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SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1936-1937 BY THE… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1938

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 SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF   THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1936-1937
BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY  OF THE  LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937.  To His Honour Eric Werge Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg respectfully to present the Sixty-sixth Annual Report of the Public Schools of the
Province.
G. M. WEIR,
Minister of Education.
December, 1937.  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
1936-37.
Minister of Education :
The Honourable GEORGE M. WEIR.
Deputy Minister and Superintendent of Education:
S. J. Willis, B.A., LL.D.
Assistant Superintendent of Education:
D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Ph.D.
Inspectors of High Schools:
J. B. DeLong, B.A., Vancouver. A. Sullivan, B.A., Victoria.
Inspectors of Elementary and Superior Schools:
J. E. Brown, M.A., Cranbrook. A. S. Matheson, B.A., Kelowna.
P. G. Calvert, Vancouver. A. F. Matthews, M.A., Kamloops.
T. G. Carter, Penticton. A. E. Miller, Revelstoke.
E. G. Daniels, B.A., New Westminster. H. McArthur, B.A., Kamloops.
H. C. Fraser, M.A., Victoria. H. H. Mackenzie, B.A., Vancouver.
*W. G. Gamble, B.A., Prince George. *W. A. Plenderleith, M.A., Ps.D., D.Paed.,
G. H. Gower, M.A., Courtenay. Abbotsford.
*T. W. Hall, Prince Rupert. *A. S. Towell, M.A., Pouce Coupe.
F. A. Jewett, B.A., Nelson. *K. B. Woodward, B.A., B.Paed., Smithers.
V. Z. Manning, B.A., Vancouver.
* These men also inspect the High Schools in their districts.
Municipal Inspectors of Schools:
George H. Deane, Victoria. W. Gray, M.A., North Vancouver.
R. S. Shields, B.A., New Westminster. C. G. Brown, B.A., Burnaby.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Officer in Charge of Technical Education:
John Kyle, A.R.C.A.
Director of Home Economics:
Miss J. L. McLenaghen, B.Sc.
Officer in Charge of High Correspondence School:
J. W. Gibson, M.A., B.Paed.
Officer in Charge of Elementary Correspondence School:
Miss Isabel M. L. Bescoby, M.A.
OrgoMizer of School and Community Drama:
L. Bullock-Webster.
Registrar: J. L. Watson, B.A. Officer in Charge of Text-book Branch:  P. G. Barr.
Chief Clerk: R. D. Smith.
NORMAL SCHOOL STAFFS.
Vancouver: Victoria:
A. R. Lord, B.A., Principal. V. L. Denton, B.A., Principal.
A. Anstey, B.A. B. S. Freeman, B.A.
W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A. ,                           H. L. Campbell, B.A.
H. B. MacLean. John Gough, M.A.
A. E. C Martin, B.Sc. Miss H. R. Anderson, M.A., Ph.D.
J. M. Ewing, B.A., D.Paed. F. T. C Wickett, A.R.CO.
T. R. Hall, B.A. Mrs. N. E. Murphy, B.Sc.
Miss L. G. Bollert, B.A. Miss Barbara Hinton.
Miss E. M. Coney. Model School:
Miss Isabel Coursier. Miss Kate Scanlan.
Miss Margaret Maynard, B.A. Miss Marion James.
School for the Deaf and the Blind:
C E. MacDonald, LL.B., B.S. in Ed., Principal. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Superintendent of Education      7
Report on Normal Schools—
Vancouver     34
Victoria     35
Report of the Director of the Summer School of Education     36
Report of the Officer in Charge of Technical Education    42
Report of the Director of Home Economics    49
Report of the Superintendent of Schools, Vancouver     51
Reports of Municipal Inspectors—■
Victoria     58
New Westminster     59
North Vancouver (City and District) and West Vancouver     61
Burnaby     64
Report of the Principal, School for the Deaf and the Blind     67
Reports of Officers in Charge of Correspondence Schools—
High School and Vocational Courses     69
Elementary School Courses    70
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Text-book Branch .     72
Report on Work of Adult Education     75
Report of Director of Recreational and Physical Education     79
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust     83
Report of Commission on " Education of Soldiers' Dependent Children Act "     85
Report of Organizer of School and Community Drama     86
Statistical Keturns—
High Schools (Cities)     90
High Schools (District Municipalities)  103
High Schools (Rural Districts)  107
Superior Schools (Cities) .,  112
Superior Schools (District Municipalities)  112
Superior Schools (Rural Districts)  112
Junior High Schools (Cities) .  118
Junior High Schools (District Municipalities)   123
Junior High Schools (Rural Districts)  124
Elementary Schools (Cities)  126
Elementary Schools (District Municipalities)  158
Elementary Schools (Rural Districts)  177
Elementary Schools (Community Districts)  196
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each City  197
Summary of Enrolment in the Schools of each District Municipality  200
Enrolment (Recapitulation)  203
Names of Schools, Number of Teachers, etc., in each of the Electoral Districts  204 REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF
EDUCATION, 1936-37.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., December, 1937.
To the Honourable George M. Weir,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Sixty-sixth Annual Report of the Public Schools of
British Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1937.
ENROLMENT.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from 116,722 to
118,431 and the average daily attendance increased from 101,873 to 104,044. The percentage
of regular attendance was 87.85.
The number of pupils enrolled in the various classes of schools is shown hereunder:—
Schools.
Cities.
District
Municipalities.
Rural
Districts.
Community
Districts.
High schools	
Superior schools	
Junior high schools..
Elementary schools-
Totals, 1936-37..
Totals, 1935-36..
16,529
80
6,907
45,593*
4,157
406
620
19,982t
1,652
2,808
438
18,755
504
22,338
3,294
7,965
84,834
69,109
25,165
23,653
118,431
68,721
24,089
23,912
116,722
* These figures include an enrolment of 92 pupils in the Provincial Government School for the Deaf and the Blind.
t These figures include an enrolment of 80 pupils in the Provincial Model School.
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the
High Correspondence School classes, regular students	
Elementary Correspondence School classes, regular students.
Night-schools 	
Adult education—
Technical classes	
Students.
1,694
993
7,901
Classes in Mining for Prospectors	
High Correspondence School, Vocational Courses..
Elementary Correspondence School	
Community Self-help Groups..
Recreational and Physical Education Classes.
2,259
893
374
147
1,343
11,860
Normal School, Vancouver..
Normal School, Victoria	
Victoria College	
University of British Columbia-
Total
16,876
152
63
171
2,049
29,899 I 8
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS BY GRADES AND SEX.
Grade.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
Grade I 	
6,877
5,752
5,873
5,537
5.956
6,178
6,187
5,714
4,980
3,334
2,130
1,543
219
5,947
5,284
5,651
5,076
5,706
5,855
6,045
5,745
4,828
3,700
2,346
1,738
230
12,824
11,036
11,524
10,613
11,662
12,033
12,232
11,459
9,808
7,034
4,476
3,281
449
Grade II            	
Grade III     - 	
Grade IV  	
Grade V  	
Grade VI 	
Grade VII  .              	
Grade VIII                                	
Grade IX..	
Grade X                                  	
Grade XI                     ....    _                               	
Grade XII  _	
Totals    -      .               	
60,280
58,151
118,431
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS AND PUPILS ACCORDING TO THE DIFFERENT
CLASSES OF SCHOOLS AND DISTRICTS.
The number of teachers employed in the different classes of schools, the number of pupils
and the percentage of the pupils enrolled in each class of school, and also the average number
of pupils per teacher are shown below:—
Schools.
CJ
m
,   ®
Zn
CJ   u
P. o
IH   C3
o u
z£
o
cn
'5
Ph.O
»,»
°-3
6 ■»
Z  QJ
V        4J
is     c
m
aJ^. fi
a. oH
ax
d" qj
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»>:«
> fi u
J-| .*
&, QJ  t.
fSj
"fiS
fl c ffl
<<!0
464
128
78
3
11
111
186
17
15
1,202
559
915
18
102
21
9
51
1
111
21
2
566
149
87
3
11
111
237
18
15
1,313
580
917
18
16,529
4,157
1,652
80
406
2,808
6.907
620
438
45,593
19,982
18,755
504
13.96
3.51
1.40
0.07
0.34
2.36
5.84
0.52
0.37
38.51
16.85
15.84
0.43
36
32
21
27
37
25
37
36
29
38
36
21
28
30
High schools (district municipalities) _.. _  '
26
18
24
32
22
32
31
26
36
30
17
21
Totals.-                     -	
3,707
318
4,025
118,431
100.00
32
28
* These figures include 19 teachers employed by the Provincial Government and 92 pupils enrolled in the Provincial Government School for the Deaf and the Blind. •
t These figures include 2 teachers employed by the Provincial Government and 80 pupils enrolled in the Provincial Model School. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
I 9
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES.
The following table shows the number of teachers of each sex employed and also the
number of certificates of each class:—
Schools.
1
<
co
U
E
fi
O
y
OJ
X
>>
M
CQ
O
Pi
a
QJ
.2
'5
QJ
a
in
QJ
to
fi
X
o
X
H
"a!
1
ft
i
o
457
125
77
1
16
119
9
7
143
26
32
i
6
3
7
69
58
6
5
649
298
535
5
3
25
2
1
409
230
338
13
l
28
10
8
2
105
23
4
56
3
1
66
16
2
2
2
1
18
2
358
87
65
1
4
47
120
9
7
325
159
314
208
62
22
2
7
64
117
9
8
988
421
603
18
566
High schools (district municipalities) 	
149
87
3
Superior schools (district municipalities) 	
11
111
237
Junior high schools (district municipalities)
18
15
1,313
Elementary schools (district municipalities) f_.
580
917
18
Totals, 1936-37  , ■, 	
1,012
1,642
1,021
47
2
276
25
1,496
2,529
4,025
Totals, 1935-36 -  	
955
1,607
1,082
49
4
239
20
1,403
2,553
3,956
* These figures include 19 teachers employed in the Provincial School for the Deaf and the Blind.
t These figures include 2 teachers employed in the Provincial Model School.
CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHERS BY SEX AND EXPERIENCE.
The following table gives a classification by sex and experience of the teachers in each
class of school in the Province for the school-year 1935-36. (The table was prepared by the
Dominion Bureau of Statistics.)
Cities.
Hioh Schools.
Junior High
Schools.
Superior
Schools.
Elementary
Schools.
Total Experience at end of year-
Less than 1 year	
1 yr. and under 2 yrs...
2 yrs.
3 „
4 „
5 „
6 „
7 „
10   „
15   „
20   „
25   „
30   „
35 and over...
Unspecified .
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30
35
4
3
10
10
11
11
11
18
27
66
48
38
19
21
19
26
7
9
6
5
11
8
7
11
17
36
27
21
14
7
15
11
12
16
15
22
19
18
29
44
102
75
59
33
28
19
41
4
3
4
3
6
4
24
13
10
6
5
18
6
5
7
7
9
15
12
51
27
14
9
5
1
3
9
28
19
17
13
33
27
42
57
47
254
170
103
84
55
28
24
10
40
36
26
27
40
36
47
75
63
334
203
126
108
78
40
38
342 I 201 I 543 I 95 I 98 I 193
3 I 317 11,010 11,327 I 10
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHERS BY SEX AND EXPERIENCE—Continued.
Cities—Continued.
High Schools.
Junior High
Schools.
Superior
Schools.
Elementary
Schools.
'rt
a
£
'rt
S
QJ
ft
cd
o
QJ
'tf
a
o5
'cd
S
QJ
o
oj
£
"ccl
S
QJ
'rt
,£5
O
En
£
QJ
S
QJ
O
Experience where teaching—
Less than 1 year....  	
1 yr. and under 2 yrs...	
9 vra                              8
19
18
9
17
22
9
12
19
31
77
38
20
11
4
26
3
14
20
7
7
15
15
19
8
13
35
16
9
5
15
3
33
38
16
24
37
24
41
27
44
112
54
29
16
4
41
5
11
2
2
2
11
9
7
9
25
10
2
1
10
11
3
3
2
10
6
5
11
14
13
4
1
1
3
1
15
22
5
5
4
21
15
12
20
39
23
6
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
8
30
16
17
13
10
20
32
20
16
53
21
27
14
6
14
19
75
42
29
23
36
69
70
63
53
220
146
76
51
10
4
24
27
105
68
3   „
4   „   .     	
46
4 „
5 „
6   „
36
46
6   „
7   „  	
89
7   „
8   „	
102
8   „
9   „ 	
83
9   „
10   „   	
69
10   „
15   „  	
273
15   „
20   „                	
167
20   „
25   „	
103
25   „
30   „     	
65
30   „
35   „  	
16
35 and over
Unspecifiec
4
38
	
Totals. 	
342
201  | 543
95   |     98
193
1
2
3  | 317  |1,010
1,327
Elsewhere in
Less than
1 yr. and i
Province—
1 year        ..  	
6
32
44
19
25
17
14
12
6
2
16
8
6
28
22
13
12
11
10
4
2
1
16
1
12
60
66
32
37
28
24
16
8
3
32
9
5
14
11
9
4
3
2
1
3
2
1
1
6
13
7
9
6
4
2
2
3
2
2
2
1
11
27
18
18
10
7
4
3
6
2
4
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
14
44
22
31
24
15
8
4
2
4
19
3
3
3
49
148
104
66
59
44
41
31
23
9
39
10
2
2
1
63
192
3   „          	
126
3 „
4 „
5   „	
97
83
5 „
6 „
59
49
7   „
8   „    	
85
8   „
9   „  	
25
9   „
10   „     	
13
10   „
15   „
15   „              ..   	
20   „	
58
13
20   „
25   „          ...
5
25   „
30   „	
5
30   „
35   „  	
1
35 and ovei
Tota
Elsewhere th
Less than
1 yr. and l
2 yrs.
la
201
126  |  327
56
59 | 115
1  |      1  |      2  |  196  |   628
824
m in Province—
1 year 	
mder 2 yrs.
3   „ .     .           _   .	
2
7
14
8
9
13
8
3
6
6
18
7
3
4
5
"
5
4
4
1
8
3
4
6
2
	
6
12
18
13
13
17
9
11
9
10
24
9
3
1
4
1
3
1
1
5
4
1
2
1
1
1
1
5
1
9
5
4
3
1
1
1
2
5
	
4
9
13
7
11
7
5
5
4
1
5
5
16
57
30
26
18
13
12
13
10
8
35
7
20
66
43
3   „
4   „    . .	
33
4   „
5   „ —	
29
5   „
6   „ 	
20
6   „
7   „   —	
17
7   „
8   „ -
18
8   „
9   „          	
.....
14
9   „
10   „     	
9
10   „
15   „
20   „  	
40
12
20   „
25   „   	
2  |        3
1  1        1
--  1    -
--  1   	
6
25   „
30   „  	
2
30   „
35   „   _ ...
35 and ovei
Tota
Is	
104
50  | 154
1
11 |    21 |    32
!          1
   1 -- 1  -
1           1
79  |   249
1
328 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
I 11
CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHERS BY SEX AND EXPERIENCE—Continued.
District Municipalities.
High Schools.
Junior High
Schools.
Superior
Schools.
Elementary
Schools.
Total Experience at end of year-
Less than 1 year 	
1 yr. and under 2 yrs..
2 yrs. „         3
3 „ „         4
4 „ 5
5 „ 6
6 „ 7
7 „ 8
9   „
10 „
15 „
20 „
25 „
30   „
35 and over	
Unspecified-
Totals..
10
15
20
25
30
35
Experience where teaching-
Less than 1 year 	
1 yr. and under 2 yrs	
2 yrs.
3 „
4 „
5 „
6 „
7 „
8 „
9 „
10 „
15 „
20 „
25 „
30 „
35 and over..
10
15
20
25
30
35
35 and over	
Totals..
Totals
isewhere in P
rovince—
1 yr. and un
der 2 yrs	
3   ..     _      	
3   „
4 ,
5 ,
6 ,
7 ,
8 ,
9 ,
10   ,
15   ,
20   ,
25   ,
30   ,
35   ,
4   „
5   „
6   „
7   „
8   „
9   „
10   „
15   „
20   „
25   „
30   „
1
1
	
1
1
1
1
1
	
34
11
10
9
5
3
16
72 j 63 | 135 |  9
15
63 I 135
5
1
5
1
1
9
20
. 10
10
6
48
31
4
18
13
11
4
23
10
6
7 | 150
24
22
17
18
20
28
31
25
29
94
32
29
20
7
1
IS
16
46
44
17
22
25
30
33
21
23
85
27
16
3
1
79 |
I
7
15
19
8
10
6
17
35
36
32
16
14
12
13
18
3
13
3
1
9
31
30
27
23
31
29
S3
34
37
128
43
39
29
12
4
34
573
20
64
57
28
26
33
38
45
30
31
108
37
22
3
1
573
24
50
55
40
26
20
15
27
21
6
21
6
1
12
6 | 99  213 | 312 I 12
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHERS BY SEX AND EXPERIENCE—Continued.
District Municipalities—Continued.
High Schools.
Junior High
Schools.
Superior
Schools.
Elementary
Schools.
qj"
a
QJ
'ti
s
QJ
fa
*ti
o
E-<
£
'ti
a
S
«
fa
13
■4-1
o
*e3
a
a
QJ
fa
'ti
O
£
'ti
S
£
'ti
£
OJ
fa
3
o
Elsewhere than in Province—
Less than 1 year  	
1 yr. and under 2 yrs 	
2 yrs.        „         3   „            	
2
4
3
4
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
3
7
4
3
5
2
2
1
1
i
2
1
2
2
—
	
	
2
4
3
4
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
4
1
1
18
5
2
2
4
6
2
3
3
5
1
3
22
8
3   „                      4   „  	
6
4   „           „         5   „	
3
5   „                      6   „ 	
5
6   „           „         7   „            	
9
7   „                      8   „ _	
3
8   „           „         9   „	
9   „           „       10   „	
1
10   „           „       15   „	
6
15   „           „       20   	
20   „           „       25   „ 	
25   „           ,,       30   „	
2
30   „           „       35   „             	
Totals  	
18
10   1     28
1   1       3
4
—
29
52
Rural Districts.
High Schools.
Junior High
Schools.
Superior
Schools.
Elementary
Schools of more
than One Room.
One-room
Schools.
Total Experience at end of
year—
Less than 1 year.....
1 yr. and under 2 yrs.
2 yrs.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30
35 and over....
Unspecified ..
Totals
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30
35
Experience where teaching—
Less than 1 year..	
1 yr. and under 2 yrs..
2 yrs.        „ 3   „ ..
3 „ „ 4   „ _.
4 „ 5   „ ..
6
1
1
1
1
10
4
16
3
	
11
8
   |
1
2
'     | ......  |
1           1
3
20
20
15
10
14
13
21
18
17
51
10
4
2
2
2
72   I  131
20
13
5
6
[
5
5
10
1    U
18
50
|    26
20
32
I    10
8
17
1    n
8
16
24
29
25
19
20
15
31
21
27
71
11
228  | 324
11
78
51
16
5
35
138
103
58
22
21
123
93
68
49
46
45
37
■ 26
12
45
24
2
30
198 I 429 | 627
46
216
154
74
27 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
I 13
CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHERS BY SEX AND EXPERIENCE—Continued.
Rural Districts—Continued.
High Schools.
Junior High
Schools.
Superior
Schools.
Elementary
Schools op more
than One Room.
One-room
Schools.
Experience where teach
ing—Continued.
5 yrs. and under 6 yrs...
6 „ „ 7   „ .
7 „ „ 8   „ .
8 „ „ 9   „ .
9 ., „ 10 „ -
10 „ „ 15 „ .
15 „ „ 20 „ .
20 „ „ 25 „ .
25 „ „ 30 „ .
30 „    „  35 „ .
35 and over ....
Unspecified	
Totals  --
Elsewhere in Province—
Less than 1 year	
1 yr. and under 2 yrs..
2 yrs.        „ 3   „ ..
10 „
15 „
20 „
25 „
30 „
35 and over..
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30
35
Totals.
Elsewhere than in Province—
Less than 1 year '.	
1 yr. and under 2 yrs..
2 yrs.
10 „
15 „
20 „
25 „
30 „
35 and over
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30
35
Totals .
10
16
24
15
13
8
18
2
1
22 | 71 |  3
72 | 131 |  96 | 228
10 | ...... |
39
1
3
5
13
3
8
9
29
4
10
9
26
8
16
9
14
10
13
5
11
7
10
5
16
2
5
2
15
1
2
7
4
3
3
4
9
2
3
4
4
4
9
4
10
2
2
3
	
