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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1938

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF.BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
of the
LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES
of the
DEPAKTMENT OF LANDS
for the
YEAE ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1937
HON. A. WELLS GRAY, Minister of Lands
printed by
authority of the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1938.  Victoria, B.C., September 29th, 1938.
To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour i
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey
Branches of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1937.
A. WELLS GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
Victoria, B.C., September 29th, 1938.
The Honourable A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1937.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PAET I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     5
Revenue     5
Sale of Town Lots     6
Pre-emption Records .     7
Pre-emption and Homestead Exchanges     7
Land-sales : .:     7
Sale of Reverted Lands :     8
Process Summary     8
Land Inspections 1 ..'.     9
Summary  10
Letters inward and outward _—  11
Coal Licences, Leases, etc  11
Crown Grants issued L  11
Total Acreage deeded  11
Home-site Leases  12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
'„"'!-„ „ Victoria, B.C., September 26th, 1938.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C. . .. .	
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended
December 31st, 1937.
Comparing 1937 figures submitted with those of the previous year, two features attract
attention—namely, the increase in general business and drop in revenue.
These features, seemingly illogical, can be accounted for as effects of recent legislation
authorizing lower deposits, lower interest rates, and provision for third-class land, lowering
the minimum price of agricultural land from $2.50 to $1 per acre.
The effect on revenue of reserving large areas under the " Coal and Petroleum Act" is
also becoming noticeable.
It is again noted that during the past year only settlers in the Peace River Block have
taken advantage of the statutory provision for exchanging pre-emptions or homesteads for
more suitable locations.
An interesting tabulation is added this year, showing the number of home-site leases
(less than 20 acres) issued, covering a period of the past ten years, with resulting cumulative
revenue year by year. T haye ^ honQur tQ be>
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT OF REVENUE, YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st, 1937.
Land-sales.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Under "Taxation Act"—
General-- --   -----  $39,272.47
$46,141.82
312.02     .
4,650.85
$14,192.72
15,327.54
962.18
$46,141.82
14,504.74
19,978.39
Under "Land Act"—
962.18
8,000.98
2,222.70
8,000.98
2,222.70
$51,104.69
$40,706.12
$91,810.81
Sundry Revenue.
Under "Land Act"—
Sundry lease rentals	
Grazing rentals 	
Survey fees—
Under " Land Act'
Former Dominion Railway Belt lands..
$1,574.90
114.25
Sundry fees..
Royalty	
Improvements .
Rent of property	
Under "Taxation Act"-
Mineral claims	
Totals 	
$76,343.97
4,972.92
728.85
13,902.30
641.17
302.00
22.50
1,913.71
$960.30
789.00
612.46
120.00
3,596.15
$76,343.97
4,972.92
1,689.15
14,691.30
641.17
914.46
142.50
3,596.15
$6,077.91 $102,991.62 Y 6
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1937.
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$4,300.00
9,420.75
1,238.90
200.00
$4,300.00
9,420.75
1,238.90
200.00
$15,159.65
$15,159.65
Sundry Receipts.
$8,882.83
271.76
6,667.32
13,912.92
$8,882.83
271.76
6,667.32
$4,044.17
17,957.09
Totals       	
$29,734.83
$4,044.17
$33,779.00
Summary of Revenue.
$51,104.69
96,913.71
15,159.65
29,734.83
$40,706.12
6,077.91
$91,810.81
102,991.62
15,159.65
4,044.17
33,779.00
Totals                   ..                                	
$192,912.88
$50,828.20
$243,741.08
Summary of Cash received.
Revenue..
'Soldiers' Land Act"—
Southern Okanagan Project-
Houses, South Vancouver	
' Better Housing Act"—
Principal	
Interest ..
Land Settlement Board-
Land Sales	
Loans.... 	
Refund of advances and refund to votes, etc...
Totals 	
$192,912.88
32,093.70
689.78
60.
700.00
930.69
277.90
766.41
649.53
$405,020.8
$50,828.20
$50,828.20
$243,741.08
32,093.70
689.78
60,700.00
38,930.69
44,277.90
28,766.41
6,649.53
$455,849.09
SALE OF TOWN LOTS DURING 1937.
Disposal of 141 lots placed on the market at previous auction sales:
22 lots at Oliver	
13 lots at Creston	
1 lot at Vancouver..
37 lots at Trail	
9 lots at Osoyoos	
10 lots at Kimberley	
7 lots at Castlegar	
9 lots at Natal	
3 lots at Clinton	
And 30 lots in fourteen other townsites..
Total..
$3,875.00
2,845.00
2,500.00
1,750.00
1,200.00
745.00
575.00
460.00
300.00
1,530.00
$15,780.00 LAND-SALES.
Y 7
During the year auctions were held disposing of 135 lots, as follows:—
4 lots at Castlegar..
14 lots at Kimberley..
18 lots at Trail	
89 lots at Zeballos	
10 lots at Princeton...
Total..
$220.00
1,750.00
1,955.00
10,800.00
505.00
$15,230.00
Southern Okanagan Project sold 29 parcels, comprising 314.31 acres, the purchase price
being $18,788.25.
In the University Hill Subdivision in Lot 140, New Westminster District (Endowment
Lands), 2 lots were sold and 1 leased;  price, $6,965.
PRE-EMPTION AND HOMESTEAD EXCHANGES.
Under 1934 Amendment to " Land Act."
1935..
1936..
1937-
No.
. 41
. 21
. 37
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1937.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Pre-emption
Records
cancelled.
Certificates
of Purchase
issued.
Certificates
of Improvements issued.
1
22
5
16
25
2
19
4
6
1
13
10
211
6
46
14
6
1
6
2
3
9
12
32
58
22
30
2
5
5
33
15
244
8
35
20
10
1
13
9
3
5
37
44
16
2
17
29
1
10
137
160
23
42
14
44
3
5
1
54
13
1,282
Atlin 	
Clinton	
12
1
9
20
Golden                 	
4
9
Kaslo  	
Nanaimo   	
2
2
Pouce Coupe  - 	
68
1
Smithers  - 	
4
Vancouver 	
2
3
Totals                    	
416
569
1,939
Total..
LAND-SALES, 1937.
" Land Act "—
Surveyed (first class)	
Surveyed (second class)	
Unsurveyed.
Total	
99
Acres.
1,400.64
3,456.45
4,857.09
1,194.5
6,051.59 Y 8
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1937.
1937 SALE OF REVERTED LANDS UNDER DEFERRED-PURCHASE
REGULATIONS  (1933)   (NOW OBSOLETE).
No.
Acreage.
Appraised Value.
33
2,834.15
$12,933.10
Totals                     	
33
2,834.15
$12,933.10
Payments, 1937 (principal, interest, and existing improvements at
date of sale)  $6,869.35
PROCESS SUMMARY.
No.
Acreage.
Appraised Value.
719
215
56,464.27
17,949.60
$245,026.30
77,044.50
Totals  	
504
38,514.67
,   $167,981.80
No.
501
$16,280.53
5,099.19
..... $11,181.34
1937.—Reverted land applications statused and cleared for timber-sale under the " Forest
Act," 327.
Total deposits due	
Total deposits paid and partly paid  133
Deposits in arrear	 LAND INSPECTIONS.
Y 9
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H CROWN GRANTS ISSUED. Y 11
STATEMENT OF LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1937.
Letters inward  21,691
Letters outward  19,224
Included in the above total of letters inward are general inquiry letters as follows :-
January   176 August      139
February   255 September      149
March  198 October      106
April  158 November         94
May  134 December       124
June  103 	
July      112 Total  1,748
MINING LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 1937.
Licences under the " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Original licences issued  34;   area, 19,775.00 acres.
Renewal licences issued  13;   area,    6,598.07 acres.
Totals  47;   area, 26,373.07 acres.
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum Act."
New leases issued    8;   area,    4,159.00 acres.
Renewal leases issued  10;   area,    4,828.70 acres.
