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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF THE FISHERIES FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1934

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OF   THE
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1932
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY Off THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1933.
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B.C,  To His Honour John William Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for the year
ended December 31st, 1932, with Appendices.
SAMUEL LYNESS HOWE,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia, December 31st, 1932. 	
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1932.
Page.
Value of Fisheries and Standing of Province     5
Persons engaged and Capital invested  5
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia  5
Salmon-pack in British Columbia in 1932  6
Salmon-pack by Districts in 1932  6
Halibut Production  7
Fish Oil and Meal Production  8
Pilchard and Herring Investigation  8
Contribution to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Digest)  8
The Halibut Investigation  11
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.    (No. 18.)    By Drs. W. A. and
Lucy S. Clemens : ;  13
Reports from Salmon-spawning Areas ahd Egg-collections  49
The Pilchard-fishery of British Columbia.    By Dr. John Lawson Hart  51
Salmon-pack of 1932 in Detail  67
Salmon-pack of Province, by Districts and Species, 1917 to 1932, inclusive  67
Sockeye-salmon Pack of Entire Fraser River System, 1894 to 1932, inclusive  70
Sockeye-salmon Pack of Province, by Districts, 1917 to 1932, inclusive  71
Statement showing the Pilchard Industry of the Province, 1920 to 1932, inclusive  71
Production of Fish Oil and Meal (other than Pilchard), 1920 to 1932, inclusive  72 FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT
FOR 1932.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF PROVINCES, 1931.
The value of the fishery products of Canada for the year 1931 totalled $30,517,306. During
that year British Columbia produced fishery products of a value of $11,108,873, or 36 per cent,
of Canada's total.*
In 1931 British Columbia again led all the Provinces in the Dominion, as has been the case
for over twenty years, in the value of her fishery products. Her output exceeded that of Nova
Scotia, the second in rank, by $3,122,162.
The market value of the fishery products of British Columbia in 1931 was $11,994,429 less
than in the previous year, 1930, due principally to a decrease in the value of the salmon-fishery
in the amount of $9,415,614, and a decline in the value of halibut of $1,073,096 in comparison
with 1930. Owing to the demoralized condition of the markets, fishing operations were greatly
curtailed.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1931 was $20,750,316, or 45%
per cent, of the total capital employed in Canada. Of the $20,750,316 invested in the fisheries of
British Columbia in 1931, $7,780,S32 was employed in catching and handling the catches, and
$12,969,484 invested in canneries, fish-packing establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1931 was 13,940, or 18%
per cent, of Canada's total of 75,225. Of the 13,940 engaged in British Columbia, 9,495 were
employed in catching and handling the catches and 4,445 in packing, curing, and fish-reduction.
The total number engaged in the fisheries in 1931 was 5,407 less than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery products of
the Provinces of Canada for the years 1927 to 1931, inclusive:—
Province.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
British Columbia	
Nova Scotia	
New Brunswick	
Ontario	
Quebec 	
Manitoba 	
Prince Edward Island
Alberta .,	
Saskatchewan....	
Yukon Territory....	
Totals....	
$23,264,342
10,783,631
4,406,673
3,670,229
2,736,450
2,039,738
1,367,807
712,469
503,609
12,090
$26
11
5
4
2
2
1
.562,727
681,995
001,641
030,753
990,614
240,314
196,681
725,050
563,533
51,665
$23,930,692
11,427,491
5,935,635
3,919,144
2,933,339
2,745,205
1,297,125
732,214
572,871
24,805
$49,497,038
$55,050,973
$53,518,521
$23,103,302
10,411,202
4,853,575
3,294,629
2,502,998
1,811,962
1,141,279
421,258
234,501
29,510
$11,108,873
7,986,711
4,169,811
2,477,131
1,952,894
1,241,575
1,078,901
153,897
317,963
29,550
$47,804,216
I
$30,517,306
THE SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British Columbia for the
year ended December 31st, 1931, is given in the following statement:—
Salmon   $7,195,220
Halibut  1,373,679
Herring, oil, meal, etc  1,058,139
Pilchard, oil, meal, etc  807,842
Ling cod, cod  242,911
Carried forward $10,677,791
* As this report goes to press the Commissioner is in receipt of an advanced report of the value of the
fisheries of the Province for the year 1932, issued by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics—R. H. Coats,
Statistician—from which the following data are taken: The value of the fishery products of British
Columbia for 1932 was $9,914,071; number of persons engaged, 14823; and the capital employed,
$18,935,912. The Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Brought forward $10,677,791
Clams, quahaugs   111,690
Black cod   39,521
Crabs  27,914
Soles  25,372
Shrimps    15,778
Oysters   61,247
Abalone  4,266
Flounders, brill  4,894
Rock cod, tomcod  10,937
Perch  3,893
Smelt  14,928
Sturgeon  3,774
Octopus  1,156
Skate   4,271
Oolachans  477
Whiting, shad   603
Fish-oils, grayfish, etc  62,648
Fish-fertilizer   10,272
Fish-meals   13,256
Fur-seals   7,004
Miscellaneous   7,181
Total  $11,108,873
The above statement shows a sharp decline in the value of marketed products in the amount
of $11,994,429.    Of this amount, the salmon-fishery dropped $9,415,614.
Total halibut landings were marketed for $1,373,679, a decrease in production of 7,299,100 lb.
and a decrease in value of $1,073,096 in comparison with 1930.
Herring-catches produced $1,058,139, an increase in value of $164,164.
Pilchard-catches produced $807,842, a decrease in production of 29,319 cwt. and in value
of $781,767.
The foregoing data are derived from the " Fishery Statistics of Canada " for 1931.
THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE IN 1932.
The catches of salmon in the Province in 1932 produced a pack of 1,0S1,031 cases. It consisted of 284,355 cases of sockeye, 223,758 cases of pinks, 306,761 cases of chums, 189,031 cases of
cohoe, and 75,958 cases of springs. While the pack shows an increase of 395,927 cases in comparison with 1931, the years 1931 and 1932 were still the smallest since 1921. Owing to lack of
demand little effort was made to pack pink and chum salmon. The anticipated large run of
pinks to the Queen Charlotte Islands, which usually makes its appearance in the even years, did
not materialize. No explanation can be offered at the present time for the failure of their
return. The salmon runs to all districts, with the exception of the Queen Charlotte Islands,
were of fair proportions.
THE SALMON-PACK BY DISTRICTS.
The Fraser River System,—The catches of salmon in the Provincial waters of the Fraser
River system produced a pack of 126,641 cases. A total of 218,262 cases was packed in the
Fraser District.    Of this number, 96,621 were caught in other districts.
Salmon transported from other districts to the Fraser comprised 9,062 cases of sockeye from
Rivers Inlet, 800 cases of sockeye from Smith Inlet, and 11,816 cases of sockeye, 28,530 cases of
cohoe, 6,833 cases of springs, 9,428 cases of pinks, and 30,152 cases of chums from Vancouver
Island District. They have been credited to their proper districts in the detailed pack report.
Bluebacks have been classified as cohoe in this report.
The catch of sockeye in Provincial waters of the Fraser River system, including the catches
of sockeye made by the traps at the southern end of Vancouver Island, produced a pack of BRITISH COLUMBIA.
E 7
65,769 cases. The catch of sockeye in the State of Washington waters of the Fraser River
system produced a pack of 81,188 cases. Combined they give a total pack for the entire Fraser
River system of 146,957 cases, of which 55 per cent, were packed in the State of Washington
waters. The combined sockeye-pack of 146,957 cases was 56,614 greater than that of the brood-
year of 1928.
The following table shows the Fraser system sockeye-packs, by months, in Provincial and
State of Washington waters for the season 1932:—
Month.
British
Columbia.
State of
Washington.
Total.
June	
July     	
August	
September	
October	
Totals
7,289
39,147
17,394
1,939
65,769
130
15,632
63,119
1,869
438
81,188
130
22,921
102,266
19,263
2,377
146,1)57^
The above table shows that the larger part of the pack was made in July and August. The
September and October pack of 21,640 cases about equalled the pack of July. In this connection
the principal catches were made in Provincial waters, while 78,751 cases of the State of Washington pack was made in July and August.
The Skeena River.—The catches of salmon made in the Skeena District produced a pack of
233,711 cases, of which 59,916 cases consisted of sockeye, 58,261 cases of pinks, 48,312 cases of
cohoe, and 28,269 cases of springs.
Rivers Inlet.—The catches of salmon in the Rivers Inlet District produced a pack of 81,709
cases, consisting of 69,732 cases of sockeye, 3,483 cases of pinks, 7,062 cases of cohoe, and a few
hundred cases of springs and chums. As already stated, 9,062 cases of sockeye packed on the
Fraser were of fish caught in Rivers Inlet waters and are included in the total for that district.
Smith Inlet.—This district produced 25,488 cases of sockeye and 1,148 cases of pinks. Eight
hundred cases of Smith Inlet sockeye were packed on the Fraser and have been credited to this
district.
Nass River.—The catches on the Nass River produced a total pack of 85,671 cases, comprised
of 14,154 cases of sockeye, 44,629 cases of pinks, 7,955 cases of cohoe, and 14,515 cases of chums.
Vancouver Island District.—Salmon caught in the Vancouver Island District, with the
exception of sockeye taken in the traps at the southern end of the Island and credited to the
Fraser, produced a pack of 205,930 cases. They comprised 27,611 cases of sockeye, 10,559 cases
of springs, 63,637 cases of cohoe, 33,403 cases of pinks, and 70,629 cases of chums. As already
stated, 96,621 cases of this catch were packed in canneries of the Fraser River.
Outlying Districts.—The catch of salmon in the outlying districts produced a total pack of
313,369 cases, of which 21,683 cases consisted of sockeye, 3,236 cases of springs, 41,172 cases of
cohoe, 80,034 cases of pinks, and 166,653 cases of chums.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
Halibut landings in Provincial ports for the year 1932 totalled 16,884,700 lb., as against
18,200,500 lb. in 1931. The total landings on the North-west Pacific Coast totalled 44,503,925 lb.,
as against 43,879,322 lb. in 1931, showing an increase of 624,603 lb. over that year.
Of the total catches in 1932, the American fleet is credited with 86 per cent, and the
Canadian fleet with 14 per cent. Seattle was again the most attractive halibut port in 1932;
landings totalling nearly 22,000,000 lb. were made, an increase of about 7,000,000 lb. over 1931.
The landings in Prince Rupert in 1932 totalled 14,861,500 lb., as against 16,775,700 lb. in 1931.
Halibut prices to fishermen were at the lowest level for a number of years, the average price
paid for the whole season being less than 5 cents per pound.
In 1932 halibut livers became an important product of Pacific halibut-fishing operations.
For these the fishermen were paid at the rate of 12 cents per pound and the demand was maintained throughout the year.   The extra income from this source was quite a welcome addition. E 8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
FISH OIL AND MEAL PRODUCTION.
The total production of fish-oil on the Pacific Coast totalled 10,000,000 gallons. The fish-oil
production in the Province in 1932 totalled 1,547,554 gallons, as against 2,904,406 gallons in 1931.
Of the 1,547,554 gallons of fish-oil produced in the Province in 1932, 1,315,864 gallons consisted
of pilchard-oil. The balance consisted of oil extracted from herring and fish-offal. No whale-
oil was produced. Fish-meal production in the Province in 1932 totalled 15,450 tons, as against
19,847 tons in 1931.    Of the 15,450 tons produced, S,842 tons consisted of pilchard-meal.
PILCHARD AND HERRING INVESTIGATION.
In the Appendix of this report will be found a bulletin on " The Pilchard Fishery of British
Columbia," by Dr. John Lawson Hart.
The investigation of pilchard, along with that of herring, was undertaken in 1929 under a
joint arrangement between the Biological Board of Canada and the Fisheries Department of the
Province of British Columbia. The agreement was continued for three years. The work is now
being continued under the Biological Board alone.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE
SALMON  (DIGEST).
The eighteenth annual contribution to the series of papers on the life-history of the sockeye
salmon, issued by this Department, and contained in the Appendix of this report, is again contributed by Drs. W. A. and Lucy S. Clemens. These detailed continuous records give the
age-classes, sex, weight, and lengths of the sockeye in each of the runs to the principal salmon-
producing waters of the Province for the last nineteen years. They constitute one of the longest
detailed continuous records of any fishery and with each year's contribution the record becomes
more valuable in providing a more comprehensive picture of the trends. A digest of the present
report is given in the following paragraphs.
The Fraser River Sockeye Run of 1932.—The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in the
season of 1932 amounted to 146,957 cases, of which 65,769 cases were packed in the Province of
British Columbia and 81,188 cases in the State of Washington. The percentages for the two
areas are 45 and 55 respectively. The reports from the spawning-beds made by officers of the
Dominion Department of Fisheries indicate that, the escapement to the upper section of the
river was practically negligible, with the exception of that to the Chilco area, where there was
a relatively large run estimated at over 70,000 fish. The failure of any substantial spawning
run in Eagle River following the planting of 17,000,000 eyed eggs from Cultus Lake sockeye was
disappointing as well as surprising. The Biological Board of Canada installed a substantial
and efficient counting-fence below Malakwa and obtained only twenty sockeye. On the Lower
Fraser the returns to the various areas were apparently smaller than those of 1928, except that
to Pitt Lake. The authors point out that there was no expectancy of an increased run in 1932
and that the pack of 146,957 cases was undoubtedly too great for the cycle.
The run of 1933 will be derived from the spawning of 1929. In the latter year the pack
amounted to slightly over 173,000 cases, representing approximately 2,000,000 fish. On many
streams definite estimates were made of the numbers of spawning fish, and these, together with
calculations in areas where hatcheries operate, make possible an estimate of the total escapement to the Fraser River, amounting to 116,000 fish. This is the first time that it has been
possible to attempt an estimation of escapement and admittedly it is far from being exact.
" Accurate determination of salmon in a stream is impossible by inspection and no reports are
available for some of the smaller streams. The figure of 116,000 is undoubtedly too small, and
probably one double it, 250,000, would approximately represent the extent of actual escapement.
" The calculation, though obviously a rough one, serves to emphasize four points: First, the
value of accurate and extensive enumeration of escapements; second, the small escapement now
supporting the Fraser River sockeye-fishery; third, the great disproportion between the catch
in 1929, which was over 2,000,000 fish, and the escapement estimated as possibly 250,000 fish;
fourth, that had the pack been limited to the amount of the previous two cycle-years—namely,
about 143,000 cases—approximately 350,000 more fish would have passed to the spawning-beds
and the escapement thereby more than doubled. BRITISH COLUMBIA. E 9
" The outlook for 1933 is therefore not bright, especially in view of the small escapement to
the Birkenhead River, which has apparently been the mainstay of the Fraser River fishery since
the elimination of the large up-river runs. There is every reason to expect a small return
in 1933."
The Rivers Inlet Sockeye Run of 1932.—In dealing with the run of 1932 the authors state
that it met expectation both in size of pack and general composition. The yield was mediocre,
totalling 69,732 cases, and the five-year-old component of the run was fairly small (29 per cent.).
Nevertheless, there is a bettering of the brood-years which produced the run. The pack is almost
10,000 cases more than that of the brood-year (1928) from which it was more largely derived,
and the number of five-year-old fish is 10 per cent, greater. Flood conditions made inspection of
the spawning-beds difficult. In so far as observations were possible, a " spotted " condition
was reported.
The discussion of this river system falls in general into three categories: (1) The relation
which exists between size of pack and relative abundance of the two dominant age-groups when
the data are interpreted on the basis of a five-year cycle; (2) the changes that have occurred
in the run;  and (3) a review of the characteristics of these sockeyes.
As for the first point, tabulations of the packs and the relative percentages of the 42 and 52
groups in five-year series show in general that when the four-year-old fish are in the majority
the packs are small, consisting of 50,000 to 65,000 cases; when the five-year-old fish slightly outnumber the. fours, the packs amount to 85,000 to 95,000 cases; and when the five-year-olds are
greatly in excess, then a pack of at least 120,000 cases is produced.
The authors are of the opinion that three major changes have occurred in the run in the
nineteen years this run has been analysed—a general reduction in average size of the fish, a
steady decrease in the numbers of the five-year-old fish, and a decrease in the number of males.
The diminution of size has not been a gradual process, but a sudden occurrence which took place
in 1917 and permanently lowered the size standard of the age-groups. Drs. Clemens bear out
their assertion that the run is manifesting a steady decline in the relative numbers of five-year-
old fish by the following figures: From 1913-17 their average was 63 per cent, of the run; from
1918-22, 52 per cent.; from 1923-27, 43 per cent.; and from 1929-32, 39 per cent. The suggestion
is made that since this 52 age-group has a considerably greater average size than the 42 class,
it may be that selective fishing is operating against the older fish. Unfortunate as it is that the
more desirable component of the run should be decreasing, at the present time no practical
remedy for the situation is apparent to Drs. Clemens.
In regard to the decrease in the number of males, they point out that a survey of the table
which records the relative percentages of the sexes in the two dominant age-groups shows a
definite decline in the numbers of the males in both year-classes and a corresponding increase in
females. The authors suggest that, because of the smaller size of the younger age-groups, the
gill-net is selecting only a limited proportion of the 42 fish, particularly of the males. Such a
supposition would explain not only the percentage distribution of the sexes, but also the equality
of the size of the sexes. They say that, should this trend continue or become well established,
greater productivity may possibly be looked for in years to come, because the potentiality of
future runs is augmented with the increase in the numbers of females.
Six traits are discussed by Drs. Clemens: (1.) Uniformity of type is evident both in the
general external appearance of the fish and in the constant growth pattern of the scales. This
characteristic is undoubtedly explained by the simplicity and uniformity of the external conditions of Rivers Inlet basin. (2.) These fish are the smallest of the sockeyes of all the major
streams. The authors illustrate this point by tabulations of the average measurements over a
period of years. (3.) Another character is found in practical identity in average size of the two
sexes in the 42 age-group. In many years the two sexes have varied from one another by not
more than 0.1 of an inch or 0.1 of a pound. Occasionally the measurements have been identical
and in a very few instances the females have been even larger than the males. (4.) The average
size of the fish tends to decrease as the season advances. Drs. Clemens present as evidence of
this a table composed of average lengths of the year-classes plotted on the various dates on
which material was gathered. (5.) The 49 males always exceed the females in number and the
reverse condition obtains in the 52 age-group. (6.) There is a tendency for males to be more
numerous than females at the onset of a run.    This also is made evident in tabulations of data
plotted on dates. E 10 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
The run of 1933 falls in the cycle which is characterized by an excess of four-year-old fish
and fair packs. There is very little reason for expecting a return greater than those of the
brood-years 1928 and 1929, when the packs were 60,044 and 70,260 cases respectively.
The Skeena River Sockeye Run in 1932.—The sockeye-pack on the Skeena in 1932 totalled
59,916 cases, and the reports from the spawning areas indicated a fairly good escapement. In
their report of 1931 Drs. Clemens pointed out that only a relatively small return was to be
expected in 1932.
The run of 1933 will be derived from the brood-years of 1928 and 1929. In 1928 the pack
was only 34,559 cases and the five-year-old fish constituted 53 per cent, of the run. In 1929 the
pack was 78,017 cases and the four-year-old fish formed 67 per cent, of the run. While the
escapements to the Babine area were reported as good in these years, those to Lakelse Lake have
been recorded as very poor. Drs. Clemens state that the expectancy for 1933, therefore, is for
another mediocre run. They further state that the Skeena River is now in a cycle of comparatively low production and that careful provision should be made to provide for large
escapements, otherwise there can be no recovery. By means of a diagram they show the packs
from 1902 to 1932 and that there has been a definite downward trend during this period. Reference is made to the escapements in these years and to the number of licences issued, and the
situation summarized as follows :—
(1.) There has been a decided downward trend in the sockeye-salmon pack on the Skeena
River.
(2.) While restrictive fishing regulations have been enforced, there is no clear-cut evidence
that the escapements have been materially larger.
(3.) There has been an increase in the number of licences issued and a decrease in the
catch per licence.
One point of interest is noted in the run of 1932—namely, the relatively high percentage of
six-year-old fish (63), amounting to 12 per cent.
The Sockeye Salmon Run to the Nass in 1932.—The main points in Drs. Clemens's discussion of the Nass River run are depletion, lack of relation between size of packs in successive
years of the same cycle, Nass River specializations in sockeye habits, and the racial characteristics of the Bowser and Meziadin colonies.
The authors state that, although depletion of run was not evident as early in this river
system as it was in the others, nevertheless severe impairment has occurred. By combining the
packs from 1907 through 1931 into five-year series the yearly averages have decreased as
follows: 45,026 cases, 32,339, 19,673, 23,512, and 15,395. The pack for 1932 totalled 14,154 cases,
a figure slightly lower than the average for the last five-year period.
In regard to the lack of relation between expectation and realization in the packs of successive years in the same cycle, the authors say that " the history of the later years abounds in
contradictions. Brood-years with good packs have resulted in small packs, and vice versa.
Neither have the spawning escapements been a guide in anticipating returns. The reason for
these discrepancies is not clear, unless it be that our present knowledge of the Nass is incomplete
both in regard to pack statistics and spawning areas. Like the Fraser River, the Nass is fished
internationally, but as yet the American pack records are not available to supplement the Canadian ones. Likewise, the Meziadin watershed is the only spawning area concerning which there
is adequate information, although there are undoubtedly others of importance in the river
system."
Since the Nass is the most northerly of the four river systems, Drs. Clemens are of the
opinion that it is to be expected that special modifications in sockeye habits will be different
from those in the other streams. The specializations lie chiefly in prolonged fresh-water
residence and late maturity. Over a period of twenty-one years an average of 73 per cent, of
the fish have spent at least two years in fresh water and likewise an average of 86 per cent,
have matured at five years of age or older. The interesting thing about this is that what is the
rule in this respect in the Nass is the exception in the other streams.
These habits of a longer period in the lake and of late maturity have resulted in a well-
ordered complexity of age-groups which is characteristic of the Nass River. The normal run
consists of eight age-classes which appear year after year in nearly the same relative abundance.
Drs. Clemens point out that the size relationships exhibit two traits: First. The Nass fish
have maintained their average size during the passage of years.   Secondly, there is a very BRITISH COLUMBIA. E 11
close correspondence between size and age; that is, the largest fish are the oldest and the
smallest fish are the youngest. In the other streams size is linked with the number of years
spent in sea-feeding regardless of ultimate age.
