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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1938

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. E. C. Manning, Chief Forester.
REPORT
OF
THE FOREST BRANCH
TEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
193*7
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY  OP  THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Prinfed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
193S.  Victoria, B.C., February 28th, 1938.
To His Honour E. W. HAMBER,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1937.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1937.
E. C. MANNING,
Chief Forester.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
REVIEW OF THE INDUSTRY.
The work of the forester is presumed to have been finished when the forest crop is ready
for harvesting, or at least when the raw wood product is ready for sale. The business of
producing the raw product, however, can only prosper as the processing and marketing of the
finished manufactures prosper. Lumber, shingles, pulp, markets, and labour, therefore, are
of primary interest in forest administration, even though they do stand quite outside the
field of pure forestry; and it has been with some such thought in mind that for years past
the Forest Branch Report has been introduced with a brief review of business conditions in
the wood-using industries.
The year 1936 witnessed a rapid and most encouraging recovery from depression levels.
The total scale of forest products was within 10 per cent, of the record cut of 1929, export
established a new record, foreign markets were being developed along sound lines that gave
promise of lasting benefits, and returns were working up toward satisfactory levels. This
business revival carried into 1937, promising a number of new records which, however,
conditions conspired to defeat. Wars, discouraging weather conditions, unprecedented ocean
freight rates, and minor obstacles conspired to dampen early optimism. In spite of these,
however, the year closed with a record log-scale, lumber export in excess of one billion
feet for the second time, and some evidence that the worst of the unexpected difficulties lay
in the past.
1929.
(Nearest 1,000-
1936.
-add 000.)
1937.
Average,
Ten Years to
1937.
Log-scale, F.B.M	
Railway-ties, pieces..
Cords.  	
Poles, piles, lin. ft	
Converted total scale, F.B.M..
Water-borne export, lumber...
2,940,308
2,823,758
3,526
1,325
153
171
S9.489
14,269
S,Si6,lU
3,020,773
801,518
1,202,991,
S,0S5,55S
1,191
155
22,116
3,241,916
1,107,377
2,327,585
1,765
168
18,722
2,580,196
797,881
Figures in italic indicate record scales.
Snow conditions developing late in 1936 carried over into early 1937, forcing most of the
camps to close late in January. Generally speaking, only those situated immediately adjacent
to tide-water were able to operate. In spite of an unprecedented demand for logs, camps
remained closed until early March, when they reopened, still heavily handicapped by snow.
Logging conditions were variously described as the worst in the history of the industry and
the worst in twenty years. At the same time ice seriously interfered with milling on the
Fraser River. During the shut-down of more than a month log production dropped to
between 10 and 15 per cent, of normal, and the mills experienced the greatest difficulty in
securing adequate supplies.
By the end of March log-supply was improving, but the freight-rate situation and various
other factors tending to curtail lumber-sales were making themselves felt. Log production
was not a critical factor again during the year.
Production was curtailed for about six weeks again in July and August through the
usual summer close-downs in some cases, and reduced operating schedules in others. The
extremely bright prospects of the first quarter having been badly shaded, logging operations
for the remainder of the year were on an easy basis.
Log-sales were well sustained throughout the year, with the exception of an accumulation
of surplus cedar in August and subsequent months. A notable feature of the log market
was the stability of price-levels. M 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Ocean freight rates were an important factor in the export field. Influenced by strikes
in Pacific Coast ports, the Sino-Japanese war, and generally improved business conditions
and consequent increase in cargo offerings, space was at a premium during the greater part
of the year at greatly increased rates. With the British Columbia lumber industry depending
on overseas markets for more than 55 per cent, of its business, ocean freights assume a
particularly significant role. A downward trend in freight rates started before the end
of the year, but too late to have much corrective effect on 1937 business, particularly as the
demand for our products had already eased.
The United States quota on British Columbia shingles under the " Revenue Act" of
1936 continues to be an important factor in the local shingle industry and in disposal of
cedar logs. Export of shingles to the United States for each half-year in turn is limited to
25 per cent, of the American market during the preceding six months. Quota for the first
half of 1937 was fixed in March at 1,048,262 squares, as compared with 1,419,747 squares for
the last half of 1936,    This was further reduced to 892,373 squares for the second half of
1937 and the quota had been exhausted by the first week in November.
The latest cloud on the horizon is the possibility of the Ottawa Empire Trade Agreements of 1932 being modified through a proposed new trade treaty with the United States.
Existing agreements are especially vital in the lumber trade with the United Kingdom.
During the five years prior to 1932 our average annual shipments to the United Kingdom
amounted to 70,560,000 feet. Assisted by these preferential agreements and by dint of
extensive trade-promotion activities financed jointly by the Government and the industry,
this market was expanded during the five years following 1932 to an annual average of
499,453,000, this year's shipments (1937) amounting to more than 648 million. The full
significance of this trade is apparent only when compared with other totals:—
Total lumber production, 1937  About 2,000,000 M.
Total water-borne trade, 1937  1,107,377 M.
Shipped to United Kingdom, 1937  648,364 M.
United Kingdom trade  32.4% of total cut.
United Kingdom trade  58.5% of total export.
Average water-borne trade, ten years  797,881 M.
Average United Kingdom trade since 1932  499,453 M.
Behind the cold figures of board-feet of lumber there is the matter of employment,
pay-rolls, and allied business. The loss of this market or of any substantial part of it would
be a serious blow to the Province. Any change in tariff preference must therefore be viewed
with concern not only by the lumber industry, but by business in general.
It is estimated that between 7 and 8 per cent, of our total timber-cut goes to the
pulp-mills. Value of pulp and pulp products, however, amounts to more than 22 per cent,
of the total value of the production of the forest industries (ten-year average, 1927-36),
and the prospects are that pulp will assume an even more important place in the economic
life of the Province in future years. Pulp, therefore, assumes an importance in the circle
of forest industries that the mere consumption of timber fails to indicate.
Sharing with all other industry the difficulties of depression years, aggravated in Eastern
Canada by overexpansion, pulp and paper have enjoyed a remarkable recovery during the
past eighteen months. Canadian production in 1936 was 15.9 per cent, greater than in 1935,
as compared with a 1-per-cent. increase in the United States and 10.4 per cent, in Newfoundland. British Columbia's increase was a little over 8 per cent., far the greater part of which
was made into newsprint.    The past year has about maintained the production of 1936.
Orders were so plentiful during the early part of the year that quotas were resorted to
in some cases. Plant improvements were undertaken by the various mills to a total of nearly
3 million dollars. Labour shared in this recovery by wage increases of as much as 27 per cent.
Newsprint prices advanced a further $5 to $50 per ton with the beginning of the new year,
1938. The extraordinary prospects of January, 1937, were not fully realized throughout the
year, nevertheless pulp and paper constituted one of the bright spots in the 1937 history of
the forest industries.
No review of the forest industries in British Columbia can be quite complete without
some reference to minor products, notably poles, piles, hewn ties, and cordwood. These
combined have averaged only 9.7 per cent, of our total cut during the past ten years and FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937. M 7
account for only 206 million out of a total scale of 3,242 million in 1937, or less than 7 per
cent. Their major importance rests in the fact that little equipment is required in their
production that is not found around the average farm, and that they are produced in large
measure by ranchers during the slack winter months. A contract for a few hundred ties
or poles means employment and cash income for the pioneer settler and his team. Much
of the opening-up of agricultural areas of the Province has been made possible by the
" grub-stake " earned through the sale of ties, poles, and cordwood. Our average production
for the past ten years has been 1.7 million ties, 168 thousand cords, and 18.7 million feet of
poles, worth approximately ZVz million dollars, a larger proportion of which is distributed as
wages to labour than is the case in any other finished wood product.
The heyday of the tie business in British Columbia extended from 1920 to 1929, with
production usually over 3 million and touching 3.8 million in 1921. In 1933 it had dropped
to less than half a million, but since then has been in excess of one million per year.
The pole market opened in 1937 with a strong recovery, but fell off later in the year.
Production increased from a low of 4.5 million lineal feet in 1933 and 1934 to 8.8 million
in 1935, to 14.2 million in 1936, to 22.1 million in 1937. The prospects are that there will be
some recession in 1938.
Cordwood enjoys a purely local market and, with the exception of a remarkable cut of
331,000 cords in 1933, has been fairly stable for many years at between one and two hundred
thousand cords.
Some study was devoted during the year to the hemlock-marketing problem. It is
urgently necessary that this excellent product should reach foreign markets in a condition in
keeping with its true quality. When this is done hemlock should rapidly attain much the
same favour now accorded its associate, Douglas fir. In the meantime we continue to handicap our trade-promotion efforts chiefly by shipping green hemlock, and our cut of fir continues
out of all proportion to our relative resources in this and other species. Fir in 1937 represented 56 per cent, of the total scale in the Vancouver Forest District, and cedar and hemlock
19 per cent. each. In the forests of this district there is the same amount of hemlock and
fir, with cedar only 9 per cent, behind in quantity.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
Turning to forest administration, the work of the Service in such specialized branches as
Surveys, Management, Research, Protection, and Grazing has progressed during the year in
keeping with the funds and staff available. These specialized operations are treated in some
detail in the following pages. The routine work of general administration continues to
increase until the staff is now definitely overtaxed. The trend is indicated in the accompanying extracts from the usual published statistical tables of routine work found elsewhere
in this report.
Total timber scaled  (million F.B.M.)      3,241
Timber-sales awarded	
Timber-sales cruised	
Logging inspections made	
Timber-marks issued and transfers	
Ranger staff	
Average, Ten Years
1937.
1928-37.
3,241
2,580
1,451
1,107
1,471
1,128
11,507
9,453
2,691
2,103
55
56 M 8
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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* Permanently employed but not Civil Service appointments and paid from funds other than Salary Vote,
Personnel and Enrollees.
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YOUNG MEN'S FORESTRY TRAINING PLAN.
The Young Men's Forestry Training Plan, an experiment in the summers of 1935 and
1936, established itself during the summer of 1937 as a possible permanent factor in the
development and protection of the forest resources of British Columbia. The success of
British Columbia's previous years' programmes had a bearing on the Dominion Government's
decision to contribute towards similar programmes throughout the Dominion under the
heading of " Youth Training." Approximately 40 per cent, of the total expenditures incurred
in this year's programme was borne by the Dominion Government, whereas the previous
years' programmes were financed entirely by the Province.
