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BC Sessional Papers

PART F. WESTERN MINERAL SURVEY DISTRICT (No. 6). BY B. T. O'GRADY. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1936

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 WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). FI
PART F.
WESTERN MINERAL SURVEY DISTRICT (No. 6).
by
B. T. O'Grady.
GENERAL SUMMARY.
During the period under review most of the mining activity in the Western Mineral Survey
District was concerned with lode-gold exploration, development, and production. District No. 6
includes the following eleven Mining Divisions: Victoria, Alberni, Clayoquot, Quatsino,
Nanaimo, Vancouver, New Westminster, Yale, Ashcroft, Clinton, and Lillooet. No first-hand
information was obtained on the numerous activities outside the areas visited. Productive
and exploratory operations in the Bridge River camp continue to provide employment for a
large aggregate number of men. Work was suspended at some of the outlying properties,
promoted during the boom period, due to lack of funds or other reasons, but geological investigations which have been made may lead to resumption of work in some cases. Prospecting
by individuals, partnerships, and syndicates was generally actively conducted throughout the
district.
LODE-GOLD DEPOSITS.
Squamish District.
The property of this syndicate consists of the Golden Coin, Robbie Burns,
Ashloo Gold Highlander, Devonian, Derby, Petro, Fonk, and Grandview mineral claims,
Mining Syndicate.formerly known as the Gold Coin group. There are also eight adjoining-
claims, held in trust for the syndicate, which are recent stakings. All the
claims are held by location. The property adjoins Ashlu creek, a tributary of the Squamish
river, at a point about 8 miles north-west of the junction, and therefore in the Vancouver
Mining Division.
Access to the property is had, first by motor-road, about 22 miles in length, from Squamish
to Upper Squamish, where there was formerly a bridge over the Squamish river. This was
demolished many years ago and the crossing of this very wide and locally swift stream is now
made by boat. From the western bank a wagon-road about 2 miles in length connects with
the packer's camp, from which a wide trail 6 miles long extends to the mine camp. Transportation improvements made by the syndicate during 1935 include: Widening and partial
reconstruction of the trail; repairs to the 2-mile section of old wagon-road, with replacement
of the bridge over Ashlu creek; and the building of a 116-foot-span suspension bridge to
connect mine-workings and buildings on opposite sides of Ashlu creek. When it becomes
necessary the Squamish River crossing could be improved without great expense by the installation of a ferry operating on an overhead cable utilizing the swift current. The road from
the western bank of the river, at elevation of 150 feet above sea-level, to the packer's camp
at 175 feet elevation, crossing Ashlu creek en route, passes over level forested lands and flats
to the foot of the mountain. Thence the trail, running diagonally towards Ashlu creek, climbs
in a length of 1.75 miles to the summit of the divide at 1,750 feet elevation. From this point
it continues north-westerly along the high ground sloping to Ashlu creek for 4.25 miles,
gradually descending to the mine camp at 1,375 feet elevation. The obvious route for the
trail would be to follow Ashlu creek more closely, but this is stated to involve considerable
expense due to the steep, rocky, and rugged nature of much of the ground. For extended use
partial relocation of the existing trail route would be desirable to eliminate unnecessary steep
pitches and adverse grades.
Resembling the general topography of the Coast range, the local relief is rugged, with
steep slopes flanking Ashlu creek, which, opposite the Golden Coin workings, flows through a
canyon about 50 feet deep and 75 feet or more in width. Its two tributaries in the immediate
vicinity, Pykett and Andorson creeks, also follow gorge-like courses, though not so deeply cut
as Ashlu creek.    Locally, all three streams have steep gradients, that of Ashlu creek approxi-
provincial Library
victoria, b. c. F 2
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
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mating 10 per cent. Approaching their junction with the latter stream, which is a considerable
torrent, Pykett and Andorson creeks, with comparatively small flows, descend steeply in falls
and cascades. The Ashlu Creek drainage area includes fine stands of commercial timber, large
areas adjoining the mining property having formerly been held as timber limits. The principal
trees in the immediate vicinity are fir, cedar, hemlock, and balsam. Occasional firs and cedars
are up to 6 feet or more in diameter. Ample timber is therefore conveniently situated for all
possible mining or construction requirements.
The Ashlu Creek area has not been mapped geologically, but from reconnaissance-work
along the line of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to the east and along Jervis inlet to the
west it is seen to be well within the Coast Range batholith. The Coast Range batholith is not
by any means a continuous area of granitic rocks, but contains many roof-pendants, some of
great extent.
On the claims under discussion granitic rock types include a light- to medium-coloured
fairly coarse-grained granite, and a granodiorite, a darker rock containing a large percentage
of ferromagnesian minerals. The former appears locally as dykes and small areas within the
latter. The mineralized quartz deposits are intimately associated with a narrow zone of dark,
basic, fine-grained highly altered rock traversing the granodiorite. Its relation to the lighter
granite, which adjoins it on the hanging-wall side at points in the Golden Coin drift, is not
known. Samples of this dark rock in or along which the deposits occur were found to show
igneous characteristics in some specimens, the suite in general strongly suggesting contact
phenomena whereby a hybrid rock such as is formed along a contact phase of granitic rock has
been produced. At one point on Pykett creek this rock resembles a dyke-structure, 6 to 8 feet
wide, on the hanging-wall of the quartz-showing, granitic rock being exposed on the foot-wall.
In the adit on the Golden Coin claim similar dark basic material forms the wall-rocks, but, as
far as noted, lacks any definite structure, being distributed in irregular outline on one or both
walls or as inclusions in the quartz, and generally blending with the surrounding granitic
rocks without any definite lines of demarcation. The deposits consist of quartz, with adjoining
or included wall-rock, mineralized with pyrite, chalcopyrite, and occasionally pyrrhotite in
irregular bunches, masses, and dissemination, generally where the gangue is fractured. Gold
values fluctuate with the percentage of sulphides present and appear to be associated with
pyrite rather than with chalcopyrite. Where sulphides are absent assays show little or no
gold values.
Large sampling operations would be necessary to determine average values in the Golden
Coin ore-shoot area. In the Golden Coin adit the quartz-zone, the total width of which is not
fully exposed, is developed in bands, lenses, and stringers along the hanging-wall side of a shear.
On Pykett creek the apparent extension of the Golden Coin deposits occurs chiefly as
continuous bands of quartz developed along a well-defined fissure. The strike of the fissure
varies from southerly on Pykett creek to south-west on the Golden Coin. The dip averages
about 23 degrees to the west, though in the latter workings there are local rolls and approximately horizontal attitudes.
Originally known as the Golden King group, staked in 1923, the Golden Coin property was
acquired by the present syndicate in 1934. References to the Golden King and Golden Coin
are contained in the Reports of the Minister of Mines for 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1930, 1932,
and Bulletin No. 1, 1932, " Lode-gold Deposits of British Columbia."
In describing the surface and underground workings the Golden Coin and Pykett Creek
areas will be dealt with separately.
Golden Coin.—The outcrop along the western side of Anderson creek is at an elevation
of from 1,359 to 1,362 feet, or practically horizontal. On the hanging-wall side of a strong
shear, quartz bands and stringers, in a zone 32 to 37 inches wide, are exposed over a length
of 106 feet. At the southern end the outcrop is covered where it goes under a vertical bluff
over which Anderson Creek cascades. Continuing northerly from the falls, at the foot
of which the quartz, in bands and stringers, is under shallow water, there is a stope
between points 67 and 80 feet from which a shipment was made in October, 1934, of 5.9
tons, assaying 3.40 oz. gold per ton. This stope is 8.5 feet down on the dip and from 32 to
34 inches wide. Between chainages 80 and 106 feet the quartz-showing is up to 37 inches wide.
Northerly from the latter point quartz is not much in evidence, giving way to crushed siliceous
material along the foot-wall shear which continues for 50 feet along the trail, cut out of the F 4 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
canyon-wall, to where it is hidden by overburden. Sulphides, which are abundant along the
edges of the stope, occur in sparse disseminations through the quartz to the north and south
of the stope.
The outcrop is exposed again at the portal of the Golden Coin adit, elevation 1,260 feet.
From this point a drift extends along the mineralized zone partly developing an ore-shoot below
the stope on the Andorson Creek outcrop, the backs measured along the dip being over 230 feet.
The relationship of the surface and underground exposures, with details of the adit-
workings, are shown on the accompanying plan. Referring to this and chaining in feet
southerly along the adit from the portal, general conditions are as follows: From 0 to 83 feet
(raise A) the quartz-showings, crushed and broken, occur irregularly in bands, patches, and
stringers, with inclusions and partings of rock. Raise A, 31 feet up, measured along the local
dip of 30 degrees, exposes irregular small patches of quartz with discontinuous quartz stringers
up to 4 inches wide sparingly mineralized with scattered pyrite. A little southerly from
raise A the quartz shows more continuity and mineralization. At chainage 103 feet, on the
western side of the drift, there is from 33 to 42 inches of quartz showing small scattered patches
of pyrite. On the eastern side of the drift, between raise A and chainage 103 feet, there is a
zone of quartz stringers from 20 to 30 inches wide, including a continuous hanging-wall
band, from 3 to 10 inches in width, in which iron and copper sulphides are concentrated.
At chainage 121 feet, on the eastern side of the drift, against the hanging-wall, the quartz
is 20 inches wide, with fairly abundant iron and copper-sulphide mineralization, occurring in
small patches and irregular disseminations. At this point a selected sample gave: Gold,
0.93 oz. per ton; silver, 1 oz. per ton; copper, 0.6 per cent. Quartz is also showing in the
roof; its full width, here as at other points, is not exposed in the drift. At chainage 133 feet,
where the drift bends south-westerly, there is 50 inches of quartz well mineralized with areas
of massive pyrite and small scattered sulphide aggregates, and a sample across 44 inches
assayed: Gold, 0.62 oz. per ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton. At chainage 148 feet, raise B, 5 feet
up, exposes quartz, 16 inches wide, containing disseminations and small masses of pyrite.
Between raises B and C the quartz is in the roof or hanging-wall side and not exposed in the
drift. At raise D, chainage 212, the quartz is again well exposed in the roof. This raise,
up 5.5 feet, shows a 62-inch width of quartz, including, towards the foot-wall side, a band
6 to 12 inches wide, well mineralized with pyrite. In other parts of this showing the pyrite
is sparsely disseminated. In the drift between raise C and chainage 182 feet there is no
appreciable amount of quartz, but between the latter point and raise D there are bands and
patches of quartz sparingly mineralized with pyrite. At chainage 237 feet, where raise E
was put up for a hoist-station, a full 66-inch width of quartz is again exposed, including a
central 11-inch band in which pyrite is concentrated. No appreciable amount of sulphides is
apparent in the rest of the quartz. On the opposite side of raise E, at chainage 241 feet, the
quartz is 35 inches wide, with pyrite concentrated over a 13-inch foot-wall section. Summarizing the section described, the main showings are exposed at intervals in raises B, C, D,
and E, and in the adit itself northerly from raise B toward raise A, mineralization decreasing
as the latter point is approached. Continuing southerly along the working from raise E to
the crosscut at chainage 308 feet, there are only irregular quartz stringers. At the face
of this 21-foot crosscut, raise F, 6 feet up, has been driven entirely in granitic rock. At the
foot of this raise the inclined winze F, 9 feet deep, exposes widths of from 18 to 36 inches of
quartz, with rock inclusions, well mineralized with bunches of sulphides. From this point
a shipment of 5.905 tons was made in August, 1935, assaying 3.40 oz. gold per ton. From the
crosscut at chainage 308 feet to the crosscut at chainage 345 feet there are quartz stringers
and isolated lenses containing sparsely disseminated pyrite. At the face of the latter crosscut,
which is 22 feet long, a pit, or shallow winze, exposes a flat-lying 28-inch width of quartz
containing lightly disseminated sulphides. The section between 345 feet and the face of the
main adit, at 389.5 feet, is entirely within a dense, highly altered dark rock in which the shear
has apparently been dissipated. When the property was visited early in October the winze
in the crosscut opposite raise E was sunk 64 feet on a 23-degree dip. The hanging-wall quartz
is well exposed in the 20-foot crosscut approach, the roof having been blasted down for a hoist-
station (raise E). At the collar of the winze the quartz is from 51 to 54 inches wide, including
a well-mineralized band 12 to 24 inches wide, along the hanging-wall. WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6). F 5
Continuing down the winze at 3 feet the quartz splits into bands, irregular patches, and
stringers. On the northern side of the winze, between 30 and 62 feet, along the foot-wall side
there is a continuous band of quartz from 22 to 50 inches wide with some rock inclusions.
Adjoining this quartz-band there are widely spaced stringers in places. In the face, at 64 feet,
the foot-wall quartz, which is irregularly mineralized throughout with streaks and masses of
iron sulphides, splits into two narrow bands and some stringers. Samples taken in the face
across two bands of quartz, 13 and 6 inches wide, assayed respectively: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;
silver, trace; and: Gold, 1.34 oz. per ton; silver, 1.4 oz. per ton. On the southern side of the
winze from 3 feet to the face at 64 feet there is a continuous band of quartz, 10 to 18 inches
wide, along the foot-wall, which is part of a zone 4 to 6 feet wide, made up of bands, stringers,
and patches of quartz well mineralized in places with streaks and masses of sulphides. Since
the property was visited the winze has been sunk to 89 feet (November 25th).
At 80 feet in the winze on the northern side small aggregates of scheelite were noted,
a picked specimen of which assayed 44.41 per cent, tungsten. Discussing conditions in the
Golden Coin workings, the most continuous and definite exposure is that in the upper 60-foot
section of the main winze opposite raise E, the average width of mineralized quartz being
about 4 feet. To the north of the winze the ore-shoot is chiefly in the hanging-wall of the
main drift, as exposed by quartz sections cut in raises B, C, and D. Northerly from raise B
mineralization of interest shows in the drift to about chainage 121 feet. Southerly from the
main winze, high-grade ore is exposed in the shallow winze F, in crosscut at chainage 308 feet,
and sparsely mineralized quartz shows in the pit in the crosscut at chainage 345 feet.
Assuming continuity between the exposures in the drift-workings, the indicated length
of the ore-shoot is roughly 200 feet. The foot-wall shear is strong in the section between the
portal and the main winze. Southerly from the latter point, the shear is less pronounced and
becomes obscure as stated above. In this connection the present workings do not definitely
preclude the possibility of some extension of the deposits to the south. There is a suggestion
of a split in the mineralized quartz-zone in the adit south of the bend at chainage 133 feet,
where there are a number of broken quartz veinlets apparently associated with a shearing
striking southerly as opposed to the south-westerly strike which has been followed.
The Anderson Creek outcrop, beyond the immediate vicinity of the stope, 13 feet long, is
not sufficiently well exposed and samples could not be taken or the length of the ore-shoot
measured, but it appears to be considerably shorter than in the drift below. A raise in the
ore-zone from the latter to the surface would be necessary before the exposures at the two
horizons could be correlated and an estimate made of probable tonnage available in this section.
The zone of quartz occurrences in the Golden Coin drift is wide and exposures at the two
horizons are not necessarily in the same plane.
Pykett Creek.—The Pykett Creek showings, although widely separated from the previously described workings, are believed to be on the extension of the same fissure. The
first outcrop north of Ashlu creek is 726 feet distant along a bearing of north 7 degrees
50 minutes east from the portal of the Golden Coin drift. Throughout this length the
outcrop is either under Ashlu creek or obscured by debris. Continuing from this point
(elevation 1,271 feet), there is a continuous quartz-outcrop extending for 182 feet along
the foot of a canyon-wall about 30 feet high. The quartz, varying in width from 1 to 3 feet,
is apparently very sparsely mineralized with iron sulphides, but irregular zones of oxidation,
occurring where the gangue is fractured in places, indicate the original presence of sulphides
or pyritized inclusions of wall-rock. About the centre of this outcrop, or at chainage 93 feet,
elevation 1,291 feet, an adit has been driven 25 feet northerly along the strike. Gold values
here are understood to be very low. Between chainages 182 and 635 feet the outcrop is covered
with dirt and boulders from the steep north-western bank of the creek. From the latter point
to 641 feet on the hanging-wall side, quartz occurs up to 16 inches wide, the foot-wall section
being covered. At chainage 644 feet, elevation 1,454 feet, there is an adit 32 feet long driven
north 15 degrees east along the strike of the quartz. Along the eastern wall of the drift
conditions are as follows: At the portal the hanging-wall band of quartz from 2 to 5 inches
wide is separated from the 15-inch-wide foot-wall band by 22 inches of iron-stained rock.
At 10 feet in from the portal the two quartz-bands unite and form a 30-inch width, which is
continuous until it reaches the face, where it is 42 inches wide, excluding quartz in the roof.
On the western wall of the drift there is a zone of stringers and narrow lenses of quartz. F 6 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
The showings are well mineralized in general with irregular masses and streaks of pyrite,
together with occasional chalcopyrite. Near the portal there are slight copper-carbonate
stains. It was from this 32-foot adit that a shipment of 2.5 tons of sorted ore was made which
assayed 5.10 oz. gold per ton.    No stoping was done.
Continuing again from the north-eastern side of the portal to chainage 660 feet, the quartz-
outcrop, with rock inclusions, is 4 feet wide. From this point to 666 feet there is a shearing
accompanied by iron-stained, crushed, siliceous material over a width of 30 inches. From
666 to 693 feet the outcrop is covered by boulders and alluvial material, and from the latter
point to 699 feet the outcrop consists of sheared and crushed iron-stained rock up to 17 inches
wide. Beyond this point, which is at elevation 1,460 feet, the outcrop is covered. Other
exposures, not visited, are reported farther to the north-east.
In the section examined Pykett creek flows south-westerly over, or very close to, the
outcrop and diagonally along the dip of the fissure, which, in the very limited underground
workings, strikes about north 10 to 15 degrees east. The dip varies from 25 to 35 degrees
westerly. Much of the outcrop cannot be examined in detail due to its relative inaccessibility,
as the torrent washes against it and other parts are covered with gravel and debris.
Summarizing conditions in the Pykett Creek area examined, the better values are concentrated in the upper adit, where there appears to be a lens continuous within the present limits
of this working. Immediately below and above the portal, erosion in the plane of the deposit
exposes it on the dip. In this aspect, on account of poor exposures, no appreciable continuity
of mineralization was noted. The good ore in the upper adit indicates a shoot the dimensions
of which remain to be determined by further development. While no appreciable amount of
quartz is in evidence at the north-eastern end of the outcrop, the shear appears to continue
under the overburden.
Additional camp buildings, on a site across Ashlu creek from the Golden Coin adit, have
been constructed by the syndicate to accommodate fifteen men. Water-power, which has been
developed by Anderson creek, involved the construction of a masonry and timber dam, the
clearing and grading of a water-line right-of-way. and the laying of a steel pressure pipe-line
1,489 feet in length. A power-plant building houses the 75-horse-power water-wheel, belt-
connected to a 401-c.f.m. Gardner-Denver 6-cylinder 2-stage air-compressor.
Cayoosh Creek-Dupfey Lake Area.
The holdings of the Bonanza Cache Gold Mines, Limited, in the Lillooet
Bonanza Cache Mining Division, comprise the following ten Crown-granted claims: Ruby,
Gold Mines, Ltd. Mineral Point, Golden Strike, Golden Eagle; the Bonanza group, Lots 123
128, inclusive; together with thirty-two claims and fractions held by location;
included in the latter are the Morning Glory group of seventeen claims and the Marygold
group of two claims. All told, therefore, there are forty-two claims held by this company.
The Bonanza Cache property, which was the only one being actively worked at the time of
inspection, adjoins Cayoosh creek 12 miles by motor-road south from Lillooet, a station on the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway, or 9.5 miles from Craig Lodge at the eastern end of Seton
lake. The Golden Cache lies to the north-west of the Bonanza Cache, with which it is connected
by a steep trail, extending from 1,500 to 2,850 feet elevation, on the northern side of Cayoosh
creek. The Morning Glory group lies on both sides of Phair (Cottonwood) creek, some prospecting having been done at a point about 1.75 miles by trail from Cayoosh creek. The
Marygold group is east of Seton lake in the angle between Cayoosh and Enterprise creeks.
The claims comprising the Bonanza Cache, Golden Cache, and Morning Glory groups are shown
on a plan prepared by Noel Humphrys, British Columbia land surveyor, of Vancouver. This
also shows the local topography in contours at 100-foot intervals. Within the area visited
Cayoosh creek follows a narrow gorge with steep sides and in the vicinity of the Bonanza Cache
the northern wall of the valley is nearly perpendicular. Elevations range from 750 feet at
Seton lake to 1,500 feet at the Bonanza Cache camp adjoining the creek, and the mountains
on both sides rise to between 6,000 and 7,000 feet above sea-level. At the time of the writer's
visit (end of June) Cayoosh creek was reported to have a flow of about 1,000 cubic feet per
second. Its gradient is very steep below the camp where the creek falls 112 feet in a distance
of 1 mile. Except on the more precipitous rock bluffs, trees, including yellow pine, jack-pine,
balsam, and spruce, cover the mountain-slopes.    Cottonwood grows in the valley-bottom of •4
.
Suspension Bridge over Ashlu Creek at Property of Ashloo Cold Mining Syndicate, Squamish Area.
Placer Training Camp, Nanaimo River. >r.l
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Phair (Cottonwood) creek, with cedar, spruce, and fir on the steep slopes. The trees are up
to 18 and 24 inches in diameter. The flats at intervals along Cayoosh creek provide suitable
places for camp-sites. The section of road between Craig Lodge and the Bonanza Cache is
narrow, with many steep gradients, but the road-bed was in good condition and mine supplies
were hauled by truck without difficulty.
Geological Survey of Canada publications covering the surrounding area include the
following: Summary Report, 1933, Part A, "Lillooet Map-area"; Memoir 130, "Geology
and Mineral Deposits of the Bridge River Map-area"; and Memoir 118, "Mineral Deposits
between Lillooet and Prince George." The first mentioned approaches Cayoosh creek most
nearly and the accompanying " Geological Sketch of Lillooet Area," Fig. 5, adjoining page 70-A,
shows the formation in the vicinity of the Bonanza Cache to be composed chiefly of sediments.
These rocks are understood to have been correlated with the Bridge River series, mainly
sediments. Argillites predominate in the vicinity of the properties under discussion, their
composition ranging from carbonaceous, argillaceous phyllite to calcareous argillite or argillaceous limestone. On the Bonanza Cache these rocks are dark to shiny black and much
sheared, so that the bedding-planes are difficult to determine. On the Golden Cache similar
rocks are light grey in colour. Dark argillaceous rocks are found on the Morning Glory group
on Phair (Cottonwood) creek, a tributary of Cayoosh creek. The lower adit on the Golden
Cache is driven in massive, greenish limy rock. Outcrops of diorite, fine-grained in part, were
noted on the Bonanza Cache and of fine-grained diorite (possibly quartz diorite) on the
Morning Glory. These, occurring as dykes from a few inches up to 15 feet or more in width,
apparently follow the bedding-planes of the argillites in most cases, but may cut across the
formation at some points. Altered hornblende diorite is exposed on the eastern side of Phair
creek above the Morning Glory claim, but structural relationships are not known. Mineralization, consisting mainly of quartz with small amounts of iron sulphides, chiefly pyrite, is referred
to the period following dyke-intrusion. In the Bridge River area the mineralization is
attributed to the Bendor quartz diorite. Outcrops of similar rock are reported to have been
noted in the Cayoosh Creek area. The nearest definitely known area of quartz diorite related
to the Bendor batholith is on Lost creek, to the west of Cayoosh creek, as shown in the Geological
Sketch, Fig. 5, previously referred to.
In the area examined the character of the deposits can be summarized as consisting of
elongated lenses and stringers of quartz conforming in strike and dip with the argillites.
No definite Assuring or vein-structure was noted. The general trend of the formation is to
the north-west, with local variations, where strikes are northerly. Dips are from horizontal
to 25 degrees to the north-west or south-east in accordance with the folding.
References to the past history of the Bonanza Cache and Golden Cache properties are
contained in the Report of the Minister of Mines for the years 1888, 1889, 1891, 1895, 1897.
A useful perspective of past conditions is afforded by the report of W. A. Carlyle, Provincial
Mineralogist, page 553 et seq., Report of the Minister of Mines, 1897. This was extensively
quoted in the Special Report previously mentioned. Reference is made to the past operations
of the 10-stamp mill, which was operated for a short period during the late nineties, the
returns for 755 tons first crushed being about $4.45 per ton. The old mill adjoins the camp
of the present company on Cayoosh creek. The Morning Glory and Marygold claims are
recent locations.
The several properties are described separately as follows:—
Bonanza Cache.—At point " A," elevation 2,770 feet, exactly 300 feet from the southeast corner of Lot 124, on the boundary between Bonanza Lots 124 and 125, and on the
apex of a sharp ridge, an approximately vertical shaft has been sunk about 60 feet
(estimated, as lower portion inaccessible without a rope). Fifteen feet below the collar
an adit, 16 feet long to the south, connects with the surface. The section of shaft above
the adit develops a quartz-showing, 12 to 21 inches wide, which strikes north-westerly, with a
dip of 85 degrees to the south-west. Minor amounts of pyrite occur in disseminations through
the quartz. In the adit the quartz, occurring as parallel bands and stringers in a zone 30 inches
wide, spreads out flatly along the bedding-planes of the enclosing argillites, which at this point,
due to local folding, strike north. On the southern side of the ridge, below the adit, quartz
stringers dip at 20 to 25 degrees to the west. A sample which assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton,
and silver, trace, represents the quartz-lens 12 to 18 inches wide and 16 feet long in the adit.
12 F 8 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
Two thousand feet measured north 26 degrees west from point " A," and on Bonanza
Lot 123 claim, two adits, at 1,680 and 1,653 feet elevation, are connected by an inclined shaft
58 feet long on a 25-degree slope. These are designated for convenience as " B " workings.
The shaft is sunk on the outcrop of a zone of quartz-lenses and stringers. From the collar
a drift-adit extends 26 feet south, then 16 feet south 15 degrees east. Stoping has been done
to a height of 10 feet and a width up to 10 feet along the 26-foot section of adit, also along the
surface for a short distance northerly from the shaft-collar. The dump here contains a
considerable proportion of quartz mixed with dark argillite which forms the wall-rocks of the
deposits. Occasional pyrite is present in the quartz, some of which is iron-stained. A sample
which assayed: Gold, 0.14 oz. per ton, and silver, 0.02 oz. per ton, represents selected quartz
such as might be sorted out from the dump. The lower adit, 97 feet long, is driven south
35 degrees east, of which the first 25 feet is a caved timbered approach. The bottom of the
shaft connects with the adit at 53 feet in from the portal. From point 97 feet the working
continues south 25 degrees east for 67.5 feet, and then south 47 degrees east for 51 feet to the
face. At 64 feet back from the face a branch working extends south 27 degrees west for 25 feet.
The quartz occurrences are localized near the collar of the shaft, and there is but little quartz
in evidence at the lower horizon. Nor was there any continuity of mineralization noted in the
eastern extremities of the two adit-drifts. The next working is at point " C " on the Surprise
claim at 1,580 feet elevation, 445 feet distant from " B " workings along a bearing of south
44 degrees west. Here a lenticular quartz occurrence, 10 feet long and up to 12 inches wide,
has been explored by an adit 48.5 feet long driven south 50 degrees east along a plane of local
fracturing in the argillites, which are crushed and contorted. As in the case of " A " and
" B " workings, the quartz-showings at " C " have no specific definition, but coincide with the
stratification of the enclosing rocks, the planes of which are flat, with a tendency to dip to the
north-east. A sample which assayed: Gold, trace, and silver, trace, represents selected quartz,
no definite sections being available to sample.
