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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1934

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. P. Z. Caverhill, Chief Forester.
REPORT
OF
THE FOEEST BEANCH
FOR   THE
TEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1933
PRINTED by
AUTHORITY  OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1934. Victoria, B.C., February 26th, 1934.
To His Honour 3. W, Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1933.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1933.
P. Z. CAVERHILL,
Chief Forester. REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
Any attempt to review forestry and lumber-trade conditions throughout 1933 and to indicate
possible trends for 1934 is fraught with many difficulties. The general downward trend which
had prevailed since 1929, the peak year of production, was checked early in the year, and by
July a slight but steady improvement began, which, in so far as lumber is concerned, continued
throughout the last six months. This improvement, reflected almost wholly in overseas buying
and especially in the United Kingdom market, may be attributed partially to improved money
conditions, but more to active trade-extension work carried on in those markets. It must also
be remembered that these are highly competitive and that the prices prevailing, while somewhat
better than in 1932, were still such that no adequate return was received for the produce shipped,
and a further advance of $4 to $5 per thousand is needed, if we are to receive a return for
stumpage and reasonable operating costs.
On the other hand, the United States market for the time being must be considered almost
wholly outside the picture. The Prairie, Eastern Canada, and local sales did not absorb more
than 35 per cent, of normal, and here also the prices received were far below profitable operating
costs. In summing up, the production of sawn lumber was approximately 1,200,000 M.B.M., as
compared with 2.460,000 M.B.M. ih 1929; and the value was $16,200,000, as compared with
$51,196,464 in 1929.
In minor forest products the courses followed were varying. The shingle market was
relatively active during the spring and early summer. The adoption of the N.R.A. code in the
United States, our chief shingle market, and the placing of British Columbia shingles on a
quota basis thereunder, the seasonal decline in building, etc., have reacted to materially curtail
production during the last quarter of the year.
In cedar poles, a slight improvement in the markets permitted a partial liquidation of yard
stocks, and, in hewn ties, contracts let by Canadian railways for the winter's operation show a
considerable advance over 1932.
As for 1934, it may be expected that the continued financial improvement throughout the
world will react favourably in increasing the volume of sales and perhaps prices in foreign
markets. The United States, which absorbed 600,000 M.B.M. in 1929, will absorb very little,
if any, British Columbia lumber during 1934, while the local and Canadian markets will depend
on the wheat-crop and the prices obtained for same, and on the Eastern money situation and
whether or not credits are available for needed and deferred building. Some improvement may
be experienced in this latter market, but, taking it all in all, it would appear that we cannot
expect any very large increase in the volume of production, nor any immediate return to
conditions such as prevailed in the period of 1926 to 1929.
The effect of the improvement during the latter part of 1933 on the general conditions in
the Province may be illustrated by the following figures of log scale:—
1033. 1032.
(In Millions of Feet.)
Scale during first six months       607 804
Scale during last six months   1,025 638
Scale during December       123 80
During December it is estimated that approximately 3,500 more men were employed in the
timber industries than at the same date in 1932, and, if present conditions continue throughout
1934, some 4,000 to 5,000 men will be restored to pay-rolls during the year, making a material
saving in relief expenditures.
The fifth session of the Pacific Science Congress met in British Columbia June 2nd to 15th
last. The Congress brought together scientists from all countries bordering on the Pacific
Ocean and dealt with many problems facing these countries, among them the problems of
forestry. Resolution No. 1 of the Congress deals with the subject of forest production, as
follows:—
"Moved by Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan (U.S.A.), seconded by Dr. C. Skottsberg (Sweden),
and carried :—■
" Whereas in many countries of the Pacific basin, forest fires are increasing in number and
destructiveness: T 4
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
" Resolved, That the Pacific Science Congress, acting through the proper channels, invite the
attention of the Governments and peoples of the countries concerned to the necessity of vigorous
action in the suppression of forest fires in an effort to reduce the great depletion of commercially
valuable timber, the extensive areas of waste land, the destruction by uncontrolled flooding, the
loss of soil-fertility by erosion and other detrimental effects resulting from repeated forest fires;
also to the necessity of making provision for fundamental research in the solutions of the
problems indicated above."
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
During the year a further reduction of five was made in the permanent staff, which at the
end of the year stood at 197, as compared with 204 in 1932, and 287 on the taking-over of the
Railway Belt in 1930. The remaining personnel gave excellent service in spite of many handicaps
and an increasing load of timber-sales, land examinations, more active logging operations, and
the many incidental tasks which go to make up the Forest Officer's daily duties. The particulars
and distribution of the staff throughout the year are shown in the following table:—
Distribution of Force, 1933.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
Five new areas were reserved as Provincial Forests during the year. These were examined
and reported upon in 1930 and 1931. The Douglas Forest covers an area of 696 square miles in
the New Westminster Land District between Stave River and Harrison Lake; it contains
2,500,000,000 board-feet of accessible timber, 2,560 acres of young growth, and could produce
35,000 M.B.M. annually in perpetuity if managed on a sustained yield basis. The name is taken
from the old town, named after Governor Douglas, at the head of Harrison Lake, on the old
route to Lillooet and the Cariboo.
The new Ellc Forest, 2,426 square miles in the Kootenay District, covers the watersheds of
the Elk and Bull Rivers, flowing from the Rocky Mountains into the Kootenay River. The
Flathead Forest, 532 square miles in the Kootenay District, adjacent to the Elk Forest, covers
the watershed in this Province of the Flathead River down to the boundary of the State of
Montana. The Barriere Forest, 532 square miles in the Kamloops District, covers the watershed of the Barriere River, a tributary of the North Thompson. The Momich Forest, 1,566
square miles also in the Kamloops District, lies to the east of the Barriere Forest and covers
the watersheds of the'Adams and Seymour Rivers; it takes its name from the Momich Lake
and River, which drain the southern part of the Forest and flow into Adams Lake. These
Forests have been reserved for the perpetual production of timber and lands suitable for
agricultural development have not been included within their boundaries. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 5
Forest Surveys.
A still further reduction in the programme of surveys of areas suitable for forest reserves
was necessitated by financial conditions. Only one small party could be put in the field. It made
a forest and topographical survey of the Seechelt Peninsula and Jervis Inlet. This area has
produced great volumes of timber and, by reason of the numerous inlets, is very accessible to
the Vancouver logging industry.    Compilations and maps are being prepared.
These surveys, carried on during the last nine years, have now provided maps and knowledge
of forest conditions on 14,000,000 acres of land more suitable for forestry than agriculture.
The preliminary step in the process of bringing these areas under forest-management has been
taken; the ultimate object is to bring the Provincial Forests into condition to supply a sustained
annual yield of raw material for the forest industries of the Province. Twelve million five
hundred and seventy-eight thousand acres (19,650 square miles) are under reserve in these
Provincial Forests for the perpetual production of timber; this area is only 5 per cent, of
British Columbia and 19 per cent, of the area in the Province which is believed to be more
suitable for this purpose than any other.
Topographic and forest maps and reports were completed for the Shuswap, Larch Hills,
Mount Ida, Arrowstone, and Hat Creek Forests, in the Railway Belt, transferred to the Province
by the Dominion, of which a survey was made last year.
The Shuswap Forest lies north of Shuswap Lake and east of Adams Lake, in the Kamloops
District, and within its revised boundaries covers 230,900 acres, classified as follows:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.      Acres.
Mature timber     89,460
Immature timber—
1- 20 years old   15,000
21- 40 years old     8,660
41- 60 years old   10,680
61- 80 years old ...;  29,150
81-100 years old        360
    63,850
Recent burns, not reforested   12,330
Non-commercial cover      6,920
     19,250
Total sites of productive quality   172,560
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Barren and scrub-covered   43,360
Grass and meadow   14,360
Swamp and water   620
Total non-productive sites     58,340
The timber is estimated as follows to a minimum D.B.H. of 11 inches:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Engelmann spruce.
Western red cedar.
Western hemlock...
Douglas fir	
Silver flr (balsam)
White pine..	
Yellow pine	
Lodgepole pine	
Totals	
M.B.M.
233,400
106,400
00,700
85,200
06,000
13,700
2,200
300
627,000
M.B.M.
21,200
13,000
21,300
22,700
6,300
6,000
500
01,000
M.B.M.
254,600
119,400
112,000
107,900
102,300
20,600
2,700
300
710,800 T 6
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
There are, in addition, estimated to be 3,575,000 lineal feet of cedar pole timber, and
471,000 cords of smaller spruce and silver-fir stands suitable for pulp.
The spruce-silver fir stands at the higher elevations-are chiefly suitable for pulp-wood.
There is in this Forest a proportion of middle-aged classes of immature timber which is better
than average and the Forest could produce a sustained annual yield not far below its regulated
capacity. In its present condition a sustained yield of 12,900,000 F.B.M. saw-timber and
100.000 lineal feet cedar poles is available annually; increasing to 14,600.000 F.B.M. saw-timber,
283,000 lineal feet poles, and 4,800 cords of pulp-wood after regulation and when markets
develop. To date the Forest has been logged chiefly for cedar poles, yellow pine and fir saw-
timber, and some fir ties; most operations have been selective, leaving the Forest in good
condition.
