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PART B ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR THE YEAR ENDED… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1938

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 PAET B
ANNUAL REPORT
MINISTEK OF MINES
OP  THE   PROVINCE   OP
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Year Ended 31st December
1937
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY  OP  THE  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Chables P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1938. BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Hon. W. J. Asselstine, Minister.
John F. Walker, Deputy Minister.
James Dickson, Chief Inspector of Mines.
D. E. Whittaker, Chief Assayer and Analyst.
P. B. Freeland, Chief Mining Engineer.
R. J. Steenson, Chief Gold Commissioner. Government   Sampling  Plant,   Prince   Rupert.      S.S.  Northhulm  leading   First   Shipment   of   Ore   for   export.
Big   Missouri   Dam   at   Cascade  Creek,   Outlet  of   Long   Lake. • ' ''
Looking   up   O'Donnel  River  Valley,   bearing  north   39   degrees   east   from   Nathan   Murphy's   workings.     The
right limit of the river trough is  the approximate left rim  of the buried channel rim.
Outcrop on Vollaug Group, McDame Creek Area. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 3
PART B.
NORTH-WESTERN MINERAL SURVEY DISTRICT (No. 1).
BY
Joseph T. Mandy.
SUMMARY.
The steady advance of the mining industry in this district that was evinced in 1936 has
continued during 1937. Increased and continued production has been the governing objective,
and the year has been featured by the achievement of progressive results in this respect from
preparatory developments carried out in 1936. During the year production, especially of
gold, has shown an increase, new producers have materialized, and further advance has been
made in the laying of a sound foundation for a possible progression of new producing mines
in future years.
Activity in silver and base metals has not shown any marked improvement during the
year.
During the year, the B.C. Silver and Sebakwe properties, now consolidated with the
Premier Gold Mining holdings and operated by the Silbak-Premier Mines, Limited, have been
brought into production. In the northern section, on the Taku River the Polaris-Taku
Mining Company, Limited, after considerable exploration and development, completed the
construction of a 200-ton-capacity mill on the Whitewater group, and brought this property
into production in September. Steady progress in construction of the Big Missouri underground mill of 750-ton capacity at Stewart has continued, and this property will come into
production early in 1938. Also in the Stewart area, the Dunwell mine and mill continued
production during the season.
In the coastal section, the Surf Point and Edye Pass properties have been operated by the
Reward Mining Company, with production from the Surf Point mill. At Surf Inlet the Surf
Inlet Consolidated Gold Mines, Limited, has continued mining and milling as well as exploratory development throughout the year.
During the year production has come from fifteen different properties, of which six were
milling operations. The construction of a Government sampling plant at Prince Rupert was
completed in August. Through the purchase and advantageous marketing of ore systematically mined by prospectors, or produced during the course of preliminary exploration, and by
bulk tests, guidance, and advice, it is hoped to speed up increased development and production,
especially along the Canadian National Railway's line into Prince Rupert. Since the plant's
completion, many prospectors have taken advantage of this service and the scope of its utility
has expanded.
There has been much activity in exploration and development of old prospects by well-
financed operators, especially in the Portland Canal and McDame Creek areas, also on the
pyritic deposits of the Ecstall River near Port Essington, Skeena River, and on the Hidden
Creek copper deposits at Anyox.
Operations in connection with placer gold have been active, especially in the Atlin area,
which will show a substantial increase in output, and promises continued expansion with
indications of the application of additional capital for the mechanized operation of new
ground. Of interest to placer-miners is the discovery of two large gold nuggets, one from
Squaw Creek, Atlin Division, weighing 46 oz. 5 dwt., and the other from Alice Creek, a
tributary of Boulder Creek, Turnagain (Little Muddy) River area, weighing 52 oz. 15 dwt.
Prospecting for lode and placer deposits has declined generally, but in some areas has
been active and new discoveries of importance have been made in the American Creek area,
Portland Canal Mining Division, the Turnagain area, and the Taku River area. Increasing
interest has been shown in prospecting for lode deposits in likely gold areas of the interior,
such as the McDame Creek section of the Stikine Mining Division. B 4
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
LODE-GOLD DEPOSITS.
Bear River Area, Stewart, Portland Canal.
This group comprises the Oral M., Muriel S., Ann G., May No. 1, and May
Oral M. Group.   No. 2 mineral claims and fractions, owned by Premier Gold Mining Company, Limited.    The claims were staked by the Premier Company during
1935 and 1936 on discoveries made by the company's prospectors at the time exploration was
being carried out by the company on the adjoining Molly B. molybdenite showings on Indian
Reserve No. 19.
Oral M.   Group,  Portland Canal.    Plan and Section.
The claims are located north of the Gold Axe group and east of Indian Reserve No. 19,
towards the base of the westerly slope of Mount Rainey, on the east side and towards the
mouth of the Bear River, about half a mile easterly from the village of Stewart. The property is reached by boat from the Stewart dock to a location on the tide-fiats on the east bank
of Bear River, determined by the stage of the tide, a distance of about 1 mile. At low water
Bear River can be crossed to its east bank by pack-horse from Stewart to the commencement
of the trail at the foot of the hill, about 30 feet above sea-level. If a rowboat is used from
Stewart dock, the tide-fiat and its margin is traversed for about a quarter of a mile to the
commencement of the trail. From this point a pack-trail ascends the mountain-slope by a
series of switchbacks to the tent-camp at 640 feet elevation, and about three-eighths of a
mile from the foot of the hill. From the camp a trail extends about 200 feet north-westerly
to the adit-portal at 600 feet elevation.
In the locality of the claims the hill slopes at a general angle of about 20 degrees, and is
densely timbered with mainly cedar, hemlock, and spruce trees of appreciable size and is
thickly overgrown with underbrush. Longitudinal benched rock ridges and knolls of " roche
moutonnee " form, fronted by rock bluffs, are typical topographical features. Glacial overburden of appreciable thickness in the bench and depression areas covers the hill-slope.
The locality is adjacent to a northerly contact of rocks of the Coast Range batholith.
Granitic rocks outcrop about 750 feet north of the adit-portal, and the contact strikes northeasterly across the central section of the Oral M. and plunges south-easterly under the roof
rocks which are argillaceous sediments. The rocks adjacent to the intrusive consist of highly
metamorphosed argillite of the Lower Hazelton group.    Immediately adjacent to the contact, NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 5
and at the base of the hill, the rocks are hybridized and in the main silicified by marginal
effects of the intrusive batholith. The marginal absorption-phase is gradually transitional
towards the south into a siliceous argillite now containing epidote and spessartite-garnet;
this altered rock is definitely banded by the epidote and spessartite. The altered sediments
strike north 55 degrees west and dip between 60 and 76 degrees south-westerly.
The mineral deposit consists of an irregular zone of silicification from 3 to 17 feet wide
in the altered argillite and is conformable with the attitude of the formation. The zone has
been exposed about 750 feet southerly of the batholith contact, and strikes at an obtuse angle
to the contact. Silicification in this zone appears to be associated with slight shearing along
fractures generally conformable with the bedding of the sediments, and to be best developed
in the localities of slightly sheared cross-fractures striking north 26 to 31 degrees east, with
a vertical to 45-degree dip north-westerly. Stringers, bands, patches, and small lenses of
quartz are irregularly distributed in the zone, especially in the locality of the cross-fractures.
The zone is generally mineralized with finely-disseminated pyrrhotite, but in some sections,
especially in the areas of cross-fractures, it contains stringers, blebs, and patches of massive
pyrrhotite with chalcopyrite across widths of from 2 to 9 feet.
During 1935 and 1936, the zone was explored by stripping and open-cutting and traced
on the surface between 590 and 840 feet elevation for a distance of about 640 feet southeasterly from the east boundary of the Indian reserve. During 1936, the zone was also
explored by seven diamond-drill holes. In the 1937 season, a contract was let to K. F. Pond,
of Stewart, for further exploration by drifting on the zone from an adit at 600 feet elevation.
At the time of examination on August 27th, a crew of four men was employed, and the drift
had been advanced 131 feet.
At 590 feet elevation on a knoll adjacent to the Indian reserve, stripping for 20 feet
exposes silicified argillite with garnet and epidote bands, quartz stringers and patches, mineralized with films and blebs of pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite across a width of 40 inches. At
this locality the zone strikes north 54 degrees west and dips 65 degrees south-westerly. A
sample across 37 inches assayed: Gold, 0.24 oz. per ton; silver, 1.8 oz. per ton; copper, 0.3
per cent. The continuation of the zone down the face of the bluff to the north-west on the
Indian reserve could be seen, but it was inaccessible for examination.
At 600 feet elevation, 40 feet south-easterly of this, slightly silicified argillite with some
quartz stringers and sparsely disseminated pyrrhotite and a little chalcopyrite 1.5 to 4 feet
wide is exposed in the face of a low bluff by stripping for a length of 55 feet. The adit-
portal is in the face of the bluff on the hanging-wall side of the zone.
At 640 feet elevation, 30 feet south-easterly of this, silicified argillite with stringers,
bands, and lenses of quartz from 9 to 14 feet wide is exposed by stripping and in the face of
a sloping bluff for a length of 108 feet to 710 feet elevation. In this section the zone strikes
north 55 degrees west, dips 60 degrees south-westerly, and is generally well-mineralized with
stringers, blebs, patches, and disseminated pyrrhotite and some chalcopyrite. Several transverse fractures striking northerly and dipping westerly cut across the zone in this exposure.
A composite chip sample for a length of 46 feet along the easterly section of the exposure,
and across an average width of 9 feet, assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, 0.30 oz. per
ton;  copper, 0.8 per cent.
South-easterly of this exposure, for a distance of 95 feet, continuity is obscured by deep
glacial overburden.    Two pits excavated in this had not encountered bed-rock.
At 740 feet elevation, silicified argillite with quartz stringers and bands is exposed for a
length of 70 feet by stripping, and in the sloping face of a rock knoll to 765 feet elevation.
In the westerly section of the exposure, stringers and bands of quartz are spread across a
width of 17 feet, with one main band 2 feet wide converging into the zone from the foot-wall.
The lower section of the exposure is very sparsely mineralized, but the upper and more compact section is moderately mineralized across a width of 6.75 feet with films, blebs, and disseminated pyrrhotite and with some chalcopyrite. A chip sample across 34 inches of the best
mineralized section assayed:   Gold, 0.20 oz. per ton;  silver, 1.6 oz. per ton;  copper, trace.
For a distance of 190 feet south-easterly, to 840 feet elevation, the continuity of the zone
is obscured by overburden. At 840 feet elevation, slight silicification with some quartz
stringers and sparsely disseminated pyrrhotite in altered argillite is exposed in the face of
a bluff. DANDY    No.l
(victoria  group)
SUNBEAM     M.C.
LEGEND
Open-cut
Stripping
Adit
Faujt outcrop     uwwvv.
Dip
5cale
DUNWELL No.Z
Dunwell Mines, Ltd.    Main Workings. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1). B 7
At 600 feet elevation an adit has been driven on the zone in a general direction of south
58 degrees east. At the time of examination it had been advanced 131 feet. At the portal
the zone strikes north 55 degrees west and dips 65 degrees south-westerly. The adit starts
on the hanging-wall and for the first 15 feet veers easterly across the zone to the foot-wall,
then gradually angles southerly again to the hanging-wall. At 50 feet from the portal the
drift turns northerly at a cross-fracture towards the foot-wall, and continues in the zone to
the face. For the first 50 feet from the portal to this fracture the zone is fairly well-defined
and composed of silicified argillite with quartz stringers and bands, and mineralized with disseminated pyrrhotite and some chalcopyrite. From this point for 50 feet the silicification
and mineralization appears to weaken. For the last 30 feet to the face silicification increases,
and quartz stringers and patches are erratically distributed in the zone with disseminated
pyrrhotite and some chalcopyrite. A sample across 19 inches of silicification on the north
wall of the drift, 113 feet from the portal, assayed: Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton; silver, 1.80 oz.
per ton;  copper, 2 per cent.
This company, with head office at 101 Pemberton Building, Victoria, was
Dunwell Mines,  incorporated in 1922 as a specially limited reorganization of Nass River
Ltd. (N.P.L.).   Lands, Limited, which was incorporated in 1913.    The capitalization of the
Dunwell Mines, Limited, was originally $350,000, but this was doubled in
1925, and further increased in 1926 to $1,000,000, divided into 1,000,000 shares of $1 par
value each, of which 840,000 have been issued.    Late in 1933 a debenture issue of $18,000
was authorized to provide funds for rehabilitation and resumption of operations.    The property was originally owned by Stewart Bros, and W. Noble, of Stewart, and in the holdings
are now included the claims of the old Stewart Mining and Development Company.
The property consists of twenty-four Crown-granted claims and fractions on which taxes
have been paid to December 31st, 1937. The claims are situated on the north side of Glacier
Creek, on the thickly-timbered south slope of the " Dunwell " hill towards the confluence of
Glacier Creek with the Bear River, at elevations of 1,000 to 2,000 feet. The hill-slope in the
locality of the claims is featured by longitudinal bench and ridge areas with an average slope
of about 20 degrees and a generally thick overburden of glacial debris, densely overgrown
with underbrush between the hemlock, balsam, and cedar trees.