To test these quartz-lenses and stringers at depth an exploratory adit was being driven at
point " D," elevation 1,480 feet, 290 feet distant from " C " adit along a bearing of south
22 degrees west. This crosscut, known as the Noel tunnel, was started in 1934 and had been
driven 1,042 feet to June 30th, 1935. It is situated centrally in relation to " A " working, lying
to the south, and " B " and " C " workings to the north. It passes through shiny black argillites,
having been driven in a north 80 degrees east direction, cutting across the dip of the formation,
which is flat-lying or gently folded. The rocks tend to strike north-westerly, with dips up to
25 degrees to south-west and north-east. Numerous stringers and patches of quartz show in
the northern or southern wall of the crosscut, apparently conforming to the attitude of the
enclosing strata. The quartz occurrences, slightly mineralized with iron sulphides at some
points, are indefinite and lack continuity. A lens between points 406 and 412 was explored by
a drift run 12 feet south 32 degrees east. A sample, taken by the writer, which assayed:
Gold, nil, and silver, nil, represents selected quartz, containing scattered disseminations of iron
sulphides, from stringers between points 960 and 1,024 feet in from the portal of the crosscut.
A sample which assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton, and silver, 0.02 oz. per ton, was selected from
an indefinite patch of mineralization at 1,000 feet in from the portal.
Owing to the lack of definition or continuity of the lenses in the widely separated " A,"
" B," and " C " workings and the folding of the flat-lying argillites in the Noel crosscut, it was
not evident to the writer what results might be looked for at the deep level. The possible
interest of other lenses which might be encountered would be indicated by the values found
in the lenses explored by the upper workings. The writer's samples represent selected material,
the lack of continuity preventing samples being taken over specific lengths and widths indicating tonnage. At the portal of the Noel crosscut were combined engine-house and blacksmith-
shop and dry-house. The compressor equipment, driving one machine and steel-sharpener,
included a 75-horse-power Rushton-Lister Diesel engine. The camp, about 1 mile up-stream
from the low-level site, provided accommodation for twenty men. Work which, at the time
of the writer's visit, was proceeding with a crew of fifteen men was subsequently discontinued.
Golden Cache.—The old workings of this group, hereinafter described, are in the centre
of the Golden Eagle claim, 2,500 feet measured along a bearing of north 74 degrees 18 minutes
west from the portal of the Noel " tunnel " of the Bonanza Cache group and on the northern
or opposite side of Cayoosh creek.    There are five short adits within a length of 130 feet which have been driven into the face of a perpendicular cliff to explore and mine flat-lying lenses
of quartz which apparently dip and strike parallel to the enclosing light-grey argillites.
Mineralization in evidence consists of scattered pyrite.
The adit-portals extend south-westerly along the cliff-face from elevations of 2,850 to 2,882
feet. The three adits at the lower (or north-eastern) end, enclosed within a length of 60 feet,
give access to a stope of irregular outline. This stope, from which quartz was formerly
trammed to the old 10-stamp mill, is about 105 feet long, up to 50 feet wide, and up to 20 feet
thick. The longest dimension is along the strike, which is approximately north-west. The
width measured along the dip to the north-east of between 14 and 25 degrees is from 50 feet
near the outcrop to 10 feet at the back or north-western end. Surrounding the edges of the
stope, where small lenses and stringers of quartz remain, prospect-workings, consisting of short
levels, a raise, and a winze, failed to prove the continuity at depth or along the strike.
Diamond-drilling was done in 1934 as follows: Holes Nos. 1 and 2, 265 and 250 feet long
respectively, were drilled to the north-east of the stope to explore the ground on the projected
dip of the mined area. A third hole was put down 500 feet vertically tov explore the ground
along the strike to the south-east at the foot of the bluffs. A sample which assayed: Gold,
trace, and silver, trace, represents selected quartz-remnants from the big stope. The other
two adits on the cliff-face, in order from the south-western extremity of the stope-workings,
are in 8 and 18 feet respectively. They explore flat-lying quartz stringers and lenses in the
argillites. In the first or shorter adit a sample which assayed: Gold, trace, and silver, trace,
represents a width of 4 feet on the north-east side of the portal, no appreciable amount of quartz
being present on the south-west side. The quartz is slightly iron-stained and contains minor
amounts of pyrite. At the portal of the other adit a sample was taken across 2 feet of inter-
banded quartz stringers and country-rock, no mineralization being noted. This assayed:
Gold, trace; silver, trace. The ground along the strike of these lenticular quartz-showings
was tested without success by a branch working extending south-westerly from the stope
below. At 2,650 feet elevation, on the edge of a rock-slide at the base of the cliff, an old adit
has been driven slightly west of north for a length of 180 feet in massive, greenish limy rock.
Thin scales of calcite have been deposited on the walls of the working in places where water
is dripping. This working explores the ground below the north-western extremity of the stoped
area. It would have to be extended some distance easterly to test the projected downward
continuation of the stoped area, which dips flatly to the north-east.
Morning Glory.—On this claim on Phair (Cottonwood) creek, 1.75 miles by trail from
Cayoosh creek, some shallow prospecting-work was done in 1934 on a quartz-showing outcropping along the edge of the creek, which at this point flows through a narrow rocky
canyon. The elevation is 2,280 feet. The small amount of work done indicates stringers
and elongated lenses of quartz conforming in attitude with the locally folded and contorted
dark-coloured argillaceous rocks. Mineralization consists of scattered disseminations of
pyrrhotite and pyrite. Individual lenses up to 5 feet in width occur in a zone up to 12
feet in width. Three samples represent, first, silicified country-rock containing thin films of
pyrrhotite; secondly, selected quartz mineralized with disseminated pyrrhotite; and, thirdly,
selected quartz with pyrite. These assayed: Gold, nil; silver, nil. In the hanging-wall section
of the quartz-showings there is a dyke of fine-grained diorite, possibly quartz diorite, 10 to 15
feet wide, also apparently conforming in strike and dip to the bedding-planes of the argillites.
Marygold.—The two claims comprising this group were not visited. These were recent
locations, two assessments having been recorded in connection with open-cuts made.
This group, in the Lillooet Mining Division, comprises eighteen mineral
Silver Queen, claims which are held by location and owned by S. Beiler and W. G. McMorris.
No map showing the local geographical features correctly is available.
The property is about three-quarters of a mile westerly from the north-eastern end of Duffey
lake, which is at the head of Cayoosh creek, flowing north-easterly to Lillooet. The workings
are situated above timber-line on the steep to precipitous ground forming the eastern and southeastern sides of the basin at the head of the small stream locally known as Beiler creek, which,
flowing north-easterly, joins Cayoosh creek at a point about 2 miles north-east of Duffey lake.
Elevations of the workings inspected range from 6,550 to 7,030 feet. The present means of
access is by pack-trail, about 20 miles in length, from D'Arcy Station, on the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway, at the southern end of Anderson lake.    From this point the trail extends F 10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
along the valley of Haylmore (Cedar) creek to its north-westerly-flowing tributary, locally
known as Common Johnny creek; then along the latter stream to near its head (west of Duffey
lake), where the trail climbs in switchbacks from 5,000 feet elevation to the summit, at 7,350
feet elevation, which forms the divide between the streams flowing northerly into the Gates
River (flowing into Anderson lake) and Cayoosh Creek watershed areas. The valleys of
Haylmore (Cedar) and Common Johnny creeks are well wooded. From the summit the trail
descends in switchbacks to the cabin, at 6,500 feet elevation, in the Beiler Creek basin. The
natural, but considerably longer, route would be to connect with the old trail, fallen into
disuse, which follows Cayoosh creek to the end of the motor-road at the Bonanza Cache
property, about 12 miles from Lillooet.
The local geology has not been mapped, the nearest work of this nature being as shown
on Fig. 5, opposite page 70-A, Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report, 1933, Part A,
" Lillooet Map-area." On the summit at the south-western end of the Silver Queen basin
there are outcrops of a wide granitic dyke. In the immediate vicinity of the deposits the
formation consists chiefly of metamorphosed, schistose, sediments grading from shale to
argillite. The local strike of these rocks, which are possibly members of the Bridge River
series, is from north 10 degrees west to north 12 degrees west, dips being from 40 to 75 degrees
or more to the north-east. Traversing these rocks are quartz-filled fractures striking south
75 degrees east (uphill), with dips between 45 and 67 degrees or more to the south-west.
Cutting these, and generally displacing them for a few feet, there are several basic dykes
striking south 50 degrees east, with dips of from 50 to 55 degrees to the north-east. Most of
the superficial work has been done along the outcrop of two veins which have been exposed for
lengths of 355 and 225 feet respectively. In the first case the ground is covered at the
extremities, and in the second case there is evidently no continuity beyond the length specified
as the vein does not persist into the rock bluffs directly along the strike at both ends of the
developed section. Mineralization, consisting of streaks and disseminations of argentiferous
tetrahedrite, is generally sparsely distributed but somewhat concentrated where the vitreous
quartz is shattered or fractured. Oxidation is limited to copper-carbonate stains. The
discoveries were made by S. Beiler in 1922 when the first claims were staked. The quartz vein-
showings are on the south-eastern and on the eastern side of the basin. The southerly one,
traced for a length of 355 feet, dips at 45 degrees to the south-west, or into the hill, the outcrop
following the contour of the steep ground from 7,015 to 7,030 feet elevation. Starting at the
eastern or higher end and chaining in feet westerly, the exposures are briefly as follows:
From zero to 50, some stripping in which the quartz, 10 inches wide, is sparsely mineralized
with disseminated tetrahedrite; from 50 to 208, outcrop covered with talus; from 208 to 214,
an open-cut showing sparsely mineralized quartz, 18 to 20 inches wide, from which some
tetrahedrite has been extracted and piled close by; from 214 to 239, outcrop covered with snow;
from 239 to 247, some quartz, 16 to 18 inches wide, containing widely separated streaks of
tetrahedrite; at 259 a caved open-cut filled with snow and a pile of quartz containing disseminated tetrahedrite which indicates continuity; at 314 to 319, there is an adit 20 feet long,
described later; at 320 beyond a dyke to 355, some stripping exposes quartz 8 to 16 inches wide,
irregularly mineralized with streaks of tetrahedrite. Beyond the latter point the vein
narrows down to where it is covered by talus. The adit previously mentioned has been driven
20 feet along a basic dyke, striking south 50 degrees east, and forming the south-western wall
of the working. The quartz vein is exposed on the opposite wall and in the face. At the
latter point it is 19 inches wide and very sparsely mineralized. At 2 feet back from the face
it consists of interbanded quartz and country-rock over an aggregate width of 33 inches,
tetrahedrite being somewhat concentrated in the hanging-wall 13-inch band. A selected
sample from 3 or 4 tons of sorted material piled at the portal assayed: Gold, 0.03 oz. per ton;
silver, 206.6 oz. per ton. Below the outcrop-workings and at 6,940 feet elevation a crosscut
has been started. The workings on the parallel vein, about 2,300 feet to the north-east, are
distributed over an outcrop-length of 225 feet between elevations of 6,830 and 6,925 feet.
This vein dips at about 67 degrees to the south-west, or into the hill. Chaining westerly from
the highest point and diagonally along the very steep, " bluffy," slope, conditions are briefly
as follows: From zero to 6 feet, a 10- to 12-inch width of quartz, very sparsely mineralized
with tetrahedrite; from 30 to 33 feet, a quartz-exposure, 12 inches wide, with no appreciable
mineralization; from 88 to 93 feet, an open-cut showing a 64-inch width of quartz and included WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 11
country-rock. In the centre there is a 4-inch streak of shattered quartz well mineralized with
tetrahedrite. This showing is not continuous across the cut, 5 feet away. Just east of the
open-cut, or between chainages 84 and 88 feet, the vein is cut by a basic dyke. Continuing
westerly, at chainage 128 feet, there is an open-cut in shale where the quartz, 63 inches wide,
contains sparse streaks of tetrahedrite, this mineral being more highly concentrated over the
12-inch section adjoining the hanging-wall. A selected sample, such as might be sorted in very
small quantities, assayed: Gold, 0.03 oz. per ton; silver, 493.9 oz. per ton. At chainage
160 feet there is an adit, 10 feet long, exposing quartz interbanded with crushed country-rock
over an aggregate width of 32 inches. The 12-inch section adjoining the hanging-wall contains
streaks of tetrahedrite. At chainage 225 feet, stripping shows the vein has split into quartz
stringers with no appreciable mineralization. At this point there is a small pile of quartz
containing sparsely disseminated tetrahedrite. At both eastern and western extremities of
the 225-foot length, including the showings, there are bluffs, directly along the strike, in which
vein-continuity is lacking. Summarizing conditions at the two points inspected, the tetrahedrite mineralization over narrow widths shows a habit of extreme localization, as in shattered
or fractured quartz areas. A few tons of high-grade silver ore, similar to the material assayed,
could be sorted out, but, as continuity of mineralization is lacking, systematic sampling over
mining-widths would serve no useful purpose. Seasonal work on the claims has been limited
to assessment requirements.
This group, in the Lillooet Mining Division, consists of eight mineral claims
Twin Lake. held by location, which are owned by J. Morrison, A. McRae, and W. C.
Elliott. No map correctly showing the local geographical features is
available. The camp-site is situated on Elliott (Lawlaton) creek, about 15 miles south-easterly
from D'Arcy, on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, at the west end of Anderson lake. The
prospected ground in the rugged Cayoosh mountains lies on steep, grassy, or bare rocky slopes
above timber-line, between elevations of 6,800 and 8,150 feet. Altitudes of the adjacent
summits are up to 9,000 feet or more. Creek-valleys in the vicinity are well wooded, the useful
trees extending in general to an elevation of about 6,000 feet. The tent-camp, at 5,800 feet
elevation, is reached by pack-trail about 17% miles in length from D'Arcy. The route
traversed, distances being roughly estimated, follows Haylmore (Cedar) creek for 13 miles
to the junction with Common Johnny creek, its north-westerly-flowing tributary; then up the
latter stream for about 2 miles to Elliott creek, which flows into it from the north-east. Tha
trail then continues up Elliott creek for 2% miles to the camp situated opposite a small
southerly-flowing tributary locally known as Crystal creek. Prospecting, consisting of open-
cuts and stripping, has been done at numerous widely separated points. A section of rock
exposed by Crystal creek going south from the lower of two small adjoining lakes is as follows:
Above 7,330 feet elevation, greenstone of unknown extent; between 7,330 and 7,250 feet
elevation, serpentine 300 feet wide, which locally strikes about north 40 degrees west, with
dips of from 55 to 60 degrees to the north-east; between 7,250 and 6,800 feet elevation, part
of a large area of sediments, chiefly consisting of schistose, argillaceous sediments and brown-
weathering argillites, but including quartzite and cherty quartzite. The heavily iron-stained
serpentine, locally described as the " red dyke," is a prominent feature forming the summit of
the ridge for some distance easterly from the twin lakes. It is cut by irregularly branching,
black basic dykes which have the same general trend. Adjoining the dykes the serpentine is
silicified or contains quartz stringers accompanied by pyritization of the adjacent rock; the
iron sulphides occur in some places as fine, granular disseminations, and in others in the form
of cubes Vs inch in diameter. Granitic or dioritic rocks, while not actually seen, are known to
be exposed across the valley of Elliott creek. All the mineralized occurrences are within the
sediments which adjoin the lower serpentine-contact for a length of at least 1 mile. At one
point, about 3,000 feet easterly from Crystal creek, there is a parallel band of serpentine,
70 feet wide or more, 200 feet stratigraphically lower than the upper one, with sediments in the
intervening area. A specimen of the lower serpentine, containing finely disseminated sulphides,
assayed:   Gold, trace;  silver, 3.2 oz. per ton;  platinum, nil.
In the argillaceous rocks, mineralization consists of argentiferous tetrahedrite in scattered
streaks and disseminations in quartz-filled fractures striking diagonally up the mountain-side
from south 70 degrees east to east and dipping to the north at angles of from 65 to 73 degrees. Picked specimens assayed up to 307.2 oz. silver per ton. These occurrences are generally
exposed for short lengths at widely separated points.
In one case, described later, the mineralization consists of stibnite in a siliceous gangue
associated with east-west vertical fracturing in quartzite. A sample of this character assayed:
Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 2.6 oz. per ton; stibnite, 43.5 per cent. The workings resulting
from seasonal prospecting done by J. Morrison are briefly summarized as follows: Open-cuts
have been made adjoining Crystal creek at elevations of 7,010, 6,905, and 6,800 feet, on ground
sloping from 20 to 25 degrees. These cuts expose for short lengths, up to 40 feet, sparsely
mineralized quartz, from 1 to 3V2 feet in width, the quartz in the wider sections being interbanded with rock. The ground along the strike to the east of the creek is covered with
overburden, and to the west continuity is not apparent where the formation is exposed.
Starting from the lower of the twin lakes at the head of Crystal creek and going easterly
for about 1,500 feet along the contour of the side-hill, which slopes between 30 to 35 degrees
towards Elliott creek, there are open-cuts and outcrops over an aggregate length of 140 feet
between 7,300 and 7,355 feet elevation. Chaining in feet from west to east, the showings are
as follows: From zero to 15, quartz 20 inches wide is exposed sparsely mineralized with
tetrahedrite, from which picked specimens assayed: Gold, 0.05 oz. per ton, and silver, 307.2 oz.
per ton; from 65 to 68, the same conditions exist; from 88 to 90, the quartz, from 8 to 18
inches wide, is similarly mineralized; at 110 feet, the quartz apparently splits into stringers;
at 140, an indefinite quartz-showing mineralized with specks of galena, which, with rock
inclusions, has a maximum width of 5 feet. Continuing easterly, there are, between estimated
distances of 1,500 and 3,000 feet from Crystal creek, similar showings at widely separated
points, as follows: At 7,375 feet elevation, a quartz-outcrop 6 feet wide, including sparse
tetrahedrite mineralization over the 7-inch hanging-wall section, no continuity being apparent
in the rock-outcrop immediately to the east; between 7,420 and 7,440 feet, much barren quartz
lacking specific definition, containing specks of galena in spots; between 7,650 and 7,660 feet
elevation and adjacent to the main serpentine foot-wall, there is a quartz-showing 25 feet long
and from 20 to 28 inches wide, including a central, comparatively well-mineralized 9-inch
streak; at 50 feet to the east and at a stratigraphically lower horizon, a showing 8 feet long
comprising two 12-inch bands of quartz separated by 18 inches of rock, the hanging-wall quartz
containing specks of tetrahedrite; beyond this there is a wide band of cherty quartzite; at
7,875 feet elevation, broken short sections of quartz are found up to 2 feet wide, sparsely
mineralized, in shattered argillaceous sediments, a specimen of the best material assaying:
Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton, and silver, 82 oz. per ton. About 4,500 feet easterly from Crystal creek
and at 8,150 feet elevation, quartzite outcropping in rugged bluffs forms the summit of the
ridge overlooking Lizard creek, an easterly-flowing tributary of Cayoosh creek. Just west of
this point, which is on the divide separating the drainage areas of Gates river and Cayoosh
creek and at 8,135 feet elevation, an open-cut shows stibnite as streaks and bunches in decomposed siliceous gangue, associated with east-west striking, apparently vertical fracturing.
The showing, covered at both ends by shattered rock, consists of two bands of the stibnite
mineralization, separated by from 2 to 3 feet of quartzite. A sample across the northern band,
8 to 14 inches wide, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton; and a sample across the
southern band, 16 to 24 inches wide, assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 2.6 oz. per ton.
The latter contained 43.5 per cent, stibnite. Other showings are said to have been found on
the Lizard Creek slope below the summit, but snow prevented inspection.
Summarizing conditions in the prospected sections of the Twin Lake group area, average
silver values in the tetrahedrite occurrences are evidently very low in what appear to be, for
the most part, elongated quartz-lenses along similar lines of fracturing. The last occurrence
mentioned, on the summit, appeared to be more definite; silver values at this point, however,
being practically negligible.
Lillooet Area.
The Gold Ridge group of eight claims held by location, in the Lillooet Mining
Gold Ridge and Division, is owned by F. Dillon and Mrs. Dillon, W. Dillon, and H. D. Cheng.
Frances. The property is situated on the southern fork of Sallus (Eleven Mile) creek,
about 5Ve miles easterly from the main road following the Fraser river northeast of Lillooet.    The prospected ground is on the lightly wooded, fairly steep slope to the south WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6).
F 13
of the creek between elevations of 5,460 and 5,560 feet, the creek-bottom opposite the workings
being at 5,400 feet elevation. The property is reached by pack-trail, about 6% miles in length,
which leaves the Lillooet-Pavilion highway at a point approximately 12 miles from Lillooet.
In the route traversed, which is fairly densely wooded with pine and fir, the rocks are
generally covered with overburden. A considerable area of granitic rock, referred to the
Mesozoic era, is exposed half a mile to the north of the trail at a point about 3 miles easterly
from the highway. Where the work has been done, rock-exposures consist of silicified phases
of limestone. No mineralization other than light iron-stain was observed, and six samples
gave assays of from nil to a trace in gold and silver. The local strike of the rocks, which was
not definitely ascertained, appears to be south-easterly going uphill. Three large widely
separated excavations have been made at elevations of 5,460, 5,500, and 5,560 feet respectively.
In the central exposure the rock is decomposed adjoining a basic dyke. In the area of granitic
rocks previously mentioned there is a separate group of four claims, known as the Frances,
held by location and owned by the Dillon family. A considerable amount of trenching and
open-cutting, mostly shallow, has been done on the steep slope between elevations of 5,920 and
6,015 feet, also on the gently'rounded summit at the latter elevation. Some of the trenches
have not reached bed-rock and the bottoms of others are filled with soil or debris. In the most
definite exposure the mineralization, in weathered or disintegrated granite, consists of sparse
disseminations or specks of chalcopyrite, pyrite, and molybdenite in narrow bands of quartz
associated with fracturing which strikes north-easterly, with dips of from 42 to 50 degrees,
or steeper, to the south-east.
Exposures in this group of surface workings, going north-easterly along the outcrop, are
as follows:—
Elevation.
Width.
Gold.
Silver.
Remarks.
Feet.
Inches.
6,920
20
5,920
3
5,932
8  to  18
5,960
5  to  12
5,975
20
5,980
6
5,985
2
5,990
1
to
t
f
1
6,005
Oz. per Ton.
0.01
0.01
Trace
Not assayed
Trace
Not assayed
Not assayed
Oz. per Ton.
0.6
1.4
0.4
Not assayed
0.6
Not assayed
Not assayed
Hanging-wall band of quartz.
Foot-wall quartz stringer separated from hanging-wall
band by 9-inch parting of decomposed granite.
Selected best mineralized quartz.
Silicified crushed rock, including some brecciated quartz.
Iron-stained quartz.
Quartz ;   no appreciable mineralization.
Quartz ;   slightly iron-stained.
Trenches mostly in soil;   no continuity proved.
To the south-west, and below 5,920 feet elevation, shallow cuts have been put in without
proving continuity in this direction, though this is not conclusive.
Bridge River Area.
This company's Taylor Basin property, where work is proceeding, consists
Goldside        of the following eight claims, all held by location:   Polaris Peak, Tit Bit,
Mines, Ltd.      Sunburst, Rapidian, Preference, Magma,  Vortex,  and  Octopus Fraction.
In addition, five contiguous groups of claims have been acquired by the
company under option agreements.    These, which are also held by location, are as follows:
(1) I.X.L. Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive;  (2) Northern Light Nos. 1 to 8, inclusive;   (3) Homestake
Nos. 1 to 5, inclusive; (4) Viking Nos. 1 and 2; (5) Peak group, consisting of the Thunder Peak
and Lightning Peak.
The property described is situated within Taylor basin at the head of Taylor creek, a
tributary of Tyaughton creek, which in turn flows into Bridge river. The mine camp, on the
Homestake No. b claim, is located 1,600 feet measured south 30 degrees west from the forks
of Taylor creek 4 miles above its mouth. The camp is situated on a wooded knoll within the
basin, the boundaries of which consist of broad, smoothly rounded, bare ridges rising to
elevations of about 8,000 feet.    The upper slopes consist of talus and rock slides, through which emerge rugged outcrops of rock. The middle slopes, covered by a heavy mantle of glacial
drift, are traversed by snow-fed creeks and are covered with patches of a shrub-like growth
of balsam-fir, together with a rank growth of grass and wild flowers. The low areas along
Taylor creek and basin are well wooded with balsam-fir and occasional spruce. The present
means of access is by pack-trail about 8 miles in length, which branches off the road near the
south-western extremity of Tyaughton lake. This road, about 3.5 miles in length, leaves the
Bridge River road east of the Pearson Ponds at a point about 35 miles from Bridge River
Station on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The trail climbs from 3,200 feet elevation at
the lake to 7,200 feet at the Taylor Basin pass in a distance of about 5 miles. From this point
the main trail, 3 miles in length, descends to the Goldside camp at 6,300 feet elevation. All
elevations mentioned are relative, being derived from aneroid readings. The natural grade
for a new outlet, if warranted by future development, would be down Taylor and Tyaughton
creeks to the Bridge River highway. A preliminary survey of this route is said to have been
made.
Interpreting the formations in the Taylor Basin area from the preliminary classification
afforded by C. W. Drysdale and W. S. McCann in the Bridge River Map-area, the oldest underlying rocks exposed consist of highly metamorphosed sediments of the Bridge River series
which has been referred to the Pennsylvanian-Permian. These are represented by thin-bedded
cherty quartzites as exposed in shallow cuts along the edges of a small creek in the northwestern corner of Northern Light No. 1 mineral claim. Next in ascending order are serpentines
tentatively assigned to the Triassic. Dense to porphyritic rocks of this general character, more
or less altered from their original composition, are exposed in and around No. 2 adit in the
northern section of the same mineral claim and at other points in the basin. The Eldorado
series, assigned to the Lower Cretaceous, is represented locally by conglomerates lying across
Taylor creek where it falls steeply at the eastern end of the property and by grey feldspathic
sandstone in the north-western part of the Northern Light No. 5 claim.
On the north-western side of the basin several areas of diorite, believed to be lenticular in
outline, are exposed in extensive outcrops. These rocks, to which occasional patches of roof-
pendant sediments adhere, have been mapped as being related to the Bendor batholith of post-
Lower Cretaceous age. The deposits of interest found in the diorite consist of curving
fractures, with general north-easterly strike and dips from vertical, or nearly so, to the northwest. Mineralization consists of quartz containing banded and disseminated sulphides, the
most abundant mineral being arsenopyrite, frequently accompanied by pyrite and occasionally
with both pyrite and sphalerite. Chalcopyrite is reported to have been identified in some
specimens. Oxidation is not much in evidence, being confined to staining of the sulphides at
surface outcrops with seams of rusty decomposed material along fracture-planes. Gold values
appear to fluctuate in proportion to the percentage of arsenopyrite present. The assay and
analysis of 4,643 lb. of ore shipped to the Tacoma smelter by the Goldside Mines, Limited, in
December, 1934, and made available by the company, is as follows:—
Gold, 1.74 oz. per ton; silver, 0.06 oz. per ton; copper, 0.05 per cent.; zinc, nil; arsenic,
19.56 per cent.; antimony, trace; iron, 13.9 per cent.; silica, 44 per cent.; lime, nil; sulphur,
6 per cent.;  alumina, 5.9 per cent.