The authors call attention to yet another characteristic, that of seasonal succession. That
is to say, that year after year the various age-groups have definite times for entering the run,
reaching their maximum number, and dwindling.
In summarizing the discussion of the Bowser and Meziadin colonies, Drs. Clemens say : " In
brief, then, it appears that there are two races of Nass sockeyes, one associated with Meziadin
Lake and the other presumably with Bowser Lake. The late-running fish of the former group
are conspicuously large and their early history is characterized by two or three years' residence
in the lake. The Bowser Lake group appears in very small numbers in September, the fish are
smaller and younger than those of the other colony, and they spend only one or two years in
fresh water. These conclusions are made with considerable reservation, since they are based
on data too limited to preclude the possibility of error."
Since experience has taught that predictions are unwise in this river system, the authors
simply state that the year 1928, from which the run of 1933 will be chiefly derived, is the
gloomiest in the whole history of the Nass.
HALIBUT INVESTIGATION.
(Created by the Halibut Treaty between Canada and the United States.)
The International Fisheries Commission, under authority of the new halibut treaty signed
May 9th, 1930, formulated regulations for the calendar year 1932. These were approved and
became law in January, dividing the halibut banks into areas: No. 1, south of Willapa Harbor;
No. 2, from there to Mount Fairweather, Alaska; No. 3, to the Aleutian Islands; and No. 4,
Bering Sea. The catch in Area 2 was set at 22,500,000 lb.; in Area 3, at 23,500,000 lb., to be
taken prior to November 1st. Halibut-vessels were licensed for the purpose of securing prompt
and complete statistical returns. Two " nurseries " off Masset, B.C., and Timbered Islet, Alaska,
were closed for the protection of small halibut. And the close season was defined as from
November 1st to January 15th.
The provisions for licensing the vessels and obtaining statistical returns were put into force
with the aid of Customs officers and have worked without hitch of any kind or inconvenience
to vessels, a remarkable record. From these returns, complete for every halibut-vessel on the
coast, and from records of previous years, the Commission forecast on September 9th the date
of closure for Area 2 as October 22nd, which was thereupon set as the date of closure, and at
that time the total was 22,800,000 lb., which must be regarded as close an estimate as is possible
under the conditions of a deep-sea fishery. Area 3 closed with the beginning of the general
closed season.
As the closed season drew to an end it became apparent that opening of the season January
15th was for economic reasons too early, and at the nearly unanimous request of the fleet and
trade, opening was postponed to February 1st.
The investigations of the Commission have gone on as provided for by the treaty. The
larger part of the year has been spent in analysis of the catches and preparation of reports,
dealing with the statistics of the fishery and those phases of the life-history that are necessary
to guide regulations.
The condition of the spawning-grounds off British Columbia and South-eastern Alaska
continues to hold the attention of the Commission. A vessel was chartered from March 16th
to July 3rd and net-hauls for eggs and larva1 made. The earlier part of the operations, conducted on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, in Dixon Entrance, and Hecate Strait,
corroborate the previous conclusions of the Commission, that very little spawn is being produced
in the waters off British Columbia. The later operations, in the Gulf of Alaska and west of
Kodiak Island, indicate that the development of the eggs, still produced in considerable numbers
in the Gulf of Alaska, is completed there, and confirm the earlier conclusions of the Commission
that the chances of any young being carried from the western grounds to those of British
Columbia and South-eastern Alaska are fairly remote.
As a result of a reduction of the amount of fishing, the abundance or total weight of halibut
on the banks has increased during the last two years.   The increase is not due to a greater E 12 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1032.
production of spawn, but to the longer life and larger size of the fish already there. It will,
however, result in the presence of a larger number of mature fish, and is a first step in the
rehabilitation of the southern fishery. It is still not possible to say that the stocks on the
southern grounds are in sound condition, as biological observations show they are not yet
reproducing themselves.
The statistical work of the Commission during the past year has brought to light the
existence of very important relations between the intensity of the fishery and the abundance or
pounds of fish on the banks. The abundance of fish in each year seems to vary almost inversely
to the intensity of the fishery in the two years preceding, if allowance is made for changes due
to the amount of spawn produced in the years from which the stock are derived. The seeming
exactness of the relation makes probable in the near future the prediction of the results to be
obtained by any limitation of the total catch, and in consequence ensures the ultimate success of
the Commission in conserving the fishery. LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. E 13
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 18.)
By Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
and Lucy S. Clemens, Ph.D.
INTRODUCTION.
While not large, the runs of sockeye salmon to the four main river systems of the Province
were all that could be expected, considering the brood-years from which they were derived. The
escapements to the Nass and Skeena Rivers were reported as good and the packs were apparently
not excessive. On the other hand, the escapements to Rivers Inlet were stated as being " spotty "
and to the Fraser River as generally disappointing. There can be no doubt but that the catches
in these two areas were too large.
Conditions with respect to the Nass and Fraser Rivers continue to be most unsatisfactory
and rehabilitation of the runs to these rivers must await international co-operation.
In this report the discussions of the various river systems are not uniform. In the cases of
Rivers Inlet and the Nass River the characteristics of the fish composing the runs are described
in considerable detail, while for the Fraser and Skeena Rivers attention is given largely to the
conditions of the fishery.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating
the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the fish migrates
from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers, one in large type, which
indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to the right and below, which
signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water. The age-groups which are met
most commonly in these river systems are:—
3-p 41—" the sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature at the ages
of three and four respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and mature at the
age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four and five
respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five and six
respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at. the ages of six and seven
respectively.
1.   THE FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1932.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in the season of 1932 amounted to 146,957 cases, of
which 65,769 cases were packed in the Province of British Columbia and 81,188 cases in the State
of Washington (Table I.).    The percentages for the two areas are 45 and 55 respectively.
Because of financial conditions, the usual annual inspection of the spawning areas by
Mr. J. P. Babcock was omitted after an unbroken record of twenty-nine years. Much as this
is regretted, for many reasons, including the value of a continuous record by an observer with
the experience possessed by Mr. Babcock, it is fortunate that reports have been made available
through the courtesy of the Dominion Department of Fisheries. The reports indicate that the
escapement to the upper section of the river was practically negligible, with the exception of
that to the Chilco area, where there was a relatively large run estimated at over 70,000 fish.
One of the outstanding and, at the same time, disappointing features was the failure of a
substantial return to Eagle River following the planting in 1928 of 17,000,000 Cultus Lake eyed sockeye-eggs, which would be the equivalent of the natural spawning of between 8,000 and
10,000 fish. The Biological Board of Canada installed a counting-fence below Malakwa to
intercept any possible return and obtained twenty sockeye, of which one was a three-year-old
and therefore a return from an experiment of 1929. In conjunction with this planting experiment, the Biological Board of Canada released, in the summer of 1929, in Eagle River at Taft,
123,550 marked fingerlings resulting from eggs taken at Cultus Lake and reared in ponds at
Taft. None of the fish taken at Malakwa were marked fish, but twelve marked individuals
were taken by commercial fishermen in the Lower Fraser River and one appeared at the
counting-fence at Cultus Lake. Experiments have been continued at Eagle River by the
Biological Board and the results will be awaited with interest.
On the Lower Fraser the returns to the various areas were apparently below those of 1928,
with the exception of that to Pitt Lake.
In the report for 1931 it was pointed out that there was no indication of an increased run
in 1932. While the pack put up was the largest since 1912, there is nothing in the record to
indicate that such a take was justified, and the reports from the spawning-beds form substantial
evidence of failure to provide for reasonable escapement. The situation is quite comparable
with that of the year previous. Had a pack of 100,000 cases been taken, half a million more
fish would have reached the spawning-beds and over 1,000,000,000 additional eggs would have
been placed on the spawning-beds.
While the situation with respect to the lack of control of the fishery is quite well understood,
the facts are repeated to emphasize again that, at the present time, no panacea is apparent for
the cure of depleted runs. Increased escapements appear to be the logical remedy. Where
depletion is not in evidence there must be constant vigilance. Fluctuations will always occur
in the production of fish as in the production of wheat. Some years are particularly favourable
for incubation and early growth, while others are extremely adverse. There is a definite need
for research in this field, and undoubtedly the time will come when a system of continuous
record of conditions will be set up analogous to the system of meteorological records. More
reliable predictions may then be possible, but in the meantime a very conservative policy is
imperative.
The year 1933 brings around once more the cycle of the once " big year " which was so
tragically destroyed in 1913. The pack reached its lowest point in 1921, with 142,000 cases.
There was a slightly larger pack in 1925 of 147,000 cases, followed in 1929 by a much increased
cateh of 173,000 cases. The reports from the spawning-beds in 1929 show that there was a
much increased escapement to Stuart Lake, but that the Indians took approximately 9,000 fish,
leaving the beds " but little, if any, better seeded than in recent years." The return to the Chilco
area was estimated as in the neighbourhood of 70,000 fish. The escapements to the other upper
areas are reported as approximately as follows: Quesnel, 1,000; Bowron, 1,000 ; Seton, 700;
Shuswap, 10,000. A number entered the North Thompson River but were nearly all taken by
the Indians. On the lower portion of the river the number of fish reaching the Birkenhead
River was relatively very small and only lS.OOO.OOO eggs were collected. This would represent
about 9.000 fish. Since the hatchery take is stated as constituting 95 per cent, of the run, the
total escapement could scarcely have been in excess of 12,000 fish. At Pitt Lake 5,315,000 eggs
were taken, representing 2,650 fish. The number of fish spawning naturally is unknown, but
may be considered as equal to the number handled in the hatchery operations. At Cultus Lake
the number by actual count was 5,082. No estimate is available for Harrison Lake, but a figure
of 2,000 fish may be taken as a liberal one.    The total for the system is thus 116,000 fish.
This is the first time that an estimate of the total escapement has been attempted, and
admittedly it is a very rough one. Accurate determination of salmon in a stream is impossible
by inspection and no reports are available for some of the smaller streams. The figure of
116,000 is undoubtedly too small, and probably one double it, 250,000, would approximately
represent the extent of the actual escapement.
The calculation, though obviously a rough one, serves to emphasize four points: First, the
value of accurate and extensive enumeration of escapements; second, the small escapement now
supporting the Fraser River sockeye-fishery; third, the great disproportion between the catch
in 1929, which was oyer 2.000,000 fish, and the escapement estimated above as possibly 250,000
fish ; fourth, that had the pack been limited to the amount of the previous two cycle-years—
namely, about 143,000 cases—approximately 350,000 more fish would have passed to the spawning-
beds and the escapement more than doubled. LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. E 15
The outlook for 1933 is therefore not bright, especially in view of the small escapement to
the Birkenhead River, which has apparently been the mainstay of the Fraser River fishery since
the elimination of the large up-river runs.   There is every reason to expect a small return in 1933.
(2.)  Age-groups.
The material for this year's study consists of data and scales from 1,313 fish selected at
random from May 2nd to September 20th in thirty-six samplings. The 42 age-group is, as usual,
the predominant one, being represented by 1,059 individuals, or 80.7 per cent, of the total sample.
The 52 age-group contains 177 individuals, or 13.5 per cent. The remaining groups are represented as follows: 5g, 37 fish, or 2.8 per cent.; Sv 11 fish, or 0.8 per cent.; 4,, 10 fish, or
0.S per cent.; 32 (grilse), 19 fish, or 1.4 per cent. Again this year, as in last, the 63 age-group
is not represented  (Tables II., III., and IV.).
It is interesting to record that the majority of the 53 fish are of Cultus Lake origin, in
that they consist of fish which had been marked at Cultus Lake as seaward migrants by the
removal of certain fins. The scales of these fish show that the first year of fresh-water life
as represented by from three to six circuli and the second by twelve to twenty.
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 23.6 and 22.8 inches
respectively, which are approximately equal to those of their progenitors and of the averages
of the past twelve years. The average lengths of the two sexes of the 52 age-group are 25.3 and
24.2 inches respectively, which are somewhat below those of the year 1927 and slightly below
the average of the past twelve years. In the 53 age-group the average lengths are 24.6 and
23.2 inches respectively, that of the males being considerably above the average (Table V.).
The average weights are as follows: 42, 6.1 and 5.4 lb.; 52, 7.3 and 6.7 lb.; 53, 6.6 and
5.4 lb. All these weights are practically identical with the average of the past nine years, with
the exception of that of the males of the 53 group, which is somewhat higher (Table VI.).
(4.)  Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 601 and of females 712, percentages of 46
and 54 respectively. As usual, the females slightly exceed the males in number in the 42 age-
group with a percentage of 56. On the other hand, the males outnumber the females in the
52 age-group with a percentage of 58. E 16
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Table I.—Fraser River Packs, 1895-1932, an
B.C  1895— 395,984
Wash  65,143
Total    461,127
B.C ......".  1899— 480,485
Wash  499,046
Total  980,131
B.C  1903— 204,809
Wash  167,211
Total  372,020
B.C..  1907—    59,815
Wash   96,974
Total    156,789
B.C  1911—    58,487
Wash   127,761
Total  186,248
B.C    1915—    91,130
Wash...:....:.  64,584
Total  155,714
B.C  1919—    38,854
Wash  64,346
Total  103,200
B.C.  1923—    31,655
Wash :  47,402
Total  79,057
B.C  1927—    61,393
Wash  97,594
Total  158,987
B.C    1931—    40,947
Wash    87,211
Total  128,158
anged
in accord
ince let
th the Foiu
-year
Cycle.
1896—
-  356,984
72,979
1897-
- 860,459
312.04S
1,172,507
1898-
-  256,101
252,000
429,963
508,101
1900—
- 229,800
228,704
1901-
- 928,669
1,105,090
1902-
- 293,477
339,556
458,504
2,033,765
633,033
1904—
- 72,688
123,419
1905-
- 837,489
837,122
1906-
- 183,007
182,241
196,107
1,674,611
365,24S
190S—
- 74,574
170,951
1909-
- 585,435
1,097,904
1910-
- 150,432
248,014
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
1912—
- 123,879
184,680
1913-
- 719,796
1,673,099
1914-
- 198.183
335,230
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
1916—
- 32,146
84,637
1917-
- 148,164
411,538
1918-
- 19,697
50,723
116,783
559,702
70,420
1920—
- 48,399
62,654
1921-
- 39,631
102,967
1922-
- 51,832
48,566
111,053
142,598
100,398
1924—
- 39,743
69,369
1925-
— 35,385
112,023
1926-
- 85,689
44,673
109,112
147,408
130,362
1928—
- 29,299
61,044
1929-
— 61,569
111,898
1930-
- 103,692
352,194
90,343
173,467
455, S86
1932-
- 65,769
81,188
146,957 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
E 17
Table II.—Fraser River Sockeyes, 1.932, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age, Sex, and
Length, and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
h
p
2
53
31
h
i
2
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
11.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
16	
o
6
9
21
19
10
8
9
0
9
11
25
34
67
77
61
47
24
15
o
2
1
1
1
1
3
15
21
19
18
16
10
17
27
44
109
111
88
60
23
7
3
1
2
4
4
5
3
1
5
4
4
3
9
16
12
7
9
5
6
2
1
5
6
o
2
1
5
9
S
12
10
8
4
1
	
......
1
1
1
2
3
2
1
	
1
2
2
3
5
5
2
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
2
1
1
3
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
ley.	
o
17	
2
5
18	
18V,	
12
24
19	
44
43
20...    	
20 y>
33
28
21 	
2iy,	
31
39
22	
22 y.	
48
65
23.. 	
231/,	
143
165
24.   ,	
24 y>
171
156
25	
25 V-.
104
76
26	
26y,	
54
31
27	
27V3	
28	
9
12
6
281/,              	
6
29	
2
Totals    	
465   |   594
102
75
11
26
6
5
2
8
15
4
1,313
Average lengths—
23.6
22.8
25.3
24.2
24.6
23.2
21.9
21.5
23.0
23.4
18.7
17.0 E 18
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Table III.—Fraser River Sockeyes, 193%
and Weight, and
, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age, Sex,
by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
42
5
I
53
h
4i
32
Total.
M.        F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.   |    F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
2                      	
2
9
38
23
17
14
19
40
62
62
47
49
39
25
11
5
2
1
1
15
47
32
20
34
67
119
113
65
46
15
12
7
1
1
3
7
6
8
5
8
10
8
3
4
6
7
6
9
4
1
5
1
1
1
4
8
5
2
7
7
7
10
11
1
7
4
1
1
1
2
1
4
1-
2
2
4
3
8
1
3
2
1
    I   	
1
1
1
1
2
5
4
2
2
1
1
2
0
2y	
30
3                      	
1
1
2
2
3
2
92
3y,         	
64
4	
56
4y	
71
5 	
10S
51/,                 	
178
6                      	
192
6y,                 	
1
2
1
149
7                   	
109
7y„                          	
85
8	
68
8% 	
9	
41
26
9Vi	
15
10	
ioy,    	
•     11
4
11  	
liy,               	
1
6
12	
1
Totals	
465
594
102
75
11
26
6
5
2
8
15
4
1,313
Average weights....
6.1
5.4
7.3
6.7
6.6
5.4
4.9
4.4
5.7
5.9
3.0
3.4
Table IV.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Percentages of the Year-classes from 1920 to 1932.
Year.
42
52
53
63
h
41
h
h
1920	
69.6
78.1
70.5
67.1
68.2
67.9
66.1
84.6
71.4
77.3
75.7
79.0
80.7
21.2
14.6
9.3
10.8
18.7
24.9
20.3
7.5
18.8
11.9
19.6
13.1
13.5
6.2
4.1
4.5
3.9
9.2
3.4
5.2
3.0
5.3
7.8
2.8
1.3
2.8
0.2
0.7
2.0
1.2
0.5
0.2
1.6
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.5
1.9
0.5
6.3
6.7
0.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
2.0
0.1
0.2
2.0
0.8
0.9
2.0
5.6
9.9
2.0
0.0
2.5
2.2
0.7
0.1
0.7
2.0
0.8
0.9
0.4
0.8
0.6
2.1
1.0
2.5
0.5
2.6
1.4
1921	
1922	
1923   	
0.9
0.0
1924	
0.1
1925	
1926	
0.8
0 2
1927   	
1928 - -    ...
1929    	
0.3
0 1
1930     	
1931      	
1932 "...	 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
E 19
Table V.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Average Lengths of Principal Classes from 1920 to 1932.
Year.
42
52
53
<53
?i
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1920	
24.1
23.7
24.0
24.3
23.8
23.5
22.0
24.1
23.4
23.7
24.4
23.4
23.2
23.0
23.0
23.3
22.8
22.9
22.3
23.1
23.0
22.9
23.6
22.8
25.7
25.9
25.8
25.8
24.9
25.8
24.6
26.1
25.5
25.5
26.2
25.6
24.6
24.6
24.1
24.8
23.9
24.6
24.0
24.6
24.7
24.3
24.6
24.6
24.3
23.5
24.2
23.7
24.0
23.2
21.7
24.2
24.8
24.4
24.3
23.2
22.7
22.9
22.7
22.0
22.4
22.0
23.4
23.7
23.0
24.1
25.7
25.4
26.3
24.3
25.5
25.3
27.1
26.2
26.7
24.3
24.9
23.7
24.6
26.0
24.8
26.0
23.3
23.0
23.3
21.9
22.5
23.4
23.4
19.1
22.5
21.5
21.8
22.6
22.7
20.4
21.7
22.5
22.2
18.7
23.0
20.7
21.6
25.5
25.5
25.2
25.2
25.4
25.1
19.8
25.0
24.7
25.3
24.3
1921	
1922	
24.2
1923	
24.1
1924...	
24.4
1925...	
1920	
24.6
1927	
24.5
192S	
1929	
24.0
1030	
23.2
1931	
22.5
Average lengths	
23.8
23.0
25.6
24.5
23.8
23.0
25.8
24.9
22.3
21.6 | 24.6
24.0
1932
23.6
22.8
25.3
24.2
24.6
23.2
21.9
21.5
23.0
23.4
Table VI.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Average Weights of Principal Classes from 1922 to 1932.
H
52
53
63
H
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1922	
6.4
6.6
5.8
5.2
6.1
6.0
6.0
0.9
5.S
5.7
5.8
5.2
4.9
5.5
5.5
5.3
6.1
5.2
7.0
7.8
7.0
6.2
7.3
7.4
7.2
7.7
7.3
6.1
6.9
6.6
5.7
6.8
6.9
6.3
6.7
6.5
6.1
0.0
0.1
5.4
4.5
6.5
6.7
6.6
6.1
5.4
5.2
5.3
4.8
4.8
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
7.2
7.3
7.4
6.5
8.6
7.5
7.7
5.5
6.5
5.7
5.5
8.0
6.5
6.0
5.9
6.2
5.3
6.1
5.9
6.4
5.5
4.5
5.2
5.3
4.6
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.0
4.2
4.6
7.9
7.3
7.3
7.2
8.0
6.5
6.3
7.3
6.9
1923	
6.5
1924	
1925 . .
1926	
6.6
1927
6.8
1928.. .
6.6
1929 .
6.0
1930 	
5.8
1931	
6.0
6.1
5.5
7.3
6.5
6.7
6.0
5.5
7.5
6.2
5.7
5.0
7.2
6.4
1932	
6.1  I  5.4
7.3
6.6
5.4
4.9
4.4
5.7
5.9
2. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1932.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
In comparison with the Fraser River sockeyes, those of Rivers Inlet are characterized by
uniformity of type. Here there is no succession of recognizable forms such as appear in the
Fraser. The explanation undoubtedly lies in the fact that Rivers Inlet basin is the acme of
simplicity, while the Fraser River system is one of great complexity. The former consists of a
single lake (Owikeno) with numerous short tributary mountain streams and with a large, short
outlet. The salmon spawn in the gravel beaches of the lake and along the lower courses of the
tributary streams. In the early years of this study Dr. Gilbert linked the simplicity and uniformity of external conditions with the constancy of race. At the same time, he wondered if
there might not be minute differences, not readily seen, which characterized sub-races for the
various tributaries. After considerable investigation he concluded that there was no evidence
of the existence of distinguishing characteristics of the salmon populations seeking the different
streams tributary to Owikeno Lake.