The property is reached by the Stewart-Bear River Motor-road from Stewart dock to
the mill and power camp at 200 feet elevation, a distance of 5% miles. From this locality a
branch motor-road ascends the hill-slope for about 1% miles to the mine camp at 1,250 feet
elevation. This camp is equipped with bunk-house, wash-room, dining-room, kitchen, and
office buildings.    Branch trails extend to the various workings.
The mineral deposit occurs in a main sheared fault-zone constituting the west fault of
the " Portland Canal Fissure Zone " and striking northerly and dipping westerly, with lateral
veins carrying silver-lead-zinc mineralization with gold values in places, striking north-westerly and dipping south-westerly. The formation is a series of argillaceous sediments of the
Lower Hazelton (Bitter Creek Series) group which strike northerly, dip from 30 to 60 degrees
westerly, and are on the westerly limb of an open anticlinal structure. The locality of the
workings is about a quarter of a mile east of the easterly contact of the southerly-plunging
" Ben Ali " granitic stock, and about 1,000 feet east of the contact of the Bitter Creek argillite with the overlying tuffs, greenstones, and argillites of the Bear River Series. Granitic
and grey lamprophyre dykes intrude the formation, and the veins are sometimes associated
with the latter.
Early exploration was carried out by the Stewart Mining and Development Company.
In 1926 an aerial tramway about 1 mile long and a concentrating-mill of 100 tons daily
capacity were constructed. Milling began early in 1927 and ceased later in the same year
with the depletion of the then-known ore reserves.
Production from this operation amounted to 27,067 tons of ore, from which was recovered
4,805 oz. gold, 102,199 oz. silver, 1,264,787 lb. lead, and 1,608,634 lb. zinc. Some electrical
prospecting by the Radiore Company of Canada, followed by diamond-drilling, was carried
out during 1928 and 1929 with negative results. The property remained inactive until worked
by lessees in 1932 and 1933, when from small-scale hand-operations about 1,767 tons of ore
was produced, yielding 640 oz. gold, 28,653 oz. silver, 4,744 lb. copper, 57,237 lb. lead, and
2,400 lb. of zinc.    Subsequent to this, more extended leasing operations by individual partner- B 8 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
ships and a Stewart syndicate were carried on until the season of 1935, when the property
was also operated for four months by the Dunwell Company. Production for this period
amounted to 7,139 tons of ore, from which was recovered 1,489 oz. gold, 44,331 oz. silver,
2,184 lb. copper, and 19,553 lb. lead.
In the interval some of the mill machinery was sold to Bralorne Mines, Limited. In 1936
the Welldun Mining, Milling, and Power Company, Limited, composed mainly of Stewart
interests, took a four-year lease on the property. This is a private company incorporated in
British Columbia on April 17th, 1936, and capitalized at $20,000, divided into 40,000 shares
of 50 cents par value, of which 15,384 shares were reported issued as at July 1st, 1937. The
head office of the Welldun Company is at Stewart, and N. E. Nelson, Vancouver, is president.
This company reconditioned the mill to a daily milling capacity of 25 tons and operated
seasonally until the early winter of 1937. Production from this operation to the end of 1937
amounted to 7,885 tons of ore, from which was recovered 1,702 oz. gold, 49,346 oz. silver,
7,343 lb. copper, and 190,384 lb. lead.
References to the property are contained in the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines
for the years 1920, 1922 to 1929, inclusive, and 1932 to 1936, inclusive. The property is also
■described in Memoir 159, Geological Survey of Canada, 1929.
Surface exposures on the Dunwell have not been sufficiently correlated to definitely
identify the vein-structures exposed. One main shear-structure (west fault) with a strike
about north and a dip 50 degrees west, extending throughout the length of the property, is
indicated. Smaller more or less parallel lateral veins converge towards and join it at acute
angles along the strike and dip. The vein-structures are frequently accompanied by pre-
mineral lamprophyre dykes. These were probably intruded along already-formed shears and
subjected to subsequent stresses; they appear to have had a controlling influence on later
mineralizing solutions. Mineralization of the ore-shoots and lenses consists mainly of a
quartz-calcite gangue with sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and tetrahedrite. Argentite, ruby silver,
native silver, and probably some electrum constitute very high-grade ore in places.
Commercial-grade ore in short shoots or lenses seems to favour intersections of the lateral
veins with the main north-south structure, but occurs in both structures. There is no definite
evidence to indicate that commercial ore is confined solely to these vein-intersections and their
vicinity, and further development may show a wider ore-distribution. Underground mining
in the old 1927 operation through No. 4, No. 3, and No. 2 adits was confined principally to
one ore-shoot occurring apparently around one such vein-intersection, but in the extensive
underground workings and in surface exposures commercial mineralization is indicated at
places at appreciable distances north and south of this formerly mined area.
In the northern area of the group on the Sunbear.t there appears to be a main north-south
structure with lateral veins converging towards it in its southerly extension. On the extreme
north end of the Sunbeam and adjacent to the Victoria group south line at 1,820 feet elevation and 570 feet higher than No. 4 adit, an open-cut and incline shaft about 8 feet deep
exposes a well-defined vein 6 feet wide which strikes north 10 degrees east to about north,
and dips 50 degrees west. This is the so-called " Sunbeam " vein. It is well mineralized in
places with galena and sphalerite and contains an 8-inch stringer mineralized with tetrahedrite and some argentite. This showing is about 200 feet west of the so-called " Dunwell "
vein which is probably the northerly continuation of the west fault, but the two structures
seem to converge and possibly may join in this area. This locality is about 370 feet higher
and about 1,700 feet north of the north end of the No. 3 adit north drift, which is the nearest
main underground working. From this point the " Sunbeam " vein is traced south for about
450 feet by a series of pits and cuts along a well-defined depression to 1,780 feet elevation,
and shows oxidized vein-material, mineralized in places with pyrite, galena, sphalerite, some
tetrahedrite, argentite, and native silver, and generally associated with a grey dyke. In the
southern 150 feet of this draw the vein is appreciably sheared, from 3 to 5 feet wide, strikes
north and dips 40 to 50 degrees west. In places, a well-mineralized streak 8 to 10 inches wide,
in places showing argentite and native silver, occurs on the hanging-wall.
From this locality, lessees in 1932 and 1933 shipped about 100 tons of high-grade ore
from shallow cuts and pits, and about 200 tons of possible milling-grade ore still remains on
the dumps. The northerly 300 feet which is covered by overburden may contain some continuation of the high-grade ore in this ore-shoot. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 9
The " Sunbeam " vein has been traced a further 150 feet, to 1,758 feet elevation, by two
cuts and a short crosscut-adit. These workings are in bad condition for examination, but
show oxidized vein-structure and the grey dyke. About 200 feet easterly of the open-cut at
an elevation of 1,780 feet, or about 70 feet higher, two oxidized and caved cuts expose what
appears to be a more or less parallel structure, dipping 50 degrees west on the east side of
a wide felsite dyke.    This is known as the " Sulphide " vein.
At 1,630 feet elevation and about 300 feet west of the cuts at 1,780 feet elevation, the
" Sunbeam " crosscut adit, bearing south 85 degrees east and about 500 feet long, intersects
at about 300 feet a sheared and brecciated siliceous vein, 4 feet in width. This strikes north
10 degrees west, dips 60 degrees west, and is very sparsely mineralized. A short drift shows
quartz stringers with very sparse mineralization. At about 170 feet from the portal a barren
quartz vein with stringers across 2 feet is also intersected. Further exploration by raising
would be required to correlate these veins with the " Sunbeam " and " Sulphide " veins.
At 1,740 feet elevation, 300 feet south of the old lessees' workings, an old cut in the creek-
draw is reported to have crosscut two veins striking north and dipping west that may possibly
be the southerly continuation of the " Sunbeam " vein. About 40 feet east of this and on the
north side of a branch creek-canyon bearing east-west, a short adit exposes crushed and
sheared siliceous material in a structure striking north 10 degrees east and dipping 50 degrees
west. At intervals for 160 feet north-easterly of this, three cuts expose a vein striking northerly and dipping 45 degrees west, mineralized in places with pyrite, sphalerite, and galena.
On the south side of the branch-canyon, at its junction with the main creek-trough a short
adit exposes a crushed and distorted quartz vein 4 feet wide. In the main north-south creek-
bed about 50 feet southerly of the east-west creek a small exposure of vein-matter well-
mineralized with galena, sphalerite, and some argentite is seen. The southerly extension of
the vein or veins exposed in the two short adits probably forms a junction in this locality with
the vein in the main creek-trough, which is probably the southerly extension of the " Sunbeam " vein. This locality is about 950 feet north of the face of No. 3 adit north drift and
from 260 to 300 feet higher in elevation.
About 60 feet east of the main creek-trough and along a distance of 200 feet south to
1,705 feet elevation, four caved trenches and open-cuts expose oxidized argillite and some
narrow, grey lamprophyre dykes. About 300 feet east of the main draw and distributed
along a gently-sloping bench for a distance of about 700 feet south of the east-west branch-
canyon are several old caved and overgrown trenches and cuts.
Unless intersecting faults have disturbed their alignment, the vein or veins occurring
along the trough of the main creek in the central section of the Sunbeam claim cannot be
correlated with those exposed in the main underground workings of No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, and
No. 4 adits. It is probable that they are more or less " en echelon " veins aligned at acute
angles to a main shear-structure which occupies the bed of the main creek-trough. This vein-
combination would then resemble a " herring-bone " form of structure.
The main underground workings and exposures from the old work in No. 4 adit, and
between this and slightly above No. 3 adit, are discussed in detail in the Annual Report of
the Minister of Mines for 1933. Since then operations have proceeded with the stoping of
ore-lenses below the floor of No. 3 level and above the sub-level at 62 feet below No. 3, along
the dip of the vein, and for a length of about 300 feet. Some stoping in the back of No. 3
level, lateral to the main stope between No. 3 and No. 2 levels, has also been done. On a
more recently discovered vein, on the hanging-wall side of the dyke which accompanies the
No. 3 level vein, stoping was started 45 feet above No. 4 level and carried to a slope-height
of 290 feet above No. 4 level, and 120 feet above No. 3 level or 212 feet and 87 feet vertically
above these levels, at which point operations were proceeding in August, 1937.
These underground workings on the Ben Hur claim from No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, and No. 4
adits are on the west fault structure, with closely-spaced and acutely-angled lateral veins.
No. 4 crosscut-adit at an elevation of 1,250 feet intersects this main vein-structure at 960 feet
in. From the portal to about 480 feet, several small quartz veins from 2 to 30 inches wide
are intersected and should receive some exploration in the direction of their possible junction
with the west fault. At 480 feet from the portal a silicified shear-zone 20 feet wide, with
some pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite mineralization, is worth exploration. At the end of the
crosscut adit a vein has been drifted on for 380 feet north.    For the first 220 feet the vein is B 10
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
3 to 5 feet wide and fairly well-mineralized with galena, sphalerite, and pyrite, and sections
of it may possibly make milling-grade ore. At 40 feet along the drift a crosscut-intersection
stope and chute entry have been installed. Commencing 69 feet above the drift-level or 94
feet on the dip, the vein has been stoped out for 174 feet on the dip to No. 3 level along a
length of about 120 feet. Some milling-grade ore may still remain in the drift-back of the
stope. Below the drift-level between station 412 and the main crosscut (a length of about
220 feet) there is a possibility of developing ore along what appears to be the southerly rake
of this ore-shoot. North of station 412 the drift continues 160 feet to the face, with the
shearing gradually diminishing along the dyke which accompanies the vein. At about 100
feet along the drift north of the main crosscut, a winze reported to be 101 feet deep on the
vein and a sub-level were inaccessible for examination.
No.I Level El. 1704'
Longitudinal Projection in Plane of Vein
(Strike North, dip 45-50°W)
Breast of new stope Aug.23^1937
Width (Mold 0z.5ilver%Lopper%Lead%Zmc
3-4    D.OB      0.2 Tr.       Nil      0.1
LEGEND
Stoped  areas '&22>
Limits of  old stope CZZZZ'
Limits of new hanging-wall stopeCHH?
Raise E0l_S.(South)_N.(North)    El      Scalei
/ 407
Crosscut   to 401 Raise ,';
W4 Level  El. 1250'
Dunwell Mines, Ltd.    Main Workings. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B  11
At 1,450 feet elevation, No. 3 crosscut adit, 200 feet higher in elevation than No. 4 adit,
intersects the main vein-structure at about 450 feet from the portal. Near the point of intersection an area about 190 feet in height (vertical) and averaging about 90 feet long was stoped
out in 1927 between No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 south raises along the upward extension of the
ore-shoot from No. 4 level through No. 3 level to slightly above No. 2 level. Since workings
on No. 3 level were described in detail in the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines for
1933, stoping has been continued and extended south to No. 4 south raise and north to No. 2
north raise for a height of from 15 to 30 feet above the drift-level in these lateral sections.
North of this, further stoping has also been done in the back of the drift north of No. 4 north
raise for a length of 110 feet and for a height of from 20 to 47 feet. A small amount of
stoping was also done in the drift-back north and south of No. 9 north raise for a length of
70 feet, and a few feet above the back.