Just as the young forests of British Columbia are an asset of the future, so too are
the young men of the Province, and this programme has proved itself a valuable means of
developing character, initiative, and self-reliance in the young men enrolled and of accomplishing essential forest development and protection work which it might otherwise be
impossible to undertake. The Young Men's Forestry Training Plan has demonstrated
conclusively that it is practical to combine youth-training and Forest Service work with
mutually beneficial results.
The Department of Labour again handled all details of enrolment, selecting the eligible
men, and, as in previous years, co-operated with the Forest Service in every way possible.
Enrolment was restricted in so far as possible to single men between the ages of 18 and 25 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937. M 9
years with high-school education, resident continuously in British Columbia for at least five
years and physically fit, preference being given to suitable young men in needy circumstances.
Applicants were required to undertake any class of forest-work and to serve in any part of
the Province. Men previously employed in the winter programme of Forest Development
Projects were not eligible. Ranger Assistants resident at home were paid $45 per month
with expenses away from headquarters. All other enrolled men were paid $1.75 per day of
work with 75 cents deducted for board, lodging, and transportation, except for Sundays and
statutory holidays. Straw-bosses were appointed from regularly-enrolled men and paid an
additional 25 cents per day of work.
Out of a total of 1,009 applicants it was only possible to employ 585 young men in
this year's programme. During the season 81 of these secured employment, either through
their own efforts or those of forest officers; 61 returned to school or university; 25 quit for
no specific reason; 8 left, due to sickness; and 9 were discharged. From a questionnaire
sent out two months after the close of the season to all regularly-enrolled men, approximately
80 per cent, of which were returned, it was found that 40 per cent, of the men enrolled had
had employment since leaving the project, approximately 20 per cent, were then employed,
and 90 per cent, wished to take up various phases of forestry-work as a livelihood. There is
little doubt that the young men enrolled in this programme returned to society in better
health and better equipped for the job of citizenship.
Forestry lectures were given to each project by foremen, forest rangers, supervisors, or
headquarters staff. Moving pictures of work being undertaken at other projects and of the
major industries of the Province were shown where possible. Supervision of the work and
instruction of the enrollees was improved this year by the detailing of forest officers as
special supervisors in the Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson Forest Districts.
Under the tutelage and assistance of the forest rangers throughout the Province, 110
young men were employed as Assistants, and" as most of them had had previous experience
in this capacity, they proved a real asset to the general organization of the Forest Service.
By looking after cars, pumps, and equipment; filing and typing reports and handling general
correspondence; checking and recording readings of fire-hazard indicators; acting as dispatchers in and out of the fire season; as chainmen, compassmen, and assistants on inspection
trips; and by actually taking care of small fires by themselves, they were well worthy of
the title of " Assistants." A number of these men, during the" past two years, have
successfully passed their Assistant Ranger examinations and consequently are in line for
advancement.
Valuable work was undertaken at the three Forest Experiment Stations by crews of
approximately thirty men. At the Green Timbers Forest Experiment Station three million
seedlings in seed-beds required constant thinning and cleaning, in addition to general
improvement-work on the reserve. At the Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station the
major work consisted of improving the highway into the area, although considerable work
was done on the reserve itself under the supervision of technical forest officers. Further
development and improvement-work was undertaken at the Aleza Lake Forest Experiment
Station. These three Stations and one truck-trail project camp in the vicinity of Moyie were
used as clearing centres where practically all men were assigned prior to being selected and
sent out to smaller and more isolated projects throughout the Province.
Twenty-five forest development and protection crews of from ten to twenty men each
were placed throughout the Province where the major portion of the work consisted of the
construction of protection-trails and truck-roads, maintenance and construction of telephone-
lines, lookouts, cabins, and permanent Forest Service buildings. Where possible, stream-
improvement and trail work were undertaken for the Provincial Game Board and several
projects served the dual purpose of opening areas for forest-protection and assisting local
Fish and Game Clubs, Boards of Trade, and Irrigation District Boards in making certain
areas more readily accessible for them. Certain grazing interests were likewise assisted in
this way. With so much forest protection and improvement work to be undertaken, it is
difficult in a summer programme to participate to any great extent in park development or
recreation projects, but crews were placed in Tweedsmuir Park, Kokanee Park, at Silver Tip
Falls, and on Hollyburn Ridge. Trails, roads, and general development-work enhanced the
value of these areas for tourists, hunters, fishermen, hikers, alpinists, and skiers. Work
essential in the protection of our timber from insect-infestation was undertaken for the M 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Entomological Branch of the Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, at their Experiment
Station at Lumby, where station improvements, protection trails and roads were constructed.
Information from all Y.M.F.T.P. projects was forwarded to the Station concerning saw-fly
infestations, which information will be of inestimable value in studies being made. Experimental mosquito-control work through the drainage of swamps was an important phase of
work undertaken at the Entomological Station.
FOREST DEVELOPMENT PROJECT.
During 1936 the Forest Branch was approached with regard to the possibility of
evolving some scheme of productive labour for unemployed single men which might replace
the more or less discredited " camp " system of depression years. Employment was required
only during the winter months, the worst possible period for forest-work, but it was agreed
that by confining our efforts to the south coast, where weather conditions would be the least
unfavourable to useful work, a few hundred men might be profitably used. This marked
the inception of the Forest Development Project in the fall of 1936, the first programme
in Canada designed primarily for forest development, protection, and conservation, and
reforestation as a means of alleviating unemployment.
The Dominion Government contributed 50 per cent, of the cost other than administrative
costs. The Provincial Department of Labour had the exclusive responsibility for enrolling
the men; the Forest Branch was exclusively responsible for selecting the work projects.
Supervision and administration of the work was entrusted entirely to Forest Branch
personnel, wide use being made of Assistant Rangers of wide experience in handling large
fire crews but normally employed during the summer months only. The problem of supervision was especially difficult, in that direct control over employees in a system of isolated
work projects was not possible, it being necessary to rely on the individual initiative, resource,
and good judgment of each foreman to achteve the best results. Herein the Assistant
Rangers were of a temperament suitable for handling such a programme through their years
of experience in handling fire crews, Forest Service equipment, and construction problems
under similar circumstances, and they proved to be the backbone of the programme. For
general management and administration three experienced foresters were specially detailed
by the Branch.
Regularly-enrolled nien were paid at the rate of 30 cents per hour of work with an
additional 5 cents per hour being paid to outstanding men acting as straw-bosses. Board,
lodging, and transportation were charged for at the rate of 75 cents per day in camp.
Flunkies and bullcooks were paid at the rate of $30 per month and board. Men paid by
the hour worked a maximum of eight hours per day and forty-four hours per week. A
portion of weekly wages due each regularly-enrolled man was withheld pending completion
of period of employment, but in no case did this deduction exceed $16 per month. Upon
termination of employment this deferred pay was made payable to each man by cheque at
the rate of $4 per week, first payment coming due eight days after last day on project.
Approximately 23,000 cheques covering monthly and deferred payments of wages were made
out and mailed. With the period of employment in camp and deferred pay, men were ensured
an income until at least the middle of June.
Four main classes of work were undertaken: Park and forest recreation development,
watershed protection and improvement, improvement and development of Provincial Forest
Reserves, and forest-protection.
This programme involved twenty-one projects in which the originally proposed few
hundred men grew to a total of 2,809 enrollees.
Thirty-one per cent, of the personnel was employed in the development and improvement
of established or potential park areas. This class of work involved road-construction,
elimination of fire-hazards, deformed trees, slash and down timber, and the construction of
trails and bridges. In many instances the summer work of the Y.M.F.T.P. was continued
under this project through the winter.
Valuable work was undertaken in the protection and development of the Greater Vancouver, Victoria, and Nanaimo Watersheds, on which work approximately 28 per cent,
of the personnel was employed. These projects were largely concerned with the construction
of roads, trails, and fire-guards and the elimination of slash and snags. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937. M 11
Twenty-five per cent, was employed in the development and improvement of Provincial
Forest Reserves; at the Green Timbers Forest Experiment Station, New Westminster;
Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station; and the Campbell River Ranger Station.
Much was accomplished in the clearing of land; building and improvement of roads, trails,
and fire-lines; thinning, pruning, and general stand improvement work; telephone-line
construction and relocation; and the elimination of fire-hazards. Similar improvements
were also undertaken on the University of British Columbia Demonstration Forest at Point
Grey.
Sixteen per cent, of the men enrolled were employed on forest-protection work.
Extensive construction and improvements were completed at the Thurston Bay Station of
the Forest Service. Old logging-grades were converted into roads for protection purposes
and proposed planting-sites fire-proofed and opened up by truck-trails on old logging-grades.
The activities under the F.D.P. are reported herein in some detail as it is an entirely
new departure in the handling of unemployed labour. In November, 1937, a second programme was undertaken, when twenty-five projects were established with accommodation
for 2,000 single unemployed and transients, with prospects of a total of 5,000 individuals
being employed between that date and May, 1938.
Appreciation should be expressed for the splendid co-operation received from the officials
of the Labour Department in the carrying-out of this Forest Development Project.
1936-1937.
Number of projects  21
Enrolled at one time       1,327
Total men employed       2,809
Man-days worked  158,374
THE MULTIPLE USE OF FOREST AREAS.
Intelligent planning for the future economic and social security of British Columbia
must take full cognizance of the fact that all the varied uses of her vast forest areas must be
correlated and developed to the greatest extent possible. It is not sufficient to think of these
forest areas merely in terms of their capacity to produce timber for the wood-using industries,
but the relationship between forest-cover, fish and game, and the tourist industry must be
recognized. Forest-management must consider the sportsman and the tourist as legitimate
users of our forest areas and sources of revenue capable of great expansion. Certain areas
undoubtedly possess greater value for these recreational uses than for the cutting of timber
and must be developed accordingly. Efforts should be made to develop beauty-spots and to
make them available to the tourist. Preservation of the virgin wilderness around some of
our lakes will yield lasting benefits to the Province. In this work the Forest Service is
already accomplishing something through the forest-development camps placed at its disposal
by the Labour Department.
FOREST SURVEYS AND WORKING PLANS.
There are now thirty-nine Provincial Forests in the Province, fifteen on the Coast and
twenty-four in the Interior. The Coast Forests comprise 7,290 square miles and contain
41,800 million board-feet of merchantable timber. The Interior Forests total 16,650 square
miles in area and contain 21,000 million board-feet of standing timber. No new Forests were
created this year.
