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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE YEAR 1931 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1934

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
OF  THE
PEOVINCIAL MUSEUM
OF
NATURAL HISTORY
FOR THE YEATS 1931
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Chahles F. Banfielo, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1932. To His Honour J. W. Foedham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Museum
of Natural History for the year 1931.
SAMUEL LYNESS HOWE,
Provincial Secretary.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
Victoria, B.C., March 23rd, 1932. Provincial Museum of Natural History,
Victoria, B.C., March 23rd, 1932.
The Honourable S. L. Howe,
Provincial Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour, as Director of the Provincial Museum of Natural History, to lay
before you the Report for the year ended December 31st, 1931, covering the activities of the
Museum.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant.
FRANCIS KERMODE,
Director. DEPARTMENT of the PROVINCIAL SECRETARY.
The Honourable S. L. Howe, Minister.
P. de Noe Walker, Deputy Minister.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY.
Staff:
Francis Kermode, Director.
William A. Newcombe, Assistant Biologist. Nancy Stark, Recorder.
John F. Clarke, Assistant Curator of Entomology.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Object    5
Admission     5
Visitors     5
Activities     5
Anthropology and Archaeology 7, 11
Palaeontology  12
Botany 9, 12
Amphibia and Reptilia 6, 13
Ichthyology 9, 13
Entomology 10, 13
Marine Zoology 10, 13
Ornithology 10, 14
Oology 10, 14
Mammalogy : 10, 14
Publications received from other Museums  14
Accessions  11 REPORT of the
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
FOR THE YEAR 1931.
By Francis Kermode, Director.
OBJECTS.
(a.)  To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the Province.
(b.)  To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the Province,
(c.)  To obtain information respecting the natural sciences,  relating particularly  to  the
natural history of the Province, and diffuse knowledge regarding the same.
ADMISSION.
The Provincial Museum is open, free, to the public daily throughout the year from 9 a.m.
to 5 p.m. (except New Year's Day, Good Friday, and Christmas Day) ; it is also open on
Sunday afternoons from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. from May 1st until the end of October.
VISITORS.
The following figures show the difference between those who registered and those who were
checked by the attendants.   While only 25,630 people registered, the total of the check was 53,093.
Registered. Checked.
January          955 2,162
February          875 2,124
March          879 2,249
April        1,123 2,493
May       1,755 4,045
June        2,748 5,195
July      6,202 12,190
August        6,090 11,510
September        2,465 4,708
October      1,253 3,188
November        583 1,609
December          702 1,620
Totals  25,630 53,093
ACTIVITIES.
There was a slight decrease (approximately 3,500) of visitors to the Museum during the
year; no doubt due to the present depression. Tourists from many parts of the world visited
the institution throughout the year. Local residents also continued to show their interest in
the exhibits. School students of the city and surrounding municipalities and Normal students
still come to the Museum for assistance in their nature-studies; many expressing their gratification at being allowed to use the collections, which helps them materially in their studies.
Members of the staff of the Museum are always on hand to give whatever information may be
desired.
One of the collections which is greatly used by many visitors is the seasonal exhibit of wild
flowers, which was instituted several years ago. Fresh flowers are on exhibit throughout the
year and are renewed by members of the staff, who collect the plants before or after office hours,
so as to keep it going; as, with the small staff, time would not permit otherwise. Several
outsiders occasionally contribute to this display, and the Director wishes to extend the thanks
of the Department for their co-operation.
The valuable display of totems, house poles, boards, and other carvings which are on
exhibition in the old Drill Hall have been gone over and labels have been attached with the
necessary data.    These exhibits are visited by many persons interested in Anthropology. B 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
On August 9th, 1931, the Museum was visited by the President and Secretary of the British
Museums Association, Sir Henry Miers, M.A., D.S.C., F.R.S., and S. F. Markham, M.A., B.Litt.,
M.P., who were on a tour of Canada to make a survey of the Museums of the British Empire
for the Carnegie Corporation. They spent most of the day with the Director, going over the
Provincial collections, and were greatly pleased with what they saw, the manner in which the
specimens were shown and labelled; saying it was so much more interesting being a representative collection of the Flora, Fauna, and Anthropology of the Province. Congratulations were
extended to the Department for the work that is being clone with so limited a staff and the
small amount of money that is voted by Legislature. Both gentlemen, wishing to discuss matters
appertaining to the Museum work, were introduced to the Honourable S. F. Tolmie, Prime
Minister; the Honourable S. L. Howe, Provincial Secretary; and the Honourable W. McKenzie,
Minister of Mines.
Sir Henry Miers broadcasted over the Dominion from Montreal on August 25th, his subject
being " Museums of Canada," in which he referred to the Provincial Museum as " The Museum
of Victoria, one of the best of its sort in the Dominion, confines itself to Natural History and
Ethnography."
The Director wishes to extend to the many persons who are mentioned in the list of accessions, the grateful thanks of the Department for their gift of specimens and co-operation in the
work of the Provincial Museum.