It was not only the external appearance of these Rivers Inlet fish, but the character of the
scales as well, which made Dr. Gilbert consider them a unified race. The most outstanding
peculiarity of the scale is the very small growth area of the second year. Although the number
of growth-rings is approximately equal to that found in other streams, the rings are much more E 20 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
closely crowded. A second scale characteristic is the small central area. Limited growth at
once suggests unfavourable feeding conditions. That Lake Owikeno is poor in food material is
not impossible, for it is a cold, glacial, silt-laden body of water, and, such being the case, the
dwarfing during the first season can readily be accounted for. But what about the phenomenally
slow growth during the second year? Undoubtedly it, too. is associated with environmental
conditions. There would appear to be two possibilities: (1) That the first year of sea-life is
spent in regions of the coast where conditions are relatively poor because of scarcity or quality
of food, or because of unfavourable temperature, salinity, or other physico-chemical factors ; (2)
that the stunting of the fresh-water period has a retarding effect upon the growth-rate of the
first year in the sea. It would seem that this characteristic must be considered as impressed
upon the individual year after year by the environment. In this connection it is interesting to
note that occasionally, in the other river systems, individuals with small second-year growths are
met with. Thus a peculiarity which appears as an exceptional variation elsewhere has become
the common form of growth in the Rivers Inlet race.
Here it should also be mentioned that while the vast majority of scales studied, both from
four- and five-year-old fish, conform to the pattern described above, each year a few scales with
different growth-histories are found. One of these is a pattern common to all the river systems,
that of the double nucleus, indicative of two full years of fresh-water life, but here again the
scale is typically Rivers Inlet marked by stunted growth. The other type met with very infrequently in this river is the form common in the Skeena, Fraser, and Nass Rivers, that of a large
nuclear area and extensive growth during the first year of ocean-life.
Just as the scales show retarded growth during the first two years, so also do the young fish.
Dr. Gilbert found that the seaward migrants averaged 1.7 inches in length and the two-year-olds
7.6 inches, against 3.15 and 12.25 inches for Fraser River fish of the same ages. At the end of
the second year the rate of development suddenly undergoes a change and the growth during
the third year is so rapid that it largely compensates for the earlier retardation. Thus the
average lengths of the three- and four-year-old fish of Rivers Inlet are 19 and 23.5 inches
respectively in comparison with 20.7 and 24.25 inches for the Fraser River fish.
The Rivers Inlet run consists principally of four- and five-year-old fish which spend one year
in the lake, and are designated as 42's and 52's. To these is added a small component of fish
which have two years' residence in fresh water and mature at the ages of five and six, the 5,'s
and 63's. Although there has been no orderly sequence in the relative proportions of the four-
and five-year-old fish in successive years, the five-year cycle has been pre-eminent, as Dr. Gilbert
suggested. On this basis the data can best be interpreted. In the following table (A) the packs
are arranged horizontally across the page in series at five-year intervals:—'
1927, 64,461; 1932, 69,732.
1928, 60,044.
1929, 70,260.
1930, 119,170.
1931, 76,428.
Table A.
Sr. 1. 1907,    87,874; 1912, 112,884; 1917, 61,195; 1922, 53,584;
Sr. 2. 1908,    64,652; 1913,    61,745; 1918, 53,401; 1923, 107,174;
Sr. 3. 1909,    89,027; 1914,    89,890; 1919, 56,258; 1924, 94,891;
Sr. 4. 1910, 126,921; 1915, 130,350; 1020, 125,338; 1925, 159,554;
Sr. 5. 1911,    88,763; 1916,    44,936; 1921, 48,615; 1926, 65,581;
Series 2, 3, and 4 show the greatest uniformity. In series 2, except for the year 1923, the
packs have ranged between 50,000 and 65,000 cases. Again, series 3, with two exceptions, has
produced packs in the neighbourhood of 90,000 cases.
The yield of the year 1923 is considerably above expectancy and that of 1919 is somewhat
smaller than was anticipated. Inspector Stone's report of the spawning-bed conditions in 1919
throws considerable light upon these two exceptions. He tells us, and the data for the year
corroborate his statement, that the fish were not of average standard size, and as a result an
unusually large number of them must have passed through the nets because the spawning-beds
were abundantly seeded. Thus, although the pack was small, the escapement was highly satisfactory, as was verified by the yield of 1924. Similarly, the unexpectedly large pack in 1923 is
accounted for by the fact that 76 per cent, of the run was the progeny of this same enormous
escapement.
The failure of the pack to reach normal expectancy in 1929 is more difficult to explain.
Inspector Stone believed that the pack was not a true index of the run, because cold, wet
weather interfered with the fishing in the early part of the season, but, at the same time, he did LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. E 21
not find all regions of the spawning-beds amply seeded.    But the return in 1934 must be awaited
for the final evidence of the degree of success which the run of 1929 attained.
Series 4 has maintained from the beginning a high average of approximately 120,000 cases.
Series 1 and 5 show considerably less uniformity than do the other series. However, the last
four packs in the first series are similar to the average range of pack in the second series, and it
may be that, as the years pass, this series will also develop an orderly sequence.
By substituting the percentages of four- and five-year-old fish for the packs a second
interesting relation is brought out.
Table B.
Sr. 1.   1912 (5 years)....79%        1917 67%        1922 18%        1927 17%        1932 29%
(4 years)....21%                       33%                       82% 83% 71%
Sr. 2.  1913 20%        1918 43%        1923 24%        1928 42%
80%                       57%                       76% 58%
Sr. 3.  1914 65%        1919 54%        1924 56%        1929 19%
35%                       46%                       44% 81%
Sr. 4.   1915 87%        1920 95%        1925 77%        1930 50%
13%                         5%                       23% 50%
Sr. 5.  1910 76%        1921 51%        1926 40%        1931 54%
24% 49% 60% 46%
As in Table A, the series which show the greatest constancy are the second, third, and
fourth. Series 2 is characterized by a preponderance of four-year-old fish, series 3 by a slightly
larger proportion of fives than fours, and series 4 by a much larger percentage of five-year-olds.
These tabulations were arranged in 1928 and two of the years, 1929 and 1930, since added,
have broken the uniformity of their respective series. Thus, at the end of the third series, a
reversal of the relative proportions of the four- and five-year-old fish is found. This failure of
the five-year-olds may be at least partly explained by the fact that in 1924 enormous freshets
occurred at the close of the spawning season. At that time Inspector Stone expressed the fear
that untold damage would be done to the eggs. Again, in 1930, the number of five-year-old fish
was far below expectancy. Yet the spawning-bed conditions in 1925 were highly satisfactory.
In the 1930 report it was pointed out that this Rivers Inlet run was manifesting a steady
decrease in the numbers of five-year-old fish. A glance across each series in Table B, or at the
following figures, gives abundant evidence of this fact. Grouping the relative percentages of
the 52's in five-year periods, they are: 1913-1917, 63 per cent.; 1918-1922, 52 per cent.; 1923-
1927, 43 per cent.; and 1928-1932, 39 per cent. It has been frequently pointed out that large
packs on Rivers Inlet coincide with large numbers of five-year-old fish. That the component
which is most desirable is steadily declining is a deplorable fact.
A feature which is discussed more fully in a later paragraph is the size of these four- and
five-year-old fish. At this point it is sufficient to state that the 42's are appreciably smaller than
those in the other river systems, so that the fishing in Rivers Inlet may be operating in a
selective way against the 52's. If the four-year-olds are of smaller size, a relatively greater
proportion of them are escaping the nets and reaching the spawning-beds. At the same time the
five-year-old fish are undergoing relatively more intensive fishing and fewer of them are
becoming the progenitors of the runs. Thus it would appear that the 52 fish, which are the
chief asset of this river system, both because of their superior size and the superabundance of
the females in the group, are likely suffering depletion through selective fishing. If such be the
case, unfortunate as it is, at the present time no practical remedy for the situation is apparent.
Returning now to Tables A and B and considering them together, an interesting relation
between the size of pack and the relative proportions of the four- and five-year-old fish is seen.
In general it can be said: First, when the four-year-olds exceed the fives, the packs are small,
in round numbers 50,000 to 65,000 cases (series 2) ; secondly, when the five-year-olds are slightly
more numerous than the fours, the packs range from 85,000 to 95,000 cases (series 3) ; lastly,
when the fives are decidedly more abundant, the commercial yields are at least 120,000 cases
(series 4).
The year 1932 belongs to series 1, in which there is little relation lest it be the general
relationship between size of pack and proportion of five-year-old fish. Expectations in regard
to the pack of this year were realized both as to size and composition of run. The pack was fair,
totalling 69,732 cases, and the percentage of 52's  (29) was not large.    However, there is some E 22
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
improvement over the brood-years which produced the run. The pack is nearly 10,000 cases
greater than that of the brood-year (1928) from which it was more largely derived and the
number of five-year-old fish is 10 per cent, greater. While the inspection of the spawning-beds
was not made as usual by Mr. Stone, the Provincial Overseer, Major Motherwell has made available such information as was gathered by his department. The observations were more limited
and made under difficulty because of excessive rains and high water. The report states some
areas to be well seeded and others not. While on the one hand it may be hoped that the seeding
was more extensive than observed, on the other hand it must be kept in mind that there is a
possibility of destruction of eggs because of flood conditions.
The year 1933 falls in series 2, which, as has been stated above, is characterized by (1) an
excess of four-year-old fish, and (2) fair packs. The ancestors of the run are the fish of the
years 1928 and 1929, and there is very little ground for anticipating a run and pack of greater
magnitude than those of the mediocre brood-years. The only aspect of the situation upon which
one might base hope for a more favourable return is Overseer Stone's opinion that the larger
fish predominated on the spawning-beds in 1928. These larger fish, which are the 52's, formed
42 per cent, of the run and 70 per cent, of them were females. If this group spawned more
successfully than the 4„'s, there is a possibility that they will outnumber the smaller fish in 1933.
If such should be the case, the run should be greater than that of 1928, which produced a pack
of 60,044 cases.
(2.)  Age-groups.
One thousand four hundred and fifty-three fish gathered in ten samples between June 27th
and August 8th form the basis for the analysis of the run of 1932. As has been stated in the
preceding paragraphs, the run is characterized by the dominance of the two groups which spend
one year in the lake and return as mature spawners either in their fourth or fifth year; that is,
the 40's and the 5g's. To all practical purposes the run consists of these two age-groups and the
only variation that occurs from year to year is in the relative abundance of these two classes
(Table VII.). The age-groups which linger two years in the fresh water and mature at five
and six years of age are always present in insignificant numbers. In 1932 the 53's and 63's
together comprised only 5% per cent, of the run. During the early years of this study, Dr.
Gilbert found an occasional sea-type, but none of them have been noted by the present writers.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
Among the various characteristics of the runs to the important sockeye-rivers, that of size is
undoubtedly the most obvious and readily noticed. The results of this investigation show year
by year that the Rivers Inlet sockeyes are the smallest of the sockeye of the four streams under
consideration. This can be most simply illustrated by comparing the averages of the size
measurements over the period of years (Tables C and D).
Table C.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Fraser—Average, 1920-31	
Inches.
23.8
22.6
23.6
24.4
Inches.
23.0
22.5
23.2
23.6
Inches.
25.6
25.3
25.7
26.0
Inches.
24 5
Rivers Inlet—Average, 1912-31	
Skeena—Average, 1912-31	
Nass—Average, 1912-31	
24.7
24.8
25.0
Table D.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Fraser—Average, 1920-31	
Lb.
6.1
5.1
5.5
5.9
Lb.
5.5
5.0
5.1
5.3
Lb.
7.3
7.0
6.7
7.0
Lb.
6.5
Eivers Inlet—Average, 1912-31	
Skeena—Average, 1912-31    	
6.5
6 1
Nass—Average, 1912—31	
6.3 The average lengths for both sexes of the 42 age-group of Rivers Inlet are conspicuously less
than the corresponding measurements for the fish from the other rivers. This length difference
is especially emphasized in the males; they are shorter by 1.2 inches than those of the Fraser
and Skeena and by 1.8 inches than those of the Nass. The peculiarity is less marked in the
females, but here also there is an appreciable diminution, the range being from 0.5 to 1.1
inches less.
The five-year-old fish do not manifest this feature to the same extent. While the males are
the smallest of all four rivers, the females are smaller than those of the Skeena and Nass, but
0.3 inch larger than those of the Fraser.
The comparative weight measurements show slighter differences. The 42 males are only a
pound less in weight and the females half a pound than the heaviest of the other fish. As for
the 52's, in spite of their smaller size their weight equals or exceeds that of the Skeena and
Nass five-year-olds. Consequently the Rivers Inlet sockeyes are not only a shorter race, but also
comparatively stouter-bodied.
Tables C and D, as well as Tables X. and XL, exhibit a size peculiarity to which attention
has been frequently directed—namely, that there is less difference between the lengths and
weights of the four-year-old Rivers Inlet males and females than there is in other streams. In
twelve of the twenty years for which the average lengths are available, this difference between
the sexes has not exceeded 0.1 inch, and in eight out of seventeen years the average weights have
not varied by more than 0.1 lb. In three instances for length and two for weight, the measurements of the males and females have been identical. This close correspondence in size has
brought about a secondary size trait not uncommon in this particular group of four-year-old fish
—namely, that the females sometimes surpass the males in length or weight. As was stated
above, these Rivers Inlet males are very noticeably small for 42 fish; hence this equality in size
between the sexes is due not to relatively larger females, but to decidedly smaller males.
The complete size variations for the year 1932 are listed in Tables VIII. and IX. In 1931
the averages for both lengths and weights touched a new low level. This year (1932) the
lengths have recovered and are practically equivalent to the general averages. Except for the
52 females, the weights do not show a corresponding improvement; they are the second lowest
on record.
On previous occasions it has been pointed out in these reports that the present size standard
of the Rivers Inlet sockeyes is lower than that of the earlier years of this' investigation. The
decrease was not a gradual development, but a sudden change which occurred in the year 1917
and has remained with little change since that date. This is illustrated in the following tabulations (E and F), which combine the length and weight data of Tables X. and XI. in four
five-year periods.
Table E.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912-16
Inches.
23.0
22.5
22.4
22.3
Inches.
22.8
22.4
22.4
22.4
Inches.
25.9
25.1
24.9
25.4
Inches.
25 0
1917-21     	
24.5
1922 26                                 	
24.5
1927-31     	
24.9
Table F.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914-16    ..            	
Lb.
5.4
5.0
5.1
4.9
Lb.
5.1
4.9
5.0
5.0
Lb.
7.4
6.7
6.9
7.1
Lb.
6.6
1917-21                                                	
6.3
1922-26.	
6.3
1927-31                               	
6.9 The only major differences in these measurements are between those of the first two periods.
Lengths suffered greater reduction than weights and males decreased to a greater degree than
females. The only indication of improvement toward the older standard is in the 52 age-grouT
during the last five-year period, 1927-31.
(4.)  Distribution of Sexes.
In this river system the 42 males always outnumber the females and the reverse condition
is true of the older group. This unequal distribution of sexes in the two dominant age-groups
was one of the earliest characteristics to be observed. Dr. Gilbert was intensely interested in
this sex ratio which was different from the usual equal proportion of males and females, and in
order to get at the root of the matter he examined for several seasons the sex of the yearlings
during their downward migration. He became convinced that each brood-year started out with
approximately equivalent numbers of the two sexes; that their disparity at maturity was a
characteristic which appeared during their later development. In seeking an explanation for it,
he early suggested precocious maturity, and in 1917 accepted it unreservedly when he said, " the
preponderance of males over females in four-year fish and the reverse condition in five-year fish
are both due to the tendency of males somewhat to anticipate the females in age of maturing
. . . in Rivers Inlet, the prevailing age for maturing is five, the precocious tendency of the
males does not seem to extend far enough to bring any considerable number to maturity at three,
but causes a much larger proportion of them to mature at four than in the case of the female."
This relationship of unequal sex-distribution has never failed to exist, although the relative
excess, or deficiency, as the case may be, of the sexes within an age-group has shown some
fluctuation. Within the last eight or ten years, however, there has been a decided change in the
relative abundance of the sexes in each of the two year-classes. In the earlier years there were
three males to every female in the four-year-old class and an average of something less than one
male to each female in the older class. In the present run there is a nearly complete reversal
of these proportions, with a ratio of three to one in favour of the females in the five-year-old
group and a ratio of slightly more than one to one in the four-year-olds. These shifting proportions, then, have been brought about by a scarcity of males, or an abundance of females, in
both year-classes (Table XII.).
As far as the 52 year-class is concerned, it might be possible to say that the tendency of the
males to mature early has become more common and greater numbers of them mature at the age
of four. But, if this is the case, why is there not a corresponding increase in the relative
numbers of the 4Q males? Instead of there being more of them there are fewer. Can it be that
this trait of early maturity has developed among the males of the 42 year-group as well? If so,
it is resulting in the production of three-year-old grilse which are too small to be netted and are
therefore not included in our cross-section of the Rivers Inlet run. It is not unlikely that,
because of the smaller size of the younger age-groups, the gill-net is selecting only a limited
proportion of the 42 fish, particularly of the males. Such a supposition would explain not only
the percentage distribution of the sexes, but also the equality of size of the sexes.
In this run of 1932 the sex ratios in both groups represent new records; the males touch new
low levels, 54 per cent, for the 42's and 28 per cent, for the 52's. Furthermore, for the third
consecutive year the total number of females has exceeded that of the males. Previous to 1931
such a relationship obtained only in the cycle of the large run, 1915-20-25-30, whose success is
apparently directly dependent upon the predominance of five-year-old fish. Theoretically, runs
in which the females outnumber the males are decidedly advantageous because they hold the
possibilities of increased future runs. The returns of the next years will be awaited with much
interest, for, should this present sex ratio become well established, future runs should be
attended by greater productivity.
(5.) Seasonal Changes in the Run.
For a number of years after this investigation was initiated, Dr. Gilbert tabulated the
Rivers Inlet data on series of dates in order to ascertain what seasonal changes occurred during
the runs. His investigation followed three lines : First, which of the two dominant age-groups
appeared in larger numbers at the beginning of the runs; second, which sex was more abundant
at the onset of the runs; and, third, what relation, if any, existed between the fluctuating
average size of the fish and progression of season. LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. E 25
The first point was settled negatively, for there proved to be no orderly sequence in the
relative proportions of 42's and 52's at any given time during the season. In regard to the
second point, although the evidence was not without exception, it showed that as a rule the
males were more numerous than the females at the beginning of the run, but they became less
abundant as the season advanced and were outnumbered by the females toward the end of the
run. As for the last point, a comparison of the average sizes of the same year-class on different
dates during the run showed that there was no increase in size,, but, on the contrary, a slight
decrease. Dr. Gilbert considered this habit as well marked in the Rivers Inlet fish as the
reverse habit was with the fish of the Fraser River basin.
This, year, which is just ten years later than Dr. Gilbert's last tabulations on a series of
dates, similar tables have been made and are here presented in comparison with those of 1922.
The comparison seems a valid one, because the composition of the two runs differs by only 10
per cent, both in the relative numbers of the two age-groups present and also in the relative
percentages of the sexes in each age-class.
In order to place the entire data for the year 1932 on record, dates prior to July are included
in the tables, but these are disregarded in the comparison between the two years 1922 and 1932.
Table XIII., which gives the relative percentage of the sexes on dates, shows that in 1932 only
one age-group, the 52's, had an excess of males at the commencement of the run. In comparing
the figures of 1932 with those of 1922, a steadier decrease as the run progresses is noted. The
49 age-group does not exhibit the same characteristic; the females are more abundant throughout the season. In connection with another problem, the data for 1929 were plotted on dates
and the results are exactly opposite to these of 1932, in that the 42's show the expected excess
of males early in July, but the females predominate throughout the run in the 52 group. Thus
the data of these more recent years do not completely uphold the theory that the males predominate during earlier weeks of the runs.
Tables XIV. and XV. give the size variations during the course of the run. In this characteristic the findings of 1932 (and also 1929) are in closer accord with those of 1922. While the
average size in August- may be greater than that early in July, there is no instance for either
length or weight in which the final measurement is the greatest during the season.
(6.)   Summary of Characters.
This discussion of the Rivers Inlet sockeyes is brought to a conclusion by an enumeration of
the traits which characterize these fish. They are: (1) Uniformity of type characterized by
slow growth in the lake and the first year in salt water as evidenced by the structure of the
scales; (2) size generally smaller than that of the sockeyes of the other major streams; (3)
practical equality in size of the two sexes in the 42 age-group; (4) a tendency toward slight
reduction in the average size of the fish at the end of the season; (5) unequal sex-distribution
with more males in the 42 age-group and an excess of females in the 52 age-class; and (6) a
tendency for males to be more numerous than females in the early part of the run. E 26
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Table VII.—Percentages of -}2 and 52 Age-groups, Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, in Runs of
Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
Percentage
Four and Five
Years old.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
79%
21%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
20%
80%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
65%
35%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
87%
13%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
76%
24%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
67%
33%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
43%
57%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
54%
46%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
95%
5%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
51%
49%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
18%
82%
.5 yrs.
4 yrs.
24%
76%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
56%
44%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
77%
23%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
40%
60%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
17%
83%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
42%
58%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
19%
81%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
50%
50%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
54%
46%
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
29%
71%
Brood-year from which
derived.
1912 (112,8S4 cases)	
1913 (61,745 cases)	
1914 (89,890 cases)	
1915 (130,350 eases)	
1916 (44,936 cases)	
1917 (61,195 cases)	
1918 (53,401 cases)	
1919 (56,258 cases)	
1020  (121,254 cases)	
1921 (46,300 cases)	
1922 (60,700 cases)	
1923 (107,174 cases)	
1924 (94,891 cases)	
1925 (159,554 cases)	
1926 (65,581 cases)	
1927 (64,461 cases)	
1928 (60,044 cases)	
1929 (70,260 cases)	
1930 (119,170 cases)	
1931 (76,428 cases)	
1932 (69,732 cases)	
1907  (87,874 cases),
j.   1908 (64,652 cases).
J
1909  (89,027 cases).
[   1910   (126,921 cases).
J
1
1911  (88,763 cases).
}.   1912  (112,884 cases).
J
1913 (61,745 cases).
1914  (89,890 cases).
1015   (130,350 cases).
1916  (44,936 cases).
1917  (61,195 cases).
J
j.   1918 (53,401 eases).
J
1919   (56,258 cases).
J
]
[.   1920  (121,254 cases).
1921   (40,300 eases).
J
j.   1922  (60,700 cases).
L   1923  (107,174 cases).
1924   (94,891 cases).
}.   1925 (159,554 cases).
J.   1926 (65,581 cases).
J
1927 (64,461 cases).
192S (60,044 cases.) LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.                                         E 27
Table VIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1932, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
Total.