Seymour Forest.—Maps, estimates, and preliminary management plans were completed
for the proposed Seymour Forest, which was surveyed in 1936. This area is in the Vancouver
Forest District and is located on the Mainland Coast approximately 200 miles north-west of
Vancouver. It is recommended for reserve as a permanent Provincial Forest. The Forest
unavoidably includes large areas of scrub-covered and barren wastes owing to the nature of
the country. The productive areas will not produce as heavy stands of timber as some of
the Forests on the Lower Coast; however, they are accessible to tide-water. The value
of this Forest will increase when it is necessary to depend on such species as cedar and
hemlock to provide the lumber industry with raw materials.
The accessible, stocked areas of the proposed Forest could maintain an annual cut of
16,400,000 F.B.M. of timber of a quality acceptable to existing markets.    This yield could M 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
be increased slightly when it becomes possible to log areas at present considered inaccessible.
The average annual utilization during the past decade has been 37,000,000 F.B.M., indicating
that the Forest is being heavily overcut. The actual output from the Forest, at the time of
the survey, was 25,000,000 F.B.M. per annum. The fire risk is considered negligible, given
reasonable care in logging and slash-burning, and depletion by forest fires is of little
significance.
Natural regeneration is impeded by the rapid growth of salal on the large openings
created by machine-logging. Also this type of logging on the steeper, coarse soils does not
always leave a seed-bed satisfactory for successful regeneration in this locality and climate.
Logging operations have been confined almost entirely to A-Frame shows with annual
outputs varying up to 10,000,000 F.B.M. One motor-truck operation is being opened up at
Claydon Bay with an anticipated annual production of 10,000,000 F.B.M.
The Forest, with a total area of 580,870 acres, was found to contain the following:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature  timber— Acres.        Acres.
Accessible   85,510
Inaccessible      1,460
Immature timber—
1-10 years old	
11-20 years old...
21-40 years old	
41-60 years old...
61-80 years old...
101-120 years old..
Not satisfactorily reforested-
Logged  	
Logged and burned 	
Deciduous forest 	
Unprofitable conifers
3,940
4,080
240
90
40
70
8,710
1,520
390
18,030
86,970
Total sites of productive quality	
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Barren, alpine, or scrub-covered 	
Swamp and water 	
Grass-land 	
Total non-productive sites
Total area of Forest 	
8,460
28,650
124,080
422,350
34,300
140
456,790
580,870
The timber is estimated as follows (over 11 inches, D.B.H.) :—
Species.
Accessible.
Total.
Western red cedar-
Western hemlock—..
Silver fir (balsam).
Sitka spruce	
Yellow cedar (cypress).
Western white pine-.—
M.B.M.
1,067,810
492,930
257,340
82,220
69,130
200
Totals ..
1,!
9,630
M.B.M.
1,076,580
505,210
265,300
83,250
69,170
200
1,999,710
In addition, there are 125,780 M.B.M. on 18,030 acres of unprofitable conifers (decadent
stands of timber of doubtful commercial value).
The accessible Crown timber aggregates 527,360 M.B.M. out of a total of 557,440 M.B.M.
The alienated timber is all accessible and totals 1,442,270 M.B.M., of which 1,425,930 M.B.M.
is held in timber licences and leases. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937.
M 13
E. & N. Railway Land Grant.—The surveys of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Land
Grant on Vancouver Island and of the Lower Arrow Lake Region, which were commenced in
1936, were completed in 1937. Forest and topographic maps, estimates, and preliminary
management reports for these areas are in the course of preparation.
Queen Charlotte Islands.—A survey of the Queen Charlotte Islands was commenced with
a view to establishing the Moresby and Graham Forests. The field-work was completed on
the proposed Moresby Forest and detailed plans and estimates for this area are now being
compiled. This survey was greatly accelerated by stereoscopic plotting from 2,500 vertical
air photographs, 800 of which were available as a result of an aerial photographic survey
undertaken by the Forest Surveys Division, the remainder having been obtained from the
Royal Canadian Air Force. It is proposed to continue with a survey on Graham Island
during 1938.
Skeena River.—A cruise of the cottonwood on the lower Skeena River, between Kwinitsa
and Terrace, was made. Prior to the field-work 200 vertical air photographs were taken
over the area and from these accurate base maps were plotted showing the forest-cover and
physiographic features. As a result it was possible to conduct the field-work with a maximum of efficiency, and at a minimum of cost, in an area which was so badly broken by river-
channels that ordinary field methods would have been impracticable. Detailed maps and a
report, dealing particularly with the total volume of cottonwood on the area and the volume
available for timber-sale purposes, are now being prepared. A cottonwood volume table was
compiled in conjunction with this cruise and special studies were made in connection with the
rate of growth of cottonwood stands. As no cottonwood volume table was previously available, this one is given below:—
VOLUME TABLE   (B.C. LOG RULE).
Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa).
Skeena River.
D.B.H. Class (Inches).
Merch. Height
above Ground
(Feet).
Top Diameteh (Inches).
Volume
O.B.
I.B.
(F.B.M.).
10                                                                	
40
48
54
59
64
69
72
75
78
81
84
86
88
90
90
90
90
7.8
8.7
9.6
10.8
11.7
12.8
14.0
15.4
16.0
17.0
19.5
20.5
21.4
22.3
23.4
24.4
25.6
26.3
27.2
28.1
29.0
30.0
30.7
31.4
32.0
32.5
7.0
7.9
8.8
9.8
10.7
11.6
12.7
13.6
14.5
15.5
16.5
17.5
18.4
19.3
20.2
21.0
22.0
22.7
23.5
24.1
24.6
25.3
25.7
26.0
26.2
26.5
40
120
14 ...	
180
16    	
260
380
20                                                   -            	
520
22   -	
670
24 -	
880
26                                                   -   	
1,020
28                          - -       	
1,210
30                                             -        —	
1,430
32       .                    -	
1,640
34      	
1,870
36                               —	
2,110
38                        .         	
2,350
40                                                                   	
2,600
42                                          	
2,850
44                          .  	
3,120
46                                                            	
3,440
48                                            	
3,770
50                          .              -	
4,000
52                          .             -. 	
4,300
54                             .              	
4 600
56                       	
4,920
5,260
58   ....	
60
5 570
Volumes based on 8.2 feet sections for 106 trees.    Average stump-height, 2.5 feet.
Data over 40-inch class are approximate only.
Volumes quoted are gross.    Average cull factors:   Defect, 15 per cent.;   breakage, 10 per cent.
Total heights omitted, having no relation to merchantable length. M 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
A special Regeneration Study was conducted on the logged areas of one of the large
operations on Vancouver Island. An intensive investigation was made on 20,000 acres of
cut-over land having a logging history dating back to 1921. The purposes of this project
were to ascertain the degree of success with which new forest-growth was establishing itself
on the area and to determine the factors responsible for the condition found. The proportion
of this area which has restocked satisfactorily was found to be much smaller than the average
of logged areas on the Lower Coast. Of the entire logged area only 5 per cent, has restocked
satisfactorily. After excluding all areas logged or burnt over during the last ten years it
was found that only 10 per cent, of the remaining area had restocked satisfactorily. The chief
reasons for failure were the complete removal of the timber over large areas, leaving the
source of seed too far away, and recurrent fires in the slash. The various factors affecting
natural regeneration on the study area, measures which might be undertaken to correct the
unsatisfactory condition, and general conclusions and recommendations are dealt with in a
report on this project.
The first major Aerial Photographic Survey was undertaken by the Forest Surveys
Division this year. Following the successful aerial project carried on in conjunction with
the survey of the E. & N. Land Grant last year, a definite step was taken towards the
organization of an Aerial Surveys Section. A modern camera, the Eagle III. Aircraft,
manufactured in London, and accessories, were purchased. This camera has a 5-inch wide-
angle Ross lens, is electrically operated, records views on a 5- by 5-inch negative, and in
vertical photography covers a gross area of approximately 3.6 square miles on the ground
from 10,000 feet above. During the year 2,700 vertical air photographs were taken and are
now being plotted. Twenty-five hundred of these were taken over the portions of the Queen
Charlotte Islands that had been omitted by the Royal Canadian Air Force operations in 1933.
In addition, 200 photographs, covering an area of 200 square miles, were taken in connection
with the Skeena River cottonwood cruise. The results of the aerial project were highly
satisfactory and definitely demonstrated that the use of aerial photography in forest surveys
in British Columbia can be conducted at a cost within limits that are practicable. A complete report on this project is now being prepared.
FOREST RESOURCES INVENTORY.
The Forest Atlas and estimates of the Vancouver Forest District are being revised and
brought up to date.    Details of this undertaking will be reported next year.
The chief field-work during the year was the location and examination of grazing land
in an area of 1,900 square miles of the Blackwater and Euchiniko river drainages. Grazing
areas suitable for cattle-range and land suitable for raising hay were mapped and reported
upon. These areas were found to be scattered and amounted to only 89 square miles of
useful range and 7 square miles of meadow. No other agricultural land suitable for cultivation was found.
Cards are being prepared for the Electric Accounting Machine to establish a punch-card
tabulating system for recording and sorting all the details of the forest inventory. This
important advance in technique will render any item or combination of items in the inventory
almost immediately available.
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1937.
Forest District.
Applications for
Crown Grants.
Applications for
Grazing and
Hay Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
No.
1
Acres.
20
No.
1
7
54
5
Acres.
1,064
1,522
13,889
729
No.
5
9
10
28
1
Acres.
357
1,116
1,443
3,569
160
No.
42
5
13
41
28
Acres.
3,521
731
1,298
4,360
4,587
No.
76
13
10
27
7
Acres.
1,421
558
2,100
2,038
1,079
Kamloops — 	
Nelson     . 	
1
20
67
17,204
53
6,645
129
14,497
133
7,196 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937.
M 15
Classification of Areas examined in 1937.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimate of
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
4,362
3,377
6,363
22,092
6,555
Acres.
1,230
904
2,842
2,876
1,868
Acres.
3,132
2,473
3,521
19,216
4,687
Acres.
183
18
128
8
127
M.B.M.
1,543
461
1,928
Kamloops	
38
783
Totals  	
42,749
9,720
33,029
464
4,753
FOREST RESEARCH.
The scope of the forest-research work undertaken during the past year has been restricted
to the maintenance of studies already in progress. Two research foresters were added to
the personnel, but the Division still remains understaffed. However, in the near future, a
more adequate personnel is anticipated, and this will permit the initiation of new projects.