The new hanging-wall stope on the hanging-wall side of the dyke and directly over and
about 50 feet in the hanging-wall of the old main stope at its breast has already been referred
to. This is along the junction area of this vein with the west fault. At the time of examination in August, 1937, this stope had advanced about 87 feet above No. 3 level. In the back
the vein is 4 feet wide and well-mineralized with pyrite, galena, and sphalerite. A sample
on the south side of this stope-breast assayed: Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton;
copper, trace; lead, nil; zinc, 0.1 per cent. A sample across 4 feet on the north side of the
stope-breast assayed: Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton; silver, 0.7 oz. per ton; copper, trace; lead,
2.1 per cent.; zinc, 0.4 per cent. The stope-breast is south of the actual junction of this vein
with the main north-south structure and could be extended to the north to the actual junction
locality. Further exploration of the junction could be done by raising to No. 2 and No. 1
levels.
No new work has been done in No. 2 and No. 1 adits, and further exploration of intersected structures towards the north would explore possible junctions of these with the west
fault on its foot-wall side.
In the southern section of the property, on the George E. claim, about 200 feet lower than
No. 4 level, there are two old adits on the east and west side of a deep canyon. The canyon
probably coincides with the west fault or main north-south structure, and marked shearing
with siliceous vein-matter of appreciable width can be seen along its base, especially towards
its south end on the George E. claim and extending into the Glacier Creek property. The old
adits on the east and west sides of the canyon are probably on veins converging laterally
towards the west fault on its foot- and hanging-wall sides. The portal of the adit on the
east side of the canyon at 1,015 feet elevation was caved.
During the season of 1937, Art Cameron, of Stewart, with one man, carried out leasing
operations on the George E. vein, which outcrops in the canyon-wall on the east side of the
creek and in the creek-bed, about 25 feet north of the east adit portal and at 10 feet higher
elevation. At this point an old open-cut along the canyon-wall, 70 to 80 feet above the adit,
was excavated for a length of 70 feet to the brow of the canyon at about 100 feet higher
elevation. At 1,077 feet elevation, and 10 feet south of the southerly side of this open-cut, a
crosscut adit to the east for 16 feet intersects a quartz vein 6 feet wide in the face, striking
north 12 degrees west and dipping 48 degrees westerly and mineralized with pyrite and some
galena. An old open-cut in the south face of the main canyon open-cut at an elevation of
1,143 feet exposes oxidized vein-material. At an elevation of 1,165 feet, an adit 6 feet long
in the south face of the canyon open-cut exposes a vein 18 inches wide striking north 50
degrees west and dipping 60 degrees south-westerly. A sample across 10 inches on the
hanging-wall of this vein assayed: Gold, 0.16 oz. per ton; silver, 24.6 oz. per ton; copper,
trace; lead, 2.8 per cent.; zinc, 1.2 per cent. It is reported by Cameron that about 25 tons
of ore was mined and shipped from the open-cut in the wall of the canyon in the early days.
During the 1937 season, Cameron continued the open-cut in the canyon-wall for a length
of about 80 feet along its base. This work exposes a well-defined vein 4 to 5 feet wide, well-
mineralized with galena, sphalerite, and pyrite. A sample across 5.1 feet in the hanging-wall
of the main vein exposed in the floor of the cut towards its south end, and mineralized with
patches and blebs of pyrite, galena, and sphalerite, assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver,
4 oz. per ton; copper, nil; lead, 2.7 per cent.; zinc, 5.4 per cent. A sample across 4.1 feet
of the main vein in the floor of the north side of the cut, mineralized with massive galena and B 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937,
appreciably oxidized, assayed: Gold, 0.46 oz. per ton; silver, 12 oz. per ton; copper, trace;
lead, 7.4 per cent.; zinc, 0.2 per cent. From this open-cut A. Cameron mined and shipped to
the Dunwell mill during the 1937 season 5 tons, which yielded 2 oz. gold, 39 oz. silver, and
865 lb. lead. Further exploration of this vein could be carried out by drifting north to its
junction with the foot-wall of the West Fault and by raising and possibly stoping from the
adit-level at an elevation of 1,015 feet.
On the west side of the canyon at 1,040 feet elevation and 60 feet north-westerly, an
adit has been driven on a vein occurring on the hanging-wall of the west fault. This is about
500 feet long and was started on a vein 4 to 5 feet wide which follows a dyke and strikes
north 15 degrees east and dips 50 degrees west. The working is very crooked and appears to
trend to the east off the vein at 170 feet from the portal, following a slip. The vein is fairly
well mineralized from the portal to the winze, a distance of about 150 feet. At the winze,
said to be 57 feet deep, the vein is 3 to 4 feet wide. The main working continues along a
slip on a winding course and shows shearing, calcite, and a little pyrite in the face. At 100
feet from the face a small vein is intersected. A crosscut to the west from near the face
intersects a vein, which is drifted on north and south for about 100 feet. The vein is 18
inches to 6 feet wide and well mineralized in places. About 35 feet from the start of this
drift the vein is 4 to 6 feet wide and well mineralized, and a sample across 5 feet assayed:
Gold, 0.5 oz. per ton; silver, 17 oz. per ton; copper, trace; lead, 28 per cent.; zinc, 5 per cent.
A small shoot of ore from this showing was mined out by lessees during 1934, and this
working has not been examined since that time.
On the Ben Ali claim, adjoining the Ben Hur on the west, a well-defined sheared quartz
vein is exposed in open-cuts and adits along a horizontal length of 350 feet and height of 250
feet. The vein strikes north 40 degrees west, dips 80 degrees south-westerly, and varies from
20 to 48 inches in width. Mineralization consists chiefly of pyrite with some sphalerite and
a little chalcopyrite. This ore assays about 0.5 oz. gold and about 1 oz. silver per ton. This
deposit and the workings on it are described in the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines
for 1933, and mining by lessees has been intermittently carried on up to and including the
1937 season, when only a small tonnage of probable ore was evident in the workings.
Conclusion.—Examinations of the main Dunwell vein-exposures and workings have indicated a possible ore-horizon in the known veins of from 300 to 400 feet deep on the dip, raking
from north to south. Its preservation in any given locality along the strike and dip of the
structure is dependent on the extent of erosion which has effected the topography. In this
horizon, mineral concentrations are lenticularly distributed, and appear to favour the localities of junctions of lateral veins with the west fault or with each other. Secondary enrichment of primary sulphides with silver minerals seems also to have occurred in sections of
these localities.
In the locality of junctions, the lateral veins appear to be dragged to more obtuse
angles of strike relative to the west fault, both on its foot- and hanging-wall sides, suggesting
faulting by this structure and possible relation of the veins on the foot- and hanging-wall
sides. Along the extension of the lateral veins south-easterly from the foot-wall and northwesterly from the hanging-wall, the lateral vein-fracturing appears to rapidly diminish in
intensity.
It is indicated that the possible zonal ore-horizon may be structurally related to and
conformable with the southerly plunge of the Ben Ali granitic stock, which outcrops about
1,500 feet to the westward of the main Dunwell workings.
This company was incorporated in 1909, with a capitalization of 1,000,000
Glacier Creek    shares of 50 cents par value.    R. M. Stewart, of Victoria, is president and
Mining Co., Ltd. managing director, and the registered office is at 101 Pemberton Building,
Victoria.    The property consists of the Nellie V., Riverside, Last Chance,
Lucky Boy, Lulu, Victory, Micmac, Nellie Fraction, O.K. Fraction, and Wolverine Fraction
Crown-granted  claims  and  fractional  claims,  totalling  308.81   acres,  on  which   a  total  of
$115.25 in taxes is due to the end of 1937.    It is situated on the north side of Glacier Creek,
between 400 and 1,200 feet elevation, about 4% miles by road from the town of Stewart, and
adjoins the Dunwell on the south.
Only a very small amount of surface exploration has been done along the vein outcrops.
Starting in 1910, intermittent exploration by cross-cutting, drifting, and a small amount of
diamond-drilling was done on the property up to about 1925, but in recent years no work was NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1).
B 13
SUNBEAM
LEGEND
Glacier Creek
Mining Cd.claims
Vei n
Fault
Dip
Glacier Creek Mining Co., Ltd., and Dunwell Mines, Ltd.    Main Workings. B 14
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
done until 1934. In 1934, the main crosscut adit at about 830 feet elevation was continued
for about 200 feet to the intersection of a vein at 795 feet from the portal. Drifting on this
vein was carried out in the early spring of 1935, and ceased in May of that year. Since that
time no work has been done except for a short period of leasing by one man on the Lucky
Boy vein.
The property is reached by the Stewart-Bear River Motor-road from the Stewart wharf
to Glacier Creek bridge at 200 feet elevation, a distance of 5% miles. From this point the
branch motor-road to the Dunwell mine ascending the 27-degree ridge-slope is followed for
about 1 mile to 850 feet elevation, whence a wide trail extends for about a quarter of a mile
to the main workings at about 830 feet elevation.
The claims are located on the thickly-timbered, benched and ridged southerly slope to
Glacier Creek of the " Dunwell " hill. In the locality of the claims, the hill-slope varies from
about 10 to 37 degrees and is thickly covered with glacial debris and a dense growth of
underbrush between the hemlock, cedar, and spruce trees.
The mineral-deposit, consisting of quartz veins generally sparingly mineralized with
pyrite, galena, and sphalerite, occurs in argillaceous sediments of the Lower Hazelton (Bitter
Creek Series) group. The area embraces part of the westerly limb of an open anticlinal
structure. The veins occupy shears striking north-westerly and dipping from about 30 to 60
degrees south-westerly and are partly conformable to the attitude of the formation. They
are characteristically brecciated and contain unaltered fragments of the argillite wall-rock.
With the exception of one vein occurring on the Lucky Boy claim at an elevation of 560 feet,
all the known veins on this property occur between, and strike at a slight angle to, two
major faults about 1,000 feet apart which strike north and dip west and constitute what is
known as the " Portland Canal Fissure Zone." The Lucky Boy vein occurs on the west side
of the more westerly fault. The structural difference between the veins on this property and
those on the adjoining Dunwell is that, if projected, they would intersect the hanging-wall
of the east fault, whereas the Dunwell veins intersect the foot-wall of the west fault. This
difference may have influenced the process of mineralization. The projection of the Lucky
Boy vein will intersect the hanging-wall of the west fault. Another factor which possibly
affected mineralization in the locality of this property, as compared with the locality of the
Dunwell veins, is the location of the Glacier Creek veins in a higher horizon of the sediments
above the underlying and southerly-plunging Ben Ali stock. Suggestive of this is a generally
less intense alteration and silicification of the argillite in the lower elevations of the hill
which comprise the Glacier Creek property. Valley-glacier erosion has also more intensively
affected the Glacier Creek valley as compared with the Bear River slope of the " Dunwell "
hill. Exposures of the veins in the adits show no evidence of oxidation, leaching, or secondary
enrichment; because of the small amount of back above the adits, it is not probable that this
condition would alter materially towards the surface.
A feature of the area is the number of more or less parallel quartz veins varying from a
few inches to several feet in width. Where exposed on the surface and in the underground
workings they contain very little mineral. The best mineralization observed on the property
is exposed in the main adit at approximately 830 feet elevation, along the 1935 north and
south drifts, and also in the Lucky Boy vein.
Three adits explore the ground, the main crosscut adit at 830 feet elevation; the " Little
Wonder" adit at 780 feet elevation; and a short adit on the O.K. Fraction at 670 feet
elevation. A small amount of trenching was also done several years ago, but these surface
workings are caved and overgrown with brush.
The portal of the main crosscut adit at 830 feet elevation is about 370 feet lower than the
Dunwell No. 4 adit, and is located in the creek-canyon of the west fault, on its east side and
about 90 feet from the creek. It is driven south 75 degrees east for 618 feet, thence south
82 degrees east for 177 feet to the north and south drifts. The formation is a series of bedded
argillaceous sediments striking north 40 degrees west and dipping 70 degrees south-westerly.
A grey lamprophyre dyke 3 feet wide cuts the formation at 480 feet from the portal and at
540 feet from the portal a feldspar porphyry dyke is intersected.
At 180 feet from the portal a reticulated and brecciated zone of quartz stringers 5 feet
wide, sparingly mineralized with pyrite, is intersected. This strikes northerly and dips
westerly at 45 degrees. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 15
At 330 feet from the portal the crosscut intersects a zone of barren and brecciated quartz
stringers and bands across a width of from 4 to 5 feet. This strikes northerly and dips
70 degrees westerly and constitutes the so-called " Central " vein. A drift has been driven
north on it for 120 feet. In the face of this drift, the zone 6 feet wide strikes north 18
degrees west, dips 50 degrees west, and is composed of barren quartz stringers % to 6 inches
wide.