Totals  18;   area,    8,987.70 acres.
Sundry Leases under the " Land Act."
Number of leases issued  195;   area, 43,481.69 acres.
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1937.
Pre-emptions  172
Dominion homesteads   202
Purchases (other than town lots)   112
Mineral claims   244
Town lots   76
Reverted lands (other than town lots)   158
Reverted town lots   129
Reverted mineral claims   108
Supplementary timber grants  3
" Dyking Assessment Act "  11
" Public Schools Act "  5
Miscellaneous   6
Total  1,226
Applications for Crown grants  1,271
Certified copies        10
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims given..     287
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions  1  25,726.60
Dominion homesteads   30,094.76
Mineral claims (other than reverted)      9,302.58
Reverted mineral claims    3,822.82
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)   15,124.08
Purchase of reverted lands (other than town lots)      4,667.56
Supplementary timber grants      4,970.70
Total  93,709.10 Y 12
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1937.
HOME-SITE LEASES  (NOT EXCEEDING 20 ACRES).
No.
Total Annual
Revenue.
Fiscal Year
ended.
8
12
11
31
23
24
18
26
15
32
4
67
168
235
36
199
Leases issued, April 1st, 1929, to March 31st, 1930	
$522.55
636.45
759.95
980.05
1,246.65
1,302.52
1,391.72
1,440.25
1,468.90
March 31st, 1930
Leases issued, April 1st, 1930, to March 31st, 1931.	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1931, to March 31st, 1932	
March 31st, 1931
March 31st, 1932
Leases issued, April 1st, 1932, to March 31st, 1933.	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1933, to March 31st, 1934	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1934, to March 31st, 1935	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1935, to March 31st, 1936 	
Leases issued, April 1st, 1936, to March 31st, 1937 	
March 31st, 1933
March 31st, 1934
March 31st, 1935
March 31st, 1936
March 31st, 1937
March 31st, 1938
$9,749.04 PART II.
SURVEY BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Surveyor-General  15
General Review of Field-work  15
Office-work  16
Survey Branch  17
Table A—Summary of Office-work  17
Table B—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps  18
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps   19
Geographic Division    22
Table D—List of Lithographed Maps  23
Reports of Surveyors—
Topographical Surveys, Vancouver Island (R. D. McCaw)  24
Topographical Surveys, Vancouver Island (A. J. Campbell)  26
Topographical Surveys, Vancouver Island (N. C. Stewart)  29
Topographical Surveys, Vancouver Island (G. J. Jackson)  32  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., January 3rd, 1938.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1937.
The field-work of the Survey Branch may be divided into three main classes: (1) Triangulation, this being the best and cheapest means of determining the true position of main
features and of placing a rigid foundation under all other surveys; (2) topographical
surveys, now mostly carried on with the aid of aerial photography, with ground control
supplied by minor triangulation and the surveying camera; (3) cadastral surveys, in
preparation for settlement.
The appropriation voted for surveys, though about one-third of the average of the past
twenty years, took care of all urgent needs in connection with settlement and permitted a
full season in the field for our topographical survey staff. It did not, however, permit any
extension of our triangulation nets in the northern half of the Province—foundation-work
needed there to guard against mistakes in planning transportation and development.
In British Columbia, with its high relief, immense areas do not require the costly
detailed subdivision necessary elsewhere. The blanket of protecting water vapour in the
atmosphere decreases rapidly with altitude, so radiation of heat becomes excessive and the
consequent night-frosts confine agriculture to the lower levels. Twenty-seven hundred to
three thousand feet is, for example, the upper dependable limit for mixed farming in Cariboo.
The Province has immense resources in grazing lands, timber, mineral, and water-power at
levels above 3,000 feet. Altitude affects every activity, and in this country maps without
contour-lines lose half their value. With our great area and small population low-cost
mapping methods are essential if the work is to be done at all, and a finished job in one
season is necessary—mountain transportation being costly. A combination of triangulation,
ground photography, and aerial photography, experimented with and worked out here, has
solved this problem of permanence with low cost for us, with the result that large areas of
the Province abundantly justify such mapping. At this date we have satisfactory topographical maps covering one-seventh of the Province, and at the present rate of progress it
will take 150 years to cover the entire area. That a speeding-up of this work would be
justified may be indicated by the fact that 1 mile of mountain highway thereby saved would
pay for 1,000 square miles of topographic mapping.
During the year a series of maps showing the new mining divisions, land recording
districts, assessment and collection districts, land registration districts, and county boundaries
has been published. The unity and simplification effected by the changes have met with
general approval and are saving much expense both to the Government and to the public.
The Survey Branch is proud of its great share in initiating and carrying through this
constructive work.
As usual the closest co-operative contact was maintained with the Dominion Government survey operations in the Province so that there should be no duplication of effort. In
the belief that accurate mapping, no matter by which Government carried out, is of great
value to the Province, we give all possible assistance in the way of information, land-ties,
etc., to all, and in turn we have had much help from the photographic units of the Royal
Canadian Air Force, as well as from the Geodetic, Hydrographic, and Geological Surveys of
the Dominion. Under a rather informal cost-sharing co-operative scheme the Royal Canadian
Air Force has photographed extensive areas on Vancouver Island; the Provincial Surveys
Branch is doing the necessary ground survey-work and photography, and is plotting the
manuscript map, and Ottawa will take care of its publication.
GENERAL REVIEW OF FIELD-WORK.
Four survey parties were engaged on aero-phototopograpical control-work on Vancouver
Island, these being in charge of Messrs. McCaw, Campbell, Stewart, and Jackson, all B.C.
Land Surveyors of the permanent survey staff. Mr. F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S., was in charge
of the main control triangulation assisting the above parties on Southerly Vancouver Island. Y 16 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1937.
In addition to the topographical work there were the survey of a small townsite at
Zeballos, a subdivision of acreage at Roberts Creek, and acreage for five pre-emptions near
Quesnel. Other items of work were small and scattered and all were carried out by surveyors
resident near the work.
OFFICE-WORK.
The office staff is divided into three main sections—namely, the Survey Division, the
Geographic Division, and the Topographic Division. Reports compiled by F. 0. Morris and
G. G. Aitken for the Survey and Geographic Divisions, respectively, and reports by the
surveyors heading the field parties of the Topographic Division are attached hereto.
The tables show little change in the volume of office-work from last year. About
90 per cent, of the land surveyors of the Province are in private practice, and these surveyors
are responsible for the surveys of mineral claims and other classes of Crown lands. The
field-notes and plans of such surveys are filed in this office, and a considerable proportion of
the staff is engaged in checking and replotting these surveys.
The year was a busy one in map publication, as is shown in the report of the Chief
Geographer, the special reason for this being the changes in the boundaries of mining and
other division systems of the Province.
It is expected that in 1938 a new map of Southerly Vancouver Island, and a degree sheet
covering the Hope-Princeton area will be published, as well as a new edition of the Lillooet
pre-emptors' map.
During the year the draughting staff was very unfortunate, losing by death the much-
valued services of three seniors, Messrs. Stokes and Lawrie and Miss Egerton, and by
superannuation, Mr. Baile. Mr. A. S. Thomson, an experienced draughtsman, was added to
the permanent staff, while Messrs. L. J. Roach, J. F. Stevens, and R. F. Leighton were
added as apprentice draughtsmen.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Y 17
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEY BRANCH.
This Branch deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to
land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying, checking
survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many
minor activities. In the average day's work it is found necessary to secure and consult 100
documents from the vault.    An efficient blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations
and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and mineral reference
maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are maintained by the Survey
Branch. There are now 188 reference maps and 70 mineral reference maps, making a total of
258 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—(1) by adding new survey information as
it becomes available, and (2) by renewing same when worn out with constant use and
handling in the blue-print machines—forms a considerable portion of the work of the Branch.
During the year seven reference maps were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached hereto,
give a list of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1937, Survey Branch.