Mineralized fractures have been persistent as far as development-work has gone. Widths
are generally very narrow, the largest zone, from which the shipment was made, being 18 feet
long and 10 to 12 inches wide, with a local swelling to 20 inches in the central part.
The first staking of mineral claims in the immediate area is reported to have been that done
by Grant White in 1910 on the divide between Taylor and Eldorado basins. These claims
adjoin the I.X.L. group. In 1912 E. J. Taylor and his partner, while prospecting, are said
to have panned gold colours along the upper reaches of Taylor creek leading to the subsequent
discovery of auriferous arsenopyrite on what is now the Northern Light group, staked in 1932;
additional claims having been staked since. The workings examined are on the slope forming
the northern side of the basin.
Taking the camp as a starting-point, the No. 1 adit, which is the principal working, is
on the Northern Light No. 6 claim, 3,800 feet distant along a bearing north 63 degrees west.
This is being driven as a crosscut to test the projected downward continuation of the surface
showings, which are as follows: At 7,513 feet elevation, a shallow pit, from which the previously mentioned test shipment was extracted, exposes a zone 18 feet long and from 10 to 12 inches
wide, well mineralized with arsenopyrite, which strikes north 20 degrees east along the contour
of the mountain-slope and dips 70 degrees to the north-west, or into the hill. At the southern
extremity of this zone the arsenopyrite mineralization, in streaks an inch wide or less, turns
and follows a slip or fracture striking south 80 degrees west up the hill and dipping at from
86 degrees to the north to vertical. At 14 feet along this course a curving south-westerly-
striking fracture, in which streaks of similar mineralization up to 3 inches wide are exposed
by cuts at intervals, is traced for 155 feet to where another definite zone is exposed at an
elevation of 7,615 feet. At this point the mineralized fracture continues for a length of 20 feet
along a strike of south 80 degrees west, the dip being from 85 degrees to the north to vertical.
This 20-foot section, throughout which arsenopyrite mineralization occurs from 3 to 5 inches in
width, is represented by a sample which assayed: Gold, 1.68 oz. per ton; silver, 0.3 oz. per ton.
At the upper or western extremity snow prevented further tracing of the fracture.
At the northern end of the principal surface showing at the pit, elevation 7,513 feet, seams
of the typical mineralization follow a fracture down the hill along a course north 55 degrees
east for 19 feet, then north 68 degrees east for a length of 50 feet to the limits of the open-cuts
in this direction. Dips along these last two bearings are from 77 to 80 degrees to the northwest. In the vicinity of the pit a triangular condition is indicated by the apparent junction of
the curving, more easterly-striking fractures just west of the 18-foot length (striking north
20 degrees east), combined with the slip mineralization striking south 80 degrees west. The
triangle so formed would be 18 by 14 by 28 feet, the first dimension representing the principal
zone at the pit. Parallel fracturing accompanied by streaks of mineralization is indicated
by cuts 100 feet westerly from the pit at elevations between 7,550 and 7,600 feet. Farther up
toward the summit other zones similar in character are said to be exposed, but snow conditions
prohibited inspection at higher elevations. Before driving the No. 1 adit, hereinafter
described, a hole was drilled with a Boyle Bros. X-ray diamond-drill to a depth of 90 feet
below the surface.
On July 10th, 1935, the length of this adit at 7,350 feet elevation was 414 feet, having been
driven as a crosscut along a course of north 78 degrees west, which is in direct line with the
centre of the principal surface showing at 7,513 feet elevation. A point vertically below
this surface exposure is reached at 239 feet in from the portal. Allowing for the 70-degree
westerly dip, the projected position of the objective is about 298 feet in from the portal, but
a steepening of dip apparently occurred as conditions of mineralization somewhat similar to
those at the surface were encountered at points 267 and 277.5 feet in from the adit-portal.
The details of this main working are as follows:—
The formation exposed in the adit is diorite grading from dark unaltered rock to light-
coloured phases.
Chaining in feet from the portal narrow widths of mineralization, chiefly consisting of
pyrite and arsenopyrite, accompanied in spots by sphalerite, were intersected at 153, 185, 255,
263, 267, 277.5, 322, 335, and 356 feet. Widths vary from 1 to 10 inches, being extremely
narrow for the most part. Samples taken by the writer at points 277.5 and 335 feet from the
portal, across widths of 7 and 5 inches, assayed: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton;
and: Gold, 0.14 oz. per ton; silver, 0.3 oz. per ton, respectively. At 267 feet in from the portal
a drift about 100 feet long has been driven north 30 degrees east for 28 feet; then north 40
degrees east for 14 feet; then north 29 degrees east for 26 feet; then north 70 degrees east for
10 feet; and from thence to the face north 20 degrees east.
The quartz vein, followed by the drift for the first two courses, dips between 55 and
70 degrees to the north-west, and is from 3 to 8 inches wide exclusive of silicified, slightly
mineralized adjacent wall-rock. A sample covering the section from 0 to 15 feet, and representing the section between 15 and 30 feet and from 7 to 3 inches wide, assayed: Gold, 0.24 oz.
per ton; silver, trace. Tracing this vein beyond the latter point was difficult owing to
pronounced shearing, accompanied by heavy gouge which caused caving from the roof. At
point 47 a quartz vein 6 to 8 inches wide, represented by a sample which assayed: Gold,
0.34 oz. per ton, and silver, 0.8 oz. per ton, appears in the western wall of the drift. This
strikes north 40 degrees east, with a dip of 75 degrees to the north-west, and is, apparently, F 16 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
the continuation of the mineralized fracture intersected at point 277.5 in the main adit. Beyond
this point caving from the roof made close inspection impracticable, but the last-mentioned
vein can be seen at point 52 where it follows along the eastern wall of the drift for a short
distance. From that point the roof was caving dangerously and the last 30-foot section to
the face was completely blocked. In the main adit, 307 feet from the portal, a curving drift
had been driven south-westerly for 84.5 feet. In the section towards the main adit the drift
follows a zone of shearing accompanied by some silicification and scattered, irregular, iron
sulphide mineralization. At chainage 62 feet from the main adit the drift cuts a 4-inch quartz
veinlet, mineralized with banded sphalerite, pyrite, and arsenopyrite, which strikes north
45 degrees east and dips at 56 degrees to the south-east. This occurrence is the apparent
continuation of the 3 inches of mineralized quartz cut at a point 322 feet in from the portal
of the main adit. Continuing along the drift, a 3-inch quartz stringer, mineralized with
sphalerite and arsenopyrite, is intersected at point 68. Beyond here to the face nothing of
interest was noted. v
The No. 2 adit, at 6,450 feet elevation, is on the Northern Light No. 1 claim, 1,300 feet
measured along a bearing north 65 degrees west from the camp. Exploration conducted in
this vicinity has no connection with the previously described deposits in the No. 1 adit area.
Extensive ground-sluicing, known as the " big open-cut," was done from 6,450 to 6,475 feet
elevation prior to driving No. 2 adit immediately adjoining this surface working to the southwest and roughly parallel with it. The big open-cut, trending north-westerly up the hillside,
is about 210 feet long, tapering from a narrow ditch at both extremities to a width of between
20 and 30 feet towards the centre. The overburden is from 10 to 12 feet deep and the sides
have largely caved in. According to the Report of the Minister of Mines for 1934, page F 32,
several narrow partly decomposed quartz stringers, mineralized with arsenopyrite, were
originally exposed in the long ground-sluice open-cut. The writer's sample No. 6679, which
assayed: Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton, and silver, trace, was of selected arsenopyrite in more or less
decomposed gangue from what appeared to be a pocket or small lens in the central part of the
big cut. Conditions were obscured by water and caving. The No. 2 adit, where work has
been suspended, is 272 feet long, following a bearing north 67 degrees west. At a point 95 feet
in from the portal a branch extends north 22 degrees west for 33 feet to where it forks, one
sub-branch being driven to north 25 degrees east for 28 feet, the other north 45 degrees west
for 29 feet. The underground workings expose an irregular contact between diorite and
serpentine. For 174 feet from the portal the main adit is in serpentine, then in diorite for
250 feet, and serpentine thereafter to the face at 272 feet. From 122 to 224 feet the main adit
is directly under the wider part of the big open-cut. From near the portal to point 44.6 a
highly metamorphosed dyke 3 to 4 feet wide trends with the adit, and dips from 30 to 50
degrees to the north-east, cutting the serpentine. The branch workings, which also extend
under the surface workings, are in serpentine, with the two extremities just entering the
diorite. The only mineralization noted underground is in the main adit between 232 and 237
feet from the portal, where it is very indefinite and consists of films of arsenopyrite in cleavage-
planes in diorite associated with a zone of fracturing striking from north 37 degrees east to
north 40 degrees east. A grab sample of this mineralized rock, assayed for the company, gave:
Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton.
All the underground workings described were driven since the examination was made and
recorded in the Report of the Minister of Mines for 1934.
Summarizing existing conditions in the No. 1 adit area, widths of auriferous arsenopyrite
mineralization are extremely narrow. It is not known if the fractures extend into other rock
formations, the situation being obscured by snow at the upper or south-western end and overburden at the north-eastern extremity of the area explored. In the No. 2 adit area no definite
measurable mineralization is exposed. In addition to the workings mentioned, a considerable
amount of surface prospecting has been done on the company's Taylor Basin property, consisting of test-pits, open-cuts, and trenches. The sides have in most cases caved, preventing
inspection. However, no discovery of importance has been reported in connection with them
and efforts have been concentrated in the No. 1 adit area, considered the more important
objective by the management. All work has been done by hand. S. H. Davis is in charge
of the present crew of eight men. WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6). F 17
Taseko River Area South-east of Taseko Lake (Upper Taseko River).
The property of this company consists of the Windfall and Windfall No. 2
Taylor-Windfall Crown-granted claims, together with the Battlement, Sunshine, Sunnyside,
Gold Mining     Buzzer No. 2, Buzzer No. 3, Buzzer No. U, and the Windfall Fraction mineral
Co., Ltd. claims held by location. Lately the adjoining Province Crown-granted claim
has been acquired. Situated in the Clinton Mining Division, the property
is on Battlement creek, adjoining its junction with the Taseko river, about 9 miles easterly
from Taseko lake.
The workings adjoin the mine camp, elevation 5,300 feet, which is located on a small bench
forming part of the ridge on the eastern side of Battlement creek. From the top of the bank
the ground falls abruptly for 90 or 100 feet to the creek, slopes being from 30 to 35 degrees
or more. Just south of the developed area the gentle slope becomes steep as the Taseko River
flats, at about 5,100 feet elevation, are approached. To the north of the property, Battlement
ridge, with its castellated summits, forms a rampart wall of bedded volcanics, rising to 8,000
feet or more in elevation. South of the Taseko River valley, mountain altitudes in the batholith
areas are similar, but the slopes, terminating in sharp, irregularly serrated peaks, are more
uniform. The valleys and lower mountain-slopes are well wooded, chiefly with fir and jack-
pine.
During the summer months the Taylor-Windfall can be reached from the Bridge River
highway by pack-trail, 38 miles in length, following Gun Creek valley to Trigger lake; thence
along Warner creek, crossing over Warner pass, elevation 7,800 feet, and down Denain creek
to the Taseko River valley. Taylor pass, at about 7,100 feet elevation, is also used on occasion,
but this involves a longer route. An alternative route, open for horse transportation for a
much longer season, is from Hanceville, in the Chilcotin district, to the northern end of Taseko
lake; thence southerly, and to the east of the lake, to where connexion is made with the trail,
12 miles in length, leading from the southern end of the lake to the Taylor-Windfall. The
aeroplane-landing is at the south end of Taseko lake and during 1934 and 1935 most of the
supplies and men for the seasonal operations were brought in by plane from Shalalth, on Seton
lake. The Hanceville outlet, which serves a large district containing mineral occurrences, is
being gradually improved. The distance from Hanceville to the Taylor-Windfall is roughly
estimated at 85 miles.
The general geology of the area under discussion is shown on Fig. 5, " Gun Creek Area,"
accompanying the report of V. Dolmage in Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report,
Part A, 1928. The northern side of the Taseko River valley is underlain by the Taseko
volcanics of Cretaceous age. To the south of the river the formation consists of quartz diorite
of the Coast Range batholith. The batholithic rocks intrude the Taseko formation and, near
Battlement creek, the contact extends along the bottom of the river-valley. The Taseko
formation, in which the deposits on the Windfall claim are situated, is composed of frag-
mentals and tuffs which strike north-westerly parallel to the general trend of the contact and
dip to the north-east, into the hill, at from 12 to 25 degrees. According to Dolmage, this
attitude is probably flatter than that of the underlying batholithic contact which dips in the
same direction.
Certain tuff-beds in the adjacent Taseko formation area have been extensively silicified
and pyritized limonite deposits having been formed in several valleys from the oxidation and
leaching of the pyrite. (Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report, Part A, 1920, " The
Limonite Deposits in Taseko Valley.")
The gradually unfolding geology shows that the rock formation at the Windfall deposits
(this claim name is used to distinguish it from the copper mineralization in the quartz diorite
on the Buzzer claims of the same property) is not a distinct, uniformly silicified bed of tuff as
at first supposed, but is tuff irregularly or locally silicified adjoining fractures with which ore
occurrences are associated. Sharp distinctions are generally lacking whereby separate beds
can be accurately delineated and local rock-structures are consequently diffidult to determine.
Pyroclastic rock-types revealed by diamond-drilling, to a maximum depth of 313 feet, show
at the top of the section shallow beds containing fragments of greenstone composition. Underlying these beds is an assemblage of grey to green tuffs consisting largely of a light-coloured
ash matrix enclosing fine to coarse darker fragments of basic material.    Some areas of these F 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
/
/
/
Main Adit
El 5237'
/
Centre Adit
El. 5293'
5roundhog
El. 5304'
Vertical  Raise to surface
on D.D. Hole No. I
(Collar El.5299)
Scale
Composite  sketch
from Company's Plans
BC Department of Mines, 1935
Taylor-Windfall.    Sketch-plan of Main Workings. WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 19
rocks, lacking the darker fragments, are seemingly composed of clean white ash. The latter
phase, and the coarsely fragmental one, are apparently more susceptible to silicification and
pyritization as in the zones in which ore has been found. Pyrite is generally disseminated in
fine granular form, but crystals are often large and well formed, specimens up to %-inch
diameter being noted. The only intrusive rock-type known in the immediate vicinity is an acidic
dyke of irregular width up to 15 feet, which, striking north-westerly, outcrops on both sides of
Battlement creek and is cut by two branches of the Crane adit. Its dip is indefinite, due to
convergence or divergence of the walls. The dyke, which is not known to have any particular
significance in regard to the economic mineralization, has been completely altered, widely spaced
quartz phenocrysts being the only recognizable original constituents. The original exposures of
disintegrated ore found within or adjacent to decomposed tuffs consisted of eight or nine disconnected rich pockets, occurring within an area of, roughly, 200 by 120 feet. These were dug
out some years ago and conditions are now largely obscured. It is recorded that these pockets
were of small size, the largest being about 12 feet in length, but in general varying from 6 to 8
feet long. They were irregular in width and quite shallow, the deepest extending 16 feet below
the surface. Where opened up in solid rock the cavities had definite walls. Mineralization
consisted of coarse gold, in small angular crystalline fragments and sponge-like particles,
occurring in a loose decomposed matrix, which included detached crystals of quartz, tourmaline,
rutile, and pyrite, with iron oxides, occasional barite, and in places fragments of silicified tuff.
These ore-pockets, which lacked continuity and apparent definition, were found to occur in
silicified tuff areas associated with fractures mostly striking from north-east to east. In all
cases silicification was cut off by minor slips. Adit-workings at lower elevations, which were
driven along the same fractures in which the superficial pockets occurred, failed to find any
continuity of mineralization or even of silicification. Detailed description of the earlier underground exploration which was not productive and has no particular economic application is
omitted.
Latterly, development has been proceeding on a different type of deposit, with which the
remainder of this report is chiefly concerned. This consists of a definite ore-shoot, which was
found underground and did not outcrop.
When seasonal work was discontinued in the late fall of 1935 this ore-body had been proved
for a length of 55 feet and a depth of 81 feet, widths varying from 0.5 to 5 feet, with a general
average of about 2 feet. The ore, which is quite distinct in form and character from that of
the surface deposits, occurs in a fracture striking north 75 degrees east, with a southerly dip
of 75 degrees. The gangue is soft, being composed chiefly of dark-green, amorphous chloritic
material with more or less sericite, particularly on the hanging-wall and in end phases of the
ore-shoot. Occasional horses or inclusions of silicified wall-rock appear in the fracture-filling
as in the shaft, where the formation on the foot-wall side is uniformly silicified as opposed to
irregular silicification on the hanging-wall side. Judging from visual inspection (as distinct
from microscopic tests described later), the mineralization consists in general of pyrite either
in small grains and masses scattered through the chloritic material or in pockets, particularly
in the sericite, associated with tennantite and chalcopyrite. Occasional sphalerite was noted
and small inclusions of barite. Gold values show no definite relationship to the visible mineralization, but rather seem to be dependent upon the barren-looking chloritic material, which, even
in small amounts within comparatively large masses of sericite, definitely influenced the resulting assay. In this connection two microscopic analyses were made recently by the Department
of Mines, Ottawa, one of a characteristic sample of the chloritic material and the other of a
general 300-lb. mill-test sample. In the first the gangue was described as being composed of
an unidentified amphibole somewhat chloritized, through which sericite was disseminated
largely and in minute scales. Mineralization was said to consist of microscopic grains and
aggregates of tetrahedrite, cuprite, and tetradymite, with which the gold was associated in
sub-microscopic form.    Only one particle of native gold was recognized.
In the second test " the ore-minerals in their order of abundance " were reported as
" pyrite, tennantite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, two unknown minerals, and native gold."
Quoting further, " the sulphides are relatively abundant for gold ores and form 15 to 20
per cent, of the sample. Pyrite occurs as masses which have been shattered and intricately
veined by tennantite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite. Tennantite occurs as small
irregular masses and grains which are locally abundant;   it contains numerous small grains F 20 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
of gangue, galena, and chalcopyrite, and is intimately associated with large and small grains
of sphalerite. Sphalerite is present in considerable amount as coarse to fine grains mostly
associated with tennantite; a bright-yellow mineral (unknown No. 2) occurs as extremely fine
bands and grains along the sphalerite-tennantite boundaries.    .    .    .
" Small amounts of chalcopyrite and galena occur chiefly within tennantite. Unknown
No. 1, grey in colour similar to sphalerite, occurs in small irregular grains and crystals in
gangue and in sulphides, and is probably older than the sulphides. Only one grain of native
gold was seen in polished sections; this is extremely small (about 1,600 mesh) and occurs along
a fine fracture in the tennantite."
Further in reference to the occurrence of the gold, a few hundred grammes of ground head
sample were panned, from which a considerable amount of fine gold was obtained, " but none
of the particles are larger than 280 mesh." The assay and analysis of the head sample made
available by the company are as follows:—
" Gold    0.92 oz. per ton.
Silver   0.69 oz. per ton.
Copper  2.67 per cent.
Iron   8.00 per cent.
Sulphur   9.05 per cent.
Arsenic   0.92 per cent.
Lead   0.42 per cent.
Zinc   1.15 per cent.
Acid insoluble 62.50 per cent."
Tennantite is evidently a good indicator of values in the more minute occurrences of this
mineral rather than in the large masses that occur associated with pyrite and chalcopyrite,
as exemplified by the higher values obtained from the barren-appearing chloritic material than
from heavy sulphide areas.
The sericite zones, lacking definite metallic mineralization, have little or no gold content.
Assays show in places fair values; i.e., from 0.10 to 0.30 oz. per ton, over widths from 1 to 2
feet in the silicified rock adjoining the pay-streak, which in the shaft averages 1.22 oz. gold
per ton across 2.55 feet. The drift assays averaged 1.09 oz. gold per ton across 1.4 feet, the
full width of ore not being exposed in places. The above averages were supplied by E. E.
Mason, mine superintendent, checked in part by sampling by the writer.
The history of the property, as derived from past reports, dates back to 1920,. when
E. J. Taylor made the discovery. (See Reports of Minister of Mines for 1922 and 1923.)
After taking out a considerable amount of gold by panning and by means of an arrastre, he
bonded the property to the Whitewater Gold Fields, Limited, a Vancouver syndicate, which
carried on development in 1923 and 1924. During this period some bullion is stated to have
been extracted with a Ross mill, the ore being derived from the surface area. Several adits
driven below the surface pockets failed to encounter commercial ore. The property is next
referred to successively in the Reports of the Minister of Mines for 1927, 1931, and 1934, and
in the latter year it was acquired by the present company, which installed a 3- to 4-ton per day
capacity Straub amalgamation-table mill, about 85 tons being milled which yielded bullion to
the value of $7,209.73. In the same year diamond-drilling was done in close proximity to the
surface workings. Footage aggregated 1,471 feet distributed in six holes. Of these, Nos. 2, 4,
5, and 6 holes showed no values, but, as these were put down without knowledge of the location
of any probable ore-zones, this has no significance. Nos. 1 and 3 vertical holes gave interesting
results. These are shown on the accompanying sketch-plan, the collars being at about 5,299
feet elevation and 60 feet apart horizontally.
The existing main adit, at elevation 5,237 feet, was extended for 88 feet to intersect
diamond-drill hole No. 1, and, as shown on plan, a branch was driven 60 feet to the No. 3 hole.
Neither encountered anything of value. A raise was then put up to the surface on diamond-
drill hole No. 1 to investigate high sludge assays between footages 38 and 48. This failed to
show any appreciable mineralization, sludge values in this case being attributed to the broken
nature of the ground and proximity to surface ore-bodies. Subsequently a small vertical winze
was sunk from the adit on diamond-drill hole No. 3 to investigate the core-footage between
74 and 84. At 8 feet below the level the winze intersected ore which continued to the bottom
at 24 feet, where work was suspended at the end of the 1934 season.    Following a late winter, WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6). F 21
work was recommenced in the latter part of June, 1935. The new ore-body was exposed in the
level above the winze by crosscutting and slashing and 70 feet of drifting was done to the west
which developed a length of 55 feet of ore. A raise from the winze-collar to the surface was
then put up 72 feet, on the 75-degree dip of the fracture, to form the upper section of an
exploration-shaft. An additional 15 feet of height above the winze-collar was added to the
fracture, but without definite value; the filling of this upper section of the " blind " ore-shoot
being sericite without the chloritic material, with which values are chiefly associated. In
August 7 tons of supplies, including hoisting plant, were taken in by plane. Following
installation of the hoist, which is directly geared to a Pelton wheel, the raise was prepared for
sinking in a 9- by 6-foot section, then driven through and enclosing the winze to a present slope
depth of 153 feet below the surface. When work is resumed it is proposed to continue sinking
on the ore, 3 feet wide at the bottom of the shaft, to a slope depth of about 240 feet below the
surface and, by lateral work, to test the intersection of the ore of identically the same type
between points 222 and 232 in diamond-drill hole No. 1, where there is a definite silicified zone
similar to that adjoining the shaft ore-body. Another ore possibility is indicated by the sludge
assays obtained by the management between footages 162 and 164 in the same hole. The latter
coincides graphically with the downward projection of the shaft-vein on its apparent dip and
strike. The deeper intersection is believed to bear a definite relationship to the shaft-vein by
fault, bend, or offset, indicating at this horizon possible lateral extension to the east or a
separate ore occurrence in a parallel fracture. Continuity of the ore-body is not apparent
in the drift to the east of the shaft (formerly collar of winze) or point A on the 60-foot level,
though erratic assays in the main crosscut, as shown at point B, might indicate its proximity.
Mineralization in this location consists of parallel seams of pyrite in a sheeted zone of fractures
striking north-easterly, with steep dips to the south-west. The main fracture tightens at both
ends of the ore-body. It has already been noted that, although the mineralized fracture
persisted in the raise for 15 feet above point A, there were no values of consequence. The
55-foot length of ore west of point A consists mainly of a sericite matrix with hunches of
massive metallics and thin indefinite streaks of the chloritic material. The predominating
sericite in this exposure is taken to indicate, as elsewhere, the end product of the mineralized
fracture, so that the ore in the drift is apparently the top of the shaft ore-shoot, the length of
which may be greater at lower horizons. It is equally possible that the ore-bodies will be found
to occur as raking lenses, the major dimension being in vertical extent.
In the outward part of the main adit-level, between the portal and chainage 132, where
short crosscuts have been driven to the north-east and south-west, numerous fractures are
intersected in an area of partial silicification of tuffs grading from dense to granular frag-
mental material. These fractures belong to two series, one of which strikes north-westerly,
with dips between 27 and 50 degrees to the north-east; the other series striking north-easterly,
with steen dips, up to 75 degrees, to the south-west. The former are generally marked by
gouge containing disseminations and bunches of pyrite and tourmaline, and the latter are filled
with massive seams of the same minerals. Thorough sampling by the management of these
and similar mineralized fractures at other points gave negative results. Interest is centred
at present on the shaft ore-body, which occurs in a fracture of the north-easterly-striking
system. E. E. Mason is mine superintendent, with R. H. Stewart and V. Dolmage acting in
a consulting capacity.
In regard to the Buzzer claims, where sparse disseminations of chalcopyrite in quartz
diorite are exposed on the southern side of the Taseko river, no further work of consequence
has been done since conditions were described in Geological Survey of Canada Summary
Report, Part A, 192*. and the Report of the Minister of Mines for 1931.
This group consists of five mineral claims held by location, four of them being
Black Sheep, owned by E. Hansen and one claim, the Golden No. 1, by J. Mossie. The
staked area is on the south-eastern side of Battlement creek, adjoining the
Taylor-Windfall property to the north-east, and in the Clinton Mining Division. The Black
Sheep claim is immediately north-east of the Windfall Crown-granted claim, Lot 2843, the
adit described later being located on the steep bank sloping north-westerly to Battlement
creek, about 200 feet from the boundary of the latter claim.
The general topography of the area and means of access have been described in the foregoing Taylor-Windfall report.    The Black Sheep area is underlain by rocks of the Taseko F 22 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
volcanics of Cretaceous age (Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report, Part A, 1928,
" Gun Creek Map-area "). Rock-exposures, immediately adjoining fractures which have been
prospected, consist of dense to porphyritic andesite, the filling of the fractures being composed
of seams and streaks of tourmaline and pyrite, or the same minerals in disseminated form in
gouge.
No economic mineralization had been encountered when the property was visited in August.
The claims were staked following the discoveries made by E. J. Taylor on the adjoining
property. Surface workings consisting of shallow excavations in the bank forming the southeastern side of the creek are located at points about 500 feet apart.
The adit, at elevation 5,325, or 25 feet above the creek-level, was started in an outcrop
of iron-stained decomposed andesite. It is driven first for 22.5 feet along a bearing of south
40 degrees east to where it intersects a fracture, marked by gouge, which strikes north 5 degrees
east and dips at 65 degrees to the east. At this point, where a bend is made, the adit follows
a vertical fracture, containing seams of tourmaline and pyrite, for 24 feet along a course of
north 80 degrees east to the face. Two samples, taken at the latter point across 6 inches and
2 feet respectively, gave assays of a trace in gold and silver. About 500 feet farther up-stream
a cut in the slope to the creek exposed an indefinite zone of fracturing striking north-easterly
and dipping steeply to the south-east, in rusty decomposed fine-textured porphyritic rock.