At 390 feet from the portal a well-defined quartz vein 10 inches wide, containing some
pyrite, is intersected. At 470 feet from the portal the hanging-wall of a barren crushed
zone 27 feet wide is intersected. This strikes north 10 degrees east, dips 60 degrees westerly,
and is composed of crushed argillite and dyke-matter with quartz and calcite stringers and
veinlets mainly on the hanging- and foot-wall sides. A winding drift and crosscut for 57 feet
in a north to north-westerly direction commencing on the foot-wall of this zone exposes
crushed argillite with brecciated quartz and calcite stringers across a width of 4 to 4.5 feet,
with no evident sulphide mineralization. In places the quartz-calcite gangue shows patches
of light greenish coloration from a finely-disseminated nickel-chromium silicate, on account
of which this zone is locally named the " Green " vein. At 57 feet from the crosscut, the
" Green " vein drift turns to a bearing of north 10 degrees east and continues along the
hanging-wall of the zone for 63 feet to the face. The face is turned to a bearing of north
7 degrees west and exposes a few stringers of quartz and calcite, mineralized very sparingly
with pyrite and dipping 60 degrees west in crushed argillite.
At 795 feet from the portal, the crosscut intersects an irregular and brecciated quartzose
zone 4 to 6 feet wide, generally sparingly mineralized with blebs, stringers, and sparse dissemination of pyrite, sphalerite, and galena, striking about north 20 degrees west, and dipping
30 degrees westerly. A drift south 20 degrees east for 51 feet appears to favour the
hanging-wall side of this zone and exposes quartz stringers and pyritized argillite. The
following samples were taken in the south drift:—
(1.) Selected sample of the best mineralization: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, 0.08 oz.
per ton;   lead, nil;  zinc, 2 per cent.
(2.) Muck from the south-drift face: Gold, trace; silver, 0.3 oz. per ton; lead, nil;
zinc, trace.
A winding northerly drift has been driven along this zone for 198 feet, commencing with
a bearing of north 22 degrees east for 39 feet, and varying for the remainder of its length
between north 43 degrees west, north 20 degrees east, and north 4 degrees west at the face.
It appears to favour the foot-wall and exposes irregular quartz bands, stringers, and patches,
irregularly and sparingly mineralized with pyrite, sphalerite, and galena. At 39 feet from
the commencement of this north drift a crosscut south 70 degrees west for 15 feet through
the zone exposes the best mineralization. A sample for 12 feet along the walls and including
the face of this crosscut assayed: Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton; silver, 1 oz. per ton; lead, nil;
zinc, 4 per cent. A selected sample of the best mineralization contained in the quartz bands
and stringers along the north drift assayed: Gold, 0.20 oz. per ton; silver, 5.6 oz. per ton;
lead, 4 per cent.;   zinc, 4 per cent.
From the face of this main adit to the boundary of the Victory and Barney claims is
about 540 feet. At about 300 feet northerly from the present face of the north drift, the
boundary of the George E. claim of the Dunwell property would be crossed. At about 300
feet southerly from its present face the south drift would break through to the surface.
Where the north and south drifts start from the adit the vertical back is about 75 feet. Along
the easterly projection of the adit towards the Barney claim the surface slopes upward at
15 degrees. On account of these factors, further development in the Glacier Creek Company
ground from this adit is comparatively limited. On the other hand, it would offer a convenient site for further depth exploration of the George E. showings of the Dunwell company,
in the favourable location of their intersection with the foot-wall of the west fault. By
extension of the Glacier Creek north drift from the adit towards the George E. workings for
a further distance of about 800 feet the vein would be explored further in this direction, and
a back of about 200 feet would be developed below the old George E. adit on the east side
of the creek.
At 780 feet elevation, and about 1,050 feet southerly from the portal of the main adit,
the " Little Wonder " adit is located on the west side of the draw of the east fault. The adit
is a crosscut driven along a bearing of north 45 degrees west in argillite striking north 15 B 16 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
degrees east and dipping 70 degrees westerly. At about 260 feet it intersects a sheared and
crushed zone with some bands and stringers of brecciated quartz and argillite striking north
and dipping 70 degrees west. This is drifted on to the north for about 500 feet, and with
the exception of two short lenticular quartz bands well-mineralized with pyrite, sphalerite,
and galena, it is mainly composed of crushed argillite. The face of the drift exposes the
hanging-wall of the zone striking north 5 degrees east and dipping 70 degrees westerly. A
crosscut to the east would intersect the foot-wall and explore the full width of the zone. The
hanging-wall side of the zone exposed in the face is composed of brecciated argillite with
quartz bands and stringers very sparingly mineralized with mainly pyrite. The best mineralization observed occurs in a lenticular quartz band 2 to 18 inches wide starting 90 feet south of
the face. Of this, the first 30 feet of length in the adit-floor is well-mineralized across a
width of 10 inches. A composite sample of this length (30 feet) across 10 inches in the
adit-floor assayed: Gold, 0.28 oz. per ton; silver, 4.6 oz. per ton; lead, 6 per cent.; zinc,
8 per cent. In a small stope 15 feet long and 10 feet high in the roof of the adit a well-
mineralized lenticular quartz band pinching out at both ends in crushed argillite is exposed.
A composite sample of this lens in the roof of the stope assayed: Gold, 1.84 oz. per ton; silver,
4 oz. per ton;  lead, 5 per cent.;   zinc, 6 per cent.
A raise reported to be 65 feet high connects this drift with an upper adit reported to be
120 feet long. The latter is also connected with the surface by a raise. The raise to the
upper adit is in a dangerous condition and inaccessible for examination. The portal of the
upper adit could not be located and has probably caved. The raise from the upper adit to
the surface was located amongst the dense underbrush, unguarded, dangerously open, partly
caving, and inaccessible for examination. A back of about 110 feet is estimated from the face
of the lower adit-drift to the surface.
At the portal of the lower " Little Wonder " adit three dumps of vein-material mineralized
with pyrite, sphalerite, and galena, estimated to contain 1, 3, and 15 tons each, have been
accumulated. It has not been ascertained from what part or parts of the " Little Wonder "
workings this material originated. A composite sample of these dumps assayed: Gold, 0.56
oz. per ton;   silver, 2.8 oz. per ton;  lead, 5 per cent.;   zinc, 6 per cent.
At an elevation of 670 feet, 100 feet above Glacier Creek and about 400 feet south of
the " Little Wonder " adit, a practically barren, brecciated, and reticulated quartz zone, 10
feet wide on the hanging-wall of a felsite dyke, outcrops in argillite on the face of a bluff
on the west side of the draw of the east fault. This zone strikes north 5 degrees east and
dips 55 degrees westerly, and may possibly be correlated with the zone in the " Little
Wonder " adit.    An adit 60 feet long has been driven on it.
At an elevation of 560 feet, about 100 feet above the bed of Glacier Creek and about
1,400 feet south-west from the " Little Wonder" adit, the Lucky Boy vein outcrops in
argillite for about 20 feet above the brink of Glacier Creek canyon. This vein is 2.5 feet
wide, strikes north 30 degrees west and dips 35 degrees south-west. Continuity at both ends
is obscured by overburden. For about 15 feet of its exposed length the vein is mineralized
with massive, fine-grained galena and sphalerite across a width of 18 inches, with 12 inches
of fair mineralization in a quartz gangue on the hanging-wall. A sample of the 18 inches
of solid mineralization assayed: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, 23.5 oz. per ton; lead, 58
per cent.; zinc, 16 per cent. A sample of the siliceous material on the hanging-wall across
12 inches assayed: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, 7 oz. per ton; lead, 4 per cent.; zinc, 6
per cent.
This company was incorporated in British Columbia on April 4th, 1924, with
Lakeview Mines, registered office at 101 Pemberton Building, Victoria.   It has a capitalization
Ltd. (N.P.L.).   of $1,000,000, divided into 4,000,000 shares of 25 cents par value, of which
2,743,828 shares are reported to be issued.    The holdings consist of Lake-
view No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, and Silver Bell Fraction Crown-granted mineral claims, totalling
158.17 acres, on which taxes have been paid to December 31st, 1937.    The property is located
on the north side of Glacier Creek, east of the Dunwell holdings, at elevations ranging from
about 2,000 to 3,000 feet above sea-level.
The property is reached by the Stewart-Bear River Motor-road from Stewart dock to
the Glacier Creek bridge at 200 feet elevation, a distance of 5% miles. From here a branch
motor-road for about 1% miles ascends the 27-degree ridge-slope for about 1 mile to the
J NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1).
B 17
Dunwell mine camp at 1,250 feet elevation.    From this point a well-constructed 4-foot trail
on wagon-road grade extends 1% miles to the Lakeview cabin at 2,200 feet elevation.
The claims are situated on the thickly-timbered south slope of the ridge to Glacier Creek,
and between about 1,000 and 2,000 feet above the creek. The ridge-slope in the locality of the
claims is featured by longitudinal bench and ridge areas with an average slope of from 15 to
20 degrees, and a generally thick overburden of glacial debris and a dense growth of underbrush between the hemlock, balsam, and cedar trees. Argillaceous sediments of the Lower
Hazelton (Bitter Creek Series) group on the westerly limb of an open anticlinal structure,
intruded by granitic and lamprophyre .dykes, underlie the property.
Width Oz£old 0;5ilver%Ccpper%Lead%Zim
2ibnHW)   Tr.
9.0
0.2
r.,i
Nil
3.3'vein   0.10
40.0
Nil
0.4
?■*>
7.2'(cntt.W) 0.30
45.0
Tr
0.6
47
BpyriteonFW.  0.06
I5.D
Nil.
(J 4
0.2
l]'onHW-a6FW. 0.06
lo 0
N '
C.2
n+
"?'■!
\       3.4'vein    Tr.
0-B
Nil
D.2
Tr
\\\        IG'      0.05
10.6
Nil
N,i
1.5
Lakeview Mines, Ltd.    Main Workings.
Mineralization consists of quartz veins from about 1 to over 8 feet wide with galena,
sphalerite, pyrite, and some grey-copper. The main (" Cabin ") vein has a general northwesterly strike and dips about 60 degrees south-westerly. It outcrops in a creek-bed immediately south of the old camp at 2,190 feet elevation. Several years ago a section of this
vein was stripped and open-cut for about 100 feet and a shaft sunk in the hanging-wall. In
1928 the shaft was unwatered and crosscuts were driven to the vein at depths of 25 and
45 feet from the collar. The upper crosscut is reported to have intersected promising
mineralization, consisting of galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite, but the vein is
reported not to be so well mineralized in the lower crosscut. In the open-cut the vein strikes
north 72 degrees west and dips 68 degrees south-westerly -It is from 2 to 4.8 feet wide, and
is generally mineralized with pyrite, galena, and sphalerite in a quartz-gangue, with a streak
of massive galena and sphalerite mineralization 10 inches wide on the foot-wall. About
1925 a long adit was driven with the objective of intersecting the vein at a depth of 250
feet below the collar of this shaft. Several narrow veins and stringers were cut in this
working, and at 760 feet from the portal a vein was intersected, striking north 71 degrees
west and dipping from 82 degrees north-easterly to vertical. A drift west for 75 feet exposes
erratic, sparsely-mineralized quartz-lenses 12 to 16 inches wide in argillite on the south side
of a felsite dyke. A drift east for 90 feet exposes only barren or sparsely-mineralized quartz
stringers.
2 B 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
Approximately 500 feet south-easterly from the " Cabin" shaft, a shallow shaft connected with an open-cut known as the " McKay " cut was excavated several years ago. This
exposes a well-defined mineralized shear 8 to 10 feet wide containing siliceous lenses, pockets,
and stringers well mineralized in places with galena, sphalerite, pyrite, and tetrahedrite
across widths of several inches. From these a small tonnage of high-grade ore is reported by
lessees to have been shipped several years ago by McKay.
About 300 feet south of these workings and at 95 feet lower elevation, the old
" Campbell " adit extends north for 262 feet. At 187 feet from the portal a crosscut to the
west intersects a vein at 60 feet. A drift extends westerly along this vein for 250 feet, with
a winze at 112 feet from the face and a raise for about 25 feet at 165 feet from the face,
reported to have been driven in 1928. East of the intersection in the crosscut the vein appears
to be faulted or dragged. Along the drift the vein is 14 inches to 4 feet in width, lenticular
and consists of quartz with generally sparse sulphide mineralization. At its easterly end,
in the vicinity of the crosscut, it appears to be appreciably shattered and resolves into a series
of barren quartz stringers and lenses. At the intersection by the crosscut the vein strikes
north 43 degrees west and dips 40 to 50 degrees south-westerly. At 90 feet from the crosscut
and in the vicinity of the raise it is joined by another vein and continues along the drift to
the face striking north 57 degrees west, dipping 50 degrees south-westerly, and adjacent to
and associated with grey lamprophyre dyke. The best mineralization commences at about
75 feet west of the crosscut in the vicinity of the junction of the two veins and continues
for about 60 feet to slightly west of the winze. Of this length about 55 feet is fairly well
mineralized with galena, sphalerite, pyrite, and some tetrahedrite across widths of from 20
inches to 4 feet. Beyond this to the face the vein-fissure is erratic, not so well defined and
filled mostly with dyke material and some quartz stringers. The winze 112 feet from the
face was flooded and could not be examined.
