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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1936]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL EEPOET
OF
THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR
TEAE ENDED DECEMBEH 31ST
1935
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed l>y Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.  To His Honour Eric W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Department of Labour of the Province for the year 1935 is
herewith respectfully submitted.
GEORGE S. PEARSON,
Minister of Labour.
Office of the Minister of Labour,
July, 1936. The Honourable George S. Pearson,
Minister of Labour.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Eighteenth Annual Report on the work
of the Department of Labour up to December 31st, 1935.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
Department of Labour,
Victoria, B.C., July, 1936.
ADAM BELL,
Deputy Minister of Labour. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Deputy Minister  7
Summary of " Health Insurance Act, 1936 "  7
Statistics of Trades and Industries  10
Total Pay-roll   10
Comparison of Pay-rolls  11
Change in Wage-rates   12
Apprentices  12
Average Weekly Rate by Industries  13
Increased Employment   15
Nationalities of Employees  17
Statistical Tables   18
Summary of all Tables __  31
Board of Industrial Relations   32
Statistics for Women and Girls  33
Labour Turnover in each Group  39
Inspections and Enforcement  41
Court Cases  41
Comparison of Wages  45
" Hours of Work Act "  47
Comparison with Previous Years  48
Average Weekly Hours   48
Summary of all Orders   50
Labour Disputes and Conciliation  62
Summary of Disputes  75
Inspection of Factories   77
Inspections  :  77
Hours of Work and Prosecutions  78
Home-work   ,  78
Freight and Passenger Elevators   79
Employment Service   81
Conditions during the Year   81
Business transacted   83
Unemployment Relief  84
Forestry Training   84
Placer-mining Training  ,  84
Apprenticeship Branch __   C-  90  REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF
LABOUR FOR 1935.
It is gratifying to be able to record in the Annual Report of the Department of Labour
for the year 1935 a pronounced improvement in industrial, business, and labour conditions
throughout the Province.
The improvement recorded in last year's Annual Report still continues with an increase
in the industrial pay-roll of the Province of $12,245,000 for the year 1935 over the year 1934,
and an increase of $26,696,000 for the year 1935 over the year 1933.
Throughout the year under review wage-rates have continued an upward trend, the
average industrial wage having increased from $23.57 to $24.09, while at the same time many
more people have found gainful employment, as evidenced by an increase of 9,804 in December
over January the same year.
With regard to hours of work, a comparison with previous years shows a further curtailment of long hours in practically all industries subject to the application of Provincial laws,
the average for all employees being a reduction from 47.32 hours per week in 1934 to 47.17
hours per week in 1935.
During the year it has been found necessary to enlarge the staff of the Department in
order to cope with an increasing volume of work arising out of additional regulations and their
effective enforcement.
The year has not been free from labour troubles and the conciliatory efforts of the
Department and its officials have again been required in many instances, with gratifying
results.
A new line of endeavour was opened up for the Department by bringing the " Apprenticeship Act " into operation. Suitable administrative machinery has been established in connection with this important legislation and its beneficial effect is already being felt in building
up an apprenticeship system in many of our skilled trades.
Generally speaking, the year 1935 may be viewed with considerable satisfaction. Admitting that the greater volume of business in our basic industries is regulated by the controlling
forces of international commerce, with respect to price and markets, we may justly claim that
the application of domestic labour policy has afforded a stabilizing influence and resulted in
general benefit.
SUMMARY OF THE " HEALTH INSURANCE ACT, 1936."
An Act to establish a contributory system of health insurance, which will provide protection
for the great majority of the wage-earners of the Province and their families, was passed by
the Legislature of British Columbia on March 31st. A summary of the main provisions of
the Act follows.
Medical care by the physician or surgeon chosen by the insured person, free hospital care,
the services of diagnostic laboratories, and necessary drugs and medicines are the " mandatory
benefits " specified in the Act. Various other medical services may be granted as " permissive
benefits " if sufficient funds are available after payment for the mandatory benefits.
A striking feature of the Act is that it deals with the family as a unit. Dependent wives
and children are to be included, with their wage-earner husbands, as insured persons.
The plan is to cover all employees earning less than $1,800 per year, except farm-workers
and Christian Scientists, who are specifically excluded. Certain other employees, such as
domestic servants, casual workers, and part-time workers, may be excluded if the Health
Insurance Commission decides and the Government approves.
An additional exemption provision of great importance is that employees who are members
of any industrial medical-service scheme in existence on January 1st, 1936, shall be excluded
if, by the time contributions from wage-earners and employers to the Health Insurance Fund
begin to be levied, their scheme provides a standard of service to its members and their
dependents equal to or better than the services of physician and hospital for all cases of
ordinary illness.    However, if a majority of the employees who are members of such a scheme K 8 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
vote, by secret ballot in a plebiscite to be supervised by the Government, to come within the
scope of the Provincial scheme, the exemption of any such group of employees is to be rescinded.
This provision means, in effect, that employees belonging to an industrial medical-service
scheme that maintains good standards are to have an opportunity of choosing between their
company scheme and the Provincial plan.
In view of the fact that some industrial medical-service schemes may cease operations
after introduction of the Provincial plan, the Act provides that members of these schemes
earning from $1,800 to $3,000 per year may be included in the Provincial plan as well as the
members earning less than $1,800.
Provision is also made for the inclusion of other persons, such as merchants, farmers,
and others not working for wages, irrespective of their incomes, who may join the scheme
as voluntary contributors to obtain benefits for themselves and their dependents.
The plan is to be financed by contributions from employees and employers, without any
contribution from the Government. The Government, however, has appropriated funds to
cover the organization expenses of the Health Insurance Commission. The employee is to
pay 2 per cent, of his wages and the employer 1 per cent, of his pay-roll for insured persons,
with minimum and maximum contributions fixed for each. The minimum contribution for
the employee is to be 35 cents per week (or some smaller amount to be fixed by the Commission)
and his maximum contribution 70 cents; while the employer's minimum payment for each
employee is set at 20 cents per week and his maximum payment at 35 cents.
The employer is required to deduct the amount of the employee's contribution from his
wages and to remit this amount to the Health Insurance Commission.
An important provision for employers is that they will only have to make contributions
in behalf of employees who are insured persons. This means that farmers, housewives, and
employers whose employees belong to an exempted medical-service scheme and other employers
whose employees are not included in the plan will not have to make contributions.
An important clause authorizes the Health Insurance Commission to work out special
methods of payment for seasonal workers such as loggers and fishermen. This clause will
permit the Commission to authorize a lump-sum payment, based on the season's earnings,
which will entitle the workers concerned to a full year of medical service for themselves and
their families.
Voluntary contributors are to bear the full costs of the services rendered to them and their
families, and rates are to be fixed by the Health Insurance Commission, with the approval of
the Government, for this group.
The plan is designed to interfere as little as possible with existing methods of providing
medical care. Thus it is provided that, except under unusual circumstances, insured persons
shall have the right to obtain service from the physician or surgeon of their own choice.
They are also to be entitled to have prescriptions filled by any qualified pharmicist.
Hospital service in a public ward is to be given for a period not to exceed ten consecutive
weeks for any one illness, unless a longer period is authorized by the Commission. Those who
desire semi-private or private ward care may obtain this by paying the difference between
public ward rates and other rates.
Full laboratory service and diagnostic aids, including X-ray, biochemical and other
services, are to be provided without special charge. However, in the case of drugs, medicines,
and dressings, it is specified that the Health Insurance Commission may require the insured
person to pay not more than one-half of the cost of these items.
Benefits are to be granted to insured persons four weeks after contributions in their
behalf become payable. They are to continue eligible to receive benefits for so long as their
contributions continue, for four additional weeks, and for any further additional period that
may be specified by the Commission. If an employee falls ill and is unable to work he will be
entitled to receive medical care for a still further additional period of twelve weeks.
These provisions mean that beneficiaries of the scheme will receive benefits not only while
they are contributing, but also during short periods of unemployment and during a considerable
period of absence from work on account of sickness.
The Commission is to make its own financial arrangements with doctors, druggists,
hospitals, laboratories, and other persons or agencies providing services. In the case of
doctors, any one of three methods of payment may be used—a salary system, a per capita REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935. K 9
system, or a fee system, with an allotted pool of money. If the per capita or the fee and pool
system is used it is provided that there shall be set aside for the payment of doctors not less
than $4.50 per insured person per year.
The Act is to be administered by a Commission to consist of a Chairman and not more
than four other members. The Chairman, who is to devote his full time to the work, is to be
the chief executive officer. The other members of the Commission (apart from the Vice-
Chairman) are to give only part-time service. The Commission is designed as a policy-forming
body, a board of directors with one executive officer. A full-time Vice-Chairman may be
appointed to assist the Chairman in executive duties if this appears necessary.
The Act also provides that the Government may appoint a " Technical Advisory Council "
of not more than six members to serve without remuneration and to advise and assist the
Commission. On this Council there is to be the Provincial Health Officer, the Chairman or
some other representative of the Workmen's Compensation Board, a physician with experience
in private practice, and at least one woman.
While the Commission is given broad powers to work out the details of administration,
regulations are to be made only with the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. K 10
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
STATISTICS OF TRADES AND INDUSTRIES.
As forecast in our last report, we are pleased to state that conditions as shown in the
industrial reports tabulated have continued to improve during 1935, and while there has been
the usual fluctuation the general tendency has been towards greater employment, higher wages
to the worker, and a reduction in the hours of labour.
4,153 FIRMS MAKE RETURNS.
The number of firms reporting has increased from 3,956 in 1934 to 4,153 in 1935, and we
desire to thank those firms who were prompt in making their return, and again to remind all
firms that the value of statistical information is greatly enhanced by its early publication.
TOTAL PAY-ROLL.
The pay-roll of the 4,153 firms whose returns were received in time for classification in
the twenty-five tables and in the summary amounted to $92,068,867.90, an increase of
$10,304,486.90, or 11.19 per cent.
This, however, is not the total Provincial industrial pay-roll, which, from the figures given
below, has now reached $125,812,140.15:—
Pay-roll of 4,153 firms making returns to Department of Labour	
Returns received too late to be included in above summary  _ —
Employees in occupations included in Department's inquiry, not sending in returns
(estimated pay-roll)      —	
Transcontinental railways   (ascertained pay-roll)     	
Dominion and Provincial Government workers	
Wholesale and retail firms   __. __  	
Delivery, cartage and teaming, warehousing, butchers, moving-picture operators, coal
and wood yards, and auto transportation	
Ocean services and express companies _   	
Miscellaneous  —  _ ...	
Total      	
$92,068,867.90
928,295.70
1,250,000.00
11,414,976.55
5,200,000.00
2,750,000.00
3,400,000.00
7,500,000.00
1,300,000.00
$125,812,140.15
During 1933 the total for the above was $99,126,653.28. It will therefore be apparent that
this Province has made a splendid recovery, showing as it does an increase of $26,696,000 in
the two-year period.
Only slight changes appear in the table showing the amounts paid to officers, superintendents, and managers; to clerks, stenographers, and salesmen; and to wage-earners, as will
be noted in the following figures:—
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
Per Cent.
11.57
13.45
74.98
Per Cent.
12.77
14.93
72.30
Per Cent.
12.08
13.62
74.30
Per Cent.
11.05
12.71
73.24
Per Cent.
Clerks, stenographers, and salesmen..	
12.65
Totals -	
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
COMPARISON OF PAY-ROLLS.
Of the twenty-five tables, twenty-two show an increased pay-roll, while three reveal
a decrease. The lumber industry again headed the list of industries with an increase of
$3,125,852, followed by metal trades with $1,314,997; contracting, though still far below its
usual place, increased $1,014,207; Coast shipping increased by $803,510; public utilities with
an addition of $800,000, followed by miscellaneous trades with $720,606; ths printing and
publishing industry recovered, to add $448,853; pulp and paper with $383,551; wood (N.E.S.),
$372,969; builders' materials, $158,624; explosives and chemicals, $181,220; laundries, etc.,
$166,905;   oil-refining, $182,890;   ship-building, $186,399;   leather and fur goods, $148,622; REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 11
house-furnishings, $118,857; breweries, $94,203; garment-manufacturing, $84,913; metal-
mining, $61,970; food products, $45,743; paint-manufacture, $24,843; jewellery-manufacture,
$18,273.
The three industries showing a decrease in the annual pay-roll were headed by coal-mining
with $134,512, followed by smelting and cigar and tobacco manufacturing with $12,939 and
$6,105 respectively.
The pay-rolls covering the past three years can be conveniently compared in the following
table:—
1933.
1934.
1935.
Industry.
No. of
Firms
reporting.
Total
Pay-roll.
No. of
Firms
reporting.
Total
Pay-roll.
No. of
Firms
reporting.
Total
Pay-roll.
35
67
9
23
104
633
8
447
56
39
8
68
41
573
631
253
140
24
9
132
14
34
3
101
78
$721,445.41
624,512.19
43,225.51
2,862,277.99
6,894,408.92
4,579,849.67
619,253.45
8,085,666.07
310,313.96
506,986.77
137,137.79
1,024,494.35
249,121.93
10,280,524.76
4,121,325.58
4,975,317.92
2,014,858.38
1,337,874.48
170,713.27
2,778,310.25
3,217,532.03
593,081.30
3,280,520.98
7,696,598.46
902,070.19
30
63
7
25
111
662
9
535
62
48
9
78
40
633
665
389
187
20
10
129
15
34
7
94
94
$751,440.20
643,681.40
29,638.20
3,198,911.30
6,932,756.80
4,703,241.50
804,290.60
8,790,400.30
528,344.20
614,571.50
158,874.80
1,013,741.70
305,646.30
14,951,858.30
4,819,806.40
8,218,487.40
2,729,705.80
1,729,387.80
226,536.40
2,723,886.70
3,911,116.30
753,155.20
4,313,022.80
7,735,931.10
1,175,948.00
37
76
6
24
110
705
13
562
61
49
9
87
46
656
683
353
262
24
10
130
17
43
4
96
90
$845,643.30
802,305.60
23,532.50
Coal-mining _ 	
3,064,399.10
7,736,267.50
Contracting..  	
5,717,448.50
985,511.00
8,836,143.70
Garment-making.... 	
613,258.10
733,428.80
177,148.50
1,180,647.20
454,239.10
18,077,711.20
6,134,803.50
8,280,457.60
Miscellaneous —	
3,450,312.20
1,912,277.80
251,019.60
3,172,740.20
4,294,668.00
Ship-building   	
939,555.10
4,300,083.20
Street-railways, etc..  	
Manufacturing wood (N.E.S.).. 	
8,536,318.90
1,548,917.70
Totals     	
3,530
$68,028,424.61
3,956
$81,764,381.00
4,153
$92,068,867.90
INDUSTRIAL DIVISIONS.
For the purpose of industrial divisions and with the object of localizing the industrial
pay-roll of the Province we have tabulated the returns into three divisions.  '
Greater Vancouver decreased from 40.48 in 1934 to 39.06 in 1935. The Island division also
lost from 17.88 in 1934 to 15.84 per cent, in 1935, while the Mainland further increased from
41.64 in 1934 to 45.10 per cent, in 1935.
The percentages quoted were arrived at on the basis of the 4,153 returns received, and
by applying the same proportion to the other figures which make up the total pay-roll we arrive
at the following apportionment:—
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
Greater Vancouver 	
$58,964,436.78
52,143,086.62
20,833,485.28
$131,941,008.68
$48,183,910.64
37,980,864.59
16,792,298.77
$102,957,074.00
$41,831,447.67
37,965,508.24
19,329,697.37
$45,972,307.59
47,289,695.86
20,305,950.09
$49,142,221.94
56,728,693.99
19,941,224.22
Totals   	
$99,126,653.28
$113,567,953.54
$125,812,140.15 CHANGE IN WAGE-RATES.
Continued-improvement in weekly wage-rates is apparent in the following table. In 1933
there were 22,972 adult males receiving less than $19 per week. This has changed to 19,279
for the year 1935, a decrease of 3,695 in the lower-paid brackets during the past two years.
Adult Male Workers employed at Low Rates of Wages.
Weekly Rate.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
Under $6 	
2
3
12
53
54
97
204
359
528
965
1,438
1,311
1,952
2,520
1
11
10
9
44
72
194
171
317
619
502
1,199
1,260
1
3
10
26
70
44
214
143
283
679
574
1,092
1,252
1
97
27
49
110
494
588
1,267
1,550
1,409
3
47
57
88
182
184
816
954
1,024
1,950
1,948
3
35
81
79
147
526
550
1,174
953
1,973
2,675
3,322
1,989
2,757
107
167
420
367
683
914
810
2,145
1,809
2,204
3,159
2,754
2,318
2,574
96
405
728
592
1,187
1,063
809
2,550
2,145
2,436
2,965
2,780
2,280
2,927
378
166
191
257
361
489
473
2,742
1,372
1,952
2,502
4,757
2,081
3,513
$6 to $6.99       ... .      	
7 to 7.99 _	
122
8 to 8.99        	
9 to 9.99    .   	
250
10 to 10.99               	
295
11 to 11.99                	
352
12 to 12.99                 	
1,745
13 to 13.99       	
1,167
14 to 14.99 	
1,413
15 to 15.99               	
2,192
16 to 16.99         	
5,300
17 to 17.99                 ~
2,267
18 to 18.99                 	
3,575
Totals . . . 	
9,498
4,409
4,391
5,592
7,253
16,264
20,431
22,972
21,234
19,279
The following table shows the various industries as represented in the tables, with the
total number of adult males employed for the week of the greatest number, together with the
percentage of those in receipt of less than $19 per week:—
Number
Industry. employed.
Wood-manufacture   (N.B.S.)   	
Cigar and tobacco manufacturing
Garment-making 	
Leather and fur goods	
House-furnishing   _	
Paint-manufacture   	
Builders' materials   	
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing
Lumber industries  	
Food products   	
Miscellaneous trades and industries .
Metal trades  	
Pulp and paper manufacture .
Contracting     	
Printing and publishing 	
Breweries, etc.  	
Coast shipping 	
Explosives, chemicals, etc. 	
Ship-building ' 	
Oil-refining  	
Jewellery-manufacture 	
Street-railways, etc 	
Coal-mining  	
Smelting   _	
Metal-mining _	
1,539
11
163
256
525
103
910
491
20,335
8,031
2,586
4,051
2,731
7,685
1,016
456
4,423
775
1,213
796
54
3,969
2,990
2,741
7,322
Per
Cent.
64.32
63.63
48.46
47.26
45.90
41.74
38.46
37.06
36.39
35.17
34.60
28.83
22.41
21.52
20.86
19.30
16.48
15.88
14.68
14.00
13.00
11.64
9.23
6.93
4.60
From the above figures considerable improvement is noted; for 1934 the highest percentage was 85.71 and the lowest 6.71, while for 1935 the highest is 64.32 and the lowest 4.60.
APPRENTICES.
The number of apprentices reported totals 925, as compared with 784 for 1934.
The proclamation of the " Apprenticeship Act" on September 9th, 1935, may affect very
materially, future totals in this column, and it must not be assumed that the total for 1935 is
covered, or comes within the scope of this legislation. Under the Male and Female Minimum
Wage Acts, apprentice permits are granted by the Board of Industrial Relations to employees ERRATUM.
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR
REPORT, 1935.
Page 13.—Average full week's wages in each industry (adult males only), Metal-mining,
1935, $22.65 should read $28.65.
Page 1J*.—Delete Increases and Decreases and insert the following:—
Increase.
Breweries .
   -- $0.17
Builders' materials      1.88
Cigars and tobacco manufacturing 73
Coal-mining        .38
Contracting          . 16
Explosives and chemicals      2.81
Food products        .90
House-furnishings   56
Jewellery, manufacturing of      2.66
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing —-  $1.25
Lumber industries —     1.09
Metal trades .  — —      .86
Metal-mining       1.30
Miscellaneous trades and industries     1.03
Oil-refining  51
Pulp and paper manufacturing _ 31
Smelting __      1.94
Street-railways, gas, water, power, etc.-    1.58
Decrease.
Coast shipping 	
Garment-making _
 .  $2.35
     2.23
Manufacturing leather and fur goods.     2.28
Paint-manufacturers 	
Printing and publishing
Ship-building  	
 -- $1.00
 --      .20
       .20
Manufacturing of wood  (N.E.S.)   28 REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 13
in industries to which Minimum Wage Orders apply, and some of which do not come within
the present scope of the " Apprenticeship Act."
This accounts for the number of apprentices shown in the summary of all tables and the
number shown in the report of the Inspector of Apprenticeship on page 90.
The following examples illustrate the above: Food products show 109, an increase of 34;
printing and publishing, 129, an increase of 21; smelting, 30, up 13; laundries, etc., 71, up 51.
These do not come within the ambit of the " Apprenticeship Act." Other increases are: Shipbuilding, 23; metal trades, 10; lumber industries and miscellaneous trades and industries,
7 each; house-furnishing and street-railways, etc., 6 each; builders' materials, 4; explosives
and chemicals, jewellery-manufacture, oil-refining, pulp and paper manufacturing, 2 each;
and breweries, etc., an increase of 1.
Decreases are headed by cigar and tobacco manufacture with a loss of 12, followed by
garment-manufacture, 9; contracting, 8; wood, (N.E.S.),3; leather and fur goods, 2; and
Coast shipping and paint-manufacture, 1 each; coal-mining and metal-mining had the same
numbers, being 7 and 10 respectively.
AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGE BY INDUSTRIES.
In the following table we have shown the average weekly wage, by tables, for a number
of years, which represents the week of employment of the greatest number. This would
normally mean a full week's work, but we have no opportunity of ascertaining from the report
whether the several employees worked the full week. Upon study of the various tables, we
would assume this is not the case. There are always such causes as broken time, weather
conditions, and other circumstances which enter into the making-up of an employee's time,
and affect his earning-power, through no fault of his own. We have therefore followed our
usual procedure for comparative purposes.
Using Table No. 1 as an example, we find 1 male over 21 years of age receiving from
$9 to $9.99 per week. This we set at $9.50. The same procedure applies to all other rates,
up to the $30 to $34.99 class; as some of the 46 shown would be earning sums varying between
these amounts, we fixed the rate for our purpose at $32, applying the same principle to the
other amounts, up to those earning $45 to $49.99.
The 6 employees shown as earning $50 and over per week were taken to mean $50 only.
Average Full Week's Wages in each Industry (Adult Males only).
Industry.
1928.
1929.
Breweries 	
Builders' materials	
Cigar and tobacco manufacturing .
Coal-mining	
Coast shipping	
Contracting _	
Explosives and chemicals 	
Food products, manufacture of-
Garment-making 	
House-furnishing.. —	
Jewellery, manufacture of 	
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing	
Manufacturing leather and fur goods
Lumber industries. 	
Metal trades	
Metal-mining —   ~
Miscellaneous trades and industries .
Oil-refining  —
Paint-manufacturing	
Printing and publishing —
Pulp and paper manufacturing .
Ship-building	
Smelting  	
Street-railways, gas, water, power,
telephones, etc	
Manufacturing of wood (N.E.S.)	
$28.85
26.28
22.97
30.60
31.89
30.58
26.24
27.70
28.60
27.44
32.49
26.96
27.88
26.53
31.04
33.27
27.15
30.23
23.62
40.94
26.82
28.85
32.54
30.04
25.02
$27.70
28.04
26.58
30.18
32.84
80.57
24.61
26.56
28.68
26.74
36.61
23.16
29.03
26.54
29.50
35.24
26.21
30.50
25.58
40.81
27.87
30.25
33.09
30.70
25.49
1930.
$27.40
27.38
25.06
29.03
31.36
30.34
26.66
27.79
28.34
25.54
37.85
27.16
28.31
25.69
29.96
33.31
25.88
29.78
25.85
39.34
27.39
30.35
30.05
30.02
26.03
1932.
$27.58
25.81
20.40
28.40
29.63
27.41
26.78
23.43
22.51
23.18
31.29
25.29
25.81
21.09
27.74
30.02
23.43
31.24
26.11
39.78
25.94
29.58
30.44
29.11
23.67
$25.65
21.95
14.28
28,04
26.50
24.78
23.34
21.88
24.07
20.05
23.40
23.26
21.62
18.73
24.24
25.50
22.78
29.34
25.00
37.05
24.63
26.17
22.98
28.89
20.61
1933.
$25.70
20.54
14.67
26.80
27.62
23.37
20.66
21.12
25.29
18.91
30.55
21.78
20.73
18.00
22.70
25.62
22.13
23.78
22.53
32.82
21.21
25.25
23.83
24.51
18.05
1934.
$25.62
20.19
15.86
28.11
28.58
22.56
22.53
21.10
23.52
19.49
28.88
20.67
22.34
21.32
22.81
27.35
21.26
25.04
22.53
32.51
23.22
26.03
23.88
25.51
18.97
1935.
$25.79
22.07
16.59
28.49
26.23
22.72
25.34
22.00
21.29
20.05
31.54
21.92
20.06
22.41
23.67
22.65
22.29
25.55
21.53
32.31
23.53
25.83
25.82
27.09
18.69 K 14
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
The increases and decreases in the average weekly rates are as follows:—•
Increase.
Breweries _  $0.17 Lumber industries  $1.09
Builders' materials     1.88 Metal trades   — 86
Cigar and tobacco manufacturing        .73 Metal-mining _     1.04
Coal-mining 38 Miscellaneous trades and industries      1.03
Explosives and chemicals     2.71 Oil-refining            ,51
Food products   84 Pulp and paper manufacturing 31
House-furnishing   _ _ —      .56 Smelting  — _      1.94
Jewellery, manufacturing of  -     2.66 Street-railways, gas, water, power, etc..    1.58
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing —    1.25
Decrease.
Coast shipping — _  $2.54
Contracting ._   _ 33
Garment-making       2.23
Manufacturing leather and fur goods     2.28
Paint-manufacture   _.  $1.00
Printing and publishing   20
Ship-building 39
Manufacturing of wood (N.E.S.)  28
AVERAGE INDUSTRIAL WAGE.
The average weekly wage for adult males increased from $23.57 in 1934 to $24.09 during
1935, an increase of 2.20 per cent, for 75,172 adult male employees.
Since the compilation of statistics in 1918 the average weekly wage for adult males is
as follows:—
1918..
1919..
1920.
1921..
1922.
1923
1924..
1925..
1926 -
$27.97
1927
29.11
1928
31.51
1929
27.62
1930.
27.29
1931.
28.05
1932
28.39
1933.
27.82
1934.
27.99
1935
$28.29
28.96
29.20
28.64
26.17
23.62
22.30
23.57
24.09
AVERAGE  WEEKLY WAGES PAID TO ADULT  MALE  EMPLOYEES.
1918—1935
AVERAGE
WEEKLY
WAGES
•VEIAR
1918
1919
1930
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
*
32.00
3T.OO
30.00
29.OO
28.00
27. OO
26. OO
25.OO
24.00
23.OO
22.OO
A
-
t
A
1
\
\
_---''\
/
/
\
\
,_^
\..	
\
\
\
\
(
\
/""
V REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 15
Charts showing Fluctuation in Industrial Wages.
30%-
257--
aoz-
157.-
IOT_-
57.-
1930
1931
1932
1933
■
J
 _
■ i
T
11
i 1
1
1 1
± _. _:
11
II
1 1 1
I 1
i 1
4»        -IiratOiOCOrlHOO
j§ g>rHeO«©i-.*-j.CJ-rt
S.H&    - w <^ -
o       ft
2 9
H)4-)-lJ4J+J-*-)+->+J     Cj
OrHtOCOQOfNOCO
toeo-voiocoo-iN
tH    IN    r-t    r-4
-OOIOOWOIO©     £
HWNMCO'J'fiO     w
noooooooS
hHNNCQM^M1-.
O  <P  t* M
rH    G)   IN   CO
IO   IN   i-.   r-i
loomowoioo
HNNMM^^iO
oooooooP
-p  +j   ■♦->  +a   -m  +»  +»   d
jh   o   o  o  o   o   o
d)  4->  -p  +j
+J    -P    -u
loousoioomo
rHINWCOCO-^-^lO
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%.
5%
1934
1935
i
i_
x
_ _t
±
g
l
. ±
a
I
■£    jjjcioootot-rHooco
3     S>r4io«3«Joi_flcg
SlH£i-l    IN    N    rH
Ph     H
^
t^ooooooo
O-P+J-P-P-P-P+J
r-OOOOOOOfi
INCREASED EMPLOYMENT.
Continued improvement is revealed in
the figures showing the numbers employed, and it might be advisable to state
that these figures are positive proof that
enforcement of minimum-wage laws does
not decrease the number employed, as is
so often claimed by opponents to these
laws. We have always held that increased spending-power will increase
business, and therefore employment, and
the figures for 1935 justify this claim.
January, 1935, shows 52,339 employees.
As revealed in the returns, these increased
to a peak during September with 72,124,
declining to 62,243 for the month of
December, a total of 9,904 in excess of the
beginning of the year.
The effect of minimum-way legislation
has not in any possible manner reduced
employment.
Orders of the Board of Industrial Relations governing male employees began to
take effect in April, 1934, and have
applied to various industries since that
date; and notwithstanding the claim that
these Orders have decreased employment, K 16
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
our records show an increase in the number employed of 20,076 from January, 1933, to
December, 1935.
The following chart depicts the employment curve for the years 1921 to 1935, and shows
the recovery made since the low point of 1933:—
AVERAGE   MONTHLY   NUMBER or WAGE-EARNERS (Male 5 Female)
1 921 - 227 -30-31-3 2-33-3 4-35
JAN.
FEB.
MARAPL
. MAY JUNE JULY
AUG. SEPT.
OCT.
NOV.
DEC.
IOO.OOO
95,000
90,000
85,000
80,000
75,000
1929
'•.
70,000
65,000
>.*'
""---_
***""  _ -"
N
'n.
V
I930
'^
--"    r
V
V,
\
^,>
 -~
" /
/
s
X
X
\
1935
60,000
55,000
s
++
V
++
^
/
/
/
?>
~~*T
K—"
\
5-
1334
v_^
V\
50.000
_--'w'
&?-
.--
■7*
'^O.-^v.
V
1931
1933
>•
_- —''"
>'
n_
<x
45,000
___ —-
*-*
y>
-""^               REFERENCE              ^>
Employment  in	
''*'_
I9ZI
I93Z
y"
J,
1921    shewn  thus          	
40,000
^""*~~»~
x^
1929
l__>_3<_-                                                        	
1931             "              "              	
1932           ..              ..              .-~..~w..w..
1934                "                    "                    xxxx XXXX—
1
935     .
   1
	
EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATION.
Due to the nature of some of our industries, such as fruit and vegetable canning and fish-
canning, whose seasonal operations require large additions to the staff for a short period of
the year, the employment curve in the above graph takes a sharp turn upward during the
months of August and September. Were it not for this, the line would have shown a steady
increase throughout the year.
Fortunately, among those who are taken on the staff of these industries during the peak
periods are many who look upon this work as a means of increasing the family income and are
not in the labour market during the balance of the year. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 17
Only five of the tables reported fewer employed in December than in January, those being
cigar and tobacco manufacturing, coal-mining, Coast shipping, ship-building, and the public
utility group.
Comparing December, 1935, with January of the same year, we find an increase of 6,064
employees in the lumbering table, 1,118 in food products, 590 in metal-mining, 462 in metal
trades, 454 in contracting, 426 in wood manufacturing (N.E.S.); miscellaneous trades and
industries, 377; pulp and paper, 197; house-furnishing, 169; smelting, 155; printing and
publishing, 127; laundries, cleaning and dyeing, 114; builders'materials, 104; breweries, etc.,
101;  the others not mentioned all increased less than 100.
NATIONALITIES OF EMPLOYEES.
Of the total 95,803 employees reported under nationalities, 73,479, or 76.69 per cent., were
natives of English-speaking countries, an increase of 3.86 per cent.; 13,897, or 14.51 per cent.,
were originally from Continental Europe, a decrease of 1.26 per cent. Natives of Asiatic
countries decreased from 8.28 to 7.08 per cent., the number employed being 6,781.
The employees from other countries also decreased from 3.64 to 1.72 per cent., and
numbered 1,646.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
Natives of English-speaking countries	
Per Cent.
72.01
16.07
8.97
2.95
Per Cent.
73.60
15.48
7.07
3.85
Per Cent.
75.26
14.57
8.40
1.77
Per Cent.
76.30
14.62
7.80
1.28
Per Cent.
72.83
15.25
8.28
3.64
Per Cent.
76.69
14.51
7.08
From other countries, or nationality not
1.72
Totals    .
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100 00
FIRMS WITH LARGE PAY-ROLLS.
As an indication of the general recovery which has taken place during 1935, the number
of firms with a total pay-roll of over $100,000 increased from 123 in 1934 to 150 in 1935.
As in previous reports, pay-rolls of public authorities (Dominion, Provincial, or municipal)
are not included, nor are wholesale and retail firms, transcontinental railways, or vessels
engaged in deep-sea transportation.
The lumber industry maintained its leading place, with 50 firms, an increase of 10,
followed by food products with 18, an increase of 4; metal-mining, 16, up 4; Coast shipping,
9, up 2; public utilities, 7, up 2; followed by pulp and paper mills, printing and publishing,
garages, general contracting, with 5 each; coal-mining and oil-refining, 4 each; wood (N.E.S.),
with 3; breweries, explosives and chemicals, miscellaneous metal trades, miscellaneous trades
and industries, ship-building, and smelting, 2 each; builders' materials, electrical contracting,
house-furnishing, jewellery-manufacture, laundries, etc., leather and fur goods, paint-manufacture, 1 each.
Of the 150 firms reported above, one had a pay-roll in excess of $4,000,000, one between
$3,000,000 and $4,000,000, one between $2,000,000 and $3,000,000, and four between $1,000,000
and $2,000,000. K 18
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
CONTENTS OF TABLES.
With regard to the tables immediately following', the general
headings of such tables are given hereunder and the trades included under each heading :—
No. 1. Breweries.—Under this heading are tabulated mineral-
water manufacturers and breweries.
No. 2. Builders' Material, etc. -Includes manufacturers of
brick, cut stone, Portland cement, line, tiles, and firebrick ;
also stone-quarries and dealers in sand, gravel, and crushed
rock.
No. 3. Cigar and Tobacco Manufacturing.— Comprises only
these trades.
No. 4. Coal-mining.—This group contains also the operation of
coke-ovens and coal-shipping docks.
No. 5. Coast Shipping.—Includes the operation of passenger
and freight steamships, stevedoring, tug-boats (both general
and towing logs), and river navigation, but does not include
the operation of vessels in the offshore trade.
No. 6. Contracting. -Here are grouped building trades, painting and paper-hanging, plumbing a>.d heating, and sheet-
metal works ; also contractors for industrial plants, structural-steel fabricating, railway-fencing, sewers, pipes and
valves, dredging, pile-driving, wharves, bridges, rooting,
and automatic sprinklers. Firms making return as building
contractors, constructors of dry-kilns, refuse-burners, mills,
brick-furnaces, electrical contractors, hardwood and sanitary floor-layers, and bricklayers.
No. 7. Explosives, Chemicals, etc. — Includes the manufacture
of these commodities, also the manufacture of fertilizers.
No. 8. Food Products, Manufacture of.—This table includes
bakeries, biscuit-manufacturers, cereal-milling, creameries
and dairies, fish, fruit and vegetable canneries, packinghouses, curers of ham and bacon, blending of teas ; also
manufacturers of candy, macaroni, syrup, jams, pickles,
sauces, coffee, catsup, and spices.
No. 9. Garment-making.— Includes tailoring, the manufacture
of buttons, pleating, embroidery, etc., jute and cotton goods,
shirts, overalls, knitted goods, millinery and ladies' outfitting.
No. 10. House Furnishings.—Comprises firms engaged in the
manufacture of furniture, beds and bedding, springs and
mattresses, upholstering, and carpet and linoleum laying.
No. 11. Jewellery, Manufacture of.— Includes the repair as well
as manufacturing of jewellery and watches and optical
instruments (where same is carried on in a factory).
No. 12. Laundries, Cleaning and Dyeing.— Includes these industries only.
No. 13. Leather and Far Goods, Manufacture of.— Comprises
manufacturers of boots, shoes, gloves, harness, trunks, and
leather Indian novelties; also furriers and hide and wool
dealers.
No. 14. Lumber Industries.—In this group are included logging, logging-rail ways, planing-mills, sawmills, shingle-mills,
and lumber-dealers.
No. 15. Metal Trades.— This group includes marine blacksmith-
ing, oxy-acetylene welding, boiler-making, iron and brass
foundries, garages, vulcanizing, machine and pattern shops,
galvanizing and electroplating; also manufacturers of
handsaws, nuts and bolts, pumps, marine engines, mill
machinery, and repairs to same.
No. 16. Metal-mining.— Includes all metalliferous mining.
No. 17. Miscellaneous Trades and Industries. — Here are
grouped returns from trades which are not numerous
enough to warrant special categories. They include manufacturers of soap, sails, tents, awning, brooms, paper boxes,
and tin containers ; also cold storage.        m
No. 18. Oil-refining.— Includes also the manufacture of fish-oil.
No. 19. Paint-manufacturing.—Includes also white-lead corro-
ders and varnish-manufacturers.
No. 20. Printing and Publishing.—This table includes the
printing and publishing of newspapers, job-printing, paper-
ruling, bookbinding, engraving and embossing, blue-printing, lithographing, draughting and map-publishing, and the
manufacture of rubber and metal stamps.
No. 21. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing.—Gomyrises only
firms engaged in that industry.
No. 22. Ship-building.—Comprises both wooden- and steel-ship
building and repairing, also construction and repair of small
craft, and salvage.
No. 23. Smelting.— Comprises firms engaged exclusively in that
industry.
No. 24. Street-railways, Gas, Water, Power, etc.— This group
comprises generating and distribution of light and power,
manufacture of gas, dissolved acetylene and oxygen ; also
includes gasoline lighting and heating devices, and supply
of water to municipalities.
No. 25. Wood, Manufacture of (not elsewhere specified).—Here
are grouped manufacturers of sash and doors, interior finish,
water-proof ply-wood, veneer, store and office fittings,
barrels, boxes, ships' knees, ready-cut buildings, wooden
pipes and tanks, wooden pulleys, wooden toys, caskets,
coffins, and undertakers' supplies.
Table No. 1.
BREWERIES, DISTILLERS, AND AERATED
WATER MANUFACTURERS.
Returns covering 37 Firms.
Salary arid Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $--36,363.70
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc    137,952.30
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)    471,327.30
Total §845,643.30
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Malea.
Females.
January	
February....
April	
May	
June	
380
SS6
382
376
404
418
50
67
69
S3
71
63
July	
August	
September .
November ..
December...
446
427
425
407
400
420
69
59
57
57
77
111
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under $6.00	
3
2
1
7.00 to     7.99...
8.00 to    8.99...
1
9.00 to     9.99...
1
5
1
10.00 to   10.99...
1
1
59
9
39
12
1
4
3
5
11.00 to   11.99...
12.00 to   12.99...
13 00 to   13.99...
2
1
17
11
5
10
38
19
35
14
24
8
11
15
13
7
16
127
46
21
4
2
6
3
1
2
1
3
1
14 00 to   14 99...
15.00 to   15.99...
16.00 to   16.99...
17.00 to   17.99...
18.00 to   18.99...
20.00 to   20.99  ..
21.00 to   21.99...
22 00 to   22.99.
23 00 to   23.99...
24.00 to   24.99...
25.00 to   25.99...
26.00 to   26.99...
27.00 to   27.99...
28.00 to   28.99.
29.00 to   29.99...
1
30.00 to   34.99...
35.00to   39.99...
40.00 to   44.99...
45.00 to   49.99...
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland..
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy.,
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States.
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Males.
279
135
21
1
15
19
10
5
Females.
80
31
12 REPORT OP DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 19
Table No. 2.
BUILDERS' MATERIAL—PRODUCERS OF.
Returns covering 76 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $158,312.10
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc         91,134.40
Wage-earners (including- piece-workers)       552,859.10
Total     $802,305.60
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
January...
February  .
March	
April	
May	
June	
Males.
Females.
451
1
459
2
476
2
605
1
601
1
654
1
Month.
July	
August. ..
September
October....
November.
December..
Males.   Females.
663
741
697
670
612
554
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15 00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.00..
to $6.99.
99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
to 23.99.
to 24.99.
to 25.99.
to 26.99.
to 27.99.
to 28.99.
to 29.99.
to 34.99.
to 39.99.
to 44.99.
to 49.99.
and over.
Males.
21 Yrs.
& over.
7
4
2
3
3
22
4
16
69
50
39
70
28
33
26
14
82
25
29
17
17
11
68
33
27
12
Under
21 Yrs.
Females.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States....
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc..
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan   	
Japan ,	
All other countries	
Males.
404
413
14
2
2
42
8
5
24
4
1
57
Females.
34
1
Table No. 3.
C10AR AND TOBACCO MANUFACTURING.
Returns covering 6 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers  $4,871.70
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc  5,038.70
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  13,622.10
Total  $23,532.50
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
F'emales.
Month.
Males.
Females.
January....
February...
April	
May	
10
10
10
10
10
10
19
19
17
17
17
16
July	
September .
October ....
November..
December ..
19
11
10
10
10
11
16
25
21
17
18
15
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners or/ly).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
&over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under $6.00	
$6.00 to   $6.99
7.00 to     7.99
9.00 to     9 99
10 00 to   10.99
1
11.00 to   11.99..
12.00 to   12.99..
13.00 to   13.99
4
5
2
1
1
2
15.00 to   15.99..
16.00 to   16.99
1
1
1
	