42
52
33
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19	
1
1
3
2
5
3
3
5
8
3
1
3
2
4
3
4
3
6
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
4
16
32
132
12S
189
194
150
160
126
101
73
56
33
29
11
8
6
4
19y,     	
4
13
25
73
67
79
70
59
57
39
IS
13
7
2
1
O
6
54
52
96
99
66
43
24
8
3
3
3
11
11
16
6
14
15
38
41
51
40
36
23
12
2
3
3
20	
20%
21	
21 %	
22	
22%                  	
23            	
23y2         	
24            	
24%	
25	
2
15
25%	
9
0
14
5
5
3
4
26
26%         	
27 :....
27%           	
28.	
28%           	
Totals	
528
453
108
284
37
30
.      3
10
1,453
Ave. lengths...
22.4
22.4
25.2
24.6
23.2
23.1
26.0
25.2
Table IX.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1932, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
Total.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2%	
1
2
55
136
119
78
60
31
28
13
4
1
27
122
120
84
60
31
7
2
1
4
2
14
13
14
18
10
13
8
4
2
2
1
1
1
5
14
49
47
46
46
37
19
11
6
2
2
1
9
6
3
7
4
6
1
1
7
6
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
2
85
284
267
234
191
131
110
66
37
22
12
4
4
1
1
1
3	
3%	
4	
4%	
5 ;	
51/2
6....                   	
6%  	
7	
7%           	
8             	
8%                  	
9..
91/.
10.
10%	
11.   	
11%--	
Totals..
528
453
108
284
37
30                 3
10
1,453
Ave. weights...
4.7
4.7
6.5
6.5
5.2
5.0              6.8
6.7
1 E 28
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Tabic X.—Average Length in Inches of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes for Twenty-one Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912                  	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
22.1
22.3
22.6
22.7
21.9
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
22.8
22.2
22.6
22.0
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.6
26.1     .
25.2
26.0
25.2
24.6
1913                                      	
25.2
1914                    .   ..           	
25.2
1915                          	
25.1
1916                  	
25.0
1917	
24.4
1918                                                                                           	
24.5
1919                                      .                      	
24.4
1920                                                             	
25.0
1921                  	
24.2
1922                 	
24.2
1923..              	
24.1
1924	
24.3
1925	
24.8
1926                	
24.6
1927                        ..                                     .......
24.2
1928	
25.2
1929	
25.3
1930                  	
25.2
1931	
24.8
22.6
22.5
25.3
24.7
1932	
22.4
22.4
25.2
24.6
Tame XI.—Average Weight in Pounds of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes for Eighteen Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914     	
5.4
5.3
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.0
4.9
4.5
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.0
4.8
4.8
4.6
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.6
7.5
6.7
6.8
1915	
6.6
1916	
6.7
1917	
6.2
1918	
6.7
1919	
5.9
1921	
6.0
1922	
7.0
1923	
5.9
1924	
0.1
1925	
6.2
1926	
6.3
1927	
7.6
1928	
6.7
1929	
6.7
1930	
6.9
1931	
6.4
5.1
5.0
7.0
6.5
1932      ..
4.7
4.7
6.5
6 5 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
E 29
Table XII.—Relative Numbers of Males and Females, Rivers Inlet Sockeyes,
of the li2 and 52 Groups, 1915 to 1932.
Average Percentages.
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Total
Females.
1915	
1916...	
1917	
1918 	
1919	
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923   	
1924	
1925	
1926...	
1927     	
1928	
1929   	
1930 :	
1931	
74
75
74
79
74
65
66
71
74
66
03
68
63
57
56
59
54
26
25
26
21
26
35
34
29
26
34
37
32
37
43
44
41
46
40
42
49
45
48
38
38
33
31
34
32
36
30
36
37
33
28
60
58
51
55
52
62
62
67
69
66
68
64
70
64
63
67
72
45
52
53
66
58
49
51
61
62
50
41
51
62
51
53
47
47
46
55
48
47
34
42
51
49
39
38
50
59
49
38
49
47
53
53
1932      	
54
Table XIII.—Percentages of Males and Females in Rivers Inlet Sockeyes occurring on
Different Dates, Seasons of 1922 and 1932.
Date.
Four-year Males.
Four-year Females.
Five-year Males.
Five-year
Females.
1922.
1932.
1922.
1932.
1922.
1932.
1922.
1932.
June 27	
90
78
04
76
59
45
32
57
32
21
24
13
25
29
10
22
30
24
41
55
68
43
68
79
76
87
75
71
57
38
27
33
42
10
77
64
71
50
48
44
37
37
43
62
73
07
58
90
23
June 30	
36
July 6-10	
July 12-18	
July 20   	
29
50
52
July 22
56
July 24-25	
Aug. 5—8	
63
63
Table XIV.—Average Lengths in Inches of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Runs of 1922 and 1932,
on a Series of Dates.
Four-year Males.
ITour-year
Females.
Five-tear Males.
Five-year
Females.
Date.
1922.
1932.
1922.
1932.
1922.
1932.
1922.
1932.
June 27    	
22.2
22.7
22.7
22.8
22.3
22.2
21.8
22.1
22.2
23.2
22.6
22.7
22.6
22.8
22.7
22.6
22.5
22.7
22.2
22.4
22.2
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.4
22.9
22.4
22.3
24.7
25.2
24.3
24.2
24.0
21.0
24.3
23.9
24.9
26.0
25.0
25.7
25.7
25.6
23.9
24.3
23.9
24.9
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
July 6-10	
24.7
July 12-18	
July 20	
24.6
24.4
July 22    .            	
24.4
July 24-25              	
24.6
Aug. 5-8                  	
24.6 E 30
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Table XV.—Average Weights in Pounds of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Runs of 1922 and 1932,
on a Series of Dates.
Date.
Four-year Males.
1922.
1932.
Four-year Females.
1922.
1932.
Five-year Males.
1922.
1932.
Five-year Females.
1922.
1932.
June 27	
June 30	
July 6-10..
July 12-18
July 20	
July 22......
July 24-25
Aug. 5-8....
5.7
0.1
6.1
6.2
6.0
5.7
4.1
4.3
4.6
5.5
5.0
5.1
4.9
5.3
5.9
5.9
6.1
5.8
5.8
4.2
4.2
4.6
4.7
4.8
5.0
4.7
4.8
7.4
7.6
7.3
6.8
6.8
5.5
5.3
5.2
6.3
7.4
6.2
7.2
6.7
7.1
6.9
7.1
6.6
7.1
7.3
6.7
5.2
5.3
6.0
6.4
6.0
6.2
6.1
6.4
3. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1932.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The pack on the Skeena River amounted to 59,910 cases. No inspection of the spawning-
beds was made by a departmental officer, but reports by Dominion officers indicate that the
escapement was fairly good. While the run to the Babine area was reported as being only fair
in extent, those to the Lakelse and Bulkley areas were stated to have been large. The postponement of commencement of fishing operations for twelve clays no doubt had effects on the size of
the pack and on the extent of the escapement, although nullified to some extent by the curtailment of the weekly closed season after July 23rd, equivalent to five fishing-days. As pointed out
in the report of 1931, only a relatively small return was to be expected in 1932 and it is probably
fortunate that no larger catch was made.
The run of 1933 will be derived from the brood-years 1928 and 1929. In 1928 the pack was
only 34,559 cases and the five-year-old fish constituted 53 per cent, of the run (Table XVI.).
In 1929 the pack was 78,017 cases and the four-year-old fish formed 67 per cent, of the run.
While the escapements to the Babine area were reported as good in these years, those to the
Lakelse Lake have been recorded as very poor. The expectancy for 1933, therefore, is for
another mediocre run. It would appear that the Skeena River is now in a cycle of comparatively
low production and careful provision should be made to provide for large escapements, otherwise
there can be no recovery.
The packs in cases from 1902 to 1932 are shown in Fig. 1 in heavy line. Two points may be
noted: (1) That there has been an extreme fluctuation in size of packs from 187,000 cases in
1910 to 34,000 cases in 1928; (2) that since 1924 there has been a succession of relatively small
packs with the exception of that of 1930. In order to " smooth out" the fluctuations and
indicate the trend in the pack record, the packs have been subjected to a running average by
fives and the resulting averages again smoothed by a running average by fives. The result is
shown by the broken line in Fig. 1. To obtain a still smoother line the packs were subjected to
running averages of fives and elevens. The result is shown in Fig. 1 by the dotted line. There
would seem to be no doubt as to the downward trend of the Skeena River packs. In the calculations the pack for 1933 has been estimated at 60,000 cases.
The escapement should be considered along with the pack, for increased escapements might
be associated with low packs. However, there is no indication in the reports from the spawning-
beds that such has been the case. The reports for the period 1926 to 1932 do not indicate larger
escapements than in the period 1919 to 1924. In fact, in the years 1927, 1928, and 1929 the runs
to the Lakelse area were very poor and in 1931 and 1932 the runs to the Babine area were only
" fair."
One other point may be noted—namely, that the number of gill-net licences issued for the
Skeena River has shown a decided increase. In the years 1911 to 1914, inclusive, 850 licences were
issued annually, while during the years 1925 to 1931 the average yearly number has been 1,146.
It is evident, then, that the fishing effort has increased.    The number of fishing licences in the LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.                                         E 31
IKU.UUU              Mi              i
1                                  i   ;       i   ■   !
1 '     -4
i          !   i
!    i    :         i    i   9  '
i
I   |        1   !   i
,                 I       i i II     |il        ill!    *!
II        1        Iii
!   i   ■   i        i   !   ||i        1   i   1   1        III            I   1   j   1       T !                :       1
!          1      T       ;   i
r 1   |          |   l-ll J    ' |   1   1           !                  Ml      ||              >       i
;         X : - i
80.000
I i-i      i   :  i   -\ ii                     ||        > I   i
'                   i    ' 1   i      1   !   1
llll      j          1       ||                                         Ml
i           iiii
II      !ii
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 1                                   1             1
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1                                                         III
l i                    x
llll           1                     1    1    I      I           i 1
II            I .                        1           I    1           1
i    '
! i 1
.           1        ->- i      |           1 |        Hi
i    i
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lt       '    '   -                    r        M  '     nr
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'1                                                      '
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'■   r i                                            1
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1        i'        Ji               '\                            i
i    f '\   i \\          'tuy
t
it iri'T      v      3    H1+ti    i
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: f        1          ,    I'.             i j           |i        I'll    .,      1
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Tit      II         1  -Ml     ,'■•■•.•••:'/••./'.
ii               i            ^ii ,-- '   ■ i 1 ,•     '•
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,                 1           '         1                  UX          1-            1."         HP
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Jl^_J              I    »           11
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ll                                                                    /
llll            I       I      I                        I
I   J     J 1 J          I        '°°
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I 111                it   i
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1             ^     '        1
;:    i ' T I       i-
1             II
x
If
X        nztr J
X    1      I         X     '                L-
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-i      Ji        X        -Jilt
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...  X                  X           XT
ll                     '
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"                         itS"
1                                   1
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1         \ 1
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ill          '
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I            1
."      ■ ■' ~^                    ~^~   11 '     ..'
_- it   -j_ _x -
'OE    '04
Fig. 1.  Showing  p
licences, 1911 to 1931.
  represents
line   ......   repres
x—dash—dot line x —
'06    X>8    10     12     14     *I6     18     *20    "22
acks in cases on Skeena River for the years 1
The continuous line represents the i
the packs as smoothed by  running averages  oi
ents the packs as  smoothed by running averag
x —.—x represents the number of gill-net licen
1
74   '26    78    N30    \3£
302 to 1932 and number of gill-net
ictual packs in cases;   the dash line
five followed  by  five;    the  dotted
es of  five followed  by  eleven ;    the
ces issued. E 32
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
various years is shown in Fig. 1 by the dash—dot line,
decreased, as is shown by the following data:—
The catch per licence or boat has
Year.
Number of
Licences issued.
Packs in Cases.
Average Pack
per Licence.
1911            	
850
850
850
850
962
868
788
899
1,153
954
1,109
1,091
900
941
1,068
1,129
1,198
1,208
1,143
1,202
1,076
131,066
92,498
59,927
130,166
116,553
60,923
65,760
123,322
184,945
90,869
41,018
96,277
131,731
144,747
81,146
82,360
83,996
34,559
78,017
132,372
93,023
154
1912	
109
1913	
1914	
71
153
1915	
121
1916	
70
1917	
83
1918	
1919	
1920 ,	
1921    	
139
100
95
37
1922 	
88
1923     	
146
1924  	
154
1925	
70
1926	
1927    	
73
70
1928	
29
1929 	
68
1930	
1931  	
110
86
It will be seen that with the increase in the number of licences there has been a decline in the
average catch per licence as expressed above in number of cases. The average for the first seven
years, when the number of licences was less than 1,000, .was 109 cases, whereas during the last
seven years, when the number of licences has been over 1,000, the average catch has been only
seventy-three cases. It is not unlikely that restrictive fishing regulations may have contributed
somewhat to the reduction in average catch.    The situation may be summarized as follows:—
(1.) There has been a decided downward trend in the sockeye-salmon pack on the Skeena
River.
(2.) While restrictive fishing regulations have been enforced, there is no clear-cut evidence
that the escapements have been materially larger.
(3.) There has been an increase in the number of licences issued and a decrease in the
catch per licence.
The statements of Dr. Gilbert in his report for 1920 are particularly pertinent at this time.
They are as follows: " It cannot too often be urged that a rational policy of conservation must
prescribe a large annual safety factor. We must continue each year to provide for the escape
of larger numbers of spawning fish than are necessary to ensure adequate production during
seasons in which the conditions are favourable. A rationally controlled stream will show its
spawning-grounds each year seemingly overpopulated. This is nature's method of preventing
serious depletion during the not infrequent years when conditions are unfavourable for successful propagation and growth and there is no other safe method. Failure to observe this obvious
precaution must be held responsible in no small measure for certain depletion with which all our
salmon-streams are threatened.
" The appearance of occasional good years in the course of a declining run is customary
and to he expected. They should not serve in any degree to allay our apprehensions. Poor
years also, it is true, have occurred during the most prosperous periods of productivity in our
streams. But in a declining salmon run the poor years become ever more numerous, they
infallibly in the long run produce their kind, and they fall to lower and lower levels. The
average production for a series of years can always be depended on to tell the tale."
(2.) Age-groups.
Scales and length, weight and sex data were obtained from 2,229 fish from June 23rd to
August 13th in seventeen random samplings. The 42 age-group is the most abundant, being
represented by 992 individuals, or 44 per cent.    They only slightly exceed in numbers the five- LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. E 33
year-olds, which total 972 individuals, of which 822 constitute the 50 age-group, 37 per cent., and
150 the 53 age-group, 7 per cent. The outstanding feature of the run this year is the large
number of six-year-old fish (63), of which there are 265, or 12 per cent. This is the largest
number since the year 1918, when a percentage of 18 was recorded. With the exception of these
two years, the average representation has been approximately 3 per cent. It will be recalled
that in 1931 there was an exceptionally high percentage of fish in the 53 age-group, and it may
be that the six-year-old fish of 1932 were individuals of the same group which remained an
additional year in the sea (Table XVII.).
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
In general, the average lengths and weights of the two sexes of the various age-groups in
1932 are slightly below the general averages, but the males of the 53 age-group are somewhat
above the average in length and weight and the males of the 6g age-group in weight (Tables
XVIII. to XXIII.).
The data for the year are as follows:—
42 males, 23.4 inches, 5.4 lb.;  females, 22.7 inches, 4.9 lb.
52 males, 25.2 inches, 6.9 lb.;  females, 24.4 inches, 6.1 lb.
53 males, 24.1 inches, 6.0 lb.;  females, 22.8 inches, 5.0 lb.
63 males, 25.4 inches, 6.8 lb.;  females, 24.4 inches, 5.9 lb.
As has been pointed out in previous reports, the additional year in the lake adds but little
to the ultimate size, for the 42 and 53 age-groups have approximately equal lengths and weights,
as do also the 52 and 63 age-groups. On the other hand, an additional year in the sea contributes from 1 to 2 inches in length and approximately 1 lb. in weight. The following averages
of the past sixteen to twenty years illustrate these points :—
42 males, 23.6 inches, 5.5 lb.;  females, 23.2 inches, 5.1 lb.
So males, 24.0 inches, 5.7 lb.;  females, 23.3 inches, 5,1 lb.
52 males, 25.7 inches, 6.7 lb.;  females, 24.8 inches, 6.1 lb.
63 males, 25.5 inches, 6.6 lb.;  females, 24.6 inches, 5.9 lb.
(4.)  Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 1,194, 54 per cent., and of females 1,035, 46
per cent. In the 42 age-group the females slightly exceed the males in number. An excess of
females has characterized this group during the past seven years, except in 1929, when the
numbers of the two sexes were equal. In the early years—that is, from 1912 to 1919, inclusive—
the males consistently outnumbered the females. In the 52 age-group the males are greatly in
excess of the females, the percentages being 63 and 37 respectively. Only in one other year has
a similar condition existed—namely, in 1930. In the remaining nineteen years of record the
females have exceeded the males by percentages from 4 to 16. The percentage of males in the
53 age-group is 41, while that of the females is 59. In the 63 age-group the percentage of males
is 57 and of females 43 (Table XXIV.). E 34
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Table XVI.—Percentages of !l2 and 52 Age-groups, Skeena River Sockeyes, in Runs of
Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
1912 (92,498 cases)	
1913 (59,927 cases)	
1914 (130,166 cases)	
1915 (116,553 cases)	
1916 (60,923 cases)	
1917 (65,700 cases)	
1918 (123,322 cases)	
1919 (184,945 cases)	
1920 (90,869 cases)	
1921 (41,018 cases)	
1922 (96,277 cases)	
1923 (131,731 cases)	
1924 (144,747 cases)	
1925 (81,146 cases)	
1926 (82,360 cases)	
1927 (83,996 cases)	
1928 (34,559 cases)	
1929 (78,017 cases)	
1930 (132,372 cases)	
1931 (93,023 cases) 	
1932 (59,916 cases I 	
Percentage
Four and Five
■   Years old.
o yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yns.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5_ yrs.
i yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
43%
57%
50%
50%
75% -
25%
64%
36%
60%
40%
62%
38%
59%
41%
69%
31%
82%
18%
24%
76%
19%
81%
34%
66%
75%
25%
47%
53%
30%
70%
31%
69%
43%
57%
33%
67%
57%
43%
57%
43%
49%
51%
Brood-year from which
derived.
1907 (108,413 eases).
1908 (139,84G cases).
1909 (87,901 cases).
1910 (187,246 eases).
1911 (131,006 cases).
1912 (92,498 cases).
1913 (52,927 cases).
1914 (130,166 cases).
1915 (116,553 cases)i
1916 (60,923 cases).
1917 (65,760 cases).
1918 (123,322 cases).
1919 (184,945 cases).
1920 (90,869 cases).
1921 (41,018 cases).
1922 (96,277 cases).
1
J- 1923 (131,731 cases).
J
1924 (144,747 cases).
1925 (77,784 cases).
1926 (82,360 cases).
j. 1927 (83,996 cases).
1928 (34,559 cases).
1
J LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
E 35
Table XVII.—Percentages of the Principal Year-classes, Skeena River Sockeyes,
from 1916 to 1932.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years
old.
Five l'ears
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1916	
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
18
1917	
5
1918           	
6
1919 :..
4
1920	
8
1921  	
3
1922 .'	
*>
1923 ".: .'	
1924	
1
1925 '	
1
1926	
3
1927	
1
1928	
1929	
o
1930  	
1
1931    	
o
1932	
12
Tabic XVIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1932, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length, and by
their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
5
3
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
18	
1
1
10
3
22
8
53
27
101
34
99
34
44
15
9
1
1
1
1
7
3
44
20
126
64
133
40
66
11
8
3
2
1
4
1
8
8
35
13
64
24
103
34
116
33
56
5
9
1
3
1
4
3
10
6
33
17
58
29
78
20
29
5
11
1
1
3
9
6
20
3
9
3
3
1
1
1
1
7
o
10
12
27
6
8
2
3
1
1
3
5
1
16
11
41
16
29
6
16
5
1
1
2
4
10
10
29
12
28
8
10
1
o
19    	
1
19%   	
1
20    	
19
20%  	
6
21.    	
82
21%
34
22.    	
222
22%
124
23
353
23%   	
127
24
360
24%   	
126
25     	
314
25%
100
26
199
26%  	
46
27     	
86
27%
10
28 	
12
28%   	
2
29        	
3
Totals	
464
528
518
304
—24.4 ~~
61
89
151
114
2,229
Ave. lengths....
23.4
22.7
25.2
24.1
22.8
25.4
24.4 E 36
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 1932.
Table XIX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1932, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight, and bg
their Early History.
.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
6
3
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3	
1
6
29
70
9S
98
81
40
30
6
4
1
2
9
65
167
150
82
34
10
6
3
5
13
37
41
56
86
85
72
52
29
32
9
1
2
5
23
32
55
61
43
43
24
10
1
4
1
1
3
9
11
18
9
5
1
4
O
12
21
22
20
, 7
2
2
1
o
2
6
12
24
22
34
26
13
8
2
1
7
15
30
24
20
14
3
3
3%	
19
4	
120
306
5	
369
5%    	
349
6	
305
232
219
7%	
133
8	
86
81/,	
38
9	
39
9%     	
9
10	
2
Totals	
464
528
518
304
61
S9
151
114
2,229
Ave. weights...
5.4
4.9
6.9
6.1
6.0
5.0
6.8
5.9      |
1
Table XX.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes,
for Twenty-one Successive Years.
'<■>
and,
Age-groups,
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912	
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23.8
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.8
23.9
23.3
22.9
23.1
23.5
23.5
2° 9
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23 2
23.1
23.3
22.8
23.4
23.3
22.8
22.7
22.7
23.1
26.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2
25.5
25.9
25.7
26.2
25.2
25.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.7
25.3
25.5
24.7
25.7
25.2
1913                    	
24.7
1914	
25 1
1915	
25 0
1916	
25 0
1917               	
1918	
25 0
1919	
1920	
°5 3
1921	
1922	
1923	
24.5
25.2
24.7
24.8
24.8
24.7
24.7
23.9
24.8
1924   	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
Average lengths	
23.6               23.2               25.7
24.S
1932	
23.4
22.7
25.2
24.4 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
E 37
Table XXI.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes,
for Seventeen Successive Years.
fi3 Age-groups,
Year.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Six-vear
Males.
Six-year
Females.
1916.                                                              ...            	
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
• 24 2
23.8
23.9
24.7
24.1
24.6
24.1
23.5
23.8
23.5
23.8
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23 2
23.6
23.3
23.8
23.5
22.8
22.8
22.4
23.1
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
25.6
25.8
25.8
26.0
25.2
25.6
25.5
24.6
25.8
24.8
1917	
25.0
1918   	
24.7
1919	
24.7
1920 .'	