Improvements.—The Forest Development Project and the Young Men's Forestry Training Plan had crews located at the three established experiment stations, where extensive
programmes of improvement-work were carried out. At Cowichan Lake the Station road
was improved, a new trail constructed around the shore-line of McKenzie Point, three public
camp-sites established, portions of the lake-shore cleared of debris, the boundaries of the
North Arm sector delineated and opened up, a system of trails established, and the stand
adjacent to the road cleaned of dead and down material for a distance of 100 feet. At Aleza
Lake further work was done on the foundations of buildings, a dam constructed, the Station
road gravelled and ditches opened, and the trail system maintained. At Green Timbers 8
acres of land were cleared for nursery purposes, considerable work done on the fire-guard,
driveways were improved, roads through the plantations improved, a fire lookout tower
erected, and two permanent buildings (an office and workshop) were constructed.
Growth and Yield.—The loss of experienced personnel mentioned in the 1936 report has
particularly handicapped progress in mensuration studies, so that no new plots were established. The year's work consisted of re-examination of twenty-five plots on the Lower Coast
and three in the East Kootenays.
Reforestation.—The adverse weather conditions experienced during the summer of 1935,
together with the unusually heavy frost of October, 1936, served to considerably reduce the
planting stock available for 1937. Consequently, planting was confined to the Green Timbers
plantations, where about 10,000 trees were planted on 10 acres. This brings the total to date
for number of trees and acres planted up to 854,088 and 1,160.5, respectively.
With the addition of the 8 acres cleared and put under cultivation during the past year,
the nursery area is 14.5 acres, this providing sufficient ground for an annual production of
3,000,000 trees. This objective will not be gained until the spring of 1940, but in the spring
of 1938 there will be 222,000 available for planting and in the spring of 1939, approximately
2,000,000.
The 1937 crop of coniferous seed on the Lower Coast was almost a total failure. Douglas
fir was particularly poor, both on Vancouver Island and the Lower Fraser Valley. Hemlock
and red cedar varied with locality, from no crop at all to fair, but in general the crop was
poor. Balsam, on the other hand, had a good crop of cones, but when the seed was extracted
it was found to be of lower than average germinative capacity. In contrast to these conditions were the bumper yields of Douglas fir throughout the interior of the Province, and Sitka
spruce on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Publications.—During the year the following publications were made available for distribution :—
(1.)  A Pocket Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia, by B. G. Griffith.
(Revised Edition.) M 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
(2.)  Volume, Yield, and Stand Tables for some of the Principal Timber Species of
British Columbia.     (A 52-page bulletin containing 41 tables and 8 charts.)
(3.)   The Development of Unevenaged Stands of Engelmann Spruce and Probable
Development of Residual Stands after Logging, by G. H. Barnes.
Co-operation.—The Research Division has supplied specimens and information to numerous schools, both public and high, to various organizations, and to individuals.    A lecturer
gave a six-week course in general forestry to 65 Boy Scouts of Sidney and Victoria who were
desirous of taking the examination for the Forestry Proficiency Badge.    The Division cooperated with the B.C. Pulp and Paper Company in the conduct of experimental thinning
operations on Holberg Inlet, Quatsino Sound.    These experiments promise to divulge some
interesting information which will either establish or break down the thesis that thinnings
in young hemlock stands are justified economically.
FOREST BRANCH LIBRARY.
In 1932 some 988 text and reference books, bulletins and pamphlets, acquired over a
period of years by the various Forest Branch offices, were brought together and indexed to
form a small Forest Branch reference library. At the end of 1937 the total number of items
had grown to 2,673. Acquisitions consist of a limited number of text and reference books
purchased, together with large numbers of bulletins and reports received free of charge, for
the most part, from various laboratories, Forest Services, and Research Stations throughout
the world. In addition to these the Branch subscribes to some nineteen trade journals and
periodicals and an additional thirty-five periodicals of more or less value are received as gifts.
All articles in periodicals considered to be of value to the Forest Service are catalogued.
There are at the present time about 12,000 reference cards in the catalogue and about
10,000 cards of forestry material to be found in the Provincial Library.
This small Forest Branch library, confined entirely to forestry subjects, is invaluable for
daily reference by the staff. It is not a substitute, of course, for the valuable Provincial
Library, the facilities of which are also used by the staff of the Forest Service.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
The reaction of our lumber export trade of 1937 to circumstances over which we had little
control illustrates the uncertainties of a business so dependent upon foreign markets.
At the beginning of the year prospects were very bright, order files were heavy, prices
were on the up-grade, and our logging camps were having difficulty in supplying the demand
for logs. There was only one shadow on the horizon and that was the shortage of cargo-
space. This shadow, however, became a cloud of menacing proportions when by the middle
of the year the increase in freight rates alone to the United Kingdom, for instance, was over
half the F.A.S. value of the lumber. Illustrated in another way, the rate to South Africa
increased 100 per cent, within a year, as compared with a 20-per-cent. increase in the Baltic
rates.
In spite of this handicap of high freight rates, with its disrupting influence on the trade
and the almost complete cessation of orders from the Orient in the latter part of the year
due to the war, 999 million board-feet were shipped overseas, in comparison with 1,043 in the
preceding record year of 1936.
The outstanding contributor to the year's business was again the United Kingdom, where,
in spite of the freight rates placing us at an increasing disadvantage, we sold within 3 per
cent, of the previous year's total. For the first half of the year shipments were far ahead of
those of the same period of 1936, partly due, however, to orders placed in the latter part of
1936, but the last four months of 1937 showed a heavy decrease.
Australia was the brightest spot of all, purchasing 26 per cent, more lumber from us
than during the preceding year.
Trade with South Africa dropped 20 per cent. Economic conditions were good in that
country for the first part of the year, but a bad crash in the stock markets in early summer,
high freight rates, and slow deliveries all reacted to our disadvantage.
Other features of our overseas trade were the official approval of hemlock for butter-
boxes in Australia, the increasing interest in pre-fabricated houses and cedar lumber in the
United Kingdom and in cedar shingles in South Africa;   also a doubling of the preference on FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937. M 17
Canadian lumber into Jamaica through a change from F.O.B. prices to C.I.F. as a basis
of computation.
Following preliminary work in the West Indies field by Major L. R. Andrews, Mr. C. D.
Schultz was sent as Timber Commissioner to the West Indies in June. His reports speak very
favourably of trade possibilities.
British Columbia secured 62 per cent, of the total Pacific North-west offshore trade in
1937, as compared with 68 per cent, in 1936.
Several factors are working to the disadvantage of our trade overseas, according to the
various lumber commissioners. They are drawing to the attention of the lumbermen of this
Province that greater care must be used in the sawing and seasoning of our hemlock, which
they are doing their best to popularize. They are also emphasizing the bad impression made
on our customers by the instability of our prices, part of which is of course due to the
fluctuation of freight rates. The public, through its heavy contribution to the cost of this
trade-extension work, is directly interested in the efforts of the industry to rectify these
undesirable conditions.
It must again be pointed out that the percentage of fir shipped overseas is out of all
proportion to its percentage in our standing timber. Our primary object simply must be to
sell more hemlock and cedar. Our lack of markets for these two species is seriously affecting
the whole economic structure of our lumber industry and the situation will become worse
unless a greater demand is created for these two species. The timber commissioners overseas
fully recognize this, and their efforts to popularize these species and to point out to the
industry how to prepare them for market are to be highly commended. Any expansion in the
pulp and paper industry within the Province will have an important balancing effect in the
use of hemlock. M 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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M 19
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
Estimated Value op Production, including Loading and Freight within the Province.
Product.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1937.
Ten-year
Average,
1928-37.
Lumber  	
Pulp and paper	
Shingles 	
Boxes	
Doors  -	
Piles, poles, and mine-
props 	
Cordwood, fence-posts,
and lagging	
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using
industry	
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported 	
Pulp-wood exported	
Totals 	
$16,738,000
13,508,000
2,721,000
1,315,000
$13,349,000
11,156,000
2,805,000
1,100,000
2,453,000
1,405,000
1,044,000
1,350,000
1,500,000
2,370,000
43,000
772,000
1,576,000
502,000
1,014,000
1,125,000
1,730,000
28,000
$15,457,000
10,852,000
4,500,000
1,313,000
$20,377,000
12,373,000
4,375,000
1,632,000
450,000
1,850,000
250,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
2,228,000
55,000
487,000
1,335,000
485,000
1,320,000
1,100,000
1,931,000
46,000
$24,094,000
12,414,000
8,750,000
1,720,000
1,693,000
810,000
1,453,000
764,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
2,820,000
23,000
$36,160,000
14,950,000
7,800,000
1,629,000
2,718,000
1,434,000
1,489,000
623,000
1,350,000
1,200,000
2,646,000
11,000
$40,638,000
17,214,000
6,875,000
2,122,000
2,971,000
2,346,000
1,459,000
560,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
3,782,000
5,000
$44,447,000
$35,157,000
$39,155,000
$45,461,000
$56,941,000
$72,010,000
$80,872,000
$29,807,200
14,014,200
6,028,700
1,805,600
738,200
2,366,200
1,553,000
947,000
1,572,100
1,442,500
2,770,300
41,800
$63,086,800
Paper (in Tons) .
Product.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
Ten-year
Average,
1928-37.
Newsprint  —	
Other papers	
217,562
17,709
205,050
24,051
237,107
23,492
267,406
26,777
262,123
33,287
276,710
41,443
264,136
53,026
238,142
27,568
In addition to the 301,550 tons of pulp manufactured into paper in the Province, 87,000
tons were shipped out of the Province during the year.
Total Amount op Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1936-37
(in F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1936.
1937.
Gain.
2,544,446,912
160,971,839
2,693,167,199
179,029,678
148,720,287
18,057,839
Totals, Coast - —  	
2,705,418,751
2,872,196,877
166,778,126
53,691,046
123,421,482
138,241,915
66,058,332
147,820,267
155,840,164
12,367,286
24,398,785
Nelson    ..,.  	
17,598,249
Totals, Interior   	
315,354,443
369,718,763
54,364,320
3,020,773,194
3,241,915,640
221,142,446 M 20
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CQ FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937.
M 23
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
638
362
311
686
407
1
45
846
168
165
447
306
1,485
575
476
1,133
713
3,559
1,877
1,038
Kamloops 	
2,709
2,324
Totals, 1937                       	
2,404
46
1,932
4,382
11,507
Totals, 1936	
2,354
35
1,883
4,272
11,138
Totals, 1935   	
2,074
59
1,660
3,793
10,081
Totals, 1934...  	