Number of field-books received
lots surveyed 	
lots plotted	
lots gazetted 	
lots cancelled	
mineral-claim field-books prepared
reference maps compiled
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared
applications for lease cleared	
coal licences cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber-sales cleared 	
free-use permits cleared	
hand-loggers' licences cleared 	
Crown-grant applications cleared
reverted-land clearances 	
cancellations made 	
inquiries cleared 	
placer-mining leases plotted on maps
letters received	
letters sent out *	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate
miscellaneous tracings made	
Government Agents' tracings made	
blue-prints made
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints from other departments
and public 	
Value of blue-prints for Lands Department	
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault	
406
424
442
347
5
294
7
158
504
433
80
206
1,922
219
49
1,168
972
1,469
2,207
485
5,685
4,068
1,286
152
115
29,159
$4,925.48
$4,073.30
28,815 Y 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1937.
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REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1937.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
1. British Columbia  (small)  Mining Divisions.—
2. British Columbia—Commercial—■
Land Recording Districts  	
Mining Divisions.  	
Assessment and Collection Districts —
Counties  	
Land Registration   	
3. Highway and Travel Map of British Columbia
4. British   Columbia    (small)    Land   Recording
Districts     	
5. Bulkley Pre-emptors' Map.	
5,000
7,000
6,000
650
1,060
750
3,500
10,000
5,000
May, 1937
June, 1937
June, 1937
June, 1937
June, 1937
June, 1937
July. 1937
Sept., 1937
Nov., 1937
M.D.
Uc
1JD
1JE
lJGC
1JGL
P.W.D.
lex
3d
50 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
20 mi. to 1 in.
50 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
366,255
366,255
366,255
366,255
366,255
366,255
366,255
11,000
In Course of Preparation.
1. Southerly Vancouver Island, standard edition..
2. Lillooet Pre-emptors' Map 	
3. Hope-Princeton Degree Sheet, topographic
2A
3k
4Q
4 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
16,000
11,700
3,100
Geographic Board of Canada, Naming and Recording.
Map-sheets, namings reviewed	
Recommendations to Geographic Board..
New names recorded	
1937.
. 13
. 512
. 325
Geographical Work for other Departments.
48 items, receipts and value of work	
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps and Gazetteers issued to departments and public.
Maps received into Geographic stock_
Total value of printed maps and Gazetteers issued..
Revenue from printed maps and Gazetteers	
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made-
Revenue from departments and public	
Value of photostats for Lands Department, etc.
Letters.
Letters received and attended to..
$1,169.07
16,846
44,761
$5,822.53
$3,184.33
2,821
$822.72
$1,628.10
.  2,190
Standard Base Map.
Bulkley Pre-emptors' sheet, sheets compiled	
Southerly Vancouver Island sheet, sheets compiled.
Hope-Princeton Degree sheet, sheets compiled	
Department of the Interior sheets, Fraser Valley, compiled-
School districts, plotted from description	
Control nets supplied	
1
3
2
3
24
45
Triangulation.
Main, by least-square adjustment, triangles adjusted-
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations	
Index cards, records	
Triangulation index maps	
Plan of triangulation, vicinity Big Bend, J.
drawn	
16
597
660
11
Elliott, 1930 season, sheet APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Y 23
Table D.—List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
Year of
Issue.
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
IA
lA
1933
1933
1937
lEM
1930
1G
1916
IH
1933
IJ
1937
1JCA
1923
1J0
1937
1JD
1937
1JE
1937
ljGL
1937
1JG0
1937
IK
1925
1L
1929
f2A
1938
2B
1914
2C
1929
2d
1923
2b
1924
2f
1927
3a
1930
3b
1926
3c
1923
3d
1937
3e
1928
3p
1934
3g
1935
3h
1931
3j
1932
t3K •
1938
3m
1929
3p
1924
3q
1936
4a
1927
4g
1936
4d
1913
4e
1925
4f
1913
4g
1914
4H
1926
4j
1921
4k
1923
4l
1926
4m
1927
4n
1930
4p
1931
t4Q
1938
Ba
1916
5b
1929
1929
5G
1929
1930
MRMl
1927
mkm2
1928
mrm3
1928
MRM4
1929
MRM5
1929
mrm6
1932
mrm7
1934
mrm8
1935
pwd
1937
md
1937
9
1907
5
1898
2
1896
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways, etc.
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways,   etc.    Special  edition   showing  Electoral  Districts,
Redistribution 1932, with 1934 Amendment
British   Columbia.    In   one   sheet.    Showing   Land   Recording
Districts
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen 	
Cariboo and adjacent Districts. 	
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data..	
British   Columbia.    In   one   sheet.    Showing   rivers,   railways,
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc 	
Ditto ditto and precipitation — 	
Ditto ditto and Land Recording Districts 	
Ditto ditto and Mining Divisions  	
Ditto ditto and Assessment and Collection Districts-
Ditto ditto and Land Registration Districts	
Ditto ditto and Counties  	
South   Western   Districts  of   B.C.,   Commercial   and   Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
Central Districts of B.C., Commercial and Visitors	
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island  	
New Westminster and Yale Districts      	
Northerly Vancouver Island 	
Powell Lake    .—	
Bella Coola   (preliminary)          	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography   (preliminary).
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George  .    	
Nechako   	
Stuart Lake   _ 	
Bulkley Valley  _ 	
Peace River   (reissue 1930)   	
Chilcotin       _
Quesnel (contoured)       	
Tete Jaune     -
North  Thompson      	
Lillooet    	
Prince Rupert   	
Grenville Channel   (preliminary)      	
Peace River Block 	
Degree Series—
Rossland Sheet  (contoured)    	
Cranbrook Sheet    .	
Fernie  Sheet  —   	
Upper Elk River Sheet —    _	
Duncan River Sheet   _  	
Windermere Sheet      _	
Arrowhead Sheet  	
Vernon Sheet   (contoured)       	
Kettle Valley   (contoured)   _   	
East Lillooet, Economic Geography  (contoured)  —	
Nicola Lake (contoured)       	
Penticton   (contoured)      —
Lower Fraser Valley  (preliminary)   	
Hope-Princeton  (contoured)      	
Topographical Series—
Omineca and Finlay River Basins, Sketch-map of -	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special)
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), North sheet (special)
Stikine River   (contoured)       	
GEOGRAPHICAL  GAZETTEER OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA	
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
Slocan and Ainsworth 	
Trout Lake   	
Lardeau River   	
Nelson-Ymir   	
Rossland-Ymir     	
Grand Forks-Greenwood   	
Greenwood and Osoyoos  	
Barkerville and Lightning Creek 	
Miscellaneous—
Highway and Travel Map of B.C.   	
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts 	
Northern Interior.    (A. G. Morice)  	
Kootenay District, East, Triangulation Survey of	
Kootenay District, West, Portion of     	
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 "
50 m. to 1
7.89 m. to 1
7.89 m. to 1
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1
27 m. to 1
31.53 m. to 1
27 m. to 1
27 m. to 1
27 m. to 1
27 m. to 1
27 m. to 1
7.89 m. to 1
15.78 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
3 m.
3 m.
3 m.
3 m.
4 m.
3 m.
3 m.
3 m.
3 m.
3 m.
3 m.
3 m.
4 m.
to 1
tol
tol
tol
to 1
tol
to 1
to 1
to 1
to 1
to 1
tol
to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
5 m. to 1
% m. to 1
y2 m. to 1
5 m. to 1
n.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
lm. tol in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
6,000 ft. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
2.00
Free
.50
.60
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
■ 15
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.60
S.SS
■JHa
fi    S
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.60
.50
.60
2.00
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.60
.60
.35
Free
.10
.10
.10
$14.00
20.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
18.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.50
On ap.
.50
.50
.60
t In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map Number " of map
desired.