25.1
1921......	
24.2
1922  	
24.1
1923            	
24.4
1924.....  	
24.8
1925	
24.8
1926 '     	
25.0
1927	
24.9
1928	
24.7
1929....	
24.3
1930	
23.2
1931	
24.7
Average lengths   ..	
24.0
23.3
25.5
24.6
1932	
24.1
22.8
25.4
24.4
Table XXII.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes, i/2 and
for Nineteen Successive Years.
Age-groups,
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.5
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.0.
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.0
4.7
5.1
5.1
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.9
7,0
7.2
6.4
6.5
0.3
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.3
1915                                                   	
6.2
1916            .	
6.3
1917  	
6.0
1918                                                   	
6.4
1919                                                    	
6.2
1920      •	
6.4
1921   	
5.7
1922                                      — 	
5.7
1923                                            	
5.7
1924                                              	
6.3
1925 	
5.8
1926                                                                        	
5.8
1927	
5.9
1928                                                                   	
5.8
1929	
6.2
1930
6.0
1931            	
6.3
o.o
5.1
6.7
6.1
1932     	
5.4
4.0
6.9
6.1 E 38
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Table XXIII.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes,
for Eighteen Successive Years.
and fio Age-groups,
Year.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Six-year
Males.
Six-year
Females.
1915                     - - -	
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.7
'  6.1
6.3
5.S
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.5
5.9
5.4
5.0
5.6
5.6
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.S
5.1
4.9  ■
5.2
5.0
4.0
4.9
5.0
5.0
6.6
7.1
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.3
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.6
0.9
6.9
6.0
6.5
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.0
1916	
5.9
1917 	
5.8
1918     	
6.1
1919 	
6.3
1920  -	
6.3
1921  : '.  	
5.6
1922	
5.7
1923 	
5.4
1924                  	
5.8
1925-                     	
5.4
1926                     	
6.2
1927	
5.S
1928	
5.8
1929	
5.7
1930	
5.8
1931:       	
6.0
5.7
5.1
6.6
5.9
1932	
6.0
5.0
6.8
5.9
Table XXIV.—Percentages of Males and Females in each of the Different Year-groups,
Skeena River Sockeyes, in a, Scries of Years.
A
2
h
5o
°3
ir.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912	
54
69
60
55
70
65
46
31
40
45
30
35
42
47
47
45
43
48
58
53
53
55
57
52
....
56
05
44
35
54
58
1913
1914	
1915	
1916	
46
1917	
42
1S18	
63
37
46
54
61
39
56
44
1919	
53
47
46
54
52
48
45
55
1920  ...
41
59
37
63
43
57
41
59
1921.. ..:	
44
56
44
56
50
50
43
57
1922 ...:.
52
48
41
59
52
48
53
47
1923	
60
40
37
63
56
44
40
60
1924	
50
50
43
57
46
54
46
54
1925  	
57
43
42
5S
45
55
47
53
1926 	
40
60
43
57
48
52
49
51
1927	
45
55
41
59
47
53
56
44
1928	
4S
52
45
55
43
57
50
50
1929	
50
50
46
54
05
35
57
43
1930	
47
53
56
44
55
45
63
37
1931	
43
57
39
61
51
49
53
47
1932	
47
53
63
37 '
41
59
57
43 4.   THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1932.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The Nass River has never been as valuable to the socUeye-fishery as the other three rivers,
and now, like the other streams, its present productivity is considerably less than it was in
the earlier years. It is interesting to note what I)r. Gilbert wrote of the Nass run of 1916.
He said: " While there is reason to fear that the other principal streams in the Province are
beginning to experience the effects of overfishing, the lower levels of the fluctuations in the
runs becoming lower, and the higher levels less high, there seems to be no indication so far
that the Nass River has suffered.'' After the season of 1919 he remarked that the statement
was still valid, though conditions gave cause for uneasiness. The following year he said that
his forebodings had been justified ; there was now conclusive evidence that the Nass River
run had suffered depletion.
Since that year the river has undergone greater impairment, as the following figures
signify:—
Total pack, 1907-11—225,134 cases; yearly average, 15,026.
Total pack, 1912-10—161,698 cases; yearly average, 32,339.
Total pack, 1917-21— 98,367 cases; yearly average, 19,673.
Total pack, 1922-26—117,562 cases; yearly average, 23,512.
Total pack, 1927-31— 76,977 cases;   yearly average, 15,395.
The pack for 1932 is 14,154 cases, a figure slightly less than the average of the last five-year
period. However, it is all that could be expected in view of the facts that the pack of the
brood-year was even smaller and that the spawning escapement was poor in 1927.
As was the case in the other river systems, the inspection of the Nass spawning-beds in
the fall of 1932 was not made by the usual Provincial Overseer, but by an officer of the Dominion
Department of Fisheries. However, Mr. Young, who made the inspection, had accompanied
Inspector Hickman for a number of years on his annual trips to the Meziadin watershed and
was thus able to compare the conditions with those of previous years. He states that this run
of 1932 compares favourably with those of other good years. It is quite possible that the
spawning escapement was larger than the pack would indicate, because the gill-net fishing was
delayed for a considerable period owing to a strike by the fishermen. This additional closed
season should have augmented the escapement.
The run of 1933 will be derived chiefly from the year 1928, the gloomiest year in the whole
history of the Nass. Its pack stands at the paltry figure of 5,540 cases, which has the distinction
of being the lowest yet recorded. In addition, Inspector Hickman found very few sockeyes on
the spawning-beds of Meziadin Lake and they were so scarce at the falls that he could not make
the usual collection of scales. In the other river systems such conditions would signify an
extraordinarily poor return in 1933. However, former experiences have taught that there is
very little relation between expectation and realization in the Nass. In fact, the history of the
later years abounds in contradictions. Brood-years with good packs have resulted in small packs,
and vice versa. Neither have the spawning escapements been a guide in anticipating returns.
One feature in the run of 1932 illustrates this peculiarity of the Nass. Although the year 1928
stands for practical failure, 28 per cent, of the run of 1932 is derived from it. This is all the
more surprising when one realizes that in only three other years has the percentage of four-year-
old fish equalled or exceeded this figure. The reason for these discrepancies is not clear, unless
it be that our present knowledge of the Nass is incomplete both in regard to pack statistics and
spawning areas. Like the Fraser River, the Nass is fished internationally, but as yet the
American pack records are not available to supplement the Canadian ones. Likewise, the
Meziadin watershed is the only spawning area concerning which there is adequate information,
although there are undoubtedly others of importance in the river system.
Whatever the cause may be for the lack of correlation in the size of the packs in successive
years of the same cycle, there is undeniable evidence that the productivity of the river is
decreasing. Dr. Gilbert's warning of 1921 can well be repeated: " All of those interested in
the perpetuation of the salmon industry on the Nass should co-operate to lessen the intensity
of fishing operations in this district before hopeless depletion has become a fact."
The Nass River has always been of especial interest because of the well-defined racial
characteristics of its sockeye.    Since it is the most northerly of the four river systems, it is to E 40 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
be expected that the special modifications in sockeye habits will be different from those of the
other river-basins. As has been seen, the races of sockeye along the coast differ from one
another according to the portion of the field of variable factors in which their specializations
have occurred. In the Nass the specializations lie chiefly in prolonged fresh-water residence
and late maturity. From 54 to 93 per cent., with an average of 73 for a period of twenty-one
years, of the Nass sockeyes linger at least two years in fresh water. In the Fraser, Skeena, and
Rivers Inlet as a rule this component of the run is so small that it can be almost disregarded.
In addition, the Nass is the only one of the four streams in which fish remain three years in
the lake before starting the downward migration. The habit of late maturity is also much more
marked in the Nass than elsewhere. Over the twenty-one years for which there are records the
percentage of fish maturing at five years of age or older has varied between the extremes of
70 and 96 per cent., with the average falling at 86 per cent. In the history of Rivers Inlet and
the Skeena there are individual years in which the percentage of older fish has equalled or
exceeded 86, but the average over the period of years lies just above 50 per cent. The number
of Fraser River fish maturing at five and six years of age is too small to be considered. These
habits of longer lake residence and late maturity have combined to bring about a well-ordered
complexity of age-groups.
(2.)  Age-okoui>s.
Normally the following eight age-groups are met with in the Nass River run: 31 and A1
(the sea-types), classes which go to sea as fry and return at the end of either the third or fourth
year; 42 and 52, groups which spend one year in the lake before migrating and return after
three or four years in the ocean at the ages of four or five ; 53 and 63, classes which extend
their lake residence to two years and remain three or four years at sea, reaching maturity at
the ages of five or six; 64 and 74, assemblages which delay migration for three years and after
three or four years in salt water return in their sixth or seventh year. The most unusual feature
is that the 5g group, which is almost negligible in the other streams, should be the dominant
class. In addition to these usual age-classes, occasionally single individuals of other groups,
such as 43, 62, and 8g, have been found. The material which is used for the study of the 1932
run comprises 1,624 individuals and was gathered in fourteen samples between July 6th and
August 20th. As has happened in some of the previous years, it was impossible to start the
collection of data early enough to include the three-year-old sea-types which run in June. The
other seven classes are present in the run of 1932. It is interesting to find individuals belonging
to the 74 group which has not been represented since 1926 and to find a larger number of 64's
than has been found for several years. These two older groups and the sea-types form such
a small part of the entire run that their relative abundance has not been recorded year by year.
The other four classes, the 42's, 52's, 5,/s, and 6.3's, are the principal groups and their percentages
during the last twenty-one years, together with the respective packs, are listed in Table XXV.
The data concerning the relative abundance of the age-groups have been condensed by combining
them into four periods of five years each. This forms Table XXVI., which is especially interesting because it reveals the general stability or weakness of the various age-groups. The figures
show a definite decrease in the 52's, and during the more recent years a noticeable increase
among the 42's. The dominant age-group, 5g, shows what appears to be an excess of its normal
numbers in the 1922-26 period. Comparing the 1932 percentages (28 per cent, of 49's, 4 per cent,
of 5<>'s, 61 per cent, of 5g's, and 7 per cent, of 63's) with those in Table XXVI., the same trend
iii the composition of the run is noticed—namely, stability of the 53's at 60 to 65 per cent.,
further decrease in the 5.,'s. and greater abundance of 42's.
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
Tables XXVII. and XXVIII. are a record of the size variations of the several age-groups
in the run of 1932 and Tables XXIX. and XXX. contain the average measurements of the
principal classes during the last twenty years. A scrutiny of these tabulations shows that the
average size of all the age-classes for both sexes and for both length and weight is somewhat
greater in 1932 than the general averages.
The size relationships of the Nass sockeyes exhibit two characteristics. One is that, unlike
the other river systems, these fish have not undergone a reduction in size as the years have
passed. The following figures, showing the average lengths in inches of the Nass sockeyes
combined in five-year periods, bear this out:— LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
E 41
Table
4.
Year.
^2
52
5o
6o
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-16	
24.36
24.32
24.50
24.46
23.26
23.50
23.76
23.74
26.12
25.84
25.94
26.08
25.04
24.78
24.96
25.32
26.30
26.12
26.04
26.04
25.52
25.40
25.24
25.20
26.88
27.38
27.60
27.80
1917-21	
25 90
1922-26	
26 04
1927-31	
26 56
As a matter of fact, the 42 and 63 age-classes show a slight increase in size.
The second trait allied to length and weight is the close correspondence between age and
size; that is, the smallest fish are the youngest and, conversely, the largest fish are the oldest.
Tables XXXI. and XXXII. have been arranged in ascending series according to age, and in
reading the data of the sexes separately it will be seen that the size increases with age. This
correspondence between size and age does not hold in the other three river systems, where the
factor determining size seems to be the number of years spent in sea-feeding. Table XXXIII.
makes this point clear. The data are arranged on the basis of the number of years spent at sea
and ultimate age. The Fraser, Skeena, and Rivers Inlet fish which have lived three years in
the ocean are approximately the same size regardless of ultimate age, whereas the Nass fish
show steady progression iii size. The same is true of the fish which have had four years in
the ocean. It is interesting to note that the number of years at sea plays a secondary part
in the Nass River. There are three couplets of year-classes with the same ultimate age, but
differing from one another by an additional year at sea; that is, the 41's and 42's, the 52's
and 53's, and the 63's and 64's. In each pair there is a tendency for the group which had the
extra year of ocean-life to have the greater length and weight.
(4.)   Seasonal Changes during the Run.
By plotting the Nass River data on the series of dates on which the material was gathered,
it is possible to discover the internal changes which occur during the course of the run. One
group, the sea-types, is confined to the early weeks, and another, the 64's, is restricted to the
latter portion of the run. Although the 63's appear toward the beginning of the run, their
numbers increase very materially in August. The dominant group, the 53, is present throughout,
but with varying proportions. The four- and five-year-old fish which have spent one year in the
lake (42's and 59's) are also found during the entire run. Their greatest intensity is usually
reached the middle or end of July. Year by year these general movements follow each other
closely. The phenomenon is known as seasonal succession. Table XXXIV. gives the seasonal
changes for 1932. Since the first collection of material was not made until July 6th, the sea-
types are very poorly represented. The 52 group deviates from the normal standard in not
becoming more noticeably abundant in mid-July. This is undoubtedly due to the greatly reduced
numbers of this class in the run of 1932.
(5.)  The Meziadin and Bowser Sockeye Colonies.
In the year 1915 Dr. Gilbert first called attention to the probable existence of two races of
Nass sockeyes. His opinion was based on observations which seemed to show that: (1) The
run was sharply divided into early and late periods: (2) the late-running fish were decidedly
larger; and (3) there were different rates of fresh-water growth as shown in the nuclei of the
scales. Since the Meziadin and Bowser were the only two known lakes of any size in this river
system, it was assumed that they were the spawning regions of these two distinct races. The
difficulty and costliness of exploration in country as inaccessible as that surrounding the Nass
has made thorough investigation impossible. Nevertheless, there is abundant evidence that the
Meziadin watershed is one of the important spawning-grounds, but the assumption that Bowser
Lake is the other still awaits absolute confirmation. For many years Inspector Hickman has
made an annual September inspection of Meziadin Lake and River, and since 1922 he has been E 42 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
gathering data concerning the two races of Nass sockeyes. He takes a sampling of the Meziadin
fish in Meziadin River, and by setting a net in the Nass above its junction with the Meziadin he
obtains a sample of the other race, presumably on its way to Bowser Lake. As Table XXXV.
indicates, the attempt to net the latter race has not met wTith much success in spite of annual
continuous fishing for eight days. In some years not a single specimen has been taken and in
other years the sample has been too small for reliable analysis. If there is any considerable run
to Bowser or some other lake, it must occur earlier in the season. Nevertheless, the analysis of
these data, meagre as they are, which Inspector Hickman has been collecting, substantiates the
theory of two races among the Nass sockeyes. The size character—that there was a large late-
running fish—which was originally suggested has been confirmed year by year, as is shown in
Table XXXVI. The larger fish belong to the Meziadin colony. Table XXXVII. is typical of
the size-distribution in any given year. The sample consists of a majority of large-sized fish
interspersed with a scattering of smaller ones. The Bowser samplings have always consisted of
a great majority of fish of small size.
As has been shown in the preceding paragraphs, in this river system the larger fish are the
older fish, and vice versa. The margins of the scales of spawning fish are so badly absorbed
that it is impossible to read the ultimate age, but by comparing the size variations of these
Bowser and Meziadin fish with the general averages of the year-groups of the Nass proper
(Table XXVII.) it is possible to estimate the ages. The majority of the Meziadin fish appear
to be six years old and the Bowser group four and five years of age. It must be borne in mind
that this analysis of the constitution of these two colonies is true of September only. Earlier in
the season undoubtedly there is an entirely different age-group distribution.
The second original character used in separating the two colonies was an apparent difference in rates of fresh-water growth, but after several years of study of the scales from fish of
the actual colonies it was discarded. Another phase of fresh-water life—namely, the difference
in the number of years spent in the lake—was adopted. Although, as has been said, the scales
of spawning fish are useless as complete records of ocean-life, the nuclei which give the account
of the lake residence are intact and furnish the information concerning the earlier years. A
summary of the study of such material as has been available is given in Table XXXV. In
general, it appears that the fish of Bowser Lake seek the ocean earlier than those of Meziadin
Lake. In other words, a considerable number of the former colony migrate at the end of the
first year, while a very large proportion of the latter group postpone the journey for two or
three years.
The year 1932 is one for which there is no Bowser Lake material. Extremely high water
prevented operation of a net. The length frequencies of this year's Meziadin sockeyes are
enumerated in Table XXXVII. The average for the males lies toward the upper extreme, and
for the females toward the lower, of the size variations of their respective grou-is. The results
of the study of the nuclei of these fish tally only in part with those of previous years. The
unusual feature is the high percentage (16) of fish which left the lake after one year's residence.
In brief, then, it appears that there are two races of Nass sockeyes, one associated with Meziadin
Lake and the other presumably with Bowser Lake. The late-running fish of the former group
are conspicuously large and their early history is characterized by two or three years' residence
in the lake. The Bowser Lake group appears in very small numbers in September, the fish are
smaller and younger than those of the other colony, and they spend only one or two years in
fresh water. These conclusions are made with considerable reservation, since they are based on
data too limited to preclude the possibility of error. LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
E 43
Table XXV.—Percentages of Principal Age-groups present in the Nass River
Sockeye Run from 1912 to 1932.
Year.
Percentage op Individuals that spent
One Year in Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Two Years in Lake.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912 (36,037 cases)
1913 (23,574 eases)
1914 (31,327 cases)
1915 (39,349 cases)
1916 (31,411 cases)
1917 (22,188 cases)
1918 (21,816 cases)
1919 (28,259 cases)
1920 (16,740 cases)
1921 (9,364 cases)..
1922 (31,277 cases)
1923 (17,821 cases)
1924 (33,590 cases)
1925 (18,945 cases)
1926 (15,929 cases)
1927 (12,026 cases)
1928 (5,540 cases)..
1929 (16,077 cases)
1930 (26,405 cases)
1931 (16,929 cases)
1932 (14,154 cases)
8
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
9
15
17
4
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
91
77
91
67
63
SI
Cl
60
54
67
61
10
8
8
4
9
0
6
S
1
6
Table XXVI.—Percentage of Principal Age-groups in Nass River Sockeye Run from
1912 to 1931 combined in Five-year Periods.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912-16	
11
13
11
20
22
15
7
11
62
65
77
65
1917-21       	
1922-26    	
1927-31         ...	
4 E 44                        REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Table XXVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1932, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length, and
by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
4l             42
52
53
63
«4
74
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
21     	
1
1
6
9
37
38
58
35
30
8
2
1
1
1
1
8
6
34
27
122
71
160
50
46
5
7
1
2
6
4
11
5
11
7
12
6
14
0
3
1
2
2
2
2
10
0
4
4
1
1
211/,                               	
1
22 	
22%
1
5
8
37
27
76
17
32
4
5
1
11
23	
1
3
2
2
8
1
8
6
3
3
4
10
3
7
1
5
3
2
5
7
29
35
85
57
126
34
39
8
7
57
23y,	
54
24             	
2
144
24i/,     	
1
2
2
2
101
25            .'.	
1
2
2
2
1
2
274
1
1
143
26      -.	
307
261/.                         	
123
27           	
1
217
27y>	
53
28                  	
61
281/,             	
1
20
29
1
21
291/.                      !	
6
30                     	
1
2
1
18
30i/>	
2
31       	
3
Totals	
3
3
215
225
31
36
438
53S
84
32
7
10
2
1,624
Ave. lengths	
24.8
24.3
24.9
23.9
26.4
25.2
26.6
25.6
28.3
27.1
26.2
26.3
28.01	
Table XXVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1932, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight, and
by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
41
42
52
53
6„
0
64
74
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
4 .'	
3
2
9
27
55
61
36
16
5
1
16
53
64
58
28
4
1
1
2
3
2
6
5
5
3
3
1
1
1
2
2
5
5
11
7
2
1
9
6
8
35
57
92
87
79
48
15
5
2
2
1
5
23
49
128
141
113
54
15
7
2
1
1
6
41/.                  ..           	
26
5	
93
5%	
1
1
154
6	
2
4
7
8
10
10
15
10
9
7
2
2
3
9
3
7
2
2
3
3
2
5
2
1
290
2
311
284
71/,-                 	
2
183
8	
1
125
8i/,	
72
9	
37
91/.	
1
17
10	
3
15
11	
9
2
Totals.
3
3
215
225
31
36
438
538
84
32
7
10
2
1,624
Ave. weights	
6.6
6.2
6.3
5.6
7.5
6.6
7.3
6.3
8.7
7.5
6.4
6.8
7.5 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
E 45
Table XXIX.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths of Principal Classes
from 1912 to 1932.
Year.
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 (inc
1913
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.5
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.5
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
23.8
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
20.2
25.9
26.1
25.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
26.5
25.1
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.4
25.7
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
26.1
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
25.3
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
2S.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2 .
27.9
28.2
'25.6
26.6
1914
25.6
1915
25.3
1916
25.7
1917
25.5
1918
25.2
1919
26.7
1920
25.9
1921
26.2
1922
25.9
1923
26.5
1924
25.4
1925
25.4
1926
27.0
1927
26.5
1928
26.2
1929
26.2
1930
26.8
1931
27.1
Ave.
1932 (inc
lengths	
24.4
23.6
26.0
25.0
26.1
25.3
27.4
26.1
24.9
23.9
26.4
25.2
26.6
25.6
28.3
27.1
Tabic XXX.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights of Principal Classes
from 191!, to 1932.
4
2
5
2
h
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
6.2
5.0
0.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.0
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.5
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.4
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
6.5
6.8
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
7.1
6.8
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.5
5.9
6.1
6.2
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.6
8.2
8.3
6.8
1915   „     	
6.5
1916   ,,     	
6.4
1917           	
6.4
1918   „     	
6.7
1919   „   	
0.7
1920   „    	
7.0
1921         	
6.6
1922          	
6.6
1923   „     	
6.8
1924   „       	
6.5
1925           	
6.3
1926   „   	
7.1
1927   .,   	
7.0
1928   „    	
6.6
1929   „    	
6.8
1930          	
7.2
1931   „   	
7.4
Ave. weights	
5.9
5.3
7.0
6.3
6.8
6.2
7.8
6.7
1932 (pounds)   	
6.3
5.6
7.5
6.6
7.3
6.3
S.7
7.5 E 46
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Table XXXI.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1919-32, grouped by Age, Sex, and Average
Lengths of Principal Age-groups.
