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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1936

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OF  THE
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 ST, 1935
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY  OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Chaeles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1936.  To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for the year
ended December 31st, 1935, with Appendices.
GEORGE SHARRATT PEARSON,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia, June 1st, 1936. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1935.
Page.
Value of Fisheries and Standing of Province     5
Persons engaged and Capital invested     5
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia     5
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries shows Slight Decrease in 1935     6
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1935     7
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia by Districts    8
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, Shell-fish)    12
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry  12
Halibut Production    13
Mild-cured Salmon  14
Dry-salt Salmon  14
Dry-salt Herring  14
Fish Oil and Meal-
Pilchard Reduction  15
Whale Reduction  15
Herring Reduction  15
Miscellaneous Reduction  15
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Digest)  15
The International Fisheries Commission's Halibut Investigation  17
Some Fresh-water Fishes of British Columbia (Digest)  19
Herring Investigation (Digest)  19
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. (No. 21.) By Wilbur A.
Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, and Lucy S. Clemens,
Ph.D  21
Condition of Salmon-spawning Grounds, 1935, and Egg-collections.    By Major J. A.
Motherwell  45
Herring-spawning Conditions, Spawning Season 1935.   By Major J. A. Motherwell  50
Annual Report, 1935, British Columbia Salt-fish Board  52
Some Fresh-water Fishes of British Columbia.   By Professor J. R. Dymond, Director,
Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, Toronto, Ont  60
Some Results of the British Columbia Herring Investigation and their Economic
Bearing.    By Albert L. Tester, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo  74
Salmon-pack in 1935 in Detail  81
Salmon-pack by Districts and Species, 1920 to 1935  81
Sockeye-salmon Pack of Entire Fraser River System, 1894 to 1935  85
Sockeye-salmon Pack by Districts, 1920 to 1935  85
Pilchard Production, 1920 to 1935  86
Production of Fish Oil and Meal (other than Pilchard), 1920 to 1935  86 FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT
FOR 1935.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF THE
PROVINCES, 1934.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1934 totalled $34,022,323.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of $15,234,335, or
nearly 45 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1934 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the production
of fisheries wealth.    Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second in rank, by $7,560,470.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1934 was $3,232,864
more than in the previous year. There was an increase in the value of salmon, halibut,
pilchard, whaling, and cod fisheries.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1934 was $21,359,019, or
nearly 49 per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the total
invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1934, $9,641,534 was employed in catching and
handling the catches and $11,717,485 invested in canneries, fish-packing establishments, and
fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1934 was 17,926, or 25
per cent, of Canada's total fishery-workers. Of those engaged in British Columbia, 11,700 were
employed in catching and handling the catches and 6,226 in packing, curing, and in fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries in British Columbia in 1934 was 1,070
more than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the osder of their rank the value of the fishery products
of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1930 to 1934, inclusive:—
Province.
[
1930.
1931.
1932.
1
1933.   1
1934.
$23,103,302
10,411,202
4,853,575
2,502,998
3,294,629
1,811,962
1,141,279
234,501
421,258
29,510
$11,108,873
7,986,711
4,169,811
1,952,894
2,477,131
1,241,575
1,078,901
317,963
153,897
29,550
$9,909,116
6,557,943
2,972,682
1,815,544
2,147,990
1,204,892
988,919
186,174
153,789
20,060
$12,001,471
6,010,601
3,061,152
2,128,471
2,089,842
1,076,136
842,345
186,417
144,518
17,100
$15,234,335
7,673,865
New Brunswick....	
Quebec—    	
3,679,970
2,308,517
2,218,550
1,465,358
963,926
219,772
245,405
14,625
$47,804,216
$30,517,306
$25,957,109
$27,558,053
$34,022,323
THE SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British Columbia
for the years 1930 to 1934, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
$16,610,834
2,446,775
$7,195,220
1,373,679
$7,586,479
960,166
$9,184,090
1,391,941
$12,402 042
797,390
36,439
Herring    __	
1,222,303
1,589,609
388,172
1,058,139
807,842
242,911
536,491
383,920
172,029
738,522
77,464
215,796
628,982
324,669
$22,207,693
$10,677,791
$9,639,085
$11,607,813
$14,739,432 L 6
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
The Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Species.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
Brought forward
$22,207,693
155,857
120,583
29,177
46,217
20,426
58,146
3,500
20,268
24,667
15,447
18,416
5,778
2,569
4,241
4,214
828
764
44,227
17,250
61,272
227,993
13,769
$10,677,791
111,690
29,521
27,914
25,372
15,778
61,247
4,266
4,894
10,937
3,893
14,928
3,774
1,156
4,271
477
603
$9,639,085
89,848
38,754
16,832
25,936
19,988
28,800
$11,607,813
52,699
41,443
34,296
27,737
19,609
25,670
$14,739,432
33,402
44,057
Crabs  —
Soles 	
32,325
34,921
Shrimps  	
Oysters 	
17,758
38,922
2,400
3,923
9,333
4,707
7,084
3,161
1,336
2,748
470
135
544
4,629
7,018
5,208
5,629
3,428
4,916
5,006
1,048
2,483
771
1,180
1,062
13,783
26,299
5,216
6,607
Perch...	
Smelt _	
3,334
8,423
3,391
1,406
Skate  _	
2,872
1,134
Whiting _ -	
207
Grayfish, etc.—
Oil _	
62,648
13,256
10,272
26,272
45,597
110,030
7,060
4,301
183,738
7,004
7,181
4,885
547
2,374
Totals	
$23,103,302
j    $11,108,873
$9,909,116
j    $12,001,471
$15,234,335
Previous to 1934 the totals for halibut included landings at British Columbia ports by
United States vessels, whereas for 1934 the United States landings are excluded from the
statistics. United States landings of halibut at British Columbia ports in 1934 were 84,921
cwt. and 1,598 cwt. of livers, valued approximately at $740,055.
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES SHOWS SLIGHT DECREASE
IN 1935.
The dollar value of British Columbia's fisheries production in 1935 amounted to $15,169,529,
which is $64,806 less than the year previous. These figures represent the value of the fishery
products as marketed, whether sold for consumption fresh, canned, cured, or otherwise
prepared.
While the marketed value was slightly less in 1935 than in 1934, the quantity of fish
landed was greater. The total quantity of fish of all kinds landed in 1935 was 4,041,788 cwt.,
compared with 3,666,154 cwt. landed in 1934.
The fishermen of British Columbia received $752,234 more for their catch in 1935 than
in 1934. The value to the fishermen at point of landing in 1935 was $8,082,353, compared
with $7,330,119 for the year previous.
Salmon.—British Columbia is still the leading Province of the Dominion with respect
to value of fisheries wealth. This leading position is due to the great wealth of the salmon-
fishery, which accounts for 80 per cent, of the value of output of the whole of the British
Columbia fisheries in 1935. The catch of salmon in British Columbia totalled 1,789,431 cwt.,
while the marketed value was $12,099,275. The quantity of salmon caught and landed was
greater than in the previous year and the value to the fishermen was also larger, but the
marketed value shows a reduction of $302,767, or 2 per cent. The main item in the salmon-
fishery is the canned product, which in 1935 amounted to 1,529,022 cases, a slight decrease
from the previous year. The reputation of British Columbia salmon for excellence of quality
is world-wide and 508,478 cwt. (approximately 1,059,329 cases) were exported in 1935 to
seventy countries. The principal countries of destination are the United Kingdom, Australia,
France, and British South Africa. BRITISH COLUMBIA. L 7
Halibut.—The halibut-fishery is next in importance to the salmon-fishery in British
Columbia. In this fishery there was a slight increase in the quantity landed and a corresponding increase in market value. The quantity landed in 1935 amounted to 101,927 cwt.,
compared with 97,681 cwt. in 1934, while the marketed value in 1935 was $940,862, compared
with $833,829 in the previous year.
Pilchard and Herring.—Next in importance of British Columbia's fisheries is the herring
and pilchard fishery, due largely to its importance in the production of meal and oil. In 1935
pilchards caught and landed amounted to 911,411 cwt., compared with 860,103 cwt. in 1934,
while the marketed value in 1935 was $670,338, compared with $549,910 in 1934, an increase
of 51,308 cwt. in quantity and an increase in value of $120,428 in market value.
Herring production in 1935 amounted to 1,008,507 cwt., an increase of 188,145 cwt. over
the previous year, but the value in 1935 was less than in the previous year by $48,951, the
values being $580,031 for 1935, compared with $628,982 in 1934.
Whales.—Whale products (meal, oil, fertilizer) dropped in value from $183,738 in 1934
to $105,360 in 1935, due to fewer whales having been taken in the latter year.
CAPITAL EQUIPMENT AND EMPLOYEES.
In Primary Operations.
Capital.—The total value placed on the vessels, boats, and gear used in the primary
operations of catching and landing the fish was $9,507,989, compared with $9,641,534 in 1934.
The principal item is that of gasoline and Diesel boats, which numbered 6,113, valued at
$3,780,236. Sailing, gasoline, and Diesel vessels numbered 283 and had a total value of
$2,599,040.
Employees.—The number of fishermen employed during the year was 10,965, a decrease
from 1934 of 735.
Fish Canning and Curing Establishments.
Capital.—The number of fish canning and curing plants in operation in 1935 was
ninety-three, compared with ninety-nine in the preceding year. Decreases of five in the
number of salmon-canneries and two in the number of reduction plants, together with an
increase of one in the number of clam-canneries, account for the difference between the two
years. The capital investment of the plants in 1935 had a value of $11,325,388, compared
with $11,717,485 in 1934.
Employees.—The establishments provided employment in 1935 for a total of 6,030 persons,
compared with 6,226 in the preceding year. Employment is fairly constant from April to
November, the slack months being December, January, February, and March.
The above figures are taken from the " Advance Report on the Fisheries of British
Columbia, 1935," by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Canada. For more detailed
information the reader is referred to other sections of this report.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1935.
The total pack of canned salmon in British Columbia for the season 1935 amounted to
1,529,022 full cases. This is a decrease of 54,844 cases from the year previous, but is 300,208
cases greater than the average for the five-year period 1931-35. The total pack for 1935 is,
however, 287,386 cases below the average annual pack for the five-year period 1926-30, but
is 6,411 cases greater than the average annual pack over the ten-year period 1926-35.
The 1935 pack consisted of 350,444 cases of sockeye, 21,920 cases of springs, 596 cases of
steelhead, 231,492 cases of cohoe (which figure includes 15,319 cases of blueback), 514,966
cases of pinks, and 409,604 cases of chums.
The sockeye-pack for 1935 compared with the pack of this species for 1934 was less by
27,400 cases, but is 33,477 cases greater than the average annual pack of sockeye for the
ten-year period 1926-35. The spring-salmon pack for 1935 was also less than for the year
previous by 7,856 cases. The pack of cohoe was greater in 1935 than in 1934 by 6,061 cases
and is the largest pack yet recorded for this species. The pack of pink salmon in 1935 exceeded that of the year previous by 78,612 cases, but the chum-pack in 1935 was less than
in 1934 by 103,577 cases. L 8
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
THE BRITISH COLUMBIA CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River System.—The Canadian pack of Fraser River sockeye in 1935 amounting
to 62,822 cases was 76,416 cases less than in 1934 and was 21,875 cases greater than in 1931,
the cycle-year. Compared with the average annual Canadian pack over the past ten years,
the pack in 1935 was 7,466 cases less than the average for the Canadian packs, 1926-35,
although the Canadian fishermen secured a greater portion of the total Fraser River catch
than in recent past years—the Canadian catch amounting to 53.5 per cent, of the total. This
figure includes 5,610 cases of sockeye caught in the Sooke traps. The combined Canadian and
American sockeye-packs for the Fraser River in 1935, including the Sooke trap catch, amounted
to 117,499 full cases, which was 374,318 cases less than in 1934 and was 10,659 cases less
than in 1931, the brood-year. The average sockeye-pack for the Fraser River over the past
ten years, 1926-35, amounts to 207,254 cases, so the 1935 pack must be considered as below
average by 89,755 cases. Expressed in terms of percentage, if the average annual pack for
the past ten years is taken as 100 per cent., then the 1935 pack amounted to only 56.7 per cent.,
or a drop from average of 43.3 per cent. The elimination of traps in the State of Washington
and a strike by the American seiners during the month of July no doubt had some effect on
the amount of sockeye taken by Canadian gear, but cannot have had much effect on the total
pack. Reports from the spawning-grounds do not indicate an unusually large escapement,
except possibly in the Pitt Lake area, and this considered in relation to the size of the pack
would indicate that the sockeye run to the Fraser in 1935 was very much below normal.
The years 1934 and 1935 were the cycle-years of what has become recognized by the
industry as the late run to the Fraser. The following table gives the catch of sockeye by
months in the State of Washington and British Columbia. These figures do not include the
trap catch at Sooke:—
Table showing the Fraser River Sockeye-pack, by Months, in British Columbia and
the State of Washington for 1931, and 1935.
Month.
British
Columbia.
State op Washington.
Totals.
1934.
1935.
1934.
1935.
1934.
1935.
18,000
62,000
57,000
2,238
2,488
38,303
16,251
170
27,850
277,485
23,012
24,732
1,350
44,581
8,630
116
45,350
339,485
80,012
26,970
3,838
82,884
24,881
286
July	
August	
September-
October	
From the above it will be noted that in 1934 106,982 cases of sockeye were caught in
the months of September and October, while for the same months in 1935 only 25,167 cases
were taken. It should be pointed out, however, that in 1934 the " late run " accounted for
nearly 22 per cent, of the total Fraser River pack for that year, and in 1935 the " late run "
was just over 22 per cent, of the total sockeye-pack of this river.
In view of the size of the pack and reports from the spawning-grounds, the condition
of this cycle of the runs to the Fraser River is far from satisfactory. This condition was
not unanticipated. In their " Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon,"
Paper 17, published in this report for 1931, Drs. Clemens point out that this run has been
overfished, and again, in Paper 20 of the same series published in this report for 1934,
state: " The run of 1935 will be largely derived from the brood-year 1931 and the prospect
is very discouraging.    .    .    .    The urgent need for a limitation of catch in 1935 is obvious."
The history of the sockeye-salmon fishery of the Fraser River is more complete and
covers a longer period than any other similar fishery. The causes of the decline are known
and remedial measures are quite evident, and with these facts in mind the present unsatisfactory condition is a tragic monument to man's greed and short-sightedness in the over-
exploitation of this fishery.
The spring-salmon pack on the Fraser in 1935 amounted to 9,401 cases, compared with
16,218 cases in 1934 and 5,579 cases in 1933, while a pack of 28,701 cases of this species was recorded in 1932. In the case of spring salmon it must be pointed out that the size of the
pack is not necessarily indicative of this size of the run, as large numbers of this species are
marketed through other channels than as the canned product.
The canned-cohoe pack for this district in 1935 amounted to 24,950 cases, which figure
includes 350 cases of bluebacks. This district produced a pack of 11,392 cases in 1934, 13,901
cases in 1933, and 16,815 cases in 1932. The pack of cohoe in 1935 is the largest in this district
since 1930, when 25,585 cases were canned.
The pink-salmon run occurs in this district each alternate year. 1934 was the " off-year "
for this species. In 1935 there were canned 111,328 cases of this species, which was 18,582
cases more than in the brood-year 1933, and, with the exception of 1929, is the largest pack
of pinks put up in this district since 1917, when 134,442 cases were canned. In 1929 the
pink-salmon pack amounted to 158,208 cases, the largest pack recorded for this district.
Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the pink-salmon streams were satisfactorily
seeded.
The chum-salmon pack for the Fraser River District in 1935 was unusually small,
amounting to only 8,227 cases, compared with 86,298 cases the year previous. Chum salmon
appear in this district very late in the season and, as canners are reluctant to pack a greater-
quantity of this variety than they anticipate a ready sale for, the pack figures do not bear
a direct relationship to the size of the run. Large quantities of this species also find an
outlet through the dry-salt salmon industry as well as being frozen. It must also be noted
that, according to spawning-ground reports, an excellent escapement took place to the
spawning-beds in the Fraser system generally.
The Skeena River.—The total pack of all varieties of salmon on the Skeena River for 1935
amounted to 170,420 full cases. The pack in 1935 was 113,676 cases less than in 1934 and 7,434
cases greater than in 1931, the cycle-year.
The Skeena River pack was composed of 52,879 cases of sockeye, 4,039 cases of springs,
14 cases of steelhead, 23,498 cases of cohoe, 81,868 cases of pinks, and 8,12*2 cases of chums.
The sockeye-pack was lower than in 1934 by 17,776 cases and also lower than 1931, the
cycle-year, by 40,144 cases. The 1935 pack of this variety is 18,949 cases less than the average
for this river for the ten-year period 1926-35. In comparing the figures for 1935 packs with
previous years, it must be pointed out that the opening date for fishing was July 1st instead of
June 20th as in previous years, thus shortening the active fishing season ten days. There is
no doubt that this shorter fishing season had the effect of permitting a greater escapement to
the spawning-grounds, as reports indicate that practically the whole Skeena River watershed
was fairly well seeded. Elsewhere in this report will be found a resume of reports from the
spawning-grounds by Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal
Department of Fisheries. In comparing pack figures, due consideration must be given to the
escapement and the reader is recommended to peruse the reports above referred to.
The pack of springs on the Skeena amounted to 4,039 cases, compared with 8,300 cases in
1934, 3,297 cases in 1933, 28,269 cases in 1932, and 9,857 cases in 1931. As spring salmon finds
a market outlet through the mild-cure operations as well as in a frozen condition, the size
of the canned pack is not necessarily indicative of the run, but other factors indicate that the
run of springs to this river in 1935 was not satisfactory. Reports from the spawning-grounds
show an unusually light seeding.
The cohoe-pack of 23,498 cases was 30,978 cases less than in the previous year and is the
smallest pack of this variety since 1920, except in 1931, when only 10,637 cases were canned.
It must be pointed out, however, that in 1931 canners were curtailing their packs very materially due to depressed economic conditions. The escapement of cohoes to the spawning-grounds
is reported as reasonably satisfactory and compared favourably with other good years. In comparing the cohoe-pack of the Skeena in 1935 with that of 1934, attention is directed to the fact
that the 1934 pack, of this variety, amounting to 54,456 cases, was an exceptionally large one,
the largest on record. The average annual pack for the ten-year period 1926-35 is a better
criterion.    This average for the period referred to amounted to 33,082 cases.
The pack of pinks in 1935, amounting to 81,868 cases, is 13,915 below the pack of 1933, the
cycle-year, but is 37,061 cases more than was packed in 1931, although here again consideration
must be given to the degree of curtailment which took place due to the depression.    Escapement to the spawning-grounds is reported as being heavy, which should result in a good supply
in 1937.
The chum-pack on the Skeena in 1935, amounting to 8,122 cases, was very much below the
figures for recent past years, the packs being 24,388 cases in 1934, 15,714 cases in 1933, and
38,549 cases in 1932. The pack in 1931, however, amounted to only 3,893 cases. Current
marketing conditions have an important bearing on the size of the chum-pack in any given
year. The escapement of this variety to the spawning-beds was considered normal, but it is
pointed out that the Skeena is not a large producer of this variety.
The Nass River.—The sockeye runs to the Nass River are perhaps the most erratic of any
of the runs to the principal spawning-grounds in British Columbia. Drs. Clemens have called
attention to this fact on different occasions in their " Contributions to the Life-history of the
Sockeye Salmon." The pack in 1935 amounted to 12,712 cases, compared with 28,701 cases in
1934, 9,757 cases in 1933, 14,154 cases in 1932, and 16,929 cases in 1931. The average annual
pack of sockeye for this river for the past ten years amounts to 15,816 cases. A comparison
with this average shows that in the year 1935 the pack was 3,104 cases short of the average.
The inspection of the spawning-grounds indicates that the early run was heavy, resulting
in a good seeding similar to the seeding of 1930 and much better than in 1931. The late run
was good, but not as heavy as in 1930, although much better than in 1931.
The pack of springs on the Nass is never large, but in 1935 the pack of 560 cases was
exceedingly small, being even less than that for 1934, when the pack of this variety amounted to
only 654 cases. The packs of springs for recent past years were: In 1933, 1,296 cases; 1932,
4,408 cases;  1931, 1,439 cases;  and in 1930, 1,891 cases.
There were 21,810 cases of cohoe packed on the Nass in 1935. This was an exceptionally
large pack of this variety for the Nass River and is the largest recorded since 1917, when
22,180 cases were put up. The average annual cohoe-pack for this river for the period 1926-35
amounts to 7,319 cases, and compared with this average the pack of 1935 is almost three
times as much. On the other hand, the numbers reaching the spawning-grounds are reported
to be only " fairly satisfactory."
The pack of pinks on this river, amounting to 25,508 cases, cannot be said to be satisfactory.
The cycle-year 1933 produced a pack of 44,306 cases. It should be pointed out, however, that
the 1934-36 cycle has consistently produced larger packs of this variety than the 1933-35
cycle-years. The pack in 1934 amounted to 32,964 cases and this was not a large pack for
that cycle.
The escapement of pinks to the spawning-grounds is reported as " not so satisfactory as
might be desired," and no doubt steps will be taken by the Federal Department of Fisheries
to prevent dangerous depletion of this cycle run.
Chum salmon are seldom packed in any quantities on the Nass River. The pack of this
variety, amounting to 17,481 cases in 1935, is therefore a large one—the largest since 1925,
when 22,504 cases were packed; the pack in recent past years amounting to 2,648 cases in
1934, 1,775 cases in 1933, 14,515 cases in 1932, and 392 cases in 1931. The average annual
pack of this variety over the past ten years for the Nass amounts to 6,423 cases. Reports
from the spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement of chums was adequate.
Rivers Inlet.—The sockeye-salmon pack at Rivers Inlet for 1935, amounting to 135,038
cases, is the largest pack in this inlet since 1925, when the pack amounted to 159,554 cases.
The year 1935 falls in the cycle of previous heavy production years, and while a pack of
upwards of 100,000 cases was anticipated, the pack produced is most gratifying. The 1935
pack was 52,843 cases above the average annual pack for the period 1926-35. In addition to
the large pack on Rivers Inlet, reports from the spawning-grounds at Owikeno Lake indicate
that the escapement was better than for some time past, resulting in the spawning-beds being
unusually well seeded.
Other varieties are not packed extensively on Rivers Inlet. The cohoe-pack, amounting to
8,375 cases, probably deserves special mention as this is the largest pack of this variety put up
in Rivers Inlet in recent past years.
The packs of pinks and chums amounted to 4,554 and 7,136 cases respectively. Reports
from the spawning-grounds indicate that the supply of cohoe was slightly better than usual,
while the escapement of pinks is reported as normal and of chums good. BRITISH COLUMBIA. L 11
Smith Inlet.—The Smith Inlet sockeye-pack in 1935 amounted to 31,648 cases. This is
17,041 cases more than was packed here in 1934 and is 18,781 cases greater than the pack
of 1931, the cycle-year, and is 7,872 cases greater than the average annual pack for the ten-year
period 1926-35. In addition to a most satisfactory pack in this inlet, reports from the
spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement was better than average. The main streams
used by this variety were found to be crowded with spawning salmon.
The pack of springs and cohoes at Smith Inlet is incidental to the canning of sockeye, no
special effort being made to obtain supplies of these varieties. The pack of springs amounted
to 216 cases, while the cohoe-pack was 1,201 cases.
Pink salmon are not canned to any extent at Smith Inlet, the pack of 4,412 cases being
incidental to the sockeye-canning operations.
In 1935 there were packed 12,427 cases of chums in this inlet. Previous to 1934 chums
were not canned to any extent at Smith Inlet, but in 1934 the chum-pack reached 15,548 cases,
which would indicate that some extra effort was being made by the canners to secure supplies
of this variety, while the pack in 1935 would seem to indicate that this effort was again
continued.
Reports from the pink and chum spawning-grounds in Smith Inlet indicate that these
grounds were satisfactorily seeded. While the spring salmon is not fished commercially in this
area, except incidental to sockeye-fishing, the escapement to the spawning-beds is reported
to be fairly light.
Queen Charlotte Islands.—The canning of salmon on these islands is confined to two
species, pinks and chums. Pink salmon appear only every second year, the run corresponding
to the even-numbered years. 1935 was an off-year for this variety, consequently only 1,479
cases were canned, these being caught incidental to other fishing activities.
Cohoe were canned to the extent of 5,461 cases, while the chum-pack amounted to 86,298
cases.    The chum-pack for these islands in 1934 amounted to 38,062 cases.
Vancouver Island.—The total canned salmon production for Vancouver Island in 1935
amounted to 469,427 cases, composed of 22,928 cases of sockeye, 6,525 cases of springs, 21
cases of steelhead, 104,366 cases of cohoe (of which 15,319 cases were blueback), 191,627
cases of pinks, and 143,960 cases of chums.
The total pack of canned salmon credited to Vancouver Island exceeds the total for this
district in 1934 by 97,080 cases. The cohoe-pack in 1935 exceeded that of 1934 by 25,696
cases, while the pink-pack in 1935 was 137,101 cases greater than the pack of this variety
for the preceding year. The pack of chums, however, was less in 1935 than in 1934 by
66,279 cases.
In considering the packs of the various districts and comparing the figures one year
with another, due consideration must be given to the escapement to the spawning-grounds.
In this connection the reader is referred to the Appendices of this report, which contains a
detailed report of conditions obtaining on the various spawning-grounds. This report is
compiled by Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, Federal Department of
Fisheries, from detailed reports by his officers who make a personal inspection of the grounds
each year.
Central Area.—This includes the area between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River and
the waters adjacent thereto, exclusive of Rivers Inlet. Previous to this issue the pack of
this area was placed under the heading of " Outlying Districts." This was found to be
somewhat confusing, and in order to clear up this misunderstanding the heading " Outlying
Districts " has been discontinued and the heading " Central Area " will be used instead. As
no change has been made in the boundaries of this area, any figures given under the new
heading will correspond to similar figures under the old heading without change.
The total production in 1935 in the Central Area amounted to 295,433 cases, which is
56,341 cases less than the year previous. This decrease is due largely to the smaller pack of
pink salmon put up in 1935, the pack of this variety amounting to 94,190 cases, compared
with 157,336 cases in 1934, a decrease of 63,146 cases. The sockeye-pack credited to this
area for 1935, amounting to 32,417 cases, was 11,987 cases greater than in the year previous.
The cohoe-pack in 1935 amounted to 41,831 cases, which is a decrease from the amount of
this variety packed in 1934 of 12,019 cases; while the pack of chums in 1935 shows an increase L 12 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
of 8,644 cases, there being 125,953 eases of chums packed in 1935, compared with 117,309 cases
in 1934.
The reader is again directed to the report of conditions on the spawning-grounds which
appears in the Appendices of this report.
OTHER CANNERIES   (PILCHARD, HERRING, SHELL-FISH).
Pilchards have been canned in limited quantities on the Coast for a number of years and,
while this is an excellent food, the demand is not what it should be. This is especially true
when the price factor is considered. Due to the large quantity of this food available, canned
pilchards can be and are offered to the consuming public at very low prices, but for some
reason the demand is not great.
Production of canned pilchards in 1935 amounted to 27,184 full cases, while in 1934 there
were canned 35,437 cases.
Herring.—Some years ago considerable quantities of herring were canned, but in recent
years the production has fallen to almost nothing. It is therefore encouraging to note that
this wholesome food-fish is again being canned.    In 1935 there were 26,143 cases put up.
Shell-fish.—The shell-fish canneries in the Province are few and not large. The production in 1935 amounted to 10,212 cases of clams, 2,246 cases of oysters, 1,748 cases of crab,
and 1,547 cases of shrimps.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY.
Salmon-canning in British Columbia in 1935 was conducted on a scale similar in extent
to that of recent past years.    There were forty-three  salmon-canneries  operated  in the
Province, compared with forty-nine the year previous.    The operating canneries were distributed in the various districts as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands     1
Nass River _•_     3
Skeena River     9
Central Area    5
Rivers Inlet    6
Smith Inlet     2
Johnstone  Strait     4
Fraser River and Lower Mainland  10
West Coast of Vancouver Island     3
Compared by districts with 1934, there were two canneries less operating in the Queen
Charlotte Islands in 1935. This was no doubt due to there being no pink run in this district
in 1935. In Rivers Inlet there were two canneries less operating in 1935 than the year previous, although in each case the non-operating cannery was used as a net-camp and was a
factor in production, in each case fishing its usual complement of gear. In Smith Inlet only
two canneries operated in 1935, whereas there have been three operating in recent past years.
Here also the non-operating cannery was a factor in production as there were the usual
number of boats fishing for this cannery, the catches being canned at another of the operating
canneries. There was also one less cannery operated on the Fraser River during 1935 than
in the year previous.
The operating season of 1935, considered from the view-point of quantity canned, must
be considered generally as having been satisfactory. The total canned salmon, amounting
to 1,529,022 cases, compares favourably with the total for the previous year, which amounted
to 1,583,866 cases. The sockeye-pack for 1935, however, is 27,400 cases short of the year
previous, and on account of this variety being the most valuable, the difference in value of
the two seasons' total packs places the 1935 pack proportionately of less value than that of
1934. The 1935 fishing season in northern districts opened ten days later than usual, the
opening date being July 1st instead of June 20th as in previous years. On the Skeena and
Nass Rivers early fishing was poor, due in some measure to unfavourable weather, although
on the Skeena it remained poor throughout the season. Previous to the opening date considerable uncertainty existed regarding salmon prices, fishermen's demands and canners'
offerings being considerably out of line with each other. There was also a strike of blueback-
trollers in progress. However, a compromise was reached before the season opened and no
loss through labour trouble was encountered.    In discussing the salmon-canning industry in BRITISH COLUMBIA. L 13
the report for 1934, attention was directed to the overexpanded condition of this branch of
the industry when viewed in conjunction with the fact that there is a definite limit to the
supply of raw fish in any given year. The hope was expressed that as the Federal Department of Fisheries had announced a policy of restricting the amount of gear used under penalty
of longer weekly closed seasons, and as the Provincial Department of Fisheries had adpoted
a policy of discouraging any further expansion by considering application for cannery licences
strictly on the individual merits of each case, the industry would take advantage of this action
and endeavour to eliminate a portion of the unnecessary gear, thereby reducing production
costs to the operators and increasing the individual fisherman's earnings. The necessary
action on the part of the industry did not take place, however, with the result that production
costs are again higher than they should be in view of selling-prices in world markets. The
dissatisfaction of the fishermen with individual earnings is expressed in the constant demand
for higher prices for fish. This dissatisfaction would, no doubt, largely disappear if the
individual's earnings were increased by a reduction in the amount of gear fished. There is a
slight tendency noticeable on the part of the whole industry toward better co-operation not
only amongst the canners, but between the canners and the fishermen. Every effort should
be made to foster and encourage this spirit of co-operation. However, much greater effort
is required if the desired results are to be obtained.
Mention was made in a preceding paragraph of the closing of several canneries in 1935,
particularly in the Rivers and Smith Inlets Districts. In this connection it should be pointed
out that while a consolidation of operations of this -kind may effect some slight saving in
production costs to the company concerned, such consolidation has no effect on the total amount
of gear fished, as these non-operating canners fished the same amount of gear as they would
have done had they been operating. The economic losses incurred by the fishermen and
canners alike, due largely to the excessive amount of gear being fished in recent years, was
particularly stressed in this report for the year 1934. The attention of the industry is again
directed to this condition in order that the canners and fishermen may be encouraged in an
endeavour to eliminate this destructive waste for their mutual benefit.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
The halibut-fishery of the North-east Pacific is regulated by the International Fisheries
Commission, composed of four members, two of whom are appointed by the Canadian Government and two by the United States Government. The Canadian members are Drs. J. P.
Babcock and W. A. Found, while Mr. Frank T. Bell and Mr. E. W. Allen are the United
States appointees. Dr. Babcock is Chairman of the Commission, while the scientific staff
is under the direction of Dr. W. F. Thompson.
In regulating the halibut-fishery the International Commission has divided the coast into
four areas. Area No. 1 roughly coincides with the coasts of California and Oregon and part
of Washington. Area 2 includes all the convention waters from the northern boundary of
Area 1 to Cape Spencer and embraces the coast of British Columbia and South-east Alaska.
Area 3 extends from Cape Spencer to the Aleutian Islands; while Area 4 includes all the
waters not covered in Areas 1, 2, and 3, which includes Behring Sea.
In the course of its scientific investigation the Commission found that different races of
halibut existed in the different localities and that very little, if any, intermingling of the
stocks takes place. The Commission also found that depletion was much more severe in some
areas than in others. Owing to these facts it became necessary to divide the waters to
correspond with different populations and to regulate each area according to the conditions
prevailing in that area.    This has been done and the results have been most successful.
Owing to the fact that the total halibut landings from Areas Nos. 2 and 3 are limited by
the International Commission to 46,000,000 lb. annually and that very little halibut is landed
from Areas Nos. 1 and 4, there is very little opportunity for wide variation in the catch
figures from year to year. The total landings in 1935 from Areas Nos. 2 and 3 amounted to
46,060,000 lb., compared with 47,535,000 lb. in 1934. In previous years very little, if any,
halibut was taken in Area No. 1, but in 1935 1,290,000 lb. were landed, making a total for
Pacific landings of 47,350,000 lb. in 1935.
Of the total Pacific Coast landings, Canadian ports received 17,127,000 lb. This is
1,183,000 lb. less than in 1934.    Northern British Columbia ports again handled by far the greater portion of the Canadian landings, 14,535,000 lb. of the Canadian landings having
passed through Northern British Columbia ports.
The Canadian fleet again increased their catch in 1935, the increase amounting to 488,000
lb. over the Canadian catch in 1934. The total Canadian catch in 1935 amounted to 10,206,000
lb., while in 1934 the Canadian catch was 9,718,000 lb. Expressed in percentage of total
catch, Canadian vessels accounted for 28.4 per cent, in 1935, while in 1934 the Canadian catch
amounted to 20.4 per cent, of the total.
The American catch in 1935 is again less than in the previous year. Their catch in 1934
amounted to 37,817,000 lb., while in 1935 the American fleet caught 35,854,000 lb.
Prices paid to Canadian fishermen in 1935 again reflect an upward trend, as is shown by
the unweighted average prices of all Canadian landings at Prince Rupert. The average price
in 1934 was 5 cents per pound, while in 1935 the average was 5.6 cents. It should be pointed
out in this connection that these averages should be used only for showing the general trend.
Halibut-livers, once thrown away, have now become a valuable source of income to the
fishermen. Since it was discovered that halibut-liver is a valuable source of concentrated
vitamins, the pharmaceutical houses have constantly required more and more halibut-livers
and the price paid has continuously risen in accordance with the increased demand. In 1932
the fishermen received 12 cents per pound for halibut-livers; in 1933 the price was 15 cents;
in 1934 20% cents was paid; while in 1935 the average price received by the fishermen was
40.75 cents. In 1935 the combined Canadian and American halibut fleets landed 891,000 lb.
of halibut-livers, thus increasing the value of the catch by $363,082. Livers from other fish
such as sable-fish and ling-cod were also in demand at the above prices.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
The production of mild-cured salmon in 1935 amounted to 2,775 tierces, compared with a
total of 4,447 tierces packed in the year previous, a decrease of 1,672 tierces.    The 1935 total
was also less than the 1933 by 313 tierces.    Five plants were licensed to operate.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
During the season 1935 the production of dry-salt salmon was regulated by the British
Columbia Salt-fish Marketing Board, which is a scheme set up under the Federal Government's
" Marketing Act." The Board is composed of representatives of the industry under a Chairman appointed by the Deputy Minister of Fisheries, Ottawa. This branch of the industry is
regulated with a view to keeping production in line with market demands. The principal
species entering the dry-salt trade is chum salmon and the entire production is exported to
the Orient, principally Japan. The reader is referred to the annual report of the British
Columbia Salt-fish Board, which is included in the Appendices to this report.
In the season 1935 thirty-one salteries were licensed to dry-salt salmon. Four of these
did not operate; their quota from the Board, however, was salted at other operating plants.
From the returns made to the Provincial Department of Fisheries there were 8,474 tons of
salmon dry-salted in 1935.     In 1934 the production of dry-salt salmon amounted to 4,675 tons.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
The salt-herring industry in recent years has been experiencing an exceedingly difficult
time. The finished product is all exported to the Orient, principally China. Due to the
chaotic conditions obtaining in China, the production of salt herring has fallen from a high
of approximately 50,000 tons per season to a low in 1935 of 15,000 tons. During recent years
and no doubt due to a lessened demand, certain practices detrimental to profitable operations
have crept in, chief of which was the practice of shipping the product on consignment. Heavy
losses were experienced and in 1934 the operators made application to the Federal Government,
under the " Natural Products Marketing Act," for a Board to regulate the marketing of this
product. A Board was set up and commenced regulating in 1934, but not before the season
had already begun. In 1935, however, this product was all marketed under regulations promulgated by the Board. Conditions in China during the operating season of 1935 became so bad,
however, that the quantity permitted had to be drastically curtailed. The total production
amounted to 14,983 tons, compared with 20,666 tons the previous year. In this connection it
must be pointed out that while the amount produced in 1935 is far from being satisfactory, the
operations were carried on at a profit. There were thirty-one plants licensed to operate on dry-salt herring in 1935. Actual
operations, however, were confined to ten plants.
The reader is referred to the report of the British Columbia Salt-fish Marketing Board,
printed in the Appendices of this report, for details of the marketing of this product.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
The production of fish oil and meal has become an important factor in the fisheries activities of the Province. Practically the entire catch of pilchards is reduced to oil and meal.
Whale reduction is also an important source of oil, meal, and fertilizer, while a greater amount
of cannery waste is being utilized each year in the production of these valuable products.
Pilchard Reduction.—The pilchard-fishery is confined to the west coast of Vancouver
Island. The fish usually appear off this coast early in July and generally remain until early
November, when they disappear. Their annual appearance at this time makes this a summer
fishery only. Fishing is not confined to the bays and large inlets, but is pursued far to sea,
the boats sometimes fishing as far as 50 to 75 miles offshore. Fishing is done entirely by
means of purse-seines and, due to the great distances and rough water encountered, the boats
and equipment engaged are of the very best available. The reader is referred to " The
Pilchard-fishery of British Columbia," by Dr. John L. Hart, published in this report for 1932.
Pilchards appeared off the coast of Vancouver Island about July 1st, but fishing did not
commence immediately owing to the fact that a settlement on prices between the fishermen
and operators had not yet been reached. A settlement was reached on July 9th and fishing
commenced. In the early part of the season fish were plentiful in the Barkley Sound District,
and it was not until some time later that catches were made farther to the westward.
Seven plants operated in 1935, while only six operated in 1934. The seven plants produced
8,666 tons of meal and 1,634,592 imperial gallons of oil. Production the year previous
amounted to 7,628 tons of meal and 1,612,526 imperial gallons of oil. Due to the conditions
under which this fishery is conducted, the weather is a very important factor. In this connection it may be said that weather conditions on the west coast during the season were not
conducive to heavy catches.
Whale Reduction.—Activity in the whaling industry in 1935 was somewhat curtailed
in that only one station operated, whereas two stations were in operation the year previous.
A total of 202 whales were killed in 1935, compared with 350 in 1934. The 202 whales produced 211 tons of meal, 354 tons of fertilizer, and 426,722 imperial gallons of oil. Sperm
whales were again taken in greater numbers than the other varieties, 175 of the total being
sperms.
Herring Reduction.—Herring were permitted to be reduced to meal and oil to a limited
extent in 1935. Licences to operate herring-reduction plants on the west coast of Vancouver
Island were issued by the Provincial Department of Fisheries on agreement with the operators
that the total amount was to be limited to a definite quantity. A limit of 12,500 tons was set
for the Barkley Sound area and 12,500 tons for the area west of Wreck Bay. The fish
appeared early and good catches were the rule, with the result that the reduction season was
short, operations having been completed by December 20th to 25th.
Five plants were licensed to operate on the west coast and one at Prince Rupert. These
six plants produced 5,313 tons of meal and 328,639 imperial gallons of oil.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—In addition to plants reducing whales, pilchards, and herring,
fish oil and meal is produced in lesser quantities from other sources such as dogfish and
cannery waste. Six plants operated in 1935, producing 2,226 tons of meal and 260,387 imperial
gallons of oil. The production of meal and oil from these sources in 1934 amounted to 2,916
tons of meal and 371,271 imperial gallons of oil.
CONTRIBUTION TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
The twenty-first annual contribution to the series of papers on the life-history of the
sockeye salmon, issued by the Department and contained in the Appendix of this report, is
again contributed by Drs. W. A. and Lucy S. Clemens. This series presents a most valuable
picture of the sockeye-salmon populations of the four principal producing river systems of
the Province.    The following is a brief digest of the present paper:— L 16 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
In their introduction to present report, Drs. Clemens point out that the run to Rivers
Inlet was the only one of a satisfactory character, taking into consideration both pack and
escapement, although that to the Nass River was probably very good in spite of the low pack.
The authors indicate that there is no reason to believe the run to the Fraser River was
any larger than that of four years ago, and state that no improvement in the situation may
be looked for until there is an adjustment of catch so as to provide for larger escapement.
Examination of the random samples obtained at Sooke showed that the four-year-old fish
predominated as usual, forming approximately 70 per cent, of 1,108 individuals. The five-
year-old fish of the one-year-in-the-lake group were more abundant than usual, constituting
23 per cent., and were remarkable by reason of their large size. The average length of the
males was nearly 1 inch and that of the females nearly % inch above the average of the past
fifteen years. Correspondingly, the average weight of the males was 1.4 lb. and that of the
females 0.6 lb. greater than the average of the past twelve years. The sexes in the total
sample were represented by 48 per cent, males and 52 per cent, females.
At Rivers Inlet the run of 1935, which falls in the premier cycle of this river system,
exceeded expectation with a commercial yield of 135,038 cases, which is the second highest
pack on record. In addition, the Fishery Officer reported a large escapement. The run there
was highly successful. Drs. Clemens point out that this cycle, to which the present year
belongs, was characterized in the early years by runs in which the five-year-old fish greatly
exceeded the four-year-olds. The present run was composed of only 42 per cent, five-year-olds.
However, this percentage is not directly comparable with those of other years, because the
sampling was inadequate both as to extent and as to spacing. Had the sampling been similar
to that of former years, it is doubtful if the five-year-old fish would have been as numerous
as formerly, because the general trend in this river system has been toward a relatively greater
percentage of 4o's presumably brought about by a general change in fishing-gear; that is,
the use of smaller-meshed nets. The size statistics show no unusual features. The sex proportions conform to the general pattern, with an excess of females in the 5o group and the reverse
condition in the 42 class. Both groups show a relatively greater percentage of males than has
been present in recent years. This may be due also to irregular sampling, since 40 per cent,
of the entire sample was taken during five days early in the run, a time during which males
tend to run more numerously than females.
The succession of small runs to the Skeena River in recent years is the cause of grave
concern. The packs have been disappointingly small and there is no indication of increased
escapements of significant proportions. Drastic action is unquestionably demanded if this
once great sockeye-producing stream is to be restored to its former level of productivity.
Drs. Clemens conclude that the run of 1935 was a relatively small one, although the reports
of escapements were stated to be fairly good. Large runs are usually characterized by large
percentages of five-year-old fish (one year in the lake). In 1935 the individuals of this
age-group formed only 31 per cent, of the total sampling of 1,927 fish, but their average
lengths and weights were well above the averages of the past years and approach the highest
values recorded. The four-year-old fish formed 49 per cent, and were considerably below the
averages of the past twenty years in both average length and weight. As a result of these
extremes in length, the difference between the averages in the two age-groups is the greatest
on record; namely, 3.2 inches in the case of the males and 2.3 inches of the females. In the
total sampling the percentages of males and females were 40 and 60 respectively.
In discussing the Nass River conditions, the authors are of the opinion that the run of
1935 was of far greater extent than the pack of 12,712 cases would indicate. They base their
opinion on the Fishery Officer's report that the escapement was similar to the unprecedented
one of 1930. Drs. Clemens point out the desirability of such a relation between catch and
escapement.
The former complex constitution of the Nass runs, where as many as eight age-classes
were once represented, has largely given place to the simple four-group structure of the other
river systems. This has been brought about at least in part by a shortening of the period of
collection of data. As was the case in Rivers Inlet, the 1935 sampling was too irregular to
give an adequate picture of the complete run. Analysis of the available data shows the
age-classes to be distributed as follows:  11 per cent. 42's, 10 per cent. 52's, 73 per cent. 5,,'s, BRITISH COLUMBIA. L 17
and 6 per cent. 6g's.    These percentages are similar to those of 1934 and unlike those of
other recent years, in the 53's being somewhat more abundant and the 42's less numerous.
In 1933 and 1934 the large average size of the fish in the 42, 52, and 63 age-groups has
been a noticeable feature. Such is the case again in 1935, there being two new high levels
for length.
An unusual scarcity of males marked the sex-distribution. The dominant group set a
new low level with 39 per cent., and the total number of males of only 42 per cent, has been
recorded but once previously. These exceptional proportions are thought to be the result of
irregular sampling.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1935-36.
The International Fisheries Commission continued the investigation of the life-history
of the Pacific halibut and the observation and regulation of the fishery, as provided in the
treaty of May, 1930, between Canada and the United States. The investigations proved
that, under regulation, the condition of the stocks on the banks has continued to improve.
The Commission continued to maintain close contact with all branches of the halibut
industry. A public hearing was held at Prince Rupert on December 4th and 5th. Meetings
were held at Seattle on February 19th and 20th with the Conference Board, composed of
representatives of the different sections of the fishing fleet. Informal meetings were held at
different times throughout the year with various committees and individuals. At the hearing
and meetings the results of the Commission's investigations were explained and the problems
of the fleet were presented and discussed.
The 1935 fishing season opened on March 1st, as in the preceding year. The catch-limits
set by the Commission for Areas 2 and 3 were unchanged. The limit placed on Area 1
during 1934 was discontinued—the closing date for the area being made the same as for
Area 2.
Due to improved fishing conditions and in spite of voluntary curtailment of production
by the fishermen and a strike which delayed fishing operations at the beginning of the season
for more than one month, the catch-limit in Area 2, which includes the grounds off Southeastern Alaska and British Columbia, was reached early in September. Areas 1 and 2 were
closed at midnight of September 6th, with catches of approximately 567,000 and 22,028,000
lb. respectively. Areas 3 and 4 were closed at midnight of December 26th, with catches of
approximately 23,732,000 and 906,000 lb. respectively.
The scientific investigations by the staff were pursued where necessary for the purposes
of the treaty. They included the collection and analysis of the statistical and biological data,
whereby the success of regulation can be determined and on which intelligent control must
be based.    The collection of the biological data made necessary the operation of a vessel.
The regulation of the fishery produced a further improvement in the condition of the
halibut stocks. The abundance of fish, as indicated by the catch in pounds per standard unit
of gear fished, increased from 55 to 61.1 lb. in Area 2 and from 85.6 to 88 lb. in Area 3. The
abundance of fish was shown to be 76 per cent, greater in Area 2 and 37 per cent, greater
in Area 3 than it was in 1930, when the abundance of halibut reached its lowest ebb.
Accompanying the changes in abundance, the proportion of medium and large increased
in the landings and that of chickens and baby chickens decreased. These changes in the
composition of the landings were expected on theoretical grounds, as a result of regulation,
and indicate an increase in the abundance of halibut of spawning size.
Market measurements, which are a recognized method of detecting changes in the
composition of the stock, were continued. More than 100 trips were sampled, involving the
examination and measurement of about 80,000 fish. The results obtained showed a small
increase in the average size of fish caught on the southern grounds and in conjunction with
the general increase in abundance proved that the abundance of spawning halibut is increasing.
This should be accompanied by an increase in the production of spawn and in due time should
produce an increase in the numbers of young fish entering the fishery.
The study of age, rate of growth, and age composition of the stocks was also continued.
Data collected prior to the inauguration of regulation were analysed as a basis for the
determination of changes produced by regulation. Current material for the determination
of age composition was collected in conjunction with the taking of market measurements.
2 L 18 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Uncertainty regarding the percentage loss of tags from the halibut marked by the
Commission led to experiments by which the loss might be determined. During a fishing-trip
of the halibut-boat " Hoover " to Goose Island grounds in May, about 600 halibut were marked
with metal tags similar to those used in the past. Fifty per cent, of these fish were also marked
by tattooing. Since to the end of the fishing season the tattoo-marks were still very conspicuous and as no fish bearing tattoo-marks were returned without metal tags, it seems certain
that the metal tags are not lost from the fish in any numbers. This indicates that there is
little error in the use of the results of the Commission's marking experiments to determine the
rate of removal of the fish by the fishery.
Particular attention was devoted to the study of the production of spawn, since conclusive
proof of improved spawning conditions can best be obtained by the actual measurement of
the changes as they occur. The analysis of previously collected material was completed;
three reports bearing directly on the problem were prepared and published and the observation
of spawning in the waters off the coast of British Columbia was continued.
Analysis of the results of the net-hauls made from the beginning of December, 1934, to
the end of February, 1935, in the vicinity of the Queen Charlotte Islands, indicated the presence
of a greater abundance of eggs than during the spawning seasons of the preceding years.
In about five years the improvement should be reflected in the commercial fishery by an
increase in the number of small fish.
The investigation of spawning in British Columbia waters was continued in January
and early February, 1936, when the halibut-schooner " Eagle " was chartered and operated
in the neighbourhood of Cape St. James. Net-hauls were made at a considerable number
of stations to determine the abundance of eggs. Hydrographic sections were taken and
drift-bottles were released to determine the currents that distribute the eggs and larvae.
A preliminary survey of the results of the net-hauls indicated the presence of a considerable
abundance of eggs. More detailed examination will need to be made to determine whether
there was an improvement over the preceding year.
A variety of subjects, all closely related and essential to the study of the production of
spawn, are dealt with in Report No. 9. The known distribution of the halibut throughout
the world is described and the discovery of any extensive new halibut banks is shown to be
extremely unlikely. Detailed descriptions of the halibut-egg and all stages of the embryo
and larva, necessary for their identification in the study of their abundance and distribution
by the ocean currents, are given. The drift of the eggs and larva? off the west coast of North
America is described, and the complete separation of the stocks on the banks off the British
Columbia coast from those in the Gulf of Alaska is proved. The abundance of eggs produced
in the waters off the coast of British Columbia is shown to be about one-thirtieth as great as
in the Gulf of Alaska. The theory underlying the effect of various intensities of fishing
upon the abundance of fish is given further consideration, and it is shown that the effect of
small changes in the intensity of fishing may cause great changes in the production of spawn.
Finally, by analysis of the results of drift-bottle experiments is shown the seasonal variation
in the position of splitting of the so-called Japanese Current which has an important effect
on the distribution of eggs and larva..
An account of the hydrographic work carried on by the Commission's staff during the
spawning season of 1929 is contained in Report No. 10. The currents in the Gulf of Alaska
are calculated. The results are a valuable addition to the knowledge of the currents by which
the eggs and larva, are distributed on that part of the coast.
The results of an investigation into the specific characters suitable for the separation of
the young of a number of species of flatfish occurring in the North Pacific are given in Report
No. 11. Data and keys necessary for the positive identification of the halibut larva, are
presented.
The investigations of the Commission during the past year explained the changes taking
place in the stocks of halibut on the banks. They proved that the condition of the stocks
continued to improve as a result of regulation and gave sound reasons for the belief that the
total yield can be increased by continued regulation. BRITISH COLUMBIA. L 19
SOME FRESH-WATER FISHES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In the Appendices to this report will be found a paper prepared by Professor J. R. Dymond
entitled " Some Fresh-water Fishes of British Columbia." Professor Dymond is the Director
of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology at Toronto. During the summers of 1926 and 1928
Professor Dymond was engaged in a study of the trout and other game fishes of the Province.
Professor Dymond's paper was secured more or less incidental to this other work, but is
nevertheless a valuable contribution to a better knowledge of the species of fish frequenting
our inland waters. Professor Dymond lists some forty-five species, with notes on where they
were taken and, in many cases, notes the measurements in per cent, of body-length, together
with other distinguishing characteristics.
The author points out that " The most significant feature of the distribution of freshwater fishes in British Columbia is the striking contrast between the fauna of the North and
that of the South. The fish fauna of the northern part of the Province has many features
in common with that of the Great Lakes, while many species found in the southern part of
the Province are quite distinct from any elements of the Great Lakes fauna. The author also
explains that this difference between the faunas of Southern and of Northern British Columbia
may be partly ecological, but is probably due more to the geological history of the areas.
A bibliography of the literature cited in Professor Dymond's paper is included.
THE HERRING INVESTIGATION.
In 1929 a scientific investigation into the herring and pilchard fisheries of the Province
was undertaken by the Biological Board jointly supported by the Federal and Provincial
Departments of Fisheries. The Provincial Department was forced by economic pressure to
withdraw its financial support in 1932. Since that time the Federal Department has continued
the investigation. In the Appendices of this report will be found a paper, " Some Results
of the British Columbia Herring Investigation and their Economic Bearing," by Albert L.
Tester, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo. In Dr. Tester's paper he reviews the
more important results and conclusions contained in two previously published scientific papers,
particularly from the economic view. Dr. Tester points out that the runs of herring to the
various localities on the British Columbia coast tend to form local populations and that very
little intermingling takes place. From the evidence so far examined it is concluded that the
runs of herring to the following places are separate and distinct from each other: Point Grey;
Granite Bay; Saltspring Island-Departure Bay-Nanoose Bay; Barkley Sound; Sydney Inlet;
Nootka Sound-Kyuquot Sound; Quatsino Sound; Bella Bella; Skidegate Inlet; Jap Inlet-
Butler Cove; and possibly Pearl Harbour. Dr. Tester points out that while the runs
frequenting these places have been called " local populations," it must be kept in mind,
however, that a slight degree of intermingling may take place between those localities that
are adjacent to each other. It is also shown that the herring of British Columbia are essentially non-migratory. These points are of very great importance in relation to the regulation
of the fishery.
The paper also discloses the length and age composition of the herring in various localities
as a means of indicating the relative abundance of herring from year to year. In conclusion,
Dr. Tester points out that there is an optimum fishing intensity at which a fishery may be
exploited, but as yet investigation has not been pursued to that point where this optimum
intensity can be definitely stated. Further investigations must be made, but until the
necessary information is available it is pointed out that it seems advisable to guard against
intensive fishing similar to that in force between 1925 and 1929. Dr. Tester says: " It seems
reasonably certain that because, of this intensity the fishery has come to depend more and more
on fish in their third year which are due to spawn for the first time. This seems to be
particularly the case in Barkley Sound. Were fishing maintained at this high level of
intensity the ultimate effects are unknown, but it is quite conceivable that both the total
catch and the catch per unit of fishing effort would decrease and, at the same time, the
numbers of incoming young would be progressively reduced. In this event a state of commercial extinction similar to that which has been caused in certain local populations of herring
in South-eastern Alaska would eventually result. Such a possibility should be foreseen and
guarded against until the optimum level of fishing has been determined by scientific research." L 20 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS.
Owing to the discontinuance by the Department of making personal inspection of the
spawning areas of the Fraser, Skeena, Rivers Inlet, and Nass River systems, we are again
indebted to Major Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Dominion Fisheries, who conducted these
investigations, for furnishing us a copy of his report. His courtesy in supplying us with
these reports is gratefully acknowledged.
Major Motherwell's report will be found in the Appendices to this report.
CONDITIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S HERRING-SPAWNING GROUNDS.
The Department is indebted to Major Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Dominion Fisheries,
for a report by his officers on the-conditions of the herring-spawning grounds in the principal
herring-fishing districts. Inspection of spawning-grounds is made by observation during the
time of spawning.    The report is printed in the Appendices of this report. LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON. L 21
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 21.)
By Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
and Lucy S. Clemens, Ph.D.
INTRODUCTION.
During the year 1935 the runs of sockeye salmon to the four main river systems of
British Columbia presented some unusual features. With the exception of that to Rivers
Inlet, the returns were comparatively small.
The pack on the Fraser River was 117,499 cases and, while smaller than its cycle
predecessor, may be considered rather large in respect to the escapement of 1931. As will be
pointed out in a subsequent section, the run was undoubtedly smaller than that of 1931, but
there was evidently a slightly increased escapement.
The run to Rivers Inlet was large, producing the second largest pack on record (135,038
cases) and a large escapement as well.
The expected large run to the Skeena failed to appear. The pack was but 52,879 cases
and only half that anticipated. Moreover, the escapement, while reported as good, was
apparently not such as to indicate that the low pack meant a corresponding increased
escapement.
While the pack on the Nass River was only 12,712 cases, the escapement was reported
as very good. Because of the small number of fish involved it is impossible to arrive at a
conclusion as to whether or not the run was below expectancy. At any rate, it would seem
reasonable to conclude that the run to the Nass River in 1935 did represent a good production
on the part of its brood-year 1930.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating
the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the fish migrates
from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers, one in large type,
which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to the right and
below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water. The age-groups
which are met most commonly in these river systems are:—
3 , 4..—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature at
the ages of three and four years respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and mature at
the age of three.
42j 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four and
five respectively.
5 6„—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five and six
respectively.
6 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six and
seven respectively.
1. THE FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1935.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in the season 1935 amounted to 117,499 cases, of
which 62,822 cases were packed in the Province of British Columbia and 54,677 cases in the
State of Washington (Table I.).    The percentages for the two areas are 53 and 47 respectively. L 22 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
The pack of 117,499 cases is 10,659 cases less than four years ago. The escapement
was apparently somewhat better than in 1931, but unlikely to the extent of the decrease in
pack which would be equivalent to about 127,000 fish. It would seem probable that the run
of 1935 was somewhat less than that of 1931. However, the improved escapement affords a
very slight degree of encouragement. As pointed out in last year's report, the escapement in
1931 was very small and a relatively small return was to be expected in 1935. The cycle to
which 1931 and 1935 belong is now reduced to a condition where it is probably the least
productive of the four and calls for careful husbanding if it is to regain lost ground. A new
factor was introduced into the Fraser River situation in 1935 through the non-operation of
traps in Washington waters. Whether this circumstance had any effect on the relation
of catch to escapement cannot be determined, but it is significant that for the first time in
this cycle since 1903 the American pack is less than the Canadian. A strike among the
American fishermen in the early part of the season undoubtedly also had an effect on the
American catch.
The run of 1936 will be derived largely from the brood-year 1932. In that year the pack
was 146,957 cases (approximately 1,750,000 fish) and the escapement was small in all areas,
except in the Chilko, where 70,000 fish were estimated. Judging from the reports of Fishery
Inspectors and records of hatchery operations, the escapement in all other regions combined
did not equal that of the Chilko. The situation indicates the disproportion between catch and
escapement and the small number of spawning fish now supporting the fishery in this cycle.
Unless hatch of eggs and survival of fish in lake and sea have been exceptional, the run of
1936 will undoubtedly show no improvement over that of 1932.
(2.) Age-groups.
The material for this year's study consists of data and scales from 1,108 sockeye salmon
taken at random from the catch in the traps at Sooke from June 6th to September 11th in
thirty-two samplings. The 42 age-group is represented by 790 individuals or 71.3 per cent,
and the 52's by 254 or 22.9 per cent. The remaining groups are present in small numbers
as follows: 53's, 26 fish; 63, 3 fish; 3-j/s, 4 fish; 41's, 14 fish; and the 32's, 17 fish; together
constituting approximately 6 per cent.
The percentage of 52's in 1935—namely, 22.9 per cent.—is somewhat above that of recent
years and only exceeded by that of 1925. A comparison of the percentages of the various
age-groups since 1920 is given in Table II.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The outstanding feature of the length and weight data is the large size of the fish of the
52 age-group. The average length of the males is nearly 1 inch and that of the females
nearly V2 inch above the average of the past fifteen years. Correspondingly, the average
weight of the males is 1.4 lb. and of the females 0.6 lb. greater than the averages of the past
twelve years.
The average lengths and weights of the other age-groups show no unusual features.
The data are given in Tables III., IV., V., and VI.
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 530 and of females 578, being percentages
of 48 and 52 respectively. The females are thus slightly in the majority, but the departure
from the expected fifty-fifty relationship is slight. In the 42 age-group the females are
slightly in excess with a percentage of 52, while in the 52 age-group the condition is exactly
reversed with a male percentage of 52. In Table VII. are shown the percentages of the sexes
for the past twenty-one years. LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
L 23
Table I.—Fraser River Packs, 1895-1935, arranged in accordance with the
Four-year Cycle.
B.C 	
Wash-
Total..
B.C	
Wash-
Total..
B.C	
Wash-
Total..
B.C.   .
Wash-
Total..
B.C. ......
Wash-
Total..
B.C-
TotaL.
B.C.	
Wash-
Total..
B.C	
Wash-
Total..
B.C	
Wash-
Total..
B.C.	
Wash-
Total..
B.C,	
Wash-
1895—
395,984
65,143
1896—
356,984
72,979
1897-
- 860,459
312,048
1898—
256,101
252,000
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
508,101
1899—
480,485
499,646
1900—
229,800
228,704
1901-
- 928,669
1,105,096
1902—
293,477
339,556
980,131
458,504
2,033,765
633,033
1903—
204,809
167,211
1904—
72,688
123,419
1905-
- 837,489
837,122
1906—
183,007
182,241
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
1907—
59,815
96,974
1908—
74,574
170,951
1909-
- 585,435
1,097,904
1910—
150,432
248,014
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
1911—
58,487
127,761
1912—
123,879
184,680
1913-
- 719,796
1,673,099
1914—
198,183
335,230
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
1915—
91,130
64,584
1916—
32,146
84,637
1917-
- 148,164
411,538
1918—
19,697
50,723
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
1919—
38,854
64,346
1920—
48,399
62,654
1921-
-  39,631
102,967
1922—
51,832
48,566
103,200
111,053
142,598
100,398
1923—
31,655
47,402
1924—
39,743
69,369
1925-
-  35,385
112,023
1926—
85,689
44,673
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
1927—
61,393
97,594
1928—
29,299
61,044
1929-
-  61,569
111,898
1930—
103,692
352,194
158,987
90,343
173,467
455,886
1931—
40,947
87,211
1932—
65,769
81,188
1933-
-  52,465
126,604
1934—
139,238
352,579
128,158
146,957
179,069
491,817
1935—
62,822
54,677
Total..
117,499 L 24
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Table II.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Percentages of the
Year-classes from 1920 to 1935.
Year.
1920..
1921_
1922..
1923..
1924.
1925..
1926..
1927-
1928..
1929..
1930..
1931-
1932.
1933..
1934.
1935-
78.
70
67,
68.
67
66.
84.
71
77.
76.
79
80
83.
84.
71.
21.2
14.6
9.3
10.8
18.7
24.9
20.3
7.5
18.8
11.9
19.6
13.1
13.5
9.2
10.7
22.9
6.2
4.1
4.5
3.9
9.2
3.4
5.2
3.0
5.3
7.8
2.8
1.3
2.8
1.9
2.3
2.3
0.2
0.7
2.0
1.2
0.5
0.2
1.6
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.3
1.9
0.5
6.3
6.7
0.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
2.0
0.1
0.2
2.0
0.8
1.4
0.1
0.4
0.9
2.0
5.6
9.9
2.0
0.0
2.5
2.2
0.7
0.1
0.7
2.0
0.8
0.5
1.2
1.3
J_
0.9
0.4
0.8
0.6
2.1
1.0
2.5
0.5
2.6
1.4
3.4
1.5
1.5
Table III.—Fraser River Sockeyes, 1935, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age,
Sex, and Length, and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length
in
Inches.
4
2
5
2
53
63
3i
41
h
M.
F.
M.
'
M.
F.
M. | F.
M.
F.
1
M. , F.
M. 1 F.
1
3
0
15 %   -
17	
18       - _
2
2
1
1
8
19
24
48
72
72
64
40
14
6
2
1
1
2
6
7
15
17
51
74
95
70
48
20
6
2
1
2
2
3
5
13
14
15
16
24
18
8
8
2
2
1
5
9
8
18
32
26
11
8
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
3
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
4
3
1
1 .
1
2
1
1
3
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
2
18%  	
6
19 ._	
1
19%-  -	
20   	
8
10
20.4	
10
21	
20
21% . ....  	
31
22	
74
22%      	
107
23
154
23%	
165
24        	
136
24%
109
25	
25%	
91
58
i.6
33
26%	
27
27	
27%  	
27
19
28	
28%	
29 	
8
8
2
29% 	
30 	
	
