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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1935

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OF   THE
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31BT, 1933
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Chahles F. Banfield., Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1934.  To His Honour John AVilliam Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia:
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for the year
ended December 31st, 1933, with Appendices.
GEORGE SHARRATT PEARSON,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia, December 31st, 1933. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1933.
Page.
Value of Fisheries and Standing of Province     5
Persons engaged and Capital invested  5
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia  5
Salmon-pack in British Columbia in 1933  6
Salmon-pack by Districts in 1933  7
Halibut Production  7
Fish Oil and Meal Production  8
Pilchard and Herring Investigation  8
Contribution to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Digest)  8
The Halibut Investigation  10
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.    (No. 19.)    By Drs. AV. A. and
Lucy S. Clemens  12
Reports from Salmon-spawning Areas and Eog-collections  48
Catch Statistics of the British Columbia Pilchard.    By Dr. John Lawson Hart  54
A Report on the Investigation of the Life-history of the British Columbia Pilchard.
By Dr. John Lawson Hart  60
The Age and Growth of Herring in British Columbia.    By Albert L. Tester  71
Salmon-pack of 1933 in Detail  74
Salmon-pack of Province, by Districts and Species, 191S to 1933, inclusive  74
Sockeye-salmon Pack of Entire Fraser River System, 1894 to 1933, inclusive  77
sockeye-salmon pack of province, by districts, 1918 to 1933, inclusive  78
Statement showing the Pilchard Industry of the Province, 1920 to 1933, inclusive  78
Production of Fish Oil and Meal (other than Pilchard), 1920 to 1933, inclusive  79 FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT
FOR 1933.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF PROATNCES, 1932.
The value of the fishery products of Canada for the year 1932 totalled $25,957,109. During
that year British Columbia produced fishery products of a value of $9,909,116, or 38 per cent,
of Canada's total.
In 1932 British Columbia again led all the Provinces in the Dominion, as has been the case
for over twenty years, in the value of her fishery products. Her output exceeded that of Nova
Scotia, the second in rank, by $3,351,173.
The market value of the fishery products of British Columbia in 1932 was $1,199,757 less
than in the previous year, 1931. This is the lowest value recorded since 1910. While there was
an increase in the salmon-fishery, there was a marked decline in halibut, herring, pilchard, and
cod marketed values in comparison with 1931.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1932 was $18,814,322, or 44%
per cent, of the total capital employed in Canada. Of the $18,814,322 invested in the fisheries
of British Columbia in 1932, $7,628,039 was employed in catching and handling the catches, and
$11,186,283 invested in canneries, fish-packing establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1932 was 14,822, or 18%
per cent, of Canada's total of 78,229. Of the 14,822 engaged in British Columbia, 10,116 were
employed in catching and handling the catches and 4,706 in packing, curing, and fish-reduction.
The total number engaged in the fisheries in 1932 was 822 more than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in order of their rank the value of the fishery products of
the Provinces of Canada for the years 1928 to 1932, inclusive:—•
Province.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
$26,562,727
11,681,995
5,001,641
4,030,753
2,996,614
2,240,314
1,196,681
725,050
563,533
51,665
$23,930,692
11,427,491
5,935,635
3,919,144
2,933,339
2,745,205
1,297,125
732,214
572,871
24,805
$23,103,302
10,411,202
4,853,575
3,294,629
2,502,998
1,811,962
1,141,279
421,258
234,501
29,510
$11,108,873
7,986,711
4,169,811
2,477,131
1,952,894
1,241,575
1,078,901
153,897
317,963
29,550
$9,909,116
6,557,943
2,972,682
2,147,990
1,815,544
1,204,892
988,919
Alberta	
153,789
186,174
20,060
Totals	
$55,050,973
$53,518,521
$47,804,216
$30,517,306
$25,957,109
THE SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British Columbia for the
year ended December 31st, 1932, is given in the following statement:—
Salmon    :  $7,586,479
Halibut    960,166
Herring, oil, meal, etc  536,491
Pilchard, oil, meal, etc  383,920
Ling cod, cod   172,029
Clams, quahaugs     89,848
Black cod   38,754
Crabs   16,832
Soles     25,936
Shrimps     19,988
Oysters     28,800
Trout    544
Carried forward   $9,859,787 H 6 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
The Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Brought forward   $9,859,787
Flounders, brill   3,923
Rock cod, red cod  9,333
Perch    4,607
Smelt    7,084
Sturgeon    3,161
Octopus   1,336
Skate    2,748
Oolachans   470
Whiting, shad   135
Grayfish, oil, meal   11,647
Fur-seals   4,885
Total   $9,909,116
The above statement shows an increase of $391,166 in the value of the salmon-fishery in
comparison with the preceding year, 1931. A sharp decline is recorded in halibut, herring,
pilchard, cod, and most other species.
Total halibut landings were marketed for $960,166, a decrease in production of 1,315,800 lb.
and a decrease in value of $413,513 in comparison with 1931.
Herring-catches produced $536,491, a decrease in value of $521,648.
Pilchard-catches produced $383,920, a decrease in production of 585,121 cwt. and in value
of $423,922.
The foregoing data are derived from the " Fisheries Statistics of Canada " for 1932.
The following figures are taken from the Advance Report on the Fisheries of British
Columbia by the Department of Trade and Commerce, Bureau of Statistics:—
Large Increase in Value of Output of British, Columbia Fisheries in 1933.—The value of
output of the British Columbia fisheries in 1933 was $12,001,471, compared with $9,909,116 in the
preceding year. These figures refer to the value of the fish as marketed, whether sold for
consumption fresh, or canned, cured, or otherwise prepared. The increase in total value is
due almost entirely to the salmon-fishery, wlinse value of output rose to $9,184,090 from $7,586,479
in 1932. The pack of salmon shows an increase of 184,061 cases, or 17 per cent., and the quantity
of salmon marketed for consumption fresh an increase of 30.525 cwt.. or 17 per cent. A considerable increase is recorded also in the production of salmon-oil—63.830 gallons in 1933, compared
with 10,370 gallons in 1932. The value of output of the salmon-fishery represents 76% per cent,
of the total fishery production of the Province for the year.
The halibut and herring fisheries show increases in catch and marketed value compared
with 1932, but the pilchard-fishery was a failure, the catch dropping to 65,353 cwt. from 886.964
cwt. in 1932, and the marketed value (chiefly of oil and meal) to $77,464 from $383,920. AVhaling
operations were resumed in 1933 and a catch of 209 whales is recorded. Oil, bone-meal, and
fertilizer are the products, and the value of these in 1933 amounted to $110,030.
The total quantity of fish of all kinds caught during the year was 2,902,345 cwt., and the
amount received by the fishermen $6,452,855, compared with a catch of 3,474,946 cwt. and a
value to the fishermen of $4,731,805 in 1932. The increase in value, while the quantity of the
catch shows a,decrease, is due to the larger proportions of the more valuable grades of salmon
taken during the season and to the higher prices paid for halibut and herring.
The value of the vessels, boats, and gear used in the primary operations of catching and
landing the fish was $8,495,195, and the capital invested in fish canning and curing establishments
$11,057,567, a total capital for the fisheries of the Province of $19,552,762. compared with a total
of $18,814,322 in 1932. The establishments in operation numbered 94 compared with 89. There
were 10,951 fishermen employed during the season, and 5,734 persons in the establishments, a
total of 16,685, compared with 14,822 in 1932.
THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE IN 1933.
The catches of salmon in the Province in 1933 produced a pack of 1,265,049 cases. It consisted of 258,107 cases of sockeye, 532,535 cases of pinks, 293,630 cases of chums, 159,052 cases
of cohoe and bluebacks, and 20,266 cases of springs.    This shows an increase of 184,018 cases BRITISH COLUMBIA. H 7
in comparison with 1932. There was a decrease in sockeye of 26,228 cases and an increase in
pinks of 308,750 cases. The Skeena River sockeye-pack of 30,506 cases was the smallest on
record since 1885. -
THE SALMON-PACK BY DISTRICTS.
The Fraser River System.—The catches of salmon in the Provincial waters of the Fraser
River system produced a pack of 199,082 cases. A total of 323,541 cases were packed in the
Fraser District;  of this number, the contents of 124,459 cases were caught in other districts.
Salmon transported from other districts to the Fraser comprised 6,531 cases of sockeye from
Rivers Inlet; 300 cases of sockeye from Smith Inlet; also 2,905 cases of sockeye, 1,527 cases
of springs, 22,042 cases of cohoe and bluebacks, 38,814 cases of pinks, and 30,951 cases of chums
from Vancouver Island District. They have been credited to their proper districts in the detailed
pack report.    Bluebacks have been classified as cohoe in this report.
The catch of sockeye in Provincial waters of the Fraser River system, including the catches
made by the traps at the southern end of Vancouver Island, produced a pack of 52,465 cases.
The catch of sockeye in the State of AVashingtoii waters of the Fraser River system produced
a pack of 126,604 cases. Combined they give a total pack for the entire Fraser River system
of 179,069 cases, of which 71 per cent, were packed, in the State of Washington and 29 per cent,
in British Columbia. The combined sockeye-pack of 179,069 cases was 5,605 cases greater than
that of the brood-year of 1929.
Of the 52,465 cases of sockeye caught in Provincial waters of the Fraser River system,
22,035 cases were packed in July, 22,597 in August, and 7,834 in September and October. The
largest catches were made early in the season, the run being practically over early in September.
The pack of 179,069 compared favourably with that of the brood-year of 1929, when 173,464
cases were packed. In 1925, the preceding cycle to 1929, the pack was 147,408 cases. Hopes
were entertained that this cycle was on the increase; however, considering the large size of
the commercial pack in comparison with its brood-year, and an unfavourable escapement of
fish to the spawning-beds, it will not ensure an approximate return in 1937.
The Skeena River.—The catches of salmon made in the Skeena District produced a pack
of 185,463 cases. AA7ith the exception of the year 1931, this is the smallest pack recorded since
1913. It comprised 30,506 cases of sockeye, 95,783 cases of pinks, 39,896 cases of cohoe, 15,714
cases of chums, and 3,297 cases of springs. The sockeye-catch of 30,506 cases was a failure;
at the same time it was not unexpected, as conditions were clearly pointed out by Dr. AA'. A.
Clemens in his forecast for 1933, when he foretold a mediocre run. The pack produced was the
smallest for over forty years.
Rivers Inlet.—The catches of salmon in the Rivers Inlet District produced a pack of 93,220
cases, consisting of 83,507 cases of sockeye, 5,059 cases of pinks, 3,446 cases of cohoe, and 1,208
cases of other species. It is to be noted that 6,531 cases of sockeye packed on the Fraser River
are included here.
Smith Inlet.—The pack of canned salmon produced in this district was 71,714 cases. It
consisted of 37,369 cases of sockeye, 19,995 cases of pinks, 8,841 cases of chums, and 5,068 cases
of cohoe.    Included in the above are 300 cases of sockeye that were packed on the Fraser River.
Vancouver Island District.—Salmon caught in the Vancouver Island District, with the exception of sockeye taken in the traps at the southern end of the Island and credited to the Fraser
River, produced a pack of 353,025 cases. They comprised 18,397 cases of sockeye, 172,945 cases
of pinks, 96,642 cases, of chums, 60,019 cases of cohoe and bluebacks, and 5,022 cases of springs
and steelheads.    Of this number, 96,239 cases were packed in canneries on the Fraser River.
Outlying Districts.—The catch of salmon in the outlying districts produced a pack of 291,548
cases, consisting of 26,106 cases of sockeye, 128,602 cases of chums, 101,701 cases of pinks, 33,471
cases of cohoe, and 1,668 cases of springs and steelheads.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
Halibut landings in Provincial ports for the year 1933 totalled 17,037,200 lb., as against
16,884,700 lb. in 1932. The total landings on the North-west Pacific Coast totalled 46,761,709 lb.,
as against 44,503,925 lb. in 1932, showing an increase of 2.257,784 lb. over that year.
Of the total catches in 1933, the American fleet is credited with 82 per cent, and the Canadian
fleet with 18 per cent. Seattle was again the most attractive halibut port in 1933, landings
totalling 22,263,992 lb. being made, an increase of 263,696 lb. over 1932.    The landings at Prince H 8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Rupert in 1933 totalled 14,406,500 lb., as against 14,861,500 lb. in 1932. Prices paid to fishermen
were higher than they received in 1932, the average price for the whole of the 1933 season being
about 6.50 cents per pound.
Halibut livers were again in demand for pharmaceutical purposes and greater effort was
made to take advantage of this valuable by-product. The price paid for livers in 1932 was
12 cents per pound;   this was increased to 15 cents per pound in 1933.
FISH OIL AND MEAL PRODUCTION.
Fish-oil production in British Columbia in 1933 was 1,156,662 gallons, as against 1,547,554
gallons in 1932. Pilchards produced 269,100 gallons; herring, 326,662 gallons; and 560,900
gallons were derived from whales. The small production of pilchard-oil was due to the fact
that the fish did not appear in their customary abundance in the waters immediately off the
west coast of Vancouver Island. Small catches were made off the coast of the State of
AVashington, too remote from Canadian plants to permit of extended operation. The failure of
pilchards to again frequent the waters off the west coast of Vancouver Island is not clearly
understood.
In view of the failure in the production of pilchard oil and meal, greater activity was
exercised in herring, which were again permitted to be used in reduction. From this source
326,662 gallons of oil and 4,594 tons of meal were produced.
The Consolidated AVhaling Corporation, whose plants had been idle since 1930, resumed
operations at Rose Harbour, Queen Charlotte Islands, in 1933. Their returns for the season
were most satisfactory, producing 560,900 gallons of oil and 778 tons of meal and fertilizer from
208 whales killed. A most remarkable return from these operations was the large number of
sperm-whales taken, this species providing over 90 per cent, of the catch.
PILCHARD AND HERRING INVESTIGATION.
In the Appendix of this report will be found two articles on the pilchard-fishery by Dr. John
Lawson Hart, who is in charge of this branch of biological work.
The investigation of pilchard, along with that of herring, was undertaken in 1929 under a
joint arrangement between the Biological Board of Canada and the Fisheries Department of the
Province of British Columbia. The agreement was continued for three years. The work is now
being continued under the Biological Board alone.
Dr. Hart in his report reviews at some length the methods adopted in the investigation of
pilchards, and, in view of the failure of the pilchard run in 1933, Dr. Hart's remarks in the
concluding paragraphs of his report are particularly interesting.
Also in the Appendix of this report will be found an article dealing with the age and growth
of herring in British Columbia, by Mr. Albert L. Tester, of the Pacific Biological Station. This
article by Mr. Tester is very pertinent at this time, as the age at which herring become mature
and enter into the commercial fishery is very important. The article by Mr. Tester has been
reprinted from Pacific Biological Station Report No. 18.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE
SALMON  (DIGEST).
The nineteenth annual contribution to the series of papers on the life-history of the sockeye
salmon, issued by the Department, and contained in the Appendix of this report, is again contributed by Drs. AV. A. and Lucy S. Clemens. The analyses of the runs of the year are preceded
by graphs showing the pack records from the early beginnings of the fishery to date and the
calculated trends. The pronounced downward trends on the Fraser, Skeena, and Nass Rivers
are noteworthy.
A digest of the report on the runs of 1933 is given in the following paragraphs.
The Fraser River Sockeye Run.—The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in the season of
1933 amounted to 179,069 cases, of which 52,465 cases were packed in the Province of British
Columbia and 126,604 cases in the State of AVashington. The percentages for the two areas are
29 and 71 respectively. The total pack was the highest for the cycle in recent years, but the
reports from the spawning areas indicate meagre escapements except in two localities—namely,
the Francois-Fraser Lake area and the Chilko Lake system. BRITISH COLUMBIA. H 9
The run consisted of 84 per cent, of four-year-old fish, 11 per cent, of five-year-olds, and 3 per
cent, of grilse. The fish were small, having the second lowest average length and weight on
record.
In a discussion of the seasonal changes in the run the authors show that the dominant
group, 42, appears throughout the run; the 52 class begins the season with fair numbers,
decreases early in July and increases again; representatives of the 53 group are present early
in the run, but become more abundant in August; the sea-types and the grilse are confined to
the latter half of July and August. The earliest-running fish are extraordinarily small and are
suddenly replaced by a much larger type which increases progressively with the season until
toward the end of the run they are followed by fish of slightly but unmistakably smaller size.
Furthermore, the scale patterns show a succession of distinct groups of fish. Undoubtedly these
changes in the characteristics of the fish during the season indicate the appearance of various
racial strains proceeding to the various spawning areas. The results confirm the findings of
Dr. Gilbert of many years previously.
The year 1934 is the cycle-year of the large run to Adams River, tributary to Shuswap Lake.
In 1930, sockeye reached this river in numbers estimated to exceed 400,000 and the commercial
catch was 455,886 cases. The fish appeared late in the season as they had in 1926. Drs.
Clemens state that, while it is impossible to predict accurately the extent of the run in 1934,
there would seem to be every reason to expect a large return, and if the fish remain true to
form they should appear late as did their progenitors in 1926 and 1930. The occurrence of large
numbers of grilse in the run of 1933 may be taken as additional reason for the expectation of a
large run in 1934.
The Rivers Inlet Sockeye Run of ip33.—In dealing with the run of 1933, Drs. Clemens state
that apparently the excellent return was largely due to the successful spawning of 5, fish in
1928. The pack consisted of 83,507 cases and the reports from the spawning-beds indicated a
large escapement.
The 52 age-group formed 55 per cent, of the run and consisted of fish of the usual average
size. The 49 fish, on the other hand, were small, being approximately half an inch less in
length than the general averages covering a period of twenty years. These fish maintained the
racial characteristics in being the smallest of the four populations under study and in having
almost identical lengths for the males and females.
The authors point out that one of the most interesting features of recent Rivers Inlet runs
has been the change in the distribution of the sexes. In the 42 age-group the males have always
outnumbered the females and in the 52 class the females have always exceeded the males.
However, in recent years there has been a definite shifting of relative proportions within each of
these two age-groups. In both groups there have been decided increases in the percentages of
females and correspondingly decreases in the percentages of males. As a result the percentage
of total females in the run has greatly exceeded that of the males, in 1933 the percentages being
58 and 42 respectively. Drs. Clemens are of the opinion that this increase is a most encouraging
feature because it promises to augment the potentialities of future runs.
The year 1934 falls into what the authors have designated series 3 of the Rivers Inlet
cycles. This series is characterized by (1) a slight preponderance of 52's and (2) packs
ranging from 85.000 to 95,000 cases. The run will be the descendants of the runs of 1929 and
1930, which produced commercial yields of 70,260 and 119,170 cases respectively and provided
good escapements. Drs. Clemens state that there seems to be no reason to anticipate a run less
than normal for the series, and if the advantageous trend in the sex ratio of more females than
males continues, a pack even greater than 95,000, the upper range in this series, may even be
looked for.
The Skeena River Sockeye Run in 1933.—The pack of Skeena River sockeye amounted to
30,506 cases and is the lowest on record. The escapement was relatively low but fair in relation
to the amount of catch. Drs. Clemens point out that the Skeena River system has been in a
period of low production during recent years and provision should be made to provide for
adequate escapements four and five years hence if the cycles are to be re-established at reasonable levels.
The 42 fish constituted the largest age-group, forming 57 per cent, of the sample. The 52
group formed 36 per cent, and the 53 and 63 fish were sparsely represented. The average lengths
and weights of the two sexes of the 42 age-group were very low, but of the 52 age-group notably
high. H 10 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
The authors, in briefly reviewing some of the characteristics of the Skeena sockeyes, point
out that the 42 and 52 groups seem to play roles of equal importance in the Skeena, and that
the scales indicate a vigorous race with extensive growth particularly during the first two years.
The run of 1934 will be derived from the brood-years of 1929 and 1930, and on the basis of
the packs and escapements of those years the authors are of the opinion that a pack of 75,000
to 80,000 cases would be a reasonable amount.
The Sockeye Salmon Run to the Nass in 1933.—Drs. Clemens point out that the pack of
9,757 cases more than met the expectations for the year, since the pack in 1928 was only 5,540
cases. Unfortunately the escapement was small. The authors state in the introductory part of
the report that it would seem from the pack statistics for South-eastern Alaska the catch in
that area cannot greatly affect the Nass run because of its relatively small size, and, furthermore, the packs in the two areas tend to fluctuate in unison. They are of the opinion that with
the information at hand at the present time it would seem that the only effective measure for
the restoration of the Nass River runs lies in a strict limitation of catch.
In their review of the analyses of the sample of 1,638 fish, Drs. Clemens note that the run
of 1933 was the poorest in age-group representation. Of the usual eight age-classes, the 64 group
was entirely absent and the 3X, 4/, and 74 groups together contained but eleven fish. Furthermore, there was a shifting in relative proportions among the dominant age-groups, with the 53
and 52 age-classes less abundantly represented than usual and the 42 age-class more strongly.
The authors further point out that the run of 1933 was unusual in another respect—namely, in
the exceptionally large size of the fish. This is particularly noteworthy, since the sockeye in
the other three systems were unusually small. The data show that, except for the length of
both sexes and the weight of the female in group 53, every average measurement exceeds the
general averages over twenty-one years for lengths and nineteen years for weight. The 52 and
63 fish set new records, surpassing general averages for males by approximately an inch and a
pound and for females by slightly less amounts.
The seasonal changes during the run are stated by the authors to have been somewhat
unusual in the very early appearance of the 42 fish possibly associated with their increased
abundance.
With respect to the run in 1934, Drs. Clemens are of the opinion that the prospect is not
bright for a large run. The year 1934 belongs to what was once considered a good cycle, but in
1929 the pack dropped to 16.077 cases, which was only about half the average for the years of
this cycle. However, in 1930 the spawning-beds were exceptionally well seeded and the 4Q age-
group, which was abundantly represented, should contribute very materially to the run of 1934.
HALIBUT INVESTIGATION.
(Created by the Halibut Treaty between Canada and the United States.)
The International Fisheries Commission, under authority of the halibut treaty of May 9th,
1930, completed another year of successful regulation of the fishery and continued its scientific
investigations of the condition of the banks and of those phases of the life-history that are
indispensable as a guide to intelligent regulation. Several reports were completed and will be
published at as ear^ a date as possible.
The scientific studies of the Commission have now been carried to the point where it is
able to reconstruct the past history of the fishery and to understand clearly the present course
of events. It is apparent that, in addition to the decline in production of spawn, the fishery
has been so intense, particularly on southern grounds, as to catch the halibut before they have
grown to the most profitable size. It is clearly shown from these studies that a less intense
fishery will, as it has in the past, for this reason produce the same and ultimately a greater
total poundage with less effort and higher returns per unit, and that this effect will be felt
almost immediately, as distinguished from the more delayed results of replacing the spawning
stock. The regulations of the Commission have been framed accordingly, and the resultant
50 per cent, increase since 1930 has thoroughly justified this policy.
This increase is the first major improvement in the grounds since fishing began. That it is
not due to chance variations is abundantly proven by the fact that it is entirely consistent with
the history of the fishery. Changes of this nature, but previously in the reverse direction, have
characterized each intensification of the fishery from the beginning, as has been demonstrated
by the statistics gathered by the Commission. The result of the regulations has been not merely capture at a more profitable size, but an
increase in the numbers of fish reaching the spawning stage. This should set at rest fears as
to the ability of regulation to ensure the future of the halibut banks.
The regulations, somewhat modified from those of 1932, were approved by the proper
authorities and became effective on January 9th. The opening date of the season was changed
from January 15th to February 1st. The closing date was set as that on which the quota
allowed each area was reached, except for the spawning-grounds between Ocean Cape and
Cape St. Elias, which were to close November 1st. The boundary-line between Areas 2 and 3
was changed at the request of the fishing fleet and the catch-limit of each altered to compensate.