1,603
87
1,546
3,236
9,486
Totals, 1933                                   	
1,237
67
1,425
2,729
8,121
Totals, 1932  	
1,124
37
1,316
2,477
7,273
Totals, 1931  -	
1,562
92
1,675
3,329
8,969
Totals, 1930  	
1,932
100
1,862
3,894
8,859
Ten-year average, 1928-37	
1,782
67
1,732
3,581
9,453
Trespasses.
3330
S3
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2
M
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03
at
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03
03
fa
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03
a
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[33
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53
10
32
32
29
363
18
80
119
567
7,109,596
141,885
233,298
210,842
544,192
62,880
2,150
17,790
15,870
45,170
928
40
194
93
352
60
824
200
956
92
21,213
1
2
4
$13,672.50
308.57
481.09
4,810
8,994
786.36
2,191.00
Totals, 1937 -	
156
1,147
8,239,813
143,860
1,607
2,132
35,017
7
$17,439.52
Totals, 1936   —-
153
501
2,067,130
75,272
1,632
2,452
13
$5,243.00
Totals, 1935                    	
121
555
3,043,486
50,965
1,283
14,078
3
$6,077.58
Totals, 1934 	
101
720
3,270,608
30,555
1,385
4,825
6
$5,401.05
Totals, 1933--. 	
70
155
1,578,108
41,689
1,413
3,807
2
$2,727.81
Totals, 1932 .,	
95
368
767,896
35,484
2,140
9,265
14
$3,490.84
Totals, 1931  	
84
397
1,579,465
118,704
1,048
12,425
2
$5,633.68
Totals, 1930 	
96
1,000
969,351
165,729
1,457
9,612
4
$7,534.01
Ten-year average, 1928-37 ~
107
608
2,836,721
84,952
1,725
8,110
6
$7,676.20 M 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Pre-emption Inspections, 1937.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert 	
Fort George 	
Kamloops 	
Nelson	
304
180
608
737
199
Total
2,028
Areas cruised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-
timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-bolts
and           Railway-ties
Cordwood           (No.).
(Cords).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
Vancouver	
379
252
201
374
265
70,655
46,954
27,476
71,629
61,672
306,709
99,272
72,433
90,732
64,070
1,072,726
1,465,100
807,211
4,435,934 •
1,877,029
78,918
1,938
11,181
32,972
18,811
4,034
217,555
146,797
306,578
78,444
1,400
9,700
16,000
Kamloops  	
133,350
Totals, 1937 	
1,471
278,386
633,216
9,658,000
140,820
753,408
160,450
Totals, 1936. 	
1,415
252,035
464,402
8,535,045
148,606
1,083,746
63,200
Totals, 1935	
1,319
238,952
398,884
5,674,908
114,753
1,164,454
74,700
Totals, 1934 	
1,331
223,391
356,264
2,856,619
80,101
1,235,766
73,766
Totals, 1933 	
942
169,831
186,418
1,620,112
95,233
549,976
174,861
Totals, 1932	
875
144,769
202,421
1,759,905
68,414
488,655
69,900
Totals, 1931	
818
145,214
297,825
2,629,054
62,680
664,413
142,400
Totals, 1930	
943
197,065
526,261
10,345,822
26,431
731,640
620,100
Ten-year average,
1928-37      	
1,128
206,322
432,020
6,574,666
79,793
1,003,377
201,275
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1937.
Forest District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.).
No. of
Posts.
No. of
Cords.
No. of
Ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
398
257
174
389
231
77,414
45,938
27,991
73,542
54,103
284,112,000
35,398,000
40,828,000
48,495,000
41,965,000
723,292
2,042,800
771,105
5,281,363
1,046,413
28,532
5,751
8,445
25,027
54,388
5,870
259,450
114,866
194,529
69,508
$689,312.04
116,444.14
12,400
Prince George	
Kamloops 	
Nelson 	
113,948.86
229,854.97
121,915.19
188,550
163,000
Totals, 1937...	
1,449
278,988
450,798,000
9,864,973
363,950
122,143
644,223
$1,271,475.20
Totals, 1936     -
1,443
252,624
358,804,000
8,332,542
235,600
122,979
823,181
$1,082,793.87
Totals, 1935	
1,357
231,958
260,831,000
5,408,377
308,825
101,966
1,200,582
$762,427.04
Totals, 1934 	
1,324
219,969
250,629,000
2,721,540
316,910
67,902
894,970
$705,038 99
Totals, 1933	
948
190,794
145,696,000
2,490,244
295,905
76,777
432,513
$450,559.16
Totals, 1932	
836
134,868
181,470,000
1,746,616
161,600
54,154
423,676
$450,528.10
Totals, 1931    ...
842
148,523
217,474,000
2,272,082
173,300
41,032
606,160
$624,596.27
Ten-year average,
1928-37      	
1,107
203,091
328,241,076
5,869,337
350,830
67,887
902,191
$928,927.45 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937.
M 25
Average Sale Price for Species.
Figures for
1937.
Figures for 1936.
Ten-year Average,
1928-37.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
174,804,000
61,853,000
68,518,000
78,607,000
25,963,000
7,644,000
17,313,000
9,350,000
6,746,000
$1.31
1.16
1.16
.70
.70
1.95
1.59
.77
.85
156,240,000
47,561,000
35,963,000
59,818,000
11,557,000
14,231,000
19,598,000
9,083,050
4,753,000
$1.16
1.02
1.21
.65
.69
1.57
1.42
.68
.75
874,274,000
343,176,000
714,342,000
474,890,000
155,971,000
69,109,000
139,401,005
51,184,000
74,007,000
$1.28
1.27
1.39
.76
.79
1.98
1.42
Tamarack  — -	
1.00
.89
Totals   -	
450,798,000
$1.13
358,804,000
$1.12
2,896,354,000
$1.21
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1937.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
223,728,353
51,989,038
31,693,103
43,691,799
33,525,974
674,589
1,396,825
375,295
4,751,088
1,405,785
24,343
974
4,673
11,596
8,395
5,781
211,512
137,418
215,486
154,286
23,940
Prince George 	
28,916
43,348
101,655
Totals, 1937 - — -	
384,628,267
8,603,582
49,981
724,483
197,859
Totals, 1936         	
286,001,433
5,241,658
62,763
813,764
154 630
Totals, 1935 	
193,788,636
3,540,576
38,438
851,342
149,959
Totals, 1934	
199,895,549
1,694,470
36,209
503,266
84,312
Totals, 1933  	
122,275,912
1,337,497
35,841
212,824
164,586
Totals, 1932  	
165,666,929
1,583,955
30,647
258,284
79,885
Totals, 1931 -	
177,172,765
5,697,152
15,499
662,120
255,545
Ten-year average, 1928-37	
222,567,438
5,529,746
33,561
863,709
218,381 M 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
d
fe
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CO  CB     •
d
fe
HBto
d
fe
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179
43
44
94
74
434
7,711
512
684
1,003
1,132
11,042
65
4
4
7
80
8,881
79
64
100
9,124
40
17
19
39
16
131
664
400
172
167
282
1,685
12
2
1
1
16
364
13
5
20
Totals, 193 7.. - .-
402
Totals, 1936   	
410
11,401
86
8,859
122
1,699
10
315
Totals, 1935     .. .-. 	
384
9,822
93
8,492
96
1,962    j      16
1,231
Totals, 1934  	
349
9,152
82
7,311
129
2,999
13
1,228
Totals, 1933. -  	
295
8,715
78
7,325
134
3,632
22
1,652
Totals, 1932	
293
7,641
45
6,813
139
4,621    |      13
1,470
Totals, 1931	
334
10,167
46
7,470
158
4,109    j      19
1,871
Totals, 1930	
301
11,020
43
7,164
141
3,204    |      17
1,695
Ten-year average, 1928-37	
346
10,277
66
7,872
126
2,857    [      15
1,430
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.).
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir                                          	
4,204,570
660,960
58,768
99,262,982
11,320,223
4,214,854
193,158
48,807,396
11,940,174
4,791,300
1,072,348
152,274,948
23,921,357
9,064,922
1,265,506
75,259,705
4,299,275
2,492,985
409,850
215,000
1,270,546
75,259,705
4,299,276
2,492,985
409,850
215,000
	
1,270,546
Totals, 1937
4,924,298
114,991,217
66,611,218
83,947,361
270,474,094
Totals, 1936 	
4,028,567
107,007,342
49,061,362
58,731,564
218,828,835
8,766,098
129,029,692
56,979,194
40,516,782
235,291,766
Totals, 1934              	
10,489,155
89,831,736
43,416,151
28,998,709
172,735,751
Totals, 1933
16,941,207
119,089,573
59,215,094
13,694,960
208,940,834
Totals, 1932                -	
18,572,020
87,223,114
44,380,166
15,589,383
165,764,683
Totals, 1931             -   -
12,886,187
106,331,594
51,909,961
49,048,420
220,176,162
Totals, 1930           	
11,571,481
86,502,990
40,147,841
34,696,715
172,919,027
Ten-year average, 1928-37	
12,175,740
108,010,400
51,971,812
39,250,741
211,408,693 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937.
M 27
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Quantity
Exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Orient.
Vancouver—
4,801,132
184,049
58
1,027
211
4
1
822
1,259,728
129,109
10,931
259,336
89
111,670
80
16
9,897,373
394
28,710
261,865
3,267,108
6,798
5,075
221,637
$480,100
25,700
700
5,100
3,800
40
10
3,300
106,378
68,349
2,567
20,746
534
45,104
640
96
1,187,684
3,285
1,635
123,076
325,470
54,384
40,600
110,818
4,801,132
163,139
58
1,027
211
4
1
822
615,195
20,910
.cords
	
Prince Rupert—
644,533
129,109
10,931
52,521
82
111,670
80
16
100,805
394
28,710
261,865
223,719
5,491
5,075
217,362
Hewn railway-ties.—	
...No.
.....No.
Fort George—
206,815
7
..   No.
cords
Kamloops—
9,796,568
No.
Nelson—-
....lineal ft.
3,043,389
1,307
Mine-props 	
.....cords
No.
4,275
Total value 1937
$2,610,116
$1,655,584
TB^1" 11 ~srr
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Years 1935, 1936, and 1937.