376
414
131
123
9
17
1
2
2
2
1
13
10
7
1,108
Ave. lengths...
23.8
22.9
26.4
24.9
23.6
22.5
25.5
24.0
22.2
22.2
23.0
23.3
18.5
19.4
	 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
L 25
Table IV.-
-Fraser River Sockeyes, 1935, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age, Sex,
and Weight, and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight
in
Pounds.
4
2
5
2
5
3
63
h
4
L
3
2
M.
w.
M.
*■
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
^
M.
F.
0
Eh
1%    -
1
1
2    	
	
	
	
	
	
	
1
	
1
2%     ' ■
2
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
2
1
5
3	
2
3
6
15
	
2
	
	
	
	
5
1
2
3
15
3% _
25
4 _
14
25
27
64
3
4
1
2
	
	
1
	
	
2
1
44
4%	
101
5 	
41
107
2
6
4
1
1
2
	
	
166
5%	
74
76
4
7
5
	
3
170
6 _   	
78
47
71
32
4
5
16
14
3
1
2
1
1
4
2
	
181
6%   	
101
7 _
41
8
12
22
	
	
	
	
83
7% 	
24
7
13
16
	
	
	
	
	
60
8	
17
7
1
12
7
19
10
	
	
	
	
	
49
8%	
25
9	
1
	
17
17
6
2
2
	
	
	
	
	
26
9%-  .
19
10  	
16
	
	
	
16
10%	
9
1
10
11 	
6
	
	
	
	
6
11%	
2
2
12 -
	
	
2
	
	
	
	
2
Totals     ..
376
414
131
123
9
17
1
2
2
2
1
13
10
7
1,108
Ave. weights—
6.0
5.2
8.6
7.1
6.2
5.0
6.0
6.0
5.2
5.5
5.0
5.6
2.7
3.3
	
Table V.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Average Lengths in Inches
of Principal Classes from 1920 to 1935.
Year.
42
5
2
h
6
3
h
4
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1920      	
24.1
23.2
25.7
24.6
24.3
23.2
25.7
23.3
21.8
25.5
24.3
1921.               	
23.7
24.0
23.0
23.0
25.9
25.8
24.6
24.1
23.5
22.7
25.4
24.3
23.0
22.6
25.5
1922	
24.2
1923	
24.3
23.8
23.3
22.8
25.8
24.9
24.8
23.9
24.2
23.7
22.9
22.7
26.3
24.3
24.9
23.3
21.9
22.7
20.4
25.2
25.2
24.1
1924	
24.4
1925     _	
23.5
22.9
25.8
24.6
24.0
22.0
	
22.5
21.7
	
1926 	
22.6
22.3
24.6
24.0
23.2
22.4
25.5
23.7
23.4
22.5
25.4
24.6
1927   _	
24.1
23.1
26.1
24.6
21.7
22.0
25.3
24.6
23.4
22.2
25.1
24.5
1928 	
23.4
23.0
25.5
24.7
24.2
23.4
27.1
26.0
19.1
18.7
19.8
	
1929 	
23.7
22.9
25.5
24.3
24.8
23.7
26.2
24.8
23.0
25.0
24.0
1930	
24.4
23.6
26.2
24.6
24.4
23.5
26.7
26.0
22.5
20.7
24.7
23.2
1931	
23.4
22.8
25.6
24.6
24.3
24.1
	
	
21.5
21.6
25.3
22.5
1932	
23.6
22.8
25.3
24.2
24.6
23.2
	
21.9
21.5
23.0
23.4
1933...	
23.1
22.7
24.9
24.0
24.0
22.9
27.0
	
22.5
22.3
24.3
23.8
1934	
23.9
23.2
24.2
24.1
23.0
23.0
	
	
	
23.5
22.1
23.7
23.0
25.5
24.4
23.8
23.0
26.0
24.9
22.4
|   21.7
|   24.4
I   23.8
1935               .    ..
23.8
22.8
26.4
24.9
23.6
22.5
25.5
24.0
22.2
j   22.2
23.0
23.5 L 26
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Table VI.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Average Weights in Pounds
of Principal Classes from 1922 to 1935.
Year.
42
h
53
63
3i
41
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1922   	
6.4
6.6
5.8
5.2
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.9
5.8
6.1
5.4
6.3
5.7
5.8
5.2
4.9
5.5
5.5
5.3
6.1
5.2
5.4
5.0
5.6
7.0
7.8
7.6
6.2
7.3
7.4
7.2
7.7
7.3
7.3
7.0
6.5
6.1
6.9
6.6
5.7
6.8
6.9
6.3
6.7
6.5
6.7
6.3
6.4
6.1
6.0
6.1
5.4
4.5
6.5
6.7
6.6
6.1
6.6
6.0
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
4.8
4.8
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
5.4
5.2
5.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
6.5
8.6
7.5
7.7
8.8
5.5 j  5.9
6.5    6.2
.... [  5.3
5.2
5.3
4.6
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.0
4.2
4.6
4.4
4.9
7.9
7.3
7.3
7.2
8.0
6.5
6.3
7.3
5.7
6.5
6.6
6.9
1923 _	
1924           	
6.5
1925           	
1926   _	
1927-  	
1928         	
5.7
5.5
8.0
6.5
6.0
6.1
5.9
6.4
5.5
4.5
4.9
5.1
6.6
6.8
6.6
1929 ,	
1930 	
1931      •
6.0
5.8
6.0
1932   _	
5.9
1933
6.1
1934  _.   ..
5.1
Average weights..	
6.0
5.4
7.2
6.5
6.0
5.4
7.6
6.2
5.6
4.9
7.0
6.2
1935 - -	
6.0
5.2
8.6
7.1
6.2
5.0
6.0
6.0
5.2
5.5
5.0
5.6
Table VII.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
J,2, ^2, and 5$ Age-groups, 1915 to 1935.
Year.
42
52
53
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915       	
1916   _	
55
49
50
51
53
50
48
49
51
51
46
52
48
63
46
42
47
44
49
54
45
51
50
49
47
50
52
51
49
49
54
48
. 52
47
54
58
53
56
51
46
57
50
50
56
53
47
42
52
55
50
53
48
58
64
55
55
56
58
50
56
52
43
50
50
44
47
53
68
48
45
50
47
52
42
36
45
45
44
42
50
44
48
53
38
49
57
48
47
43
46
46
47
43
50
41
66
50
44
42
30
47
46
35
47
62
51
43
52
53
67
54
54
53
67
50
59
34
50
56
58
70
53
54
65
54
51
60
52
52
49
47
53
50
51
49
51
48
66
49
45
48
46
51
55
48
46
49
1917           '.'-- . .
1918 ••	
1919 ,-  __    ,: 	
1920       	
1921 —   -  	
1922 _ _. .
1923 -  	
1924 —— - —-  "	
1925    	
1926 — "    	
50
48
48
51
53
47
50
49
51
1927   	
1928    -	
1929 	
1930.   	
1931  	
1932 	
1933  	
1934 	
1935	
52
44
51
55
52
54
49
45
52
™
49
51
53
47
46
54
50
50 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON. L 27
2. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1935.
(1.) General Characteristics.
In 1928 an attempt was made to arrange the data of Rivers Inlet runs in orderly sequence.
A fairly satisfactory correlation between size of pack and relative abundance of four- and five-
year-old fish seemed to exist on the basis of five-year cycles. As the years passed additional
data showed these correlations to be more or less unsound, but they were retained to await the
run of 1935, which would fall in the premier cycle of the river system. It is particularly
regrettable, however, to find the sampling of this year's run inadequate and its analysis necessarily not directly comparable with those of former years. Accordingly, it has seemed advisable
.to drop the correlation tables. The cycle 1915-1920-1925-1930-1935 of the big run was originally characterized by very large runs and a great excess of five-year-old fish. However, in
1930 the four-year-olds and the five-year-olds were present in equal numbers. This year the
run is composed of 42 per cent. 52's and 58 per cent. 4o's. These figures cannot be accepted
on their face value because the sampling was irregular and covered only the middle part of the
run. It is impossible to judge exactly how inaccurate these percentages are, but it does not
seem likely that the error is great enough to presume that the five-year-old fish could have
constituted from 77-95 per cent, of the run as in the earlier years of the cycle.
In passing, it may be well to mention the fact that the correlations have failed to hold in
recent years largely because the five-year-old fish have seemed to decrease in numbers. In the
report of 1934 it was pointed out that some of the so-called characteristics of this river system
were more apparent than real because of incomplete sampling. Likewise some of the trends
were brought about by a change in fishing gear; i.e., by the general adoption of smaller-meshed
nets after the restrictions were removed in 1929. The apparent decrease in five-year-old fish
is probably the result of an increase in the four-year-olds due to the use of smaller-meshed nets.
Both the size of the commercial yield and the report from the spawning-beds signify that
the run of 1935 was exceptionally large. The pack amounted to 135,038 cases, which is the
second largest pack in the history of the river (Table VIII.). To quote from the report of Mr.
Lord, the Dominion Fishery Inspector: "Escapement of sockeye salmon to the spawning-
beds of Owikeno Lake has been very good indeed. Most of the rivers show a really heavy
escapement." He adds that no fear need be entertained for the runs four and five years hence
unless adverse climatic conditions intervene.
The years 1931 and 1932 will be the brood-years for the run of 1936. In both these years
the packs were mediocre, consisting of 76,428 and 69,732 cases. In commenting upon the
escapement in 1931, Mr. Stone said that he believed the return four and five years hence would
equal if not exceed that of the present year. This spawning made a good showing in 1935
and should contribute very materially to next year's run. The escapement in 1932 was
described as " spotty " and the fear was expressed that " a large amount of spawn deposited
will have been destroyed by freshets'." Taking all these things into consideration, it is not
likely that the run and pack of 1936 will reach more than 85,000 cases.
(2.) Age-groups.
The analysis of the run of 1935 is based on size and sex data obtained from 1,210 individuals taken between, and inclusive of, the dates July 4th and 30th. The sampling is
inadequate in two respects. In the first place, the period of collection was confined to twenty-
seven days instead of being spread over approximately five weeks, as has usually been the case.
Secondly, the collections were poorly spaced; ten samples were taken in five lots of two successive days each, the first two lots being separated by a two-day interval and the others by
five-day intervals. Reference to a discussion of seasonal changes which was given in the report
for 1932 will show that this inadequate sampling may affect three phases of this study—namely,
the relative numbers of the two major groups, the proportion of the sexes, and the average
lengths and weights of the age-groups. In this river system there is no consistent sequence
in the relative abundance of the age-groups as the runs progress. Conditions vary from year
to year. Consequently the present figures of 42 per cent, five-year-olds and 58 per cent, four-
year-olds probably do not represent the relative distribution in a complete cross-section of the
run. However, as is always the case, the major part of the run consists of the 42 and 52
age-groups. This is augmented by a scattering of 53's and 63's. The four age-groups are
distributed in the following proportions:  42, 56 per cent.; 52, 41;  53, 2;  and 63, 1. L 28
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
Tables IX. and X. contain the length and weight statistics for the individuals in the various
age-groups and Tables XI. and XII. give the comparative average sizes over a period of years
and the general averages. Scrutiny of the 1935 measurements does not show them to be abnormal in any way and yet it must be kept in mind that they cover only part of the run. The
average weights and lengths of the 42 group are very slightly below the general averages,
while the average lengths of the 52 class are 0.4 inch above for both sexes and the average
weights, male 0.1 and female 0.4 lb., below the general averages.
As has often been the case in the past, the males and females of the 42 group have identical
lengths (22.4 inches) and their weights vary by only 0.2 per cent. Last year's study (p. 28)
showed that this relationship which had been regarded as a characteristic of the group was
due to faulty sampling, the individuals, especially the females, at the lower size level being
small enough to escape capture.
(4.) Distribution of Sexes.
In this river system the 52 females have always outnumbered the males and the 42 males
have never failed to be more numerous than the females (Table XIII.). A general discussion
of sex-distribution was given in the report of 1934 and the following conclusions were reached
in regard to Rivers Inlet: First, the constant excess of 52 females is due to precocious development of the males; and, secondly, because of incomplete sampling of the 42 group, accurate
conclusions cannot be reached, but it is likely that this group also exhibits precocious maturity,
the deficiency of males being at least partly compensated for by the early-maturing 52 males;
and, thirdly, the definite downward trend in the proportions of 42 males since 1929 is traceable
to a change from larger to smaller gill-net mesh.
The 1935 proportions conform to the general pattern of distribution, there being in the
42 group 65 per cent, males and 35 per cent, females, and in the 52 class 36 per cent, males and
64 per cent, females. But in both age-groups the males are more numerous than they have
been for a number of years and the total males exceed the total females, a relationship which
has not existed since 1929. These proportions would seem to contradict the statement that
there has been a definite decrease in 42 males since the finer-meshed gill-nets came into use.
However, it may be that the explanation lies in the limited, irregular sampling. One of the
generalizations made in 1932 in the study on seasonal succession was that the males tend to
run earlier than the females.    The following figures for 1935 certainly bear this out:—
Dates of Collection.
Total Sample.
No. of Males.
Percentage of Males.
July 4 and 5_
July 8 and 9-
July 15 and 16..
July 22 and 23-
July 29 and 30-
242
240
234
246
248
154
141
135
111
94
64
59
58
45
Forty per cent, of the total 1,210 individuals was taken in the early sampling between
July 4th and 9th, a period of six days, which is only one day more than the interval which
elapsed before another collection was made. Such concentrated sampling at a time when the
males were especially numerous has undoubtedly raised the total percentages of the males,
but it is impossible to say how far these percentages vary from those which would have been
obtained had the entire run been sampled at regular intervals. LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
L 29
Table VIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
(87,874 cases)...
(64,652 cases)_.
(89,027 cases)...
(126,921 cases).
(88,763 cases)...
(112,884 cases).
(61,745 cases)...
(89,890 cases)-
(130,350 cases).
(44,936 cases) _
(61,195 cases)...
(53,401 cases)-
(56,258 cases) ...
(121,254 cases)_
(46,300 cases)...
(60,700 cases) ...
(107,174 cases) .
(94,891 cases)...
(159,554 cases).
(65,581 cases)...
(64,461 cases)...
(60,044 cases)._
(70,260 cases)...
(119,170 cases).
(76,428 cases)...
(69,732 cases)...
(83,507 cases)...
(76,923 cases)...
(135,038 cases).
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41 L 30
REPORT OF THE  COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Table IX.—Rivers Inlet Sockeye, Run of 1935, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
M.
F.
M.
M.
18%.
19%.
20—
20%.
21	
21%-
22 —
22%.
23 ....
23%.
24	
24%.
25	
25%.
26	
26%—	
27  	
27%	
28	
28%.—	
29. __
29% 	
Totals	
Ave. length:
1
4
8
21
57
53
68
51
63
48
30
11
8
6
1
428
1
5
9
48
60
51
48
19
255
3
10
16
14
9
18
16
23
27
23
17
10
5
196
6
12
17
35
42
50
46
42
25
20
5
301
25.1
23.8
23.3
26.9
26.0
1
4
9
26
67
103
131
114
134
100
89
68
80
70
69
55
45
23
12
1,210
Table X.-
-Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1935, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
t
2
53
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
as
+j
o
Eh
1
4
48
139
109
65
36
12
9
5
17
116
76
33
12
1
	