We can supply information concerning maps of British Columbia printed and published at Ottawa by the
Canadian Geological Survey, or the Dominion Department of the Interior, etc., etc.
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address:—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands, Victoria, B.C. 3rd January, 1938. Y 24 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1937.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By R. D. McCaw.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1937.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—Under date of June 25th you issued instructions to me to carry out control surveys
for the purpose of mapping from air-photographs that area on the west coast of Vancouver
Island extending between existing National Defence Sheets near Jordan River and the
neighbourhood of Port San Juan. I herewith present my report upon this work, as carried
out during the past season. Special stress was to be laid on the area west of the E. & N.
Boundary, but as it was intended later to extend map-work eastward, areas there within
reach should be included where expense could be ultimately saved. Only a small portion of
the area had been flown by the R.C.A.F., but it was expected the remaining area would be
covered during the summer.
Before going into the field all possible information on file with the Government bearing
on the area was examined, including triangulation data of the Hydrographic Survey, traverses
of the National Defence Department near Jordan River, and land and timber surveys. Some
information was also obtained from the B.C. Electric Railway Company relative to their
power surveys on the Jordan River and Loss Creek.
Actual field-work was commenced on July 2nd, near Jordan River. Much of the area
to be covered was on an easy undulating slope falling to the strait. This feature, together
with the heavy forest cover, made it impossible near the coast to connect with the triangulation system to the east. In this portion, therefore, the National Defence traverses and
stations of the Hydrographic Survey triangulation were used for control, and as the datum
for these surveys was identical with that used for the triangulation net being projected by
Mr. F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S., from the east, no doubt was held as to the ultimate fit between
these two systems. In the vicinity of Jordan River, ground photographic stations were
occupied where feasible and some control traverse run. Signals were also placed on Valentine
and Muir Mountains.    The former was connected with the triangulation net by Mr. Swannell.
We left the Jordan River area for the time being and went to Port Renfrew on July 21st,
and for the six weeks following were working in the San Juan River Valley, as far east as
the E. & N. Boundary. A main camp was located by the river about 5 miles up from
Port Renfrew and from this point fly-camps were run in all directions—by back-pack, boat,
and logging-railway—to reach necessary photographic stations. Mr. A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.,
who was working to the north had agreed with me on a tentative boundary between our areas
north of the San Juan River. This limit followed the ridge between the Gordon River and
Renfrew and Harris Creeks.
Early in September we moved back to Jordan River, locating a base camp at the
Diversion Dam of the B.C. Electric Railway Company. Fly-camps were back-packed from
here to reach stations between the head of Loss Creek and the San Juan River. An extended
trip was made over the trail to Jordan Meadows, then to the Koksilah trail and westerly to
the San Juan River. From fly-camps along this route the following stations were occupied
for ground photography: Muir, Valentine, Baldy, and Todd. Considerable difficulty was
experienced owing to fog, and smoke from slash being burnt to the south, and in the case
of Valentine and Muir some of the information is poor.
The last base camp of the season was at the end of the existing grade of the West Coast
Road, about 6 miles west of Jordan River. A camp was back-packed to Loss Creek, and
about a week spent there getting information for vertical control of air views. ' Connections
were made between B.C. Electric surveys at Loss Creek and the West Coast Road location
done this year, which in turn was connected with Hydrographic Survey stations along the
coast-line. Much barometric information was obtained for vertical control from Jordan River
west.
The field season was concluded about the middle of October and the party paid off. Later
on it was found necessary to make two trips to the Jordan River area for the purpose of
making further connection between National Defence monuments, Hydrographic Survey
stations, and stations of the International Boundary Commission. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 25
The San Juan River is the main stream in the area done. The valley is a comparatively
deep one and quite wide in the lower stretches. The fall is very gradual, the elevation at
the E. & N. Boundary some 12 miles up being about 125 feet above mean sea-level. A little
farming is being done near Port Renfrew. Much of the bottom-land is of good agricultural
quality, but heavy clearing and difficulty of transportation to the outside have probably helped
to keep it from development. At Port Renfrew there is an hotel, a store, and shingle-mill.
Regular call is made by the C.P.R. west coast steamship. A local road system connects with
near-by points in the lower valley. The one desire of all residents in the locality is to have
highway connection with Victoria. Two logging companies are working in the valley.
Messrs. Hemmingsen and Cameron were this summer operating in the vicinity of Harris Creek
on the north side of the river, and were projecting their logging-railway still farther up
Harris Creek. The Malahat Logging Company is building a railway on the south side of
the river from salt water to their holdings in the E. & N. Block. Both of these companies
allowed us the help of their railways for moving camp, for which we were very thankful.
The Jordan River, next in size, is more familiar to us as being the site of the power plant
of the B.C. Electric Railway Company, and reached by road from Victoria. The West Coast
Road as at present constructed, extends about 6 miles beyond the Jordan River. The powerhouse of the B.C. Electric Railway is situated east of the river and not far from its mouth.
The main reservoir is about 7 miles up the river and a huge concrete dam (Diversion Dam)
directs the water into a large wooden flume which carries it down about 5 miles to the
Forebay Reservoir. From here huge pipe-lines, one above ground and others buried, carry
the water down to the power-house. A narrow-gauge railway extends from the Forebay to
Diversion Dam, and we are much indebted to the Company for the privilege of using this
railway for transportation when required. The Island Logging Company was in operation
all summer and was extending new logging-roads farther back. Other companies were
working to the east. From Jordan River east and adjacent to the salt water, the timber is
logged off.
There are two main streams between the Jordan and San Juan Rivers—namely,
Loss Creek and the Sombrio River. The former is being investigated for power by the
B.C. Electric. The Sombrio (a Spanish name) was the scene of hydraulic operations by
the Spaniards over a century ago, who, it is alleged, washed out considerable placer gold.
Placer operations in late years fail to find much value, however.
A horse-packing trail was constructed from the present end of the West Coast Road to
Port Renfrew some years ago. In its present state it is not passable for horses for the
whole distance. This is the only land transportation route to Port Renfrew. The distance
by trail from the end of the road is abeut 19 miles.
Except for a few prospects no mining was being done within the area. Two copper
properties, the Sunloch Mines and the Gabbro Copper Company's mine, are located on the
Jordan River, but they have been quiet for some time.
The first air views from this season's flying were received early in September. Others
were added later in the season. Unfortunately, the fliers were unable to complete entirely the
flights this season, so that there is a portion of the area that cannot be mapped at present.
Just what this area will amount to in square miles cannot be given at this stage of the work.
The entire coverage contemplated for the season from ground work in the field was about
350 square miles.
Atmospheric conditions were often very poor. As is usual in this west-coast area, fog is
the cause of much delay, and this year was no exception. The weather was not unduly wet.
July was dry; with the exception of a few showers there was no rain. August made up for
this with some heavy rainfall. Early September was fine and the latter part wet, this
weather running into October. Smoke from forest fires became a nuisance early in September,
and later slash fires sent volumes of smoke into our area, causing much trouble.
Black bears are common throughout the district, and wolves are said to exist, although
none were seen. There are a few deer and indications of elk were observed. Trout abound
in the streams. Blue grouse were seen near Jordan River and a few willow grouse here and
there throughout the area. The map-work is now being proceeded with on a scale of 2 inches to 1 mile, intended for
ultimate reproduction on a scale of 1 mile to 1 inch.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
I have, etc.,
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By A. J. Campbell.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1937.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith present my report on the topographical control surveys carried out
during the past season. Your instructions, dated June 25th, described the area to be covered
as lying north of Port San Juan toward Nitinat Lake and Barkley Sound, on the westerly-
coast of Vancouver Island, and extending easterly to the westerly boundary of the E. & N.
Railway Land Grant, and beyond, if conditions were favourable.
With the exception of a strip along the coast the area had not been photographed from
the air, but during the season the remaining portion was covered by the R.C.A.F. with vertical
aerial views. The object of the survey was to secure sufficient control to permit the use
of these photographs for the preparation of a map to be published on the scale of 1 mile to"
1 inch with contour lines at 100-foot intervals.
