Creek. The shaft is connected to an old adit-level driven over twenty years ago which
serves as drainage and provides a second opening. Water for sluicing is pumped to the
shaft by a 450-gallon centrifugal pump.    A camp has been built.
Lost Creek Placer Gold, Ltd.—Bert McDonald, manager. This is a surface operation
using a combination shovel and drag-line. Water is very scarce, not being sufficient to
provide for sluicing.    They have started to build a ditch to bring water from Manson Creek.
Manson Creek.
The Northern Gold Placers had a steam-shovel operating last year, but have apparently
suspended operations.    There are several individual operators working on the creek.
Slate Creek.
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Ltd.—W. M. Ogilvie, manager.
This is a drag-line operation working three shifts and employing thirty-five men. A bulldozer
is used to break the ground into the drag-line pit.
Germansen Creek Area.
Germansen Ventures, Ltd.—Frank deGanahl, manager. This is a hydraulic operation.
Three pits have been opened up, but only two of them are being operated. A ditch and
flume 11 miles in length was constructed during the winter to bring water from Germansen
Lake. The ditch has a capacity of 200 second-feet. A slide took out about 250 feet of flume
which caused considerable delay in the early part of the season. A flume section had to be
built in around the slide. The company completed a road from their camp on the Omineca
River about 8 miles up Germansen Creek, built a bridge across the creek and connected the
road with the road built by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited, from Germansen Lake to Slate Creek, thus giving a road through from Fort St.
James to Germansen Landing on the Omineca River.    Supplies can now be taken in by truck.
Germansen Mines, Ltd.—A. A. McCorkell, manager. This is a hydraulic operation on
Germansen Creek employing about ten men.
Takla Lake District.
Tom Creek.
Tom Creek Placer Mining Co.—J. J. Warren, manager. This is a surface operation
using a steam-shovel.    About twenty-two men are employed.
Harrison Creek.
Harrison Creek Ventures, Ltd.—Frank deGanahl, manager. The property did not
operate during the year, the gravel from the previous winter's underground work was sluiced. C 54 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1938.
Vital Creek.
Northern Ventures, Ltd.—Frank deGanahl, manager.    This is the only underground
operation in the district.    It did not operate during the year.
Quartz Creek.
Several groups of prospectors worked on this creek during the season.  

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