The limit for Area 2 became 21,700,000 lb.; that for Area 3 became 24,300,000 lb. The prohibition of dory gear in Area 2 was provided for but left to the discretion of the Commission.
On June 14th the regulations were amended to make it possible for the Commission to close
all areas, still open to fishing, at any date subsequent to November 15th.
Early in the fishing season it became apparent that the catch-limits in both Areas 2 and 3
would be reached earlier even than in the preceding year, in spite of the voluntary curtailment
of production by part of the fleet. The Commission issued a warning to this effect, but fishing
was continued with unabated vigour. Closure of Area 2 took place at midnight of August 25th
and that of Area 3 at midnight of October 26th. The catch in Area 2 exceeded the limit by
900,000 lb., due to the abandonment of curtailment when the date was announced; that in
Area 3 was 800,000 below the limit because of unusually stormy weather during the last two
weeks of the season.
The increase in abundance or weight of halibut on the banks, which the Commission has
shown to have occurred in 1931 and in 1932, as a result of the regulation of fishing, continued in
1933, and is expected to rise again in 1934. The catch per unit of fishing effort increased in both
Areas 2 and 3, but the increase was less than in each of the two preceding years. In Area 2,
where spawners are scarce, there is reason to believe that the slowing-up of the increase is a
temporary one, and that the increase will be renewed when a sufficient time has elapsed to
permit a greater number of fish to reach maturity and to increase the production of spawn
and young fish.
The increase in abundance of halibut, which in Area 2 in 1933 amounted to about 50 per
cent, over that of 1930, enabled the fishing fleet to land its fish proportionately faster and to
shorten its fishing season. Efforts were made by part of the fleet during the past two years to
distribute the catch throughout a greater portion of the year, so that the fishermen might enjoy
the maximum economic benefit from the fish marketed. Aroluntary curtailment of the rate of
landings was tried, but was unsuccessful, due to failure of the whole fleet to co-operate. Toward
the end of the year all branches of the industry united in urging the Commission to ask authority
to regulate the rate of landings so as to distribute the catch over a longer season.
The present abundance of spawning halibut on the banks off British Columbia and Southeastern Alaska is inadequate for the preservation of the fishery there, but gradual improvement
of conditions is expected as a result of regulation. With the object of improving the method of
measuring the expected changes in the amount of spawn, the Commission operated a halibut-
vessel for two and one-half months during the winter, making experimental net-hauls near the
great spawning-banks in the Gulf of Alaska. The improvements in equipment and method of
handling which resulted should add materially to the success of the investigation into the
production of spawn on the southern grounds.
A new marking experiment was started during March, when 430 fish were marked with
metal tags at Cape St. James, a spawning-ground for a considerable number of the mature fish
remaining on the southern grounds. Early returns indicate that the fish spawning on this bank
move freely from place to place on the adjacent banks during the remainder of the year.
The investigations of the Commission prove that the supply of halibut has been increased
by regulation on both western and southern grounds. An increase in the abundance of spawners
is confidently expected to follow on the southern grounds. However, until a very considerable
increase in the production of spawn has been demonstrated, the future of the halibut-fishery on
the southern grounds must still be considered insecure. H 12 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 19.)
By Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
and Lucy S. Clemens, Ph.D.
INTRODUCTION.
In reviewing the runs of sockeye salmon of 1933 to the four main river systems of the
Province, it is interesting to note that those to the two southern systems were up to expectancy,
while those to the two northern rivers were relative failures. The pack on the Fraser River
was the highest for the cycle in recent years, but evidently too high, in that the reports from
the spawning areas indicate meagre escapements except in two localities. The run to Rivers
Inlet exceeded prediction and the available reports show an apparently satisfactory escapement.
As pointed out in the report for 1932, the Skeena River is in a period of low production and
the pack of 1933 is the lowest on record. The spawning-bed reports show a relatively poor
escapement, so that care should be taken four and five years hence to see that the catch is
limited if the cycles are to be re-established at reasonable levels.
The run to the Nass River was again low and the situation with respect to this system
requires definite action if the fishery is to be improved.
In view of the fact that there are now available pack records for thirty-nine years for the
Fraser River and for thirty-two years for each of the other systems, it has seemed desirable to
review these records. For each system the annual packs have been plotted and shown in
Figs. 1 to 4 by the continuous heavy line. In each case the trend has been calculated by running
averages of seven twice and the result shown by the broken line. The four points at each end
of each line of trend are not strictly comparable with the main portions, in that averages of
five and three are involved, but they have been included in order to indicate the probable trends.
The history of the sockeye-fishery on the Fraser River is illustrated in Fig. 1. The enormous packs of the years 1897, 1901, 1905, 1909, and 1913 are conspicuous. AVhile the calamitous
rock-slide in the canyon at and above Hell's Gate in 1913 was a factor in the elimination of this
extraordinary cyclic run, it is evident that there has been a steady decline in the runs of the
other three cycle-years, and there is no reason to doubt that overfishing has been a most important factor in the decline of the Fraser as a sockeye-producing area in all the cycle-years. The
trend reaches its highest point in 1901, then is slightly downward until 1913, after which it is
sharply downward to the lowest point in 1923. During the past ten years the trend has been
slightly upward, due largely to the large pack in 1930 from the run of fish proceeding to Adams
River.
The picture of conditions on Rivers Inlet is quite different from that on the Fraser River.
The years 1910, 1915, 1920, 1925, and 1930 show a definite five-year cycle of large packs, while
the remaining cycle-years are very irregular. The trend shows two peaks—namely, in 1910 and
in 1925, with a very marked depression from 1916 to 1922. Although there is evidence of a
downward trend in recent years, the prospect of good runs in 1934 and 1935 provides grounds
for believing that the trend will definitely turn upward again and the low point will not
approach that of 1918. In general, it may be said that the situation in Rivers Inlet is more
satisfactory than in any of the other areas under consideration.
The condition on the Skeena River was depicted and discussed in the report for 1932, but
is repeated here in part in order lhat comparisons may be more readily made. Following the
early exploitation, the trend has been steadily downward. It is interesting to note the succession
of lower and lower packs in the years 1913, 1916. 1921, 1928, and 1933, as well as the declining
series of high packs in the years 1919, 1924, and 1930. Fluctuations in runs probably cannot be
eliminated because certain years are much more propitious for spawning, incubation, and
development of fish than are others, and, furthermore, there appears to be a tendency for runs LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 13
of certain cycle-years to be particularly productive. Outstanding examples of the latter are the
1910-1915-1920-1925-1930 cycle-years of Rivers Inlet and the once enormous series of runs of
the cycle-years 1897-1901-1905-1909-1913 on the Fraser River. The cyclic nature of the runs
on the Skeena is not so clear because of the occurrence of two age-groups, 42 and 52, of about
equal importance but of varying influence from year to year. AVhile certain restrictive fishing
measures have been applied and might be considered as possibly reducing the catches, it is not
believed that the restrictions have been an appreciable factor in accounting for the downward
trend of the commercial pack, because the reports from the spawning-beds do not indicate
definite and adequate increases in escapements. It would seem that in certain years at least a
definite limitation would need to be set on the catch if production is to be increased.
2250
2000
1750.
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
98   1900  02    04    06
Fig. 1.  Packs of sockeye salmon on the Fraser River from 1895 to 1933, in thousands of cases.
The continuous line represents the actual packs and the broken line the trend. H 14
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Of the four sockeye-producing areas dealt with in this series of reports, the Nass River has
been the most puzzling. Fig. 4 shows graphically the history of its production. The packs
have been extremely erratic in extent and no clear-cut cycles are evident. The trend indicates
a rapid rise from 1904 to 1914, representing the early development of the fishery. Following
the record catch of 1915, the trend has been steadily and rapidly downward. It has been
thought that the catch of sockeye in South-eastern Alaska has been a factor in the Nass
situation, and opportunity has been taken to examine the catch records of the two near-by
Alaskan districts as presented in " Statistical Review of the Alaska Salmon Fisheries, Part IV.:
South-eastern Alaska," by Willis H. Rich and Edward M. Ball, 1933. The catches of two areas
only have been considered—namely, the Nakat Bay District (Cape Fox and south-east of this
point) and Revillagigedo Channel, from which the catch of Boca de Quadra, Carroll, and George
Inlets have been deducted because it is considered that these areas have no connection with the
Nass River system.    The catches as given in the report are in terms of actual fish, and in order
24    26    28   30   32
TKAC6P  BYj.L.McH-
2.   Packs of sockeye salmon on Rivers Inlet from 1902 to 1933, in thousands of cases.
The continuous line represents the actual packs and the broken line the trend. LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 15
to make them comparable with the Nass River records they have been translated into packs by
assuming that thirteen fish constitute a case. Another point has had to be taken into consideration—namely, that not all the fish captured in the Nakat and Revillagigedo Districts could be
considered as bound for the Nass River. Tagging experiments conducted at Cape Fox in 1926
showed 26 per cent, of the returns were from Canadian areas, chiefly in the Nass River.    In view
180.
02    04    06    08     IO      12      14      16
20    22    24    26     28   30    32
TteACED BV  J.L.McH.
Fig. 3.  Packs of sockeye salmon on the Skeena River from 1902 to 1933, in thousands of eases.
The continuous line represents the actual packs and the broken line the trend. H 16
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
of the fact that tagging was carried out over a very short period of time and in one season
only, this percentage may not give a very accurate indication of conditions. However, even if
a third of the fish taken in the two Alaskan districts consisted of fish bound for the Nass, the
conclusions would not be materially altered. In Fig. 5 one-third of the catches of sockeye in
the Nakat and Revillagigedo areas converted into cases are plotted along with the packs on the
Nass River, in cases also. In the first place, the relatively small amount of the Alaskan pack
is evident. In the second place, it will be noted that, in general, the Alaskan and Canadian
packs tend to fluctuate in unison. Both show peaks or rises in 1919, 1922, and 1924, and
depressions in 1921, 1925, and 1927. If Alaskan catches were affecting the Nass catches, it
would be expected that the latter would be down when the former was up. It is true that the
catch in South-eastern Alaska has increased in recent years, while that in the Nass area has
24    26    28     30     32
TeACEO  BV J.L.McH-
Fig. 4.   Packs of sockeye salmon on the Nass River from 1902 to 1933, in thousands of cases.
The continuous line represents the actual packs and the broken line the trend. LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 17
40
06    08     10'    12      14     16     18     20    22    24    26
TEACED BY J.L.McH.
Fig. 5.  Packs of sockeye salmon on Nass River and in adjacent Alaskan waters
from 1906 to 1927, in thousands of cases. H 18 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
decreased. However, the catches in these two Alaskan areas are not of a size that they can
be considered as the important factor in the depletion of the Nass runs. Whether the Nass fish
are intercepted in other areas is unknown. Rich and Ball in the above-mentioned report express
the opinion that the sockeye salmon proceeding to the Nass and to the lower portion of Southeastern Alaska come in from the outer feeding-grounds through Dixon Entrance, approach the
mainland and then separate, some proceeding to the Nass and some going northward to Alaskan
streams. Tagging experiments conducted by the Biological Board of Canada in 1925 at Haystack Island, off Portland Canal, would seem to substantiate this belief, in that 20 per cent, of
the returns were from Alaskan waters. With the information at hand at the present time, it
would seem that the only effective measure for the restoration of the Nass River runs lies in a
strict limitation of catch.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating
the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the fish migrates
from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers, one in large type, which
indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to the right and below, which
signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water. The age-groups which are met
most commonly in these river systems are:—
3j, 4j—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature at the ages
of three and four years respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and mature at the
age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four and five
respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five and six
respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six and seven
respectively.
1. THE FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1933.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in the season 1933 amounted to 179,069 cases, of
which 52,465 cases were packed in the Province of British Columbia and 126,604 cases in the
State of AVashington (Table I.).    The percentages for the two areas are 29 and 71 respectively.
No inspection of the spawning areas was made by officers of the Provincial Fisheries Department, but reports are available through the courtesy of the Dominion Department of Fisheries.
In general, the escapements to the extensive spawning sections of the Fraser were poor. In the
region above Hell's Gate considerable numbers of sockeye were reported in the Francois-Fraser
Lake area and in the Chilko Lake system. In the latter district the Fishery Officer states that
at least 100,000 fish reached the spawning-grounds. The runs to the Stuart and Quesnel Lake
areas were negligible, while that to the Shuswap area was small. In the fall of 1930 the
Biological Board of Canada released in Eagle River at Taft 271,632 marked flngerlings resulting
from eggs collected in Adams River in the fall of 1929 and reared in ponds at Taft. Two
marked and thirteen unmarked adult fish were taken at the counting-fence below Malakwa and
155 marked individuals were taken in the fishing areas.
On the Lower Fraser the returns were relatively small. At the Pemberton Hatchery on the
Birkenhead River only 10,674,000 eggs were taken, and if, as in the previous year, this represents
95 per cent, of the fish appearing in the river there was a run of less than 6,000 fish. High-water
conditions at Pitt Lake interfered with egg-taking and made impossible an estimate of the
escapement. The number of fish arriving at Cultus Lake was 3,471 by actual count. It is
evident, therefore, that, except for the Chilko and Francois-Fraser Districts, the escapement in
the Fraser River system was inadequate for the building-up of a really successful sockeye-
salmon fishery. AVhile there were increased escapements to the two above-mentioned systems,
to other areas the runs were considerably smaller than in 1929. At best it can be said that no
improvement in the general situation is evident. LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON. H 19
Once more perhaps it may be pointed out that, had the catch been limited to approximately
100,000 cases, over 2,000,000,000 additional eggs would have been deposited on the spawning-beds
and from 3,000,000 to 5,000,000 additional fish might have been added to the run in 1937.
The year 1934 brings around again the cycle-year of the large run to Adams River, tributary
to Shuswap Lake,. It will be recalled that in 1930 sockeye reached this river in numbers estimated to exceed 400,000 and the commercial catch in that year was 455,886 cases. The fish
appeared late in the season as they had in 1926. AVhile it is impossible to predict accurately
the extent of the run in 1934, there would seem every reason to expect a large return. Additional data for this belief are provided by the occurrence of large numbers of three-year-old
fish, grilse, in 1933, just as there was a similar and large group of early-jnaturing fish preceding
the run of 1930. If the fish remain true to form they should appear rather late as they did in
1926 and 1930, although it is possible that their movements may be influenced by the oceano-
graphical conditions.
(2.)  Age-groups.
The material for this year's study consists of data and scales from 2,345 sockeye salmon
selected at random May 4th to September 30th in forty-seven samplings of fish taken in the
traps at the south end of Vancouver Island. Included in the total sample are thirty-one fish
selected from the marked Cultus Lake fish which were segregated from the general catch and
could not be included in the general random samplings. This number was determined by
calculating the relation of the number of marked fish to the number in the random samplings
and to the total catch of each week. In addition there were two fish of the 63 age-group which
have not been included in the tables (Tables II. and III.).
The 42 age-group was represented by 1,964 individuals or 84 per cent, of the total sample.
The 52 group consisted of 213 fish or 9 per cent. These two groups thus constituted 93 per cent,
of the run.
The remaining groups occurred as follows: 5?, 45 individuals, 2 per cent.; 3V 32 individuals,
1 per cent.;  4-p 13 individuals, 1 per cent.;  32, 78 individuals, 3 per cent.;   63, 2 individuals.
The percentages of the year-classes from 1920 to 1933 are shown in Table IV.
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females in the 42 age-group are 23.1 and 22.7 inches
respectively, which are slightly below those of their progenitors and the second lowest averages
of the past thirteen years. The average lengths of the two sexes of the 52 age-groups are 24.9
and 24 inches respectively and are somewhat below those of 1928 and the average of the past
thirteen years. In the other groups the average lengths show little deviation from past averages
(Table V.).
The average weights in the 42 age-groups are 5.4 and 5 lb. respectively and, like the lengths,
are below those of 1929 and the second smallest on record. The average weights of the two
sexes in the 59 age-group are 7 and 6.3 lb. respectively and slightly below those of 1929 and the
average of the past ten years (Table VI.).
The 63 individuals were both males, both 27*4 inches in length, one 8]/4 and the other
9% lb. in weight.
(4.)  Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 1,199 and of females 1,146, percentages of
51 and 49 respectively. In the 42 age-group the number of females slightly exceeds that of the
males, while in the 3., and 32 groups the males greatly exceed the females in number.
(5.)  Changes during the Run and their Probable Significance.
In 1916 Dr. Gilbert said of the Fraser River runs: " Changes of great magnitude may occur
suddenly from one week to another, changes which include more than one factor and in which
several characteristics are correlated. Suddenly, the average size of individuals may change
in both males and females, the relative sizes of the age-groups may shift extensively, and the
characteristics of the nuclear area (which records the growth of the fingerling in fresh water
before seeking the sea) may present a sudden transformation. AAThile examining such a series,
the impression is strong of a succession of strains or sub-races, at one period of the run
appearing pure or relatively so, and later on, perhaps, inextricably mingled with one or more
other strains."    These striking changes became evident to Dr. Gilbert through his studies of II 20 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
various characteristics plotted on series of dates. The conclusions which he reached at that
time in regard to the seasonal succession of the age-groups and the changes in average size of
individuals were entirely supported by his investigations of later runs. This year the present
authors have made similar tabulations and find that the run of 1933 is no exception in these
respects.
Table ArII. presents the various age-groups arranged according to numbers on each day a
sampling was taken. Although the size of the sample varies widely during the course of the
run, it is believed that each one is sufficient to be representative of the total catch of the day.
The seasonal succession of 1933 is typical of Fraser River. The dominant group, 42, appears
throughout the run; the 52 class begins the season with fair numbers, decreases rapidly early
in July, artd increases again ; representatives of the 53 group are present early in the run, but
become most abundant in August; the sea-types and the grilse are confined to the latter half
of July and August. The relative percentages of four- and five-year-old fish for each two-week
interval during the run are as follows:—
42. 52.
May    4-15 ,     55 45
„     22-29     74 26
June    1-12 :     64 36
„     15-22     83 17
July    1-13     99 1
„     17-31     93 7
Aug.    2-15     85 15
„     16-30     78 22
Sept.    2-11     99 1
„     18-30     93 7
Since the total number of 52's is unusually small in 1933, these percentages are neither
comparable with those of former years nor significant beyond showing the general behaviour
of these year-groups. Dr. Gilbert believed that the changes in the composition of the run,
which are not gradual and continuous but sudden, were indicative " of a succession of migration
waves, differing in relative proportions of their age-group, the vanguard of one mingling more
or less with the rear-guard of the preceding one."
A second characteristic, that of length, has also been plotted on dates in the run of 1933
(Tables VIII. and IX.). In order to facilitate publication of this data the total forty-seven
samplings have been divided into ten two-week periods. The changes in average size of both
males and females in both year-classes are similar to those which Dr. Gilbert found in runs
extending over the same period. The extraordinarily small, earliest-running fish are suddenly
replaced by a much larger type which increases progressively with the season until toward the
end of the run they are followed by fish of slightly, but unmistakably, smaller size. Uninterrupted progressive increase in size might be attributed to successively longer periods of feeding,
but such an explanation accounts neither for the sudden marked increase nor the final decrease.
It seems probable that the size of the fish taken in the Vancouver Island traps represents the
ultimate size, since feeding ceased before the fish were captured. Dr. Gilbert believed that
these average size changes within each age-class were due to the appearance of various racial
strains, some being of larger size and others smaller. He called attention to the earliest-running
group as a conspicuous unit.
That the scales of the fish afforded the most delicate test for racial differences was the
opinion of Dr. Gilbert. Since the salmon are subjected to diverse external conditions during
their fresh-water life, if they respond to these conditions, then the nuclei of the scales should
record the responses. On the other hand, as far as is known, growth in the ocean is less
dissimilar for all sockeye, so that the extra-nuclear areas of the scales registering life in the
sea would not be as distinctive. But the climatic conditions under which the young fish are
reared in fresh water are so very different that the differences recorded on the nuclei should
be distinguishing. These nuclei become the centres of the adult scales and retain unchanged
the markings indicative of their early history. The most obvious character of the nuclear area
is its size, together with the number and character of its rings. With the hope of throwing
additional light on the theory of racial differences. Dr. Gilbert made a special study of the
scales of the fish in the runs of 1916, 1917, 1918, and 1919.    Just as he had plotted size variations LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON. H 21
on series of dates, so he plotted the number of nuclear rings and found a succession of types,
sometimes separate and sometimes mixed. He also studied yearling migrants from a few
localities and found differences in their scales. As a final test of racial scale characteristics
he examined populations on distinct spawning-beds. Because of the absorption of the margins
of the scales he was unable to separate the majority of the fish into year-classes. But he
tabulated them according to length and made estimates of the probable relative abundance of
the two chief year-groups, the 42 and 52. Having thus studied the racial problem from these
several view-points, he felt there was no doubt that different colonies were distinct. Of the
spawning-beds below the canyon, he said: " We affirm without qualification that they are as
distinctly populated as though they were located in separate streams independently entering the
sea. We have then the picture of a number of self-perpetuating sub-races, each of which has
acquired certain minor habits of growth, of migration, of age at maturity, of length of life in
fresh water, of colour and quality of flesh—the same characters, in short, which in various
combinations characterize the races of the separate river-basins of the simpler sort."
He cites the Harrison watershed as a striking example of racial differentiation and he
discusses at considerable length the several races inhabiting it. The following paragraphs
contain a brief statement of the chief characteristics of a few of the most distinctive of these
races:—
Harrison Rapids.—This colony is the most interesting of all because of its spawning habit.
It spawns late in the season on the gravel-bars in the shallow, slack water below the rapids.
When the fry become free-swimming, having no lake into which they may drop back, they seek
the salt water. This unusual history is recorded in the sea-type scale. There is no nucleus in
this scale; its centre is made up of a series of lines of growth gradually becoming more widely
spaced from the centre outwards and passing by imperceptible degrees into the growth of the
second year. All individuals examined at Harrison Rapids were of this type and not a single
specimen of this kind was ever found by Dr. Gilbert on any other spawning-bed in the Fraser
River basin. The yearly analyses of the Fraser runs have shown that the sea-types are confined
to the latter part of the run, thus confirming Dr. Gilbert's statement that the Harrison Rapids'
colony spawns late in the season.
Birkenhead River.—The scales of the typical fish in this race show a small nucleus made
up of a few slender, irregular, densely crowded rings and a relatively small first year of sea-
growth.    In this group an estimation of 30 per cent, five-year-old fish was made.
Pitt Lake.—This is another very homogenous race. The nuclear regions of the scales
indicate good fresh-water growth. Dr. Gilbert describes the nuclear rings as " bold, firm, well-
spaced, closely parallel and regular." Their number varies between thirteen and twenty-one,
with the mode at seventeen. The first year's growth in the sea is extensive. Dr. Gilbert
believed that practically all the fish in this colony were five years of age.
Chilcotin.—The only race of sockeyes above the Fraser Canyon of which Dr. Gilbert obtained
satisfactory material was that of the Chilcotin. Here he roughly distinguished two forms of
scales, one with a small nucleus and the other with a large. Both are " characteristically
marked by slender rings, not greatly crowded nor widely spaced. The rings are fairly regular
and in general parallel, but the individual rings are sometimes broken and interrupted." The
scales also indicate poor growth during the first year in the sea. A considerable number of the
fish had spent two years in the lake. Among these also there were the two forms of nuclei, one
small and the other large.    No specimens belonging to the 52 or 63 age-groups were encountered.
Cultus Lake.—This race is another which Dr. Gilbert considered was easily recognizable.
Its outstanding characteristics are diminutive size of fish, poor quality of flesh, and scales with
small nuclei averaging slightly fewer rings than those of the Morris and Pitt colonies. The race
usually consists of a large majority of four-year-old fish, with a small percentage of the two-
years-in-the-lake class.