1
7
18
22
25
16
29
24
20
18
9
4
2
1
1
2
21
32
54
61
51
33
31
9
6
2
1
2
1
1
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
4
263
4%. "
5 	
5% 	
217
152
126
6% 	
7 	
69
428
255
193
301
7
11
4
8
1,210
4.5
4.3
6.9
6.1
5.4
4.9
7.1
6.9 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
L 31
Table XI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Length in Inches of the hi and 5i
Groups, 1912 to 1935.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912  	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
22.1
22.3
22.6
22.7
21.9
22.4
22.1
22.4
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
22.8
22.2
22.6
22.0
22.4
22.0
22.2
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.6
26.1
25.2
26.0
25.2
25.2
25.5
25.6
24.6
1913 ...  '	
25.2
1914.	
25.2
1915      	
1913     _   	
1917 -  -	
1918	
25.1
25.0
24.4
24.5
1919 _ - .
24.4
1920     	
1921   	
25.0
24.2
1922 _        	
24.2
1923  	
1924    	
1925  	
24.1
24.3
24.8
1923   	
1927 	
24.6
24.2
1928    	
25.2
1929     	
1930     	
25.3
25.2
1931    	
24.8
1932    ,
1933   	
24.6
24.7
1934     ,
25.0
22.5
22.5
25.4
24.7
1935   —	
22.4
_]
22.4
25.8
25.1
Table XII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weight in Pounds of the 1,1 and 52
Groups, 1911, to 1935.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914..
1915..
1916-
1917-
1918..
1919..
1921..
1922-
1923..
1924-
1925..
1923.
1927-
1928..
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933 .
1934-
Average weights..
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.0
4.9
4.5
4.7
4.8
4.9
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.0
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.7
4.6
4.6
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.6
7.5
6.7
6.5
7.3
7.3
7.0
6.8
6.6
6.7
6.2
6.7
5.9
6.0
7.0
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
7.6
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
~6ir
1935-
4.5
4.3 L 32
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Table XIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
1,2 and 52 Age-groups, 1915 to 1935.
Year.
42
5
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915 	
65
35
43
57
45
49
55
1916..  	
51
1917    ._
63
37
39
61
48
52
1918	
79
77
21
23
49
41
51
59
66
58
34
1919  	
42
1920  	
74
26
48
52
49
51
1921 	
63
37
40
60
51
49
1922 	
66
34
38
62
61
39
1923 	
71
29
31
69
62
38
1924 	
74
26
31
69
50
50
1925   	
66
34
34
66
41
59
1923- 	
63
37
32
68
51
49
1927     	
68
32
33
64
62
38
1928    	
63
37
30
70
50
50
1929   	
57
43
36
64
53
47
1930  _     .
56
44
37
63
47
53
1931 	
59
41
33
67
47
53
1932..     _
54
46
28
72
47
53
1933	
56
44
32
68
42
58
1934 	
55
45
27
73
49
51
1935   	
63
37
39
61
53
47
Average- _	
65
35
36
64
51
49
3. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1935.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The pack on the Skeena amounted to 52,879 cases and again was below expectation
(Table XIV.). It would seem that the relatively small run was due to a failure of the fish of
the 52 age-group to return in numbers. The percentage of 52's in the samplings is 31 per cent.
Further indication of the lack of 52's is indicated in the spawning-bed reports, which do not
mention large numbers of large fish but rather large numbers of small fish.
The escapements to both the Babine and Lakelse areas were reported to be good, although
the spawning of very large numbers of pink salmon in portions of the former area and freshets
in the latter may adversely affect the production of young fish.
While the escapement was good, there is no reason to believe that there was an increase
equivalent to the difference between predicted and actual catch. This difference would represent approximately 600,000 fish, and this additional number appearing on the spawning-beds
would have resulted in reports of excellent escapements. The conclusion that the run to the
Skeena in 1935 was a relatively small one seems justified.
The run of 1936 will be the product of the spawnings of 1931 and 1932. In the former year
the pack was 93,023 cases and the escapement was reported as good. In the latter year the
pack was 59,916 cases, with the escapement in the Babine area stated to be only fair and in
the Lakelse area good, but freshets probably to have destroyed large quantities«of eggs. Under
present conditions, it does not seem of value to attempt to predict the size of the run in 1936.
(2.) Age-groups.
Scales and length, weight and sex data were obtained from 1,927 fish from July 3rd to
August 14th in eighteen random samplings. The 42 age-group is represented by 935 individuals or 49 per cent., the 52 group by 605 individuals or 31 per cent., the 53 group by 340
individuals or 18 per cent., and the 63 group by forty-seven individuals or 2 per cent. As stated
previously, the number of fish in the 52 age-group is smaller than expected, in that in 1930
the percentage was 52. It is interesting to note that the number of individuals in the 53
age-group is relatively large, forming 18 per cent.   It is evident that considerable numbers of the young fish of the spawning of 1930 remained an additional year in the lake and thus
reduced the possibility of a large return of 52 individuals. Table XV. shows that large numbers
of 53's have occurred sporadically—namely, in 1916, 1922, 1931, and 1935.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
It will be noted from Tables XVIII. and XIX. that the average lengths and weights of the
fish of the 42 and 53 age-groups are considerably below the averages of the past twenty or more
years, and the observations of the inspectors of the spawning-beds indicating a high percentage
of small fish are confirmed. On the other hand, the average lengths and weights of the 52 and
63 age-groups are well above the average of past years and, in fact, approach the highest values
recorded.
In no year of record has there been so much difference between the average lengths of the
42 and 52 age-groups—namely, 3.2 inches in the case of the males and 2.3 inches of the females.
Similarly, in the case of weights, the difference in the case of males is 2.3 lb. and of the
female 1.6 lb.
The average lengths and weights for the year are as follows:—
42 males, 23.1 inches, 5.1 lb.;  females, 22.9 inches, 4.9 lb.
52 males, 26.3 inches, 7.4 lb.;  females, 25.2 inches, 6.5 lb.
53 males, 23.6 inches, 5.5 lb.; females, 22.8 inches, 4.7 lb.
63 males, 26.2 inches, 7.2 lb.; females, 25.1 inches, 6.4 lb.
(Tables XVI. and XVII.)
(4.) Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 764 and of females 1,163, percentages of 40
and 60 respectively (Table XX.). The females outnumber the males in both the 42 and 52
age-groups, with percentages of 59 and 68 respectively, while the proportions of the sexes in
the 53 and 63 groups are approximately equal. It would seem that considerable numbers of
males matured as grilse, passed through the nets, and so escaped record. This belief is supported by the reports on the spawning-beds, which mention as high as " 20 per cent, runts and
15 per cent, small sockeye " in some areas, and state that these small fish could not be taken by
the 5%-inch nets used on the river. L 34
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Table XIV.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
(108,413 cases)-
(139,846 cases)..
(87,901 eases) —
(187,246 cases)..
(131,066 cases)..
(92,498 cases) —
(52,927 cases)....
(130,166 cases) _.
(116,553 cases) _.
(60,923 eases)....
(65,760 cases)....
(123,322 cases)..
(184,945 cases)-
(90,869 cases) —
(41,018 cases) —
(96,277 cases) —
(131,731 cases)..
(144,747 cases)..
(77,784 cases) —
(82,360 cases) —
(83,996 cases) —
(34,559 cases)....
(78,017 cases)....
(132,372 cases)..
(93,023 cases)....
(59,916 cases)....
(30,506 cases)....
(54,558 cases) *..
(52,879 cases) —
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
13
6
12
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
18
5
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
*The figure of 70,655 cases in the report of last year was incorrect in that the transference of fish from one
river system to another was not recognized.
Table XV.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of the Principal Year-classes
from 1916 to 1935.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years  Five Years
old.        old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1916     ~     -      	
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7.
5
7
18
18
1917 _	
5
1918	
6
1919 —     .	
1920                    _    .    	
4
1921	
1922...     	
1923     	
1924..     	
1925..  	
1926—    	
.  3
2
7
1
1
1927-    ■'..
1928.—	
1
3
1929 _  	
1930 -	
1
2
12
2
1
2
1931 _   ..._	
1932 _ _  	
1933 	
1934 —    . . _
1935    „	 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
L 35
Table XVI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1935, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
M.
M.
M.
M.
18%.
19	
1P%-
20	
20%_
il	
21%-
22—
22%..
23%-
24 —
■24%...
.5 —
-6%-
-6 -
26%..
27	
27%..
28 —
28%..
29	
29%-
Totals-
4
5
33
23
63
25
57
33
58
22
40
9
6
2
1
382
2
16
28
151
70
14
1
2
8
15
28
11
29
18
33
18
18
1
1
18
23
54
38
82
56
79
23
27
4
3
1
1
411
Ave. lengths.-
22.9
26.3
25.2
1
1
1
17
11
42
19
26
16
24
2
3
4
15
31
34
48
18
18
3
4
54
67
212
139
318
167
260
111
195
86
127
48
68
25
22
9
4
1
1,927
23.6
22.8
26.2
25.1
Table XVII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1935, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
5
3
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
0
2% -	
3
14
68
76
54
50
52
47
14
4
1
5
70
170
137
103
56
8
3
1
2
3
9
21
26
25
26
35
17
15
9
4
1
1
17
27
60
78
58
79
53
21
11
4
1
1
1
1
11
21
36
36
29
20
5
4
1
1
6
25
66
49
19
8
1
1
2
5
6
2
4
2
1
1
3
8
6
3
3
1
3    	
5
3% 	
4	
26
176
4% 	
5 _.   	
352
307
-% _.	
281
6 	
254
6%	
171
7	
135
7%	
8                   	
89
64
8% 	
30
9    .                 	
20
9%	
10
10 -
5
10%
1
Totals —	
382
553
194
411
165
175
23
24
1,927
Ave. weights	
5.1
4.9
7.4
6.5
5.5
4.7
7.2
6.4
	 L 36
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Table XVIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1935.
42
h
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23.8
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.8
23.9
23.3
22.9
23.1
23.5
23.4
23.2
23.8
23.5
22.9
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.3
22.8
23.4
23.3
22.8
22.7
22.7
23.1
22.7
22.8
23.2
26.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2
25.5
25.9
25.7
26.2
25.2
25.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.7
25.3
25.5
24.7
25.7
25.2
26.1
26.3
25.2
24.7
25.1
25.0
25.0
24.7
25.0
24.8
25.3
24.2
24.4
24.5
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
24.2
23.8
23.4
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.3
23.8
23.5
22.8
22.8
22.4
23.1
22.8
23.4
24.1
25.6
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
25.6
25.8
25.8
26.0
25.2
25.6
25.5
24.6
25.8
25.4
26.4
26.0
24.4
24.8
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.1
24.2
24.1
24.4
24.8
24.8
25.0
24.9
24.7
24.3
23.2
24.7
24.4
25.3
24.9
1917  	
1921 - 	
1922  	
1  -.*"
24.7
24.8
24.8
24.7
24.7
23.9
24.8
24.4
25.2
25.2
24.1
24.6
24.1
23.5
23.8
23.5
23.8
24.1
24.3
25.2
1928  -	
1929 —- 	
1930  	
1931	
1932   -	
1933— - 	
1934 	
23.7
23.1
25.7     24.8
24.1
23.3     25.6
24.6
23.1
22.9
23.6
|
Table XIX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 19H to 1935.
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914 	
1915 _	
1916 	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.4
5.4
5.4
4.9
5.7
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.5
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.6
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.9
4.7
5.2
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.9
7.0
7.2
6.4
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.7
6.3
6.2
6.3
6.0
6.4
6.2
6.4
5.7
5.7
5.7
6.3
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.8
6.2
6.0
6.3
6.1
6.3
6.6
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.7
6.1
6.3
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.5
5.9
5.4
5.0
5.6
5.6
5.5
6.0
5.7
6.7
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.8
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.0
4.6
4.9
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.8
6.6
7.1
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.3
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.9
6.9
6.0
6.5
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.8
7.1
7.7
6.0
5.9
5.8
6.1
6.3
6.3
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.8
5.4
6.2
1918 	
1921  - -.
1922  	
1925 -	
1929  - 	
1930 	
1931 	
1632  --	
1933  	
1934—  	
5.7
5.8
6.0
5.9
6.3
6.2
5.4
5.0
6.8
6.1
5.7
5.1
6.7
5.1
4.9
7.4
6.5
5.5
4.7
7.2 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
L 37
Table XX.—Sk-eena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
1,2 o,nd 52 Age-groups, 1915 to 1935.
Year.
42
52
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915 _	
1916	
56
70
66
63
53
41
44
52
60
50
57
40
45
48
50
47
43
47
48
42
41
44
30
34
37
47
59
56
48
40
50
43
60
55
52
50
53
57
53
52
58
59
45
43
48
46
46
37
44
41
37
43
42
43
41
45
46
56
39
63
40
33
32
55
57
52
54
54
63
56
59
63
57
58
57
59
55
54
44
61
37
60
67
68
49
55
60
57
49
38
45
50
52
45
50
42
44
46
50
53
44
54
45
39
40
51
45
1917	
40
1918	
1919 	
43
51
1920	
62
1921	
55
1922	
1923	
1924 	
50
48
55
1925. _	
1926   	
1927 	
1928  	
1929 -	
58
56
54
1930	
1931    	
1932	
47
56
1933	
1934	
55
61
1935	
51
49
43
57
48
4. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1935.
(1.) General Characteristics.
Judging from the small pack of 12,712 cases (Table XXL), it would seem that the prediction of " a goodly return in 1935 " had been as futile as many previous predictions. However,
this seems to be a year in which the pack is not an index of the extent of the run. In 1930
Inspector Hickman saw more sockeye in the Meziadin District than he had seen in his twenty-
three years' experience. This year's escapement is reported to be highly satisfactory, that of
the early run being similar to the heavy seeding of 1930, and that of the late run good but not
as extensive as in 1930. From the point of view of conservation, it is fortunate that such
a large proportion of the fish reached the spawning-beds. It is possible that these two very
good escapements of 1930 and 1935 may form the nucleus of a second cycle of big runs.
The brood-year for 1936 is 1931. In that year the pack amounted to 16,929 cases, and,
quoting from Inspector Hickman's report, " the spawning-beds were not well enough seeded
to ensure a good return in five years' time."
(2.) Age-groups.
As has been the case in many runs of recent years, so in this 1935 run the former complexity of age-groups has largely disappeared. This is partly due to the shortening of the
period of sampling. When the collection of data was started in June and carried through at
least the second week in August, there was usually a definite seasonal succession of eight
age-groups. The two sea-type classes which were confined to the early days of the run no
longer appear in the data of years such as 1935, when the first collection is made on July 5th.
The oldest fish, the 64's and 74's, rarely occur now, although their disappearance seems to be
less definitely linked with the length of the sampling period. In this river system there is a
correlation between ultimate age and size, the oldest fish being the largest. For the past three
years the average size of the Nass sockeyes has been extraordinarily large; consequently, if
the 64's and 74's have increased in a similar manner, it is possible that they are large enough
to entirely escape the nets. L 38 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
The analysis of the run of 1935 is based on 1,477 individuals collected in twelve samples
between July 5th and August 15th. There is little uniformity in the size of the samples and
in the interval between collections; 42 per cent, of the total number of individuals was taken
in four samples between August 10th and 15th. Consequently, the analysis of data will not
furnish a picture of a complete cross-section of the run. Except for a single 43 male, the
1,477 fish are divided among the four age-groups which are common to all the river system.
They are distributed as follows: 11 per cent. 42's, 10 per cent. 53's, 73 per cent. 53's, and 6 per
cent. 63's. Both last year and again this year the major group, the 53's, has been relatively
more abundant than in recent years and the 4a's less numerous.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
Tables XXII. and XXIII. present, with one exception, the length and weight frequencies
for the entire 1935 sampling. The yearly averages and the general averages are recorded
in Tables XXIV. and XXV. For the last two years attention has been directed to the unusually
large size of the Nass sockeyes. In 1934 two of the eight average length measurements and
seven of the eight average weight measurements were new high levels. This year the fish
are again large. Among the lengths there are two new records, the 52 males averaging 27.3
inches, a measurement which exceeds the general average by 1.2 inches, and the 63 males
averaging 28.9 inches, a length which betters the general average by 1.4 inches. All the other
average lengths, except that of the 53 females, surpass the general averages by amounts
varying from 0.3 to 1.4 inches. The average weight frequencies are much closer to those of
the general averages, some of them being slightly above and others a little below. As last
year, since the measurements both for length and weight of the dominant group approximate
the general averages, one is inclined to accept the other measurements on their face value
and conclude that for some unknown reason the average size of the individuals in the other
groups (the 42, 52, and 6g) has increased considerably. In addition to the fish listed in the
tables, the sampling included a single 43 male, measuring 23 V± inches and weighing 5 lb.
(4.) Proportion of Sexes.
A glance at Table XXVI., which records the yearly percentages of males arid females of
the principal age-groups, reveals that deficiency of males is the outstanding feature of the
Nass sex proportions. The general averages show both that the total number of males is
less than the total number of females and also that the males are outnumbered by the females
in the 42, 52, and 53 year-classes, while the reverse relationship obtains in the 63 age-group.
Closer scrutiny of the table shows that deficiency of males has been most marked in the
dominant age-group, the 53's, and in addition, as a natural consequence, in the yearly totals.
This constant inequality is believed to be due to early maturity of males. Although only two
such individuals—i.e., 43's—have been recorded in the Nass analyses, it is conjectured that
they are present in considerable numbers but escape capture because of their small size. In
Alaska, where traps, instead of gill-nets, are used for fishing, large numbers of these grilse
are taken every year. Thus incomplete gill-net sampling may account for the lack of equality
in the yearly total number of males and females. Although deficiency of males is less constant
in the 42 and 52 age-groups, here also there appears to be indications of precocious maturity.
The sex ratios of the 63 class are of very little significance, because the tabulation of this
group on dates year after year indicates its period of occurrence to extend beyond the period
of sampling.
The deficiency of males in 1935 is unusually great. A proportion of total males as small
as 42 per cent, has been recorded only once before in the history of the river. Also 39
per cent, males in the 53 group is a new low figure. These exceptional ratios are believed
to be the result of the irregular sampling of the run. A comparison of the sex-distribution
of 370 sockeyes, taken in the first two samples on July 5th and 8th, with those of 376
individuals collected on the last two days, August 13th and 15th, show the males to have
constituted 49 and 33 per cent, respectively of the samples. This shortage of males at the
end of the collecting period would be reflected unproportionately on the total distributions,
because 42 per cent, of the entire sampling was collected between August 10th and August 15th. (5.) The Meziadin and Bowser Sockeye Colonies.
The greatest amount of Bowser colony material ever obtained came to hand in 1935
after a decision had been made last year to discontinue the comparison of Meziadin and
Bowser populations because of scarcity of Bowser material. Instead of discontinuing the
series it will be used, at least temporarily, with a redefinition of the colonies adapted to fit
the actual facts of the case.
As was stated in 1934, the Fishery Inspectors' reports have indicated for many years
that there are two runs to the Meziadin watershed, an early and a late one. The data
which are obtained for this study concern only the fish in the late run. Consequently, the
term Meziadin is now used not in a general sense but in a restricted way referring to the
late run. Also since Bowser Lake was the only other known lake of importance in the Nass
watershed to which sockeyes were known to have access, it was assumed in the past that the
fish netted in the Nass above its junction with the Meziadin were bound for this lake and
the colony was called Bowser Lake colony. Until there is more actual information concerning
the destination of these fish, Bowser is used as a general term for the Upper Nass.
The data concerning these two populations are gathered each September by the Fishery
Officer on his annual visit to the Meziadin watershed. The samples of the Meziadin run are
taken in the Meziadin River below the lower falls and the Upper Nass fish are intercepted
by a gill-net strung across the river about a mile above the point of entrance of the Meziadin
River. Since these up-stream fish have never been seen or taken in great numbers, one must
conclude either that they are the last arrivals of a late run or that the Upper Nass does not
support a late run of any magnitude. This year when the water was low and fairly clear
Fishery Officer Warne reported a steady " dribble" of sockeye and he caught fifty-one
individuals.
Although the data concerning these two populations have been very meagre at times,
two well-marked differences between the colonies have held, namely: (1) The average size
of the Meziadin fish is considerably greater than that of the fish proceeding at the same time
to the upper reaches of the Nass River, and (2) the former population is characterized by a
longer fresh-water period than is the majority of the latter population. Since the margins
of the scales are badly absorbed, no comparisons can be made of the length of life in the
ocean or of ultimate ages.
The material used as the basis for the 1935 comparison of these two populations is seventy
Meziadin individuals and fifty-one Upper Nass fish. Their length frequencies are enumerated
in Table XXVII. and their average lengths, together with those for the last eleven years,
are recorded in Table XXVIII. The size distinction is well marked, the Meziadin males averaging 27.5 inches and the females 25.6 inches, against 24.5 and 24.3 inches respectively for the
Upper Nass males and females. The difference in lake residence is also noticeable. Ninety-
nine per cent, of the Meziadin and only 65 per cent, of the Upper Nass fish spent their first
two years in fresh water (Table XXIX.). L 40
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Table XXI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
from 1912 to 1935.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals that spent
One Year
in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
8
27
63
2
15
4
12
41
71
45
2
10
19
14
59
8
9
17
66
8
10
15
71
4
30
7
16
22
45
65
9
6
8
14
72
6
10
7
75
8
6
2
91
1
11
6
77
6
4
3
91
2
23
8
67
2
12
12
63
13
8
7
81
4
30
6
61
3
25
9
60
6
28
15
54
3
10
17
67
6
28
4
61
7
35
7
55
3
13
9
74
4
11
10
73
6
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
(36,037 cases)..
(23,574 cases)-
(31,327 cases) .
(39,349 cases) ..
(31,411 cases)-
(22,188 cases)-
(21,816 cases)..
(28,259 cases).
(16,740 cases)..
(9,364 cases) —
(31,277 cases)-
(17,821 cases)-
(33,590 cases)-
(18,945 cases)..
(15,929 cases) ..
(12,026 cases).
(5,540 cases) —
(16,077 cases).
(26,405 cases) _
(16,929 cases).
(14,154 cases).
(9,757 cases) —
(36,242 cases)*
(12,712 cases)-
* The figure of 28,701 cases in the report of last year was incorrect in that the transference of fish from one river
system to another was not recognized.
Table XXII.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1935, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length, and
by their Early History.
22	
22%.
23	
24%..
25	
Length in Inches.
Totals-
Number of Individuals.
25%.
26	
26%-
27—
27%.
28	
28%.
29	
29%.
30—
30%..
Ave. lenghts-
2
1
2
6
9
7
10
12
7
7
1
F.
M.
64
2
7
11
19
19
20
14
4
1
2
24.9
24.0
2
4
3
6
14
10
9
7
2
1
58
27.3
1
6
5
14
19
25.9
M.
1
1
6
4
21
29
37
58
67
91
49
45
11
5
425
F.
1
1
7
17
43
54
92
121
136
89
62
15
10
3
652
25.6
M.
12
17
11
4
65
28.9
F.
27
5
10
21
49
81
110
162
199
215
188
177
89
74
40
28
12
11
5
1,476 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
L 41
Table XXIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1935, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight, and
by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
3%..
4 —
4%~
5...
5%_
6 —.
6%-
7.	
7%..
8—
10%.
Totals..
Ave. weights..
1
2
3
5
7
20
13
5
6
2
64
6.1
5
14
35
26
13
4
1
1
99
5.2
1
5
11
10
16
9
4
2
58
7.8
25
20
17
6.2
1
1
8
23
50
65
121
85
48
19
4
425
7.0
1
11
44
132
195
156
77
29
7
652
6
22
5
17
65
8.4
27
7.4
29
96
197
309
267
240
146
100
39
31
8
3
1
1,476
Table XXIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Classes from 1912 to 1935.
Year.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 	
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
- 24.4
24.9
• 24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.5
24.9
24.6
24.9
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.5
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
23.8
23.9
23.7
24.1
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
23.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.1
25.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
26.5
26.4
27.1
26.9
25.1
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.4
25.7
25.2
25.8
25.9
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
26.1
26.6
25.9
26.3
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
25.3
25.6
25.2
25.4
27.0
26.0
26.9
23.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2
27.9
28.2
28.3
28.4
28.6
25.6
1913  _	
26.6
1914  _	
25.6
1915 ■
25.3 ...
1916	
25.7
1917   	
25.5
1918- _ 	
1919	
1920 - -	
25.2
26.7
25.9
1921- 	
1922  	
1923   	
26.2
25.9
26.5
1924-   - -	
1925 	
1926	
1927   	
25.4
25.4
27.0
26.5
1928  -	
26.2
1929	
1930  -	
1931   	
26.2
26.8
27.1
1932	
1933        	
27.1
27.9
1934	
27.1
24.4
23.7
26.1
25.1
26.1
25.3
27.5
26.2
1935      	
24.9
24.0
27.3
25.9
26.5
25.2
28.9
27.6
- L 42
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Table XXV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Classes from 1911, to 1935.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914 	
6.2
5.0
7.4
6.5
7.2
6.5
7.9
6.8
1915   	
5.6
5.2
6.9
6.4
7.0
6.6
7.2
6.5
1916 -
6.0
5.3
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.2
8.1
6.4
1917 	
5.3
6.3
5.3
5.8
6.8
7.2
6.2
6.3
6.3
7.2
5.8
6.4
7.3
8.3
6.4
1918  	
6.7
1919 -	
6.0
5.6
5.5
5.2
6.6
7.4
5.9
6.3
6.7
7.4
6.1
6.7
7.8
7.9
6.7
1920  -  	
7.0
1921.  	
6.0
5.4
6.9
6.1
6.9
6.3
' 7.7
6.6
1922 	
5.9
5.4
6.8
6.2
6.8
6.3
8.1
6.6
1923  —
5.8
5.2
6.7
6.1
6.6
6.0
7.2
6.8
1924  -	
5.9
5.4
7.2
6.1
6.8
6.1
8.0
6.5
1925  	
5.9
5.4
6.8
6.1
6.7
6.0
7.4
6.3
1926  —	
6.0
5.4
6.9
6.2
6.7
6.0
7.8
7.1
1927- _ - 	
6.2
5.6
5.8
5.0
7.1
7.0
6.3
6.2
6.9
6.2
6.2
5.5
7.8
8.1
7.0
1928  	
6.6
1929  -   -
5.7
5.2
7.1
6.6
6.7
5.9
7.6
6.8
1930 _   	
5.9
5.2
7.3
6.5
7.1
6.1
8.2
7.2
1931  , 	
6.0
5.5
7.4
6.8
6.8
6.2
8.3
7.4
1932       	
6.3
6.2
6.7
5.6
5.4
5.9
7.5
8.1
8.4
6.6
7.0
7.3
7.3
7.0
7.6
6.3
6.2
6.7
8.7
8.4
9.4
7.5
1933  -   -  _ 	
7.9
1934  ~	
8.1
6.0
6.1
5.4
7.2
6.4
6.9
6.2
8.0
6.9
1935- _ -	
5.2
7.8
6.5
7.0
6.1
8.4
7.4
Table XXVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
42, 52, 5s, and 63 Age-groups, 1915 to 1935.
42
52
h
63
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.   F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915  	
55
61
55
52
53
46
40
36
43
55
58
43
39
50
48
49
49
49
49
48
39
45
39
45
48
47
54
60
64
57
45
42
57
61
50
52
51
51
61
61
52
61
49
61
47
40
48
39
45
32
43
44
52
44
54
48
51
43
53
46
66
51
40
51
39
53
60
52
61
55
68
57
56
48
56
46
52
49
57
47
54
44
49
60
52
50
46
50
46
40
47
46
47
47
45
44
45
42
44
40
43
45
47
50
39
48
50
54
50
54
60
53
54
53
53
55
56
55
58
56
60
57
55
63
50
61
53
68
58
70
54
66
54
64
60
67
68
57
61
62
58
63
70
72
76
58
71
47
32
42
30
46
34
46
36
40
33
32
43
39
38
42
37
30
28
24
42
29
~37~
52
55
47
51
48
42
46
44
46
48
49
46
46
46
46
43
47
48
49
50
42
48
1916... -	
1917. _.   — -
1918-_ -. ...	
1919    	
1920  .  _	
1921      	
1922-  	
1923	
1924 	
45
53
49
52
58
54
56
54
52
1925-     _ .
1926 .	
1927  	
1928  ;. _.. .
1929 — _  	
1931 - _ _.  __
51
54
54
54
54
57
53
1932   -
1933   	
1934 _  _	
1935.	
52
51
50
58
Average	
48
52
53
45
55
63
47
53 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
L 43
Table XXVII.—Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeyes, Lengths of Individuals
comprising Runs in 1935.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals from
Meziadin Lake.
Bowser Lake.
M.
F.
M.
F.
22-.-                         .     -     -
1
1
1
4
2
5
5
9
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
12
10
4
2
1
1
2
3
2
1
1
1
1
22%	
23 •
2
11
23% 	
24                                   "
3
5
24V,- .
25     ...
25% 	
26  _	
26%. :    	
4
5
5
2
27  	
27%  	
28      „ 	
1
28%-
29
29%—
30	
Totals.    .   — 	
.-
34                          36
12
39
27.4               1           25.fi
24.5
24.3
Table XXVIII.—Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches
for the Years 1921,-1935.
Meziadin Lake.
Bowser Lake.
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1924 _ _	
26.8
28.1
27.1
27.0
27.2
27.9
27.7
25.9
27.9
27.5
25.7
26.3
25.8
25.3
25.7
26.3
25.5
25.3
26.1
25.6
25.5
23.8
25.9
24.7
24.9
24.3
24.5
23.6
1925  	
1926  -—   -	
1927	
23.3
24.8
23.7
1928 -	
1929 _ 	
1930   - - -	
22.9
1931               _	
1932 	
1984	
1935       -	
24.7
25.7
24.3 Table XXIX.—Percentages of Meziadin and Bowser Lake Runs, showing Different
Number of Years in Fresh Water.
Years in Lake.
No. of
One Year.
Two Years.
Three Years.
Specimens.
Meziadin, 1922 	
13
80
84
20
3
10
Meziadin, 1923- -   - 	
63
Meziadin, 1924	
76
24
160
Meziadin, 1926 -	
2
93
5
43
Meziadin, 1927	
6
94
85
Meziadin, 1929 	
10
89
1
74
Meziadin, 1930  - - ...
6
94
113
Meziadin, 1931  —
100
51
Meziadin, 1932..-	
16
80
4
104
Meziadin, 1933	
20
80
59
Meziadin, 1934 - 	
12
88
67
Meziadin, 1935 -  •	
1
99
70
Bowser, 1922- 	
40
60
15
Bowser, 1923  	
33
64
3
41
Bowser, 1924- - -   -
18
79
3
34
Bowser, 1925	
16
80
4
45
Bowser, 1926      - 	
27
55
18
11
Bowser, 1927-     	
22
78
	