A REMARKABLE CAPTURE OF LEATHERBACK TURTLES OFF BAJO REEF,
NEAR NOOTKA SOUND, WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND,
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys schlegelli Garman).
This Chelonian is the largest of the turtle family; specimens have been recorded measuring
as much as 8 feet in total length and weighing over 1,600 lb. They differ so materially in
structure from other species that they have been placed in a distinct family. The horny plates,
so conspicuous in all other types, are entirely absent, the bony carapace, which is distinctly
seven-ridged longitudinally, being covered with a homogeneous leather-like skin. Both jaws
are formidably hooked and cutting throughout their edges, and the paddles are destitute of
rudimentary claws found in other species.
The flesh of this large Chelonian is not only unfit for food, being very oily and fatty, but
is reported to be of a poisonous character.
Plate I. shows a photograph of this large turtle after it had been brought to Nootka by
Captain Henry White, a Masset Indian, and is published by the courtesy of the photographer,
Mr. M. S. Robertson. These turtles are only stragglers to the North Pacific Coast of Western
North America, the type localities being given as the Tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans.
The Provincial Museum was very fortunate in receiving the back-shell of one of the turtles
mentioned in the letter received from Mr. J. J. Petrich, General Manager of the Nootka Packing
Co., Ltd., for which the Department wishes to acknowledge with many thanks, as this is the
first known record so far north on the Western Pacific.
" Nootka, B.C., October 6th, 1931.
" Mr. F. Kermode, Director,
Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
" Dear Sir,—We are in receipt of your letter of September 30th and are shipping you on
this ' Maquinna ' one back-shell of the turtle that was captured on August 16th by one of the
pilchard seine-boats belonging to the Nootka Packing Co., called the ' Snow King.' You will
notice that the shell is punctured in several places, which was caused by the Indians shooting
at it several times in trying to kill it. They finally hit it on the head, which cracked open very
much like a watermelon. Captain Henry White, of the Haida tribe of Masset Indians, was the
man who killed both the turtles.
" It is the first time that one of this species of turtle has been caught in these waters, as
far as we know.    The first turtle weighed approximately 1,450 lb.
" Two weeks after this one had been brought in, another was killed in approximately the
same place, about 8 miles south of Bajo Reef, by the same boat and the same captain.    The   PLATE   II.
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.  second turtle was very similar to the first caught, both in size and weight, and I am preserving
its back-shell for myself.
" Trusting it will be of some assistance and value to your Museum, we remain,
" Yours very truly,
"NOOTKA PACKING CO., LTD.
" J. J. Petrich, General Manager."
A LARGE SALISH EARTHWORK.
By W. A. Newcombe.
In the early literature of the Province will be found many references to Indian forts
adjacent to their villages. In most cases these refer to rocky steep-sided islands or peninsulas
in which the ascent was difficult, any weak point being strengthened by overhanging platforms
or, in the case of a low-lying side, by a ditch (sometimes containing hidden stakes), behind
which was placed a solid row of high pickets. These, together with the heavily timbered house
with a low oval door, were the chief types of " fort" on the Northern British Columbia Coast.
In the southern section, sites such as mentioned above were not always available close to the
villages and camping-places, necessitating additional artificial work to protect them chiefly from
the periodical raids of northern tribes. The remains of a number of these old forts have been
discovered in the present Coast Salish area; though many of the small ones have only a single
ditch across the base of a peninsula, others have been found with two lines of defence, an outer
and inner ditch (probably each had its line of pickets). A good example is still to be seen on
the north point of Towner Bay, Saanich Peninsula. Another method had to be used by the
Comox Indians where their main settlements were divided by a high cliff facing the harbour.
This they fortified by digging their ditch in a semicircle, the ends of which are at the face of
the cliff. This trench was also doubled at the side farthest from the water, with the ends of
the outer semicircular ditch tapering into the inner.
As will be noted in the above, every advantage has been taken in strengthening natural
sites, but at Deep Bay, on the southern end of Baynes Sound, in the vicinity of which there is
evidence of a large population in former days, there are no suitable islands or points for
defensive purposes, which compelled the inhabitants to construct the only complete " earthwork "
that I have knowledge of on the British Columbia Coast. (See Plate II.) This was reported
on by James Richardson in 1872 (see Smith, Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia and Puget
Sound, p. 323, Jessup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. II., Part VI.)  as follows:—
" Sept. 22nd, 1872. Being Sunday I inspected an ancient fortification; in shape it is nearly a
true ellipse 265 paces in circumference. The slope of the sides is 15 paces in length, at an angle
of 50 degrees (from bottom of trench to top of parapet). From top of parapet to flat four
paces.   Inside of this circular parapet is a large flat.
"This mound is on a point of land between Baynes Sound on the one side (south-east) and
Deep Bay on the other. On the Baynes Sound side the sea seems formerly to have washed the
base of this part, or at least to have been within a few feet of it. At present the sea is 70 paces
from it, a current having thrown in a lot of sand and stones.