1
45
84
65
155
14 | 26 | 40
7
17
20
13
7
6
5
2
4
2
4
3
2
92
14
12
40
31
33
31
22
13
8
7
3
12
5
1
10
9
4
6
6
5
1
2
4
1
25
24
14
7
2
30
198 1 429 | 627
30
19
57
61
46
38
28
18
10
11
5
16
6
16
10
6
8
5
9
2
1
4
11
1 I 14
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
NEW SCHOOLS.
High schools were established in Athalmer-Invermere, Blakeburn, Hedley, Michel-Natal,
Quesnel, and Wells Rural School Districts; junior high schools at Dawson Creek, Duncan,
Fernie, Kaslo, Port Moody, and Saanich North Consolidated; and superior schools at Bowen
Island, Fruitvale, Gabriola United, Wellington, and Kennedy (Delta Municipality).
Elementary schools were opened for the first time in eight districts. The names of the
districts follow:—
Name of School District. Electoral District.
Cape Mudge Comox.
Francois Lake, West Omineca.
Lansdowne Cariboo.
144-Mile House Cariboo.
Richlands North Okanagan.
Rounds Cowichan-Newcastle.
The establishment of elementary schools was also authorized at Gravel Ferry, in Cariboo
Electoral District, and at Vidette Mine, in Kamloops Electoral District.
COMPARISON OF ENROLMENT AND EXPENDITURE FOR PUBLIC EDUCATION.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province for various years since 1877-78 and also the
cost of maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—
School-year.
cnT3
Jh  OJ
_  3J  >.
III
2,H oj
"o
o
X
iri ^
o u
. HJ
o.S
Za
cd QJ
to a
IH o
to j-,
fcc c
oj
o
a
?.    rt
to     T3
rt ^ C
*- — qj
>'SS
Oj        OJ
* a
+J       cfl
a   -v
OJ       c
«        OJ
J-l     *J
CJ^*J
Ph 0<!
Government
Expenditure
for
Education.
Total
Expenditure
for Public
Schools.
1877-78
56
69
128
267
429
607
816
1,597
1,859
2,246
3,118
3,668
3,784
3,854
3,948
3,959
3,912
3,873
3,942
3,956
4,025
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
374
575
744
788
792
803
811
830
821
827
762
773
763
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
62,263
67,516
94,888
108,179
109,588
111,017
113,914
115,919
116,816
115,792
117,233
116,722
118,431
1,395
1,383
3,093
7,111
11,055
16,357
23,195
43,274
49,377
54,746
77,752
91,760
94,410
96,196
99,375
103,510
104,978
103,389
101,893
101,873
104,044
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
79.30
81.09
81.94
84.82
86.17
86.65
87.23
89.29
89.86
89.30
86.91
87.27
87.85
$48,411.14*
60,758.75*
113,679.36*
174,775.43
290,255.26
473,802.29
544,671.60
1,663,003.34
1,885,654.11
1,653,796.60
3,176,686.28$
3,532,518.951
3,765,920.69$
3,743,317.08$
3,834,727.19$
4,015,074.373;
2,849,972.021
2,611,937.80$
2,835,04 0:74$
2,972,385.04t
3,277,660.23$
1882-83
1887-88.               	
1892-93.. 	
1897-98      	
$215,056.22t
425,555.10
1902-03-    	
1907-08 '   	
604,357.86
1,220,509.85
1912-13          	
1913-14	
1917-18...   ...    	
1922-23- '	
1927-28. 	
1928-29	
4,658,894.97
4,634,877.56
3,519,014.61
7,630,009.54$
9,261,094.98$
11,149,990.27$
1929-30             	
10,008,255.66$
1930-31.   -- -
10,061,387.99$
1931-32-   -      	
9,719,333.81$
1932-33              - 	
8,941,497.34$
1933-34 - -    -	
8,213,369.04$
1934-35  -	
1935-36- —	
1936-37                          	
8,458,156.00$
8,775,353.78$
9,593,562.64$
* The total expenditure for public schools was borne by the Government.
t This amount does not include the expenditure   (not available)   made for incidental expenses  in  city school
districts.
% This amount includes the annual grant from the Government to the Provincial University. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
I 15
COMPARISON OF ENROLMENT AND COST PER PUPIL TO PROVINCIAL
GOVERNMENT.
The following table shows the enrolment during the last twelve years and also the cost to
the Provincial Government of each pupil:—
School-year.
Enrolment
at High
Schools.
Enrolment
at other
Public
Schools.
Total
Enrolment.
Percentage
at High
Schools of
the Total
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Average
Daily
Attendance.
1925-26   -	
1926-27...	
1927-28   -....
11,779
12,906
13,516
14,545
14,675
16,197
18,134
18,552
18,932
19,969
21,119
22,338
89,909
92,102
94,663
95,013
96.342
97,717
97,785
98,264
96,860
97,264
95,603
96,093
101,638
105,008
108,179
109,558
111,017
113,914
115,919
116,816
115,792
117,233
116.722
118,431
11.58
12.29
12.49
13.27
13.22
14.21
15.64
15.80
16.35
17.03
18.09
19.71
$26.09
26.40
26.92
28.32
28.07
28.03
29.62
21.55
19.51
. 20.40
21.35
22.93
$31.06
31.41
31.74
1928-29 	
33.03
1929-30 	
1930-31	
32.79
32.74
1931-32 	
33 18
1932-33      ..
23 98
1933-34. 	
1934-35	
1935-36             	
21.85
23.47
1936-37 - -
COST PER PUPIL, ON VARIOUS BASES, FOR THE SCHOOL-YEAR 1936-37.
Grand total cost of education    $9,593,562.64
Less—
Grant re salaries of faculty of Victoria College     $4,525.46
General grant to Victoria College       5,000.00
Grant to University of British Columbia  362,499.97
Normal School, Vancouver-
Normal School, Victoria	
Cost of Night-schools	
Correspondence Schools—•
High Schools	
Elementary Schools..
Adult education	
24,179.76
35,171.71
22,304.21
26,897.13
13,796.29
67,811.15
Net cost for total enrolment of 118,431 pupils -
Cost per pupil for year on total enrolment	
Cost per pupil per school-day (193 days) on total enrolment	
Cost per pupil for year on average daily attendance of 104,044 pupils	
Cost per pupil per school-day (193 days) on average daily attendance	
Net cost to Provincial Government for total enrolment of 118,431 pupils for year
($3,277,660.23—$562,185.68)   	
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil for year on total enrolment	
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil per school-day  (193 days)   on total
enrolment 	
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil for year on average daily attendance
of 104,044 pupils	
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil per school-day (193 days) on average
daily attendance	
Cost per capita for year on population of 750,000 (1936 estimate)	
Cost per capita per school-day (193 days) on population of 750,000  (1936 estimate)  	
Cost to Provincial Government per capita for year on population of 750,000
(1936 estimate) 	
Cost to Provincial Government per capita per school-day (193 days) on population of 750,000  (1936 estimate)	
562,185.68
$9,031,376.94
76.25
.39
86.80
.45
2,715,474.55
22.93
.12
26.10
.14
*12.04
*.06
f3.62
f.02
* Computed on net total cost of $9,031,376.94.
t Computed on net cost to Provincial Government of $2,715,474.55. I 16
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
CHILDREN OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE.
The number of children of foreign parentage attending the public schools of the Province
during the year was as follows :■—
.2
QJ
QJ
C
Ct)
a
09
J-S
cd
3
13
3
£
CO
h
o
X
O
X
3
O
Q
■     EO
1-s
cd >
CJ CS
CC 3
m
m
Is
in
CO
QJ
'o
Ph
to
C
cd
S
QJ
O
X
V
3
QJ
U
&
214
13
60
1,031
65
64
665
248
269
2,143
1,569
605
3
7
101
40
44
12
47
72
5
323
490
177
90
117
985
461
507
2
15
3
23
18
71
33
13
28
201
86
162
47
31
58
689
784
462
30
Superior schools         	
6
26
173
Elementary schools in district municipalities	
72
79
Totals      	
1,447
5,499
195
949
2,339
130
523
2,071
386
n
a
a
a
u
OJ
E
<
Cjj
a
b
a
CO
3
<
cd
a
s
E
cd
s
CO
3
PS
cd
C
.2
43
cd
s
.2
|3
'3
,9
P
CO
c*
QJ
3
OPc.
cd
'rt
O
93
9
53
218
41
79
28
9
15
69
16
46
40
77
23
56
94
126
37
6
35
456
147
137
132
23
149
1,167
124
463
28
26
23
245
90
202
209
43
155
964
401
542
1,763
641
Junior high schools  ' -	
1,021
8,593
Elementary schools in district municipalities	
4,013
3,912
492
Totals  	
493
183
416
818
2,058
1
614
2,314
20,435
NUMBER OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
The following table shows the number and classes  of school  districts  in  which schools
were in operation during all or some portion of the year:—
City school districts  32
District municipality school districts  23
Rural school districts  704
Community school districts  4
Total..
763*
* At the time this Annual Report was prepared 270 school districts were under the administration of Official
Trustees.
HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city high schools during the year was 16,529. Of this number, 8,115
were boys and 8,414 were girls.
The number of schools, the number of divisions, the number of teachers, and the enrolment for 1936-37 and for 1935-36 in each city are shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
11
3
7
4
3
5
4
14
3
7
4
3
160
105
386
81
200
99
99
156
Armstrong    	
Chilliwack High School Area- 	
85
365
75
199
71
143 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
I 17
HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES—Continued.
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
.   °f
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
Enderby 	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
12
1
1
1
2
5
3
7
2
6
4 "
2
8
7
33
2
1
4
8
7
4
4
1
10
246
16
8
38
2
6
3
10
3
6
6
2
14
8
39
2
1
4
9
8
4
4
1
10
309
17
8
50
55
102
84
196
17
179
128
66
259
238
1,128
63
22
116
306
165
97
122
10
335
9,453
605
277
1,376
51
150
76
Kamloops  -	
Kaslo	
Kelowna  	
326
22
145
101
Merritt	
Nanaimo 	
76
254
226
1,045
52
36
114
284
151
Rossland.. 	
97
124
9
283
9,042
538
254
1,316
Totals - - -.-	
43
467
566
16,529
15,866
HIGH SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality high schools for the year was 4,157. Of this
number, 1,885 were boys and 2,272 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the years
1936-37 and 1935-36 are shown in the following table:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
Abbotsford :   Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Educational
Administrative Area..  	
Burnaby  	
Delta   	
Esquimalt..
Kent.	
Langley	
Maple Ridge..
Matsqui	
Mission	
Oak Bay	
Peachland	
Penticton	
Richmond	
Saanich	
Sumas-Abbotsford-
Summerland 	
Surrey	
Vancouver, West..
10
25
4
4
2
6
10
6
11
1
6
8
18
3
9
5
13
27
4
4
2
6
14
1
9
10
19
274
922
124
118
46
265
238
167
352
13
201
262
553
79
351
192
Totals-
J      149
4,157
910
126
103
40
239
228
127
156
353
12
166
235
479
120
83
267
175
3,819
HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural high schools for the year was 1,652.
were boys and 868 were girls.
2
Of this number, 784 I 18
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the years
1936-37 and 1935-36 are given in the following table:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
Athalmer-Invermere..
Blakeburn	
Britannia Mine 	
Canyon 	
Cobble Hill	
Comox 	
Creston	
Dawson Creek-
Dewdney	
Ganges-Vesuvius..
Golden	
Harewood. 	
Hedley	
Howe Sound-
loco	
Keremeos	
Kimberley	
Kitsumgallum-
Lumby 	
Michel-Natal ..
Nakusp—	
New Denver-
North Bend-
Ocean Falls	
Oliver	
Oyama	
Parksville	
Powell River-
Princeton	
Qualicum Beach..
Quesnel	
Rolla.. 	
Rutland. 	
Saanich, North, Consolidated-
Saltspringr Island	
Smithers 	
Squamish	
Telkwa	
Tsolum.   	
University Hill-
Vanderhoof	
Wells  	
38
16
39
17
40
44
107
23
28
33
62
12
26
38
30
170
32
26
49
33
14
19
40
38
18
40
92
73
42
32
18
31
57
40
51
44
17
46
41
16
20
38
20
43
39
72
33
29
27
26
60
37
33
22
142
23
22
23
34
33
13
30
136
71
47
27
30
45
53
44
17
51
55
18
Totals-
79
87
1,652
1,434
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city superior schools for the year was 80. Of this number, 56 were
boys and 24 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1936-37 and 1935-36 are shown in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
1
3
3
80
77
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality superior schools during the year was 406.
Of this number, 211 were boys and 195 were girls. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
I 19
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1936-37 and 1935-36 are shown in the following table:-—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
1
1
7
4
7
4
270
136
251
Delta          	
Totals
2
11
11
406
251
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural superior schools for the school-year was 2,808. The number
of boys was 1,439, of girls 1,369.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the
enrolment for the school-years 1936-37 and 1935-36:—
District.
Number
Number
Number
of
of
of
Schools.
Divisions.
Teachers
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
79
90
	
102
29
81
38
146
167
72
66
88
80
52
48
57
62
79
79
49
42
110
87
39
41
68
71
130
	
46
49
55
24
31
73
82
77
46
61
41
35
57
59
79
91
78
76
385
66
70
60
56
72
71
67
61
46
46
69
63
41
52
130
59
57
93
78
51
55
Ashcroft -	
Athalmer-Invermere..
Baynes Lake..	
Blakeburn _.._	
Bowen Island 	
B rech in 	
Burns Lake— 	
Campbell River____	
Canal Flats.	
Cedar, North 	
C has e -	
Coalmont 	
Cowichan Lake..
Fort Fraser	
Fort St. John—...
Fru itvale	
Gabriola United..
Hazelton	
Hazelton, New....
Hedley	
Hope	
James Island-.
Kaleden	
Lantzville	
Lillooet 	
Malcolm Island..
Michel-Natal	
McBride	
Oyster, North 	
Peace: Pouce Coupe..
Pender Island 	
Pioneer Mine	
Port Alice	
Procter.  	
Quesn el	
Robson  	
Salmo.— 	
Silverton  	
Sooke .	
Stewart 	
Wellington 	
Wellington, South..
Wes tba nk	
Williams Lake	
Woodfibre 	
Yahk	
Totals..
4
5
3
111
80
59
78
80
105
118
67
2,808
74
96
75
113
123
79
3,363 I 20
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city junior high schools was 6,907. The number of boys was 3,673,
of girls 3,234.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the
enrolment for the school-years 1936-37 and 1935-36:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
5
6
8
1
9
6
10
18
3
120
5
8
10
1
11
7
12
26
3
154
171
213
298
30
309
228
359
680
88
4,531
176
311
Nanaimo    	
Nelson..
230
330
4,664
Totals    	
14
186
237
6,907
5,711
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality junior high schools was 620. Of this number,
303 were boys and 317 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1936-37 and 1935-36 are given in the following table:—■
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
Penticton	
Vancouver, West
1
1
9
8
9
9
312
308
319
295
Totals	
2
17
18
620
614
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS—RURAL DISTRICTS.
The enrolment in the rural junior high schools was 438. The number of boys was 213,
of girls 225.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1936-37 and 1935-36 are given in the following table:—
District.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
1
1
1
1
2
3
9
1
2
3
9
1
42
64
302
30
Ocean Falls  	
62
Totals.   	
4
15
15
438
62 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
I 21
SUMMARY OF ENROLMENT IN HIGH AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The following is a summary of enrolment in high and junior high schools:—
Number
of
Pupils
enrolled.
Boys.
Girls.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Number of Pupils in Grades.
K & B
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
.2 ".2
§33
inS"3
High schools:
Cities  	
16,529
4,157
1,652
8,115
1,885
784
8,414
2,272
868
13,700.80
3,347.47
1,391.05
5,432
1,449
556
5,050
1,272
479
3,209
848
355
2,445
537
257
393
51
5
22,338
10,784
11,554
18,439.32
7,437 | 6,801
4,412
3,239
449
Junior high schools:
Cities	
6,907
620
438
3,673
303
213
3,234
317
225
6,060.95
524.25
390.46
2,659
216
179
2,621
206
144
1,627
198
115
7,965
4,189
3,776
6,975.66
3,054
2,971
1,940
30,303
14,973
15,330
25,414.98
3,054
2,971
9,377
6,801
4,412
3,239
449
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—CITIES.
The enrolment in the city elementary schools was 45,593. Of this number, 23,351 were
boys and 22,242 were girls.
The number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-
years 1936-37 and 1935-36 are given in the following table:—
City.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
Alberni.	
Armstrong	
Chilliwack	
Courtenay	
Cranbrook	
Cumberland._
Duncan	
Enderby...	
Fernie	
Grand Forks..
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
Ladysmith	
Merritt	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster..
Port Alberni..	
Port Coquitlam..
Port Moody	
Prince George....
Prince Rupert-..
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm.-
Slocan	
Trail-Tadanac.
Vancouver	
School for the Deaf and the Blind-
Vancouver, North  	
Vernon 	
Victoria.  	
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
2
5
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
4
52
1
3
1
16
Totals..
6
11
12
9
14
11
9
3
9
10
15
2
17
9
8
19
18
49
14
7
4
9
21
14
12
4
2
36
676
9
32
23
108
1,202
11
12
11
15
11
9
3
9
10
15
2
18
9
9
19
19
49
14
7
4
10
23
14
13
4
2
39
754
19
32
26
115
1,313
211
449
458
326
523
415
394
107
359
371
551
51
681
344
269
677
693
1,984
530
256
154
329
822
493
500
131
67
1,388
25,970
92
1,223
936
3,839
45,593
176
430
450
326
529
418
463
119
502
357
554
84
664
302
289
708
698
2,632
475
246
212
352
851
498
481
129
63
1,322
26,439
87
1,246
918
4,047
47,067 I 22
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES.
The enrolment in the district municipality elementary schools was 19,982. The number
of boys was 10,387, of girls 9,595.
The following table gives the number of schools, of divisions, and of teachers, and the
enrolment for the school-years 1936-37 and 1935-36:—
Municipality.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Divisions.
Number
of
Teachers.
Enrolment,
1936-37.
Enrolment,
1935-36.
Abbotsford :    Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Educational
Administrative Area— —  	
Burnaby.   — 	
Chilliwack  	
Coldstream *— 	
Coquitlam     —	
Cowichan, North. 	
Delta     	
Esq.uim.alt   	
Kent   	
Langley  	
Maple Ridge    	
Matsqui    	
Mission    	
Oak Bay    - _	
Peachland  	
Penticton    -	
Pitt Meadows  — 	
Richmond-   	
Saanich  _	
Salmon Arm 	
Sumas   	
Summerland    	
Surrey  	
Vancouver, North  	
Vancouver, West _  	
Totals  	
16
19
16
2
5
2
8
1
3
16
7
9
2
1
1
1
1
22
5
2
37
115
41
4
14
2
16
10
7
31
32
20
17
2
17
6
38
47
10
51
20
14
38
125
43
4
14
2
16
12
7
31
32
21
19
2
18
7
38
47
10
52
20
14
1,349
4,229
1,317
115
517
58
513
371
227
1,184
1,024
643
611
59
677
186
1,519
1,740
299
304
1,827
667
546
4,316
1,232
125
489
53
581
392
218
1,117
1,027
651
640
629
55
604
189
1,429
1,764
301
313
295
1,734
678
573
169
559
580
19,982
19,405
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—RURAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
The number of schools, the number of pupils enrolled, and the number of teachers employed in the elementary schools of the rural districts were as follows:—
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Pupils.
Boys.
Girls.
Number of
Teachers
employed.
718
18,755
9,596
9,159
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—COMMUNITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
The number of schools, the number of pupils enrolled, and the number of teachers employed in the elementary schools of the community school districts were as follows:—
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Pupils.
Boys.
Girls.
Number of
Teachers
employed.
Community school districts..
237
18 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
I 23
NUMBER OF TEACHERS IN EACH CLASS OF SCHOOL
The  following table  shows  the  number  of teachers  in  each  class  of
school-year 1936-37:—
High schools:
Cities -   	
school  :
566
149
87
3
11
111
237
18
15
1,313
580
917
18
'or  the
oted in
Rural districts
Superior schools:
ities            __    	
District municipal
Junior high scl
Cities
lools:
unicipalities
Elementary schools:
District, mnnicinalities      _  _
Rural districts 	
Total
4,025
iry   (qu
SALARIES.
The following table shows the highest, lowest, and average yearly sali
dollars only) paid to teachers during the school-year 1936-37:—
High Schools.
Junior High Schools.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Cities.
Alberni — 	
$1,531
1,464*
1,366
1,583
1,342
1,530
1,308
1,691
1,580
1,937
1,525
1,685
1,416
1,200
1,479
2,047
2,166
1,689*
1,450
1,600
1,447
1,436
1,733
1,672
1,785*
1,200
1,994
2,450
1,770
1,731
2,360
$1,600
1,700
1,900
1,700
2,430
1,875
1,750
1,417
1,250
1,800
2,235
1,370
1,800
1,700
2,000
1,265
2,610
2,228
2,300
1,300
1,200
1,904
1,800
2,200
2,032
1,848
1,150
2,457
3,402
1,800
2,500
2,657
$800
794
780
780
990
780
810
830
900
900
1,010
1,050
900
950
1,000
830
1,026
814
980
855
800
800
960
960
968
1,170
850
864
838
900
840
1,111
$980
1,117
1,155
1,113
1,234
1,095
980
1,082
1,140
1,077
1,326
1,158
1,209
1,122
1,151
1,173
1,365
1,241
1,206
977
950
1,123
1,218
1,169
1,180
1,339
1,000
1,281
1,595
1,308
1,220
1,626
$1,975
2,000*
1,700
2,565
1,771
1,980
1.417
2,900
2,040
2,775
1,701
2,515
1,800
1,200
2,150
2,520
3,160
2,325*
1,700
1,600
1,900
1,830
2,500
2,448
2,100*
1,200
3,321
3,894
2,460
2,550
3,354
$1,200
1,200*
1,200
1,347
1,200
1,280
1,200
1,400
1,300
1,500
1,350
1,450
1,300
1,200
1,335
1,530
1,247
1,500*
1,200
1,600
1,280
1,200
1,450
1,380
1,680*
1,200
1,425
1,200
1,200
1,300
1,278
Chilliwack .... —	
	
$1,100
1,200
1,350
1,350
1,150
$1,280
1,550
1,750
1,370
2,000
$1,166
Enderby -  	
1,381
1,491
1,360
1,322
Kamloops   	
Ladysmith .__ _ 	
Merritt —
1,452
2,520
2,720
1,100
1,305
1,100
1,291
1,825
1,624
1,100
1,100
1,100
Prince George— 	
Rossland 	
Salmon Arm-.- ____	
	