Although the present writers have seen these various types of scales year by year, they
have not made an analytical study of them. In the report for 1934 they hope to give the results
of an extended study of this nature. H 22
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Table I.—Fraser River Packs, 1895-1933, arranged
B.C  1895— 395,984        1896-
Wash  65,143
Total  461,127
B.C  1899— 480,485        1900-
Wash  499,646
Total  980,131
B.C  1903— 204,809        1904-
Wash  167,211
Total  372,020
B.C  1907—    59,815        1908-
Wash  90,974
Total  156,789
B.C  1911—    58,487        1912-
Wash  127,761
Total  186,248
B.C  1915—    91,130        1916-
Wash  64,584
Total  155,714
B.C  1919—    38,854        1920-
Wash ;  64,346
Total  103,200
B.C  1923—    31,655        1924-
Wash  47,402
Total  79,057
B.C  1927—    61,393        1928-
AVash  97,594
Total  158,987
B.C  1931—    40,947        1932-
Wash  87,211
Total  128,158
in accordance with the Four-year Cycle.
356,984
72,979
1897-
- 860,459
312,048
1898—
256,101
252,000
429,963
1,172,507
508,101
229,800
228,704
1901-
- 928,669
1,105,096
1902—
293,477
339,556
458,504
2,033,765
633,033
72,688
123,419
1905-
- 837,489
837,122
1906—
183,007
182,241
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
74,574
170,951
1909-
- 585,435
1,097,904
1910—
150,432
248,014
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
123,879
184,680
1913-
- 719,796
1,673,099
1914—
198,183
335,230
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
32,146
84,637
1917-
- 148.164
411,538
1918—
19,697
50,723
116,783
559,702
70,420
48,399
62,654
1921
- 39,631
102,967
1922—
51,832
48,566
111,053
142,598
100,398
39,743
69,369
1925-
- 35,385
112,023
1926—
85,689
44,673
109,112
147,408
130,362
29,299
61,044
1929-
- 61,569
111,898
173,467
1930—
103,692
352,194
90,343
455,886
65,769
81,188
1933-
- 52,465
126,604
146,957
179,069 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 23
Table II.—Fraser River Sockeycs, 1933, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age, Sex, and
Length, and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
h
h
*1
32
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
16	
1
1
16%	
1
1
2
17	
1
•   1
15
12
16
17.%	
13
18	
3
2
5
13
1
1
1
24
12
1
34
18%	
29
19	
5
5
1
6
17
19%	
5
10
2
1
18
20	
14
11
2
27
20%	
4
16
1
4
2
1
1
29
21	
9
22
25
33
4
3
4
3
1
3
1
1
1
46
21%	
64
22	
92
131
5
	
1
1
1
3
234
22%	
123
217
3
2
2
5
9
1
362
23	
198
268
3
8
3
5
2
1
488
23%	
185
133
1
9
3
6
3
1
4
345
24    	
166
84
42
88
26
10
5
9
13
20
21
21
7
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
291
24%	
147
25	
90
25%	
6
3
16
11
2
2
40
26	
6
16
4
1
27
26%	
1
8
9
27    	
12
2
	
	
12
27%	
2
28	
1
	
1
28%	
1
	
1
Totals	
968
996
105   |   108
21   |     24
24   |       8
5
8
76   |       2   |   2,345
Average lengths
23.1
22.7
24.9
24.0
24.0
22.9
22.5
22.3
24.3
23.8
18.0
18.8 .
H 24
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Table III.-
-Fraser River Sockeyes, 1933, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age, Sex, and
Weight, and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
53
h
4
1
32
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1%	
1
1
2	
1
3
4
2%	
5
6
30
41
3 	
11
11
20
33
2
1
1
1
1
37
4
2
74
3%	
50
4    	
43
109
74
202
2
9
8
2
2
2
4
2
2
1
3
1
2
137
4%	
331
5	
251
356
6
7
3
7
3
1
1
635
5%	
219
184
7
10
3
7
11
2
3
446
6	
192
80
5
23
5
2
3
1
1
312
6%	
70
20
6
16
4
2
1
1
1
121
7 	
37
13
19
1
16
11
22
5
2
1
2
1
1
99
7%	
32
8	
6
11
8
1
1
27
8%	
12
5
17
9	
10
1
11
9%	
3
3
10	
2
1
2
10%	
1
11	
1
1
Totals	
968
996
105
108
21   |     24
24  |       8
5
8
76   |       2  |  2,345
Average weights
5.4
5.0
7.0
6.3
6.0
5.2
5.1
4.9
6.5
6.1
2.8
3.0
Table IV.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Percentages of the
Year-classes from 1920 to 1933.
Year.
*2
52
53
63
3i
41
32
1920	
69.6
78.1
70.5
67.1
68.2
67.9
66.1
84.6
71.4
77.3
75.7
79.0
80.7
83.6
21.2
14.6
9.3
10.8
18.7
24.9
20.3
7.5
18.8
11.9
19.6
13.1
13.5
9.2
6.2
4.1
4.5
3.9
9.2
3.4
5.2
3.0
5.3
7.8
2.8
1.3
2.8
1.9
0.2
0.7
2.0
1.2
0.5
0.2
1.6
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.5
1.9
0.5
6.3
6.7
0.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
2.0
0.1
0.2
2.0
0.8
1.4
0.9
2.0
5.6
9.9
2.0
0.0
2.5
2.2
0.7
0.1
0.7
2.0
0.8
0.5
1921	
1922	
0 9
1923	
0 4
1924	
0 8
1925	
0 6
1926	
2 1
1927	
1928	
1 0
1929	
2 5
1930	
0.5
2.6
1.4
3.4
1931	
1932	
1933	 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 25
Table V.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Average Lengths in Inches
of Principal Classes from 1920 to 1933.
Year.
42
52
53
63
31
41
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1920	
24.1
23.7
24.0
24.3
23.8
23.5
22.6
24.1
23.4
23.7
24.4
23.4
23.6
23.2
23.0
23.0
23.3
22.8
22.9
22.3
23.1
23.0
22.9
23.6
22.8
22.8
25.7
25.9
25.8
25.8
24.9
25.8
24.6
26.1
25.5
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.3
24.6
24.6
24.1
24.S
23.9
24.6
24.0
24.6
24.7
24.3
24.6
24.6
24.2
24.3
23.5
24.2
23.7
24.0
23.2
21.7
24.2
24.8
24.4
24.3
24.6
23.2
22.7
22.9
22.7
22.0
22.4
22.0
23.4
23.7
23.5
24.1
23.2
25.7
25.4
26.3
24.3
25.5
25.3
27.1
26.2
26.7
24.3
24.9
23.7
24.6
26.0
24.8
26.0
23.3
23.0
23.3
21.9
22.5
23.4
23.4
19.1
22.5
21.5
21.9
21.8
22.6
22.7
20.4
21.7
22.5
22.2
18.7
23.0
20.7
21.6
21.5
25.5
25.5
25.2
25.2
25.4
25.1
19.8
25.0
24.7
25.3
23.0
24.3
1921	
1922	
24.2
1923	
24.1
1924....    	
24.4
1925	
1926	
24.6
1927 	
24.5
1928 '.....
1929	
24.0
1930    	
23.2
1931	
22.5
1932	
23.4
23.7
23.0
25.6
24.*
23.9
"2470_
23.0
25.8
24.9
22.3
21.6
24.5
23.9
1933	
23.1
22.7
24.9 1 24.0
22.9
27.0
22.5
22.3
24.3
23.8
Table VI.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Average Weights in Pounds
of Principal Classes from 1922 to 1933.
Year.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
3
1
4
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1922	
6.4
6.6
5.7
5.8
5.2
4.9
5.5
5.5
5.3
6.1
52 |
5.4
7.0
7.8
7.6
6.2
7.3 •
7.4
7.2
7.7
7.3
7.3
6.1
6.9
6.6
5.7
6.8
6.9
6.3
6.7
6.5
6.7
6.1
6.0
6.1
5.4
4.5
6.5
6.7
6.6
6.1
6.6
5.4
5.2
5.3
4.8
4.8
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
5.4
7.2
7.3
7.4
6.5
8.6
7.5
7.7
5.5
6.5
5.7
5.5
8.0
6.5
6.0
5.9
6.2
5.3
6.1
5.9
6.4
5.5
4.5
4.9
5.2
5.3
4.6
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.0
4.2
4.6
4.4
7.9
7.3
7.3
7.2
8.0
6.5
6.3
7.3
5.7
6.9
1923	
6.5
1924    	
1925 a	
5.8
5.2
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.9
5.8
6.1
1926    	
6.6
1927	
6.8
1928 	
6.6
1929 	
6.0
1930  	
5.8
1931 	
6.0
1932	
5.9
Average weights	
6.1
5.5
7.3
6.5
6.1
5.5
7.5
6.2
5.6
4.9
7.1
6.3
1933    	
5.4
5.0
7.0
6.3
6.0
5.2
.8.8
5.1
4.9
6.5
6.1 H 26
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Table VII.—Fraser River Sockeyes, 1933, Vancouver Island Traps
Age-groups and Dates of Capture.
distributed by
Number op
Individuals
Dates.
42
52
h
63
h
41
h
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F. | M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
6
4
1
1
4
5
2
4
3
4
4
143
32
36
52
18
30
38
41
26
34
42
32
55
31
17
36
17
15
18
22
45
18
7
8
10
6
21
6
13
13
29
10
3
5
1
5
3
1
2
4
13
6
6
4
8
5
8
137
47
66
36
20
35
40
29
23
27
32
23
57
51
16
33
25
16
16
22
45
15
11
10
14
12
16
6
15
11
18
4
1
2
3
1
1
4
1
2
5
1
2
1
2
4
1
1
3
2
3
3
1
4
1
8
1
3
9
4
5
4
10
2
1
5
1
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
5
7
5
4
5
7
4
10
8
7
4
6
4
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
o
1
3
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
o
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
6
3
1
4
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
1
1
1
	
1
1
1
5
1
3
2
10
7
10
16
2
3
9
3
2
1
1
18
11 	
10
15 	
5
„  22	
„  25	
„  29 	
4
14
21
11
,   5 	
20
„  12	
„  15 	
6
15
19 	
10
„  22 	
14
July  1 	
286
„   3 	
79
102
„   7	
90
„  10 	
39
„  13 	
68
„  17 	
83
„  20 	
77
„  24 	
53
„  26	
69
„  29 	
79
31 	
69
Aug. 2 	
125
3 	
112
„   4 	
39
„   7	
87
9 	
65
,,  11 	
58
„  14	
50
„  16 	
70
„  17	
131
18 	
50
„  19 	
28
„  21 	
42
„  23	
36
„  28	
25
„  30 	
43
Sept. 2 	
13
„   5 	
28
8	
24
„  11	
47
„  18	
„  20	
„  25	
„  30	
15
6
7
1
Totals	
968
996
105
108
21
24 |  2 [
1
24
8
5
8
76 1  2
2,347 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 27
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H 28
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
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rHrHrHrHCIOlOlCICIOIOIOlOlCIOlOIClOlOlCIOlCI LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON. H 29
2. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1933.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
In 1928 an attempt was made to bring the data of Rivers Inlet packs and runs into orderly
sequence. By adopting Dr. Gilbert's theory that the primary cycle was a five-year one, and by
tabulating the packs (Table A) and relative percentages of the.four- and five-year-old fish
(Table B) in five-year cycles, or series, a more or less satisfactory interpretation of the data
was made. In the meantime the data of five additional years have been added, year by year,
and although these recent years have somewhat proved exceptions to the generalizations, the
tables are still retained because they serve as a useful basis for discussion.
Table A.
Sr.l. 1907, 87,874; 1912,112,884; 1917, 61,195; 1922, 53,584; 1927, 64,461; 1932, 69,732.
Sr. 2. 1908, 64,652; 1913, 61,745; 1918, 53,401; 1923,107,174; 1928, 60,044; 1933, 83,507.
Sr. 3. 1909, 89,027; 1914, 89,890; 1919, 56,258; 1924, 94,891; 1929, 70,260.
Sr. 4. 1910, 126,921; 1915,130,350 ; 1920,125,338 ; 1925,159,554 ; 1930,119,170.
Sr. 5. 1911, 88,763; 1916, 44,936; 1921, 48,615; 1926, 65,581; 1931, 76,428.
Table B.
Sr.l. 1912 (5 years)..79%       1917 67%       1922 18% 1927 17%       1932 29%
(4 years)..21% 33% 82%                      83%                      71%
Sr. 2. 1913 20%       1918 43%       1923 24% 1928 42%       1933 55%
80% 57% 76%                      58%                      45%
Sr. 3. 1914 65%       1919 54%       1924 56% 1929 19%
35% 46% 44%                       81%
Sr. 4. 1915 87%       1920 95%       1925 77% 1930 50%
13% 5% 23%                        50%
Sr. 5. 1916 76%       1921 51%        1926 40% 1931 54%
24% 49% 60%                      46%
Series 2, 3, and 4 showed the greatest uniformity in size of pack and composition of run,
and it was for these three series that the following generalizations were made. When a run is
largely composed of four-year-old fish the pack is small, amounting to from 50,000 to 65,000
cases (series 2). When the five-year-olds slightly outnumber the fours the packs amount to
85,000 to 95,000 cases (series 3). When the fives are greatly in excess, packs of at least 120,000
cases are produced (series 4).
The year 1933 falls into series 2, which in the past has been characterized without exception
by runs in which the four-year-old fish have exceeded the fives, and by packs of small extent.
In the report for 1932 it was stated that the only hope for a pack greater than that of the
mediocre brood-years was Inspector Stone's opinion that the larger fish predominated on the
spawning-grounds in 1928. The statement was made that, this being the case, if the 52's
spawned successfully there was a possibility that they would outnumber the 42's in 1933 and
that the pack would be greater than the brood-years. Such has been the case. The larger fish
form 55 per cent, of the run and the pack of 83,507 cases is a substantial one. Furthermore,
the following excerpt from the report of the spawning-beds, made available by Major Motherwell's department, is encouraging: " It is gratifying to find the spawning-grounds in this area
so well seeded, particularly in view of the excellent commercial yield."
For three successive years, 1931-32-33, the packs have bettered their brood-years by at least
10,000 cases. It is interesting to note that in each of these years the total number of females
has exceeded that of the males, a condition which previously existed only in the runs of series 4,
1915-20-25-30, the premier cycle of this river system. In the past the better packs have been
correlated with large percentages of five-year-old fish. Yet the run of 1932 was composed of
only 29 per cent. 50's. This would seem like a contradiction. However, in the exact analysis
it is the excess of females in this age-group which has made it the more important element of
Rivers Inlet runs. In 1932, although there were only 29 per cent. 52's, 72 per cent, of them
were females and in addition there were 46 per cent.—the largest percentage yet recorded—
of 4,'s. The total percentage of females in the run was 54. Thus it would seem that improved
packs are associated with large numbers of females, either all of the older age-group, if it com- H 30
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
prises a very considerable part of the run, or with a combination of 52 and 42 females sufficient
to make their total number greater than that of the males. Hence in 1933 it seems likely that
the good pack of 83,507 cases is to be associated primarily with the large total per cent.—58—
of females, rather than with the slight excess of the five-year-old fish.
The year 1934 belongs to series 3, which, as was stated above, has as a rule been distinguished by (1) a slight preponderance of 52's and (2) packs ranging from 85,000 to 95,000
cases. The run will be the descendants of the runs of 1929 and 1930 which produced commercial
yields of 70,260 and 119,170 cases respectively. In both years Inspector Stone reported the
spawning-beds sufficiently seeded to expect, if climatic conditions were favourable, returns
similar in magnitude to the present runs. There seems to be, then, no reason to anticipate in
1934 a run less than normal for this series, and if the recent advantageous trend in the sex ratio,
of more females than males, continues, it is not unreasonable to look for a pack even greater in
extent than 95,000, the upper range of packs in this series.
(2.)  Age-groups.
This study of 1933 is based on ten samples collected over a period of three weeks, from
July 7th to August 1st, and totalling 1,427 individuals. These are divided among the four
age-classes of which Rivers Inlet runs are composed—namely, the 42 and 52 groups, which are
the principal ones, and the 53 and 63 groups, which, although always present, are almost a
negligible factor because of their smaller numbers. In 1933 these two groups together numbered
only ten individuals. For all practical purposes, then, the run consists of the two age-groups
which are alike in residing one year in fresh water, but differ in the number of years spent in
the sea. The 42's mature after three years of salt-water life and the 52's after four years. The
relative proportion of these two age-groups varies widely in different years. This year the
.five-year-olds are slightly in excess of the fours (Table X.).
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The two racial size characteristics peculiar to the Rivers Inlet sockeyes are again manifest
in the run of 1933. First, the average measurements of the 4, group are less than those of the
sockeyes in the other major streams.    The following figures bear this out:—
Male Length.
Weight.
Female Length.
Weight.
Inches.
22.1
23.1
24.3
24.6
Lb.
4.8
5.4
5.5
6.2
Inches.
22.0
22.7
23.4
23.7
Lb.
4 6
5 0
5 0
5 4
Secondly, as the above figures also indicate, the Rivers Inlet males and females of this same
age-group are nearly identical in size, whereas there is considerable difference between the sexes
in the other streams.
Tables XL and XII. contain the complete enumeration of the size variations of the
individuals in all the various age-classes of the Rivers Inlet sockeyes of 1933, and Tables
XIII. and XIV. give the average measurements of the principal groups over a period of years.
The 1933 42 average length in both sexes is half an inch less than the general averages covering
twenty years. The length of the female is 22.1 inches, a measurement which is only 0.2
greater than the lowest on record. The male measures 22 inches, which is identical with the
lowest average yet recorded.    The weights are also low, but not to such a marked degree.
On the other hand, the average length of. the 52 males, 25.2 inches, is greater by 0.2 inch
than the general average, and that of the females, 24.7 inches, is the same as the general average.
In this group the weights surpass the general averages by 0.3 lb. for males and 0.1 for females.
It is difficult to understand what condition would bring about size, less than normal in one group,
and greater in the other. LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 31
Table X.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of 4% o,nd 52 Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years.
Eun of the Year.
Percentage
Four and Five
Years old.
Brood-year from which
derived.
1912 (112,884 cases)
1913 (61,745 cases)..
1914 (89,890 cases)..
1915 (130,350 cases).
1916 (44,936 cases).
1917 (61,195 cases).
1918 (53,401 cases).
1919 (56,258 cases).
1920 (121,254 cases)
1921 (46,300 cases).
1922 (60,700 cases).
1923 (107,174 cases).
I
1924 (94,891 cases) J
I
1925 (159,554 cases).....  f
1
1926 (65,581 cases)..
1927 (64,461 cases).
1928 (60,044 cases)....
1929 (70,260 cases)...
1930 (119,170 cases).
1931 (76,428 cases)...
1932 (69,732 cases)...
1933 (83,507 cases)...
5 yrs. 79%
4 yrs. 21%
5 yrs. 20%
4 yrs. 80%
5 yrs. 65%
4 yrs. 35%
5 yrs. 87%
4 yrs. 13%
5 yrs. 76%
4 yrs. 24%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
67%
33%
43%
57%
54%
46%
95%
5%
51%
49%
18%
82%
24%
76%
56%
44%
77%
23%
40%
60%
17%
83%
42%
58%
19%
81%
50%
50%
54%
46%
29%
71%
55%
45%
1907 (87,874 cases).
1908 (64,652 cases).
1909 (89,027 cases).
1910 (126,921 cases).
1911 (88,763 cases).
1912 (112,884 cases).
1913 (61,745 cases).
1914 (89,890 cases).
1915 (130,350 cases).
1916 (44,936 cases).
1917 (61,195 cases).
1918 (53,401 cases).
1919 (56,258 cases).
1920 (121,254 cases).
1921 (46,300 cases).
1922 (60,700 cases).
1923 (107,174 cases).
1924 (94,891 cases).
1925 (159,554 cases).
1926 (65,581 cases).
1927 (64,461 cases).
1928 (60,044 cases.)
1929 (70,260 cases). H 32
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
(4.)  Distribution of Sexes.
One of the most interesting features of recent Rivers Inlet runs has been the change in
the distribution of the sexes. In the 42 age-group the males have always outnumbered the
females and in the 52 class the females have always exceeded the males. In 1929 it was first-
pointed out that quite apart from the yearly fluctuations a definite shifting of relative proportions was taking place within each of these two age-groups. At that time it was suggested
that a tendency toward equalization in numbers of the sexes was discernible in the 42 class
and an increase in the females in the 52 group. The approach toward equal numbers of
42 males and females was likewise due to greater numbers of females. In 1929 they reached
a new high level of 43 per cent, and each year since the proportion has remained high. During
the first five years for which there are records they formed only 25 per cent, of the runs, during
the succeeding eight years they increased to 33 per cent., and for the last five years they have
constituted 56 per cent, of the runs.
The percentages for the 52 females for the same periods are as follows: 55, 66, and 67.
In the case of the 42 group, increases took place in both the second and third periods, whereas
in the 52's a sudden increase, which has maintained itself to the present time, occurred at the
beginning of the second period. In comparison with the early shears, then, the 42 females are
now more numerous by 19 per cent, and the 5, females by 12 per cent. A short discussion of
possible explanations for the increased number of females may be found in the report for 1932.
The distribution of sexes in these two principal classes for the year 1933 is in close accord
with the general averages for the last five years (Table XV.).
As for the total number of males and females in each run up to the year 1931, the females
outnumbered the males only in the cycle of 1915, 1920, 1925, and 1930, in which the 52 age-group
is greatly in excess. But each year since, and including 1931, the increased number of 42 females
has brought the total number of females above that of the males.
The greatest percentage of females recorded in the history of Rivers Inlet is 59 in one of
the years of the big cycle. This year of 1933 approaches that closely with a figure of 58 per cent.
As has been stated in several previous reports, this increase in the number of females in Rivers
Inlet is a most encouraging feature because it augments the potentialities of future runs.
Table XI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1.933, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
5
3
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
10     	
1
2
16
17
52
SI
50
35
25
30
18
14
7
1
1
1
3
13
44
59
57
51
34
10
4
3
1
1
3
4
8
8
22
19
30
34
41
33
28
10
4
1
1
9
13
24
45
89
91
114
76
47
12
9
4
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
19%                	
3
20    	
20
20%           	
31
21                  	
97
21%           	
143
22           	
121
22%            	
104
23      	
91
23%           	
95
24	
134
24%           	
127
25       	
152
25%           	
112
26    	
89
26%           	
48
27     	
40
27%     	
14
28                  	
4
28%           	
29                  	
1
Totals	
350
279
247
534
6
4
2
5
1,427
Ave. lengths....
22.1
22.0
25.5
24.7
23.2
21.9
27.0
26.1 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 33
Table XII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1933, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
M.
F.
F.
M.
Total.
3%	
4	
4%	
5	
5%	
6	
6%	
7	
7%	
8	
8%	
9	
9%	
10	
10%	
Totals	
Ave. weight
14
9
89
62
116
108
47
59
36
31
27
9
7
1
11
2
350
4.8
1
2
7
18
9
24
11
49
17
86
28
118
40
99
48
65
32
44
21
23
22
4
10
1
1
279
247
534
4.6
7.3
4.5
9.5
7.6
23
157
250
140
130
140
155
152
115
78
46
26
13
1
1
1,427
Table XIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Length in Inches of the 4<i and 52 Groups,
1912 to 1933.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912                      	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
22.1
22.3
22.6
22.7
21.9
22.4
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
22.8
22.2
22.6
22.0
22.4
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.6
26.1
25.2
26.0
25.2
25.2
24.6
1913                   	
25.2
1914 .           	