" About 50 paces northward is another, and smaller one. There is a trench dividing the
point, and on one side of it the walls are not half so high. Within this last are a lot of shell
mounds or kitchen-middens. On the inside of the larger fortification I found one or two small
mounds, hearths probably.    One hollow place looked like a cache."
When I first visited this site in the summer of 1905 little could be seen of the artificial work
on account of the heavy underbrush and the many maples being in full foliage. Photographing
was also impossible for the same reasons. So in April, 1931, Inspector T. W. S. Parsons, of the
Provincial Police, gave me the opportunity of accompanying him on one of his tours of inspection ; it was gladly accepted. He very obligingly took me to many places of Ethnological
interest between Victoria and Comox, among them the Deep Cove Earthwork. This we found
had been cleared of the underbrush noted in 1905, but the majority of the maples were still
standing, though not in leaf. The Deep Bay Cannery has been built close by, and some of the
employees' residences are within the fort enclosure. Other than cutting through the parapet
for walks in one or two places, little damage has been done and appeared very much as described
by Dr. Richardson, though little remains of the artificial work on the Baynes Sound  (south- B 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
east) side of the large mound. The greatest height from the top of the parapet to the bottom
of the trench agreed with Dr. Newcombe's measurements as given in Smith's Archaeology—i.e.,
about seven metres; this is on the west side, near which is a small creek. From the fort the
approach of an enemy, either from north down Baynes Sound, the east through Lambert
Channel, or from the south coming up Strait of Georgia, would be quickly observed, and, the
alarm being given, those fishing, clam-digging, or at some other seasonal occupation would have
ample time to retreat within the enclosure.
AN UNRECORDED PETROGLYPH.
By W. A. Newcombe.
Late in the summer, J. L. Colbert, of the Provincial Forest Service, returned from his
holidays and informed me that while camping on Kulleet Bay, near Ladysmith, his party had
uncovered what was taken to be an Indian rock carving. I was unable to investigate the report
until October, when F. J. and Mrs. Barrow, of North Saanich, kindly invited me on a launch
expedition to give me the opportunity of examining the above and other reported archaeological
finds on the lower gulf islands.
On arriving at Kulleet Bay, little difficulty was experienced in following Mr. Colbert's
directions and we landed within 100 yards of the dried-up creek-bed mentioned by him.
Following this up a very short distance from the beach, a low rocky ledge was approached,
jutting at an angle of 45°; at the outer end the moss and silt had been removed, uncovering the
two or three carved figures that had been reported. The balance of the ledge being suitable for
similar work, we soon had it stripped of debris to the creek-bank (about 15 by 5 feet), exposing
the series of petroglyphs shown in Plate III.
The majority of these had been made by deeply pecking into the sandstone formation; the
figures, represented as in most cases of this class of work in British Columbia, can only be
guessed at, though the two nearest the camera resemble the mythical supernatural being of the
Salish known as the " Xai-xai," an opinion in which Chief Tom Seymour, of the Kulleet Band,
concurred. Two others look like birds and one possibly a crab. On the opposite side of the
creek, on a small outcropping of sandstone, three or four additional figures were found; they
were not so well worked and all apparently representing " humans."
The site of the petroglyphs, which is on the north side of Kulleet Bay, about half-way
between Deer Point and the head of the bay, is seldom visited to-day, and the old Chief of the
Kulleet Band had no knowledge of their existence, but thought they had probably been executed
by ancient shamans during their initiation, part of which consisted of a prolonged fasting in
the woods;  the carved figures representing those seen in dreams.
On my return to Arictoria I reported the find to P. de Noe Walker, Deputy Provincial
Secretary, who immediately took steps to have the petroglyph preserved, by securing permission
from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Ottawa, to place an Historic Objects marker on an
Indian reserve. The permission being given, Order in Council No. 1473 was approved on
November 25th, 1931, declaring the Petroglyph discovered on Kulleet Indian Reserve an Historic
Object, and that a notice in a form approved by the Honourable the Provincial Secretary be
erected and maintained at or in the vicinity of the said Historic Object.
ACCESSION NOTES.
By W. A. Newcombe.
Anthropology and Archeology.
Little material was added to our Dene collections, though the few pieces that were, filled in
gaps in their particular series. The birch-bark baskets, though new, came from a " band " of
the Carriers from whom we had no material. The snow-shoes were in actual use when secured,
and Mr. Swannell's specimens are good illustrations of how metal has replaced the bone and
stone of former days, though the shaping of the tools remains as of old.
For many of the additions to the Salish groups I have to thank Inspector T. W. S. Parsons,
of the Provincial Police. He not only made it possible for me to visit many points of archaeological interest, but also interested many others in our efforts and donated valuable personal
finds. I
PLATE  III.
Fig. 1.
■'■■   '"   ■      : . '■■    '
m
J-- . . ■:     -■:■■    ■
;..:;;■ \:-.;,■%;■;-;..-.