	
Trail-Tadanac-	
3,894
1,100
1,891
Vancouver, North 	
$3,894    | $1 200    1 $2,183
$3,894    |  $1,100    | $1,751
$3,402
$780
$1,470
* These figures refer to High School area. I 24
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
Salaries—Continued.
High Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Junior High Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Elementary Schools.
Highest
Lowest
Salary.
Salary.
$1,250
$795
2,262
780
1,430
780
1,300
900
1,187
780
1,085
900
1,500
780
2,395
780
1,200
800
1,100
780
1,500
780
2,000
800
2,955
1,113
1,000
780
1,900
840
1,100
800
1,838
780
1,800
780
1,100
900
2,100
800
1,200
780
1,700
900
1,945
1,102
Average
Salary.
District Municipalities.
Abbotsf ord : Matsqui - Sumas -
Abbotsford Educational Administrative Area 	
Burnaby 	
Chilliwack	
Coldstream  	
Coquitlam _	
Cowichan, North....
Delta __	
Esquimalt	
Kent  —
Langley	
Maple Ridge	
Mission 	
Oak Bay 	
Peachland	
Penticton 	
Pitt Meadows	
"Richmond	
Saanich	
.Salmon Arm	
.Summerland .„	
Surrey  	
Vancouver, North-
Vancouver, West—
For all district municipalities	
Rural Districts.
For all rural districts.—
Community Districts.
For all community districts..
$1,350
2,504
1,600
2,224
1,300
1,900
1,850
2,000
3,028
1,300
2,520
1,940
2,500
1,450
1,670
2,549
$3,028
$3,000
$1,200
1,200
1,200
1,500
1,250
1,200
1,200
1,200
1,673
1,300
1,270
1,200
1,200
1,250
1,200
1,754
$1,200
$1,237
1,557
1,325
1,764
1,275
1,266
1,280
1,466
2,260
1,300
1,600
1,448
1,703
1,316
1,316
1,930
$1,558
$1,499
$1,700
1,760
$1,760
$2,000
$1,100
1,357
$1,100
$1,345
1,535
$1,435
100   $1,424
$2,955
$2,350
$1,100
$780
$840
$873
1,176
927
1,137
939
992
898
1,292
921
864
890
985
1,579
890
1,106
900
1,015
1,070
930
1,143
882
1,206
1,404
$780 I $1,030
Superior
Schools.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
$1,530
1,100
1,400
1,250
1,650
1,270
1,100
1,'200
1,664
1,200
1,250
1,200
1,100
1,200
1,100
1,518
1,200
1,100
$900
905
780
900
1,150
950
780
900
900
850
960
1,000
780
850
780
850
1,000
780
$1,107
1,002
904
1,016
1,333
1,110
900
1,033
1,085
1,025
1,086
1,100
906
962
940
1,089
1,100
940
Hope	
$1,500
1,400
1,150
1,100
1,100
1,300
1,102
1,200
1,100
1,100
1,100
1,200
1,500
1,260
1,100
1,200
1,500
1,200
$950
1,080
850
780
850
1,020
841
800
780
930
850
900
840
880
800
900
900
900
$1,133
1,240
Brechin  	
Kaleden      	
1,000
901
975
Canal Flats 	
Lillooet 	
1,140
928
950
Oyster, North —	
Peace: Pouce Coupe
940
Coalmont ,	
986
975
1,050
Fort St. John 	
Fruitvale	
Port Alice 	
Procter	
Robson   	
Salmo  	
Silverton  —
Sooke  	
1,060
1,070
950
Greenwood  	
Hazelton	
Hazelton, New	
1,033
1,166
1,000 REPORT OP SUPERINTENDENT.
I 25
Salaries—Continued.
Superior Schools—Continued.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
Highest
Salary.
Lowest
Salary.
Average
Salary.
$1,500
1,200
1,100
1,300
1,475
$960
920
780
800
900
$1,220
1,060
933
1,033
1,181
Woodfibre 	
Yahk    	
For all superior schools
1
$1,300             $960
$1,046
1,200
1,000
1,066
Wellington, South	
$1,664
$780
$970
Williams Lake 	
The average yearly salary paid to teachers employed in all public schools (high, superior,
junior high, and elementary) of the Province for the school-year 1936-37 was $1,386; to
teachers employed in all high schools, $2,028; to teachers employed in all superior schools,
$970; to teachers employed in all junior high schools, $1,715; to teachers employed in all
elementary schools, $1,192;   and to teachers employed in all community schools, $978.
SALARY CLASSIFICATION.
The following table shows the number of teachers in the Province receiving the annual
salary indicated:—
Salary.
oS
z&
Salary.
o 3J
ZH
Salary.
Zf
Salary.
Ztrt
Below $780 .
781-
801-
821-
841-
861-
881-
901
921-
941-
961-
981-
1,001-
1,021-
1,041-
1,061-
1,081-
1,101-
1,121-
1,141-
1,161-
1,181-
1,201-
1,221-
1,241-
1,261-
1,281-
1,301-
1,321-
1,341-
1,361-
1,381-
1,401-
1,421-
1,441-
1,461-
1,481-
1,501-
1,521-
•   800.
- 820.
- 840.
- 860.
■ 880..
■ 900..
- 920.
- 940.
- 960.
- 980.
■1,000..
-1,020..
■1,040.
■1,060 .
1,080 .
■1,100..
•1,120.-
■1,140
•1,160 .
■1,180.
■1,200 .
1,220..
1,240..
1,260-
1,280-
1,300-
1,320 .
1,340..
1,360-
1,380..
■1,400 .
1,420 .
1,440..
1,460-
1,480 .
1,500..
1,520 .
1,540
168
46
84
116
44
154
21
42
99
29
131
14
24
73
29
118
34
37
69
37
154
22
59
55
30
74
25
31
55
43
58
44
46
36
31
53
25
27
51,541
1,561
1,581
1,601
1,621
1,641-
1,661
1,681
1,701
1,721
1,741-
1,761
1,781
1,801
1,821
1,841
1,861-
1,881
1,901-
1,921-
1,941-
1,961
1,981-
2,001
2,021-
2,041
2,061
2,081-
2,101-
2,121-
2,141-
2,161-
2,181-
2,201-
2,221-
2,241
2,261-
2,281-
2,301-
2,321-
-1,560..
-1,580 .
-1,600..
-1,620..
-1,6<J0_
-1,660-
-1,680-
-1,700..
-1,720.-
-1,740-
-1,760-
-1,780-
-1,800 .
-1,820..
-1,840..
-1,860-
-1,880 .
-1,900..
-1,920-
-1,940 .
-1,960 .
-1,980 .
-2,000-
-2,020..
-2,040 .
-2,060-
-2,080 .
-2,100-
-2,120 .
-2,140-
-2,160-
-2,180-
-2,200...
-2,220...
-2,240...
-2,260 ..
-2,280 .
-2,300 .
-2,320 ..
2,340 ..
31
20
323
77
10
7
22
46
18
7
14
33
29
12
12
18
7
24
5
16
26
12
32
4
31
7
11
10
6
17
17
13
5
22
9
14
9
6
18
5
{2,341
2,361
2,381
2,401
2,421
2,441
2,461
2,481
2,501
2,521
2,541
2,561
2,581
2,601
2,621
2,641
2,661
2,680
2,700
2,721
2,741
2,761
2,781
2,801
2,821
2,841
2,861
2,881-
2,901-
2,921-
2,941
2,961
2,981-
3,001-
3,021-
3,041-
3,061-
3,081-
3,101-
3,121-
-2,360
-2,380
-2,400
-2,420
-2,440
-2,460
-2,480
-2,500
-2,520
-2,540
-2,560
-2,580
-2,600
-2,620
-2,640
-2,660
-2,680
-2,700
-2,720
-2,740
-2,760
-2,780
-2,800
-2,820
-2,840
-2,860
-2,880
-2,900
-2,920
-2,940
-2,960
-2,980
-3,000
-3,020
-3,040
-3,060
-3,080
-3,100
-3,120.
-3,140
13
1
7
18
6
6
12
4
8
29
1
22
3
11
3
9
11
2
12
1
2
3
64
9
2
1
2
1
3
1
18
3,141-3,160
3,161-3,180
3,181-3,200
3,201-3,220
3,221-3,240
3,241-3,260
3,261-3,280
3,281-3,300
3,301-3,320
3,321-3,340
3,341-3,360
3,361-3,380
3,381-3,400
3,401-3,420
3,421-3,440
3,441-3,460
3,461-3,480
3,481-3,500
3,501-3,520
3,521-3,540
3,541-3,560
3,561-3,580
3,581-3,600
3,601-3,620
3,621-3,640
3,641-3,660
3,661-3,680
3,681-3,700
3,701-3,720
3,721-3,740
3,741-3,760
3,761-3,780
3,781-3,800
3,801-3,820
3,821-3,840
3,841-3,860
3,861-3,880
3,881-3,900.
•Total .
* Exchange and part-time teachers hot included. I 26 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL-YEAR 1936-37.
Minister's Office:
Salaries       $4,230.00
Office supplies   97.93
Travelling expenses        1,485.75
        $5,813.68
General Office:
Salaries   $23,089.70
Office supplies        3,114.97
Travelling expenses   338.05
         26,542.72
Text-book Branch:
Free text-books, maps, etc.         55,107.53
Correspondence Schools—High:
Salaries   $24,960.12
Office supplies        6,749.31
Revision of courses        1,057.98
Travelling  expenses     375.00
Science equipment   913.02
Payment to Text-book Branch for special services  180.00
$34,235.43
Less fees         7,338.30
Correspondence Schools—Elementary:
Salaries    $10,674.37
Office supplies        3,001.32
Travelling expenses   120.60
Industrial Education:
Salaries    $9,321.35
Office supplies     2,138.55
Travelling- expenses   2,570.99
Grants in aid   5,534.30
Night-schools        22,304.21
Inspection of Schools:
Salaries  $74,520.08
Office supplies   6,978.27
Travelling expenses   26,338.42
Administration  (new areas)    9,489.27
$117,326.04
Less amount paid by School Boards        6,837.65
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries (less deduction for rent, $468)  $34,096.32
Office supplies   2,431.94
Travelling  expenses     589.27
Fuel, light, and water  2,035.81
Allowance to Demonstration School   1,260.00
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)    1,633.70
Incidentals   695.22
$42,742.26
Less Normal School fees      18,562.50
26,897.13
13,796.29
41,869.40
110,488.39
24,179.76 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. I 27
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries (part by Public Works)   $31,756.96
Office supplies  1,512.79
Travelling expenses   151.31
Fuel, light, and water (by Public Works)   2,225.09
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)   5,699.32
Transportation of students to outlying practice-schools  317.12
Allowance to Demonstration School  475.00
Incidentals  567.27
$42,704.86
Less Normal School fees        7,533.15
School for the Deaf and the Blind:
Salaries (less deductions for rent, etc., $4,170.90)   $30,119.60
Office supplies .  807.51
Laundry and janitor supplies   1,157.94
Travelling expenses  ,  332.74
Fuel, light, and water   2,545.32
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)   2,238.34
Furniture, fixtures, and equipment  1,277.71
Provisions  4,248.74
Special apparatus  427.47
Incidentals   867.23
$44,022.60
Less amount received for board and tuition of pupils from
Alberta and Saskatchewan      2,720.00
High. Junior High.
Salary grants to cities  $287,468.93 $122,411.28
Salary grants to district municipalities         89,420.25 13,735.40
Salary grants to rural school
districts        63,519.49 9,595.00
Salary grants to community
school districts         	
$440,408.67 $145,741.68 $82,628.42 $1,568,922.84
$35,171.71
Superior.
$2,439.00
Elementary.
$570,868.01
41,302.60
983,187.22
5,119.90
358,129.52
466,405.07
75,069.52
626,795.11
774,979.12
13.130.20
13.130.20
School buildings, erection and maintenance, and special aid to school districts       108,075.54
Education of soldiers' dependent children and expenses         10,646.15
Examination of High School and Entrance classes  $33,664.88
Less fees for examination and certificates     26,798.17
  6,866.71
Conveying children to central schools         73,057.38
School libraries   8,824.79
Summer schools and teacher-training for special certificates  $17,832.91
Summer School fees      23,214.49
Credit     $5,381.58
Official Trustees, Community School Districts:
Salary      $1,281.06
Expenses         468.27
$1,749.33
Less paid by districts  874.66
874.67 I 28 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
Board of Reference         $369.17
Less fees  75.00
,17
Adult education:
Extension and adult education and education of the unemployed- $34,258.84
Recreational and physical education for youths over school age     33,552.31
  67,811.15
Curriculum revision   15,788.68
Incidentals and contingencies  ; 4,431.78
University of British Columbia  362,499.97
Special grant to Victoria College   5,000.00
$3,283,041.81
Less credit for Summer Schools  5,381.58
Total cost to Government $3,277,660.23
Amount expended by districts, including debt charges:
High.                 Junior High.            Superior. Elementary.
Cities  $1,441,878.43    $510,996.11        $2,394.79 $2,600,842.97   4,556,112.30
District municipalities.       271,696.37        40,123.16        16,781.37 603,969.82 932,570.72
Rural school districts       134,977.84        35,102.55      104,565.04 531,973.85 806,619.28
Community school districts               70.00               20,530.11 20,600.11
$1,848,622.64    $586,221.82    $123,741.20    $3,757,316.75
Grand total cost of education $9,593,562.64
EXAMINATIONS.
High School Entrance Examinations, June, 1937.
The High School Entrance Examination was held on June 28th, 29th, and 30th at 116
centres throughout the Province.
Under the regulations of the Department, promotion by recommendation is granted as
follows:—■
"(a.) Entrance pupils attending a public school in a school district where a high or
superior school is in operation and Entrance pupils attending a public school in a school district adjacent to a district having a high or superior school who are reported by their teachers
to have covered thoroughly the work prescribed by the Council of Public Instruction for Grade
VIIL, and who are recommended for promotion to high school by a committee composed of the
principal of the school, the principal of the nearest high or superior school, and the Inspector
of Schools, Provincial or Municipal, having jurisdiction in that district, shall be issued
Entrance certificates by the Department.
" (b.) In any other public school, where, in the opinion of the Inspector, the grading of the
pupils is satisfactory, their standing is of a high order, and a teacher of proven worth is
employed, Entrance pupils who are reported by the teacher to have covered thoroughly the
work prescribed by the Council of Public Instruction for Grade VIIL and are jointly recommended for promotion to high school by the teacher and the Inspector for the district, shall
also be issued Entrance certificates by the Department."
The number of pupils who obtained certificates was as follows:—
By recommendation  6,327
By examination      550
Total  6,877
Medals.
The awarding of medals has been discontinued. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
I 29
High School Examinations, 1937.
The following are the results of the examinations held in the various high  schools
throughout the Province:—■
June, 1937.
Total
No. of
Candidates
Writing.
Writing the Full Examination.
Writing Partial
Examination.
No. of
Candidates.
No. passed
in all
Subjects.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.
No. of
Candidates.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.
Grade XII- - 	
Senior Matriculation	
4,538
797
1,545
S20>
1,043
191
502
128
2,993
477
2,761
370
Totals--	
5,335                 1,865                 1,234
630
3,470
3,131
August, 1937.
Total No. of
Candidates
Writing.
No. passed
in all
Subjects.
No. granted
Partial
Standing.
Grade XII.                                          - -
909
330
561
194
223
72
Totals-   	
1,239
755
295
Grade XII.
Of the 372 Grade XII. candidates who secured " complete" standing at the August
Examinations, 1937, 174 had written a full examination for the first time in June, 1937, and
obtained partial standing. Thus, of the 1,545 candidates who wrote a full examination for
the first time in June, 1937, 1,043 + 174, or 1,217, completed their standing in one year (1937).
This is 78.8 per cent.
Including the number who completed Grade XII. by writing a partial examination in
either June or August, a total of 2,028 completed Grade XII. in the school-year 1936-37.   •
Senior Matriculation.
Of the 71 Senior Matriculation candidates who secured " complete" standing at the
August Examinations, 1937, 46 had written a full examination for the first time in June, 1937,
and obtained partial standing. Thus, of the 320 candidates who wrote a full examination
for the first time in June, 1937, 191 + 46, or 237, completed their standing in one year (1937).
This is 74.1 per cent.
Medals.
The awarding of medals has been discontinued.
Scholarships.
The  Royal   Institution   Scholarships   awarded   annually  by  the   University  of   British
Columbia to the students who led in the respective districts were won by the following:—
District.
Name.
High School.
Per
Cent.
Scholarship.
91.2
91.2
$150
150
86.6
150
90.4
150
90.7
150
90.0
150
86.4
150
90.8
150
89.1
150
Province '
No.
*Grace Irene Cuthbert	
*Janet Macdonald Tupper..
Ar thur Da vies 	
Gertrude Lillian Nelson-.
Kiyoshi Kato-.__._ 	
MacLean, Maple Ridge-
Vernon	
Oak Bay __	
La dy sm ith	
Betty Doreen Bolduc	
Brita Helena Vesterback-
Joyce Kathleen Morris	
Roy Vincent Jackson _.
Kitsilano, Vancouver-
Magee, Vancouver	
Mount Lehman	
Penticton _.	
Creston. 	
* These two students tied for leading place in the Junior Matriculation Examination. I 30
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
The winners of the three scholarships awarded by the University of British Columbia on
the results of the Senior Matriculation Examination to (1) the two students obtaining the
highest standing in the Province, (2) the student obtaining the highest standing in districts
other than Greater Vancouver and New Westminster, were:-—■
Name.
High School.
Per Cent.
Scholarship.
90.9
S6.4
83.3
$150
150'
150
The conditions under which these scholarships are awarded are fully outlined in the
Calendar of the University of British Columbia.
STUDENT REPRESENTATION AT THE CORONATION.
An event of outstanding historic significance in the educational history of the Province
was the attendance of eighteen students representing the Public Secondary Schools of British
Columbia at the Coronation Ceremony of His Majesty King George VI. and Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth on May 12th, 1937.
The arrangements for the visit of these students to the Motherland, as well as those from
the other Provinces of Canada, were under the direction of Major F. J. Ney, M.C., LL.D.,
Honorary Secretary of the Overseas Education League. Miss Florence Stuart Mulloy, B.A.,
of Vancouver, accompanied the students from British Columbia as their personal supervisor.
In her official report submitted after her return to Vancouver, Miss Mulloy wrote thus:—
" The students sailed from Montreal on April 28th and 30th and returned there on July
1st. Three weeks were spent in London, where a varied and interesting programme was
carried out. This included a view of the Coronation procession from a stand opposite Buckingham Palace, visits to the Houses of Parliament, Tower of London, The Middle and Inner
Temple. Among the outstanding events were the Empire Youth Rally at Albert Hall, the
Youth Service at Westminster Abbey, and the Empire Service at St. Paul's Cathedral.
" Following the London visit, the students were entertained at Host schools in different
parts of the country.    Next the boys spent a week at Folkestone and the girls at Eastbourne.
" The Acting Agent-General for British Columbia was keenly interested in the group,
and not only arranged a visit to the Houses of Parliament, but invited the students to be
present at the dedicatory service at St. Mary Woolnoth Church and at the memorial service
at Captain Vancouver's grave.
" Throughout the entire tour the Canadian students were accorded the greatest kindness
by the Overseas Education League and by the many individuals and societies who entertained
them. I should like to state that the students acquitted themselves well and were a credit
to the schools they represented. Many of them contributed articles to school papers, and all
kept diaries and collected pictures to be used when they share their experiences with their
fellow-students."
The names of the students who were accorded this high honour and privilege, together
with the names of the high schools they represented, are:—
Name.
School.
City or Municipality.
Girls.
Byers, Winnie 	
Davis, Ethel Margaret..
Hammerton, Edna	
Heddle, Aimee Olivia.....
O'Connell, Ellen Anne.
Percival, Geraldine.	
Raley, Elaine 	
John Oliver High  	
Kamloops Junior-Senior High 	
Fairview High School of Commerce-
Victoria High	
Smith, Wilma Gene Margaret-
Stewart, Elizabeth Jean	
Mount View High	
Oak Bay High	
Prince of Wales High..
Burnaby South High....
Lord Byng High	
Vancouver.
Kamloops.
Vancouver.
Victoria.
Saanich.
Oak Bay.
Vancouver.
Burnaby.
Vancouver. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
I 31
Student Representation at the Coronation—Continued.
Name.
School.
City or Municipalty.
Boys.
Brady, Edward  	
Gillespie, Wallace Potter 	
Horswill, Sydney Richard	
Kobayashi, Yutaka	
McLellan, Donald Ellis	
Oughton, William 	
Parsons, Terrence George..	
Scott, Harry James Alexander..
Wickstrom, Tage	
Technical— 	
North Vancouver High..
Nelson High	
Richmond High 	
John Shaw Junior High..
Kitsilano Junior High	
T. J. Trapp Technical	
Chilliwack High 	
Templeton Junior High-
Vancouver.
North Vancouver.
Nelson.
Richmond.
Nanaimo.
Vancouver.
New Westminster.
Chilliwack.
Vancouver.
SOUVENIR CORONATION BOOKLET.
On the first page of this pleasing souvenir the following statement appeared:—-
" This booklet has been prepared by the Department of Education, Victoria, British
Columbia, for presentation to every boy and girl in the elementary and high schools of the
Province.    It is a souvenir to mark the Coronation of His Majesty King George VI. and
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth on May 12th, 1937."
In addition to photographic reproductions of Their Majesties King George VI. and Queen
Elizabeth and of the Royal Family, the booklet contained, among other interesting features,
the memorable words spoken to the boys and girls of the Empire by His Late Majesty King
George V. in his Silver Jubilee Broadcast of May 6th, 1935; the message addressed to the
school-children of Canada by His Excellency the Right Honourable Baron Tweedsmuir,
Governor-General of Canada; messages to the children of British Columbia from His Honour
the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, Mr. Eric W. Hamber, and the Honourable the
Prime Minister of British Columbia, Dr. T. D. Pattullo; and a message to the schoolchildren of the Province from the Honourable the Minister of Education, Dr. G. M. Weir.
LARGER ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS.
The experimental work done in the Peace River District during the school-years 1934-35
and 1935-36 by creating one large administrative area from sixty-three formerly existing
school districts had proved so successful that it had attracted attention not only in other
parts of this Province, but also in the other Provinces of Canada. As a natural consequence,
ratepayers in other sections of the Province have sought the formation of larger units of
administration for school purposes. The school-year 1936—37 has been marked with genuine
achievement in this progressive movement.
In August, 1935, the District Municipality School Districts of Matsqui and Sumas and
the Abbotsford School District were all placed under the Official Trusteeship of the late P. H.
Sheffield, Inspector of Schools. By the " Abbotsford School District Act Amendment Act,
1936," the District Municipality School Districts of Matsqui and Sumas were abolished, and
the Abbotsford School District redefined as follows:—
" All that certain parcel or tract of land situate in Group 2, New Westminster District,
which comprises the respective areas within the limits of the following:—
"(a.)   The Corporation of the District of Sumas:
"(6.)   The Corporation of the District of Matsqui:
"(c.)   The Corporation of the Village of Abbotsford:
"(d.)  The South-west Quarter of Section 2, Township  16, being the Townsite of
Huntingdon; and
" (e.)   That portion of Township 20 lying south of the Fraser River which is not
within the limits of The Corporation of the District of Sumas, The Corporation  of  the  District  of  Matsqui,  or  The   Corporation  of  the  Township  of
Chilliwack."
In the closing weeks of the school-year 1935-36, the qualified voters present at special
meetings held in  eleven different places in the  Abbotsford  School  District voted almost
unanimously in favour of the formation  of an  Educational Administrative Area,  and on I 32 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
July 10th, 1936, pursuant to the provisions of clause (u) of section 12 of the " Public Schools
Act," as amended in 1936, the Abbotsford School District was designated as an Educational
Administrative Area to be known as the Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Educational Administrative Area. The school affairs in an Educational Administrative Area are administered by
a Director of Education who must be an Inspector of Schools.
At the end of May, 1936, the North Saanich, Sidney, and Deep Cove Rural School
Districts were united into one school district to be known as the North Saanich Consolidated
Rural School District. With the beginning of the school-year 1936-37, the schools of this
district were reorganized and elementary, junior high, and high school classes conducted.
On July 27th, 1936, at a meeting of the qualified voters of North Gabriola, South
Gabriola, and East Gabriola Rural School Districts, a unanimous resolution was passed in
favour of consolidation. On August 7th, 1937, these three districts were united under the
name of the Gabriola United Rural School District. The reorganization made possible the
establishment of a superior school.
Towards the end of the school-year 1936-37 the Boards of School Trustees and the ratepayers of the Rural School Districts of Annie Bay, Lang Bay, and Kelly Creek, in regular