The Larch Hills (32,600 acres) and Mount Ida (33,150 acres) are two small Forests lying
to the south and east of Salmon Arm. They are divided by the partly cultivated valley traversed
by the highway between Salmon Arm and Grlndrod, and are equally accessible. They have been
summarized together as follows:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.     Acres.
Mature timber     18,320
Immature timber—
1-20 years old      1,830
21-40 years old      8,680
41-60 years old   11,160
61-80 years old   10.360
Over 80 years old      7,700
    39,730
Burned, not reforested         200
Non-commercial cover      3,670
      3,870
Total sites of productive quality      61,920'
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Barren and scrub-covered       3,480
Water and swamp         280
Grass     70
Total non-productive sites        3,830
The mature timber, to a minimum D.B.H. of 17 inches for yellow pine and 11 inches for
other species, is estimated as follows:—
Species.
Douglas fir	
Western red cedar.
Engelmann spruce.
Yellow pine	
"Western hemlock...
White pine	
Silver fir (balsam)
Western larch	
Lodgepole pine	
Totals	
Crown.
M.B.M.
37,350
30,000
11,050
1,800
6,000
4,400
3,750
2,400
300
07,050
Alienated.
M.B.M.
17,250
7,850
1,200
8,250
1,850
650
400
37,450
I
Total.
M.B.M.
54,600
37,850
12,250
10,050
7,850
5,050
3,750
2,800
300
134,500
These volumes include timber suitable for 242,000 hewn ties and 2,100.000 lineal feet of
cedar poles. The older immature stands could be thinned to produce 785,000 fir, larch, and
lodgepole-pine ties in addition to the above. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 7
Utilization has been chiefly by selective cutting of poles and ties, averaging for the last few
years the equivalent of 125,000 F.B.M. per annum, in addition to about 200 cords of fuel. As in
the Shuswap Forest, the proportion of middle-aged classes is unusually good and the Forest
could, in its present condition, support its estimated regulated sustained yield of 4,200,000 F.B.M.
per annum, including poles and ties.    The timber is all accessible.
The Arrowstone Forest, 186,800 acres north and east of Ashcroft, has little or no economic
value for the production of commercial timber. Although three-quarters of the area may be
classified as productive, the timber is of very low quality, good enough only for rough lumber,
sawn ties, or fuel. The lodgepole-pine stands average site quality 50; i.e., the average tree
takes eighty years to grow 50 feet high, and can be considered of value only as ground-cover
and with a problematic future use for the production of pulp-wood when the time comes for such
low-quality stands, which are at present inaccessible to any market. The area was reserved by
the Dominion Government chiefly for watershed protection, but it is doubtful if this object
justifies its continued administration as a Provincial Forest. The area has considerable grazing
value in the open stands.
Qualified by the above remarks, the area may be classified as follows:—
Area capable of producing Low-grade Timber— Acres.      Acres.
Mature timber      45,380
Immature timber—
1- 20 years old      8,030
21- 40 years old      2,190
41- 60 years old   57,250
61- 80 years old      6,200
81-100 years old      1,300
Selectively logged       330
    75,300
Burned, not reforested      1,400
Non-commercial cover   20,300
21,700
Total sites of productive quality  142,380
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine, barren, and scrub sites   41,980
Open grass   1,250
Swamp and water  1,190
Total non-productive sites  :     44,420
The mature timber (all Crown timber) is estimated as follows:—
Species.
Saw-timber
(over 11" D.B.H.).
Pulp-timber
(over 7" D.B.H.).
Yellow pine	
Douglas fir..	
Spruce	
Lodgepole pine..
Totals..
M.B.M.
23,040
20,210
260
43,510
Cords.
1,400
108,250
109,650
There are in addition 138,800 cords of fuel-wood, 95 per cent. fir.
The Hat Creek Forest, 491,000 acres west of Ashcroft, is of a quality very similar to that
of the Arrowstone in so far as its value as a commercial timber-producer is concerned. It can
grow timber suitable only for rough farm lumber, ties, and fuel. Its young stands are nearly
all lodgepole pine of an even lower quality than those of the Arrowstone Forest. Reserved by
the Dominion Government for watershed protection, it is doubtful if it is worth the expense of administration as a Provincial Forest. Numerous cattle-ranches border the Forest and their
cattle graze the open stands within the boundaries; the higher mountain ranges provide summer
grazing for large flocks of sheep.
Classified as a forest, the following conditions exist:—
Area capable of producing Low-grade Timber— Acres.      Acres.
Mature timber   146,000
Immature timber—
21-40 years old   19,300
41-60 years old  i  25,100
61-80 years old      3,200
Selectively logged         800
 48,400
Burned, not reforested      2,900
Non-commercial cover  28,200
    31,100
Total sites of productive quality   225,500
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine, barren, or scrub  — 246,600
Grass, swamp, and water     19,200
Total non-productive sites   265,800
The Forest contains 185,300 M.B.M. low-grade Douglas fir; 21,400 M. yellow pine; 16,200
M. Engelmann spruce ; 1,800 M. lodgepole pine; total, 224,700 M.B.M.; also 552,000 cords of fir
fuel-wood and 116,000 cords of pulp-wood, chiefly lodgepole pine.
Maps and reports on the area examined last year on Loughborough Inlet and neighbouring
islands, in the Vancouver Forest District, were completed. Forest land which during the last
ten years has produced over one billion board-feet of fine logs lies between the entrances of
Knight and Bute Inlets. A forest and topographic survey was made of this and it is classified
as follows (Mainland only) :—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.      Acres.
Mature timber—
On vacant Crown land  77,450
Alienated     83,210
  160,660
Immature timber— ;
1- 20 years old   20,420
21- 40 years old  13,400
41- 60 years old      1,020
61- 80 years old       800
81-100 years old        130
    35,770
Logged or burned, not reforested   41,510
Non-commercial cover    10,250
    51,760
Total sites of productive quality   248,190
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine, barren, or scrub   335,430
Swamp and water      14,910
Total non-productive sites   350 340 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 9
The timber, to 11 inches minimum D.B.H., is estimated as follows:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Western hemlock	
Western red cedar...
Silver fir  (balsam).
Douglas fir 	
Sitka spruce ..-.
Yellow cypress	
White pine	
Totals	
M.B.M.
730,000
362,600
383,500
174,600
48,300
19,300
5,400
1.723,700
M.B.M.
751,600
963,500
356,100
185,000
40,700
49,700
14,500
I
i,361,100
M.B.M.
1,481,600
1,326,100
739,600
359,600
89,000
69,000
19,900
4,084,800
The Forest could maintain a sustained annual yield of 40,700 M.B.M., rising to 62,500
M.B.M. when regulated, the lower figure being due to the shortage of middle-aged timber, as
usual in our Coast forests. The average cut for the last ten years has been 105,000 M.B.M.
This over-cutting being general in the Vancouver District, the forest industries concerned will
experience a shortage of timber, unless improvement can be made in logging methods whereby
a greater yield per acre can be obtained. Selective logging is a possible solution. With logging
methods planned to avoid the creation of large areas of slash, fire protection should not be a
major problem in this comparatively wet cedar-hemlock region. Practically all loss has been
due to slash fires; a yearly average of 2,800 acres of logged lands have been burned during the
last ten years.    The area is recommended for reserve as a Provincial Forest.
In the same survey last year Broughton, Gilford, Cracroft, Harbledown, and smaller islands
were included.    These are small forested islands lying between the north end of Vancouver
Island and the Mainland.    They total 224,650 acres and were classified as follows:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.      Acres.
Mature timber   112,650
Immature timber—
1- 20 years old   15,780
21- 40 years old      2,960
41- 60 years old         730
61- 80 years old        840
81-100 years old        190
    20,500
Logged and burned, not reforested   11,130
Non-commercial cover      6,170
Total sites of productive quality ..
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Barren and scrub sites 	
Swamp and water 	
17,300
150,450
67,940
6,260
Total non-productive sites	
The timber, to 11 inches minimum DlB.H., is estimated as follows :-
74,200
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Wrestern red cedar.
Western hemlock...
Silver fir (balsam)
Yellow cypress	
Sitka spruce	
Douglas fir	
White pine	
Totals	
M.B.M.
426,900
243,300
97,800
34,200
7,800
8,800
2,600
821,400
M.B.M.
1,038,300
628,200
267,900
35,800
37,000
21,300
5,900
2,034,400
M.B.M.
1,465,200
871,500
365,700
70,000
44,800
30,100
8,500
2,855,800 T 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The islands could maintain a sustained annual yield of 29,000 M.B.M., rising to 32,800
M.B.M. after regulation. The average cut for the last ten years has been 35,000 M.B.M., so
that over-cutting is taking place here as on the adjacent Mainland. Little damage is done by
fires which have burned an average of 320 acres a year during the last ten years, practically
all in slash. It will be noticed that nearly 70 per cent., a very high percentage, of the total
area is productive; the islands are quite unsuitable for agricultural settlement on account of
the nature of the soil and location, and are recommended for reserve as Provincial Forests.