The property of this company, in the Clinton Mining Division, consists of
Taseko the Mohawk and Motherlode groups, comprising eighteen mineral claims
Motherlode and fractions held by location. These holdings are situated to the south
Gold Mines, Ltd. of Taseko river and to the east of Gibson (Granite) creek, or about 7% miles
south-easterly from the south end of Taseko lake. The precise location of
the Mohawk is shown on Fig. 5, " Gun Creek Area," Geological Survey of Canada Summary
Report, Part A, 1928. The claims, at elevations between 6,000 and 8,000 feet, cover the spur
formed by the west and north slopes of Motherlode mountain. Slopes to the creek and river
are steep but generally uniform as compared with the relief across the valley to the north.
The property is conveniently reached by a pack-trail which branches southerly from the main
Taseko Lake trail, on the north side of the river-flats, from a point just west of the mouth of
Gibson creek. The old pack-bridge across the river, now in precarious condition, is used as a
foot-bridge and horses are taken over at a ford a short distance up-stream. The trail then
crosses the flats on the southern side of the river to Cuthbert's camp, adjoining Gibson creek,
which can be crossed either by a foot-bridge or a horse-ford. Between this point, elevation
4,950 feet, and the mine camp at about 6,315 feet elevation, the connecting switchback trail
is on a steep but fair grade. The camp-site faces the Taseko river in an area of small second-
growth near timber-line. Lower slopes towards the river are well wooded. The main workings
are on the Mohawk group, 300 yards south-westerly from the camp and on the slope to Gibson
creek.
The deposits occur in quartz diorite of the Coast Range batholith, its contact with the
Mesozoic tuffs lying in the bottom of Taseko River valley 1 mile to the north. From what is
known of the strike and dip of this contact it is considered probable that it extended to the
vicinity of the Taseko-Motherlode deposits. On McClure mountain to the west the tuffs overlie
the batholith at high elevations, extending for a distance of 2% miles or more south of the
Taseko river.
Mineralization occurs in wide zones of fracturing and shearing, the lower of which, on
Mohawk ground, has been the more fully explored. In this case the quartz diorite is fairly
fresh, showing comparatively slight alteration due to the mineralization. The width of this
zone, about 85 feet at the south-western end, is 75 feet, or less, towards the north-east, due to
the apparent convergence of the walls in the latter direction. These dip very steeply to the
south-east. The foot-wall, which strikes north 35 degrees east, is the better marked, with
a thick gouge in places, the hanging-wall being less definite. The workings examined are
distributed over a length of 340 feet. Mineralization, in irregular patches, consists chiefly
of chalcopyrite and pyrite sparsely disseminated or as scattered bunches of chalcopyrite
associated with lesser amounts of pyrite. Accessory minerals include molybdenite, occasional
sphalerite, and galena. Small amounts of tourmaline and rutile have been reported to be
present in places. The gangue of the more concentrated mineralization is crushed, slightly
silicified, and altered quartz diorite.    In other areas there are zones of quartz veinlets, with WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6).
F 23
which molybdenite is frequently associated, or quartz crystals lining the cavities. Surface
exposures have not undergone much oxidation and are generally limited to rusty-coloured
areas, lightly stained with copper carbonates. Values of interest are principally in gold, with
some silver and copper.    The gold content appears to fluctuate largely in proportion to the
LEGEND
Open-cut
Scale
From Company's Plan
B.CDepartment of Mines 1935.
Taseko-Motherlode Gold Mines, Ltd.    Sketch-plan of Mohawk Fracture Zone.
amount of chalcopyrite present. Picked samples in which this mineral is abundant and
oxidized material show high assays in gold. General values are very low grade in certain wide
sections on the surface and underground, which have not yet been correlated or proved to be
continuous in length.
The property is mentioned in the Geological Survey Summary Reports, Parts A, 1924 and
1928, and in the Reports of the Minister of Mines for 1927, 1928, and 1934.    In 1928 the Con-
13 solidated Mining and Smelting Company drove an adit partly crosscutting the zone at the
south-west end. The property was acquired by the present company in 1933 and in the
following year supplies were packed in, winter camps built, trails repaired, and development
continued until early in 1935, when the connected bunk and cook house was demolished by a
snowslide which killed the crew of seven men.
The surface workings, on very steep " bluffy " ground, consist of large open-cuts and
stripping as shown on plan. Rusty altered igneous rock containing scattered sulphides and
occasional copper-carbonate stains is exposed in the extensive stripping at 6,400 feet elevation
(foot-wall) directly above the adit. This excavated area, 60 feet long and up to 27 feet wide,
follows the foot-wall of the fractured zone, then turns and continues easterly as a trench up
the steep slope for a length of 100 feet. The latter branch affords a section diagonal to the
strike, and widths of mineralization must be reduced accordingly. The results of large
sampling operations by R. H. Stewart showed gold values of 0.15 oz. per ton for the 60-foot
section of the trench adjoining the foot-wall. To the north-east four open-cuts adjacent to
the foot-wall showed gold values, in similar scattered irregular mineralization, of 0.12, 0.19,
0.145, and 0.08 oz. per ton across respective widths of 12, 15, 23, and 10 feet at chainages 130,
175, 225, and 280 feet measured from the long trench foot-wall intersection. The adit-workings
at 6,300 feet elevation are irregular, as shown on plan. Of the total footage of 448 feet, about
203 feet penetrates the fractured zone partly exposed by the large surface excavation at the
south-west end of the developed area. Mineralization underground, generally very scattered
and indefinite, is comparatively concentrated in the 28-foot section adjoining the foot-wall in
the 35-foot crosscut branch to the south-east, as shown on plan. The more obvious mineralization here consists of sparsely disseminated chalcopyrite and occasionally molybdenite in a
gangue of partly decomposed, silicified rock. Measuring from the foot-wall, which at this
point is marked by gouge 3 feet wide, a sample taken by R. H. Stewart across the first 16 feet
assayed: Gold, 0.135 oz. per ton; silver, 1.4 oz. per ton; copper, 0.73 per cent. A sample
taken by R. H. Stewart across the next 12 feet gave: Gold, 0.046 oz. per ton; silver, 1.4 oz.
per ton; copper, 0.14 per cent. Lateral extension of the mineralized 28-foot section is not
apparent in the next crosscut branch to the north-east, nor in that part of the foot-wall drift
within the fractured zone. The latter, which represents the work done immediately before the
accident which suspended operations, was not driven along the foot-wall as intended, its outer
part being to the north-west and outside the zone of interest.
The face of the sharp bend driven east for 20 feet is close to the projected position of the
foot-wall. Conditions therefore remain indefinite in regard to the possibility of developing
large areas of low-grade mineralization which might be concentrated to an economic product,
because work done has not yet demonstrated that values encountered in surface showings
extend to depth for any considerable distance along the strike. The high gold values in
specimen material, apparently associated chiefly with chalcopyrite, are of interest in connection
with the possible discovery in the vicinity of valuable concentrations of sulphides. The wide
Motherlode shear-zone, referred to in past reports, was not examined due to stormy weather
and snow. This deposit, at about 7,400 feet elevation, is stated by R. H. Stewart to be approximately parallel, its width being difficult to determine due to the surface being badly broken up
and largely covered with rock-slides. Sulphides are stated to be present in very small amounts,
gold values varying from 0.03 to 0.08 oz. per ton.
This group of six claims held by location, owned by J. Cuthbert, E. J. Taylor,
Empress. and associates, is situated below the Mohawk group of the Taseko-Motherlode
property, across the lower part of Gibson (Granite) creek south of the Taseko
river, and therefore in the Clinton Mining Division. A trail 1,500 feet in length connects the
Empress workings at 5,150 feet elevation (highest point) with Cuthbert's camp, 4,950 feet
elevation, on the western side of the creek. The prospected area is on flat, rolling, brushy
ground east of the creek and on adjacent lower slopes of Motherlode mountain.
The streams mentioned are shown on Fig. 5, " Gun Creek Area," accompanying the
Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report, Part A, 1928. Means of access have been
described in the writer's preceding reports on properties in the same district. The contact
between the Coast Range, batholith and the Taseko volcanics crosses the ground in an easterly
and westerly direction about half a mile south of the Taseko river, its approximate position
being determinable by broken-up, loose fragments and masses of both formations.    Near this WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 25
contact are boulders of mineralized granitic rock, some of which have been completely replaced
by pyrite and magnetite, also loose fragments of leached, copper-stained silicified tuff, some
areas of which show scattered pyrite. Occasional boulders of the latter formation contain
scattered aggregates of massive pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite, with accompanying magnetite.
As no appreciable area of definitely solid rock has been exposed, it is not possible to outline
the geological conditions, beyond stating that a zone of contact-metamorphic mineralization is
indicated by the shattered rocks which, in many places, appear to be not far removed from
their original position and at certain points may be in situ. Gold colours were panned from
decomposed silicified tuff at several points. Selected similar material taken by H. L. Batten
gave an assay of: Gold, 0.12 oz. per ton. Specimens of copper-stained pyritic material assayed:
Gold, 0.18 oz. per ton; and two selected samples of magnetite assayed: Gold, 0.28 and 0.12 oz.
per ton respectively. The holdings are comparatively recent stakings, only shallow surface
prospecting having been done. This consists of scattered cuts and excavations within an area
of roughly 300 by 600 feet. Surface-stripping is almost prohibitive owing to the cemented
gravel on bed-rock, formed through the deposition of limonite derived from pyritized tuff-beds.
The resulting material is too hard to pick and is difficult to drill by hand. Conditions, while
very indefinite, indicate an interesting contact-zone for systematic prospecting.
This group, consisting of four mineral claims held by location, is owned by
Spokane. J. Cuthbert, C. Holbrook, and associates. The property, in the Clinton
Mining Division, is situated at the head of McClure creek, 2% miles south
of the Taseko river or about 6 miles south-east of the south end of Taseko lake. The showings
are situated on flat to gently sloping ground in a cirque above timber-line, elevations ranging
from 6,500 to 6,700 feet. Adjoining the prospected area to the south and east are talus-slides
and bluffs which, together with the steep slopes of McClure mountain to the west, form the
boundaries of the basin. The Spokane group is reached by a good pack-trail from Cuthbert's
camp, elevation 4,950 feet, adjoining Gibson (Granite) creek on the south side of Taseko river.
General means of access and transportation conditions have been described in the foregoing
Taseko-Motherlode and Taylor-Windfall reports.
The deposits occur in quartz diorite of the Coast Range batholith, about a quarter of a
mile east of its contact with Mesozoic tuffs outcropping on McClure mountain (Geological
Survey of Canada Summary Report, Part A, 1928). Mineralization, consisting chiefly of
pyrite, with a fair percentage of chalcopyrite in places, is exposed in an irregularly shaped
area roughly 500 feet long and from 200 to 300 feet in width. The trend of the mineralized
zone is not definitely discernible, but one well-defined plane of fracturing (foot-wall of zone?)
was noted, the strike of which was north 45 degrees east and the dip steep to the south-east.
This would indicate a fractured zone of somewhat similar strike to the Mohawk zone on the
Taseko-Motherlode property. Both the Spokane and Mohawk deposits are south-west of the
copper mineralization in the batholithic rock on the Buzzer claims of the Taylor-Windfall, and
while the three generally similar deposits are not necessarily in line, it seems that they follow a
general system of north-easterly fracturing. The surface is much broken up and it is difficult
to distinguish solid material from the large masses of loose rock. What appear to be solid
outcrops among the residual debris consist largely of rusty, altered granitic rock containing
irregular disseminations and patches of the sulphides. Mineralization is more intense where
local fracturing is pronounced.    Silicification is not much in evidence.
Judging from selected type samples the gold values do not appear to be associated with
chalcopyrite as is apparently the case at the Taseko-Motherlode. Selected chalcopyrite with
quartz crystals assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton; copper, 13.5 per cent.
Two other specimens of pyritic material assayed respectively: Gold, nil; silver, 6 oz. per ton;
copper, 9 per cent.; and: Gold, trace; silver, 2 oz. per ton; copper, 8 per cent. The better
gold values are contained in rusty, leached, copper-stained granitic rock, a selected sample of
this character assaying: Gold, 0.76 oz. per ton. All samples quoted are from the surface, no
underground work having been done.
The claims constituting the property were staked in 1922 and mentioned in the Report of
the Minister of Mines for 1922 and for the years 1927 and 1928, when some trenching was done
by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. Since that time seasonal prospecting has
been done to meet assessment requirements. Brief reports on the claims are also contained
in Geological Survey of Canada Summary Reports, Parts A, for 1924 and 1928. F 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
The surface workings, consisting of trenches and open-cuts, are shallow, the excavations
generally having a depth of from 3 to 6 feet. The work is concentrated in an area about
300 feet long and 150 feet wide, in which relative elevations vary from 6,460 to 6,522 feet.
The main trench system, comprising two parallel trenches approximately 60 feet apart running
northerly and southerly, is roughly bisected by a small creek flowing easterly. The western
trench, which branches 60 feet from the north end, is 240 feet long and the eastern trench is
200 feet in length. The mineralization in these and surrounding scattered trenches and cuts
cannot be described in detail for practical purposes due to the broken oxidized surface and
doubt as to which material is in place. The included loose masses are similarly mineralized
and often show considerable copper-stain. The lowest and most definite exposure is in the
bluffs 75 feet easterly from the northern end of the easterly trench and at an elevation of
6,460 feet. In this location, where there is an apparent foot-wall striking north 45 degrees
east and dipping steeply to the south-east, the showing, 30 feet long and up to 10 feet high,
consists of rusty, altered, copper-stained granitic rock. A selected sample of this material
assayed: Gold, 0.76 oz. per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton; copper, 2 per cent. About 100 feet
southerly from the bluff-showing, adjoining the trail at the same elevation, stripping and cuts
over a length of 50 feet expose scattered mineralization. The Spokane prospect has not yet
reached the stage whereby areas of surface mineralization of definite dimensions and value
could be delimited, more development being essential to prove continuity and the presence of
average gold values below the zone of oxidation. Surface-stripping in the flat area is difficult
and expensive. Further surface work could, however, be done to advantage on the bluff-
showings and along the edge of the trail by trenching across the apparent north-easterly
strike of the deposit, approaching the objective from the lower ground to the east of the
trenched area.
Taseko River Area, North of Taseko Lake (Lower Taseko River).
This property, owned by C. M. Vick, consists of twenty-one mineral claims
Vick. held by location, situated on the western side of the Taseko river at a point
about half a mile northerly from the north end of Taseko lake, in the Clinton
Mining Division. The claims cover the bare, precipitous, rocky ground rising immediately
west of the river at 4,400 to 7,900 feet elevation, both altitudes being approximate. The
mountain, backed by rugged peaks of the Coast range, marks an abrupt transition from the
undulating low relief of the Interior plateaux which it faces to the north-east across the river.
The property is reached from Hanceville, in the Chilcotin district, 60 miles westerly by motor-
road from Williams Lake, on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
Improvements made in 1935 permit of truck-haulage in dry weather from Chilco Ranch
to a distance of 27 miles towards the mine; then there are 13 miles of rough road and 15 miles
of trail to the cable-crossing opposite the mine camp. The Taseko River valley, bordered by
a series of gravel benches, sparsely wooded with jack-pine, offers easy facilities for road-
construction, a little grading being necessary at a few points where excavation will be in
gravel. From where the river is left to Chilco Ranch, including the 27-mile improved section,
the ground is generally open, level, or rolling, being dotted with small shallow lakes, swampy
depressions, and fairly dense patches of jack-pine. Rock-outcrops are quite rare, the whole
area being used as pasturage for cattle. Roads are easy and cheap to construct if low-lying,
muddy areas are avoided.
The geology of the district is shown on Publication 2063, " Chilco Lake and Vicinity,"
accompanying Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report, Part A, 1924. The formation
in the immediate vicinity of the workings consists of andesites, tuffs, and massive flow-breccias.
These strike northerly and southerly with flat dips into the hill to the west. Cutting the
volcanic beds are south-westerly-trending diorite dykes which, from 20 to 100 feet wide or more,
follow an irregular course and are split up into numerous branches. The main contact with
the intruding Coast Range batholith lies 15 miles southerly at the south end of Taseko lake.
The deposits occur as south-westerly-striking fissure-veins intimately associated with the dyke
system, being either within the intrusive bodies or adjoining them. The vein-showings, on
which most of the work has been done, strike up the mountain from south 50 degrees west to
south 60 degrees west and dip at 75 degrees to the south-east. They occupy the bottom or
sides of a steep, deeply incised, narrow gulch which corresponds with the general trend of the WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6).
F 27 F 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
principal dyke system as mapped by V. Dolmage and R. K. Matheson. Short vein sections,
of generally similar attitude, are exposed at widely separated points through a vertical range
of about 2,100 feet. Continuity of individual occurrences was difficult to trace, due to great
lengths of the outcrop area being covered with loose rock and, in places, snow. The ground
is also very precipitous. Mineralization in the surface showings, some of which are only
partly exposed, generally consists of pyrite and chalcopyrite associated with quartz, in bands
paralleling the walls of the fissures, the larger part of the filling being altered, and sometimes
silicified rock. The sulphides are generally concentrated in streaks and narrow bands, of which
there may be two or more in a section. Gold values are almost exclusively associated with the
pyritic material, a selected specimen of which assayed: Gold, 9.34 oz. per ton; silver, 5.4 oz.
per ton. Quartz, lacking sulphides, has little or no gold content. Except in such picked
material, silver values are negligible. Assays show up to 3.5 per cent, copper, the general
content being unimportant.
The claims forming the nucleus of the property were staked in 1933, more claims being
added in 1934 and 1935. Underground work was initiated in 1935. Surface workings consist
of open-cuts and stripping aggregating about 200 lineal feet. This work is localized at elevations 5,832, 6,142, and 7,900 feet, rusty streaks in places marking the apparent position of
outcrops in the intervening spaces which, as stated previously, were largely covered. On the
summit at 7,900 feet elevation are two widely spaced cuts. In the most south-westerly of these
cuts the showing is 69 inches wide. The other cut shows a 12-inch width of quartz, containing
streaks of sulphides, which assayed: Gold, 0.68 oz. per ton. At 6,142 feet elevation a similar
showing, 12 inches wide, assayed: Gold, 1.10 oz. per ton. At 5,832 feet elevation a vein-
exposure, 20 inches wide, is oxidized and decomposed. Just below this point there is a streak
of massive sulphides on the foot-wall from which the selected sample, assaying 9.34 oz. gold
per ton, was obtained. Adjoining this the vein is eroded and covered with slide-rock. At 5,795
feet elevation there is a showing 16 inches wide consisting of a 6-inch foot-wall streak which
assayed: Gold, 5.52 oz. per ton; the adjoining 10 inches of quartz with sulphides assaying:
Gold, 0.51 oz. per ton. Chalcopyrite is comparatively abundant here. Underground workings
consist of two adits (see map), at elevations of 5,792 and 5,534 feet respectively. At the time
of the writer's visit in August crosscutting by hand was proceeding on both levels. Owing to
the slide-rock and great depth of snow in the gulch, it was necessary in both cases to make
detours through the rock walls to get under the vein-outcrop. The upper adit had been driven
46 feet and the lower 65 feet. The vein was expected to be reached in short distances in both
workings. In addition to the showings described, there are on the claims numerous widely
separated similar occurrences naturally exposed on the bare ground as mapped by V. Dolmage
and R. K. Matheson and shown on the accompanying illustration made available to the writer.
These groups, comprising nine mineral claims held by location and owned
Viccal and by E. A. Calep, C. M. Vick, and Mrs. Vick, are situated on or near Vick
Mary Stuart. (Fish) creek, which joins the Taseko river about 10 miles below or northerly
from the latter stream's exit from Taseko lake. The propertv is located
8 miles on a bearing of north 7 degrees east from the northern extremity of Taseko lake and
about 4 miles east of the Taseko river, and is within the Clinton Mining Division.
Throughout most of its length Vick creek flows northerly roughly parallel to Taseko river
and 3 to 4 miles to the east of it. Vick creek is not correctly shown on any available map of
the district.
Calep's cabin at 4,800 feet elevation is about 10 miles up the creek from its confluence
with the river. The local relief is characterized by rolling hills, up to 5,000 feet elevation,
bordering the shallow, comparatively wide valley of Vick creek, which flows through open
swampy areas and wild-hay meadows. The adjoining hills are fairly densely wooded, chiefly
with " lodgepole " jack-pine.
The claims are easily reached by Indian pack-trails, one of which, about 16 miles in length,
branches off the main trail (partly converted into a road) at a point about 37 miles south-west
of Chilco Ranch near Hanceville. The geology of the area has not yet been mapped, the
adjacent Chilcotin district being occupied chiefly by Tertiary lava-flows overlain by glacial till.
Locally, rock-outcrops are rare and the mineralization exposed resulted from prospecting to
find the source of " float." Trenching, localized at points about 1 mile apart, shows in one
case pyrite in seams and disseminations in a dioritic dyke and in the other case  similar mineralization, but in a feldspar-porphyry dyke with chalcopyrite occasionally present with
the pyrite. In the latter case gold values are apparently associated with the copper sulphide.
A selected sample in which this mineral was present assayed: Gold, 0.54 oz. per ton; silver,
0.6 oz. per ton; copper, 2 per cent. Selected pyrite in the same vicinity gave a trace in gold
and silver.
The feldspar-porphyry exposure is adjacent to a small stream flowing westerly into Vick
creek, which it joins at about 200 yards above or south of Calep's cabin, the trail connecting
the latter point with the workings being about 1% miles in length. In this locality trenches,
from 6 to 8 feet deep, have been dug over an aggregate length of 240 feet. Of these, two
trenches, together with the intervening bare outcrop, afford a 160-foot section across the strike,
details being as follows: Chaining in feet southerly from the northern extremity, feldspar-
porphyry dyke (striking north 80 degrees east) from 0 to 5; basalt mineralized with pyrite
from 5 to 10; feldspar-porphyry dyke, silicified and altered in places, mineralized with
disseminated pyrite and also seams of this mineral, accompanied occasionally with chalcopyrite,
filling closely spaced fractures, from 10 to 83; pyritized basalt from 83 to 92; pyritized
andesite from 92 to 148; and, finally, basalt from 148 to 160. Samples across definite widths
failed to show any appreciable values, but selected chalcopyrite and pyrite from a seam in
the feldspar porphyry gave the assay in gold of 0.54 oz. per ton as previously mentioned.
Selected pyrite and pyritized rock showed no values. At chainage 8 a partly decomposed
calcite stringer accompanied by ankerite and pyrite is partially exposed above water for a
length of 10 feet. This varies from 8 to 14 inches in width, strikes north-easterly, and dips
65 degrees to the north-west. The same stringer, but 2 inches wide, is again exposed in a
small trench 22 feet to the north-east. These showings, from which gold colours have been
panned, are within the mineralized feldspar-porphyry area. In the other location, on the
gentle slope east of Vick creek, north-east of Calep's cabin, trenches show pyrite in seams and
disseminations in dioritic rock which trends from north 70 degrees east to north 80 degrees
east.    Selected pyritized rock carried only a trace in gold and silver.
Tatlayoko Lake Area.
This property of the Bridge Island Golds, Limited, consists of the following
Morris. Crown-granted  claims:    Tatlico,   Tyee,  Isaac   T'.,  Spokane,  Copper  Dyke,
Copper Dyke Extension, and Millsite. The first six claims mentioned form
a continuous group adjoining which, to the west and south, are ten surveyed claims, not
Crown-granted, held by I. T. Morris and M. Sutton, who represent the major interest in the
Tatlayoko Lake Gold Mines, Limited, which formerly owned the Morris mine. The property
is situated south of the head of Matthew creek, 3 miles south-east of the south end of Tatlayoko
lake, in the rugged mountainous area near the eastern boundary of the Nanaimo Mining
Division. Matthew creek flows north-westerly to its junction with the Homathko river at
a point about 2 miles below the lake. The base camp is situated on a creek below and 900 feet
from the workings.
A power-site has been located at a point near the base camp where the creek flows through
a very narrow, steep-walled gorge, in which it makes a sharp turn and falls in cascades through
a height of 30 feet. Here a dam has been constructed and a 70-foot diversion-tunnel driven
for a proposed small power-development. In and adjoining the valley of Matthew creek are
fair stands of timber suitable for lumber, the forest generally extending up the mountain-sides
to about 5,000 feet elevation, above which there are only scattered clumps of stunted mountain-
hemlock. Tn parts of the timbered areas, swept by a forest fire of recent years, there are a
great number of standing fire-killed trees. The claims cover the steep mountain-slopes facing
the main valley occupied by the Homathko river and Tatlayoko lake to the west and north-west,
elevations on the steep, rocky, and talus-strewn ground above timber-line ranging between
6,000 and 7,000 feet.
Access to the area is by motor-road, 169 miles from Williams Lake, on the Pacific Great
Eastern Railwav. Of this total distance, 145 miles extend westerly from the town mentioned
to the junction with the branch, which is followed southerlv for 24 miles to the wharf at the
north end of Tatlayoko lake. In drv weather road conditions are good for the first 100 miles,
as far as Redstone. In this section imorovements made during the fall of 1935 included filling
of muddy areas and grading.    From Redstone to the lake the road was rough and in wet F 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
seasons has at times been impassable. This portion, however, has been improved considerably
by the repairs recently made. During periods of mining activity motor-boats and a scow
have been operated between the landings, about 14 miles apart, at the north and south ends
of the lake. An alternative route is provided by a pack-trail along the eastern side of the
lake, horses being available locally. From the southern landing, elevation 2,717 feet (lake-
level), a rough road, over which a light truck has been used, extends south-easterly for about
3% miles to the Morris base camp at 2,850 feet elevation, which is connected by an old pack-
trail, about 3 miles in length, with the mine camp at 6,050 feet elevation. In 1934 a 6-foot trail,
intended for caterpillar-tractor haulage, about 6 miles in length, was built between the lower
point and a point 500 feet vertically below the upper objective. The excessively steep grades
of parts of this new trail prohibit its use for successful, continuous tractor-haulage. A better
location could be obtained giving a uniform and reasonable grade between terminal points.
Conditions, however, are well adapted for aerial-tram transportation to a strategic point in
the valley below, if warranted by further development and solution of economic and metallurgical problems in connection with production.
In 1934 freighting costs between Williams Lake and Tatlayoko lake were 1.5 cents a pound
and further costs of freighting on the lake and by the road to the base camp are reported to
have been low. General communication facilities of the area are as follows: A stage carries
mail on alternate Saturdays to Moore's ranch near the north end of Tatlayoko lake; the
nearest telephone-station is at Graham's ranch and hostelry at Tatla lake, 29.7 miles from
Moore's or 151.8 miles west of Williams Lake.
In regard to the geology of the area, the following is an extract from page 70, Geological
Survey of Canada Summary Report, Part A, 1924:—
" The veins cut Triassic sediments, chiefly argillites and fine sandstones, but with one thin
bed of fine cherty conglomerate. A short distance north-east of the veins is a stock of quartz
diorite probably related to the Coast Range batholith, the edge of which is situated a few miles
to the south. Many dykes cut the sediments and range in composition from diorite to basalt.