meetings assembled, passed resolutions in favour of the union of the districts for school
purposes. On June 3rd, 1937, the union was authorized by the Council of Public Instruction
and the larger administrative area so formed was named the Stillwater United Rural
School District. Once again the larger unit made possible the establishment of a superior
school.
Again on July 13th, 1937, there was formed the Yahk United Rural School District,
which included the former Rural School Districts of Curzon, Kingsgate, and Yahk, together
with additional previously unorganized territory.
All of these larger administrative areas are under Boards of School Trustees except the
Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Educational Administrative Area.
The gradual development of the Saltspring Island High School Area, although not a
school district, is a phase of the growth of larger units of administration for school purposes.
On August 30th, 1935, the Ganges-Vesuvius High School Area was formed. On July 17th,
1936, this High School Area was extended to include the North Vesuvius Rural School District. Burgoyne Bay and Divide Rural School Districts were brought within the Area on
September 4th, 1936, and the Area renamed as the Saltspring Island High School Area.
ADDITIONAL FACILITIES FOR THE  EDUCATION OF  CHILDREN IN
ISOLATED DISTRICTS.
By legislative enactment that came into force April 1st, 1936, it was made lawful for
the Council of Public Instruction, with the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
" upon receipt of a report from the Superintendent of Education, to grant a sum of money
payable from the Provincial Treasury towards the salary of any person holding a teacher's
certificate of qualification issued by the Department who is employed with the sanction of
the Superintendent of Education for the purpose of giving instruction in the prescribed
courses of study for public schools to children between the ages of six and eighteen years in
any part of the Province where there is not a sufficient number of children available for the
establishment of a public school, and where instruction by means of correspondence courses
is considered inexpedient; but the amount so granted in any year in respect of each child
instructed shall not exceed the average cost per pupil to the Crown for the education of
pupils in the public schools of the Province for the last preceding school-year."
During the school-year 1936-37, under these provisions of the " Public Schools Act,"
seven teachers holding certificates of qualification gave instruction to twenty-seven pupils
living in isolated districts and received grants from the Provincial Treasury for their services.
DEATH OF PHILIP HUDSON SHEFFIELD, INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
On October 6th, 1936, the Department of Education, through the death of Philip Hudson
Sheffield, lost the services of a faithful and efficient member of its staff of Inspectors of
Schools. Mr. Sheffield received his appointment as Inspector of Schools on August 16th, 1923,
and took up his duties in that capacity with headquarters at Nelson, where he remained till
midsummer, 1935. His work in this district was notable for the effective service he rendered
in extending the establishment of schools among the Doukhobors. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. I 33
On August 8th, 1935, he was appointed Official Trustee of Abbotsford, Matsqui, and
Sumas School Districts and transferred to Abbotsford. With the formation of the Matsqui-
Sumas-Abbotsford Educational Administrative Area on July 10th, 1936, he became Director
of Education for the area, the first Inspector of Schools of the Province to assume that title.
This office he held until the time of his death.
An indefatigable worker and kindly supervisor, Mr. Sheffield won the confidence and
profound respect of the teachers with whom he worked. It is with deep regret that this
official record of his passing is written.
CHANGES IN THE STAFF.
On January 31st, 1937, Miss E. M. Coney retired on superannuation from the staff of
the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver. Since her appointment to that staff on March
1st, 1913, Miss Coney had given instruction in Music to teachers-in-training and had by her
efficient enthusiasm created a keen interest in the subject.
On August 1st, 1937, Miss E. M. McManus, Mus.B., M.A., of the Kitsilano Junior High
School staff, Vancouver, was appointed to the staff of the Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Mr. C. G. Brown, B.A., Inspector of Schools, Burnaby, was made Municipal Inspector of
Schools for Burnaby School District on April 1st, 1937.
An addition was made to the staff of Inspectors of Schools on August 15th, 1937, by the
appointment of H. M. Morrison, Ph.D. Dr. Morrison was a member of the Lord Byng High
School staff, Vancouver, and had just returned from a further year of postgraduate study at
the University of Chicago.    He was assigned to the Prince Rupert Inspectorial District.
After serving as Principal of the Model School of the Provincial Normal School, Victoria,
since August 1st, 1915, Miss Kate Scanlan retired on superannuation, August 31st, 1937.
Keenly progressive and thoroughly efficient, Miss Scanlan, during the twenty-one years of
her principalship, exerted an abiding and uplifting influence not only on the pupils of her
school, but on the thousands of teachers-in-training who sought her wise counsel.
To succeed Miss Scanlan, Miss Isabel M. L. Bescoby, M.A., Officer in Charge of the
Elementary Correspondence School, Department of Education, was appointed Principal of
the Model School on September 1st, 1937.
Miss Anna B. Miller, of the staff of the Elementary Correspondence School, was appointed,
September 1st, 1937, as Officer in Charge to replace Miss Bescoby.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. J. WILLIS,
Superintendent of Education. I 34 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF A. R. LORD, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The thirty-sixth report of the Vancouver Normal School must record the retirement
from active work of three veteran members of the staff—Principal D. M. Robinson, B.A.;
Mr. J. A. Macintosh, B.Sc; and Miss E. M. Coney. Mr. Robinson had served twenty-five
years, sixteen as principal, Mr. Macintosh seventeen years, .and Miss Coney twenty-five years.
All have left a lasting impression on the hundreds of students who passed through their
hands and have had a large share in moulding the youth of British Columbia.
Mr. T. R. Hall, B.A., former School Principal and Inspector of Schools, joined the staff
in September. His natural ability and his background of experience have made him
invaluable.
Miss Mildred McManus, M.A., Mus.B., was appointed as instructress in Music and in
Voice Production in readiness for the opening of the present session. Miss McManus has
had extensive training in this important field. She has, for some years, had charge of Music
in the Kitsilano Junior-Senior High School.
Mr. Burton Kurth, recently selected as Supervisor of Music for Vancouver Schools, filled
a temporary vacancy during the spring term. A tribute is due to both Mr. and Mrs. Kurth
for their unsparing and very successful efforts.
The enrolment for the year follows:—
Women.
Men.
Total.
94
8
6
43
1
137
8
7
108
44
152
Illness or other causes compelled four students to withdraw. Diplomas were issued to
112. Special students and teachers from the Prairie Provinces who are required to attend
for three months do not receive diplomas.
The student-load of class-periods was fixed at twenty-one per week. This reduction was
made possible through the establishment of a course in " Principles of Teaching," designed
to cut across the entire subject-matter field, thereby permitting a decided decrease in the
number of periods required for specific methodology. It also made possible more observation
and participation in the Model School.
During the autumn term students used the Model School in two ways. They observed
lessons which demonstrated those principles which they had discussed in the course on
" Principles of Teaching" and they participated in the routine class-room work. Each
demonstration lesson was followed by a discussion in which the Model teacher, the Normal
instructor, and students shared. Participation was intended to provide some preliminary
training prior to the Teaching Practicum. It was entirely for practice, hence nothing in
the way of formal criticism was required.
The Teaching Practicum was divided into two periods, each of four weeks, one in February and the other in April. Assignments were in the form of units of work, which were
introduced, developed, and completed. Two students were assigned to a class-room and each
took.complete charge of at least three units where the nature of the subject permitted unit-
organization.
Practice in rural schools, an important phase of any Normal School programme, is not
practicable in this school. Nothing approaching an ungraded school exists within 30 miles
of Vancouver, while the cost and the difficulty of securing temporary boarding-places render
the more remote ones out of the question. As an alternative an ungraded class-room has
been established in connection with the Model School.    It has been used generously, almost PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
I 35
every student having observed and practised in it, in the aggregate, for more than a week.
Its particular value lies in the fact that, thanks to the teacher in charge, this class-room
approached closely to perfection.
Something more than a word of thanks is due to the School Boards, officials, and teaching
staffs of Vancouver and the surrounding municipalities for their very real helpfulness
throughout the year. To Principal Woodhead and the staff of the Model School we are
especially indebted.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VICTORIA.
REPORT OF V. L. DENTON, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The session of 1936-37 opened on September 9th, 1937, and closed on June 11th, 1937.
During the year, sixty-three students were in attendance. Of these, eight were repeating
the course and four took refresher courses in order to qualify for a British Columbia certificate. Diplomas were awarded to fifty-nine students, of whom three received honour standing.
The Strathcona Trust gold medals for excellence in physical training were won by Miss Annie
Sylvia Walker, of Beaver Lodge, Alberta, and William Dennan Reid, of Victoria.
The following table presents a summary of the enrolment:—
Women.
Men.
Total.
40
4
19
59
Failed          .                                                            	
4
Totals     —    	
44
19
63
Practice-teaching was carried on in the municipal schools of Victoria, Esquimalt, and
Saanich, and in near-by rural schools. Grades I. to VI. in the Oaklands Public School were
organized by Municipal Inspector Deane as a Demonstration School and the Normal School
students made full use of the opportunity for observation and practice-teaching so kindly
provided.
At the end of the school-year Miss K. Scanlan, Principal of the Model School, resigned
on pension and Miss Isabel Bescoby, M.A., was appointed to the position. During the past
twenty years Miss Scanlan has given her pupils a fine training in self-activity and self-
reliance. In socializing class-room procedure she was a pioneer of outstanding ability among
the teachers of this Province.
This school-year has been marked by the introduction of the New Course of Study for
Elementary and Junior High Schools. Individual members of the staff have been called
upon to give afternoon lectures to groups of teachers, and to arrange conferences and exhibitions of work at the Normal School for visiting teachers and interested parents. In all of
these activities the staff has co-operated loyally and efficiently. It has been a profitable,
stimulating, and busy year.
The students adopted the principles of the new procedure in a fine spirit. Their cheerfulness and helpfulness on all occasions was most marked and deeply appreciated by the
staff.    We wish them well in their chosen work. I 36 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION.
REPORT OF H. L. CAMPBELL, B.A., DIRECTOR.
A Provincial Summer School of Education for Teachers was held in Victoria and Vancouver from July 5th to August 6th, 1937.
Several new features were authorized by the Department of Education for inclusion in
the programme.    Briefly these may be listed as follows:—■
Provision of a system of credits on a unit basis, one and one-quarter units being
awarded for a twenty-five-hour course.
Provision for seven and one-half units, of post Normal  School training, as one
requirement for permanent certification.
Provision for seven and one-half units of teacher-training as one requirement for
permanent certification in Home Economics.
Provision for holders of Second-class Certificates to secure First-class Certificates by
completing  satisfactorily  specified  courses  offered  in  the   Summer   School  of
Education.
Provision of prescribed texts and readings on each course and tests and examinations
for credit.
Provision for a rotation of courses for the training of Specialists in Art, Music,
Physical and Commercial Education.
Provision of a laboratory and observation class of elementary-school pupils in which
an attempt was made to produce an ideal school-room situation.
COURSES AND ENROLMENT.
The Summer School of Education operated courses in Victoria and Vancouver.
Courses.
Instructors.
Enrolment.
7
55
6
30
129
891
62
36
1,020
The courses offered were grouped into divisions or fields.    The courses and enrolments
were as follows:—
History and Philosophy of Education: Enrolments.
No. 1. Principles and Technique of Teaching  169
No. 2. The New Curriculum:   Its Objectives and Procedures...     96
No. 3. Seminar:   The School in the Social Order     19
Psychology and Measurement:
No. 10. Educational Psychology   182
No. 11. Educational Measurement      96
Organization and Administration:
No. 30. Class-room Organization and Management  102
French:
No. 41. Junior High School French     12
No. 42. French Civilization, Correct Forms, Conversational Idiom     14
Graphic Arts:
No. 50. Art in the Elementary School    42
No. 51. Art in the Junior High School Grades    20
No. 52. Art Appreciation      60
No. 54. Elementary Typewriting    37
Practical Arts:
No. 60-1. Practical Arts in Elementary Grades  117
English:
No. 70. Language Arts in the Elementary School    46
No. 71. The Teaching of Reading and Literature     38 SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. I 37
English:—Continued. Enrolments.
No. 72. Senior Matriculation Literature  17
No. 73. Senior Matriculation Composition  22
Mathematics:
No. 80. Elementary School Arithmetic  24
No. 81. Junior High School Mathematics  19
Primary Education:
No. 90. Principles of Primary Education  119
No. 91. Primary Observation and Practice  140
No. 92. Social Studies in the Primary Grades  127
Science:
No. 100. The Foundations of Science  41
No. 101. The Teaching of General Science  139
No. 102. Foundations of Biology (Vancouver)  20
No. 103. The Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools  (Vancouver)-, 23
Social Studies:
No. 110. Method in Geography  92
No. 111. Method in History and Civics  43
No. 112. Geography of the Americas  19
No. 113. Senior Matriculation History  28
No. 114. Senior Matriculation Economic History  13
Commercial Education:
No. 120-1. Stenography—Theory and Practice  18
No. 122. Teaching Methods in Stenography  18
No. 123-4. Typewriting—Theory and Methods  15
No. 125-6. Book-keeping—Theory and Practice  13
No. 127. Teaching Methods in Book-keeping  12
No. 130. Commercial Arithmetic  19
Music Education:
No. 140. Junior School Music  76
No. 141. Music in the Upper Grades  55
Melody and Harmony I  13
Rudiments of Music  8
Choral Singing I  18
Psychology and Pedagogy of Music  9
Form Instrumentation and History  5
Harmony II  1
Choral Singing II  5
Physical Education :
No. 160. Introduction to Physical Education  36
No. 161. Materials and Methods in Health Education  27
No. 167. Elementary Physical Education Laboratory  52
No. 168. Advanced Physical Education Laboratory  26
No. 176. Physical Education Activities  16
No. 179. Rhythmic and Dramatic Play  31
Art Education (Specialist) :
No. 181. Drawing and Painting (Vancouver)  58
No. 182. Design and Colour  (Vancouver)  57
Home Economics Education:
No. 200. Curriculum and Methods in Home Economics  20
No. 201. Problems in Dress Design, Fitting, and Pattern Study  23
No. 201b. Appreciation in Dress  35 I 38 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
Librarianship: Enrolments.
No. 210. School Library Organization and Management  35
No. 211. Functions of the School Library .  33
Technical Education:
No. 220. Industrial Arts—Woodwork, Grades VII.-IX.  (Vancouver)  10
No. 221. Industrial Arts—Woodwork, Grades X.-XII.  (Vancouver)  16
No. 224. Industrial Arts — Electrical Work, Grades VII.-XII.   (Vancouver)    22
Total of Student Courses 2,718
Detailed course prescriptions will be found in the 1937 bulletin of the Summer School of
Education, published by the Department of Education. Schematic outlines showing the content of each course are on file in the Summer School Office.
REGISTRATION.
An analysis of the registration reveals the following information concerning those in
attendance:—
Teaching Experience:
From 1 to 3 years  356
From 4 to 6 years  113
From 7 to 9 years .  101
From 10 to 12 years  107
More than 13 years  271
Not reported  72
Total 1,020
Class of School :
Teaching in rural schools     418
Teaching in urban schools     487
Not reported     115
Total 1,020
Class of Certificate:
Academic Certificate   79
First-class Certificate  420
Second-class Certificate   383
Third-class Certificate   9
Special Certificate   36
Not reported  93
Total 1 1,020
Classification of Students.
For the purposes of registration and record, students were enrolled under one of the
following classes:—
Interim.—Graduates of Provincial Normal Schools in 1935 and succeeding years who
were taking courses for credit toward permanent certification.
Special.—Teachers, holding Second-class Life Certificates, who desired to raise this
certificate to a First-class Life Certificate.
Regular.—Teachers holding Life Certificates but desiring to earn credits as evidence of
more advanced academic and professional qualification.
Non-resident.—Teachers, not resident in British Columbia, who desired to take courses
for credit or otherwise.
Auditors.—Persons taking courses for which no credit was sought. SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. I 39
The following are the numbers of students enrolled in this classification:—
Interim   253
Special ....  259
Regular  364
Non-resident    :  33
Auditors  18
Not reported   93
Totals .. 1,020
Previous Attendance at Summer School.
Those in attendance:—
For the first time in 15 years  20
For the first time in 10 years    122
For the first time in 5 years  237
For the first time..  543
Not reported  98
FACULTY.
A very able group of lecturers was engaged for the session. All but two of these were
members of the teaching profession in British Columbia.
The visiting lecturers were Dr. Roy Ivan Johnson, Professor of Education, Stephen's
College, Columbia, Missouri, and Miss Lillian Locke, Assistant Professor of Household Arts,
Columbia University, New York.
Members of the Faculty were as follows: —
Bollert, Grace, B.A Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Brandreth, W. G., M.I.H., B.P.E Supervisor, Physical Education, Vancouver.
Bruce, Graham, B.A High School of Commerce, Vancouver.
Creelman, Helen, B.A School Librarian, Vancouver.
Darling, Gordon, B.Sc Technical School, Vancouver.
Ewing, J. M., B.A., D.Paed Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Flather, D. M., B.A Britannia High School, Vancouver.
Gibbard, J. E., B.A Magee High School, Vancouver.
Gough, John, M.A Provincial Normal School, Victoria.
Hall, T. R., B.A Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Hards, A. A., B.A King George High School, Vancouver.
Henderson, Florence Manual Arts Assistant, Vancouver.
Hill, Henry, F.Coll.H Supervisor, Manual Arts, Vancouver.
James, Marion Model School, Victoria.
Jones, W. R   . Commercial Specialist, High School, Saanich.
Johnson, Roy Ivan, A.M., Ph.D Professor, Stephen's College, Columbia,
Missouri.
Lee, Ernest, B.A Director, Physical Education, New Westminster.
Locke, Lillian H., B.Sc, M.A Professor of Household  Arts,  Columbia
University, New York.
Limpus, G. H., B.A. Kitsilano Junior High School, Vancouver.
MacKenzie, H. H., B.A Inspector of Schools, Vancouver.
Martin, A. E. C, B.Sc Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Matheson, A. S., B.A Inspector of Schools, Kelowna.
McManus, Mildred, Mus.B., M.A..... Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Melvin, Grace, D.A The Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver.
Murphy, Nita, B.Sc Provincial Normal School, Victoria.
Noble, Louise George Jay School, Victoria.
Parker, E. W Technical School, Vancouver.
Parkes, Jessie Manual Arts Assistant, Vancouver. ;   '
... Pritchard, Vaughan Commercial   Specialist,  Victoria  High
School. I 40 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
Reese-Burns, Ethel, A.T.C.M Provincial Normal School, Victoria.
Shadbolt, J. L Art Specialist, Kitsilano Junior High
School, Vancouver.
Scott, Charles H., Dip., G.S.A Director, The Vancouver School of Art.
Smith, Harry L., M.A Principal, Victoria High School.
Weston, W. P., A.R.C.A Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Wickett, F. T. C, A.R.C.O Provincial Normal School, Victoria.
Wishart, Alfred Technical School, Vancouver.
LIBRARY.
Before the opening of the session each instructor w,as required to submit a list of the most
important reference books for his course. These books were borrowed or purchased and
placed " on reserve " in the Library and might be taken out by students for one-hour periods
or for overnight.
The Library contained over 2,000 volumes of the most important reference books and
remained open from 8 o'clock in the morning until 10 o'clock at night.
Thanks are due to those in charge of the following institutions for their generosity in
lending books to the Summer School Library:—
Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Provincial Normal School, Victoria.
Provincial Legislative Library.
Provincial Library Commission.
Victoria Public Library.
Victoria Teachers' Professional Library.
Victoria High School Library.
Office of Provincial Director of Home Economics.
Office of Curriculum and Technical Adviser.
TEXT-BOOK DISPLAYS.
A book display comprising the offerings of the leading educational publishers was held in
the school for the duration of the session.    Over 1,500 visits to this room are recorded.
The following publishing firms submitted exhibits of educational books :•—■
The Macmillan Company. Thomas Nelson & Sons.
J. M. Dent & Sons. Little, Brown & Company.
Ginn & Company. Allyn & Bacon.
W. J. Gage & Company. Webster Publishing Company.
LABORATORY SCHOOL.
A demonstration class of Grade I. and Grade II. children was in operation for the duration of the session. In this an attempt was made to create a class-room situation in harmony
with the ideals of the curriculum. The techniques of instruction were those advocated in the
methods courses and in the Programme of Studies.
For an hour and a half a day 140 teachers observed the work of this class and during the
session each teacher made a detailed case-study of two of the pupils. The observation period
was followed by a discussion period.
ART AND MUSIC.
In addition to the courses regularly offered in these fields, an excellent series of Art and
Music Appreciation lectures and Art displays were provided during the session. No fee was