The reconnaissance of the Duncan and Lardcau Rivers, made last year, disclosed the
following conditions on an area totalling 1,098,300 acres:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Accessible   58,400
Inaccessible   124,900
  183,300
Immature timber—
1- 20 years old      6,300
21- 40 years old   50,500
41- 60 years old      9,500
61- 80 years old   19,400
.     '   81-100 years old         300
    86,000
Burned, not reforested   55,800
Non-commercial cover   17,500
    73,300
Total sites of productive quality   342,600
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine, barren, and scrub   735,000
Swamp and water      20,700
Total non-productive sites  755,700
The area carried the following timber, over 11 inches minimum D.B.H.:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Western hemlock...
Western red cedar.
Engelmann spruce.
Silver fir (balsam)
Douglas fir	
W'hite pine	
Western larch	
Lodgepole pine	
Totals	
M.B.M.
450,100
312,300
424,900
102,200
53,000
30,600
18.000
3,100
1,404,100
M.B.M.
164,100
223,000
43,700
13,600
34,600
18,700
7,400
505,100
M.B.M.
623,200
535,300
468,600
115,800
87,600
49,300
26,300
3,100
1.909,200
The Duncan River flows from the Selkirk Mountains, which accounts for the large proportion of unproductive area. There is at present no commercial utilization of this great body of
saw-timber. The large extent of burns not reforested with commercial species indicates the
desirability of improved protection. Arable lands are confined to the valley-bottoms, and much
of the lower Duncan land would require expensive dyking before farming could be carried on.
The area is recommended for reserve as a Provincial Forest.
The extensive reconnaissance of 2.000,000 acres of the Columbia River watershed (Big
Bend) made last year mapped 299,000 acres of mature timber, 66,000 acres of immature timber,
and 15,000 acres of burn. Most of the watershed is the barren or scrub-covered slopes of the
Rocky and Selkirk Mountains. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 11
The timber was estimated as follows:-
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
M.B.M.
567,000
642,200
239,200
254,200
120,400
10,300
M.B.M.
433,700
249,600
107,200
47,900
75,800
15,400
M.B.M.
1,000,700
891,800
Douglas fir	
346,400
302,100
Western hemlock	
196,200
31,700
Totals    	
1.839.300
929,600
2,708,900
There are in addition 450,000 lodgpole-pine and fir ties on the Canoe River.
PROVINCIAL FOREST INVENTORY.
The forest atlas and timber estimates for the Kamloops Forest District were completed.
All possible public and private sources were tapped in order to make the resulting compilations
as accurate as possible. The following schedules give the classification of land and estimates
of standing timber, divided into the twenty drainages shown on the accompanying index map.
Forest conditions in this District are somewhat better than in the Nelson District, which
was reported last year. While the productive percentage of the area (43 per cent.) is about
the same (Nelson 40 per cent.), less than 16 per cent, of it is not forested as compared with
24 per cent, in the Nelson District. Immature timber covers 54 per cent. (Nelson 43 per cent.) ;
69 per cent, of these young stands are over 25 feet high.
The effect of logging on the growing stock in this area is far less harmful than that of the
heavy machine-cutting on the Coast. Much of it is of a selective nature, thinning for ties and
poles. When this type of logging is carefully done, periodic cuts in the same stand can be made
at much shorter intervals than when the complete forest-cover is removed or destroyed. Only
1 per cent, of the whole productive forest area is shown as logged and not reforested, while in
the Southern Coast Region this condition exists on over 14 per cent., a comparison which speaks
for itself.
The timber estimates were carefully adjusted to make the results of different cruisers'
work as consistent as possible, and to check and revise old cruises. Of the total volume, 6 per
cent, was estimated from private cruises; 54 per cent, from Provincial Forest surveys and other
Forest Service cruises; 40 per cent, from extensive reconnaissance, including the Pacific Great.
Eastern Railway Resources Survey of 1930. The total volume of saw-timber is 31,871.500
M.B.M., of which 11,977,400 M.B.M. (37 per cent.) is considered to be accessible for present
logging methods and with prices in the upper range of those which have obtained in the industry
in the past.
Exact figures of the average annual depletion are not available owing to changes in the
Kamloops District boundaries and the unestimated loss by insects, particularly bark-beetles.
Logging varied during the last ten years from about 120,000 M.B.M. to 58,400 M.B.M. (average
for last four years). A normal annual cut may be estimated at 100,000 M.B.M. The average
annual loss by fire during the last ten years has been 42,500 M.B.M. The insect loss has been
very largely in inaccessible lodgepole pine and low-quality fir. The total average annual
depletion of accessible stands may be estimated at 150,000 M.B.M. This is within the sustained
yield capacity of the district, as the accessible timber will last for eighty years at this rate of
cutting and there should then be large volumes of timber in the stands now immature. Utilization, however, is not evenly distributed, some of the Provincial Forests, as reported elsewhere,
being over-cut. This condition may have a bad effect on the future prosperity of some villages
and communities depending to a large extent on forest industries.
In addition to the saw-timber quoted in the schedules, there are estimated to be about
5,000,000 cords of low-grade "timber, chiefly fir, suitable only for fuel or very rough lumber.
Also 3,400,000 cords of small timber, chiefly lodgepole pine and all inaccessible for present
logging, suitable for pulp-wood but. not large enough for lumber.
The Dominion Commission of Conservation, in 1917, estimated 38.381,700 M.B.M. on this
same area. There was possibly an overestimate of cedar (9,590,000 M.) and hemlock (4,173,000
M.) at that time. Heavy stands of these species in this region have been found to be extremely
defective.  FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
In addition to examining and reporting on some 9,875 acres adjoining the boundaries of
the proposed Seechelt Forest, the Forest Service reported upon 605 applications, covering 88,100
acres, for alienation under the provisions of the " Land Act," the general conditions of which
are shown in the tables herewith.
Areas examined foe Miscellaneous Purposes op the " Land Act," 1933.
Forest District.
Fort George. .
Kamloops ....
Prince Rupert
Nelson	
Vancouver ...
Totals
Applications for
Crown Grants.
311
311
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
11
72
4
94
1,768
18,313
21,050
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
40
91
8
40
Acres.
6,847
11,136
1,080
754
2,812
21,629
Applications to
Purchase.
23
42
19
40
70
Acres.
3,334
4,532
2,622
3,962
23,07:
Miscellaneous.
16
69
5
3
35
Acres.
1,589
6,254
600
195
3,394
Classification of Areas examined in 1933.
Forest District.
Fort George....
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert.
Nelson	
Vancouver	
Totals..
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimate of
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
12,538
40,235
4,302
4,911
16,114
Acres.
6,461
4,284
1,254
1,207
2,933
16,139
Acres.
6,077
35,951
3,048
3,704
13,181
61,981
Acres.
118
143
220
665
M.B.M.
869
875
4,648
7,666
88,100
1,146
14,058
FOREST RESEARCH.
Research-work during 1933 was again confined to the field and  office work essential to
maintain records on studies previously instituted.    Most of these studies are carried out under
natural forest conditions on sample plot areas, varying in size from ^oo acre to many acres,
which are reserved for the purpose.    There are in all 256 of these plots established on which
records are maintained, either annually, or periodically at intervals of three to five years.    They
may be roughly grouped as follows:—
Plots.
Growth and yield   105
Experimental plantations    60
Varied silvicultural   82
Regeneration history studies (involving 2,896 temporary plots)  9
Total  256
Necessary periodic examinations were completed on 139 of these during the summer.
Work at the Cowichan Lake and Aleza Lake Experiment Stations was confined to these
current examinations of established plots. In Forest Mensuration current examinations of
growth and yield plots were all completed. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 17
REFORESTATION.
Forest Nurseries.—The last stock from the Shelbourne Street Nursery at Victoria, about
142,000 seedlings, was lifted in early spring and shipped to the Green Timbers Nursery, and
the Shelbourne Street development was abandoned. This area was secured on lease from the
Municipality of Saanich in 1927 for temporary nursery purposes pending developments at the
permanent Green Timbers Nursery. During the five and a half years of occupancy some
987,000 seedlings were produced.
At the Green Timbers Nursery stock from Shelbourne Street was received and transplanted,
and about 100,000 seedlings shipped out for planting purposes.    Of these, about:—
23,000 went to the Elk River Timber Company for an experimental plantation on their
cut-over land.
27,000 to the Campbell River Experimental Forest.
1,500 to Green Timbers plantations.
48,500 in forty-four shipments to universities, various public institutions and projects,
and to various individuals for a variety of purposes.    A notable recent development
is a growing interest in Christmas-tree plantations.    A few lots of stock have been
provided for this purpose.    The plantations are subject to examination by Forest
Branch officers, and may point the way to the development of a profitable use for
farm lands too poor to produce the usual crops.