Many, if not all, of them are younger than the veins, since they cut the veins or cut other dykes
which cut the veins. One basalt dyke follows the main vein through its length, crossing it
and recrossing it and holding included fragments of it."
In all cases seen the veins, if not in the dioritic rock, are not more than 400 feet from its
nearest exposure. To be more explicit, several of the veins cut the quartz diorite, which, more
extensive than originally supposed, trends north-easterly for a length of at least 800 feet and
is reported to have been traced through several adjoining claims to the north-east. Its width
was not definitely observed, but it is probably a large dyke or sill. The other vein occurrences
are in the sediments, chiefly argillites, in a zone about 400 feet wide adjoining the igneous
intrusive body to the north-west. The local attitude of the sediments is difficult to determine,
the series being disturbed and intruded by a great profusion of dykes which follow no definite
system of fracturing, but strike in various directions.
Prospecting has been generally confined to a zone 800 feet long measured north-easterly
and south-westerly (roughly parallel to outcrops of the dioritic rock) and up to 1,000 feet in
width. Within this area are exposed numerous veins, stringers, and lenses which are associated
with fissures or fractures cutting the formation in various directions; i.e., northerly, northeasterly, and north-westerly. No definite system of fracturing was observed and strikes and
dips vary very considerably. In several cases within the sedimentary formation veins follow
one or both walls of dykes. The No. 1 (or Morris) vein is the best exposed, having been traced
on the surface for a length of 850 feet through a vertical range of 450 feet, and followed
underground for 280 feet from near the lower outcrop.
" Pay-streak " widths (i.e., excluding dyke-partings) are generally less than 2 feet in
width, but swell locally up to 5 feet. In the No. 1 adit, developing the Morris vein, widths for
sampling purposes varied from 0.5 to 4.8 feet, the average being 2.73 feet. Examination of
typical vein-filling showed the following minerals in approximate order of abundance: Stibnite,
arsenopyrite, and pyrite, accompanied by minor amounts of sphalerite and tetrahedrite.
Stibnite is the most conspicuous sulphide, followed by arsenopyrite.
The gangue is chiefly quartz with altered crushed wall-rock and kaolinitic material, calcite
also being present occasionally in small amounts. WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 31
Eighteen samples, including five check samples taken by the writer, over a length of 247
feet and a width of 2.73 feet in No. 1 adit (not a continuous section for tonnage-estimate
purposes), averaged: Gold, 0.25 oz. per ton; silver, 3.1 oz. per ton. Somewhat higher values,
however, can be obtained from certain sections of the above length sampled. Assays of the
writer's samples of selected type material do not clearly indicate the minerals with which gold
and silver are associated, although gold values to some extent appear to be related to arsenopyrite, as illustrated by the following samples:—(1.) Heavy sulphide consisting chiefly of
stibnite and arsenopyrite with a little sphalerite assayed: Gold, 1 oz. per ton; silver, 22 oz.
per ton. (2.) Sample containing 16.7 per cent, stibnite, with no appreciable arsenopyrite, gave
only a trace in gold and silver. It is evident that there is no direct relationship between silver
and stibnite, silver values, where appreciable, being attributed in part at least to the presence
of tetrahedrite, which, in places, is intimately associated with the antimony sulphide. The
better values in both gold and silver appear to be contained in sulphide masses, composed of
several of the minerals specified.
In 1907 I. T. Morris, closely associated with the property ever since, with A. H. Sheppard,
discovered vein-outcroppings on what is now the Morris mine ground, and six claims were
staked. About 1909 the title to the claims was assigned to the Tatlayoko Gold Mines, Limited,
and, following transportation improvements, underground work was initiated. The claims
were Crown-granted in 1911 and the company continued active until 1912. The property was
idle until about 1920, when the interest of Sheppard, now deceased, was acquired by M. Sutton.
In 1921 a small sawmill was taken in and lumber sawn for camp buildings. A road was built
from the south end of the lake to the power-plant site, which was partially developed as
previously stated. The property is next mentioned in 1934, when an agreement was entered
into with the Bridge Island Golds, Limited, this company assuming control of operations.
The base camp was built and the 6-mile-long narrow-gauge road previously referred to was
constructed. No mining of consequence has been done since about 1912. Past references
to the property are contained in the Reports of the Minister of Mines for the years 1910, 1916,
1921, and 1934.
Surface workings are quite extensive and consist of a large amount of trenching along the
outcrop of No. 1 vein, together with many scattered cuts and trenches exposing outcroppings
of other veins, several of which are fairly well defined, and of stringers, or elongated lenses.
The No. 1 vein has been traced by trenching and stripping, and natural exposures on bare
rock, for a length of about 850 feet between elevations of 6,150 and 6,600 feet; these and other
elevations specified being relative and based on aneroid readings. At the lower end the trenching and stripping is practically continuous for a length of 250 feet or up to about 6,400 feet
in elevation. Above this point the outcrop is largely obscured by rock debris to where it is
again definitely exposed between the 6,500- and 6,600-foot contours. The strike is southerly
going up the bluffs and talus-slopes, whilst dips vary between 25 and 50 degrees to the east.
The vein, cutting the argillites, follows one or both walls of a basaltic dyke which is from 2 to
6 feet wide or more.
The quartz-diorite contact lies about 200 feet to the east at the 6,150-foot contour and less
than 50 feet away at the 6,500-foot contour. Above the latter point its position was not
discernible. While partial or imperfect exposures do not permit a detailed description of
lengths and widths throughout the outcrop area, mineralization, occurring over widths varying
from 1 to 5 feet, is visible at numerous points. Stibnite and arsenopyrite are the principal
sulphides, with yellow-green oxidation products, in a gangue of quartz and silicified crushed
rock. Dyke and vein relationships are illustrated by sections at the 6,250- and 6,525-foot
contours, where conditions are respectively: (1) From 3 to 5 feet of strong sulphide mineralization on the foot-wall side of the dyke, and (2) dyke 6 feet wide with similar mineralization
15 inches wide on the hanging-wall and from 12 to 18 inches wide on the foot-wall. While there
are numerous vein-outcroppings, prospecting, here as elsewhere on the surface, is very incomplete, so that the tracing of a showing along one or the other side of the dyke is difficult or
impracticable. At all points on the property vein material separates cleanly from the dykes.
No. 1 adit, at 6,150 feet elevation, develops the ground below the vein-outcrop just described
and is 360 feet in length. The crosscut approach is driven south 28 degrees east for 50 feet,
then south 67 degrees east for 30 feet to where the vein is encountered and followed along its
southerly strike to the face, dips being from 25 to 45 degrees to the east.    The course of the F 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
drift is irregular, so that the two " pay-streaks " on either side of the dyke, which is from
4 to 5 feet in width, are not fully exposed throughout. Chaining south from zero at the vein-
intersection 80 feet in from the portal, the western or foot-wall " pay-streak " is fairly well
exposed from 33 to 135 feet, through which better section five samples averaged:—Gold: 0.38 oz.
per ton, and silver, 3.06 oz. per ton, across 3.5 feet. Just south of chainage 135 feet, this
showing goes into the western wall, but is cut again at 225 feet, where the drift curves westerly
and is exposed to the face at 247 feet. Three samples in this last section, 22 feet long,
averaged: Gold, 0.18 oz. per ton, and silver, 1.5 oz. per ton, across 2.7 feet. The hanging-wall
" pay-streak," mostly left in the wall of the drift or poorly exposed, shows up better towards
the face, as at chainage 230 feet, where a sample across 1.5 feet gave: Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton;
silver, 3 oz. per ton. A sample across 2 feet in the face at chainage 247 feet assayed: Gold,
0.14 oz. per ton; silver, 1.2 oz. per ton. Slashing and crosscutting are needed to properly
expose both " pay-streaks " throughout the drift and test the continuity of mineralization.
The foot-wall streak appears to be the more continuous, whereas the other one is possibly in
the form of elongated lenses.
The portal of No. 2 adit is located 346 feet south 55 degrees west from No. 1 adit-portal.
It is 258 feet long and was started on a narrow quartz vein in argillite, which, due to the
precipitous character of the ground, cannot be traced for any considerable distance along the
surface. As exposed in the adit the vein, mineralized with stibnite and arsenopyrite, is from
0.4 to 0.8 feet wide, striking south 35 degrees east, with a dip of from 40 to 65 degrees to the
north-east. Chaining along the drift from the portal this vein is followed to 135 feet, where
the adit changes direction and leaves it in the north-eastern wall, at which point there is only
a fracture with no appreciable sulphide mineralization. Four samples in the 135-foot length
averaged: Gold, 0.42 oz. per ton, and silver, 5.7 oz. per ton, across 0.6 foot. From 135 feet
to 181 feet the adit follows a course of south 14 degrees east, crossing a basic dyke, between
136 and 140 feet, which paralleled the quartz vein in the first part of the adit. At 149 feet a
fault, strike south 45 degrees east, dip 70 degrees to the north-east, wras crossed. Just beyond
the fault a vein, dipping flatly to the north-east and averaging 0.75 foot in width, is exposed
along the western wall to another bend in the adit at 181 feet. Where the short vein-section
is left it narrows down to a seam. From 181 feet the adit follows a bearing of south 51 degrees
west to the face at 258 feet; this last 77 feet was intended to crosscut the ground below other
veins showing on the surface. At 246 feet a well-mineralized stringer, up to 6 inches wide,
is cut, its strike being south 50 degrees east and dip 55 degrees to the north-east. This is
probably one of several similar south-easterly-striking stringers which outcrop on the precipitous ground above the inner end of the adit. In this locality, between the 6,175- and
6,400-foot contours, trenching over a length of 220 feet exposes a vein, strike south 35 degrees
east, dip 50 degrees north-east, along one or both sides of a basic dyke, 4 to 5 feet wide, cutting
the argillite. The usual mineralization, with quartz predominating, is from 1 to 2 feet wide.
A selected sample gave: Gold, 0.8 oz. per ton; silver, 21 oz. per ton; stibnite, 25.3 per cent.
Only a few of the other numerous, similarly mineralized outcroppings are described as follows:
Trenching between the 6,350- and 6,400-foot contours, 100 feet east of the outcrop of No. 1 vein,
exposes a vein in quartz diorite, striking a little east of south and dipping steeply to the east.
A sample across 1.5 feet of rusty decomposed material, containing remnants of quartz with
pyrite and arsenopyrite, assayed: Gold, 0.90 oz. per ton; silver, 22 oz. per ton. This vein
has been traced for a length of 165 feet, but the cuts are partly caved, preventing thorough
investigation. Between the 6,400- and 6,425-foot contours, and 35 feet east of the No. 1 vein-
outcrop, cuts have been made in a stringer in quartz diorite varying from a few inches to 2 feet
in width and striking due south, with a steep dip to the east. This is intensely oxidized quartz
containing sulphide casts. Near the 6,600-foot contour, 710 feet distant along a bearing of
south 22 degrees 15 minutes east from No. 1 adit-portal, an open-cut exposed an oxidized vein-
outcrop striking south 40 degrees east and dipping steeply to the north-east. Selected, stained,
sulphide remnants at this point assayed: Gold, 0.5 oz. per ton; silver, 17.2 oz. per ton. The
wall-rock was not clearly exposed. At 6,275 feet elevation, in a steep-walled gulch, east of
and 240 feet distant from No. 1 adit-portal, open-cuts expose the outcrop of a south-westerly-
striking vein, 6 to 12 inches wide, containing abundant sulphides, chiefly stibnite. To the
south-east of this are three widely spaced similar stringers, approximately parallel, extending
to 6,400 feet elevation.    The formation adjoining the four little vein-like occurrences is brown- WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 33
weathering argillite. Farther up the same gulch, 600 feet along a bearing south 81 degrees
east from No. 1 adit and adjoining the 6,500-foot contour, mineralization in argillite has been
traced, but not well exposed, for a length of 180 feet along the north-westerly contact of the
quartz diorite which has an irregular trend, the local strike being about north 65 degrees east
and dip 35 degrees to the south-east. In one part of the exposure, in which the hanging-wall
fracture is well defined, 6- and 10-foot widths of mineralization are found at points 20 feet
apart at the eastern and western extremities respectively, the central part being caved.
Both sections specified contain irregular stringers and disseminations of antimonial and
arsenical sulphides in silicified argillite, the 10-foot section showing the better concentration.
Selected mixed sulphide material from the latter showing assayed: Gold, 1 oz. per ton; silver,
22 oz. per ton.
Summarizing conditions outlined in this report, mineralization of the character described
is widespread. The work done, however, has been scattered and much prospecting remains to
be done to trace the continuity of various surface showings and to test vein-intersections where
larger bodies might occur. While high assays have been obtained in places as from surface
showings, the general gold and silver content appears to be low. In view of the remote location
of the property and the metallurgical problems presented by the refractory character of the
mineralization, major tonnage would have to be developed before questions of production could
be considered. It would be impracticable to ship concentrates; therefore some process would
have to be devised whereby the gold and silver content could be reduced to a more concentrated
shipping product.
These groups, comprising nineteen mineral claims held by location, are owned
Langara, by J. I. Feeney and Dr. A. R. Thomson. They are situated in the vicinity
Standard, Argo. of the South fork of Feeney (Ottarasko) river, about 12 miles north-westerly
from the junction of the main stream with the Homathko river south of
Tatlayoko lake, and in the Nanaimo Mining Division. Feeney (Ottarasko) river is shown
in part on the B.C. Department of Lands Reference Map No. 32b. The staked area is situated
on the steep slopes of mountains, being part of the Niut range, in which sharp peaks and ridges
extend up to 10,000 feet above sea-level. Elevations on the claims range from 4,800 to 6,100
feet or more, all exposures being on steep side-hills. The valleys and lower slopes are well
wooded with jack-pine, spruce, balsam, and fir, occasional spruce-trees being 3 to 4 feet in
diameter. The smaller trees extend up to about 6,000 feet elevation. General transportation
conditions have been described in the foregoing report on the Morris property. Feeney's camp,
at 4,800 feet elevation, is reached by a trail, 8% miles in length, which connects it with a cabin
and landing on the west side of Tatlayoko lake (elevation 2,717 feet) near its southern end.
The pack-trail, mostly on an easy grade, extends north-westerly from the lake towards the
Feeney River valley, which is followed to its South fork, about 6% miles from the lake. This
creek is then followed southerly for 1% miles to where it forks into what are locally known
as Meadow and Clearwater creeks. The trail continues southerly to the camp, situated on a
wooded flat adjoining the latter stream to the east. Branch trails, specified later, extend from
the camp to the very widely separated groups of workings.
The local geology has not been mapped, but the formations are evidently part of the large
area of Mesozoic rocks mapped to the east (Geological Survey Sum. Rep., Part A, 1924), the
series having been described as consisting chiefly of andesite, basalt, and tuff, with shale,
conglomerate, and limestone. Veins, and replacement deposits associated with fractured zones,
occur in highly altered argillaceous and siliceous rocks in the vicinity of intrusive bodies of
dioritic rock. The Langara veins are found chiefly in diorite. The intrusives are probably
related to the granitic rocks of the Coast Range batholith, its main exposure being situated not
far to the south. The character of the mineralization varies in different places, as will be
specified under separate headings. Gold values are chiefly associated with arsenopyrite,
which is found, to varying extent, in all the showings. Low silver values are also present.
Outcroppings were first discovered by J. I. Feeney in 1911, the original claims being relocated
and added to in connection with the present exploration, which was started in 1933.
Langara.—Showings in this section are situated on the steep side-hill, above and east
of the camp, with which connection is made by switchback trail. The veins examined
all cut diorite in the vicinity of its contact with metamorphosed argillaceous rocks. The
mineralization  observed consists of pyrite and  arsenopyrite, in  a gangue of quartz  and F 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
altered, sericitized wall-rock. The outcrop of the principal vein is exposed by surface cuts
at elevations 5,770, 5,850, and 5,870 feet, throughout which section the slope of the ground
is about 35 degrees.    Below the lowest exposure conditions are obscured by slide-rock.
Above the highest point mentioned vein-outcrops can be seen continuing in the bluffs
to higher elevations, but the precipitous character of the ground prevented close inspection.
The strike is south 30 degrees east and dip varies from 50 to 70 degrees to the southwest. At 5,870 feet elevation the showing, 4 feet wide, consists of, from hanging- to
foot-wall: First a 6-inch sulphide streak, chiefly arsenopyrite; then 1 foot of oxidized
honeycombed quartz; then 23 inches of altered, rusty rock containing disseminated sulphides ;
and finally a 7-inch streak with scattered arsenopyrite. A sample across the complete section
assayed: Gold, 0.18 oz. per ton; silver, 8.2 oz. per ton. At 5,850 feet elevation (portal of
No. 1 adit) the showing consists of a width of 22 inches of sparsely mineralized iron-stained
rock, including a decomposed rusty streak. At 5,770 feet elevation (portal of No. 2 adit)
the outcrop consists of crushed, iron-stained rock, 4 to 5 feet wide, containing sparse mineralization. Both adits are drifts on the vein, the upper (or No. 1) being 22 feet long, including
the open-rock approach. Conditions improve perceptibly going towards the face, at which
point a sample taken across 5 feet assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, 3.4 oz. per ton;
arsenic, 4 per cent. The lower (or No. 2) adit is 65 feet long. At 18 feet in from the portal
a crosscut is driven 22 feet to the north-east. In the adit between these points there is
scattered sulphide mineralization in crushed, iron-stained rock. Measuring from zero at the
portal, a sample taken across 45 inches at 23 feet in, where mineralization is more pronounced,
assayed: Gold, 0.16 oz. per ton; silver, 3.6 oz. per ton. From here to 55 feet sulphides are
sparsely disseminated through the altered, rusty formation. At the latter point a sample was
taken across 22 inches, the section containing much quartz with low sulphide content. This
assayed: Gold, 0.09 oz. per ton; silver, 0.4 oz. per ton. Similar mineralization continues to
the face, and a sample, taken across 42 inches at 60 feet in, assayed: Gold, 0.12 oz. per ton;
silver, 1.8 oz. per ton. A grab sample from 10 to 12 tons at the portal of No. 2 adit assayed:
Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton; silver, 3.5 oz. per ton. Adjoining the outcrop of this vein, at elevations
of 6,005, 5,930, and 5,850 feet, there are other showings in cuts and natural exposures, containing quartz with varying amounts of the same sulphides and, in places, oxidized streaks
varying in width from 9 inches to 24 inches, and striking south-easterly, which appear to be
spurs or splits from the main vein.
Standard.—These showings are on the western side of the Clearwater Creek valley,
about 1 mile, roughly estimated, along a bearing of south 70 degrees west from the Langara
workings and at approximately similar elevations. The Standard is reached by a switchback
trail about 1% miles in length from the centrally situated camp.
These mineral deposits, occurring as replacements of metamorphosed argillaceous rock,
consist of masses and disseminations of arsenopyrite and pyrite in a gangue of quartz. The
showings are associated with a zone of fracturing, strike south 20 degrees east (uphill) ; the
adjoining formation, schistose in part, is fractured, folded, and contorted. The mineralized
zone is exposed naturally and by cuts in the bluffs which start above a rock-strewn, gently
sloping bench at about 5,820 feet elevation. At 5,940 feet elevation a chip sample across 6 feet
assayed: Gold, 0.44 oz. per ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton; arsenic, 4.3 per cent.; and at 5,920
feet elevation a chip sample across 11 feet assayed: Gold, 0.36 oz. per ton; silver, trace;
arsenic, 5.6 per cent. At 5,890 feet elevation work was proceeding by hand, three men being
employed to crosscut the mineralized zone, which, below, is covered by a rock-slide. Above
the upper showing sampled, mineralization is visible at points to 6,040 feet elevation or higher,
but no work has been done in this section and the precipitous character of the ground prevents
close inspection.
Argo.—These showings lie to the north-west of the Standard workings, at a distance
roughly estimated at 3,000 feet, on the slope to Meadow creek, which is the westerly branch
of the South fork of Feeney river. A trail, about 1% miles in length, extending from the
camp on Clearwater creek, circles the point between the two streams and climbs from Meadow
Creek flats at 4,600 feet elevation to a point about 5,000 feet elevation or a little below the
showings. These are exposed in and adjacent to the bed of a small creek which flows along
the eastern wall of a rocky gulch. Conditions are very indefinite as only a little superficial excavating has been done. The
trend of the mineralized zone is marked by pronounced iron-stain which extends up the hill
for a considerable distance. The approximate vertical eastern wall of the gulch, which may
represent a plane of fracturing, trends a little east of south (uphill). The formation in which
the deposits occur is a metamorphosed siliceous rock, apparently of sedimentary origin. At
5,350 feet elevation, where a shallow cut was made, there are sparse disseminations and streaks
of sulphides without definite boundaries over a width of 8 feet or more. Scattered mineralization is also visible in the eastern wall of the gulch. Selected material shows the following
minerals: Galena, sphalerite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and arsenopyrite, associated
with quartz and silicified country-rock. A chip sample across 8 feet assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz.
per ton; silver, 1 oz. per ton; arsenic, nil. Another sample, taken in 1934 (Annual Report,
1934, page F 13), across a section 4 to 6 feet wide, where mineralization is more concentrated,
assayed: Gold, 0.24 oz. per ton; silver, 0.15 oz. per ton; arsenic, 2 per cent. The sections
sampled are part of a bare exposure 40 feet long, the outcrop at either end being covered with
loose rock.
In the gulch below, at 5,250 feet elevation, an extensive mass of dioritic rock is exposed,
the contact trending northerly.    The form of the intrusive body was not ascertained.
On the Mary claim, about 2,000 feet north-westerly from the Standard workings, surface
showings are exposed in shallow cuts on an open slide sloping 30 to 35 degrees to Meadow creek.
These consist of a series of parallel southerly-striking (in uphill direction) mineralized
fractures. The best exposure, 40 inches wide, is uncovered for a length of 10 feet. Mineralization consists of arsenopyrite in streaks and massive aggregates. A sample across the width
specified assayed: Gold, 0.14 oz. per ton; silver, trace. Selected material in this vicinity
contained 28.5 per cent, arsenic.
Summarizing general conditions and judging from the limited number of samples taken,
the Langara showings, where arsenopyrite occurs in abundance with iron sulphides, contain
fair gold values over substantial widths. Insufficient work has been done to indicate the
possible extent of the mineralization. Material of the grade found at present would have
to be improved or developed in very large quantities before production could be considered.
This is necessary in view of the remote situation of the property. In spite of the fact that
the metallurgy of the ore does not present a particularly difficult problem in regard to concentration, shipping products would probably have to be reduced to a much more concentrated
or metallic form. In the case of the Argo a somewhat different type of mineralization is
indicated, arsenic being present in very small amount in the present exposures. The pronounced
oxidation, extending for a considerable distance along the gulch containing the showings,
indicates interesting possibilities for the discovery of minable concentrations of mineralization.
Concluding these remarks, there are several other places on the properties where oxidized
streaks and zones.can be seen, as on the precipitous slopes above the Argo location. In the
general area staked, therefore, outcroppings and indications of mineralization are numerous,
affording much scope for systematic prospecting.
COQUIHALLA AREA.
This property, in the Yale Mining Division, consists of the Aurum Nos. 1 to 6,
Aurum. Idaho, Tramway, and Monitor Crown-granted mineral claims, together with
the Annex, held by location. It covers much of the ground originally
occupied by the Idaho and Snowstorm groups. The consolidated properties, controlled by
A. E. Raab, of Hope, are under option to the recently incorporated Cardinal Mining and
Development Company, Limited.
The property is situated on the South fork of Ladner creek, 2Vi miles (camp) north-west
of Verona (Aurum Siding), on the Kettle Valley Railway. The Aurum property lies on both
sides of the small valley of the South fork of Ladner creek, the camp being on a bench 30 feet
above and south-east of the stream. The workings are from 180 to 930 feet above the creek,
or at elevations of 2,600 to 3,350 feet, and on the north-western side of it. The side-hill is
well wooded and covered with overburden, slopes being generally uniform at angles of about
30 degrees towards the creek. The camp, at 2,450 feet elevation, is connected by a road, about
4% miles in length, mostly on a well-surveyed grade, with the railway siding at about 1,350
feet elevation.    The road has fallen into disuse in recent years. The geology of the district has been described in the following publications of the Geological
Survey of Canada: Summary Reports, 1919, Part B; 1920, Part A; Memoir 139, " Coquihalla
River Area," published in 1924;   and Summary Report, 1929, Part A.
Past references to the properties are contained in the Annual Reports of the Minister of
Mines for the years 1922 and 1926 under the name of Idaho, and 1927 to 1932, inclusive, under
the name of Aurum. The present group was consolidated in 1926 and was optioned to the
Aurum Gold Mines, Limited, most of the development having been done by this company.
Between 1930 and 1932, inclusive, 95 tons of ore was shipped from the Aurum mine, containing:
Gold, 432 oz.;  silver, 92 oz.
The older Aurum mine-workings, comprising Nos. 1, 2, 2A, 3, and 4 adits, at respective
elevations of 2,920, 2,830, 2,790, 2,705, and 2,600 feet, aggregate about 2,500 lineal feet of work.
This work consisted chiefly of drifting north-westerly on or adjacent to the talc-seam formed
along the periphery of a serpentine-contact. Nos. 2, 2a, 3, and 4 adits are respectively in a
south-easterly direction from No. 1 adit. Two small shoots of auriferous talc were stoped
above the No. 1 level, and another small shoot (corresponding to the south-easterly shoot,
near the portal in No. 1 adit) stoped above No. 2. There is also a small stope on the No. 3
level where some gold values were encountered in a siliceous zone. No stoping was done on
the No. 4 level, the face of which is about vertically below the portal of No. 2a. Subsequent
work in the mine is as follows: At 2,898 feet elevation or about 35 feet below No. 1 level, on
the dip of the talc-seam, an adit 49 feet long has been driven to exploit the small area left
between the portal ore-shoot on No. 1 level and the stope put up below it from No. 2 level.
The new working shows talc in the face and adjoining hanging-wall, 24 inches wide. In No. 4
level, 20 feet back from the northern face, a winze, full of water when inspected, has been
sunk about 5 feet adjoining a talc shear in greenstone near the contact with sediments. At the
collar of the winze there is a showing of quartz mixed with calcite 6 to 9 inches wide, which
apparently widens to about 18 inches below the water-level. Continuity of the showing, from
which picked specimens have shown visible gold, is not apparent in the drift above the winze.
Superficial exploration in the Ladner Slate belt to the north-east of the north-westerly-
trending serpentine-contact has exposed several parallel zones of quartz stringers or silicified
zones in metamorphosed sediments and greenstones. In this type of deposit low gold values
are associated with pyrite, and, in places, accompanied by arsenopyrite, the sulphides occurring
as irregular disseminations or fine streaks through the rock formation in the vicinity of quartz
stringers or silicified phases. The mineralization in general conforms to the attitude of the
enclosing formation, prevailing strikes being westerly or a little north of west, with dips
ranging from 40 to 80 degrees to the north. The better gold values are obtainable in areas
of oxidation which, while intense in places, is shallow. The approximate position of the
principal workings is described with reference to the portal of the No. 3 Aurum adit, which
is the nearest of the old mine-workings and in general extends along the serpentine-contact.
From the point specified the Queen (formerly McConnel) trench (south-west end) is
distant 530 feet along a bearing of north 5 degrees west, the elevation here being 2,885 feet.