18.00 to   18.99..
20.00 to   20.99
2
1
21.00 to   21.99 .
22.00 to   22.99.
24.00 to   24.99..
1
27.00 to   27.99..
28.00 to   28.99..
29.00 to   29 99
30.00 to   34 99
35.00 to   39.99
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland..
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy.
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finlmd, etc.
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Males.
Females. K 20
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Table No. 4.
COAL-MINING.
Returns covering 2i- Firms.
Table No. 5.
COAST SHIPPING.
Returns covering 110 Firms.
Salary and Wage Pay
Officers, Superintendents, and Manage
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc..
Wages-earners (including piece-worker
ments, 1935.
5,827.20
3,698.10
4,873.80
Salary arid Wage Payments, 1935.
06,486.SO
42,186.30
87,594.40
s)	
14
2,76
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc	
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)....
4
6,£
$7,736,267.50
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males
Females.
Month.
Males.   Females.
Month.
Males
.   Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
February.. ..
April  	
May	
2,801
2,486
2,390
2,425
2,502
2,449
1
1
1
1
1
1
July
Aug
Sep
Octr
Nov
Dec
2,449
2,190
2,262
2,278
2,433
2,461
1
1
1
1
1
1
January....
February...
May	
4,026
3,774
3,92C
4.09C
4,869
4,113
6
6
6
7
9
10
Jul.
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
4,647
4,352
4,035
4,113
3,812
3,947
11
ember .
ember...
smber,..
ember..
ember..
ember ..
11
10
6
7
7
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only).
For Week of
Males.
FEMALES.
Apprentices.
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Males.
Females.
!
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
-.over.
Under
18 Yrs.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under $6.00
$6.00 to   $6
7.00 to    7.
Tinder S6 00	
78
11
8
10
28
32
15
33
29
111
73
111
125
65
267
427
315
335
208
77
287
81
47
111
65
673
236
428
58
79
.9...
99.   .
2
Sfi 00 to   S6
99.
1
1
7.00 to     7.99..
8.00 to     8.99..
9.00 to     9.99..
10.00 to   10.99..
11.00 to   11.99..
12.00 to   12.99..
13.00 to   13.99..
14.00 to   14.99..
15.00 to   15.99..
16.00 to   16.99..
17.00 to   17.99..
18.00to   18.99..
19.00 to   19.99..
20.00 to   20.99..
21.00 to   21.99..
22.00 to   22.99..
23.00 to   23.99..
24.00 to   24.99  .
25.00 to   25.99 .
26.00 to   26.99..
27.'00 to   27.99..
28.00 to   28.99..
29.00 to   29.99..
30.00 to   34.99..
35.00 to   39.99..
40.00 to   44.99..
45.00 to   49.99  .
50.00 and over..
1
2
.9
12
14
9
14
7
37
31
15
29
104
52
34
93
68
57
344
218
97
237
70
123
909
259
89
32
32
1
2
9
8
89
16
1
9 00 to     9.99...
1
7
10.00 to   10.99...
11.00 to   11.99...
1
12.00 to   12 99...
6
2
52
2
14
3
2
13.00 to   13.99...
1
14.00 to   14.99...
2
3
1
1
15.00.O   15.99...
13
9
3
14
6
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
16.00 to   16.99...
1
17.00 to   17.99...
18.00 to   18 99...
1
2
1
19.00 to   19.99...
8
10
3
1
20.00 to   20.99...
21.00 to   21.99...
22.00 to   22.99...
23.00 to   23.99...
24.00 to   24.99...
25.00 to   25.99...
1
26.00 to   26.99...
27.00 to   27 99. ..
28.00 to   28.99...
29.00 to   29.99...
30.00 to   34.99.
35.00 to   39.99...
40.00 to   44.99..
45.00 to   49.99...
Nationality of Employees.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Males.
Females.
Country of Origin.
Males.
Females.
807
1,319
36
9
16
3
268
180
285
39
95
4
112
3
1
2,288
1,770
71
48
Great Britain and I
United States of A
11
22
13
8
1C6
3
9
273
Italv	
Tta.lv	
Germany and Austr
Central European a
Germany and Aust
nd Balkan S
Norway, Sweden. Denmark, Fin
Russia and Poland
Other European coi
Russia and Poland
23
33
16
1KR
All other countries REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 21
Table No. 6.
CONTRACTING.
Returns covering 705 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $832,243.80
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc       670,950.30
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)    4,214,254.40
Total $5,717,448.£0
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
January .
February
March...
April....
May	
June
Males.   Females.
3,395
3,345
3,548
3,845
3,903
4,118
46
41
41
77
78
Month.
Males.
July	
4,489
4,974
September .
5,083
October ....
6,037
November..
4,508
December...
3,847
129
117
84
72
53
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners only),
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28 99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44 99.
49.99.
21 Yrs.
__ over.
7
45
25
28
28
32
23
152
132
238
210
184
374
176
1,662
430
737
675
223
459
186
•206
164
168
60
527
413
129
48
44
Under
21 Yrs.
16
15
10
1
3
18 Yrs.
& over.
2
7
1
55
7
13
5
14
3
8
2
3
1
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
15
4
1
5
3
7
3
16
9
6
3
3
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France    	
Italy	
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States ...
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China   	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
3,871
2,902
164
17
15
27
177
123
80
354
98
9
5
4
4
30
172
39
1
Table No. 7.
EXPLOSIVES, CHEMICALS, ETC.
Returns covering 13 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers  $49,784.60
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc  123,472.20
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  812,254.20
Total $985,511.00
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
January ....
February...
March	
May	
June	
521
544
579
615
716
729
2
2
2
2
5
5
July	
August	
September..
October....
November ..
December ..
722
702
671
571
673
563
5
3
4
2
2
1
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under $6.00.
$6 00 to  $6.99..
4
1
7.00 to     7.99
8 00 to     8.99..
1
9.00 to     9.99
24
8
2
29
7
2
6
19
6
16
29
53
35
62
30
58
41
40
45
26
59
100
29
33
6
6
1
3
1
1
11 00 to   11 99..
12 00 to   12.99  .
3
13.00 to   13.99..
14 00 to   14.99
15.00 to   15.99
2
1
17.00 to   17.99
1
18.00 to   18 99..
19.00 to   19.99..
2
5
3
3
2
3
20.00 to   20.99
21.00 to   21.99..
22 00 to   22.99..
23 00 to   23.99
24.00 to   24 99
25.00 to   25.99..
28.00 to   28.99..
1
29 00 to   29.99..
35 00 to   39.99..
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland..
Great Britain and Ireland.. .
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy.
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland   	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
360
241
19
2
3
1
22
5
5
42
5
1
53
45
1 K 22
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Table No. 8.
FOOD PRODUCTS—MANUFACTURE OF.
Returns covering 562 Firms.
Salary an'd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers.. $1,3S7,902.00
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc    1,328,551.10
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)   ....   6,119,690.60
Total $8,836,143.70
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
P'emales.
Month.
M ales.
Females.
January	
February 	
March	
April	
Majr	
June	
3,632
3,660
3,760
4,213
4,906
5,174
816
844
802
902
1,068
1,244
July	
September .
October ....
November..
December ..
6,160
6,521
7,118
6,269
5,152
4,202
2,680
3,054
3,461
2,919
1,863
1,364
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly)
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21 00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
5.00 .
$6.99.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
21 Yrs.
&. over.
115
31
24
23
49
64
92
203
337
181
333
479
287
607
577
506
843
369
267
376
428
201
191
150
325
488
289
93
31
78
Under
21 Yrs.
28
51
31
69
24
56
59
75
21
23
23
15
12
7
12
4
7
4
1
1
1
7
18 Y'rs.
& over.
321
94
68
96
159
231
378
526
442
583
299
273
138
191
100
99
71
52
50
45
36
38
28
7
18
44
1
Under
18 Yrs.
51
62
16
36
40
41
48
40
20
20
12
6
5
5
2
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland   	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
FYance 	
Italy	
German}' and Austria.   	
Central European and Balkan States  . ..
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
4,233
2,216
100
7
9
12
52
143
79
439
41
27
854
8
611
431
Apprentices.
10
3
33
2
9
6
2
7
1
2
1
1
Males.       Females.
3,256
724
56
2
9
27
105
103
39
80
123
12
Table No. 9.
362
73
GARMENT-MAKING.
Returns covering 61 Firms.
Salary atfd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $113,657.10
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc         86,783.40
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)       412,817.60
Total     $613,258 10
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.    Females
January.
February
March.. .
April.   ..
May	
June
160
169
177
179
181
179
330
413
434
474
474
443
Month.       Males.    Females.
July	
August	
September .
October
November..
December ..
172
187
191
177
174
168
372
406
451
465
419
365
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
9.99..
10.99..
11.99..
12.99..
13.99..
14.99..
15.99..
16.99..
17.99..
18.99..
19.99..
20.99..
21.99.
22.99..
23.99..
24.99..
25.99..
26.99..
27.99..
28.99 .
29.99..
34.99..
39.99..
44.99..
49.99..
21 Yrs.
__ over.
1
1
3
2
6
8
10
24
8
3
7
7
4
6
3
10
1
3
9
1
13
11
6
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Y'rs.
&over.
1
2
4
6
8
1
73
77
120
55
32
30
23
5
16
2
4
1
1
3
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
4
15
3
8
3
1
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland   	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium   	
France 	
Italy	
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China   	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
Males.      Females.
119
48
2
350
127
7
1
2
1
2
7
6
12
13 REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 23
Table No. 10.
HOUSE FURNISHINGS—MANUFACTURING OF.
Returns covering 49 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $123,723.50
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc    140,062.50
Wage-earners (including piece-workers) •    469,642.80
Total   $733,428.80
Average Number of Wage-earners.
January .
February
March...
April....
May	
June
.Males.   Females.
507
509
607
498
604
511
86
88
90
Month.       Males.   Females.
July 	
August...
September
October   ..
November .
December.
531
570
563
637
667
650
89
95
97
105
109
110
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11 00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18 00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
60.00
$6.00	
to $6.99.
to 7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29 99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over.
21 Yrs.     Under
_. over.    21 Yrs.
1
1
3
4
2
14
7
21
33
101
36
13
82
15
35
29
12
18
18
14
13
12
17
3
4
4
4
2
23
3
9
4
8
Females.
18 Yrs.
&over.
1
2
1
3
3
2
9
11
34
16
8
2
3
1
6
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
9
8
15
1
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy	
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan  	
Japan	
All other countries	
410
217
13
2
1
4
15
4
18
25
77
37
Table No. 11.
JEWELLERY—MANUFACTURING OF.
Returns covering 9 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    $23,755.20
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc    79,085.60
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)   74,307.7o
Total $177,148.50
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
January.
February
March...
April. ..
May ....
June
Males.   Females.
56
56
66
56
56
56
Month.
July 	
August...
September
October...
November
December.
Males.    Females.
57
69
59
59
61
62
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under$6.00	
$6.00 to $6.99.
7.00 to 7.99.
8.00 to 8.99
9 00 to     9.99.
10 00 to   10.99.
11.00 to
12.00 to
13.00 to
14.00 to
15.00 to
16.00 to
17.00 to
18 00 to
19.00 to
20.00 to
21.00 to
22.00 to
23.00 to
24.00 to
25.00 to
26.00 to
27.00 to
28.00 to
29.00 to
30.00 to
35.00 to
40.00 to
45.00 to
11 99..
12.99..
13.99..
14 99..
15.99..
16.99..
17.99..
18 99..
19.99..
20.99..
21.99..
22.99
23.99..
24.99..
25.99 .
26.99..
27.99.
28.99 .
29.99..
34.99..
39.99..
44.99.
49.99.
50.00 and over .
Males.
21 Yrs.
& over.
13
6
Under
21 Yrs.
Females.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland.
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy..
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Males.
33
26
Females. K 24
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Table No. 12.
LAUNDRIES, CLEANING AND  DYEING.
Returns covering 87 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $123,111.60
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc       190,783.90
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)       866,751.70
Total $1,180,647.2
Average Number of Wage-earners.
January.
February
March. .
April..  .
May	
June ....
M ales.
Females.
474
770
472
772
482
785
505
821
513
845
515
833
July	
August ...
September.
October ...
November.
December .
523
525
620
513
509
511
873
869
871
880
837
847
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly)
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
00	
$0.99.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
Males.
21 Yrs.
_. over.
6
4
6
3
10
18
14
31
23
14
47
22
61
22
23
14
43
33
14
15
9
4
32
16
7
3
2
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.     Under
& over.    18 Yrs.
9
6
5
14
59
43
51
121
278
73
75
37
18
13
3
3
4
11
5
2
2
1
3
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland 	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy	
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc..
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries 	
Males.
231
230
13
1
1
3
4
2
17
10
2
16
17
2
Apprentices.
1
2
5
17
8
31
1
5
Females.
507
314
26
4
9
10
1
19
25
1
1
Table No. 13.
LEATHER AND FUR GOODS—MANUFACTURING OF.
Returns covering 46 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers,  $81,152.10
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc     75,585.00
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  297,532.00
Total     $454,269.10
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
January....
February...
May	
June	
253
253
253
260
265
268
64
63
61
62
71
73
Month.       Males.   Females,
July	
August...
September
October ..
November
December
271
287
287
282
262
78
105
106
90
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
i.00.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
16.99.
to   16.99.
17.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
2L.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
to   26.99
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34 99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over .
21 Yrs.
& over.
1
2
2
3
17
25
9
21
8
11
19
23
10
11
15
10
16
13
3
16
3
1
Under
21 Yrs.
3
13
18 Yrs.
_- over.
12
30
14
13
4
5
4
8
2
3
1
1
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland.
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America ..
Australasia	
Belgium	
France    	
Italy.
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
Males.
147
103
2
1
8
27
5
5
14
Females.
84
28 REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 25
Table No.
14.
LUMBER INDUSTRIES.
Returns covering 656 Firms.
Table No. 15.
METAL TRADES.
Returns covering 683 Firms.
Salary arid Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers $1,223,280.90
Wage-earners (including piece-workers) 16,253,067.20
Salary artd Wage Payments,
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)	
1935.
$1,227,202.70
1,518,972.00
....   3,388,628.80
Total $13,077,711.20
Total
 *6.
134,803.50
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males
Females.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Male.
.   Females.
Month.
Males.
3,960
4,212
4,131
4,030
3,957
3,758
Females.
January	
February...
9,316
12,49.
13,76.
14.82.
16,00£
17,04"
48
52
54
64
63
66
July	
August....
September.
October...
November.
December..
16,663
17,571
17,369
17,335
16,920
15,361
73
71
70
77
68
66
January....
February...
March	
April	
May	
3,248
3,286
3,497
3,588
3,834
3,82t
206
168
158
195
163
171
July	
August	
September .
October ....
November ..
December...
157
235
203
185
171
158
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners orfly).
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under $6.00
$6.00 to   $6.99...
6
33
7
9
10
17
40
826
206
327
319
3,292
695
1,613
2,986
573
1,841
687
245
1,235
483
444
670
372
208
1,723
741
380
166
178
3
6
24
38
27
28
247
61
71
32
142
27
28
67
15
14
4
9
2
1
1
1
1
Under $6.00
$6.00 to   $6.99..
7.00 to     7.99..
8.00 to     8.99..
9.00 to     9.99 .
10.00 to   10.99..
11.00 to   11.99..
12.00 to   12.99..
13.00 to   13.99..
14.00 to   14.99..
15.00 to   15.99..
16.00 to   16.99..
17.00 to   17 99..
18.00 to   18.99..
19.00 to   19.99..
20.00 to   20.99..
21.00 to   21.99..
22.00 to   22.99..
23.00 to   23.99..
24.00 to   24.99..
25.00 to   25.99..
26.00 to   26.99  .
27.00 to   27.99..
28.00 to   28.99..
29.00 to   29.99..
30.00 to   34.99..
35.00 to   39.99..
40.00 to   44.99..
45.00 to   49.99..
50.00 and over
25
12
9
11
21
25
28
62
60
35
400
136
185
159
383
247
174
256
117
187
184
148
131
130
111
421
216
94
52
32
24
25
9
18
13
50
27
76
27
16
34
12
6
3
1
5
11
3
3
3
1
7
2
23
15
32
28
5
4
7
2
4
2
1
4
1
1
2
2
1
41
18
7.00 to     7.99...
24
8.00 to     8.99...
1
16
9.00 to    9.99...
3
17
10 00 to   10.99...
17
11.00 to   11.99...
2
14
12.00 to   12.99...
15
2
25
12
10
2
13
13.00 to   13.99...
8
14.00 to   14.99...
15.00 to   15.99...
1
6
16
16.00 to   16.99...
2
17.00 to   17.99...
18.00 to   18.99...
1
4
2
6
19.00 to   19.99  ..
3
3
2
1
1
2
3
2
20 00 to   20.99...
22.00 to   22.99...
1
1
24.00 to   24.99...
25.00 to   25.99...
5
27.00 to   27.99...
2
28.00 to   28.99...
1
1
1
29.00 to   29.99..
35 00 to   39.99.
1
40.00 to   4t.99...
45.00 to   49.99...
Nationality of Employees.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Males.
Females.
Country of Origin.
Males.
Females.
9,488
2,440
587
12
28
80
180
408
935
3,303
606
193
1,548
505
1,079
280
82
4
2
Canada and Newfoundland
3,657
2,126
615
29
9
19
43
36
14
93
18
10
6
1
17
18
193
Great Britain and I
United States of An
26
6
Australasia '.
1
1
Ttalv   	
Italv	
2
Germany and Austr
Central European a
Norway, Sweden, D
Russia and Poland
Other European cou
1
10
Germany and Aust
3
enmark, Finland,
etc..
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
1
1
Other European cc
2
1 K 26
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Table No. 16.
METAL-MINING.
Returns covering 353 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers      $656,107.60
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc        632,488.10
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)     6,991,861.90
Total  $8,280,457.60
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.   Females
January.
February
March..
April
May
June
4,400
4,256
4,343
4,613
4,790
5,236
39
35
34
34
40
42
Month.       Males.   Females.
July 	
August....
September.
October ..
November..
December..
5,620
5,663
5,556
5,638
5,348
4,993
44
44
42
41
39
36
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under $6.00	
2
15
3
11
6
5
14
18
14
42
41
34
124
66
89
288
317
29
1,136
454
185
552
1,210
318
1,378
664
145
78
77
$6.00 to   $6.99...
1
4
7.00 to    7.99...
8.00 to     8.99...
1
9 00 to     9.99...
10.00 to   10.99...
11.00 to   11.99...
8
2
3
16
0
4
1
3
4
1
1
1
1
4
9
9
2
5
2
1
1
4
12.00 to   12.99...
13.00 to   13.99...
14.00 to   14.99...
15.00 to   15.99...
16.00 to   16.99...
1
17.00 to   17.99  .
18.00 to   18.99...
19.00 to   19.99...
20.00 to   20.99...
21.00 to   21.99...
22.00 to   22.99...
1
23.00 to   23.99...
24.00 to   24.99...
42
3
1
5
2
1
3
4
25.00 to   25.99...
26.00 to   26.99...
27.00 to   27.99...
28.00 to   28.99...
1
29.00 to   29.99...
30.00 to   34.99...
2
35.00 to   39.99...
40.00 to   44 99...
45.00.O   49.99...
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France    	
Italy	
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States.. ..
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan   	
All other countries	
Males.
1,416
,573
218
32
14
24
217
226
325
1,287
198
48
56
2
13
7
Females.
35
11
1
Table No. 17.
MISCELLANEOUS TRADES AND INDUSTRIES.
Returns covering 262 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    §642,696.30
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc      611,794.60
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  2,195,821.30
Total :    $3,450,312.20
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.    Females.        Month.        Males.   Females
January.
February
March...
Apri 1 ....
May	
June
391
899
410
410
424
4.6
July 	
August....
September.
October ..
November.
December .
2,035
2,158
2,205
2,048
2,093
2,008
441
455
475
460
473
456
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
.00 .
to   $6.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99
11.99
12.99.
13.99.
14.99
15.99.
16.90.
17.99
18.99
to 19.99.
to   20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
to 49.99.
and over .
21 Yrs.     Under
& over.    21 Yrs.
2
11
2
28
18
33
58
38
110
146
182
101
153
234
94
179
197
64
251
76
89
44
85
32
31
28
16
9
11
10
16
24
18
27
21
18
Females.
18 Yrs.     Under
& over.    18 Yrs.
21
14
44
38
155
57
68
27
28
14
6
2
1
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States....
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
1,660
880
60
3
1
12
30
36
15
87
40
7
105
10
32
207
Apprentices.
2
4
6
13
10
4
Males.       Females.
434
127
12
70 REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 27
Table No. 18.
OIL-REFINING.
Returns covering 24- Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $206,191.50
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, ete        789,750.00
Wag-e-earners (including- piece-workers)       916,330.30
Total    :$1,912,277.80
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
January..
February .
March....
April	
May	
June	
Males.
Females.
56S
3
657
3
554
4
698
7
637
8
700
7
July	
August...
September
October...
November
December.
Males.    Females.
748
787
753
645
672
647
10
12
9
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
6.00 .
$6.99.
7.99.
8 99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
16.99.
16.99.
17.99.
to   18.1
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
to 28.99.
to 29.99.
to 34.99.
to 39.99.
to 44.99.
to 49.99.
and over.
21 Yrs.
&over.
2
3
44
39
3
18
23
93
48
41
36
43
109
50
24
7
2
137
36
4
6
20
Under
21 Yrs.
Females.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland '.	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia    	
Belgium	
France	
Italy	
. Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc..
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan  ........  	
Japan 	
All other countries	
Males.       Females.
585
314
32
2
20
41
2
3
2
30
4
TABLE NO.  19.
PAINT-MANUFACTURING.
Returns covering 10 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers   $57,790.80
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc.     80,673.70
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)    112,555.10
Total       $251,019.60
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males.   Females.
January.
February
March...
April
May	
June
102
108
110
112
113
12
13
14
15
15
15
Month.       Males.   Females,
July	
August...
September
October...
November
December.
109
104
105
109
104
102
15
14
14
12
12
12
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
F'or Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
00 ....
to   $6.99.
7:
8.99.
9.99.
10 99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25 99.
26.99
27.99
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and over
21 Yrs.     Under
& over.    21 Yrs.
1
3
1
13
10
4
7
4
11
1
6
19
2
3
3
2
1
Femalks.
18 Yrs.     Under
& over.    18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland .
Great Britain and Ireland ..
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
F'rance	
Italy.
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Kussia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan   	
All other countries	
75
52
2
Females.
11
5
1 K 28
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Table No. 20.
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING.
Returns covering 130 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    $497,355.50
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc  1,075,362.30
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)      1,600,022.40
Total : $3,172,740.20
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.       Males, i Females.        Month.       Males.   Females.
January.
February
March. .
April
May	
June
1,050
1,057
1,067
1,087
1,101
1,098
140
153
160
150
161
173
July	
August...
September
October...
November
December.
1,089
1,122
1,114
1,128
1,129
1,143
178
179
168
169
178
-174
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under $6.00	
$6.00 to
$6.99.   .
7.00 to
7.99...
8.00 to
8.99...
9.00 to
9.99...
10.00 to
10.99...
11.00 to
11.99...
12.00 to
12.99...
13.00 to
13.99...
14.00 to
14.99...
15.00 to
15.99...
16.00 to
16.99...
17.00 to
17.99...
18.00 to
18.99...
19.00 to
19.99...
20.00 to
20.99...
21.00 to
21.99...
22.00 to
22.99...
23.00 to
23.99...
24.00 to
24.99...
25.00 to
25.99...
26.00 to
26.99...
27.00 to
27.99...
28.00 to
28.99...
29.00 to
29.99...
30.00 to
34.99...
35.00 to
39.99...
40.00 to
44.99...
45.00 to
49.99...
50.00 and over...
21 Yrs.
& over.
10
2
10
11
10
11
19
26
38
20
22
21
11
30
13
20
14
8
48
13
20
17
5
44
156
258
105
42
Under
21 Yrs.
4
7
13
5
10
2
10
7
6
Females.
IS Yrs.
& over.
4
2
1
7
4
6
4
19
24
27
26
4
3
31
1
4
1
1
Under
18 Yrs.
Appren.
tices.
12
9
7
8
9
15
6
11
5
7
6
5
1
1
5'
6
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland.
Great Britain and Ireland...
United States of America...
Australasia	
Belgium	
France	
Italy..
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries 	
Males.      Females.
798
439
26
3
23
99
174
58
7
TABLE  NO.   21.
PULP AND PAPER—MANUFACTURING OF.
Returns covering 17 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    $377,748.20
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc      421,256.00
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  3,495,663.80
Total  $4,294,668.00
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
Males.
Females.
Month.
Males,
Females.
January..
February...
March	
May	
June	
2,573
2,603
2,633
2,699
2,709
2,769
99
97
98
95
99
98
July	
September..
October ....
November ..
December...
2,733
2,725
2,584
2,694
2,758
2,755
100
107
99
101
108
114
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week' of
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
Employment of
Greatest Number.
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Under $6.00 .
$6 00 to   $6.99  .
1
2
3
1
1
8.00 to     8.99..
1
2
9.00 to     9.99..
1
1
168
94
49
101
38
74
85
212
55
464
207
18
389
64
86
42
57
48
285
100
25
8
59
1
1
10.00 to   10.99
2
12.00 to   12.99..
13.00 to   13.99..
14.00 to   14.99..
15.00 to   15.99..
16.00 to   16.99 .
9
2
24
4
10
6
30
3
4
4
1
3
1
1
1
32
4
53
7
10
10
2
2
5
17 00 to   17.99
18.00 to   18.99..
1
1
1
19.00 to   19.99..
20.00 to   20.99..
2
21.00 to   21.99
22.00 to   22.99
23.00 to   23.99..
24 00 to   24.99  .
26.00 to   25.99
1
26.00 to   26.99..
1
27.00 to   27.99..
28.00 to   28.99..
1
1
1
1
29.00 to   29.99..
30.00 to   34.99..
35.00 to   39.99..
40.00 to   44.99
45.00 to   49.99..
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany and Austria    	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
Males.
1,126
909
46
8
3
7
26
15
5
77
29
2
201
106
26
1 REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 29
Table No. 22.
SHIP-BUILDING.
Returns covering US Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $144,237.40
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc         80,738.60
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)       714,579.10
Total     $939,555.10
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
January..
February.
March....
April	
May	
June	
Males.   Females.
738
712
738
822
850
741
Month.
July	
August...
September
October...
November
December.
Males.   Females.
724
630
614
661
661
493
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
00 ....
$6.99.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
to 26.99.
to 27.99.
to   28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
21 Yrs.
& over
14
7
12
18
15
13
12
13
12
11
19
18
3
81
7
252
16
64
33
12
54
13
147
233
68
41
3
8
Under
21 Yrs.
18
4
Females.
18 Yrs.
_. over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States.....
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
643
491
55
1
4
2
1
13
15
32
12
Females.
Table No. 23.
SMELTING.
Returns covering U Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers     $215,222.10
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc       536,699.30
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)    3,548,161.80
Total $4,300,083.20
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.
January..
February
March..
April....
May	
June
Males.   Females.
2,737
2,686
2,697
2,765
2,853
2,888
27
27
27
27
Month.
July 	
August.
September..
October	
November ..
December...
Males.   Females.
2,861
2,914
2,893
2,878
2,891
2,894
28
28
28
28
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24.00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
$6.99.
7.99.
8.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19 99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25 99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over
Males.
Females.
Apprentices.
21 Yrs.
_. over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
10
2
2
4
5
3
7
11
9
9
34
14
27
53
47
111
159
292
187
188
290
214
285
141
132
389
92
16
7
1
1
2
r-i _-
2
2
1
2
1
3
5
1
2
6
5
10
13
21
27
17
20
11
3
9
2
1
2
3
8
4
3
2
2
1
1
3
2
4
1
1
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Males.
Females.
1,209
1,016
73
6
7
4
404
52
45
131
30
12
1
14
4
2
Italy	
4
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
1
1
2
22
12 K 30
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Table No. 24.
STREET RAILWAYS, GAS, WATER, LIGHT,
POWER, TELEPHONES, ETC.
Returns coverng 96 Firms.
Salary artd Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers      $657,845.30
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc     1,670,146.90
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)     6,208,326.70
Total  $8,536,318.90
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.      | Males. | Females. 11     Month.      | Males. | Females.
January.
February
March..,
April
May. ...
June
3,564
3,337
3,351
3,482
3,476
3,531
1,340
1,332
1,372
1,383
1,405
1,495
July	
August....
September.
October...
November .
December..
3,527
3,661
3,604
3,542
3,523
3,349
1,489
1,492
1,447
1,396
1,377
1,463
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly)
F\>r Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17 00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24 00
25.00
26 00
27.00
28.00
29.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
46.00
50.00
$6.00 ..
$6.99.
99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99.
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
28.99.
29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over.
21 Yrs.
Under
& over.
21 Yrs.
3
1
5
1
2
2
1
3
23
26
3
29
75
12
27
1
110
2
46
110
355
208
164
138
43
130
175
166
265
212
278
806
408
110
18 Yrs.
& over.
4
2
1
1
2
107
18
9
63
249
55
116
196
592
23
48
Under
18 Yrs.
Apprentices.
1
13
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America 	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy	
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland    	
Other European country   	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan	
All other countries	
1,910
2,239
156
18
4
8
72
61
24
103
10
12
4
Females.
1,318
501
64
2
Table No. 25.
WOOD—AUNUFACTURE OF  (N.E.S.).
Returns covering 90 Firms.
Salary and Wage Payments, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers    $277,707.70
Clerks, Stenographers, Salesmen, etc      107,973.40
Wage-earners (including piece-workers)  1,163,236.60
Total  $1,548,917.70
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Month.      | Males. ] Females. ||     Month.      | Males. |  Females.
January.
February
March. ..
April
May	
June
1,147
1,200
1,260
1,320
1,540
1,539
38
57
54
85
128
138
July	
August....
September
October ...
November..
December .
1,509
1,616
1,694
1,759
1,664
1,580
UO
72
67
55
38
31
Classified Weekly Wage-rates (Wage-earners ortly).
For Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Under
$6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
' 14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23.00
24 00
25.00
26.00
27.00
28.00
29 00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
7.99.
9.99.
10.99.
11.99.
12.99.
13.99.
14.99.
15.99.
16.99.
17.99.
18.99.
19.99
20.99.
21.99.
22.99.
23.99.
24.99.
25.99.
26.99.
27.99.
to 28.99.
to   29.99.
34.99.
39.99.
44.99.
49.99.
and over.
21 Yrs.     Under
& over.    21 Yrs.
5
28
53
39
48
204
388
124
87
108
76
18
77
26
21
19
9
4
39
11
3
51
67
20
43
61
57
132
9
5
17
18
4
18 Yrs.     Under
& over.    18 Yrs.
2
5
4
14
4
46
8
9
6
Apprentices.
Nationality of Employees.
Country of Origin.
Canada and Newfoundland	
Great Britain and Ireland	
United States of America	
Australasia	
Belgium	
France 	
Italy   	
Germany and Austria	
Central European and Balkan States	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc.
Russia and Poland	
Other European country	
China	
Hindustan	
Japan 	
All other countries	
Males.
1,315
387
19
1
3
IS
30
26
67
22
3
36
6
51
146
Females.
94
17
1
19
1 REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 31
SUMMARY OF ALL TABLES.
Returns covering 4,153 Firms.
Total Salary and Wage Payments during Twelve Months ended
December 31st, 1935.
Officers, Superintendents, and Managers __..
Clerks, Stenographers, and Salesmen, etc.
Wage-earners  (including; piece-workers) ~~
$10,180,577.40
11,642,501.80
70,245,788.70
Returns received too late to be included in above Summary.. _ _	
Estimated pay-roll of employers in occupations covered by Department's inquiry,
from whom returns were not received _ _ - -	
Transcontinental Railways ___ 	
Dominion and Provincial Government workers 	
Wholesale and Retail Firms   __ __ __ -	
and
Delivery, Cartage and Teaming, Warehousing:, Butchers, Moving-picture Operators, Coal
and Wood Yards, and Auto Transportation  — 	
Ocean Services and Express Companies  - - —	
Miscellaneous   	
$92,068,867.90
$928,295.70
1,250,000.00
11,414,976.55
5,200,000.00
2,750,000.00
3,400,000.00
7,500,000.00
■ 1,300,000.00
33,743,272.25
Total..
$125,812,140.15
Average Number of Wage-earners.
Classified Weekly Wag
e-rates
(Wage-
earners
ortly).
During the Month of
Males.
Females.
4,540
4.662
4,698
5,003
5,267
5,531
6,976
7,443
7,781
7,167
6,001
5,502
F"or Week of
Employment of
Greatest Number.
Males.
Females..
47,799
50,142
52,331
55,293
58,898
60,662
62,725
61,693
64,343
63,395
60,913
56,741
21 Yrs.
& over.
Under
21 Yrs.
18 Yrs.
& over.
Under
18 Yrs.
Appren
tices.
April	
May	
Under $6.00	
$6.00 to   $6.99..
7.00 to     7.99..
8.00 to     8.99..
9.00 to     9.99..
10.00 to   10.99..
11.00 to   11.99..
12.00 to   12.99..
13.00 to   13.99..
14.00 to   14.99..
15.00 to   15.99..
16.00 to   16.99..
17.00 to   17.99..
18 00 to   18.99..
19.00 to   19.99..
20.00 to   20.99..
21.00 to   21.99..
22.00 to   22.99..
23.00 to   23.99..
24.00 to   24.99..
25.00 to   25.99..
26.00 to   26.99..
27.00 to   27.99..
28.00 to   28.99..
29.00 to   29.99..
30.00 to   34.99 .
35.00 to   39.99..
40.00 to   44.99..
45.00 to   49.99..
50.00 and over..
Totals	
304
172
122
125
250
295
352
1,745
1,167
1,413
2,192
5,300
2,267
3,575
7,243
3,283
5,589
4,036
1,639
5,201
3,223
2,129
2,850
2,848
2,088
8,540
3,881
1,925
683
735
115
132
150
157
170
257
198
679
201
310
257
329
82
136
143
75
57
53
57
76
31
20
13
6
4
4
11
368
118
88
136
250
339
573
1,031
941
1,303
885
544
373
605
736
221
139
70
57
56
56
42
33
11
18
55
2
61
70
34
70
58
56
68
63
31
35
13
8
6
5
2
1
2
" 1
1
1
116
60
84
87
83
132
July	
September	
73
35
25
Nationality of Emplo
yees.
Country of Origin.
Males.
P'emales.
12
11
26
39,061
22,616
2,246
202
114
233
1,631
1,394
1,906
6,285
1,270
357
3,342
536
2,485
1,448
7,129
2,126
194
5
12
40
128
123
52
145
179
28
7
9
12
1
Italy	
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, etc..
1
6
1
16
3,723
5
8,955
411
198
586
75,172 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS.
Members of the Board.
1. Adam Bell, Deputy Minister of Labour, Chairman..
2. William Alexander Carrothers   -
3. Christopher John McDowell _	
4. Fraudena Eaton   	
5. James Thomson.  	
 Parliament Buildings, Victoria.
 Parliament Buildings, Victoria.
 1000 Douglas Street, Victoria.
..1902 Blenheim Street, Vancouver.
—411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver.
Officials of the Board.
Mabel A. Cameron, Secretary-
Vancouver Branch Office	
 Parliament Buildings, Victoria.
..411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver.
To the Honourable the Minister of Labour,
Province of B?~itish Columbia.
Sir,—We have the honour to present the second annual report of the Board of Industrial
Relations for the calendar year ended December 31st, 1935.
During the year under review the Board has continued its programme commenced in 1934
as outlined in the annual report covering that year.
Gradual but steady progress has been made, and many more branches of industry and
business have been brought within regulations respecting wages and hours of work. In
formulating these regulations the Board has followed the same policy as heretofore in consulting employees and employers, so that their views might be obtained in assisting the Board
to reach its decisions.
In 1935 the Board met on twenty-seven different days, holding fifty-five sessions. On
seventeen days the meetings were convened in Vancouver, and in Victoria on the remaining
ten days.
Much time was devoted to receiving and hearing forty-two delegations, which submitted
representations to the Board touching on many phases of commercial, professional, and
industrial problems.
From the time of its inception to the date of this report going to press (June 30th, 1936),
145 delegations have appeared before the Board to present views and tender information.
In some instances regulations have been requested by employers, in some instances by
employees, while in others the Board has moved of its own initiative. In every case, however,
the Board has sought to discharge its duties and frame its decisions in the general interest of
all. Experience has shown that it is more difficult to apply regulations in some lines of work
than in others.
As legislation under the Board's administration was originally designed to apply to
purely industrial concerns, its application and enforcement is comparatively easy when confined to the industrial field. When, however, it is extended to occupations not of a strictly
industrial character, the wide variety of working conditions creates greater difficulties in
framing suitable regulations.
Another point frequently lost sight of is that a number of occupations within the Province
are not within Provincial jurisdiction with respect to hours and wages, but are, by virtue of
Dominion law, within the exclusive legislative jurisdiction of the Parliament of Canada.
The experience of the previous year has been of great value, tending to show where regulations could be strengthened and improved. This experience has been of assistance not only
from the standpoint of regulations, but also with regard to the Statutes as well, and these have
been amended by the Legislature on several important points. One of the most significant
amendments was that which enabled the Board to apply minimum-wage Orders to all male
persons irrespective of age, instead of to male persons over 18 years of age only, as formerly.
In carrying out this new responsibility, minimum wages in industries affording opportunities for employment of youth have been arranged on scales gradually increasing in due REPORT OP DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 33
proportion to age and experience, in an endeavour to assess service at its appropriate value
and remove the incentive to replace older boys with younger and cheaper help.
The principle of higher rates for part-time employees has also been applied in a number
of cases where this was thought practicable, with a view to giving all possible encouragement
to full-time work and discouraging the practice of broken time and split shifts, which was
was becoming all too prevalent.
At the commencement of the present year all members of the Board and all Inspectors
were called into general conference at Victoria. This, the first meeting of its kind, proved to
be of inestimable value, and the exchange of views, based upon practical administrative experience, provided a volume of information that has been of great benefit.
The expansion of industrial pay-rolls and increase in wage-rates generally, as depicted
in statistical tables elsewhere in this publication, give evidence not only of the return of more
prosperous times, but bear out the fact that we are within very short distance of what have
been termed " peak " conditions.
Our statistical tables demonstrate that the legal minimum has not become the standard
wage, and it is a fact worthy of note that during the period under review wages that for some
time remained very close to the legal minimum have risen appreciably beyond that point. It is
not sought to claim that this is due solely to the application of the Statutes which the Board
administers.
Expansion of international commerce, extension of foreign markets, increase in domestic