Since the inception of the nursery work in the fall of 1927 a little more than 1,000,000
seedlings have been produced, and there are now in stock at the Green Timbers Nursery about
165,000 seedlings available for planting in the spring of 1934.
Plantations.—An experimental plantation of about 40 acres was put in on the logged-off
lands of the Elk River Timber Company in co-operation with the company, and about 25 acres;
were planted on the Campbell River Experimental Forest.
Plantations at Green Timbers Nursery and the Campbell River Forest were examined in
detail for survival and detailed records started in order that the history of these may be
followed with a view to improving methods and eliminating losses. Survival of planted stock
proved good, except on certain plantations at Green Timbers, where rabbits have proved
destructive.
Experimental plantations to date are summarized in the following table:—
Location of Planting.
Previously
reported.
1933.
Totai
to Date.
Acres.
Seedlings.
Acres.
Seedlings.
Acres.
Seedlings.
343
545
77
12
296,000
237,300
110,400
12,000
25
40
343
545
102
52
296,000
237,300
27,050
22,875
137,450
34,875
Totals	
977
655,700
65
49,925
1,042
705,625
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
In co-operation with the British Columbia Lumber and Shingle Manufacturers, Limited, the
trade-extension campaign was continued, chiefly in the United Kingdom markets, and much
useful work was accomplished in removing the difficulties and smoothing the way for British
Columbia timber in that market. Special attention might be drawn to the work done on paving-
blocks, where it is expected to sell 30,000 to 40,000 M.B.M., and on the introduction of cedar.
As a result of the above work a steady growth in the exports to the United Kingdom is noted.
Figures show:—
1931      98,038 M.B.M.
1932  ■  108,315
1933   271,073       „ T 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
-     v
The Commissioner paid a second visit to China early in 1933, following up the work begun
in 1932, and here again the visit was followed by substantial increases in shipments.
1931  :     53,854 M.B.M.
1932      53,341
1933    130,596
Late in December the same officer was sent to Australia, where no work had been done for
the past two years. The results accomplished leave no room for doubt that active marketing
by means of special lumber representatives does bring results far beyond the expenses incurred,
and that in any market absorbing 100,000 M.B.M. feet per year a permanent Commissioner
should be maintained, with advantage both to the industry and to the Province.
TIMBER INDUSTRIES.
The statistical tables presented herewith show the conditions in the industry. In considering them, it must be borne in mind that the downward trend continued until about June, and
therefore recovery represents only six months of the year. For that period it is more marked
than is indicated by the average figures for the year.
Water-borne Lumber Trade (in F.B.M.).
Australia	
New Zealand	
South America	
China	
Japan	
United Kingdom and Continent.
South Africa 	
India and Straits Settlements ...
United States and Atlantic Coast
Philippine and Hawaiian Islands..
West Indies and Cuba	
South Sea Islands	
Mexico and Central America	
Egypt	
♦Belgium    	
*Denmark	
♦France	
♦Germany	
♦Holland	
♦Italy	
♦Norway and Sweden	
Spain   	
Foreign, unclassified	
Totals   740,230,330
1927.
53,502,046
10,847,545
2,168,973
9,178.973
191,597,552
36,427,449
18,562,680
3,566,713
392,074,628
1,734,314
16.023,319
1,884,632
2,649,559
12,047
29,843,132
8,531,322
10,304,032
16,902,137
219,361,557
67,075,872
13,625,781
411,577
384,107,908
56,681
8,356,571
5,496,319
333,060
1,149,573
41,493,476
8,559,208
2,449,494
43,323,398
192,411,505
69,903,655
15,889,002
243,807
361,526,590
14,847,317
5,508,978
623,766
4,744,180
60,494,046
801,518,422
1930.
33,076,587
6,416,105
1,774,697
55,224,104
150,869,880
98,037,621
17,685,896
241,129
259,093,570
122,744
12,781,209
3,230,759
560,018
73,195,238
50,803,023
2,578,740
1,354,028
53,854,005
138,851,607
81,356,058
13,120,035
369,689
207,586,216
7,520,512
2,527,626
478,794
4,196,326
336,428
62,129
241,865
154,135
419,373
301,661
18,200
712,299,557 566,129,250
125,551,388
979,148
140,945
53,341,172
60,031,785
108,314,682
5,664,646
544,271
8,239,598
2,009,102
1,746,278
79,474
148^901
120,519
144,018
128,678
15,955
6,087
123,732,822
1,300,332
3,641,569
130,696,268
60,657,328
271,073,393
18,213,254
916,536
29,628,026
11,830,457
2,476,670
1,669,075
10,066
126,846
301,818
350,966
662,599,920
♦Previously included with United Kingdom.
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the Province.
Product.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper	
Shingles	
Boxes	
Piles, poles, and mine-props	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties.
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the
wood-using industry	
Laths and other miscellaneous prod
ucts	
Logs exported	
Pulp-wood exported.  	
Totals    183,087,000
$40,487,000
18,505,000
6,800,000
1,707,000
4,030,000
1,405,000
1,440,000
2,100,000
2,000,000
4,561,000
52,000
$48,346,000
16,755,000
10,000,000
2,501,000
4,684,000
1,633,000
1,873,000
2,200,000
2,100,000
3,580,000
115,000
$93,787,000
1929.
$50,140,000
14,400,000
8,300,000
2,437,000
5,500,000
1,734,000
2,116,000
2,100,000
2,400,000
4,124,000
50,000
$93,301,000
832,773,000
16,520,000
4,161,000
2,287,000
4,726,000
1,596,000
1,253,000
2,387,000
1,500,000
2,492,000
42,000
$69,737,000
$16,738,000
13,508,000
2,721,000
1,315,000
2,453,000
1,405,000
1,044,000
1,350,000
1,500,000
2,370,000
43,000
$44,447,000
1932.
1933.
$13,349,000
$15,457,000
11,156,000
10,852,000
2,805,000
4,500,000
1,100,000
1,313,000
772,000
450,000
1,576,000
1,850,000
502,000
250,000
1,014,000
1,200,000
1,125,000
1,000,000
1,730,000
2,228,000
28,000
55,000
$35,157,000
$39,155,000 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 19
Pulp  (in Tons).
Pulp
Sulphite	
Sulphate	
Ground wood	
1927.
119,005
13,700
163,548
120,413
15,050
170,005
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
112,925
15,647
151,066
130,462
13,055
172,539
124,521
11,744
170,432
86,419
10,889
161,502
122,265
15,715
185,451
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
1927.
1928.
1929.
201,009
19,492
1930.
224,928
20,446
1931.
1932.
205,050
24,051
1933.
Other papers	
214,010
13,745
225,477
15,960
217,562
17,709
237,107
23,492
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during Years 1932-33.
(F.B.M.)
Forest District.
1932.
1933.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Gain.
Net Loss.
Fort George	
Kamloops	
20,563,841
64,752,039
84,294,505
24,066,756
66,038,963
97,361,716
3,502,915
1,286,924
13 067,211
17,857,050
169,610,385
187,467,436
17,857,050
296,673,759
296,673,759
314,530,809
93,868,874
1,347,979,202
1,441,848,076
1,611,458,461
66,460,668
1,644,662,961
1,711,113,629
1,898,581,064
27,408,206
27,408,206
27,408,206
269,265,553
287,122,603 T 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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T 21
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> FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 23
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-e options.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
105
296
166
374
296
'66
1
109
415
131
205
565.
214
711
297
645
862
466
1,555
1,803
1,768
2,529
Totals, 1933   	
1,237
67
1,425
2,729
8,121
Totals, 1932	
1,124
37
1,316
1,675
2,477
7,273
Totals, 1931   	
1,562
92
100
3,329
8,969
Totals, 1930	
1,932
1,862
3,894
8,859
Totals, 1929	
1,907
99
2,002
4,008
9,512
Totals, 1928   	
1,623
50
2,023
3,696
9,596
Totals, 1927	
1,584
133
1,873
3,590
8,661
Trespasses.
Forest District.
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver..  	
Totals, 1933
Totals, 1932
Totals, 1931
Totals, 1930
Totals, 1929
Totals, 1928
Totals, 1927
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
13
19
18
8
12
70
95
42
38
43
7
25
155
368
84
397
96
99
1,000
370
105
878
399
83
Feet B.M.
174,349
154,466
919,438
83,502
246,353
1,578,108
767,896
1,579,465
969,351
1,309
5,867,052
2,290,926
Quantity cut.
Lineal
Feet.
463
167
000
059
41,689
118,
165,
704
729
Cords.
709
31
219
250
204
1,838
1,125
790
54
3,807
9,265
12,425
9,612
°cn
6 ta
fc.5
$380 76
398 90
1,019 82
391 58
636 75
2
$2,727 81
14
83,490 84
2
$5,633 68
4
9
12
$7,534 01
$5,431 07
$17,787 10
Pbe-emption Inspections, 1933.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Fort George        720
Kamloops     1,103
Prince Rupert     280
Vancouver      463
Nelson      145
Total   2,711 Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(M.B.il.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Car
Stakes &
Posts
(No.).