AVERAGE
Lengths in Inches
of Groups.
Three
Years old.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
S
x Years old.
Seven
Years old.
h
4
2
41
5
p
3
2
6
4
63
74
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.      F.
M.
F.
1919	
24,9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.5
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
23.8
26.1
24.2
24.5
25.5
25.1
23.6
23.5
24.3
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
26.1
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
25.3
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.1
26.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
26.5
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.4
25.7
28.2
26.6
26.9
26.2
26.1
27.1
26.3
26.7
26.8
25.5
26.5
26.7
26.5
25.4
25.5
26.4
25.3
25.8
27.0
24.6
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2
27.9
28.2
26.7
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.5
25.4
25.4
27.0
26.5
26.2
26.2
26.8
27.1
27.2
28.0
1920	
1921
23.1
22.4
1922..
1923
1924	
1925    .
1926	
23.7
23.4
23.7
22.3
23.5
22.4
24.5
25.6
25.1
25.8
25.4
24.0
24.1
23.6
24.3
23.9
28.2
29.0
27.0
1927	
1928
1929
1930
1931            	
23.7
22.5
27.2
25.5
24.5
23.7
25.2
24.1
26.1
25.4
26.1
25.1
26.7
25.9
27.7
26.3
1932	
24.9
23.9
24.SI 84 S
26.6
25.6
26.4
25.2
26.2
26.3
28.3
27.1
28.0
Table XXXII.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1919-32, grouped by Age, Sex, and Average
Weights of Principal Age-groups.
Average
Weights in Pounds
of Groups
.
Three
Years old.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Seven
Years old.
Year.
h
42
41
53
52
64
e
3
74
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1919	
4.6
4.5
4.7
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
.5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.0
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.5
6.4
5.9
6.1
7.0
5.9
6.8
6.9
6.8
6.7
5.7
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.8
5.7
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
7.1
6.8
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.5
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.4
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
6.5
6.8
7.7
7.6
7.0
7.5
6.7
7.3
6.8
6.8
7.0
6.3
7.8
7.0
6.9
6.5
6.3
6.3
6.5
6.0
6.2
7.2
5.4
5.7
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.6
8.2
8.3
6.7
7.0
6.6
6.6
6.8
6.5
6.3
7.1
7.0
6.6
6.8
7.2
7.4
7.1
7.7
9.0
7.5
1920	
1921	
5.0
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
5.5
5.3
5.4
7.3
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930
1931	
5 5
5.0
Ave. weights	
  | 	
5.9
5.3
6.5
5.6
6.8
6.1
7.0
6.3
7.1
6.4
7.8
6.8
	
1932	
6.3
5.6
6.6
6.2
7.3
6.3
7.5
6.6
6.4
6.8
8.7
7.5
7.5 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.                                         E 47
Table XXXIII.—Nass, Fraser, and Skeena, Rivers and Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1922 and
1926, grouped by Number of Years spent on the Sea-feeding Grounds.
Age.
'
Nass.
Fraser.
Skeena.
Rivers Inlet.
M.
V.
M.              F.
■       1
M.
F.
M.
F.
3
4
5
4
5
6
Year 1922.
Three years at sea—
Inches.
24.2
25.7
24.5
25.6
28.0
Inches.
23.4
25.0
23.5
24.6
25.9
Inches.
23.0
24.0
23.5
25.5
25.8
25.4
Inches.
22.6
23.0
22.7
24.2
24.1
24.3
Inches.
23.6
23.8
25.3
24.9
Inches.
23.2
23.3
24.4
24.r
Inches.
22.5
22.4
24.6
25.5
Inches.
One-vear-in-lake type
Two-years-in-lake type...
Four years at sea—
22.4
23.2
One-year-in-lake type
Two-years-in-lake type...
24.2
3
4
5
4
5
6
Year 1926.
Three years at sea—■
23.7
24.9
26.1
24.5
26.1
27.9
22.3
24.1
25.3
24.0
25.3
27.0
23.4
22.6
23.2
25.4
24.6
25.5
22.5
22.3
22.4
24.6
24.0
23.7
23.8
24.6
25.6
26.0
23.4
23.8
24.8
25.0
22.8
22.9
25.1
25.6
One-year-in-lake type    .
Two-years-in-lake type-
Four years at sea—
22.9
23.1
One-year-in-lake type
Two-years-in-lake type...
24.6
26.8
Table XXXIV,
-Number of Individuals of each Class of Nass River Sockeyes running
at Different Dates in 1932.
Date.
42
52
53
63
h
41
64
74
Number of
Individuals
examined.
July   6    	
46
42
43
00
58
55
40
29
24
19
7
9
7
1
4
3
12
3
6
8
5
3
10
7
3
3
64
76
66
54
50
54
69
78
76
81
102
93
88
25
2
2
7
5
7
8
11
15
18
9
12
17
3
5
1
1
1
1
1
6
6
1
2
119
„      9	
„   11	
„    15     -	
125
123
124
„    18   	
22
„   26	
„    29	
119
125
122
122
125
„      4     	
125
9 	
122
„    15	
120
„    19	
123
„    20	
30
440
67
976
116
6
17
2
1,624 E 48
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Table XXXV.—Percentages of Meziadin and Bowser Lake Runs, showing Different
Number of Years in Fresh Water.
Years in Lake.
One Year.
Two Years.      Three Years.
No. of
Specimens
Meziadin, 1922	
Meziadin, 1923	
Meziadin, 1924	
Meziadin, 1925 (no collection)
Meziadin, 1926	
Meziadin, 1927  	
Meziadin, 1928 (no collection)
Meziadin, 1929	
Meziadin, 1930...	
Meziadin, 1931	
Meziadin, 1932	
Bowser, 1922	
Bowser, 1923..	
Bowser, 1924	
Bowser, 1925	
Bowser, 1926	
Bowser, 1927  	
Bowser, 1928 (no collection)..
Bowser, 1929 (no collection)..
Bowser, 1930	
Bowser, 1931 (no collection)..
Bowser, 1932 (no collection)..
13
10
6
16
40
33
IS
10
S4
76
93
94
89
94
100
80
60
04
79
SO
55
78
20
3
24
3
3
4
18
10
63
160
43
85
74
113
51
104
13
41
34
45
11
9
34
Table XXXVI.—Average Lengths of the Meziadin and Bowsqr Lake Sockeyes
for the Years 192h-32,
Yea r.
Meziadin Lake.
Bowser Lake.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1924	
26.8
28.1
27.1
27.0
27.2
27.9
27.7
25.7
26.3
25.8
25.3
25.7
26.3
25.5
25.5-
23.8
25.9
24.7
24.9
23 6
1925	
23 3
1926	
24 8
1927	
23 7
1928...	
1929	
1930	
22 9
1931	
1932	 SALMON-SPAWNING AREAS.
E 49
Tabic XXXVII.—The Lengths of Individuals comprising the Meziadin Run in 1932,
Length in Inches.
Number of
Individuals.
M.
J
F.
23	
1
3
0
5
13
9
7
6
7
4
4
1
1
1
24 ;               	
1
24V.                                              	
3
25                                                            ..           	
4
25%                                                        	
9
26 '.                      	
7
26i/.                                                              	
5
27                                                         ..           	
3
27%	
3
28.                      	
1
281/.                     	
0
29..	
29%   	
30 -	
30%	
31.   	
Totals	
65
39
Average lengths
27.7
25.5
THE SALMON-SPAWNING AEEAS.
Owing to financial necessity the Department made no personal inspection of the spawning
areas of the Fraser, Skeena, Rivers Inlet, Smith Inlet, and Nass River systems.
We were, however, furnished with copies of spawning-bed reports made to Major J. A.
Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Dominion Fisheries, who conducted investigations of those
spawning areas.   His courtesy in supplying us with these reports is gratefully acknowledged.
The following gives a brief summary taken from these reports:—
FRASER RIVER.
Upper Fraser System.—Sockeye in Stuart, Fraser, Francois, Bowron, and Quesnel areas
showed a great scarcity of spawners, the escapement being most disappointing. Springs in this
area were better than usual.
Chilco.—A large escapement of sockeye. estimated at 70,000 in comparison with 20,000 in
1928, the brood-year.
Shusicap.—Sockeye were most disappointing; not more than 2,000 spawners in Little and
Adams Rivers, the main spawning-streams of this system.
Eagle River.—From the planting of 16,000,000 eyed sockeye-eggs in the Eagle River, taken
from Cultus Lake, the return did not materialize, neither was there any evidence to justify a
conclusion that they returned to their home waters at Cultus Lake.
Seton-Anderson.—In late years attempts have been made to seed this area with eyed sockeye-
eggs from the Pemberton Lake Hatchery. The results have not been satisfactory. Two thousand spawners were seen in Gates Creek this fall, the place where most of the plantings were
made.   There was a good run of cohoe to Gates Creek.
Harrison Lake.—Two thousand sockeye were estimated at Morris Creek, the same number
as reported for 1928. The quantity of springs, cohoe, and chums in this area were the greatest
seen in years.
Birkenhead.—There was only a fair return of sockeye, estimated at about 75 per cent, of
the brood-year of 1928.    A large run of cohoe returned to the tributaries of the Birkenhead.
Pitt Lake.—This area is keeping up well since the establishment of a hatchery. A good
natural spawning occurred quite apart from 4,000,000 sockeye-eggs taken for the hatchery.
Cultus Lake.—The count of sockeye was far below that of 192S. Heavy freshets were
experienced in the Lower Fraser system. E 50
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
SKEENA RIVER.
Babine.—Sockeye made their first appearance at Babine Lake July 12th. The run consisted of 50 per cent, runts. The sockeye return to this watershed was only fair; the return
of springs good.
Bulkley River.—Large numbers of sockeye passed up the Bulkley River, no doubt heading
for the Morice River and Lake system.
Lakelse.—The run of sockeye to Lakelse was good, showing an increase of 50 per cent,
over 1928. It is considered that a large amount of spawn deposited will have been destroyed
by freshets.
RIVERS INLET.
Sockeye reports to this district show spotty conditions; some streams with a fair average,
others poor. Observations were made most difficult owing to excessive rains and flood conditions
in all streams. It is anticipated that a large percentage of eggs deposited have been destroyed.
The spring-salmon run was good.
SMITH INLET.
Sockeye seeding in this area was unusually good. The pink run was poor and chums were
heavy.
NASS RIVER.
The sockeye escapement to the Meziadin Lake watershed was considered satisfactory and
compared favourably with the runs of 1924, 1925, 1929, and 1930. The run of pinks and springs
to the Nass were of fair proportions. Heavy fall rains were experienced in the whole of the
district.
SALMON-EGG  COLLECTIONS,  BRITISH  COLUMBIA HATCHERIES,  1932.
Hatchery.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Cohoe,
Total.
7,532,000
6,217,500
5,815,500
540,000
8,072,000
6,217,500
5,815,500
946,100
714.son
1,666,900
4,436,375
7,460,715
22,710,000
4,004,500
16,618,868
4,436,375
7,460,715
      1       	
 	
22,710,000
IMtt Lake                                               	
      1	
4,004,500
1,039,240
17,658.108
	
Totals	
74,795,458
2,525,340
714.800
78,035,598 PILCHARD-FISHERY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. E 51
THE PILCHARD-FISHERY OF  BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By John Lawsok Hart.*
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE AND VALUE OF PILCHARD-FISHERY.
In recent years the catches of pilchard (Sardinops cwrulea) in British Columbia has been
exceeded in Canada only by those of three other kinds of fish—the salmons, the herring, and
the cod. Since the salmon-catch includes six species, and as the herring-catch is divided about
equally between the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts, the tonnage of fish captured in the pilchard-
fishery in British Columbia exceeds that of any other Pacific fishery and is second in the
Dominion only to the catch of cod on the Atlantic Coast. However, in value of products as
marketed, the pilchard-fishery ranks only eighth in Canada, and third in British Columbia,
owing to the comparatively low value of the saleable products.
In 1930, the last year for which complete figures are available, the capital invested in plants
and equipment used in the pilchard industry amounted to over $3,000,000, and the amount paid
to some 700 pilchard-fishermen and reduction-plant employees was in the neighbourhood of
$450,000. In the same year some 75,000 tons of pilchards were delivered to the fifteen reduction
plants and three canneries in operation. From these 75,000 tons of pilchards, 3,200,000 gallons
(imperial) of oil, 14,000 tons of meal, and 55,000 cases of canned fish were obtained. Respectively, these were valued at $678,000, $688,000, and $220,000. The above figures are for 1930,
a year in which falling prices had resulted in the curtailment of the catch and diminished
returns for the marketed products, and must be regarded as under- rather than over-representing
the magnitude of the pilchard industry.
THE  DEVELOPMENT  AND PRESENT CONDITION  OF  THE
PILCHARD INDUSTRY.
The earliest records of pilchards off the coast of British Columbia are naturally somewhat
vague. Some of the older Indians maintain that pilchards were at one time common on the
coast, and later disappeared for some years. If this report is true, it means only that the
pilchards failed to enter or show in the inlets, rather than that they were not off the British
Columbia Coast at all. It is probable that the occurrence of pilchards in estuary waters has
always been uncertain.
In 1917 the canning of pilchards for commercial purposes was first begun, and since then
the catch has always been more than sufficient to meet the requirements of the canners. As a
result of its potential economic possibilities the species was an object of interest after 1917 and
its occurrence on the coast was more thoroughly observed.
In the early years of the fishery some plichards remained in the inlets throughout the winter
and were even fished as late as December. More recently pilchards have been seen only during
the summer, and the greater part of the fishing has been concentrated in the three months from
July to September, with occasional catches in June and October. The shortening of the season
is, no doubt, due in part to the increased intensity of the fishing during the last few years.
* Reprint of Bulletin No. XXXVI.. published by the Biological Board of Canada. E 52
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Until recent years all the fishing was done in the inlets. Since 192S, however, the tendency
has been for the fishery to develop into one of the open sea. This has resulted from a combination of two factors, the increased demand for fish which followed the installation of reduction
machinery in 1925 and the decreasing tendency of the pilchards to enter the estuaries. The
change has been made possible by improvements in fishing equipment and increased experience
of the fishermen.
TABLB
I.     STATISTICS OF THE PILCHARD FISHERT 1917
- 1931.
TALUS
TALUS
TOTAL
TOTAL
USED
DRT
FISH AS
TALUS
TALUS
TALUS
TALUS
MISCEL-
TALUS
CATCH
REDUCED
CANNED
FRESH
BAIT
SMOKED
SALTED
CAUGHT
OIL
MKAL
CAHKKD
BAIT
LAH20U3
PRODUCTS
1917
ewt.
ewt.
ewt.
ewt.
ewt.
ewt.
ewt.
t
1
t
*
1
*
*
1,363
__
963
...
400
—
	
2,726
	
—
9,810
2,000
—
11,810
1918
72,723
—
50,405
17,359
_.
15
4,944
146,727
—
™
339,225
—
77,628
413,853
1919
65,624
—
65,392
76
...
_
156
81,321
—
_-
370,841
~
1,030
371,871
1920
68,090
.„
65,315
653
19,874
_.
2,308
77,097
—
—
503,937
28,191
6,137
540,265
1921
19,737
...
11,264
9
8,464
—
—
12,019
...
—
91,328
10,580
37
101,945
1922
20,342
—
13,975
„.
6,250
117
._
15,255
—
...
98,082
7,154
619
106,053
1923
19,492
...
12,089
5
7,250
20
128
31,939
—
__
82,518
9,129
369
92,036
1924
27,485
...
15,790
3
1,846
...
9,846
21,794
—
...
60,180
2,307
SO,358
82,645
1925
318,973
273,701
37,182
...
8,090
...
....
221,557
211,774
103,400
178,121
4,790
™
498,085
1926
969,958
937,291
26,731
36
5,900
._.
._
648,062
734,078
395,386
119,526
7,375
357
1,256,721
1927
1,368,582
1,304,590
58,501
2,017
3,474
...
_
1,027,746
982,766
617,298
230,582
4,719
3,462
1,838,867
1928
1,610,252
1,540,613
65,097
118
4,298
126
...
1,075,407
1,474,512
767,049
314,457
'5,175
1,944
2,563,137
1929
1,726,861
1,624,928
98,821
6
3,076
20
—
966,999
1,126,164
656,867
411,011
3,634
158
2,199,634
1930
1,501,404
1,444,361
55,166
25
1,852
-_
._
613,947
678,115
688,457
220,466
2,415
154
1,589,609
1931
1,472,085
1,447,552
17,336
4,091
3,106
Development of Methods of Handling the Catch.
Since the inception of the pilchard-canning industry in 1917, those engaged in it have been
seeking methods of placing pilchards on the markets of the world in large quantities and of
improving the quality of the finished product. The first endeavours to dispose of a large pilchard-
catch consisted of experiments with different methods of canning and curing. (See Table I.)
These experiments have, on the whole, been only moderately successful, although they had for
their result the establishment of a satisfactory method of canning.
In 1925 reduction machinery was installed on the coast for the reduction of pilchards to
oil and meal. An examination of Table I. illustrates tlie impetus given to the pilchard industry
by that innovation. Even yet, the improvement in marketing methods is probably far from
complete. The reduction machinery in use is not perfect, with the result that much oil and
meal is lost with the waste liquors to contaminate the shores. Some of these defects have been
eliminated by the use of more efficient machinery and further improvements appear imminent.
These should lead to more profitable operation of reduction plants and improved products.
Moreover, it seems reasonable to expect that still further improvements may take place in
methods of marketing the products of the pilchard-fishery. Even with the present and imminent
improvements, the reduction and canning processes are not perfect and it is possible that entirely
new outlets may be developed.
Early Fishing Equipment.
The first pilchard-catches in British Columbia were made with equipment designed for use
in other fisheries. The seine-boats used were small herring or salmon seiners of lengths between
45 and 55 feet and of 20 or 30 tons displacement.    Boats such as those used could not be con- PILCHARD-FISHERY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
E 53
sidered seaworthy under the conditions of the present fishery. Power-brailing and turntables
were part of the equipment, but live rollers were not used.
With the small nets used under the favourable weather conditions of the inlets, it was not
usually considered essential that the seine-boat be " towed off " by the tender in order to prevent
the seine-boat drifting over the net. Accordingly, the tenders were quite small boats which were
employed chiefly to handle scows. In those early years when pilchards were used entirely for
canning by canneries of small capacity, the requirements of the operators were best met by a
few tons of fish in a small deck-scow.
The nets used were small herring purse-seines. Those used by one operator were in the
neighbourhood of 75 fathoms long by 14 fathoms deep, which is small in comparison with those
employed at present.
48'
Fig. 2. Map of Vancouver Island, showing the position of pilchard-reduction plants.
Modern Equipment of the Pilchard-fishery.
Seine-boats.—A seine-boat of the style now in common use in the pilchard-fishery is laid
out with pilot-house and galley amidships above the engine-room, the sleeping-quarters of the
six or seven members of the crew, other than the skipper, forward, and the fish-hold aft.
A 30-foot mast is placed immediately abaft the house and the boom is adjusted to reach to within
2 or 3 feet of 'its top. A wheel on the lookout bridge on top of the pilot-house enables the skipper
to direct the boat from_ a place of vantage while scouting for fish or making a set. A large
hatch leading to the fish-hold, an independent power-gurdy with two nigger-heads situated about
3 feet aft of the mast, and a turntable with a power-driven live roller, constitute the rest of the E 54
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
essential deck equipment. There are in use on the coast a number of pilchard seine-boats which
depart from this description, but they are few in number and the differences are not radical.
The pilchard seine-boats at present in use range in length from 55 to 75 feet, with lengths
in the neighbourhood of 65 feet being most common. The specifications for seine-boats which
follow do not necessarily apply to the largest or smallest craft. Beams are from 16 to 18 feet.
Tonnages are registered at from 30 to 45 tons and hold capacities run from 30 to 60 tons. Most
of the boats are powered by full Diesel engines, although both gasoline and semi-Diesel engines
are used. These units range in power from 40 to 140 horse-power, with the majority between
65 and 90 horse-power.
A skiff is a necessary part of fishing equipment, as will be shown later. It is a heavily
built, sturdy, flat-bottomed boat of a size up to 25 feet long, 7 feet wide, and 2 feet deep.
An average value for the seine-boats in use at present is in the neighbourhood of $15,000
and the value of any of the boats lies between $12,000 and $22,000.
Tenders.—There is more variation among tenders in both style and size than there is
among seine-boats. The majority of the tenders are built in the same style as seine-boats; in
fact, many of them are used interchangeably.    Some, however, are designed with the fish-hold
Fig. 3.  Caledonia, a reduction plant in Kyuquot Sound.
amidships or with other variations. Many operators use tenders which are larger than the
seine-boats in order to take advantage of their greater capacity for carrying fish; but one
operator in 1931 used one very small boat for tow-off only. Sometimes tenders of intermediate
size are used for the sake of economy in production. Excluding the smallest craft, tenders may
be considered to range in length from 50 to SO feet and in carrying capacity from 25 to 90 tons.
On the whole, the engines are somewhat more powerful, in keeping with the greater length and
carrying capacity. The crew usually consists of three men. The value of tenders may be considered to lie between $10,000 and $30,000, with an average of approximately $17,000.
Scows.—In the pilchard-fishery deck-scows are used exclusively, for well-scows are not
strong enough to stand the pounding of the waves and are so low that the seas breaking over
them would wash out the contents. In load capacity scows range from 30 to 80 tons and in
value from $1,200 to $1,600.
Nets.—The commercial fishery for pilchards is carried on entirely with purse-seines. The
seines are fitted with a purse-line or draw-string, so that when the net has been set around a
school of fish the bottom of the net may be closed and the fish entirely surrounded by the net
and the surface of the water.