charged for these, and many students, not taking courses in these subjects, welcomed the
opportunity of attending.
EXTRA-CURRICULAR FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES.
Every facility was offered the students during the session for attendance at lectures,
concerts, dramatic performances, excursions, and social functions. The Department of Education withdrew the registration fee of $3 which had been paid by students in previous years, SS
■s
o
Eh  ■■ '-.     ....
■ ■ ■■
Laboratory School.  B£-'-':!  ■ **
Physical Education.  SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. I 41
and initiated an activity fee of  $2, which admitted the students without payment of an
admission charge to all extra-curricular functions and activities.
The programme of extra-curricular functions was as follows:—
First Week:
July 5th.-—Opening Assembly.    Address:   Dr. G. M. Weir, Minister of Education.
July 6th.—Lecture: The Place of Drama in School and Community Life, by Major
Bullock-Webster, Provincial Organizer of School and Community Drama. Demonstration: Dramatic Art, by Miss Elsie McLuhan, Director, Van Kunitz
Academy of Music and Art, Toronto.
July 7th.—An Evening of Drama: Four one-act plays, by Muriel Thompson Players,
The Shamrock Players, The Little Theatre Association, and Beaux Arts Players.
July 9th.-—Lectures: The Utilization of Our Environment and The Child and His
Book, by Miss Helen Reynolds, Director, Kindergarten, Primary Education,
Seattle.
July 10th.—Excursion to Grain Elevator and Cold Storage Plant.
Second Week:
July 13th.—Demonstration of Visual Education Equipment, with lectures on its use.
July 14th.—Illustrated lecture on Fresco Painting, by Mrs. A. M. Young, Director
of Art Education, Pioneer Art Museum, Seattle.
July 16th.—Illustrated lecture on The Why and What of Traffic Safety Education,
by  Mrs.  Evelyn  MacLaurin,  School  Trustee,  Victoria.    Weekly  dance  in the
school gymnasium.
July 17th.—Excursion to Meteorological Observatory.
Third Week:
July 20th.—Bicycle cruise and beach fire at Cordova Bay.
July 21st.—Vocal and instrumental concert, by Mary  Bucklin  Hammond,  'cellist;
Una Calvert, pianist;   and the Elizabethan Singers.
July 22nd.—Swim party at the Crystal Garden.
July 23rd.—Lecture:   Three Goals of Teaching, by Professor Alfred Hall-Quest, of
New York University, and editor of " The Educational Forum."    Weekly dance
in the school gymnasium.
Fourth Week:
July 27th.-—Lecture:   Saving the Vision of School Children, by Dr. F. A. Osborne,
Head, Department of Physics,  University of Washington.    Demonstration of
Modern School Lighting at Sir James Douglas School.
July 28th.—Lecture-Recital on the Concert Harp, by Ruth Lorraine Close, of Portland.
July 29th.—Beach party and bonfire at Cadboro Bay.
July 30th.—Lecture and demonstration on Beauty in Movement as a Living Art, by
Diana Watts.    Weekly dance in the school gymnasium.
July 31st.—Excursion to Experimental Farm and Bazan Bay.
Fifth Week:
Aug. 2nd.—Excursion to Esquimalt Graving Dock, the C.P.R. " Empress of Canada,"
and H.M.S. " Exeter."
Aug. 3rd.—Piano Lecture-Recital, by Gertrude Huntly Green.    Physical Education
display.
Aug. 4th.—Lecture:   A Woman's Show Window, by Miss Lillian Locke, Columbia
University, New York.    Weekly dance in the school gymnasium.
Aug. 5th.—Address:   The Educational and Social Implications of the Curriculum,
by Dr. H. B. King, Curriculum and Technical Adviser to the Department of
Education.
In addition to the above, a full programme of the recreational sports of badminton,
tennis, ping-pong, swimming, and Softball was organized and tournaments arranged.
An extra-curricular keep-fit class and a tap-dancing class were in operation during the
session. I 42 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., OFFICER IN CHARGE.
I have the honour of presenting a report for the year 1936-37 on the work of the
following:—
(a.)  Manual Training (Woodwork)  in elementary schools.
(b.) Industrial Arts (Woodwork, Metalwork, and Electricity) in junior and senior
high schools.
(c.) Technical Option Courses in high schools ("A" Woodwork and "B" Metal-
work) .
(d.)  High-school Commercial and High-school Agricultural Courses.
(e.)   Technical Schools in Vancouver and New Westminster.
(/.)  Vancouver School of Decorative and Applied Art.
(g.)  Night-schools for Adult Education.
(h.)  Mining Classes.
(i.)   Technical Subjects by Correspondence.
(j.)  Apprenticeship Council and " Apprenticeship Act."
(k.)  Teacher-training.
MANUAL TRAINING  (WOODWORK).
(Grades VI., VII., and VIIL)
This group is composed of elementary schools which have not yet been influenced by the
junior high-school organization. Some very sparsely populated districts are voluntarily
introducing Woodwork for their senior students, while larger communities which have not
yet established manual training are beginning to feel pressure and will very soon decide to
equip centres.
The following forty-one districts in the Province haVe established manual training:
Abbotsford, Burnaby, Chase River, Chilliwack City, Chilliwack Municipality, Courtenay,
Cranbrook, Cumberland, Duncan, Esquimalt, Fairbridge Farm, Fernie, Harewood, loco,
Kamloops, Kaslo, Kelowna, Ladysmith, Langley, Michel-Natal, Nanaimo, Nanaimo Bay,
Nelson, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Oak Bay, Ocean Falls, Penticton, Pitt Meadows,
Powell River, Prince Rupert, Richmond, South Wellington, Summerland, Surrey, Trail,
University Hill, Vancouver, Vernon, Victoria, and West Vancouver.
The total number of elementary-school centres in the Province, together with the
number of pupils attending, are as follows:—
Elementary-school manual-training shops        85
Elementary-school manual-training instructors        55
Elementary-school pupils attending  6,849
High-school pupils attending elementary-school centres      708
JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS  (INDUSTRIAL ARTS).
(Grades VII. to XII.)
In the previous group manual training consists of the theory and practice of Woodwork,
but in the junior and senior high-school section industrial arts embrace Woodwork, Metal-
work, Electrical Work, and Draughting. This diversified course makes for adaptability,
which is an important factor in the life of a boy struggling to get a start in life. While
the varied work enables youth to determine their preferences and also to display their
individual interests, yet only a small proportion of boys are fortunate enough to be apprenticed to the trade of their choice when they leave school. Consequently, adaptability and
determination are two extremely valuable characteristics to develop in the school-boy.
The total number of centres in the Province where instruction is given in industrial
arts, together with the number of pupils attending, are given hereunder:— TECHNICAL EDUCATION. I 43
Number of junior and senior high-school centres        25
Number of junior and senior high-school workshops at centres        57
Number of junior and senior high-school instructors        53
Number of junior and senior high-school pupils taking courses  6,249
As the line of demarcation is not very clear between the work in manual training for
elementary schools and industrial arts in junior and senior high schools, and the same shops
are often used for both classes of work, it would be well to give the number of individual
shops, instructors, and pupils in the Province.    These are as follows:—
Total number of individual elementary and junior and senior high-
school shops         139
Total number of individual elementary and junior and senior high-
school instructors         101
Total number of individual elementary and junior and senior high-
school pupils taking courses   13,806
HIGH SCHOOL TECHNICAL OPTIONS " A " AND " B."
(Grades IX., X., XL, or X., XL, XII.)
It does not yet seem generally known that High School Technical Options " A " (Woodwork) and " B " (Metalwork) are accepted by the University authorities in lieu of a second
science or a second foreign language, with credits counting towards the Junior Matriculation
Certificate.
These options embrace the theory and practice of Woodwork and Metalwork and help
to form an excellent preparation for the science course in the University or for entrance to
a technical school.
The Technical Options are given in the following high schools: Duncan; Fernie; Kamloops; Kelowna; Nanaimo; T. J. Trapp Technical High School, New Westminster; Oak
Bay; Ocean Falls; Penticton; Powell River; University Hill; Britannia High School, Vancouver; John Oliver High School, Vancouver; Lord Byng High School, Vancouver; Kitsilano
Senior High School, Vancouver; King Edward High School, Vancouver; King George High
School, Vancouver;   Magee High School, Vancouver;   Vernon;   Victoria;   and West Vancouver.
HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION TECHNICAL COURSE.
(Grades IX. and X.)
This course is arranged for those who do not propose to go to University but desire to
obtain a High School Graduation Certificate.    The school authorities have ample freedom
of choice between making it a regular art craft course or one of a purely vocational nature.
HIGH SCHOOL COMMERCIAL AND AGRICULTURAL COURSES.
Commercial subjects are taught in the high schools of Burnaby (195); Delta (35);
Duncan (140); Kamloops (75); Nanaimo (87); Nelson (41); New Westminster (224);
North Vancouver (98) ; Oak Bay (33) ; Penticton (71) ; Prince Rupert (38) ; Revelstoke
(13) ; Saanich (186) ; Vancouver (2,963); Victoria (289) ; and West Vancouver (96) ; making
a total of 4,584 individual students.
Commercial subjects are taught in the high schools for distinctly vocational reasons.
The requirements of the commercial world are duly considered and a preparation is given
for undertaking office-work with an intelligent understanding of what will be expected and
demanded.
The subject of Agriculture is taught in the high schools of Chilliwack (46) ; Maple
Ridge (50) ; New Westminster (54) ; Richmond (43) ; Saanich (93) ; Salmon Arm (45) ;
Summerland  (24) ; and Victoria  (128) ; making a total of 483 students.
Clubs and home projects are featured in this course and the future will see greater
correlation between Farm Mechanics, as carried out in the workshops, and the Course in
Agriculture as taught in the school and on the farm.
VANCOUVER TECHNICAL SCHOOL.
The following courses are offered to students of the Technical School:—
(1.)  Matriculation Course leading to the Applied Science Courses of the University.-—
The sciences taken are Chemistry, Physics, Mechanics, Electricity, and, in addition, shop-work I 44
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
for one year in each of the following: Printing, Sheet Metal, Machine-shop. Only boys of
good academic standing are permitted to take this course.
(2.) Technical Diploma Course which does not lead to the University.—This is the
popular course for those who wish to prepare themselves for industrial life. The subjects
which are featured are Mathematics, Science, Shop-work, and Draughting.
This course is divided into two sections (Grades IX. and X. and Grades XI. and XII.)
and diplomas are given to those who complete the whole course satisfactorily. In Grades IX.
and X. there are no options, but in Grades XI. and XII. there are two types of courses offered
(" A " and " B "). Boys who have no particular end in view but who wish to continue the
general course begun in Grades IX. and X. take Course " A." Boys who have decided to enter
some definite industry take Course " B."
(3.) Special Courses in Sheet Metal, Machine-shop, Automotive and Diesel Engineering,
Aviation Mechanics, Acetylene and Arc Welding, Electricity, Woodwork, Draughting, Printing, and Cookery.—Those who are permitted to enrol in the above classes are: (a) Boys who
have completed three years of high-school work; (6) youths and men who have been engaged
in industrial work and desire further training;   (c) adults who desire special instruction.
The number of day students attending the Technical School in 1936-37 numbered 1,188
and at night-school the enrolment was 1,214.
T. J. TRAPP TECHNICAL SCHOOL, NEW WESTMINSTER.
The above school may be termed a Composite High School. It embraces senior high,
technical high, vocational, commercial, and home economics. Students may prepare directly
for vocations of a technical or commercial nature or as home-makers.
The net enrolment of day students numbered 704 and of night-school students 259.
VANCOUVER SCHOOL OF ART.
For twelve years this school has carried on its successful work and its organization is
steadily improving.
The most important course is undoubtedly the Diploma Course. This is of four years'
duration, the first two of which are composed of obligatory subjects, after which options may
be selected from the syllabus under the guidance of the Director.
The Merit Certificate Course is one of two years for students who cannot take the longer
course. The first year is composed of obligatory subjects, after which options may be exercised by the student.
Part-time Courses in practically all subjects may be taken by those who do not desire to
follow the Diploma or Certificate Courses.
The subjects are as follows: Drawing and Painting, Composition, Design, Commercial
Art, Modelling, Wood-carving, Architecture, Pottery and Ceramics, Embroidery and Needle-
craft, Leather-work, Etching, Lino-cuts and Wood-engraving, Block-printed Textiles, Lettering and Illumination, Silversmithing, Interior Decoration, and Weaving.
The students attending day classes numbered 89 and those attending night classes 398.
SCHOOL DISTRICTS.
A full list of school districts participating in the work of technical education is appended.
This shows an enrolment of 12,802 day students taking courses as follows: Commercial,
4,584;   Technical, 4,493;   Home Economics, 3,153;   Agriculture, 483;   Art, 89.
School District.
Course.
Enrolment.
195
46
Delta _	
35
140
98
77
75
47
Home Economics    _	
52 TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
I 45
School Districts—Continued.
School District.
Course.
Enrolment.
50
87
60
27
41
224
346
134
54
98
Oak Bay —                              	
33
38
52
71
75
38
97
Revelstoke   	
Richmond.	
Saanich  .	
Salmon Arm.    — —  	
Home Economics  	
Commercial. - 	
Agriculture _ 	
Commercial  	
Agriculture.... -      	
Agriculture           	
Agriculture _ 	
C ommer c ial—_  	
103
13
43
186
93
45
24
2,963
3,106
Home Economics ....   	
Art      , ,   	
2,199
89
175
206
Commercial  _  	
289
280
71
Agriculture . ,	
128
96
181
232
12,802
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
There is no work in the educational field of more importance than that done in night-
schools. It is here that people emancipate themselves from the work which they are compelled to do for a living. It is at night-schools that people pursue their heart's desire. They
attend voluntarily and pay fees. For this reason the instructors should be carefully selected
and should be either the most successful members of the teaching profession or the most
skilful craftsmen from the various industries. Some school trustees advocate giving the
night-school positions to those people who have no work or to those who require the money,
quite regardless of ability or efficiency and heedless of the fact that the students have paid
fees to receive specific information, knowledge, and skill of some kind or other. Those
who engage the teaching staff for night-schools should therefore give full consideration to
the qualifications of those who have to act as instructors.
The subjects taught at night-schools throughout the Province were as follows: Accounting, Advertising Art, Algebra, Applied Electricity, Applied Mechanics, Architectural Drawing
and Building Construction, Arithmetic, Art, Art Metalwork, Astronomy, Automobile Engineering, Aviation Ground Course, Book-keeping (Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced),
Business English, Cabinetmaking, Cartooning, Chemistry, Child Art, China-painting, Choral
Music, Choral Singing, Colour Printing, Commercial Arithmetic, Commercial Art, Community
Singing, Cooking (Elementary and Advanced), Current Events, Dramatic Art, Drawing
(Elementary and Intermediate), Drawing for  Teachers, Dressmaking,  Diesel  Engineering I 46 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
(Elementary and Advanced), Electricity, Electrical Engineering, Elocution, English Composition and Grammar, English for Foreigners, English for Japanese, English Literature,
Extension Lecture Course, Figure Drawing, First Aid, Folk-dancing, French, Geology,
Geometry, German, Glove-making, Handicrafts, Higher Mathematics, Home Economics, Home
Nursing, Horticulture, Interior Decoration, Japanese, Latin, Leather-work, Lettering and
Design, Lip-reading, Light Woodwork, Lumber-grading, Machine Construction, Machine
Drawing, Machine-shop, Manual and Practical Arts, Manual Training, Matriculation
Subjects, Mathematics, Mechanical Drawing, Metalwork, Millinery, Mining, Modern Merchandising, Motor Mechanics, Music, Music Appreciation, Needlework, Operatic Training,
Orchestral Music, Painting (Oil and Water Colour), Painting and Decorating, Physical Education, Physics, Pottery, Poultry Husbandry, Practical Mathematics, Printing, Psychology,
Public Speaking, Public School Subjects, Pulp and Paper, Radio, Rug-making, Salesmanship,
School Band Music, Secretarial Practice (Intermediate and Advanced), Sheet Metal, Shorthand (Elementary and Advanced), Short-story Writing, Show-card Writing, Sign-painting,
Silversmithing, Sketching, Spanish, Speech Correction, Spelling, Steam Engineering, Technical Draughting, Typewriting (Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced), Weaving, Welding, Willow Basketry, Wool Craft, and Woodwork.
The enrolment at night-schools, not including the classes in mining, numbered 7,901
(4,357 males and 3,544 females).    There were 272 teachers.
The total number of students attending night-schools in the Province, including those
who attended the mining classes, was 8,794.
MINING CLASSES HELD UNDER THE NIGHT-SCHOOL SYSTEM.
The above classes are operated under the joint management of the Department of Mines
and the Department of Education, and for this reason we keep the records separate from
those of night-schools.
The classes have been well attended, although the total number of students is not as high
as last winter.
An excellent text-book has been written by the Provincial Mineralogist and this has aided
the class lectures tremendously. The text-book has also helped to establish the correspondence course in Mineralogy which is gradually gaining favour.
The enrolment for the correspondence course numbers 22. The attendance at the mining
classes reached a total of 893.
THE B.C. APPRENTICESHIP COUNCIL AND THE "APPRENTICESHIP ACT."
Apprenticeship-training is now established in the following trades: Painting and Decorating; Plumbing and Steam-fitting; Plastering; Building Construction; Automotive
Engineering—(a) Automobile Mechanics, (&) Automobile Metalwork, (c) Automobile Tire
Reconditioning; Sheet Metal; Metal Trades—(a) Machinists; Electricity—(a) Shop, (6)
Construction, (c)  Service Repairs;   Ship and Boat-building;   Jewellery Manufacturing.
The agreement, which is signed by the apprentice, his parents and his employer, calls for
attendance at a night-school in order that the student may both become skilled at the bench
and have a thorough understanding of the underlying principles of his trade. For most of
these courses night-school classes have been established and the instruction given is meeting
with the whole-hearted approval of the apprentices and employers.
It will be readily understood, however, that in small towns it will be quite impossible to
arrange apprentice classes in the various industries which are embraced in the scheme.
Correspondence courses in technical subjects are rapidly being completed, so that, no
matter where the apprentice may be practising his calling, he will be able to study correct
methods and gain a theoretical knowledge of his trade which will keep him well in line with
all the work which is being accomplished in larger centres.
The technical correspondence courses which are now available are the following:
Mechanical Drawing and Draughting, Commercial Art, Lettering and Display-card Writing,
Engineering Drawing, Automotive Engineering I. and II., Diesel Engineering, Practical
Electricity, Elementary Principles of Radio, Aviation I., Aviation II., Prospector's Course
in Geology and Mining, Forestry and Forest Products, House Painting and Decorating,
Plumbing, Heating and Steam-fitting, and Building Construction. Other courses will be
prepared during the year. TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
I 47
TRAINING OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS.
Classes for training manual instructors and technical teachers have been carried
on in
the Technical School, Vancouver.    The classes met on Saturdays (from 8 to 12 a.m. and from
2 to 6 p.m.) and at Summer School.    The training was thus continued uninterruptedly during
the year.
The classes were composed of school-teachers holding First-class Certificates and well-
educated, efficient craftsmen.    There were fifty-five men attending the winter classes.
It is from these training classes that instructors are selected for work required in day-
schools, night-schools, and schools for the unemployed.
The following British Columbia certificates are obtainable at above classes:—
(a.)   B.C. Manual Training Teacher's Certificate for Elementary Schools.
(6.)  B.C. Industrial Arts Certificate for Junior and Senior High Schools.
(c.)   B.C. Technical School Certificate.
The training classes for teachers of Physical  Culture, Music Teachers, Art Teachers,
and Commercial Teachers are not now held on Saturdays, but will be included in the courses
held at the Summer School for Teachers.
Summarized Statement of Attendance and Teachers in Evening Vocational Schools
for Period July 1st, 1936, to June 30th, 1937.
O
O
*o
g
QJ
■a >,
Number of Individuals
enrolled.
Teachers
Municipality or
School.
.2   »
Z-^
A o
o
C3
_   - o
m    ^
"3 S3
■wX
ra tn
£ C ta
S s ",
Male.
Female.
Total.
Male.    Female.
Total.
Rcfl
ho
R So
HBo
(
7
9
147
3,856
26
121
147
2
5
7
1
1
38
525
38
38
1
1
Burnaby       -
5
9
194
7,760
55
139
194
4
1
5
Chilliwack     _
2
3
88
5,907
33
55
88
2
1
3
Comox - -— 	
2
2
26
895
9
17
26
2
2
3
3
66
3,554
35
31
66
2
1
3
1
1
13
982
13
13
1
1
4
3
35
759.2
15
20
35
1
2
3
1
1
46
5,221.5
18
28
46
1
1
3
3
76
3,998.2
43
33
76
1
2
3
2
2
29
2,066
23
6
29
2
2
Kelowna    -
4
4
60
2,422
14
46
60
1
2
3
Kent  - 	
1
1
31
300
31
31
1
1
1
1
34
662
34
34
1
1
1
1
22
1,374
22
22
1
1
4
24
4
4
1
1
3
4
74
4,031
50
24
74
3
1
4
1
1
7
534
7
7
1
1
1
8
180
8
8
1
1
1
19
990
19
19
1
13
12
259
12,088
119
140
259
9
2
11
5
6
123
3,120
28
95
123
3
3
9
12
158
5,004
129
29
158
7
4
19
28
454
5,431
273
181
454
20
7
1
1
13
388
13
13
1
1
2
2
60
2,865.6
36
24
60
1
1
2
1
1
23
3,602
22
1
23
1
1
1
1
14
1,022
13
1
14
1
9
7
98
10,826.6
86
12
98
7
1
1
25
1,792
19
6
25
1
1
1
13
506
11
2
13
1
1
Summerland 	
1
1
36
1,548
13
23
36
1
1
1
1
29
2,088
3
26
29
1
Trail..-	
3
3
35
1 838
12
23
35
1
1
11
500
6
5
59
123
3,956
2,331
116
1 625
3,956
16
25
398
13,395.7
50,485.7
282
Victoria	
43
60
1,046
566
480
1,046
37
15
52
2
2
39
1 260
29
10
1
1
18
420
1
2
76
6,794
76
Totals	
235
343    [ 7,901     | 332,563.9| 4,367
3,544    1 7,901    1    193    1      79 I 48
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37
Summarized Statement of Attendance and Teachers in Mining Classes for Period
July 1st, 1936, to June 30th, 1937.
■H
0
o
"o
4J
C
OJ
Number of Individuals
enrolled.
Teachers.
Municipality or
o
« 8
as
w~,;
S'x
o g
HM
•2 a
HO
S B $
H go
S 3 2
o os
f-<Wo
Male.
Female.
Total.
Male.
Female.
Total.
Bralorne
56
547
56
56
1
1
Bull River 	
14
374
14
14
1
....
1
Burnaby:
28
798
28
28
1
1
Kingsway West	
19
536
19
19
1
	