25.2
1915    	
25.1
1916                   	
25.0
1917                    ;	
24.4
1918                      	
24.5
1919	
24.4
1920                   	
25.0
1921     	
24.2
1922	
24.2
1923    -	
24.1
1924   	
24.3
1925      	
24.8
1926   	
24.6
1927            	
24.2
1928 	
25.2
1929   	
25.3
1930          	
25.2
1931          	
24.8
1932 	
24.6
22.6
22.5
25.3
24.7
1933   	
22.1
22.0
25.5
24.7 H 34                      REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Table XIV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weight in Pounds of the 4% ind 52 Groups,
1914 to 1933.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914	
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
7.3
7.3
6.8
6.6
1915	
1916....            	
5.5
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.0
4.9
4.5
4.7
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.0
4.8
4.8
4.6
4-7     .
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.6
7.5
6.7
6.5
6.7
6.2
6.7
5.9
6.0
7.0
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
7.6
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.4
6.5
1917	
1918	
1919	
1921	
1922 .              	
1923	
1924	
1925                	
1926	
1927         	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
1932	
5.1
5.0
7.0
6.5
1933	
4.8
4.6
7.3
6.6
Table XV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Relative Numbers of Males and Females
of the 42 and 52 Groups, 1915 to 1933.
Year.
Average Percentages.
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1915	
74
26
40
60
45
52
55
48
1916	
1917	
75
25
42
58
53
47
1918	
74
26
49
51
66
34
1919	
79
21
45
55
58
42
1920                  	
74
65
26
35
48
38
55
49
51
49
1921	
62         1         51
1922	
66
34
38
62
61
39
1923	
71
29
33
67
62
38
1924	
74
26
31
69
50
50
1925	
66
34
34
66
41
59
1926	
63
37
32
68
51
49
1927	
68
32
36
64
62
38
1928	
63
37
30
70
51
49
1929	
57
43
36
64
53
47
1930    	
56
44
37
63
47
53
1931	
59
41
33
67
47
53
1932	
54
46
28
72
46
54
1933	
56
44
32
68
42
58
3.   THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1933.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The pack in the Skeena River amounted to 30,506 cases and constitutes the lowest on record.
No inspection of the spawning-beds was made by a departmental officer, but a report is available
through the courtesy of the Dominion Department of Fisheries.    It is evident that the escape
ment was relatively poor and that undoubtedly the year 1933 marked the lowest ebb to date in
the Skeena runs.
', LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON. . H 35
The run of 1934 will be derived from the brood-years of 1929 and 1930. In 1929 the pack
was 78,017 cases and the five-year-old fish constituted 33 per cent, of the run. In 1930 the
pack was 132,372 cases and the four-year-old fish formed 43 per cent, of the run (Table XVI.).
In the former year the run to the Lakelse area was poor, but that to the Babine area good.
In the latter year the escapements to both the Lakelse and Babine Districts were reported as
being exceptionally good. It would seem that a pack of 75,000 to 80,000 cases would be a
reasonable amount for the year 1934.
(2.) Age-groups.
Scales and length, weight and sex data were obtained from 1,684 fish from June 27th to
August 14th in seventeen random samplings. The 42 age-group is again the largest, with
961 individuals or 57 per cent. The 52 age-group consists of 610 individuals or 36 per cent.
The remaining two groups are sparsely represented, with 83 in the 53 group (5 per cent.) and
30 in the 63 (2 per cent.)   (Table XVII.).
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths and weights of the two sexes in the 42 age-group are very low. In this
respect they resemble their progenitors. In the 52 age-group, on the other hand, the average
lengths and weights of both sexes are notably high (Tables XVIII. to XXL).
The data for the year are as follows:—
42 males, 23.2 inches, 4.9 lb.;  females, 22.8 inches, 4.7 lb.
52 males, 26.1 inches, 7.1 lb.;  females, 25.2 inches, 6.3 lb.
53 males, 24.3 inches, 5.7 lb.;  females, 23.4 inches, 5.0 lb.
63 males, 26.4 inches, 7.1 lb.;  females, 25.3 inches, 6.3 lb.
(4.)  Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 760, 45 per cent., and of females 924,
55 per cent. In the 42 age-group the females slightly exceed the males in number. A similar
excess of females has obtained in this age-group for several years. The females also exceed
the males in the 52 age-group. This excess of females has prevailed over a period of twenty-
two years of record, except in two years, when the males of this group exceeded the females in
number  (Table XXII.).
(5.)  Characteristics of Skeena Sockeyes.
Of the runs to the four river systems under consideration, that of the Skeena stands alone
in not possessing a single, definite, racial habit or peculiarity. In general composition the run
resembles Rivers Inlet run. Both are made up of the same four year-classes (42, 52, 53, and
63), with the same two (42 and 52) predominating. While both of these classes are important
components of Rivers Inlet, the primary cycle is the five-year one. On the other hand, the
42 and 52 groups seem to play roles of equal importance in the Skeena; in some years the
former class is the more important element, and in other years the latter.
In the matter of sex-distribution not one of the four age-groups has had one sex consistently
outnumbering the other. The 52 class is the closest approach, there being but two years in
which the males have been in excess of the females. A few times the females have exceeded
the males in all classes, and for the years for which the records are complete (1918-1933) there
are only three instances in which the total number of males has been greater than that of
the females.
During the early years of this study Dr. Gilbert plotted the runs on series of dates hoping
to find some traits peculiar to the Skeena fish, but he was forced to conclude that there were no
consistent, obvious, changes in the constitution of the runs either in respect to year-class or sex.
Although it is impossible to point out any racial habit of the Skeena River sockeyes, the
character of the scales indicates that these fish are a vigorous race. In the typical scale the
lines of growth are strong and widely spaced, particularly during the first two years. The
rings indicating the lake-growth are widely spaced towards the centre and narrow gradually,
while the position of the first winter sea check, from % to % the distance from the margin of
the scale, indicates equally extensive growth during the first year in salt water. The succeeding
winter-bands are heavy, signifying appreciable growth even during the less favourable winter
season. H 36
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Table XVI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of b2-a,nd 52 Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
Percentage
Four and Five
Years old.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
43%
57%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
50%
50%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
75%
25%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
64%
36%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
60%
40%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
62%
38%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
59%
41%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
69%
31%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
82%
18%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
24%
76%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
19%
81%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
34%
66%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
75%
25%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
47%
53%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
30%
70%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
31%
69%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
43%
57%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
33%
67%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
57%
43%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
57%
43%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
49%
51%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
39%
61%
Brood-ye*ir from which
derived.
1912 (92,498 cases).
1913 (59,927 cases).
1914
1915
(130,166 cases).
(116,553 eases).
1916 (60,923 cases)-
1917 (65,760 cases)...
1918 (123,322 eases).
1919 (184,945 cases).
1920 (90,869 cases)...
1921 (41,018 cases)...
1922 (96,277 cases) —
1923 (131,731 cases).
1924 (144,747 cases)..
1925 (81,146 cases)...
1926 (82,360 cases)...
1927 (83,996 cases)....
1928 (34,559 cases)	
1929 (78,017 cases)....
1930 (132,372 cases).
1931 (93,023 cases).
1932 (59,916 cases).
1933 (30,506 cases)..
1907 (108,413 cases).
1908 (139,846 cases).
1909 (87,901 cases).
1910 (181,246 cases).
I 1911
(131,066 cases).
1912 (92,498 cases).
1913 (52,927 cases)
1914 (130,166 cases).
1915 (116,553 cases).
J
J. 1916 (60,923 cases).
I 1917 (65,760 cases).
J
1918 (123,322 cases).
[ 1919 (184,945 cases).
J
I 1920 (90,869 cases).
1921 (41,018 cases).
1922 (96,277 cases).
]
j. 1923 (131,731 cases).
J
1924 (144,747 cases).
1925 (77,784 cases).
1926 (82,360 cases).
t 1927 (83,996 eases).
1928 (34,559 cases).
1929 (78,017 cases). LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 37
Table XVII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of the Principal Year-classes
from 1916 to 1933.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1916	
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
18
1917	
5
1918	
6
1919         	
4
1920	
8
1921      	
3
1922      	
2
1923	
7
1924	
1
1925	
1
1926    ..                        	
3
1927	
1
1928	
3
1929	
2
1930            	
1
1931          	
o
1932  	
12
1933       	
2
Table XVIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1933, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length, and by
their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
53
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19%  	
1
2
9
12
44
49
60
69
57
61
53
27
12
5
2
3
12
35
84
116
96
78
44
20
7
3
1
3
9
22
20
31
46
42
29
18
10
7
2
1
1
6
23
41
59
77
67
46
22
16
7
2
2
1
1
3
5
3
4
6
4
6
2
3
1
3
1
7
6
13
7
2
4
1
1
2
9
3
1
2
4
4
1
2
1
1
20  	
2
20%	
12
21 	
25
21%	
83
22	
135
22%	
187
23	
183
23%	
177
24	
166
24%	
166
25	
140
25%	
126
26	
108
26%	
72
27 	
49
27%	
26
28	
14
28%	
7
29	
4
29%	
30 	
1
Totals	
463
498
241
369
38
45
18
12
1,684
Ave. lengths....
23.2
22.8
26.1
25.2
24.3
23.4
26.4
25.3 H 38
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Table XIX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1933, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight, and by
their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
5
3
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3 	
2
21
95
98
86
77
49
25
7
3
13
96
203
117
49
14
5
1
2
12
16
23
46
32
43
30
22
9
3
2
1
14
36
52
81
73
59
25
14
10
1
3
1
3
3
8
5
8
5
5
1
1
4
16
7
10
5
1
1
1
1
4
4
4
3
1
1
4
2
1
2
2
2
3% 	
35
4	
198
4% 	
336
5  	
267
5% 	
214
6  	
183
6%  	
160
7  	
110
7% 	
77
8	
49
8% 	
33
9  	
10
9% 	
6
10 	
"  3
10%	
1
Totals	
463
498
241
369
38
45
18
12
1,684
Ave. weights....
4.9
4.7
7.1
6.3
5.7
5.0
7.1
6.3
Table XX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1933.
Year.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912	
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23.8
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.8
23.9
23.3
22.9
23.1
23.5
23.4
23.5
22.9
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.3
22.8
23.4
23.3
22.8
22.7
22.7
23.1
22.7
26.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2
25.5
25.9
25.7
26.2
25.2
25.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.7
25.3
25.5
24.7
25.7
25.2
25.2
24.7
25.1
25.0
25.0
24.7
25.0
24.8
25.3
24.2
24.4
24.5
25.2
24.7
24.8
24.8
24.7
24.7
23.9
24.8
24.4
24.5
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
24.2
23.8
23.9
24.7
24.1
•24.6
24.1
23.5
23.8
23.5
23.8
24.1
23.4
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.3
23.8
23.5
22.8
22.8
22.4
23.1
22.8
25.6
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
25.6
25.8
25.8
26.0
25.2
25.6
25.5
24.6
25.8
25.4
1913 	
1914	
1915	
1916	
24.8
1917	
1918	
24.7
24.7
25 1
1919      	
1920	
1921      	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
24.8
25.0
24.9
24.7
24.3
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929     	
1930	
1931      	
24.7
24.4
1932	
23.8
23.2
25.7
24.8
24.1
23.3
25.5
24.6
1933	
23.2
22.8
26.1
25.2
24.3
23.4
26.4
25.3 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 39
Table XXI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1933.
Year.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.5
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.6
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.9
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.9
7.0
7.2
6.4
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.3
6.2
6.3
6.0
6.4
6.2
6.4
5.7
5.7
5.7
6.3
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.8
6.2
6.0
6.3
6.1
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.7
6.1
6.3
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.5
5.9
5.4
5.0
5.6
5.6
5.5
6.0
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.8
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.0
4.6
4.9
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.6
7.1
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.3
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.9
6.9
6.0
6.5
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.8
1915	
6.0
1916	
5 9
1917	
5.8
1918	
6.1
1919	
6.3
1920	
6.3
1921	
5.6
1922	
5.7
1923	
5.4
1924	
5.8
1925	
5.4
1926	
6.2
1927	
5.8
1928	
5.8
1929	
5.7
1930	
5.8
1931	
6.0
1932	
5.9
Average weights	
5.5
5.0
6.7
6.1
5.7
5.1
6.6
5.9
1933	
4.9
4.7
7.1
6.3
5.7
5.0
7.1
6.3
Table XXII:—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females in each of
the Different Year-groUps in a Series of Years.
4
2
52
E
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 	
54
69
60
55
70
65
63
53
41
44
52
60
50
57
40
45
48
50
47
43
47
48
46
31
40
45
30
35
37
47
59
56
48
40
50
43
60
55
52
50
53
57
53
52
42
47
47
45
43
48
46
46
37
44
41
37
43
42
43
41
45
46
56
39
63
40
58
53
53
55
57
52
54
54
63
56
59
63
57
58
57
59
55
54
44
61
37
60
56
65
61
52
43
50
52
56
46
45
48
47
43
65
55
51
41
46
44
35
39
48
57
50
48
44
54
55
52
53
57
35
45
49
59
54
54
58
56
45
41
43
53
40
46
47
49
56
50
57
63
53
57
60
1913	
1914 	
1915	
1916	
46
1917	
42
1918	
44
1919 	
55
1920 	
59
1921	
57
1922 	
47
1923 	
60
1924 	
54
1925    	
53
1926 	
51
1927 	
44
1928    	
50
1929  	
43
1930 	
37
1931 	
47
1932    	
43
1933 	
40 H 40 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
4.   THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1933.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
Nineteen hundred and thirty-three is one of the few years in which expectation of the Nass
River pack has coincided with realization. As was anticipated, the pack was small, amounting
to 9,757 cases. Furthermore, it is not surprising that Mr. Young, who made the inspection of
the spawning-beds of the Meziadin watershed, should conclude his report with these words:
" On making a summary of conditions on the areas I have inspected, I have to submit there was
a lack of sockeye salmon. Both early and late runs were small." However, in spite of the fact
that this pack is one of the smallest on record, it is three-quarters greater than that of the
brood-year from which it was chiefly derived. The year 1934 belongs to what was considered
a good cycle in earlier years. However, in 1929 the pack failed to reach more than half the
average for the previous years, thus interrupting the good cycle. Although predictions cannot
be relied upon in this river system, it seems safe to expect in 1934 a run at least greater than
the very poor one of the present year. It will be principally the progeny of the year of 1929,
which was only moderately successful both as to pack—16,077 cases—and escapement. Mediocre
as the escapement was, it was sufficient to produce 35 per cent, of the run of 1933 (Table XXIII.).
A glance at this table shows the increasing importance of the four-year-old fish in Nass River
runs. Attention is called to this fact for two reasons: First, because the run of this year has
the largest 49 component on record. Secondly, in 1930 Inspector Hickman reported more sockeye
on the Meziadin spawning-beds than he had seen in any previous year, and from his observations
at the fishway he says: '.' In all my twenty-three years' experience I have never seen so many
congregated here." Therefore, if the 42's return as abundantly in 1934 as they have during
the past six years, they should increase the run very materially. However, the inconsistencies
demonstrated by the Nass in the past have taught us that it is wiser to regard an improved run
in 1934 as a possibility, rather than a probability.
(2.)  Age-groups.
The material for the analysis of the Nass River run of 1933 comprises 1,638 individuals
collected in fourteen samples at regular intervals between June 22nd and August 16th. The
great variety of age-groups in this river system has always been considered one of its most
marked racial peculiarities. This run of 1933 is the poorest in year-classes of any run yet
studied. One of the usual eight age-classes (64) is unrepresented, and three others (31? 41( and
7.) taken together total eleven fish only. These four groups have never been abundant enough
to record their relative proportions year by year, but they have been present so consistently
that they have been regarded as an integral part of the runs. The collection of material covered
the usual time period, so that the sea-types (3X and 4j) which occur early, and the 64's and 74's
which normally appear late in the season, should have been captured, had they been present in
their former numbers.
The run, then, virtually consists of four age-classes. Here again there is an unusual
condition in the relative proportions of these groups. The dominant age-group, the 53, is
only 55 per cent, strong, a figure at least 10 per cent, below normal, and the group of second
importance, the 42, is greater by 5 per cent, than in any previous year. The percentage of 52's
is also below normal, so that the total number of five-year-old fish is less than in any year yet
recorded. A few years ago it was pointed out that the 40's were increasing at the expense of
the 5a's. This run of 1933 shows additional increase at the expense of the 5o's as well as
the 52's  (Tables XXIII. and XXIV.).
(3.) Lengths akd Weights.
This run of 1933 is unusual in still another respect; that is, in the generally large size of
the fish. The lengths and weights of all the individuals in the various year-groups are enumerated in Tables XXV. and XXVII. and the yearly averages are registered in Tables XXVI. and
XXVIII. Except for the length of both sexes and the weight of the female in group 53, every
average measurement exceeds the general averages over twenty-one years for lengths and-
nineteen years for weight. In the case of the 53's the size is only slightly below average; the
male is shorter by only 0.2 inch, and the female shorter by 0.1 inch and equivalent in weight.
Similarly, the averages of class 42 are greater than the general averages by a very small degree.
On the other hand, the 52's and 63's are astonishingly large.    The lengths and weights for both LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON. H 41
sexes of the 52 group are new records, surpassing the general averages for males by 1.1 inches
and 1 lb. and for the females by 0.8 inch and 0.7 lb. The 63 class is almost as phenomenal, but
the number of fish represented is smaller and therefore the averages are not as significant.
The length of the male and the length and weight of the female touch new high levels. The
male is longer by 0.9 inch and heavier by 0.5 lb., and the female by 1.8 inches and 1.1 lb. than
the general averages.
In 1928, the year which constitutes the chief brood-year for 1933, the statement was made
that the small size of the individuals in the run verified Dr. Gilbert's opinion that general size
reduction usually accompanied small runs. The run of 1933 is among the smallest the Nass
has produced, but instead of being correlated with undersized fish it is associated with oversized
fish.
One of the racial size characteristics to which attention has frequently been called is that,
while the fish in the other river systems have undergone diminution as the years have passed,
those of the Nass have suffered no decrease.    The year 1933 is no exception.
This river exhibits another racial size peculiarity—namely, that the smallest fish are the
youngest and, conversely, the largest fish are the oldest (Tables XXIX. and XXX.). In the
Fraser and Skeena Rivers and Rivers Inlet, on the other hand, the number of years spent feeding
at sea seems to be the factor which limits size irregardless of ultimate age. Table XXXI. shows
this difference. Taking the Nass River first and considering each sex separately, it is seen
that the average lengths show a steady progression, according to age, in the three- and in the
four-year periods of feeding. Examining the other rivers in the same manner, it is evident
that the average lengths within each three- and four-year period tend to be alike.
(4.)   Seasonal Changes during the Run.
That this run of 1933 is outstanding in unusual features is again evidenced in this matter
of seasonal succession of the age-groups. In the past the changes have been fairly constant in
spite of the usual complexity of year-classes. The dominant group, the 5g, has always been
present with varying strength from the beginning to the end of the run. The 42's and 59's have
always accompanied the prevailing group throughout the run and their maxima intensities have
been reached during the second or third week of July. The other principal age-group, the 6„,
has likewise appeared at all times, but in greatly increased numbers in August. Of the other
four less important classes, the sea-types (3,'s and 41's) have been confined to the early part
of the run and the oldest fish, the 64's and 74's, have been restricted to the later days of the run.
In 1933, Table XXXIL, five of the seven groups, although three of them are very poorly
represented, follow the usual course of progression. The two which deviate from the normal
are the 42's and 52's. Their periods of greatest numbers are earlier than usual, falling in June
and the first week of July. The 52 group has appeared irregularly previously, and it is not
surprising that it should be so when a comparatively small number of individuals is spread
over an entire season. In the case of the 40's, this is the first instance of abnormal occurrence.
Although this early appearance of greatest strength may not be related to the following fact, it
is true that this group is present in 5 per cent, greater numbers than in any previous run.
(5.)  The Meziadin and Bowser Sockeye Colonies.
Since the year 1915 two races of Nass sockeye have been recognized—one, associated with
Meziadin Lake, and the other, presumably with Bowser Lake. The study of these two races has
been based on material collected during the annual inspections of the Meziadin watershed.
Samplings are made both of the fish gathered below Meziadin Falls, and, by fishing 'a net in
the Nass above its junction with the Meziadin River, of fish bound for the Upper Nass. In recent
years, except for 1930, when the Nass escapement was especially large, although the net has
been fished for a week or ten days as formerly, the attempt to net fish has been a failure. If the
Upper Nass still supports a considerable spawning population it must be one which spawns early.
In 1933 five fish were caught, and although they form altogether too small a sample for
reliable analysis, in order to put them on record they are incorporated in the tables. The
following discussion of the differences between the two colonies is based on previous years when
the material was sufficient to warrant comparisons. One of the striking dissimilarities is found
in the age at which the sockeyes of these two colonies seek the sea. The majority of the Bowser
fish start their seaward migration as yearlings, while the larger proportion of the other colony
remains two and even three years in the lake before setting out for the salt water.    This H 42
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
difference is featured in Table XXXIII. The 1933 Meziadin percentages agree with those of
former years in the fact that more fish remain in the lake two years than one, but it is exceptional in having no representatives of the group which spends three years in the lake. This,
however, is in accord with the general sample of Nass sockeyes totalling 1,638 individuals, only
two of which had three years' residence in fresh water.
A second distinction between the Meziadin and Bowser Lake populations is related to the
size of the fish. Those of the former colony are larger than those of the latter (Table XXXIV.).
The detailed information concerning the lengths of the 1933 Meziadin sockeyes is found in
Table XXXV. As was previously mentioned, the Bowser material is too limited to justify
discussion. The average length of the Meziadin males is conspicuously low and that of the
females slightly so. The margins of the scales of spawning fish are so absorbed it is impossible
to read ultimate age, but by taking the fresh-water history into account and comparing lengths
with the general average lengths it is possible to estimate age with a considerable degree of
certainty. Thus a perusal of the Meziadin data checking lengths against the general Nass
lengths suggests the probability that all the fish with single nuclei are 42's, and among the fish
with double nuclei, at most only three of each sex could be 63's. Consequently, the low average
size of these 1933 Meziadin fish is apparently due to the fact that the sample contains an
unusually small number of older, larger fish.
Table XXIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
from 1912 to 1933.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals that spent
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Four Years
Five Years
Five Years
Six Years
old.
old.
old.
old.
8
27
63
2
15
12
71
2
4
41
45
10
19
14
59
8
9
17
66
8
10
15
71
4
30
16
45
9
7
22
65
6
8
14
72
6
10
7
75
8
6
2
91
1
11
6
77
6
4
3
91
2
23
8
67
2
12
12
63
13
8
7
81
4
30
6
61
3
25
9
60
6
28
15
54
3
10
17
67
6
28
4
61
7
35
7
55
3
1912 (36,037 cases)
1913 (23,574 cases)
1914 (31,327 cases)
1915 (39,349 cases)
1916 (31,411 cases)
1917 (22,188 cases)
1918 (21,816 cases)
1919 (28,259 cases)
1920 (16,740 cases)
1921 (9,364 eases)..
1922 (31,277 cases)
1923 (17,821 cases)
1924 (33,590 cases)
1925 (18,945 cases)
1926 (15,929 cases)
1927 (12,026 cases)
1928 (5,540 cases)..
1929 (16,077 cases)
1930 (26,405 cases)
1931 (16,929 cases)
1932 (14,i54 cases)
1933 (9,757 cases)..
Table XXIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentage of Principal Age-groups in Runs
from 1912 to 1931 combined in Five-year Periods.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912-16	
11
13
11
20
22
15
7
11
62
65
77
65
1917-21	
7
1922-26              	
1927-31	
4 life-history: OF the SOCKEYE salmon.