This trench, about 100 feet long, is dug approximately at right angles to the zone, which strikes
about north 70 degrees west and dips from 70 to 80 degrees to the north-east. Towards the
hanging-wall side the showing consists of a width of 20 feet of massive, greenish, altered rock
containing widely separated quartz stringers paralleling the attitude of the formation, sulphide
mineralization being very light. Adjoining this section on the foot-wall side there is a lens,
16 feet wide, of similar rock, largely composed of quartz. The exposures are generally fresh,
with a little oxidation in places. A selected sample of pyritized silicified rock assayed: Gold,
0.03 oz. per ton; silver, trace. Just west of this trench and at 2,905 feet elevation a curving
adit, with short branches, has been driven north-westerly for 60 feet. These workings expose
quartz stringers at widely separated points, with no appreciable sulphide mineralization, in
rock of similar character to that in the trench below. On the Idaho zone the highest point
exposed is 1,350 feet distant measured along a bearing of north 25 degrees west from the portal
of the No. 3 Aurum adit. The distance between the Idaho zone and the serpentine-contact,
measured at right angles to the trend of the latter, is estimated at about 480 feet. Surface
workings here, distributed over a length of 250 feet between elevations of 3,200 and 3,326 feet,
consist of extensive stripping by ground-sluicing, together with open-cuts and a long trench.
These indicate a shear-zone, striking north 85 degrees west, dip from 60 to 80 degrees northerly, in dark slate and schist. The rocks, which are generally weathered, containing rusty seams
and streaks, are in places decomposed and intensely oxidized. Where exposures are fairly
fresh the mineralization, conforming in general with the structure of the enclosing strata,
consists of quartz stringers and irregularly silicified areas with small amounts of pyrite and
arsenopyrite, the sulphides impregnating the rock, but not the quartz to any noticeable extent.
The area uncovered by ground-sluicing and open-cuts, over a length of 100 feet between
elevations 3,330 and 3,266 feet, is of irregular outline up to 25 feet wide.
Chaining easterly down the slope from elevation 3,330, the showings are briefly as follows:
At the top there is a width of 7.5 feet of soft, iron-stained decomposed rock and soil; at chainage
9, a width of 25 feet of highly altered sedimentary rock, with, in places, where silicification is
more intense, as in the 6-foot central section, finely divided sulphides in bands paralleling the
strike; between chainages 9 and 100, widths of from 5 to 11.5 feet of irregularly pyritized
silicified rock with rusty zones and iron-stained, decomposed streaks. The following samples
of fairly fresh pyritized, silicified rock were taken:—■
Chainage from
Elevation 3,330.
Description.
Gold.
Silver.
20
Oz. per Ton.
0.01
0.01
0.26
0.18
Oz. per Ton.
44
Grab      ' __ —
85
0.15
89
Trace
These were taken to get an idea of values in primary material free from oxidation.
Fifty feet southerly from the upper part of the exposure described and opposite the section
between chainages 8 and 52, an open-cut up to 17 feet wide exposes a rusty zone in schistose
argillaceous rock. This working and a smaller cut 65 feet east of it (opposite chainage 117)
indicate a zone of indefinite mineralization paralleling the main Idaho showings. Reverting
to the latter, there is at chainage 195, and elevation 3,200 feet, a long trench across the strike
of the zone. Here there is exposed a width up to 55 feet of rusty, decomposed, slaty rock and
soil from which a selected sample of intensely oxidized material assayed: Gold, 1.10 oz. per ton;
silver, 0.1 oz. per ton; and a sample across 6 feet, where oxidation was pronounced, gave:
Gold, 0.52 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton. At 3,172 feet elevation and just east of the trench
there is a meandering adit, comprising 188 lineal feet of work. It crosscuts the mineralized
zone in an irregular manner, but does not afford a proper section at right angles to the strike.
Its main course is from south 70 degrees west to south 80 degrees west for 110 feet. At 30 feet
in from the portal a branch extends north 65 degrees west for 30 feet, then turns north-east
for 48 feet. The last-mentioned course, directly under the 55-foot trench, crosscuts the ground
diagonally. Appreciable mineralization in the adit-workings is apparently limited to the
16- or 20-foot section adjoining the face in the last course mentioned, where there is scattered
light sulphide mineralization with some irregular silicification. Fifty feet north of the adit-
portal a trench at 3,170 feet elevation exposes rusty slates, this being outside the Idaho zone
strike.
When the property was examined late in October, 1935, development had not reached the
stage where tonnage estimates of specific value could be made. As the examination was
curtailed by a snow-storm, only a few check samples could be taken by the writer, which
showed variable gold values evidently present in patches in the Idaho showings, and higher
assays from oxidized, decomposed, residual material as in the 55-foot trench. The zone is
very imperfectly exposed in the superficial workings. Underground work, including drifting
with crosscuts at regular intervals, followed by large sampling operations, will be necessary
before average values in primary material can be gauged. Between the Idaho and Queen
(McConnel) workings there are widely separated cuts and trenches indicating other rusty zones
of quartz veinlets or silicified areas, but these are insufficiently exposed for detailed description
or appraisal.    There was no activity at the property when visited by the writer. VANCOUVER ISLAND.
BY
J. S. Stevenson.
The writer wishes to express his appreciation of the hearty co-operation rendered by mine
officials and the various prospectors who gave freely of their time and hospitality during the
examination of properties visited during the past season. Especial acknowledgment is made
of the incomparable facilities offered by Dr. M. F. Bancroft and party, of the Geological Survey
of Canada, while many of the properties on the west coast of the island were being examined.
Zeballos River Section.
This area is accessible by steamer from Victoria to Ceepeecee, and thence by launch for
12 miles to the head of Zeballos arm. From there good foot-trails lead to the properties up
Zeballos river and tributary creeks. A report and geological map of the area by H. C. Gunning
have been published by the Geological Survey of Canada in the Summary Report, 1932, Part II.
A glance at the geological map indicates that at about 5 miles up the river a belt of Coast
Range intrusives extends north-westward and south-eastward. Gunning calls this the Zeballos
batholith. This granodiorite batholith is bordered on the north-east by volcanics and limestone,
and on the south-west by volcanics only. Both the batholith and bordering volcanics have been
fractured and some of the major fractures filled by gold-bearing quartz-sulphide veins. Of the
active properties, the Goldpeak and Goldfield are being prospected and have produced small
amounts of high-grade ore from quartz veins in granodiorite, and the Van Isle is driving an
adit on a quartz-filled shear in porphyritic andesite.
For some years the presence of placer gold has been known along the Zeballos river and
recently small operations by local prospectors have been attempted on the main Zeballos river,
on the North fork and on a tributary creek of the main river. The presence of large boulders
and the difficulty of handling them is one of the major problems affecting operation.
The Goldpeak group comprises the following mineral claims staked in 1933:
Goldpeak.       Gold Peak, Gold Peak No. 2, Gold Peak No. 3, White Star, Blue Star, Green
Star, Red Star;  and the Gold Peak No. 4. staked in 1934.    These claims are
variously owned by Alfred Bird, Albert Bloom, John F, Donaldson, Joe Doyle, M. Francis
(deceased), and  C.  W.  Smith, most of whom reside in the vicinity of Zeballos arm  and
Ceepeecee.
The workings and camp of the Goldpeak group, on the north-east side of Spud Valley creek,
about 1 mile up the creek from its junction with the Zeballos river, are situated at elevations
ranging between 1,200 and 1,300 feet and are between 600 and 700 feet above the creek. The
property is reached by a good foot-trail that first follows the north-west side of the Zeballos
river for 4% miles and then leads up the Spud Valley creek for 1% miles to the camp. The
present workings and camp are on a very steep, heavily wooded hillside, sloping at an angle
of about 35 degrees south-westward into Spud Valley creek.
The property was worked by the owners, and between September, 1934, and June, 1935,
approximately 15 tons of high-grade ore, obtained by hand-mining from the main open-cut, was
back-packed to tide-water and shipped to the smelter. At the time of the writer's visit work
had temporarily ceased.
Mineralization has resulted in the filling of fissures or joints in granodiorite by quartz,
pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and arsenopyrite. These fissures, five of which have been so far
uncovered, include several that are only V2 to 1 inch in width and possess frozen walls, and
the main vein that varies from 4 to 6 inches in width and has a small amount of gouge on both
walls. Shear-zones of varying degrees of intensity and of widths ranging from 6 inches to
2 feet usually accompany the quartz veins.
The workings comprise strippings and one large open-cut, from which the bulk of the
ore shipments were made. The upper end of the open-cut is 120 feet south-east from the cabin.
This cut, including two levels, a lower one 50 feet long and an upper one 19 feet above the
lower and 30 feet long, and a stripping 40 feet long, has exposed the vein for a length of 120 feet.
The vein ranges in width from 3 to 6 inches, strikes north 30 degrees east, and is for the most
part vertical, but in some places dips 80 degrees south-east. The vein-filling consists of quartz
and a considerable amount of pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and a little arsenopyrite.    Where the vein is widest the texture is drusy, and the quartz so well developed in crystals normal to the
walls that a comb-texture is approached. The sulphides are concentrated in bands towards
the walls of the fissure.
A sample taken in the lower level across 4 inches of rusty quartz containing only small
amounts of sulphides assayed: Gold, 1.10 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton. A sample taken
in the upper level across 4 inches of vein-matter containing comb quartz and larger amounts of
sulphides assayed:   Gold, 14.74 oz. per ton;  silver, 5.6 oz. per ton.
The rock formation is granodiorite which in the open-cut has been cut by a feldspar-
porphyry dyke. The granodiorite has been fractured by joints in three directions, very
markedly in planes striking north 65 degrees east and dipping from 85 degrees north to vertical,
less prominently in planes striking north 15 degrees west and dipping 80 degrees north-east,
and haphazardly in planes approaching the horizontal. A very interesting feature of the
granite is the perfect leaching of the dark minerals for 2 inches and less on either side of the
vein. The feldspar-porphyry dyke is exposed on the north-west wall of the open-cut on both
levels. It strikes north 37 degrees east and dips 80 degrees south-east. Near the entrance
to the lower level of the cut the dyke is completely in granodiorite, but farther in, and also in
the upper level, the vein forms the south-east wall. It appears that the vein-fissure, striking
from south-west towards the dyke, was deflected by it and follows the wall of the dyke.
From a point 35 feet south from the cabin a narrow, frozen quartz vein has been stripped
south-westward for 119 feet on a 30-degree slope. The quartz is in disconnected lenses in
sheared granodiorite. The shear averages 6 inches in width, in which, although in one place
the lens is 6 inches wide, the average width is 1 inch. Pyrite and arsenopyrite accompany
the quartz. Near the top of the stripping the vein branches into two stringers, from the
northerly strand of which 2% tons of ore is reported to have been shipped. A short stripping
200 feet north-east from the cabin exposes the apparent continuation of this vein. Adjacent
to the north-west side of the trail and 130 feet north-westward from the cabin, a small cut
exposes 28 feet of a narrow quartz vein and a 2-foot feldspar-porphyry dyke. The Assuring
and the vein do not extend beyond the dyke. A stripping, the upper end of which is 60 feet
north-west from the cabin, has exposed a zone 3 feet wide and 57 feet long that consists of
irregular and indefinite shearing in weathered granite. The zone contains scattered, small
quartz-lenses that contain a little pyrite, arsenopyrite, and galena. A stripping about 100 feet
north-eastward up the hill from the last exposes a similar zone of Assuring and discontinuous
quartz-lenses. However, the Assuring and contained lenses die out towards the top of the
stripping. About 1.500 feet south-east along the hillside from the Goldpeak cabin, some
strinnings have exposed a zone of sheared granodiorite from 2 to 4 feet wide over a length
of 125 feet that strikes about north 35 degrees east and is nearly vertical. This zone contains
discontinuous lenses of quartz up to 2 inches wide and small amounts of pyrite, arsenopyrite,
and galena.
The Goldfield mineral claim was staked in June, 1935, and is owned by
Goldfield. Sam Kmttsen, of Ceepeecee. The workings on this property, at an elevation
of 2,300 feet on the crest of the ridge between Spud Valley and Gold Valley
creeks, are about three-quarters of a mile south-east from the Goldpeak workings and a
foot-trail eonnec+s the two operations. In the immediate vicinity steep, wooded slopes and
numerous rock bluffs are characteristic of the ridge. At the time of the writer's visit the
owner and a small crew of men were engaged in building a cabin, and until then no ore had
been shipped. The workings consisted of two small open-cuts, both on the north-east side
of the hill. One is 5 feet and the other 90 feet down the slope from the crest on the same
fissured zone, which strikes north 60 degrees east and dips from steeply north-west to vertical.
The mineralization has resulted in the partial filling of a wide fissured zone by quartz,
accompanied by pyrite, a little sphalerite and free gold. The zone averages 3 feet in width
and contains leached and decomposed granodiorite and lenticular cmartz-sulphide lenses, all
bordered by gouge-walls. The leaching of the granodiorite has been very pronounced, but does
not extend more than a few inches from the walls of the zone. The quartz-lenses vary from
4 inches up to 12 inches in width and narrow and widen within short distances.
The quartz is well crystallized and in some of the narrower veinlets within the zone a
marked comb-structure is evident.    The sulphides are coarse, well crystallized, and tend to
be on the walls of the quartz veinlets or lenses.    There has been oxidation close to the surface,
14 F 40 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
but the faces of the open-cuts show much unoxidized pyrite. The rock formation is granodiorite. A sample taken in the upper cut across 12 inches of vuggy quartz and sulphides
assayed: Gold, 7.32 oz. per ton; silver, 2.6 oz. per ton. A sample taken in the lower cut
across 9 inches of rusty quartz, but containing a smaller amount of sulphides, assayed: Gold,
5.40 oz. per ton;   silver, 2 oz. per ton.
The Van Isle group includes seven mineral claims—namely, the Van Isle
Van Isle. No. 1, Van Isle No. 2, Blue Ox No. 1, Blue Ox No. 2, Wolverine, Pedro, and
Silver Bear—all of which were staked in 1933. They are owned by Ray A.
Pitrie and associates, but are under bond to the Nootka Gold Mining Syndicate, of Victoria.
The property, on the south-east side of Zeballos river, in the vicinity of a small creek named
Van Isle that flows into the Zeballos river about 3% miles from the mouth of the latter, is
reached by a foot-trail that follows the south-east side of the river for 3% miles to the camp
on Van Isle creek. The main workings, a quarter of a mile up the creek from the camp at an
elevation of 600 feet, consist of open-cutting started preparatory to driving an adit in a bluff
on the north-east wall of this canyon and of stripping up this bluff for about 100 feet along
the vein.    At the time of the writer's visit a small crew of men was engaged in driving the adit.
A fissured zone, strike north 45 degrees east and dip 80 degrees north-west, in porphyritic
andesite has been mineralized by quartz, pyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, and sphalerite. This
fissured zone of crushed andesite, where examined, is 3 feet wide and contains quartz-sulphide
veins that range in widths from 2 to 12 inches. The quartz is milky and is massive, not crusti-
form; pyrite, the most abundant sulphide, is fine-grained and is usually in bands parallel to
the walls of the vein; pyrrhotite and sphalerite are disseminated in small amounts amongst
the pyrite. A grab sample taken in the open-cut from part of a quartz vein 3 inches wide,
and containing a little pyrite, assayed:  Gold, 0.90 oz. per ton; silver, 0.10 oz. per ton.
Herbert Arm Section.
The properties in this section are grouped near the head of Herbert arm. They are
reached by Canadian Pacific steamers from Victoria to Ahousat and then by launch for 12 miles
to the head of Herbert arm.
Gold-bearing quartz veins, both of the replacement and fissure type, occur in extrusive
and intrusive greenstones that have been cut by acid intrusives. These include feldspar
porphyry, quartz porphyry, and a highly altered light-coloured granite or alaskite. The veins
are later than any of these. Quartz is the predominant vein-filling and sulphides, including
pyrite, chalcopyrite, and galena, are present, but seldom in large amounts.
Abco Mines, Limited (N.P.L.), is stated to own twenty-two mineral claims
Abco. and fractions, held by location, near the head of Herbert arm.    The property
is reached by 1 V± miles of truck-road from the head of the arm to the lower
camp.    The showings and surface workings are on the steep southerly slopes of Big Boy
mountain.    The hillside, covered by a heavy growth of large timber, is very steep;  rock bluffs
are not numerous.
Mineralization has resulted in the filling of many small fractures in greenstone by quartz
and carbonates and, in one instance, the formation of three lenticular quartz veins in a zone
of strong shearing 4 feet wide. The showings occur in the canyonous bed of a creek that
descends the mountain-side in a southerly course 2,200 feet to its junction with Cotter creek
near the lower camp. The rocks exposed in the creek-bed comprise a variety of greenstones
and feldspar-porphyry dykes. The predominant greenstone is a fine-grained dacite (quartz
andesite), with the exception of an amygdaloidal variety found near the Joan and Kermode
showings. The feldspar-porphyry dykes, recognized by their light greenish-grey weathering
surfaces, occur in the vicinity of the Joan and Cotter showings and in both cases antedate the
quartz veins.
The Abco Mines, Limited, was formed in September, 1934, to take over the Mary McQuilton
property from the Waverly Tangier Mines, Limited, J. L. Gibson, J. H. Livesley, and W.
Kermode. Since that time the new company has erected several camp buildings, built a road
from the beach to the lower camp, and an aerial tram that is operated by a gasoline-engine-
driven hoist.
The only previous reference to the property is in the Annual Report of the Minister of
Mines for 1933, under the name of Mary McQuilton group of twelve claims. WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 41
Hand-mining operations have been confined to obtaining high-grade ore from the Mary
McQuilton vein. At the time of the writer's visit 23 tons were about to be shipped to the
Tacoma smelter.
The various showings will be described consecutively as they occur down the hillside from
the most important vein, the Mary McQuilton. This vein is at an elevation of 2,550 feet.
Trenching and open-cutting had exposed a definite shear-zone 4 feet in width, with an average
strike of north 45 degrees east and a dip of 50 degrees north-west over an exposed length of
30 feet. This shear-zone contains three very similar and lenticular quartz-calcite veins that
vary in width from thin %-inch stringers to lenses 6 inches in width. The quartz and calcite
in the thicker lenses is mottled grey and white in colour and is cut by numerous curving
fractures, many of which contain very fine-grained pyrite. Coarse-grained pyrite and chalcopyrite occur as small clusters here and there in the quartz and calcite.
Three samples, each across 4 inches of mineralized quartz from the veins, averaged: Gold,
3.46 oz. per ton;  silver, 1.43 oz. per ton.
A bulk sample taken across the shear-zone, where 4 feet wide at the east end, and one that
omitted all quartz veins, did not contain any gold or silver content.
The rock formation in the immediate vicinity is massive dacite (quartz andesite). This,
however, has been crushed to an incoherent mass in the shear-zone.
The Joan vein, at an elevation of 2,500 feet, is 200 feet south-east from the Mary
McQuilton. The showing consists of a reticulating quartz vein that varies from 6 to 2 inches
in width over the exposed length of 6 feet. The quartz is vuggy and sulphides are absent.
The rock formation is amygdaloidal greenstone that has been cut by a greyish weathering
feldspar-porphyry dyke 1% feet wide.    The dyke is cut by the vein.
The Livesley showing is in the same gulch as the Mary McQuilton vein, but below it and
at an elevation of 2,375 feet. The main showing is on the east wall of the gulch and consists
of a lenticular quartz vein that strikes from north 25 to north 45 degrees east, dips 30 degrees
north-west, and varies in width from 8 to 2 inches over a continuous exposed length of 12 feet.
The walls are tight; no faulting or gouge is evident, although a dense andesite dyke cut by
the vein has been badly shattered. This vein appears to continue westward into the gulch,
but it narrows perceptibly.    Pyrite, chalcopyrite, and galena accompany the quartz.
Massive dacite (quartz andesite) has, on the east side of the vein, been cut by a badly
fractured andesite dyke 10 feet wide.    The vein cuts the dyke.
The Cotter vein is in the same gulch as the Livesley and Mary McQuilton, but at a lower
elevation of 1,800 feet. The main showing is in the bed of the gulch, where a vertical 17-foot
feldspar-porphyry dyke has been cut by a flat fault and the fault discontinuously filled by a
narrow quartz vein 2 inches and less in width. This vein for the most part is free from
sulphides except in one place, where it contains abundant pyrite, chalcopyrite, and galena.
This concentration occurs at the intersection of the fault-plane and the plane of contact between
the north-east wall of the dyke and the surrounding andesite. The dyke strikes north 45
degrees west and dips 75 degrees north-east, and the fault-plane strikes north 25 degrees east
and dips 15 degrees south-easterly, displacing the dyke by 7 feet.
The Walker showing is in a tributary gulch west of the main one, and is 250 feet northwest of the Cotter vein at an elevation of 1,950 feet. The best showing, a quartz vein that
strikes north and dips 35 degrees east, is continuous for 15 feet and reaches a maximum width
of 4 inches. On the south end it disappears in rubble, and on the north end the only evidence
of it is a mass of reticulating quartz veinlets. Two small sections of quartz veinlets have been
discovered on the north-west side of the creek. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, and a little galena
accompany the auartz. The rock formation is andesite, but this contains considerable carbonate in the vicinity of the quartz veinlets.
The Kermode showing is immediately below the Walker and at an elevation of 1,900 feet.
Here an exposed face 4 feet square shows numerous veinlets both of quartz and of ankerite
carbonate in amygdaloidal greenstone.    Small amounts of galena accompany the quartz.
The Gibson showing is in the main gulch at an elevation of 1,450 feet and below the area
included by the accompanying plan. It comprises three areas, about 15 feet apart, of quartz-
calcite veinlets. The lowest and most noticeable is a zone from 8 to 10 inches wide that contains
numerous reticulating quartz veinlets and includes fragments of rock.    There are no visible F 42
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
(   -£ I 35°
I y  Walker Vein
i I
Kermode Vein I \ /          O Blacksmith Shop
No £ Tower        i     \>     I
/    fa    1
/ * /
/ f /
W^ 1
\    s\ >     v    i B C.Department of Mmes.1935
Abco Mines, Ltd.    Surface Plan  (Culture from Company's Plan). WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 43
sulphides.    The rock formation is quartz andesite and contains ankerite carbonate and in places
some epidote.
The Big Boy group is owned by Herbert Arm Gold Mines, Limited, and
Big Boy. comprises the following mineral claims: Big Boy Nos. 1 to 8, inclusive, and
Big Boy Fractions Nos. 1 to U, inclusive. The Big Boy group is located on
the steep, westerly slopes of Big Boy mountain at the head of Herbert arm. These slopes are
very steep, but are interrupted at an elevation of about 500 feet by a low " hog-back," on the
top of which are the main surface showings. The hillside is characterized by steep forested
slopes, bluffs, and talus.
The deposit consists of quartz veins and veinlets that contain sulphides and gold in widely
varying amounts. There are two vein-types: First, the single, lens-like quartz vein up to
8 inches wide and containing noticeable sulphides, chiefly galena, chalcopyrite, and pyrite,
which is exemplified by the river adit; and, secondly, the composite vein system of numerous
2-inch (and less) wide veinlets, striking approximately parallel over widths varying from
2 to 9 feet; with one exception these consist of practically barren, vuggy quartz. This is the
habit of the veins in the main surface showings.
The rocks include a variety of greenstones that are intruded by large dykes of quartz
porphyry and alaskite, a type of granite that lacks dark minerals. The greenstones include
andesites that are cut by highly altered diabase and feldspar-porphyry dykes.
The claims in the Big Boy group were staked in April, May, and July of 1933 by C. C.
Binns, R. P. Duncan, and J. L. Gibson. The Big Boy Syndicate, under the direction of
A. C. Wright, acquired the group from the co-stakers on October 27th, 1933. On April 14th,
1934, the Herbert Arm Gold Mines, Limited, was incorporated as a private company and
acquired the property from the Big Boy Syndicate. Herbert Arm Gold Mines, Limited, is the
present owner and operator, with head office at 1011 Rogers Building, Vancouver.
A short account of the property was published in the Annual Report of the British
Columbia Minister of Mines for 1933.
The main surface showings are at an elevation of approximately 500 feet and are about
1,300 feet easterly from the river adit. They occur in a zone 380 feet long which has been
partly explored by five small strippings across and along the vein, the aggregate vein-lengths
thus exposed amounting to only about 35 feet of the 380 feet. With the exception of the most
southerly, all the vein-exposures are along the base of a discontinuous bluff, 15 to 20 feet high,
which trends southerly; the veins have an average dip of 25 degrees into this bluff and an
average strike of north 20 degrees west.
The quartz occurs herein as a composite system of veins, individually varying from V4, to
2 inches in width, over a total width of from 2 to 9 feet. They carry no sulphides other than
a little chalcopyrite and galena. There is one exception, however, where a 4-foot stripping has
exposed a quartz vein 4 inches wide containing an abundance of galena and chalcopyrite.
The vein-walls are tight, irregular, and sinuous, characteristic of replacement-veins.
Small amounts of wall-rock mineralization were evidenced by the presence of pyrite in the
andesitic rocks. The veins are later than any of the enclosing rocks. No post-vein intrusions
were seen.
The individual strippings will be described consecutively from the north end of the
showings southward:—
No. 1: Here a stripping, 18 feet long, exposes a composite system of small quartz veins
(maximum width of any one vein being 2 inches) over a width of 2 feet and continuing for the
length stripped. The walls of the veins are tight and sinuous; no gouge is present. The
texture of the quartz tends to be banded and vuggy, quartz crystals lining small ^-inch vugs
along the central parts of the vein. The quartz is milky, has been only slightly stained by
iron, and contains no sulphides other than occasional chalcopyrite grains.
This stripping is along quartz porphyry. Some 5 feet south beyond the end of the stripping
there is a 5-foot dyke of andesitic rock, cutting the quartz porphyry with a strike of north 35
degrees west and dip 80 degrees north-east.
No. 2: This stripping is 20 feet southerly from No. 1, is 4 feet long, and exposes a composite system of small 2-inch quartz veins that occur over a width of 2 feet. In appearance
and sulphide content the quartz is similar to that in No. 1 stripping. F 44 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
The foot-wall rock as exposed is brecciated andesite cemented by chlorite and watery
quartz; the hanging-wall is fine-grained unbrecciated andesite. Five feet south of the stripping there is altered feldspar porphyry of undetermined extent.
No. 3 is a 2-foot stripping 30 feet southerly from No. 2, on narrow quartz veinlets similar
to those in No. 2 stripping.    The formation is andesite.
No. 4 stripping, 20 feet southerly from No. 3, exposes a lens of quartz, with a maximum
width of 4 inches along 2 feet of exposure. This quartz differs from that described above
in so far as it is not vuggy and contains considerable amounts of chalcopyrite and galena.
The sulphides are fine-grained and they noticeably occur as irregular veinlets completely
surrounding quartz grains, and not as large segregations of sulphides. A 4-inch chip sample
across quartz carrying heavy galena and chalcopyrite assayed: Gold, 12.40 oz. per ton; silver,
11 oz. per ton.
Fifteen feet north of the stripping the formation is feldspar porphyry; then south from
this there is 4 feet of andesite; then the beginning of a zone of light-coloured, altered granite,
which is 56 feet wide;  this is bounded on the south end of the bluff by andesite.