9
Bowser, 1928 (no collection)   .
	
__
Bowser, 1930	
44
56
34
Bowser, 1931 (no collection  	
20
80
Bowser, 1933	
5
Bowser, 1934- -	
33
67
3
Bowser, 1935  _ _	
35
65
_ CONDITION OF SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS, 1935.
QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.
The sockeye runs to the Queen Charlotte Islands are not materially important, but the
supplies on the spawning-grounds of the Ian, Awan, and Yakoun Rivers and the river at
Copper Bay were much the same as usual.
In the case of springs and cohoes, the escapement was an average one, but as this has
been an " off " year for the pink variety, only a few were observed, apart from the Tlell River,
where a medium escapement was experienced.
In the case of the chums, there was a fair escapement to the streams in Naden Harbour
and to the Ian and Awan Rivers in Masset Inlet. The streams on the west coast of Graham
Island were only lightly seeded.
The streams on the east coast of the Queen Charlottes from Skidegate south were well
seeded with chums, notwithstanding the fact that over 1,000,000 fish of this variety were taken
commercially. The conservation measures of recent years in the northern area appear to be
bringing the desired results.
NASS AREA.
Inspection of the sockeye-spawning grounds was again made by Mr. Frank Warne, who
reached the head of Meziadin Lake on September 8th. During the next few days the beaches
on both shores at the head of the lake, down as far as 5-Mile Point, were found to be well
covered with spawning sockeye. On the remainder of the spawning-grounds in this section
the run was fairly light. There was evidence, however, of a good number of sockeye in the
lake, spawning off the beaches, and a considerable number of dead sockeye were found on the
beaches and in the lake. At the fishway at the foot of the lake, on September 12th, a good run
of sockeye was in progress. Fresh supplies were observed coming in in good numbers at the
lower falls each day up to September 22nd, and a fresh run was also observed on the morning
of the 25th. As in the case of the early run mentioned above, the fish were mostly of large
size, no runts being observed.
In summing up, the inspecting officer states that the early run was heavy, similar to the
seeding of 1930, and much better than the seeding reported in 1931. The late run was good but
not as heavy as the run reported in 1930.    It was, however, much heavier than the run of 1931.
The spring-salmon supply found in Meziadin District is reported as heavy and far better
than that of the previous year.
The fishway at the outlet of the lake was found to be in good condition.
An examination by the local Inspector of the lower reaches of the Nass area shows a good
run of sockeye to the Tseax and Gingit Rivers, compared with other seasons.
The escapement of pinks was not so satisfactory as might be desired, and undoubtedly
some further action will be required to see that this run is taken care of.
The supply of cohoe found on the spawning-grounds was only fairly satisfactory, while
the chum seeding was quite adequate.
SKEENA RIVER.
Notwithstanding the poor sockeye-pack in this area, the escapement was found to be fairly
heavy and nearly as good as the large run of 1930, and much better than that of 1931. This
applies to practically the whole watershed and no doubt was partly, at any rate, the result
of deferring the opening date of sockeye-fishing from June 20th to July 1st.
In the Babine Lake area the showing was very satisfactory; for instance, at 15-Mile
Creek there was an extra heavy run. This also applies to Pierre Creek and, in a lesser degree,
to Fulton River.
In the Upper Babine River there was a large supply of big sockeye and this area received
a heavy seeding. This condition also obtained largely in the lower part of the Babine River
and the seeding was undoubtedly good.
In the Lakelse District there was an excellent supply found and, in addition to the hatchery
being filled, a large natural seeding occurred. Unfortunately, however, freshets practically
destroyed all the eggs naturally deposited, and had not hatchery operations at this point permitted of the seeding of the streams after the freshets, the run, as far as the seeding is
concerned, would have been an entire loss. In the Morice Lake District spawning conditions were found very favourable. On the
Nanika River more sockeye were observed than the inspecting officer had previously
encountered.
The supply of spring salmon was found to be unusually light and steps are being taken,
by means of lowering the boundary on the Skeena River, to take care of this variety.
The cohoe-supply was found to be reasonably satisfactory and compared favourably with
other good years.
There was a heavy escapement of pinks to the spawning-grounds and a good supply should
result in the year 1937.
The spawning of chums was found to be normal, although the Skeena is not a large
producer of this variety.
LOWE INLET.
The escapement of sockeye was reasonably satisfactory and similar to that of the brood-
year of 1931.    This is not a spring-salmon area, but the escapement of cohoes was fair.
There was a general improvement in the supply of pinks over the brood-year of 1933.
This area is not a big factor in the production of chums, but the escapement to the spawning-
grounds was normal.
BUTEDALE AREA.
This is not a good sockeye district, but the escapement was normal. The run of springs
is usually light, but the supply found this year was even smaller than usual.
In the case of cohoes the escapement was only fair. The pink escapement was not satisfactory as far as the small streams were concerned, due to the lack of water, but the larger
streams fared better.
The supply of chums was found to be satisfactory.
BELLA BELLA AREA.
The sockeye in this district are of the creek variety. The escapement was heavy, notwithstanding small commercial catches.
This is not a spring area.    The escapement of cohoes, however, was quite satisfactory.
The supply of pinks was excellent and the escapement to the spawning-beds is reported
much heavier than during the brood-year of 1933.
This result was no doubt due to the special conservation measures taken this year by the
Department.
Although the run of chums to the area was good, the escapement was not as satisfactory
as could be desired.
BELLA COOLA AREA.
The escapement of sockeye shows an increase over that of the brood-year of 1931 and
may be considered as good. This no doubt is partly due to the deferring of the opening date
of fishing to July 1st, which permitted a larger early escapement, and also resulted in a greater
portion of the run which passed through Fitzhugh Sound and Fisher Channel reaching the
Bella Coola District.
The usual small run of springs was present and was not fished in this area. The cohoe
escapement was quite heavy and the quantity of pinks found on the spawning-grounds was
excellent.
The chum-supply found on the spawning-grounds is reported as heavy and better than
that of the last five or six years.
RIVERS INLET AREA.
The sockeye-supply was found to be greater this year than for some time past. Notwithstanding an unusually large commercial catch, the spawning-grounds were unusually well
supplied.    The escapement to Rivers Inlet area generally can be considered as unusually large.
There is not a large run of pink salmon to the area, but the supply on the spawning-
grounds was found to be a little less than normal.
The cohoe-supply, although never heavy, was only slightly better than usual. This is not
an important pink area and the supply of this variety was normal. The chum escapement to
such areas as Drainey Inlet and Moses Inlet was good. CONDITION OF SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS. L 47
SMITH INLET AREA.
There was a good escapement of sockeye to the spawning-grounds and the main streams
used by this variety were found to be crowded with spawning salmon. There appears to be
no doubt as to the present regulations being adequate for the purpose of taking care of this
valuable run.
The spring-supply is not fished commercially in the district, but the escapement was found
to be fairly light. The variety is not that most desired, being the large, coarse, white species.
The pink run which proceeds to the Nekite River, situated at the head of the inlet, showed a
fairly heavy escapement to the spawning-grounds. The supply at this point seems to be
increasing.    The chum-supply was found to be quite satisfactory.
FRASER RIVER WATERSHED.
It was not expected there would be any material quantity of sockeye salmon reaching the
upper reaches of the Fraser River watershed during the year under review, in view of the
fact that the brood-year showed very few fish. The inspection this season confirmed these
expectations.
In the Chilko Lake area the sockeye-supply was equal to that of the brood-year of 1931
and is quite satisfactory.
It is to the Shuswap system that the late run of sockeye proceeds. This year it was feared
at one time that this late run had not arrived as it did not make the sudden rush for the river
which had been usual during the last three cycle-years. Undoubtedly the run did arrive,
however, but passed up the Fraser gradually and largely during the special week's closure.
They were found on the spawning-grounds in considerable numbers, although possibly not
equalling those of the brood-year of 1931, yet very nearly so. The particular streams used by
this run are the Adams and Little Rivers. Only an odd sockeye was observed in Eagle River,
at the head of the Shuswap system, and none in Scotch Creek, Granite Creek, or the streams at
the head of Seymour and Anistee Arms of Shuswap Lake.
The Cultus Lake run was about what was expected and can be considered as reasonably
satisfactory.
The supply of sockeye reaching the Birkenhead system was the best for a number of years
and was most gratifying. These conditions also obtained in the Pitt River system, where the
run was the largest in the experience of the hatchery staff.
Spring-salmon spawning compared very favourably with that of recent years. Increased
numbers were found in the Thompson and Quesnel Rivers. The cohoe-supply, as well as that
of chums, was quite satisfactory and compared favourably with that of recent cycles.
This was a big pink-year on the Lower Mainland streams and the run was no disappointment. In the tributaries usually frequented by this variety there were found ample supplies
for a good seeding. In the streams at the head of Burrard Inlet and Howe Sound unusually
large quantities were found.
Extra closed season resulted in an excellent escapement of chums to the Fraser system
generally and the seeding of the spawning-beds with this variety was satisfactory.
ALERT BAY AREA.
The run of sockeye to the Nimpkish River was the heaviest since 1927 and the escapement
better than for a considerable number of years. The improvement over the brood-year of 1931
was quite marked and the spawning this year was unusually good.
In McKenzie Sound there was an increase over the brood-year and the seeding was quite
satisfactory.
At Keough River, Knight Inlet, an improvement was shown over the brood-year and the
Port Neville seeding was normal.    *
The runs of the creek variety to the Shushartie and Nahwitti Rivers were a decided
improvement over those of 1931.    These runs, however, are very rarely fished.
The supply of springs was satisfactory, the cohoe-supply better than normal, and the pink
seeding exceeded that of 1933 by approximately 25 per cent.
QUATHIASKI AREA.
At Hayden Bay Creek the run appears to be improving as the supply of sockeye this year
was found to be unusually large compared with those of the last five years.    The seeding of the spawning-grounds at the head of Phillips Arm was also more satisfactory than in the
brood-year.
The spring-supply at Campbell River was not so good as in the year previous, but was
about normal. An improvement was observed at Salmon River, but at Phillips River the
supply was about average and to the rivers at the head of Bute Inlet heavier than usual.
All streams were well seeded with cohoes, with the exception of Campbell River, where
at the time of inspection the quantities were not found up to normal, although the run was still
continuing.
This being an " off " year for pinks in the district, few were expected, but the spawning
was average for an " off " year.   All streams were well supplied with chums.
COMOX AREA.
This area is not a sockeye area, but springs were observed in greater numbers than in
most recent years.    The supply of cohoes and pinks was quite satisfactory.
In the case of chums the numbers found were smaller than in the year previous, with the
exception of Puntledge River, where the number observed was greater than for many years
past. These conditions also applied to the Oyster River. The chum seeding generally was
quite satisfactory.
PENDER HARBOUR.
Saginaw Creek contains the only run of sockeye in this area and the seeding of this
variety was better than that of the brood-year.
In the case of cohoes the supply was the best observed in the last eight years at Toba
Inlet and the seeding of the Toba and Brem Rivers was quite adequate. Throughout the rest
of the district conditions were reasonably good.
The pink-supply was unusually good and the number found on the spawning-grounds was
the best for many years. This applied particularly to Jervis Inlet, where the large portion
of the run occurs, and at Mission Creek, near Sechelt.
NANAIMO AREA.
The cohoe-supply in all streams between Arbutus Point and Nanaimo showed an increase
of approximately 25 per cent, over that of the previous year, and there would appear to be
reason to believe that the cohoe-supply in these streams is on the increase. The chum seeding
was the best in recent years and was very gratifying.
LADYSMITH AREA.
The supply of springs was an average one and the cohoe-supply was satisfactory. In the
Chemainus and Nanaimo Rivers pinks were observed in small quantities, but of course this
was an " off " year for that variety in the district.
The seeding of chums in the Chemainus River area was much heavier than for several
years. The Nanaimo River also had a good average spawning. This also applies to the
smaller streams in the district.
COWICHAN AREA.
The spawning of spring salmon was not as satisfactory and hardly up to the average,
particularly in the Cowichan and Koksilah Rivers.
In the case of the cohoe, however, quite a satisfactory run passed to the spawning-grounds.
The chum-supplies showed an increase over recent years and the run was one of the heaviest
experienced.    The steelhead-supply compared very favourably with previous years.
VICTORIA AREA. .
The spawning of cohoe was, generally speaking, an average one, apart from Goldstream,
where the quantity observed was smaller than usual. In the case of chums, however, Gold-
stream showed more satisfactory quantities, but in the streams along the west coast of the
Victoria area the supplies were not as satisfactory as usual.
ALBERNI AREA.
The sockeye escapement to the spawning areas of Sproat Lake, Great Central Lake, and
Anderson Lake was one of the best experienced, notwithstanding the very satisfactory com- mercial catch. The spawning in the Nitinat Arm area of this variety was also quite
satisfactory.
In the case of cohoes all the main rivers in the Barkley Sound section were heavily seeded.
This also applies to the Port Renfrew and Nitinat portions of the district.
The spring escapement was a good average one and compared very favourably with those
of recent years. The chum escapement to the Nitinat area was quite satisfactory. This also
applies to Port Renfrew. In the case of Barkley Sound the run was not so large as expected,
but the escapement to the spawning-grounds was excellent.
CLAYOQUOT SOUND AREA.
The sockeye-supplies found in the Kennedy Lake and Megin Lake spawning districts were
unusually large.
The spring escapement was a good one and the cohoe-supply was eminently satisfactory.
This also applies to the chums.
NOOTKA SOUND AREA.
The sockeye variety in this district is not a large factor in the fishing, but the parent
fish on the spawning-beds were found to be in average numbers. Springs and cohoes were
found in the usual quantities, but few pinks were observed as they do not frequent the Nootka
District to any extent.
In the case of chums the supply was not up to expectations. The percentage of escapement from commercial fishing, however, was better than usual and the seeding may be regarded
as reasonably satisfactory.
KYUQUOT SOUND AREA.
The small sockeye-supplies found on the spawning-grounds would appear to justify the
conclusion that this run is being maintained, although it is never a large one. In the case
of springs, cohoes, and chums the escapement cannot be considered as satisfactory.
QUATSINO SOUND AREA.
The usual small sockeye-supply was present, although this is not a material factor in the
fishing operations in this area. The spring seeding can be considered only a bare average.
The cohoes on the spawning-grounds of the Rupert Arm District, however, were in very
satisfactory numbers and the rest of the area average. The chum-supply was heavy, with the
exception of Winter Harbour.
COLLECTIONS OF SALMON-EGGS, BRITISH COLUMBIA HATCHERIES, 1935.
Hatchery.
Sockeye.
Spring.
Cohoe.
5,292,000
7,800,000
277,152
420,000
9,114,600
24,410,000
3,880,000
18,680,090
8,259,400
Pitt Lake    — — 	
Totals           -  - 	
77,436,090
277,152
420,000
We are indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of the Dominion Fisheries
Department, for the above table giving the number of salmon-eggs collected at the various
hatcheries. L 50 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
HERRING-SPAWNING CONDITIONS, SPAWNING SEASON 1935.
QUATSINO AREA.
In this area spawning mainly took place in Browning Creek, Winter Harbour, and
Klaskish areas.    Spawning was heavy in all of these areas and mortality light.
KYUQUOT AREA.
Spawning in this district was heavy, but there was in several areas also heavy mortality,
especially on the spawning areas in the vicinity of Rugged Point. The spawning there covered
a very large area, but the mortality was heavy, as in that area the bottom consists of fine sand
and comparatively little eel-grass, and a large quantity of the eggs were washed up on the
beaches. In 1935 in that locality also it was observed that the birds frequented the area in
large numbers and doubtless large quantities of the eggs were consumed.
NOOTKA SOUND.
For a considerable number of years the runs to Nootka Sound have been light, the best
year probably being 1930-31, and the spawning in 1935 was equal to if not heavier than that
year. Spawning was very heavy in the Ewing Creek and vicinity and also at Bligh Island.
There was no undue mortality.
CLAYOQUOT SOUND.
All this area was well seeded with the exception of Sidney Inlet, where seeding was
unusually light. Some of the areas, especially Bedwell Sound and Matilda Creek, were exceptionally heavily seeded, the run to the Bedwell area being the heaviest for at least eight years.
No undue mortality was observed in any of these areas and it might be mentioned that they
are inside waters.
BARKLEY SOUND.
Spawning in this area for 1935, while fair to good in many places, is not considered as
good as the previous two years, as many places were very lightly seeded. The seeding in 1934
was very heavy and compared with that year the seeding in 1935 was light. There was a
certain mortality, due to eggs being washed ashore by floods and storms.
VICTORIA AREA.
Spawning in the areas at Esquimalt and Lagoon might be considered normal, with very
little mortality.
COWICHAN AREA.
While some areas were comparatively lightly seeded, in other areas the seeding was
heavier than usual, and on the whole the spawning in the Cowichan area was better than in
1934, with no undue mortality.
LADYSMITH AREA.
Throughout the Ladysmith area herring spawning in 1935 was heavy; in fact, in most
areas conditions indicated a record seeding. In several areas, however, the loss was heavy,
caused mainly by seagulls and ducks in unusually large numbers, and also an unusual prevalence of driftwood on the shores, which did a certain amount of damage to the spawning areas.
NANAIMO AREA.
The 1935 herring spawning in this area was heavier than for the previous four years.
In the more exposed areas loss of spawn was fairly high, but, notwithstanding this, conditions
were better than for several years previous.
COMOX AREA.
Spawning of herring was heavy in the vicinity of Englishman River, Parksville, and
Qualicum, but in this area also the loss was comparatively heavy. Spawning in the vicinity
of Deep Bay, Comox Bay, and Denman Island was comparatively light and the mortality in
these areas would be very small. HERRING-SPAWNING CONDITIONS. L 51
QUATHIASKI AREA.
In nearly all the spawning localities in this area the spawning was heavy, the only exception being in the vicinity of Bold Point, where the spawning was considered light, and in the
vicinity of Hyacinth Bay, where a medium run was reported.
ALERT BAY AREA.
In this area the spawning much the same as the previous year, excepting in Viner
Sound and Retreat Pass area, where the spawning was heavier than usual. L 52 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
ANNUAL REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH BOARD.
Under the British Columbia Salt-fish Marketing Scheme two members to the Local Board
are appointed annually by the Meal, Oil, and Salt-fish Section of the Canadian Manufacturers'
Association and two members by Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited. The Chairman of the Local Board is appointed by the Deputy Minister of Fisheries of the Federal
Government. The following are the names and addresses of the members of the Local Board
who hold office until August 31st, 1936:—
Appointees of the Meal, Oil, and Salt-fish Section.—Mr. Geo. E. Crawford, foot Gorei
Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.;  Mr. R. Nelson, 325 Howe Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Alternates.—Mr. R. R. Payne, foot Gore Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.; Mr. S. K. Murray,
325 Howe Street, Vancouver, B.C.; Mr. J. J. Dorsey, 207 Hastings Street West, Vancouver, B.C.
Appointees of Messrs. Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Ltd.—Mr. K. Kimura, 217 Dun-
levy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.;   Mr. T. Matsuyama, 469 Powell Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Alternates.—Mr. I. Sugiyama, foot Campbell Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.; Mr. S. Kajiki,
406 Jackson Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.;  Mr. S. Yoshida, P.O. Box 8, Steveston, B.C.
Chairman.—Mr. Hugh Dalton, 402 Pender Street West, Vancouver, B.C.
Secretary.—Mr. G. R. Clark, 402 Pender Street West, Vancouver, B.C.
The representatives of the Meal, Oil, and Salt-fish Section were appointed by that body
on July 29th and confirmed at a meeting of the Local Board held on August 1st. The appointees
of Messrs. Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited, were elected by that organization on
August 30th and confirmed at a meeting of the Board held on September 4th. The members
of the Local Board are appointed annually and this must be done prior to August 31st of each
year. The eligibility of present members for re-election rests entirely with the two above-
mentioned organizations. The head office of the Local Branch is located at Room 706, B.C.
Mining Building, 402 Pender Street West, Vancouver, B.C.
The products regulated under the Local Board are dry-salt herring and dry-salt salmon
and the area covered by the scheme embraces the Province of British Columbia, although the
regulated products are only produced on the Coast.
Dealing with the method of regulation, it must be pointed out that the Local Board regulates two quite distinct classes of salt fish; i.e., salmon and herring. First, in the case of
dry-salt salmon, this product is shipped entirely to Japan, where it is consumed in large
quantities during the Christmas and New Year holiday season. The Provincial Department
of Fisheries licenses plants to operate as dry-salteries and in 1935 served notice on the industry
that a time-limit was set after which no licences would be issued. In due course the Local
Board was advised by the Provincial authorities that a total of thirty-one licences had been
issued for the 1935-36 season covering dry-salt salmon operations. This was an increase of
seventeen licences over the previous season.
It is thought well at this point to explain in some detail the workings of the Local Board
since the last annual report. After the experience of the 1934-35 season the Local Board
considered it highly desirable and necessary to send a representative to the Orient in advance
of the 1935-36 season to make a survey of the markets both for dry-salt salmon and dry-salt
herring. The Local Board outlined its proposal to the two producers' organizations and submitted it to them for approval. The producers approved of the Board's action, and on August
10th, 1935, Mr. A. J. Blackwell sailed from Vancouver for the Orient to make a survey
of the markets on behalf of the Board. It so happened that Mr. K. Kimura, one of the
members of the Board, was in Japan at the time, and the Board accordingly cabled him, asking
if he would ascertain the condition of the Japanese market for salt salmon and to make a
survey in conjunction with Mr. Blackwell. In due course the Board received word from
Messrs. Blackwell and Kimura recommending a total maximum marketable quantity of dry-salt
salmon for Japan of 30,000 boxes.
In view of the recommendation of the Board's representatives, who had made an extensive
survey of market conditions in Japan for salt salmon, the Board was faced with a difficult
situation in attempting to allocate 30,000 boxes of salmon among thirty-one licence-holders,
and it was therefore decided to call the producers together and explain the position to them. ANNUAL REPORT, B.C. SAET-FISH BOARD. L 53
This meeting was held on September 21st, at which time no headway whatsoever was made
in arriving at an equitable distribution of the recommended total marketable quantity. The
producers' meeting was reported to the Board, and after the most careful consideration it was
decided, in order to ensure an equitable distribution among the producers of a quantity which
would show an economic operation, to take the responsibility of increasing the recommended
quantity to a total of 35,000 boxes of salt-chum salmon. In arriving at the quantity to be
marketed by individual producers, the Board based their decisions on past performances; i.e.,
the record of production of each licensed producer was obtained for a period of years and the
average taken to ascertain if a given operator was a continuous producer or an intermittent one.
This procedure was followed and individual producer advised of the quantity which would
be permitted to be marketed by him. With the exception of two producers, no dissatisfaction
was expressed at the manner in which the Local Board had distributed the total marketable
quantity. In the case of the two producers who complained at not having received a sufficient
quantity, the Board pointed out that all producers had been dealt with on the same basis—
namely, on past performance.
It is a requirement of the Local Board that all producers shall be registered, and to
correspond with the number of plant licences issued by the Provincial Department of Fisheries,
the Local Board issued thirty-one certificates of registration covering the marketing of dry-salt
salmon.
On September 24th last the Local Board designated Messrs. Producers' Salt Fish Sales,
Limited, and Messrs. Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited, as the marketing agencies
through which the regulated products shall be shipped. It is pointed out that the two marketing agencies are strictly producers' organizations, Messrs. Producers' Salt Fish Sales, Limited,
being composed of all but one of the Canadian companies engaged in producing dry-salt fish,
while Messrs. Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited, embraces all of the Japanese dry-
salt salmon and herring producers. The function of the two marketing agencies is that of
exporter; that is, making of contracts with buyers, arranging steamship space, and attending
to the actual physical export of the products.
The address of Messrs. Producers' Salt Fish Sales, Limited, is 402 Pender Street West,
Vancouver, B.C., and that of Messrs. Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited, is 217 Dunlevy
Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
On September 30th the Local Board met a delegation of fishermen from the Fraser River
area who were desirous of ascertaining the functions of the Board, particularly in respect to
the matter of prices paid to the fishermen for raw chum salmon. The Chairman informed the
delegation that the Board was willing at any time to meet the fishermen and explained fully
the operation of the Board. On the matter of raw-fish prices the Chairman stated that the
Board had no power to set prices and were concerned only with the marketing of the regulated
product, and that no attempt had been made by the Local Board to set prices to the fishermen,
this being purely a matter for agreement between the fishermen and the producers.
AMENDMENT TO SCHEME.
Under subsection (1) of section 6 of the original Salt-fish Scheme the Local Board was
authorized not to discriminate against any established marketing agency which complied fully
with the orders or determinations of the Local Board. The difficult experience of the Local
Board during the 1934-35 season in maintaining the orderly marketing of the products covered
by the scheme was due in very large measure to the compulsion resting on the Local Board
to authorize multiple agencies, the activities of such agencies tending to create confusion in
the minds of Oriental buyers to the point of establishing doubt as to the strength of the Board
in regulating the product.
In view, therefore, of the difficulties encountered by the Local Board due to the wording
of the above-mentioned subsection, on May 27th, 1935, the Local Board unanimously adopted
a resolution to request the Dominion Board to amend the said subsection to read as follows:—■
" To regulate the time and place at which, and to designate the agencies through which,
the regulated product shall be marketed; to determine the manner of distribution, the quantity
and quality, grade or class of the regulated product that shall be marketed by any person at
any time, and to prohibit the marketing of any of the regulated product of any grade, quality,
or class." L 54 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
The Local Board's request for the above amendment to the scheme was agreed to by the
Dominion Board and was accordingly approved by Order in Council No. P.C. 2476, dated
August 15th, 1935.
MOVEMENT AND PRICE OF REGULATED PRODUCT—DRY-SALT SALMON.
As stated earlier in this report, the Local Board finally decided on a total marketable
quantity of 35,000 boxes of dry-salt chum salmon for the 1935-36 season. The Local Board
also determined that the weight of each box of dry-salt salmon should be not less than 440 lb.
net shipping weight of fish and salt, and that payment for the fish should be on consignment
with a minimum guaranteed advance by the buyer covered by an irrevocable letter of credit.
Dry-salt chum salmon are divided into three grades or qualities as follows:—
k (1.)  Fraser River,
P (2.)  Island.
(3.)  Queen Charlotte Island.
Fraser River quality dry-salt chum salmon commands a higher price in Japan than do
the other two qualities, and the buyers in that market are always anxious to secure as large a
quantity of Fraser River chums as possible. The minimum guaranteed advance received by
the producer for Fraser River quality was $15 per box c.i.f. Yokohama. The minimum guaranteed advance for Island quality chums was $13 per box c.i.f. and for Queen Charlotte Island
quality $12.50 per box c.i.f. The prices obtained in each case were in United States funds.
Being on consignment, in the majority of cases the producer received a final return of slightly
better than the guaranteed advance, although if the quality of a given shipment was not up
to standard the producer received at least the minimum advance.
It is not possible to give a comparison with prices received in the previous year, for the
reason that the Local Board did not come into operation until well into the shipping season for
dry-salt salmon, and no attempt was made in 1934 to control marketing other than have the
marketed quantities reported. There can be no doubt, however, but that the past season was
a reasonably profitable one for the packers. The action of the Board in adopting the minimum
guaranteed advance system protected the packer to the extent that he was in receipt of sufficient
funds to carry on his operations, and in the case of a pack of good quality, as stated, the packer
has since received additional returns on the final sale of his product in Japan.
In addition to chum salmon, a small amount of other species of salmon was salted for
the Japanese market. The following table shows the total quantities of each species actually
marketed and shipped in 1935:—
r Boxes.
Chums  35,206
Pinks        1,752
White springs        305
Cohoes        293
Sockeye   6
Due to the small quantity of other species salted and shipped, the Local Board did not
attempt to regulate their marketing, although determining that all salt salmon must be
reported.
Taken as a whole, the past season was a satisfactory one from the standpoint of operation
and marketing in so far as dry-salt salmon is concerned. While the quantity of Fraser River
salt chums packed was rather disappointing, due to the late arrival of the run, nevertheless
there was an increase of 37.72 per cent, in the total production of dry-salt chum salmon over
the previous year.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
The British Columbia production of dry-salt herring is consumed entirely in the Orient,
over a period of years three main distributing ports or territories having been established.
These centres are Kobe, Japan, which territory includes Kobe, Formosa, Korea, and
Manchukuo; Shanghai, China, which takes in Shanghai, the Yangtze River area, and
Foochow; Hong Kong, whose territory embraces Hong Kong, Amoy, Swatow, and Canton.
The ports of Tsingtau, Takubar, and Tientsin were left open to be supplied either from
Shanghai and (or) Kobe. ANNUAL REPORT, B.C. SALT-FISH BOARD. L 55
As stated previously, the Local Board deemed it advisable to send a representative to the
Orient in advance of the season to make a survey of the markets with a view to ascertaining
the maximum quantity which the three distributing territories could absorb during the 1935-36
season. In due course the Board's representative cabled his recommendations, and the Local
Board on September 30th last determined that the total marketable quantity of dry-salt
herring for the 1935-36 season should be. 23,000 tons. This quantity was divided, upon the
recommendation of the Board's representative in the Orient, as follows:—
Tons.
Kobe 10,000
Shanghai  7,500
Hong Kong  5,500
Herring dry-salteries in British Columbia are all located on Vancouver Island, and the
Board being in receipt of advice from the Provincial Department of Fisheries to the effect
that twenty-one herring dry-saltery licences had been issued for the 1935-36 season, nine
plants being located on the west coast of Vancouver Island and twelve on the east coast, the
Local Board determined that the total marketable quantity of 23,000 tons should be allocated
as follows:—
Tons.
West coast  7,200
East coast 15,800
As in the case of dry-salt salmon, all dry-salt herring producers are required to be
registered with the Local Board and therefore twenty-one certificates of registration were
issued.
The agencies designated by the Local Board handled the exports of dry-salt herring as
well as those of dry-salt salmon.
MOVEMENT AND PRICE OF REGULATED PRODUCT, DRY-SALT HERRING.
Through the efforts of the agencies designated by the Local Board, early in the season a
block sale of 10,000 tons of dry-salt herring was effected to a group of importers in Kobe.
This quantity was for shipment during the months from October to March, inclusive, at an
average price of $28.26 per ton c.i.f. Kobe. Similar block sales were attempted for the
quantities allotted to the Shanghai and Hong Kong territories, but as matters developed this