1
57
28
781.5
366
56
28
1
57
28
1
1
.._
1
1    '
Fernie.  , ..
Fort Rt.PPlf
17
26
429.7
366.5
14
23
3
3
17
26
1
1
—
1
1
Galloway	
Kelowna	
53
231
53
	
53
1
	
1
29
546.5
25
4
29
1
1
Nanaimo _	
40
718
40
40
1
1
Nelson   	
14
226
9
5
14
1
	
1
33
157
33
33
1
1
32
536
32
32
1
1
34
26
342.2
372.5
34
26
34
26
1
1
1
1
Premier
27
107
27
27
1
1
Prince Rupert..  „	
22
208
22
22
1
__
1
20
21
306
492
20
21
—
20
21
1
1
—
1
1
Smithers 	
22
103.2
22
22
1
1
Usk. 	
29
88
29
29
1
1
Vancouver:
47
1,204.2
47
47
1
J.
54
1,603.5
54
54
1
1
Victoria 	
78
1,194
69
9
78
2
2
13
367
13
13
1
1
54
.   782.2
52
2
54
1
_..
1
Totals. 	
27
30
893     |  13,783
1
866
27
893
28
—
28
/ 1
/
TECHNICAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS. I 49
TECHNICAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OP MISS JESSIE McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR.
The new regulation passed in 1935-36 in regard to compulsory Home Economics has
added greatly to the prestige of the subject and has increased the zest of the teaching body.
Meetings were held with many School Boards concerned, and, as a result, appropriations were
made by Alberni, Port Alberni, Armstrong, Cranbrook, Fairbridge, Kimberley, North Saanich,
Prince George, Summerland, and Trail High School to open centres. Further plans for the
extension of the work have included a second teacher in Penticton and also in Vernon.
Victoria has completed arrangements for a new junior high school.
The new Junior High School course in Home Economics has been given a year's trial with
considerable success. Through the co-operation of the teachers, the Senior High School
course has been revised, and now the courses in Home Economics for both Junior and Senior
High Schools have been compiled in one bulletin. The (CC) course is becoming more and
more popular as it most nearly fits the needs of the smaller high school.
CERTIFICATION OF HOME ECONOMICS TEACHERS.
Regulations governing the certification of Home Economics teachers were changed.
Each applicant for a Permanent Certificate is required to complete two Summer Sessions in
Victoria. This year, summer classes were conducted by Miss Lillian Locke, M.A., Assistant
Professor of Home Economics in Columbia University, New York, in Fitting and Pattern
Adjustment and in Dress Appreciation. Thirty registered for the former and thirty-five for
the latter. Both classes were very much appKeciated, as students not only gained in technical knowledge, but also saw a vision of future accomplishment. In addition, a class was
conducted by Mrs. Nita Murphy, Instructor in the Provincial Normal School, Victoria, in
B.C. Curriculum and Methods, with the objective of enabling graduates of various universities to become acquainted with the British Columbia situation.    Twenty attended the class.
As yet there is no further information to report on the establishment of a Chair of Home
Economics in the University of British Columbia. The urgency of such a progressive move
is evident when, during July and August, twenty-eight appointments were made. Ten
of these represented moves from one centre to another, but eighteen new teachers were
appointed. Of these eighteen, only five were British Columbia girls—the rest being drawn
from Manitoba and Saskatchewan. A representative delegation waited on the University
Governors in December without result. The Provincial Parent-Teachers' Association has
slightly less than $14,000 in trust for this installation.
HOME ECONOMICS BY CORRESPONDENCE.
Home Economics by correspondence grows apace under the able direction of Miss Isabel
Bolton, B.Sc, and Mrs. Irene Vennell Green, B.Sc, both of the Vancouver High School staff.
In June, ninety-seven students were registered and four were successful in securing Junior
Matriculation standing in Home Economics. Practical examinations for these students were
conducted by Home Economics teachers who operated centres nearest to the address of the
individual student. Correspondence courses enable us to reach the farthermost corners of
the Province and they not only stimulate the interest of the student enrolled, but also that
of other members of the household and even of the community.
HOUSEHOLD TRAINING CLASSES FOR ADULTS.
(See report, "Adult Education—Home Economics.")
The total number of home-economics centres in operation during the
year was  103
The total number of home-economics teachers was     91
The total number of pupils taking home economics was as follows:—
In elementary schools    5,885
In junior high schools    3,806
In high schools    2 839
4 I 50 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
Of these, the total number taking:—
Home Economics (A) was  503
Home Economics (B) was  897
Home Economics (C) was  689
Home Economics (CC) was  775
The total number of boys taking home economics in high schools was 95
The total number of young women in Normal Schools taking home
economics was  138
The total number of young men in Normal Schools taking nutrition
was  62 SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER.
I 51
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF H. N. MacCORKINDALE, B.A., SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS.
SCHOOL ENROLMENT.
For the past three years the total enrolment of the Vancouver City schools has remained
fairly constant. During that period there has been a decreased enrolment in the elementary-
school grades and an increased enrolment in the secondary-school grades. The high birthrate during the years following the war accounts in some measure for this increase in
secondary-school enrolment. It is extremely difficult to predict the school enrolment in the
City of Vancouver when one considers that at the opening of school in September, 1936, there
were enrolled 2,012 pupils who came from school systems outside of Vancouver, or who had
entered school for the first time and had not previously resided in Vancouver. The following
table gives the enrolment by grades for September, 1934, 1935, and 1936. This table also
shows the increase or decrease by grades as between the years 1935 and 1936.
Enrolment,
Sept., 1934.
Enrolment,
Sept., 1935.
Enrolment,
Sept., 1936.
Increase or
Decrease
over 1935.
Grade I	
Grade II  	
Grade III... 	
Grade IV  	
Grade V 	
Grade VI ._	
Grade VII   _	
Grade VIII  	
Grade IX   	
Grade X   	
Grade XI. ..._"  	
Grade XII  	
Grade XIII. (Senior Matriculation) _
Special classes (High School).	
Special classes (Elementary School).
Totals 	
3,856
3,195
3,448
3,397
3,438
3,984
3,944
3,862
3,458
2,446
1,642
1,314
277
463
340
4,102
3,297
3,190
3,364
3,329
3,532
3,928
4,070
3,631
2,639
1,744
1,296
220
236
345
3,813
3,701
3,237
3,301
3,361
3,260
3,586
4,004
3,760
2,856
1,877
1,285
189
249
362
—289
+404
+ 47
— 63
+ 32
—272
—342
— 66
+129
+217
+133
— 11
— 31
+ 13
+ 17
39,064
38,923
38,841
— 82
SCHOOL COSTS.
The school budget submitted to the Vancouver City Council for the financial year 1937
(calendar year) was practically the same as for the year 1936, except there was added a
sum sufficiently large to provide a restoration of 2% per cent, on all salaries less than $1,200
per annum and 5 per cent, on all those over $1,200 per annum. A similar policy was adopted
towards all civic employees by the Vancouver City Council. I cannot speak too highly of the
fine spirit of co-operation shown by the Mayor, City Council, and civic officials towards the
Board of School Trustees and school officials in an endeavour to solve some of our common
financial problems. SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION.
For years the Superintendent's Annual Report has pointed out the need for more
secondary-school accommodation. During the past four years some relief has been temporarily brought about by rearranging the elementary-school boundaries in certain areas,
enabling us to close two elementary schools and remodel these buildings to accommodate
secondary-school classes. Temporary class-rooms have been constructed in basements, attics,
temporary buildings, and assembly-halls. Such a makeshift policy, because of extra maintenance, is a great wastage of public funds. Because of the lack of funds for building
purposes, these deplorable conditions now exist in some sections of our school system.
Because of these bad physical conditions, under which the students and staff have to
work, there is an alarming increase of defective vision. The general health of the students
is not as good as it has been in previous years. This is reflected by poor attendance (in these
centres) and hence a higher number of students are retarded. It should not be forgotten
that every year a student repeats in our secondary schools it means approximately an increase I 52 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
of $90 in expenditures. This is surely false economy. The building of a bridge or road can
wait, but the education of the youth of this country must be provided now. The expenditures
on these same individuals in later life may be much greater. It is not necessary for me to
emphasize the high economic and social loss so made cumulative.
I am delighted to report that an addition (the equivalent of thirteen rooms) has been
added during the past year to the Lord Byng secondary school. The funds for the construction of this wing were found by consolidating the unexpended balances from school-
construction by-laws (made possible by an Act passed by the Legislature). This new wing
contains:—
One Foods Laboratory—accommodation, 40 students.
One Clothing Unit—accommodation, 48 students.
One Typing-room—accommodation, 48 students.
One Music-room—accommodation, 60 students.
One Library—accommodation, 120 students.
One Study-hall—accommodation, 80 students.
Three Standard Class-rooms—accommodation, 120 students.
Because of the rapidly increasing population in the western part of the city, it will be
necessary in the near future to construct another wing to the Lord Byng secondary school.
During the months of May and June, a party of educationists from all the Provinces
of Canada (except one) visited schools in the British Isles. The party was organized by the
National Council of Education under the supervision of its progressive secretary, Major F.
Ney. I was honoured by being a member of this group. We spent six weeks in almost every
section of the British Isles. Three of the members (Dr. J. H. Putnam, of Ottawa, Ont.;
Prof. A. B. MacDonald, of Antigonish, Nova Scotia; and myself) later spent two weeks in
Denmark and Sweden. I mention this incident at this point because of the wonderful
facilities supplied in these countries for the education of youth. The progress made since
the World War in providing excellent building accommodation in the British Isles and the
Scandinavian countries is truly enough to put us to shame. I have never seen better school
plants. They had excellent gymnasiums wonderfully well-equipped, swimming-pools, workshops, playing-fields, music-rooms, and art-rooms. I am not one of those who believe that
marble stairways, mosaic pavements, beautiful tapestries, cut-stone entrances, are a necessary
part of school architecture. What I am suggesting is that our buildings can be so constructed
that they will be beautiful and at the same time contain all the necessary equipment to provide
these physical facilities observed in the countries mentioned above. All this can be done at
a cost quite within our ability to pay, yet it need not cost as much as it has in the British
Isles. It is imperative that the Vancouver school system shall have more school accommodation for September, 1938.
BUILDING MAINTENANCE.
The value of the buildings of the Vancouver City school system is approximately
$10,000,000, and the value of the equipment approximately $1,000,000. To maintain this plant
and equipment we are spending the absurdly small sum of 1% per cent, of the valuation.
When one considers the heavy pupil-load of day students, the large number of night-school
students, the numerous demands of various adult groups for public meeting space, it readily
follows that the depreciation of these buildings will inevitably be high. How far would lVn
per cent, of the valuation spent on maintenance go towards keeping our homes and other
privately owned buildings in a proper state of repair? This neglect of proper maintenance
will some day cost us a great deal more than it otherwise should. Our budget for building
maintenance in 1938 must be increased, otherwise the expenditure in the future on such a
programme of maintenance will be out of all proportion to the values concerned. A great
number of our school plants are antiquated and out of date. They must be altered in order
to enable our schools to give a programme of instruction somewhere in keeping with that given
in almost every other civilized country of the world.
We have not been able to make many very necessary changes in our plumbing and heating
equipment; to alter our class-room lighting by installing modern light-globes so that the light
may be properly diffused; to provide in many cases other health facilities so important in a
modern programme for the education of youth. SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER. I 53
THE NEW CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
Throughout the year a great interest was displayed by all members of the elementary-
school staff in our new school curriculum. In every school there was a great evidence of many
worth-while projects, involving keenly interested pupils and enthusiastic teachers. There is
no doubt about the reaction of both pupils and teachers to the new course. This is reflected
in the larger number of teachers who have applied for leave of absence to take University
courses outside the Province. In addition, the number of teachers enrolled at the University
of British Columbia and at the Department of Education Summer School is the largest in the
history of those institutions. During the year, our supervisors and special teachers of primary
grades, folk-dancing, music, library practice, art, handicrafts, and physical education have
given courses to over 600 teachers of our permanent staff. These courses have been enthusiastically received by all enrolled. The same staff of instructors has also given courses to over
150 substitute teachers and to over 200 other teachers who were not employed in the City of
Vancouver but who were located in the vicinity of this city or in the Fraser Valley. To this
group of special instructors I wish not only to express my personal thanks, but to congratulate
them on the contribution that they have made to the educational system of this Province. I
know that the Department of Education in Victoria is indeed very grateful.
The principals of our elementary schools have shown genuine interest in .the administration of the new curriculum. All have done their utmost to organize their schools in such a
way that the new curriculum would function effectively. Many ingenious time-tables have
been constructed, permitting some departmentalization, whereby some teachers can assist in
the special subjects such as art, music, handicrafts, library-work, health and physical education. There is a desire in many quarters to extend the organization of the platoon school
(sometimes referred to as the rotary plan). The platoon type of school has operated in a
few of our larger schools for more than twelve years. In my visits to elementary schools in
the British Isles I found this type of organization quite general. In some cases, it is true,
they kept spare special rooms which did not necessitate the complete platoon organization.
Nevertheless, the idea was much the same. In order that the modern school curriculum may
function at its best, I believe that the larger elementary schools must eventually take on some
type of platoon organization. The small elementary schools must develop an improved type
of organization. The day is long past when a large graded school is a collection of " little
red school-houses " under a single roof.
It is also very gratifying to be able to report that, after many years of stinted expenditures on libraries and supplementary readers in our elementary schools, the Board of School
Trustees were able in some measure to supply the necessary material to assist the pupils and
teachers with the various subjects of the school curriculum. Truly, a start has been made
towards making the school library the " heart of the school."
PHYSICAL EDUCATION.
During my visit to the British Isles, I was impressed with the excellence of their programmes of physical education and the fine equipment at their command. I might also state
that I was proud to note that in this department the Vancouver City schools compare very
favourably. Certainly our equipment needs to be augmented. Many of the directors of
education who visited our city two years ago under the National Council of Education paid
particular tribute to what we were doing in physical education.
For some years (while the schools are in session) courses of instruction have been given
to hundreds of our own teachers and principals. No success can ever follow the teaching of
any subject in our course of study unless the teachers who instruct the classes are properly
trained and have the enthusiasm as well as the energy to carry out such a programme of
instruction. During the past year, many teachers from outside the city have taken advantage
of Saturday morning classes conducted by Mr. Brandreth, our Supervisor of Physical Education. Many of these teachers from different inspectorates come as far as 75 miles to be in
attendance at these classes. I wish to congratulate those enthusiastic teachers for their
desire to improve their standing. I wish also to express personally my appreciation for the
many letters of thanks received from several inspectors and principals. A letter from
Inspector Calvert (part of which is quoted below) was typical of many others:— I 54 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
" Dear Sir,—A number of those teachers who have been attending your classes have
expressed to me their keen appreciation of the course which you have provided for them.
I note a very marked improvement in the Health and Physical Education work which these
teachers are doing. Their pupils display a keener interest and are enjoying the Physical
Education more than heretofore.
" I wish it had been possible for all my principals and teachers in the Delta, Langley,
and Surrey Municipalities to have taken your course.
" Sincerely yours,
" (Signed)  F. G. Calvert,
Inspector of Schools."
HEALTH SERVICES.
From the standpoint of school health services, the year 1936-37 was a very eventful one.
The health services of the Vancouver City schools were combined with several health services
in the district to form a Metropolitan Health Unit. The members of this Health Unit are:
(1) Vancouver City schools system; (2) the City of Vancouver; (3) the City of North
Vancouver; (4) the District of North Vancouver; (5) the Municipality of Richmond; (6)
University Area.
The Medical Department of the Vancouver City schools was organized in 1907 and has
grown steadily ever since. On November 1st, 1936, this department was merged with the
other units mentioned above. Dr. White, the School Medical Health Officer for the Vancouver City schools, was made Director of the School Health Division of the Metropolitan
Health Area.
Under the supervision of the Director of this Division, each of the following eight medical
officers has charge of a certain group of schools and conducts physical examinations in these
schools: The Director of the Division, the Associate School Medical Officer, the Director of
the Division of Child Hygiene, and the Director of each of the five health units.
Each of the seven last mentioned devotes practically every morning and the Director
devotes full time to school-work. The Director of the Division of Child Hygiene is also
Mental Hygienist.
Daily records of the number and results of the medical examinations are kept and
computed monthly at the central office at the City Hall.
Monthly reports of time spent in school-work are made to the Director of the Division.
Monthly and annual reports of school health work are made to the Senior Medical
Officer and to the School Boards. To receive parents or others who wish to consult him,
each of the School Medical Inspectors, except the Associate School Medical Officer, who is on
half-time, is at his office from 4 to 5 p.m. daily.
Examination of teachers joining the staff is conducted by the Director of the Division.
School Nursing Services.—These are conducted by Miss Breeze, Supervisor of School
Nursing, who is under the control of the Director of the School Health Division and of the
Director of Public Health Nursing.
School-nursing is part of the Public Health Nursing Service of each unit, and each nurse,
with the exception of the Director of Public Health Nursing and the Supervisors of School
Nursing, Child Welfare and Tuberculosis Nursing, is assigned to a certain group of schools
in her district, the nursing supervisors of health units each having only one school to attend
personally.
Generally, the mornings of the nurses are spent in work in the schools, the school-home
visiting being combined with that of visiting in connection with the other divisions.
The Supervisor of School Nursing reports monthly to the Director of School Health
Division. Daily records of school-nursing work are kept and computed monthly at the
central office.
We aim to give each pupil four full medical examinations during his school-life—namely,
in the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth grades.
In the intervening years each pupil receives a physical inspection by the school nurse
as to sight, hearing, teeth, tonsils, skin, height and weight, and general condition. Any pupils
suspected of being below normal in these respects are referred to the School Medical Officer
for diagnosis, and a note sent to parent or guardian stating the condition, and urging treat- SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER. I 55
ment, when necessary, by the family doctor or public clinic. A personal home-visit is also
made by the nurse when treatment is required.
All new pupils entering school from outside districts and all pupils taking part in high-
school major athletics are also examined by the medical officers.
No treatment is given by doctors or nurses in the schools except first-aid and preventive
. treatment.
School Dental Services.—These are given only to pupils whose parents are unable to pay
for dental treatment.
At present there are two dental clinics, two full-time dentists (one of whom is supervisor) , two half-time dentists, and two lady dental assistants. Monthly reports of dental
work are made by the Supervisor of School Dental Services to the Director of School Health
Division.
Service is limited at present to pupils in the first six grades and emergency work in all
grades. A few specially urgent cases in higher grades approved by the Supervisor of School
Nursing Services are also treated. This limitation is made necessary by the shortage of
school dental clinics and school dentists, but it is hoped soon to extend dental services to
pupils in the higher grades whose parents are unable to afford private treatment.
Epidemiology in the Schools.—All cases of communicable diseases are reported to the
Division of Epidemiology and all members of the staff co-operate fully with this division in
the control of communicable diseases. The Provincial Bacteriological Laboratory also cooperates freely. Printed instructions regarding procedure in case of a communicable disease
are placed in all class-rooms for the guidance of teachers.
Immunology.—Toxoid and vaccination clinics for the prevention of diphtheria and
smallpox respectively are held at the unit offices every Saturday morning from 10 to 12.
Those pupils who cannot afford the services of a private physician are sent to these clinics.
Toxoid clinics are also held in each elementary school once a year under the supervision
of the Division of Epidemiology.
The presence or absence of vaccination is checked yearly in the schools. When children
enter school for the first time, the parents are provided with a copy of the Provincial
regulations regarding vaccination.
The use of toxoid has decreased the occurrence of diphtheria in our schools. There were
no cases of diphtheria in Vancouver schools in 1936.   In years past the average was 100 cases.
Tuberculosis Work in the Schools.—The School Health Division co-operates with the
Provincial Tuberculosis Division. The tuberculosis nursing service in the schools is under
the direction of the Supervisor of Tuberculosis Nursing for the Metropolitan Health Committee.
Copies of the reports of all pupils examined at the Provincial Tuberculosis Clinic are
reviewed by the Unit Directors, and cases, suspects, and contacts are followed up by the
nurses.
When an active case is found attending school, the pupil or teacher is excluded and all
close contacts in the school are given the opportunity of having the tuberculin skin test.
Those showing a positive reaction are given a full physical and X-ray examination by the
family doctor or at the Provincial Chest Clinic.
Each year tuberculin clinics are held in all elementary schools for beginners entering
school, written consent having been obtained from the parent of each child tested. Positive
reactors are sent to the family doctor or to the Provincial Chest Clinic for full clinical and
X-ray examination. These children having had few contacts except with their own families,
the other members of the families are also examined for tuberculosis.
During the current year a beginning has been made in the tuberculin-testing of high-
school pupils by holding clinics in two high schools in widely separated districts, written
consent of the parents having been obtained in each case. The positive reactors were given
full clinical and X-ray examination at the school. These tests and examinations were conducted in co-operation with the Provincial Tuberculosis Division,
Goitre Prevention.—This is considered a goitrous district, so each year all pupils under
12 are examined by the School Medical Officers for enlargement of the thyroid gland. Preventive treatment in the form of a chocolate tablet containing 10 mg. of iodine is given by the
school nurse weekly to each child showing no sign of enlargement.    Parents pay 10 cents I 56 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
per annum for this service.    The parents of children showing definite enlargement of the
gland are advised to have curative treatment by private physician or public clinic.
Report of Results of Goitre Prevention among Pupils of Vancouver Schools.
1930—3.9 per cent, of children examined had goitre.
1931—3.1 per cent, of children examined had goitre.
1932—2.8 per cent, of children examined had goitre.
1933—2.5 per cent, of children examined had goitre.
1934—1.8 per cent, of children examined had goitre.
1935—1.7 per cent, of children examined had goitre.
1936—1.1 per cent, of children examined had goitre.
Sight-saving Class.—Two sight-saving classes are maintained by the Vancouver School
Board under the supervision of the School Health Division, with specially trained teachers
and specially prepared class-rooms and equipment.    One class accommodates pupils in the
first six grades and the other is for those in Grades VII., VIIL, and IX.
Health Education (Child).—Health Education for pupils is conducted in the following
manner:—■
(1.) By the teachers in conformity with the new Provincial Health Curriculum.
(2.) By the Medical Inspectors at the time of the routine physical examinations.
(3.)  By health talks to classes given by the school nurses who also act as consultants
for the teachers.
(4.)  By precept and example in all health activities.
Health Education (Adult).—For adults it is conducted by talks with parents by medical
examiners and nurses at the time of the first examination of the school-child, by conversations
with parents  during home-visits, and by lectures given by medical officers  and nurses to
P.T.A.'s and other associations.
Close contact is maintained with all social service organizations.
Health Records.—A school health record-card is made out for each beginner and new
pupil, showing previous health history. The result of each medical examination, physical
inspection, serious illness, and home-visit is recorded on this card throughout his school-life.
As at present organized, it is too early to make any statement of finality regarding the
operation of the Metropolitan Health Unit. I can assure all parties concerned that the
Board of School Trustees of Vancouver City, together with all the school officials, is
endeavouring by every means possible to make the larger Medical Health Unit a success.
I have every confidence that this will be achieved.
CORONATION PROGRAMMES.
The principals, teachers, and pupils of the Vancouver City schools joined whole-heartedly
in the observance of the crowning of His Majesty King George VI. and Her Majesty Queen
Elizabeth. During the week preceding the coronation many schools attempted very fine
projects. These projects, based on the technique of the new curriculum, afforded an excellent
opportunity for integrating many subjects, such as art, music, history, handicrafts, geography, physical education, and library study into a complete, socialized unit.
Mr. Pollock, of the Visual Education Department, made two film slides on subjects
relating to the celebration. These were shown in most of the schools. Miss Carruthers, of
the Magee High School staff, and Miss Williams, of the Strathcona Elementary School staff,
assisted Mr. Pollock in the selection and arrangement of much of his material. On May 11th
every school observed the occasion, with many different and appropriate programmes. The
excellent souvenir booklets from the Department of Education were distributed at this time.
Since the coronation on May 12th, Mr. Pollock, of the Visual Education Department, has
shown to the students of many of the elementary schools some very fine motion pictures of
the actual ceremonies in London.
TEACHERS DECEASED DURING THE SCHOOL-YEAR 1936-37.
Our city school system suffered severe losses when death removed the following; they
had given long and faithful service: Inspector Alex. Graham, T. G. Bragg, Miss I. L.
Kirkwood, and C. Illingworth. SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER. I 57
TEACHERS SUPERANNUATED DURING SCHOOL-YEAR 1936-37.
The following retired from the service on superannuation; the contribution which they
made to our school system will long be remembered: Miss M. E. Brundrett, Miss A. Spencer,
C. H. Gray, E. A. Hemsworth, D. B. Johnston, Mrs. F. A. Coombs, and Miss E. M. Pugh.
In conclusion, may I express my appreciation of the excellent service rendered by all
the officials of the Vancouver Board of School Trustees; in particular, Inspector Straight,
Inspector Thomas, and our Secretary, Mr. Hines, assumed extra responsibilities during my
absence in Europe and the British Isles. I appreciate the opportunity granted to me by the
Vancouver Board of School Trustees and the Department of Education in being allowed to
join this party of Deputy Ministers of Education and Superintendents of Schools on such a
tour of school inspection. I can assure all concerned that I shall endeavour to see that this
privilege has not been granted in vain.
The school year 1936-37 has been one of real progress. Any success that has attended
my efforts has been primarily due to the excellent co-operation of the Department of
Education, the Board of School Trustees, the City Council, city officials, and the members of
the city school staff. I 58 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VICTORIA.
REPORT OF GEORGE H. DEANE, MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
I beg to submit the following report on certain features of the work of the Victoria
public schools during the school-year 1936-37:—
Among the important matters which developed was the issue between the City Council
and the Board of School Trustees with respect to estimates of school expenditures for the
year 1937. As a result of the representations made by the Council regarding the city's
financial situation, the Board finally agreed to reduce the estimates to a figure which did
not make available the funds necessary to provide adequate facilities. As a further result,
the Department, at the request of the Mayor and Council and with the approval of the
School Board, is now conducting a survey of the schools of Greater Victoria. This survey,
no doubt, will help to adjust all differences and promote the efficiency of the school system.
With regard to school-work, the two outstanding features were the introduction of the
new Programme of Studies in the elementary schools and the establishment of the Central
Junior High School.
To assist teachers in carrying out the new programme, special training classes were
organized early in the school-year covering such subjects as arithmetic, language arts, practical arts, and music. In connection with these classes I wish to acknowledge the valuable
assistance given by Principal Denton, Mr. Campbell, and Dr. Anderson, of the Provincial
Normal School, whose voluntary services were given so generously. In addition to the
classes conducted during the school-year, over 75 per cent, of the elementary staff attended
summer schools during July and August. This record seems to indicate an earnest effort by
Victoria teachers towards achieving the objectives of the new course. Progress towards
these aims will be accelerated by improved teaching skills, greater experience, and better
equipment. The work surrounding language arts, social studies, and general science was
handicapped by an inadequate supply of supplementary readers and library books. This
deficiency is realized and every effort will be made to have this condition remedied.
The Central Junior High School comprises fourteen divisions with an enrolment of over
500 pupils. Next year this enrolment will be increased as the existing school plant will
provide accommodation for at least sixteen divisions. Further improvements, involving comparatively small expenditures, will be included in the 1938 programme. When these are
provided the school will have excellent facilities to carry out the Junior High School Programme of Studies. Great care was taken in selecting the staff of teachers, nearly all of
whom added to their qualifications by taking summer school courses. There is every reason
to expect a successful future for this school. The extension of this organization in the
system by establishing additional junior high schools will receive, no doubt, attention in
connection with the above-mentioned survey.
Teaching facilities at the Victoria High School were improved by providing better
accommodation and additional equipment. The establishment of the Central Junior High
School reduced the enrolment by several divisions and the space made available by such
reduction was used to provide a large study-hall, two well-equipped sewing-rooms, and a
reading-room for the subject of General Science equipped with sets of books specially selected
to meet the requirements of the revised programme of studies in this subject. In the early
future additional Home Economics equipment will be provided, so that instruction and laboratory practice can be carried on entirely in the High School building.
A good beginning has been made in organizing a department of visual education. The
High School greatly appreciated the action of the Victoria 75th Anniversary Committee in
presenting a 16-mm. projector to the school.
Members of the High School, on the whole, are enthusiastic over the success of the
revision of the Programme of Studies. In several of the subjects of the course a keener
enjoyment of the work on the part of the student is evident, and the removal of abstruse
problems in Mathematics and Science is generally felt to be beneficial. Home-study also has
been materially reduced and an increasing number of students are proceeding to the High
School Graduation Diploma. REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. I 59
Victoria College had a successful year and the relations with the parent University
continued on a satisfactory basis. At the close of the session Miss Humphrey was granted
a year's sick-leave and Miss Ross resigned to get married. Both teachers had been on the
staff for several years and had performed their duties very efficiently. Their places have
been taken by Miss Grant and Mr. Pettit, who are giving excellent service and are taking
an active and effective part in the College activities outside the class-room. This year
(1937-38) there has been a substantial increase in attendance, and the following distribution
of student enrolment according to residence indicates the wide field of the College's service:
Victoria City, 118; Oak Bay, 33; Saanich, 30; Esquimalt, 8; Vancouver Island (other
parts), 17;  Mainland, 11;  total, 217.
A good beginning has been made in establishing a professional library for teachers, the
cost of equipment being shared by the teachers and the Board of School Trustees. Thanks
are due Miss Clay, Carnegie Librarian, for providing accommodation and assistance in
operating the library.
Early in the year a committee was appointed by the School Board to investigate lighting
conditions in all the schools. The Chairman of this committee was Trustee Mrs. MacLaurin,
to whom great credit is due for the thoroughness of the investigation and the comprehensive
final report submitted to the Board. This report summarized lighting conditions in the
schools, outlined the improvements already accomplished, and made recommendations for
further improvements in the order of their urgency. Over 500 visits to 205 class-rooms were
made and the investigation revealed certain unsatisfactory conditions which should be
corrected at the Board's earliest convenience. These conditions were due to the following
defects: Insufficient natural light; insufficient artificial light; glare (direct and indirect);
and lack of flexibility of control. The most serious defect surrounded bare drop-lights. The
work accomplished included improvements to a class-room at Sir James Douglas School to
demonstrate what the committee considered a standard lighting scheme. During the recent
convention many trustees visited this model room. To remedy existing defects and provide
all city schools with approved and up-to-date lighting facilities, the recommendations of the
Committee will involve an annual expenditure of about $3,000 for several years, but the