H 43
Table XXV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1933, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length, and
by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
h
4
1
42
52
53
€
3
?4
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19        	
1
1
19 %	
20	
20%  	
1
2
1
21    	
2
21%  	
22 	
1
6
15
29
42
55
61
47
18
6
3
1
11
27
41
64
65
51
14
11
5
2
3
8
13
12
10
3
5
2
2
1
1
1
4
2
4
5
11
6
6
2
1
1
1
1
1
5
6
10
15
36
44
77
96
74
41
9
3
3
17
22%	
34
23  	
1
2
1
11
20
40
53
95
108
71
57
15
1
74
23%  	
125
24	
160
24%  	
176
25 	
1
1
1
214
25% 	
219
26 	
190
26%	
1
1
4
5
8
7
4
8
2
3
1
5
2
1
1
181
27 	
117
27%	
61
28 	
25
28%	
18
29        	
1
8
29%	
12
30 	
3
Totals 	
1
3
0
284
292
61
47
418
474
39
12
2
1,638
25.6
23.8
24.6
23.7
27.1
25.8
25.9
25.2
28.4
27.9
27.7
Table XXVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths
from 1912 to 1933.
Inches of Principal Classes
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
1912	
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.5
24.9
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.5
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
23.8
23.9
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.1
25.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
26.5
26.4
25.1
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.4
25.7"
25.2
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
26.1
26.6
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
25.3
25.6
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2
27.9
28.2
28.3
25.6
1913	
26.6
1914	
25.6
1915	
25.3
1916	
25.7
1917	
25.5
1918	
1919	
1920	
25.2
26.7
25.0
1921	
26.2
1922	
25.9
1923	
26.5
1924	
25.4
3 925	
25.4 '
1926	
27.0
1927	
26.5
1928	
26.2
1929	
26.2
1930	
26.8
1931	
27.1
1932	
27.1
Ave. lengths	
24.4
23.6
26.0
25.0
26.1
25.3
27.5
26.1
1933	
24.6
23.7
27.1
25.8
25.9
25.2
28.4
27.9 H 44
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Table XXVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1933, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight, and
by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
h
4
1
42
52
h
63
?4
Total.
Mi
F.
SI.
F.
M.
F.
SI.
F.
SI.      F.
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
2%	
1
1
3                   	
3%	
4    ..    .              	
4
36
81
81
62
18
6
4
3
9
24
48
76
82
107
55
10
3
1
418
15
33
76
139
102
■   77
26
5
1
474
4
4%.                           	
10
26
41
78
69
39
15
3
3
64
5                          	
149
5%	
2
3
2
2
3
16
12
12
5
8
1
7
1
10
10
12
3
1
3
231
6	
333
6%	
2
"  1
1
8
9
10
2
5
3
~39
280
7                 	
2
5
1
2
2
1
221
7%	
1
194
8     	
88
8%	
1
40
9 	
15
9%	
14
10	
4
_12
Totals	
1
3
5
284
292
61
47
2
1,638
Ave. weights	
6.8
5.8
6.2
5.4
8.1 j  7.0
7.0
6.2
8.4
7.9
7.6
Table XXVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal, Classes
from 1914 to 1933.
4
2
52
5
3
€
3
SI.
F.
M.
F.
SI.
F.
M.
F.
1914	
6.2
5.6
6.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.6
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.4
7.5
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
6.5
6.8
6.6
7.2
7.0
7.2
0.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
7.1
6.8
7.3
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.5
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.6
8.2
8.3
8.7
6.8
1915	
6.5
1916....                  	
6.4
1917	
6.4
1918 ;
6.7
1919	
6.7
1920	
7.0
1921 .                    	
6.6
1922	
6.6
1923	
6.8
1924	
6.5
1925	
6.3
1926	
7.1
1927	
7.0
1928	
6.6
1929	
6.8
1930	
7.2
1931 :	
7.4
1932	
7.5
Ave. weights	
5.9
5.3
7.1
6.3
6.9
6.2
7.9
6.8
1933	
6.2
5.4
8.1
7.0
7.0
6.2
8.4
7.9 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 45
Table XXIX.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1919-33, grouped by Age, Sex, and Average
Lengths of Principal Age-groups.
Average Lengths in Inches
of Groups.
Year.
Three
Years old.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
S
x Years old.
Seven
Years old.
31
42
41
h
52
6
4
63
74
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
M.
F.
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
si.
F.
M.
F.
SI.
F.
1919	
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.5
24.9
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
23.8
23.9
26.1   25.1
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
26.1
26.6
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
25.3
25.6
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.1
26.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
26.5
26.4
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.4
25.7
25.2
28.2
26.6
26.9
26.2
26.1
27.1
26.3
26.7
26.8
25.5
26.5
26.7
26.5
25.4
25.5
26.4
25.3
25.8
27.0
24.6
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2
27.9
28.2
28.3
26.7
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.5
25.4
25.4
27.0
26.5
26.2
26.2
26.8
27.1
27.1
27.2
28.0
1920         .. .
24.2
24.5
25.5
23.6
23.5
24.3
1921	
23.1
22.4
1922	
1923
1924
1925
1926	
23.7
23.4
23.7
22.3
23.5
22.4
24.5
25.6
25.1
25.8
25.4
24.8
24.0
24.1
23.6
24.3
23.9
24.3
28.2
29.0
27.0
1927	
1928 -      .. .
1929   	
1930
1931	
23.7
22.5
27.2
26.2
25.5
26.3
1932	
28.0
Ave. lengths	
24.5
23.7
25.2
24.1
26.2
25.4
26.1
25.1
26.7
26.0
27.8
26.4
1933	
24.6
23.7
25.6
23.8
25.9
25.2
27.1
25.8
28.4
27.9
27.7
Table XXX.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1919^33, grouped by Age, Sex, and Average
Weights of Principal Age-groups.   ■
Average Weights
N Pounds
OF Groups
Three
Years old.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Seven
Years old.
Year.
31
42
4l
53
52
64
63
?4
M.
F.
M.
F.
SI.   1   F.
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
M.
F.
1919         .   .              	
4.6
4.5
4.7
5.0
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.6
6.4
5.9
6.1
7.0
5.9
6.8
6.9
6.8
6.7
6.6
5.7
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.8
5.7
6.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
7.1
6.8
7.3
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.5
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.4
7.5
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
6.5
6.8
6.6
7.7
7.6
7.0
7.5
6.7
7.3
6.8
6.8
7.0
6.3
7.8
6.4
7.0
6.9
6.5
6.3
6.3
6.5
6.0
6.2
7.2
5.4
5.7
6.8
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.6
8.2
8.3
8.7
6.7
7.0
6.6
6.6
6.8
6.5
6.3
7.1
7.0
6.6
6.8
7.2
7.4
7.5
7.1
7.7
9.0
7.5
7.5
1920         	
1921	
1922          	
5.0
1923	
1924         	
	
1925
1926	
5.5
5.3
5.4
5.5
7.3
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
1932         	
Ave. weights	
5.9
5.3
6.5
5.7
6.8
6.1
7.1
6.3
7.1
6.4
7.9
6.9
	
1933	
6.2 |   5.4
1
6.8
5.8
7.0
6.2
8.1
7.0
8.4
7.9
	 H 46
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Table XXXI.—Nass, Fraser, and Skeena Rivers and Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths
over a Period of Years, grouped by Number of Years spent on the Sea-feeding Grounds.
Nass.
Fraser.
Skeena.
Rivers Inlet.
Age.
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
M.
F.
SI.
.F.
3
Three years at sea—
3,	
Inches.
23.5
24.5
26.2
25.2
26.1
27.8
Inches.
22.6
23.7
25.4
24.1
25.1
26.4
Inches.
22.3
23.7
23.9
24.5
25.6
25.8
Inches.
21.6
23.0
23.0
23.9
24.4
24.9
Inches.
23.8
24.1
25.6
25.5
Inches.
23.2
23.3
24.8
24.6
Inches.
22.6
22.9
25.3
26.2
Inches.
4
4„	
22.5
5
5„	
23.1
4
Four years at sea—
4.	
5
5„	
24.7
6
63	
25.7
Table XXXII.—Nas
River Sockeyes, Number of Individuals of each Class running
at Different Dates in 1933.
Date.
42
52
53
63
31
41
?4
Number of
Individuals
examined.
June 22                                	
66
68
68
70
57
49
61
55
29
30
17
5
1
9
14
11
8
8
11
5
8
12
9
8
2
2
1
39
38
40
43
36
62
53
55
79
70
87
106
115
69
2
1
1
1
2
5
3
8
8
8
7
5
1
5
2
1
2
121
„     23	
July     3    ..           	
124
120
6	
„     10	
121
102
,,     12	
123
„     18	
„     21	
„     25	
121
123
123
,,     27	
117
Aug.     8	
122
„     11	
„     14	
„     16	
121
124
76
576
108
892
51
1
8
2
1,638
Table XXXIII.—Percentages of Meziadin and Bowser Lake Runs, showing Different
Number of Years in Fresh Water.
Years in Lake.
No. of
Specimens.
One Year.
Two Years.
Three Years.
Sfeziadin, 1922	
13
2
6
10
6
16
20
40
33
18
16
27
22
44
20
80
84
76
93
94
89
94
100
80
80
60
64
79
80
55
78
56
80
20
3
24
5
1
4
3
3
4
18
10
Meziadin, 1923.:	
63
Sleziadin, 1924	
160
Sfeziadin, 1926	
43    -
Sleziadin, 1927	
85
Sleziadin, 1929	
74
Sleziadin, 1930	
113
Sleziadin, 1931	
51
Sleziadin, 1932	
104
Meziadin, 1933	
59
Bowser, 1922	
15
Bowser, 1923	
41
Bowser, 1924	
Bowser, 1925	
34
45
Bowser, 1926	
Bowser, 1927	
11
9
Bowser, 1930	
34
Bowser, 1933	
5 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
H 47
Table XXXIV.—Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeyes, Lengths of Individuals
comprising Runs in 1933.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals from
Sleziadin Lake.
Bowser Lake.
SI.
F.
SI.
F.
21                 	
1
1
1
1
3
3
8
5
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
6
6
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
21%	
22	
22%	
23	
23%...-.	
24	
1
24%	
25	
2
25%.
26	
26%	
27	
27%	
28	
28%	
29	
29%	
30	
Totals	
28
31
2
3
25.9
25.3
24.3
24.7
Table XXXV.—Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches
for the Years 1924-33.
SIeziadin Lake.
Bowser Lake.
Year.
M.
F.
SI.
F.
1924	
26.8
28.1
27.1
27.0
27.2
27.9
27.7
25.9
25.7
26.3
25.8
25.3
25.7
26.3
25.5
25.3
25.5
23.8
25.9
24.7
24.9
24.3
23.6
1925	
23.3
1926	
24.8
1927 .'.	
23.7
192S	
1929	
1930	
22.9
1931	
1932	
1933	
24.7 H 48 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
THE SALMON-SPAWNING AREAS.
Owing to the discontinuance by the Department to make personal inspections of the spawning
areas of the Fraser, Skeena, Rivers Inlet, and Nass systems, we have been furnished with a
review on the salmon-spawning areas of the Province by Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Dominion Fisheries, who conducted these investigations. His courtesy in supplying us
with these reports is gratefully acknowledged.
The following is a reproduction of the review in its entirety:—
North Queen Charlotte Islands.—Sockeye salmon run to this area in small quantities. The
streams frequented are the Yakoun and Awun Rivers and one or two minor streams. The size
of the runs is not a material factor in the salmon-pack. An average return was observed this
. year. The above remarks apply very largely to the springs and cohoes. Although much of the
trolling in the north is carried on along the north coast of the Queen Charlotte Group, these
salmon apparently are heading for spawning-grounds on the mainland. The pink run in the
North Queen Charlottes is heavy in the even-numbered years, and during the odd-numbered,
including this year, the quantities of this variety are negligible. The conditions found this
season were average. There are several fair chum-streams and the run this season has been
normal.
South Queen Charlotte Islands.—The cohoe run to this area is not a large factor in the
fishing operations. This season was an " off " one for pink salmon, although some were found
in Copper River, Tlell River, and Riley Creek. The precautions taken during recent seasons
for the protection of the chum run have obtained excellent results and the quantity of this
variety found on the spawning-grounds was very satisfactory.
Nass River Area.—The same officer who has made the inspection of the Meziadin area during
recent years was again employed this year, and reports that the run of sockeye to that district
was found to be not particularly satisfactory. This has reference to both the early and late
runs. The quantity of spawning fish observed, however, was estimated as greater than in 1927,
about 50 per cent, better than in 1928, but from 40 to 50 per cent, less than in 1929. It should
be mentioned again that an inspection covering a period of a few days is not all that could be
desired when it is remembered that the sockeye run continues for several weeks. It is impossible
to provide a really adequate inspection of such isolated areas unless at very considerable expense
officers are maintained at these points during the whole period of the run. The inspection of
the lower portion of the watershed would seem to show that a satisfactory proportion of the run
had passed through the commercial fishing areas. This is evidenced by the good catches made
by the Indians farther up the river for their own food purposes. The upper reaches of the Nass
are very difficult of access, but it was possible to obtain a fair estimate of the quantities of
spawning fish and indications would appear to point to a normal supply of sockeye. Supplies
of springs and cohoes were reported as being greater than found during any previous inspection.
Pink salmon were found in satisfactory numbers on the spawning-grounds, and the conditions
regarding chums were found to be normal, although it was early in the season for this variety.
The Nass is not a heavy producer of chums.
Skeena River Area.—It was not expected that there would be any large quantity of spawning
sockeye found in this area, due to the light seedings of the previous cycle-year, and the inspection
confirmed these expectations. At Babine Lake the principal spawning-beds are at 15-Mile Creek,
Fulton River, Morris River and Lake, and the Babine River. At 15-Mile Creek the first run was
over two weeks late compared to 1929 and was estimated to be fairly satisfactory, although
smaller than that of the year above mentioned. The second run arrived in the second week of
September and is reported as a heavy one. The seeding of this creek evidently is entirely
satisfactory. At Fulton River the run was reported as surprisingly good. This is confirmed
by the Indians, who obtained a portion of their winter food-supply at this point. The inspecting
officer feels that the number found was considerably less than in 1929, although heavier than
any season since that year. At Morrison Creek, where the hatchery is situated, the run was
the best in the last three seasons, but not as good as that of the brood-year 1929. Whilst it is
a fact that the hatchery did not obtain a sufficient quantity of eggs to fill that establishment
to capacity, yet this cannot be taken as evidence of an unsatisfactory run, as the lower fence
was not closed until a portion of the run had passed through.
The lower portion of the Babine River itself is reported to have received a heavy run of
sockeye, whilst few sockeye were found in the balance of the river.    The inspecting officer is SALMON-SPAWNING AREAS. H 49
rather of the opinion that it is the five-year fish which are usually the most plentiful in this
portion, and he points out that there was a small run four years ago, but a heavy run of large
fish in 1928. A good run of five-year fish is expected next season. A plentiful supply of spring
salmon was found in the area and good supplies of pinks and cohoes as well.
In the Kispiox and Kitwanga areas considerable quantities of sockeye were observed and
large quantities ill the Slangese. In the Morice River and Lake area the supply of sockeye
seems to have been fair, although it is very difficult to make a thorough inspection of this area,
due to the facilities available. An attempt has been made by means of seaplane and by pack-
horse, but the officers are of the opinion that the only adequate method is by means of a boat
with an outboard engine of sufficient power to contend with the swift water. The supply of
springs found was very satisfactory, also in the case of cohoe.
The run to Williams Lake, in the Lakelse area, is reported by the Superintendent of the
hatchery as being a good one and exceeding that of the brood-year of 1929. It is pointed out,
however, that most of the sockeye are taken for hatchery purposes. This is the main sockeye-
spawning ground in the area. In the case of Schulbuckhand Creek the conditions were quite
the reverse and the showing found this season was poor compared with that of 1929. No doubt
this condition was due largely to the damage done in 1929 by the severe freshets, which did
considerable injury to the spawning-grounds. The supply of pinks may be considered as fair,
but cohoe, on the other hand, appeared in large quantities and were reported by the Superintendent as being in greater numbers than he has observed. The supply of sockeye in the Ecstall
River watershed was light and could hardly be considered as satisfactory. On the contrary,
there were good supplies of springs, chums, cohoes, and pinks.
Considering the Skeena watershed as a whole, the return of sockeye salmon appears to
have been much better than might have been expected when one considers the small commercial
catch.
Lowe Inlet Area.—The sockeye-supply showed an increase over the cycle-year, generally
speaking, but there were several streams where there is necessity for further conservation
measures. The proper action will be taken with a view to providing for a larger escapement.
The cohoe-supply was very satisfactory in practically all streams. These remarks apply also to
the pinks, and the inspecting officer suggests that the conditions found would indicate a gradual
building-up of the " off " year run. In the case of the chums, the supplies were rather light,
although it is considered that the spawning-beds will be fairly well seeded.
Butedale Area.—Sockeye appeared in sufficient numbers to fairly well seed the spawning-
grounds. The escapement of cohoes was quite satisfactory. At Indian River particularly there
was a very heavy seeding. The pink run was fourteen days later than usual and the quantities
observed on the spawning-grounds were larger than the commercial catches would indicate.
The seeding was quite satisfactory. At Mussell, Kynoch, and Green Inlets the streams were
better seeded than other parts of the area, and on the whole the chum seeding can be considered
as only fair.
Bella Bella Area.—There was a good average supply of sockeye found on the spawning-beds.
It was necessary to increase the closed time in the northern part of the area, but the additional
two weeks added appears to have given the desired results. Cohoes, while showing well in
some rivers, did not appear, generally speaking, in particularly satisfactory quantities. The
pink-supply was not more than fair, even though it was an " off " year for this variety. The same
remarks apply to chums.
Bella Coola-Kimsquit Area.—The principal spawning areas in these two districts are the
Bella Coola or Atnarko River (at the head of Burke Channel) and the Kimsquit River (at the
head of the channel of that name). In the Bella Coola River it was found that whilst the supply
of spawning sockeye was reasonably good and estimated to be sufficient to provide a good return,
yet it was not quite equal to the run of 1929. The commercial catch in this area was unusually
good. It is worthy of note that the run of sockeye arrived on the spawning-grounds two weeks
earlier than usual. Notwithstanding the fact that springs have not been fished to any extent
in this area, the supplies on the spawning-grounds do not appear to increase. No doubt the
trolling operations at distant points, however, have their effect on the run to Bella Coola as
well as to other districts. Cohoe were fewer in number than usual. The run of pinks, however,
is stated by the inspecting officer to have been a very heavy one, all gravel-bars being crowded
with spawning salmon of this variety. The situation with regard to chums was quite satisfactory. The sockeye return to the spawning-grounds in the Kimsquit River was the best
4 H 50 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
observed in several seasons and a noticeable increase over the quantities appearing in the brood-
year of 1929. The cohoe-supplies observed were not satisfactory, but of course in the case of
this stream, as in most others frequented by this variety, the run continues well into the winter
months. The supply of chums was quite satisfactory. In the case of the pinks, although the
Kimsquit is not a good pink-stream, yet the run this season was smaller than usual. The streams
along the shores of Burke and Dean Channels, other than the ones referred to above, are
frequented by the fall varieties and appeared to be doing rather better than holding their own.
In recent years extra precautions have been taken with a view to building up the runs and
these efforts apparently are proving successful. Although heavy rainfalls occurred during the
spawning-time, there was no evidence of damage to the Spawning-grounds at the time- of
inspection. The inspection was carried out by means of a seaplane. In this way the trip was
made in two days, with the use of two hours' flying-time, compared to a difficult trip of from
twelve to sixteen days.
Rivers Inlet Area.—Two trips of inspection were made in this area ; the first covering the
period from September 9th to 12th for the purpose of observing the results of the early run of
sockeye to the upper reaches; and the second from October 14th to 22nd. The early run of
sockeye to the Washwash River was found to be exceptionally heavy. This river is frequented,
by what spring salmon enter Owikeno Lake. The quantity found was not as large as usual.
The Cheo River also contained a reasonably heavy supply of sockeye salmon and the supply
found in Indian River was even greater. The inspecting officer observes, after his two inspections of the three above-mentioned streams, that it must be concluded there was a remarkable
escapement of sockeye this season in these streams. At Genesee River the escapement was
found to be a normal one. At Sheemahant River a fair supply of sockeye was observed. In
Machmell River no sockeye were observed, but this is not unusual as the stream is extremely
muddy, and in the past, so far as is known, has not been a material factor in the production
of salmon. Nookins River was found to contain a satisfactory supply of spawning sockeye and
the same remarks apply to Asklum River. Quap River contained quite a satisfactory supply
of sockeye and the conditions at Dalley River were normal. It is gratifying to find the spawning-
grounds in this area so well seeded, particularly in view of the excellent commercial catch.
Smith Inlet Area.—Two trips of inspection were also made in this area, the first one by
plane on September 17th. There are only two sockeye-streams of any account—namely, the
Geluch and Delabah. The streams were found on both inspections to be splendidly supplied
with sockeye, which promises well for the cycle-year. At Nekite River, at the head of Smith
Inlet, the run of pinks appears to be increasing, although the supplies of cohoes and chums
were rather light. In Takush River the fishing, area was closed this year in order to restore
the run of the unusually good variety of chums. It is intended to keep the area closed for four
years.    The supplies on the spawning-grounds this season were found to be not satisfactory.
Alert Bay Area.—The important sockeye-streams in this area are the Nimpkish River and
the stream entering at the head of Glendale Cove. Due primarily to high-water conditions,
a very satisfactory proportion of the run escaped to the spawning-grounds of the Nimpkish
system, and the seeding at Glendale Cove and the points of lesser importance, such as Mackenzie
Sound, Thompson Sound, and Port Neville, was quite good. The early runs of the creek variety
at Hardy Bay, Shushartie and Nahwitti Rivers were not fished and all passed safely to the
spawning-grounds. The escapement of springs in Knight and Kingcome Inlets and along the
mainland shore generally was found to be good, due partly, no doubt, to the fact that the toll
taken by the fishermen was light. The escapement to the Nimpkish system was also satisfactory.
It is the even-numbered years that the pinks run to the Alert Bay area in large quantities, but
this year the supply was better than in the brood-year of 1931. A good escapement of both
cohoes and chums was observed.
Quathiaski Area.—A satisfactory supply of spawning sockeye reached the beds in Phillips
Arm, which is the most important district for this variety. At Hayden Bay conditions were not
quite so satisfactory, but arrangements are being made to give this run further protection.
A large escapement of springs was observed on the spawning-grounds. The run to Campbell
River was somewhat better than last season and a large percentage of the run escaped to the
spawning area. The pink run was quite as good as that of the brood-year and the seeding of
chums and cohoes was entirely satisfactory.
Pender Harbour Area.—Sockeye run only to the Saginaw system. A heavy escapement was
found this year on the spawning-grounds.   The pink-supply at Jervis Inlet is being maintained. SALMON-SPAWNING AREAS. H 51
Apparently in this area the years are fairly even and the spawning has been quite adequate.
At Toba Inlet and in other parts of the district pinks were found in greater quantities than in
the cycle-year. The cohoe seeding was quite satisfactory in comparison with the brood-year,
but the quantity of chums found was rather light.
Comox Area.—An unusually large supply of springs was reported on the spawning-grounds
of the Puntledge River. The pink-supply exceeded that of the brood-year of 1931, although it
was the " off " year for the district. The Tsolum River was particularly well seeded. Cohoes
were found in very considerable quantities and the run was entirely satisfactory. In the case
of chums a large supply was observed on the spawning areas of the Puntledge River and in
several of the smaller streams which flow into Baynes Sound. The other streams, however, were
not so well seeded.
Nanaimo Area.—Cohoe salmon were found in unusually large quantities on the spawning-
grounds in the Nanoose Bay portion of the area and a good average supply in the Nanaimo
River. The chum run in the Nanoose area was an improvement over the brood-year, but somewhat less in Nanaimo River.