All possible information on file with the Government was examined before going into
the field and anything essential to the carrying-out of the work was noted. This included
triangulation data of the International Boundary Survey and other triangulation surveys
along the coast, data of the timber limit surveys, which practically covered the area, and
certain information of the triangulation stations established by the Geodetic and Geological
Survey of Canada, east of the E. & N. Railway Land Grant Boundary.
For triangulation control Mr. F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S., produced a system from the
Geological Stations Whymper and Towincut, and these were tied with two main stations
established and occupied by us. Our other stations were all tied in with these. The triangulation was also cut in with Tatoosh Lighthouse, off Cape Flattery, on the American side,
as a further check on the triangulation, as the position of this lighthouse is known.
The field party consisted of Mr. R. D. Fraser and Mr. H. E. Whyte, B.C. Land Surveyor,
as assistants, and five men. Work was commenced in the field on July 2nd and the party
was disbanded on October 8th. Three expeditions out from Victoria were made later to
reach camera stations considered as vital to the work. Two of them were unsuccessful on
account of weather conditions, and it was not until December 1st the stations were occupied.
It had been arranged with R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., who was to carry on similar work
southerly from San Juan Bay, that the boundary between our areas, easterly from the bay,
would be the divide between the waters of the San Juan and Gordon Rivers. Hence our
first operations were confined to the vicinity of San Juan Bay and the Gordon River Valley.
The old trail to the iron claims up the Gordon River and Bugaboo Creek, which fifteen or
twenty years ago was a wide-open graded horse-trail, has been almost completely obliterated,
particularly in the lower 4 miles. So it was necessary to open out a new trail, in part, and
clean out the old to make a passable route. Due to the heavy brush and numerous windfalls,
on several climbs we had to open out a trail for some distance up the slopes, otherwise there
would not have been sufficient time on the summits for our work. This is very aptly expressed
in a report of the Geological Survey which says: " The heavy rainfall for seven or eight
months in the year, accompanied by prevailing high winds, has given rise to a very dense
barricade of underbrush and an abundance of fallen timber, which makes geological investigation wholly secondary to the problem of progression." This had been expected, as also
that great difficulty in finding points from which photographs covering the country could be TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 27
taken on account of the low altitude of the mountains and the timber-covered tops. Fortunately, this is not the case, and it was possible to locate stations that did not require a
prohibitive amount of clearing. The same condition held for the mountains around Nitinat
Lake and, with the exception of Carmanah Mountain, which had been chosen as a main
triangulation station and required a large amount of clearing to make it one, stations were
occupied that covered the area in a satisfactory manner. The coast-line from San Juan Bay
to the Nitinat was travelled for the purpose of locating certain established triangulation
points and other points on the aerial pictures for horizontal control. Extra points, where
considered necessary for this purpose, were established in position by triangulation, using
Tatoosh Light and one or other of the fixed points along the coast-line. For the purpose of
establishing definite horizontal control on Nitinat Lake a skeleton triangulation was laid out
and tied to the main system.
The main triangulation stations—Edinburgh and Carmanah—and also several other
stations were marked with brass bolts fixed in solid rock. Other stations, where it was
considered they would be of future use, were marked with the %-inch B.C.L.S. bars.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The area is mountainous, the highest having an average altitude of 3,500 feet. The
mountains are all timbered and very few rock knolls or bluffs can be seen from the summits.
The valleys of the streams are generally narrow, and often the streams run through rocky
canyons. This is especially true of the Gordon River. The coast-line from San Juan Harbour,
as far north as Walbran Creek, is rocky with bluffs rising to about 100 feet. Below these
cliffs, uncovered at low tide, is a fiat rocky beach which, for the most part, can be readily
travelled. From Walbran Creek to Clo-oose there are several long stretches of sand and
gravel beaches and the shore-line is less precipitous. The streams along this part reach the
shore through deep narrow valleys which break the long slopes running back to the first
range of mountains. The only flat stretches noted lie at the deltas of the main streams, the
Gordon and San Juan Rivers, the Nitinat River above the lake, and for some miles up the
Nitinat Valley. There is also an area of low land, or rather land covered only with small
hills, lying between the lower part of Nitinat Lake and the Chee-what Lake and River, and
for some distance farther along the coast. A section of this along the coast adjoining the
Clo-oose Indian Reserve was subdivided into small lots about twenty-five years ago, and a
number were sold, some of which are still occupied.
FOREST.
With the exception of small areas in the more rugged parts the whole area is covered
by timber limits. The forest growth is very heavy and the main species found are cedar,
fir, hemlock, spruce, and balsam. There are no burnt-over areas except for a small section
on the slopes of Edinburgh Mountain, which was burnt approximately forty years ago and is
now covered with thick, small second-gi'owth, of hemlock generally. Only very small parts
have been logged, except in areas adjacent to Cowichan Lake. The logging near Cowichan
Lake extends only slightly outside the E. & N. Railway Grant. Other logging is being carried
on around the San Juan River Valley and at the head of Nitinat Lake. It is necessary here
to make the logs into rafts and tow them down the coast to the mills. In Nitinat Lake the
mile-long river at its mouth has a reversible current, flowing in with a rising tide and out
with a falling. It is a very tricky business taking rafts out to the open sea through this
narrow channel and must be done at the correct stage of the tide. This particular piece of
water received the attention of the Hydrographic Survey this year, possibly with the idea of
widening and straightening it.
MINERALS.
A complete summary and description of the known iron-ore deposits on the west coast of
Vancouver Island is contained in a book published by the Geological Survey of Canada in
1926, under the title " The Iron Ores of Canada, Volume 1, British Columbia and Yukon."
Included in this are the claims on Bugaboo Creek and the Gordon River. There has been no
further development on these claims since this report was issued and, in the words of one
geologist in a recent newspaper, the possibility of any development in iron deposits is very remote.    The geology of the central part of the area has not been thoroughly explored and
further investigation is likely, due to the increased interest in the Island.
CLIMATE.
The annual rainfall is heavy but most of it falls during the winter months. It is believed
that the latter part of July and the month of August are generally foggy, but this year July
was quite favourable for our work as, also, were parts of August. Some very heavy rains
fell around the middle of that month. The weather in September was generally good, but
our work was hindered by the smoke from slash-burning in the logged areas. From the
weather standpoint it would appear that this sort of work on Vancouver Island could be
commenced earlier in the season to great advantage, except, of course, in the higher areas,
where the late-lying snow makes this inadvisable.
FISHING.
Fishing is the mainstay of the majority of the settlers and, during the season, many
seine-boats are operating along the coast and inlets. As many as twenty-five were noted
at one time in Nitinat Lake, which is a comparatively small body of water. It is reported
that the salmon-run was not heavy this year. Trout are understood to be plentiful in some
of the streams.
GAME.
It cannot be described as a good game country. No deer were seen and, from this and
other years' experience on the island, it would appear that the deer congregate in and around
the old logged areas. The only deer tracks seen this season were on logged ground in
Nixon Creek. Black bear are reported to be common and their tracks were noted on several
occasions, but few were seen. Grouse are present and to be found everywhere, but are not
plentiful.
ACCESSIBILITY.
On the west coast entry may be made into this area at Port Renfrew and Clo-oose.
From Port Renfrew the Gordon and San Juan Valleys can be reached, while Clo-oose is the
point from which Nitinat Lake is reached if travelling by the regular steamer. At Clo-oose
a boat-landing is necessary. Nitinat Lake is also accessible from Cowichan Lake by using a
trail around 15 miles long, which has been kept open by the Forest Branch. Logging-railways
up Nixon Creek from Cowichan Lake, and also up Sutton Creek to near the head of the
Gordon River, provide access into or close to the area on the easterly side. The Government
telegraph, from Port Renfrew, follows the coast-line northerly to Clo-oose and on to Port
Alberni, and for the maintenance of this line a trail is kept open by the lineman. With the
exception of some short trails, or rather sidewalks around Clo-oose, these are the only trails in
the district. The trails cut out by the party and the trappers' trails can only be classed as
temporary as, due to the extremely rapid growth of underbrush and the windfalls, such trails
will be obliterated in a few years' time. Any one coming into the country and intending to
follow these trails must be prepared to open them out, as otherwise it will be almost an
impossibility to get through, especially with packs.