The purse-seines in common use in the present fishery are 200 to 225 fathoms long and 20
to 22 fathoms deep. The cork-line is made of 33-thread (2%-ineh circumference) pure manila
rope, although one end or both may be heavier. The floats are disks of cork 2 inches thick and
5 inches in diameter; their number is such that they average one to every 4 or 5 inches, but
they are usually placed two or four together so that the gaps between them are longer, in order
to provide hand-holds for the crew.    In fishing, the cork-line is also held up by six to twenty PILCHARD-FISHERY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
E 55-
" Scotch buoys." These inflated 12-inch canvas bags are tied or snapped on the cork-line in
such a way that they may be readily moved from one part of the cork-line to any part which
appears to be getting carried down by the movement of the fish. The lead-line is manila rope
iy± to 1% inches in circumference. On it are strung a large number of leads which run in
weight from four to six to the pound. Their number is sufficient to bring the total weight of
lead up to 1,000 or 1,500 lb.; their arrangement depends on the preferences of the man in charge
of making the net. The ends of the net are laced to a 15-thread rope to which are lashed at
intervals of about a fathom the 2%-inch brass breast-rings. Through these rings runs the heavy
breast-line. Along the lead-line are placed the purse-rings. These rings are made of %-inch
brass and have an inside diameter of 4 or 4% inches. Each is made fast to the middle of a
2-fathom piece of rope, the ends of which are tied to the lead-line, so as to meet, it at points 2
fathoms apart. The rings are thus 4 fathoms apart. Through the rings runs the 3-inch to
4%-inch (circumference) purse-line of best manila 4-strand rope. One operator, however, uses
a 1 %-inch wire cable for a purse-line.
As is the case with the specifications for the nets already described, the detail of the
arrangement of the web is dependent largely on the judgment of the individual concerned, so
that the following figures must be taken as indicating the general conditions, rather than the
specifications for a definite net or applying to all nets used on the coast.    For the main part of
o
°
0
0
0
1 It
12 U
6 ll
.     !\ 4
m
Fig. 4. Diagrammatic representation of the arrangement of a pilchard-seine. The diagram is not intended
to illustrate any particular net, but is intended to show the principles involved in assembling a purse-seine.
Twine weight and mesh .are indicated on the various sections of the net. The lower diagram is intended to
illustrate the proportions of the complete seine and the relative size of the bunt. The various sections of
the net are drawn to scale, but the rings, buoys, and lines are drawn to a larger scale.
the net some operators prefer to use 1%-inch stretched mesh with No. 6-thread twine, while
others prefer 1%-inch mesh with No. 9-thread twine. The parts of the net next to the cork and
lead lines, and the bunt, the section in which the fish are closely confined before being brailed
into the boat, are made out of heavier material to withstand the heavy strain put upon them by
the pull of corks and leads or the weight of the fish. A strip of 20 or 25 meshes along the leadline is made of 4-inch mesh net woven of No. 15- or even No. 21-thread twine, and some operators
prefer a similar, though narrower, strip along the cork-line. A bunt of 20 to 30 fathoms is
usually made of No. 9- or No. 12-thread 1 %-inch mesh, but the top of the Bunt in which the final
stages of "drying-up" are carried out is usually constructed of even heavier material (12- to
18-thread). The nets are usually, although not always, hung a little more fully in the lead-line
than in the cork-line in order to make the net bag and, consequently, purse more effectively and
readily. Twenty-five to 35 per cent, slack is usually allowed on the cork-line. The way in which
nets may be assembled is shown in Fig. 4.
The value of a pilchard purse-seine is between $2,700 and $3,500.
Other Equipment.—Two other pieces of equipment are essential to pilchard-fishing—the
turntable and the brailer. The turntable is approximately 15 feet square and is placed at the
stern of the seine-boat, of which it is really a part.    Its chief use is to allow the net to be •E 56 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
pulled in over the side of the boat and later set over the stern with a minimum of difficulty. In
addition to this, the outer edge of the turntable is fitted with a power-driven " live roller "
which by its rolling action assists the fishermen in hauling the net aboard after a set.
The brailer is a large dip-net with a long handle and an open bottom whose head is connected by a triple or quadruple bridle to the block on the boom, and from it to a special
independent brailing-winch. While the head is lowered by the winch its direction is guided by
the long handle, so that the net is plunged among the fish. While this is being done the bottom
of the net is kept closed by a patent brailing-block which is tripped after the net has been lifted
over the scow or hold, allowing the fish to fall through the bottom of the net. The bottom of
the net is then closed by gently pulling on the trip-line and the operation repeated. Both
winches and the live roller are driven by the main engine.
Care of Pilchard-seines.—Large tears in the net necessitate the return of the seine-boat to
the cannery or reduction plant so that the net may be pulled out on the dock for repairs. Small
holes are disregarded until they are observed in " bluestoning " the net or in making major
repairs.
In order to avoid rotting of the web all twine for use in purse-seines is tarred. When nets
are not in use, as during closed seasons or in bad weather, a couple of bags of salt are scattered
over the net and washed through it with a few pails of water to avoid heating. Decay-producing
bacteria are also reduced by " bluestoning."    Fifty to 100 lb. of copper sulphate are dissolved in
Fig. 5. Pulling a seine from the turntable into a bluestone tank. In the
background are shown three scows waiting to be unloaded, and the position of
the marine leg when not in use.
water in a small well-scow large enough to allow the net to be covered with the solution while
in it. The net is piled into the scow and left for a short time before being washed and replaced
on the turntable (Fig. 5).
Economic Considerations.—Practically all the boats and nets are owned or chartered by the
pilchard-plant operators and are turned over to captains selected for the season by them. In
recent years a few independent outfits have been engaged in the fishery, but have met with
indifferent success, probably due to lack of capital and consequent inferior equipment.
The costs to the operator have been subjected to considerable fluctuation. In the early days,
when all the pilchards were used by two or three canneries, there was not sufficient competition
for either fish or boats to materially reduce the availability of either. However, with the rapid
growth of the industry which followed the introduction of reduction machinery, the most
accessible fish were soon captured, necessitating going farther afield and using better boats. As
first-class seiners and tenders were scarce, the competition for these became very keen, with the
result that charters were expensive. This stimulated the building of suitable craft, so that now
the supply almost meets the demand. In consequence it is unlikely that charter prices will ever
again run so high as they did before the deflation in 1929.
The price paid the fishermen for fish varies from year to year and is fixed at the beginning
of the season.    Three dollars a ton, divided equally among the crew, with a 25-cent bonus for the PILCHARD-FISHERY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. E 57
skipper, is a fair average figure for crews using company equipment. This brings the price of
fish to the operators to something between $8 and $10 a ton. Eight dollars to $10 a ton is the
price paid to independent crews.
Tender crews are paid either by the month or by the ton.
The catch of one boat during the fishing season is between 1,000 and 3,000 tons, exclusive
of extremes. The size of the catch made by a boat depends on a number of factors, prominent
among which are the abundance and availability of fish, the weather, the skill of the fishermen,
the size and efficiency of equipment available, and luck.
Fishing Methods.
General.—The British Columbia pilchard-fishery is carried on entirely during the daylight
and dusk hours, with the best results usually obtained at daybreak and dusk. Night-fishing is
precluded by the damage which is done to nets after dark by dogfish. As the fishermen must be
on the fishing-grounds by daybreak, and may be working after dark in brailing from the net fish
that were caught at dusk, the working-hours during the fishing season are very long. The location of the fishing-grounds varies from day to day. As a rule, fish are sought in the neighbourhood of recent catches, but, if such an indication of the location of the schools is lacking, the
search is directed to localities in which the discoloration of the water indicates an abundance
of food-organisms.
Fig. 6. Pursing. The size of the circle made by the net is shown by the
positions of the Scotch buoys. The corks may be seen in some places. The
farther boat is giving tow-off.
Scouting.—When a boat is scouting for fish the skipper directs its course from the lookout
bridge in order to have an increased range of vision. More often than not, he is assisted in
keeping a lookout by some member of the crew there or in a crow's-nest on the mast. The skiff
is dragged behind by the skiff-line, which is made fast to the seine-boat by being passed into a
loop in a fixed rope and wedged there with a stick. The long free end of the skiff-line is fixed
to the loop in the end of the cork-line, to which the breast and purse lines are fastened. At the
other end of the net purse-line and breast-line are made fast to the loop in the end of the cork-
line, as well as the tow-line, the other end of which is made fast to the seine-boat. The turntable
faces aft.
Setting.—The seine-boat is usually followed at a considerable distance by the tender, which
tows a scow on a long tow-rope and bridle when weather conditions are favourable.
When a school of fish is detected by a black " spot " on the water, or by individuals flipping
from the water, the boat circles about them at slow speed in order to give the skipper an
opportunity of studying their direction and speed of movement and of estimating wind and tide
conditions. At this stage one member of the crew gets into the skiff. The net is then set by
drawing the stick which releases the skiff-line and allows the skiff to pull the net off the turntable by the cork-line and purse-line, which are made fast to the skiff-line.    The man in the skiff E 58 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 1932.
assists in this operation by using the oars to oppose the pull of the net. The set is made in a
circle to starboard at full speed in such a direction that the net is completely paid off the turntable as the skiff is reached. If the circle is too large the tow-line is paid out until the skiff is
reached. The tow-line is then pulled in by the winch until the net is brought up to the boat.
The ropes are adjusted so that the strain in towing comes on the cork-line.
Pursing.—As soon as the circle has been completed, the purse-line is picked up from the
skiff, the two ends are brought over rollers at the centre of the boat, and pursing is begun by
hauling both ends of the purse-line with the winch. At this stage the fish are surrounded on
only three sides and partly below, so that it is considered necessary to use some kind of a
" scare " to keep the fish from escaping through the gap in the net under the boat. For this
purpose a long pole is used, or a white, weighted board on a light rope, which is supposed to
simulate a large fish.    These scares are used until pursing is almost complete.
When pursing is under way the ends of the lead-line are pulled toward the surface by the
pull of the purse-line. This tends to make the ends of the net belly out and give the fish an
enlarged avenue of escape. In order to prevent this by keeping the end lines straight, the
breast-lines are also hauled at both ends of the net.
#i
i
1
\
"  ii
■
w.Jl 1
» .
jL-*|gf
/3H
Fig. 7. Brailing. The stern of the tender may be seen beyond the bow of
the seine-boat. The scow is shown only over the deck of the seine-boat and, to a
slight extent, in front of it.
As soon as pursing is begun the tender drops the scow, if it has one. and gives the seine-boat
" tow-off." To do this a line is attached amidships on the port side of the seiner, which is pulled
by it steadily away from the net while pursing and hauling the net is under way (Fig. 6). In
the meanwhile the scow is allowed to drift.
AVhen pursing is complete the ring's are drawn inboard by the last bight of the purse-line,
a sling is put underneath the lines joining the purse-rings to the lead-line, the whole lead-line is
pulled aboard by the winch and the boom and is made fast to the boat. By this time the two
breast-lines are completely hauled and the breast-rings are on deck, so that the fish are completely surrounded below and on all sides by the net.
As a rule, when fish are missed, they are lost at a stage previous to the completion of
pursing. Frequently, especially when the fish are " wild," the speed or direction of their travel
is miscalculated and they are missed altogether. At other times they are surrounded by the
seine, but escape by " sounding " under the lead-line before pursing is complete. In some cases,
in spite of the scares, fish escape under the boat while pursing is in progress. After pursing is
complete losses are more uncommon. When they do occur it is most often due to the weight of
fish bursting the net or sinking the cork-line and skiff, although considerable losses often occur
through holes torn in the net by sharks or dogfish trying to get at the catch. PILCHARD-FISHERY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
E 59
" Drylng-up " and Brailing.—The net is now pulled aboard from the seine-boat end and
piled on the turntable, which has now been turned to face the starboard side of the boat. This
is done either by making use of the live roller and having the crew pull the net over it, or by
" fleeting " in the net, making use of the boom and winch. In the latter method a rope sling is
put around the net and lifts it as high as possible before dropping it on the turntable. This
operation is repeated until most of the net is brought aboard. While the net is being pulled
aboard several members of the crew arrange it on the turntable so that it will run off smoothly
on the next set. The purse-rings are slipped along the purse-line in the right order to keep the
lead and cork lines even. The corks and floats are piled on the right-hand side of the turntable,
the lead-line and purse-line on the left. Some crews draw the purse-line and run it through the
rings again after all the net has been brought aboard.
While this is going on the man in the skiff works around the cork-line adjusting the Scotch
buoys to the position where the weight of the fish seems to be greatest. Finally, the corks for a
considerable section of the bunt are taken aboard the skiff in order to help support the weight
of the fish, and the skiffman goes aboard to assist the rest of the crew.
When about 90 per cent, of the net has been pulled aboard the fish are all closely confined
in the upper part of the heavy bunt at the skiff end of the net. At this stage the danger of the
seine-boat overriding the net is largely obviated, so the tender is free to recover the scow and
Tender, with scow alongside.
bring it alongside the seine-boat. When this done the scow is held in position between the
seine-boat and tender on the port side of the seine-boat, while the catch is brailed into it as
shown in Fig. 7. As the fish are removed from the net it is necessary, from time to time, to
" dry up," by pulling in more of the net. This must be done cautiously, as there is danger lest
the fish become overcrowded and die, resulting in the dead-weight breaking the net. If weather
conditions are too unfavourable to permit the use of scows, the tender is made fast on the port
side of the seiner and the fish are brailed into its hold. Scows are usually filled in preference
to tenders, and tenders to seine-boats. This is to assure as small a loss of time as possible in
unloading at the cannery or reduction plants, by having the boat take one of the empty scows
which are usually available. Single catches of up to 100 tons of pilchards are made, but the
average haul is in the neighbourhood of 35 tons. Catches in excess of 100 tons are infrequent,
owing to the difficulty of holding in the net larger quantities of this active species.
When all the fish have been removed from the net the rest of the net is pulled aboard, the
turntable turned to face the stern, and the search for fish continued, provided there is room in
the carriers for them. E 60
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Packing and Unloading.—When the holds of all the carriers are filled, or if the boats are
fishing close to their home plant at the end of the day, they return to be unloaded. Under
favourable weather conditions several tons of fish may be carried on deck. Scows are towed in
with a tow-line and bridle as usual until close to their destination, when they are taken alongside
by the tender for better manoeuvring (Fig. 8). On reaching the plant, seine-boats are usually
unloaded first, in order to assure their ability to start out the next morning.
The method of unloading depends upon whether the fish are intended for canning or reducing. In the former case they are pushed and washed off scows, and are either .shovelled by
hand from the hold of a boat or the hold is filled with water and the fish brailed from it. This
is to avoid unnecessary injury to the fish. Fish intended for reduction are usually unloaded
directly from holds or scows by an adjustable bucket-conveyor or marine leg, as it has been
established that the use of water in unloading results in the loss of oil (Fig. 9). Scows used
in the pilchard-fishery are fitted with three small wells to accommodate the marine leg when
unloading. The fish are pushed into the wells and then carried up into the fish-storage tanks
by the bucket-conveyor.
At most reduction plants the amount of pilchards is measured while unloading, by making
use of a specially constructed pair of identical boxes, each having a known capacity in the
neighbourhood of a quarter of a ton. The boxes are constructed so that one may be filled while
the fish run out of the other from below. At some plants the amount of fish is calculated from
measurements of their depth on scows or in holds.
^^mmf
.    m ¥*
Fig. 9. Unloading a scow.
Reduction of Pilchards to Oil and Meal.
Ninety-five per cent, of the pilchards caught in British Columbia are reduced to oil and
meal. On being unloaded at a reduction plant, pilchards are stored in large containers until
they are processed, in order to free the floating equipment for further use and to assure a
continuous supply of raw material for the plant. The fish are first passed through a continuous
steam cooker, from which they go to a continuous press (Fig. 10), where the oil and water are
separated from the moist cooked bone and muscle. The liquid portion is then pumped to a series
of settling-tanks (Fig. 11). in which the oil and water separate. The oil so separated flows into
other tanks where foreign material is allowed to settle from it for a few hours, after which the
clear fluid is pumped into large tanks for storage. The water, with the suspended and dissolved
material in it, runs into the sea. The solid portion from the press is carried by a screw-
conveyor to the drier. This is a large horizontal revolving drum (Fig. 12), with longitudinal
or spiral blades on the inside.    Through this drum the solid material passes, being repeatedly PILCHARD-FISHERY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
E 61
raised by the blades and dropped either through the heat of the flame from an oil-burner or
against a hot metal drum, through which the heat passes. The dried flesh and bone is finally
ground and sacked as fish-meal.
Reduction-plant crews are usually paid by the hour or the month, although those who assist
in unloading are usually paid by the ton. Pilchard-reduetion-plant crews are composed entirely
of whites and native Indians.
Uses of Pilchard Oil and Meal.
Pilchard-oil is used for a variety of purposes. After being subjected to the process of
hydrogenation it is largely used in the manufacture of shortenings, oleomargarine, and soap. It
has been proven valuable as an oil for smoke-stack paints, and recent scientific work has shown
that when used with suitable drying agents it is an excellent oil for general-purpose paints. It
is rich in Vitamin D and has been used successfully as a base for poultry-oils, proving a competitor for cod-liver oil for this purpose. Other possible uses for pilchard-oil are in the manufacture of linoleum and water-proof coats and as oils for tanning and tin-plating. Scientific
research is rapidly increasing the knowledge of possible uses of pilchard-oil and may be depended
upon to indicate the way to make use of it in still further high-grade products.
Fig. 10. Cooker and press unit.    The cooker is above.
Since the commercial use of pilchard-oil in the raw state is practically negligible, and since
no factories in Western Canada are equipped to bring about the changes in chemical composition
of the oil which are necessary to prepare it for industrial purposes, relatively little pilchard-oil
in the raw state is used in Canada, and the great proportion of the yield is exported for refining.
In consequence the Canadian producers have the prices of their product controlled by foreign
buyers—a condition which is far from satisfactory. The erection of one or more hydrogenation
plants on the Pacific Coast of Canada would relieve this situation and greatly strengthen the
position of the pilchard-fishing industry. This is a project which will, no doubt, go ahead as
soon as capital is available. E 62 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
Pilchard-meal is used largely as feed for domestic live stock, particularly poultry, although
part of the lowest-quality product is used in fertilizers. Some of the better-quality pilchard-
meal is used for human consumption.
Canning.
Pilchards are used for canning only when they reach the plant shortly after capture. Fish
intended for canning are pushed off scows into an inclined slat-conveyor with the assistance of a
strong stream of water; from boats they are unloaded either by filling the hold with water and
brailing the fish into the conveyor or by shovelling them out of the hold with wire scoops. Fish
are handled in this way to avoid injuring them and in order to remove some of the scales before
the fish enter the cannery. Fish brought to the cannery on scows are preferred for canning, as
they have not been subjected to as great a weight of fish above them as those packed in the
holds of boats.
On leaving the conveyor the fish are weighed and then passed through the scaler, which
consists of a revolving cylinder of coarse heavy wire netting about 2 feet in diameter and about
10 feet long, set at a slight angle to the horizontal. While operating it is freely sprayed with
water. The fish, in passing through it, are tumbled against the netting and against one another,
removing the loosely attached scales, which are washed away by the water. From the scalers
the fish are carried to a large hopper, from which they are supplied to the cutters.
Fig. 11.  Oil-separation tanks.
A cutter (Fig. 13) consists of an endless belt on which are fixed a large number of elongated
wooden buckets of a size and shape suitable to hold a pilchard. In the buckets the fish are
carried past a series of knives and paddles which carry out the operations preliminary to
canning. The operator takes the pilchards as they come from the hopper and places them belly
down in the buckets, with the snout against a plate to assure uniformity in their position on
the conveyor. The fish are carried past the first knife, which makes a cut through the backbone
from above. Then the head and viscera are removed by a pliable rotating paddle working at
right angles to the direction of the conveyor. The paddle is adjusted so that one of the four
blades strikes the head of the passing pilchard, pulling the head off and, attached to it, almost
all of the internal organs. Another knife (or two in the case of half-pound flats) removes the
tail and cuts the cleaned fish into appropriate lengths for " pound tails " or ". half-pound flats "
before these " body-cuts " fall off the end of the conveyor. The machine is arranged so that the
heads and viscera and tails fall into one conveyor and the body-cuts of the fish reach another.
The waste offal is carried by conveyors to the reduction plant for reduction to oil and meal.
At this stage the body-cuts of the fish may be stored for a few hours, or they may be carried
immediately to  the filling-table,  after being passed  through a  second  scaler to  remove  any PILCHARD-FISHERY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. E 63
remaining scales, and for thorough washing. When necessary body-cuts are picked over and
cleaned by hand.
All cans are filled by hand, after which they are salted, capped, exhausted to exclude the
air, and seamed by the usual cannery methods. Some pilchards are canned with tomato sauce.
Finally, the cans are cooked in a retort at 15 lb. steam-pressure for an hour and a quarter.
After cooling the cans are put in cases for shipment. Labelling may be done at the plant or
by the wholesaler.
Three to five experienced cannery employees in charge of various phases of the work are
paid salaries, but most of the work is done by contract labour as piece-work.
The British Columbia pilchard is very closely related to the Cornish pilchard, which is the
adult of the species of which the young are packed as the true French sardine. Its relationship
would therefore arouse expectations of a high-grade canned product. These expectations are
not deceived, for canned pilchard, either plain or with tomato sauce, is an excellent product
which is. however, not as popular as its quality would warrant. Its lack of favour is probably
due to the low cost, suggestive of inferior goods, and the prejudice incurred during the early
Fig. 12.  Drier and firebox.    The firebox is in the foreground.
days of the industry by the marketing of second-rate products produced in experiments with
machine-filling and other methods of packing cheaply. There is no foundation now for any
suspicion as to the quality of the canned pilchard-pack, for it is entirely put up from the freshest
fish, handled with modern machinery, and treated with all necesssary care. The half-flat particularly is a choice product. At present approximately half a dozen brands are now produced
by two operators. Familiarity of the public with the high quality of canned pilchards would
no doubt greatly increase the demand for this product. A programme of educating the public
by advertisement is in order and has, indeed, been begun by one company.
THE NEED FOR AND SCOPE OF A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION.
The Need for an Investigation.
In the preceding sections it is pointed out, concerning the pilchard industry, that it is of
recent development, that it is responsible for the capture of a very great quantity of pilchards,
and that much capital has been invested in it. It is suggested, moreover, that for advantageous
expansion of pilchard-canning it is necessary to educate the public concerning the excellence of
the canned product, and that to continue profitable operation there is necessary the investment
of considerable sums of money in the erection of hydrogenation plants and in research leading
to the use of pilchard products in the manufacture of high-grade commodities, in order that the
oil and meal may command higher prices on the market. E 64
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
The levy which is being made upon the fishable stock of pilchards by the fishery, and the
absence of a long-continued history of successful operation under existing conditions, has led
to some doubt concerning the ability of the stock to withstand the demands upon it without
becoming so materially reduced in numbers as to interfere with the profitableness and continuance of the industry. If these doubts prove correct it will be a matter of considerable
gravity, in view of the amount of capital which has been already invested in the pilchard
industry and the additional expenditures which are necessary to assist in assuring the profitable
continuance of the industry. There is, then, an urgent need for information as to the extent
of the pilchard stock, and the effect which the fishery is likely to have upon it in order that
further investment may not be made unadvisedly. The continuance is indicated, therefore, of
the investigation examining the life-history of the pilchard along those lines which deal with
its numbers, its fecundity, and its reaction to the strain of a fishery.