Fig. 2.  REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1931. B 9
The " Mountain Goat Wool" blanket from Sir. Forde is similar to those made at Spuzzum
about thirty years ago, a type I have not come across recently. Not having a Salish racing-
canoe in our series, we were particularly pleased to accept the donation from the Victoria
Parks Board.
The " Ceremonial Stone Dishes " from Mr. Giraud all belong to the type for the " use " of
which we know so little, though the supposition is that they were used ceremonially in mixing
charms or medicines by predecessors of the Salish who now occupy the territory in which they
are found.
I can find no records of wampum having been found farther north than the specimens
donated by Mrs. Kyle from Jervis Inlet.
The Nootkan whale harpoon and lanyard makes a valuable exhibit; the lanyard having
the usual twine serving removed, baring the hand-laid rope of animal sinews.
Thread-like lashings made from our large kelp, when wet, give one an idea of the strength
of this material; Inspector Parsons informing me that it was being used for tying up " saw-
logs " when he first observed it.
Our only Tsimshian addition was the " Copper " from Mr. Woollacott. The following notes
accompanied the specimen: " It was given to Mr. Woollacott's father in 1875, when he was
Superintendent of Police, by Chief Zebassa, of Kitkatla. It was said at the time to have had
a tribal value of 5,000 blankets and is known as a ' broken copper'; that is, one that has had
pieces broken from it for distribution at potlatches; when these pieces are regained by the
original owner by purchase in the course of time they are riveted into place again. The
' copper ' is greatly enhanced by each successive ' break ' and ' weld.' "
The Haida gambling-sticks donated by W. II. Dempster are an exceptionally well-marked
set of seventy pieces, the largest number we have from any of the tribes playing this game.
Archaeological material from the Queen Charlotte Islands, other than the well-known large
mauls, adzes, and mortars (the majority of which had been collected from the Indians), is very
rare in museum collections, so that Mr. Smith's specimens were very acceptable, not only because
of this, but also on account of the localities in which they were found; i.e., the north-east coast
of Graham Island having been deserted soon after the arrival of the whites on the Coast.
The little figure secured from Mr. Walters is also interesting, being made from the well-
known Slatechuck material used to-day by the Haida in making model totem poles. It has been
questioned whether this material was used before 1850, but this specimen dug up when road-
grading at Chown Brook, Graham Island, together with other apparently old charms I have
seen, lead one to believe that they had uses for the material long before that date.
Botany.
Outside of keeping our fresh wild flower exhibits renewed throughout the year, we had
little time to spare for collecting material for other botanical work, but friends in many parts
of the Province very kindly assisted us by sending in specimens which have been placed in the
Herbarium.
Mr. Perry's alpines from the Lillooet District and Dr. Kujala's flowers collected along the
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway added species not represented in the Museum. Mr. Boys wrote
me during the summer enclosing a specimen of Stimulus moschatus collected at North-east Point,
Texada. He had been attracted to the spot by the strong musky odour. This, I believe, is the
first occasion a scented specimen has been reported for many years. At Clo-oose, Miss McGee
collected Anemone multiftda. Previous to this our westerly record had been Sooke River.
Collecting Erythronium revolutum from where it is in close association with E. giganteum in
the Comox District was kindly undertaken for us by Theed Pearse, of Courtenay. The collections made by J. G. Cory Wood and Miss M. Birley in the Peace River District were of particular
value, as previous to this we had few species recorded from that area.
Our mosses were enriched by recently determined species in material collected by Mrs. F. A.
MacFadden in the eastern portion of the Province and those from the southern end of Vancouver Island by Mrs. H. Mackenzie.
Ichthyology.
While no rare species were added to our fish collection, one or two well-known varieties
were presented and placed on exhibition. These included Catfish (Ameurus melas Raf.) from
New Westminster and  Shawnigan Lake by  P.  Peebles  and  W.  F.  Crockford  respectively. B 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Pilchard (Clupanodon cmurulus Girard) collected at Queens Cove, Esperanza Inlet, by M. Meed
included one specimen exceptionally large, measuring 15% inches from tip to tip.
A series of spring and sockeye salmon yearlings showed a great variation as to size,
accounted for by the food-supply available in the different lakes and streams of the Fraser
River watershed.
Entomology.
Little was added in point of numbers to this branch, but our thanks are due to Mrs. Black-
more for about 100 specimens of Microlepidoptera, some of which may prove new species;
to G. Stace Smith for specimens of Mgialia opaca Brn. and Aphodius smithi Brn., which we
had noted in our 1930 Report as new to science; to V. J. Rittich, of Rutland, for a series of
Blues;   and to J. Thompson for Lepidoptera and Odonata.
Mollusca.
Keen interest in this section of our Natural History was shown by S. Boys and A. W.
Hanham, both gentlemen generously donating specimens which added new species to the B.C.
Mollusca Fauna listed in our Annual Reports of 1925 and 1926.