trade, aggressive business initiative, and active expression of the aspirations of our working-
people to higher wages and better conditions are all factors that have played their respective
parts. Concurrently with all of this, however, the enactments of the Board have exercised an
influence which we may justly claim has not been void of beneficial effect.
STATISTICAL SECTION FOR WOMEN AND GIRL EMPLOYEES.
Response to the annual request for data relative to female employees was made by 3,272
employers, being an increase of 60 over the returns for 1934. The replies gave information
concerning wages and working conditions of 19,934 women and girls, this number being 555
more than were reported for the previous year. We are glad to note that the total is gradually
reaching the mark of 1929 and 1930, when slightly over 20,000 were recorded.
For comparative purpose the policy of tabulating the figures according to the occupations
covered by Orders has been continued at this time, and reference to the accompanying tables
will reveal the general trend over a period of five years.
It may be noted that the questionnaire sent out to employers for the year 1935 was to be
answered for the week of employment of the greatest number during that period.
Mercantile Industry.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
Number of firms reporting   	
Total number of employees __ _
Over 18 years  	
Under 18 years    _.	
Total weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years 	
Employees under 18 years	
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years 	
Employees under 18 years  	
Percentage of employees under 18 years
Average hours worked per week.. 	
421
4,382
3,960
422
$51,158.70
$3,353.22
$12.92
$7.95
9.63%
40.38
390
4,239
3,870
369
$48,968.56
$2,750.77
$12.65
$7.45
8.70%
40.92
379
3,930
3,604
326
$46,074.00
$2,622.50
$12.78
$7.12
8.30%
41.03
402
3,810
3,436
374
$45,984.50
$3,169.00
$13.38
$8.47
9.82%
42.30
374
3,813
3,398
415
$48,293.00
$3,738.50
$14.20
$9.07
10.88%
43.58
_1_
Reference to the above table will show that 31 more returns were received than in 1934,
and 143 more employees were accounted for.
The average weekly wage for women 18 years of age or over increased from $12.65 in 1934
to $12.92. For girls under 18 a corresponding gain is noted, the weekly average being $7.95
as against the previous year's $7.45. K 34
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Average hours have steadily lessened over a period of years, and at this time stand at
40.38 for the week.
Since July 1st, the date on which the revised Mercantile Order became effective, employees
working less than 40 hours a week were entitled to a higher hourly rate of pay than those
whose week consisted of from 40 hours to 48.
A daily guarantee to provide the equivalent of four or five hours' earnings also appears in
the Order, and has tended to correct a practice that formerly prevailed in some establishments
of calling in the employees for extremely short periods. These hours often so broke into their
day that it was impossible for them to obtain other part-time employment to augment their
low wages.
Laundry Industry.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
Number of firms reporting...
Total number of employees..
Over 18 years	
Under 18 years	
Total weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years ...
Employees under 18 years .
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years __
Employees under 18 years .
Percentage of employees under 18 years .
Average hours worked per week	
81
900
857
43
$10,517.50
$406.74
$12.27
$9.46
4.78%
41.12
72
847
810
37
19,679.17
$309.74
$11.95
$8.37
4.37%
39.91
65
846
785
61
;8,964.00
$470.00
$11.42
$7.70
7.21%
37.92
62
864
818
46
$9,979.00
$351.00
$12.20
$7.63
5.32%
39.49
52
991
924
67
$12,721.50
$635.00
$13.76
$9.48
6.76%
42.87
An upward trend in the number of firms reporting and in the total employees is also noted
in this classification. The 1935 figures stood at 81 firms with 900 women and girl employees,
whereas in 1934 there were 72 firms with staffs of 847 female workers.
Averages for both the older and younger operators register gains this year. The $12.27
weekly wage for those over 18 is 32 cents in advance of the corresponding average for the
previous year. A substantial increase of $1.09 in the weekly average for those under 18
brings their 1935 figure to $9.46.
The Board is pleased to note that the average working-week is coming up to a more normal
length. For some considerable time employees in laundries were faced with a serious short-
time problem, and the work was so broken they were unable to earn a satisfactory weekly wage.
It is anticipated that the Order governing this industry will be revised in the near future
to take care of this short-time phase, by requiring a higher hourly rate for those who do not
have the opportunity of doing a specified number of hours' work during the week.
Public Housekeeping Occupation.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
Number of firms reporting...
Total number of employees..
Over 18 years	
Under 18 years ..
Total weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years.. 	
Employees under 18 years 	
Percentage of employees under 18 years .
Average hours worked per week	
429
2,343
2,303
40
10,189.28
$452.10
$13.11
$11.30
1.71%
41.31
433
2,256
2,209
47
$29,243.64
$499.15
$13.24
$10.62
2.08%
41.31
352
1,895
1,797
$24,763.00
$901.50
$13.78
$9.20
5.17%
42.30
361
1,871
1,830
41
$26,448.00
$504.00
$14.45
$12.29
2.19%
43.26
375
2.206
2,152
54
14,079.50
$455.00
$15.72
$11.67
2.45%
45.46
While returns were received from 4 less employers than in 1934, they covered 87 more
employees and brought the total to 2,343, as against 2,256 for the previous period. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 35
The average weekly wage for the over 18 employees suffered a moderate decrease, falling
from $13.24 in 1934 to $13.11 for the year under review. In contrast to this, however, the
wages for girls under 18 rose from $10.62 to $11.30. There is a very small percentage of the
younger girls employed in this occupation, and fewer were employed in 1935 than in 1934.
The average weekly hours—namely, 41.31—are identical with last year's figure.
This occupation has always given the Inspectors considerable trouble in the effective
administration of the Order. Points of contention are the length of time taken for meals and
the number of meals that should be charged for. These factors are very important when
adjustments are being negotiated.
Revision of the Order took place during the year, the main changes being the establishment of a higher rate for short time and the guarantee of a specified sum as a day's pay.
The latter provision was inserted in the Order to overcome an unfair custom on the part of
some employers to bring in extra girls for about two hours at rush intervals, and out of their
meagre earnings to deduct the price of one meal. With the new regulation it has been found
that more girls have been placed on a full-time status.
Office Occupation.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1,727
4,827
4,809
18
$84,596.16
$195.20
$17.59
$10.84
0.37%
40.79
1,716
4,818
4,783
35
$82,745.51
$347.80
$17.30
$9.94
0.73%
40.59
1,810
4,708
4,660
48
$80,947.00
$484.50
$17.37
$10.09
1.02%
38.95
1,772
4,614
4,575
39
$83,938.50
$408.00
$18.35
$10.46
0.85%
41.18
1,771
4,696
4,611
85
Total weekly wages—
$88,346.50
Employees under 18 years - 	
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years  	
Employees under 18 years  -	
Percentage of employees under 18 years	
Average hours worked per week _
$966.50
$19.15
$11.73
1.31%
41.48
Firms reporting, total employees, averages for both over and under 18-year-old workers
are all in advance of last year's recordings. The average weekly wage for employees 18 years
of age or over rose to $17.59 from the 1934 figure of $17.30.
While the number of young girls under 18 is very low in this line of work, their weekly
average wage increased from $9.94 to $10.84.
A slight lengthening of the average weekly hours is noted for 1935, the current figure
standing at 40.79 against 40.59 for 1934. It may be interesting to note that 420 office employees
received salaries of $25 or more per week, the highest amount being $69.30 weekly, the equivalent of $300 per month.
Personal Service Occupation.
1935.
1932.
Number of firms reporting  _	
Total number of employees -	
Over 18 years. 	
Under 18 years _	
Total weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years	
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years 	
Employees under 18 years 	
Percentage of employees under 18 years-
Average hours worked per week	
108
376
374
2
$4,873.84
$18.00
$13.03
$9.00
0.53%
36.81
110
384
378
6
1,932.31
$10.25
$13.05
$1.71
1.56%
37.95
90
305
298
7
1,319.00
$48.00
$14.49
$6.86
2.30%
38.93
122
393
380
13
!5,302.00
$100.00
$13.95
$7.69
3.31%
36.82
111
361
347
20
:5,190.50
$219.50
$15.22
$10.97
5.54%
40.72
While 110 employers reported in 1934, returns for 1935 were received from 108 firms,
covering 376 employees, as against 384, the former total. K 36
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
In this classification beauty-parlour operators and ushers and other attendants in theatres
and public places of amusement are included. As the ushers' duties are carried out in short
and broken periods it is obvious that the average weekly hours will be low. For the year under
review the average week works out at 36.81 hours. This is lower by 1.15 hours than the
average working-week of 1934.
A decline of 2 cents in the average weekly wage is noted over the previous year's level,
leaving the average for those over 18 years of age at the sum of $13.03.
Fishing Industry.
1933.
Number of firms reporting...
Total number of employees-
Experienced .—:	
Inexperienced ..
Total weekly wages—
Experienced employees....
Inexperienced employees .
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees __.
Inexperienced employees .
Percentage of inexperienced employees-
Average hours worked per week-	
4
11
10
1
$101.35
$4.00
$10.13
$4.00
9.09%
25.33
11
11
$96.85
$8.80
26.50
6
15
10
5
$164.00
$50.50
$16.40
$10.10
33.33%
51.60
1
55
$592.00
$42.00
$12.33
$6.00
12.73%
45.64
96
2
$1,351.50
$24.00
$14.08
$12.00
2.09%
23.48
On account of the fact that the Order relating to the fishing industry does not include the
canning of fish there are relatively few women within its scope.
The 11 reported worked on an average of 25.33 hours weekly, and the wages for the
experienced employees average $10.13.
The nature of the work is not conducive to attracting many women or girls to devote
their time to it.
Telephone and Telegraph Occupation.
1934.
1932.
1931.
Number of firms reporting...
Total number of employees .
Experienced-
Inexperienced .
Total weekly wages—
Experienced employees.—
Inexperienced employees-
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees ....
Inexperienced employees .
Percentage of inexperienced employees..
Average hours worked per week	
120
1,689
1,630
59
$27,776.16
$673.00
$17.04
$11.41
3.49%
39.53
109
1,589
1,583
6
$26,909.12
$52.50
$17.00
$8.75
0.38%
39.75
104
1,601
1,536
65
$22,622.00
$606.50
$14.73
$9.33
4.06%
38.42
112
1,646
1,628
18
$28,013.00
$139.00
$17.21
$7.72
1.09%
39.77
112
1,806
1,789
17
$32,770.00
$133.50
$18.32
$7.85
0.94%
39.90
Firms employing private switchboard operators, as well as regular telephone or telegraph
companies, are included in the 120 who sent in returns to cover 1,689 employees.
Coupled with an increase in the average weekly wages for both experienced and inexperienced employees is a slight decrease in the hours of work. The 1935 average for the skilled
operators stood at $17.04 in contrast to an even $17 for last year. Quite a marked advance is
noted for the learners, whose average this year stands at $11.41 in comparison with $8.75
for 1934.
The average weekly hours worked out at 39 % against 39% for the previous year. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 37
Manufacturing Industry.
1933.
1932.
1931.
Number of firms reporting...
Total number of employees-
Experienced	
Inexperienced-    	
Total weekly wages—■
Experienced employees  	
Inexperienced employees	
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees	
Inexperienced employees. -	
Percentage of inexperienced employees-
Average hours worked per week.	
311
2,310
2,111
199
$29,869.50
$1,734.50
$14.15
$8.72
8.61%
43.28
284
2,249
1,955
294
$26,975.51
$2,504.27
$13.80
$8.52
13.07%
42.34
284
2,123
1,745
378
$25,627.50
$3,145.00
$14.68
$8.32
17.80%
41.92
290
2,188
1,838
350
$26,036.50
$3,340.00
$14.17
$9.54
16.00%
41.23
274
2,308
2,045
263
$31,610.00
$2,540.00
$15.45
$9.66
11.39%
38.07
I
We are glad to report 27 more firms with 61 more employees than in 1934.
An upward curve in wage averages was apparent, when the $14.15 weekly sum is noted
against $13.80, giving an increase of 35 cents. An even 30-cent advance is shown for the
inexperienced workers.
Paralleling the wage increases was a lengthening of the average working-week by
practically one hour. Taking the two factors into consideration, there was relatively no
change from last year.
Fruit and Vegetable Industry.
1935.
1934.
1932.
Number of firms reporting-
Total number of employees-
Experienced 	
Inexperienced..
Total weekly wages—
Experienced employees.....
Inexperienced employees-
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees	
Inexperienced employees-
Percentage of inexperienced employees-
Average hours worked per week-,	
71
3,096
2,681
415
$41,167.84
$4,032.30
$15.36
$9.72
13.40%
46.68
76
2,986
2,680
306
$40,681.77
$2,824.65
$15.18
$9.23
10.25%
47.17
62
2,472
2,009
463
$31,116.00
$4,635.50
$15.49
$10.01
18.73%
48.33
62
Time.
2,360
1,807
553
$27,873.00
$4,702.50
$15.43
$8.50
Piece.
102
76
26
$1,119.50
$178.50
$14.73
$6.87
23.52%
45.58
Although 5 less firms sent in their figures than for the previous year, the 71 returns
accounted for 3,096 employees, an advance of 110 over 1934.
Both experienced and inexperienced employees had the advantage of increased wage
averages, the former rising from $15.18 to $15.36 and the latter from $9.23 to $9.72. In
addition to this, the average week of 46.68 hours was shorter by half an hour than in 1934.
Women and girls employed in fruit picking are not included in the above figures, as this
type of work is excluded by the Act itself. Those who make up the total are engaged in
packing-houses, jam-factories, and canneries, and for most of them the season is comparatively
short.
In 47 individual cases the wages exceeded $30 a week, and one employee's earnings totalled
$47.70 for the week reported. K 38
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Summary
of all Occupations.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
3,272
3,192
3,152
3,184
3,112
19,934
19,379
17,895
17,903
18,154
Over 18 years, or experienced-    	
18,735
18,279
16,444
16,436
17,079
Under 18 years, or inexperienced-—	
1,199
1,100
1,451
1,467
1,075
Total weekly wages—-
Employees over 18 years, or experienced	
$280,250.33
$270,232.44
$244,596.50
$255,286.00
$285,396.50
Employees under 18 years, or inexperienced	
$10,869.06
$9,299.13
$12,964.00
$12,934.00
$10,739.50
Average weekly wages—-
Employees over 18 years, or experienced	
$14.96
$14.78
$14.87
$15.53
$16.71
Employees under 18 years, or inexperienced-	
$9.07
$8.45.
$8.93
$8.82
$9.99
Percentage of employees under 18 years, or inex-
6.01%
5.68%
8.11%
8.19%
5.92%
Average hours worked per week- 	
41.79
41.81
41.33
42.07
43.03
The figures in the summarizing table depict general increases over those for the previous
year.
The general average weekly wage stands at $14.96 for the older or experienced employees,
contrasting with $14.78 for 1934. A more appreciable gain is recorded in the $9.07 weekly
average, which is 62 cents ahead of the $8.45 which those under 18 or the inexperienced
workers averaged for the preceding twelve months.
An actual weekly wage total of $291,119.39 would develop into a yearly pay-roll of over
$15,000,000, providing all these women and girls had 52 weeks' work a year. Desirable as this
would be, we must acknowledge that many of those reported would have had seasonal work,
the earnings for which would have to be spread over the idle times. This holds true for the
majority in the fruit and vegetable industry and for some groups in the manufacturing field.
Employers, however, are doing a great deal to maintain their complete staffs throughout the
entire year.
It will be noted that a slightly higher percentage of inexperienced employees appeared on
the 1935 pay-rolls than were recorded for 1934.
The length of the average working-week remained practically the same as last year's.
Improved employment conditions prevailed in 1935, as 555 more women and girls were
shown on the returns obtained by the Board. Sixty more firms than in 1934, or a total of
3,272 employing women and girls, gives the highest figure in this respect since 1930, when
3,456 employers accounted for 20,641 workers. By next year it is hoped these pre-depression
figures will be surpassed.
Name of Industry-
Legal
Minimum
Wage for
Full-time*
Experienced
Employees.
Receiving Actual
Minimum Wage
for Experienced
Work.
No. of
Employees.
Per
Cent.
Receiving More
than Minimum
Wage for
Experienced
Work.
No. of
Employees.
Per
Cent.
Receiving Less
than Minimum
Wage for
Experienced
Work.
No. of
Employees.
Per
Cent.
Total.
Mercantile-
Laundry	
Public housekeeping-
Office	
Personal service-
Fishing	
Telephone and telegraph._
Manufacturing  	
Fruit and vegetable...
Totals, 1935-
Totals, 1934 .
$12.75
13.50
14.00
15.00
14.25
15.50
15.00
14.00
12.96
1,435
40
657
951
112
32.75
4.44
28.04
19.70
29.79
1,654
232
767
2,983
118
37.74
25.78
32.74
61.80
31.38
135
414
52
7.99
17.92
1.68
1,193
869
1,908
70.63
37.62
61.63
3,796
3,489
19.04
18.00
9,724
9,159
48.78
47.27
1,293
628
919
893
146
11
361
1,027
1,136
6,414
6,731
29.51
69.78
39.22
18.50
38.83
100.00
21.38
44.46
36.39
32.18
34.73
4,382
900
2,343
4,827
376
11
1,689
2,310
3,096
19,934
19,379
* Forty-eight hours a week. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 39
When the principle of minimum wages is discussed one often hears the statement that
the minimum becomes the standard wage. A close study of the above table will readily refute
this contention, as it shows that the highest percentage of employees receiving the actual wage
set by an Order of the Board occurred in the mercantile industry, in which 32.75 per cent,
were held at the legal rate.
Out of the 19,934 women and girls gainfully employed, only 3,796, or 19.04 per cent.,
received pay-cheques that coincided with the rates set by the various Orders. There were,
however, 9,724, or 48.78 per cent., whose earnings were more than the legal requirements.
This percentage reveals an advance of 1.51 per cent, over the 1934 figure.
The percentage column in this classification is vitally interesting, as it discloses that
in the telephone and telegraph occupation over 70 per cent, of the operators were receiving
salaries in excess of those required by the Order. Two other groups surpass the 60-per-cent.
figure—namely, the office occupation with 61.80 per cent, in the higher brackets and the fruit
and vegetable industry with 61.63 per cent.
When we come to the columns that record the numbers and percentages receiving less
than the rates set for experienced workers we must not lose sight of the fact that the Orders
make provision for lower wages for inexperienced workers^ in some cases and for girls under
18 in other cases. In addition, the short-time employees have their wages curtailed because
full-time employment is not available for them. This is regrettably noticeable in the laundry
industry, which turns in 69.78 per cent, receiving less than $13.50 per week, and is almost
wholly attributable to the very prevalent broken and short-time work. In going back to the
1934 figures we note that the percentage was 74.38, so a slight improvement has taken place
during 1935.
As all the employees reported in the fishing industry averaged only 25.33 hours per week,
obviously they could not earn in that time the weekly rate set for full-time work.
Because some branches of the manufacturing industry are seasonal in character the
employees suffer from lack of continuous employment, and their wages consequently will
not reach the $14 rate for full-time work.
Taking all industries and occupations as a whole, only 32.18 per cent, of the employees
were in receipt of wages less than those fixed for experienced workers. It is gratifying to
realize that this is 2.55 per cent, less than in 1934.
There is undoubtedly a general upward tendency in wage-rates. Restoration of cuts
which were made during the depression years has taken place in many individual firms and
the outlook seems brighter for the future.
table showing labour turnover in each group—number of employees in
Continuous Service of Employer reporting.
Name of Industry.
O   QJ     .
<v £> <v
s E »
t
<H   O
O ft
Zk,
Mercantile-
Laundry	
Public housekeeping-
Office..	
Personal service-
Fishing 	
Telephone and telegraph.
Manufacturing	
Fruit and vegetable	
Totals, 1935-	
Totals, 1934	
2
83
119
2,118
274
977
828
164
6
295
744
1,772
439
92
311
514
43
1
151
261
408
320
49
183
372
42
62
169
227
204
36
144
261
30
30
193
163
190
48
128
279
16
51
125
110
181
68
143
373
20
145
180
92
414
587
7,178
6,539
2,220
1,879
1,424
1,239
1,061
1,284
947[1,202
1,37211,639
235
98
86
451
15
4
237
148
55
146
45
71
337
12
188
104
45
110
49
46
239
9
78
59
34
105
35
35
196
7
287
104
143
900
10
352
189
40
4,382
900
2,343
4,827
376
11
1,689
2,310
3,096
1,329
1,139
948
742
624
700
562
471
2,025
1,758
19,934
19,379
421
81
429
1,727
108
4
120
311
71
3,272
3,192
The above table features the labour turnover by industry in 3,272 firms whose records
were turned in for 1935. K 40
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
The actual employment picture was available for all but 414 out of the 19,934 total.
This " not specified " group is gradually becoming smaller each year and is 173 less than
in 1934.
In analysing the figures we always expect to find a great many women and girls reported
as having been less than one year with the employer who sent in the return. The mercantile
industry contributes a fairly big number in this category. As the returns are required for
the week of greatest employment the extra hands taken on to cope with the heavy Christmas
trade will be included, and as they are not " all-the-year-round " employees they naturally
drop into this classification.
Added to this figure will be found all those who do the seasonal work in the fruit and
vegetable industry. Beginners who are taken on in various establishments, but fail to measure
up to requirements, will also come under this heading.
At the other end of the scale will be noted those whose services are of a permanent nature.
It would appear from the tabulation that about one in ten attain a service record of ten or
more years. This is very marked in the office group, where we find 900 have served at least
a decade with the same employers.
In the mercantile industry 18 women had an unbroken record of 20 or more years, the
longest stretch being a period of 34 years with one firm. An employee in the laundry, cleaning
or dyeing industry, showed a 25-year connection with her firm. Thirty-four years was the
peak term in the public housekeeping division.
The office occupation provides the record, with one employee showing 46 years' service
with her present firm. There were 98 women whose services extended without change
throughout 20 years or more. Of this group, 3 showed they had been with their present
employer for 30 years, 2 for 31, 1 each for 32 and 33, 2 for 35, 1 for 40, and 1 for the 46-year
span, already mentioned.
The personal service boasts 1 employee with 26 years' duty with one firm, but the next
longest term is 12 years, with 3 women in that category. Six years was the longest unbroken
employment period in the fishing industry.    Four employees were shown in this class.
The record in the telephone and telegraph occupation is held by an employee with 32
years' unbroken service to her credit. She is closely followed by records of 30, 28, 27, 26,
and 25 years.
A 34-year figure heads the list in the manufacturing industry, followed by 2 employees
reported as having been 31 years each with their present employers.
In the fruit and vegetable industry 1 employee who had been with the same employer
over a period of 19 years held the record for lengthy service.
It would appear from the foregoing table and remarks that a vast section of women
workers in the Province regard their positions with seriousness and do not look upon them
as transitory phases of their lives.
Earnings foe
Married
, Widowed,
and Single Employees.
Name of Industry
Married.
Earnings.
Widowed.
Earnings.
Single.
Earnings.
610
270
637
586
76
6
236
513
1,367
$8,404.75
3,454.00
8,079.34
10,597.34
1,049.53
66.63
3,754.17
7,448.22
21,531.47
179
49
225
141
10
28
85
78
$2,868.62
632.88
2,929.55
2,777.27
142.64
3,593
581
1,481
4,100
290
5
1,425
1,712
1,651
$43,238.55
6,837.36
19,632.49
71,416.75
3,699.67
Laundry   	
Office  	
520.54
1,325.15
985.81
24,174.45
22,830.63
22,682.86
Manufacturing	
Totals 	
4,301
$64,385.45
795
$12,182.46
14,838
$214,551.48
21.58%
20.40%
3.99%
4.16%
74.43%
75.44%
1934, per cent	
The accompanying table shows the proportions of married, widowed, and single employees,
together with the earnings for each group. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 41
We hear a great deal about the married women workers, but over a period of years the
percentages of the three classes have changed very little. In most cases necessity, and not
choice, is the compelling factor of the married women's employment, and criticism of her
holding a place in the business world is usually levelled at her by persons with a somewhat
superficial knowledge of the circumstances surrounding her employment.
INSPECTIONS AND ENFORCEMENT.
A vigorous policy of enforcement of regulations was maintained throughout the year,
and with an augmented inspection staff it was found possible to make 4,527 actual inspections
at employers' establishments. These investigations were made in all parts of the Province,
some entailing visits to quite out-of-the-way points.
Working conditions for men, women, and minors were carefully checked, and one tangible
and beneficial result of the Inspectors' work was the collection of arrears of wages in the sum
of $15,660.47 for women and girls and $27,022,65 for male employees, making the imposing
total of $42,683.12.
In addition to the aforementioned sum turned over to employees through the efforts and
co-operation of the officials of the Department, employees in some instances availed themselves
of the right of recovery of arrears by direct individual action through the Civil Courts. The
Board has no record of the sums collected in this manner.
COURT CASES.
While the Board does not look with favour upon Court cases to compel compliance with
the provisions of the Statutes, or orders and regulations made thereunder, in contingencies
where amicable adjustments are not possible, recourse must be taken to prosecution.
The following summary shows the cases taken under the " Female Minimum Wage Act"
during 1935. (A corresponding resume is also set out for Court cases in which employers
of male persons were involved.)
Order and Name of Employer.
Charge.
Sentence and Remarks.
Mercantile Order.
(1.) Gerry's Ladies' Wear, Ltd., 774 Granville Street, Vancouver; M. Smith,
manager
(2.) Woman's Bakery, Ltd., Branch Store,
420 Richards Street, Vancouver; J.
C.  Brault,  proprietor
(3.) Hamilton Grocery, 699 Hamilton
Street, Vancouver; Mrs. Pauline
Stalmans,  proprietress
Public Housekeeping.
(4.)   Georgia   Sandwich   Shop,   645   Howe
Street,   Vancouver;    Oscar   Blanck,
proprietor
(5.) New Star Cafe, 242 Hastings Street
East, Vancouver; Yee Boy, proprietor
Failure to pay minimum
wage to two salesladies
Failure to pay minimum
wage
1. Employing one employee
longer hours than legal
maximum
2. Failing to pay legal
minimum to one employee
3. Employing another employee excessive hours
4. Paying less than minimum wage to second employee
Charges of paying less
than minimum wage to
two waitresses
Two charges of paying less
than minimum wage to
waitresses; two charges
of working waitresses
long hours
1. Suspended sentence and arrears of $13.50
ordered paid.
2. Arrears of $25 paid.
Convicted and given suspended sentence
after having paid $30.40 to each of two
employees.
1. Husband had authority to appear for his
wife and pleaded guilty. Fined $25 ; in
default, distress; in default of distress,
two months in prison.
2. Order made for payment of $36.13
arrears. Suspended sentence and ten
days allowed to pay arrears.
3. Fined $25 ; in default, distress; in default of distress, two months in prison.
Given one month to pay two fines.
4. Charge withdrawn.
Fined $25 or one month in prison and
ordered to pay $69.15 to one girl; fined
$25 or one month and ordered to pay
$36.55 to second girl.
Fined $25 in each case, $100 in all. Given
one month to pay. Arrears of $204.75
and $208 paid to two girls. K 42
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Court Cases—Continued.
Order and Name of Employer.
Charge.
Sentence and Remarks.
Public Housekeeping—Continued.
(6.)   St. Regis Hotel Co., Ltd., 602 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver ; Mrs. Tonelli,
proprietress
(7.) Vera Jones Pharmacy, 601 Dunsmuir
Street, Vancouver
(8.) Salisbury Lodge, 5642 Dalhousie Road
(University District), Vancouver;
Mrs. E. Hassall, proprietress
(9.) Vancouver Golf and Country Club,
Burquitlam
(10.) Dunsmuir Coffee Shop, 500 Dunsmuir
Street, Vancouver; A. McLeod, proprietor
(11.)   Royal Cafe, 126 Pender Street East,
Vancouver; Sam Louie, proprietor
(12.) Kwong Tong Cafe, 98 Pender Street
East, Vancouver; Fong Wah, proprietor
(13.) Gregg Apartments, 1086 Twelfth
Avenue West, Vancouver; Z. G. Ault,
owner
(14.) Seymour Coffee Shop, 712 Seymour
Street, Vancouver; Mr. Wutzke, proprietor
(15.) Greycourt Hotel, 176 Hastings Street
East, Vancouver; I. A. Johansen
and Elsie Mathieson, proprietors
(16.) Delta Lunch, 8945 Hudson Street,
Marpole; George J. Boulton, proprietor
(17.) Olympic Sandwich Shop, 2246 Fourth
Avenue West, Vancouver; P. How-
man, manager
(18.) Good Eats Cafe, 619 Pender Street
West, Vancouver; Milton Litras,
proprietor
Three charges of paying
less than minimum wage
to employees
Paying less than minimum
wage to waitress at
lunch-counter
Working employees longer
hours than permitted by
Order
Working waitresses excessive hours ; paying less
than minimum wage to
two waitresses
Failure   to   pay   waitress
minimum wage
1. Failure to keep records
2. Failure to post Orders _
3. Paying less than minimum wage to one waitress
4. Paying less than minimum wage to a 13-year-
old girl
Failure to keep records	
Failure  to  pay  minimum
wage to janitress
Paying    less    than    legal
minimum to waitress
Paying less than legal
minimum wage to chambermaid
Failure to pay minimum
wage to two employees
Failure to keep records of
wages and hours
Two charges for employing two girls excessive
hours
Fined $25 on each charge, $75 in all; in default, distress. Case appealed but settled
without going to Court. Arrears of
$81.22, $41.90, and $27.72 paid. Two of
the fines ordered remitted by Attorney-
General's Department.
Fined $25 and ordered to pay $104 arrears.
Dismissed on account of confliction and
contradiction of evidence.
Plea of guilty entered to two charges of
excessive hours. Fined $50 ; $2.50 Court
costs, and ordered to pay $42 to each of
the two girls. Two charges of paying
less than minimum wage withdrawn on
undertaking of secretary of Club that
arrears would be paid.
Fined $25 ; in default, distress ; in default
of distress, two months in gaol. Ordered
to pay arrears to three girls in the sums
of $41.37, $35.25, and $8.35 within one
month.
1. Dismissed. Crown failed to prove 126
Pender Street East was principal place
of business.
2. Fined $10 ;   in default, distress.
3. Dismissed. Witness gave different evidence in Court than what she had given
Inspector.
4. Dismissed as above.
Fined $10; in default, distress; in default
of distress, three days in gaol.
Fined $25. Settlement about reached for
payment of arrears of $69.30, but Magistrate had reckoned $82 due, and employee
felt this higher sum could be obtained if
case taken to County Court. This was
done, but decision went against her.
Fined $25 ; in default, distress; in default
of distress, two months in gaol, and
ordered to pay $82.15 arrears. No payment made and distress warrant issued.
Convicted and given suspended sentence
and ordered to pay $47.62 to the employee.
Pleaded guilty. Fined $25 in one case; in
default, distress; in default of distress,
two months in gaol; and given suspended
sentence on second charge. Ordered to
pay $86.18 to one girl and $57.75 to other.
Given two months to pay fine and six
weeks to pay arrears. Distress warrant
later issued.
Fined $10 and given one month to pay ; in
default, distress; in default of distress,
two days in gaol.
One dismissed as girl swore she was not a
waitress, but a cashier. Second charge
resulted in conviction and fine of $25 imposed ; in default, distress ; in default of
distress, ten days in gaol. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 43
Court Cases—Continued.
Order and Name of Employer.
Charge.
Sentence and Remarks.
Public Housekeeping—Continued.
(19.) Terminal Confectionery, 2490 Commercial Drive, Vancouver; Nick
Neery,  proprietor
(20.)   Wong Man,  Kimberley. -	
(21.)   Charles Travis, Oliver 	
(22.) Capitol Rooms, 611 Robson Street,
Vancouver; Norman Thompson,
manager, and John Dunbar, proprietor
(23.) Murray Hotel, 1119 Hornby Street,
Vancouver; I. A. Johansen and Elsie
Mathieson, proprietors
(24.) Burr Block, 411 Columbia Street,
New Westminster ; Charles Sharkey,
manager
Office.
(25.)   A. W. McLeod, Ltd., 50 Sixth Street,
New Westminster;   A.  W.  McLeod,
president
(26.)   Dr.  Edmond  Pottinger,  925  Georgia
Street West, Vancouver
(27.) Wallace Ponsford, barrister, 611
Metropolitan Building, Vancouver
(28.) York Investments, Ltd., 804, 510
Hastings Street West, Vancouver;
B. C. Nickel, Victor Spencer, and
G. N. Stacey, directors and secretary
(29.) London & Western Trust Co., Ltd.,
808 Hastings Street West, Vancouver;   E. B. Westby, manager
(30.) O'Brian, Bell-Irving, Stone & Rook,
Ltd., 736 Granville Street, Vancouver
(31.) Roy Wrigley, Ltd., 300 Pender Street
West, Vancouver
(32.) David C. White, cor. Kingsway and
Broadway, Vancouver
Personal Service.
(33.) Smart Set Beauty Salon, 135 Hastings Street West, Vancouver; Mr.
Le Fohn, proprietor
(34.) Hollywood Beauty Shop, 825 Granville Street, Vancouver; Mrs. Barker,
proprietress
(35.) Permanent Wave Shop, 445 Granville
Street, Vancouver; Miss Emily Bar-
nett, proprietress
(36.) Georgia Beauty Shop, 801 Georgia
Street, Vancouver; Madame La Vac,
proprietress
(37.) New York Beauty Shop, 581 Granville Street, Vancouver; Mrs. Lehna,
proprietress
(38.) Moler Barber College and Dominion
Trade Schools, Ltd., 303 Hastings
Street, West, Vancouver; D. Kinnon,
proprietor
Paying    less    than
wage to waitress
legal
Paying less than legal
minimum wage to waitress
Failure to keep records	
Failure to pay legal wage
to maid
Paying less than legal
minimum to chambermaid
Paying less than minimum
wage to janitress
Failure to pay stenographer minimum wage
Failure to pay office attendant legal minimum
wage
Paying less than legal
minimum wage to stenographer
Paying less than minimum
wage to male stenographer
Paying less than minimum
wage to stenographer
Failure to pay office employee minimum wage
Paying less than legal
minimum to office employee
Paying less than legal
minimum to stenographer
Failure to keep records .
Failure to keep records .
Failure to keep records .
Failure to keep records .
Failure to keep records .
Four charges laid for paying less than minimum
wage to operators
Settlement  of   $100   in   arrears   made  and
charge withdrawn.
Fined $25 and $2.50 costs.
Suspended sentence.
Fined $25; in default, distress; in default
of distress, two months in gaol.    Ordered
to pay $16 arrears.
After information laid employee accepted
settlement of- $6 arrears and $14 in lieu of
notice.    Case dismissed.
Fined $25 ; in default, two months in gaol.
Ordered to pay $38 arrears of wages.
Fined $25 and ordered to pay $155 arrears
to office employee.
Fined $25 or one month in gaol, and ordered
to   pay   arrears   of   $102.06   within   two
weeks.
Employee's evidence in Court quite different
to   what   officials   gathered   before   case
called.    Case dismissed.
Dismissed.
Fined $25 and ordered to pay $82.68 arrears
to employee.
Dismissed.
Suspended sentence after settlement for
$100 made with employee.'
Fined $25 ; in default, two months in gaol.
Ordered to pay $55.35 to girl in given
time or, in default, two months.
Fined $10.
Dismissed. Booths rented to operators and
conflict of evidence as to whether proprietor received moneys from their work
or not.
Fined $10 ; in default of payment of fine,
ten days in gaol.
Suspended sentence.
Suspended sentence.
Cases still pending. K 44
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Court Cases—Continued.
Order and Name of Employer.
Charge.
Sentence and Remarks.
Manufacturing.
(39.) Fit-Well Garments, Ltd., 119 Pender
Street West, Vancouver; Mr. Char-
kow, proprietor
(40.) Progress Cloak & Suit Co., Ltd., Dominion Bank Bldg., Vancouver, M.
Glucksman, proprietor
(41.) Hollywood Style Shop, 546 Granville
Street, Vancouver; E. Warnick, proprietor
(42.) Twin Sisters (Misses Suzuki), 775
Hastings Street East, Vancouver
(43.) Mrs. K. Nakamura, 437 Powell Street,
Vancouver
(44.) Mrs. K. Mashura, 2718 Fourth Avenue West, Vancouver, dressmaker
(45.) Mrs. R. Kita, 502 Cordova Street
East, Vancouver, dressmaker
(46.) Barbara Dean, 710 Seymour Street,
Vancouver, dressmaker
(47.) Gerry's Ladies' Wear, Ltd., 774 Granville Street, Vancouver; M. Smith,
manager
(48.) K. Orido, 503 Granville Street, Vancouver
Paying less than minimum
wage to operator
Failure   to   keep    proper
records    of    hours    and
wages
Failure   to   keep    proper
records    of    hours    and
wages
Failure to keep records	
Two charges of paying less
than minimum wage to
operators ; one charge of
failure to keep records
of hours and wages
Failure to keep records	
Failure to keep records _
Failure  to  pay  minimum
wage to two employees
Failure  to  pay  minimum
wage to alteration-hand
1. Failure   to   have   Order
posted
2. Failure to keep records
Fined $25 ; in default, two months in gaol,
and ordered to pay employee $88 arrears
within two days.
Fined $15.
Fined $10 ; in default, five days in gaol.
Fined $10.
Pleaded guilty to three charges. Fined $25
for each of first two charges and $10 for
third offence. In default of payment of
fines, distress; in default of distress,
fifteen days in gaol.
Case dismissed, as accused swore she was
running a school; licence for same taken
out after information laid.
Case withdrawn after accused took out a
teacher's licence.
Fined $25 ; in default, distress ; in default
of distress, two months, and ordered to
pay arrears.
Dismissed.
1. Fined $10 ; in default, two days in gaol.
2. Suspended sentence.
The following resume covers Court cases against employers of male employees:—
Name of Employer.
Charge.
Sentence and Remarks.
Adolf    Gutknecht,    Georgia    Bakery,    640
Georgia Street East, Vancouver
Percy  Broadfoot,   310  Water  Street,   Vancouver
Carl Nordine, Abbotsford-
Finlay Urquhart, Sumas	
Finlay Urquhart, Sumas-
Haskins & Elliott, 712 Pender Street, Vancouver
C.   Stamatis,   3235   Twelfth   Avenue  West,
Vancouver
Joseph Posella, New York Barber Shop, 531
Richards Street, Vancouver
Unlawfully employing a
person more than 8
hours in the day and 48
hours in the week
Contravention of Order
No. 10, fixing a minimum wage in the mercantile  industry
Failing to pay wages semimonthly
Contravention of Order
No. 2, fixing a minimum
wage in the sawmill industry
Contravention of Order
No. 2, fixing a minimum
wage in the sawmill industry
Contravention of Order
No. 10, fixing a minimum wage in the mercantile industry
Perjury " CC." 	
Contravention of Order
No. 8, fixing a minimum
wage in the barbering
industry
Fined $25.
Dismissed ;   $97.50 arrears paid.
One month in gaol.
Withdrawn   on   conviction   under   another
charge.
Fined $50 and paid arrears of wages.
Fined $50 and paid $54.25 back wages.
Dismissed.
Fined $50 and paid $23.68 arrears of wages. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 45
Court Cases—Continued.
Name of Employer.
Charge.
Sentence and Remarks.
Niagara Sea Foods, 411 Pender Street West,
Vancouver
A. D. Ferguson, Burnaby	
A. Finkel..
William Esson, 2320 Fourth Avenue West,
Vancouver
L.   Zanon,   Montreal   Bakery,   800   Keefer
Street, Vancouver
Harrison Mills, Ltd., Harrison Bay 	
U.F.C.C.F. & P. Exchange, Hatzic.
U.F.C.C.F. & P. Exchange, Hatzic.
U.F.C.C.F. & P. Exchange, Hatzic.
U.F.C.C.F. & P. Exchange, Hatzic.
U.F.C.C.F. & P. Exchange, Hatzic.
Peter Bain, Port Haney._
Peter Bain, Port Haney-
George  Gabel,   869  Granville  Street,  Vancouver
Michael J. Brown, Burns Lake	
Sam Hood and Harry Ringling, Quesnel-
H. Taylor, Trail __	
Lazeroff & Co., Trail-
Nick Poobachoff-
A. C. Bennett, Kelowna..
Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood, Brilliant
Model Bakery,  Kamloops   _____