Old Crown grants	
Crown grants, 1887-1906 ...
Crown grants, 1906-1914 ...
Section 53a, " Forest Act "
Stumpage reservations
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act'
Timber berths 	
Indian reserves 	
Timber-sales 	
Hand-loggers  	
Special marks 	
Pulp leases 	
Pulp licences	
Totals 	
Transfers and changes of marks      221
1935.
1936.
1937.
217
267
298
72
85
86
82
102
129
286
285
282
82
73
69
6
5
3
14
17
9
16
13
18
1,348
1,443
1,451
8
11
4
3
5
1
2
1
7
2
1
2,141
2,310
2,352
221
264
339 M 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
Number of Tracings made.
Blue-prints
Month.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
from
Reference
Maps.
17
105
7
25
63
52
75
31
39
21
21
17
41
24
156
130
176
266
206
204
217
200
189
171
190
ISS
February  	
16
21
31
76
81
'   148
13
11
35
17
46
54
53
44
41
50
23
3
9
15
May. 	
12
14
102
113
14
4
July          	
23
36
21
26
34
117
103
88
92
73
104
3
September 	
2
3
3
Totals  	
258                   1,202                      394
436
2,290                      72
1921	
Crown-granted Timber Lands.
Area of Private              Average
Timber Lands                Value
(Acres).                  per Acre.
     845.111                 10.33
1922     	
            887,980
11.99
1923   	
           ...          ..                      883,344
11.62
1924	
     654,668
15.22
1925	
     654,016
40.61
1926	
     688,372
39.77
1927	
     690,438
39.01
1928	
     671,131
38.62
1929	
     644,011
38.41
1930	
     629,156
44.74
1931	
    .      602,086
43.77
1932	
    552,007
43.73
1933         ...-
    567,731
41.18
1934	
     557,481
37.25
1935     	
...                  535,918
37.13
1936   	
     515,924
36.61
1937	
    743,109
23.32
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1937.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1936.
Average
Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value
per Acre
since 1936.
78,547
129,983
90,040
39,742
328
10,713
2,595
83,179
3,330
12,397
22,464
37,345
199,212
1,474
31,760
+    6,742
+ 36,056
+ 31,455
+    8,068
*
— 3,641
— 6,424
+    8,938
— 849
+         46
— 377
*
+ 140,268
+       264
+    6,639
46.14
30.34
40.45
5.49
14.99
7.03
7.92
36.30
6.10
18.55
17.38
13.91
2.16
48.07
28.14
— 14.71
—12.48
— 22.77
— 3.79
*
+ 0.71
+ 2.08
Nanaimo  	
— 10.69
— 0.04
— 0.30
— 0.41
Revelstoke   	
— 0.08
— 5.15
— 10.48
Victoria 	
— 9.24
Totals...	
743,109
+ 227,185
23.32
— 12.74
* No change. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937. M 29
FOREST FINANCE.
For years past the Forest Branch has contented itself under this heading with a few
lines of comment noting collections and expenditures which might better be labelled " Forest
Branch Accounts." Forest Finance covers a wide economic field of outstanding importance
to British Columbia in which direct Provincial revenue and administrative expenditures are
only details of relatively minor importance. The forests constitute our most valuable natural
resource, and their utilization our greatest source of private and public income.
The average annual value of production within the Province in our primary industries
is reported by the Economic Council of British Columbia to be in:— Million Dollars.
Fisheries   17.7
Agriculture     47.0
Mining   48.6
Forests  63.3
There are other values in our Provincial income dollar of course, but practically all
depend in the final analysis on these primary industries. These, the best estimates available,
then, may be taken as fairly accurately apportioning our income, which, it appears, is derived
from:—
Fisheries   $0.10
Agriculture        .27
Mining          .27
Forests       .36
$1.00
" Forest Finance," therefore, is a matter of about 36 per cent, of our annual income,
under existing conditions, with all that it involves in business, employment, and public
revenue, dwarfing direct forest revenue to comparative insignificance. This forest wealth, on
which we depend for 36 per cent, of our currently produced wealth, is renewable and capable
of being maintained. Without carefully planned maintenance it is easily destroyed. As in
the case of any business undertaking, a certain part of income must be ploughed back into
the forest if the forest wealth is to be maintained unimpaired. This maintenance fund in
British Columbia consists of that portion of direct forest revenue expended on forest administration, plus sums spent on protection by private interests which have some bearing on the
general forest picture, all of which are detailed in the following pages.
" Direct Forest Revenue " as reported herein consists of income collected exclusively from
the forest activities by the Forest Service. Taxation on Crown-granted timber lands is shown
as a supplementary item in one table but is not considered to be " Direct " revenue. Since the
organization of the Forest Service in 1912 this revenue has varied between a low of 1.7
million dollars (1915) and a high of 3.6 million (1927) and has averaged $2,716,023. Forest
expenditures (the maintenance fund as we have called it elsewhere) during the same period
have averaged $674,036 per year, or a little less than one-quarter of the income. Surplus
forest income over and above the cost of administration for the twenty-five years 1912-1937
has amounted to more than 53 million dollars.
In addition to the sums discussed above, the Forest Service assesses and collects a scaling
fee per M. on logs scaled west of the Cascades and a forest-protection tax per acre on
alienated timber lands throughout the Province, neither of which is considered to be revenue
in the usual sense, and these sums do not appear in the tabulations of income and expenditure. The scaling fees make up the Scaling Fund, which is administered separately. All
Coast scaling costs are defrayed from this fund, which is self-sustaining. All forest-protection
costs are defrayed from the Forest Protection Fund, likewise administered as a separate
account outside the scope of ordinary revenue and expenditure. Protection-tax collections are
credited directly to this Fund and are not shown as revenue, but the Government contribution
to the Fund shows as a lump sum in the statement of general expenditure. The Protection
Fund has not shown a credit balance since 1934, but, by virtue of strict economy and recent
favourable fire seasons, the deficit has been reduced from a high of $651,962 in 1932 to $147,230
on December 31st, 1937.
Details of income and expenditures are to be found in the following tables and statements:— M 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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GROSS FOREST EXPENDITURE
(includes Forest Reserve Account
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FOREST REVENUE.(Does not
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SNOiniW
2 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937.
M 31
BRITISH COL.UMBIAS
INCOME DOLLAR
Average annual value of Production (192T-1935)
in
Primary Industries including manufacture. M 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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Eh FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937.
M 33
FOREST REVENUE.
Fiscal Year 1936-37.
  $563,846.56
  1,075.00
  40,807.78
  775.00
  58,718.82
  124.24
  18,969.25
  407,909.65
  8,157.05
  1,177.20
Timber royalty and tax ..            1,842,387.52
Timber-licence rentals 	
Timber-licence transfer fees
Timber-licence penalty fees
Hand-loggers' licence fees ....
Timber-lease rentals 	
Penalty fees and interest	
Timber-sale rentals 	
Timber-sale stumpage 	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising 	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund) 	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)
Trespass penalties 	
Scalers' examination fees 	
Exchange 	
Seizure expenses 	
General miscellaneous 	
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees 	
Interest on timber-berth rentals and bonus
Transfer fees on timber berths	
Royalty interest	
Grazing fees and interest 	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands
329.36
126.39
5,341.67
290.00
172.52
2,011.77
2,123.08
27,376.01
552.10
92.32
3,182.97
$2,985,546.26
15,508.58
299,992.41
Total revenue from forest resources   $3,301,047.25
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1937.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Penalty.
Govt. Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stump-
age.
Forest
District.
Ex-
penses.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver 	
$1,534,739.05
140,106.42
58,572.45
129,058.44
108,742.38
$14,173.18
273.14
1,087.46
787.62
1,976.91
$148.76
$42.30
4.02
6.00
12.50
14.25
$199.19
25.66
$26,134.11
347.83
$113,388.79
7,976.74
$223,809.03
90,632.77
53,147.19
128,099.06
56,110.72
$1,912,634.41
239,366.58
Fort George  .
Kamloops.	
40.00
55.45
93.53
112,853.10
268,015.07
166,939.29
2.00
1.50
Totals, 1937	
$1,971,218.74
$18,298.31
$337.74
$79.07
$228.35|$26,481.94
$121,365.53
$551,798.77
$2,689,808.45
Totals, 1936	
$1,910,468.78
$4,205.73
$948.46
$80.87
$337.03[$25,463.31
$139,706.30
$446,185.89
$2,527,396.37
Totals, 1935	
$1,605,321.91
$5,940.50
$213.94
$58.76
$231.87[$21,314.46
$124,425.21
$337,359.58
$2,094,866.23
Totals, 1934	
$1,237,968.70
$7,382.38
$251.70
$106.36
$183.89|$17,436.57
$99,563.66
$324,116.42
$1,687,009.68
Totals, 1933..	
$918,663.03
$2,866.76
$197.93
$112.94
$200.66j$13,570.34
$82,212.92
$219,497.38
$1,237,321.96
Totals, 1932	
$1,046,588.92
$3,983:03
$368.73
$56.66
$225.73|$13,368.44
$71,596.21
$307,371.82
$1,443,559.54
Totals, 1931.._	
$1,140,282.78
$4,950.55
$994.87
$42.20
$1,092.07[$16,444.18
$82,078.03
$425,978.06
$1,672,862.74
Ten-year average,
1928-37	
$1,493,723.55
$7,948.59
$857.42
$100.98
i                  i
$617.50|$19,812.87[$106,915.21
$459,783.79
$2,089,759.95 M 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST EXPENDITURE, FISCAL YEAR 1936-37.
Forest District.
Salaries.
Temporary
Assistance.
Expenses.
Total.
Vancouver   _  	
$53,289.78
21,256.89
19,416.94
35,164.65
29,446.70
68,228.32
$465.48
244.20
$27,022.89
14,076.87
6,341.67
17,454.75
18,457.74
14,687.20
$80,778.15
35,333.76
26,002.81
52,619.40
47,904.44
Victoria    	
712.83
83,628.35
Totals   	
$226,803.28
$1,422.51
$98,041.12
$326,266.91
50,000.00
2,000.00
1,888.43
1,993.08
4,383.45
289.20
4,356.36
300,000.00
62,298.16
Grand total   	
$753,475.59
* Amounts granted by Government to special funds detailed elsewhere.
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1936 (credit)     $15,185.98
Expenditure, fiscal year 1936-37     131,363.54
Charges, fiscal year 1936-37..
Balance, March 31st, 1937 (credit).