was found to be impossible, due entirely to the chaotic exchange conditions obtaining in China
and Hong Kong.
The Board was kept fully posted on developments in China by its representative, and on
being advised that it was doubtful if Shanghai or Hong Kong would purchase in any volume
owing to the precarious condition of the currency market, the Local Board on November 8th
issued an order stating that in view of financial condition in the Orient no additional
quantities of herring would be permitted to be marketed other than the quantity which had
been packed up to that date. As at that date this quantity amounted to approximately
12,000 tons.
The serious condition of the Chinese currency situation is graphically set forth in the
attached extracts from local newspapers. It will be readily understood that not only was
the marketing of dry-salt herring found to be extremely difficult, but the action of the
Chinese Government in issuing paper currency in lieu of silver affected the sale of all other
products in that country.
The action of the Board in taking advantage of the powers conferred on it under
subsection (1) of section 6 of the scheme to prohibit the marketing of the regulated product
was done only after very full and careful consideration had been given to the seriousness of
the situation in the Orient. The step taken by the Local Board was for the protection of
the producers, as if marketing had continued it would have meant the sale of the herring at
distress prices, with consequent severe losses to the producers.
As the season progressed the situation strengthened slightly, and both Shanghai and
Hong Kong purchased small quantities at prices which showed a reasonable return to the
producer.    Shanghai purchased a total quantity of 2,297 tons, the average price realized L 56 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
being $27.57 per ton c.i.f.   A total of 2,077 tons was shipped to Hong Kong at an average
price of $30.29 per ton c.i.f.
The total quantity of dry-salt herring, therefore, actually marketed and shipped fell
short of the tonnage originally decided upon by the Board—14,333% tons being the final
figure.    Of the 10,000 tons committed to Kobe, this amount was short-shipped by 41% tons.
During the 1934-35 season the quantities and average prices were as follows:—
Kobe  1 7,250% tons at $27.19 c.i.f.
Shanghai  7,257    tons at  25.20 c.i.f.
Hong Kong 4,394% tons at  28.90 c.i.f.
Keelung  1,623% tons at   50.39 c.i.f.
Foochow    100     tons at  27.38 c.i.f.
Takubar    100     tons at  28.00 c.i.f.
When it was found necessary to curtail the marketing of our dry-salt herring the plants
located on the west coast of Vancouver Island bore the brunt of the Board's order. However,
on representations being made to the Provincial Government and the impossible marketing
conditions obtaining in the Orient being fully explained, the Provincial Department of
Fisheries granted their authority for plants on the west coast to take herring for reduction
purposes. Thus, out of the nine plants situated on the west coast of Vancouver Island, three
were able to operate on the reduction of herring for meal and oil, three plants transferred
their operations to the east coast, while two plants, who are strictly salteries, subsequently
were able to pack a certain quantity of salt herring which was shipped to Shanghai and
Hong Kong. The ninth plant is a small one which is controlled by one of the companies who
did salt a quantity of herring, but due to conditions did not operate.
. It will be seen, therefore, that although the west-coast plants appeared to have been
penalized, had it not been for the fact that the salt-herring markets in the Orient had become
demoralized, the Provincial Department of Fisheries would not have agreed to allow the
reduction operations. So that while certain plants did not pack dry-salt herring, they did
not lose out entirely as they were permitted to operate in another branch of the fishing-
industry. In the case of the plants not being equipped to operate as fish-reduction units
they were permitted to market a quantity which at least used up their supplies of salt
and boxes.
It might be well at this point to outline actual fishing conditions of the British Columbia
coast. Herring-fishing commences on the east and west coast of Vancouver Island on October
1st, but it is not until about the second or third week in November that the fish appear on
the west coast. In other words, the east-coast operators are in a position to pack their
herring almost a month and a half before the west-coast plants get into operation. It follows,
therefore, that the east-coast producers receive the benefit of early shipments, for which, it
being one of the peculiarities of the salt-herring business, fairly high prices are obtained.
Had not the chaotic exchange condition developed this past season, the Local Board fully
intended to equalize the returns received by east- and west-coast plants, the plan being to
market the pack on a pro rata basis.
SUMMARY.
The action of the Local Board in sending a representative to the Orient prior to the
season has been fully justified. Having a representative on the ground eliminated the
experience of the previous year, when the Board found themselves at the mercy of the Oriental
importers, who were inclined to play one group off against the other in an attempt to force
down the price. The Board's representative was in daily touch with the importers, and-
consequently was in a position to fully inform the Board the true condition of the market.
In addition to keeping the Local Board fully posted, the Board's representative created a
spirit of confidence among the Oriental importers toward the Board to the point where the
importers now admit that the Local Board assures them as well as the producers of orderly
marketing. A copy of the report furnished the Local Board by its representative upon his
return to Vancouver is attached, from which it will be seen that the groundwork for the
future has been well laid.
During the period under review the Local Board had no cause to deal with violations of
the orders or determinations issued by it, the producers and the Board working harmoniously
together in an effort to stabilize the salt-fish industry. ANNUAL REPORT, B.C. SALT-FISH BOARD. L 57
We desire to express our sincere appreciation for the co-operation shown and work
done by the Canadian Government Trade Commissioners in the Orient, without whose
assistance and knowledge of conditions we would have found our efforts much more difficult.
NEW MARKETS.
As previously pointed out, the entire pack of salt fish produced in British Columbia has
hitherto been marketed exclusively in Japan and China. In view of the experience of the
1935-36 season, when through no fault of the producers, but due entirely to exchange
conditions, the market particularly for salt herring was severely curtailed, the Board took
under consideration in December last the desirability, if possible, of developing other markets
for both salt herring and salt salmon, even though possibly entailing a change in methods of
packing from those acceptable in the Orient. After investigation of various consuming
markets for salt fish, it appeared that the most promising market might be in the Caribbean
area and in Central and South America, the countries in those areas, according to figures
supplied us by the Department of Trade and Commerce, being large importers of salt fish
of various types. After extended consideration the Board decided, as a preliminary step in
developing new markets, to send Mr. A. J. Blackwell to make a survey of potential markets
in Cuba and in the West Indies for dry-salt herring and dry-salt salmon. At the time of
writing, Mr. Blackwell has just concluded his survey in Cuba, the results having been most
encouraging for the marketing of British Columbia salt fish in Cuba next season. Mr.
Blackwell has proceeded to the West Indies, and if the samples of the British Columbia
product are equally as well received there as in Cuba, a substantial and entirely new outlet
for our product should be available next season.
Depending on the results of Mr. Blackwell's investigations and his report to the Board,
decision will be made later as to whether Mr. Blackwell should proceed at this time with a
survey of the South and Central American markets. This likewise constitutes entirely new
territory as far as British Columbia salt fish is concerned, but it is possible that a survey of
this market will be deferred until another season.
FINANCIAL.
The Board for the 1935-36 season reduced its tolls from 15 cents per box on both salt
salmon and salt herring to 10 cents and 8 cents per box respectively. The attached consolidated statement of income and expenditure is, we believe, self-explanatory.
Respectfully submitted.
BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH BOARD.
Hugh Dalton, Chairman.
T. Matsuyama, Member.
R. R. Payne, Member.
G. R. Clark, R. Nelson, Member.
Secretary. K. Kimura, Member.
(Extract from the Vancouver News-Herald, December 28th, 1935.)
CHINA HAS SERIOUS CURRENCY PROBLEM.    PROSPECTS OF CONVERTING
SILVER-USERS TO PAPER MONEY.
Interest in China's prospects of success in reorganizing and stabilizing its currency
system is naturally very great among all those doing business in that country. It is clear
that the Chinese Government is taking a momentous step in attempting to convert 400,000,000
people, long accustomed to the use of silver, to the use of paper money, and it is certain that
the Government would never have attempted to do so had not the situation become desperate
as result of the continued drain of specie to America, and contraction of credit and loss of
confidence resulting therefrom. It is evident that the path is beset with many difficulties and
uncertainties, says the December monthly bank letter of the National City Bank of New York.
In the first place, there is doubt as to how much silver the Chinese Government will be
able to get out of the people in exchange for paper.    The authorities, of course, can take L 58 REPORT OF THE  COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
over the silver held by the banks in Shanghai and a few other large cities, but the attitude
of the public with respect to the surrender of silver is highly problematical, to say the least,
particularly in the areas outside of Nanking's immediate sphere of influence. In view of
recent political developments in North China, it is questionable whether much silver from
that area can be counted on to flow into Nanking coffers. Moreover, it must be borne in
mind that the further fall of the Chinese dollar has increased the incentive to smuggling.
Exchange Case.—In the second place, there is uncertainty regarding the future of
exchange. Undoubtedly, the success of the stabilization plan will be conditioned very largely
by the exent to which the Government is able to establish confidence in its ability to manage
a paper currency without the safeguard imposed by the requirement to maintain certain
specified reserves of metal.
It is always a question as to how far a Government attempting a managed currency can
be trusted to impose voluntary restraints upon itself, and the question becomes still more
important when, as is the case with China, the Government attempting management lacks
a strong, highly centralized authority. It can be said on behalf of the new currency plan
that the low level of stabilization enhances its chances of success. Internally, the country
is experiencing a release from deflationary influences. Security values have shown a tendency
to recover, and, what is more important, there may be and should be an unblocking of the
stream of credit in the real property market. Externally, the low rate of exchange should
tend to improve the balance of payments, which was already showing a tendency to become
less adverse.
At the same time, the nationalization of silver, even though not broadly successful, will
provide the Government with a large fund of silver which it can sell abroad, if need be, in
support of exchange. In Shanghai the Chinese banks alone hold $295,000,000 (Chinese
dollars) of silver which will be available immediately to the control board, and of course a
great deal more silver will be got in than this. When all has been said, however, it must be
repeated that everything depends upon the degree to which the Government is able to inspire
respect for and confidence in its policies.
Situation as affecting Silver.—The outstanding feature of the situation from the standpoint of silver is that China now has a huge quantity of the metal which she can sell as freely as
she wants to in world markets without injury to her internal credits structure. How much
she will sell will depend upon: (1) The extent to which the drop in the exchange rate, and
consequent increase in the premium of silver, encourages smuggling rather than compliance
with the nationalization order; (2) whether the Government follows a policy of selling only
so much as needed in order to maintain the stability of the currency, in which case the
determining factor will be the degree of confidence with which the Government is able to
engender in its currency control; and (3) whether the Government hopes eventually to return
to the silver standard on some devalued basis, in which case it will sell no more silver than
it has to; or whether it intends to permanently demonetize silver in favour of some form of
managed paper currency, in which case the quantity of silver in China available for sale
would be enormous.
Should China elect to dispose of her vast silver hoards, the effect upon silver would be
catastrophic. Either the United States Treasury would be forced to hold the bag, enabling
China to unload at high prices, or see the whole scheme for raising silver prices go into
collapse. When consideration is given to the depressing influence exerted upon silver prices
from 1926 on by the stocks in the Indian Treasury which never amounted to more than
470,000,000 ounces, it is possible to visualize what it would mean to have China's 2,000,000,000
or so ounces overhanging the market.
Enforced Education.—No doubt it would be an exaggeration to assume that any such
quantity of silver could or would be disposed of, at least not for a considerable period.
However, the fact is that a policy supposedly friendly to silver is having the effect of giving
the Chinese people an enforced education in the use of another form of currency—paper. To
the extent that the Chinese prove to be apt pupils in this schooling, by just so much will silver
have one of its most important uses permanently curtailed.
It has been claimed by friends of the American silver policy that by raising and holding
up the price of silver it would encourage a wider use of the metal among the nations. As
a matter of fact, the reverse appears to be happening.    As silver has been made more costly, ANNUAL REPORT, B.C. SALT-FISH BOARD. L 59
country after country, including at last China, has found it advantageous to discontinue its
use as money.
Unless the United States can persuade the other nations to use more silver money
(something which thus far they have shown very little disposition to do) before its buying-
power as defined in the " Silver Purchase Act" is exhausted, it looks as though silver were
headed eventually for another slump, possibly to levels lower even than before. In that
event, not only will the silver-producers pay dearly for this experiment, but the United
States Treasury will be left carrying an asset against the currency that could not be liquidated
save at tremendous sacrifice.
(Extract from the Vancouver News-Herald, February 29th, 1935.)
CHINA'S SILVER DEBACLE SLOWS SALE OF FLOUR.
One of the principal features of Western Canada export flour business during the past
year was the sale of established brands to countries across the Pacific at unsatisfactory prices,
mills selling mainly to keep established brands alive.
The operation of managed currency in Hong Kong has not been in use long enough for
merchants and importers to know whether it will be feasible, the experiment being made
following the sharp break in silver exchange, and which has had the effect of practically
paralysing markets in China.
There have been quite a number of bakery failures of late in some of the larger Chinese
cities, no doubt the result of the silver debacle, and this has brought about a considerable loss
of importers, creating a feeling of timidity on the part of merchants in regard to future
business.
North China is getting most of her supplies from Shanghai and Japanese mills, while
in markets like Manila and New Zealand, where the volume has held up fairly well, it has
only been maintained at the expense of very unsatisfactory prices to the Canadian flour
exporter.
The outlook for this season in the China market would perhaps be highly favourable
were it not for the financial situation, but until it has been demonstrated that the new
Chinese Government has created sufficient public confidence in its ability to manage their
currency, it is doubtful whether any important volume of business can be done.
In any case, Australia continues to quote flour at lower prices than can be offered by
Canadian mills for low-grade straights, but it is felt in some quarters that in due course
Australian quotations may advance to a point where Canadian mills can do some business,
but this hope is hardly likely to be realized for some months at least. L 60 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
SOME FRESH-WATER FISHES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By J. R. Dymond, Director, Royal Museum of Zoology, Toronto, Ont.
The following notes are based largely on specimens and information obtained in British
Columbia during the summers of 1926 and 1928, when the writer was engaged in a study of
the trout and other game fishes of the Province. The results of those studies so far as they
concern the trout have been reported elsewhere (Dymond, 1927, 1931, and 1932). The
specimens and information on which these notes are based were secured more or less
incidentally, which will explain the nature of the present contribution.
During the summer of 1926 no field-work was undertaken. Specimens of trout and
occasionally of other fresh-water species were sent for study by officers of the Federal and
Provincial Departments of Fisheries to the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo. In 1928
the months of June and July were spent in Southern British Columbia in visiting a number
of lakes and streams in connection with the trout studies. At that time I was accompanied
by C. McC. Mottley, of the Biological Board of Canada, and Messrs. T. B. Kurata and E. B. S.
Logier, of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, to whom I wish to express my thanks for
assistance in connection with the field-work.
I am also indebted to Dr. W. A. Clemens, Director of the Pacific Biological Station, for
the opportunity of becoming acquainted at first hand with the fresh-water fish fauna of British
Columbia.
The waters visited during 1928 included Monroe Lake and other waters in the vicinity
of Cranbrook, Kootenay Lake, and Kootenay River below Nelson as far as Bonnington Falls,
ClvMstina Lake, Okanagan Lake, Vaseaux Lake, Kalamalka Lake, Paul Lake, and Fish Lake
near Kamloops, Cultus Lake, Chilliwack River above Sweltzer Creek, Stamp River, Diver
Lake near Wellington, Cowichan Lake, Nanaimo River, and Home Lake.
The most significant feature of the distribution of fresh-water fishes in British Columbia
is the striking contrast between the fauna of the north and that of the south. The fish fauna
of the northern part of the Province has many features in common with that of the Great
Lakes, as the following list of genera and species common to these two areas will indicate:
Cristivomer namaycush, Leucichthys, Corgeonus clupeaformis, Prosopium quadrilaterale,
Chrosomus erythrogaster, Couesius, Esox lucius, Lota maculosa, and Eucalia inconstans. Of
these, only two, Couesius and Lota maculosa, are known to occur in the southern part of the
Province, while there are found in the waters of that area many species quite distinct from
any elements of the Great Lakes fauna. Included among these are Prosopium williamsoni,
Mylocheilus caurinus, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, Richardsonius balteatus, and Apocope falcata.
These are part of a fauna which extends southward. The explanation of this difference
between the faunas of Southern and of Northern British Columbia may be partly ecological,
but it is probably due more to the geological history of the areas.
ANNOTATED LIST.
Entosphenus tridentatus (Gairdner).     (Sea lamprey.)
Specimens of this lamprey were taken from the Millstream at Nanaimo, V.I., from the
Chilliwack River, and from the Slocan River at West Kootenay. C. Carl reports its occurrence in Beaver Lake, Stanley Park.
Lampetra ayresii (Giinther).
Several specimens from Cultus Lake are in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum
of Zoology.
Acipenser sp.    (Sturgeon.)
Sturgeon are taken in the Kootenay River in the Creston District and southward in the
United States in the vicinity of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Locally they are called rock-sturgeon
and are said to average 100 to 150 lb. in weight, but a 375-lb. specimen has been reported.
They are taken most commonly during high water in May and June.
These sturgeon must be permanent fresh-water residents, as it is impossible for them
to ascend from the sea. As no specimens were seen, I am unable to offer an opinion as to
the species. SOME FRESH-WATER FISHES OF B.C. L 61
A sturgeon weighing 171 lb., possibly of marine origin, was killed below Bonnington
Falls by a blast of dynamite in April, 1925.
Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi (Suckley).      (Kokanee.)
This landlocked sockeye occurs in many lakes in the Province. We have specimens from
Kootenay, Okanagan, Christina, and Woods Lakes, and it has been reported by reliable
observers as occurring in Shuswap, Adams, Niskonlith, Arrow, Slocan, Kalamalka, Skaha,
Osoyoos, Mizzezzula, Blue, Round, and Burns Lakes and from Sooke, Cowichan, Shawnigan,
Nanaimo, Home, and Cameron Lakes on Vancouver Island. Babcock (1902) records it
from Seton and Anderson Lakes, and Jordan (1894) and Green (1893) from Shawnigan
Lake, Vancouver Island. Dawson (1879) refers to the occurrence of " landlocked salmon "
in Okanagan, Shuswap, and other large lakes, also in Canim Lake, 70 miles east of the 100-
Mile post on the Cariboo Wagon-road. The same fish, he said, was to be found in Lac la
Hache. Evermann (1897), on the authority of Dr. Dawson, records it from " Chiloweyuck
Lake (north latitude 49°) near Fraser River; Nicola, Francois, Fraser, Okanagan, Stuart,
and Shuswap Lakes," and Evermann and Meek (1898) from Stuart and Nicola Lakes.
Kokanees vary in size from lake to lake, and in the same lake from year to year. In
Christina Lake, we were informed, the greatest weight to which kokanees grow is 1 lb., and
the smallest weight of adults about % lb. It is said that in any one year the mature fish are
all of the same size. A few kokanees of a greater weight than 1 lb. have been reported, but
in general 1 lb. appears to be the maximum weight, while the average is considerably less.
The kokanee is important as a food for Kamloops trout. Although our information on
the food of the latter is rather meagre, what is available suggests that kokanees are a staple
food of trout over 16 inches in length, and trout seldom grow larger than this in lakes from
which kokanees are absent, unless other species of fish are present to take their place. The
Kokanee fills an important niche in the economy of lakes. It is a plankton feeder, and is
thus a link between the smaller organisms and the large trout. In the absence of such a
species it is doubted, as suggested above, whether trout usually grow much larger than 16
inches in length, the length at which trout turn from a diet of insects and other small
organisms to fish. The conservation of the kokanee is therefore important from the standpoint of trout propagation. In British Columbia lakes lacking an adequate supply of trout
food, this native plankton feeder should be preferred for introduction to non-native species
of the same habit.
The abundance attained by kokanees in some waters is indicated by the fact that 14 tons
of them have been seined in a single night in Christina Lake, about 1898 or 1899.
Two specimens 25.6 and 31.6 cm. long to end of vertebral column (11% and 13% inches
to fork of tail) taken in Christina Lake June 27th, 1928, gave the following measurements in
per cent, of the body-length to end of vertebral column: Head-length, 22; head-depth, 15;
eye, 4.8; snout, 4.9; maxillary, 10.4; body-depth, 23.6; body-width, 11 in case of female, 12.4
in case of male; caudal-peduncle length 16, and depth 8.2; dorsal fin with 10 or 11 fully
developed rays preceded by 2 or 3 shorter ones, its height 13 and base 11; anal with 14 fully
developed rays preceded by 2 shorter ones, its height 10 and base 13; pectoral, 17; ventral,
13;   caudal, 22;   scales, 131-132;   gill-rakers, 14 + 20;   branchiostegals, 13-14.
Salmo gairdnerii Richardson.     (Steelhead.)
In previous account of this species (Dymond, 1932) it is stated that " it is not known
how far steelheads ascend from the sea in the Fraser River, but it is probable that few, if
any, penetrate beyond Hell's Gate." I have been informed, however, by Mr. W. A. Newcombe,
who was stationed at the Gate for the Provincial Government, during several seasons when
the salmon were running, that " it was well known by us working at the Gate that the
steelhead could force his way through when the various species of Oncorhynchus would have
to give up." He further states that " during the hold-up at the Gate in the earlier years,
1913-16, the fish were detained for much longer periods below and the Indians were still
permitted to fish with nets and gaff. Steelhead were taken by them quite often, especially
in October, and other runs were reported to be at the Gate early in the year (January and
February), but I have never had the opportunity of personally checking these statements."
Mr. Newcombe's statements are corroborated by Mr. C. P. Hickman, assistant to the
Commissioner of Fisheries, who says that " at the time of the first discovery of the obstruction L 62 REPORT OF THE  COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
to salmon at the Fraser Canyon I was between Camp 16 and North Bend from early in October
until December 15th in 1913. It was a common occurrence to see steelhead plough right
through the swift water, where a sockeye could not begin to negotiate it."
The localities represented by specimens in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum
of Zoology are: In the Skeena drainage—Skeena River at Prince Rupert, Babine River and
Lake, Meziadin River, Lakelse River, and Cluculz Lake; on Rivers Inlet—Hatchery Creek;
on Howe Sound—Cheakamus River, Daisy Lake, Lake Marie, and Deadman's Lake; in the
Fraser drainage—Upper Pitt River, Fraser River below Mission Bridge, Birkenhead Creek
at Pemberton Hatchery, Chilliwack River, Cultus Lake, and Harrison River; on Vancouver
Island—Cameron Lake, Lower Campbell Lake, Campbell River, Great Central Lake, Oliver
Creek (Cowichan), Cowichan River, Stamp Falls, Comox Lake, Brown's River tributary to
Puntledge River, Bevon, Millstream at Nanaimo.
Lord (1866) reported this species as " common in the Fraser, Chilukweyuk, and Sumas
Rivers and in every stream along the mainland and island coasts up which salmon ascend."
He gave the average weight as 8 to 11 lb.
Salmo kamloops Jordan.    (Kamloops trout.)
The collections of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology contain specimens of the
Kamloops trout from the following waters: Kootenay Lake and River and Lardeau River;
Okanagan Lake; Farley, Fish, and McCullough Lakes, tributary to Okanagan Lake; Christina Lake, Kamloops Lake; Paul, Pinantan, Knouff, and Fish or Trout Lakes, and Tranquille
Creek near Kamloops; Quilchena Creek; Kalamalka, Sugar, and Haddow Lakes, Squaw
Valley Creek near Vernon; Mara Lake, Adams and Eagle Rivers and Manson Creek,
tributaries of Shuswap Lake; Frog Lake and Creek, Tumtum Creek, Ulecillewaet River,
and Columbia River near Revelstoke; Louis Creek, tributary of the North Thompson;
Coquihalla River and its tributary, the Nicolum; Thompson River 2 miles east of Lytton;
Similkameen River and Bear Lake, near Tulameen; Clearwater Lake near Hedley; 1-Mile
and 5-Mile Creeks near Princeton; Fraser and Burns Lakes near Prince George; Cunningham Lake, tributary to Stuart Lake.
Through fish-cultural operations the Kamloops trout has been distributed to many waters
in British Columbia from which it was formerly absent.
Salmo kamloops whitehousei Dymond.     (Mountain Kamloops trout.)
This dwarf form of Kamloops trout which is found in small lakes at high altitudes was
described (1931) from specimens taken in 6-Mile Lake near Nelson. Besides the type locality
we have specimens from Bear and Fish Lakes near Kaslo.
Salmo clarkii clarkii Richardson.     (Coast cut-throat trout.)
The localities represented by specimens of this form in the collections of the Royal
Ontario Museum of Zoology are as follows: Skeena drainage—Lakelse Lake and River;
Rivers Inlet drainage—Owikeno Lake; Fraser drainage—Harrison River, Thompson River,
Upper Pitt River, Chilliwack River and Lake, Sweltzer Creek, Cultus Lake, Anderson Lake,
Stave Lake, 3 miles east of Ashcroft in the Thompson River; Vancouver Island—Nimpkish
River, Lower Campbell Lake, Campbell River, Great Central Lake, Comox Lake, Bevon,
Alberni, Diver Lake, Wellington Lake, stream at Departure Bay, Cowichan Lake, Shaw,
Mead, and Nixon Creeks (Cowichan Lake), Tranquille Creek and Lake, Glendale River,
Kennedy Lake and River, Salmon River, Oyster River, Clayoquot River.
Salmo clarkii lewisi (Girard).    (Yellowstone cut-throat trout.)
This form is represented by specimens from Monroe Lake near Cranbrook and White
River, a tributary of Upper Kootenay. A few cut-throats are reported as occurring in the
upper reaches of the Columbia from Athalmer to Arrowhead, but I have seen no specimens
and so cannot say whether they are of the lewisi or alpestris variety. The trout of this section
of the Province deserve careful study.
Salmo clarkii alpestris Dymond.     (Mountain cut-throat trout.)
The waters represented by specimens of this form are: The upper reaches of Isaac,
Frog, and Canyon Creeks flowing into the Columbia River near Revelstoke; Crazy, Yard,
and Frog Creeks, tributary to Eagle River and Mabel Lake in the Shuswap area;   in some small lakes on Griffin Mountain and in 6-Mile and 9-Mile Creeks flowing into the West Arm
of Kootenay Lake.
Salmo trutta Linnaeus.     (Brown trout.)
The brown trout has been introduced into the Cowichan Lake and River and into the
Little Qualicum River. The Annual Reports of the Biological Board of Canada for 1932
and subsequent years refer to these introductions. According to information supplied by
Dr. Clemens, specimens have been taken in both the Cowichan and Qualicum Rivers; one
taken during the early summer of 1936 was 15 inches in length and 1 lb. 7% oz. in weight.
Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill).     (Eastern speckled trout.)
The eastern speckled trout has been introduced into a number of waters of British
Columbia. We have specimens from Tumtum Creek, near Revelstoke and Boundary Lake,
and it has been reported to us as occurring in Leviathan Lake near Kaslo and Big Sheep Creek
near Grand Forks, and a small stream tributary to Okanagan Lake. On Vancouver Island
it has been placed in Cowichan Lake and River, Spectacle Lake, and Somenos Lake.
Cristivomer namaycush (Walbaum).     (Great Lake trout.)
This char, which appears to be common in the lakes of the northern part of the Province,
is not found south of the Shuswap, in British Columbia. There are specimens in the Royal
Ontario Museum of Zoology from Lake Atlin and from Cunningham Lake, tributary to
Stuart Lake.
Eigenmann (1895a) records the species from " Golden and Revelstoke ... a large
head in the University's collection from 20 miles east of New Westminster, B.C. . . . "
Jordan (1889) had it from Canim Lake and Evermann and Goldsborough (1907) from Lake
Atlin, Tagish Arm, Lake Bennett, and Summit Lake (at White Pass). We have reports from
reliable observers of the occurrence of the species in Victor and Three Valley Lakes near
Griffin Lake, also in Stuart, Fraser, and Francois Lakes in the north. In the latter lake
it is said to reach a weight of 60 lb.
Salvelinus malma (Walbaum).    (Dolly Varden.)
The Dolly Varden char seems to be generally distributed throughout the Columbia,
Fraser, and Skeena River basins and on Vancouver Island. There are specimens in the
collection of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology from Kootenay Lake, Shuswap Lake, and
Scotch and Ross Creeks entering Shuswap Lake, Eagle River, Kamloops Lake, Cultus Lake,
11-Mile Creek near Revelstoke, stream entering Sugar Lake, Upper Pitt River, Owikeno Lake,
Glendale River (Knight Inlet), Livingstone River (Crow's Nest Forest Reserve), Seeley Lake
near Hazelton, stream on Kaien Island near Prince Rupert, and mouth of Salmon River
(Vancouver Is'and).
The species has also been reported by reliable observers as occurring in Harrison Lake,
Columbia River from Waneta and Arrow Lakes to Arrowhead, Whatshan Lake, Arrow Park
Lake, Slocan Lake, Goat River, Moyie Lake, St. Mary Lake, Elk River, White River (a tributary of the Kootenay), Columbia Lake, Sugar and Mabel Lakes. Babcock, in Report of the
Commissioner of Fisheries for 1902, reports it as occurring in Seton and Anderson Lakes.
H. H. Beadnell, of Comox, reported on October 28th, 1927, that many Dolly Vardens were
coming up from the sea with the cohoes, which he said was unusual; some of them weighed
a pound. C. Hearn, of Skeena, reports the species as " found in nearly all waters along the
lower reaches of the Skeena River watershed, ascending some of the larger tributaries such
as the Copper River in large numbers during early spring."
Proportionate measurements of specimens 20-30 cm. to end of vertebral column (10-14
inches to fork of tail) are as follows, in per cent, of body-length to end of vertebral column:
Head-length, 24 (21-27.5) ; head-depth, 14.5 (14-16) ; eye, 4.5 (4.0-5.0) ; snout, 7.3 (6.5-9.5);
interorbital, 8 (6.7-9.5) ; maxillary, 13 (11-17) ; body-depth, 21 (17-25) ; body-width, 13
(11-15); caudal-peduncle length, 16.5 (15-18.5); caudal-peduncle depth, 9 (8-10) ; dorsal
fin with 8 to 10 fully developed rays preceded by 1 or 2 shorter ones, its height 14 (12.5-16)
and base 12 (11-13.5) ; anal fin with 7 or 8 fully developed rays preceded by 1 or 2 shorter
ones, its height 13.5 (12-14.5) and base 9.7 (8.2-10.7) ; pectoral, 16 (15-17) ; ventral, 13
(12.5-15) ; caudal, 18 (16.5-20.8); snout to occiput, 17.5 (14.5-19.5); snout to dorsal insertion, 46.5 (43.5-48.8);   snout to ventral insertion, 53.8  (52-55.4) ;   diagonal rows of scales, L 64 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
222 (197-244);  gill-rakers, 6+10 (5+10 to 8 + 10), about 5 mm. long in specimens 30 cm. to
end of vertebral column;  branchiostegals, 10 to 12 (13 in one specimen).
Leucichthys pusillus  (Bean).    (Cisco.)
There is a specimen of cisco from Lake Atlin in the Provincial Museum, which has been
provisionally identified as being of this species. Bean (1889) in his original description
regards this form as very close if not identical with the Asiatic merki (sardinella).
Coregonus clupeaformis  (Mitchill).     (Eastern whitefish.)
The eastern whitefish has been planted in the waters of British Columbia on a number
of occasions, but in no instance has it fulfilled the expectations of those responsible for its
introduction.
On July 11th, 1928, we took seventy-five specimens of this whitefish in Okanagan Lake
opposite Kelowna. They ranged in length from 14 and 3/16 inches to fork of tail (1 lb. % oz.)
to 7% inches. These were all taken in 3-, 2-, 1%-, and 1%-inch gill-nets, although a length
of 4% inches was included in the gang set. The nets were in the water about forty-three
hours. The small size to which this species grows in Okanagan Lake, together with the comparative scarcity, is an indication that conditions here are far from ideal for it. Their
scarcity is indicated by the failure of our nets to take them off Summerland, and by the fact
that their presence in the lake was practically unknown.