Central Hotel, Kamloops  __	
Failing to keep record of
hours worked by employees
Contravention of Order
No. 10, fixing a minimum wage in the mercantile industry
Contravention of Order
No. 10, fixing a minimum wage in the mercantile industry
Failing to keep record of
hours worked by employees
Failing to keep record of
hours worked by employees
Contravention of Order
No. 16, fixing a minimum wage in the shingle
industry
Contravention of Order
No. 22, fixing a minimum wage in the fruit
and vegetable industry
Contravention of Order
No. 22, fixing a minimum wage in the fruit
and vegetable industry
Contravention of Order
No. 22, fixing a minimum wage in the fruit
and vegetable industry
Failing to keep register of
names, ages, nationalities, and residential addresses of employees
Failing to post Order No.
22, fixing a minimum
wage in the fruit and
vegetable  industry
Failing to post notice of
hours as required by
Regulation 13
Unlawfully employing a
person more than 8
hours in the day or more
than 48 in the week
Employing an employee
outside the hours fixed
on the notice posted pursuant to Regulation 13
Failure to pay wages semimonthly
Failure to pay wages semimonthly
Failure to keep records	
Failure to keep records
Failure to keep records	
Failure  to  pay  minimum
wage
Failure to keep records	
Failure to keep records	
Failure to pay minimum
wage
Fined $10 and costs.
Dismissed.
Dismissed.
Fined $10 and costs.
Fined $10 and costs.
Fined  $100.       Appealed.    Appeal not  yet
heard.
Withdrawn.
Withdrawn.,
Fined $50.
Fined $10.
Fined $10.
Fined $25 and costs.
Fined $10 and costs.
Fined $10.
Guilty. Fined $250 or three months' hard
labour.    Fine not paid.
Guilty. Fined $100 each or two months'
hard labour.    Fine not paid.
Guilty.    Fined $10.
Guilty. Suspended sentence. Recognizance of $500 required.
Guilty.    Fined $10 and costs.
Guilty. Suspended sentence. Ordered to
pay arrears of $41.60.
Guilty.    Fined $10.
Guilty.    Fined $10 and $2.50 costs.
Dismissed. K 46
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Court Cases—Continued.
Name of Employer.
Charge.
Sentence and Remarks.
W. A. Clark, Pen tic ton-
Alberta Meat Co., Ltd., Vancouver,.
Lions Gate Press, Vancouver	
Powell Bakery, Vancouver. __.	
Charlie Man Sing, Cranbrook	
Leonard A. Davis, Vancouver. 	
Brett's Woodyard, Vancouver. 	
George  Gabel,  869  Granville  Street,  Vancouver
Hatzic Tie Mills, Ltd., Steelhead	
Hatzic Tie Mills, Ltd., Steelhead..
D. Hendry, Braemar Bakery, 1470 Robson
Street, Vancouver
D. Hendry, Braemar Bakery, 1470 Robson
Street, Vancouver
D. Hendry, Braemar Bakery, 1470 Robson
Street, Vancouver
De Luxe Cafe, Vancouver.	
Albion Lumber Co., Vancouver..
New Star Cafe, Vancouver	
Province Cafe, Vancouver..
Newest Cafe, Vancouver	
Railway Cafe, Vancouver..
Peter Raubinger, Vancouver..
W. A. Clark, Penticton	
Failure to pay minimum
wage
Failure to post notice	
Failure to keep records	
Failure to keep records	
Failure to pay minimum
wage
Failure to keep records	
Failure to keep records	
Failing to include name of
employee on schedule of
hours
Unlawfully employing a
person more than 8
hours in the day and 48
in the week
Unlawfully employing a
person more than 8
hours in the day and 48
in the week
Failing to notify an employee pursuant to Regulation 13
Failing to keep in his
principal place of business a true and correct
register of the names,
ages, nationalities, and
residential addresses of
employees
Failing to keep record of
hours worked each day
by each employee
Failure to post notice	
Excessive hours _
Working employees at
hours other than shown
on schedule
Schedule of hours not
posted
Schedule of hours not
posted
Orders and hours of work
not posted
Failure to pay minimum
wage
Excessive hours.	
Dismissed.
Guilty. Fined $10.
Guilty. Fined $10.
Guilty. Fined $10.
Arrears paid into Court.    Costs $2.50.
Guilty. Fined $10 and costs.
Guilty. Fined $10 and costs.
Suspended sentence.
Fined $10 and costs.
Fined $10 and costs.
Fined $10.
Suspended sentence.
Suspended sentence.
Guilty.    Suspended sentence.
Dismissed.
Guilty.     Suspended  sentence;    $5  costs.
Guilty.    Fined $25 and costs.
Dismissed.
Guilty.    Suspended sentence.
Guilty.    Suspended   sentence;   $7.59    back
wages paid.
Dismissed.
COMPARISON OP WAGES, 1918, 1933, 1934, 1935.
For comparative reference of wage trends the following tables for non-seasonal occupations set out the averages for women over 18 years and girls under 18, during 1918, the year
which first saw minimum-wage legislation on the Provincial statute-books, and the corresponding averages for the past three years.
When the law first became effective predictions were made by certain factors not wholly
favourable to its enactment that increasingly large numbers of younger employees would be
engaged at the lower rates set for them in the various Orders. A glance at the percentages
in the accompanying table shows the fear to have been unfounded, and the reverse of what
they expected has occurred. The percentages for 1935 were much lower in all occupations
than in 1918. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 47
Mercantile Industry.
1918.
1933.
1934.
1935.
Average weekly wages—
$12.71
$7.70
15.49%
$12.78
$7.12
8.32%
$12.65
$7.45
8.70%
$12.92
$7.95
Percentage of employees under 18 years.	
9.63%
Laundry Industry.
Average weekly wages—
$11.80
$9.78
21.80%
$11.42
$7.70
7.21%
$11.95
$8.37
4.37%
$12.27
$9.43
Percentage of employees under 18 years	
4.78%
Public Housekeeping Occupation.
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years.—.	
Employees under 18 years —
Percentage of employees under 18 years..
$14.23
$11.77
5.51%
$13.78
$9.20
5.17%
$13.24
$10.62
2.08%
$13.11
$11.30
1-71%
Office Occupation.
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years 	
Employees under 18 years _.	
Percentage of employees under IS years
$16.53
$10.88
7.45%
$17.37
$10.09
1.02%
$17.30
$9.94
0.73%
$17.59
$10.84
0.37%
Personal Service Occupation.
Average weekly wages—
Employees over 18 years	
Employees under 18 years._-.	
Percentage of employees under 18 years..
$13.83
$6.96
15.38?
$14.49
$6.86
2.30%
$13.05
$1.71
1.56%
$13.03
$9.00
0.53%
Telephone and Telegraph Occupation.
Average weekly wages—
Experienced employees....	
Inexperienced employees 	
Percentage of inexperienced employees..
$15.55
$11.90
8.70%
$14.73
$9.33
4.06?
$17.04
$11.41
3.49%
Manufacturing Industry.
Average weekly wages—
$12.54
$9.57
28.64%
$14.68
$8.32
17.80%
$13.80
$8.52
13.07%
$14 15
$8.72
8.61%
" HOURS OF WORK ACT."
Enforcement of the above Act has been more effective during 1935, and the average
working-hours in the industries which are included in the Schedule have been reduced.
For general information it is considered advisable at this time to publish the Schedule to
the Act, enumerating the industries subject to a 48-hour week. SCHEDULE.
(1.) Mining, quarrying, and other works for the extraction of minerals from the earth.
(2.) Industries in which articles are manufactured, altered, cleaned, repaired, ornamented, finished,
adapted for sale, broken up or demolished, or in which materials are transformed; including shipbuilding and the generation, transformation, and transmission of electricity or motive power of any
kind, and logging operations.
(3.) Construction, reconstruction, maintenance, repair, alteration, or demolition of any building,
railway, tramway, harbour, dock, pier, canal, inland waterway, road, tunnel, bridge, viaduct, sewer,
drain, well, telegraphic or telephonic installation, electrical undertaking, gaswork, waterways, or other
work of construction, as well as the preparation for or laying the foundations of any such work or
structure.
To the above have been added, with the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council:—
Occupation of barbering, August 2nd, 1934.
Mercantile industry, August 9th, 1934.
Baking industry, November 22nd, 1934.
Catering industry, December 1st, 1934.
Transportation industry,_ June 20th, 1935.
Occupation of elevator operator, February 28th, 1935.
Occupation of hotel clerk, September 25th, 1935.
It will be seen that since the present " Hours of Work Act" was passed in March, 1934,
a steady broadening of its scope has taken place, resulting in increased employment.
Employers reported 81,329 employees, of whom 88.78 per cent, were working less than
48 hours per week, 5.26 per cent, between 48 and 54 hours per week, and 5.96 per cent, in
excess of 54 hours per week. We believe that the above provides sufficient evidence that the
administration of this Act is being carefully watched, and credit is due the inspection staff
for the results obtained, and also to the many employers who have adopted our suggestions
and placed additional men and women on their pay-rolls.
A comparison with previous years may be seen in the following table:—
Year.
Firms
reporting.
Employees
reported.
48 Hours or
less per
Week.
Between 48
and 54 Hours
per Week.
In excess of
54 Hours.
1930                              	
4,704
4,088
3,529
3,530
3,953
4,153
87,821
84,791
68,468
71,185
75,435
81,329
Per Cent.
77.60
83.77
80.36
77.95
85.18
88.78
Per Cent.
13.36
6.79
7.70
10.93
5.76
5.26
Per Cent.
9.04
1931 ... _ _
1932     	
9.44
11.92
1933    	
1934 	
11.12
9.06
1935   _. 	
5.96
The average weekly working-hours for all employees for same years being:—
1935      -_._ — 47.17
1934 _ __          47.32
1933            47.35
1932 __ _ — -   —  47.69
1931  __    , -  47.37
1930     ._  48.62
Since the " Hours of Work Act " came into effect we have shown the average weekly hours
by industries and the following table continues this effort:—
Average Weekly Hours of Work, by Industries.
Industry.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
46.98
45.64
44.82
46.75
53.69
44.08
46.17
40.64
46.00
46.44
51.11
43.97
_J
45.81
42.19
42.71
47.93
51.82
43.42
46.41
44.97
44.13
48.00
50.04
43.68
45.15
44.55
44.38
47.99
49.72
Contracting _ — _	
43.81 REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 49
Average Weekly Hours of Work, by Industries—Continued.
Industry.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
Explosives, chemicals, etc	
Food products, manufacture of..
Garment-making	
House-furnishing	
Jewellery, manufacture of _	
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing	
Leather and fur goods, manufacture of._
Lumber industries—
Logging  	
Logging-railways..
Lumber-dealers	
Planing-mills	
Sawmills	
Shingle-mills-
Metal trades ___ _.
Metal-mining 	
Miscellaneous trades and industries..
Oil-refining __ 	
Paint-manufacturing	
Printing and publishing 	
Pulp and paper manufacturing..
Ship-building. 	
Smelting— _
Street-railways, gas, water, power, etc	
Wood-manufacture (not elsewhere specified).
44.80
48.84
44.53
44.29
43.06
45.93
46.07
48.46
49.13
47.65
47.33
47.39
47.62
45.85
61.46
48.89
50.47
44.33
45.29
48.11
44.13
52.04
44.85
45.20
49.70
49.25
46.58
41.53
39.16
46.44
46.69
48.28
49.34
45.80
48.55
48.48
47.12
45.70
50.34
43.51
47.03
44.07
44.61
44.79
42.81
53.24
45.43
44.72
42.00
47.83
43.68
43.33
42.00
44.40
41.33
48.41
50.36
45.28
48.26
49.15
45.50
45.85
52.11
44.96
46.29
43.68
44.09
48.30
43.53
46.47
44.87
45.33
47.76
50.60
44.89
43.91
43.47
44.05
46.17
48.33
49.69
45.93
48.00
48.37
46.69
45.39
51.51
45.82
44.82
44.01
44.37
47.93
44.06
41.39
44.67
44.19
48.36
48.85
42.60
45.50
43.54
44.49
46.18
48.46
52.46
47.30
49.16
48.35
47.46
45.02
50.05
48.93
42.76
43.81
44.10
47.99
43.97
44.27
44.87
46.09
The  granting of overtime permits shows an increase over last year, the total being 459.
Where overtime permits have been granted not less than time and one-quarter is usually
required, this being a condition upon which the permit is granted. Employers must make a
return to the Department showing the names of employees who worked overtime, their rate
of pay, and the amount paid in overtime.    A check is thus kept on all overtime granted.
While the number who received permits may seem large, 202 were to firms for the purpose
of stock-taking; 150 were granted to firms where seasonal rushes in business required an
additional hour per day for one day or two days. Another frequent call for overtime is from
fruit concerns for the purpose of unloading bananas, and as the ships bringing this fruit
usually arrive after the close of the regular shift, the perishable nature of the commodity
requires that it be rushed from the boat and placed in the warehouse refrigerator-room and
not allowed to lie on the dock until next day.
The increased number of applications does not mean that more overtime is being worked,
but that the enforcement of the legislation is becoming more strict. This, combined with the
requirement of time and one-quarter of the regular rate of pay, has been of great benefit to
employees who hitherto had, in many cases, been requested to work the additional hours for
a fixed weekly rate.
CONCLUSION.
At the termination of another year this record of active endeavour is submitted to portray
the efforts of the Board in discharging its responsibilities.
In doing so we would be remiss if we failed to express due acknowledgment for the
co-operation received from many quarters, and our appreciation of the keen interest at all
times displayed by the Honourable the Minister of Labour.
We have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servants,
Adam Bell, Chairman.
William Alexander Carrothers.
Christopher John McDowell.
Fraudena Eaton.
James Thomson. K 50
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
APPENDIX.
SUMMARY OF ORDERS MADE PURSUANT TO "MALE MINIMUM WAGE
ACT, 1934," AND " FEMALE MINIMUM WAGE ACT, 1934."
BAKING INDUSTRY  (MALE).
Order No. 17, Effective November 23rd, 1934.
Includes all operations in or incidental to the manufacture and delivery of bread, biscuits, or cakes
Occupation.
Hourly Rate.
Weekly Hours.
Bakers—
21 years of age and over	
18 years and under 19 years..
19 years and under 20 years _
20 years and under 21 years.
Delivery salesmen	
40c.
25c.
30c.
35c.
40c.
48
48
48
48
54
BARBERING  (MALE).
Order No. 8, Effective August 3rd, 1934.
Barbering shall have the meaning set out in section 2 of the " Barbers Act," chapter 5, Statutes,
1924, and amendments.
Occupation.
Rate.
Hours per Week.
Barbers	
Barbers.....
$15.00 week
40c. per hour if
40 to 48 hours,
less than 40 hours.
(Maximum hours, 48 per week.)
BOX-MANUFACTURING  (MALE).
Order No. 37, Effective April 1st, 1936.
(Superseding Order No. 7, Effective August 3rd, 1934.)
Includes all operations in or incidental to the making of wooden boxes, barrels, kegs, casks, tierces,
pails, or other wooden containers.
Hourly Rate.       Hours per Week.
Adult males          —     	
Not more than 10 per cent, of adult males may be employed at not less than..
Males 18 to 21 years of age. _   _ _ __	
Males under 18 years of age   .	
35c.
25c.
25c.
20c.
48 (except June,
July, August, and
September).
BUS-DRIVERS.
Order No. 31, Effective October 28th, 1935.
Includes every male person in charge of or driving a motor-vehicle with seating accommodation for
more than seven passengers used for the conveyance of the public, for which a charge is made.
Area.
Victoria, Esquimalt, Oak Bay, Saanich..
Hourly Rate.
45c.
50c.
67.4 c.
Hours.
40 to 50.
Less than 40.
In excess of 9 hours
in  any one day or
50 hours in any one
week. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 51
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY  (MALE).
Order No. 12, Effective October 19th, 1934.
Includes construction, reconstruction, repair, alteration, or demolition of any building, railway,
tramway, harbour, dock, pier, canal, inland waterway, road, tunnel, bridge, viaduct, sewer, drain, well,
telegraphic or telephonic installation, electrical undertaking, gaswork, waterways, or other work of
construction, as well as the preparation for, or laying, the foundations of any such work or structure.
Area.
Hourly Rate,
21 Years and
Hourly Rate,
18 to 21 Years.
Hours per
Week.
Vancouver, West Vancouver, Nol'th Vancouver, Victoria, Nanaimo,
New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Esquimalt, Saanich, Burnaby,
Oak Bay    __  	
Rest of Province - _ _	
45c.
40c.
35c.
30c.
48
ELEVATOR OPERATORS  (MALE).
Order No. 32, Effective November 28th, 1935.
(Superseding Order No. 19, Effective March 1st, 1935.)
Occupation.
Rate.
Hours per Week.
Elevator operators, 18 years of age and over.___ __	
$14.00 per week.
37%c. per hour.
40 to 48.
Less than 40.
For female operators' wages and hours see Public Housekeeping Order No. 30.
ENGINEERS, STATIONARY STEAM  (MALE).
Order No. 18; Effective March 1st, 1935.
Includes every employee engaged in producing steam in a steam plant under the authority of
a certificate of competency, or who is in charge of, or responsible for, any steam boiler or engine while
under steam-pressure or in motion. " Special engineer" means holder of a special or temporary
certificate.     (See "Boiler Inspection Act," section 28  (1).)
Occupation.
Hourly Rate.
Hours per Week.
Engineer 	
Engineer, special-
50c.
40c.
48
48
Note.— (a.) Where engineers do not come within the provisions of the " Hours of Work Act " 48 hours per week
may be exceeded but hourly rate must be paid.
(b.)  For engineers in apartment buildings see Janitors' Order.
(c.) Engineers employed in a plant which does not require a certificate of competency shall be paid 40 cents per
hour (Order 18b).
FISHING INDUSTRY  (FEMALE).
Effective since February 28th, 1920.
This includes the work of females engaged in the washing, preparing, preserving, drying, curing,
smoking, packing, or otherwise adapting for sale or use, or for shipment, any kind of fish, except in
the case of canned fish.
Weekly Minimum Wage.
Experienced Workers.
Inexperienced Workers.
$15.50 per week.
32^4C. per hour.
$12.75 per week for 1st 4 months.
13.75 per week for 2nd 4 months.
14.75 per week for 3rd 4 months.
Licences  required for inexperienced employees
18 years of age or over. K 52
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INDUSTRY  (FEMALE).
Order No. 21, Effective April 18th, 1935.
Includes the work of females engaged in canning, preserving, drying, packing, or otherwise adapting
for sale or use any kind of fruit or vegetable.
Hours per Day.
Hourly Rate
First 10 hours
27c:
11th and 12th hours
40c.
In excess of 12 hours
54c.
First 10 hours
25c.
11th and 12th hours
37V2c.
In excess of 12 hours
50c.
Experienced employee-
Inexperienced employee.-
Note.— (a.)   Experienced employee is one who has completed two months'  work  in  the fruit and vegetable
industry.
(6.)  Inexperienced employee is one who has worked for a period of less than two months.
(c.)   Licences are required for inexperienced employees 18 years of age and over.
(d.)  Licences issued under (c) shall not exceed one-seventh of the total number of female employees in the plant.
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INDUSTRY  (MALE).
Order No. 22, Effective April 18th, 1935.
Includes all operations in or incidental to the canning, preserving, drying, packing, or otherwise
adapting for sale or use any kind of fruit or vegetable.
Hours per Day.
Hourly Rate.
Males 21 years of age and over. _ _	
First 10 hours
35c.
11th and 12th hours
52 V2c.
In excess of 12 hours
70c.
Males under 21 years of age  - — - -  • -
First 10 hours
25c.
11th and 12th hours
37M_c.
In excess of 12 hours
50c.
Note.—Aggregate number of male persons under the age of 21 years shall not exceed fifteen per centum  (15%)
of the total number of male employees in the plant.
JANITORS   (MALE).
Order No. 23, Effective April 18th, 1935.
Includes every male person employed as janitor, janitor-cleaner, or janitor-fireman.
Hourly Kate.
Over 50 Suites.
25 to 50 Suites.
13 to 24 Suites.
Under 13 Suites.
35c.
$125 per month
$100 per month
$75 per month
35c. per hour.
Note.— (a.) Where suite is supplied, $20 per month may be deducted for two  (2)  rooms and bathroom, and an
additional $5 for each additional room, also $4 per month may be deducted for electricity or gas.
(6.)   Where engineering duties are combined with janitor's duties, above rates apply.    Order 18a.
(c.)  Where janitor has more than one building, the combined number of suites fixes the rate to be paid.
(d.)   Janitors' suites not to be counted as one suite.
JANITRESS.
Order No. 29, Effective October 3rd, 1935.
Includes every female person employed as janitress, janitress-cleaner, or janitress-fireman.
Hourly Hate.
Over 50 Suites.
25 to 50 Suites.
13 to 24 Suites.
Under 13 Suites.
35c.
$125 per month
$100 per month
$75 per month
35c. an hour.
Note.— (a.)  Where suite is supplied, $20 per month may be deducted for two rooms and bathroom, and an
additional $5 for each additional room;   also $4 per month may be deducted for electricity or gas.
(b.)   Where janitress has more than one building the combined number of suites fixes the rate to be paid.
(c.)   Janitress' suite not to be counted as one suite. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 53
FIRST-AID ATTENDANTS
Order No. 39, Effective August 1st, 1936.
First-aid attendant means every male employee employed in whole or in part as a first-aid attendant
under the authority of a certificate of competency in first aid, satisfactory to the Workmen's Compensation Board of British Columbia, and designated by his employer as the first-aid attendant in charge.
First-aid attendant	
Assistant first-aid attendant. 	
Overtime rate when engaged in first-aid work-
Daily Rate.
$4.00
4.00
Note.— (a.)   " Hours of Work Act " regulates the daily hours in the industry.
(b.) If a higher minimum wage has been fixed for any industry or occupation within an industry, the first-aid
attendant employed in such industry or occupation must be paid such higher rate.
(c.) Actual expenses and transportation costs, in addition to the minimum wage, must be paid any first-aid
attendant while attending a patient being conveyed to the medical practitioner or hospital.
LAUNDRIES, CLEANING AND DYEING  (FEMALE).
Order in Effect since March 31st, 1919.
Experienced Employee—Weekly rate, $13.50.    Hours per week, 48.
Inexperienced employee..
Under 18 years of age.
"Weekly rate.
$8.00 for 1st 4 months.
$8.50 for 2nd 4 months.
$9.00 for 3rd 4 months.
$10.00 for 4th 4 months.
$11.00 for 5th 4 months.
$12.00 for 6th 4 months.
18 years of age and over.
Weekly rate.
$9.00 for 1st 4 months.
$10.50 for 2nd 4 months.
$12.00 for 3rd 4 months.
Licences required in this
class.
Hours per week, 48
Note.— (a.)  Above rates are based on a 48-hour week.
(6.)  Hours of work governed by " Factories Act."
LOGGING  (MALE), WEST  OF THE  CASCADE  MOUNTAINS AND  EXCLUSIVE  OF  SKEENA
RIVER BASIN EAST OF KHYEX RIVER.
Order No. 1, Effective April 27th, 1934.
Includes all operations in or incidental to the carrying-on of logging; pole, tie, mining-prop, and
pile cutting; and all operations in or incidental to driving, rafting, and booming of logs, poles, ties,
mining-props, and piles.
Rate.
Hours per Week.
Adult males .
Trackmen	
Cook- and bunk-house employees .
40c. per hour
371/_c. per hour
$2.75 per day
48
48
Unlimited.
Note.—Certain exemptions regarding working-hours.     (See " Hours of Work " Regulations.)
LOGGING (MALE), EAST OF THE CASCADE MOUNTAINS AND SKEENA RIVER BASIN EAST
OF THE KHYEX RIVER.
Order No. 13, Effective October 19th, 1934.
Includes all operations in or incidental to the carrying-on of logging; pole, tie, mining-prop, and
pile cutting; and all operations in or incidental to driving, rafting, and booming of logs, poles, ties,
mining-props, and piles.
Rate.
Hours per Week.
Adult males	
Cook- and bunk-house employees..
35c. per hour
$2.75 per day
48
Unlimited. K 54
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY   (FEMALE).
Order No. 25, Effective July 1st, 1935.
(Superseding Order in Effect since November 20th, 1923.)
Includes the work of females engaged in the making, preparing, altering, repairing, ornamenting,
printing, finishing, packing, assembling the parts of, or adapting for use or sale any article or commodity,
exclusive of fish, fruit, or vegetable drying, canning, preserving, or packing.
Weekly Rate.
Hours per Week.
$14.00
48
i
Inexperienced Employees—Schedule 1.
Includes the manufacture, preparation, or adapting for use or sale
of: Tea, coffee, spices, essences, sauces, jelly-powders, baking-
powders, molasses, sugar, syrups, honey, peanut butter, cream and
milk products, butter, candy, confectionery, bread, biscuits, cakes,
macaroni, vermicelli, meats, eggs, soft drinks, yeast, chip and shoestring potatoes, cereals, cooked foods, salads, ice-cream cones, other
food products, cans, fruit and vegetable containers, paper boxes and
wooden boxes, buttons, soap, paint, varnish, drug and toilet preparations, photographs, ink, seeds, brooms, brushes, whisks, pails,
wash-boards, clothes-pins, matches, explosives, munitions, gas-
mantles, window-shades, veneer products, batteries, plant fertilizers,
maps,   saw-teeth   and   holders,   mats,   tiles,   ropes,   and   shingles
Whether on a time-work or piece-work
basis.
Not less than—
$8.00 a week for the first two months of
employment.
10.00 a week for the second two months
of employment.
12.00 a week for the third two months
of employment.
14.00 a week thereafter.
Hours per week, 48.
Inexperienced Employees—Schedule 2.
Includes the manufacture of: Cotton bags, paper bags, envelopes,
overalls, shirts, ladies' and children's wear, uniforms, gloves, hats,
caps, men's neckwear, water-proof clothing, boots and shoes, tents,
awnings, regalia, carpets, furniture, bedding, pillow-covers, loose
covers, mattress-covers, draperies, casket furnishings, factory-made
millinery, knitted goods, blankets, machine-made cigars, pulp and
paper-mill products, artificial flowers, lamp-shades, flags and other
decorations, worsted-mill products, baskets, wreaths, and other
floral pieces, pianos, optical goods, aeroplanes, toys and novelties,
rayon products, stockings and lingerie (including repair of same),
and dipped chocolates
Whether on a time-work or piece-work
Not less than—
$8.00 a week for the first four months
of employment.
10.00 a week for the second four months
of employment.
12.00 a week for the third four months
of employment.
14.00 a week thereafter.
Hours per week, 48.
Inexperienced Employees—Schedule 3.
Includes bookbinding, embossing, engraving, printing, dress-making,
men's and women's tailoring, taxidermy, and the manufacture of
ready-to-wear suits, jewellery, furs, leather goods, hand-made
cigars, and hand-made millinery
Whether on a time-work or piece-work
basis.
Not less than—
$7.00 a week for the first six months of
employment.
10.00 a week for the second six months
of employment.
13.00 a week for the third six months
of employment.
14.00 a week thereafter.
Hours per week, 48.
Note.—Licences required for inexperienced employees 18 years of age or over.
MERCANTILE  (MALE).
Order No. 38, Effective July 20th, 1936.
(Superseding Order No. 10, dated August 10th, 1981,.)
Includes all establishments operated for the purpose of wholesale and (or) retail trade.
Experienced Employees.
Rate.
Hours.
(2.) 21 years of age and over..
(3.) 21 years of age and over..
Minimum rate per day __.
$15.00 per week
40c. per hour
$1.60 per day.
87% to 48 hours per week.
If less than ZlVz hours. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 55
Males under Twenty-one  (21)  Years of Age.
Minimum Rates for Beginners under Eighteen (18) Years of Age.
371/. to 48 Hours per Week.
Age.
Less than 37% Hours per Week.
Hourly Kate. Daily Minimum.
(4.) (1.)
$6.00 per week-
7.50 per weeks'.00 per week..
11.00 per week.
13.00 per week-
15.00 per week-
Under 17 years
17 and under 18
18 and under 19
19 and under 20
20 and under 21
Thereafter
16c.
20c.
24c.
29c.
35c.
40c.
65c.
80c.
95c.
$1.15
1.40
1.60
ginners and those recommencing, Eighteen (18) Years and under Twenty-one (21), to whom Permits
have been issued by the Board, under Section 6 of the " Male Minimum Wage Act.'*
37% to 48 Hours per Week.
Age.
Less than 37% Hours per Week.
Hourly Rate.
Daily Minimum.
(4.) (2.)
$8.00 per week, 1st 12 months	
18 to 21
18 to 21
18 to 21
21c.
27c.
35c.
85c.
$1.10
13.00 per week, 3rd 12 months.	
1.40
Thereafter rates as shown in 2 or 3.
Casual Employment.
Hourly Rate.
Daily Minimum.
Male persons 18 and under 21 years of age, whose work does not exceed five
(5) days in any one calendar month, may be employed without permit at
30c.
$1.20
(5.)
Males Twenty-one (21) Years and under Twenty-four (24).
Beginners and those recommencing, to whom Permits have been granted, under Section 6
of the " Male Minimum Wage Act."
37M> to 48 Hours per Week.
Age.
Less than 37^ Hours per Week.
Hourly Rate.
Daily Minimum.
21 and under 24
21 and under 24
21 and under 24
24c.
29c.
35c.
95c.
$1.15
1.40
Thereafter the rates as shown in 2 or 3.
Note.—Bicycle-riders and foot messengers, employed in wholesale and   (or)  retail establishments, shall be paid
at the rates shown in the above Order, and are deleted from the Transportation Order No. 26.
DRUG-STORES  (MALE).
Apprentice Scale for Indentured Apprentices approved by the Board of Industrial Relations.
Weekly Rate.
Hours per Week.
7.00 for 2nd 6 months .	
9.00 for 3rd 6 months — —   - -	 K 56
DEPARTMENT OP LABOUR.
MERCANTILE  (FEMALE).
Order No. 24, Effective July 1st, 1935.
(Superseding Order dated September 28th, 1927.)
Includes all establishments operated for the purpose of wholesale and (or)  retail trade.
Hours per Week.
Experienced employees 18 years of age or over-
Experienced employees 18 years of age or over-
Minimum, 18 years of age or over __	
$12.75 a week.
35c. per hour
$1.40 per day.
40 to 48
If less than 40 hours
per week.
Inexperienced Employees under 18 Years of Age.
40 to 48 Hours per Week.
Less than 40 Hours per Week.
$7.50 a week for 1st 3 months.
20c.
per hour during 1st 3 months.
8.00 a week for 2nd 3 months.
21c.
per hour during 2nd 3 months.
8.50 a week for 3rd 3 months.
23c.
per hour during 3rd 3 months.
9.00 a week for 4th 3 months.
25c.
per hour during 4th 3 months.
9.50 a week for 5th 3 months.
26c.
per hour during 5th 3 months.
10.00 a week for 6th 3 months.
27c.
per hour during 6th 3 months.
10.50 a week for 7th 3 months.
29c.
per hour during 7th 3 months.
11.00 a week until age of 18 years is reached.
30c.
per hour until age of 18 years is reached.
Minimum of $1.00 per day.
Inexperienced Employees 18 Years of Age or Over.
40 to 48 Hours per Week.
Less than 40 Hours per Week.
$9.00 a  week  1st 3  months.
10.00 a week 2nd 3 months.
11.00 a week 3rd 3 months.
12.00 a week 4th 3 months.
12,75 a week thereafter.
25c. per hour 1st 3 months.
27c. per hour 2nd 3 months.
30c. per hour 3rd 3 months.
35c. per hour 4th 3 months.
Minimum of $1.25 per day.
Note.— (a.)  Licences must be obtained for inexperienced employees 18 years of age or over at above rates.
(6.)  Maximum working-hours, 48 per week.
OFFICE OCCUPATION  (FEMALE).
Order No. 34, Effective January 30th, 1936.
(Superseding Order No. U of May 25th, 19SU-)
Includes the work of females employed as stenographers, book-keepers, typists, billing clerks, filing
clerks, cashiers, cash-girls (not included in other orders), checkers, invoicers, comptometer operators,
auditors, attendants in physicians' offices, dentists' offices, and other offices, and all kinds of clerical help.
Experienced Employees 18 Years of Age or over.
37 Ms to 48 Hours per Week.
Less than 37% Hours per Week.
$15.00 per week.
40c. per hour.
Minimum, $1.60 per day.
Inexperienced Employees 18 Years of Age and over.
(Licence required in this Class.)
37 V. to 48 Hours per Week.
Less than 37% Hours per Week.
$11.00 a week for 1st three months.
12.00 a week for 2nd three months.
13.00 a week for 3rd three months.
14.00 a week for 4th three months.
15.00 a week thereafter.
30c. per hour for 1st three months.
32%c. per hour for 2nd three months.
35c. per hour for 3rd three months.
37V2C. per hour for 4th three months.
40c. per hour thereafter.
Minimum in any one day must equal four hours' pay. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 57
Inexperienced Employees under 18 Years op Age.
37 M: to 48 Hours per Week.
Less than 37% Hours per Week.
$11.00 a week for 1st six months.
12.00 a week for 2nd six months.
13.00 a week for 3rd six months.
14.00 a week for 4th six months or until
employee reaches age of 18 years.
15.00 a week thereafter.
30c. per hour for 1st six months.
32VflC- Per hour for 2nd six months.
35c. per hour for 3rd six months.
37^e. per hour for 4th six months or until
employee reaches age of 18 years.
40c. per hour thereafter.
Minimum in any one day must equal four hours' pay.
Note.—Office employees are not allowed to exceed eight hours per day without a permit.
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATION  (FEMALE).
Order No. 27, Effective September 5th, 1935.
(Superseding, in part, Personal Service Order Effective since September 15th, 1919.)
This includes the work of females employed in manicuring;   hairdressing;   barbering;   massaging;
giving of electrical, facial, scalp, or other treatments;   removal of superfluous hair;
work of like nature.
chiropody;   or other
Bate.
Hours per Week.
Experienced employees 18 years of age or over- , - „
Experienced employees 18 years of age or over. _	
$14.25
37M_c.   per  hour
$1.50   per  day
40 to 48
Less than 40 hours
Inexperienced Employees under 18 Years of Age.
40 to 48 Hours per Week.
Less than 40 Hours per Week.
$10.00 a week for 1st 6 months.
27c. per hour during 1st 6 months.
11.00 a week for 2nd 6 months.
29c. per hour during 2nd 6 months.
12.00 a week for 3rd 6 months.
32c. per hour during 3rd 6 months.
13.00 a week for 4th 6 months,
35c. per hour during 4th 6 months,
or until employee reaches
or until employee reaches age
age of 18 years.
of 18 years.
14.25 a week thereafter.
37%c. per hour thereafter.
Minimum,  $1.25 per day.
Inexperienced Employees 18 Years op Age or Over.
40 to 48 Hours per Week.
Less than 40 Hours per Week.
$10.00 a week for 1st 3 months.
27c. per hour during 1st 3 months.
11.00 a week for 2nd 3 months.
29c. per hour during 2nd 3 months.
12.00 a week for 3rd 3 months.
32c. per hour during 3rd 3 months.
13.00 a week for 4th 3 months.
35c. per hour during 4th 3 months.
14.25 a week thereafter.
37M.C. per hour thereafter.
Minimum, $1.25 per day.
Licences required for inexperienced employees 18 years of age or over.
Note.—Employees waiting on call to be paid according to rates to which they are entitled as set out above. K 58
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATION (FEMALE).
Effective since September 15th, 1919.
This includes the work of females employed as ushers in theatres, attendants at shooting-galleries,
and other public places of amusement, garages, and gasoline service-stations, or as drivers of motor-cars
and other vehicles.
(Other classes of work originally in this Order now covered by Order No. 27.)
Wage Rate.
Weekly Hours.
$14.25 per week.
29u/i§c. per hour.
48 hours.
Note.— (a.) Ushers in theatres, music-halls, concert-rooms, and the like, engaged after 6 p.m., on legal holidays,
and for special matinees, are entitled to a wage of not less than 80 cents an hour, with a minimum payment of
75 cents.
(o.) Ushers working more than 18 hours a week, but not in excess of 36 hours, are entitled to not less than
$10.80  a  week.     (Ushers  in  this  category  may  be  employed  only  between   1.30   p.m.   and   11   p.m.)
(c.)  Ushers working in excess of 36 hours a week up to 48 hours are entitled to not less than $14.25.
(d.) No distinction is made for ushers under 18 and over 18 years of age. No apprenticeship considered necessary for ushers.
PUBLIC HOUSEKEEPING OCCUPATION  (FEMALE).
Order No. 30, Effective October 3rd, 1935.
(Superseding Order No. 5 of May 2ith, 193i.)
This includes the work of waitresses, attendants, housekeepers, cooks, and kitchen-help in restaurants, hotels, tea-rooms, ice-cream parlours, light-lunch stands, and other places where food is cooked,
prepared, and served for which a charge is made; and the work of chambermaids in hotels, lodging-
houses, and apartments where lodging is furnished, whether or not such establishments are operated
independently or in connection with any other business;   and the work of all female elevator operators.
Experienced Employees 18 Years of Age or over.
40 to 48 Hours per Week.
Less than 40 Hours per Week.
$14.00 per week.
37Vie. per hour.
Minimum daily rate, $1.50.
Inexperienced Employees 18 Years op Age or over.
(Licence required in this Class.)
40 to 48 Hours per Week.                                                             Less than 40 Hours per Week.
$12.00 per week for 1st three months.
14.00 per week thereafter.
30c. per hour for 1st three months.
Minimum of $1.20 per day.
Employees under 18 Years of Age.
40 to 48 Hours per Week.
Less than 40 Hours per Week.
$12.00 per week.
30c. per hour.
Minimum, $1.20 per day.
Note.— (a.)  Time and one-half for hours in excess of 48.
(6,)   When lodging is furnished, deduction limited to not more than $3 per week.
(c.)  When board or meals are furnished, 25 cents may be deducted for each meal consumed by the employee. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 59
SAWMILLS  (MALE).
Order No. 36, Effective April 1st, 1936.
(Superseding Order No. 2 of April 27th, 1931,, and Order No. 11, of October 19th, 1931,.)
Includes all operations in or incidental to the carrying-on of sawmills and planing-mills.
Hourly Rate.
Weekly Hours.
35c.
25c.
25c.
48
Not more than 10 per cent, of above may be employed at not less than...
48
48
Note.— (a.)   Certain exemptions under "Hours of Work Act."     (See regulations.)
(b.)   For engineers see Engineer Order.
(c.)  For truck-drivers see Transportation Order.
SHINGLE-BOLTS  (MALE).
Order No. Ib, Effective January 4th, 1935.
Includes employees engaged in felling, bucking, and splitting shingle-bolts.
Rate, $1.30 per cord.
Hours, 48 per week.
SHINGLE-MILLS  (MALE.)
Order No. 16, Effective November 23rd, 1934.
Includes all operations in or incidental to the manufacture of wooden shingles.
Hourly Rate-
Weekly Hours.
40c.
48
Note.—(a.)  For engineers see Engineer Order.	
(6.)  For truck-drivers see Transportation Order.
SHIP-BUILDING INDUSTRY (MALE).
Order No. 20, Effective June 14th, 1935.
Includes all operations in the construction, reconstruction, altei ation, repair, demolition, painting,
and cleaning of hulls, putting on or taking off the ways, or dry-docking, of any ship, boat, barge, or scow.
Occupation.
Hourly Rate.
Weekly Hours.
67%c.
50c.
25c.
48
48
Employees under 21, not more than 10 per cent, of total male employees
48
TAXICAB DRIVERS  (MALE).
Order No. 33, Effective January 30th, 1935.
(Superseding Order No. 6, Effective June 29th, 1931,.)
Includes an employee in charge of or driving a motor-vehicle with seating accommodation for seven
passengers or less than seven passengers, used for the conveyance of the public and which is driven or
operated for hire.
Area.
Drivers.
Daily Rate.
Working-hours.
Vancouver, Victoria, Esquimalt, Oak Bay, Saanich .„
All ages.
$2.50
Unlimited.
Note.—If uniform or special article of wearing is demanded by employer, it must be without cost to the employee. K 60
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH OCCUPATION   (FEMALE).
Effective April 5th, 1920.
This includes the work of all persons employed in connection with the various instruments, switchboards, and other mechanical appliances used in connection with telephony and telegraphy, and shall
also include the work of all persons employed in the business or industry of the operation of telephone
or telegraph systems who are not governed by any other Order of the Board.
Experienced Workers.
Inexperienced Workers.
Weekly Hours.
$15.00 per week.
31*4c. per hour.
$11.00 per week for 1st 3 months.
12.00 per week for 2nd 3 months.
13.00 per week for 3rd 3 months.
Licences  required for inexperienced employees 18 years of age or over.
48
48
48
In case of emergency,
56 hours.
Note.— (a.)   Time and one-half is payable for hours in excess of 48.
(6.)  Every employee must have one full day off duty in every week.
(c.) Where telephone and telegraph employees are customarily on duty between the hours of 10 p.m. and 8 a.m.,
10 hours on duty shall be construed as the equivalent of 8 hours of work in computing the number of hours of
employment a week.
(d.) In cases where employees reside on the employers' premises, the employer shall not be prevented from
making an arrangement with such employee to answer emergency calls between the hours of 10 p.m. and 8 a.m.
WOOD-WORKING  (MALE).
Order No. 11, Effective August 24th, 1934.
Includes all establishments operated for the purpose of manufacturing sash and doors, cabinets,
show-cases, office and store fixtures, wood furniture, and general mill-work products.
Class.
Hourly Rate.
Weekly Hours.
35c.
25c.
48
48 Includes all operations
cabinets, show-cases, office
general mill-work products.
ERRATUM.
(To replace above Order.)
WOOD-WORKING.
Order No. 35, Effective April 1st, 1936.
in establishments operated for the purpose of manufacturing sash and doors,
and store fixtures, wood furniture, wood furnishings, veneer products, and
Glass.
Hourly Rate.
Weekly Hours.
35c.
25c.
20c.
48
18 to 21 years of age  	
48
48 REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 61
TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY  (MALE).
Order No. 26, Effective July 4th, 1935.
Includes all operations in or incidental to the carrying or transporting for reward, by any means
whatever, other than by rail, water, or air, any goods, wares, merchandise, article, articles, or material