$116,177.56
154,923.27
$38,745.71
Balance, April 1st, 1937  (credit)     $38,745.71
Expenditures, 9 months, April-December, 1937     122,930.12
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1937	
Balance, being excess of charges over expenditures
$84,184.41
131,076.73
$46,892.32
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1936.
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1936   (under subsection (2), section 32)	
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1936-37...
Balance (credit), March 31st, 1937.
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1937  (under subsection (2), section 32)	
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32	
Expenditure, 9 months to December 31st, 1937..
Balance (credit), December 31st, 1937	
$9,683.56
62,298.16
$71,981.72
57,880.23
$14,101.49
67,669.16
$81,770.65
41,966.04
$39,804.61 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937.
M 35
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as at December 31st, 1937:—
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1936  $188,262.72
Expenditure  .     416,350.87
Collections, tax..
Collections, miscellaneous-
Government contribution ...
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1937.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1937--.
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1937.
Collections,  tax	
Collections, miscellaneous-
Government contributions ..
Balance (deficit), December 31st, 1937—
$107,242.18
15,434.44
300,000.00
$604,613.59
$114,010.79
12,774.28
225,000.00
422,676.62
$181,936.97
$181,936.97
317,078.67
$499,015.64
351,785.07
$147,230.57
Estimated and Known Costs of Forest Protection to other Agencies, 1937.
Expenditures fob
Forest District.
Tools and
Equipment.
Improvements.
Patrol.
Fire-
fighting.
Total.
Vancouver  	
$64,594.00
828.00
$4,150.00
95.00
$61,304.00
573.00
$18,840.00
102.00
584.00
960.00
3,988.00
$148,888.00
1,598.00
584.00
960.00
14,109.00
2,919.00
21,016.00
Totals	
$79,631.00
$4,245.00
$64,796.00
$24,474.00
$173,046.00
Totals, 1936     	
$46,066.00
$125.00
$64,781.00
$34,651.00
$135,623.00
Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1937.
Districts.
Patrols
and Fire
Prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Improvements.
Total.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Fort George	
Kamloops...	
Nelson —
Victoria	
Totals..
$73,778.56
17,364.41
19,859.84
50,239.65
58,608.48
35,324.79*
$8,475.40
601.14
1,870.08
4,045.07
3,308.16
2,048.41
$12,684.31
431.14
2,911.18
13,393.11
101,073.70
$1,544.98
336.36
520.92
2,758.72
5,172.46
$255,175.73
$20,348.26
$130,493.44
$10,333.44
$96,483.25
18,733.05
25,162.02
70,436.55
168,162.80
37,373.20
$416,350.87
Patrols and fire prevention
Tools and equipment 	
Fire  	
Improvements     	
Total..
$255,175.73
20,348.26
130,493.44
10,333.44
$416,350.87
* This amount includes purchase and upkeep of cars used by Forest Development Projects and a total of $10,637
for rent of same was refunded to F.P.F. M 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST PROTECTION.
The fire season of 1937 proved to be one of the most favourable since the organization
of the Forest Service. Costs and damage are shown, in the tables to follow, to be well below
the averages for the past ten years. The weather cycle, for so many years below normal in
precipitation, has been at or above the average since 1931. Although in most seasons some
part of the Province experiences a bad fire-hazard, in 1937 conditions were favourable in all
districts throughout the season.
The cyclic behaviour of weather has been well proved by past records, even to the growth-
rings on fossilized trees. We may expect, therefore, that sooner or later there will be a
downward swing of the precipitation curve with dry summers and high fire-hazard. In the
meantime it is highly important that staff, improvements, and equipment be built up to a state
of efficiency that can cope with disastrous years such as 1925, 1929, and 1931. No one would
consider for a moment cutting down the staff and equipment of a city fire department because
fires had not occurred for some time. Rather, the extra time and funds made available are
used to train staff, improve and extend equipment, and broaden preventive efforts.
The same principle holds for the forest-protection organization. Forest fires may start
at any time during the fire season, from a variety of causes and, more important still, at any
remote part of the enormous territory of the Province. The inflammable nature of the litter
on the forest floor, the steep rugged slopes, high winds, and lack of roads or trails over
vast areas make the job of forest-fire control one of greatest difficulty and complexity.
It follows logically that highly-trained, alert men are needed as a nucleus of the organization.
The quality of the men entering the Service is assured through the examination system
maintained, but training subsequent to appointment is of necessity neglected. This is due
entirely to lack of staff and great pressure of other duties. It should be corrected at as
early a date as possible.
Savings made because of the favourable season of 1937 will make it possible to further
increase our equipment towards the point of sufficiency and to reduce substantially the deficit
in the Forest Protection Fund.
The Young Men's Forestry Training Plan again proved its value from a forest-protection
standpoint. With about 600 young men in camp and acting as assistants to the Forest
Rangers, a very creditable amount of useful improvement-work was done, while the training
they received has developed a nucleus of highly useful forest-protection men. That their
training is proving of use, both to themselves and the Province, is shown by the numbers
who pass the Assistant Ranger examinations successfully in open competition, and who
secure jobs with the lumbering industry.
During 1937 investigations were made into the systems of radio communication developed
successfully in the National Forests of the United States. As a result, ten portable radio
sets were bought and installed in various lookout stations. Although not quite so useful as
a standard telephone-line, these sets, costing only as much each as a mile of standard line,
proved entirely reliable. This initial success shows the possibility of developing cheaply
detection and reporting facilities to cover many distant sections. It also proves the values
secured from co-operation with other organizations. This has been maintained with the
United States Forest Service for many years along the entire length of the International
Boundary in British Columbia, to the benefit of both. Fires are no respecters of imaginary
lines, and although the territory along the boundary in the Southern Interior has probably
the highest hazard in the Province, it is equally high south of the line. In this section
co-operative arrangements have been made between the local forces for mutual assistance in
detection and control of fires. The Forest Service is greatly appreciative of the help so
generously given by all ranks in the sister organization.
The appointment of an Assistant in Research to specialize in forest-fire problems was
a marked step forward. Our fundamental knowledge of fire behaviour is limited under
variations of season, weather, and fuel conditions; as to the best locations for lookout
stations with regard to fire danger; in the science of fire-weather forecasting, which is so
important in making preparations in advance of possible outbreaks, or in action on going
fires; as to minimum time that should be allowed to get to fires in any location, and in many
other problems in the great complexity of forest-fire control.    Already advances have been FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937.
M 37
made in fire-weather forecasting, fire-danger rating, and lookout-location. These will be
extended and other problems studied as rapidly as possible.
On the Southern Coast, both mainland and Vancouver Island, large-scale logging results
in extensive areas of slash. These, as a rule, represent a serious risk to the adjoining green
timber and reproducing areas.    Frequently private property is also endangered.
Burning of this slash currently each year under controlled conditions is the only known
economical method of reducing the hazard. In order to co-operate with the logging industry
and assist them in disposing of their slash, an experienced officer from the Forest Service
was placed at their disposal for planning and advice. Results were encouraging, more than
27,000 acres of debris having been burned. This, however, approximates only one-half of
the slash area created and our average disposal during the past five years has been about
one-quarter of the logged area, and greater efforts are required if the currently created
hazard is to be disposed of each year.
Less than one-quarter of the fires occurring in 1937 were unpreventable. The balance
were caused by human agencies and therefore need not have occurred. How to reach the
fire-starting public to impress them with the necessity for carefulness is a constant problem
and has been given much study. To this end campaigns of education were carried on through
newspaper and periodical advertising, feature articles, and cartoons; lectures to service
clubs, schools, and lodges; by road-signs, special fire-day signs and leaflets; and by still and
motion pictures. Personal contact with forest-users, both industrial and recreational, was
maintained to encourage care with fire and to see that the laws and regulations with regard
to necessary use of fire were observed. About 200 meetings were held, reaching more than
11,000 people.
Detailed statistics of the fire season are given in the following pages.
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1937.
Forest District.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
2
8
1
6
6
24
22
40
38
67
80
23
42
61
38
93
2
27
100
105
70
3
15
46
67
52
1
13
61
80
321
59
138
312
363
28
73
191
244
327
201
207
1,193
Ten-year average, 1928-37 	
214
205
436
513
181
1,640
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1937.
Forest District.
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22.05
22.55
6.20
20.29
8.97
1.17
4.61
1.68
10.39
2.09
100.00
Ten-year average,
1928-37 	
428
296
155
307
134
17
46
128
106
26
1,640 M 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1937.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
Vancouver  	
$58,065.00
167.00
696.00
75.00
$3,240.00
$31,310.00
$960.00
$93,575.00
167.00
5,925.00
348.00
19,365.00
78.38
0.14
5,002.00
10.00
16,950.00
227.00
263.00
2,415.00
4.96
0.29
16.23
Totals	
$59,003.00
$25,202.00
$31,310.00
$3,865.00
$119,380.00
100.00
Ten-year average, 1928-37...
$65,096.00
$22,103.00
$55,960.00
$12,045.00
$170,204.00    |
1
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
Total.
263
524
173
320
285
336
475
892
638
322
4,228
Campers.	
269
256
217
312
234
230
470
344
358
274
2,964
74
81
65
103
77
156
295
149
267
282
1,549
Railways under construction	
9
9
Smokers	
242
321
289
415
197
197
435
294
387
294
3,071
Brush-burning    (not   railway-
clearing)   	
107
78
127
117
77
108
243
171
167
149
1,344
Road   and   power-   and   tele
phone-line construction.	
14
6
11
10
7
18
44
29
22
13
174
55
29
45
41
32
17
57
39
65
80
460
Incendiarism  	
20
74
72
65
65
127
355
262
139
103
1,282
Miscellaneous (known causes) _
124
152
97
188
90
64
96
68
100
84
1,063
Unknown causes
25
26
15
19
18
13
48
23
36
41
264
Totals    	
1,193
1,547
1,111
1,590
1,082
1,266
2,518
2,271
2,188
1,642
16,408 FOREST BRANCH
REPORT
1937
M 39
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1937.
Total Fires.
Under %
4CRE.