About 400 feet north-easterly from the old " McKay " cut and about 100 feet higher
there is an old shaft, short adit, and open-cut on a reticulated and brecciated quartz vein
12 feet wide, striking easterly in argillite. In this, some quartz stringers and streaks carrying galena and pyrite are to be seen. It is reported by lessees working on the property that
some high gold assays were obtained from this showing by " old-timers " and that about 21
tons of ore was shipped. This vein is in alignment with a cross-vein 10 feet wide, exposed
by shallow stripping adjacent to the " McKay " cut and mineralized with pyrite, sphalerite,
and some galena. To establish continuity and correlation of these two exposures interval
trenching would be required. The cross-vein adjacent to the " McKay" cut strikes east
and dips 70 degrees north, and a chip sample across 10 feet assayed: Gold, 0.05 oz. per ton;
silver, 10.6 oz. per ton;  lead, nil;  zinc, 1.5 per cent.
Since about 1933 the property has been operated intermittently by lessees, and further
exploration in the effort to extract ore of shipping-grade resulted in the first shipment from
this operation of about 13 tons, reported by H. D. Rochfort, one of the lessees, to assay about:
Gold, 0.32 oz. per ton; silver, 167 oz. per ton; lead, 18 per cent. This ore came from a
quartz vein about 50 feet easterly from the old " McKay " cut, where a lens 12 to 18 inches
wide, well mineralized with galena, pyrite, and tetrahedrite in a quartz vein up to 4 feet
wide, was stripped and open-cut for about 30 feet. This vein strikes north 70 degrees west
and dips from 50 to 60 degrees south-westerly.
Work by these lessees was also carried out at that time on the main (" Cabin ") vein in
the open-cut at 2,190 feet elevation. From this locality a shipment of about 10 tons is reported
by H. D. Rochfort to have assayed about: Gold, 0.12 oz. per ton; silver, 62 oz. per ton;
lead, 12.9 per cent.
A sample taken by the writer in 1934 across 10 inches of the foot-wall streak in the
main ("Cabin") vein open-cut assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 20.15 oz. per ton;
lead, 15 per cent.; zinc, 15 per cent. A sample of the hanging-wall side adjacent to this
across 4 feet assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 10.5 oz. per ton; lead, nil; zinc, 3 per
cent. Subsequent work by lessees on the main (" Cabin ") vein has centered on the extension
of the open-cut for a total length of 137 feet and a drift east on the vein from the floor of the
cut for 73 feet. Resultant from this work 10 tons shipped to the Dunwell mill is reported by
H. D. Rochfort to have assayed about: Gold, 0.16 oz. per ton; silver, 40 oz. per ton; lead,
15 per cent.    A further shipment of about 45 tons to the Dunwell mill from the main NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1). B 19
("Cabin") vein is reported by H. D. Rochfort to have assayed about: Gold, 0.12 oz. per
ton;   silver, 52.5 oz. per ton;  lead, 12 per cent.
On August 25th, 1937, two dumps of broken ore, estimated to contain about 20 tons each,
were accumulated at the main (" Cabin ") vein workings. An average sample of the dump
at the end of the " Cabin " adit track assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 33 oz. per ton;
copper, trace; lead, 7.1 per cent.; zinc, 7.8 per cent. The other dump in the vicinity of the
cabin was composed of vein-material with similar mineralization to this.
Recent leasing operations were also carried out in the " McKay " cut. A shipment of
6.96 dry tons by A. Cameron, Stewart, to the Prince Rupert sampling plant, reported to be
from this locality, assayed: Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton; silver, 30.2 oz. per ton; copper, 0.1 per
cent.; lead, 8 per cent.; zinc, 4.2 per cent.; silica, 28 per cent.; iron, 23.5 per cent.; lime,
0.2 per cent.;  sulphur, 27 per cent.;   arsenic, 0.2 per cent.;   antimony, nil.
In August, 1937, exploratory development-work was being done by H. D. Rochfort and
one man in the " Campbell " adit at 2,125 feet elevation. In this working a section of well-
mineralized vein-material about 9 feet west of the raise was being stoped from the drift-back
with the object of accumulating shipping-grade ore. The stope had advanced for a length
of 10.3 feet and a height of 3 feet above the drift-back. In this section the vein is 3.3 feet
wide and fairly well mineralized with pyrite, sphalerite, tetrahedrite, and some galena, with
a well-mineralized streak 7.2 inches wide on the hanging-wall. A sample of the vein in the
stope-back across 3.3 feet assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, 40 oz. per ton; copper, nil;
lead, 0.4 per cent.; zinc, 2.3 per cent. A sample of the hanging-wall streak across 7.2 inches
assayed: Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton; silver, 45 oz. per ton; copper, trace; lead, 0.6 per cent.;
zinc, 4.7 per cent.
The following additional samples were taken in this drift:—
(1.) North side, 8.4- feet west of raise, across 1 foot of the vein on the hanging-wall,
plus 0.6 foot on the foot-wall, assayed: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, 16 oz. per ton; copper,
nil; lead, 0.2 per cent.;  zinc, 0.4 per cent.
(2.) At site of (1), 8 inches of mainly pyrite on the foot-wall assayed: Gold, 0.06 oz.
per ton;   silver, 15 oz. per ton;   copper, nil;  lead, 0.4 per cent.;   zinc, 0.2 per cent.
(3.) South side, opposite raise, across 2.6 feet, assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver,
0.1 oz. per ton;   copper, nil;  lead, nil;  zinc, trace.
(4.) North side, 4 feet east of raise, across 3.4 feet of sparsely-mineralized quartz and
calcite assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton; copper, nil; zinc, trace; lead, 0.2 per
cent.
(5.) North side, 15 feet west of stope, across 3.6 feet of silicified argillite and dyke with
quartz stringers and disseminated pyrite, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 5.5 oz. per ton;
copper, nil;  lead, 0.2 per cent.;   zinc, 0.3 per cent.
(6.) At site of (5), 2 inches of mineralization in a streak on the hanging-wall assayed:
Gold, trace;   silver, 9 oz. per ton;   copper, 0.2 per cent.;   lead, nil;  zinc, nil.
These samples and assays represent the best-defined and mineralized section of the vein
observed in the " Campbell " adit.
Recent work had also been done in the main (" Cabin ") vein open-cut and adit at an
elevation of 2,190 feet. This had been centered mainly in the driving of the " Cabin " vein
adit as a drift south-easterly, starting from the bottom of the cut and extending for 73 feet
to the face. This adit is timbered at the portal for a length of 12 feet with no back for this
length. Along the drift the back increases to about 10 feet at the face. Projected for
12 feet ahead of this adit face, the back to the floor of the cut would increase to 15.5 feet.
At about 17 feet beyond the adit face, the face of the open-cut rises to give a projected back
at this point of 20.5 feet to the surface. Easterly from this point for a distance of about 400
feet along the strike of the vein, there is an increasing surface-gradient of only 20 per cent.,
which does not permit the attainment of any appreciable back at the horizon of the " Cabin "
vein adit. It should also be noted that taking into consideration the strike and dip of the
" Cabin " and " McKay " veins, and their relation to the topography, these two exposures
cannot be correlated definitely. In this respect, however, the possibility of a cross-fault
between these workings as indicated in the " Campbell " adit, should be considered.
In the " Cabin " vein drift the vein is well-defined and generally well-mineralized. Starting at 12 feet from the portal and extending for 60 feet along the drift, a band of massive B 20
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
galena and sphalerite mineralization 0.5 to 8.2 inches wide and averaging 4.5 inches in width,
occurs on the hanging-wall. The vein shows shearing and the walls are generally well-
defined with a development of gouge, especially on the hanging-wall. In the face of the adit
the fissure filling is composed of reticulated quartz veins and stringers and sheared formation
4.6 feet wide with streaks, veinlets, and patches of pyrite, galena, and sphalerite. A sample
in the face, across 4.6 feet, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 12 oz. per ton; copper, 0.4 per cent.;
lead, 4.2 per cent.; zinc, 4.5 per cent. A sample across 2 feet, 41 feet from the portal,
assayed: Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton; silver, 5.6 oz. per ton; copper, 0.2 per cent.; lead, 4.2 per
cent.; zinc, 4.5 per cent. A composite sample of the hanging-wall band in the " Cabin " adit
for a length of 45 feet and an average width of 4.5 inches, commencing at 6 feet from the
face, assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 37.5 oz. per ton; copper, 0.8 per cent.; lead,
8.5 per cent.;  zinc, 10.5 per cent.
Surface continuity of the " Cabin " vein beyond the limits of the open-cut has not been
definitely established. About 137 feet south-easterly a trench exposes an undelimited width
of 6 inches of mineralized and oxidized quartz, assaying: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, 6 oz.
per ton;   copper, trace;  lead, 0.5 per cent.;  zinc, 0.5 per cent.
For further exploration of the showings on this property more stripping, trenching, and
open-cutting is required to establish surface continuity and possible correlation of the "Cabin"
and " McKay " showings in the interval between these workings. Surface continuity of the
" Cabin " vein to the west of the " Cabin " workings and of the " McKay " vein to the east of
the " McKay " workings could also be investigated by means of stripping, trenching, and
open-cutting. Interval trenching, stripping, and open-cutting between the " McKay " workings and the old shaft at 2,300 feet elevation, 550 feet north-easterly, could also be done to
establish the possible correlation of the cross-structure at the " McKay " workings with the
structure at the old shaft.
Based on the dip of the " Cabin " vein as exposed in the " Cabin " vein surface workings,
it is improbable that the vein in the drift off the long crosscut at 1,945 feet elevation can be
correlated with this. On the other hand, depth-projection of the " Cabin " vein and strike-
correlation indicates its possible relationship with the third structure, 162 feet southerly of
the drift. Between these two levels is a vertical back of 237 feet and vein-back of 313 feet.
A raise on this structure from the main crosscut adit to the " Cabin " vein shaft would
determine possible correlation between the two veins, establish possible depth-continuity of
the " Cabin " vein, and would also explore two possible vein-intersection areas indicated as
possibly occurring at about 100 and 194 feet along the projection of the raise. Any encouraging mineralization encountered in this work would require additional exploration by sub-level
drifting.
From the " Campbell " adit workings, the continuation of the raise and sub-levelling
from it would not only further explore the continuity of the mineralization in this section of
this vein, but would also establish some clarity in structural relationship between this vein,
the exposures in the " McKay " workings, and the possibly intersecting fault.
The results so far achieved by exploration of the property indicate that the objective of
further exploration would be the possibility of indicating and proving a sufficient tonnage of
milling-grade silver-lead-zinc ore to warrant mill-concentrator construction.
The grade of mineralization exposed on the property by exploration to the present time
does not indicate the possibility for accumulation of any appreciable quantity of shipping-
grade ore to assist appreciably in defraying the cost of further preliminary exploration.
American Creek Area, Stewart, Portland Canal.
This company was incorporated in British Columbia in 1930, to take over
North-Western   the properties of the North-Western Prospectors  Syndicate.    The author-
Aerial Prospec-   ized capital is $50,000, divided into 500 shares of $100 par value.    The head
tors, Ltd.        office is at Stewart, B.C., and L. S. Davidson is the president.    The property
comprises the Pass No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, Northern No. 1, No. 2, No. 3,
No. It, No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, No. 8, Moonlight, Moonlight No. 1, Camp A, and Camp unsurveyed
mineral claims.    The claims are situated between 3,300 and 5,400 feet elevation on the west
side of American Creek, towards its head, and about 27 miles from seaboard at the Stewart
dock.    The topography of the area is rugged, and the locality of the claims is above timber-
line, with only scattered patches of small and gnarled mountain spruce.    An extensive glacier NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1).
B 21
covers the range-crest bordering the valley, and has probably receded in comparatively recent
time from the valley-bottom and flanking slopes. In the locality of the claims the hill slopes
generally at about 20 degrees from the valley-bottom to the crest of the range, and the slopes
are covered with heavy talus, through which vertical rock bluffs protrude. Towards the
valley-bottom rock knolls and benched rock ridges fronted by steep grassy slopes are features
.of the topography.
LEGEND
Argillite, in part tuff.
Bitter Creek  s
Mainly andesitic volca
Bear River s
Siliceous  replacement
Quartz   vein
Fault
Open-cut
Glacier
Composite 9'inl
3 open-cuts /.
Oz.Gold Oz.SilverS!Copper%Lead%Zinc
Tr.
Selected     {
mineralization) 0.02
Widths'     )	
14.0
Composite 1-lOwide H.W. st
from exposures — 80'len
(Vein-width-II
North-Western Aerial Prospectors, Ltd., American Creek.