Mrs. Oldroyd, who has for many years been of the greatest assistance in determining our
shells, identified the following material: Chrysodomus phwniceus Dall, Colus jordani Dall,
Cidarina cidaris A. Adam, and Spisula alaskana Dall, collected by Mr. Boys in the Strait of
Georgia. Of these, Chrysodomus phwniceus was described from a specimen taken off the west
coast of Vancouver Island in 238 fathoms, and I can find no record of it having been previously
found in our inland waters. Colus jordani was described from specimens collected off Sucia
Island, but we had no British Columbia material until receiving the above. Cidarina cidaris
and Spisula alaskana were represented, but not by such fine specimens as those collected by
Mr. Boys.
From Mr. Hanham we received Iselica obtusa laxa Dall and Solariella peramabilis Carp.,
collected at Maple Bay and Departure Bay respectively. Neither of these species are shown in
our lists of 1925-26. He also added the following to our small series of Land and Fresh-water
Mollusca: Physa conformis Tyron, Physa gabbi Tyron, Zonitoides cookeii Pilsb., Lymnwa
palustris rowelli Lea, Planorbis opercularis Gld., and Planorbis hornii Tyron; these were all
collected in the Cowichan District.
Crustacea.
The Department is greatly indebted to Dr. Mary Rathbun, of the United States National
Museum, Washington, D.C., for identifying a large crab (Paralithodes camtschatica Tilesius)
caught off the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1930 and presented to the Museum by P. H. Johnson,
Prince Rupert.
In 1931 Miss J. Hart donated exhibits of Callianassa califomiensis Dana from Point Grey,
Paracrangon echinata Dana from Nanoose, and Pylopagurus schmitti Stevens from Departure
Bay; these with the following contributions of S. Boys collected at Halfmoon Bay made
welcome additions: M.unida quadrispina Benedict, Pandalus platyceros Brandt, and Pandalus
borealis Kroyer. He also sent specimens of Acantholithodes hispidus Stimpson and Lopho-
lithodes foraminatus Stimpson from the same locality.
A life-history exhibit of particular interest we received from A. K. Taylor, being a specimen
of our Commercial Crab (Cancer magister Dana) with the old shell nearly off, exposing the
new, which is still in the " soft" state. Mr. Taylor collected it at Saanichton in the latter part
of January.
Ornithology and Oology.
As will be noticed, little has been secured by us in either of these branches during the past
year, but the young of Cassin's Auklet and a Paroquet Auklet egg from Pine Island, Queen
Charlotte Sound, collected and presented by the Rev. C. J. Young, made valuable acquisitions.
Mammalogy.
The outstanding addition to our Mammal collection in 1931 was a Columbian Coast Deer
(doe) with well developed two-pronged antlers, shot in the vicinity of Hardy Bay, and the
Department is very grateful to Game Warden O. Mottishaw for the trouble he has taken in
securing and forwarding this unique specimen through the Provincial Game Commissioner. ACCESSIONS.
Anthropology and Archaeology.
Dine:
Baskets (6), birch-bark.    Stoney Creek Band of the Carriers.
Purse, beaded.   Hudson Hope (Inspector Parsons).
Snow-shoes, child's.    Thutadi Lake  (W. H. Forrest).
Knives   (3),  skin-scraper   (1),  horn  handles   (2).    Secured  from  a  Bear   Lake  Indian,
Quenada River.    Fort Connerly District (F. Swannell).
Salish (Interior).
Hand-hammer.    West Summerland (A. Annett).
Chisel, jade.    Kamloops  (D. J. King).
Knife, bone.    Lytton (Lieut. G. T. Emmons).
Skull.    Kamloops District (R. A. Mascall).
Salish. (Coast).
Blanket, goat-wool.    Lower Fraser River (J. P. Forde).
Canoe, racing type, 53 feet long.    Malahat (Victoria City Parks Committee).
Fish-lure.    Becher Bay (W. A. Newcombe).
Arrow-head, bone.    Cadboro Bay (Miss E. Cockeram).
Arrow-head, chipped make.    Mill Bay, V.I. (Inspector Parsons).
Arrow-head (3), chipped make.    Point Grey (E. H. B. Giraud).
Arrow-head (2), chipped make.    Metchosin (G. Bonavia).
Arrow-head, slate, found penetrating a skull.    Qualicum (Constable A. M. Bestwick).
Anchor, stone, perforated.    Esquimalt (A. Halkett).
Anchor, stone, perforated.    Kirby Creek (T. Cross).
Awl or knife, slate, carved hilt.    Cadboro Bay (Miss E. Cockeram).
Bone points (3).    Bazan Bay (Inspector Parsons).
Bone points.    Departure Bay (W. A. Newcombe).
Bone points.    Qualicum (Constable A. M. Bestwick).
Bone points (14).    Cadboro Bay (Inspector Parsons).
Chisels.    Ladysmith Harbour (F. J. Barrow).
Chisels.    Lyall Harbour (W. A. Newcombe).
Dish, ceremonial, carved human face.    Point Grey (E. H. B. Giraud).
Dish, ceremonial, carved animal.    Point Grey (E. H. B. Giraud).