% to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
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Vancouver	
321
26.91
159
49.53
26.95
128
39.87
30.48
34
10.60
18.58
299
13
9
Prince Rupert	
59
4.94
16
27.12
2.71
23
38.98
5.47
20
33.90
10.93
56
3
138
11.57
44
31.88
7 45
59
42 76
14.05
35
25 36
19 13
132
6
Kamloops	
312
26.15
125
40.06
21.19
122
39.10
29.05
65
20.84
35.52
299
13
363
30.43
246
67.77
41.70
88
24.24
20.95
29
7.99
15.84
351
9
3
Totals 	
1,193
100.00
590
100.00
420
100.00
183
100.00
1,137
44
12
100.00
49.45
35.21
15.34
	
95.31
3.69
1.00
1,640
709
566
365
	
1,478
106
55
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1937.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
Lightning  	
Campers  	
263
269
74
242
107
14
55
20
124
25
22.05
22.55
6.20
20.29
8.97
1.17
4.61
1.68
10.39
2.09
$7,545
5,773
151
5,680
4,803
515
281
1,740
1,795
19
26.66
20.40
0.53
20.07
16.97
1.82
0.99
6.15
6.35
0.06
$3,988
16,434
372
3,361
21,966
691
102,759
324
5,804
65
2.66
10.55
0.23
Smokers..  ......   	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing) 	
2.17
14.11
0.44
65.96
0.20
3.93
0.05
Totals                        	
1,193
100.00
$28,302
100.00
$155,764
100.00
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1937.
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Contravention of
Section 114 of
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Contravention of
Section 100 of
" Forest Act."
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Vancouver    .
10
1
4
4
5
1
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1
3
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5
2
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1
2
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5
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—
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Ten-year average,
1928-37.. 	
22
....
—
—
—
12
$351.00
—
—
....
— FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937.
M 41
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1937, Part I.
Merchantable Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Not satisfactorily
restocked.
Forest District.
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Vancouver  —  	
Acres.
168
16
1,200
398
865
M. Ft.
B.M.
1,573
190
8,836
1,184
1,480
M. Ft.
B.M.
379
$
1,426
190
8,619
728
1,312
Acres.
1,169
178
305
227
2,761
$
5,356
230
1,064
563
5,922
Acres.
3,117
6
169
180
396
Acres.
1,421
230
287
23
Acres.
237
6,453
1,745
9,163
926
$
2,190
100
39
47
Nelson   _ 	
2
Totals       — 	
2,647
13,263
565|  12,275
4,640
13,135
3,868
1,961
18,524
2,192
4.82
100.00
4.26j    33.74
8.46
36.10
7.05
3.58
33.78
6.03
Ten-year average, 1928-37	
80,339
312,831
1
45.3271320.059
100,063
301,640
	
Damage caused by Forest Fires, 1937, Part II.
Forest District.
Vancouver.	
Prince Rupert-
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson...	
Totals..
Ten-year average,
1928-37	
Non-commercial Cover.
Acres.
316
1,328
8,950
5,382
487
156
655
4,463
2,136
239
16,463  | 7,649
30.02   j  21.02
Grazing: or
Pasture Land.
Acres.
1,300
299
592
1,747
294
Non-productive Sites.
66
4
4
86
13
Acres.
323
340
1,062
486
297
158
167
381
243
13
4,232 |     171  | 2,508 |   962
7.71   [     0.47  ]     4.58   |  2.64
21,793     1,153
Grand Totals.
Acres.
8,051
8,620
14,253
17,870
6,049
Per
Cent.
14.68
15.72
25.99
32.58
11.03
Quantity.
M. Ft.
B.M.
1,573
190
8,836
1,184
1,480
54,843
100.00
451,558
100.00   I   13,263
312,831
Per
Cent.
11.86
1.43
66.62
8.93
11.16
Damage.
9,351
1,246
14,531
3,755
7,501
Per
Cent.
25.70
3.42
39.93
10.32
20.63
100.00   |  36,3841   100.00
100.00
685,659 M 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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2,179
5,153
4,100
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EH GRAZING.
A late spring in 1937, followed by a well-watered summer season and late fall, resulted
in the cattle going on the early range in poor condition, but later retrieving their loss and
returning to their home ranches in excellent shape. The long spring feeding season depleted
hay supplies, while early snows in some parts made feeding imperative before the usual time.
Unless the winter of 1937-38 proves short and comparatively mild, there are likely to be
heavy losses of stock toward the spring of 1938 and undoubtedly many cattle will be turned
out in poor condition.
Range live stock make most of their growth during the summer season while they are on
Crown range. Their increase in weight, general condition, and ability to reproduce are
dependent upon the nature and quantity of the feed they secure. The more palatable forage
planted found on well-managed range contains more of the necessary nutritional values than
do the less palatable plants on overgrazed range. Many of the commoner diseases of range
live stock are due to poor nourishment and lack of mineral elements found in the better
forage. It follows naturally that good range-management, which will result in ample growth
of the best forage plants, is essential to the welfare of the stock industry. As fast as the
necessary knowledge of range conditions is accumulated through reconnaissance, range-
management can be started.
Since most cattle-ranges are used in common by many stockmen, encouragement is given
to the formation of stock associations under the " Grazing Act." A considerable measure of
self-government on the range is given to the associations and, through their co-operation with
the field officers of the Forest Branch, many ranges are being used under management plans.
Our programme of range reconnaissance was continued during 1937. A total area of
approximately 200,000 acres was covered, mainly on the Big Creek Range in the Chilcotin.
This work shows that there is still plenty of summer range for the cattle of that country,
but spring and fall range are scarce. When completed the report will show how much range
of each kind is available, where it is situated, and how heavily it has been used. With that
basis any indicated improvements in management can be instituted.
There are still large areas of Crown range that have not been covered by reconnaissance.
Until 1937 only one field officer was provided to supervise the grazing administration in the
Kamloops District, where the bulk of the range country is situated. Two temporary assistants for reconnaissance were engaged in the spring of 1937, one being retained to complete
reports in the winter and the other returning to university for further training. A further
large area should be covered in 1938 with the assistance of these men.
In the Kamloops District alone there are over 600 individual permittees on the Crown
range each year with ever-changing problems. Although the Forest Rangers include grazing
administration among their other duties, there remain a great many problems that require
more time than the Ranger can spare, and frequently specialized knowledge or greater
authority is necessary. It will be necessary to employ at least the same number of staff as
in 1937 if we are even to maintain the ranges in their present condition, let alone increase
our knowledge and improve them through management.
Various game clubs are giving attention to the effect of grazing on wild life, especially
the grazing of sheep on the high mountain areas. Lack of staff has prevented proper investigation of the cases presented, but close co-operation is maintained with the Game Commission,
whereby special areas are protected until a thorough examination can be made. With the
increasing use of forest areas for recreational purposes and greater demands from the
expanding live-stock industry for range, it becomes more imperative that full knowledge of
conditions be obtained and acted upon in the best interests of the Province as a whole.
An important problem that has not yet been solved is that of beetle-killed pine. Vast
areas of summer range are being littered by the constant falling of this dead timber. To let
it lie leaves the range useless, while to set it on fire may entail unknown loss and damage.
The result of burning on the range itself is usually disastrous. Where considerable areas
of useful range are isolated by areas of down timber they are made available by trails, but
this does not solve the problem of the actual areas covered by deadfall. M 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Market Conditions.
After several years of low prices for stock during which only the most efficiently-run
ranches could break even or make money, the market for 1937 improved very materially.
Along with better prices went better-conditioned stock and resulted in most ranchers operating at a profit. Prices for grain-fed steers ranged up to $8.50 per 100 lb. for car-load lots
in May and June, dropping off to $6.75 in July. These prices were partly due to the United
States market made available by quota. This quota closed in August, resulting in a drop
in price of from 50 cents to $1 per hundred. Fall-grass cattle brought up to $7 per hundred,
but probably averaged no better than $6 for tops.
The results of sales continue to emphasize the value of better feeding in the yard and
of improved range conditions, which can only be obtained through proper management.
Prices for lambs and wool were also better in 1937, the former averaging % cent per
pound above 1936 and wool being about 5 cents higher. The sales of wool by the Canadian
Co-operative Wool Growers, Limited, from British Columbia were 450,000 lb. in 1937, the
increased price representing $22,500 in the pockets of the growers.
Live Stock on Crown Ranges.
The number of live stock permitted on Crown ranges during the past five years was as
follows:— Cattle and Horses. Sheep.
1933  58,770 34,329
1934  69,960 36,569
1935  60,864 36,902
1936  77,137 46,084
1937  77,451 42,185
Range Improvements.
Our programme of improving the Crown range by building drift-fences, cutting trails,
fencing dangerous mud-holes, developing water, and disposing of wild and useless horses
was continued, the total expenditure being $5,649.36. With the co-operation of the ranchers
as individuals and associations, work was completed on 41 miles of stock-trails, 23 miles of
drift-fencing, 1 breeding-pasture, 5 holding-grounds, 9 mud-holes, 3 water developments, 1
cattle-guard, and 3 experimental plots. One hundred and thirty-eight wild horses were
removed from the range. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1937. M 45
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1938.
Victoria Office.
E. C. Manning Chief Forester.
C. D. Orchard Assistant Chief Forester.
G. P. Melrose Forester—Protection—Grazing.
E. E. Gregg Assistant Forester—Protection.
E. B. Prowd Forester—Management.
S. E. Marling Assistant Forester—Management.
F. D. Mulholland Forester—Surveys.
H. J. Hodgins Assistant Forester—Surveys.
F. S. McKinnon Assistant Forester—Research.
N. F. Pite Chief Accountant.
S. W. Barclay Royalty Inspector.
Districts.
C. J. Haddon District Forester, Vancouver.
C. C. Ternan Assistant District Forester, Vancouver.
M. Gormley Assistant Forester, Vancouver.
D. B. Taylor Assistant Forester, Vancouver.
J. G. MacDonald Fire Inspector, Vancouver.
A. H. Waddington Fire Inspector, Vancouver.
R. C. St. Clair District Forester, Prince Rupert.
L. S. Hope Assistant District Forester, Prince Rupert.
J. E. Mathieson Fire Inspector, Prince Rupert.
R. D. Greggor District Forester, Prince George.
R. G. McKee Assistant District Forester, Prince George.
A. E. Parlow District Forester, Kamloops.
T. A. Clarke Assistant District Forester, Kamloops.
L. F. Swannell Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
C. W. Walker Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
J. A. Pedley Fire Inspector, Kamloops.
R. E. Allen District Forester, Nelson.
K. C. McCannel Assistant District Forester, Nelson.
W. Holmgren Fire Inspector, Nelson.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Cuaki.es F. Banfikld, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1938.
1,325-438-3464   

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