The property is reached by the Stewart-Bear River Motor-road from Stewart dock to the
confluence of American Creek with the Bear River, at 420 feet elevation, a distance of about
14 miles. From this point a tractor-trail extends up the west side of American Creek for
about 3% miles to the " Mountain Boy " ridge at about 1,000 feet elevation. At this point a
trail gradually descends to the moraine and slide-covered valley-bottom at about 800 feet
elevation, along which it continues for about 2 miles and then ascends the timbered bench to
the old American Mining and Milling cabin at about 1,200 feet elevation. From this point
the trail continues for 3 miles to the south margin of the American Creek transverse glacier
at 1,750 feet elevation, following in turn the wet valley-bottom, then rising to the top of a
muskeg-covered bench and descending again to the wet valley-bottom at the glacier, a total
distance of about 8V2 miles from the Bear River Motor-road.    Formerly the route crossed the B 22
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
moraine and glacier to its north side at about 2,250 feet elevation. With the rapid recession
of the glacier this route has become impassable. At the present time the route crosses
American Creek to its east side at the foot of the glacier, and the trail continues up the steep
south rock-slope of the bluffy ridge buttressing the glacier-front, and locally termed " The
Pimple." This is ascended by a series of short and very steep switchbacks to an elevation
of 3,800 feet, a distance of about 1% miles. From this point the trail gradually descends
the north slope of " The Pimple " to the valley-bottom at 3,200 feet elevation, a distance of
IVz miles. At this point American Creek is crossed to its west side and a course of least
resistance is followed, through the rocky and heavy talus-covered west flank of the valley-
trough, to the tent-camp at 3,500 feet elevation on the Camp claim.
In 1936, in the effort to avoid the ascent of " The Pimple," a trail was constructed along
the east edge of American Creek glacier at the foot of the west slope of " The Pimple."
This has now become impassable on account of extensive Assuring and rock-sloughing.
The rock formations in the locality of the claims consist of sediments and volcanics of
the Lower Hazel ton group (Bitter Creek and Bear River series). Black calcareous argillites,
argillaceous limestone, sandy argillite, and quartzite of the Bitter Creek series outcrop for
a length of about 5 miles along the lower slopes up to about 500 feet above the valley-floor in
an anticline plunging at the north and south ends beneath the Bear River Series volcanics.
The volcanics of the higher elevations comprise tuffaceous beds at the base of the series,
immediately overlying and transitional from the argillite. Above these is a complex of greenstone, in places schistose, and fine and coarse textured breccias. Rocks of porphyritic texture
outcrop in irregular areas of the higher elevations and are possibly of intrusive origin. Light
and dark coloured dykes intrude the sediments and volcanics.
The main mineral-showings are of four different structural and mineralogical types, and
in the following text the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H refer to the showings as are
indicated on the accompanying map:—
(1.) E: Quartz stringers striking north-easterly and dipping north-westerly in a narrow
band of tuff, intercalated with argillite on the west limb and near the crest of an anticline,
and mineralized with a silver-bearing tetrahedrite.
(2.) C and D: Siliceous replacement in a limy tuff and calcareous argillite, mineralized
with galena, sphalerite, tetrahedrite, pyrite, and some chalcopyrite, striking north-westerly
and dipping south-westerly.
(3.) A, B, and H: Quartz replacement in a wide fracture-zone striking northerly along
the margin of the sediments and volcanics and adjacent to porphyritic rock, sparsely mineralized in places with pyrite, some sphalerite, and galena, and in one transverse quartz-
calcite stringer  (B)  with spectacular pockets of native gold.
(4.) F and G: Siliceous replacement in sheared greenstone, mineralized with sphalerite,
galena, and pyrite, striking north-westerly and dipping south-westerly.
The claims have not been prospected in detail, and since the examination of the property ,
by the writer other mineralized showings are reported by the management to have been discovered.    In the following text the showings are described from the lowest to the highest
elevation.
At 3,400 feet elevation (E) on the Moonlight No. 1 in the rock-knolled area bordering
the west side of the valley-bottom three quartz stringers, 1 to 3 inches wide, mineralized in
places with blebs and patches of tetrahedrite, galena, and chalcopyrite, outcrop in bands of
tuff. Some work has been done on a quartz stringer 1 to 2 inches wide outcropping in a
lenticular band of limy tuff about 30 feet wide between narrow beds of calcareous argillite.
The argillite strikes north 27 degrees east and dips 40 degrees north-westerly. On the east
side of the valley the sediments strike northerly and dip 40 degrees easterly. The quartz
stringer strikes north 21 degrees east and dips 45 degrees north-westerly. It has been traced
about 100 feet by three shallow open-cuts and two open-cuts 4 feet deep and 50 feet apart. A
combined sample of the stringer in the bottom of the two deep cuts across a width of 1.5
inches, mineralized with some tetrahedrite, pyrite, and galena, assayed: Gold, trace; silver,
71.2 oz. per ton. A sample across 3 inches of pyritized tuff on the hanging-wall assayed:
Gold, nil; silver, 1 oz. per ton. During the 1935 season several sacks of sorted high-grade
ore from these stringers were shipped. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 23
At an elevation of 3,900 feet, a limy tuff-bed (C), mineralized with galena, tetrahedrite, some
sphalerite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite, occurs slightly west of and just above a vertical bluff
that marks the crest of the underlying argillite. Adjacent and paralleling the tuff-bed on
the east is a bluffed ridge of porphyritic rock. The mineralized bed occupies the gently-
sloping depression between the argillite bluff and the porphyry bluffs. The tuff-bed is
appreciably oxidized, the iron oxide resulting mainly from siderite or ankerite. It has been
traced for about 270 feet by natural exposure and a series of small open-cuts and " pop-
holes," and is best exposed up to a width of 11.4 feet along 80 feet of its southerly section.
In this section a streak 1 to 10 inches wide of fairly solid galena with tetrahedrite, sphalerite,
and chalcopyrite occurs on both the hanging- and foot-wall, with some cross-veinlets and blebs
of mineralization extending into the central portion of the bed. A sample of selected mineralization from the hanging- and foot-wall streak 1 to 10 inches wide along the southerly 80
feet of the exposure assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 147 oz. per ton; copper, 1 per
cent.; lead, 56.4 per cent.; zinc, 2.3 per cent. To the north the possible continuity is obscured
by talus. To the south, overburden obscures the possible continuity. Further continuity in
this direction is possibly prevented by a probable transverse fault striking north 51 degrees
east. This is marked by a deep canyon in the argillite to the north-east and a defined depression in the direction of its south-westerly projection in the volcanics. In the bluffs of the
north side of the canyon several lamprophyre dykes outcrop, and the fault is further indicated
by their abrupt termination and absence in the argillite of the south bluff.
At about an elevation of 3,850 feet and 150 feet southerly of the last exposure of (C) a
brecciated quartz vein (D), mineralized with resinous sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite,
outcrops in argillite along the face of the steep bluff. This was inaccessible for detailed
examination, but it is reported by the management to have been traced towards the south for
about 150 feet, where it tapers to 2 inches in width and appears to die.
At 4,000 feet elevation and 750 feet northerly from (C) a quartz-replacement zone (A),.
50 to 75 feet wide, outcrops in the sediments and volcanics of the Bear River Series adjacent
to and westerly of the argillite. Comparatively unaltered sections of the zone suggest replacement in a porphyritic rock that may be intrusive into the sediments. The zone is exposed
along a hummocky bench which in places is faced on its east side with abrupt vertical bluffs
extending above the adjacent sediments. It strikes north 21 degrees east and appears to dip
steeply westerly into the hill. To the north from this point it can be traced by natural
exposure for a distance of about 2,500 feet. The continuation of the zone to the south can
be seen but was not examined. The zone consists of a network of quartz veins, patches, and
stringers, with intervening partly-replaced areas. From the main body many quartz veinlets
and stringers strike at acute angles into the hanging- and foot-walls. In places these lateral
stringers constitute a network of appreciable width. The rock between the stringers and
quartz bands is generally sparsely mineralized with disseminated pyrite. The quartz of the
zone is generally " vuggy " or cellular and barren, but a sparse mineralization with pyrite
and sphalerite was seen in two small sections. With the exception of a few small " pop-
holes " no work has been done on the main zone. A sample of selected mineralization from
two " pop-holes " in the central section of the zone, showing sparse mineralization of pyrite
with some sphalerite and tetrahedrite, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 32 oz. per ton. A chip
sample across a width of 30 feet of the zone towards its north end assayed: Gold, trace;
silver, 0.04 oz. per ton. For preliminary prospecting and sampling of this zone, a series of
transverse open-cuts 3 to 4 feet deep would be required.
At 4,080 feet, on the south side of a creek-gulch, spectacular pockets of crystalline,
arborescent native gold, were discovered in 1936 in a lateral quartz-calcite stringer (B)
branching from the main replacement-zone (A) on its hanging-wall side and outcropping
in the face of a small bluff flanking the creek-trough. Three stringers 1 to 4 inches wide,
4 and 15 to 20 feet apart, striking north 16 degrees east and dipping steeply westerly, outcrop
in the calcareous tuff of the bluff face. The gold occurs in the central stringer in its exposure
in the bluff face between 4,080 feet elevation, 20 feet above the talus and snow-filled creek-
bottom, and 4,140 feet elevation at the crest of the bluff. From the crest of the bluff the
stringer, 1 to 5 inches wide, can be traced southerly for 50 feet towards the main zone, where
it appears to pinch out. Beyond this to the south other stringers outcrop but cannot be
definitely correlated with the gold-bearing one.    To the north, towards the creek, continuity B 24
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
is obscured by talus and snow in the creek-trough. In the rock bluff on the north side of the
creek the stringer has not been located. In the bluff face on the south side of the creek and
just above the talus-slope, the stringer has been opened up by a main open-cut 6 feet wide and
about 12 feet long, and in this cut the most spectacular gold-pockets were discovered. Above
this and about 15 feet apart two smaller cuts have also been excavated. In the main cut on
August 18th the stringer was % to 1% inches in width, and consisted of calcite and " vuggy "
or honeycomb quartz with sparse mineralization, mainly in the calcite, of galena cubes % inch
in diameter, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and an occasional small branch of arborescent gold.
The wall-rock for about 10 inches bordering the stringer showed silicification and disseminated pyrite. A sample of the stringer in the face of the cut, across a width of 1 inch
and a height of 3 feet, assayed: Gold, 3.10 oz. per ton; silver, 6 oz. per ton. A sample
across 8 inches of the hanging-wall, showing silicification and disseminated pyrite, assayed:
Gold, trace;   silver, 0.2 oz. per ton.
In late August, 1937, 61.378 dry pounds of selected vein-material from this showing (B)
was shipped to the Trail smelter and returned an assay of 387.7975 oz. gold per ton and
164.4 oz. silver per ton. An additional lot of selected high-grade material weighing 55.575
troy ounces was also shipped to Trail and treated as bullion. This was fluxed and melted,
and yielded 9.825 oz. of bullion of a fineness of 667.43 parts gold and 287.6 parts silver. Subsequent to the above shipments, additional selected high-grade gold ore is reported by the
management to have been mined from the stringer.
At 4,100 feet elevation and about 1,500 feet northerly of (B) a band of quartz and
siliceous replacement (H), 3 feet wide, mineralized with pyrite, occurs in an outcrop of porphyritic rock. The band strikes north 21 degrees east, parallel to the zone (A) the dip is
not clear, and it can be traced for only about 20 feet, continuity in both directions being
obscured by talus.
Traversing north-westerly from (H), a wide belt of coarse and fine breccias is crossed to
about 5,000 feet elevation. North-westerly from this, sheared greenstones form the bluffs
of the range-crest and extend to the extensive glacier which blankets the summit.
At 5,100 feet elevation on the Northern No. 7, about 1,725 feet north-westerly from (H),
a quartz-replacement zone (F) in sheared greenstone, mineralized with streaks and blebs of
resinous sphalerite, some galena and pyrite across 9 feet, outcrops at the base of a vertical
bluff. The attitude of the zone is not clear, but it appears to strike north 39 degrees west and
dip steeply south-westerly. To the south-east the possible continuity is obscured by talus,
and towards the north-west the vertical bluff face does not permit examination.
At the crest of the bluff, between 5,260 and 5,270 feet elevation and about 225 feet northwesterly from (F), three open-cuts (G) along a distance of 60 feet expose a zone with
mineralization across 4, 5, and 17 feet, similar to that seen at (F), in sheared greenstone.
In these cuts the mineralized zone strikes north 49 degrees west, but the dip is not clear. A
composite chip sample from the three open-cuts, representing an aggregate width of 9 feet,
assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 14 oz. per ton; copper, trace; lead, 1 per cent.; zinc, 4.2 per
cent. The zone can be traced from near the edge of the bluff at its south-east extremity to
20 feet north-westerly of the most westerly cut, a total distance of 80 feet. At its northwesterly end it is not so well defined. This zone cannot be definitely correlated with the
showing (F) at the foot of the bluff from which it is offset to the north. Continuity to the
south-east is prevented by the inaccessible bluff face and to the north-west is obscured by
talus and the adjacent glacier of the summit.
McDame Creek Area.
This group, comprising the Martin, Bertha, Rowena, Viking, Blue Ribbon
Vollaug Group.  Fraction, Alice, Mary, and Sunrise Fraction mineral claims, is owned by
John Vollaug and Hans Erickson, of McDame Creek. The claims are
staked from east to west, between about 5,100 and 6,000 feet elevation along the ridged and
domed crest of Table Mountain, which flanks the headwaters basin of McDame Creek on the
south. The three westerly claims straddle the west shoulder of the mountain, sloping northerly to McDame Creek and southerly to the Cottonwood River and Pooley Creek, tributaries
of Dease River. The easterly claims occupy the southerly slope of Table Mountain to Pooley
Creek. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1).