Dish, ceremonial, carved animal.    Point Grey  (E. H. B. Giraud).
Horn carving ? dagger-handle.    Qualicum  (T. Kincade).
Knife, for fish, slate.    Qualicum (T. Kincade).
Knife, for fish, greenstone.    Qualicum  (W. A. Newcombe).
Mortar, stone.    Mayne Island (Col. Flick, D.S.O.).
Tube, bone ceremonial.    Rocky Point (Inspector Parsons).
Wampum.    Jervis Inlet (Mrs. A. Kyle).
War-club, end of.    Sooke Harbour  (Inspector Parsons).
Wedge, horn.    Sansum Narrows (W. A. Newcombe).
AVedge, horn.    Oak Bay (AV. F. Burton).
AVhetstone.    Fanny Bay (J. E. Hastings).
Whetstone, perforated.    Qualicum  (Constable Bestwick).
Whetstone.    Sooke (J. L. St. John-Jones).
Sphere,  ? game-stone.    Victoria  (B. Forbes).
Stone, ? use.    Victoria (A. Annett).
Skull.   Gooch Island (AVm. and Lawrence Barker).
Nootkan.
Fish-hook, metal, old model.    Clo-oose  (Constable A. M. Bestwick).
Spear-head, part of, etched.    San Juan River (A. Cameron).
Whale-harpoon and sinew lanyard.    Nootka (purchased).
Skull.   San Juan River (L. A. Gritten). B 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Kwakiutl.
Bone points.    Hardy and Blinkinsop Bays (Inspector Parsons).
Lashings, made from large kelp.    Blinkinsop Bay  (Inspector Parsons).
Tsimshian,
Copper, rubbed design of Killer Whale.    Kitkatla (A. P. AVoollacott).
Haida.
Gambling-sticks (70) in leather case with carved toggie.    Queen Charlotte Islands (W. H.
Dempster).
Carving, human figure, dug up when road-making at Chown Brook, Graham Island  (E. R.
AA7alter).
Mortar.    Tsa-wagis (C. A. G. Smith).
Pestle.    Tsa-wagis (C. A. G. Smith).
Maul.    Tsa-wagis (C. A. G. Smith).
Maul.    Six miles south of Cape Fife (C. A. G. Smith).
Adze.    Skonun River (C. A. G. Smith).
Chisel, nephrite.    Near Cape Fife (C. A. G. Smith).
Chisel.    North-east Graham Island (C. A. G. Smith).
Polished stone.    North-east Graham Island  (C. A. G. Smith).
Polished stone (2).    Six miles south of Cape Fife (C. A. G. Smith).
Oblong gritty stones, ? use.    Six miles south of Cape Fife  (C. A. G. Smith).
Harpoon-point, bone.    Near Rose Point  (C. A. G. Smith).
Awls (3), pointed rib bones.    Near Rose Point (C. A. G. Smith).
Bone fragment, with cutting marks.    Near Rose Point (C. A. G. Smith).
Paleontology.
Pseudomonotis ? subcircularis.    Ne-parle-pas Rapids (F. Swannell).
? species.    Peace River, near the Ottertail  (F. Swannell).
Aucella sp.    Harrison Lake (W. A. A. Johnston) ;   Saanichton  (F. R. Bailey) ;   Oak Bay
(G. Bona via).
Serpula sp. tubes (glacial).    Mill Bay (G. D. Sprot).
Wood.    Kirby Creek (T. Cross).
Concretions.    Sooke Lake (J. B. Tighe).
Botany.
Valuable material was added to the Herbarium with the assistance of the following ladies
and gentlemen: Ucluelet, G. Fraser; Bamfield, W. J. Macdonald; Clo-oose, Miss A. F. McGee;
Sooke, Mrs. Hincks, Dr. Price, and Mr. Allan; Victoria District, Mrs. Symes, Miss M. Izard,
Major Holmes, Rev. C. J. Young, Dr. Bailey, A. R. Sherwood, C. N. Sowerby, and E. A. Cooke;
Esquimalt District, P. W. Martin, E. Loggin, and E. Evans; Saanich, L. E. Taylor; Shawnigan
District, G. D. Sprot; Pender Island, J. S. Stigings; Chemainus, Miss E. AVhite; Spider Lake,
V.I., Mrs. F. R. Shenstone; Comox, Mrs. G. D. Sprot, Mrs. Paul, and T. Pearse; Pine Island,
Rev. C. J. Young; Stewart, Mr. Mclntyre; Surge Narrows, Miss E. Mrus; Whaletown, J. Pool;
North-east Texada, S. Boys; Lillooet, A. W. A. Phair and P. de N. Walker; Tenquille Lake and
McGillivray Mountain, F. Perry; Summerland, S. A. Liddell; Kelowna, G. A. Maves ; Okanagan
Landing, Mrs. A. Brooks; Crawford Bay, Kootenay, H. Murray per J. C. Bennett; Nicola,
T. H. Bond; Copper Mountain, G. Stace Smith; Central British Columbia, Dr. Kajala and
A. Cajander;  Fort St. John, Miss M. Birley and J. Cory Wood.
Musci.