The Role of the State in administering a Fishery.
Before examining the conditions peculiar to the pilchard industry, it may be well to consider
the factors which necessitate the supervision of fisheries by the Government, and the nature
and scope of the duties of its administration.
13. Cutter.
Possibility of Depletion.—In the first place, it must be recognized that marine fisheries may
become depleted. There are all too many illustrations to show that this is the case. In some
districts of British Columbia the sockeye salmon is now reduced to a small fraction of its
former abundance, as is clear from the catch records, and Thompson and others (Rep. Internat.
Fish. Comm, No. 6, 1931) conclusively demonstrate that the abundance of halibut on the banks
of the North Pacific has decreased by 50 to 80 per cent. Leim (Contr. Canad. Biol., Vol. 2,
1924) shows that the Canadian catch of the Atlantic shad has been greatly reduced in recent
j-ears, and Huntsman (Bull. Biol. Bd. Can., No. 21, 1931) points out that in a number of regions
the Atlantic salmon is exterminated or nearly so. Rounsefell (Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish., Vol. 47,
1931) demonstrates the depletion of the herring in several districts in Alaska. Garstang (J. Mar.
Biol. Ass., Vol. 6, 1900) shows definite depletion to exist in the bottom fisheries about the British
Isles as early as 1900.
Responsibility of the State.—The fisheries are a public resource; they belong to the country,
and they should be so administered that they may continue to be of service and yield profit in
the future as at present. The prime duty of the Government in its administration is to assure
to this end a continued supply of raw material for the fisheries.    This task of necessity falls upon the State, since private bodies have neither sufficient permanence nor disinterestedness to
assure successful supervision.
In recent years the Governments of countries having extensive fisheries have sought to
assist their fishing industries by helping them to market their products in their most profitable
form, by inspecting and certifying products, by assisting in locating fish, and providing various
aids to navigation. Useful as these forms of assistance most certainly are, they should always
remain secondary to the main responsibility of the Government in regard to fisheries, which is
to decide what regulations are necessary to protect the future of the fisheries and, having so
decided, to promulgate the required laws and undertake their enforcement.
Determining the Most Advantageous System of Exploitation.—If the State is to accept as
its duty the protection of a fishery and the assurance of its survival, some decision must be
reached as to the form which protection should take. Unreasoned and unreasonable limitation
of a fishery may not result in assuring its permanence, and is almost certain to result in less
profitable operation for the industry. On the other hand, exploitation must not be allowed to
proceed unrestrained and unheeded lest irreparable damage be sustained by the fishery. As
there is no means of ascertaining what strain a species may withstand without actually submitting it to the strain, the policy of the Government with respect to a new fishery should be to
allow free exploitation, but at the same time to maintain a very close inspection of the condition
of the fishery and the way in which the stock of fish is reacting to the fishing strain. At the
first sign that more fish are being captured by the fishery than may be supplied by the natural
increase—i.e., that depletion is occurring—restrictive legislation should be enacted and enforced,
and the fishery should still be kept under observation to determine (1) its reaction to the new
strain, and (2) whether it is possible for fish stock and fishery to reach equilibrium under the
new conditions. It is only by such a series of full scale, carefully observed experiments that
the most satisfactory policy of exploitation may be determined.
Necessity for Accurate Statistics.—How, then, ,is the Government to keep a fishery under
observation? The simplest and most obvious criterion of the condition of a fishery is the
amount of fish caught. It is evident, accordingly, that the keeping of full and accurate statistics
is one of the chief responsibilities of the State. It will be pointed out later that plain catch
statistics cannot be sufficient in themselves to give positive indication of the condition of the
fishery, but in most cases they are the foundation upon which more critical analyses are based,
and to it they are most essential. These data are most valuable when kept along with those on
the price paid for fish and the number of boats and men engaged in the fishery in question.
Factors tending to disguise Depletion.—Although economic conditions or other factors may
occasionally tend to reduce the catch of any species of fish, it may be regarded as generally true
that a falling-off in the catch of fish over a considerable period of time indicates a reduction in
the abundance of the stock. However, a number of factors prevent the assumption that when
the catch increases or remains stationary the abundance of fish in the stock is increasing or
remaining unchanged.
The price paid for fish of a species may exert an influence toward disguising depletion.
As a species becomes reduced in numbers the market for it becomes stronger, thus encouraging
the fishermen to make greater efforts to secure that species, and even enabling them to pursue
a profitable fishery at a level of abundance of the exploited species which would have compelled
the cessation of the fishery for economic reasons at former prices. Since the price paid for fish
is only a small proportion of the retail price paid by the consumer for the marketed commodity,
the existence of depletion is not brought home to the public at large until the numbers of the
species have been reduced to the point where it is in danger of economic, if not actual, extinction.
Another factor which is likely to lead to carrying on a fishery for a species beyond the
minimum abundance for safety, and beyond the point where profitable exploitation could not
otherwise have been carried on, is the broadening of the fishery to include other species. By
expansion of this kind the profits for each fishing period are augmented, and the capture of
the principal species on which the fishery was based originally may continue far past the point
beyond which economic considerations would otherwise have led to the closing of the fishery.
A relationship which might result in a condition of this kind exists between the pilchard
and herring fisheries of British Columbia.    The same floating equipment is used in both fisheries,
and to some extent the  same nets, docks,  and business  offices.    In consequence,  given  one
abundant fishery, the other may be carried on profitably at a very low level of abundance of
5 the secondary species, or both fisheries may be carried on together under conditions which
neither could withstand alone.
The inevitable development of the fishery is still another factor which is likely to disguise
depletion until it has reached serious proportions. Development may take place in the continued
adaptation of fishing equipment to the conditions of the particular fishery and consequent increase
in fishing efficiency, or it may take the form of extensions to include new fishing-grounds, made
economically possible by increased prices which recompense the fishermen for longer runs to
and from less accessible regions. The introduction of steam-trawlers and otter-trawls prevented
the detection of depletion in the North Sea ground fisheries for some time, and the northwesterly movement of the centre of the halibut-fishery to untouched and more populous banks
for many years disguised the depletion which was occurring in the Pacific fishery for that
species. The influence of developments of these kinds is to be discerned only with great
difficulty, if at all, from an examination of fishery statistics as usually prepared.
One other type of growth is likely to mask the effects of overfishing and depletion. That
is the increase in the number of boats or amounts of equipment used in fishing for the species
in question. In many species the catch has been kept up by dint of increased numbers of
fishing-boats and nets until depletion has become excessive. From the information contained
in ordinary fishery statistics, some allowance may be made for the development of a fishery
in this respect by considering the amount of the species caught for a unit of fishing equipment,
but such allowances are not adequate in all cases.
In the case of schooling fish, such as pilchards, herring, or even salmon, it cannot with safety
be assumed that the amount of fish caught by any selected fishing unit is proportional to the
abundance of the fish until such an assumption is shown to be justified by a careful examination of the fishery. In the case of such species the time consumed in catching and landing fish
may not increase materially as the fish become more scarce. This is true when comparatively
small time is consumed, under all conditions of abundance, in locating the schools of fish, as
compared with the time taken in setting, loading, running, and unloading. This will be particularly the case when a reduction in the numbers of the stock of fish is accompanied by the
existence of a smaller number of schools of undiminished size.
The influence of catch limits imposed from time to time in periods of abundance by the
buyers, and changes in the regulations in regard to periods closed to fishing, are difficult to
allow for in estimating the abundance of a species from the catch.
Inadequacies of Fisheries Statistics and the Remedy.—From the foregoing it is evident that,
although fisheries statistics are useful as indices of the condition of a fishery, they cannot be
depended upon to reveal the existence of depletion as soon as it occurs. Furthermore, fisheries
statistics have the disadvantage that at best they indicate Only the changes in abundance of
fish of a species, rather than why or how the abundance has altered. Ordinary fishery statistics
have in them no means of distinguishing between changes in abundance of fish brought about
by the action of the fishery and those caused by natural fluctuations in abundance, such as are
known to occur in many species, and which have from time to time made themselves apparent
in the great fisheries of the world.
It follows, then, that the responsibility of the State is not fully discharged by the collection
of fishery statistics of abundance alone, but that it must also maintain careful supervision of
the fishery to ascertain what may be the source of such variations in the abundance as may be
observed. If variations appear which are evidently caused by depletion of the fishery, restrictive
legislation must be adopted and enforced and the reaction of the fishery to the new conditions
observed and analysed. The supervision of the fisheries should be undertaken by suitably
trained investigators who would be competent to adjust each investigation to the species of
fish in question, and who would be qualified by biological training to recommend the system
of exploitation which would lead to the most profitable use of each species, compatible with the
assurance of the permanence of the industry dependent upon it. PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON.
E 67
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1932.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steel-
heads.
Cohoes.*
Pinks.
Chums.
Grand
Total
(Cases).
Fraser Riverf	
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
2
27,611
27,083
28,701
28,269
459
48
4,408
•   278
10,559
3,236
23
404
29
20
10
16,815
48,312
7,062
273
7,955
3,805
63,637
41,172
385
58,261
3,483
1,148
44,629
2,415
33,403
80,034
14,948
38,549
944
165
14,515
358
70,629
166,653
126,641
233,711
81,709
27,142
85,671
6,85S
Rivers Inlet %	
Smith lnlet§	
91
591
205,930
Outlying Districts	
313,369
Totals	
284,355
75,958
1,168
189,031
223,758
306,761
1,081,031
* Bluebacks are combined with cohoe in this table.
t 4,000 cases of sockeye packed at Esquimalt are credited to the Fraser.
% 9,062 cases of sockeye packed on the Fraser are credited to Rivers Inlet.
§ 800 cases of sockeye packed on the Fraser are credited to Smith Inlet.
|j 11,816 cases of sockeye packed on the Fraser are credited to Vancouver Island ;
than sockeye packed on the Fraser are credited to Vancouver Island.
09,943 cases of other
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1917 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
I I
1928.     I     1927.     |     1926.
1925
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Bluebacks and Steelheads.
Totals	
05,769
18,298
10,403
14,948
385
10,815
23
126,641
40,947
9,740
251
13,307
8,165
657
103,692
11,366
9,761
68,946
30,754
25,585
27,879
01,569
3,305
6,699
144,159
158,208
40,520
12,013
73,067
277,983
426,473
20 200
1,173
3,909
193,106
2,881
27,061
795
258,224
61,393
7,925
10,528
67,259
102,536
24,079
10,658
284,378
85,689
12,783
20,169
88,495
32,256
21,783
13,776
274,951
35,385
7,989
25,701
66,111
99,800
36,717
5,152
276,855
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Bluebacks and Steelhead
Totals	
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
212,059
31,655
3,854
4,279
103,248
63,645
20,173
15
51,832
10,561
6,300
17,895
29,578
23,587
817
226,869   |   140,570
39,631
11,360
5,949
11,233
8,178
29,978
1,331
107,650
48,399
10,691
4,432
23,884
12,839
22,934
4,522
136,661
38,854
14,519
4,296
15,718
39,363
39,253
15,941
19,697
15,192
24,853
86,215
18,388
40,111
4,395
167,944
208,857
148,164
10,197
18,916
59,973
134,442
25,895
4,951
402,538 E 68
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1917 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Skeena Rivek.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
9,857
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
5S
78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
13
34,559
6,420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
S3,996
19,038
19,006
38,768
26,326
582
82,360
30,594
63,527
210,081
30,208
754
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
39,168
713
Totals 	
233,711
162,986
450,377
220,245
298,709
187,716
407,524
348,859
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
20,968
214
131,731
12,247
16,527
145,973
31,907
418
96,277
14,176
39,758
301,655
24,699
1,050
41,018
21,766
1,993
124,457
45,033
498
89,364
37,403
3,834
177,679
18,068
1,218
184,945
25,941
31,457
117,303
36,559
2,672
123,322
22,931
22,573
161,727
38,759
4,994
65,760
16,285
Chums	
21,516
148,319
38,456
1,883
Totals !	
390,858
338,863
477,915
234,765
332,887
398,877
374,306
292,219
Rivers Inlet.
Smith Inlet.!
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
325
429
5,089
6.571
32
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
342
989
2,386
1,120
29
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
868
7
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
65,581
685
11,727
12,815
7,286
11
192,323*
496
Chums	
11,510
8,625
4,946
Totals	
81,709
88,874
138,980
X
75,126
SI,527
69,773
98,105
217,900
1924.
1923. .
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
94,891
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
116,850
599
3,242
10,057
1,526
53,584
323
311
24,292
1,120
82
48,615
364
173
5,303
4,718
97
125,742
1,793
1,226
25.647
2,90S
56,258
1,442
7,089
6,538
9,038
53,401
1,409
0,729
29,542
12,074
61,195
817
Chums	
16,101
8,065
9,124
Totals	
117,445
132,274
79,712
59,272
133,248
80,367
103,155
95,302
1932
I
1931.     |     1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red....:	
Springs, White	
Cohoes ,	
Pinks :	
Chums	
Bluebacks and Steelheads
Totals	
25,488
46
2
273
1,148
165
20
27,142
12,867
122
112
824
133
36
" 14T094T
32,057
268
22
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
"527185
9,683
18
00
275
853
113
12
TI76TT
33,442
108
178
230
107
19
6
34,150
22,082
270
79
2,990
732
2,605
17,921
73
39
164
689
31
29,366   |     18,917
I
33,764
33
22
44
134
1
33,998
* Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu.
t Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other Districts. SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
E 69
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1917 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Nass River.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
14.154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
1,439
392
. 5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,126
84
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
5,540
1,846
3,538
83,183
10,734
36
12,026
1  3,824
3,307
16,609
3,966
96
15,929
5,964
15,392
50,815
4,274
375
18,945
3,757
22,504
35,530
8,027
245
Chums	
Pinks	
Totals	
85,671
32,881
113,460
29,185
104,877
39,828
92,749
89,008
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
33,590
2,725
26,612
72,496
6,481
1,035
17,821
3,314
25,791
44,165
7,894
595
31,277
2,062
11,277
75,687
3,533
235
9,364
2,088
2,176
29,488
8,236
413
16,740
4,857
12,145
43,151
3,700
560
28,259
3,574
24,041
29,949
10,900
789
21,816
4,152
40,368
59,206
17,061
1,305
22,188
4,496
24,938
44 568
Pinks           	
22,180
1,125
Steelheafl Trout	
Totals	
142,939
99,580
124,071
51,765
81,153
97,512
143,908
119,495
Vancouver Island District.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
27,611
10,559
70,629
33,403
35,132
28,596
205,930
22,199
4,055
16,329
81,965
20,310
24,038
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1,645
162,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
14,248
2,269
303,474
41,885
23,345
5,249
24,835
6,769
220,270
52,561
58,834
10,194
25,070
5,222
174,383
86,113
51,551
5,383
10,895
5,664
Chums	
127,520
51,384
59,747
4,832
Steelheads and Bluebacks.
Totals    	
175,541
340,395
294,854
390,470
373,463
347,722
260,042
Queen Charlotte and
other Districts.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
21,685
3,514
167,011
82,449
44,977
591
29,071
1,608
34,570
55,825
16,141
446
39,198
1,852
143,781
600,986
61,418
1,204
35,331
1,020
111,263
136,758
56,938
575
59,852
2,806
341,802
438,298
58,455
609
60,533
7,826
252,230
36,481
47,433
973
62,383*
3,650
348,682
380,243
47,183
973
49,902
5,002
Chums  	
305,256
120,747
Cohoes	
Steelheads and Bluebacks.
40,269
1,520
Totals	
320,227
137,661
848,439
341,873
901,822
405,476
844,114
522,756
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
40,926
4,245
195,357
141,878
26,031
497
24,584
2,711
148,727
146,943
29,142
732
47,107
4,988
80,485
113,824
31,331
409
18,350
4,995
21,412
14,818
18,203
2,790
64,473
15,633
30,946
247,149
33,807
3,721
54,677
14,766
165,717
110,300
35,011
702
51,980
8,582
90,464
201,847
42,331
1,009
32,902
6,056
Pinks    	
112,364
112,209
30,201
Steelheads and Bluebacks..
865
Totals	
408,934
352,839
278,144
80,568
395,728
381,163
404,793
294,597
* Including 17,921 eases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet. E 70
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1917 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Total Packed by Districts in 1917 to 1932, inclusive.
1932.
1931.
1930.    1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
126,641
233,711
81,709
27,142
85,671
205,930
320,227
1,081,081
73,067
162,986
88,874
14,094
32,881
175,541
137,661
277,983
450,377
138,980
52,185
113,460
340,395
848,439
426,473
220,245
75,126
11,014
29,185
294,854
341,873
258,224
298,709
81,527
34,150
104,877
890,470
901,822
284,378
187,716
69,773
29,366
39,828
373,463
405,476
274,951
407,524
98,105
18,917
92,749
347,722
844.139*
276,855
Skeena	
348,859
217,900
33,998
89,008
Vancouver Island...
Other Districts	
263,904
522,756
Grand totals
685,104
2,221,819
1,398,770
2,035,629
1,360,634
2,065,190
1,719,282
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
212,059
390,858
117,445
11,776
142,939
277,267
604,745
226,869
338,863
132,274
11,979
99,580
191,252
352,839
140,570
477,915
79,712
5,862
124,071
185,524
278,144
107,650
234,765
59,272
136,661
332,787
157,522
167,944
398,877
80,307
210,S51
374,216
103,155
402,538
292,219
95,302
Smith Inlet
51,765
69,528
80,568
81,153
84,170
395,223
97,512
267,293
381,163
143,908
389,815
404,793
119,495
Vancouver Island...
Other Districts.	
'325,723
294,597
Grand totals
1,745,213
1,341,677
1,285,946
603,548
1,187,616
1,393,156
1,626,738
1,557,485
* Including 17,921 eases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE ENTIRE FRASER
RIVER SYSTEM FROM 1894 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE.
1894.
1895.  1  1896.
]
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
363,967
41,781
395,984
65,143
356,984
72,979
860,459
312,048
240,000
252,000
486,409
499,646
170,889
228,704
974,911
1,105,096
405,748
401,127
429,963
1,172,507
492,000
980,055
399,593
2,080,007
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.   1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
293,477
339,556
204,809
167,211
72,688
123,419
837,489
837,122
183,007
182,241
59,815
90,974
74,574
170,951
1,097,904
Totals	
633,033
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
150,432
248,014
58,487
127,761
123,879
184,680
719,796
1,673,099
198,183
335,230
91,130
64,584
32,146
84,637
148,164
411,538
Totals	
398,446
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
155,714
110,783
559,702
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1
1924.    1925.
19,097
50,723
38,854
04,304
48,399
02,654
39,631
102,967
51,832
48,566
31,655
47,402
39,743
69,309
35 385
112 023
Totals	
70,420
103,200
111,053
142,598
100.398
. 79,057
109,112
147,408
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
85,689
44,673
01,393
97,594
29,299
61,044
61,509
111,898
103,692
352,194
40,947
87,211
65,769
81,188
State of Washington.	
Totals	
130,362
158,987
90,343
173,404
455,886
128,158
146,957 SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE
E 71
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1917 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE.
1       |
1932.  1  1931.  1  1930.
1       1
1929.
1928.  1  1927.
1
1926.
1925.
65,769
59,916
09,732
25,488
14,154
27,011
. 21,685
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
119,170
32,057
20,405
24,784
39,198
61,569
78,017
70,260
9,083
10,077
10,340
35,331
1
on oqo    K1 ana
85,689
82,360
65,581
17,921
15,929
25,070
44 AP.9.
35,385
81,146
192 323
34,559
60,044
33,442
5,540
14,248
26,410
83,996
65,269
22,682
12,026
24,835
37 8K1
33,764
18,945
14,757
10 198
'       '
Totals	
284,355
291,464
477,678
281,277
203,542
308,052
337,012
392 518
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
39,743
144,747
94,891
11,435
33,590
15,618
20,579
31,655
131,731
116,850
11,864
17,821
12,006
12,720
51,832
96,277
53,584
39,631
41,018
48,615
48,399
89,064
125,742
38,854
184,945
56,258
19,697
123,322
53,401
148,104
05 760
61,195
Smith Inlet	
Vancouver Island	
31,277
15,147
47,107
9,364
6,936
18,350
16,740
6,987
64,473
28,259
6,452
54,677
21,816
6,243
51,980
22,188
9,039
32,902
Totals	
369,603
334,647
295,224
163,914
351,405
369,445
276,459
339,848
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PILCHARD INDUSTRY OF THE PROVINCE,
1920 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE.
Year.
Total Catch.
Canned.
Used in
Reduction.
Oil.
Meal.
Bait.
1920       	
Cwt.
88,050
19,737
20,342
19,492
27,485
318.973
909,958
1,308,582
1,610,252
1,726,851
1,501,404
1,472,085
886,964
Cases.
91,929
16,091
19,180
17,195
14,898
37,182
20,731
58,501
65,097
98,821
55.166
17,336
4,622
Cwt.
Gals.
Tons.
Bbls.
9,937
1921
4,232
1922
3,125
1923
3,625
1924           	
923
1925       	
220,000
940,000
1,310,000
1,560,000
1,654,575
1,468,840
1,456,846
876,700
495,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
3,997,656
2,856,579
3,204,058
2,551,914
1,315,864
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,826
13,934
14,200
8,842
4,045
1920      	
2.950
1927 	
1,737
1928 	
2,149
1929      	
1,538
1930 	
926
1931  	
1,552
1932 	
1,603 E 72
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1932.
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, 1920 TO 1932 (OTHER THAN
FROM PILCHARD).
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Year.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1920	
Tons.
503
326
485
292
347
340
345
376
417
273
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
666
651
754
780
581
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,626
3,335
5,647
6,608
Gals.
55,669
1921
44,700
75,461
1922                  ..     .          	
283,314
706,514
645,657
556,939
468,206
437,967
571,914
712,597
525,533
1923...	
180,318
1924                  	
241,376
1925	
354,853
1926	
217,150
1927.          	
250,811
1928	
387,276
1929	
459,575
1930
243,009
352,492
231,690
1931	
1932	
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1933.
1,825-733-3744

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