The stomach of one of the specimens taken in our nets in Okanagan Lake contained a
number of eggs, probably those of the Kamloops trout. It is not known whether the eggs were
dead or not when eaten, and it is perhaps unfair to condemn a species on such evidence, but
such an occurrence should serve as a reminder of the dangers attendant on indiscriminate
introduction of species into waters to which they are not native.
The following statement with regard to the introduction of these whitefish was supplied
me by Mr. Price Ellison, of Vernon:—■
" I cannot remember the exact date that the above event took place, but it was somewhere
between 1894 and 1898. I obtained the fry through our Dominion Government member at
that time, Mr. J. Mara. The Fish Commissioner at New Westminster was named MacNabb,
and he told me that the eggs came from Selkirk and were hatched at New Westminster. They
were sent up here, under the care of a man named MacNeish, in galvanized containers holding
about 10 or 12 gallons of water, having concave covers with a hole in the centre. MacNeish's
orders were to put a piece of ice on each cover, and not to touch them again until they arrived
at Vernon. They were put in the express baggage-car, and as it was early summer the ice
had all melted by the time they reached North Bend, about 200 miles from New Westminster,
but MacNeish's orders were not to touch them until he arrived at Vernon, and he carried them
out by not placing more ice on the covers. By the time they reached here he was under the
impression that they were all dead.
" However, I took them out to the lake, and, according to instructions, they were deposited
in about 10 feet of water, and whatever they were they all sank, so I concluded that there must
be some life in them, but when I put my hand in the container I could not feel anything but
water. They certainly were not fry, though possibly eggs hatched to some extent. There
were 3,000,000 deposited in Okanagan Lake and 2,000,000 in Long Lake, now known as
Kalamalka Lake."
The records of the Vancouver office of the Fisheries Branch contain the following record
of the distribution of whitefish in British Columbia in 1896:—
Waters stocked. Number.
Coquitlam Lake      250,000
Deer Lake .      125,000
Harrison Lake  2,225,000
Pitt Lake     250,000
Shawnigan Lake _  1,125,000
The fry were all distributed by the Fraser River Hatchery and came originally from
Selkirk.
Although there is no official record of the distribution of whitefish to Okanagan Lake in
1896, it is highly probable that such occurred in that year.    It was Major Allan Brooks, of Okanagan Landing, who first told me that it was Mr. Ellison who was instrumental in having
whitefish planted in the lake, and the date given me by Major Brooks was 1896.
The annual reports of the Commissioner of Fisheries for British Columbia contain
references to introductions of the eastern whitefish in 1911 and 1913. In the report for 1907
occurs the following:—■
" I believe that great good would be accomplished by the introduction of the Lake Superior
whitefish to Kootenay, Okanagan, Shuswap, and Harrison Lakes."
In the 1911 report it is recorded that " the long-continued efforts of the Provincial
Department looking to the establishment of the whitefish of the Great Lakes (Coregonus
clupeaformis) in the lake system tributary to the Fraser seem about to be crowned with
success. A hatching-battery is being established in the Harrison Lake Hatchery and a shipment of eggs will be sent thither from the Dominion egg-taking stations during the next
distribution."
And again in 1913 it is reported that " the 5,000,000 whitefish-eggs which through the
courtesy of the United States Bureau of Fisheries were received from Put-in-Bay Station were
successfully hatched at the Harrison Lake Hatchery of the Dominion Government and planted
in Harrison Lake. A further shipment of 3,500,000 from the Dominion egg-taking stations
in the East were also hatched and planted."
Introductions into Okanagan Lake were also made in the years 1928 and 1929. In each
year approximately 5,000,000 eggs were brought from the Fort Qu'Appelle Hatchery to the
Summerland Hatchery.
As previously indicated, Coregonus clupeaformis is indigenous in Northern British
Columbia.    Specimens have been examined by Dr. W. A. Clemens and Dr. J. L. Hart.
Prosopium quadrilaterale (Richardson).     (Round whitefish.)
This species, which occurs from New England, through the Great Lakes region and
north-westward, is confined, so far as present records for British Columbia are concerned, to
the extreme northern part of the Province. It has been recorded from Lake Bennett, Lake
Atlin, and Cariboo Crossing by Evermann and Goldsborough (1907), who remark that it is
apparently the most abundant species of whitefish in the headwaters of the Yukon.
Two specimens from Lake Atlin, a male and female, 36.8 and 35.4 cm. long respectively
to end of vertebral column, gave the following measurement (in per cent, of the standard
length): Head-length, 19; head-depth, 12.1; eye, 4; snout, 4.7; interorbital, 5.8; maxillary,
4.4; body-depth, 20.5; body-width, 14; caudal-peduncle length, 14; caudal-peduncle depth,
7.4; dorsal with twelve fully developed rays preceded by one or two shorter ones, its height
13.1 and base 10.7; anal with 11 fully developed rays preceded by 1 shorter ray, its height
10.5 and base 9.8; pectoral length, 15.4; ventral, 12.8; caudal, 19.4; adipose, 6; branch-
iostegals, 7 or 8; scales, 97; gill-rakers, 6 + 11; pyloric caeca, 107 (104-110). The stomach
of one of these specimens contained 140 shells of a snail Valvata sp. Except in the greater
number of scales, these specimens closely resemble Great Lake specimens of the same species.
Prosopium williamsoni (Girard).     (Rocky Mountain whitefish.)
There are specimens of this species in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum of
Zoology from Kootenay Lake, Kootenay River at Slocan Pool, Okanagan Lake, Kalamalka
Lake, Cultus Lake, Harrison Lake, Chilliwack River, Columbia River at Revelstoke, Adams
River, and Eagle River. It has also been reported to us as occurring in Moyie and St. Mary
Lakes, and Goat and Elk Rivers, Columbia Lake, Lake Windermere, Slocan Lake, Watshan
Lake, Arrow Lakes, Christina Lake, and in Sugar and Mabel Lakes.
Eigenmann (1895a) records it from the Columbia River at Golden and Revelstoke and
from Shuswap Lake at Sicamous. Evermann and Goldsborough (1907) record it from
Kootenay Lake at Nelson.
The collection consists of twenty-six specimens ranging in size from 7 to 18% inches in
length; the majority, however, are rather small, averaging 9 to 10 inches. The species
appears to be very variable in body proportions, but none of the differences shown by the
present collection are correlated in such a way as to indicate that more than a single species
is represented. While some of the differences may indicate the existence of local or geographical forms, the majority appear to be the result of individual differences in rates of growth,
sex, and sexual maturity.    Following are average measurements of the various body-parts
6 L 66 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
in percentages of the body-length to end of vertebral column. The percentages in parentheses
indicate the range of variations shown by the present collection: Head-length, 21 (20-23) ;
specimens with heads 22-23 per cent, of the total length are usually the larger, sexually
mature individuals. Such specimens have long snouts and maxillaries and wide interorbitals.
Head-depth, 13.8 (13-15); eye, 5 (4-6). The eye, of course, is relatively larger in small
individuals, but there seems to be considerable variation between specimens of the same size
from different localities, perhaps correlated with the transparency of the water. Snout, 6
(5.5-7) ; the snout is especially long in older, sexually mature individuals, reaching in the
case of the 18%-inch individual, a ripe female, 18.6 per cent, of the standard length; inter-
orbital, 6 (5-7) ; maxillary, 6 (5-7) ; body-depth, 21 (18-25) ; body-width, 13 (10-16.7) ;
larger, sexually mature individuals have much deeper and wider bodies than small, immature
ones; caudal-peduncle length, 14 (12-16); caudal-peduncle depth, 6.5 (5.5-7.5). Dorsal fin
with 11 to 13 fully developed rays preceded by 1 or 2 shorter ones, its height 14.5 (13-17) ;
dorsal base, 12.5 (10-14.5) ; anal with 10 to 12 developed rays preceded by 1 or 2 shorter ones,
its height 12 (10-16), its base 10 (8-11) ; pectoral length, 17 (15-20) ; ventral, 14.5 (12-18);
caudal, 20 (18-22); adipose, 10 (8.7-11.7); branchiostegals, usually 8, sometimes 9; scales,
82 (78-86) ; gill-rakers, 8 + 13 (8 + 12 to 9 + 14), quite short, 2 to 3% mm. in length; pyloric
caeca usually nearly 100, ranging from 82 to 133. Ripe males have pearl organs on the scales
especially pronounced on the four or five rows immediately above and below the lateral line.
As indicated above, some of the differences shown by the present collection suggest the
existence of geographical or ecological forms. For instance, a collection of seven specimens
from the Columbia River at Revelstoke have much deeper caudal peduncles than those from
other localities represented, being 7 to 7.5 per cent, of the standard length, whereas others
are rarely 7 per cent. These Revelstoke specimens also have much longer fins than the
others. In other body proportions, however, as well as in number of gill-rakers, scales, and
pyloric caeca, the Revelstoke specimens agree with those from other parts of the Province.
As already indicated also, larger, sexually mature individuals differ considerably from
smaller, immature specimens with respect to gome body proportions. Large, sexually mature
specimens have relatively much longer and deeper heads with longer snouts, and maxillaries,
and wider interorbitals;   the body is also much deeper and wider.
As indic_it3d by the above description, williamsoni differs from quadrilatsrale in the more
numerous gill-rakers, fewer scales, longer and deeper head, snout not only longer relative to
the body, but also when compared with the longer head; since the depth and width of the
body varies so much with size and state of sexual maturity, it is difficult to arrive at a comparison of the two species from a comparison of the specimens at hand, but it seems probable
that williamsoni has a somewhat deeper body than quadr Hater ale; williamsoni is also characterized by a much longer adipose fin.
This species is said to spawn in the Okanagan region about November 15th.
Thymallus signifer (Richardson).    (Arctic grayling.)
There are eight specimens of grayling from Lake Atlin in the collections of the Royal
Ontario Museum of Zoology.
Catostomus catostomus  (Forster).    (Long-nosed sucker.)
This sucker was taken from deep water in Kootenay and Okanagan Lakes. Eigenmann
(1895a) took it at Golden and Revelstoke and Evermann and Goldsborough (1907) reported
it from the Watson River at Caribou Crossing.    It is also known to occur in Shuswap Lake.
A specimen taken in Okanagan Lake, 39.5 cm. long to end of vertebral column (17%
inches to fork of caudal fin), gave the following proportionate measurements in per cent, of
standard length: Head, 24.3; eye, 3.5; snout, 13; interorbital, 8.8; body-depth, 18.2; body-
width, 14.4; caudal-peduncle length, 14.4; caudal-peduncle depth, 7.8; dorsal fin with 11 fully
developed rays and 1 shorter one in front, its height 15.7 and base 13.9; anal with 7 fully
developed and 1 shorter ray, its height 15.9 and base 7.6; pectoral, 19.7; ventral, 14.2; scales,
18-107-14.
Small or dwarf specimens, identified as Catostomus catostomus, were taken from shallow
water in Garnet Valley Lake, near Summerland. A similarly dwarfed, lacustrine form has
been described from the lakes of Jasper Park under the name Catostomus catostomus lacustris
by Bajkov (1927). Catostomus macrocheilus Girard.     (Columbia River sucker.)
This is the common sucker of Southern British Columbia. Our specimens are from
Kootenay, Okanagan, Christina, and Harrison Lakes, and a grassy lake along the course of
Tumtum Creek near Revelstoke. It has also been reported by reliable observers as occurring
in Columbia and Windermere Lakes and in the following lakes in the Columbia system: Arrow
Lakes, Slocan Lake, Little Slocan Lake, Whatshan Lakes, Arrow Park Lake, and Summit
Lake; and it is also said to occur in Hawser or Duncan Lake, Trout Lake, Stobbard Lake,
and Erie Lake, and in the following lakes in the Moyie system: Moyie, St. Mary, and Premier.
Eigenmann (1895a) has recorded it from Sicamous and Kamloops.
Measurements in per cent, of body-length to end of vertebral column of specimens 30 to 40
cm. in standard length (13 to 17 inches to fork of tail) are as follows: Head, 25; eye, 3.8;
snout, 12.7; interorbital, 9.5; body-depth, 21.5 (20-23); body-width, 15,5 (14-16); length
of caudal peduncle, 15; depth of caudal peduncle, 7.8; dorsal fin with 14 or 15, sometimes
13 developed rays, preceded by 1 or 2 shorter ones, its height 16 (14-17) and base 19; anal
with 7 developed rays, preceded by 1 shorter ray, its height 18 (17-19.5) and base 8 (7-9) ;
pectoral length 20 (19-22) and ventral 15 (14-17); scales, 13 (12-15)-70 (66-72)-12 (10-13).
A male 11 inches long taken in Harrison Lake in October, 1925, had traces of tubercles on the
anal fin, and also at the base of the lower three or four caudal rays.
Tinea tinea (Linnaeus).     (European tench.)
Specimens of this European species were taken in Christina Lake, to which they have
no doubt gained entrance from the south through the outlet stream. They are said to have
been first noticed in the lake about 1915. I am indebted to Dr. L. P. Schultz, of the College
of Fisheries, University of Washington, for the following information on the introduction
of this species:—
" The European tench was brought to Seattle for the World's Fair, and afterwards were
dumped into geyser basin (a large goldfish-pond on the campus) and probably at that time
or perhaps later some were taken to Lake Union. They remain in the geyser basin to-day in
abundance and are collected occasionally for laboratory dissection. No attention is paid to
them at all; they propagate naturally. Specimens have been reported from Lake Union that
were nearly 2 feet long."
Two specimens measured gave the following proportions: Head, 28 per cent, of body-
length to end of vertebral column; eye, 3.9; snout, 10-11; body-depth, 30-32; body-width,
14-16;  dorsal rays I, 9, anal I, 8;   scale, 92-94;   teeth, 5-6.
Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus.     (Carp.)
Carp are not uncommon in the shallower parts of Okanagan Lake. Quite a number of
small specimens were seined at the northern end of the lake, and many larger ones were seen
at the foot of Okanagan Falls.
It is also known to occur in Kalamalka, Woods, and Shuswap Lakes.
Mylocheilus caurinus (Richardson).    (Chub;   Peamouth.)
The chub is common in most of the lakes visited in Southern British Columbia. We have
specimens from Kootenay, Okanagan, Cultus, and Harrison Lakes, Columbia River in the
vicinity of Revelstoke, from Babine Lake and some unspecified water in the vicinity of Prince
George, and also from Cecilia Lake, on Vancouver Island.
Jordan and Evermann (1896) say of this species: " Often entering the sea . . .
specimens from Nanaimo sent by Mr. Ashdown H. Green, who says that this is the only
cyprinoid found in Vancouver Island." It has been recorded from Fishhook Lake, Vancouver
Island, by Green (1893). Confirmation of the occurrence of this species in salt water is
furnished by C. Carl, who took it in English Bay while fishing along the shore for the surf-
smelt, Hypomesus pretiosus. Eigenmann (1895a) records this species from Mission, Kamloops, Sicamous, Revelstoke, and Golden. Our largest specimen, taken in Cultus Lake,
measured 12% inches (13.5 cm.) to fork of tail.
Hubbs and Schultz (1931) have discussed the scientific name of this species and conclude
that Richardson's (1836) name caurinus must stand. They point out that previous to 1905
the name Mylocheilus caurinus was generally accepted, but in that year Snyder (1905) stated L 68 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
that the name should be Mylocheilus lateralis Agassiz and Pickering, and many have adopted
the latter name in consequence.
Proportionate measurements based on twelve specimens ranging from 16 to 23 cm. in
length to end of vertebral column are as follows in per cent, of standard length: Head-length,
22.5 (21.5-24); eye, 4.9 (4.7-5.3); snout, 7.0 (6.6-7.6); maxillary, 5.6 (5.0-6.3); interorbital,
7.3 (7.0-7.9); body-depth, 20 (19.5-21); body-width, 13.8 (13-14.2); caudal-peduncle length,
18 (17-19) ; caudal-peduncle depth, 8 (7.7-8.5); dorsal fin with 8 fully developed rays preceded by 1 or 2 shorter ones, its height 18 (16-20) and base 10.5 (10-11; anal with 8 fully
developed rays preceded by 1 or 2 shorter ones, its height 14 (13-15) and base 10 (9.5-10.3) ;
pectoral length, 19 (17-22); ventral length, 15.5 (14-17); scales, 13 to 15-71 (68-74) -8
or 9; teeth, usually 1-5-5-1, occasionally 4 in one of the outer rows, hooked in young, one
or more becoming stump-like with age; premaxillary protractile, a barbel near end of maxillary; peritoneum dusky, tubercles on top of head, on opercle and on scales of back and sides
nearly to lateral line, of specimen 20 cm. long to end of vertebral column, taken in Kootenay
Lake June 12th, 1928.
Chrosomus erythrogaster Rafinesque.    (Red-bellied dace.)
A specimen sent by Dr. Clemens to the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology was taken in
Charlie Lake in the Peace River Block. This lake lies west of Fort St. John and is tributary
to the Peace River.
Ptychocheilus oregonensis (Richardson).     (Squawfish.)
The squawfish is one of the commonest and most generally distributed fish in Southern
British Columbia. Specimens were secured in Kootenay, Okanagan, Christina, and Harrison
Lakes, and it has been reported by reliable observers as occurring from Columbia and Windermere Lakes throughout the Columbia River, including the Arrow Lakes, Slocan Lake, Little
Slocan Lake, Whatshan Lakes, Arrow Park Lake, Summit Lake, the Kootenay River between
Nelson and Castlegar and between Kootenay Landing and the United States border, Goat
River below the Canyon, Hawser or Duncan Lake, Trout Lake, Stobbard Lake, Erie Lake,
Kalamalka, Woods, Duck, Cultus, Blue, Cluculz Lakes, and the Nechako and Lower Fraser
Rivers. It has also been recorded from the Thompson River at Kamloops and Shuswap Lake
at Sicamous by Eigenmann (1895a).
It grows to a large size, a specimen 8 lb. in weight having been taken in Arrow Lakes
near Edgewood in June, 1928.
Proportionate measurements based on five specimens averaging 27 cm. in length to end
of vertebral column are as follows in per cent, of standard length: Head-length, 28 (27-29) ;
eye, 4.5 (4.2-5.0) ; snout, 10 (9-11) ; maxillary, 11.5 (11-12) ; interorbital, 7.8 (7.3-8.8) ;
body-depth, 20 (18-21); body-width, 14; caudal-peduncle length, 18 (16.5-19.5); caudal-
peduncle depth, 9; dorsal fin with 9 fully developed rays preceded by 1 or 2 shorter ones,
its height 16 (15-17) and base 12 (11.5-13); anal with 8 fully developed rays preceded by
1 or 2 shorter ones, its height 13.5 (12.5-16) and base 10.5 (9.5-12) ; pectoral, 18 (15.5-21.5) ;
ventral, 13.5 (12-16) ; scales in lateral line, 73 (69-77) ; teeth, 2-4-5-2, outer row sometimes
3 instead of 2 and inner sometimes 4-4, some or all of teeth hooked.
Richardsonius balteatus (Richardson).    (Shiner.)
The shiner is usually common and generally distributed at least in the southern part of
the Province. There are specimens in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology
from Kootenay, Okanagan, Cultus, and Shuswap Lakes, the Thompson River at Kamloops,
Summit Lake near Revelstoke, and Garnet Valley Lake, a small lake near Summerland. C.
Carl reports having taken the species in Burnaby Lake and Dr. W. A. Clemens from Kalamalka,
Woods, Duck, and Blue Lakes.
It has also been recorded by Eigenmann (1895a) from Kamloops and Mission, and as
variety lateralis from Sicamous, Griffin Lake, Kamloops, Revelstoke, and Golden. Later,
Eigenmann (1895b) made a rather extensive study of variation in this species and in the
paper in which he published his results regarded lateralis as a synonym of balteatus.
This minnow does not reach a very large size, our largest specimen being 6.6 cm. to end
of vertebral column (3 inches to fork of tail). It is characterized by its deep, rather compressed body, long anal fin, and insertion of the dorsal well behind a vertical through ventral SOME FRESH-WATER FISHES OF B.C. L 69
insertion.    A dark lateral band on posterior half of the body;   the lateral line follows the
contour of the ventral surface.
The species is said to show wide variations from one locality to another. The following
measurements in per cent, of the standard length were secured from specimens from Okanagan
Lake, 5.7 to 6.6 cm. long, to end of vertebral column: Head, 26 (25-27) ; eye, 8.3 (7.7-8.7) ;
depth of body, 28.5 (27-29.5) ; width of body, 16 (15-18) ; dorsal with 10 fully developed
rays preceded by 1 or 2 shorter ones; and with 15 to 17 fully developed and 1 or 2 preceding
shorter rays; scales, about 58; teeth, usually 2-5-4-2, sometimes 1 or 3 in the inner row
on one or both sides.
Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz).     (Lake chub.)
A number of specimens of the lake chub were taken in Garnet Valley Lake near Summer-
land, July 6th, 1928. Only four of them are large enough to furnish useful comparative
measurements; these are as follows, in percentage of the body-length to end of vertebral
column: Head, 26.3; eye, 6.5; snout, 7.8; interorbital, 7.5; body-depth, 21.8; body-width,
15.0; caudal-peduncle length 21.7 and depth 9.3; dorsal fin with 8 fully developed rays, preceded by 1 shorter one, its height 16.8; anal fin with 8 fully developed and 1 shorter ray, its
height 14.3; pectoral length, 18.3; ventral length, 14.2; scales, 60 (58-64), 27 scales before
dorsal; teeth, 2-4-4-2; barbel evident, attached above and near posterior end of maxillary.
Specimens of a lake chub collected in Stuart Lake near Fort. St. James, B.C., have been
described by Jordan (1894) as Couesius greeni; Green (1893) mentions the same locality.
Evermann and Goldsborough (1907) also record specimens taken by Evermann in Kootenay
Lake.
The specimens collected in Garnet Valley Lake and described above agree closely with
specimens of C. plumbeus from Lake Nipigon (Dymond, 1926) and they are accordingly
regarded as being of the same species.
Specimens have also been taken in Jewel Lake.
Rhinichthys cataractse (Cuvier and Valenciennes).     (Long-nosed dace.)
During the course of our studies this species was taken in Kootenay Lake at Kaslo, at
the north end of Okanagan Lake, and in Garnet Valley Lake, a small lake near Summerland.
There is also a specimen in the collection of the Biological Station, from Morrison Lake, taken
December 15th, 1928.    C. Carl reports specimens from streams tributary to Burnaby Lake.
Apocope falcata (Eigenmann and Eigenmann).
This species was taken in the seine at the north end of Okanagan Lake. I have also
examined specimens taken in Shuswap Lake by Dr. Clemens. It has previously been recorded
from the latter locality by Eigenmann and Eigenmann (1893) as Agosia shuswap.
Apocope nubila (Girard).
This species has been recorded from Yellowhead Lake, Mount Robson National Park,
by Bajkov (1927).
Ameiurus nebulosus (Le Sueur).     (Common bullhead.)
A specimen of this species was taken July 18th, 1925, in Sumas River and presented by
Dr. R. E. Foerster to the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology. Catfish are
said to be rather common in the area.
The records of Ameiurus melas from New Westminster and Shawnigan Lake in the
Report of the Provincial Museum for 1931 may refer to the present species.
Esox lucius Linnaeus.    (Common pike.)
Inspector T. V. Sandys-Wunsch, of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, informs me that
pike occur in Northern British Columbia. He first found them in Dease Lake and from there
down the Dease River, in the Liard River, and in all the lakes adjacent.
According to Mr. W. M. Ferrier, Fisheries Inspector at Prince George, pike are native
to the waters of Northern British Columbia tributary to the Arctic Ocean, but he has never
known of any pike found in the waters of Northern British Columbia tributary to the Pacific
Ocean. L 70 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Lota maculosa (Le Sueur).    (Burbot;  Ling.)
This species is generally distributed through British Columbia. From information
secured by personal observation and from the reports of Fishery Officers, it is known to occur
in the large lakes such as Kootenay, Okanagan, Arrow, and Shuswap, also in all suitable
waters throughout the Columbia system, including Slocan Lake, Christina Lake, at Revelstoke,
and Golden (Eigenmann, 1895a), and in Windermere and Columbia Lakes. In the Upper
Kootenay drainage it is found in Moyie, St. Mary, and McBains Lakes, and in suitable situations in the river to its upper reaches. In the Fraser drainage it occurs, in addition to
Shuswap Lake, in Cluculz, Sugar, Mabel, Mara, Nicola, Douglas, and Seton. Macoun (1883)
records it from Fort McLeod in Northern British Columbia. Babcock (1902) records the
species from Seton and Anderson Lakes, and Evermann and Goldsborough (1907) believe
it to be " common in Lake Bennett, Tagish Arm, Lake Atlin, and probably in all suitable
waters in the Yukon basin."
In Christina Lake it is caught on set-lines in winter and used as food. Of it Cobb (1926)
says, " rarely utilized as food except in British Columbia and Washington, where small quantities are marketed." Babcock (1907) also speaks of the ling as furnishing excellent food
to some sections.
Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus.    (Common stickleback.)
The common stickleback of Southern British Columbia, both fresh-water and marine, is
now regarded as of the same species as the common three-spined stickleback of the Northern
Atlantic—namely, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Considerable differences do occur between sticklebacks of this species in fresh water as compared with salt water, and southward as compared
with those in the north, but, as Hubbs (1929) has pointed out, " So numerous are these local
races, so confused their geographical distribution, that it seems unwise to recognize any one
of them as a distinct species." Gasterosteus cataphractus and Gasterosteus williamsoni
microcephalia therefore become synonyms of G. aculeatus.
Our specimens are from Millstream, Nanaimo, Big Lake, Wellington, V.I., Cultus Lake,
and Harrison Lake. It is also known to occur in the Nanaimo Lakes, and Dr. L. P. Schultz
has identified specimens collected by Dr. A. L. Pritchard from Meyer Lake, Queen Charlotte
Islands. It will be noticed that none of these localities are beyond Hell's Gate Canyon, which
seems to mark the limit of the distribution of a number of anadromous species.
Lord's (1866) classic account of the nest-building habit of the stickleback was based on
observations made in British Columbia.
Eucalia inconstans  (Kirtland).     (Brook stickleback.)
A specimen taken in Charlie Lake, tributary to the Peace River, in the Peace River Block,
west of Fort St. John, was sent to the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology by Dr. Clemens.
Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede.     (Small-mouthed black bass.)
The story of the introduction of black bass into Christina Lake and other British Columbia
waters is recounted by Prince (1902). The fry were placed in Christina Lake in the autumn
of 1901. Such poor care was taken of them from the time they were taken from the train
at Revelstoke until they were placed in the lake that few survived the journey. According to
information given us by Mr. Sandner, it was five years before bass began to be noticed in the
lake. After that they steadily increased until they became fairly common, but at the time
of our visit in 1928 their numbers had been decreasing for several years. This circumstance
we attributed to the depletion of food. Crayfish and shiners (R. balteatus) were said to have
been formerly very common around the shores, but in 1928 both were quite scarce. The largest
bass taken in Christina Lake weighed 6 lb.
It is difficult to estimate the effect of the bass on the native Kamloops trout of the lake.
The latter were said to be quite scarce as compared with former conditions, but how much
of this can be attributed to the bass, and how much to overfishing, or other causes, is impossible
to state.
The only report of bass in Moyie Lake was furnished by C. H. Robinson, Fishery Overseer
of Nelson, who said that about 1925 Mr. H. Ryder, in charge of the Cranbrook Hatchery, had
found a dead bass on the shore of that lake. Dr. J. L. Hart has sent us a specimen of young
small-mouthed black bass taken in Spider Lake, Vancouver Island, on June 15th, 1930. Aplites salmoides (Lacepede).    (Large-mouthed black bass.)
This species, which of course is not native to the Province, is now rather common towards
the southern end of Kootenay Lake, where there is a good deal of shallow water. It is said
to have escaped into the Kootenay River at Bonners Ferry in 1916 from private ponds. It was
caught near Kootenay Landing for the first time about 1921. In that year Mr. A. Bush, of
Nelson, caught a specimen weighing 5% lb. at Sirdar. By the summer of 1928 they had
spread to Pilot Bay.
The large-mouthed black bass also occurs in Osoyoos and Vaseaux Lakes, having gained
access to it from the south. It has also been reported by anglers as occurring in a lake on
Saltspring Island, near Vancouver Island.
Pomoxis sparoides (Lacepede).    (Calico bass.)
Hart (1934) has recorded the calico bass from Hatzic Lake, a backwater of the Fraser
River near Mission.
Eupomotis gibbosus (Linnaeus).    (Pumpkinseed.)
The pumpkinseed is rather common in Christina Lake, to which it was probably introduced
along with the black bass.
Perca flavescens (Mitchill).    (Yellow perch.)
Perch occur in Vaseaux Lake, to which they are said to have gained entrance from the
south.
Cottus asper Richardson.     (Prickly bullhead.)
This sculpin appears to be very generally distributed throughout South-western British
Columbia, including Southern Vancouver Island. There are specimens in our collections
from Okanagan Lake, Christina Lake, Shuswap Lake, Summit Lake near Revelstoke, Cultus
Lake, pond at Harrison Hatchery, Nass River, Home Lake, and Spider Lake on Vancouver
Island, Millstream at Nanaimo, and a small stream entering Departure Bay near the Biological
Station. Eigenmann (1895a) records the species from Mission, Sicamous, Kamloops, and
Griffin Lake and remarks that it is very abundant in the Fraser system from tide-water to an
altitude of 1,900 feet. Bean and Weed (1920) record "five specimens 12.5-18.5 cm. long,
mouth of Fraser River, B.C. A. Halkett." Dr. Clemens reports the species as occurring in
McClinton Creek, Queen Charlotte Islands, on the basis of identification by Dr. L. P. Schultz.
In percentage of the length to end of vertebral column following are measurements of
various body-parts: Head, 33 (30-35); eye, 7.5 (6.7-8.0); snout, 9.8 (9.0-11.5); interorbital,
4.8 (4.2-5.3); body-depth, 22 (21-24); body-width, 20 (19-21.5); length of caudal peduncle,
11 (10-13) ; depth of caudal peduncle, 7.2 (7.0-7.4) ; first dorsal with 9 spines in fourteen
specimens and 8 in one, its height 8.5 (8.0-9.0) and base 17.5 (15.5-20) ; second dorsal with
20 rays in seven specimens, 21 in six and 22 in two, its height 14 (12-16.5) and base 42 (36-46) ;
last membrane of first dorsal connected to lower half of first ray of second dorsal; anal with
16 rays in seven specimens and 17 in eight, its height 12.5 (10-15) and base 33 (32-34) ;
pectoral length, 28 (25-30) ; ventral rays I, 4 in every one of fifteen specimens examined, its
length 20 (17-22) ; one almost straight upward and backward pointing preopercular spine;
a prominent dark vertical bar at base of caudal, a few dark saddle-shaped markings on back
and upper sides, especially anteriorly, a round dark spot on membrane between last few spines
of first dorsal, edge of fin reddish; the extent to which prickles are present varies from that
in which they are confined to a small patch behind the pectoral fin to that in which they cover
most of the body with the exception of the ventral surface, and in front of and beside the dorsal
fin; they are commonly absent from the caudal peduncle; lateral line sometimes complete,
but often lacking on part or all of caudal peduncle.
Cottus rhothea (Rosa Smith).
Following are some of the characters of specimens of this sculpin taken at Slocan Pool,
in the Kootenay River below Bonnington Falls: First dorsal rays, 7 or 8; second dorsal rays,
16 or 17; anal rays, 12 or 13; ventral rays I, 4; body, including top of head, covered with
prickles, except on ventral surface and on lower sides in front; lateral line incomplete, a few
pores missing on caudal peduncle, sometimes the whole caudal peduncle on one or both sides
lacking pores;  largest specimen, 5.5 cm. to end of vertebral column. L 72 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
Cottus aleuticus Gilbert.
This species is found in both fresh and salt water. Specimens were obtained in a small
stream entering Departure Bay; this is probably the same locality as that for which Gilbert
(1895) records " four specimens were collected by us May 26th, 1889, in a small stream entering Departure Bay, Vancouver Island."
I am also indebted to W. E. Ricker for a number of specimens 3-4 cm. in length taken
from the stomach of a specimen of Salvelinus malma collected in Cultus Lake.
There is a specimen at the Pacific Biological Station collected by Dr. A. L. Pritchard
from McClinton Creek, Queen Charlotte Islands, and identified by Dr. Schultz.
Cottus cognatus Richardson.    (Miller's thumb.)
Specimens of this species were taken at Kaslo in Kootenay Lake and in Christina Lake.
Of the three specimens taken, two had ventral rays I, 3 and one had I, 4; first dorsal rays were
7 in one case and 8 in two; second dorsal rays were 16, 15, and 17 respectively, and anal 12,
12, and 10. The lateral line was quite short, in one case not reaching a vertical through the
insertion of the first dorsal, in others extending only a little beyond this point; there was a
patch of prickles behind the pectoral fins. Length of specimens, 2.8, 3.0, and 3.7 cm. to end
of vertebral column.
Evermann and Goldsborough (1907) report having taken forty-five specimens which they
identified as belonging to the present species in Lake Bennett, Northern British Columbia.
LITERATURE CITED.
Babcock, J. P.    Reports of the Commissioner of Fisheries for British Columbia.    1901-1930.
Bajkov, A.    Reports of the Jasper Park lakes investigation, 1925-1926.    I. The fishes.    Contr.
Canad. Biol. Fish. 3 (16):   377-404.    1927.
Bean, B. A. and A. C. Weed.    Notes on a collection of fishes from Vancouver Island, B.C.
Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada.    Ser. III., Vol. XIII., Sec. V., pp. 69-83.    1920.
Cobb, J. N.    Pacific cod fisheries.    Appendix VII., Rept. U.S. Comm. Fish, for 1926.    1926.
Dawson, G. M.    Salmon in rivers of the Pacific slope.    Nature 19:  528.    1879.
Dymond, J. R.    The fishes of Lake Nipigon.    Univ. Tor. Stud., Biol. Ser. 27, Pub. Ont. Fish.
Res. Lab. 27.    1926.
Dymond, J. R.    The trout of British Columbia.    Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 58:  71-77.    1927.
Dymond, J. R.    Descriptions of two new forms of British Columbia trout.    Contrib. Canad.
Biol. Fish. 6:   393-395.    1931.
Dymond, J. R.    The trout and other game fishes of British Columbia.    Dept. of Fisher.,
Ottawa.    1932.
Eigenmann, C. H.    Explorations in western Canada.    Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 56.    1892.
Eigenmann, C. H.    Results of explorations in western Canada and the north-western United
States.    Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. 14:   101-132.    1895a.
Eigenmann, C. H.   Leuciscus balteatus (Richardson), a study in variation.    Amer. Nat. 29:
10-25.    1895B.
Eigenmann, C. H., and R. S. Eigenmann.   New fishes from western Canada.   Amer. Nat.
26:   961-964.    1892.
Eigenmann, C. H., and R. S. Eigenmann.    Preliminary description of new fishes from the
north-west.    Amer. Nat. 27:  151-154.    1893.