the property of persons other than the carrier, and the carrying or delivering of goods, wares, merchandise, article, articles, or material by or on behalf of any manufacturer, jobber, private or public
owner, or by or on behalf of any wholesale, retail, private, or public vendor thereof, or dealer therein,
and the carrying or delivering to or collecting from any other carrier of goods by rail, water, air, or
road transport for the purpose of being further transported to some destination other than the place
at which such aforementioned carriage or delivery terminates.
Weekly Hours.
Weekly Hours.
Weekly Hours.
(1.) Operators of motor-vehicles of 2,000 lb. net
weight or over, as specified on the motor-
vehicle licence, exclusive of those specified
in section 7 hereof
Hourly rate ___ _____ ___ __	
(2.)
Operators of motor-vehicles of less than
2,000 lb. net weight, as specified on the
motor-vehicle licence, exclusive of those
specified in sections 3 and 7 hereof
Hourly rate __ ____. __ __	
(3.)   Operators of motor-cycles-
Hourly rate. __	
(4.) Bicycle-riders and foot-messengers employed exclusively on delivery or messenger
work
Hourly rate   ___ __	
(5.)   Swampers and helpers _
Hourly rate -
(6.)   Drivers of horse-drawn vehicles other than
those covered by section 7 hereof
Hourly rate    ______ ____ _
(7.) Drivers of vehicles employed in the retail
delivery of bread or in the retail delivery
of milk
Hourly rate   _    	
Less than 40
45c.
Less than 40
40c.
20c.
Less than 40
40c.
Less than 40
45c.
40  and  not more
than 50
40  and not more
than 50
In excess of 50 and
not more than 54
60c.
In excess of 50 and
not more than 54
35c.
52V2c.
Less than 40
40 and not more
than 48
30c.
25c.
Less than 40
40  and not more
than 48
40  and  not more
than 50
35c.
40  and not more
than 50
40c.
In excess of 50 and
not more than 54
52V2c.
In excess of 50 and
not more than 54
60c.
40c.
Note.— (a.) Where vehicle is provided by employee all reasonable costs while vehicle is in use on employer's
behalf shall be in addition to above rates.
(6.)  Where uniforms are required these are to be furnished without cost to employee.
(c.)  Employees waiting on call to be paid at above rates.
(d.) Milk-delivery men may work fifteen (15) hours in excess of 48 per week, provided not more than ten (10)
hours is worked in any one day, nor more than three hundred and seventy-eight (378) hours over a period of
seven  (7) weeks.
(e.)  Bicycle-riders and foot-messengers in mercantile industry, see Order No. 38.
WATCHMEN—LOGGING CAMPS  (MALE).
Order No. Ia, Effective November 29th, 1934.
Wages.
Hours.
Watchmen where operations of camp are suspended.
No minimum wage fixed.
Not fixed. K 62
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
LABOUR DISPUTES AND CONCILIATION.
It became evident during 1935 that with increased business, without the employees
receiving their share of such increase, discontent and resort to the only method available to
the workers was taken advantage of during the year.
The coal-miners' strike at Corbin early in the year had a disastrous effect on all concerned,
resulting in the abandonment of one operation, which greatly reduced the work available.
As usual every year, salmon-fishermen quit work because of the price offered for fish.
These, together with the halibut-fishermen, accounted for 40,000 working-days. Considerable
trouble developed on the water-front, with unfortunate results in Vancouver, where riots took
place in which several strikers and police were injured. In this strike water-front workers
and shipping employees lost 74,860 working-days.
In the gold-mines of the Bridge River area 10,000 days were lost, and in the coal-mines at
Cumberland 2,500 working-days were lost.
In all, twenty-three strikes took place during 1935, involving 7,321 men with a total loss
in working-days of 140,706. Of the twenty-three strikes, nine terminated in favour of the
employees, nine in favour of the employers, three were partially successful, and two lapsed.
The following table shows the record for the past five years:—
Year.
No. of Strikes.
Employees
affected.
Time lost in
Working-days.
1931                                                                                ..            	
11
11
14
17
23
2,322
4,136
2,397
4,427
7,321
79,310
1932  ____    .
37,740
1933	
25,760
1934  .... _ 	
73,977
1935     	
140,706
COAL-MINES, CORBIN.
Following a strike called at Corbin, the Deputy Minister, on instructions of the Hon.
Minister of Labour, went to the strike area, and reported as follows:—
Victoria, B.C., May 18th, 1935.
Hon. Geo. S. Pearson,
Minister of Labour, Victoria, B.C.
Dear Sir:
Report re Strike of Coal-miners employed by the Corbin Collieries,
Limited, Corbin, B.C.
On January 20th, 1935, the employees of the Corbin Collieries, Limited, organized in a
Union known as the Corbin Miners' Association, and came out on strike.
It may be stated that the strike was called without submitting the matter under contention
to a secret ballot, as provided by the agreement entered into and existing between the Corbin
Collieries, Limited, and the Corbin Miners' Association, affiliated with the Miners' Union of
Canada and the Workers' Unity League.
The first intimation I had of the strike having taken place was through Mr. Sherwood
Lett, of Vancouver, Solicitor for the Company, on January 23rd.
I immediately got in touch with the office of the Western Representative of the Dominion
Department of Labour, as a strike in a coal-mine is, primarily, a Federal concern under the
provisions of the " Industrial Disputes Act" of Canada.
Mr. Harrison, Western Representative of the Dominion Department of Labour, was in
Calgary at the time, so I communicated with him by long-distance telephone and telegraph,
and, on his informing me that he expected, within the next few days, to return to the Coast,
I suggested that he return via Crowsnest Pass and stop off at Corbin in an endeavour to settle
the dispute. This Mr. Harrison consented to do, and on February 7th he arrived at Corbin
and commenced negotiations with a view to settlement. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935. K 63
I would like, at this time, to quote a letter to the Hon. Geo. S. Pearson, Minister of Labour,
from the Corbin Miners' Association, dated January 21st, as well as the reply by the Deputy
Minister of Labour on the Minister's behalf:—
Corbin Miners' Association.
Corbin, B.C., January 21st, 1935.
The Honourable G. S. Pearson,
Minister of Labour, Victoria, B.C.
Dear Sir,—I beg to inform you that the Corbin Miners' Association came out on strike January
20th at 11 p.m.    Reasons for such action taken by the Association are as follows:—
(1.) Saturday, January 19th, our Local Secretary was discharged from employment. According
to the Coal Company's statement he was discharged for quitting too early, although in spite of the fact
that he was accompanied by five or more men from that particular shift at the time of his discharge.
This we consider a case of discrimination.
(2.) The weather conditions here in Corbin are such that men suffer great hardships going to and
from the new No. 6 Mine. This mine is located 1 mile from the town, including the walk up the incline.
The incline itself is 2,200 feet long at a steep grade. On several occasions the Committee of the
Association interviewed the management in regard to installing a man-trip to hoist and lower men to
and from the mine. The management partly promised to install the man-trip several months ago. At
our last interview the management turned us down completely in this request.
(3.) The housing conditions in Corbin are unbearable for anybody to live in. Some instances the
snow blows in through the cracks in the walls, through the window-sashes and doors. We have
repeatedly taken this up with the management for the past three years, but very little repair-work
was done by the Company.
Also, various grievances were definitely turned down by the management. Trusting you will give
the above your favourable consideration, we remain,
Yours very truly,
CORBIN   MINERS' ASSOCIATION.
John Falconer, President.
John Press, Secretary.
February 2nd, 1935.
Mr. John Press,
Secretary, Corbin Miners' Association, Corbin, B.C.
Dear Sir,—Your letter of the 21st ultimo to the Hon. G. S. Pearson, Minister of Labour, has been
received and, on behalf of the Minister, I beg to acknowledge the same.
As you are no doubt aware, mines and industries connected with public utilities come within the
jurisdiction of the " Industrial Disputes Investigation Act," a Federal Statute, and having a spare copy
of this Statute, I am pleased to enclose the same herewith for your information and guidance. I would
particularly draw your attention to section 60 and section 61 thereof, which I have marked.
The operation of the " Industrial Disputes Investigation Act " is a matter that is handled by the
Federal Department of Labour, and the Western Representative of that Department is Mr. F. E.
Harrison, with offices at 603 B.C. Mining Building, Vancouver.
We would be interested to hear if you have made any attempt to negotiate with the Company with
respect to a settlement of this dispute, or if you have made any application to the Federal Department
of Labour under the provisions of the " Industrial Disputes Investigation Act."
Yours truly,
Adam Bell,
Deputy Minister of Labour.
During my presence in Corbin it was intimated to me that, on my letter of February,
quoted above, being read at a meeting of the Corbin Miners' Association, a motion was moved
and carried to throw my letter, along with the enclosure, in the waste-paper basket, and I was
so informed by two men who stated they were present at the meeting.
On April 17th a serious riot occurred in Corbin, when a number of police officers and
strikers received injuries.
A delegation consisting of Mr. Thos. Uphill, M.L.A., Harvey Murphy, Organizer of the
Mine Workers' Union of Canada, James Dornan, and another appeared at Victoria on April
23rd on behalf of the striking miners, and obtained an interview with members of the Government.
The writer was instructed by the Hon. the Minister of Labour to proceed to Corbin and
ascertain and report if anything could be done to get the operations of the Corbin Collieries
once more under way. K 64 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
I left Victoria on April 25th and arrived in Corbin on April 27th. I travelled to Corbin via
Spokane, where the head office of the Corbin Collieries is located, and took advantage of the
opportunity to interview Mr. Austin Corbin, President of the Company, and Mr. Allen,
Secretary-Treasurer. These gentlemen were extremely disturbed about what had taken place.
They told me that the C.P.R. had cancelled its orders with the Corbin Collieries, which, prior to
the strike, had amounted to 60 per cent, of the total production of the mine.
Despite this fact, they expressed a willingness to try and keep the mine operating, even
on the curtailed volume of business, if some satisfactory arrangement with the striking miners
could be accomplished.
On my arrival in Corbin, the delegation referred to above had not yet returned from
Victoria, and I found the whole atmosphere of the place to be extremely tense.
I met the officials of the Corbin Miners' Association, and discussed matters with many
individual miners with whom I am personally acquainted, and also had some discussion with
Mr. Warburton, the Colliery Manager, and other officials of the Company.
I could readily see that the strike had not developed overnight, but had arisen out of
circumstances and conditions retroactive over a period of at least two years, when the Company
had started to operate the Big Showing in 1933.
I easily discerned that the Union Executive had been in the habit of exercising a very
strong influence in the running of the mine. The Executive of the Union criticized the
sincerity of the management, while the Colliery Manager outlined to me what he regarded
as the anti-conciliatory and overbearing attitude of the Union Executive and members.
I made careful, quiet, and exhaustive inquiry through every means at my disposal, and
decided to put forward what I considered the most satisfactory and, in fact, the only proposal
under which I deemed the operation of the mines could again be resumed.
These proposals are contained in a letter addressed, jointly, to Mr. E. L. Warburton,
Colliery Manager, and Mr. John Press, Secretary of the Corbin Miners' Association, of April
30th, as subsequently quoted in this report.
On Sunday night, April 28th, I addressed a mass meeting of all the members of the Corbin
Miners' Association and Women's Auxiliary to that organization, intimating the purposes for
which I had been sent, and offering to do everything I possibly could in the interest of all
concerned.
At that meeting I intimated that I would like to have the privilege of addressing a mass
meeting of all the residents of Corbin. While the meeting on Sunday night seemed quite in
favour of my addressing a mass meeting of all the residents of Corbin, Union officials subsequently told me that members of the Union would not attend such a meeting where persons
who were not members of the organization might be present.
Here follows my proposals of April 30th:—
Corbin, B.C., April 30th, 1935.
Mr. E. L. Warburton,
Colliery Manager, Corbin Collieries, Ltd., Corbin, B.C.
Mr. John Press,
Secretary, Corbin Miners' Association, Corbin, B.C.
Dear Sir,—The undersigned arrived at Corbin on the 27th instant, having been sent in on the
instructions of the Honourable the Minister of Labour to investigate and ascertain the possibility of
operations of the Corbin Collieries being resumed in the general interest of all concerned. Since my
arrival I have assiduously applied myself to the mission upon which I was sent and I have pursued every
avenue through which any information of value might be obtained.
From my investigations, several salient factors are apparent which have an all-important bearing
upon the situation and which I would like to enumerate herein.
It is perfectly obvious that the conditions which obtained with respect to the company's operations
at the time the strike occurred on January 20th have very materially changed.
First, the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Corbin Company's best customer which formerly took
60 per cent, of the total mine output, has indicated that this business is no longer available and of future
uncertainty.
Second, No. 4 Mine, the main source of supply prior to the strike taking place, is definitely closed
and, as I am informed by the Mines Inspector, permanently sealed on account of fire having got beyond
control since the shut-down.
Third, No. 6 Mine, being as yet substantially in process of development, is not capable of producing
coal of quantity and quality for marketing to fill even the curtailed volume of business which the
Company at present enjoys. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935. K 65
Fourth, No. 3 Mine (the Big Showing) will shortly be in condition to supply coal which will enable
the Company to fill its existing orders and carry on until lost business can be regained with a view of
resuming underground operations, and is therefore through circumstances the focal point upon which
resumption and continuity of operations in the proximate future depends.
Fifth, my investigations have convinced me that the present labour trouble has been in process of
generation over a period of at least two years. All circumstances therewith connected would therefore
appear to be deserving of thorough inquiry and basic remedy and should not be hurriedly patched up
with all the possibilities of continued recurrence.
Therefore, having reviewed and carefully considered the foregoing, I have decided to make the
following recommendations jointly to the Company and its employees:—
From the employees I would therefore request a written undertaking in the form of a reply to this
letter that there will be no violence nor obstruction to the Company meantime continuing to operate
No. 3 Mine (the Big Showing) through the contractor to whom the present contract has been let with
the equipment and the men at present on the ground, and that immediate application will be made to
the Dominion Department of Labour for a Board of Conciliation under the " Industrial Disputes Act."
From the Company I would therefore request a written undertaking in the form of a reply to this
letter obligating itself to proceed with No. 3 Mine (the Big Showing) on the conditions as outlined in
the foregoing paragraph, and to resume underground operations and to commence such new development-
work as expeditiously as circumstances will permit, and to make immediate application to the Dominion
Department of Labour for a Board of Conciliation under the " Industrial Disputes Act." In the gradual
resumption of operations during negotiations the Company will re-employ former employees without
prejudice on the jobs at which they were formerly employed pending the outcome of the Board's report.
On receipt of satisfactory replies from the Company and from the employees the writer will urge
the Dominion Government to establish without delay a Board of Conciliation under the " Industrial
Disputes Act," as the present strike is in a coal-mine and under the provisions of the above Statute
becomes a matter of primary Federal concern. In addition to the fact of Dominion jurisdiction as
mentioned above, I am actuated to recommend the procedure of settlement through a Board under the
" Industrial Disputes Act " because of the conditions already referred to in this letter and out of a
profound conviction that a more permanent settlement will be obtained thereby.
On receipt of satisfactory replies from the Company and from the men, the writer will also undertake to recommend the immediate withdrawal of the police from Corbin except for the force ordinarily
maintained at this point.
It is hardly necessary to point out that not only the continued operations of the Corbin Collieries
are at stake in this issue, but the livelihood of approximately 300 employees is involved, and even more
than that the existence of Corbin, a town of 650 population, is in the gravest jeopardy.
I would therefore request that the recommendations contained herein be given your most serious
consideration, and in the hope of a favourable reply, I am,
Yours sincerely,
Adam Bell,
Deputy Minister of Labour.
I did not press for an immediate reply, owing to the fact that May 1st had been fixed for
a big gala day and demonstration at Blairmore, Alberta, 30 miles from Corbin, and threats had
been made that an army of 5,000 miners and unemployed from Alberta intended to march
on Corbin.
The police were prepared to prevent such an invasion, and had assembled a considerable
force of police officers at Crowsnest, on the Provincial boundary.
Feeling my responsibility as a senior Government official, I was anxious to prevent such a
march taking place, with all the possibilities of a clash with the police, and so, on the evening
of April 30th, I called the Executive of the Corbin Miners' Association into conference, and
suggested that the President and Secretary accompany me to Blairmore and urge the massed
assembly there not to attempt to march upon Corbin, as we were doing everything possible to
reach a peaceful and satisfactory settlement.
The Miners' Executive requested half an hour to consider my suggestion, and returned,
informing me that they were not prepared to accompany me to Blairmore, and expressed their
disagreement with my suggestion.
May 1st passed off very quietly, and I decided to allow the striking miners ample opportunity to consider my proposals. I therefore did not press for a reply until May 3rd, when
I met the Executive of the Corbin Miners' Association, and urged them to accede to my proposals of April 30th, to get the mine working once more and submit the whole matter to a
Board of Conciliation and Investigation under the " Industrial Disputes Act."
The Executive informed me that a mass meeting had unanimously decided not to accept
my suggestions, and that they would not attend any public meeting which I might hold.
I urged them to reconsider their decision, however, without success.
I therefore requested a reply in writing, which was given me on May 4th, as follows:—
5 K 66 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Corbin Miners' Association.
Corbin, B.C., May 4th, 1935.
Mr. Adam Bell,
Deputy Minister of Labour, Corbin, B.C.
Dear Mr. Bell,—In answer to your letter dated April 30th, dealing with the present situation in
Corbin, also your proposed suggestion of submitting our grievances to a Board of Conciliation.
Your letter was brought up and discussed and the decision arrived at was that our original
grievances do not warrant such a Board as advised by you. Of course you will understand that little
better than two months after the strike was called our agreement expired, which adds another obstacle
in arriving to a settlement.
It has been the wish of this organization for some considerable time to have a thorough investigation
by those interested from Spokane office; we are certain that if this was done a satisfactory agreement
would be arrived at to both parties.
I might state that the only obstacle now confronting the Association is the drawing-up of a new
agreement.    Hoping this fully explains the situation, we remain,
Yours very truly,
CORBIN MINERS' ASSOCIATION,
John Press, Secretary.
i
I deemed it advisable to proceed to Spokane, and left Corbin on May 4th, arriving in
Spokane on Sunday, May 5th.
On Sunday afternoon I interviewed Mr. Roberts, Vice-President of the Corbin Collieries,
Ltd., and Mr. A. M. Allen, Secretary-Treasurer, and discussed the situation with them very
exhaustively.
I asked them for a reply to my letter of April 30th, which was given, as quoted below, and
they told me that they would communicate with Mr. Sherwood Lett, of Vancouver, Solicitor
for the Company, and that he would be in Victoria on May 7th, to speak authoritatively on
behalf of the Company.
Corbin Collieries, Limited.
Spokane, Washington, May 4th, 1935.
Mr. Adam Bell,
Deputy Minister of Labour, Victoria, B.C.
Dear Sir,—Receipt is acknowledged of copy of your letter of April 30th addressed to Mr. E. L.
Warburton, our Colliery Manager.
The contents of your letter have been given careful consideration by our Company. With
particular reference to the written undertaking requested from the Company by you, we wish to advise
our willingness to make immediate application for a Board of Conciliation under the " Industrial
Disputes Act " and to be governed by the findings of said Board, in accordance with the Dominion
Statutes.
We are also willing to comply generally with your further requirements as to operation of No. 3
Mine and new development-work, in so far as the volume of business and circumstances will permit.
In the employment of any new men, in addition to salaried officials in the employ of the Company
prior to January 20th, 1935, it will show no discrimination against former employees now on strike.
Yours truly,
A. M. Allen,
Secretary-Treasurer.
I deemed it advisable to return to Victoria and report the whole situation to the Hon.
the Minister of Labour.
On May 7th I received the following letter from Mr. Sherwood Lett:—
Corbin Collieries, Limited.
Victoria, B.C. May 7th, 1935.
Adam Bell, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Labour, Victoria, B.C.
Dear Sir,—Further to our letter of the 4th instant, we now understand that the Corbin Miners'
Association has refused to accept a Board of Conciliation and Investigation under the " Industrial
Disputes Act " as recommended by you.
After giving consideration to all the facts of the case, we have decided that the best course to
pursue is to discontinue operations, which we are proceeding to do forthwith.
Yours truly,
CORBIN COLLIERIES, LIMITED.
Sherwood Lett, Director. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935. K 67
The Company had evidently decided that it was useless, in the light of all the circumstances, to attempt to continue operations.
I may again repeat that I suggested the only course that I could see, whereby the operations
of the mine might be resumed and carried on.
My proposals were based upon four main considerations:—
1st. That they follow the regular line of procedure in accordance with the laws of
Canada.
2nd. That the most effective method would be provided to investigate and dispose of the
causes of the present trouble, and thus make possible a more permanent settlement and a
better agreement.
3rd. That the means of conciliation and investigation would be carried on under a properly
constituted Board under the " Industrial Disputes Act," upon which Board both sides would
have equal representation, with a neutral Chairman, and that the police would be withdrawn
while negotiations were proceeding, during which time the Company would be able to keep
operating to the extent that its orders would allow.
4th. That I desired to save all that could possibly be saved out of the existing situation.
I have no hesitation in expressing the opinion that outside influences had much to do in
precipitating the crisis and bringing about the distressful state of affairs in Corbin.
As the Corbin Miners' Association is a local unit of the Mine Workers' Union of Canada,
I think it is only right, in the public interest, that the following quotation should be known:—
The Mine Workers' Union of Canada, affiliated with the Workers' Unity League, Constitution,
Article 26: —
The Executive Board shall endeavour, as far as possible, to promote the securing of the single district
agreement, and through the propagation of this principle abolish the custom of local agreements. No
agreements must be contracted that provide for the intervention of the Provincial or Federal Departments of Labour in the capacity of an arbitrator or conciliator.
Further, I would quote from publication of the Dominion Department of Labour entitled
" Labour Organization in Canada, 1931," page 164:—
Workers' Unity League of Canada.
The Canadian section of the Red International of Labour Unions is the Workers' Unity League of
Canada, which was on December 2nd, 1931, declared illegal in a Saskatchewan Court, has as its purpose,
as published in the draft constitution which appeared in The Worker for June 28th, 1930, the
following:—
To organize the Canadian workers into powerful revolutionary industrial unions, created on the
axis of the widest rank and file control; to fight for the defence and improvement of the conditions of
the working-class, mobilizing and organizing Canadian workers for the final overthrow of capitalism
and for the establishment of a Revolutionary Workers' Government. Towards this end the Workers'
Unity League of Canada lays down the following organizational structure:—
It shall be the task of the W.U.L. to initiate aggressive campaigns of organization in every field of
industry where no organization obtains. The organization of the unorganized must be the main and
central task of the Workers' Unity League of Canada.
In all campaigns unemployed workers must be organized and their activities linked up with the
general activities of the revolutionary working-class struggle. The unemployed workers must become
an integral part of the revolutionary working-class movement.
The Workers' Unity League of Canada shall organize left wing oppositional groups in the reformist
unions; these oppositional groups must be regarded as the nuclei of industrial unions within the
framework of the craft and patriotic unions, and every effort shall be made to win the membership of the
reformist unions for the revolutionary " industrial unions."
The foregoing is by no means intended as casting reflection or taint upon all the residents
of Corbin, because I honestly believe many of them to be unfortunate and unwitting victims
of influence whose true import is not understood.
I regret very much that my endeavours to get the mines reopened were not successful,
but the whole affair was one of extreme difficulty, and I cannot see where I could have taken
any other course, or where I could have put forward any other proposals.
Respectfully submitted.
Adam Bell,
Deputy Minister of Labour. DECK-HANDS, VANCOUVER AND NEW WESTMINSTER.
On February 25th a number of deck-hands on two ships went on strike demanding payment
for overtime, Sunday work, and increased wages for firemen. Approximately forty-five men
ceased work for two full working-days. Following negotiations between the employers and
the strikers, an agreement was reached whereby overtime was paid temporarily on some
vessels, while others were tied up;   the men returning to work on February 26th.
BOOM-LOG WORKERS, VANCOUVER.
Employees of five companies exporting logs ceased work on April 5th, 1935, demanding
recognition of the Union and increase in wages. A rate of 55 cents per hour had been verbally
agreed upon for the month of April, a scale to be negotiated later. Following the alleged
discharge of certain men for Union activity, demands were made for Union recognition, no
discrimination, a minimum rate of 65 cents per hour for boom-men, filers, barkers, and
mechanics, and 75 cents for sawyers, graders, and boatmen, time and one-half for overtime,
double time on Sundays and legal holidays, and the elimination of contracts, a strike being
declared. Longshoremen refused to load on boats the logs of employers affected. A number
of ships left port without full cargoes and others remained in port. An agreement was
reached between the Union and four of the employers, substantially conceding the demands
of the strikers, the remaining firms having no work in progress. The strike terminated on
April 25th after a duration of seventeen days. A sympathetic strike involving longshoremen
also ended at this time.
LONGSHOREMEN, VANCOUVER.
In sympathy with the boom-log workers' strike of the same date, a number of longshoremen
stowing logs on ships in Vancouver Harbour went on strike, declaring their action sympathetic
only, and refusing to load " unfair ships."
With the termination of the boom-log workers' strike on April 25th, these men also
returned to work.
HALIBUT-FISHERMEN, B.C. COAST.     '
Affecting some 600 halibut-fishermen on the west coast of Vancouver Island and the Mainland, a strike commenced on April 27th, the dispute arising due to a claim by the vessel-owners
for a share on the proceeds from the sale of halibut-livers on the same basis as from the sale
of the fish—namely, 80 per cent, to the crew and 20 per cent, to the vessel-owner. Hitherto
the fishermen had sold the livers for themselves, but owing to a large increase in price on
account of their value for medicinal purposes the above claim was made. As a result of
negotiations work was resumed on May 3rd, the dispute terminating in favour of the employers ; the fishermen, however, reserving the right to resume further negotiations at a later
date. •
RESTAURANT EMPLOYEES, VANCOUVER.
In Vancouver the employees of one establishment ceased work following a dispute
involving two employees who were Union workers—claiming discrimination and excessive
hours being worked by certain workers without overtime rates being paid.
The employees in question being reinstated, new arrangements were made covering an
increase in wage-rates in certain cases and general reduction in hours for all employees.
Work was resumed on May 4th, this dispute being favourable to the employees.
GOLD-MINERS, BRIDGE RIVER.
On May 6th a strike took place in one mine in the Bridge River area, which affected all
the larger mines in the immediate neighbourhood; the employees of the smaller mines
remained at work.
On instructions from the Minister of Labour, the Deputy Minister arrived at Bralorne
and immediately placed the facilities of the Department at the disposal of both employees
and employers.
It was found local strike committees had been formed at the following mines: Pioneer,
Bralorne, Bradian, Congress, and Wayside;  and that a central strike committee was in process REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 69
of formation, it having been decided that no settlement would be made except through this
central strike committee.
The employers could see little hope of an early settlement, and that the only course open
for them was an immediate shut-down if the men refused to return to work, claiming that the
expense of maintenance-men, together with cook-house and bunk-house employees, was costing
too much with the mines not operating.
The following demands were made by the strikers:—
Wage Scale demanded by the Striking Miners of Bridge River Valley.
Miners  '. $5.75
Timbermen _      5.75
King-nippers      5.75
Cage-tenders      5.50
Hoistmen   __    5.75
Mill operators—
No. 1 foreman    6.00
No. 2 foreman    5.50
Crushermen    5.25
Blacksmith     6.00
Blacksmith-helper   5.00
Electrician       5.50
Steel-sharpener  _   __ 5.75
Steel-sharpener helper   5.00
Carpenters     5.50
Tractor-driver       5.50
$5.00
_ 5.75
Muckers 	
Pipe-fitters 	
Motormen     5.25
Cage-tender's helper  5.25
Fillermen and helper  5.00
Mill mechanic  5.75
Aerial trammer     5.00
  6.00
  __ 6.00
    5.00
  5.75
  5.50
  5.50
   4.25
Motor mechanic    6.00
Welder 	
Machinist  	
Machinist-helper
Drill-doctor 	
Truck-driver 	
Teamster 	
Surface labourer
The foregoing demands may be compared with the following wage scales in effect prior to
the strike:—
Pioneer Mine (Wage Scale).
Miner	
Hoistman
Muckers _
Nipper
(Prior to strike, as furnished by Dr. James, Superintendent.)
Per Day.
      $4.75
    4.75   (plus 25 cents).
  4.00
  4.00
... 4.00
Hand-trimmer 	
Motorman        4.25
Cage-tender ___    4.50
Mill operator    5.00  Shiftboss.
Mill operator's helper     4.50
Mill operator's helper  4.00
Surface labour    3.25
Surface labour   3.50
Bonus first four months, 1935.
(plus 50 cents in several cases).
Average 50 per cent, of crew got bonus amounting to 56 cents per shift; spread over all underground
men, except shif .bosses, hoistmen, and shaftmen;   $8,900 in bonus for four months.
Bralorne and Bradian Mines.
Rates Effective March 15th, 1931,.
Per Day.
..... 13.00
trac-
Assayer's helper	
Labourers, sawmill-helpers, crusher-helpers, teamster-helpers, truck-helpers,
tor-helpers, dam-men   	
Edgermen,  axemen,  muckers,  nippers,  timbermen's  helpers,  electrical  helpers,
mechanic's helpers, mill-helpers, concentrate-sacker  4.00
Truck-driver, teamster, hoistmen on small hoists, motormen on small motors, drill-
sharpener's helper, tractor-driver on small tractor  4.50
Hoistmen on large hoists, motormen on large motors, power-house operators,
tractorman on large tractor	
Miners,  timbermen,  trackmen,  pipemen,  sawyer  mill  operators,  amalgamator,
mechanics, welders, carpenters, crushermen      _ 5.00
3.50
4.75
Special mill operators
Drill-sharpener
Shiftbosses, blacksmith .
Bull-cooks 	
Flunkeys
Rental of houses, $5 per month;  electric light free;  board, $1.25 per day.
5.25
5.50
6.00
3.50
3.55 K 70
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Miners __
Muckers
Wayside Mine and Congress Mine.
Present Wage Scale.
Mine. Shaft.
 $4.75 Miners   .._  $5.00
  4.00 Muckers       4.50
Hoistman       4.50
Trammers     4.00
Blacksmith     4.75
Surface men   3.00
Mill operator __   4.50
Compressormen   $3.00 and 3.50
Crushermen        3.25
Teamster      3.60
Bull-cook    -. 3.00
Following the strikers' demands, a meeting was arranged between the Central Strike
Committee and Company representatives, when the demands were placed before the employers,
which were refused. After considerable discussion, it was suggested by the Deputy Minister
that the men return to work at the Bralorne scale, this being the highest in the district, and that
joint application be made to the Dominion Department of Labour for a Board of Conciliation
under the " Industrial Disputes Investigation Act."
To this the strikers' committee would not agree, but finally agreed to allow the Deputy
Minister to place the proposal before a mass meeting of the men the following day.
Negotiations continued and, following intervention by the Minister of Labour, Pioneer,
Bralorne, and Bradian Mines agreed to raise the miners' scale to $5.40, work being resumed at
the above mines on May 23rd.
An application was made to the Dominion Department of Labour for the appointment of
a Board of Conciliation under the " Industrial Disputes Investigation Act," the majority
report recommending the following scale:—
Underground.
Miners    $5.40
Timbermen _     5.40
No. 1 hoistmen     5.40
No. 2 hoistmen (small)  4.90
Trackmen     5.40
Pipemen     5.40
Trackmen's helpers     4.50
Machine-doctors     5.40
Chute-punchers       5.40
Power-house operators    5.40
Electricians
Electrician's helpers
Mechanics   	
Mechanic's helpers
Welders  	
Motormen  (main haulage)...
Motormen  	
Brakemen   	
Skip-tenders _.
5.40
4.40
5.40
4.40
5.40
5.15
4.90
4.50
4.90
Surface.
Muckers      $4.50
Nippers   ._    4.50
Timber-helpers        4.50
Crushermen     5.00
Aerial tramway    __ 4.50
Mill operators   4.90
Concentrator and mill helpers  4.40
Steel-sharpeners     ___   5.40
Steel-sharpener's  helper  4.75
Carpenters ._  .  5.40
Mucking-machine  4.75
Truck-drivers       4.90
Compressors     4.90
Teamsters     ____   4.90
Heating plant      4.25
Watchmen     4.40
Labourers     4.00
Ore-sorting plant   4.00
Bull-cooks  _._   ___   4.00
Flunkeys   __    4.00
The above scale was adopted by the parties to the dispute on the recommendation of Hon.
Geo. S. Pearson, Minister of Labour for British Columbia, prior to the holding of the inquiry,
and, as stated above, was recommended by a majority of the Board.
SALMON TROLLERS, HERIOT BAY.
Blueback Trollers, including Deep Bay, Lund, Lasqueti Island, Pender Harbour,
Egmont, Quathiaski Cove, etc.
This dispute arose between the canners and the fishermen combined with cannery-workers,
the fishermen demanding an increase in the price of salmon and overtime. Approximately
500 men were affected, the cannery-workers in most cases going out in sympathy with the
fishermen. After unsuccessful negotiations at New Westminster the strike was still reported
in progress as late as June 15th. During the latter half of the month, however, an agreement
was reached satisfactory to both parties and the fleet returned to the fishing-grounds June 28th.
An increase of 1% cents per pound was granted, the new rates being 5 ¥2 cents per pound REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935. K 71
round and 6% cents per pound dressed. Collective bargaining was recognized by the packers,
the fishermen retaining the privilege of further negotiations in the event of salmon prices
increasing. In addition to this, the cannery-workers resumed work at an increase of 2% cents
per hour and overtime to be paid for at the rate of 30 cents per hour, with general Union
recognition prevailing.
Although the actual duration of the strike was reported to be forty-two days, it is believed
that a portion of the fishermen returned to work before this time had elapsed.
LONGSHOREMEN, POWELL RIVER.
On May 17th, at Powell River, a dispute arose involving longshoremen loading vessels at
that port. The men, approximately fifty-two in number, went out on strike, demanding an
increase in wages and recognition of the Union. The longshoremen at this port organized
a local Union which the Company refused to recognize. Negotiations were refused by the
Company, which took on a new crew. This strike still in progress week of June 15th,
probably in sympathy with Vancouver longshoremen. Men from Shipping Federation loading
ships.
LONGSHOREMEN, COASTWISE, VANCOUVER.
On May 23rd, at Vancouver, some sixty members of one Longshoremen's Association went
out on strike, demanding Union recognition and an agreement with the Coastwise Longshoremen's and Freight Handlers' Associations covering wages and special rates on overtime work.
Following negotiations, an agreement was reached in favour of the workers, the men
resuming work on May 29th.
DECK-HANDS, STEWARDS, VANCOUVER.
On May 23rd 160 seamen employed on coastwise vessels at Vancouver ceased work,
demanding recognition of the Union and adjustment of working conditions covering an
increase in wages, shorter hours, and extra men in certain departments.
Following negotiations, the demands of the workers were finally conceded after a period
of six days, the men returning to work on May 29th under new conditions embodying shorter
working-hours, extra help in certain departments, Union recognition throughout, and the right
to form a Grievance Committee.
WOOD-WORKERS, VANCOUVER.
In Vancouver on May 28th some fifty workers out of a total ninety-five employees in
one door-manufacturing factory went out on strike, claiming an increase in wages and
reinstatement of five Union men who were discharged for conducting wage-scale propaganda.
Following negotiations between the employers and the workers, an increase of 10 cents
per hour was granted in the case of the lower-paid class of workers, the workers returning
to work partially successful on May 30th, the actual loss in time covering two days.
LONGSHOREMEN, VICTORIA.
This dispute is connected with the Vancouver and District Longshoremen's strike, the
original strike decision being given on account of permission from Vancouver trade locals. As
a result of continued disagreement within the ranks of the Victoria Riggers and Transport
Workers' Association, the original Victoria Longshoremen's Union split up into two factions,