Ladysmith Area.—Cohoes were found to be in quite satisfactory quantities and the pink-
supply equal to that of the brood-year. In the Chemainus River the chum run was found to
be not up to expectations, but equal to that of 1929. In the smaller streams conditions were
found to be more satisfactory, however.
Cowichan Area.—The spring-supply is considered a fair average one. In the case of cohoes
the run is reported as the best for many years. The chum-supply was quite satisfactory. It is
rarely fished except by the Indians for food purposes. It is interesting to note that in the
Cowichan and Koksilah Rivers, two of the most important sport-fishing streams on the Island,
the run of steelhead trout was one of the best observed in recent years.
Victoria Area.—The cohoe-supply found was quite a satisfactory one, but in the case of
chums the run can be considered as only fair.    These runs are fished very little, however.
Alberni Area.—The sockeye-streams of this area are the Somass River, Anderson River, and
the Hobarton River, in Nitinat Lake. The inspecting officer refers to the spawning conditions
found in the Somass River as the very best. In the Anderson River, however, conditions were
quite different and a very poor supply arrived on the spawning-grounds. Arrangements are
being made to provide for a larger percentage of escapement in future years. At the Hobarton
River the escapement was found to be quite satisfactory. The inspecting officer remarks in this
case that the size of the individual fish comprising the run to Hobarton River appears to be
increasing very materially. The supply of springs found in the Somass, Anderson, Nahmint,
and Nitinat areas was found to be very good, and that to the Sarita and Toquart areas, while
not being so good, was quite satisfactory. Cohoe arrived in all the streams entering Alberni
Canal in large quantities, and in the opinion of the reporting officer the supply of that variety
in the district is showing a large increase. Spawning conditions in the case of chums were
found to be good. There was not so much fishing equipment operated and consequently a larger
percentage of the run escaped.
Clayoquot Area.—The sockeye spawning in the Kennedy Lake section, which is the most
important area, was not as satisfactory as could be desired, although a fairly good run ascended
the Medgin River. The peculiar conditions obtaining at the mouth of Kennedy River make it
very difficult to permit any commercial fishing at all and be sure of a reasonable quantity for
the spawning-grounds. The supply of sockeye will, of course, be of no use to any one unless
permission is given to fish them commercially to some extent. Notwithstanding strenuous
opposition, unusual precautions have been taken in recent years to be sure of a proper escapement, but even with these precautions there are times when, due to the difficulty of knowing
the movements of the fish, a larger percentage than desirable is captured. The quantities of
springs and cohoes found were larger than usual and very satisfactory. This applies in the
case of chums also, although the run was somewhat lighter than in the brood-year. The
spawning-grounds were well seeded.
Nootka Area.—Sockeye salmon do not arrive in important quantities in this district, although
there is usually a fair run of the creek variety to the Gold. River. The cohoe-supply, which is
never large in this district, compared favourably with other years. The chum-supply was
somewhat disappointing, although unusual closures were arranged in order to provide a larger
percentage of escapement. H 52 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
Kyuquot Area.—The usual small run of creek sockeye was observed, but in this area also
the sockeye is not an important factor. Springs were found in satisfactory quantities on the
spawning areas, and this also applies to the cohoes. In the case of the chums the situation
was not so satisfactory, the inspecting officer reporting the smallest run since 1925.
Quatsino Area.—The sockeye running to this area are of the creek variety and not an
important factor in the commercial fishing. The spawning conditions were found to be quite
adequate. The run of spring salmon was only fair and appears to be have been not as satisfactory as the two preceding seasons, although the water conditions made observations difficult.
The cohoe-supplies were found to be good, and the supply of chums equalled that of four years
ago.
Fraser River Watershed.—Nineteen thirty-three was the cycle-year of the previous big
sockeye run, and whilst there was no particular reason to expect a large return due to the
conditions obtaining following the catastrophe of 1913, yet a good run would not have been
surprising. Actually, conditions found were very much as might have been expected. The usual
large quantity of pinks arrived in this, the cycle-year of the big run of this variety. The
usual spawning-grounds were satisfactorily seeded. The supply of springs on the spawning-
grounds was not as satisfactory as could be desired, although far from being a failure. The
seeding of cohoes and chums was found to be fairly average. Unusually heavy rainfalls and
mild weather during the fall months caused flood conditions in many streams, particularly near
the coast, the run-off being approximately 50 per cent, greater than normal. The situation in
more detail is as follows:—
Prince George District.—As a result of the unusually satisfactory escapement to the spawning areas in this system in 1929 it was hoped that a much larger return would have been
observed. The reports, however, have not been encouraging. It is a fact that in the upper
reaches of the Stewart, Trembleur, and Takla Lakes fair quantities of sockeye were observed,
although in the lower reaches of Stuart Lake system the spawning was disappointing. The
sockeye this year apparently were quite late in arriving, the first being observed on August 9th
and the second run appearing on September 9th. The former were in very poor condition, but
the latter were quite the contrary. The Indians in the Fort St. James District obtained approximately 1,000 sockeye. In the Francois-Fraser Lake area there was quite an appreciable increase
over the brood-year of 1929; in fact, the run is reported as the largest in many years. Good
supplies of sockeye were seen in Ormond Creek and Stellako River in the Fraser Lake area,
a 100-per-cent. increase over 1929. This year for the first time in many years sockeye are
reported from the Burns Lake watershed in such streams as Endako River, Shovel Creek, Poison
Creek, and Tchesinkut Creek.
Quesnel District.—The reports from this area show the return of sockeye above the average
and the inspecting officer suggests that it has been the best run in eight years. It must be
remembered, however, that the number of spawning sockeye returning to the Bowron system has
been very small in recent seasons, and this year's report cannot be taken as evidence of any
large quantity. In the Quesnel Lake system there was a small run of sockeye observed, commencing on August 22nd, but this return cannot be considered as encouraging.
Chilko Lake System.—It will be remembered that in the brood-year of 1929 the inspecting
officer reported having seen approximately 70,000 spawning sockeye. This year the same officer
reports at least 100,000 sockeye having reached the spawning-grounds in good condition. The
officer states that it is the largest quantity he has observed in his ten years' experience in the
district and, from information received, is of the opinion that it is the best in the last twenty
years.
Shusivap Lake System.—At Little River and Adams River there was observed an increase
in the number of spawning sockeye compared with the brood-year, but the return was not as
large as expected.    A few were also observed in Scotch Creek.
Hope Area.—A few sockeye were noticed in the creek at the head of Kawkawa Lake and a
few in the Nahatlatch River, as well as some of the smaller streams between Hope and Lytton.
The numbers compared favourably with those observed in 1929. The conditions at Hell's Gate
Canyon were normal, and the salmon, although delayed at times for short periods, were able to
pass this point safely.
Harrison Lake-Birkenhead System.—There was no increase in the number of sockeye on
the spawning-grounds in the Harrison District as compared with the year 1929. Springs and
chums were not as numerous as could be desired, and although the supply of pinks was not SALMON-SPAWNING AREAS. H 53
heavy, yet it was reasonably satisfactory. In the Birkenhead system the supply of fish on the
spawning-grounds was quite disappointing. The hatchery obtained a collection of only 10,674,000
sockeye-eggs. In this connection it is felt that the Indians are taking far too great a toll from
the run passing up the system from the Fraser River and steps are being taken to reduce this
quantity very materially in future seasons.
Cultus Lake Area.—At Cultus Lake it is not expected that the number of returning sockeye
will exceed 3,500 spawners. There was also a run of sockeye to Chilliwack Lake, but it was no
greater than average.    The supplies of pinks, springs, and chums were satisfactory.
Pitt Lake Area.—At Pitt Lake high-water conditions were experienced which interfered with
observations, and although the collection at the hatchery was only 2,285,900 sockeye-eggs, yet
due to the washing-out of the fences a portion of the run passed to the spawning-grounds and
deposited their eggs under natural conditions. The two high-water periods occurred just when
the greatest number of fish were below the fences.
Squamish Area.—The supply of springs compared favourably with those of recent years.
Pinks, although probably not quite as numerous as in 1931, appeared in satisfactory quantities.
These remarks also apply to chums and cohoes.
SOCKEYE-SALMON EGG COLLECTIONS, BRITISH COLUMBIA HATCHERIES,  1933.
Hatchery. Collection.
Anderson Lake, V.I     3,256,000
Babine Lake, Skeena River      3,666,500
Lakelse Lake, Skeena River      6,300,200
Kennedy Lake, V.I     3,368,800
Rivers Inlet   18,344,900
Pemberton, Fraser River   10,680,000
Cultus Lake, Fraser River     5,491,400
Pitt Lake, Fraser River      2,310,000
Total  53,417,800
We are indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell for the foregoing statement giving the number
of sockeye-salmon eggs collected from the Fraser River watershed this year and placed in the
hatcheries.
Sockeye-salmon egg collections for the whole of the Province in 1933 were 53,417,000.    This
is the smallest collection recorded since 1918.    The sockeye-egg collection in the Fraser River
system for 1933 was 18,481,400, as compared with 32,216,285 in 1929, its brood-year, and 45,755,000
in the year 1925 of the same cycle. H 54 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
CATCH STATISTICS OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARD.*
By John Lawson Hart, Pacific Biological Station.
The present paper reports an attempt to estimate the abundance of pilchards (Sardinops
cwrulea (Girard)') from a consideration of the catch statistics on the assumption that the size
of the catch for a unit of fishing-gear is proportional to the general abundance of the species.
The collection of data was commenced under a joint arrangement between the Biological Board .
of Canada and the Department of Fisheries of the Province of British Columbia, but the subsequent work has been carried out under the former organization alone. The co-operation of the
pilchard-plant operators in supplying the fundamental data is gratefully acknowledged.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CATCH FOR UNIT EFFORT AND ABUNDANCE.
Depletion may not become apparent from the catch statistics of a schooling species of fish if
the time taken in finding the schools occupies only a small part of the total fishing-time under
all but extreme conditions of abundance. In the case of the pilchard-fishery the time spent in
scouting occupies such a great part of the total fishing-time that it seems reasonable to allow
the assumption that a definite and positive relationship does exist between the catch made by
unit fishing effort and the abundance of the fish stock.
FACTORS OTHER THAN ABUNDANCE INFLUENCING DAILY CATCHES.
It is evident that certain influences on the fishery tend to affect the catch made by unit
fishing effort. Accordingly, the possible errors due to these influences must be considered before
adopting a method involving the assumption that a close relationship exists between the abundance of pilchards and the catch made as a result of unit effort.
In the first place, weather has a great effect on the amount of fish captured, an effect which
is quite independent of the actual abundance of the fish. Fishing may be impeded for days by
weather conditions, but it is only rarely that no catches are recorded on a day during the
season. In consequence, it is difficult or impossible to make adequate allowances for the
influence of weather in affecting the average catch per boat.
Wildness of the fish is another factor which influences the size of the catch, but which has
no apparent connection with the abundance of fish on the fishing-grounds. At times fish may
be showing plentifully, but may be so active that it is impossible for the fisherman to make a
successful set on them.    This condition is probably due to food and temperature conditions.
At some periods of the fishing season fish are found to come close to the surface for only
a short time each day, with the result that the daily period of productive fishing is greatly
curtailed. In consequence, fewer fish are caught each day and some of the boats often fail to
make a catch at all. The fact that, on occasions such as these, fish are proven to be in the
locality, but do not, for the greater part of the day, come close enough to the surface to be
observed by the fishermen, suggests that at other times fish may be present in a locality for
considerable periods without ever coming close enough to the surface to be detected. If this
is the case it is certain that the reported daily abundance of fish cannot be taken as indicative
of the daily abundance even when weather conditions are comparable, and the daily catch records
are thus even less trustworthy from this point of view.
The size of the schools of pilchards on the fishing-grounds has a considerable bearing on the
total daily catch which a boat may make. The sizes of the schools appear to differ at different
periods throughout the fishing season.
The fishing-grounds change frequently in position. When these are close to the reduction
plant the boat may be filled with fish, go to the reduction plant to be unloaded, and return to
the fishing-grounds in time to make another catch on the same day. That is impossible when
the distances to be covered are great. Frequently as the fishing-grounds change in locality they
get near to one plant as they draw away from another, so this factor tends to some extent to be
averaged out each day.
* Reprinted from Bulletin of the Biological Board of Canada No. 38, 1933, with slight alterations.
This paper was printed before the pilchard-fishing season of 1933 and Is of interest in indicating that the
failure of the fishery in that year was not preceded by a gradual decline such as might be expected if the
crisis had been brought about by overfishing. CATCH STATISTICS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARD. H 55
The five factors enumerated above apply to the success of the fishery from day to day.
It may, however, be assumed that the influence of weather, wildness, showing, schooling, and
the distance of the fishing-grounds will affect the fishery to about the same extent each year.
Then, since it is the changing of the catches from year to year which is of interest in connection
with the present problem, the influence of these five factors may be provisionally disregarded.
FACTORS OTHER THAN ABUNDANCE CAUSING TRENDS IN YEARLY CATCHES.
Other factors influencing the catches have changed more or less regularly with the development of the fishery. The effect of any one of these changing conditions would, other things
being equal, tend to cause a more or less steady increase or decrease in the catch resulting from
unit effort.
One of the most important changes which has taken place in the fishery is its change from
a fishery of the sounds and inlets to one of the open sea. In the years 1925 and 1926 all the
catches were made in the estuaries. In 1927 most of the pilchards were taken in the inlets,
but some were captured in the open sea. Since 1928 almost all the fishing has been carried on
in the unsheltered waters of the Pacific and many catches are made 10 to 20 miles offshore.
Whether or not the change in the nature of the fishery was associated with its growth cannot
be stated with certainty, but it is certain that the influence of the change was, other things being-
equal, to reduce the size of the catch. This is the case not only because the fishery under present
conditions is more subject to the vicissitudes of the weather, but also because the change of the
fishery to outside waters has resulted, on the whole, in longer runs for the fishermen between the
fishing-grounds and the plants. The influence of this factor is comparable to the daily changes
in the distances from the fishing-grounds to the reduction plants as already discussed. When
the fishing-grounds are close enough to the plants to make possible the filling of the holds twice
in one day the apparent abundance of fish is increased without necessarily implying that the
actual abundance is any greater.
In the years from 1925 to 1929 the number of reduction plants operating and the number
of boats fishing for pilchards increased steadily. The result was that, while the total catch was
increasing, the competition for fish became keener, and in consequence there was probably a
slight tendency for the average catch made by one boat to be reduced, although there was no
corresponding decline in the actual abundance of fish.
Another change which has taken place in the fishery is that in the length of the season.
There has been a progressive trend toward a shorter and more intense season. The result has
been that the season's catch for a boat has been reduced, but the average daily catch increased
by the cessation of fishing during the less profitable periods before and after the height of the
season.
In 1930, at the request of the industry, an opening date (July 5th) was fixed for the fishery.
The influence of the opening date on the total catches made by fishermen is probably small.
Previous to 1931 fishing was stopped each week from noon on Saturday to noon on Sunday.
In 1931 this restriction was removed. In consequence, in that year, fishing was legally carried
on for seven instead of six days each week. The influence of the removal of the restriction,
however, does not amount to increasing the catch by one-sixth, as considerable time was saved
under the older system by running, unloading, and mending nets during the closed period.
Previous to 1925 very few men had any experience in the pilchard-fishery. With the rapid
growth of the industry new pilchard-fishermen were recruited from the ranks of the herring
crews. As a result there has been a considerable increase in the skill of fishermen owing to
their increasing familiarity with pilchard-fishing. As a result it may be expected that the same
fisherman can now catch more fish in a season than he could six years ago under comparable
conditions.
A similar evolution has taken place in the adaptation of nets and boats to the conditions
of the pilchard-fishery. Experience has suggested modifications of the herring equipment which
have increased the efficiency of boats and nets so that now, as far as equipment is concerned,
any crew is in a position to catch more fish than in the early days of the industry.
The sources of change in the amount of pilchards captured as a result of unit fishing effort
just enumerated are such that each one alone would appreciably distort the results. However,
consideration of the several factors indicates that the various influences may be expected to
more or less counterbalance one another;   i.e., the effects of the change in the locality of the H 56
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
chief fishing-grounds and the increase in the number of boats tends to decrease the catch for
each boat, but the increase in the skill of the fishermen and the efficiency of their equipment
exerts the opposite effect. The consequences of the changing length of season in the reward
of fishing effort depend upon whether the average catch per day or the whole year's catch is
considered. The increase in the catch brought about by the cancellation of the weekly closed
season is less than one-sixth, and is probably in the neighbourhood of one-tenth.
OTHER FACTORS ASIDE FROM ABUNDANCE WHICH AFFECT CATCHES.
Other factors affect the reward for fishing effort in various ways and must be taken into
consideration in applying specific methods of investigation and in examining their results.
The trend toward a short and intense season resulting partly from the policy of the fishing
companies and partly from changes in the movement of the stock of fish has been mentioned.
The shortening of the season has not, however, taken place in regular steps from season to
season, with the result that in some years the season has been somewhat protracted and the
catch per boat per season increased, with either an increase or a decrease in the average daily
catch.
The catch of a fisherman is to some extent influenced by the fishing policy of the company
for which he is working. Some companies use large seine-boats and tenders and high-grade
equipment throughout. Others prefer to catch fewer fish at a lower cost and consequently make
use of less effective floating apparatus. As the maximum catch of a boat is usually fixed by
the hold capacity of itself and its tender, the size of the boats used is of considerable importance
in fixing the size of the catch.
The catches made in the pilchard-fishery are not materially affected by pilchard-fishermen
diverting their attention to other species during the pilchard season, since, having once begun
pilchard-fishing, the great majority of boats and crews continue in that fishery until the end of
the pilchard season.
METHODS OF CALCULATING CATCH FOR UNIT FISHING EFFORTS.
Approximate Methods.
In Table I. are shown the annual catches and the results of treating them in two simple
ways. In the first column are shown the catches in metric tons (2,205 lb.) made by all the
plants on the coast. As the number of plants increased from three in 1925 to twenty-four in
1929, such figures are inclined to be misleading in an attempt to estimate the abundance of fish
from the catch. Accordingly, seven representative plants were selected and the average annual
catches for them were calculated.   These are presented in the second column.
In selecting the seven plants a number of points were taken into consideration. First of all,
it was desired to select companies which had operated for as many years as possible and
particularly in the early years of the fishery- Secondly, an attempt was made to select plants
which would fairly well represent the two different policies of fishing on the coast and which
were consistent in their application of that policy. Finally, it was attempted to choose plants
which were fairly representative of the whole pilchard-fishing area of British Columbia. At least
one plant was selected from each of the five main sounds on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
The final choice of plants was based on a compromise among the principles enumerated. The
same seven plants are considered in all of the subsequent discussion.
Table I.—A, Total Catch in Metric. Tons; B, Average Catch of Seven Representative Plants in
Metric Tons; and C, B divided by the. Number of Boats making over a Minimum Number
of Fish Deliveries;  all for the Years 1925 to 1932.
Year.
A.
B.
C.
Year.
A.
B.
C.
1925	
14,469
43,997
62,079
73,041
2,690
3,300
3,810
4,020
1,520
1,470
1,280
1,250
1929	
1930	
1931
78,330
68,104
66,774
39,400
4,680
4,410
8,420
6,314
1,230
1,100'
2,000
1,800
1926	
1927	
1928	
1932 CATCH STATISTICS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARD.
H 57
The general upward trend of the catch per plant per year cannot be taken to indicate that
the abundance of pilchards is increasing, because as the industry developed a number of the
plants have materially increased the number of boats used. Accordingly, in an attempt to
eliminate the influence of the increasing numbers of boats used by each plant, the catch per
plant was divided by the number of boats and averaged for the seven plants. In fixing on the
number of boats no consideration was given to those which made only a few fish deliveries.
One hundred and eighty metric tons (200 short tons) was taken as an approximate standard.
The catches treated in this way are shown in the third column. In general they fall gradually
from the first year 1925 to 1930 with a sharp rise to the maximum in 1931. The decline is
associated with the general shortening of the fishing season and the employment in 1929 and
1930 by one or two of the plants of a number of fishing units which were imperfectly equipped
or which fished for part of the season only. The method is too rough to eliminate either of
these confusing factors.
Modifications op Methods p.ased on the Season's Catch.
In Table II. is shown an attempt to avoid errors caused by including boats which fish for
only a part of the season. The table was derived in the following way: The average annual
catches of all boats fishing for the entire season, at each plant considered, were determined and
tabulated. From this the grand average annual catch per boat was calculated for each plant.
The average of these grand averages is the averge catch per boat at all plants over the period,
which proved to be 1,470 metric tons (1,620 short tons). The average annual catch per boat
for each year at each plant was then multiplied by 1,470 and divided by the grand average
annual catch per boat for all the years at the plant concerned. The average annual boat catches
for the different plants after this treatment are shown in Table II. and will be found to all
average 1,470 metric tons.
Table II.—Average Annual Catch in Metric Tons per Boat at each of Seven Selected Plants from
1925 to 1932, considering only Boats -which fished throughout the Entire Season, the Average
Catch for each Plant being weighted to 1,470 Metric Tons.
Plant Number.
Averages.
Year.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1-7.
1-5.
1925	
1,420
1,020
1,380
1,400
1,660
1,390
2,090
1,390
1,620
1,220
1,640
1,510
1,150
910
2,120
1,570
1,230
1,920
1,400
1,260
1,640
1,370
1,290
870
890
1,450
1,490
2,530
1,770
1,220
1,310
1,480
1,410
1,250
2,010
1,610
1,660
1,540
1,210
2,170
1,310
930
1,420
1,500
1,350
1,240
1,460
1,280
2,190
1,580
1,420
1926	
1,330
1927	
1928	
1,320
1,310
1929	
1,460
1930	
1,280
1931	
2,190
1932..	
1,580
The necessity for this somewhat complicated mathematical procedure is twofold. As was
previously pointed out, the boats from some of the plants are equipped to catch larger numbers
of fish than the boats of others. There is, however, no reason why the changes in the catches
of the more efficiently equipped plants should influence the conclusions more than those of other
plants, as would be the ease if such weighting of the data were not resorted to. Such measures
are the more necessary since there are gaps in the data. In the case of a plant (No. 6 is a case
in point) where the average boat catch each year was high, but where the record is incomplete,
the final average boat catch for each year for which there was a record would be disproportionately high. In Table II. the weighted average boat catches are shown for each year. As
the records for plants No. 6 and No. 7 are very incomplete, and as the plants are situated in
districts where the pilchard-fishery has not proven to be permanently successful, averages were
prepared both including and excluding the two plants. The figures in either of the two columns
of ultimate averages suggest that the apparent decline shown in the third column of Table I.
was the consequence rather of a peculiarity of the fishery than a falling-off in the abundance H 58
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
of the fish. The table would appear to indicate that the abundance of pilchards had been
fluctuating about an average until 1931, in which year a definite increase in abundance was
indicated.
Table III.—Average Annual Catch in Metric Tons per Boat at each of Seven Selected Plants
in the Period between July 25th and September 25th from 1925 to 1932, the Average Catch
per Boat for each Plant being weighted to 1,110 Metric Tons.
Plant Number.
Averages.
1
1.        |        2.
3.        j        4.
5.
6.
7.
1-7.
1-5.
1925	
840
430
1,220
1,130
1,280
1,360
1,550
1,080
930
630
1,460
1,290
930
950
1,540
1,150
1,010
880
1,080
920
1,290
1,490
790
640
1,010
1,350
1,580
1,280
710
1,170
1,140
990
1,140
1,410
1,220
1,220
1,270
840
1,860
770
700
930
960
1,110
950
1,100
1,260
1,520
1,180
930
1926	
660
1927	
1,140
1928
1,020
1,100
1,260
1,520
1,180
1929	
1930	
1931	
1932	
Attention was drawn to the fact that the annual catch is to a large extent dependent upon
the length of the fishing season. There is, however, no reason for the belief that the length of
the fishing season is closely associated with the abundance of fish. Accordingly, data were
prepared in which the influence of the length of season is eliminated. This was done by
determining, for the same seven plants, the average catches made by each boat Ashing continuously throughout the two-month period at the height of the fishing season. These data
were treated in the same way as those in Table II. and are presented in Table III. They show,
if any trend, a slight increase in the catch with the growth of the fishery, probably the result
of improved fishing methods. Table III. agrees with Tables I. and II. in indicating a well-
marked increase in the catch for unit effort in the 1931 season.