127
234
148
210
223
22,282
37!;93
39,064
36,087
34,605
2,861
42,001
20,569
35,208
85,779
382,010
102,475
409,945
476,600
249,082
10,759
25,134
13,848
3,001
42,491
136,461
109,300
51,493
251,322
1,400
3,200
170,205
1,456
Totals, 1933	
942
169,831
186,418
1,620,112
1,769,905
95,233
549,976
174,861
875
818
144,769
145,214
202,421
68,414
62,680
488,656
69,900
Totals, 1931	
297,825
526,261
500,420
754,095
974,626
2,629,054
664,413
142,400
Totals, 1930	
943
1,061
1,111
197,085
214,874
233,889
10,345,822
13,043,603
9,623,599
26,431
17,629
731,640
1,305,110
2,056,604
620,100
Totals, 1929	
185,740
Totals, 1928	
43,266
447,630
Totals, 1927	
844
225,191
7,092,844
21,027
1,747,441
35,600
Timber Sales awarded by Districts. 1933.
Forest District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
No. of Cords.
No. of Ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
Kamloops	
Fort George	
294
114
169
168
213
948
836
29,137
21,284
72,400
28,029
39,944
190,794
134,868
148,523
21,687,000
7,816,000
12,549,000
25,864,000
77,780,000
145,696,000
181,470,000
304,619
392,095
401,425
1,222,920
169,185
117,000
3,200
176,705
16,285
10,384
11,865
2,369
35,874
74,448
162,823
89,255
153,037
2,950
$65,229 55
37,044 72
42,735 73
Prince Rupert	
85,304 85
220,244 31
Totals, 1933...
2,490,244
295,905
76,777
432,513
$450,559 16
Totals, 1932...
1,746,616
2,272,082
161,600
173,300
54,154
423,676
606,160
$450,528 10
Totals, 1931.
842
866
974
217,474,000
41,032
$624,596 27
Totals, 1930...
162,043
199,485,000
9,963,164
398,150
19,997
494,202
$689,481 29
Totals, 1929...
216,222.28
691,973,000
9,356,837
6,537,002
7,332,939
374,065
880,000
736,100
23,197
1,505,951
81,908,100 70
Totals, 1928...
Totals, 1927...
1,033
821
194,929.37
258,097.26
525,250,760
1,611,612,079
48,728
22,057
1,996,467
1,380,553
$1,344,273 93
$2,666,678 32
Average Sale Price by Species.
Saw-timber.
Douglas fir	
Cedar    	
Spruce 	
Hemlock 	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine....
Tamarack ("Larch")
Other species	
Totals 	
Figures for 1933.
Board-feet.
51,374,000
20,861,000
20,747,000
22,695,000
7,742,000
4,816,000
11,450,000
2,127,000
4,384,000
145,696,000
Price
per M.
$1 16
1 17
1 16
73
73
1 94
1 19
68
$1 08
Figures for 1932.
Board-feet.
44,105,000
28,217,000
31,151,000
41,552,000
12,498,000
2,565,000
9,807,000
2,081,000
9,494,000
181,470,000
Price
per M.
$1 19
1 15
I 63
76
77
1 43
1 25
84
94
$1 12
Figures for 1931.
Board-feet.
48,265,000
17,509,000
63,409,000
41,083,000
16,038,000
4,006,000
11,457,000
5,538,000
7,839,000
215,144,000
Price
Per M.
$1 39
1 50
1 24
84
89
1 78
1 47
1 68
1 00
$1 22
Figures for 1930.
Board-feet.
66,490,000
21,558,000
35,082,000
37,972,000
17,973,000
4,709,000
7,132,000
5,501,000
5,075,000
190,492,000
Price
Per M.
$1 52
1 46
1 48
91
1 74
1 05
$1 ;
-2,330,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1931 totals.
8,993,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1930 totals. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 25
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1933.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
12,247,518
5,603,581
6,370,311
24,306,681
73,747,821
218,945
136,835
239,160
609,367
133,200
6,389.09
2,364.91
4.644.36
1,088.63
22,353.63
35,840.62
30,646.62
48,046
34,628
35,258
91,638
3,364
45,485
9,150
106,901
3,050
Totals, 1933	
122,275,912
165,666,929
177,172,765
227,019,617
1,337,497
1,583,955
212,824
268,284
662,120
164,586
Totals, 1932	
79,885
5,697,152
15,499.20
17,176.17
255,546
Totals, 1930	
11,960,055
1,341,426
388,749
Totals, 1929	
266,016,942
7,966,223
7,672,294
24,663.46
1,554,870
1,714,709
332,038
Totals, 1928	
203,208,331
214,209,921
24,389.35
376,263
Totals, 1927	
6,368,269
27,508.54
1,359,902
86,109
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province.
Forest District.
Fort George .  .
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver.  ...
Totals, 1933..
Totals, 1932.
Totals, 1931.,
Totals, 1930..
Totals, 1929..
Totals, 1928..
Totals, 1927..
Operating.
Shut
Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
1
Estimated
Dailv Capacity,
M.B.M.
>>
'la
ilv
aC.3
S ;»5f
Cr B
6
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
M.B.M.
6
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
Shingles, M.
23
368
17
803
83
1,155
3
100
35
189
1
10
49
1,000
6
160
12
629
3
200
20
407
2
9
27
687
2
12
120
6,785
68
7,066
43
1,924
16
1,430
295
8,715
78
7,325
134
3,632
22
1,662
293
7,641
45
6,813
139
4,621
4,109
13
1,470
334
10,167
46
7,470
158
19
1,871
301
11,020
11,896
43
53
7,164
141
3,204
17
1,695
354
7,881
8,280
95
120
2,200
2,459
15
1,726
314
11,919
56
15
2,710
375
12,176
65
12,042
110
2,549
22
2,740
Export of Logs.    (In F.B.M.)
Species.
Grade No. 1.
5,021,922
11,903,167
16,118
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir	
95,607,045
22,396,432
320,573
35,467,603
20,646,837
294,730
136,096,570
54,946,436
631,421
8,565,732
1,286,898
35,451
3,631,364
8,555,732
1,286,898
36,451
3,631,364
. 765,623
2,805,924
3,571,447
16,941,207
18,572,020
12,886,187
11,571,481
185,515
185,515
59,215,094
44,380,166
Totals, 1933	
119,089,573
87,223,114
106,331,594
86,502,990
13,694,960
15,589,383
208,940,834
Totals, 1932   	
165,764,683
Totals, 1931	
51,909,961
40,147,841
60,002,711
47,994,423
51,584,928
49,048,420
34,696,715
29,978,125
37,305,398
220,176,162
Totals, 1930  	
172,919,027
Totals, 1929	
13,015,146
20,663,249
36,545,972
133,997,595
106,084,161
144,942,558
236,993,577
Totals, 1958  	
211,947,231
Totals, 1927  	
48,510,833
281,584,291 T 26
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
Forest District.
United States.
Canada.
Orient.
Fort George—
Mine-props cords
Kamloops—
148,575
112
67
36,895
370,930
64
489
1,464,169
3,310
3,979
165,213
1,193,225
4,960
93,184
1,676,239
1,027
12,336
$11,886
896
402
15,817
44,511
880
4,156
145,676
26,480
31,832
82,606
95,458
495
41,068
134,100
4,625
55,505
70,270
333,515
1,210,370
639
4,828
1,064,375
1,252,001
1,009
12,335
78,305
112
67
36,895
37,415
64
489
253,799
3,310
3,340
160,385
128,850
4,950
93,184
Nelson—
Fence-posts   cords
Railway-ties No.
Prince Rupert—
Fence-posts No.
Vancouver—
Cordwood cords
424,238
18
$696,393
$816,316
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Years 1931, 1932, and 1933.
1931. 1932.
Old Grown grants       94 303
Crown grants, 1887-1906       40 66
Crown grants, 1906-1914        86 62
Section 53a, " Forest Act "     188 163
Stumpage reservations        72 40
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act "      10 18
Dominion lands   1
Permit berths      38 7
Timber berths        21 26
Indian reserves         7 11
Timber-sales        842 836
Hand-loggers          6 14
Special marks   	
Rights-of-way     	
Pulp licences         4 2
Totals  1,408 1,549
Transfers and changes of marks     220 183
Hand-logger Licences.
Number issued      38 81
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
1933.
227
92
76
206
55
9
1
2
15
5
946
26
1
1
4
1,666
139
83
Number of Tracings made.
Blue-prints
from Reference Maps.
Month.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Hand-logger
Licences.
Timber-
berths.
Miscellaneous,
Totals.
14
19
13
7
19
18
16
10
14
21
21
21
38
81
98
52
54
73
47
72
36
54
55
88
22
20
31
18
43
44
44
46
25
31
51
25
1
1
2
16
35
18
4
9
2
2
2
39
6
10
7
6
7
4
7
18
9
16
2
114
126
154
100
157
160
116
144
93
117
1.45
139
13
7
3
May	
8
1
5
9
9
3
3
2
October	
Totals	
193
748
400
1
91
131
1,564
65 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 27
FOREST FINANCE.