Interior of British Columbia, Mrs. MacFadden.
Southern Vancouver Island, Mrs. H. Mackenzie.
Miscellaneous.
Cedar limb, with looped graft.    Jordan River (R. S. Gallop).
Cross-section of a 5-foot fir log (More-Whittington Lumber Company). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1931. B 13
Repttlia and Amphibia.
Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys schlegelii Garman).    Bajo Reef, Nootka District  (J. J.
Petrich).
Garter-snakes   (Thamnophis  o.  ordinoides  B.  &  G.).    Vedder  Crossing   (Mrs.  Leavens) ;
Victoria  (Mrs. Hincks).
Alligator Lizard (Gerrhonotns principis B. & G.).    Metchosin  (W. A. Newcombe).
Pacific Coast Newt (Triturus torosus Rathke).    Victoria  (L. Johnson).
Ichthyology.
Catfish (Ameiurus melas Raf.).    New Westminster  (P. Peebles).
Catfish (Ameiurus melas Raf.).    Shawnigan Lake (AAT. F. Crockford).
Pilchard (Clupanodon cmurulus Girard).    Queen's Cove (M. Meed).
Spring Salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha AValbaum), yearlings. Fraser River Watershed  (Provincial Fisheries Department).
Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka AAralbaum), yearlings. Fraser River Watershed
(Provincial Fisheries Department).
Smelt  (Hypomesus pretiosus Girard).    Esquimalt  (E. A. Cooke).
Pipefish  (Siphostoma griseolincatum Ayl'es).    Victoria  (A. Adamson).
Broad-finned Cod  (Zaniolepis latipinnis Girard).    Deep Cove  (G. Denbigh).
Skulpin (Oligocottus maculosus Girard).    Sooke  (D. V. Abbott).
Prickly Sailor Fish (Blepsias cirrhosns Pallas).    Sooke  (D. V. Abbott).
Wall-eyed Pollack (Theragra fucensis J. & G.).    Esquimalt (E. A. Cooke).
Entomology.
Orthoptera.
Ahousat, R. E. Dent;  Victoria, P. E. George.
Odonata.
Victoria District, J. Thompson.
Colcoptera.
Victoria District, P. Smith, F. Hurley, J. Rafter, Miss A. Burton, P. AV. Martin, W. McPhee,
A. Sinclair, J. M. Miller, C. P. Hickman, T. A. Simmons, and C. F. Bogart; Saanich, W. H. A.
Preece; Saturna Island, AV. Copeland; Merville, Mrs. Clear; Pine Island, Rev. C. J. Young;
Copper Mountain, G. Stace Smith.
Lepidoptera.
Victoria District, Mrs. K. Malin, Miss J. L. Hart, Mrs. E. H. Blackmore, J. Thompson, and
E. A. Cooke; Malahat, J. B. Godfrey;  Rutland, V. J. Rittich.
Hymenoptera.
Victoria District, Miss K. Everest, W. Gibson, A. Berry, and E. A. Cooke; Saanich, B. Braid-
wood ;   Saltspring Island, Miss W. E. Hillier and E. H. Ruckle.
Miscellaneous.
Wasp-nest.   West Saanich (P. B. Darnell).
Spiders.    Victoria (W. H. Gibson, Jr., R. Service, Mrs. Levirs, and J. B. Godfrey).
Horse-leech.    Saanich  (V. E. Goddard).
Mollusca.
Marine.
Sooke, H. Goodrich and Mrs. G. D. Sprot; Alctoria District, Rev. C. J. Young and Miss E.
Wood; Saanich, A. B. Ford; Maple Bay, A. AV. Hanham; Departure Bay, A. AV. Hanham;
Nanoose, D. V. Abbott; Pine Island, Rev. C. J. Young; Quatsino Sound, J. B. Godfrey; Banks
Island, M. E. Lohbrunner;  Halfmoon Bay, S. Boys;  AVest Indies, Miss N. M. Clarke.
Land, and Fresh-water.
Shawnigan Lake, Mr. Justice Martin;   Cowichan District, A. W. Hanham. B 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Crustacea.
Sooke, D. V. Abbott and F. Risser; AVilliam Head, Miss J. Pearce; Victoria District, A. E.
Deighton, G. and E. Fry, and H. Hartnell; Saanichton, A. K. Taylor; Departure Bay, Miss J. L.
Hart;   Halfmoon Bay, S. Boys;   Pine Island, Rev. C. J. Young.
Miscellaneous Marine Orders.
Sooke, D. V. Abbott and A. Campbell; Victoria, G. Norman; Saanich, A. H. Maynard and
L. G. Lee;  Pine Island, Rev. C. J. Young.
Ornithology.
Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus Pallas), young.    Pine Island (Rev. C. J. Young).
Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba Pallas)   (Miss G. Cox).
Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens Naumann).    Sooke  (Miss G. Cox).