Methods based on the Catch per Boat per Day.
The results of an attempt to overcome the influence on the fishery of the varying length
of season are shown in Table III. The change in length of season may be compensated for
by another method. That method is by dividing the annual catch by a factor representative
of the length of the season. In the present case the catch in metric tons has been divided by
the aggregate number of days for which the boats making the catch were engaged in fishing.
Accordingly, the result is in the form of tons per boat per day.
Table IV.—Average Catch in Metric Tons per Boat per Day at Seven Selected Plants for each
Year from 1925 to 1932, the Average Catch for each Plant being weighted to 15.8 Metric
Tons per Boat per Day.
Plant Number.
Averages.
Year.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1-7.
1-5.
1925	
1926	
12.6
6.1
9.4
15.0
19.4
19.2
26.6
18.0
13.8
11.0
16.5
15.7
12.9
14.2
21.6
20.4
13.9
13.5
16.1
13.1
18.1
20.1
11.5
9.0
9.3
15.1
22.6
23.0
19.9
11.9
13.0
14.5
13.7
15.6
22.2
19.8
16.8
18.6
12.0
24.1
13.0
10.3
13.6
13.7
12.8
13.4
10.8
1927	
1928	
12.8
13.5
1929	
1930	
15.8
18.3
1931	
1932	
23.4
19.5 CATCH STATISTICS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARD.
H 59
In calculating the results, boats making catches of less than 450 metric tons (500 short
tons) were not included. Boats were considered to start fishing on the day of their first catches
and to fish continuously until three days after their last catch. This procedure was followed
even where definite information was available concerning the dates on which units started and
stopped operations. It is realized that in many cases a seine-boat may be used in scouting for
several weeks before the first catch is made in the season, but it seems inadvisable to consider
this time, as to do so in the present connection is to imply that because fish are not showing
they do not exist. The influence on the catches of weather, wildness, lack of visibility of the
fish during the fishing season, time taken off for repairs, and closed seasons were neglected, as
no acurate method of allowing for these factors is apparent and as they may be expected to
be reasonably constant from year to year.
The catches per boat per day for the seven selected plants were subjected to mathematical
treatment similar to the data for Tables II. and III. and the resulting values are presented in
Table IV. The averages indicate a rise in the catch per boat per day. This is no doubt the
result in part of increasing fishing efficiency on the part of crews and equipment and increasing
daily effort in fishing by the individual crews. The strongly marked increase in 1931 is due,
in part, to the removal of the closed season, the introduction of an opening date for fishing,
the improved quality of equipment, and the employment of a reduced number of selected crews.
However, these factors are not sufficient to account for all or even most of the increase indicated.
Table V. shows the number of metric tons per boat per day for all the plants for which data
are available. The average catches for each district were calculated and are shown along with
the average for the whole coast. The results indicate considerable fluctuation with a strongly
marked increase in the average daily catch per boat for 1931.
Table V.—Average Catch in Metric, Tons per Boat per Day in each of Five Districts
Whole Coast for the Years 1925 to 1932, including all Data available.
and on the
Year.
Barkley Sound.
Clayoquot
Sound.
Sydney Inlet.
Nootka Sound.
Esperanza
Inlet.
Kyuquot
Sound.
Quatsino
Sound.
Whole Coast.
1925	
13.2
13.0
11.6
11.2
16.1
19.2
22.3
20.9
8.9
7.0
9.0
10.2
12.2
12.8
18.8
14.5
16.2
15.2
20.6
14.7
16.6
20.0
26.9
24.6
20.9
21.7
11.3
11.6
9.4
20.7
11.6
10.6
13.1
14.9
13.9
1926	
17.2
1927	
14.9
1928	
12.5
1929	
15.5
1930	
18.7
1931	
24.3
1932	
22.2
Discussion and Summary.
The various methods of investigating the abundance of pilchards by considering the catch
statistics indicate that while there has been considerable variation in the catch in different years
there has been no marked decline. On the contrary, when the length of the fishing season is
taken into consideration it appears that the catch made by unit equipment is increasing. It would
appear then that there is no indication of depletion. However, this conclusion must be accepted
with considerable reservation, as this general increase was accompanied by: (1) Improvements
in the adaptation of fishing equipment to the pilchard-fishery; (2) increased experience of the
fishermen; (3) the concentration of the fishing in the most productive months; and (4) the
extension of the fishing-grounds. Accordingly, it is advisable that the fishery be followed very
closely in the future and as complete and accurate analyses as possible be kept.
All methods of examining the problem indicate that the reward of fishing effort was very
high in 1931. Although this is mainly due to the favourable weather conditions which prevailed
throughout the fishing season, and to the fact that as a result of the curtailed activity in the
industry only the most skilful fishermen were employed, the increased catches may be in part
caused by an influx of pilchards into the coastal waters from some other region, or the entrance
into the fishery of an unusually large year-class. H 60 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
A REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OP THE LIFE-HISTORY OF
THE BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARD.
By John Lawson Hart, Pacific Biological Station.
In 1929 an investigation of the pilchard was begun to examine the factors which bear on
the abundance of that species. At the outset this work was under the combined auspices of
the Biological Board of Canada and the Department of Fisheries of the Province of British
Columbia. It continued so for two years and has since been carried on under the Biological
Board of Canada alone.
The ideal way of conducting an investigation with such a purpose would be to make a
thorough study of the life-history of the fish to discover just what factors were principally
involved in controlling its abundance. However, an investigation of that kind would be tremendously complicated ; for the abundance of any species of fish may be fairly said to depend
on all of the following factors, and no doubt on others as well: The number of spawning fish;
the proportion of males and females among the spawning fish; the average number of eggs
produced by a female fish; the proportion of eggs properly fertilized; the proportion of fertilized
eggs to live through to the hatching stage; the supply of food available for the newly hatched
fry at the time when they are ready to begin feeding.
It is believed that in many species the food-supply of the very young fry is the most
important single feature in determining the number of fish surviving from a spawning, and
it again is a complicated factor depending on such conditions as water temperature, amount
of sunshine, currents, the concentrations in solution in the sea-water of some of the less common
substances necessary for the development of the fodder plants and animals, the extent to which
the eggs are distributed in the sea, and the length of time over which the spawning season lasts.
Even after the young fish have hatched and have got beyond the stage where starvation for a
few days may prove fatal, they are subjected to an unknown extent to influences which
materially affect their numbers. For at each stage of the life-history the developing fish are
liable to the attacks of predatory animals, and as they approach maturity the numbers of
the species become open to reduction by the fishing activities of man.
Consideration of almost any one of the factors enumerated will suggest that it is only to
be completely understood by making a long and painstaking investigation, and further consideration will show that, to make any real progress in the major problem, not one but all of the
factors listed must be comprehended and evaluated.
Since the problem is so complicated and touches upon so many fields it is expedient to
seek a satisfactory short-cut to the essential information in regard to the factors governing
the success of the fishery. In the cases of a number of investigations on several species of
fish such a short-cut is provided by studying the age composition of the commercial catch.
Doing so throws but little light on the relative importance of the various factors already
mentioned, but it does provide a comparative measure of the total effect each year of all the
factors listed and thus provides a basis for more detailed work. Fortunately, moreover, this
total effect is the one which is of the most direct concern to mankind, since the success of any
fishery depends upon the entrance into it of a succession of annual broods of fish, and the size
of the broods and the age at which they enter the fishery is usually the prime factor in determining the success and the nature of the fishery. Short-cuts based on the principle of examining
the age composition of the catch have been of great usefulness in explaining the fluctuations
of abundance in the European herring-fisheries and the cycles in the runs of Pacific salmons,
and they are at present being used with considerable success to elucidate the vagaries of the
herring runs in British Columbia. In the case of the pilchard the principle of this short method
was followed, but special difficulties were encountered which made its most simple application
impossible.
The usual custom in making a study of the age composition of the catch in a commercial
fishery is to examine the scales from a truly representative sample of the commercial catch.
In many cases the scales are found to have on them marks of some kind indicating the times
when growth has been arrested by winter conditions or the drain placed upon the fish by
spawning. Accordingly, by examining the scales it is an easy matter to determine the age of
the individual fish.    From information obtained in this way for a great number of fish it is a LIFE-HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARD. H 61
simple matter to determine the size of the contribution to the fishery made by the broods from
each year. The familiar studies on the herring and the salmons have been carried out in this
way. However, some kinds of fish have either no scales or have scales too small for any marks
that might be on them to be readily interpreted with certainty. The sturgeon and the halibut,
respectively, are examples of such fish, and in them it has proved necessary to examine rings
on the ear-stones or otoliths resembling in general those formed on the scales of other species.
It will be understood that before either of these methods may be used with certainty the
hypothesis that each ring does actually represent one year's growth, and only one year's growth,
must be confirmed—preferably by the examination of the scales or otoliths of fish of known ages.
The pilchard has large scales. However, a critical examination of a large number of them
showed that winter checks run into one another in a considerable proportion of the cases and it
was accordingly impossible to read them with a satisfactory degree of certainty. Unfortunately,
the young stages of the pilchard, whose ages could be readily estimated from their lengths, are
so rare in British Columbia waters that it has not been possible to definitely establish the validity
of the age determinations made by the otolith method.
In view of the doubt in regard to the determinations of the ages of pilchards by scales or
otoliths, little reliance has been placed on such determinations up to the present time, although
material for a study of the otoliths has been collected in anticipation of the development of
suitable methods of interpretation in the future. In preference to using a method that is
dependent upon an unproved hypothesis, the chief reliance of the investigation so far has been
placed on the broad general conclusions that may be drawn from a study of the changes in the
length distribution of the pilchards in the commercial catch from year to year. As fish are
creatures of so-called indeterminate growth—i.e., continue to grow as long as they live—a study
of the length composition of the fish captured each year will give general information in regard
to the changes in the age composition of the catch, and from this it is possible to infer in general
terms the comparative success of previous spawnings inasmuch as they affect the British
Columbia fishery- For example, the fact that the average size of the pilchards in 1931 was low
suggests that the fish supplying the industry in that year were younger than usual.
Although chief reliance has been placed upon the study of changes in length of pilchards, the
other features of the life-history have not been neglected. Vertebra number, body-form, proportions of the sexes, and food have all been the subject of considerable attention. The significance
-and the results of these studies will be briefly dealt with later in this report.
RESULTS.
Length Distribution.
As a rule fish grow quite rapidly in length for their first two years, and in consequence
it is a reasonably easy matter to tell the ages of young fish if it is possible to examine a group
of them that have been taken at the same time. In the case of older fish, age determinations
cannot be readily made by inspection, as the normal variation in length within any older year-
group is large enough to obscure the effects of the reduced annual growth. Accordingly, in
the case of fisheries in which a large proportion of the catch consists of young fish in their
first to third years, a high degree of precision in estimating age distribution from length can
be obtained, but in the case of fisheries depending upon older fish such exact inferences are not
to be drawn from a study of the length composition. As the British Columbia pilchard-fishery
is dependent upon mature fish of large size, the results obtained are somewhat lacking in precision. They are, however, far from being without value, as they provide general information
in regard to the age distribution of the stock of pilchards upon which the fishery depends.
An indication of the way in which the pilchard population is affected by the fishery can therefore be obtained, as depletion due to overfishing would be accompanied by a reduction in the
proportion of the older, larger fish, and accordingly by a reduction in the average length of
the fish.
The most essential feature in collecting the data for a study of the kind decided upon is
that of obtaining a sample of fish for examination which is really representative of the catch
as a whole. The practice eventually chosen in the present case was to measure 100 fish taken
at random from one catch every day on which fish are caught throughout the season. The
lengths, weights, and sexes of all of these fish were recorded, and in addition twenty or twenty-
five of them were subjected to a more thorough examination involving measurements of body- H 62
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
parts, the determination of vertebra number, and the removal of the otoliths. In some cases
samples of the food were taken from the digestive tracts or parasites were noted and preserved
for future examination.
All linear measurements were made by the use of a measuring-board. The length was
considered as being the distance from the tip of the closed lower jaw to the end of the silvery
area on the tail after the scales are scraped away, the fish being straightened out and allowed
to lie limp on the board.
The lengths obtained by this method have been used in several ways. The first use made
of them was to find the average length for each sex each day during the season for each of the
five years. The results of the attempt are shown graphically in Figs. 1 and 2. The first point
illustrated by the figures is that definite differences in average length do occur from year to year.
MALES
FEMALES
250
240
250
~~o TOO
240
0)
a
$250
r>
W
J 240
b o ogco  o
°~ CD
8oo   n°
So?-*0-
^o-^
°#u
.W,
Oqq.?.
T
«°£o_
X
£ 250
7.
240
250
240
<°°
. _   °        rr, r
3 O—C~
O   O
&0-00	
1929
247-7
1930
246-4
193
241-3
1932
244-O
1933
244-3
-Sk-
252-8
ocp on) oco   oo
O   o dODO
252-1
o oo
O     M3
O    o
6> o
oV
^5
-g^r^^
246-7
0
Oo
o»o      o   '
>
o
0
« y.i
;u     -         0  ?
H11^—
3 o Y     OO
0            Off
o          0
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8
o
248-8
2485
JULY
AUG.
SEPT. OCT
JUL/Y
AUG.      SEPT. OCT.
 Ti-oced   by  JL McHuoh    '34
Fig. 1.  Average length of male and female pilchards in each sample during the season at Nootka
and the averages for the complete seasons;   1929-1933. LIFE-HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARD.
H 63
Secondly, it is evident from the distribution of the circles that there is po strongly marked
tendency for the average size of fish in a sample to change during the course of each season.
The fishery for the California sardine depends upon the same species of fish, Sardinops ccerulea
(Girard), but the lack of size trend in the British Columbia fish is in marked contrast to the
condition in the California fishery, where regular seasonal fluctuations in the size of fish are
experienced.
Some length measurements of pilchards from the British Columbia fishery for the years
1926 and 1927 are available for comparison with those of later years. These data were collected
by Dr. H. C. Williamson and Mr. C. McC. Mottley by a method of sampling sufficiently like that
250
240
250
CO
§
2
r-i
J
J
?2S0
X
y
250
240
MALES
o
FEMALES
o
o
o
1930
247-2
1931
242-0
o
O      0     OD
252-7
246-9
247-6
254-9
O  O         O
500      o    o o
00
O
o    080
o
0
3CD     OCD OOO
am o o
0
o
0           o
o
i   o         0
o
0             °c
°    o
o
o
°   „     o
0"
0
o
o
o
o
O          0
o
CD        U°
O
o
1932
243-9
1933
2504
o
0°   o
0
O
0
f? no
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o
o
o    *   °
o c
o     °
o
3
o
0
o
3             0     o
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1
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o
o
o
JULY         AUG.      SEPT.    OCT
JULY         AUG.      SEPT.
Traced by J-
OCT
L.McHu
(?A    '34
Fig. 2.  Average length of male and female pilchards in each sample during the season at
Barkley Sound and the averages for the complete seasons;   1930-1933.
Table I.—Number and Average Length of Pilchards of each Sex sampled in 1926 and 1927
by Dr. H. C. Williamson and Mr. C. McC. Mottley.
Year.
Male.
Female.
Av. L.
No.
Per Cent.
Av. L.
No.
Per Cent.
1926 	
243.4
244.8
180
713
40.0
40.7
251.8
249.4
270
1,038
60.0
1927	
59.3 H 64
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
applied later to make the results comparable. However, the older measurements were made in
inches and fractions of an inch to the fork of the tail, and have since been changed to the basis
now used by multiplying the lengths in inches by the conversion factor 24.1. Owing to the
uncertainties involved in so doing, the results are not to be relied upon for close comparisons.
The average values are presented in Table I., and it will be seen that the two years do not differ
greatly from one another, nor from later years as shown by the graphs.
In Figs. 3 and 4 are shown graphs indicating the number of fish of each length measured
each year at Nootka and at Barkley Sound, males and females being treated separately, since
the sexes are found to be different in average length. The sampling in the year 1929 was not
carried on for the whole of the fishing season, but the fact—shown in Figs. 1 and 2—that there is
no appreciable trend wfth season in the average size of fish indicates that little or no misconception is induced by using the values obtained for only a part of the season. In general, changes in
length distribution are more or less parallel in the fish landed at Nootka and at Barkley Sound,
and no attempt is made in the present report to explain such differences as do occur between
two localities.
MALES
FEMALES
1929
100      100
0           0
1930
100       100
0           0
1931
100      100
0            0
1932
100      100
0           0
1933
100      100
0           0
>.
\Jt Itzr
1
jk
i.
1
i
M
1
L
-^JU
J
L
+ 2
1
ilk
m
L
1
+ 6
....
J
i
L
+ 1
j.
ii
J
u
L
J
1
1
+24
.41
L
♦17
+4
+4
2
00          220           240          260
280
LENG-T1
2
I          MI
00         220         240          260         280
LLIMETEES                      Trace/ &/J.LttrMe*. '34
Fig. 3.  Number of male and female pilchards in each millimetre length group examined
at Nootka each year ;   1929-1933. LIFE-HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARD.
H 65
MALES
FEMALES
1930
50         BO
0             0
1931
50         50
0            0
1932
50        50
0            0
Mi
jmk
J
m
L
 -   '
JfeJ
MM
ftU
t—_,
I......
. ft*
juHfc
k.,
.
j
UUJ
i
+5
.jl
d
1
L
*.«
+7
--■
mJ
J
um
k
1933
50         50
0             0
+ 1
+ 1
2
OO
220         240         260         280
LENGTH
200        220         240         260          280
MILLIMETRES                              TroctJ by J.L.UcHugh '34
Fig
4.   Number of male and female pilchards in each millimetre length group examined
at Barkley Sound each year;   1930-1933.
In order to show more clearly the changes in the length distribution from year to year the
following procedure has been followed: The number of fish of each length in each group has
been reduced to a per-thousand basis by dividing the number of fish in the length-class by the
number of fish in the whole group and multiplying by 1,000. Irregularities in each distribution
were then reduced by substituting in each length-class a figure derived by taking the average
of the original figure and the two values on either side of it. The results so obtained are the
smoothed-weighted values. Average smoothed-weighted values for the five years have been
obtained by adding the numbers in the same length and sex classes for the five years and
dividing by five. Results of this procedure have been plotted and are shown in the top panels
of Fig. 5. The size-frequency distributions shown by these figures may be considered as averages
for the two sexes for the five years in question. The deviations from the average for each year
were obtained by subtracting the average values from the smoothed-weighted values for each
year (not illustrated). The deviations from the averages obtained in this way for each year
are shown in the lower panels of Fig. 5. This treatment has been limited to the data from the
more complete sampling at Nootka Sound.
An examination of these figures leads to several interesting observations. The fact that
in the graphs for 1929 and 1930 the deviation curves are considerably above the base-line for
the larger sizes indicates that in these two years the representation of large pilchards was
greater than the average. This might be expected from the fact that the average lengths of
pilchards in 1929 and 1930 was considerably higher than in subsequent years. Similarly, the
indication of the excessive representation of small fish between the lengths of 220 and 240
5
	 H 66
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
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1 929
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1931
DIFFERENCE
1932
DIFFERENCE
1933
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M   Q LIFE-HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARD.
H 67
millimetres in 1931 might be expected from the fact that in 1931 the average size of pilchards
was the lowest recorded. It is, however, surprising to note than in 1932 and 1933, when the
average sizes of fish were definitely higher than in 1931, the representation of very small fish
less than 200 millimetres in length is much greater. In 1932 and 1933 the comparatively small
sizes of the deviations from the normal as indicated by the closeness of the deviation-curve to
the base-line are connected with the intermediate average size of the fish in those years. The
treatment of data for California sardines by this method shows that the peaks and valleys in
the different curves can be followed from year to year, the same peak being found corresponding
to a little larger size each successive year. This is not evidently the case for the British
Columbia pilchard-fishery, but whether the result is merely a consequence of the slow growth
of large fish, or whether it is the result of selection of fish size by some outside factor, cannot
at present be stated.
Vertebra Counts.
It is of the greatest importance to know the extent of the movements of the British Columbia
pilchards, as the problems of conservation are radically different for fisheries depending on
highly localized populations and for those depending on widely spread more or less nomadic
stocks. Very often problems dealing with the extent of migration are approached indirectly by
studying the vertebra numbers of the fish, using methods based on the following considerations:
Environmental or hereditary factors determine the vertebra numbers of individual fish at an
early stage of development, and the numbers stay constant throughout life, so that fish developing from the eggs of different parents under different conditions usually have slightly different
vertebra numbers on the average. Accordingly, if schools of fish remain in the same localities
in which they were hatched, so-called local populations with definable characters, such as average
vertebra number, will be identifiable, but if the schools originating from different localities mix
together freely no average differences between the fish from different regions will be discernible.
When counts from different localities have been made, statistical methods are available to show
the odds against such differences as do occur being accidents of sampling. As a rule the
occurrence of a difference so great that the odds are 20 to 1 against its occurring accidentally
is considered as being significant.
An account of the work done on the vertebra number in plichards has already been published (Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., V„ 79-85, 1933). The data recorded in that article showed in
some cases statistically significant differences in vertebra number between California and British
Columbia and between Nootka Sound and Barkley Sound. However, it was not possible to
consider that separate populations of pilchards were demonstrated, because the results showed
that the average vertebra number of pilchards in the same locality changes from season to
season. On the other hand, it is not definitely established that separate populations do not
exist.
Since the publication of that report the results of some 600 further counts have been
obtained. The first series of counts were made by Dr. H. C. Williamson in the years 1926 and
1927 on fish corresponding in place of capture to those later sampled in Barkley Sound. The rest
of the counts were obtained in a continuation of the sampling programme outlined in the previous
paper. The results of the newly reported counts are shown in Table II. An examination of
this table and a comparison of the results in it with those already published demonstrates that
the new data confirm the interpretation of the previous paper. In view of the fact that the
results are inconclusive in spite of the large amount of data collected, it would appear that
other- methods of studying this problem must be developed.
Table II.—Results of Vertebra Counts on Pilchards taken in the Commercial Fishery
off Vancouver Island.
Locality and Year.
Vertebra Number.
No.
Av.
o\
P.E.
M
Authority.
49.
50.
51.
52.
Barkley Sound, B.C., 1926-27...
Barkley Sound, B.C., 1933
Nootka Sound, B.C., 1933	
3
7
31
38
159
77
57
231
11
4
20
122
100
417
50.79
50.64
50.63
0.63
0.58
0.60
0.04
0.04
0.02
Williamson.
Whittaker.
Hart. H
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
51
NOOTKA   SOUND     1933
O
00°
°   °       °0
50-63
o
5o  o
o          o
o
50
BARKLEY    SOUND    1933
51
«
D
o
o
50-64
50
JULY
AUGUST
SEPT.
Traced bf/ JL.Mcriugh '34
Fig. 6.  Average vertebra counts in individual samples, 1933.
The body measurements which were made to complement the studies of vertebra number
also gave negative results on a superficial analysis. Accordingly, and since the technique of
treating such measurements is less convenient, the full analysis of these data has not been
attempted.
60
50
Av:
30
60
50
1
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o
o
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o
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1929
Av.
30
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1930
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30
60
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1931
40
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H
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70
40
50
45-2
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1932
70
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1933
JULY
AUGUST
TO
4.0
50
44-5
70
SEPTEMBER      OCT.