Evermann, B. W.    A report upon salmon investigations in the headwaters of the Columbia
River in the State of Idaho in 1895, together with notes upon the fishes observed in that
State in 1894 and 1895.    Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. 16:   151-202.    1897.
Evermann, B. W., and E. L. Goldsborough.    A check list of the fresh-water fishes of Canada.
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 20:   89-120.    1907.
Gilbert, C. H.    The ichthyological collections of the steamer Albatross during the years 1890
and 1891.    Rept. U.S. Comm. Fish and Fisheries, 1893:  393-476.    1895.
Green, Ashdown H.    Notes on the occurrence of new and rare fish in British Columbia.
„ Bull. Nat. Hist. Soc. B.C., pp. 9-10.    1893.
Gunther, A.    Description of fish from Vancouver.    (In Lord, J. K., The Naturalist in Vancouver Island and British Columbia, Vol. II.).    1866.
Hart, J. L.    Black crappies in British Columbia.    Can. Field Nat, 48, pp. 103-104.    1934. Hubbs, C. L.    The Atlantic American species of the fish genus Gasterosteus.    Occ. Pap. Mus.
Zool. Univ. Mich. No. 200.    1929.
Hubbs, C. L., and L. P. Schultz.    The scientific name of the Columbia River chub.    Occ. Pap.
Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. No. 232.    1931.
Jordan, D. S.    On the occurrence of the great lake trout {Salvelinus iwmaycush) in the waters
of British Columbia.    Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 11: 58.    1889.
Jordan, D. S.    Description of a new species of cyprinoid fish Couesius greeni, from the headwaters of the Fraser River in British Columbia.    Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 16: 313-314.    1894.
Jordan, D. S., and B. W. Evermann.    The fishes of North and Middle America.    Bull. 47,
U.S. Nat. Mus.    1896.
Lord, J. K.    The Naturalist in Vancouver Island and British Columbia.    2 vols., London.
Appendix contains " List of Specimens Collected with Descriptions of the Fish," by
A. Gunther.    1866.
Macoun, John.    Manitoba and the great north-west.    Fishes,   pp. 377-392.    1883.
Prince, E. E.    Thirty-fourth Ann. Rept. Marine and Fisheries (1901).    Fisheries, p. 235.
1902.
Richardson, John.   Fauna Boreali-Americana, pt. 3.   The Fish.   1836.
Snyder, J. 0.    Critical notes on Mylocheilus lateralis and Leuciscus caurinus.    Rept. U.S.
Comm. Fish. 1904:   341-342.    1905. L 74 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 1935.
SOME RESULTS OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA HERRING
INVESTIGATION AND THEIR ECONOMIC BEARING.
By Albert L. Tester, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
In 1929 an investgation of the herring of British Columbia was inaugurated under the
combined auspices of the Department of the Provincial Fisheries and the Biological Board of
Canada. The immediate purpose of this investigation was to determine whether fishing
activity, which has removed over 50,000 tons of herring from the waters each year since 1920,
was sufficiently intense to materially reduce the available supply and endanger the future of
the fishery. It was realized that fluctuations in the abundance of herring and in their availability to the fishermen might be induced by factors other than the activity of the fishery.
In order that the effect of these " natural " factors might not be confused with that of the
fishery the scope of the investigation was broadened considerably. The role of fishing activity
formed but one aspect of the more general problem of determining the causes of fluctuation in
the abundance and availability of herring.
With this fundamental problem under consideration, the investigation was carried on
jointly by the two Departments for three years (until March, 1932). During the next four
years (until March, 1936) it was continued by the Biological Board alone. Since 1929 several
articles dealing with various phases of the investigation, but mostly of a preliminary nature,
have been published. These include racial studies (Tester, A. L. Biol. Bd. Can. Prog. Rep.
Pacific No. 12,1932; Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc, Vol. 63,1933) ; studies of age and growth (Tester,
A. L. Biol. Bd. Can. Prog. Rep. Pacific No. 18,1933) ;* studies of egg production on the spawning-grounds (Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester. Trans. Amer. Fish Soc, Vol. 64,1934); food studies
(Wailes, G. H. J. Biol. Bd. Can., Vol. I., No. 6, 1936) ; a study of the selectivity of drift-nets
(Tester, A. L. Biol. Bd. Can. Prog. Rep. Pacific No. 24, 1935); and an account of the history
of the herring-fishery, fishing methods, and marketed products (Tester, A. L. Biol. Bd. Can.
Bull. No. 47,1935).f
In addition to those already listed, two scientific papers by the author have been presented
for publication (June, 1936) in the Journal of the Biological Board of Canada. These,
dealing with local populations of herring and with the length and age composition of the
runs, contain the results of the six years of investigation and complete a general study of
these two phases. The more important results and conclusions contained in these two articles
will be reviewed briefly and discussed from the economic point of view in the following pages.
LOCAL POPULATIONS.
When one group of fish is living under conditions of partial or complete isolation from
another group, differences in body-structure arising from differences in either environmental
conditions or hereditary tendencies are preserved for several years at least. These differences
in structure are small, but they may be detected by comparing averages based on large
numbers of individuals from each group. One of the most useful of these " racial " characters
is the vertebral count. Although individual fish in all localities throughout the waters of
the Province have a definite number of segments or vertebrae in the backbone (usually 51,
52, or 53), it has been found that the average number increases more or less regularly from
south to north along the coast (Fig. 1). In other words, there are more fish with 53 and fewer
fish with 51 vertebrae in Hecate Strait than in Barkley Sound. This gradation in average
vertebral count is probably related to a gradation in water temperatures, the water becoming
progressively colder from south to north along the coast. Evidence for this arises from the
observation that in one locality high temperatures in the spring, when the backbone of the
larval fish is in the process of formation, are associated with low average counts, whereas
low spring temperatures are associated with high average counts. Another character, the
keeled scale count, shows a similar but opposite gradation, the number decreasing rather
than increasing towards the north. The presence of these gradations and their persistence
from year to year proves that extensive intermingling of the herring of the various runs along
the coast does not take place.    If it were to occur, the gradations would be quickly obliterated
* Reprinted in Report of the British Columbia Commissioner of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1933.
fReprinted in Report of the British Columbia Commissioner of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1934. SOME RESULTS OF THE B.C. HERRING INVESTIGATION.
L 75
and herring in both southern and northern waters would have approximately the same average
counts.
Having established the fact that extensive intermingling does not take place, it remains
to segregate the various local groups or " local populations " which are present in the waters.
This may be accomplished by the comparison of racial characters and, again, the vertebral
count is of great value. Taking into consideration various sources of variation in vertebral
count with year-class, age, and length, comparisons of the average counts in the various
localities reveal the presence of many statistically significant differences; i.e., differences
which cannot be attributed solely to chance. Similar differences are found between the
averages of other characters, such as the count of the segments in the abdominal portion
of the backbone, the length of the head, the length to the dorsal fin, the proportion of the
sexes, and the rate of growth in length. As many of these differences are present consistently
for several years, the obvious conclusion is that runs showing such differences intermingle
slightly, if at all.
<>
<o
5
fc-
bi
524
523
522
52 I
520
519
51.8
50 51 52 53
DEGREES    OF LATITUDE
Fig. 1. Showing the gradation in average vertebral count with latitude in four seasons.
From this type of evidence, together with a consideration of age composition, it is
concluded that over the period of investigation at least, the following runs have tended to
form local populations: Point Grey, Granite Bay, Saltspring Island-Departure Bay-Nanoose
Bay, Barkley Sound, Sydney Inlet, Nootka Sound-Kyuquot Sound, Quatsino Sound, Bella
Bella, Skidegate Inlet, Jap Inlet-Butler Cove, and possibly Pearl Harbour. No differences
have been demonstrated between runs which have been hyphenated and it is assumed that
these belong to one population.
Although these runs have been called " local populations," it must be kept in mind that a
slight degree of intermingling between those to closely situated or adjacent localities is
possible and that more complete intermingling may have taken place in the past and may
take place occasionally in the future. On the other hand, additional data may show that
these populations are further divisible into two or more separate units.    No attempt is made L 76 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
to define precisely the areas occupied by the populations because of this uncertainty and also
because of lack of knowledge concerning the extent of seasonal migrations. As mature
herring are observed in each fishing area during only a part of the year, usually in the
autumn, winter, and spring, it seems probable that they move from summer feeding-grounds
to these winter habitats prior to spawning in the spring. It is proposed to direct future
investigation to a more intensive study of the populations on the south-east and west coasts of
Vancouver Island in an endeavour to obtain more accurate knowledge of the extent of intermingling and migration of the fish, and hence a more concrete concept of the limits and
stability of each population. The tagging of herring by means of magnetic metal belly-tags
and the recovery of these by an electro-magnetic apparatus, a procedure developed for similar
studies on the Alaskan herring by Dr. G. A. Rounsefell and Mr. E. H. Dahlgren, of the
United States Bureau of Fisheries, will form part of the programme.
Apart from the seasonal movements which must take place, the herring of British
Columbia appears to be essentially a non-migratory species. This has an important bearing
on the nature and extent of fluctuations in abundance and availability. Annual fluctuations
or long-term trends in abundance, whether due to " natural" causes or to fishing activity,
will not necessarily be widespread throughout all areas. Fluctuations in availability are
not likely to be caused by the migration of herring from one fishing area to another. Thus,
on the west coast of Vancouver Island, if small catches are made in Barkley Sound and large
catches are made in Quatsino Sound, either in the same or in a different fishing season, this
condition is very unlikely to have been caused by a northward movement of Barkley Sound
fish. If intensive fishing can materially reduce the supply, because of the localization of the
runs a downward trend in abundance from this cause will be manifested as a local depletion
in the area which is fished intensively rather than as a general scarcity in all areas. Such
trends in abundance will take place slowly or rapidly, depending on the intensity of fishing
and on the size of the runs. Should it become necessary to regulate the fishery to ensure the
continuance of the supply, the policy of control and administration should be adapted to these
conditions.
LENGTH AND AGE  COMPOSITION.
In both the Alaskan and European herring-fisheries, annual and long-term fluctuations
in abundance are induced by variation in the strengths of successive year-broods or " year-
classes " of fish. For example, in Norway during the spring and summer of 1904, conditions
for spawning and for the survival of the young herring must have been particularly favourable, as fish hatched in that year (the 1904 year-class) supported the Norwegian fishery to a
large extent for many years. In fact, in 1919, at the age of fifteen years, this " dominant "
group of fish still formed over 20 per cent, of the catch. The extent of year-class variation
may be determined by studies of the length and age composition of the runs. Such studies
form an important phase of the herring investigations in British Columbia, as they may
account for fluctuations in the catch. They are of additional value in that they may enable
forecasts of size, age, and possibly abundance to be made.
In British Columbia the lengths of herring taken by non-selective methods of capture
range from about 140 to 240 mm. (5.5 to 9.5 inches measured to the base of the tail), with
an average of 180 to 200 mm. (7.1 to 7.9 inches). The average, however, differs considerably
among the various localities in the same year and also to some extent in one locality from
year to year. An examination of the scales of these fish shows the presence of " winter
rings." Although these are less clearly marked on scales of fish in southern as compared
with northern waters of the Province, they may be relied upon to give reasonably accurate
estimates of the age composition of the runs. Ages range from II. (1 + ) to XI. (10 + ) or
more, but the bulk of the catch is made up of fish from age III. to VI., inclusive (Fig. 2).
However, a considerable diversity in age composition is found both between localities in
one year and in the same locality from year to year. It is noted that the spread in both
lengths and ages tends to be greater in northern than in southern samples.
The diversity in age composition is well illustrated by the results for 1932-33. In that
season fish in their fifth year formed the most abundant age-class at Sydney Inlet, whereas
fish in their third year predominated in the catches from Barkley Sound to the south and
Nootka Sound to the north. In still another region on the west coast of Vancouver Island,
Quatsino Sound, fish in their sixth year formed the most abundant age-group in this same SOUTH-EAST COAST
!
s
kj
1915-16
1916 -17
1917-18
1918-19
1919-20
1921-22
1922-23
1924-25
1925-26
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
--fearai-
//     IV     VI     vm     x
AGE
SYDNEY INLET
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34 .
II       IV      VI     VIII
BARKLEY SOUND
40
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20
r pfe-
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20
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1930-31
20
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AGE
Fig. 2. Showing the age composition of samples from the south-east coast of Vancouver Island, Barkley Sound,
and Sydney Inlet. L 78 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
season. It is clear, therefore, that the same year-broods may be very unequally represented,
even in closely situated localities. This is similar to conditions in Alaska but in marked
contrast to those in Europe. Norwegian workers have shown that along the whole coast of
Norway, a distance comparable with that of the British Columbia coast, the age compositions
of catches made at different points are very similar. The peculiar conditions encountered
here and in Alaska are doubtless related to the tendency of the Pacific herring to form local
populations.
A comparison of the age composition of purse-seined catches in Southern and Northern
British Columbia reveals a difference in the age at which the year-broods mature and join
the adult schools. In southern waters the new recruits enter the commercial fishery in
force at age III., although small numbers may enter for the first time at an earlier or later
age. In northern waters, on the other hand, a year-class enters the fishery in part at age
III. but in full force at age IV. In this respect the northern runs are similar to those of
Alaska.
Successive broods of herring vary in relative abundance from year to year to some extent
(Fig. 2). During fifteen years' sampling of the population supplying the fishery on the
south-east coast of Vancouver Island (Saltspring Island-Departure Bay-Nanoose Bay), the
richer broods have formed the bulk of the catch at age III. and again, in the following season,
at age IV. In the early years of the Barkley Sound fishery a year-class was dominant at
age IV. (1915-16) and also at age V. (1916-17), but since 1929-30 each incoming group has
formed from about 40 to 70 per cent, of the catch at age III. In other localities, particularly
in Northern British Columbia, abundant groups have dominated at ages III. to VII.; i.e.,
during a period of five years in the fishery. Therefore, as compared with herring in other
great fisheries, year-class variation is less extensive, the richer year-broods dominate in the
catches for shorter periods, and the " effective " life of a year-class in the fishery (the period
during which it contributes materially to the catch) is considerably shorter. These
peculiarities are the result of a high rate of natural mortality in the British Columbia herring,
probably coupled with more equal spawning and survival conditions from year to year.
Although variation in the production of year-broods is less than in other regions, nevertheless it will cause some degree of fluctuation. In attempting to determine the extent of this,
it is of great value to be able to express numerically the relative strengths of the incoming
year-classes. A method of accomplishing this has been devised. Using this method, it is
shown that an unusual abundance of herring which was reported on the south-east coast of
Vancouver Island in 1918-19 may be attributed to the advent of a particularly rich year-class,
that of 1916, to the runs. In the same region the catch per seine per day's fishing was higher
in 1933-34 than in 1934-35. In the former season the bulk of the catch was made up of a
year-class of average strength at age III. and one considerably below average strength at
age IV. In the latter season, however, the incoming year-class at age III. was much above
average strength and the presence of this rich group most probably caused the increased
reward per unit of fishing effort.
In the East Anglican herring-fishery of the North Sea it has been possible to forecast the
length and age of the catches one year in advance with a reasonable degree of accuracy.
Similar forecasts are being attempted for the major herring-fishery of British Columbia, but
the chances for success are less because of the large percentage of the catch formed by the
incoming year-class, concerning the abundance of which there is at present no advance
information. With increased knowledge of the haunts of the immature fish, it may prove
possible to make the necessary quantitative estimates of the contributions they will make
to the fishery and, aided by suitable catch statistics, to make accurate forecasts of size, age,
and eventually abundance, which will prove of considerable value to the industry.
Over a twenty-year period (1915-16 to 1934-35) certain trends in length and age composition have been noted in the major purse-seine fisheries. Both on the south-east coast
of Vancouver Island and in Barkley Sound there has been a decrease in average length, a
decrease in the spread of lengths about the average, a decrease in average age and in age
spread, a decrease in the frequency of occurrence and persistence of dominant year-classes in
the catch, and, associated with all of these changes, an increase in the percentage rate of
mortality as calculated from age composition. The trend in age composition on the east
coast is shown in Fig. 3 where a straight line has been fitted mathematically to the percentages SOME RESULTS OF THE B.C. HERRING INVESTIGATION.
L 79
of fish over age IV. in the various years. On the average there has been a decrease from
about 30 to 13 per cent, over the period. A similar or even greater decrease has occurred
in Barkley Sound. Here the percentage of fish over age IV. was 57 and 54 per cent, in
1915-16 and 1916-17, whereas it has averaged but 13 per cent, over the recent six-year period
of investigation.    The change in the percentage rate of mortality from one age-group to the
^
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1915-16
1924-25
SEASON
1934-35
Fig. 3. Showing the trend in the percentage of fish older than IV. in samples from the south-east coast of
Vancouver Island.
next is shown by the following figures for an early five-year and more recent six-year period
in the east coast fishery:—
Ages.
III. to      IV.                                    	
1915-16 to
1919-20.
  4.7
1929-30 to
1934-35.
45.9
IV. to       V.                             - -   	
 49.6
62.8
V. to     VI.
.    56.6
72.5
VI. to   VII.
._   . ...   67.1
81.8
VII. to VIII. 	
 72.0
83.8
There are two possible explanations of these trends in length and age composition. Either
the actual numbers of the incoming young have been greater and the year-classes have been
more equally represented, or the actual numbers of larger and older fish have been smaller
and year-class variation has been similar in recent as compared with the earlier years of the
fishery. The former might be caused by natural factors such as changes in the physical,
chemical, or food conditions in the waters on the south-east or west coasts of Vancouver Island,
the latter by an increased mortality imposed on the stock in these two areas by fishing
activity.    The latter seems to be the more plausible interpretation.
In several other marine fisheries, notably that for plaice in the North Sea, that for
halibut off the British Columbia coast, and that for herring in South-eastern Alaska, similar
trends in length and age composition have been caused by intensive exploitation and, because
of the elimination of the larger and older fish, there have been serious declines in abundance.
It must be pointed out that such trends in size and age are the natural consequences of the_
increased mortality caused by fishing activity and must happen *0 some extent in any fishery..
In the three cases cited above, however, the increased exploitation has1 resulted in relatively rapid trends to a point at which some measure of control has been advisable to maintain the
fisheries at an economically feasible level of abundance.
Unfortunately, catch statistics which are sufficiently detailed to be used as a measure
of abundance are not available for the British Columbia herring over the twenty-year period
under consideration. The downward trend in length and age composition in the fishery on the
east coast of Vancouver Island, if caused by fishing activity, has not resulted in any marked
scarcity of fish as yet. In Barkley Sound, however, it may have been associated with the
poor runs encountered in the fall of 1925, 1929, and 1931, although this cannot be definitely
ascertained. At Sydney Inlet poor catches were made in the third year of intensive fishing
(1933-34) and in the same season there was a marked decrease in the percentage of older
fish in the run (Fig. 2). In the two major fisheries, however, the catch has been considerably
curtailed because of poor market conditions during the recent " depression " years, and this
may have temporarily checked any downward trends in abundance.
The most efficient exploitation of a fishery is attained when the abundance of fish remains
at an approximately steady level from year to year and, at the same time, the maximum
quantity of fish is removed and utilized. Thompson and Bell {Rep. Internat. Fish. Comm.
8, 1931,), working on the Pacific halibut, have clearly shown that these conditions may be
realized by the proper adjustment of the intensity of fishing to accord with the rate of growth
in weight and the rate of natural mortality of the population under consideration. Thus,
" where the increment by growth exceeds the loss by natural causes of death, the less intensive
fishery produces not merely a higher catch per unit of effort, but a greater annual total catch
from what young come into the commercial catch. Hence in fisheries of this type a less
intense fishery should increase both the incoming young and the poundage produced from
them, and vice versa a more intense fishery should decrease both. But it is equally obvious
that where the growth-rate is slow, less than the mortality from natural causes, the greatest
total yield from a given number of incoming young is produced by an intense fishery, although
the catch per unit of gear is thereby sharply reduced. In such a fishery the intensity should
be as great as is consistent with the maintenance of the supply of young and as is economically
feasible in view of the fall in returns to the individual fisherman." For any species, whether
of the first or second type, there exists an optimum fishing intensity and hence an optimum
age composition at which the total yield of the fishery is a maximum. It is conceivable,
therefore, that as long as the escapement of mature fish is sufficient to produce an
approximately constant supply of young, a decline in age composition to this optimum level
will be beneficial, as then fish are utilized which would otherwise die of " natural " causes.
In the British Columbia herring-fishery the optimum intensity of fishing is not known as
yet. For its determination, investigations must be made into the rate of fishing mortality,
the rate of natural mortality, and the rate of growth in weight. Fishing and natural
mortalities may be determined by the tagging methods referred to previously. Sufficient
data are on hand to calculate the rate of growth in weight. However, the problem of maintaining an optimum level of intensity will be more complicated than in the halibut-fishery
because of variation in the contributions made by successive year-broods, but it will be less
complicated than that in the Alaskan and other herring-fisheries because of the lesser extent
of this variation. The administration and control of the fishery as a whole will also be
complicated by the localization and varied sizes of the runs to the different fishing areas.
Until such investigations are made, it seems advisable to guard against intensive fishing
similar to that in force between 1925 and 1929. It seems reasonably certain that because of
this intensity the fishery has come to depend more and more on fish in their third year which
are about to spawn for the first time. This seems to be particularly the case in Barkley
Sound. Were fishing maintained at this high level of intensity, the ultimate effects are
unknown, but it is quite conceivable that both the total catch and the catch per unit of fishing
effort would decrease and, at the same time, the numbers of incoming young would be
progressively reduced. In this event a state of commercial extinction, similar to that which
has been caused in certain local populations of herring in South-eastern Alaska, would
eventually result. Such a possibility should be foreseen and guarded against until the
optimum level of fishing has been determined by scientific research.
■ PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON.
L 81
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1935.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steel-
heads.
Cohoes.
Pinks.
Chums.
Grand Total
(Cases).
62,822
12,712
52,879
135,038
31,648
32,417
22,928
9,401
63
560
4,039
429
216
687
6,525
143
14
39
24
355
21
24,950
5,461
21,810
23,498
8,375
1,201
41,831
104,366
111,328
1,479
25,508
81,868
4,554
4,412
94,190
191,627
8,227
86,298
17,481
8,122
7,136
12,427
125,953
143,960
216,728
93,301
78,214
170,420
155,571
Smith Inlet     -
49,928
295,433
469,427
Totals   	
350,444
21,920
596
231,492
514,966
409,604
1,529,022
15,319 cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table.
5,610 cases of sockeye packed at Esquimalt are credited to the Fraser.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1920 TO 1935, INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
BY
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
Sockeyes	
62,822
4,205
5,193
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
5,150
11,068
104,092
2,199
11,392
52,465
5,579
65,769
18,298
10,403
14,948
385
16,815
23
40,947
9,740
103,692
11,366
9,761
68,946
30,754
25,585
27,879
61,569
3,305
6,699
144,159
158,208
40,520
12,013
29,299
1,173
3,909
Chums	
Pinks  -..
34,391
92,746
13,901
251
13,307
8,165
657
193,106
2,881
27,061
795
Totals  _	
216,728
273,139
199,082
126,641
73,067
277,983
426,473
258,224
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red— _	
Springs, White	
Chums       -
Pinks 	
61,393
7,925
10,528
67,259
102,536
24,079
10,658
85,689
12,783
20,169
88,495
32,256
21,783
13,776
35,386
7,989
25,701
66,111
99,800
36,717
5,152
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
31,655
3,854
4,279
103,248
63,645
20,173
15
51,832
10,561
6,300
17,895
29,578
23,587
817
39,631
11,360
5,949
11,233
8,178
29,978
1,331
48,399
10,691
4,432
23,884
12,839
22,934
4,522
Totals. ,.
284,378
274,951
276,855
212,059
226,869
140,570
107,650
136,661 L 82
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1920 TO 1935, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Skeena River.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
Sockeyes..	
Springs  	
Chums  	
Pinks  	
Cohoes... - —	
Steelhead Trout	
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
126,163
54,456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
9,857
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
58
78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
13
34,559
6,420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
Totals 	
170,420
284,096
185,463
233,711
162,986
450,377
220,245
298,709
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
Sockeyes _	
Springs   _	
Chums 	
Pinks   	
83,996
19,038
19,006
38,768
26,326
582
82,360
30,594
63,527
210,081
30,208
754
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
39,168
713
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
131,731
12,247
16,527
145,973
31,967
418
96,277
14,176
39,758
301,655
24,699
1,050
41,018
21,766
1,993
124,457
45,033
498
89,364
37,403
3,834
177,679
18,068
1,218
Totals -
187,716
407,524
348,859
390,858
338,863
477,915
234,765
332,887
Rivers Inlet.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
6,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
325
429
5,089
6,571
32
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
342
989
2,386
1,120
29
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
Cohoes	
868
7
155,571
86,000
93,220
81,709
88,874
138,980
75,126
81,527
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
Sockeyes     - 	
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
65,581
685
11,727
12,815
7,286
11
192,323*
496
11,510
8,625
4,946
94,891
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
116,850
599
3,242
10,057
1,526
53,584
323
311
24,292
1,120
82
48,615
364
173
5,303
4,718
97
125,742
1,793
1,226
Pinks —   - -	
25,647
2,908
Steelhead Trout ~
69,773
98,105
217,900
117,445
132,274
79,712
59,272
133,248
* Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu. SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
L 83
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1920 TO 1935, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Smith Inlet, 1926-35.*
* Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other Districts.
Nass River.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
Sockeyes _  	
31,648
214
2
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
37,369
354
25,488
46
2
273
1,148
165
20
12,867
122
Cohoes            ...
Pinks	
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
5,068
19,995
8,841
87
112
824
133
36
Totals ._ 	
49,928
41,256
71,714
27,142
14,094
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Sockeyes  _   —
Springs, Red 	
32,057
268
22
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
9,683
18
60
275
853
113
12
33,442
108
178
230
167
19
6
22,682
270
79
2,990
732
2,605
8
17,921
73
39
Cohoes     — 	
Pinks _             „ 	
164
689
31
Totals.—   	
52,185
11,014
34,150
29,366
18,917
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
Sockeyes  -	
Springs - -
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
9,757
1,296
1,775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
1,439
392
5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,126
84
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
5,540
1,846
3,538
Pinks 	
Cohoes   .	
83,183
10,734
36
Totals	
78,214
75,213
60,434
85,671
32,881
113,460
29,185
104,877
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
Sockeyes- - -
12,026
3,824
3,307
16,609
3,966
96
15,929
5,964
15,392
50,815
4,274
375
18,945
3,757
22,504
35,530
8,027
245
33,590
2,725
26,612
72,496
6,481
1,035
17,821
3,314
25,791
44,165
7,894
595
31,277
2,062
11,277
75,687
3,533
235
9,364
2,088
2,176
29,488
8,236
413
16,740
4,857
12,145
43,151
3,700
Steelhead Trout 	
560
39,828
92,749
89,008
142,939
99,580
124,071
51,765
81,153 L 84
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1920 TO 1935, INCLUSIVE—ConU.
Vancouver Island District, 1927-35.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
Sockeyes	
22,928
27,282
18,397
27,611
22,199
24,784
10,340
14,248
24,835
Springs	
6,525
1,630
4,875
10,559
4,055
3,431
1,645
2,269
6,769
Chums	
143,960
210,239
96,642
70,629
16,329
177,856
162,246
303,474
220,270
Pinks.	
191,627
54,526
172,945
33,403
81,965
89,941
74,001
41,885
52,561
Cohoes	
104,366
78,670
60,019
35,132
26,310
30,206
35,504
23,345
58,834
Steelheads and Blue-
21
147
28,596
24,638
14,177
11,118
5,249
10,194
Totals...-	
469,427
372,347
353,025
205,930
175,541
340,395
294,854
390,470
373,463
Queen Charlotte and other Districts.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
Sockeyes. _  .
Springs	
Chums 	
Pinks 	
32,417
750
212,251
95,669
47,292
355
20,438
2,374
155,371
210,734
62,165
733
26,106
4,416
135,690
101,701
33,471
827
21,685
3,514
167,011
82,449
44,977
691
29,071
1,608
34,570
55,825
16,141
466
39,198
1,852
143,781
600,986
61,418
1,204
35,331
1,020
111,263
136,758
56,938
575
59,852
2,806
341,802
438,298
58,455
609
Totals.... -_	
388,734
451,815
302,111
320,227
137,661
848,439
341,873
901,822
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
Sockeyes -	
Springs- 	
60,533
7,826
252,230
36,481
47,433
973
62,383*
3,650
348,682
380,243
47,183
973
49,962
5,002
305,256
120,747
40,269
1,520
40,926
4,245
195,357
141,878
26,031
497
24,584
2,711
148,727
146,943
29,142
732
47,107
4,988
80,485
113,824
31,331
409
18,350
4,995
21,412
14,818
18,203
2,790
64,473
15,633
30,946
Pinks    	
Cohoes -	
247,149
33,807
3,721
Totals	
405,476
844,114
522,756
408,934
352,839
278,144
80,568
395,728
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet. SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
L 85
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE ENTIRE
FRASER RIVER SYSTEM FROM 1894 TO 1935, INCLUSIVE.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
363,967
41,781
395,984
65,143
356,984
72,979
860,459
312,048
240,000
252,000
486,409
499,646
170,889
228,704
974,911
1,105,096
293,477
State of Washington
339,556
Totals.- -
405,748
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
492,000
986,055
399,593
2,080,007
633,033
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.
1911.
204,809
167,211
72,688
123,419
837,489
837,122
183,007
182,241
59,815
96,974
74,574
170,951
585,435
1,097,904
150,432
248,014
58,487
State of Washington-
127,761
Totals 	
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
186,248
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
123,879
184,680
719,796
1,673,099
198,183
335,230
91,130
64,584
32,146
84,637
148,164
411,538
19,397
50,723
38,854
64,364
48,399
State of Washington	
62,654
Totals _ 	
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
103,200
111,053
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
39,631
102,937
51,832
48,566
31,655
47,402
39,743
69,369
35,385
112,023
85,689
44,673
61,393
97,594
29,299
61,044
61,569
State of Washington	
111,898
Totals.-	
142,598
100,398
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
158,987
90,343
173,464
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
103,692
352,194
40,947
87,211
65,769
81,188
52,465
126,604
139,238
352,579
62,822
54,677
State of Washington	
	