An hotel, store, and post-office at Port Renfrew serve the needs of the loggers, fishermen,
and settlers around San Juan Bay, while Brown's Bay, on Nitinat Lake, is the site of a store
and gas-float serving that section.    The post-office is at Clo-oose.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
I have, etc.,
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 29
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By N. C. Stewart.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1937.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical survey
carried out under your instructions of June 25th, 1937:—
The area controlled is situated in Strathcona Park, south of latitude 49° 45', extending
westerly from Buttle Lake to the summit of its watershed and southerly to the south boundary
of Strathcona Park, in the vicinity of Great Central Lake. This has an area of approximately 320 square miles, and will be mapped at a scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, with a contour
interval of 100 feet.
The field party consisted of W. J. Moffatt, B.C.L.S., assistant; A. G. Slocomb, instrument-
man; and six men. Mr. J. R. C. Hewett, B.C.L.S., joined the party during August, while
Mr. Moffatt was in hospital for an operation for appendicitis. The field-work was commenced on June 25th and ended October 15th.
We were supplied with air-photographs of a portion of the area, these were taken by
the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1931. It was intended to photograph the remainder of the
area during the summer, but owing to unfavourable weather conditions this work was not
completed.
On account of the mountainous nature of the country, the control was obtained solely
by triangulation and ground photography.
Access to the area was by trail from Upper Campbell Lake to Buttle Lake (8 miles) and
also by trail from Great Central Lake up Drinkwater Creek to Delia Falls (10 miles). Main
camps were established on Buttle Lake at the mouths of Phillips and Price Creeks, and
afterwards on Great Central Lake near the mouth of Drinkwater Creek. We blazed a
route up Phillips Creek, crossing the ridge to the headwaters of the Wolf River, establishing
an advance camp on the slopes of the Rooster's Comb, the highest mountain on Vancouver
Island, the first recorded ascent being made on July 21st. Similarly a route was blazed up
the Thelwood Valley, camp being established on Upper Thelwood Lake; Mo-ye-ho Mountain
and Taylor Glacier and several other peaks being reached from this camp. We also followed
an old trail up Price Creek a short distance, then continued up Price Creek to the creek out
of Cream Lake, ascending the cliffs to Cream Lake; thence down into the upper reaches of
Drinkwater Creek, following down its rocky bed about 2 miles to connect with the Drinkwater
trail near the bottom of Delia Falls. This route between Buttle and Great Central Lakes is
very difficult; hence the main camp was moved around via Upper Campbell Lake and road.
From the foot of Delia Falls we climbed the trail up to Delia Lake, this bit of trail being
almost vertical for about one-half mile. Fortunately, in the dangerous spots ropes and wire
cables have been placed—but even so, when one is heavily loaded considerable difficulty is
encountered. From Delia Lake, Big Interior and " Nine Peaks " Mountains were climbed.
During the season, angles were read at Mount Albert Edward, Mount McBride, Mount
Big Interior, and Mount Joan;   these are main triangulation stations.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The area is entirely mountainous. In the northerly portion the mountains rise sheer
from the north and south trench containing Buttle Lake (altitude 710 feet) to mountain
ridges attaining a height of 6,868 feet at Mount Albert Edward to the east and to 7,220 feet
in the. Rooster's Comb to the west. South of these mountains the crests are a little lower,
culminating in an east and west range that connects Big Interior Mountain (altitude 6,107
feet) with the mountains in vicinity of Comox Glacier; thence there is a decided drop to
Great Central Lake (altitude 270 feet). Other outstanding peaks in the area are Mounts
McBride (6,829 feet), Myra (5,932 feet), "Nine Peaks," and "Seven Peaks." Prominent
snow- and ice-fields are located on the slopes of Mount McBride, Rooster's Comb, Mount Myra,
Taylor Glacier, Moyeha, Big Interior, " Nine Peaks," and " Seven Peaks." The greater portion of the area mapped drains into Buttle Lake, and thence into the
Campbell River system, the largest streams being the Wolf River, Phillips, Myra, Thelwood,
Price, and Henshaw Creeks. Rising in this section and flowing into the west coast we find
the headwaters of the Ucona, Burman, Moyeha, and Bedwell Rivers, while in the southern
portion there is a southerly and easterly drainage into Great Central Lake and the Ash River.
All streams are very rapid, their waters swirling over huge boulders, cascading over waterfalls, and boiling through innumerable canyons. Besides the large lakes—Buttle and Great
Central—there are a great many others, mostly alpine lakes, whose waters are of different
colours, such as Cream Lake, the cream colour being due to the silt of a glacier working
through limestone-beds on the north-west face of " Seven Peaks." Delia Lake has the usual
water colour, while a beautiful lake about 1 mile south-east is blue-green, deriving its water
from the glacier on Nine Peaks Mountain. A plateau country between the headwaters of
Wolf and Burman Rivers contains a great number of lakes, providing a very attractive
scene from the peaks which we climbed there during the course of our work. As already
mentioned, there are numerous waterfalls on every stream, but those outstanding in beauty
are Myra Falls, which are quite near Buttle Lake; Delia Falls with its almost clear drop of
over 1,500 feet; another falls from the blue-green lake already mentioned; and a beautiful
fa'n-shaped falls on the tributary of the Ash River that flows out of the Cliffe snow-field and
Tzela Lake.
FOREST.
There is a considerable quantity of merchantable timber, some of which has now reached
maturity. The fan-shaped alluvial points along Buttle Lake and all the valley-bottoms of
the larger streams running into it are heavily timbered, with Douglas fir, hemlock, and red
cedar predominating. Likewise the lower valleys of the Ash and Drinkwater contain much
timber. Other varieties found include balsam, white pine, yellow cedar, cottonwood, alder,
maple, and yew trees. The merchantable timber grows to an approximate altitude of 3,000
feet, the forest-growth above that altitude becomes stunted, timber-line being reached about
4,500 feet above sea-level. In the forests there is the usual undergrowth of huckleberry,
devij's-club, and salal. Wild flowers are abundant and very beautiful, especially at timber-
line.    Along Buttle Lake dogwoods and arbutus add to the beauty of its shores.
MINERALS.
A mineralized zone extends from the southerly slopes of Phillips Creek, across Myra,
Price, and Thelwood Valleys to the Big Interior Basin and Delia Lake country. The geology
of this section is given by Dr. H. C. Gunning in his 1930 report, and in the reports of the
Minister of Mines in 1906 and 1916. In addition to the areas covered in these reports,
mineralization was noted on a ridge between Margaret Lake and the headwaters of the
Ash River, copper and iron stains being seen in several places.
Many remarkable outcrops of limestone and marble occur throughout the area west of
Buttle Lake and south of the north branch of Wolf River, the largest being on Marble Creek,
and along the south branch of Wolf River. These limestone-beds contain countless fossils,
which, according to Dr. Gunning's report, date back to the Permian age. Similar fossils
were found in the marble and limestones on the slopes of " Seven Peaks " near Cream Lake.
Samples of talc and magnetite were taken from the ridge between Phillips Creek and
the Burman River.
CLIMATE.
The weather during July was very favourable, but during August there was an abnormal
quantity of rain, so little progress was made during that month. September was about
average, the first fall of snow appearing on the mountain tops on September 28th. .There
was very fine weather in October, but smoke from forest fires hindered our work during the
last two weeks of the field season. We noted that the small yellow violets bloomed a second
time in October.