Forest revenue showed a further decline during the year, but it must be remembered that
about nine months of the year was that period at the very bottom of the depression, the lag
between billing and collection of revenues being from sixty to ninety days, postponing the
immediate effect on revenue. Moreover, the 25-per-cent. reduction in ground-rentals and the
15-per-cent. reduction in royalties, which were effective for the last nine months of the year,
to a large extent counteracted improvement in conditions. A better comparison of present
conditions is had by comparing revenues for the last quarter, which showed, in spite of the
above-mentioned discounts :   1932, $429,653.02 ;   and 1933, $433,404.18.
The greatest loss in revenue was in licence fees, which declined by $146,510, due to many
licensees taking advantage of the moratorium. About 2,500 licences are now in arrears for
one to three years. Royalties, except for the 15-per-cent. reduction, would have exceeded 1932.
Moneys appropriated for the administration of the Forest Branch were reduced from
$506,349 to $383,689, representing 22.7 per cent, of revenue only, and from these funds it is
necessary to pay for the cost of land examination, cruising, supervision of logging operations,
lumber-trade extension, issuing of fire permits and supervision of fire-control, administration
of grazing, and other activities.
The trust funds of the Branch show general improvement during the year.
The Scaling Fund deficit was reduced      $9,013.81
The Forest Protection Fund deficit was reduced       4,759.98
The Forest Reserve Account showed a credit balance at December
31st, 1933, of     49,905.32
Range Improvement Fund       9,450.75
The details of these finances are shown in the tables appended hereto.
FOREST REVENUE.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals ..   	
Timber-lease penalty fees	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)   ...
Scaling expenses (nut Scaling Fund)
Trespass penalties	
Scalers' examination fees	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Timber-berth rentals and bonus ...
Interest on timber-berth rentals and
bonus	
Transfer fees on rentals and bonus...
Royalty interest   	
Grazing fees and interest	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1933.
Dec.31st,1932.
Dec. 31st, 1931.
Dec. 31st, 1930.
Dec. 31st, 1929.
Dec. 31st, 1928.
$331,948 95
$478,458 93
$721,931 98
$854,660 87
$931,545 72
$1,015,705 19
480 00
930 00
1,330 00
2,180 00
1,776 00
4,285 00
16,004 43
11,687 62
20,632 72
27.861 53
23,245 73
33,035 56
1,975 00
2,000 00
950 00
1,575 00
1,300 00
1,400 00
57,859 54
70,025 38
78,202 93
72,117 52
79,873 89
79,396 72 .
1,265 18
848 88
944 24
607 44
901 43
520 70
14,061 93
12,009 29
11,675 17
35,035 94
30,162 64
40,649 01
244,225 17
279,034 76
454,391 36
518,309 48
634,048 95
651,102 88
3,650 69
3,359 20
5,722 83
7,565 12
12,844 92
10,943 97
561 25
569 30
771 65
1,256 69
1,951 28
1,646 65
963,511 71
1,046,070 65
1,218,363 02
1,456,330 42
1,688,803 67
1,774,417 41
225 73
374 42
911 07
1,204 07
1,407 92
1,147 84
28 80
20 30
24 94
150 01
191 74
103 74
3,399 67
2,535 16
3,686 89
5,825 68
9,161 16
12,058 89
20 00
40 00
175 00
105 00
320 00
275 00
350 47
305 02
171 23
591 70
1,711 29
271 09
1,299 13
1,067 39
1,367 72
1,406 64
3,152 88
589 71
3,051 42
4,265 74
4,495 07
4,137 56
2,754 36
4,444 25
30,281 53
33,601 49
33,295 42
576 41
697 54
688 97
28 37
270 00
63 84
49 90
489 34
1,136 04
$2,560,931 99
$2,990,820 67
$1,674,855 28
$1,948,550 41
$3,425,152 58
$3,531,993 61
11,769 13
13,409 37
15,411 46
12,251 88
10,918 49
12,541 98
320,150 96
368,699 00
397,523 73
422,274 04
$3,425,346 69
376,923 32
388,860 46
$2,006,765 37
$2,330,658 78
$2,973,867 18
$3,811,994 39
$3,933,396 05 T 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Revenue from Logging- Operations, 1933.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Penalty.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest
District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert.
Nelson	
Fort George ...
$766,738 83
42,976 55
00,302 16
17,351 52
31,293 97
$918,663 03
$752 32
237 31
870 88
645 67
460 58
$2,866 76
$52 87
21 91
36 45
2 00
84 70
$197 93
$368 73
$53 29
5 65
48 00
1 00
5 00
$112 94
$168 27
14 39
6 00
5 00
8 00
$13,463 54
106 80
$13,670 34
$13,368 44
$79,011 28
3,201 64
$103,353 97
46,129 77
17,762 40
33,511 92
18,739 32
$219,497 38
$963,594 37
92,694 02
79,024 89
51,417 11
50,591 57
Totals
$200 66
$225 73
$82,212 92
$1,237,321 96
Totals, 1932
$1,046,588 92
$3,988 03
$56 66
$71,696 21
$307,371 82
$1,443,559 54
Totals, 1931
$1,140,282 78
$1,460,367 16
$4,950 65
$6,799 66
$4,191 84
$994 87
$42 20
$1,092 07
$16,444 18
$21,644 46
$22,127 43
$20,277 64
$17,169 14
$82,078 03
$426,978 06
$1,672,862 74
Totals, 1930
$1,601 76
$140 57
$175 83
$1,266 33
$1,215 22
$106,553 34
$118,481 IS
$638,023 79
$2,236,396 07
Totals, 1929
$1,851,535 62
$1,555 56
$2,103 57
$789 47
$711,213 82
$2,710,496 50
Totals, 1928
$1,794,819 93
$20,867 17
$7,343 44
$156 58
$163 57
$1,194 89
$2,032 43
$123,169 81
$114,979 79
$635,292 44
$2,597,882 03
Totals, 1927
$1,767,710 60
$631,948 72
$2,542,137 16
FOREST EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1932-33.
Headquarters .
Kamloops	
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Nelson	
Vancouver ....
Totals.
Forest District.
Lumber-trade extension	
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association .
Reconnaissance, etc .-	
Grazing range improvements	
Salaries.
$81,151 32
50,213 38
22,388 38
25,332 25
43,322 84
66,581 79
Temporary
Assistance.
$244 00
Expenses.
$10,299 79
18,274 66
6,198 36
11,538 74
17,608 75
38,409 19
$102,329 39
Total.
$91,695 11
68,487 94
28,586 74
36.870 99
60,931 59
104,990 98
$391,563 35
31,943 79
3,000 00
13,426 02
6,211 64
Grand total       $446,144 80
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1932 (deficit)     $46,033.54
Expenditure, fiscal year 1932-33        78,691.02
Charges, fiscal year 1932-33
$124,724.50
78,090.33
Balance, March 31st, 1933 (deficit)     $46,634.23
Balance, April 1st, 1933 (deficit)     $46,634.23
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1933        70,332.65
$116,966.88
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1933        85,790.75
Balance, December 31st, 1933 (deficit)     $31,176.13 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933. T 29
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1932      $22,299.51
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1932 (under subsection
(2), section 30a)         46,895.20
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30a	
$69,194.71
Expenditure, fiscal year 1932-33        37,746.05
Balance (credit), March 31st, 1933     $31,448.66
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1933     $31,448.66
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1933 (under subsection
(2), section 30a)         38,142.50
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30a 	
$69,591.16
Expenditure, 9 months to December 31st, 1933        19,685.84
Balance (credit), December 31st, 1933      $49,905.32
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as at December
31st, 1933 :—
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1932   $371,072.83
Expenditure   31.51
$371,104.34
Collections, fiscal year 1932-33   $16,129.20
Less refunded        2,449.61
$13,679.59
Special levy          282.76
Refunds of expenditure      11,328.17
 ■      25,290.52
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1933   $345,813.82
Balance  (deficit), April 1st, 1933   $345,813.82
Collections, April-December, 1933      $2,933.86
Less refunded   75.48
$2,858.38
Special levy          520.98
Refunds of expenditure        2,497.78
        5,877.14
Balance (deficit), December 31st, 1933   $339,936.68 T 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
"■ BRITISH COLUMBIA LOAN ACT, 1932."
(Section 6a—Unemployment Relief.)
Expenditures for Fire-fighting, 1932-33.
Forest District.
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention.
Tools and   j        pjrpq             Improve-
Equipment.;        "      ■               ments.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
$1,248.04
792.10
2,023.35
1,139.31
1,088.39
183.56
$232.37
161.26
170.54
44.70
331.29
$2,825.45
1,371.69
4,005.81
899.27
432.09
$13.73
$10.99
$4,330.58
2,325.05
6,199.70
2,084.42
1.14
53.65
Vancouver	
1,905.52
183.56
Totals	
$6,474.75
$940.16
$9,534.31
$17,028.73
V
Patrols and fire prevention   $6,485.74
Tools and equipment   940.16
Fires  9,534.31
Improvements    68.52
Total   $17,028.73
" BRITISH COLUMBIA LOAN ACT, 1932."