No. 5 stripping, 230 feet southerly from No. 4, shows an isolated outcrop 9 by 9 feet in
area, at the base of which some digging has been done. The occurrence is a stockwork, 9 feet
wide, of approximately twenty-five veinlets, the widths of individual veinlets varying from
3 inches to % inch. The quartz is white, vuggy, and shows occasional slight iron-staining;
the outcrop as a whole is not rusty. Mineralization other than by quartz is scarce; there
are small amounts of chalcopyrite and galena. A 55-inch chip sample across quartz veins and
rock assayed: Gold, 0.32 oz. per ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton. The average strike of the veins
here is north 20 degrees west, the dip 25 degrees south-west.
The formation, although it is leached and silicified, appears to be granite. The face of
a low bluff 15 feet to the west consists of granite.
No. 6 stripping, approximately 150 feet easterly from No. 2, uncovers a small outcrop of
decomposed greenstone which contains a network of narrow barren quartz veinlets over a
width of 2 fee't.
In addition to the above, there are two other showings of minor importance up the
Moyeha river.
On the Big Boy No. 8 claim, and 40 feet in elevation up the slope from the east side of the
river, there is a showing along the base of a bluff 15 to 25 feet high. The exposure is a narrow
shear 120 feet long running down the hillside, containing small, disconnected lenses of quartz
along this length. The upper lens is 20 feet long, varies in width from 5 inches to 1 inch, and
carries very little mineralization other than quartz. There is, noticeably, % inch of well-
defined gouge on the hanging-wall. The middle lens consists of 18 inches of quartz, only
2 inches wide, and carrying no sulphides. The lowest lens consists of 12 inches of quartz,
% inch wide, and contains no sulphides.    The shear-zone cuts dense andesite.
Farther up the river, on the east bank and approximately 150 feet easterly from the post
on the north-west corner of Big Boy No. 8 claim, there is a small showing in the face of a bluff
25 feet high. Here there is a cleft with an average width of 14 inches, which has been formed
by three parallel shears, each containing on the average 2 inches of crushed rock. In the
shear-zone and 10 feet above the base of the bluff there is 3 feet of sinuous quartz vein averaging 2 inches in width and carrying a little chalcopyrite. The shear at the base of the cliff
is covered by debris, but here the vein is reported to be 4 inches wide and to carry free gold.
The river adit, on the east bank of the Moyeha river, has been driven for 32 feet at south
52 degrees east, for 14 feet at north 80 degrees east, and for 17 feet at south 52 degrees east,
or a total length of 63 feet, of which 60 feet is on a quartz vein.
The vein is lens-like in structure, varying from 8 inches to 1 inch in width, with an
average strike of north 40 degrees west and a dip of 35 degrees south-west. Inside the portal
the vein branches into a hanging-wall and a foot-wall vein; but 24 feet in from the portal
they join and continue as one vein which varies in width from V2 to 4 inches; the maximum
separation of the split is 2 feet. Two feet from the face the vein pinches and a thin gouge-slip
continues into the face. On the north-east wall and 18 feet from the face the vein, here 2 inches
wide, has been cut by a vertical fault. This contains very badly crushed rock, but very little
gouge over a width of 2 to 3 inches. The fault continues along the back to the face, where it
narrows to seams over a width of 2 inches containing a pinching 2-inch lens of pure white WESTERN DISTRICT (No. 6). F 45
quartz. The quartz of the main vein is milky, somewhat vuggy, and contains small amounts
of chalcopyrite, galena, and free gold. A 6-inch chip sample across quartz moderately
mineralized by galena and chalcopyrite assayed: Gold, 1.50 oz. per ton; silver, 0.5 oz. per ton.
The rock formation is a very platy porphyritic andesite. It is to be noted that the attitude
of the jointing in the andesite is the same as that of the quartz vein—namely, north 40 degrees
west and dip 35 degrees south-west.
This group, comprising eight mineral claims staked in 1933 and 1934, and
Moyeha. owned by H. E. Dendoff, Wm. P. Duncan, and associates, is situated on the
lower slopes of the large mountain which is westward across the Moyeha
river from Big Boy mountain at the head of Herbert arm. The mountain-side is steep and
bluffs are numerous, but good foot-trails lead up to the various showings, which are at elevations from 410 to 1,140 feet.
The showings consist of quartz veins and veinlets which carry sulphides and gold in widely
varying amounts. The veins vary in width from narrow stringers 1 inch wide to lenses 8 inches
wide and to " blowouts," or zones, consisting of numerous narrow, interlacing veinlets of quartz
which occur over widths of rock up to 2% feet.
The rocks are andesitic volcanics which have been intruded by masses of quartz porphyry.
There are six showings of quartz veins and associated sulphides on the property. Five of
them, which will be described first, on the south side of a creek which flows easterly into
Moyeha river, are at elevations that range from 940 to 1,140 feet above sea-level. The sixth
showing, or " Moyeha rich lead," north of the above creek and on the slope which goes
immediately down to the Moyeha river, is between elevations of 390 to 410 feet. The showings
will be described consecutively as they occur on the trail up from the beach past the Tyee
workings.
No. 1 showing, on the trail which leads up from near the mouth of the Moyeha river, is
about 200 feet north-west of the last showing on the Tyee property. Here, on the Moyeha
ground, blasting and trenching have exposed a zone 11 feet wide, strike north 30 degrees west,
dip 65 degrees south-west, which contains much oxidized and decomposed rock. In this width
there are many narrow %-inch veinlets of quartz which strike with the zone.
At the north-east end of the trench there is a gouge-seam 6 inches wide which contains
blue clay, a little quartz and pyrite. About 25 feet north-west along the strike there is a 2-foot
exposure of silicified rock which contains finely disseminated pyrite.
No. 2, the largest exposure, locally known as the " top lens of the canyon lead," at an
elevation of 3,100 feet, is about an eighth of a mile north-west from the No. 1 showing. Here
a strong quartz vein has been well exposed by trenching and stripping over a total length of
75 feet on a 35-degree slope. The vein, pinching and swelling from 2 to 8 inches, has an
average width of 5 inches. The average strike is north 80 degrees west and the average dip
60 degrees south. The vein material is quartz, much of which is vuggy, chalcopyrite, and both
coarse and fine pyrite. A 5-inch sample of quartz carrying pyrite and chalcopyrite assayed:
Gold, 0.70 oz. per ton; silver, 0.30 oz. per ton. The wall-rock is mineralized with fine pyrite
within a distance of 2 feet from the vein.
The formation consists of dense andesite into which dykes of quartz porphyry have been
intruded. The result is that there are alternating areas of andesite and quartz porphyry along
the strike of the vein. In the immediate vicinity of the vein the rock, both andesite and quartz
porphyry, has been silicified by quartz veinlets and silica and mineralized by fine pyrite.
The next showing, No. 3, known as the " bottom or foot-wall lens of the canyon lead," is
in the creek on its south side.
The exposure consists of a few narrow lenses of quartz, only 1 inch wide, contained in a
strong shear 6 to 12 inches wide, which lies between a foot-wall of andesite and a hanging-wall
of quartz porphyry. On either side of the zone there is much crushed rock, silicification, and
a little fine pyrite mineralization. The zone strikes south 30 degrees east and dips 65 degrees
to the south-west.
No. 4 showing, elevation 1,130 feet, locally known as " the middle lens," on the south-east
side of the creek and almost 100 feet above it, consists of three exposures of quartz over a length
of 40 feet.    The quartz is present in %- to 14-inch stringers over widths of 6 inches to 3 feet. F 46 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
The rock enclosing these stringers is a medium-grained andesite, silicified and finely mineralized
with pyrite.    The zone strikes south 45 degrees east and dips 50 degrees north-east.
No. 5 showing, on the south-east side of the creek and about 25 feet above it at an elevation
of 1,140 feet, is a continuation of No. 4. The exposure discloses a zone 2% feet wide which
contains narrow stringers of quartz and finely disseminated pyrite in quartz porphyry. This
zone may be traced for 15 feet along the strike.
Approximately 200 feet up the canyon from No. 5 showing there is a 40-foot bluff beneath
a waterfall. In the face of this there are three narrow fissures up to 4 inches wide carrying-
quartz.    Both quartz and wall-rock contain finely disseminated pyrite.
No. 6 showing, the " Moyeha rich lead," is on the easterly slope of the mountain immediately above the Moyeha river and at an elevation of 410 feet. The vein is accessible for 40 feet,
beyond which it continues for 250 feet or more in a series of bluffs up the mountain-side.
It strikes north 80 degrees east and dips 38 degrees south, and varies in width from 6 to 2
inches, with an average width of 3 inches. The vein-filling is quartz, much of which is drusy,
and a little chalcopyrite, pyrite, and galena; free gold is reported. With the exception of
Yz inch of gouge here and there, the vein is frozen to the walls. A 3-inch sample of typical
quartz from the vein assayed:  Gold, 0.86 oz. per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton.
The rock formation is massive, very fine-grained, highly altered andesite which has
amygdaloidal phases.
In elevation 30 feet below the main showings a trench has been made in the debris at the
base of the bluff which exposes a quartz vein 2 inches wide over a length of 6 inches. The
nature of the vein and rock is similar to that of the showing above.
The Tyee property comprises eight mineral claims owned by J. L. Gibson,
Tyee. R. W. Grisdale, E. W. and R. C. Bolden, all held by location.    The Tyee
claims staked in 1933, and the Heather claims in 1934, are situated on the
slopes of the mountain that lies westerly across the Moyeha river from Big Boy mountain.
The showings, of which there are two, are immediately south-east from the upper group of
showings on the Moyeha property and are reached by the trail that leads up from the beach
to the latter showings.
The first trench from the beach is at an elevation of 850 feet. Surface-blasting has
exposed three parallel fissures filled by quartz and pyrite that strike south 45 degrees east
and dip 45 degrees south-west. The foot-wall vein, 8 inches in width, is the widest and
contains a considerable amount of pyrite. The foot-wall of this vein cutting quartz porphyry
is bordered by 2 inches of gouge.
The second trench is 95 feet north-west from the first. The mineralization and vein-
structure are very similar to that in the first. In a vertical face exposed by blasting there are
numerous small tight quartz veins over a width of 2% feet, the individual veins varying in
width from Yi to 2 inches. There is also a foot-wall seam of gouge that is 6 inches thick and
contains abundant pyrite. A bulk sample of this material assayed: Gold, 4 oz. per ton;
silver, 0.4 oz. per ton.
Kennedy (Elk) River Section.
This area is reached by a 30-mile water route from Tofino via Kenn falls, Kennedy lake,
and Kennedy (Elk) river to the Leora mine, situated about 1% miles up the river from its
mouth. Although considerable interest was shown and work done in the area in the late
nineties when the Rose Marie property operated a 4-stamp mill for a couple of seasons, the
only properties upon which any recent work has been done are the Leora and the Tommy K.
group, owned by the Kennedy Lake Gold Mines, Limited.
The Leora group comprises the following mineral claims: Leora, Leora No. 1,
Leora. and Leora No. 3.    They were staked in 1902 and 1903 and are owned by
W. W. Gibson, of San Francisco. The property is on the east side of
Kennedy (Elk) river, about 1% miles from its mouth. The workings and camps are a quarter
of a mile in an easterly direction from the river landing at the base of a mountain-slope that
rises from the valley of Kennedy river, and well above the level of high water in the river.
The valley and mountain-slopes in the vicinity are well timbered; large red cedars predominate. Mineralization on the Leora has resulted in quartz that partly fills strong fissures in
andesitic greenstone. Abundant pyrite with a little sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and ankeritic
carbonate accompany the quartz. The presence of much gouge and several branch fissures
indicate considerable faulting. The greenstone is traversed by serpentine dykes that range
from a few inches up to several feet in width; the dykes antedate the fissures. Exploration-
work consists of two adits, one 80 feet in elevation above the other, driven on different fissures,
and two shafts, one quite old and one started in 1931; both shafts were, however, inaccessible
at the time of examination.
The Leora has been worked intermittently since 1902 and small shipments of ore usually
made each time. It is estimated that between 1902 and 1914 about 422 tons of ore was shipped.
In 1911 a tramway 1,500 feet long was built from the mouth of the adit to Kennedy river;
however, this has long since gone. The present owner, W. W. Gibson, bonded the property
in 1914, started a new shaft, did considerable stoping, and ran 100 tons of ore through a small
mill of his own design. Since 1931 he has started another new shaft about 100 feet north-west
from and above the lower adit, and is reported to have done considerable lateral work from it.
At the time of the writer's visit no work was being done.
A complete examination of the lower adit was prevented by a dam backing up water at
106 feet from the portal. Over this distance the adit has been driven at south 79 degrees east
on the fissure which dips 60 degrees north. Two short drifts on branch fissures have been
driven at points 50 feet from the portal at south 45 degrees west for 10 feet, and 72 feet from
the portal at south 45 degrees west for 12 feet.
From the portal to 30 feet the vein has been underhand-stoped for an unknown distance
and stoped above to the surface. At 70 feet a small winze was sunk; at present this is filled
with water, but the following quotation from the Report of the Minister of Mines for 1912,
page 195, describes the winze: " . . . A winze has been sunk 40 feet at an incline of
60 degrees. At the bottom of the winze there is 60 feet of drifting on the vein, which swells
at one point to 2 feet wide, but at the face is only 6 inches."
The fissure followed by the main adit is filled in some sections by ribbon-quartz up to
8 inches wide, and in others by gouge and only small amounts of quartz, and in some by gouge
alone. From 0 to 20 feet the vein contains ribbon-quartz that averages 8 inches in width;
from 72 to 80 feet it contains an 8-inch width of quartz that contains abundant pvrite and just
beyond the dam a lens of milky quartz 10 inches wide. Elsewhere the fissure is filled either by
gouge, in one place 4 inches thick, or by a mixture of gouge, countrv-rock, and small stringers
of quartz. The first cross-working, 50 feet from the portal, has been driven on a short, sinuous
quartz vein that strikes north 38 degrees east and dips 55 degrees north-west. The vein is
4 inches wide and contains quartz with considerable pyrite and some sphalerite between frozen
walls. The second cross-working from the portal has been driven on a strong fissure striking
north 70 degrees east and dipping 65 degrees north, which branches from the main adit fissure
at 72 feet. This branch fissure is filled with 1 to 2 inches of gouge to within 2 feet of the face,
where 6 inches of quartz comes in but soon pinches to 1 inch. The adit is driven in andesitic
greenstones cut by a basic dvke between 70 and 78 feet that is largely altered to a chocolate-
coloured serpentine. Both the dyke and greenstone have been badly shattered so that the
tracing of the contact is difficult, but it appears to strike south 5 degrees east and to dip
75 degrees west.    The dyke is older than both main and branch fissures at this place.
The upper adit is 200 feet north-east from the lower. It is 47 feet long, having been driven
32 feet at south 64 degrees east and 15 feet at north 73 degrees east. The adit follows a shear-
zone, strike south 60 degrees east, dip 70 degrees north-west, for 34 feet and then turns and
follows a narrowing branch fissure to the face, which strikes north 75 degrees east and dips
75 degrees north. On the north wall of the adit near the face a small fissure strikes south
55 degrees east and dips 65 degrees north-east. These fissures vary from 1 to 2 inches in
width and are usually filled with gouge, but for 6 feet from the portal and at 40 feet there
are lenses of auartz carrving only small amounts of pyrite. It is probable that the fissures
in this upper adit represent hanging-wall branches from the much larger break in the lower
adit.
The rock-types in the adit are serpentine and andesitic greenstone. The serpentine has
resulted from the alteration of a ba=ic dyke that strikes annroximatelv south 40 df"""Des east
and is nearly vertical.    At the portal the dyke is on both walls of the adit, but at 18 feet the F 48 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
north-east wall of the dyke has disappeared in the south-west wall of the adit. In the
immediate vicinity of the fissure the serpentine has been bleached from its original purple
colour to a very light grey. A second serpentine dyke that is only 6 inches wide cuts the
andesite a few feet south of the portal. This dyke, strike south 50 degrees east, dip 83 degrees
north-east, is a continuation of one that outcrops lower down the creek that flows past the
portal of both the upper and lower adits. In some places these occurrences of serpentine
possess very dense selvages where in contact with the greenstone; this, in addition to their
dyke-like habit, supports the view that the serpentine on the Leora represents dykes that have
been serpentinized.
The old shaft is 40 feet north-west of the lower adit and at the same elevation. The new
shaft is 100 feet north-west from this adit and is 50 feet above it, and has evidently been sunk
to intersect the hanging-wall of the vein as exposed in the lower adit.
The Tommy K. group includes the following mineral claims: Hidden
Tommy K. Treasure, Tommy K., Kennedy, Young Pat, Waterfall, Big Boy, and
Dorothy. They were staked in 1933 and 1934 and are owned by a private
company, the Kennedy Lake Gold Mines, Limited, of which T. O. MacKay, 1214 Broad Street,
Victoria, is secretary. The workings and camp are about 4 miles up Kennedy (Elk) river
from its mouth and a quarter of a mile east from the river. A good foot-trail leads from the
Leora to the Tommy K. The group covers an area that is characterized by steep wooded slopes
and low rock bluffs. An intermittent creek follows a canyonous course interrupted by waterfalls from the upper workings to the camp, from which it flows along a gentle gradient to
Kennedy river.
Narrow, tight fractures in andesite breccia have been filled by quartz accompanied by
small amounts of calcite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite. The breccia has been cut by
altered quartz-diabase dykes and a few less altered aplite dykes.
The surface workings consist of open-cuts and trenches on several different veins. At a
place 1,400 feet up the creek from the camp and 480 feet above it in elevation, an open-cut
has been blasted in the south wall of the canyon on the so-called Hidden Treasure vein. This
vein has been exposed for 15 feet in the floor of the cut and for approximately 100 feet up the
rock bluff. The average width of the vein is 6 inches, but the habit is lens-like. The vein-
filling is quartz, carbonate, and small amounts of disseminated pyrite. Mineralization has
resulted in the lenticular filling of one major and several minor fractures by quartz, grey
calcite, a little pyrite and chalcopyrite. The zone strikes south 30 degrees east and dips
75 degrees north-east. The minerals occur in lenses that vary in width from 1 to 8 inches
and in narrow veinlets that vary from ~Y\§ to 1 inch in width. A sample taken across 8 inches
of quartz showing a little chalcopyrite and pyrite assayed: Gold, 1.20 oz. per ton; silver,
0.20 oz. per ton. The rock formation is an andesite breccia that consists of very angular light-
green fragments up to 3 inches in maximum diameter, set in a fine-grained dark-green chloritic
matrix.
A trench that is approximately 1,200 feet west from the Hidden Treasure vein and 150 feet
east from the blacksmith-shop shows a narrow vein that strikes north 60 degrees east and
dips 64 degrees north-west over 17 feet of exposed length. The vein is 2 to 3 inches wide and
consists of ribbon-quartz, with a little pyrite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite filling a parallel
walled fracture in andesite breccia. On the foot-wall there is Yz to 1 inch of gouge, but the
hanging-wall is a clean slip surface. A bulk sample across 3 inches of vein-matter in the
north-east end of the trench assayed: Gold, 0.48 oz. per ton; silver, 1.4 oz. per ton. A rock-cut
has been started at a place 50 feet north-westerly down the slope from the last trench, the
objective of which is to intersect the vein at a greater depth.
There are surface showings on the property of several small, frozen quartz-calcite veinlets
that vary from 1 to 2 inches in width and contain small amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and
pyrrhotite. With the exception of two showings up the creek that strike east, these all strike
in a north-easterly direction. Beneath the large falls in the creek a strong fissure, strike east,
contains 2 inches of bluish gouge, but no mineralization is now evident. A composite sample
was taken of three small veins from Yz to 2 inches wide that may be the continuation of the
2- to 3-inch vein described above. This sample contained quartz with small amounts of pyrite,
chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite, and assayed:  Gold, 0.48 oz. per ton;  silver, 1.4 oz. per ton. Alberni Canal.
The  W.W.W.  mine,  at present  owned  by  the  Franklin  River   (British
W.W.W. Columbia) Gold Mines, Limited, of 402 Pender Street West, Vancouver,
includes the following Crown-granted claims: W.W.W. Nos. 1, 2, 3, and h.
The claims are situated on the south bank of Corrigan (Granite) creek, about 10 miles southeast of Alberni canal. The three adits on the property are at elevations of 2,100, 1,960, and
1,825 feet; the camp is at 2,040 feet. A pack-horse or " go-devil " trail leads from the camp
down a steep side-hill and over a flat to Corrigan (Granite) creek, crosses to the north side
of the creek, and follows this side down to the end of the Bloedel, Stewart & Welch logging-
railway some 4 miles distant. This railway follows Corrigan creek and the Franklin river
for 6 miles to Alberni canal. At present the logging company affords the mining company rail
transportation to the end of its line. The camp and workings are situated on a steep, heavily
timbered side-hill which rises from a flat, wooded tract in the valley of Corrigan (Granite)
creek.
There are three veins on the property, each of which has been developed separately by
an adit. The two upper veins, which will be referred to as No. 1 and No. 2, corresponding to
the number of the adit driven on them, strike south-westerly and dip on an average of 45
degrees to the south-east. They fill fissures and consist of ribbon-quartz, pockets of pyrite,
some galena and sphalerite, and, where widest, contain unreplaced fragments of wall-rock;
narrow seams of gouge are usually present on the walls. The lowest vein, No. 3 in No. 3 adit,
is quite flat, but where first encountered in the adit it strikes south 80 degrees east and dips
north. The fissure-filling is mostly gouge and decomposed rock, but one and sometimes two
narrow quartz veins occur near one or both of the walls. These quartz veins contain no
sulphides.
A complex group of igneous rocks is exposed in the various workings. Tongues of
granodiorite alternate with masses of hybrid diorite and both types have been cut by basic
feldspar dykes, which are older than the veins. Although no cross-faulting of the vein-fissures
was observed, it was noticed that faulting with movement had definitely occurred in No. 2
fissure. The present investigation did not disclose any relationship between the structure of
the veins and the type of rock traversed.
The W.W.W. claims were staked in 1898 and 1899 and Crown-granted in December, 1899,
as the W.W.W. Nos. 1, 2, 3, and U claims. The property has been owned by many interests
and worked intermittently up to the present. By 1899 an adit had been driven on the vein,
and by 1921 the upper or No. 1 adit had been driven 72 feet, the intermediate or No. 2 adit
117 feet, and a winze sunk from this adit. Between 1921 and 1930 but little work was done
on the property. In 1930, A. James, of Vancouver, acquired ownership and optioned the
property to Vancouver interests, the outcome of which was the ownership by the present
Vancouver company. Since 1932, No. 1 adit has been extended to 95 feet, No. 2 adit to 215 feet,
and a new low adit, No. 3, started and driven 308 feet. Previous to 1932 access to the property
was by pack-horse trail for the full distance of 10 miles from Alberni canal; but since then
the company has had the privilege of rail transportation on the Bloedel, Stewart & Welch
logging-railway. This railway is still under construction, but at the time of writing steel
had been laid for about 6 miles from Alberni canal.
Up until May, 1935, small shipments of ore had been made from the upper adits by the
present company;  since May, however, work has been temporarily suspended on the property.
The most complete recent description is to be found in the Annual Report for 1921; other
accounts may be found in the Annual Reports for 1902, 1922, 1927, 1928, 1930, 1932, and 1933,
and in Bulletin No. 1, 1932. A mineralogical study of the veins is contained in a paper
entitled " The Mineralogy of the W.W.W. Veins," by H. V. Warren and J. M. Cummings,
published in " The Miner " for October, 1935.
On the surface the upper vein is exposed by four open-cuts and by an outcrop in a small
creek. Two trenches across the strike of the vein were filled with debris at the time of the
writer's visit and no bed-rock was exposed. The aggregate length of exposed vein in these
cuts and the outcrop is 55 feet over the total length of 300 feet along the strike. F 50
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
s
•i WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 51
In the descriptions to follow the open-cuts will be referred to alphabetically, beginning
from the nearest to No. 1 adit and going south-westerly along the vein, strike north 30 degrees
east, dip 45 degrees east.
Open-cut A exposes No. 1 vein for 25 feet. The vein material consists of 2 to 6 inches
of ribbon-quartz that is frozen to the walls and some disseminated pyrite, the oxidation of
which gives the outcrop a slight rusty colour.    The rocks include granodiorite and diorite.
Open-cut B is 5 feet long and is driven across the strike of the vein, which it exposes
for 3 feet along the strike. The vein consists of two narrow, lenticular quartz stringers and
very little sulphide. Leached wall-rock extends between the veins and for at least 6 feet in
the hanging-wall side; other rock is covered by debris. The rock formation, where relatively
unaltered, is granodiorite and diorite.
Open-cut C is a short, 5-foot trench along the strike of No. 1 vein. Combined stripping
and trenching have exposed the vein for 20 feet along the strike. In this place a zone, 2 feet
in width, of brecciated, leached, and somewhat chloritized granodiorite and diorite contains
from one to three 2-inch frozen quartz veinlets and pyrite that is both disseminated and in
narrow veinlets.    The rock alterations are less intense away from the vein.
Open-cut D, 15 feet long, is excavated across the strike of the No. 1 vein and exposes an
8-inch frozen quartz vein over a length of 10 inches. The wall-rock, visible only in the
hanging-wall, is granodiorite.
Open-cuts E and F were filled by debris at the time of examination.
The outcrop in the bed of a creek that flows north is about 165 feet south-west of open-
cut D. This outcrop exposes 8 to 10 inches of frozen quartz over a length of 4 feet. The
formation is a basic feldspar dyke which has been leached and altered in the vicinity of the vein.
No. 1 adit, at an elevation of 2,100 feet and some 75 feet above the main camp, has been
driven its full length of 95 feet south-westerly along the No. 1 vein. In this adit the vein
strikes north 35 degrees east and dips 45 degrees south-east. The vein-fissure is lenticular
and varies in width from 10 inches to a narrow slip. The filling is chiefly ribbon-quartz, but
short, wider sections of the vein contain an abundance of pyrite accompanied by smaller
amounts of galena and sphalerite. Ribbon-structure is characteristic of the vein-filling;
where quartz is most abundant this structure is displayed as a series of parallel black slips;
where sulphides are also abundant the structure is manifested as curving and intersecting
slips that produce an " en echelon " arrangement of quartz-sulphide lenses. The vein-walls
are usually clean-cut and coated with about % inch of clay gouge. For 35 feet from the portal
the vein has been stoped to a maximum distance of 15 feet up the dip. In the back of this
stope the vein is 4 inches wide and contains abundant pyrite and galena and minor amounts
of quartz. It attains its maximum widths of 4 to 10 inches at 0 to 25 feet, 55 to 65 feet, and
85 to 90 feet, measured from the portal. Towards and in the face it splits to a few lean quartz
veinlets that are Yz to 2 inches in width. Where the sulphides are heaviest the values are
highest. A sample at 20 feet from the portal and in the back of the stope taken across 4 inches
of heavy pyrite and galena and small amounts of quartz assayed: Gold, 6 oz. per ton; silver,
4 oz. per ton. The formation in No. 1 adit is chiefly diorite, but granodiorite is present for
25 feet from the portal, from 55 to 60 feet, and again at 75 feet. The face of the drift is in
a fine-grained diorite. Fifteen feet from the portal the granodiorite is cut by a black, finegrained feldspar dyke 2 feet wide; and 3 feet farther along bv a dyke of similar composition
that is very dense in texture at the immediate contact, but becomes medium-grained away
from it.