During the winter of 1936-37 there was an unusually large snowfall, a great quantity
persisting on the northerly slopes of the mountains during the summer; thus, looking
southerly in July, one saw a wintry-looking terrain. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 31
GAME.
The best sport in this area is the trout-fishing in Buttle Lake and its tributaries. The
fish are plentiful and full of fight, some large ones are caught. Quite a number of black
bear were seen, but not many deer. There are fresh signs of elk, but these animals are
very elusive, for none were seen. Eleven cougar were bagged by one trapper on Buttle Lake,
and several others were taken north of Great Central Lake during the past winter. Wolves
are reported in this vicinity. Signs of beaver, mink, marten, and other fur-bearing animals
proved their presence, but these animals are not plentiful. Blue grouse and ptarmigan are
almost the only game birds found, but a few ducks and geese were seen on alpine lakes.
Many eagles, hawks, and owls frequent timber-line, and in  Buttle  Lake there  are loons.
ACCESSIBILITY.
The present means of access have already been mentioned, and are very inadequate,
considering the many resources and scenic attractions of the area. Shortly after this section
was set aside for park purposes, a start at development was made. A road was surveyed
from Forbes Landing to Buttle Lake, trails were built to Buttle Lake and up the Elk River,
buildings being erected at each end of Buttle Lake and at Lady Falls in the Elk Valley. The
construction of a trail to join Buttle with Great Central Lake was commenced from each
end but never completed. The route chosen for this trail was up Price Creek to its head;
thence to Margaret Lake, following down the creek out of that lake to meet the Drinkwater
trail about 2 miles from Great Central Lake, the distance is over 19 miles. The route up
Price Creek is very difficult, owing to brushy snowslide paths. I believe an alternate route
was considered by using the top of the ridge between Price and Henshaw Creeks, for stakes
of the old survey were found there. After exploring both routes we considered the ridge
route much the better of the two, for a comparatively easy ascent from Buttle Lake to
timber-line is followed by a wonderfully scenic route along the ridge for several miles, to a
point only a few hundred feet above the pass to Margaret Lake.
In our endeavours to get to the Drinkwater trail we tried to find a way from the
Thelwood Valley to the headwaters of the Drinkwater, but found the going very tough and
almost as long as the other route. As neither of these routes was convenient for our work,
we took a middle course via Cream Lake, as already mentioned, but wish to warn inexperienced climbers that our trail is very arduous and dangerous in places. It has the
advantage, however, of being probably the shortest way between the existing trails.
There are man-pack trails up Wolf River, Phillips and Thelwood Creeks, the latter
trail I believe leads to the west coast. A good trail suitable for horses goes up Myra Creek
to the mines, about 2% miles from Buttle Lake. There is also a route occasionally travelled
from the Forbidden Plateau, over the shoulders of Mount Albert Edward, down the Ralph
River to Buttle Lake.
DEVELOPMENT AND RESOURCES.
There is no active development-work being performed in this portion of Strathcona Park.
The remnants of the former mining activity are not extensive, probably indicating that these
mines did not prove to be of sufficiently high grade to warrant further development up to
the present time. The forest in the Buttle Lake area of the park is being preserved as a
tourist attraction, but the whistles of the high-lead engines can now be heard within a short
distance of the lower end of Buttle Lake, and it may be presumed that that end of the lake
will be logged off before long as the timber there is privately owned. I consider that the
mineral and timber wealth in the park are very great, but these will be surpassed by the
tourist possibilities, when the scenic and sport attractions are developed and made easily
accessible.
I have, etc.,
N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S. Y 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1937.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By G. J. Jackson.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1937.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical survey made
by me, under your instructions, during the past summer:—
The area completed is on Vancouver Island, and consists of all the Island, lying west
of the 128° meridian, that has not already been mapped.
The area has all been covered by vertical aerial views, taken by the Royal Canadian
Air Force. The triangulation was controlled by stations of the British Columbia triangulation system.    Elevations were obtained from sea-level.
The party of seven was organized at Victoria, and arrived at Holberg on July 1st, where
work was commenced. The main camp was moved along the Holberg-San Josef Road and
trail, the first 8 miles by car, the remainder by horse and sled and back-packing to the
San Josef River; then by rowboat, for the last 2 miles, to the mouth of the river. The hills
on each side of the road were reached by fly-camps. From San Josef we were able to use
a launch to reach Sea Otter Cove, Raft Cove, and Leeson Harbour, and also to move the main
camp to the head of Goose Harbour. From here we moved to Fisherman's Bay by horse and
wagon; there, again, we used a launch to reach stations along the north coast and to move
down to Shushartie at the end of the season, where we caught the boat for Victoria on
September 26th.
There are only two bare hills in the area. The rest are heavily timbered; these, when
possible at all for stations, required a lot of clearing, and even then a number of stations had
to be located high up in trees. Horizontal control by our views was supplemented by points
obtained by traverse and along the coast by ship's triangulation stations of the Hydrographic
Survey. Vertical control in some sections was obtained by barometer readings, where it could
not be covered by views.
During the season twenty-one camera stations and three triangulation stations were
occupied, 33 miles of traverse run, eighteen land-ties made, and many barometer readings
were taken.    A large percentage of days were lost on account of rain and fog.
There are five main river valleys in the area. Spruce River flows into the head of
Holberg Inlet from the north. Cache Creek flows north into Queen Charlotte Sound; while
Fisherman's, San Josef, and the Macjack Rivers flow westward into the Pacific Ocean. There
are several small lakes in each of the watersheds of the Macjack and the San Josef Rivers.
Lake William and Lake Brink, at the head of Fisherman's River, are about 3 miles in their
combined length.    Lake Erie, just north of San Josef Bay is over 1 mile long.
The whole country is comparatively low, only a few hills south of the San Josef River
reaching 2,000 feet, while north of it the hills are less than 1,500 feet high, and around
Cape Scott less than 1,000 feet. Much of the country is swampy and very wet, even in
summer. It is all timbered, mostly with hemlock, balsam, black pine, and yellow cedar, with
red cedar and spruce in some places. On the swampy ground the timber is mostly scrubby,
but on the hillsides and drier ground the original timber was better. But large areas of this
were blown down in 1907 and are now covered with a dense growth of reproduction 20 to 30
feet high. These areas are now nearly impassable, as the fallen logs are still solid and
interlaced with brush and second-growth. There is a dense growth of salal and salmon-berry
throughout the whole area.
There has been little settlement in the Macjack Valley, but the San Josef Valley and the
country north of it has, for the most part, been taken up by pre-emption and Crown-granted.
Cabins and small clearings were made on each pre-emption and about 1912 there were several
hundred settlers in the country. With the exception of a very few, these settlers have left,
the clearings have grown up with brush and the cabins, in many cases, have fallen down.
Good crops can be grown where the soil is suitable, as proved by the growth in the few
fields and garden-patches now in existence. Clearing and draining is expensive and the land
requires constant care to keep down the encroachment of the brush.    Markets are limited TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 33
and it is not easy to get produce to them.    Most of the settlers help out their living by fishing,
trapping, and any work they can pick up.
There are now no schools or churches in the area and only one small store at Holberg
and another at San Josef. There are three post-offices, one at Holberg with a weekly mail,
one at Cape Scott with a bi-monthly mail, and one at San Josef with a monthly mail.
A road has been surveyed from Holberg to Fisherman's Bay. Of this, the first 8 miles
from Holberg have been constructed and kept in good shape, so that it can be used by car.
The last few miles from Fisherman's River to Fisherman's Bay can be used by team and
wagon, as can also a branch road into the head of Goose Harbour. The remainder is only a
trail. There is a connecting trail to San Josef Bay, also one from San Josef to Lake Erie.