(Section 6a—Unemployment Relief.)
Expenditures for Fire-fighting, Nine Months, April 1st to December 31st, 1933.
Forest District.
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Totals..
$3,635.85
8,254.83
0,225.85
3,159.28
6,990.46
122.84
$31,389.11
$137.90
76.85
242.15
10.82
1,293.30
$1,761.02
$3,648.09
5,310.01
21,914.52
94.63
8,288.39
$39,255.64
$130.41
96.89
13.48
432.27
~$673.05~
$7,552.25
13,738.58
31,382.52
3,278.21
17,004.42
122.84
^$73,078.82^
Patrols and fire prevention   $31,389.11
Tools and equipment  1,761.02
Fires  39,255.64
Improvements  673.05
Total  $73,078.82
FOREST PROTECTION.
In last year"s report I traced within the compass of a page the history of forest protection
in British Columbia down to 1932. This history falls naturally into three periods—from the
first rudimentary legislation of 1874 to the organization of the Forest Branch in 1912; from
1912 to 1931, during which period definite progress was made and protection efforts were fairly
adequately financed by the Forest Protection Fund: and the two years from 1932, when the
Forest Protection Fund was suspended, to the present. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933. T 31
The Forest Protection Fund was made up of a tax on privately held timber lands and a
contribution from the Government. This Fund paid for fire-fighting, organization, equipment,
improvements, etc. In the spring of 1932 the Fund was suspended without making other provision for protection, and, while limited sums were later made available for emergency use,
protection has practically drifted for two years on the impetus imparted up to 1931.
The temporary protection staff was cut in 1932 to about 40 men, and in 1933 to 123, from a
previous average of about 360. Each man of the total field staff was responsible for an
average of more than 1,000,000 acres. If one imagines one patrolman carrying the responsibility
for protection of a block of about 1,600 timber licences, the situation may be a little clearer. In
1933 the average was about 600,000 acres, equivalent to about 1,000 licences. Mechanical equipment has worn out. stocks of tools are depleted, and improvements such as trails, telephone-lines,
and lookouts could not be maintained. The cost of putting these properties back into effective
condition will be considerable.
The elimination of the Forest Protection Fund was dictated by economic conditions rather
than a chosen act, the result of world-wide conditions over which this Province had little or no
control; but we cannot escape the fact that without funds the protection machinery must
speedily come to a halt and the forest resources of the Province be considerably reduced.
The forest-protection organization has to give protection to many forms of property other
than timber—the isolated settler, highway bridges, power and telephone lines, mining buildings,
etc.—and consideration should be given to spreading a part of the load of finance to these
properties, which have for the past two decades received protection without cost.
Fortunately, the season of 1933 was unusually favourable. Fire-occurrence was the lowest
recorded in twelve years. An acute hazard developed late in August and continued for three or
four days, but copious and sustained rains in September closed the season a full month earlier
than normal. We escaped entirely the serious early spring hazards which normally develop in
the Southern and Northern Interior, and the fire season was really confined to the few days of
extreme fire weather on the Lower Coast, a part of the Southern Interior, and in the Northern
Interior. It may be of interest to note here that it was during these few days that the great fire
in Tillamook County, Oregon, occurred, burning over 300,000 acres and destroying ten billion feet
of Douglas fir. A similar outbreak could have occurred in British Columbia, and, had it done
so, we would have been wholly unprepared to cope with it.
One interesting development has been the first recorded fires started by gas-engine exhaust
in the bush. This has been a serious source of fires elsewhere for some time past, and with the
increased use of tractors will call for careful observation and perhaps preventive measures in
this Province. Reports have also been received of carbon expelled by the exhaust of passenger
and other cars on highways quite sufficiently hot and substantial to start fire. This may account
for many roadside fires previously ascribed to smokers.
Our forest losses in 1933 were fortunately not great, but at the same time, in considering
the relative hazard of the year and the number of fires occurring with previously favourable
years such as 1927 and 1928, the losses show a startling increase and demonstrate that the funds
spent on protection are money well spent.
Considering the very large area covered by each patrolman, the percentage of fires controlled
under 10 acres was most satisfactory, and yet comparing these figures with those for 1927 and
1928, the nearest comparable years, again shows the effect of reducing the staff. The figures
are:—
Fires extending over 10 Acres.
Year. No. Per Cent.
1927  160 12.46
1928  270 16.45
1932  324 25.59
1933  258 23.85
The tables given herewith will illustrate the main features of forest protection during the
year. T 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1933.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
September.
October.
Total.
ii
14
2
11
3
16
15
4
6
3
47
38
2
14
8
136
117
7
56
73
157
165
20
130
2
6
4
8
7
89
373
353
43
224
Totals 	
38
44
4.07
104
324
545
27
2.49
1,082
3.52
9.61
29.94
50.37
100.00
Number and Causes op Fires in Province, 1933.
Forest District.
bi
H
—  Cl
a p.
MO
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01
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be
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01-rC
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ftH=r
IS
111
159
so
67
56
1
27
40
13
68
47
16
24
15
'4
1
2
8
23
11
i
61
24
5
6
89
373
353
8.22
34.47
.Nelson	
32.62
26
65
"9
7
62
8
14
2
7
"36
I
22
1
13
'"7
43
224
3.97
20.72
Totals	
285
234
77
197
77
32
65
90
18
1,082
26.34
21.63
7.12
18.21
7.12
0.65
2.95
6.00
8.32
1.66
100.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 33
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HPh T 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fires, 1933, classified by Size and Damage.
Total
Fires.
Under J Acre.
i Acre to 10 Acres.
Over
10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
Forest District.
d
Is
Eh.S
o £
4iH<
S.S
o •>
L    01
d
irt
•«3
r3 ri
e|
O w
ri«
" 3
oi .3
D ■>
Or &.
35.95
24.40
48.73
61.16
41.52
•<3 en
OrS
HO
S.s
Q n
Z .-
-rt
d
-3 J
"o 2
riO
=  3
o'Z
rt  £
Ph rrt
"rt m
Orl
■3-
Z^
c O
Olrt
CJ   X
oi.ci
7.25
37.92
31.65
4.10
19.08
d
r5
3  •
ll
*. m
o,2
c 3
« .-
O n
Ir   *
P.S
30.34
33.51
14.16
9.30
23.21
a cc
£3
HO
<4-i m
zZ
fl    fl
©8
r .3
10.47
48.45
19.38
1.56
20.15
d
Ci
<%
u
01
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3
iO
3
a
8
B
9   .
cu o
Is-
d
8
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89
373
353
43
224
8.22
34.47
32.62
3.97
20.72
100.00
32
91
172
22
93
7.81
22.20
41 95
5.36
22.68
30
157
131
17
79
33.71
42.09
37.11
39.54
36.27
27
126
60
4
52
78
328
320
42
189
9
34
16
1
17
2
11
17
18
1,082
100.0
410
37.89
100.00
100.00
414
38.26
436
34.44
100.00
258
23.85
324
25.59
100.00
957
88.46
77
7.11
48
4.43
Totals, 1932	
1,266
100.0
100.00
100.00
506
39.97
903
35.86
100.00
100.00
1,123
88.70
91
7.19
52
4.11
Totals, 1931	
2,518
100.0
100.00
929
36.90
100.00
686
27.24
100.00
2,203
87.50
221
8.77
94
3.73
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1933.
Forest District.
Fort George...
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver	
Totals
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
$401
$79,653
Buildings.
$50
1,700
7,155
$10,276
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
$50
1,000
$51,824
Miscellaneous.
$10
1,504
3,032
$5,006
Total.
$461
3,254
12,060
130,983
$146,758
Per Cent.
of
Total.
0.31
2.22
8.21
89.26
100.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 35
0.
1
fi
Per
Cent.
5.04
13.49
41.97
.13
39.37
o
o
O
o
8
©
O
©
$
16,565
41,667
129,685
403
181,644
308,964
100.00
514,664
100.00
t-H ©
00 ©
p
1
Per
Cent.
1.78
9.82
46.66
.01
42.73
©
o
Q
O
H
©
©
©
©
8
8
M. Feet
B.M.
2,206
12,164
66,526
13
52,906
123,815
100.00
269,317
100.00
210,173
100.00
r.
<.
Per
Cent.
7.03
23.79
55.66
.69
12.83
O
o
8
1 9
©
1   rt
8
8
Acres.
21,189
71,704
167,807
2,095
38,691
CQ O
00 O
s§
«
r-©
Oi ©
S3 °
s =
si
OS
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EH CM T 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1933.
Causes.