preservation of the eyesight of students and teachers will justify such expenditures.
The schools took part in celebrating Victoria's 75th Anniversary. An Empire Pageant
by elementary pupils under the direction of Principal Hum was presented at the Royal
Victoria Theatre two nights. Each performance attracted a capacity house and reflected
great credit on all concerned in its production. In June a field display of physical-education
activities was carried out very successfully at the Royal Athletic Park before a large crowd.
The death of Captain George Breadner, Supervisor of Industrial Arts and Evening
Classes, was a serious loss to Victoria schools. For many years the efficiency of his work
at the High School as Technical Instructor was outstanding. During the war he served
overseas and made a brilliant record as aviator attached to the Grand Fleet.
After many years of efficient service the following teachers retired on superannuation:
Mrs. Coady-Johnson, Miss J. Thompson, Mr. L. A. Campbell, and Mr. W. Plenderleith.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF NEW WESTMINSTER.
REPORT OF ROY S. SHIELDS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The enrolment of pupils in the New Westminster school system for the school-year
1936-37 remained fairly stationary, about 4,000, with a staff of 114 teachers.
In September, 1936, the Junior High School organization was reintroduced. By permission of the Department of Education, Grades VII. and VIIL only were included. Three
centres were opened, Lord Lister Junior High School in the west, John Robson Junior High
School in the central part, and Sir Richard McBride Junior High School in the east end of
the city. By the foresight of the Board of School Trustees necessary equipment had already
been installed and a progressive year was anticipated. The success throughout the year in
the development of pupil-life amply justified the Board's action. The school organization of
the city now consists of five elementary schools, three junior high schools, one senior high
school, and one technical high school. I 60 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
The rapid growth of that section of the city between Twelfth Street and Twentieth
Street led the Board to place a $25,000 by-law before the people in January. It was carried
by a very large majority and preparations were made for the building of a four-room
elementary school. The Board is aware, too, of the needs of the Queensborough District and
of future needs of the Westend District. Certain structural alterations are planned also for
various schools which will increase the efficiency of the work to be done. Our schools are
suitably located to meet the needs of a growing city, with spacious grounds offering every
facility for the provision of beauty-spots in the community.
All departments of pupil-development reached a higher standard than ever before.
The Medical Department, under Dr. D. A. Clark, with Miss Alice S. Stark, R.N.,
assisting, maintained an enviable record in the promotion of pupil-health. While child ailments were common, no epidemic occurred and consistent supervision at home and at school
was maintained. Every assistance has been given by this department in connection with
health and physical education. Corrective individual health and physical education programmes were prescribed where necessary. The development of this important phase of
school-work demands the appointment of at least another nurse.
The Dental Clinic, in charge of Dr. J. A. Sampson, and nurse, Miss Marion Rennie, has
been in operation for ten years and its effectiveness is much appreciated. The need for such
service is more apparent when one considers that at its inception 1,100 applications for
treatment were received, and of these approximately 98.5 per cent, were eligible for treatment. It is estimated that over a one-year period 16 per cent, of the cause of absence from
sickness is traceable, directly or indirectly, to dental defect. When per capita cost is considered, it is not difficult to justify the existence of such a clinic from a financial standpoint
alone. We are pleased with the preventive work done by this department. The lectures
given by Dr. Sampson and the moving pictures shown have been of great assistance. The
time is not far distant when the clinic will be operating on full time.
With the appointment of Mr. Ernie Lee as Director of Physical Education for the city,
a marked improvement was evident throughout the system. To interpret the new course,
teacher-training classes were held twice weekly; a full programme of extramural athletics
was introduced and for the first time a Play Day was held for the junior high schools, every
boy and girl taking part; a determined effort is being made to make functional in every-day
life the health instruction given the students. Friendly competitive games and exercises
continue to be carried on within the city and with outside municipalities. In basket-ball the
T. J. Trapp Technical High School won the J. L. Sangster Cup and the Sanguine Cup. The
Duke of Connaught High School Swimming Team, in competition at Vancouver with all Coast
senior high schools, for the first time in the history of the Swimming Gala made a clean sweep
of all trophies offered—namely, the Wismer Cup for 1937, awarded to the high school winning
the greatest number of points; the Jantzen Cup, awarded to the winner of the Senior Boys'
Relay; and the Jantzen Cup, awarded to the winner of the Senior Girls' Relay. To this
team, together with those teachers who took such a helpful interest, congratulations are due.
Other forms of athletics receive due attention and the results are commendable.
The Department of Music continues to maintain a very satisfactory standard. Recent
appointees are exceptionally well qualified. Orchestras, glee clubs, choirs, and school bands
have all received due attention under trained specialists.
Perhaps the greatest display of school activities took place on the evenings of April 28th,
29th, and 30th, when more than 2,000 of the pupils of the senior high, junior high, and
elementary schools staged one of the most colourful, historical, and patriotic pageants ever
presented in the city, marking the Coronation of King George VI.; from the entering of the
two motor-cycle dispatch-riders to the National Anthem, capacity audiences were kept thrilled
with the performances of so many children in such colourful costumes. For two hours
without a break and apparently without direction, except by means of a whistle and the
music provided by a school band of sixty pupils, a wonderful exhibition was given of rhythm
and graceful movement by the children, demonstrating not only skilful organization and
careful training, but a personal enthusiasm which was contagious. A choir rendered suitable
patriotic songs, while a search-light from a model warship, 60 feet in length, costructed by
the boys of the Trapp Technical High School, played upon its 500 members. Hornpipe
dancers, signallers, sailors, cycle-riders, tumblers, students of Danish drill, gymnasts, and
tap-dancers ably demonstrated some features of the new curriculum.    The finale, representing REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. I 61
an Old World garden with hundreds of tiny girls dressed as flowers and admired by stately
dressed courtiers, was most effective. Great credit is due to each teacher on the staff, as
well as to the pupils. All departments were represented—the music by choir and bands, the
Home Economics in the making of costumes, the Technical in the battleship and large 50- by
30-foot map of the British Empire, the Health and Physical Education by the dances and
drills, the library in the working-out of the Coronation motif, the dramatic in the effective
presentation of historical incidents, and the commercial in the making of programmes. The
proceeds were divided among the schools, to be used mainly for library purposes.
Our school libraries under the direction of trained librarian-teachers are playing a most
important part in our work. While these libraries are not yet ideal, definite progress is being
made in the number and quality of books and magazines being provided and in the methods
of handling these efficiently.
Indications are the summer will see more of our teachers taking extra courses than ever
before—teachers who are alert to opportunities presented and eager to play an understanding
part in the development of future citizens.
The senior high-school students are deserving of commendation. At the Duke of Con-
naught High School, through the efforts of the student-body, the teachers, and the Board of
School Trustees, an entirely new stage, with the latest electrical fittings and most beautiful
theatre curtains, was completed in May. The students of the Technical High School purchased a sound projector at a cost of about $500.
From October to April, evening classes were conducted in Home Economics, Commercial
Courses, Mathematics, English, Metalwork, Electrical Work, Woodwork, and Motor Mechanics. The Lumbermen's Association classes in grading and tallying were well attended.
Of special interest was the organization of a course in secretarial practice designed particularly for the office-work of large lumber companies.
The New Westminster schools appreciate the honour of having a representative on the
Boys' Coronation Tour. The President of the student-body of the T. J. Trapp Technical
High School, Terry Parsons, was chosen, and through the financial assistance of the Student
Council, Kiwanis Club, and the schools of the city was able to take advantage of the privilege.
Approved intelligence tests and standardized achievement tests have been given and
records kept.
A course in Manual Arts for teachers was given, with Mr. Wm. Steele as instructor.
Forty-five teachers attended.    Satisfactory work was done and credits obtained.
Mr. George Ford, of the Duke of Connaught staff, was given the Ferguson Memorial
award by the Teachers' Federation for outstanding service to the teaching profession in
British Columbia.    This recognition was justly deserved.
Mr. Wm. Govenlock, for many years teacher of Mathematics at the Duke of Connaught
High School, retired from service on superannuation.
The progress made this past year has been due to the whole-hearted support of the
Department of Education in co-operation with an able and conscientious Board of School
Trustees working harmoniously with teachers, principals, School Board officials, and interested
public bodies.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF NORTH VANCOUVER AND THE DISTRICT
MUNICIPALITIES OF NORTH AND WEST VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF WILLIAM GRAY, M.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The territory covered by this report comprises the three municipalities on the north shore
of Burrard Inlet stretching from Horseshoe Bay to Deep Cove. The two North Vancouver
municipalities continue to function under a Commissioner, who, in the matter of schools, acts
as a Board of School Trustees. The West Vancouver schools are governed by a regularly
elected School Board.
NORTH VANCOUVER CITY.
Progress in schools has been affected in recent years by the financial condition of the
city, and while there are many difficult problems still to solve, the situation during the past
year has been brighter.    There has been a slight decrease in unemployment and a consequent I 62 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
decrease in the number of families on relief. There has also been an increase in the amount
of taxes collected, although the reduction in assessment more or less offsets this. In general,
however, the financial condition of the city shows an improvement and the schools are thereby
benefited. The plan for the partial restoration of teachers' salaries was continued, resulting
in a better feeling among the staffs.
Enrolment in the elementary schools remains practically stationary, while that of the
high school continues to increase. There is adequate accommodation and some vacant rooms
are still available for a possible increase.
Buildings have been kept in excellent repair and equipment up to standard. The main
weakness in this respect is the lack of auditoriums and gymnasiums,-which curtails to a
large degree the work in physical education.
Home economics and manual training have now resumed their rightful place in the
curriculum, these courses during the past year being part of the curriculum for the seventh
and eighth grades.    This work will be extended during the coming year to include Grade IX.
A special class was established in Queen Mary School in September to take care of pupils
who required special help. The class included those who were retarded because of ill-health,
lack of opportunity, or lack of ability. It was ably managed by Miss M. Hutchison and
proved a valuable aid to the pupils enrolled in it, so much so that some of them were able
after a few months to continue in their regular grades.
NORTH VANCOUVER DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY.
The territory comprising this municipality includes the five areas—Capilano, North
Lonsdale, Lynn Valley, Keith Lynn, and Dollarton. One school, providing tuition to the end
of Grade VIIL, is situated in each of these areas. Thereafter, the pupils receive their high-
school education at North Vancouver High School, under an agreement between the city and
district. Some of the areas mentioned are at some distance from the city and are rather
widely separated from each other, so that there is little possibility for any system of consolidation. In some cases, however, the actual boundaries between city and district should be
revised, particularly where they affect Keith Lynn School and North Star School (in North
Lonsdale), and some consideration will be given to this matter during the coming year.
Consolidation of city and district does not appear to be making much progress at present,
but it may be possible to effect some changes in order better to accommodate pupils in the
various schools.
All the schools are graded, the smallest with two rooms, the largest with seven. The
pupils of Grades VII. and VIIL are given instruction in Home Economics and Manual Arts
at the centres operating in the city schools.
Mention should be made of the fine work done by the Parent-Teacher Association of Lynn
Valley School in providing cocoa for the school-children's lunches. The actual work was
done by members of this association and funds were raised through parent-teacher efforts
and by donations from individual parents.
WEST VANCOUVER.
Enrolment in the schools of this municipality continues to grow steadily because of a
steady influx of people to this fine residential area. The new development area known as the
British Pacific Properties is expected to attract many new residents. The completion of the
First Narrows Bridge, at present under construction, will make West Vancouver easily
accessible and will prove a further impetus to growth. The Board of School Trustees is
aware of the results of these developments so far as school accommodation is concerned and
is taking steps to secure sites for new buildings.
The pupils of the western section of the municipality are provided with transportation,
and during the year a second bus had to be added. These are municipal buses, making
regular trips in addition to those required to transport school pupils.
Six rooms were added to the Inglewood School last summer, and in September, 1936, the
pupils of the senior high school were moved from Hollyburn School to Inglewood. This
relieved the congestion in Hollyburn School, where the high-school pupils had been housed
with pupils of Grades I. to VI. The change was also highly beneficial to the senior high-
school pupils, who are now able to take full advantage of the facilities provided in Inglewood REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. I 63
School, such as the gymnasium, auditorium, home economics department, manual-training
shops, and art-room.
Inglewood School is now operated as a junior-senior high school under one principal, and
the past year has demonstrated that this form of organization is admirably suited to this
particular situation.
GENERAL.
With few exceptions, the quality of teaching improved during the year. This was mainly
due to the introduction of the new curriculum. Teachers were quick to take advantage of the
newer teaching procedures suggested therein and reorganized their work accordingly. The
teachers of the three municipalities are organized into the North Shore Teachers' Association, and the meetings held during the year were planned to assist in interpreting the new
curriculum. A convention was held in October, at which speakers dealt with various phases
of the new programme, and, following this convention, throughout the year, groups of
teachers met to discuss particular topics. The subject of reading in the schools was emphasized, a survey made in the elementary grades, and remedial treatment prescribed.
Classes for teachers were held in North Vancouver in the subjects of Music, Art,
Basketry, and Folk-dancing, while many teachers attended the Physical Education classes
conducted in Vancouver. As a result, these subjects were given prominence during the year
in the class-rooms.
Interesting experiments are being carried out relative to the use, in the schools, of two
local natural products, willow for basketry-work and clay for modelling. Special mention
should be made of the work done by Miss Hardacre in adapting Lynn Valley clay for use in
school-work.
As in the preceding year, classes for unemployed youth were organized. The classes in
Physical Education continued under the Provincial Department of Physical Recreation. For
young women the class in Sewing and Dressmaking was very successfully continued by Mrs.
Richards. For boys who have left school and are yet unemployed a centre for Automotive
Engineering has been established. With the co-operation of the Commissioner in the matter
of supplying a building and providing heat and light, the Department of Education equipped
a centre for auto-mechanics and provided an instructor. Excellent results were secured,
two classes of young men being held, one in the forenoons, the other in the afternoons.
Proximity to Vancouver, where excellent facilities are provided for evening school-work,
makes it difficult to secure a response to this type of work in North Vancouver. Classes
were held in commercial work and in public speaking. Under the direction of the Department of Mines, co-operating with the Department of Education, a lecture course in mining
was carried on as in former years and was fairly well attended.
In West Vancouver night classes were held in Physical Education, Commercial Work,
Woodworking, and Public Speaking.
Medical inspection of school-children is part of the programme of the North Vancouver
Health Unit, working in conjunction with the Metropolitan Health Area. The school nurses
make an inspection of each child in school at least once a year, and the director of the unit
gives a medical examination to each child on the average once in every three years. Much
of the work of the unit is preventive and conferences with the parents of the school-children
constitute an important part of the plan. During the year talks on sex hygiene were given
to groups of high-school boys and girls by the Director of the Health Unit and the supervising
nurse.
A new basis for dental treatment in the North Vancouver schools has been reached,
whereby the work is to be done by five local dentists supervised by the Director of the Health
Unit. The children concerned are those whose parents cannot afford the required treatment.
The expense is to be borne by the two municipalities concerned, the Provincial Department
of Health, and the local Kiwanis Club. Credit is due the last named for the interest taken
in school-children's welfare, both financially and otherwise.
This summer, plans were made to reorganize the schools of the City of North Vancouver,
so as to include a junior high-school system. The schools of the District of North Vancouver,
as has been mentioned, are too remote to be included in this plan. In addition, the accommodation available in the city, while ample for city pupils, is inadequate to provide for district
pupils as well.    The following plan, therefore, has been adopted and will become effective in I 64 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
September, 1937: Lonsdale School will be operated with Grades I. to VI., while Ridgeway
School and Queen Mary School will each operate as a combined elementary-junior high school.
As far as possible, the top floor of each building will be used by the junior high-school pupils
and the lower floor by elementary pupils. At each centre one principal will be in charge of
the whole school. The senior high school will continue to operate Grade IX. classes to
accommodate the pupils from the five district schools.
In West Vancouver a new system of medical inspection has been planned for the term
beginning September, 1937. Arrangements have been made to include the medical inspection
of schools under the North Vancouver Unit of the Metropolitan Health Area. The Director
of that unit will undertake medical inspection of the school-children of West Vancouver,
similar to that given in Vancouver and North Vancouver. It is hoped that a year's trial
of this plan will result in the inclusion of West Vancouver as a whole under the Metropolitan
Health Board.
The two senior high schools in this inspectorate are being reorganized in anticipation of
the introduction of the new high-school curriculum. High School Graduation as against
University Matriculation will be given greater prominence, and in this way the schools
should be better able to provide for the needs of the increasing numbers of students entering
their doors.
Again appreciation is expressed for valuable assistance and encouragement given by the
officials of the Department of Education, the Commissioner for North Vancouver, the West
Vancouver Board of School Trustees, the teaching staffs, and the Parent-Teacher Associations.
SCHOOLS OF THE DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY.
REPORT OF C. G. BROWN, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
I have pleasure in submitting the annual report of this inspectorate for the year 1936-37.
The Burnaby Inspectorate consists of seventeen elementary schools and two high schools,
with a total staff of 152 teachers. There are 115 teachers on the elementary-school staff, 27
teachers on the high-school staff, and 10 teachers on the manual-training and home-economics
staff. The Practical Arts programme is conducted at seven centres—Edmonds Street, Capitol
Hill, Gilmore Avenue, Nelson Avenue, Kingsway West, Schou Street, and Windsor Street
Schools. Of the seventeen elementary schools, four are one-room schools, three are two-room
schools, two are three-room schools, and eight are larger schools. With two exceptions, the
smaller schools enrol pupils up to Grade VI. only. The one-roomed schools do not, as a rule,
enrol pupils above Grade IV.
DEPARTMENTALIZATION.
During the past year, to give effect to better organization and to afford opportunity for
specialized teaching, the larger schools were departmentalized. On the whole, this plan has
worked out satisfactorily. It made possible a fairly close observance of the time-allotments
for the various subjects, and permitted a better arrangement for the carrying-out of the
programmes in physical education, practical arts, and music. It was possible, also, by this
plan of organization, to give regular and adequate attention to the subjects of social studies
and elementary science, since the work in these subjects was entrusted to special teachers
who conducted the studies throughout the upper grades. Next term two or three of the
larger schools will be platooned in an effort to improve still further the organization of the
school to fulfil the requirements of the revised curriculum.
I must pay a tribute to the principals and the teachers for the manner in which they
have adjusted themselves to the new situations necessitated by a change in school organization. The principals entered readily into the plan and had the whole-hearted co-operation
of the members of their staffs. The problems associated with the new curriculum called upon
the principals to exercise considerable ingenuity and resourcefulness, and I am pleased to
report that the Burnaby principals met this challenge with a good measure of success. REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. I 65
ORGANIZATION OF SPECIAL CLASSES FOR TEACHERS.
To enable the teachers to secure training to teach effectively certain of the new subjects
of the curriculum, special classes were organized. Many teachers availed themselves of the
opportunity to attend these classes, both in Burnaby and in other centres where accommodation was available.    The following tabulation indicates the varied interests of the teachers:—
Number of
Courses offered. Teachers enrolled.
Practical Arts  r  61
Physical Education  24
Music  26
Art  7
Folk-dancing   26
UNIVERSITY AND SUMMER SCHOOL COURSES.
During the recent vacation a large number of Burnaby teachers attended summer school
sessions to improve their academic standing and to receive instruction in specialized subjects
and professional courses. It is gratifying to note that the principals of our schools are
recognizing that, if they are to give competent leadership to their staffs, they must keep
themselves educationally abreast of the times. With this end in view, several of the principals have been doing a certain amount of professional reading and some have supplemented
this procedure by courses in Education taken at the University of British Columbia and the
University of Washington during the past summer.
EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES.
A very pleasing feature of this year's work was the Burnaby Schools Day held in Central
Park on June 4th. On this day some 4,000 pupils joined in a massed display of folk-dancing,
physical exercises, games, and singing. The demonstration was such a pronounced success
that the affair will be repeated next year in Confederation Park, North Burnaby. Education
Week was duly observed by all the schools, and during that week approximately 2,000 persons
visited the schools and witnessed the varied proceedings. Appropriate exercises marked, also,
the Coronation of Their Majesties King George VI. and Queen Elizabeth. Several of the
schools planted trees in commemoration of this event.
INSPECTION OF SCHOOLS.
The plan of work pursued this year might be considered, perhaps, an inspection of schools
rather than the individual inspection of teachers. While as many as possible individual visits
to teachers were made, nevertheless, the major emphasis of my work centred upon problems
of administration and the task of broadening the organization of our schools that they might
function as efficiently as possible. To this end, frequent conferences with principals were
held, special classes were conducted, meetings with special groups of teachers were convened,
and plans and methods of work were devised to assist the teachers in their daily routine.
About 7,000 tests were administered during the year. The principals were encouraged to
undertake a greater degree of active supervision over the work of the teachers, and in this
way the Inspector was enabled to deal with the broader aspects of school administration. In
the coming year plans will be developed whereby all phases of supervision and administration
will receive a maximum of attention.
It is a pleasure to report the sympathetic and active co-operation received from the
Commissioner for Burnaby and his officials in equipping our schools to meet adequately the
requirements of the school curriculum. The Board during the past term has granted $1,500
towards school libraries, $1,000 for Practical Arts equipment and supplies, and $1,000 for
Elementary Science equipment and supplies. In addition to this, the Board, at considerable
expense, has equipped the manual-training centres so that the complete programme of work
in the Industrial Arts can be given to the pupils of Grades VII., VIIL, and IX.
5 I 66 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
ORGANIZATION PLANS.
During the school-year 1937-38, plans will be formulated for the establishment of the
junior high school in Burnaby. During the past year, the departmentalizing of the schools
afforded an opportunity for the teachers of elementary schools to secure experiences similar
to those to be met with in junior high schools. By working in this type of school they will
be prepared for a ready adjustment to a junior high-school organization. Likewise, the
pupils are being prepared for an easy transition from the elementary school to the junior
high school. In making appointments to the staff, the Board is endeavouring to secure
teachers with University degrees in order to have a properly qualified staff to undertake
junior high-school work. There are now nineteen teachers in the elementary schools who
possess University degrees. If present plans materialize, the school organization of 1938 will
include the junior high school.
It is the intention of the Commissioner to provide instruction in the Technical and Home
Economics courses to all Grade IX. pupils during the year 1937-38. Four centres have been
equipped to take care of this work during the fall term. Another commendable step taken
by the Commissioner is the extension of the health and medical services in the schools. Two
school nurses have been appointed and will begin their duties in September. These two
progressive measures will enrich the offerings of our school system and will undoubtedly
prove a beneficial procedure.
In concluding my report, I should like to express my grateful appreciation to the
members of the Department of Education, to Commissioner Fraser, and to my colleagues for
the generous assistance rendered in this my first year as Inspector. SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND.
I 67
THE SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND THE BLIND.
REPORT OF C. E. MacDONALD, LL.B., B.S. in ED., PRINCIPAL.
ATTENDANCE.
The following table presents a summary of the enrolment for the 1936-37 school-year:-
Deaf and Partial
Hearing.
Blind and Partial
Sighted.
Total.
Boys.
Girls.
Boys.
Girls.
Day pupils     _.	
13
7
21
7
6
14
1
7
7
1
2
6
22
22
48
Totals
41
27
15
9
92
The average age of those in attendance as at June 30th was slightly over 13 years.
HEALTH.
At the very outset of the term one of our day pupils contracted scarlet fever. Through
the contact with our resident pupils, three cases appeared in the school and were promptly
sent to the Infectious Hospital. In November one of our older boys developed an acute
case of plural pneumonia. In spite of the skill and attention of our nurse and physician,
this young lad passed away in our school hospital. An epidemic of measles swept the school
and was later followed by mild outbreaks of mumps and chicken-pox. Two cases of measles
developed complications and were removed to a city hospital for mastoid operations.
As there were not adequate facilities for isolation, it became necessary to quarantine the
school for short periods on two occasions.
ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL DEPARTMENT.
At the beginning of the school term a number of children with considerable residual
hearing, as determined by Audiometer tests, were transferred to our new Auricular class.
This modern approach has opened a new world for those with a usable degree of hearing and
has done much to develop new interests and desirable attitudes. The class-room has been
equipped with a Fairchild Multiple Hearing Aid, individual earphones, microphones, and
other equipment, specially designed to meet the needs of those with impaired hearing.
Through the generous co-operation of the Vancouver School Board, a number of children
were given Pintner-Patterson and other non-language intelligence tests. In some cases
children were sent to the Psychiatric Clinic for more detailed examinations by Dr. Crease
and his staff. The results of this programme have been of great value in determining the
most suitable methodology to be employed to meet individual needs.
Reading and language-work have received major consideration in all deaf classes. The
emphasis has been placed on those subjects in order to minimize the peculiar language
handicap of the deaf. The results of reading and other tests given at the end of the term
justified this desirable procedure.
Soon after the fall term opened, a large area under the boys' dormitory was set up and
fully equipped for the carrying-on of a number of afternoon industrial arts courses.
All pupils in the intermediate and advanced classes have had one afternoon period for
gymnasium-work and one for library and study problems each week. For the boys the other
afternoon periods have been open for such courses as: Carpentry and Joinery, Draughting,
Barbering, Shoe-repairing, Cabinet-work, Electricity, Art, Farming, and Household Mechanics. For the girls the other afternoon periods have been open for such courses as:
Cooking, Typing, Sewing, Beauty-culture, Art, and Weaving. I 68 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
In order to carry this programme forward, it has been necessary to engage a few
additional part-time teachers and to borrow others from the Provincial Department of
Technical Education.
It is hoped that the opportunities for try-outs in this wide range of afternoon activities
will facilitate the discovery of the individual interests and aptitudes of the pupils.
TEACHERS AND OFFICERS.
Miss Dorothy Dewar returned to the teaching staff after a year's leave of absence for
additional professional training. She was assigned to the new Auricular class and has
obtained very satisfactory results.
Mr. Ross Hamilton, an experienced teacher from the Saskatchewan School for the Deaf,
was appointed to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Miss Mildred Planta.
Miss Kathleen Heaney, R.N., was added to the household staff as nurse. Before the
end of the term Miss Heaney resigned and was replaced by Miss Marion Lalonde, R.N.
A number of our teachers have taken educational courses during the year. At the close
of the term Miss Blake left for Columbia University to take a special advanced course for
teachers of the deaf. Mr. Hamilton went to Saskatchewan University Summer School.
Miss Dewar and Miss Bond plan to attend the summer session at the University of British
Columbia.
In concluding my report, I wish to pay tribute to the Vice-Principal, teachers, and
officers for their loyalty, devotion to duty, and splendid co-operation. CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. I 69
REPORTS OF OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF CORRESPONDENCE
SCHOOLS.
HIGH SCHOOL AND VOCATIONAL COURSES.
REPORT BY J. W. GIBSON, M.A., B.Paed., OFFICER IN CHARGE.
During the past school-year satisfactory progress has been made in all branches of the
work. The enrolment for the year was 2,068, as compared with 1,443 for the previous year,
exclusive of unemployment relief camp cases. At the time of writing (October 20th) the
enrolment of new students shows an increase of 24 per cent, over the same period last year.
The increase in the volume of work is suggested by the number of students' papers examined
this year—58,660 as compared with 48,625 for the previous year, an increase of 21 per cent.
New registrations occur continuously throughout the year and old students withdraw. The
autumn months witness a large influx of new students and the late summer months most of
the withdrawals.
Because of the closing-out of the unemployment relief camps, our work with adults was
considerably reduced. In all other respects there was a notable increase. This was particularly noticeable in the number registering for Senior Matriculation courses and in the number
of students in high schools taking correspondence courses. Only a few of the young men who
started correspondence courses in relief camps have carried on since leaving the camps.
Those who did so made very satisfactory records.
PREPARATION AND REVISION OF COURSES.
Modifications in the curriculum have made it necessary to have many of the old courses
replaced by new ones. This has entailed a great deal of work, but it will mean a real
improvement in our correspondence courses. Much yet remains to be done in order to bring
our work into line with the new curriculum. Five new vocational courses have been added
during the past year and others have been enlarged. Twenty-four high-school courses have
been either revised or rewritten. At present the following Technical-Vocational courses are
being offered: Mechanical Drawing (Draughting); Commercial Art; Lettering and Display-
card Writing; Engineering Drawing; Automotive Engineering I. and II.; Diesel Engineering;
Practical Electricity; Principles of Radio; Aviation I. and II.; Prospector's Course in
Geology and Mining; Forestry and Forest Products; Building Construction; House Painting
and Decorating;   Plumbing;   Heating and Steam-fitting.
The total number of courses now being offered is 88—Grades IX. to XII., including Junior
Matriculation and Commercial, 59 courses; Senior Matriculation, 11; Technical-Vocational,
18. A course is understood to mean a year's work in a subject. Full-time students usually
complete eight or nine courses in a year.
The preparation of an acceptable correspondence course involves much careful work. It
requires skill in the newer processes of individual instruction as well as thorough knowledge
of the subject in hand. Only specialists are entrusted with the preparation of our courses
and we have been fortunate, so far, in being able to have all courses prepared within the
Province. Over fifty specialists have been engaged in preparing correspondence courses since
the work began and the high quality of these courses has been a matter of favourable
comment by many prominent educationists outside of British Columbia. The authors of our
correspondence courses have performed a unique and notable service in this Province and
merit our thanks as well as our congratulations. In many cases the specialist who prepares
a course is engaged as instructor for the course.
SUPPLEMENTARY CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN HIGH
AND SUPERIOR SCHOOLS.
For several years attention has been drawn to the fact that many pupils in our smaller
high schools and in superior schools are often unable to get instruction in certain subjects