the president organizing a new crew of workers and applying for a charter under the " Societies
Act," declaring the Victoria work would be carried on independently of any Union opposition
on the Mainland. In the face of picketing and general strike conditions the new longshoring
organization was continuing to handle all shipping as late as July 25th, 1935.
SHINGLE-MILL, BURNABY.
On February 5th 110 workers were prevented working a shingle-mill at Burnaby, the
Union demanding an increase in wages and the elimination of previous two-scale basis.
A non-Union crew was stopped from working by Union pickets. After police protection was
afforded, the former crew returned to work on the same wage basis agreed on prior to the
disturbance. K 72 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
LONGSHOREMEN, VANCOUVER.
A cessation of work by longshoremen, loading and unloading ocean-going ships, occurred
on June 5th, following notification by the Shipping Federation of British Columbia that the
agreement between the Federation and the Vancouver and District Waterfront Workers'
Association, to be in effect from November, 1934, to October 31st, 1937, was cancelled. The
Union had required its members to refuse to handle cargoes to and from Powell River, where
a longshoremen's dispute was in progress. Similar action had been taken on several occasions
previously. A dispute as to the assignment of men from the Union hall instead of the
employers' hall had arisen and the Shipping Federation had applied for the establishment of
a Board of Conciliation and Investigation under the " Industrial Disputes Investigation Act."
On cancelling the agreement the Federation withdrew the application. The Federation then
signed an agreement with the Canadian Waterfront Workers' Association. Work was carried
on to some extent by members of this Union and the docks were picketed by the strikers.
On June 19th a disturbance occurred in which a number of police, pickets, and bystanders
were injured. Twenty-three persons, including one woman and two boys, were arrested on
charges of inciting to riot, rioting, assault, damaging property, carrying offensive weapons, etc.
From time to time the number of men engaged at loading and unloading boats was increased,
so that by the end of the month nearly 700 men were working and nearly all cargoes were
being handled. On June 24th the strikers were reported to have voted 500 to 66 against
resuming work.
Representatives of the strikers, through the Mayor of Vancouver, requested the employers
to enter into negotiations, but the latter refused as the Union had repeatedly violated its
agreement.
The strikers had been replaced to a considerable extent by the beginning of July. About
a hundred of the strikers resumed work during July, another hundred by September, and fifty
later. A Royal Commission was appointed. During the unsuccessful negotiations from time
to time, the employers had offered to take back the strikers as required and a substantial
number were given work when the strike was called off.
Wages and working conditions were substantially the same as under the agreement before
the dispute. Early in December five of the strikers were sentenced to imprisonment for one
month on charges of rioting on October 25th in connection with picketing.
COASTAL LONGSHOREMEN, SHIPS' CREWS, SHIP LINERS, BOOM-LOG WORKERS,
ETC., AND LONGSHOREMEN, NEW WESTMINSTER AND CHEMAINUS.
The Vancouver and District Waterfront Workers' Association is affiliated with the Longshoremen and Water Transport Workers of Canada, which on June 15th called out the members
of its other affiliated Unions on a sympathetic strike in Vancouver and other ports, except
some working under recently signed agreements with employers. The representatives of these
Unions had met the executive of the Shipping Federation and proposed that negotiations with
the Vancouver and District Waterfront-Workers' Association should be reopened, but this
was refused. The strike involved members of ships' crews on some boats; members of the
Seafarers' Industrial Union, handling cargoes for coastal boats; and members of the Coastwise Longshoremen and Freight, Handlers' Association, longshoremen at New Westminster
and Chemainus, also boom-log workers, members of the Log Export Workers' Association, and
members of the Shiplining and Fitting Workers' Association. The crews on most of the
ships did not strike, but parts of the crews of some ships ceased work, in some cases delaying
the ship until they were replaced. The longshoremen at other ports did not cease work, but
in some cases refused to handle cargoes from Vancouver. In most cases these were handled
by other men. At New Westminster the Mayor attempted to bring about a resumption of
work, and when the strikers refused arranged that the work would be done by other men
under police protection. These became members of a new Union, the Royal City Waterfront
Workers' Association, incorporated under the " Societies Act" of British Columbia. Employers
organized the Fraser River Shipping Board, which signed an agreement with the new Union,
one of the provisions being that all disputes shall be referred to the Mayor, whose decision
is to be final. A sawmill at Chemainus was closed as a result of longshoremen refusing to
handle the cargoes.    Some logging camps were also reported to be closed down, in some cases REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935. K 73
owing to fire risk. Many of the members of ships' crews and longshoremen on the Coast
are working under agreements between their employers and Unions not involved in the
sympathetic strike.
At Victoria, on July 13th, longshoremen refused to handle Vancouver cargoes and the
employers entered into an agreement with a new Union. One hundred men ceased work and
picketed the docks. At New Westminster a number of pickets were arrested on charges of
assault, obstruction, etc., several being fined or imprisoned.
Members of the crew of a New Zealand steamer who refused to handle the vessel for
unloading and left the ship on September 23rd were arrested on September 26th on charges
of desertion and were remanded for trial. A number of longshoremen at San Francisco
refused to unload a ship with British Columbia cargo and were suspended, the Federal
arbitrator for disputes between the Longshoremen's Union and the employers having ruled
that the men must handle all cargoes offered by the employers.
TIE-CUTTERS, CANAL FLATS.
On June 21st, 1935, the tie-cutters, approximately thirty-four in number, went on strike
at Canal Flats, demanding an increase in wages to compensate strenuous working conditions.
Due to the class of contract and the hot weather at the time making conditions harder for
the men, an increase of 1 cent per tie was asked by the workers. After three days, during
which time the men remained on the job without leaving their work, negotiations were
completed, and the increased rate granted favouring the workers.
PILCHARD-FISHERMEN, WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Affecting seven pilchard-canning companies on the west coast of Vancouver Island, some
150 fishermen refused to fish and went on strike July 1st, demanding a higher rate per ton
for their catch. The prevailing rate as of 1934 was $1.75 per ton, but owing to increased
market values of pilchard the fishermen demanded a price of $2.50 per ton, which was refused
by the fishing companies, a counter offer of $2.25 being made to the men. The strike continued
for ten days, during which time negotiations were carried on between representatives of both
parties, and finally, through the efforts of the Department of Labour, a compromise was
effected, the fishermen and operators agreeing to a settlement price of $2.35 per ton, work
being resumed July 11th.
CLAY-WORKERS, CROWSNEST.
On July 2nd a strike involving some twenty-five clay-workers took place at Crowsnest, the
men demanding an increase in wages, shorter hours, with improved working conditions.
Following negotiations, work was resumed on July 4th, an increase of 3 cents per hour being
granted and a reduction of the hours of work from ten per day to nine.
BOX-FACTORY EMPLOYEES, QUEENSBORO, NEW WESTMINSTER.
On July 10th approximately forty employees of two box-factories at New Westminster
walked out, demanding an increase in wages. The majority of these employees were boys
under the age covered by the minimum-wage regulations. The factory continued to operate.
As the wages being paid were within the legal requirements the management refused to increase
the scale, and stated their willingness to re-employ any of the striking crew at the same rate
as formerly paid. This strike was reported terminated July 13th in favour of the employers,
the strikers being replaced by new workers.
COAL-MINERS, CUMBERLAND.
Employees of a mine stayed off work on August 6th to hold a meeting to decide what steps
to take in protest against the fact that miners on contract-work earned more than men on
regular work.
A grievance committee was appointed to meet the manager, stating the men would resume
work on condition that contract-work was stopped and that all employees be paid the same
rate. The management refused this request, claiming that on two occasions, May 1st and
August 6th, the men had stopped work in contravention of their agreement, and that unless K 74 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
the men were prepared to live up to their agreement he would close the mine. This the men
refused, and the Company posted a notice instructing the employees to remove their tools from
the mine Wednesday night, and that they would be paid off August 9th.
The men returned to work August 12th, pending appointment of a Board of Conciliation.
Representatives of the Provincial and Dominion Governments endeavoured to mediate, the
men claiming:—
(1.) That the Company violated the contract by the introduction of a new contract system
without consulting the employees' grievance committee, and that the committee should be
conferred with when a new contract system is introduced.
(2.) The committee ask for the re-employment of men who were laid off by the introduction of the rotation system.
To this the Company replied:—
(1.) The Company, as heretofore, will not introduce any new system of contract-work
without discussing such new system with the employees.
(2.) The Company cannot undertake to hire more men than are required for the operation
of the mine. In the event of more men being required, first consideration will be given to
ex-employees if suitable men are available among such employees.
On November 12th a Board of Conciliation was appointed, consisting of Mr. J. A. Russell,
Chairman; Mr. Charles McGregor Stewart, representing the employees; and Mr. George Kidd,
representing the employers; but was unable to reach a unanimous decision, with the result
that conditions continued as at the commencement of the dispute.
SALMON-FISHERIES, BUTE INLET.
A strike involving some eighty salmon-fishermen at Bute Inlet commenced on September
3rd, the workers demanding an increase of 1 cent per pound in the price of cohoes and an
increase of 4 cents per fish in the price of dog-salmon.
Following negotiations between the canneries and representatives of the fishermen, a
compromise was effected, the men returning to work on September 6th, after a two-day period,
at an increase of % cent per pound for cohoes and 1 cent increase per fish for dog-salmon, a
committee also being elected to negotiate for higher prices from time to time.
HOP-PICKERS, SARDIS, CHILLIWACK.
On September 21st some 1,200 hop-pickers at work at Sardis, Chilliwack, went on strike,
demanding an increase of 2 cents per pound for green hops and improved sanitary conditions
in and about the fields. The majority of the workers were induced to go on strike by a minority
of strike agitators. The previous rate of pay was 2 cents per pound for green hops and the
rate demanded by the worker was 4 cents per pound. After two days the strikers were
replaced by other workers, and the entire crew returned to work on September 23rd at the
previous prevailing rates of pay;  no change in conditions;   in favour of employer.
COAL-MINERS, PRINCETON.
On February 19th this mine closed down owing to financial difficulties and dispute by
Union officials in connection with the hiring and placing of new men in the mine. Arrangements were made to pay the workers the wages which were due. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 75
SUMMARY OF LABOUR DISPUTES, 1935.
No. of
Time lost
Industry or Occupation.
Particulars.
Employees
affected.
in
Working-
days.
Coal-miners, Corbin  ___	
Commenced   January  20th,  demanding  reinstatement
of    certain    employees,    better    living    conditions.
Lapsed, mine abandoned
235
5,700
Deck-hands,  Vancouver  and  New
Commenced   February  25th,   demanding   payment   of
45
90
Westminster
overtime.    In favour of men
Boom-workers, Vancouver 	
Commenced April  5th, demanding Union  recognition
and increase in wages.    Partially successful.    Terminated April 25th
120
2,040
Longshoremen, Vancouver	
Sympathetic   strike,    April   5th.    Returned   to   work
April 25th
77
1,309
Halibut-fishermen, B.C. Coast	
Commenced April 27th ;   vessel-owners claiming part
of the proceeds from sale of halibut-livers—namely,
80 per cent, to the crew and 20 per cent, to the
vessel-owners.    Terminated   May   3rd   in   favour   of
vessel-owners,  the crews  reserving the  right to resume further negotiations
600
30,000
Restaurant employees, Vancouver „
Commenced April 27th, claiming better working conditions.     Terminated   May   4th.    In   favour   of   the
employees
7
49
Gold-mines, Bridge River 	
Commenced   May   6th,   demanding   increase   in   wage
scale.    Following discussions with Provincial representatives, a scale proposed by Minister of Labour
was adopted by the companies pending an investigation
800
10,000
Salmon trollers, B.C. Coast 	
Commenced May 6th, demanding increase in the price
per    pound.    Terminated    June    28th.    Fishermen
granted  \x/-z   cents   per  pound  increase.    Cannery-
workers were also affected and received an increase
of 2% cents per hour.    Before final settlement many
of the fishermen were back at work
500
10,000
Longshoremen, Powell River 	
Commenced  May  17th, demanding increase  in  wages
and   Union   recognition,   which   was   refused.    In
favour of employers
65
10,000
Longshoremen   (Coastwise),  Van
Commenced  May 23rd, demanding Union  recognition
60
360
couver
and   an   agreement   covering   wages   and   overtime
rates.    Terminated May 29th.    In favour of men
Deck-hands, stewards, Vancouver...
Commenced May 23rd, demanding Union recognition
and adjustment in working conditions.    Terminated
May 29th.     In favour of the men
160
960
Commenced May 28th, claiming reinstatement of five
50
100
Union men and increase in hourly rate.    Granted
increase of  10  cents per hour for lower-paid men.
Terminated May 30th.    Partially successful
90
540
Vancouver   split   the   local   Union,   the   president
organizing a new crew.    In the face of picketing the
new organization handled all cargo
Shingle-mill, Burnaby  	
Commenced February 5th, demanding an  increase in
scale  and   elimination   of   previous   two-scale  basis.
Crew   finally   returned  to  work   at  same  scale.    In
favour of employers
110
990
Longshoremen, Vancouver	
Commenced   June   5th;   terminated   December   9th.
Union  demanded control of dispatching.    Board  of
Conciliation under " Industrial Disputes Investigation Act," Mr. Justice Davis, of the Supreme Court
of Canada, as Royal Commissioner.    Many of the
men affected returned to work while the strike was
in progress.    In favour of the employers
925
23,000
Coast longshoremen   (except Van
Commenced  June  15th in  sympathy with  Vancouver
1,450
40,000
couver) ,   ship   crews,   boom-log
longshoremen.    Called off December 9th.    In favour
workers
of employers
Tie-cutters, Canal Flats— '
Commenced June 21st, demanding increase in wages
because   of   severe  working   conditions,   which   was
granted.    Terminated June 24th.    In favour of the
32
96
men K 76
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Summary of Labour Disputes, 1935—Continued.
Industry or Occupation.
Particulars.
No. of
Employees
affected.
Time lost
in
Working-
days.
Pilchard-fishermen,     west     coast,
Vancouver Island
Clay-workers, Crowsnest	
Box-factory, Queensboro	
Coal-miners, Cumberland	
Commenced July 1st, demanding $2.50 per ton or an
increase of 75 cents per ton. Terminated July 11th
on a basis of $2.35 per ton. Partially successful.
In favour of men
Commenced July 2nd, demanding increase in wages
and shorter day. Terminated July 4th. In favour
of men
Commenced July 10th, demanding increase in wages.
Terminated July 13th.    In favour of employer
Commenced August 7th, dispute regarding contract-
work and demand for rotation system. Terminated
August 12th.    In favour of employer
Commenced September 3rd, demanding an increase of
1 cent per pound.    Compromise effected after negotiations   between   fishermen   and   canners.    Terminated September 5th.    Partially successful
Commenced September 21st, demanding an increase of
2 cents per pound and better sanitary conditions.
Terminated   September   23rd.    In   favour   of   employers
Totals -__	
150
25
40
500
80
1,200
1,500
37
75
2,500
160
Hop-pickers, Sardis and Chilliwack
1,200
7,321
140,706 INSPECTION OF FACTORIES.
Vancouver, B.C., June 30th, 1936.
Adam Bell, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Labour, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith submit the annual report of the Factory Inspection Branch for the
year 1935.
In recent years we commenced our annual report by commenting on the adverse conditions
under which industry was labouring. In summarizing the work of this Department for the
year 1935, it is indeed a pleasure to report increased industrial activity in practically all lines
of industry with which we come in contact. This was particularly noticeable in the textile and
furniture industry, which is a reliable barometer of increased purchasing-power.
Despite the number of unemployed, the upward trend in business has uncovered a serious
shortage of skilled labour. Labour and industry are facing a serious situation in this respect,
which will grow more acute as business conditions continue on the upward grade. In so far
as we are able to observe, no concentrated effort on the part of the management of industry is
being made to cope with this situation.
One fact that greatly impressed me during the year was the large number of young
workers entering the wood-working industry. This condition places a grave responsibility
on the management and foremen of these plants. For the young entrant factory-life is an
entirely new experience; he is surrounded by fast-moving machinery with its attendant
hazards, and it would seem, therefore, that it is our duty to see that he receives an apprenticeship in safety as well as in productive work and is warned of the dangers inherent in all
industrial life.
INSPECTIONS.
During the year 1935, 1,510 inspections and reinspections of factories were made. These
included visits to all classes of industry mentioned in Schedule A of the " Factories Act."
SPECIAL INSPECTIONS.
Special inspections were made of concentrators and mills located in Bridge River, Cariboo,
and West Kootenay Mining Districts.
ACCIDENT-PREVENTION.
Much has been written and will continue to be written on the subject of " accident-
prevention." The only means we have of gauging the success of our efforts towards industrial
accident-prevention is by the decreasing number and severity of accidents we are yearly called
on to investigate. Statistics are prepared from time to time dealing with the number of
accidental injuries sustained by men and women employed in industrial activities. It is a
comparatively easy matter to tabulate and classify results which have become a matter of
record, but, on the other hand, it is impossible to estimate the number of accidents prevented
by educational measures and installation of mechanical safeguards.
Each succeeding year the machine operator, I believe, is becoming more conscious of the
fact that while spare parts are readily available for the machine in case of breakage, nature
never intended or provided spare parts for the workman. Artificial legs and arms, while
useful, are at best poor substitutes for one to carry through life because of careless or
thoughtless action.
The posting of safety rules or guarding of moving parts of machinery will not of themselves make for safety, unless the managers, superintendents, and foremen convince the
employees that they are expected to stop machinery before making adjustments, removals, or
repairs, and prove to them that they will not be penalized for being careful, even though in
some cases it may mean the slowing-up of an operation. In justice to the large majority of
superintendents and foremen of industrial plants, it is only fair to state that very rarely
indeed do we meet one of these key-men who proves he is still living in the past by stating that
he used to place belts on high-speed pulleys in motion and indulge in other unsafe practices
while a youth, without injurious results. HOURS OF WORK AND PROSECUTIONS.
There is no outstanding change to record in the enforcement of the " hours of work "
relating to female employees of factories. Records yearly submitted to this office on forms
provided, and which if found correct are signed and posted in the work-room, show a variation
of forty-four to forty-eight hours per week.
While it is generally agreed that a forty-eight-hour working-week is a sufficiently lengthy
period of employment, some of our manufacturers, subjected to Eastern Canadian competition,
complain of the excessive hours permitted by Statute to be worked in Eastern Provinces.
While there is justification for complaint in this respect, it is readily admitted the solution of
this problem lies not in our reversion to Eastern working conditions, but just the opposite.
When Dominion-wide uniformity in wages and hours of work is attained, we will have more
factories in operation and consequently more factory employees at work in this Province.
During the year an amazing failure on the part of an employer to realize his responsibility
for his employees' welfare and safety was brought to light in the following manner: From the
street we could see females working excessive hours in the upper portion of a factory, but could
not gain admittance because the factory door was locked by the employer, who on leaving
the premises stated he would not be back until 9 p.m.—and the door could not be opened from
inside. In order to gain access and establish evidence of an infraction of section 12 of the
" Factories Act," it was necessary for us to go to the rear of the factory and by combined
efforts reach the first balcony of the fire-escape and gain admission in that manner; had a
fire occurred under the circumstances as related, a tragedy might easily have resulted.
Following Police Court proceedings being taken, the employer was fined $50 and costs.
Police Court proceedings were also taken against another employer for working female
employees excessive hours; the Police Magistrate imposing a fine of $50 and costs. Upon the
case being taken before the Court of Appeal, the presiding Judge quashed the conviction on
the contention advanced by appellant that it was not proved the establishment was a factory
within the meaning of the " Factories Act " during the week the offence was alleged to have
been committed.
The proprietor of a dry-cleaning plant was upon conviction fined $50 and costs for compelling his employees to work on a holiday.
Whether the object in view was to prevent forced entry by unauthorized persons or an
endeavour to thwart the Inspector, we are not prepared to say, but we had during the year to
surmount certain obstacles before we were able to gain access to a number of Oriental
laundries in order to make sure statutory hours of labour governing these plants were being
observed. Frequent Police Court prosecutions over a period of years and an imposition of
a substantial fine upon conviction has resulted in better observance of the statutory requirements. However, we were successful during the year in the prosecution of two proprietors of
Oriental laundries for operating their plants after statutory hours. A $50 fine with costs
was imposed in each case.
INDUSTRIAL HOME-WORK.
In a previous report we commented on the introduction of industrial home-work in the
Province; investigations made during the year revealed this practice as growing. Allegations
which we find rather difficult to substantiate and with which we are powerless to deal are made
by factory-owners and their representatives, who when calling on the trade are informed that
a lower wholesale price for similar manufactured articles can be procured from a person or
persons performing the work in the home.
The practice of having work done in the home instead of in the factory is unfair to both
factory-owner and factory employee; its main objection is based on the fact that it is
impossible to regulate working-hours which have been satisfactorily enforced for factory-
workers. Paid by the piece, home-workers, no doubt, put in longer hours of work than are
permitted in the factory. The prevention of child-labour also is practically impossible in
premises where industrial home-work is carried on.
Our investigations during the year had not progressed very far before we realized that
the persons furnishing the material to home-workers are largely individuals who do not come
within the definition of an " employer " as defined in the " Factories Act." Section 58 of the " Factories Act," which relates to the subject under review, is not broad
enough in its scope to effectively regulate this system, which I fear will, if not controlled, reach
alarming proportions. I would urge consideration be given to the suggestion that section 58
of the " Factories Act " be deleted and amendments substituted therefor more specifically
defining the term " employer," and also making it a statutory requirement for home-workers
and employers to obtain permits before giving out or performing industrial work in the home.
SANITATION, LIGHTING, AND VENTILATION.
While no great difficulty is experienced in the enforcement of standards relating to
sanitation and lighting, proper and adequate ventilation of factories located in basements or
between adjoining building walls presents at times rather a complex problem. Natural
ventilation for factories located in basements is usually by means of windows facing the street-
level, and for factories between adjoining building walls from the front and rear windows of
the building. Unless the windows are or can be made of adequate size and suitably arranged
for the inflow and outflow of air, mechanical means of ventilation must be resorted to, which
involves the use of some type of fan.
COMPLAINTS.
Whether it is because of keen competition or in a spirit of co-operation, we have largely
through anonymous telephone calls received at our homes been obliged to make seventy night
inspections of factories in which it was alleged infractions of the Act were being committed,
the large majority of which proved groundless.
OVERTIME PERMITS.
Sixteen overtime permits limiting the hours to nine in the day and fifty-four in the week
were, after investigation, issued, as authorized under section 14 of the Act.
HOLIDAY PERMITS.
A total of 210 permits granting permission to operate industrial plants on certain
specified statutory holidays were issued, detailed reasons for the requests being made accompanied each written application.
FREIGHT AND PASSENGER ELEVATORS.
Once installed, an elevator becomes a fixed feature of a building and remains in service
for a long term of years. Although it is impossible for every elevator which is partially substandard in design to be torn out and replaced, it is possible to make existing installations
much safer than they now are. With this object in view, regulations governing the installation, operation, and maintenance of freight and passenger elevators became effective February
4th, 1935. The most important feature of these rules, in so far as the older type of elevator
is concerned, relates to interlocking devices on the hoistway-doors and car-gates of passenger-
elevators and hoistway-gates of freight-elevators. The records of this office prove conclusively
that interlocking equipment is the only method of preventing fatal and major accidents, which
all too frequently occur when passengers are entering or leaving the car.
In an endeavour to apply this equipment to present freight-elevator installations, we found
it necessary to make numerous visits to individual buildings in order to determine whether the
doors or gates at present installed could be made to conform with the requirements. In a great
many instances structural conditions made it imperative for entirely new gates to be provided
before interlocking equipment could be satisfactorily installed. The rules relating to interlocks issued under Order in Council No. 139, February 4th, 1935, stipulates that interlocking
devices must be installed on doors or gates prior to January 31st, 1937; compliance with these
rules has since been extended to February 28th, 1938.
The fact that no fatal or major accidents occurred to any person while being transported
on passenger-elevators during the year under review reflects great credit on the operators
and persons in charge of maintenance. We regret, however, to have to report a fatal accident
which occurred on a freight-elevator in the following described manner:—
A youth 19 years of age, employed in a warehouse, boarded the freight-elevator at the
sixth floor intending to go to the basement to procure some supplies.    On entering the car, K 80 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
the supposition is, through lack of experience, instead of pulling the operating rope in the
direction to cause the elevator to descend, he pulled the opposite rope, which caused the
elevator to ascend. The doctor who performed the autopsy previous to the Coroner's inquest
gave evidence to the effect that a tumour with which deceased was affected would cause
dizziness and fainting spells. In view of this evidence, we are of opinion this condition was
the contributing cause whereby fatal injuries were received by being crushed between the car
platform and entrance side of the shaftway.
ELEVATOR OPERATORS.
Seven hundred and ninety-five elevator operators' licences were renewed; 180 permanent
and 217 temporary licences were issued.
NEW ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS.
The following number of plans and specifications relative to the installation of modern
elevator equipment were approved: Five passenger-elevators, six freight-elevators, and
one power dumb-waiter.
ELEVATOR INSPECTIONS.
One thousand one hundred and fourteen passenger and freight elevators were inspected.
We have also during the year completed obtaining detailed specifications of all passenger and
freight elevators throughout the Province.
CONCLUSION.
We wish to take this opportunity of thanking all officials and employees connected with
industry for their co-operation with us during the year.
Respectfully submitted.
H. Douglas,
Factories Inspector. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE.
General Superintendent    _   ._Jas. H. McVety.
'B.C. Workmen's Compensation and Labour Offices, corner Homer and
Dunsmuir Streets, Vancouver.
Branch Offices.
Vancouver, cor. Homer and Dunsmuir Streets 1 _.      --.. ,   .,   _,        .  .     _,    .
' ,    ■ _, ,_. ,__ ._,        !■ Jas. Mitchell, Superintendent.
Vancouver (Women s Branch), cor. Homer and Dunsmuir Streets— t
Victoria, Langley and Broughton Streets j_   -■ _. ~ .   .     ,-    .
-.. _    •    /tit          .   t_        u,   t        ,           _ r>        u      _.     * W. G. Stone, Superintendent.
Victoria (Women's Branch), Langley and Broughton Streets  (
New Westminster  Root. MacDonald, Superintendent.
Nanaimo    _ ;   J. T. Carrigan, Superintendent.
Kamloops   J. H. How, Superintendent.
Penticton   _  A. Gilley, Superintendent.
Nelson  _ —J. M. Dronsfleld, Superintendent.
Prince Rupert    J. M. Campbell, Superintendent.
Handicap Section.
f G. S. Bell, Clerk.
Vancouver, cor. Homer and Dunsmuir Streets  J R. L. Mavius, Clerk.
[ H. Parry, Clerk.
Victoria, Langley and Broughton Streets _  .   W. A. Turner, Clerk.
The following report is submitted by the General Superintendent of the Employment
Service:—
This is the seventeenth annual report of the British Columbia Branch of the Employment
Service of Canada, a branch of the Department of Labour, and covers the work for the calendar
year 1935.
There are ten offices operating within the Province, as follows: Vancouver (2), Victoria
(2), New Westminster, Nanaimo, Prince Rupert, Nelson, Kamloops, and Penticton. Separate
offices are provided in Vancouver and Victoria for the employment of women, as well as
separate sections dealing with the employment problems of men handicapped through service
overseas during the war or in industrial occupations. Owing to the reduced opportunities
for employment, the following offices were operated on a part-time basis during the first three
months of the year: New Westminster, Nanaimo, Prince Rupert, Nelson, Kamloops, and
Penticton. To meet the necessities of relief and other causes these offices were again put on
a full-time basis from April 1st.
INTRODUCTION.
There has existed throughout the year a large surplus of labour. The usual difficulties
met with in the conducting of a public employment service when the opportunities for employment are far below the number of applicants were intensified during the year by a strike of
relief-camp men, to be followed by the longshoremen's strike, and it is very gratifying to report
that the tact and diplomacy displayed by the staff during these troublesome times was equal
to the occasion, with the result that no serious disturbance has been experienced in any of the
offices and no serious criticism regarding the administration of the Service has been voiced.
As in the past few years, the Service has been utilized in the shipment of men to relief camps
and other projects. During the year an experiment in the public training of young men in
the basic industries of the Province was undertaken, and the pleasing results and general
satisfaction resulting from the Young Men's Forestry and Mining Training Camps was in
no small measure due to the careful selection and recommendations made by the staff, of
suitable applicants.
CONDITIONS DURING THE YEAR.
The general improvement in all basic industries as indicated during 1934 continued during
the year under review, with the exception of coal-mining, which is still suffering from the
competition of oil fuel and by-products of the lumber-mills and wood cut for domestic use.
The Dominion Bureau of Statistics, in its summary, shows the 1935 index as 97.7, as compared
with 90.4 in 1934, 78 in 1933, 80.5 in 1932, 95.5 in 1931, and 107.9 in 1930, an advance of 7.3
over 1934.    The increased opportunities for employment during 1935 attracted a large number
6 K 82 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
of workers from other parts of Canada, with the result that the number of those seeking
employment materially increased the surplus labour available, with the result that relief
measures were continued on a large scale throughout the year. There was a decline of over
1,000 in the number of men applying to be sent to the relief camps operated by the Department
of National Defence. The arrangements for the medical examination and transportation of
men applying for admittance to National Defence Relief Camps were the responsibility of the
Employment Service officials. The Service was called upon to deal exclusively with those men
whom it was necessary to dismiss for cause from the relief camps and to keep all necessary
records in connection with the discharge of men from camps and their applications for
reinstatement. During the early part of the year considerable agitation was carried on against
the camps and a serious strike situation developed, which was very largely centred in the City
of Vancouver. The conditions were intensified by the longshoremen's strike, which resulted
in a clash between the forces of law and order and the strikers. It is, however, gratifying to
report that by the latter part of the summer and early fall the situation had improved and
the general attitude of the men toward the relief camps was such that less trouble was
experienced during the early winter than at any winter period since the camp system of
granting relief was instituted.
As in the past, the services of the Department were freely utilized by those seeking
information regarding employment and other matters. Also by the Department of Immigration in connection with the many applications for permission to import labour from foreign
countries. As the Dominion regulations still prohibit the admission of contract labour, it is
necessary to carefully consider all applications and investigate the possibilities of securing the
required labour in Canada. As a result, many requests are refused and the help secured by
the facilities of the Service.
BUSINESS TRANSACTED DURING THE YEAR.
The tables indicate the business transacted, the figures showing the work by the various
offices and months. While there has been no increase in staff, it was found necessary to
operate all the offices on a full-time basis to meet the increased volume of business in connection
with relief and other matters. While the returns show a decrease in the number of men sent
to employment and the relief camps, the number of applicants seeking employment or relief
also decreased from 75,896 in 1934 to 67,843 during the year under review. It is, of course,
impossible to tabulate the work of the staff in meeting and dealing with applicants under
existing conditions. It can, however, be said that the Service and the staff has been equal
to the task.
WORK IN THE HANDICAP SECTION.
While the Dominion Government continues to recognize its responsibilities for the care
of handicapped ex-service men, in matters appertaining to employment by providing additional
staff in the Vancouver and Victoria offices, the problems which confront this class of applicants
continue to increase as the years roll by. The situation is intensified by the continuation of
the industrial depression and by the steady influx of such cases into British Columbia from
other parts of Canada. In January, 1925, there were 5,410 former members of the Canadian
Expeditionary Forces in receipt of pensions, residing in British Columbia. This number
was increased to 7,550 at December, 1930. The number is now 9,724, an increase during the
last five years of 2,174. The number of men in receipt of war veterans' allowance is now
1,801, a decrease for the year of 135.
OTHER BRANCHES OF ACTIVITY.
The Service and members of the staff continue to hold the confidence of the people they
come in contact with and are consulted on many problems outside the sphere of employment.
Every effort is made to give reliable information and good advice on matters which the citizens
of the Province require help.
The work in connection with the Young Men's Forestry and Mining Training Camps,
which was a new innovation during the year, received the careful consideration and assistance
of the staff in selecting and recommending suitable applicants. The necessary medical
examinations were arranged by the Service as well as all transportation to and from the
camps of those chosen for training. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 83
With the passing of years, the Employment Service, while somewhat restricted by financial
stress and the continuation of the industrial depression, is to-day recognized in British
Columbia and throughout the Dominion of Canada as necessary in the industrial life of the
country. Its experience has been freely used not only by residents of our own country, but
also by many citizens of the United States.
With the closing of the seventeenth year of its operation, there are many signs indicating
that slowly but surely the clouds of depression are lifting to a brighter future.
BUSINESS TRANSACTED MONTHLY, BRITISH COLUMBIA OFFICES, 1935.
Month.
Applications.
Employers'
Orders.
Placements.
Transfers
in B.C.
Transfers
out of B.C.
January....
February..
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September-
October	
November-
December....
Totals..
10,061
9,423
10,842
7,516
7,301
10,206
7,961
8,725
7,317
8,145
16,696
13,847
118,040
3,708
3,680
4,281
2,655
2,252
3,758
3,296
3,624
2,877
2,899
4,019
2,768
39,817
3,689
3,663
4,276
2,650
2,244
3,769
3,300
3,587
2,863
2,895
3,993
2,763
39,692
14
6
27
20
12
44
11
10
17
184
BUSINESS TRANSACTED BY BRITISH COLUMBIA OFFICES, 1935.
Office.
Applications.
Employers'
Orders.
Placements.
Transfers
in B.C.
Transfers
out of B.C.
Kamloops	
Nanaimo  	
3,215
5,967
2,978
4,658
4,003
6,122
50,922
23,945
12,548
3,682
1,902
5,485
2,647
1,609
2,238
1,396
9,335
3,603
10,496
1,106
1,840
5,409
2,637
1,599
2,122
1,391
9,486
3,612
10,489
1,107
5
2
160
16
1
	