Traced by J.L.McHcjgS?   '34
Fig. 7.   Percentages of male and female pilchards in each sample taken during the seasons
1929-1933 at Nootka and the seasonal averages. LIFE-HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARD.
H 69
Proportion of the Sexes.
Female pilchards are more numerous than males. Figs. 7 and 8 demonstrate the percentages
of male and female pilchards sampled at Nootka and Barkley Sound. These figures also show
that there is no significant change in the proportions of the sexes with the advance of the fishing
season and that all seasons are alike in showing an excess of females. The same peculiarity is
shown in Table I.
60
50
Av.
03
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<! Av.
30
60
50
o
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40
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1931
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60
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1932
70
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70
40
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0
o
0
1933
'—/            '
70
40
50
44-2
70
V
Oi
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ft
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER       OCT.
Traced bif JJ-Mcr/ugh   '34-
Fig. 8.   Percentages of male and female pilchards in each sample taken during the seasons
1930-1933 at Barkley Sound and the seasonal averages.
The average size of female pilchards is considerably larger than that of males, as is
thoroughly demonstrated by the graphs in Figs. 1 to 4. The observed proportion of the sexes
may therefore be only a result of the fact that some unknown factor dictates that the British
Columbia fishery shall depend principally upon large mature fish. It is interesting to note that
of 867 pilchards examined at Monterey, California, in eleven samples, 420, or 48.4 per cent.,
were males, and males were more numerous than females in four of the samples and equal in
number in one sample.
Food.
A detailed study of the food of the pilchard has already been completed and the results
were reprinted as an appendix to the Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries for 1931. The
account is based on examinations of the stomach contents of some 250 adult pilchards captured
in commercial hauls. Altogether, 189 species of plants and animals were identified and their
importance in the food estimated. In bulk the most important items of food were the fifty-three
kinds of diatoms, small one-celled green plants which constitute on the average about 40 per cent,
of the food and various small animals related to the shrimps, which together comprised some
30 or 35 per cent, of the food. . The precise determination of the food of the pilchard provides
part of the preliminary information necessary to making a complete study of the extent to which
the distribution of the food in the water affects the movements of the fish. H 70 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
CONCLUSION.
The failure of a fishery may be brought about in several ways. Probably the most common
cause of failure is the exhaustion of the supply of fish through overfishing. In such cases the
decline is likely to be accompanied by a reduction in the average size (and age) of the fish,
since each year that a fish lives it is placed under an excessive hazard through the activities
of the industry depending on it.
On the other hand, it is possible that a fishery might depend for a number of years on
a single year-class of fish. Because practically only one group of aging fish is supporting the
fishery, a failure might be preceded by a gradual reduction in the catch at the same time as
the fish caught got larger and gradually approached the maximum size for the species. In a
case of this kind the fishery would collapse when the dominant year-class of fish had passed
through its normal period of life.
The remaining probable cause of the failure of a fishery is that conditions in the water are
unfavourable for the appearance of the fish. Irregularities in the fishery produced by hydro-
graphic conditions cannot be prevented and are unpredictable from biological evidence.
The results presented in this report may be examined in view of the foregoing remarks in
an effort to explain the failure of the pilchard-fishery in 1933. The facts that the average
lengths of the pilchards in 1932 and 1933 are greater than those for 1931 suggests that the
average age is probably not undergoing a steady decline such as would be expected in the case
of a fishery which was declining owing to overfishing. This observation supports the conclusion
obtained from an examination of the catch statistics reported elsewhere in the Commissioner's
report for this year. On the other hand, the average lengths of pilchards taken in 1932 and
1933 are smaller than those for 1929 and 1930. This relationship indicates that the failure of
the fishery in 1933 was not the result of the disappearance from the commercial catches of a
single year-group of fish which has been the chief support of the fishery for recent years and
finally passed out of the picture. Moreover, the results obtained by Williamson and Mottley
as shown in Table I. are intermediate in value between the highest and lowest values obtained
in later years, and it is evident, therefore, that no well-marked long-term trend in size is
evidenced.    This observation lends support to the foregoing conclusion.
These conclusions infer by elimination that the 1933 failure was related to conditions in
the water, and the fact that the spring and early summer of that year were exceptionally cool
lends support to the idea. An investigation is at present under way to determine the relationship between ocean-water temperatures and the pilchard-catch.
During the course of this investigation assistance has been received from a number of
sources. Mr. W. R. Whittaker and Mr. A. L. Tester have assisted with the sampling. Fishermen
have been universally obliging in donating samples, and such operators as the Nootka Packing
Company, the Northern Packing Company, and the British Columbia Packers have co-operated
with the very best of spirit.    To all of these many thanks are due. AGE AND GROWTH OF HERRING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. H 71
THE AGE AND GROWTH OF HERRING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By Albert L. Tester, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
There have been many inquiries concerning the age compositions of the schools, the rate of
growth, and the age at maturity of herring in the various fishing areas of the Province, and
since the answers to these questions are not only of general interest, but also have an important
bearing on the problem of the conservation of the herring-fishery, they are treated in this article.
METHOD OF AGE ESTIMATION.
It has been recognized for many years that herring and other fishes carry with them on
their scales a more or less complete story of their life-history. Slow growth in winter causes
the formation of " annuli " or winter-rings on each scale. By counting these annuli the age
may be estimated and the growth during each year of life may be traced. A fish with two
winter-rings and three summer-zones on its scales is considered to be in its third year and is
designated by III.
AGE COMPOSITION OF THE RUNS.
Each year numerous samples of herring are obtained from various localities in British
Columbia and the ages of the fish are estimated by the scale method. The results for the past
season, 1932-33, are given in Fig. 2. It will be seen that in the commercial fishery the ages
range- from two to eleven years, but that the runs are composed mostly of fish from three to
six years of age, these forming usually over 98 per cent, of total catch. It is also apparent that
there is a great variation in the age compositions of the runs to the various localities. In
Trincomali Channel on the east coast of Vancouver Island, in Esperanza Inlet and Kyuquot
Sound on the west coast of the island, and in Jap Inlet and Pearl Harbour in the Prince Rupert
District, IV.'s (fish in their fourth year) predominated and formed the bulk of the catch.
In Barkley Sound and Nootka Sound, III.'s predominated. In Sydney Inlet, V's showed a
slight predominance over IV.'s and III.'s. A sample from Quatsino Sound consisted of extra
large fish and was composed mostly of VI's. In a sample from Bella Bella, both IV.'s and VI.'s
predominated.
A further consideration of Fig. 2 shows that the more northern runs are, on the whole,
made up of older fish than those to the south, for, in the former, a relatively large percentage
of fish older than V. occurs and the III.'s form but a small percentage of the total.
SEASONAL VARIATION IN AGE COMPOSITION.
Naturally the age composition of the catch in any locality will change from year to year.
For instance, in 1931-32, III.'s formed over half of the catch in Trincomali Channel, whereas,
as mentioned above, IV.'s predominated last season. It is apparent that these two groups of
fish are the product of the same spawning, that of 1928. Conditions in that year must have
been favourable for spawning and survival since the progeny have formed the bulk of the
catch in Trincomali Channel for two years. An abundant age-group such as this is called a
"dominant" year-class. The VI.'s in the Bella Bella run (Fig. 2) are perhaps a better illustration of a dominant group. In the fisheries of Alaska and "Europe, where herring grow to
greater ages, dominant year-classes have been found to persist for many years and have contributed enormously to the success of the fishery.
THE AGE AT WHICH HERRING BECOME MATURE AND ENTER THE
COMMERCIAL FISHERY.
It will be noticed from Fig. 2 that in Southern British Columbia a few fish join the commercial schools in their second year. The II.'s, however, do not appear to be sexually mature.
The members of a new year class enter the fishery in force to spawn for the first time in their
third year. In the Prince Rupert District a small percentage of a new year-class reaches
sexual maturity in the third year, but the large percentage joins the adult schools and spawns
for the first time in the fourth year.
Unlike the salmon, the herring does not die after spawning. The sexual organs are fully
recovered by the following spring, when spawning again takes place, and normally is repeated
once every spring throughout the remaining life of each fish. H 72
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
It is interesting to note than in Barkley Sound for the last four years the new year-class,
the three-year-olds, has formed about 50 per cent, of the catch each year. In other words, the
fishery is largely dependent on the new recruits joining the adult schools for the first time.
This has not always been the case, for, in former years, the bulk of the catch was composed
of older fish. The present age composition shows a scarcity of these older age-groups. This fact
is rather suggestive of overfishing in this region in recent years.
40
40
20
O
TRINCOMALI
CHANNEL
BARKLEr
SOUND
SYDNEY
INLET
NOOTKA
SOUND
ESPERANZA
INLET
KYUQUOT
SOUND
QUA TSINO
SOUND
BELLA
BELLA
PEARL     -
HARBOUR.
I     II    III   It/   V   VI  VII VIII  IX  X   XI    I    II    III   IV   V   VI   VII VIII  IX   X   XI
IN YEAR OF AGE
Fig. 2.  The percentage age composition of the runs to various localities in 1932-33. RATE OF GROWTH.
Compared with salmon, herring grow very slowly. In Southern British Columbia, measured
to the tip of the tail, they attain a length of approximately 4 inches in their first year, 7 inches
in their second year, 8% inches in their third year, 9% inches in their fourth year, and up
to 10^ inches in their fifth to eighth years. In the vicinity of Prince Rupert growth is still
slower. At the end of the third year the length is less than 8 inches. The average length of
fish in their fourth year at Prince Rupert is about the same as that of fish in their third year
in the vicinity of Vancouver Island. At seven years of age the length is only about 9% inches.
Because of this slow rate of growth the average length of samples from this northern locality
is as small or sometimes smaller than that of samples from the east and west coasts of Vancouver
Island, even though the northern samples are composed of older fish.
A COMPARISON OF THE SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN RUNS.
The herring examined from the vicinity of Vancouver Island were taken in the commercial
catch from October to February; Those from Prince Rupert District, including Bella Bella,
Jap Inlet, and Pearl Harbour, formed part of the spring spawning run taken during March.
The above discussion has disclosed several points of difference in age composition and growth
between these two localities. The northern runs differ from those to the south in the following:
A greater age spread; a relatively large percentage of older age-groups; a new year-class
joining the adult schools in force a year later; often a small average length; and a slower
rate of growth.
Undoubtedly some of these differences are the direct result of differences in environmental
conditions and, in particular, the lower-temperature conditions of the northern waters. The
influence of intensive fishing on age and growth must not be overlooked. Some of the differences
listed above may possibly be attributed, in part at least, to a difference in the intensity with
which these two districts have been exploited since the beginning of the herring-fishery. H 74
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933
PACK OP BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1933.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoes.
Pinks.
Chums.
Grand
Total
(Cases).
52,465
5,579
3,575
1,296
3,297
449
354
841
4,875
13,901
92,746
34,391
6,988
1,775
15,714
677
8,841
128,602
96,642
199,082
10,563
9,757
30,506
83,507
37,369
26,106
18,397
49
267
82
87
827
147
3,251
39,896
3,446
5,068
33,471
60,019
44,306
95,783
5,059
19,995
101,701
172,945
60,434
185,463
93,220
Smith Inlet	
71,714
291,548
353,025
Totals	
258,107
20,266
1,459
159,052
532,535
293,630
1,265,049
21,763 cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table.
8,720 cases of sockeye packed at Esquimalt are credited to the Fraser.
6,531 cases of sockeye packed on the Fraser are credited to Rivers Inlet.
300 cases of sockeye packed on the Fraser are credited to Smith Inlet.
2,905 cases of sockeye and 93,334 cases of other than sockeye packed on the Fraser are credited to
District No. 3.
3,575 cases of springs and 6,988 cases of chums packed on the Fraser are credited to the Queen
Charlotte Islands.
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMONPACK   OP   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, PROM 1918 TO 1933, INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
52,465
5,579
65,769
18,298
10,403
14,948
385
16,815
23
40,947
9,740
103,692
11,366
9,761
68,946
30,754
25,585
27,879
61,569
3,305
6,699
144,159
158,208
40,520
12,013
29,299
1,173
3,909
193,106
2,881
27,061
795
61,393
7,925
10,528
67,259
102,536
24,079
10,658
85,689
12,783
20 169
Springs, Red	
34,391
92,746
13,901
251
13,307
8,165
657
88,495
32,256
21,783
13,776
Pinks 	
Totals 	
199,082
126,641
73,067
277,983
426,473
258,224
284,378
274,951
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
35,385
7,989
25,701
66,111
99,800
36,717
5,152
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
31,655
3,854
4,279
103,248
63,645
20,173
15
51,832
10,561
6,300
17,895
29,578
23,587
817
39,631
11,360
5,949
11,233
8,178
29,978
1,331
48,399
10,691
4,432
23,884
12,839
22,934
4,522
38,854
14,519
4,296
15,718
39,363
39,253
15,941
19,697
15,192
24,853
86,215
18,388
40,111
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
Chums	
Pinks	
Bluebacks and Steelheads
4,395
Totals	
276,855
212,059
226,869
140,570
107,650
136,661
167,944
208,857 SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
H 75
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, PROM 1918 TO 1933, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Skeena River.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout   	
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
9,857
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
58
78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
13
34,559
6,420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
83,996
19,038
19,006
38,768
26,326
582
82,360
30,594
63,527
210,081
30,208
754
Totals	
185,463
233,711
162,986
450,377
220,245
298,709
187,716
407,524
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout	
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
39,168
713
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
131,731
12,247
16,527
145,973
31,967
418
96,277
14,176
39,758
301,655
24,699
1,050
41,018
21,766
1,993
124,457
45,033
498
89,364
37,403
3,834
177,679
18,068
1,218
184,945
25,941
31,457
117,303
36,559
2,672
123,322
22,931
22,573
161,727
38,759
4,994
Totals	
348,859
390,858
338,863
477,915
234,765
332,887
398,877
374,306
Rivers Inlet.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
325
429
5,089
6,571
32
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
342
989
2,386
1,120
29
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
868
7
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
65,581
685
11,727
12,815
7,286
11
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Totals	
93,220
81,709
88,874
138,980
75,126
81,527
69,773
98,105
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
Sockeyes	
192,323*
496
11,510
8,625
4,946
94,891
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
116,850
599
3,242
10,057
1,526
03,584
323
311
24,292
1,120
82
48,615
364
173
5,303
4,718
97
125,742
1,793
1,226
25,647
2,908
56,258
1,442
7,089
6,538
9,038
53,401
1 409
6,729
29,542
12,074
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout	
Totals	
217,900   |   117,445   |   132,274
79,712
59.272
133,21 S
80,367   |   103,155
Smith Inlet, t
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.-
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red	
37,369
354
25,488
46
2
273
1,148
165
20
12,867
122
32,057
268
22
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
9,683
18
60
275
853
113
12
11,014"
33,442
108
178
230
167
19
6
22,682
270
70
2,990
732
2,605
8
17,921
73
39
Cohoes	
Pinks	
Chums	
Bluebacks and Steelheads
5,068
19,995
8,841
87
112
824
133
36
164
689
31
Totals	
71,714
27,142
14.094
52,185
34,150
29,366
18,917
* Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu.
t Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other Districts. H 76
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OP   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, PROM 1918 TO 1933, INCLUSIVE—-Continued.
Nass River.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
9,757
1,296
1,775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
1,439
392
5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,126
84
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
5,540
1,846
3,538
83,183
10,734
36
12,026
3,824
3,307
10,609
3,966
96
15,929
5,964
Chums	
15,392
50,815
4,274
375
Totals	
60,434
85,671
32,881
113,460
29,185
104,877
39,828
92,749
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
18,945
3,757
22,504
35,530
8,027
245
33,590
2,725
26,612
72,496
6,481
1,035
17,821
3,314
25,791
44,165
7,894
595
31,277
2,062
11,277
75,687
3,533
235
9,364
2,088
2,176
29,488
8,236
413
16,740
4,857
12,145
43,151
3,700
560
28,259
3,574
24,041
29,949
10,900
789
21,816
4,152
40,368
59,206
17,061
1,305
Totals	
89,008
142,939
99,580
124,071
51,765
81,153
97,512
143,908
Vancouver Island District.
1933.
1932.    1931
1930.    1929
1928.
1927
1926.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums...	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelheads and Bluebacks
Totals	
18,397
4,875
96,642
172,945
60,019
147
27,611
10,559
70,629
33,403
35,132
28,596
22,199
4,055
16,329
81,965
26,310
24,638
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1,645
102,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
14,248
2,269
303,474
41,885
23,345
5,249
24,835
6,769
220,270
52,561
58,834
10,194
353,025
205,930
175,541
340,395 [ 294,854
300,470
373,463
25,070
5,222
174,383
86,113
51,551
5,383
347,722
Queen Charlotte and other Districts.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
26,106
4,416
135,590
101,701
33,471
S27
21,685
3,514
167,011
82,449
44,977
591
29,071
1,608
34,570
55,825
16,141
446
39,198
1,852
143,781
600,986
61,418
1,204
35,331
1,020
111,263
136,758
56,938
575
59,852
2,806
341.802
438,298
58,455
609
60,533
7,826
252,230
36,481
47,433
973
62,383*
3,650
348,682
380,243
47,183
973
Cohoes	
Steelheads and Bluebacks
Totals	
302,111
320,227
137,661
848,439
341, S73
901,822
405,476
844,114
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
49.962
5,002
305,256
120,747
40,269
1,520
40,926
4,245
195,357
141,878
26,031
497
24,584
2,711
148,727
146,943
29,142
732
47,107
4,988
80,485
113,824
31,331
409
18,350
4,995
21,412
14,818
18,203
2,790
64,473
15,633
30,946
247,149
33,807
3,721
54,677
14,766
165,717
110,300
35,011
702
51,980
8 582
90,464
201,847
42,331
1,009
Cohoes	
Steelheads and Bluebacks
Totals	
522,756
408,934
352,839
278,144
80,568
395,728
381,163
404,793
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet. SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
H 77
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1918 TO 1933, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Total Packed by Districts in 1918 to 1933, inclusive.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
199,082
185,463
93,220 ■
71,714
60,434
353,025
302,111
126,641
233,711
81,709
27,142
85,671
205,930
320,227
73,067
162,986
88,874
14,094
32,881
175,541
137,661
277,983
450,377
138,980
52,185
113,460
340,395
848,439
426,473
220,245
75,126
11,014
29,185
294,854
341,873
17398 77 7(T
258,224
298,709
81,527
34,150
104,877
390,470
901,822
2,03S;629~
284,378
187,716
69,773
29,366
39.828
373,463
405,476
274,951
Skeena	
407,524
98,105
Smith Inlet	
18,917
Nass River	
Vancouver Island...
Other Districts	
92,749
347,722
844,139*
Grand totals....
1,265,049
1,081,031
685,104
2,221,819
1,360,634
2,065,190
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
276,855
348,859
217,900
33,998
89,008
263,904
522,756
17719,282"
212,059
390,858
117,445
11,776
142,939
277,267
604,745
l7745,213~
226,869
338,863
132,274
11,979
99,580
191,252
352,839
1,341,677"
140,570
477,915
79,712
5.862
124,071
185,524
278,144
1,285,946"
107,650
234,765
59,272
136,661
332,787
157,522
167,944
398,877
80,367
210,851
Skeena	
Rivers Inlet*
Smith Inlet
374,216
103,155
51,765
69,528
80,568
603,548
81,153
84,170
395,223
1,1877616~
97,512
267,293
381,163
T73937T56~
143,908
Vancouver Island...
Other Districts..	
Grand totals....
389,815
404,793
176267738""
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE ENTIRE FRASER
RIVER SYSTEM FROM 1894 TO 1933, INCLUSIVE.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
363,967
41,781
395,984
65,143
356,984
72,979
860,459
312,048
240,000
252,000
486,409
499,646
170,889
228,704
974,911
1,105,096
Totals	
405,748
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
492,000
986,055
399,593
2,080,007
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
293,477
339,556
204,809
167,211
72,688
123,419
837,489
837,122
183,007
182,241
59,815
96,974
74,574
170,951
585 435
State of Washington	
1,097,904
Totals	
633,033
372.020
196,107
1.674.611
365,248
156,789
245.525
1,683,339
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
150,432
248,014
58,487
127,761
123,879
184,680
719,796
198,183
91,130
64,584
32,146
84,637
148,164
State of Washington	
1,673,099
335,230
411,538
Totals	
398,446
186.248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
155,714
116,783
559.702
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
19,697
50,723
38,854
64,364
48,399
62,654
39,631
102,967
51,832
48,566
31,655
47,402
39,743
69,369
35,385
112,023
Totals	
70,420
103.200
111,053
142.598
100,398
79,057
109,112
147^08
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
85,689
44,673
130,362
61,393
97,594
158,987
29,299
61,044
90,343
61,569
111,898
173,464
103,692
352,194
45578S6~
40,947
|     87,211
|T287l58~
65,769
81,188
~T467957~
52,465
State of Washington	
Totals	
126,604
1797069~ H 78
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1933.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1918 TO 1933, INCLUSIVE.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
Fraser River	
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
27,611
21,685
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
61,569
78,017
70,260
0,683
16,077
10,340
35,331
"2817277"
29,299
34,559
60,044
33,442
5,540
14,248
26,410
61,393
83,996
65,269
22,682
12,026
24,835
37,851
85,689
82,360
65,581
Smith Inlet 	
17,921
Nass River	
15,929
25.070
44,462
Totals 	
258,107
284,355
291,464
477,678
203,542
308,052
337,012
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
Fraser River	
35,385
81,146
192,323
33,764
18,945
14,757
16,198
39,743
144,747
94,891
11,435
33,590
15,618
20,579
31,655
131,731
116,850
11,864
17,821
12,006
12,720
51,832
96,277
53,584
39,631
41,018
48,615
48,399
89,064
125,742
38,854
184,945
56,258
19,097
123,322
53,401
Smith Inlet 	
Nass River	
31,277
15,147
47,107
9,364
6,936
18,350
163,914"
16,740
6,987
64,473
~351,~405~
28,259
6,452
54,677
21,816
6,243
51,980
392,518
369,603
334,647
295,224
369,445
276,459
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PILCHARD INDUSTRY OF THE PROVINCE,
1920 TO 1933, INCLUSIVE.
Year.
Total Catch.
Canned.
Used in
Reduction.
Oil.
Meal.
Bait.
1920 	
Cwt.
88,050
.19,737
20,342
19,492
27,485
318,973
969,958
1,368,582
1,610,252
1,726,851
1,501,404
1,472,085
886,964
65,353
Cases.
91,929
16,091
19,186
17,195
14,898
37,182
26,731
58,501
65,097
98,821
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
Cwt.
Gals.
Tons.
Bbls.
9,937
1921   	
4,232
3,125
1922	
1923   	
3,625
923
1924	
1925        	
220,000
940,000
1,310,000
1,560,000
1,654,575
1,468,840
1,456,846
876,700
63,251
495,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
3,997,656
2,856,579
3,204,058
2,551,914
1,315,864
275,879
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,826
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
4,045
2,950
1,737
2,149
1,538
926
1926   	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
1 552
1932	
1,603
1933   	 PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL.
H 7£
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, 1920 TO 1933  (OTHER THAN
FROM PILCHARD).
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Year.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1920	
1921              .. i	
Tons.
503
326
485
292
347
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
666
651
754
780
581
223
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,626
3,335
5,647
6,608
4,955
Gals.
55,669
44,700
75,461
180,318
241,376
354,853
217,150
250,811
387,276
459,575
243,009
1922                   	
283,314
706,514
645,657
556,939
468,206
437,967
571,914
712,597
525,533
1923                              	
1924	
1925	
1926	
340
345
376
417
273
249
1927                 	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
352,492
1932	
231,690
439,943
1933	
509,310
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1934.
1575-634-8074 

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