B 25
n
r -3'w x'^x-"r<y% B 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
The claims were staked on the discovery of a gold-bearing quartz vein made by Vollaug
and Erickson in the autumn of 1935. In the autumn of 1936 the group was optioned by the
Cassiar Syndicate, composed of Victoria, B.C., interests. Later in that year this syndicate
transferred its option to the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited.
During the 1937 season the Consolidated Company carried out extensive exploratory-work on
this group and a number of adjoining and contiguous claims, embracing a total of about eighty-
nine optioned and staked mineral claims. At the conclusion of this work at the end of the
1937 season, the Consolidated Company relinquished its options.
The claims are reached by a good trail extending for 7 miles from the Consolidated
Company camp at 3,070 feet elevation, on the south shore of McDame Lake, to the Consolidated Vollaug camp at 4,418 feet elevation, at timber-line on the south-westerly slope of
Table Mountain. From McDame Lake (3,054 feet elevation) this trail extends south-westerly
for about 2 miles along a comparatively level, gravel bench, lightly timbered with jack-pine,
with one intervening swamp, and skirts the north-westerly shore of Callison Lake at 3,259
feet elevation. At this point it turns south for about l1/^ miles and ascends the draw of
" Aeroplane Pass " to 3,670 feet elevation, from where a branch trail descends the west slope
of Table Mountain to the aeroplane landing at Cook Lake, in Machita Pass. From 3,670 feet
elevation, the main trail continues southerly for about 2 miles up " Aeroplane Pass " to 4,100
feet elevation on the slope of the Cottonwood River, from which point it extends easterly and
north-easterly for 1% miles to the Consolidated Company Vollaug group ten-camp at 4,418
feet elevation. From the camp a trail extends about 7,000 feet north 35 degrees east to the
west showings on the Bertha claim at 5,550 feet elevation on the divide between McLeod and
Erickson Creeks. The upper elevations above timber-line on Table Mountain are composed
of open meadows and comparatively gentle slopes to the ridges and domes, and can be conveniently traversed without the necessity for trail construction.
The tent-camp was well equipped and was serviced with radio broadcasting and reception
apparatus, operated by Gordon Wightman, which enabled communication with the lower camp
on the Crawford group at McDame Lake. Direct and continuous radio communication was
also maintained between the " Vollaug " Table Mountain camp and Carcross, Yukon Territory, Atlin, McDame Post, Dease Landing, Telegraph Creek, and Prince Rupert, and indirectly
through Anyox with Trail. The operation was also continuously serviced with equipment
and supplies by means of aeroplane transportation carried out by Northern Airways from
its bases at Carcross and Atlin, with landings at McDame, Cook, and Vines Lakes. Two
pack-horses with Indian packers were utilized for transportation from the aeroplane landings
to the camp and operations.
Table Mountain is a prominent block and domed ridge bearing north-easterly on the
south-easterly side of the headwaters of McDame Creek and westerly of Friendlison Creek.
The lower slopes are lightly timbered to about 4,450 feet. Above this are swampy meadows
with the grassy slopes of ridges and domes rising to the crest at Vollaug Dome, about 6,150
feet elevation. On its north-easterly side the mountain slopes fairly steeply towards a block
or step bordering the McDame Creek trough. Above this, a longitudinal rock-bluff scarp
fringes the crest. The south-westerly shoulder of Table Mountain is also block-stepped, with
the bases of the steps or blocks sloping gently towards Machita Pass and draining into the
Cottonwood River. On its southerly side, the rock-bluff scarp of a medial, domed ridge rises
to 5,575 feet elevation. Below this are block-steps with gentle slopes extending to the trough
of Pooley Creek, draining south-easterly to the Dease River, and bounded on the south-west
by the prominent peak of Petefowler Mountain (Needle Point), 6,675 feet elevation, and
Wightman Ridge. Prominent in the topography of Table Mountain on its northerly and
southerly sides are the longitudinal, swampy, shallow depressions, and step or block flats
flanked by scarps, striking north-easterly. In correlation with the structure of the rock
formation, these topographic forms may be interpreted as the locales of major strike-faults.
Several transverse or dip faults are marked by transverse depressions with minor scarps and
saddles in the ridges. The higher elevations of Table Mountain in the region of the Vollaug
group are covered with shallow soil and light rock overburden. In the depressions between
the ridges and along their bordering slopes, the overburden is moderately heavy and deeper.
The area of the claims is situated about 6 miles east of the main eastern contact of the
Cassiar granodiorite batholith, of probably pre-upper Cretaceous age.    In this section the NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 27
contact crosses the Dease and Cottonwood Rivers and strikes north about 1 mile west of
Petefowler Mountain (Needle Point) to Twin Peaks. Dease series sediments of Palaeozoic to
possibly Mesozoic age underlie the higher elevations of Table Mountain and embrace its crest
at 6,150 feet elevation on Vollaug Dome. A complex of mainly igneous rocks, which on
account of their structural and lithological aspects may be correlated with the McLeod series
of Mesozoic age, underlie the lower slopes of Table Mountain on its north-westerly, west,
and south-westerly sides. On the north-westerly slope these extend from the west side of
Erickson Creek gully to McDame and Callison Lakes. On the westerly and south-westerly
side of Table Mountain the igneous complex underlies the slopes to Machita Pass and the
headwaters of Pooley Creek (" Aeroplane Pass ") and extends about 4% miles south-west to
Petefowler Mountain (Needle Point) and Wightman Ridge. To the south-east a broad belt
of mainly igneous rocks of the McLeod series, with some sediments, occurs south-east and
south of the headwaters of Friendlison Creek, and embraces the rugged area of Ellamadge
Mountain ("Greenstone Mountain"), which forms the dividing range between Pooley Creek
trough on the west side and Hunter Creek trough on the east.
The Dease series sediments of the higher elevations of Table Mountain in the region of
the Vollaug group consist of black to brownish and grey thinly-bedded shale and slate; black
to greyish calcareous and sandy argillite; buff and grey bedded quartzite, and some thin beds
of greyish-brown fine-grained sandstone. On account of the lithological similarity of these
sediments with the Dease series occurring in other sections of the McDame Creek area, the
sediments underlying the higher elevations of Table Mountain in the locality of the Vollaug
group have been correlated with the Dease series. In the Table Mountain area they strike
generally slightly north of west and dip northerly at moderate angles. Locally they are
gently folded, and on the crest the slates and interbedded sandstone dip flatly south with the
sandstone exhibiting crumpling and the slates pronounced crenulation. The axial planes of
the crenulations incline towards the north.
The igneous rock-complex underlying the higher and lower slopes of Table Mountain
encircle the sediments of the crest area on at least three sides. On the higher slopes in the
locality of the claims and adjacent to the mineral deposit, they are composed of carbonatized
tuffs with rusty outcrops; partly bedded fine-grained agglomerate or volcanic breccia;
siliceous graywacke; altered tuffaceous flow-rocks; and fine-textured altered porphyritic
rocks. The tuffs are composed of a fine-grained complex of secondary minerals in which
calcite is a dominant constituent. Locally, they show a suggestion of bedding and are transitional into fine-grained agglomerate or volcanic breccia and graywacke. The agglomerate
or volcanic breccia is composed of rounded to angular fragments of volcanic rock in which
" ghosts " of feldspar laths appear. The cementing medium is generally relatively meagre
and may be either volcanic' dust or flow material. The graywacke is a medium- to finegrained dark grey to black rock containing abundant dark quartz-grains. Locally it contains
pyrite specks or rusty cavities from the oxidation of this mineral.
The tuffaceous flow-rock is highly altered greenstone in which the texture is mostly
obliterated by alteration in which carbonatization is dominant. The porphyritic rocks possess
a granular texture and no evident flow texture. The materials composing them are mainly
formed by alteration, and consist of abundant carbonate, smaller amounts of epidote, chlorite,
iron oxide, kaolin, and fine-grained quartz. The carbonate and epidote have replaced feldspar
laths, and some quartz suggests recrystallization of original quartz. Other phases are a
mainly highly-altered complex of calcite, decomposed feldspar, chlorite, epidote, and kaolin, in
which the outlines of original feldspar laths can be discerned. Locally in its areal distribution, the borders of the rock are characterized by bands of clean talcose soapstone up to
several feet in thickness. The rock is now a carbonatized greenstone and may have originally
been an instrusive possessing the composition of dacite or augite porphyry. The rock of
the north peak of Petefowler Mountain is composed of fine flakes of actinolite, with granular
aggregates of zoisite, epidote, chlorite with actinolite, and feldspar with some grains of clear
orthoclase, probably constituting a basic igneous rock. The south peak of Petefowler
Mountain consists mainly of altered andesite.
The contacts of the porphyritic rocks are generally definite and sharp. The margins of
the invading rock are fine-textured and dense, with only a small degree of assimilation in B 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
places. Locally the invaded sediments are hardened or silicified, and the cleavage or bedding
obscured or obliterated.
In the Table Mountain area, the tuffaceous rocks are distributed in " en echelon " bands
or beds intercalated in the flow-rocks or unconformably along the subjacent contacts of the
intrusive porphyritic rocks. On account of the lithological similarity this igneous complex is
correlated with the McLeod series of other sections of the McDame Creek area.
In the Table Mountain area, especially in the locality of the workings on the Vollaug
group, the distribution and structural relation of the Dease sediments and the McLeod
igneous rocks indicates severe structural complication. Here, the " Vollaug " vein, conforming in attitude to the argillite and slate, occupies the border between the sediments on its
hanging-wall and the tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, and subjacent flows and porphyritic rocks
on its foot-wall. The Dease sediments overlie the McLeod igneous complex along the strike
of the vein. On the crest of the mountain at Vollaug Dome, the slates are pronouncedly
crenulated and slightly overturned to the south. On the northerly and southerly slopes of
Table Mountain, the projected dip of the Dease sediments also overlies the McLeod series.
This structure is not definitely interpreted, but field evidence indicates that it probably
resulted from a major thrust-fault striking easterly and dipping northerly, approximately
conformable to the bedding, with the " Vollaug " vein now occupying approximately the plane
of the thrust. The first north-slope scarp probably marks the locale of a later reverse
diagonal fault striking north-easterly and dipping north-westerly, which would elevate the
depth-projection of the vein in the north or upthrow block of this fault. Fault breccia occurs
on the projection of this fault in the saddle of the west shoulder at the divide between
Erickson and McLeod Creeks, and the vein adjacent to the fault on its east or downthrow side
is pronouncedly crumpled, dragged to the north and terminates. It has not been located west
of this fault. On the northerly slope of Table Mountain, towards the trough of McDame
Creek, the scarps and block topography indicate the possible recurrence of normal or reverse
parallel longitudinal faulting, possibly along planes of incompetence between the tuffs and
crystalline igneous rocks of the McLeod series. On the southerly slope of the mountain
toward Pooley Creek the scarped topography also indicates parallel, step longitudinal faulting.
Several minor transverse faults and one minor longitudinal wedge-fault dislocate the vein
along its strike.
The mineral deposit is a quartz vein that has been traced for 3,400 feet across the
Bertha, Rowena, and Viking mineral claims by means of natural outcrops and a series of
thirty open-cuts and trenches. In this stretch between cut B6 (5,550 feet elevation) on its
west end and cut V7 (5,379 feet elevation) on its east end, which constitutes the westerly
section of the workings, the exposed vein varies from 0.5 to 9.5 feet in width and averages
4.9 feet in width. About 120 feet east of cut V7, the easterly continuity is intersected by a
transverse fault. At the west end, west of cut B6, the vein terminates at the diagonal fault
occupying a saddle in the west shoulder of the mountain at the divide between McLeod and
Erickson Creeks.
Along the line of strike for 2,120 feet easterly of cut V7 to 5,150 feet elevation at the
south boundary of the Mary mineral claim, there are no surface exposures, and in this section
the vein-outcrop is probably offset into the Red Hill Fraction south of the south boundary of
the Alice claim. In a series of trenches, cuts, and outcrops at 5,150 feet elevation along the
south boundary of the Mary claim, quartz stringers varying from 8 inches to 2.2 feet in
width are exposed in the cuts, and a few irregular, dense quartz veins and lenses outcrop
adjacent to the cuts on the south. East of this, on the slope of Friendlison Creek, there is
an increasingly thick covering of overburden, and at the time of examination in July, only
quartz stringers 4 to 10 inches in width had been exposed in some of the trenches. The
narrow quartz exposures in the stretch east of cut V7 are possibly in alignment with the
strike of the structure in the westerly section west of cut V7, and probably represent the
dispersal phase of the vein in a wide belt of sediments, tuffaceous sediments, and tuffs.
Several small transverse faults and one small longitudinal wedge-fault intersect the vein
along its strike and are indicated on the map.
The vein occurs in the plane of a thrust-fault which, at its outcrop, occupies a defined but
flat trench on or near the boundary of the McLeod igneous rocks and the Dease sediments,
and has resulted in the thrusting of the older sediments over the younger igneous rocks. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 29
The vein outcrops wholly or partly in the argillite. Sediments or partly sediments would
constitute the major' proportion of the host-rock. The hanging-wall rock is argillite and
arenaceous argillite. Along the strike of the vein the footwall-rock varies from argillite to
siliceous graywacke, fine-grained agglomerate or volcanic breccia, and carbonatized tuff,
with locally adjacent tuffaceous flow-rocks and, in one section, an adjacent stretch of fine-
textured, probably intrusive, porphyritic rock. The tuffaceous rocks of the foot-wall appear
to be distributed in lenticular " en echelon " beds. Both the immediately adjacent hanging-
and foot-wall rocks are pronouncedly crushed and crumpled, and locally, bands of foliated
schist and talcose soapstone occur, transitional into greenstone and altered porphyritic rock.