Vancouver, Men  	
Vancouver, Women 	
Victoria, Men	
Victoria, Women	
	
Totals	
118,040
39,817
39,692
184 K 84 „     DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
REPORT OF ADMINISTRATOR OF UNEMPLOYMENT
RELIEF, 1935.
During the year under review there was a marked improvement in the relief situation in
unorganized territory, there being a reduction of nearly 14 per cent, in the average monthly
number of married relief recipients, with a corresponding decrease in cost. While there was
a decrease in the numbers on relief in the Province as a whole amounting to 6 per cent., the
situation in municipalities has shown no improvement. There was a slight increase in the
numbers in the married category, with a disproportionate increase in the cost. Since 1933
there has been a drop of 16.5 per cent, in the average monthly number of relief recipients in
the Province. In March, 1933, 128,858 received assistance, this being the peak, while -the
lowest number was in September, 1935, when 76,827 received relief.
Up to November 30th, 1935, the Province paid 60 per cent, of the cost of relief given to
municipal residents, the municipalities paying 40 per cent. In addition to this, the Province
paid for the whole cost of transient and Provincial cases residing within municipalities.
On December 1st, 1935, the Federal Government increased their grant in aid, and most of this
increase was passed on to the municipalities through the decision of the Provincial Government
to assume 80 per cent, of the cost of municipal relief and to continue full responsibility for
transients and Provincials.
We continued our policy of requiring relief recipients to perform work in return for
assistance given, with the result that approximately 80 per cent, of the money expended in
unorganized territory for relief purposes was paid in cash for work performed. Practically
all municipalities, excepting in the Greater Vancouver area, operated on a work basis. In the
latter area there was a marked improvement in the numbers they required to perform work.
Registration.—Since the reregistration of all relief recipients effected August 1st, 1934,
we have received 66,809 applications.
Grub-stakes.—During the year 809 individuals received grub-stakes to enable them to
follow placer-mining. This number includes assistance to lode prospectors, and it is proposed
next year to encourage residents of the Province to do more exploration-work.
Garden Seeds.—A total of 7,310 collections were distributed to relief recipients in
unorganized territory.    This form of assistance has proved very beneficial.
Camps.—The Department of National Defence continued the operation of work camps
for the purpose of taking care of transient single men from other Provinces. The Department
of Public Works co-operated with this Department in operating several camps where married
relief recipients performed work for their allowances, with additional remuneration to
compensate them during their absence from home. Reports indicate that this policy met with
the full approval of those employed.
Farmers' Re-establishment Scheme.—An experiment was undertaken in one of the districts
where we experienced difficulty in providing road-work for relief cases, whereby farmers were
permitted to work out their relief by clearing their own land conditional on the individual
devoting an equivalent amount of his own time. This work involved fairly heavy clearing,
but nevertheless each individual averaged about 1 acre and most of the land cleared was placed
under cultivation during the same year.
Forestry Training Plan.—In order to give young men between the ages of 21 and 25,
inclusive, an opportunity to receive training in forestry-work, the Minister of Labour
authorized the Forestry Branch to carry out a training scheme during the summer months.
A total of 509 men were enrolled. Of this number, 111 secured employment through Government or their own endeavours, fifteen left of their own accord, and only seven were discharged,
the balance being laid off on completion of the projects. A total of 930 applications was
received, and of this number 237 did not accept the offer of enrolment due to various causes,
while 184 could not qualify under our regulations. This scheme has had a tremendous appeal
to the young men of the Province and many letters of congratulation and appreciation have
been received from the young men's parents. It is proposed to carry out a similar scheme
next year.
Placer-mining Training Plan.—A scheme similar in principle to the Forestry Plan was
inaugurated to take care of young men who preferred to follow mining rather than forestry-
work.    There was a total enrolment of 150 men and they were given six weeks' training in four placer-mining camps under the direction of fully qualified mining experts. The men
were required to learn how to cook their own meals under the direction of a cook-instructor
in order that they would be able to take care of themselves when they left 6n prospecting-
parties. The young men were provided with all necessary clothing and shared proportionately
in the gold recovered. When their training was completed they were given the opportunity
to go out into the hills on their own. They were furnished with full equipment and grubstakes. A total of sixty-nine individuals were thus equipped. The total number of applications
received was 215 and, as in the case of the forestry scheme, this type of training met with the
whole-hearted approval of those enrolled.
Census.—In the month of October a complete census was taken of all relief recipients
and the information obtained was tabulated according to districts, municipalities, and cities.
All those subsequently applying for relief assistance have been required to complete the
questionnaire and reports are received monthly from all districts of those going off relief,
so that we have a complete up-to-date record month by month. Reliable authorities state
that our unemployment relief census is the most comprehensive and complete record made on
the North American Continent. The Dominion-wide census undertaken by the Federal
Government in co-operation with the Provinces in December was very largely brought about
through the initiative and results obtained by this Province.
The details of all expenditures made in connection with unemployment relief appear in
the Annual Report of the Department of Public Works and Public Accounts.
E. W. Griffith,
Administrator. K 86
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
statement showing numbers receiving relief within the province of british columbia
for Period from January 1st, 1935, to December 31st, 1935.
Classification.
Numbers.
Heads of
Families.
January only.
Municipal—■
Resident families	
Provincial families	
Transient families	
Single men  	
Single women	
Provincial—
Resident families	
Transient families .	
Single men	
Single women	
Single homeless men—
Camps (Provincial)	
Hostels 	
Farm placements 	
National Defence Camps.	
Total, January 	
February only.
Municipal—
Resident families	
Provincial families	
Transient families _ 	
Single men	
Single women	
Provincial—
Resident families..	
Transient families 	
Single men.	
Single women .
Single homeless men—
Camps (Provincial).
Hostels 	
Farm placements	
National Defence Camps.
Total, February..	
March only
Municipal—
Resident families	
Provincial families	
Transient families.	
Single men _	
Single women	
Provincial—
Resident families	
Transient families	
Single men 	
Single women	
Single homeless men—
Camps (Provincial)	
Hostels 	
Farm placements	
National Defence Camps	
Total, March	
12,568
1,304
656
5,379
412
12,939
1,473
729
5,711
444
21,296
12,581
1,459
741
5,711
421
20,913
Dependents.
34,365
3,531
1,843
16,432
1,266
57,437
34,809
3,709
1,971
17,507
1,368
59,364
33,586
3,687
2,008
17,537
1,388
58,206
Single
Individuals.
8,871
823
3,457
159
413
1,499
23
7,760
23,015
9,023
862
3,904
173
1,506
16
8,183
24,053
8,599
893
3,753
188
368
1,501
12
7,649
22,963
Total.
46,933
4,835
2,499
8,871
823
21,811
1,678
3,467
159
413
1,499
23
7,760
100,771
47,748
5,182
2,700
9,023
862
23,218
1,812
3,904
173
1,506
16
8,183
104,713
46,167
5,146
2,749
8,599
893
23,248
1,809
3,753
188
338
1,501
12
7,649 REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 87
Statement showing Numbers receiving Relief within the Province of British Columbia
for Period from January 1st, 1935, to December 31st, 1935—Continued.
Numbers.
Classification.
Heads of
Families.
Dependents.
Single
Individuals.
Total.
April only.
Municipal—
12,205
1,430
863
32,729
3,657
2,290
44,934
5,087
3,153
9,472
918
9,472
918
Provincial—
5,506
299
16,935
1,046
22,441
4,081
154
324
1,470
5,616
1,345
4,081
154
Single homeless men—
	
324
1,470
	
	
5,616
20,303
56,657
22,035
98,995
May only.
Municipal—
11,692
1,420
862
31,151
3,553
2,303
42,843
4,973
3,165
9,882
921
9,882
921
Provincial-
5,393
303
16,434
1,068
21,827
4,067
146
297
1,427
1,371
4,067
	
146
Single homeless men—
297
1,427
	
3,989
3,989
Total, May-—	
19,670
54,509
20,729
94,908
June only.
Municipal—
10,753
1,445
725
30,912
3,264
2,413
41,665
4,709
3,138
8,257
918
8,257
918
Provincial—
5,019
306
15,588
1,087
20,607
1,393
3,960
153
3,960
153
232
227
1,051
3,124
	
	
Single homeless men—■
232
227
1,051
—
	
3,124
18,248
53,264
17,922
89,434 K 88
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
Statement showing Numbers receiving Relief within the Province of British Columbia
for Period from January 1st, 1935, to December 31st, 1935—Continued.
Classification.
Numbers.
Heads of
Families.
Dependents.
Single
Individuals.
July only.
Municipal—■
Resident families..
Provincial families-
Transient families-
Single men-
Single women	
Provincial—■
Resident families—
Transient families-
Single men 	
Single women-
Single homeless men—
Camps (Provincial) _
Camps (Forestry).
Camps (Placer-mining) -
Hostels 	
Farm placements	
National Defence Camps.
Total, July 	
August only.
Municipal—■
Resident families	
Provincial families-
Transient families-
Single men  	
Single women	
Provincial—
Resident families	
Transient families	
Single men 	
Single women 	
Single homeless men—
Camps (Provincial)	
Camps (Forestry) 	
Camps (Placer-mining)-
Hostels	
Farm placements	
National Defence CampS-
Total, August 	
September only.
Municipal—
Resident families	
Provincial families-
Transient families-
Single men	
Single women	
Provincial—
Resident families-
Transient families ..
Single men 	
Single women	
Single homeless men—
Camps (Provincial).
Camps (Forestry)	
Camps (Placer-mining).
Hostels  	
Farm placements	
National Defence Camps-
Total, September	
9,967
1,187
691
4,457
279
16,581
10,251
1,194
722
4,247
237
10,211
1,136
714
4,004
224
28,823
3,496
1,915
14,090
1,010
49,334
27,245
3,074
1,949
13,297
874
46,439
26,653
3,006
1,904
12,571
812
8,542
917
3,873
153
215
409
100
697
2,922
17,828
7,360
861
2,948
150
190
424
103
572
16,537
7,378
853
1,606
148
172
402
103
532
3,498
38,790
4,683
2,606
8,542
917
18,547
1,289
3,873
153
215
409
100
697
2,922
83,743
37,496
4,268
2,671
7,360
861
17,544
1.111
2,948
150
190
424
103
672
3,929
79,627
36,864
4,142
2,618
7,378
853
16,575
1,036
2,506
148
172
402
103
532
3,498
16,289
44,946
15,592
76,827 REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935.
K 89
STATEMENT SHOWING NUMBERS RECEIVING RELIEF WITHIN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
for Period from January 1st, 1935, to December 31st, 1935—Continued.
Numbers.
Classification.
Heads of
Families.
Dependents.
Single
Individuals.
Total.
October only.
Municipal—■
10,353
1,191
722
27,446
3,078
2,020
	
37,799
4,269
2,742
7,900
867
7,900
867
Provincial—
3,930
221
12,516
784
16,446
1,005
2,579
138
162
341
21
565
4,273
2,579
138
Single homeless men—■
162
341
	
21
565
4,273
16,417
45,844
16,846
79,107
November only.
Municipal—
10,914
1,307
826
29,172
3,364
2,178
40,086
4,671
3,004
9,034
915
9,034
4,302
233
13,517
821
915
Provincial-
17,819
1,054
2,856
129
180
744
5,929
2,856
	
	
129
Single homeless men—
180
744
5,929
17,582
49,052
19,787
86,421
December only.
Municipal—
11,425
1,426
884
30,587
3,699
2,419
42,012
5,125
3,303
10,222
10,222
905
15,172
890
905
Provincial—
4,808
241
19,980
1,131
3,010
137
3,010
137
175
9
390
Single homeless men—
175
9
	
39_
	
6,593
6,593
18,784
52,767
21,441
92,992 K 90 DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR.
REPORT OF APPRENTICESHIP BRANCH.
PRESENT-DAY APPRENTICESHIP.
In the past decade modern industry has changed so materially as to make apprenticeship
under the old Guild system a practical impossibility.
Some industries which formerly trained boys in the operations of their craft have become
so mechanized as to be entirely unsuitable for apprenticeship at all.
In others there is still sufficient scope and demand for the skilled artisan to make
apprenticeship not only desirable, but necessary to progress. Even in this last class a considerable amount of specialization has crept in, resulting in the division of trades into sections.
The situation has frequently to be met, therefore, where an employer, by concentration
and specialization in business, requires employees with the highest possible skill in those
portions of a trade which he is carrying on, but is unable to train an employee beyond this point.
Technical Schools, Day and Night Trade or Vocational Classes, and Correspondence
Courses that have been organized play a most important part in compensating for the
deficiencies of modern industry in this respect—by offering the younger generation the opportunity to go beyond the point that may, at the moment, meet,the actual requirements of the
occupation in which they may be engaged.
The advisability of taking advantage of the facilities for training both in industry itself
and through Technical Classes should be apparent, as the skilled worker with a technical
knowledge of a whole trade is a known asset and will always be in demand, while a specialist,
who confines his training to the standard demanded at the moment, is in danger of finding
himself in a dead-end occupation owing to constantly changing conditions.
Many of our most successful industrialists realize the necessity of increasing facilities
for training young employees within an industry in as wide a scope as possible, and recommend
the fullest/possible use of technical educational facilities, so that, when skilled mechanics or
executives are required, they may be obtained from the locality rather than from other
Provinces or countries.
In line with their policy of increasing the opportunities for the youth of this Province,
and in response to an ever-increasing demand for the inauguration of a system of apprenticeship, the Government, after due consideration, presented before the 1935; Legislative Assembly
" An Act respecting the Training of Apprentices," which was assented to on March 23rd of
that year.
Under this Act, the Lieutenant-Governor in Council was empowered to appoint a Provincial Apprenticeship Committee to advise the Minister of Labour on all matters connected
with the general conditions governing apprenticeship, and to designate certain trades which
should be subject to the provisions of the Act.
The objects of the Act were fourfold:—
First: The establishment of a regulated system of apprenticeship in industries that will
always be more or less dependent on skilled help.
Secondly: The setting of regulations in such industries that will ensure the youth of this
Province proper training and opportunity to become skilled craftsmen under uniform and fair
conditions.
Thirdly: The correlation of technical education in the Technical Schools, Night Classes,
etc., with the practical training in industry, so as to offer the best opportunity for the advancement of apprentices.
Fourthly: The elimination of unfair practices in the employment of youth in industries
suitable for apprenticeship training.
A Provincial Apprenticeship Committee, consisting of Dr. W. A. Carrothers, Ph.D.,
Chairman; Adam Bell, Deputy Minister of Labour; James Thomson, J. K. Macrae, and
J. F. Keen, was appointed in August, 1935, and on their recommendation the " Apprenticeship
Act" was proclaimed by the Lieutenant-Governor on September 9th, the following trades
being at that time brought under its provisions:—
(1.)   Carpentry and joinery (bench-work).
(2.)  Painting and decorating.
(3.)  Plastering. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER, 1935. K 91
(4.)   Sheet-metal working.
(5.)   Plumbing and steam-fitting.
(6.)   Electrical work.
These trades were representative of approximately 1,200 employers of labour throughout
the Province.
It then became the duty of the Inspector of Apprenticeship to gather data concerning each
trade and to obtain the views of individual employers of labour, organized Labour Unions, and
employees generally.
A considerable amount of investigation was carried out and a large number of meetings
were held between the Inspector and those concerned in each trade covered, and, eventually,
arrangements were made for representative delegations of employers and employees in each
trade to appear before the Provincial Apprenticeship Committee and present their briefs,
giving the views of those in the industry they represented.
Tentative regulations and wage schedules for each trade were drawn up by the Committee
subsequent to these conferences and placed before the representatives of the trade concerned.
It was, however, not until late in January, 1936, that apprenticeship regulations and
minimum-wage scales for each branch of the building trades covered were finally approved
and the enforcement of the Act commenced.
About the same date the automobile-maintenance industry, through its various organizations and associations representing approximately 15,000 firms or businesses throughout the
Province, made application to be brought under the " Apprenticeship Act."
This industry, owing to its better organization and the fact that the associations connected therewith had already given considerable thought to apprenticeship, was much more
easily dealt with. On February 13th last, regulations and conditions were approved and the
industry was brought under the Act.
The automobile industry lends itself more readily, under present conditions, to apprenticeship than do the building trades, being in a position to offer more regular employment and
being more attractive to youth.
As the Act provides a three-month leeway before becoming operative, enforcement in this
industry cannot commence before May 13th next; but already a considerable number of
contract forms have been issued and the inclusion of the industry under the provisions of the
Act has been exceptionally well received.
During the last two months of the fiscal year ended March 31st, apprenticeship contracts
were received and approved in the following building trades:—
Number of Apprenticeship
Trade. ■ Contracts approved.
Carpentry and joinery (bench-work)      10  .
Painting and decorating        1
Sheet-metal working       5
Plumbing and steam-fitting  _-_       2
Electrical work       5
In addition, there are approximately fifteen contracts of apprenticeship pending approval
by the Provincial Apprenticeship Committee.
The inauguration of the Apprenticeship Branch of the Department of Labour would
appear to have revived interest in apprenticeship generally, as, in addition to the above,
twenty-eight contracts of apprenticeship have been completed and recorded by the Department
in trades not yet brought under the Act.
In approximately the two and a half months since regulations were laid down in the
building trades, it is, of course, impossible to estimate the extent to which apprenticeship may
develop, but the fiscal year of 1936-37 should show the development of the Act along progressive
lines, and it is hoped with beneficial results.
Hamilton Crisford,
Inspector of Apprenticeship.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, rrinter to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1936.
1,825-636-9513     

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