Fork-tailed Petrel (Oceanodroma fureata Gmelin).    ATictoria (G. AV. Watson).
Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura septentrionalis Wied).    Maple Bay (M. M. White).
Clarke's Nutcracker   (Nucifraga columbiana AVilson).    Chemainus   (Game  Warden  Marshall).
Specimens for determination wrere sent in by J. F. Risser,  A.  M. Rowlandson,  Miss P.
Beschizza, and C. Frame.
Oology.
Paroquet Auklet egg.    Pine Island (Rev. C. J. Young).
Glaucous-winged Gull egg.    Yellow Rock, Haro Strait (AV. A. Newcombe).
California Quail egg.    ATictoria  (J. J. Johnston).
Humming-bird double nest.    Maltby Lake  (AV. F. Burton).
Traill's Flycatcher nest and two eggs.    Prospect Lake (J. Willoughby).
? Goldfinch nest and eggs.    Saltspring Island (P. de Noe Walker).
Violet-green Swallow nest and eggs.    Alctoria  (Miss M. Holmes).
? Cassin's Vireo nest.    Victoria (A. R. Sherwood).
Russet-backed Thrush nest.    Sooke River (J. Syme).
Mammalogy.
Skins.
AVeasel (Mustela saturata Merriam).    Lillooet (A. AA7. A. Phair).
Mink (Mustela vison energumenos Bangs).    (Nanaimo).
Marmot (Marmota flaviventris sp.).    Kamloops (E. Hearle).
White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus sp.).    Pine Island  (Rev. C. J. Young).
Coast Deer (Odocoileus columbianus Richardson).   Hardy Bay (Game Warden Mottishaw).
Miscellaneous.
Black Bear, skull.    Crown Mountain  (A. G. Boulton).
Mule-deer, heads (2).    Grand Prairie (L. Jones).
Hair-seal, snouts of.    B.C. Coast (Dr. Clemens).
Sea-lion, snouts of.    B.C. Coast (Dr. Clemens).
Whale, teeth.    Sechart (Miss E. G. Finch Page).
Whale, baleen.    Naden Harbour (Capt. W. Heater).
Whale, wax.    Queen Charlotte Islands (W. H. Dempster).
PUBLICATIONS  RECEIVED  FROM  OTHER  INSTITUTIONS.
American Association of Museums, Washington, D.C  18
Americal Museum of Natural History, New York   10
American Ornithologists' Union, Lancaster, Pa  5
American Society of Mammalogists, Washington, D.C  4
Art Historical & Scientific Society, Vancouver, B.C  3
Carried forward     40 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1931. B 15
Publications received from other Institutions—Continued.
Brought forward  40
Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia   3
Bernice Bishop Museum, Honolulu   2
Biological Board of Canada   16
Biological Society of AVashington   4
Boston Society of Natural History   6
British Museum Association, South Kensington, England   12
Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, Buffalo, NY  1
California Acadamy of Sciences, San Francisco   7
Cardiff Naturalists' Society   1
Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania   1
Charleston Museum, Charleston, S.C  1
Chicago Academy of Sciences  4
Cleveland Museum of Natural History   11
Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver, Colorado   7
Condor, Cooper Ornithological Club   4
Denkmann Memorial Library, Rock Island, 111  1
Division of Fish and Game of California   8
Dominion  Government Publications    25
Entomological Society of British Columbia   1
Field Museum of Natural History  3
Grand Rapids Public Library, Michigan   1
Gray Herbarium, Harvard University, Mass  1
Insular Experiment Station, Rio Piedras, P.R  13
John Crerar Library, Chicago   1
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C  1
Manchester Museum   1
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass  5
National Museum of Ireland   2
New York Zoological Society   11
Nova Scotian Institute of Science   2
Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station   6
Ottawa Field-Naturalist, Ottawa, Canada   5
Oxford University Press   2
Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass  7
Peabody Museum, Yale University   18
Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin   7
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences   2
Public Museum, Milwaukee, AVis., U.S.A  4
Puget Sound Biological Station, Seattle, Wash  2
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto   1
San Diego Society of Natural History   13
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C  65
Southern Biological Supply Company, Texas   1
State College of Washington, Pullman, AVash  10
Staten Island Institute of Arts & Sciences   6
Sun Yatsen University, College of Science, China   6
Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, Syracuse, N.Y  1
Trinity University, Waxahachie, Texas   1
U.S. Department of Agriculture   9
University of California, Berkley, California   34
University of Illinois, Urbana, 111  7
University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec   3
University of Oklahoma   2
Carried forward   408 B 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Publications received from other Institutions—Continued.
Brought forward  408
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario   12
University of Washington, Seattle, Wash  3
Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philadelphia   3
Wales National Museum, Cardiff, AVales  2
AVashington Academy of Sciences   1
Zoological Society of Philadelphia   2
Total  431
We are indebted to Mrs. A. M. Leffingwell and Dr. Carl L. Hubbs for pamphlets received
during the year.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfikld, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1932.
1,825-332-8803

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