Between Fisherman's Bay and Cache Creek there is a trail which is partly cleared road in
places, narrow trail in others, and only the beach at other spots. At one time there were
many trails leading into the different cabins, but these are now badly filled in with brush
and logs and most of the bridges have fallen down. The Macjack and San Josef Rivers can
be used by small boats, at high tide, for a couple of miles from the mouth. The Government
telephone-line to Shushartie follows the road and trail from Holberg to Cache Creek, with
telephones at Holberg, San Josef, Cape Scott, and Cache Creek.
Few signs of minerals have, as yet, been found in the area. The only active property
is the Millington group of claims, situated about 3% miles up the valley from Holberg, and
owned by Spooner Brothers, of Holberg, and associates. This is a copper property, the ore
being bornite, on which considerable tunnelling has been done and some diamond-drilling.
At present it is a poor game country. There are a number of black bears throughout the
area, but deer have practically disappeared, although they were very plentiful a few years
ago. Grouse are scarce, but a few geese nest in the area, and both geese and ducks are
plentiful in the fall and winter.
The chief fur-bearing animals are mink, coon, beaver, and marten, with occasional otters.
Most of the fur is trapped on the beaches and fair catches are made most years.
Salmon run up all the rivers to spawn and are caught in great numbers by trailers and
purse-seiners off the coast.    Trout are in all the rivers and lakes.
The climate is very even, never getting very cold or very hot. The rainfall is heavy,
averaging over 100 inches a year.    There is little snowfall on the lower levels.
The work on the maps is now in progress and the usual plans are being prepared.
I have, etc.,
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By Frank Swannell.
Victoria, B.C., January 14th, 1938.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The season's work for 1937, as outlined in your instructions to me of June 25th,
was an extension southerly of the Geodetic and Geological Survey triangulation net up the
east coast of Vancouver Island across the Island into the triangular-shaped west-coast area
bounded on the north by Nitinat Lake, to the north-east by the E. & N. Land Grant Boundary,
and to the south by the Strait of San Juan de Fuca. Control surveys were made over this
area by Messrs. McCaw and Campbell, of the Photo-topographic Survey, and each of us read
the other stations. The establishment of a main station by Mr. Campbell on Edinburgh
Mountain and his occupation of a station set by me on Rossander Mountain, near Nitinat
Lake, enabled me to extend the triangulation well into their territory. The whole triangulation was based on the geodetic positions supplied for " Whymper " and " Waterloo "—the
former on a prominent peak  (5,056 feet)   7 miles north of Cowichan Lake;   the latter a Y 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1937.
Geological Survey Station on a low, burnt mountain north of the Koksilah River. Trigonometrical levels were carried across the Island and down to Port Renfrew by occupying, and
including in the main triangulation, the Geological Survey Station on Mount Prevost; the
altitude of which was obtained by vertical angulation from the geodetic bench-marks at
Somenos and Tyee on the E. & N. Railway.
Field operations were commenced at the end of June at Cowichan Lake, and terminated
about the middle of October on the San Juan River. Much time was unavoidably expended
in the heavy clearing needed at the triangulation stations; while at the latter end of the
season fog and rain on the San Juan slope and dense smoke from slash-burning in the
Cowichan Lake area combined to make angle reading impossible for several weeks.
The whole region embraced in the triangulation is very heavily timbered, except an old
burn around Waterloo Mountain and the logged-off areas on Cowichan Lake and the streams
feeding it. From Mount Whymper the view southward disclosed an uninterrupted and
chaotic welter of high, steep, heavily-wooded hills and ridges, with never an open summit
visible except the burnt top of Edinburgh Mountain and a rock-topped hill or two near
Nitinat Lake. The two west coast rivers—the San Juan and Gordon—the latter heading
almost against Cowichan Lake, are in such deep narrow valleys that their course was difficult
to trace. The only gap through the high hill ranges lay to the west where the deep depression
in which Cowichan Lake lies continues as a wide heavily-timbered valley to Nitinat Lake.
The Nitinat River Valley referred to above is by far the easiest route through to the
west coast. An excellent trail runs from Camp 3, 1 mile west of Cowichan Lake, following
for miles the old railway grade and the Wilson and Brady logging-road. The distance across
to Sorenson's logging camp at the head of Nitinat Lake is 15 miles and the valley is heavily
timbered throughout, spruce commencing to displace the fir about half-way across.
Two other routes across the Island exist, both ending at Port San Juan. From Rounds,
the Lake Logging Company's camp on Gordon River, about 10 miles by logging-railway from
Cowichan Lake an old trail runs down the Gordon River, but it is now almost impassable
on account of fallen timber, especially at the lower end.
The other route is by way of the San Juan River. From Shawnigan Lake a car may
be taken to Chisholm's suspension bridge on the Koksilah River. From here a good graded
pack-trail starts. The trail forks 6% miles out, the left-hand branch running to Jordan
Meadows. The right fork reaches the San Juan River at the mouth of Clapp Creek, 12 miles
in all from the end of the Koksilah Road. No trace of a trail could be found below here,
so we cut a back-pack trail 8 miles down the San Juan Valley to the mouth of Bear Creek,
which shortly will be reached by the Malahat Logging Company's railway from Port Renfrew.
This route from Shawnigan Lake could easily be made into a wagon-road, the divide being
very low.
At the present there is no mining development in this portion of Vancouver Island.
Search was vainly made for Todd's Crevice, on the Upper San Juan, from which, rumor has
it, a fabulous amount of placer gold was taken by Chas. Todd, leader of an exploring party in
1865. Old mining-tools and location-posts were found about 2 miles above Floodwood Creek,
and search in departmental records later showed than twelve claims were staked here in
1878. The old Silver Mine trail, branching off from the end of the Koksilah Road, leads
off to an old cabin and tunnel. According to the Minister of Mines' Report for 1880, assays
of as high as $100 per ton in gold, silver, and lead were obtained at this prospect. The
showing was first discovered in the sixties by a Mr. Robertson, who prospected the Koksilah
for gold in 1865, and whose party, incidentally, climbed and named Mount Waterloo.
The great and indeed only natural resource of the area under report is the wonderful
stand of timber. Around Cowichan Lake fir is the predominant species, and the stand is, or
rather was (for it is being rapidly logged off), magnificent. The various logging concerns,
by putting in logging-railways, are now operating far back of the lake; in the case of the
Lake Logging Company across the Sutton Creek divide on to the Upper Gordon River. The
total logged-off area surrounding Cowichan Lake is about 35,000 acres. The cut of last year
was 4,300 acres, probably yielding 200,000,000 F.B.M. One company alone, the Industrial
Timber Mills, in their sawmill at Youbou cut 90,000,000 feet in 1937. From Port Renfrew
the Malahat Logging Company are building a railway up the San Juan to tap their large
holdings of fir inside the E. & N. Land Grant. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 35
The maze of steep ridges and deep narrow valleys between the E. & N. Boundary and
the west coast is also heavily timbered. Even on summit ridges of 4,000 feet elevation the
hemlock attained 4 feet in diameter and was of great age and extremely slow growth, as
evidenced by the closeness together of the annual growth rings.
Except for a burnt area on Edinburgh Mountain and another on Waterloo and the Upper
Koksilah, which had spread across the San Juan, the entire region has escaped fire. It is
interesting, however, to note that William Ralph, who ran the E. & N. Boundary in 1891,
states that in the 50 miles of line between the San Juan and Alberni Canal he everywhere
found charcoal and charred trees, mute evidence of a fire of some 100 years previous. None
of this interior hill country has agricultural possibilities. What little bench land there is on
the San Juan above Bear Creek is heavily timbered and the soil light.    There are no meadows.
June was a very wet month, July quite dry, but during most of August and the latter
half of September there was much heavy rain and sea fog which drove up from the Pacific
with a westerly wind.
We saw very little game of any kind, except a few deer and occasional elk-tracks. Bear
are not uncommon. The Upper San Juan River was quite devoid of fish, although the water
is crystal clear. Grouse were very scarce, although a few coveys of blue grouse were seen
on the high ridges.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
I have, etc.,
Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1938.
1,126-1038-6063 

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