No. 2 adit, at an elevation of 1,960 feet and 138 feet below No. 1 adit, is 215 feet long, and
from a point 25 feet in it has been driven south-westerly on No. 2 vein. The secondary workings
in the adit comprise a crosscut at 45 feet from the portal that has been driven north-westward
for 18 feet; a winze at 70 feet sunk on the vein at 54 degrees south-east, from 65 to 95 feet
a stope driven for 15 feet up the dip, and at 195 feet a crosscut driven 28 feet south-eastward
and 10 feet north-westward.
No. 2 vein represents for the most part a filled fissure of varying widths; but where widest
there has been some replacement of the wall-rock. The average width of the vein is about
8 inches, with extremes from that of a narrow slip to a lenticular section 2Vz feet wide. The
vein has been followed for 160 feet. The vein-section from 55 to 65 feet contains 8 to 10 inches of ribbon-quartz and considerable pyrite. At 80 and 120 feet it consists of two wide sections of quartz that carry but little
pyrite. Between 135 and 165 feet the vein is lenticular, attaining a maximum width of 2Yz
feet, and consists of lenticular veinlets of quartz, abundant sulphides, and unreplaced fragments of wall-rock. Beyond this place the vein pinches to a tight seam at 180 feet and from
here to the face neither the vein nor any evidence of the fissure can be recognized.
Faulting has occurred within the vein, but whether it is post-mineral or pre-mineral could
not be determined. The best evidence of this faulting is at a place 150 feet from the portal,
where the vein-section includes some granodiorite that has been dragged past a section of a
basic dyke in the foot-wall. In addition to the main vein there are some 1- to 2-inch tight,
sinuous quartz veinlets that strike about east and dip in various directions.
A 10-inch sample taken at a place 155 feet from the portal and across 10 inches of heavy
sulphide ore, containing a small amount of quartz, assayed: Gold, 7.30 oz. per ton; silver,
5.30 oz. per ton.
Both diorite and granodiorite occur in No. 2 adit, but diorite is the more abundant. The
granodiorite occurs as small tongues a few feet wide in the diorite at various places, the largest
section of granodiorite being one that extends for 12 feet from the face of the longest crosscut
in the working. At 150 feet from the portal a dense, black feldspar dyke cuts the granodiorite,
but is itself cut by the vein-fissure and displaced an unknown amount.
No. 3 adit, 137 feet below No. 2, at an elevation of 1,825 feet, is 308 feet long and has been
driven at south 5 degrees west for 190 feet and then at south 25 degrees east for 118 feet to the
face. There are no other workings from this adit. This adit follows No. 3 vein, but not the
downward extension of either No. 1 or No. 2 veins. It follows a flat, irregular combined vein
and fault-zone that is unlike Nos. 1 and 2 veins in attitude, structure, and vein-filling. No. 3
vein appears at 135 feet from the portal, where it commences with a strike of south 82 degrees
east and a dip of 50 degrees north. At 155 feet the strike is the same, but the dip has flattened
to 25 degrees north, and within 10 feet the dip is quite flat, and from this point to the face of
the adit it undulates to within a few degrees from the horizontal. The vein-matter consists
of one and sometimes two narrow quartz veinlets which are commonly in the hanging- and
foot-wall of a highly crushed zone that includes much gouge and decomposed wall-rock. The
veins average 2 inches in width, although at 276 feet from the portal the quartz has widened
to a short lens 2 feet wide. The thickness of the gouge and intermixed, decomposed rock
varies from 2 to 12 inches. Sulphide minerals are not visible, but some areas of gouge and
decomposed rock are quite rusty, which suggests the oxidation of small amounts of disseminated
sulphides. A group of four small faults occurs between 20 and 65 feet from the portal.
The strikes of these range from north 72 to north 82 degrees east and the dips from 70 to 85
degrees south. These faults contain 1 to 2 inches of gouge and narrow 1-inch quartz veinlets.
At 148 feet from the portal a 2-inch vein of ribboned quartz, strike south 85 degrees east, dip
35 degrees south, has been cut off by the main vein-fault; the displacement could not be
determined. A sample at 222 feet across 14 inches of rusty gouge and decomposed rock,
including 2 inches of quartz, assayed:  Gold, 1.30 oz. per ton; silver, 0.90 oz. per ton.
The rock-types are diorite and granodiorite, the former being more abundant. There are
short, small sections of granodiorite as follows at the portal: From 65 to 80 feet; at 165 feet;
from 180 to 195 feet;  from 255 to 265 feet;  and from 270 feet to the face.
Cowichan Lake.
The El Capitan group, comprising the following mineral claims: El Capitan,
EI Capitan.      El Capitan Nos. 2, 3, and 4, and the Chico, is owned by a syndicate of Duncan
people, including E. F. Miller, K. F. Duncan, and G. Lomas, and is at present
under option to G. Lomas and D. Powell, of Duncan. The workings are situated on either
side of the mountainous divide between the headwaters of Cottonwood creek and the Chemainus
river, between altitudes of 4,550 and 4,750 feet, the lowest part of the divide in the immediate
vicinity being at an altitude of some 4,780 feet.
At present the property is reached by foot-trail over, first, 5*4 miles of an abandoned
logging-railway that begins 1 mile west of Youbou, on Cowichan lake, and then by 3% miles
of good trail to the cabin and workings.    Until a year ago it was possible to travel the first 6% miles of the route by automobile, but recent fires and floods have destroyed some of the
trestles on the old logging-road.
The cabin is situated on the shore of a small cirque lake and the workings are on the
mountain-slopes above it. One adit, No. 3, is on the steep side of the cirque and 500 feet above
the lake; the others, Nos. 1 and 2, are over the divide and on the steep slope into the Chemainus
valley.    The hillsides below the cabin are steep but well covered with evergreen timber.
The predominant rock formation in the adits and the surrounding hillsides is a dark-green
porphyritic andesite that contains phenocrysts of plagioclase feldspars up to 3 millimetres in
length set in a fine-grained ground-mass. A second rock-type is a porphyritic hornblende-
andesite dyke that contains black crystals of hornblende up to 3 millimetres in length set in a
fine-grained ground-mass that is greenish-grey in colour. This dyke is 15 feet wide and from
No. 2 adit up the easterly slope, over the summit and down the other or westerly side, it strikes
north 80 degrees west. On the easterly slope of the hill the dyke dips steeply south, but on the
westerly slope the dip begins to change through vertical to steeply north. The third rock-type
is a medium-grained diorite that is in contact with the porphyritic andesite some 150 feet below
No. 2 adit.
A strong easterly-striking fissure-zone follows the south wall of the dyke in Nos. 1 and 2
adits. The material in this fissure has been highly oxidized so that only complex oxidation
products of iron and copper remain. There is very little quartz anywhere in the zone. Faulting
across and along the shear has been very extensive and gouge-filled faults are common.
The El Capitan claim was staked in 1925, the others in 1927 and 1928, and up to date most
of the work has been done on the original claim. Previous to 1927 the work consisted mostly
of small amounts of stripping, but in that year the upper adit, No. 1, was driven 50 feet.
In 1928 No. 2 adit was started 55 feet lower in elevation than No. 1 and driven to its present
length of 100 feet on the same vein or shear. But little further mining was done on the
property until 1932, when late in that year Messrs. Lomas and Powell leased the property
and began to drive a new adit, No. 3, on the west side of the divide and much lower than those
on the east side. They drove this adit with the hope of encountering the vein found in Nos. 1
and 2 adits. Since that time about 200 feet of work has been done in No. 3 adit, but the vein
has not as yet been encountered. Descriptions of the property may be found in the Annual
Reports from 1927 to 1933, inclusive, and in Bulletin No. 1,1932.
No. 1 adit, at an altitude of 4,750 feet and some 30 feet below the lowest part of the divide,
is 50 feet long and has been driven westward along a shear-zone that strikes north 80 degrees
west and dips steeply, about 80 degrees, south. The shear varies considerably in width and for
10 feet from the portal it averages 2Yz feet; then for 20 feet it widens and averages 4 feet and
then narrows to 6 inches. At 30 feet a branch shear 8 inches wide leads south from the main
shear and follows the south wall of the adit to the face. The main shear contains very little
quartz; the vein-matter is chiefly gouge and crushed rock that is mixed with loose aggregates
of iron and copper oxidation products. In places these are rhythmically banded so that Vto inch
of malachite alternates with ^e inch of unidentified iron and copper hydroxides. A sample
from the shear taken across 10 inches of rusty vein-matter assayed: Gold, 0.90 oz. per ton;
silver, 1.1 oz. per ton.
The south wall of the adit is porphyritic andesite; the north wall is chiefly vein-matter;
near the portal it is timbered. However, the hornblende dyke outcrops immediately north of
the timbering at the portal and presumably forms the north wall of the vein in this adit.
No. 2 adit, 95 feet long, is 50 feet below No. 1 in a direction of north 85 degrees east from it.
It has been driven at south 87 degrees west for 42 feet, at south 64 degrees west for 25 feet,
and north 80 degrees west for 28 feet. At 90 feet a short crosscut 11 feet long has been driven
south 20 degrees west. The adit follows the south wall of the hornblende dyke described
previously. However, for a distance of 67 feet from the portal there has been considerable
faulting both across and along the contact of this dyke and the andesite. The resultant
displacement of the dyke by these faults is towards the south as one goes west, the adit following a sinuous course which trends southerly for 67 feet. However, from 67 feet to the face the
north wall of the adit is along the clean, unfaulted part of the south side of the dyke, which here
strikes south 80 degrees east and is vertical. F 54       , REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
One vein is 1 to 2 inches wide and fills a fault that follows the south wall of the dyke from
67 feet to the face; the vein-matter consists of decomposed oxidized matter and gouge. At
80 feet a branch fissure leads to the south-west across the drift and into the west wall of the
crosscut; in places this contains gouge and oxidized matter up to a width of TO inches.
A second vein enters the south wall of the adit at 67 feet for 5 feet, disappears into the wall
and is again present in the face of the crosscut; this vein contains 2 inches of oxidized matter
and also considerable chalcopyrite. As in the upper adit, very little quartz is present in
any of the veins. On the south wall of the adit and in the crosscut the rock is dark-green
porphyritic andesite;   on the north wall it is the hornblende andesite of the dyke.
No. 3 adit, on the westerly slope of the divide and at an altitude of 4,550 feet, is situated
about 380 feet in a direction of north 80 degrees west from that of No. 1 adit. No. 3 adit,
driven eastward for 70 feet, follows a well-defined wall that dips 55 degrees north; then turns
north for 36 feet through porphyritic andesite that contains thin seams of pyrite and calcite.
However, 20 feet south from the face of this crosscut the working follows a strong fault at
north 85 degrees east for 70 feet to the face. This fault, strike north 85 degrees east and
dip 52 degrees south, contains from 6 to 12 inches of clay gouge and at one place 53 feet from
the face there is a little rusty gouge; the remainder is free from oxidation products. This is
in distinct contrast to the abundant oxidized material in the shear-zone in Nos. 1 and 2 adits.
The rock along this section is all badly fractured into small blocky fragments, but it does not
contain fault-seams. A sample taken across 4 inches of rusty gouge and 8 inches of grey
gouge in this drift showed only traces of gold and silver, and one taken across the face for
54 inches showed no gold or silver.    The rock is typical porphyritic andesite.
Numerous small quartz veinlets that contain chalcopyrite and pyrite fill fissures or joints
in the andesites of the surrounding hillsides. Several of these veinlets have been partly
prospected by small surface-stripping, but nothing of importance has been found. One fissure
of a maximum width of 14 inches that occurs on the west side of the summit and below No. 3
adit contains abundant arsenopyrite and is accompanied by some shearing and a little gouge.
Where the fissure is cleanest the strike is north 65 degrees east and the dip 80 degrees south.
Mineralization has resulted in thin %-inch curving veinlets of quartz and in masses of arsenopyrite that are frequently frozen to the walls of the shear.
Vicinity of Ucluelet.
The Toquart group, comprising four mineral claims—namely, the Toquart
Toquart.        Nos. 1 to 4, inclusive, all staked in 1933 and owned by T. Tugwell and the
Hillier Bros., of Ucluelet—is situated on the north-east side of Lucky creek,
and about 2Y± miles up the creek from Toquart harbour on Barkley sound.    The workings are
between altitudes of 250 and 400 feet.
A quartz vein that strikes north has been stripped at intervals along the strike, so that
over a total slope distance of 375 feet the sections of the vein thus exposed aggregate 100 feet
in length. The quartz vein attains a maximum width of 6 inches, but as it is of the replacement-
type the main vein is quite variable in width and often bordered by a zone of country-rock 2 feet
or less in width that is interlaced by numerous sinuous quartz veinlets.
Mineralization has been slight and has resulted in the deposition of small amounts of pyrite
and free gold in the quartz and country-rock. Near the south end of the stripping a short adit
has been driven for 30 feet at 20 degrees on a part of the vein, which, however, pinches towards
the face. In the vicinity of the quartz vein the main country-rock is andesitic greenstone, but
this has been cut by.two dykes of unknown width, one a light-grey quartz porphyry and the
other a dark-green, dense feldspar porphyry.
The Faith and Doris mineral claims extend inland from a part of the beach
Faith. that is about 2 miles south-east from the Japanese village opposite Spring
cove, Ucluelet. They are owned by W. E. Saggers and A. E. Jacobs, of
Ucluelet, and were staked in September, 1934. The mineral-showings occur here and there
over a 100-foot stretch of beach and consist of pyrite both in %6-inch quartz veinlets and also
scattered in widely spaced curving joint-planes. The rock is massive and highly altered, so
that now, chemically at least, it is a dolomitized limestone.    This rock contains numerous WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 55
angular blocks of black chert that range from 4 to 10 feet across and a few areas of graphitic
slate of similar shape and size. A sample of heavy pyrite taken at the intersection of two
shears assayed:   Gold, 0.11 oz. per ton;  silver, trace.
PROGRESS NOTES.
LODE-GOLD DEPOSITS.
BY
B. T. O'Grady.
Bridge River Camp, Lillooet Mining Division.
Pioneer Gold Mines of B.C., Ltd.—The following notes summarize development-work
accomplished during 1935: No. 2 shaft was sunk 794 feet from a depth of 2,519 to 3,313 feet.
Stations were cut at 125-foot intervals down to the twenty-sixth level, which, at 3,216 feet
below the shaft-collar, is the lowest level. Since the completion of sinking, in October, 1935,
to the end of the year an aggregate length of 1,010 feet of crosscutting had been done from the
shaft down from Nos. 15 to 22 levels, inclusive, and a total of 147 feet of drifting on the main
vein on Nos. 15, 16, and 17 levels; also a start was made on a transfer raise from No. 17 level.
Above No. 14 level 6,831 feet of drifting, 1,340 feet of crosscutting, and 1,461 feet of raising
were done. Total development-work for the year, in all parts of the property, consisted of
6,978 feet of drifting, 2,350 feet of crosscutting, 1,510 feet of raising, and 794 feet of shaft-
sinking.    Total ore delivered to the mill amounted to 135,781 tons.
Bralorne Mines, Ltd., and Bradian Mines, Ltd.—A consolidation of these companies was
effected in July, 1935, the combined operations being subsequently conducted under the name
and direction of the Bralorne Mines, Limited. Salient features of development-work done
during 1935 are as follows: During the year the Ida May and Blackbird veins were opened on
No. 6 level from the Empire shaft. The Ida May vein was also opened on the No. 10 level
from the Coronation shaft 550 feet down the dip from No. 6 level from the Empire shaft.
The Blackbird vein was cut in the Empire crosscut from No. 8 level of the King mine (main
haulage-level). During the year 145,113 tons of ore was milled. Total amount of development-
work done is as follows: Crosscuts and drifts, 11,552 feet; shaft-sinking, 184 feet; winzes and
raises, 763 feet; diamond-drilling, 2,961 feet. In connection with the Bralorne townsite
adjoining the mine camp, forty-five new cottages were built and other improvements made.
Pacific Eastern Gold, Ltd.—The 2 %-compartment shaft started in December, 1934, was
sunk to a depth of 542 feet from a point 540 feet in from the portal of the adit, 634 feet long,
at 4,110 feet elevation. At the 520-foot level in the shaft a crosscut has been driven southwesterly for 1,700 feet to expose a cross-section of the ground below the Cadwallader Creek
valley. Previously three diamond-drill holes, aggregating 1,985 feet, were put down to
determine the boundaries of the rock formations.
B.R.X. Gold Mines, Ltd.—No further work was done in the California workings. Development has all been in the Arizona section, the portal of the new adit-crosscut, at 2,330 feet
elevation, being situated 230 feet east of the Hurley river and about 6,750 feet north-westerly
from the northern extremity of the lowest (or No. 6) California level, at 3,005 feet elevation.
When the property was visited early in November, 1935, this " L.O.X." crosscut was driven
1,895 feet south-easterly from the portal. At a point 50 feet from the face, drifting in both
directions was being done along a strong shear striking about north 23 degrees west and
dipping at about 50 degrees to the south-west. The northern drift was driven 265 feet and
the southern drift 230 feet. Associated with the shearing were scattered, irregular showings
of quartz, occasionally containing fine bands of pyrite-arsenopyrite mineralization. At 950
feet in from the portal of the " L.O.X." crosscut, a drift had been run 230 feet south-easterly
along a minor shear accompanied by indefinite quartz stringers.
Wayside Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd.—The old mill on this property was operated on a
20-ton basis until the middle of May, when work was suspended on account of the labour strike.
In July construction started on the new 100-ton mill. Underground work, which was limited,
chiefly consisted of preparing the mine for production. In connection with the new mill an
additional power plant was provided which involved construction of a storage-dam and laying
15 F 56 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
4,800 feet of 12-inch pipe on Fergusson (Sucker) creek. The two water-power units, across
the Bridge River valley from the mine, together supply about 610 horse-power. The new
100-ton reduction plant, which was brought into production towards the end of the year,
includes a 20- by 6-foot Hardinge-Hadsel mill in closed circuit with a Dorr classifier, the
product going over three 4- by 12-foot corduroy tables. From these the concentrate is treated
by barrel amalgamation and the tailing by four 36-inch Fagegren flotation-cells, from which
the concentrate is treated by cyanidation comprising standard units.
Congress Gold Mines, Ltd.—Work was continued by this company until May 7th, 1935.
Subsequently, between July and October, operations were conducted under the direction of
Howard James for Victor Spencer and associates, who held the property (excluding five claims)
under option. The following work was done during this latter three-month period: The No. 2
level north drift was extended from 224 to 335 feet; No. 3 level north drift was advanced from
126 to 524 feet and the south drift from 6 to 39 feet. A raise was continued through from
No. 2 to No. 1 level. In addition, a considerable amount of stripping and open-cutting was
done, together was 321 feet of diamond-drilling. This work was suspended on October 7th,
when the compressor plant was severely damaged by fire.
Minto Gold Mines, Ltd.—Development-work at this property was very limited. The river
adit, or lowest level, was extended beyond the main fault and the vein drifted on for a short
distance. Underground work chiefly consisted of stoping to supply the mill, which was
operated throughout 1935 on a basis of from 60 to 70 tons a day. Changes in the flow-sheet
have resulted in higher gold-recovery.
Federal Gold Mines, Ltd.—At this property, adjoining the Minto holdings, development-
work done during 1935 included driving Nos. 1 and 3 adits at elevations of about 140 and 800
feet respectively below the surface showings. The No. 1 level is 190 feet and the No. 3
1,150 feet long. More recent work consists of the extension of No. 2 adit for a short distance
at an elevation of about 300 feet below the surface showings.
Olympic Gold Mines, Ltd.—Exploratory work on the Alta No. 1 claim, adjoining the
southern side of Bridge river, approximately opposite the Minto mine property, consisted of
drifting and crosscutting in two adits, at elevations of 2,020 and 2,161 feet respectively, which
correspond to the Leckie and Magee workings referred to on page F 31, Report of Minister of
Mines for 1934. When seasonal work was discontinued total footages in the lower adit comprised 470 feet and in the upper adit 280 feet. A Sullivan 2-drill, motor-driven compressor
was in use, exploration being conducted under the technical direction of H. L. Batten.
Senator Gold Mines, Ltd.—At this property, which adjoins the holdings of the Olympic
Gold Mines, Limited, to the south-west, surface work of an exploratory nature was done during
the open season under the technical direction of H. L. Batten.
Gun Lake Section.
Pilot Gold Mines, Ltd.—Exploratory development-work was continued during 1935, the
scope of operations having been reduced at the end of July and work suspended when the area
was visited in November. To the end of July the total amount of underground work accomplished since operations started was 5,600 feet, the greater part of which is on the No. 1 level,
with a small amount of work on the No. 2 level.
Tuscarora Gold Mines, Ltd.—At the property of this company, situated between Bridge
river and Gun lake, work was resumed in November, 1935, when a small crew started driving
an adit at an elevation of 500 feet below the surface showings. Work was done by hand with
T. B. Lewis in charge.
Little Gem.—At this group, situated 1 mile south-west of Gun creek, it is reported that
three men were employed during the summer season.
South Bridge River.
Alexander Holdings.—At this property on Tommy creek from three to seven men were
employed during the open season. Camps were established, trails built, and a considerable
amount of open-cutting done to trace the vein-outcrop. WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 57
Lillooet Area, Clinton Mining Division.
Grange Mines, Ltd.— (Reports of the Minister of Mines for 1928 to 1934, inclusive.) The
small mill was shut down on August 10th, 1935, when the crew was reduced, five men being
employed under Angus McPherson late in September. The No. 6 level south-east drift was
then being advanced. Work done during 1935 up to the time specified included: Sinking a
winze 120 feet (100 feet vertical) from No. 6 to No. 7 level; 260 feet of drifting, 52 feet of
crosscutting, and 50 feet of raising on the No. 7 level; a raise from No. 6 level to No. 5 level,
from which raise stoping was done over a length of 50 feet and a maximum height of 10 feet
from a sub-level to the south-east; another raise put up 45 feet above the No. 6 level, from
which a small amount of stoping was done over a length of 35 feet.
Deadman River Section, Ashcroft Mining Division.
Hamilton Creek Gold Mines, Ltd.—Work at this property was resumed in the fall of 1935.
J. B. Harstone is in charge.
Telluric.—On this property in the same area a limited amount of underground work has
been done.
Prospecting activities have also been carried on in the Vidette area.
Coast Area.
Britannia Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd.—The Britannia mine, located on Howe Sound,
operated continuously during the year. Officials were C. P. Browning, general manager;
C. V. Brennan, assistant general manager; C. P. Charlton, secretary-treasurer; A. C. Munro,
general superintendent of mills; and C. G. Dobson, mine superintendent. As in the previous
year, a great part of the tonnage was mined from the East Bluff section by the low-cost
Britannia method of powder-blast mining. This production represented 72 per cent, of the
total, with Victoria, West Bluff, and Fairview mines producing the balance.
A total of 817,250 tons was mined and milled. Total production was 14,306,105 lb. of
copper, 11,649 oz. of gold, and 71,357 oz. of silver. The pyrite-concentrate production amounted
to 39,582 tons, and the zinc-concentrate production totalled 3,191 tons, yielding 3,606,436 lb.
of zinc.
Development-work totalled 9,541 feet, or 1.81 miles, and was made up as follows: Drifts,
4,170 feet; crosscuts, 1,560 feet; raises, 2,450 feet; powder-blast development of all sorts
amounted to 1,282 feet; and the Victoria No. 2 shaft was sunk 79 feet to a point 58 feet below
the 3,350 station.
Early in 1935 the 4,100 haulage-adit, a 12- by 10-foot opening which will develop the
property about 200 feet above sea-level, was recommenced, and at the end of the year had
attained a length of 8,784 feet.    At the year end 668 men were employed.
Hercules Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and Power Corporation, Ltd.—This company
continued work until the end of March, 1935. In July some further work was done by the
Santiago Mines, Limited, under a lease agreement.
Loughborough Gold Mines, Ltd.—C. M. Ladd, representing this private company with
property on Loughborough inlet, reports that from six to eight men were employed during part
of the year. Work done includes construction of a wharf and building of a section of caterpillar-
tractor road. A shipment of 49 tons of ore was made. The property was formerly known as
the Golden Gate Mines, Limited.
Stave Lake Area.*
Machynlleth-Voel.—The Machynlleth-Voel group includes six mineral claims—namely,
Machynlleth, Machynlleth No. 3, Machynlleth No. 5, Voel, Voel No. 8, and Voel No. 9; of these,
the Voel and Machynlleth claims were staked in 1931 and 1934 respectively and the remainder
in 1935.    They are owned by John T. Williams and associates, of Webster's Corners.
Access in part is by 10 miles of dirt automobile-road north-eastward from Haney and then
by three-quarters of a mile of abandoned flume-line to the showing. The main showing is
in the bed of a creek in which the rock has been washed clean by waters in freshet.    Minerali-
* Report by J. S. Stevenson. F 58. REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1935.
zation has resulted in the distribution of pyrite and a little quartz along joints and in
discontinuous shears in intrusive rocks that consist predominantly of hybrid diorites, but small
areas of granodiorite, fine pegmatite, and aplite are also present.
A short trench has been dug and a small shaft, filled with water at the time of examination,
sunk on a fan-shaped and discontinuous shear 6 inches wide that carries pyrite in places.
A small bulk sample from a seam that carried 2 inches of massive pyrite assayed: Gold, 5.44 oz.
per ton; silver, 1 oz. per ton. Two small trenches have been excavated and blasted at two
places on two different shears about 200 feet north-east of the creek. A short trench and an
adit 8 feet long have been started and abandoned on different shears about 200 feet north-east
of the creek.    There is very little mineral in any of these shears.
MISCELLANEOUS DEPOSITS.
Texas Creek.
British Molybdenite Production, Ltd.—The property of this private company of Vancouver
is at the head of Texas creek, which flows into the Fraser river south of Lillooet. Seasonal
work done is reported to have consisted of surface prospecting by open-cuts and some construction on a road. A reference to a molybdenite deposit in this vicinity is contained in the Report
of the Minister of Mines for 1916 under Index mineral claim.
Geiler*—This group, consisting of the Copper Hill, Geiler, and Donihuill claims on Quadra
island, is held by T. Noble and associates, of Quathiaski Cove. (See Memoir No. 23, by D. D.
Cairnes, Geological Survey of Canada, 1913, and Geology of the Coast and Islands, by J. A.
Bancroft, 1911.) Since 1913 a considerable amount of open-cutting has been done on the
Geiler shear-zone in andesite over a 1,300-foot length. The property is being actively prospected at the present time.
B.C. Nickel Mines, Ltd.—Development-work consisted of 6,300 feet of workings driven in
the vicinity of No. 1 tunnel and 760 feet of raising. The latter is part of a programme whereby
five raises will be put up 300 feet each above No. 1 tunnel, from which a thorough diamond-drill
campaign will be undertaken. During the year 56,000 feet of diamond-drilling was done, of
which 47,000 feet was driven from No. 1 tunnel, 8,000 feet from No. 2 adit, and 1,000 feet from
the surface, to explore areas indicated by magnetometer survey.
COQUIHALLA   AREA.
Home Gold.Mining Co., Ltd.—At the property of this company, in the Yale Mining
Division, development-work done during 1935 mainly consisted of putting up a raise from the
No. 4 to the No. 3 adit, together with some drifting on the latter level. Small lots of crude
ore and concentrates were shipped, the latter being derived from the small mill which was
operated for sixty-five shifts between April and July. Eight men were employed when the
property was visited in October.
* By P. B. Freeland.

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