that may be classed as optional. According to our present regulations, it is possible for a
regular high-school student to carry as many as three subjects by correspondence. This very
important provision permits of such benefits as these:— I 70 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
(1.) It affords students a wider choice of subjects; this is a matter of growing importance, in small schools especially, under the high-school graduation plan.
(2.) It helps to take care of the needs of the irregular pupil or the new pupil coming
into the Province from outside with certain subjects lacking.
(3.) It helps to meet the needs of pupils who may have failed to meet requirements in
certain subjects and who would otherwise have to repeat a year.
(4.) It makes it possible for the specially gifted student to enlarge and enrich his regular
courses in high school.
(5.) It permits a high-school pupil to have a full commercial course in a school where
there is not a commercial specialist.
(6.) It enables pupils who have no intention of entering university or the teaching profession to elect vocational subjects in part. This privilege tends to hold certain pupils in
school and gives them new interests as well as a measure of practical training.
(7.) It is an important aid to many teachers who are placed in difficult positions,
especially in small high schools.
This year the idea of supplementary correspondence instruction in high schools has
become more widespread and teachers are coming to appreciate more and more the practical
benefits to be derived from it. They find, for instance, that many boys, who have no intention
of going to university and who will spend only a year or two in high school, have been induced
to take a new interest in their studies because of a vocational course that they have been
able to include. Any high-school student who carries at least five high-school credit courses
is now permitted to carry with them one vocational course at a time without paying the adult
vocational fee, if under 18 years of age.
THE RELATIONSHIP TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
Under our present regulations pertaining to high-school correspondence instruction, there
is no real need for any elementary school undertaking high-school work. There are a few
cases where the recorded attendance of one or two students living within the district and
taking high-school work may be necessary in order to maintain the required minimum
enrolment in the school. In such cases these students may still carry up to three subjects
by correspondence. At the present time no student is asked to pay tuition fees if under
18 years of age.    The annual registration fee of $2 only is required.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION TO
THE PROVINCIAL APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM.
During the past year we have kept in touch with the Apprenticeship Board and also
with the Trade-schools Regulation Committee. As time goes on and funtls are available for
the extension of vocational courses, we hope to be in a position to offer instruction suitable
to all young men out of reach of technical schools who are apprenticed to the building and
related trades. It is our hope that more advanced courses can soon be offered along vocational
lines, as there is an ever-widening opportunity for effective work in this field in the interests
of many ambitious young men who, so far, have had to carry on their technical education
unaided and at large, and often unwarranted, expense. We trust that the time is not far
distant when this Province will have the facilities necessary for training its young men and
women in all important branches of skilled labour and applied art. When that time comes,
home-study or correspondence courses of a character unsurpassed in any country will play
an important part in the education of the people. Enough has already been accomplished to
justify this hope and also to point the way.
ELEMENTARY CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL.
REPORT OF MISS ISABEL BESCOBY, M.A., OFFICER IN CHARGE.
The total enrolment in the Elementary Correspondence School during the school-year
1936-37 was less than in the previous school-year.    This was  accounted for by a sharp CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. I 71
decrease in the Adult Class registration.    An account of this  Adult  Class work is  given
elsewhere in this report.    The registration by grades was as follows:—
Grade I.
1935-36.
166
1936-37.
168
Grade II. ....
                   131
171
Grade III.  .                     	
     120
132
Grade IV.  	
     136
122
Grade  V.
113
115
Grade  VI.  	
       96
98
Grade  VII.   .                   	
78
93
Grade VIIL
85
94
Adult class       	
     335
147
Totals  	
 1.260
1.140
Based upon the total enrolment of regular students, the average cost per pupil for the
entire school-year was $13.89. This includes the cost of writing, printing, distributing, and
marking lessons, but not the cost of postage, text-books, and the Travelling Library.
As even the children's registration did not increase to any great extent during the year,
instructors were able to focus attention on improving lessons by remodelling them to conform
with suggestions in the new Provincial Programme of Studies. This revision was completed
in all lessons and all regular subjects in Grades I. to VI. An entirely new course in Grade
V. History was written. Steps were taken to provide new junior high-school courses in
Grades VII. and VIIL, and it is expected that reorganization of these lessons will be
completed during the school-year 1937-38.
In the past, some Correspondence School pupils have suffered from lack of time for
studies. They have been engaged long hours per day with home duties. This meant that
they had only one or two hours per day for study and that it took several years to complete
a grade's work in all subjects. This led to a high percentage of over-age students in the
upper grades of the school. We have tried to decrease retardation recently by offering
partial courses in only the more essential subjects to children in special circumstances. So
far, the plan has been very successful, and many who would otherwise have stopped school
altogether are still enrolled, progressing well in two or three basic subjects. Some follow
these partial courses with full courses in all subjects in higher grades. Others do not
attempt to gain their High School Entrance Certificates, but continue to study a few subjects
for which they have time.
An interesting study of withdrawn students is now being completed. It, appears that
withdrawn Correspondence School students take their places in public schools very readily
and that in academic work they attain at least the Provincial grade standards. It is hoped to
complete this study shortly and to investigate statements that students develop more initiative,
judgment, and self-reliance in this school than in other schools of the Province.
A total of fourteen instructors and stenographers were employed during the year.
Besides writing new lessons, marking submitted work, and other routine duties, they issued
two school magazines during the year. Service through the Travelling Library was substantially increased through the kind co-operation of the Public Library Commission. I 72 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
TEXT-BOOK BRANCH.
REPORT OF P. G. BARR, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
In regard to the free books which are loaned to pupils through the schools, principals
and teachers must be reminded again that when additional supplies are required they should
be ordered on a " Free Requisition Form properly completed." If a Free Requisition Form
is not on hand at the school, please write to the Text-book Branch for one and thus avoid
delay in the shipping of the goods. Orders submitted by letter instead of on the proper
form must be entered on a regular form by this office before they are shipped, and many
times the required detail is not contained in the letter; this causes delay in shipment.
A slightly more liberal supply of the Free Requisition Forms will be sent to schools in
future. Some few teachers still order " free " books on our " Price List Order Form." This
must not be done, as the Price List does not contain the proper data necessary for the issuing
of free supplies.
It is pleasing to note that proper supervision is being exercised in the caring of free
texts in the schools, and sound common sense is being used in regard to the destroying of
unfit books. This has effected a substantial saving to the Province. It is hoped that the
few teachers and principals whose supervision of the use of free texts is not satisfactory
may exercise proper care in the future.
In connection with the supplying of Free Supplementary Readers to Rural Schools
(Grades I. to IV. only), it should be noted that these readers may only be supplied on the
basis of one Supplementary Reader to each three pupils in the grade, and Readers of the
same title as those already on hand in any school may not always be supplied. As long as
the Rural School concerned has a supply of suitable material on the above basis of one to
three, it is considered as equipped from a Free Supply point of view. When teachers require
additional free Supplementary Readers, they should send the request to this office and supply
the following details:—
Number of pupils in Grades I. to IV. respectively, and complete detail regarding Supplementary Readers on hand—titles, quantities, etc.
Saleable books, prescribed texts, supplementary and reference books may be purchased
through the Text-book Branch from districts where there are no local booksellers, or the local
dealer does not give the required service. This, however, would be a matter for the local
Board to decide, and all orders of this nature should be submitted through and signed by the
local Secretary or Official Trustee. When orders are signed in this manner we will allow
the usual dealer's discount.
If, because of communication difficulties, it is not possible to obtain the signature of the
Secretary or Official Trustee, teachers may order direct from us, but a satisfactory reason
for the omission of the official's signature must be given.
The usual report forms, etc., were forwarded to all School Boards when and where
required.
To purchase and distribute the free supplies issued during the school-year 1936-37 to
the public schools, and in connection with the correspondence courses, required an expenditure of $55,474.18, and 6,742 free requisitions were received and filled. Combined orders,
free and saleable, reached the large total for the school-year of 16,888.
I hope these figures will demonstrate how difficult it is for this office to trace quickly
transactions under discussion, unless necessary data such as correct dates and invoice number
are quoted in the correspondence.
From the above orders which were received from dealers, School Boards, and others
throughout the entire Province, the sum of $225,375.59 was deposited in the Treasury.
It is the constant endeavour of the Text-book Branch to make all transactions as simple
as possible, and we look forward to the continued happy co-operation of the entire teaching
profession in British Columbia.
The following is a copy of the Annual Report of the Text-book Branch for the fiscal year
ended March 31st, 1937:— TEXT-BOOK BRANCH. I 73
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE OFFICER IN CHARGE, TEXT-BOOK BRANCH, FOR
THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1937.
I am pleased to report that the fifth annual statement shows still another year's successful business operation. A partial reallocation of the work of the staff was possible, with a
resultant increase in efficiency, through the passing of at least part of my recommendations
when the Estimates were last presented. Additional adjustments are yet necessary in order
that we may continue to handle the greatly increased volume of business, with its mass of
detail, which passes through this Branch.
Our gross sales have increased rapidly from year to year, and the detail in connection
with Library-work and the " Lending Plan " also shows . a material increase.
Stock.
The value of our stock on hand is somewhat larger than last year's figure. The main
reason for the increase is that Readers and other free books are being better cared for and
are lasting a little longer in the schools than we had estimated. The stock on hand, however,
is very reasonable in comparison to our turnover, and is all live stock.
Sales.
Our total sales for the year amounted to the large sum of $254,987, which is an increase
of 32 per cent, over those of the previous year and 62 per cent, over the fiscal year ended
March 31st, 1934. This greatly increased volume of sales represents a steady increase
throughout the entire year, and continues to tax the staff and our accommodations to the
limit, the strain of course being heaviest during our peak periods.
Discounts allowed to dealers, School Boards, and others amounted to $36,184. The distribution of free texts, etc., cost $54,893.65.
Profit.
It will be noted that the net profit for the year, amounting to $1,710.25, has been duly
transferred to Consolidated Revenue. The fact that this Branch has consistently shown a
small profit since it was organized along present lines, and has stabilized and reduced the
price of text-books throughout the Province, gives each employee of the Branch a healthy
feeling of pride in a job well done.
The members of the permanent staff work under high pressure and are required to give
much additional service during peak periods. I wish to record my thanks for their splendid
co-operation and also for the courtesy and co-operation shown by members of the Department
of Education, School Boards, teachers, and dealers throughout the Province.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
P. G. Barr,
June Hth, 1937. Officer in Charge, Text-book Branch.
Profit and Loss Statement for Year ended March 31st, 1937.
Gross sales   $254,987.00
Less discount       36,184.90
Net sales   $218,802.10
Stock on hand      $61,662.95
Less C.P.R. claim paid   3.00
     $61,659.95
Purchases for year:
Cost   $203,649.30
Freight and duty          5,797.19
     209,446.49
$271,106.44
Stock on hand, March 31st, 1937       74,664.91
Net cost of goods sold     196,441.53
Gross profit for year      $22,360.57
Carried forward      $22,360.57 I 74
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
Brought forward 	
Expenses:
Salaries and wages      $14,629.69
Freight and delivery          4,288.30
Packing and general expenses          1,732.04
Bad debts written off 	
Net profit, transferred to Consolidated Revenue
Certified correct.
$22,360.57
20,650.03
$1,710.54
.29
$1,710.25
J. F. Meredith,
Clerk.
Certified correct.
P. G. Barr,
Officer in Charge.
Balance-sheet, March 31st, 1937.
Assets.
Refund cash:
On hand
In bank .
$50.00
150.00
Undeposited cash 	
Stock inventory 	
Accounts receivable  (departments, School Boards, etc.)  $19,448.34
Less reserve for bad debts   500.00
$200.00
10.72
74,664.91
18,948.34
$93,823.97
Liabilities.
Treasury advances 	
Operating Account 	
Reserve for obsolescence of stock
$200.00
92,873.97
750.00
$93,823.97
Certified correct.
J. F. Meredith,
Clerk.
Certified correct.
P. G. Barr,
Officer in Charge. ADULT EDUCATION.
I 75
REPORT ON THE WORK OF ADULT EDUCATION, BRITISH
COLUMBIA.
BY JOHN KYLE, A.R.C.A., OFFICER IN CHARGE OF TECHNICAL
EDUCATION.
The above work was considerably lighter during 1936-37 because the Dominion Government relief camps had been dispensed with and the Provincial camps were interested almost
entirely in forestry and mining. While this report, therefore, deals specifically with the
technical branch of Adult Education, yet Adult Education embraces also classes in Mining
for Prospectors, Recreational and Physical Education Groups, Instruction by Correspondence
in Vocational Subjects, Household Training Classes, and Self-help Groups.
The shops for technical work were all housed in disused school buildings and the courses
of work were distinctly vocational in character. Skilled practical instructors who had been
members of the teacher-training classes were in charge of the shops and a good foundation
was well laid for such trades as Cabinetmaking, House-building, Electrical Engineering,
Automobile Engineering, Draughting, Typewriting, Shorthand, Cookery, and Clothing.
The following is a list of the schools for the unemployed, together with the subjects
taught and the number attending:—
Subjects.
Enrolment.
Carleton School, Vancouver.	
337 Carrall Street, Vancouver..
Hastings School, Vancouver	
Electricity	
English for New Canadians..
Woodwork 	
Macdonald School, Vancouver	
A.O.T.S. Polytechnic, Vancouver-
Auto Mechanics..
Wood-carving	
Book-keeping	
Abbott House, Vancouver   ._	
Henry Hudson School, Vancouver 	
Sanford Fleming School, Vancouver  	
Various schools, Vancouver  (Community Self-help
Department)    (for   details   see   separate   report
following)
Provincial  Vocational   School  for   Girls,   Open-air
School, Vancouver
Gilmore Avenue School, Burnaby   	
Ridgeway School, North Vancouver 	
Queen Mary School, North Vancouver	
Inglewood School, West Vancouver... _ 	
Shorthand and Typewriting...	
Show-card Writing and Commercial Art-
English for New Canadians.. 	
Woodwork  ._  	
Radio Servicing 	
Woodwork 	
West Vancouver High School, West Vancouver .
Nutrition, Household Art, Dramatics, Choral Work,
Folk-dancing, Quilt-making, Rug-making, Dressmaking, Embroidery, Spinning, and Weaving
Household Training.   __
Dressmaking   	
Woodwork and Building Construction	
Auto Mechanics    	
Home Economics   	
Public Speaking   	
Woodwork „  	
Typewriting- __   	
Pauline Johnson School, West Vancouver..
" Y.W.C.A.." Victoria 	
Victoria High School, Victoria  	
Market Building, Victoria	
Victoria West School, Victoria —	
Motor Mechanics   	
Flower Arrangement and Table Decoration-
Shorthand and Typewriting.	
Auto Mechanics	
Household Training   	
Free Classes in Mining for Prospectors (for details see Technical Education Report)	
Elementary-school correspondence instruction (for details see separate report following)	
Correspondence instruction in vocational subjects (for details see separate report following).
Recreational and Physical Education  (for details see separate report following).  	
20
93
46
59
16
22
35
16
20
58
24
50
1,343
46
41
29
35
100
23
26
19
21
20
33
50
14
893
147
374
11,860
Total..
15,533
In order to simplify matters for any one seeking information upon Adult Education and
upon what is being accomplished in the Province, it has been thought advisable to include
in the total the number who participated in Self-help activities in Vancouver; those who
took courses in Home Economics; the number of adults who took instruction by correspondence; and those who attend the Recreational and Physical Education classes throughout
the Province. Full particulars will be found in the following reports from those who were
responsible for such work: Miss J. L. McLenaghen, Miss Isabel Bescoby, Mr. J. W. Gibson,
Mrs. G. G. Ross, and Mr. Ian Eisenhardt. I 76 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
ADULT EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OF MISS JESSIE McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR OF HOME
ECONOMICS.
The vocational work conducted in co-operation with the Y.W.C.A. has continued successfully both in Vancouver and in Victoria. The course for Household Training was extended
to four months and, in all, fifty-four students graduated. In connection with the last class,
it was decided by the committee to withhold the departmental certificate until graduates had
had three months' successful experience. Recommendations were made to increase the length
of the training period to six months and to take a practice-house so as to offer opportunities
for greater efficiency in a home situation. We should like to take this opportunity to express
our appreciation of the co-operation of the V.O.N, nurses, the B.C. Electric Co., and the
various hostesses who so generously gave their homes and their time for the better training
of these girls.
Students in the Household Training classes in Victoria were given the advantage of a
short course of ten lessons in Flower Arrangement by Miss Frances Ede. Plans are complete for extending this privilege to the Vancouver students during the coming year.
In January, 1937, two classes in Commercial Dressmaking were started in Vancouver,
with a registration of forty-one, under the direction of two commercial dressmakers. The
purpose of these classes was to train girls for the various openings in the clothing trade.
For the coming year, recommendations have been made for the addition of courses in Pattern
Adjustment, Pattern Draughting, and Dress Appreciation, so that a conception of the
artistic side of the clothing-work may be gained. In June a display of the work of the
Dressmaking classes was open to the public and the results were gratifying.
In North Vancouver the Adult work continued to grow under the direction of Mrs. Lila
Richards—100 women of varying ages taking advantage of the opportunities for home
dressmaking.
ELEMENTARY CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL ADULT CLASS.
MISS  ISABEL  BESCOBY,  M.A.,  OFFICER IN  CHARGE.
There were 147 adults enrolled in the 1936-37 class as compared to 335 in 1935-36. The
decrease in the number enrolled was due to the discontinuance of relief camps and to the
stopping of the Oakalla work. The class consisted almost entirely of individual pupils studying in their homes and the class at Tranquille which has been under the supervision of Mr.
Henry Worthington. One full-time Instructor was employed to mark lessons submitted to
the Correspondence School for correction. The salary of the Instructor and supplies for the
adult class were paid from the Adult Education Vote.
There has been a great deal of improvement in the quality of the work submitted and
lessons have been sent in more frequently. This is no doubt due to the fact that adults were
asked to purchase this year all the required text-books. The enrolment, therefore, has been
almost entirely of those who earnestly desire to improve their education.
Three students completed Grade VIIL this year and received their Entrance Certificates.
Many of the adults are taking only partial courses because of insufficient time to devote to a
full course.
The students of the Adult class are very appreciative both to the Department and to the
Elementary Correspondence School for the help they are receiving. One foreign-born pupil
writes:—
" I wish to thank the school and all of you who have helped me with my lessons. I am
very grateful for what you have done for me. All my friends tell me I speak much better
than I did before which makes me very glad."
The following extract came from a Canadian who had not been able to go any further
than Grades III. and IV. as a child:—■
" I enjoy my lessons very much and am surprised at how quickly I am learning the things
I wanted so much to know." ADULT EDUCATION. I 77
HIGH CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION.
J. W. GIBSON, M.A., B.Paed., OFFICER IN CHARGE.
As the unemployment relief camps closed last year, correspondence courses for adults,
during the year now ended, have been confined to regularly-registered students. These
courses included a considerable amount of regular academic work, identical with that carried
by regular high-school students, including commercial courses, as well as technical-vocational
courses.    Of the latter the following courses were offered:—■
Students.
Mechanical Drawing  47
Building Construction   5
Commercial Art  20
Lettering and Display-card Writing  15
Engineering Drawing  19
Automotive Engineering I. and II  134
Diesel Engineering  23
Practical Electricity  56
Principles of Radio  11
Aviation I. and II.  15
Geology and Mining  22
Forestry and Forest Products  7
Total enrolment   374
Plans are under way to include the following new courses for the coming year: Painting
and Decorating; Plumbing; Heating and Steam-fitting; Roofing and Stair-building; House-
wiring; Steam Engineering (third and fourth class) ; Advanced Draughting or Architectural
Drawing.
Several of the old courses will be revised and republished.
Young men who come under the " Apprenticeship Act " and who are not able to attend
Technical School classes are allowed to substitute correspondence courses.
Boys 16 years of age and over, who are attending high schools but who do not intend to
proceed to University, are permitted to carry one vocational subject per year without paying
the regular tuition fee as in the case of students outside high schools. Many of our high-
school principals are advising older boys to do this and so far the results are quite satisfactory. In these cases vocational correspondence courses chosen are frequently substituted for
foreign languages.    This concession promises to be an important feature of our work.
Correspondence courses in technical-vocational subjects are also used to supplement the
practical instruction given in the Adult Education schools for unemployed young men. They
are also being used in the interests of inmates at the Oakalla Prison Farm and should be
greatly extended there.
The demand for instruction in vocational subjects by correspondence is rapidly increasing
and offers an excellent opportunity for helping young men who are unable to receive the
desired instruction in any other way.
COMMUNITY SELF-HELP GROUPS.
EXCERPTS FROM THE REPORT OF MRS. GEORGINA G. ROSS, SUPERVISING
DIRECTOR.
I beg to submit the following report on the Community Self-help Groups in the City of
Vancouver for 1936-37:—
These groups numbered sixty-five and met in the following schools: McBride, Norquay,
Henry Hudson, Lord Roberts, Mount Pleasant, Van Home, Fleming, Model, Renfrew, Lord
Nelson, Carleton, Mackenzie, and Charles Dickens. I 78 PUBLIC  SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
The instructors include Miss V. I. Meyers, Instructor of Spinning and Weaving; Madame
Elfrida Webb, Director of Drama; Mrs. D. Bruin, Instructor of Corrective Exercises; and
110 volunteer group leaders and supervisors.
The activities in which the members were engaged embraced nutrition, household art,
dramatics, choral work, folk-dancing, quilt-making, rug-making, dressmaking, spinning,
weaving, and embroidery.
Dressmaking.—An important part of dressmaking was the remodelling of garments;
1,213 garments were made from materials issued through the co-operation of the Vancouver
Central Clothing Committees and 2,174 garments were distributed for remodelling. The
making of all garments was supervised and approved by group leaders and proved very
satisfactory.
Spinning and Weaving.—Raw wool amounting to 1,465 lb. was distributed to group
members for carding, spinning, quilt-making, and rug-making. Five Weavers' Clubs were
organized and supervised by an experienced instructor.
Dramatics.—Five Dramatic Clubs were active during the year and their members competed in the Drama Festival for a silver cup for the best play and also for a silver trophy
for the best player.
All the groups participated in the display at the Vancouver Exhibition. The first prize
of a silver cup was won by the Community Self-help Group Float in the fraternal division at
the Jubilee Parade of Progress.
The total registration in the thirteen schools numbered 1,343. Of this number, 48.34 per
cent, were on relief, 8.05 per cent, received pensions, and 20.5 per cent, are border-line cases.
The groups were supported entirely by the Departments of Education and Labour and no
fees were collected from the various members. The work accomplished has done a great deal
to preserve the morale of the people through a very trying depression.
— RECREATIONAL AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION.
I 79
RECREATIONAL AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF IAN EISENHARDT, DIRECTOR.
The following table presents the increase in the number of centres at which classes for
recreational and physical education were held and the growth in registration at these classes
since they were first established in 1934:—
No. of
Centres.
Season.
Registration.
Aggregate
Attendances.
Attendance
Spectators.
19
15
24
23
58
Winter, 1934-35..
Summer, 1935	
Winter, 1935-36..
Summer, 1936	
Winter, 1936-37..
2,768
985
4,535
1,371
10,489
26,513
6,738
42,855
11,055
108,430
13,980
5,550
11,443
40,407
63,411
A great deal of publicity has been given to the activities of the centres and great results
have been achieved by groups of members as well as by individual members. We receive
many requests for more service, but limited appropriations make it impossible to do more
than we have done and are doing at present. Every dollar goes a long way. When we
realize that the cost per head was only $2.86 for a period of eight months—hardly more than
the average golfer's expenditures per week—then can we understand better the immensity of
the work which is being carried out at such a low cost. With better facilities we could handle
twice as many people in the same districts. It often happens that groups of people turn up,
but because our locations are very inadequate and unattractive they become discouraged and
do not bother to return. On the other hand, we have had numerous instances of members
walking miles in order to attend.
One criticism has often been raised—that gymnastics are stressed too much. I wish to
point out that there is a great need for corrective gymnastics among our young people. This
Branch of the Department of Education aims for a beautiful all-round development of the
individual, physically as well as mentally. Such results cannot be achieved by participation
in sports and games alone;   the co-ordination of mind and body is very important.
The Provincial Recreation Centres have supplied to the communities throughout the Province the very thing they needed—namely, a gathering-place for the adolescents and young
adults of both sexes. Community spirit, good citizenship, and a love of their country are the
underlying principles of our whole work. It is no wonder that the young people have rallied
to our centres. We have given them certain ideals for which to strive, ideals far above the
average, in which they can forget self and unite for the common good. A happy, healthy, and
straight-thinking Canadian youth—idealistic and unselfish, ready to serve Canada as good
citizens—will be the outcome of this health movement.
The " Gymnast."—Our monthly newspaper, during the winter, has developed from a
mere stencilled sheet into a four-, six-, or eight-page printed pamphlet (depending upon the
amount of material), with a 5,000 to 6,000 circulation. Mr. Paul Kozoolin was the Editor
again of this very welcome paper, which served as the main connecting-link between the
members of the centres. Many comments on the good articles written in this paper have been
received from people in this Province as well as from " outsiders." At times, editorials were
reprinted in other publications throughout the Province.
Membership Crests.—Crests were again sold to the members at a nominal cost of 15 cents.
These crests are very popular, and as they have on them the British Columbia coat of arms
they represent something patriotic, a sense which could be more developed among our young
people.
Uniforms.—When Miss Dorothiruth Meilicke, chief instructress, returned from Ollerup,
Denmark, where she had taken a course conducted by Niels Bukh, she introduced " rompers "
as a uniform for the women members of the centres. So far, several hundred of these have
been sold at $2 each, which includes the romper and a white shirt or blouse. They are very
practical as they can also be worn at beaches and camps. The members wear across the
front of the blue rompers their names in large white block letters, thereby enabling the I 80 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1936-37.
instructress and fellow-members to mingle and become acquainted more easily. The sale price
was the same as their cost to us. This season the uniforms were purchased through the
office; next year the women will order theirs directly from the firm. A felt sandal was introduced for dancing.
Accidents.—I am happy to report that, aside from a few sprained ankles and wrists, the
Department has a " clean " record. All the instructors were required to take a course in
first aid. With almost 11,000 young people participating in many varied activities, this
record speaks well of the instructors' careful handling of the classes.
Equipment.—"We. are labouring under a great handicap in this respect as until recently
there were no firms in British Columbia which manufactured the equipment necessary for our
instruction, and it was far too expensive to import the pieces of apparatus from another Province, usually from the East. Mats, spring-boards, and vaulting-boxes are the usual pieces of
equipment used in our centres; but as the movement progresses we shall require more
apparatus, such as high bars, parallel bars, and climbing-ropes.
Programmes.—The only new activity included in our programme this past winter was
ball-room dancing, carried out at the Provincial Normal School Centre. Otherwise our programme is one which consists of gymnastics, dancing, games, boxing, wrestling, table-tennis,
track and field, swimming, diving, life-saving, pyramid-building, acrobatics, tap, folk, and
natural dancing, weight-lifting, archery, football, socials, dances, and amateur hours.
Enrolment Forms.—Again this year all members signed registration forms, from which
we obtain such information as their names, ages, addresses, telephones. On each membership
form is kept a record of the member's achievements and additional information is added
throughout the various seasons. In this way we have built up a regular index-card of each
member's achievements. A sample registration form is shown at the end of this report. It
is my wish for next year to have membership-cards issued, with a picture of the holder of the
card, his physical measurements, and possibly a medical record chart; in the office would be
a duplicate card.
Publicity.—Newspapers throughout the Province, with few exceptions, are vitally interested in this movement and time after time have devoted considerable space to the centres'
activities. In this connection, I wish to explain that names of our members are used as
frequently as possible. This gives the young people a certain pardonable satisfaction and
creates an added incentive. From time to time the Director contributes feature articles to
the various newspapers which at times contribute their own comments on our activities. The
" B.C. Teacher," March issue, printed an article by Mr. Paul Kozoolin, which attracted attention in the Physical Education Bulletin of the American Physical Education Association.
Great co-operation has been accorded us by the newspapers and they should be given their
due credit for their valuable assistance in building up a health-consciousness.
Summer Courses.—One cannot abuse his health for a number of years and then expect,
through a few weeks' training, to get back suddenly into good condition. The body will stand
a great deal of punishment, but how much better would it be if people were taught healthful living.
Realizing the tremendous scope there is for recreation and physical education work all
across the Dominion, it was all-apparent to the Director that only through good leadership
could progress be made. During the summer of 1936 two courses for teachers and leaders of
health and physical education were conducted in Vancouver and two in Victoria. Forty-two
men and fifty-nine women enrolled in Vancouver's summer courses and Victoria had four men
and twenty-six women enrolled. At the completion of the courses the students were presented
with certificates. The instructors in charge of the Vancouver courses were Jerry Mathisen
(Provincial Chief Instructor), Misses Molly Edwards and Phyllis Sanderson, and Messrs.
Thomas Ruben and Paul Kozoolin. Those in charge of the Victoria courses were Mrs. Joan
Horsfield and Mr. Alfred Batcheler. A fee of $10 was levied on each student, which almost
covered the expenses in connection with the courses. It is interesting to note also that several
of those who took the courses were given positions on the teaching staff last winter. Many of
those registered were high-school and elementary-school teachers, all of whom returned to
their respective schools to teach physical education. In many districts where centres were
established the instructors taught school-children as well, but this was done through special
arrangements being made with the various School Boards. RECREATIONAL AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION. I 81
Vancouver Island Tour.—Under the management of Mr. Jerry Mathisen, Provincial Chief
Instructor, and chaperoned by Mrs. Ian Eisenhardt, a group of thirty-five young people toured
Vancouver Island from Port Alberni to Victoria, via Qualicum, Nanaimo, Ladysmith,
Chemainus, Duncan, and Saanich. Several thousand witnessed daily performances and the
young gymnasts were acclaimed by every one who saw the displays. The tour was made in
one of the coaches of the Vancouver Island Coach Lines, Ltd., chartered for the occasion.
The young people did very valuable pioneer work in presenting to the people of Vancouver
Island modern recreation and physical education. From reports I have received, the gymnasium in Duncan, for which the people there have been making demands for some time,
is now a realization. Similar tours will be arranged in other parts of British Columbia every
year by the Department, as I believe that that one provided a great incentive and boost to
physical education.
Wherever the troupe stopped, local authorities or sponsors had made splendid arrangements, without exception, for camping and cooking. For example, the Recreation Club at
Chemainus placed its entire recreation facilities at the disposal of the troupe—kitchen, dining-
room, dance-hall, sleeping-rooms. In the morning there arrived a gift of fruit and vegetables
from that same club. Then, in Victoria, the mother of one of the girls in the troupe—Mrs.
Towler—received the entire troupe at her home, where all its conveniences were placed at our
disposal. The Girl Guides, Vancouver, very kindly lent us their tents for the trip. If it had
not been for the fact that insufficient advertising had been devoted to our trip, the tour would
very li