Number.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
285
234
77
197
77
32
65
90
18
26.34
21.63
7.12
18.21
7.12
0.65
2.95
6.00
8.32
1.66
$15,715
7,777
2,914
5,542
849
908
4,645
323
321
40.31
19.95
7.47
14.22
2.17
2.32
11.92
0.82
0.82
$126,718
85,933
13,050
10,315
3,431
165,877
23,663
7,516
20,219
$455,722
25.69
24.44
2.67
Road, power, and telephone line construction	
2.10
0.70
33.89
4.84
1.53
4.14
1,082
100.00
$38,994
100.00
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for Last Ten Years.
Lightning ,	
Campers	
Railways operating 	
Railways under construction	
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)..
Road, power, telephone and telegraph .
Industrial operations	
Incendiarism	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals..
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
285
336
475
892
638
322
512
557
632
234
230
470
344
358
274
182
351
426
77
156
295
149
267
9
387
282
185
376
337
197
197
435
294
294
163
238
286
77
108
243
171
167
149
78
157
202
7
18
44
29
22
13
7
14
14
32
17
57
39
65
80
50
104
137
65
127
355
262
139
103
36
68
103
90
64
96
68
100
84
52
126
150
18
13
48
23
36
41
1,642
19
156
2,147
234
1,082
1,266
2,518
2,271
2,188
1,284
2,521
307
382
328
302
243
19
134
115
107
237
2,174
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in the Last Ten Years.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
Area burned (acres)	
Standing timber destroyed
or damaged (M. ft. B.M.).
Amount salvable
(M. ft. B.M.)	
Damage to forests	
Damage to other forms of
1,082
301,486
123,816
21,926
$308,964
$146,758
1,266
421,297
269,317
16,057
$514,664
$57,030
2,518
994,979
210,173
41,808
$1,477,181
$326,305
2,271
602,676
390,978
25,216
$1,408,18?
$337,909
2,188
909,620
272,024
107,049
$941,738
$226,919
1,642
106,977
24,069
9,060
$103,001
$95,534
1,284
101,944
86,176
44,834
$141,102
$74,606
2,147
659,871
398,694
109,385
$930,373
$749,891
2,521
1,023,789
1,024,508
350,770
$2,121,672
$625,518
$2,747,190
2,174
402,214
207,651
102,832
$665,078
$540,291
Total damage	
$455,722
$571,694
$1,803,486
$1,746,092
$1,168,657
$198,635
$215,708
$1,680,264
$1,205,369
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1933.
a
C
a
E
o
o
o
O
o
o
CJ
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o-
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cu
Cit
cu
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ur$
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13
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a
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ti
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c
Forest District.
'
■9
.-C
<A
a
tH
o
c
1
<3-
a-
ei
c"£
ei -
a.
>z
><rt
si:
No.
Amount.
■c
'•B
P-
a
CO
Oeo
Uoi
Ort
-w o
H   T*t
Ort
OrH
a a.
Or-r-M
o ^
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6h
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Or-.
<3
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1
c o
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a.
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V
cc
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CC
m
$
CO
cd
o
00
CJ
ei
CO
§
CO
oi
o
1
1
1
1
$25 00
i
3
16
3
3
1
7
i
2
1
1
—
i
l
4
—
Totals	
1
$25 00
$300 00
Totals, 1932	
2
2
12 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933.
T 37
•^luiaoj !)riotR|M jas saa;^
d
E5=S
• rH H     ■ t~
Ci ©
d
o
r- O
«     ■
8
•paijuoQ paduoea eaat^
d
00 IO •* rr rr
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o o
flOO
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V
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5,219
5,069
3,567
4,166
8,512
M O
eo o
s-8
o o
23 °
<=©
Gs O
CQ rH
•panssi s-jiuuaj
d
3,296
1,430
1,775
1,403
4,017
w o
2-8
eo p
"V o
5g
S •*
s °
38
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fe   : : : : ;
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■^luiaaj ^noq^iM %$s saay[
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'  Ol    ^   I  Os
* l    ^
■poussi s^iuiaaj I
pi a
o E
la
•ftmi&H ^noq^iM ^as saa;^
■ rH  rH       ■ t-
OS O O  "*
•[oa^uoo padcosa saat^j
■aaAO pauanq-eaay
,/ CO OS Tf CO Q
K if) « ifl C O
£ ooM"*a^co
O rtrtCo'cOCQ
•panssi s^iuiaa,!
Ifl CO CO 00 M        I- rH
■   iot~co-*os      om
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.& g
: 1'jS
Or   >
cl
» o
- s
.5 o
o a;
&,»&&(> T 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
Equipment- Kamloops.
One Ford car      $991.00
Maintenance of improvements—
Miscellaneous     93.00
Equipment- FoRT Georoe-
Fire-fighting hose, etc     .$455.00
Fire-fighting tools, etc        709.00
$1,164.00
Improvements—
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout Telephone-line       $206.00
Longworth Mountain Lookout Telephone-line        165.00
$371.00
Maintenance—
Miscellaneous     $248.00
Equipment- Nelson'
One Chevrolet car   $879.00
One Ford car  796.00
One outboard motor  185.00
Fire-fighting hose, etc.  1,114.00
Fire-fighting tools, etc  74.00
$3,048.00
Maintenance of improvements— <
Miscellaneous        $507.00
Equipment- Prince RupBRT-
Fire-fighting hose, etc      $126.00
Improvements—
Miscellaneous     13.00
Maintenance—
Miscellaneous      138.00
Equipment- Vancouver
One Dodge car   $1,201.00
Fire-fighting hose, etc     1,593.00
New engine and equipment for scaling launch      2,008.00
$4,802.00
Maintenance of improvements-
Miscellaneous   	
$459.00
GRAZING.
The year 1933 was perhaps the most difficult yet experienced by the stockmen of the Province, due to the exceptionally low price received for beef, which was for the year only about
one-third of that prevailing in 1929 and nearly $1 per hundredweight less than in 1932. The
difficulties of the stockmen under such conditions are increased by shortage of winter feed and
overgrazing on the lower and open ranges.    It would appear that it may be some time before FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1933. T 39
beef prices return to 1929 levels, and the importance of cutting losses by better range-management, increasing the calf-crop, and marketing younger beef is thereby emphasized.
The Department has continued its efforts to promote a better use of the ranges. In co-operation with representatives of the Dominion Range Experiment Station at Manyberries, Alberta,
the Provincial Department of Agriculture, the University and the Sanatorium authorities, a
study was undertaken during the summer of the ranges of the Tranquille Sanatorium, particular
attention being paid to the questions of range-use, seasonal plant-development, analysis of the
food values of different plants, and poisonous-plant concentrations. It is felt that the stock and
varied types of ranges of the institution may offer unusual opportunities for experimental studies
dealing with every phase of range-management and live-stock raising.
The work of examining and reporting on the extent and condition of Crown ranges in the
various parts of the Interior was carried forward, the largest areas involved being the Chezacut
unit of the Alexis Creek Range and the Nicola Stock Range. The impoverishment of the open,
more accessible ranges through lack of attention to the distribution of cattle, and the neglect to
use and realize the value of forage on other areas, are very evident in places. It is hoped that
a knowledge of these conditions will gradually lead to an increased interest by the stockmen in
improved range control and management.
Meetings were again held by departmental officials with the stockmen throughout the
Province to discuss various range problems with them and to promote co-operation with the
Department.
Range and Market Conditions.
Heavy snow in the winter of 1932-33, followed by well-scattered rains all summer, resulted
in much better forage conditions on the ranges in general. The growth of grass was luxuriant
and lasted well on into the summer.    Water conditions for the stock were also greatly improved.
It is to be regretted that a similar improvement in markets cannot be reported. Whereas
in 1932 early sales for top steers were on a basis of about 4 cents per pound, sliding to 3 cents
and lower by the end of the season, the starting price in 1933 was around 3 cents, while the price
which prevailed for most of the summer probably averaged about 2% cents per pound or a
little less. Fortunately, the prices increased to 3% ami 3% cents in November and December.
The low prices for lambs continued.
While the year's record for the stock industry has therefore been most unsatisfactory, the
slight improvement in the market, combined with the better outlook in general business conditions, justifies some feeling of optimism for 1934.
Live Stock on Crown Ranges.
The number of live stock grazing under permit on Crown ranges in 1933, as compared with
1932, was as follows :— „ '
Cattle and Horses. Sheep.
1932      56,674 41.150
1933      58,770 34,329
Range Improvement and Wild Horses.
Expenditures from the Range Improvement Fund during the present fiscal year to the end
of December, 1933, amounted to approximately $2,000. Of this sum, $920 was spent on the
disposal of wild horses and about $900 on new improvements, which included work on one stock-
trail, four water-developments, two drift-fences, four mud-holes, and two bridges. This Range
Improvement Fund is provided by Statute for the improvement of Crown ranges, and applications from stock associations for expenditures on the Crown ranges used by them receive careful
consideration by the Department.
During the year 1933, 672 horses were destroyed or sold. This clearing of the ranges of
useless horses is resulting in great benefit to the ranges affected.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1934.
1,500-134-5837 

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