455,886
128,158
146,957
179,069
491,817
117,499
	
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1920 TO 1935, INCLUSIVE.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
27,611
21,685
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
61,569
78,017
70,260
9,683
16,077
10,340
35,331
29,299
34,559
60,044
33,442
5,540
14 248
26,410
350,444
377,844
258,107
284,355
L__
291,464
477,678
281,277
203,542
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
61,393
83,996
65,269
22,682
12,026
24,835
37,851
85,689
82,360
65,581
17,921
15,929
25,070
44,462
35,385
81,146
192,323
33,764
18,945
14,757
16,198
39,743
144,747
94,891
11,435
33,590
15,618
20,579
31,655
131,731
116,850
11,864
17,821
12,006
12,720
51,832
96,277
53,584
39,631
41,018
48,615
48,399
89,064
125,742
31,277
15,147
47,107
9,364
6,936
18,350
16,740
6,987
64,473
Totals.	
308,052
337,012
392,518
369,603
334,647
295,224
163,914
351,405 L 86
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1935.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PILCHARD INDUSTRY OF THE
PROVINCE, 1920 TO 1935, INCLUSIVE.
Year.
Total Catch.
Canned.
Used in
Reduction.
Oil.
Meal.
Bait.
1920
Cwt.
88,050
19,737
20,342
19,492
27,485
318,973
969,958
1,368,682
1,610,252
1,726,851
1,501,404
1,472,085
886,964
120,999
860,103
911,411
Cases.
91,929
16,091
19,186
17,195
14,898
37,182
26,731
58,501
66,097
98,821
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
Cwt.
Gals.
Tons.
Bbls.
9,937
1921
	
4,232
1922
3,125
3,625
923
1925 -	
1926 	
1927	
1928 	
220,000
940,000
1,310,000
1,560,000
1,654,575
1,438,840
1,456,846
876,700
119,545
845,849
896,586
495,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
3,997,656
2,856,579
3,204,058
2,551,914
1,315,864
275,879
1,635,123
1,634,592
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,823
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
4,045
2,950
1,737
2,149
1929 	
1930	
1,538
926
1931...	
1932 _	
1,552
1,603
1933     _
20
1934 	
40
1935. • 	
521
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, 1920 TO 1935  (OTHER
THAN FROM PILCHARD).
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Year.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1920                                                          -     -    —
Tons.
503
326
485
292
347
340
345
376
417
273
249
340
211
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
666
651
754
780
581
223
631
354
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,626
3,335
5,647
6,608
5,583
5,028
7,509
Gals.
55,669
1921	
44,700
1922 __
283,314
706,514
645,657
656,939
468,203
437,967
571,914
712,697
525,533
75,461
1923  _ _	
1924	
1925	
180,318
241,376
354,853
1926	
1927	
1928.   _ _	
1929 	
217,150
250,811
387,276
459,575
1930  _
1931	
243,009
352,492
1932 _	
231,690
1933	
509,310
813,724
426,772
497,643
441,735
588,629
1934 	
1935	
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1936.
1,825-736-9780  

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