The vein is best defined and more regular in width along a stretch of 2,500 feet of its
westeidy section. In this section, between cut Rl and V7, a boss-like mass of porphyritic,
probably intrusive, rock is adjacent to it on its footwall-side. In the wider areas of argillite,
and especially in the carbonatized tuff, it tends to disperse in stringers. This occurs in some
short sections along the outcrop of the best-defined west section of the vein, but appears to
prevail to a pronounced degree along the projection of the structure in the wide area of
sediments of the east section, east of cut V7. Interpretation of this structure indicates a
degree of lenticular quartz distribution along the strike of the vein and the dependence of
continuity down the dip upon the relative distribution in depth of the sediments and competent
tuffs and adjacent crystalline intrusives.
The general strike of the vein is slightly north of west, but in short distances different
sections, exclusive of those portions disturbed by faulting, vary in strike between north 74
degrees west and south 86 degrees west. In the undisturbed portions of the vein the dip
also varies along short distances between 30 and 61 degrees northerly.
The vein-filling consists of bone-white quartz with some phases tending to a cloudy-dark
and blackish discoloration from included black, graphitic argillite particles and streaks. The
quartz is generally barren of sulphides, but locally contains a very sparing mineralization of
pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and galena in scattered small blebs. A pronounced ribbon-
structure is a typical characteristic of the vein, and fine flakes of native gold occur in the
ribbons of some sections. In some sections of the outcrops, the ribboned sections alternate
with dense white quartz sections, and occur on both the hanging-wall and foot-wall side or
in the central section. Under the magnifying glass, fine veinings of a darker-coloured and
glassy quartz can be seen cutting the main quartz mass and each other and frequently
parallel the ribboning. This suggests more than one period of quartz deposition. In some
of the best-defined sections of the vein the quartz is also frequently interlayered with streaks,
bands, and lenticular masses of slate, graphitic argillite, tuffaceous sediments, and carbonatized tuff, from a fraction of an inch to over a foot in width. This suggests that the
tendency of the vein to disperse and " stringer-out" prevails also in the more solid sections,
and a rapid transition from a confined or compact condition of the vein to a dispersal in
stringers could readily occur where control is lacking.
At the time of examination by the writer in July, the vein was being explored by the
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, by means of trenching,
stripping, open-cutting, and diamond-drilling, under the direction of McLeod White, assisted
by H. S. Fowler. The locations of the diamond-drill holes completed at the time of examination are shown on the map. The following tabulation describes the vein exposures and
relative conditions in the various surface workings along the outcrop from west to east, as
indicated on the map:—
B2—Elevation 5,590 feet.    Trench in argillite.    No vein.
B6—Elevation 5,550 feet. Ribboned and sheeted quartz vein 2 feet wide, with bands of
slickensided graphitic argillite. Fine gold flakes in the ribbons. Vein somewhat shattered
and pronouncedly dragged to north. Hanging-wall badly crushed argillite; foot-wall badly
crushed argillite and tuffaceous sediments.
B5—Elevation 5,565 feet. Badly shattered and crumpled ribboned quartz vein and
stringers across 1.5 feet. Hanging-wall crushed carbonatized tuff with green patches and
streaks of fuchsite.    Foot-wall badly crushed slate and arenaceous argillite.
B3—Elevation 5,570 feet. Sheeted and ribboned quartz vein 4 feet in width with interlayered bands of rock.    The vein strikes north 41 degrees west and dips 30 degrees north- B 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
easterly. Hanging-wall crushed and decomposed argillite; foot-wall crushed and decomposed
carbonatized tuff.
Bl—Elevation 5,570 feet. Sheeted and ribboned quartz vein 7.2 feet wide, with inter-
layered bands of slate 6 inches in width. Flakes of native gold occur in the ribbons on the
hanging-wall side with some specks of chalcopyrite with malachite and azurite. The vein
strikes south 83 degrees west and dips 27 degrees towards north. Hanging-wall is crushed
and decomposed argillite; foot-wall not exposed. A sample across 7.2 feet assayed: Gold,
0.24 oz. per ton;   silver, 3.5 oz. per ton.
In a trench 12 feet long and 1.5 feet deep, 10 feet easterly of Bl, the foot-wall section
of the vein is exposed.
In an open-cut 108 feet easterly of Bl, the vein is 5 feet in width and similar in character,
and strikes north 78 degrees west and dips 20 degrees north-easterly.
B8—Elevation 5,568 feet. Sheeted and ribboned quartz vein, strike north 78 degrees
west, dip 31 degrees north-easterly, 7 feet wide, with interlayered bands of slate from 6 to
12 inches wide. Fine native gold flakes occur in a ribboned section on the hanging-wall side
with some tetrahedrite, malachite, and azurite. Hanging-wall rock is not exposed; foot-wall
is a crushed, fine agglomerate or volcanic breccia transitional from a fine-textured carbonatized tuff.
B9—Elevation 5,560 feet. Sheeted and ribboned quartz vein 9.5 feet wide with some,
though diminished, interlayered bands of slate. Fine flakes of native gold occur in the
ribbons. Blebs of chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite with malachite and azurite also occur. The
vein strikes north 49 degrees west and dips at 27 degrees towards north-east. The hanging-
wall is crushed argillite; the foot-wall is crushed, fine agglomerate or volcanic breccia. A
sample across the vein for 5.2 feet assayed:   Gold, 0.72 oz. per ton;   silver, trace.
B10—Elevation 5,560 feet. Vein offset from B9 by a possible transverse fault. Quartz
vein 1.9 feet wide pronouncedly interlayered with graphitic, arenaceous argillite with quartz
stringers. The vein strikes north 87 degrees west and dips at 39 degrees northerly. Hanging-
wall is crushed argillite; foot-wall is crushed argillite with fine agglomerate and volcanic
breccia bordering it at 30 feet to the south.
For 400 feet east of B10, between B10 and cut Rl, the terrain is underlain by mainly
carbonatized tuff and argillite. From Rl, for about 2,400 feet easterly, the exposed vein is
adjacent on its foot-wall side to a boss of intrusive porphyritic rock.
Rl—Elevation 5,535 feet. Compact quartz vein 4.2 feet wide with pronounced ribbon-
structure and some sparse specks of tetrahedrite. The strike is north 67 degrees west and
dip 32 degrees north-easterly. The hanging-wall is crushed argillite; the foot-wall is
crushed and decomposed calcareous argillite adjacent on the south to quartzite, graywacke,
foliated schist, greenstone, and intrusive porphyritic rock. A sample across 4.2 feet assayed:
Gold, trace;   silver, trace.
R10—Elevation 5,510 feet. Compact quartz vein 5.1 feet wide; pronounced ribbon-
structure on hanging-wall and foot-wall sides. No evident mineralization. Hanging-wall
decomposed argillite; foot-wall not exposed, but adjacent are volcanic and intrusive porphyritic rocks.
R2—Elevation 5,513 feet; 140 feet north-easterly from R10. Compact quartz vein 3.9
feet wide with moderate ribbon-structure. No evident mineralization. The strike is north
82 degrees west and dip 37 degrees north. On hanging-wall is micaceous foliated altered
rock; on foot-wall is crushed siliceous and calcareous material transitional at 30 feet to the
south into graywacke and at 60 feet into greenstone and intrusive porphyritic rock.
R7—Elevation 5,520 feet. Compact quartz vein 3 feet wide, with ribbon-structure
across 1.5 feet on the hanging-wall. The strike is north 77 degrees west and dip 31 degrees
northerly. The hanging-wall is crushed argillite, the foot-wall is impure quartzite with
quartz and calcite stringers, adjacent to greenstone and intrusive porphyritic rock.
R8—Elevation 5,520 feet. Compact quartz vein 3.2 feet wide with defined ribbon-
structure. No evident mineralization. The strike is north 77 degrees west and dip 36 degrees
northerly. The hanging-wall is crushed calcareous argillite; the foot-wall is impure quartzite
adjacent to greenstone and intrusive porphyritic rock. A sample across 3.2 feet assayed:
Gold, 0.20 oz. per ton;  silver, trace. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 31
R9—Elevation 5,515 feet. A quartz stringer 6 inches wide. The hanging- and foot-wall
is composed of crushed and oxidized material.
R3—Elevation 5,530 feet. Well-ribboned quartz vein 5.7 feet in width, slightly interlayered with argillite. No evident mineralization. The vein strikes north 74 degrees west
and dips at 39 degrees north-easterly. The hanging-wall is crushed, calcareous argillite;
the foot-wall is impure quartzite with some specks of chalcopyrite and malachite stain,
adjacent to greenstone and porphyritic rock. A sample across 5.7 feet assayed: Gold, 0.26
oz. per ton;   silver, trace.
R4—Elevation 5,527 feet. Well-ribboned quartz vein 7.4 feet in width, slightly interlayered with rock. Fine flakes of native gold occur in the ribbons of a section 8 to 12 inches
wide on the foot-wall, accompanied by blebs of chalcopyrite, galena, tetrahedrite, and azurite.
The vein strikes north 74 degrees west and dips at 39 degrees northerly. The hanging-wall
is crushed slate; the foot-wall is crushed impure quartzite, adjacent to a micaceous foliated
rock with some talcose soapstone transitional into greenstone and porphyritic, instrusive
rock. A sample across 7.4 feet assayed: Gold, 2.20 oz. per ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton;
copper, nil. A selected sample across 8 inches of the ribboned section with azurite, on the
foot-wall, assayed:   Gold, 2.40 oz. per ton;   silver, 5 oz. per ton;   copper, 0.2 per cent.
R6—Elevation 5,527 feet. Compact and well-ribboned quartz vein 5.7 feet wide. Some
blebs of chalcopyrite with malachite on foot-wall. The vein strikes north 77 degrees west
and dips 40 degrees northerly.    Hanging- and foot-wall rocks are the same as at R4.
R5—Elevation 5,523 feet. Compact, ribboned quartz vein 7.9 feet in width. In well-
ribboned section 3.5 feet wide in centre, fine flakes of native gold occur in some ribbons with
chalcopyrite and malachite. The vein strikes south 88 degrees west and dips 42 degrees
northerly. The hanging-wall is crushed arenaceous argillite; the foot-wall is crushed
siliceous agglomerate with quartz stringers immediately adjacent to the vein. Adjacent to
this on the south is micaceous, foliated rock, transitional into greenstone and porphyritic
intrusive rock.
VI—Elevation 5,520 feet. Compact, well-ribboned quartz vein, 4 feet in width. The
vein strikes north 84 degrees west and dips 61 degrees northerly. The hanging-wall rock
is not exposed, but argillite and sandstone occur in the bluffs about 100 feet to the north;
the foot-wall is crushed, transitional agglomerate and graywacke adjacent to greenstone and
porphyritic rock.    Thirty feet east of VI, a pit 3 feet deep shows quartz in the bottom.
V12—Elevation 5,510 feet. Compact, ribboned quartz vein 4 feet in width, well-ribboned
across 2 feet on the foot-wall. Fine flakes of native gold occur in the ribbons. Sparse blebs
of chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite. The vein strikes north 82 degrees west and dips 56 degrees
northerly. The hanging-wall is crushed and decomposed argillite; the foot-wall is the same
as at VI.
V2—Elevation 5,500 feet. Well-ribboned quartz vein 5.2 feet wide; interlayered on
the hanging-wall with 10 inches of argillite and a band of quartz 12 inches wide. The vein
strikes north 87 degrees west and dips 52 degrees northerly. Adjacent to the hanging-wall is
arenaceous argillite; adjacent to the foot-wall the rocks are as at V12 and VI. A sample
across 5.2 feet assayed: Gold, 0.14 oz. per ton; silver, trace. East of V2 is the draw of a
transverse fault.
V5—Elevation 5,468 feet. Compact, well-ribboned quartz vein 5 feet in width. No
evident mineralization. The vein strikes north 87 degrees west and dips 44 degrees northerly.
The hanging-wall is crushed argillite; the foot-wall is siliceous agglomerate and graywacke
adjacent to greenstone. A sample across 5 feet assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace. East
of and between V5 and V6 the vein outcrops along a low medial ridge.
V6—Elevation 5,460 feet. Compact quartz vein 6 feet in width, well-ribboned across
3 feet on the hanging-wall side. No evident mineralization. The vein strikes north 87
degrees west and dips 39 degrees northerly. The hanging-wall is crushed argillite; the
foot-wall siliceous agglomerate and graywacke adjacent to greenstone and porphyritic intrusive rock. East of this working to V3, the vein outcrops along the edge of a low medial
ridge.
V3—Elevation 5,445 feet. Compact, slightly-ribboned quartz vein 6.8 feet in width,
striking north 87 degrees west and dipping 47 degrees northerly. No evident mineralization.
The hanging-wall is not exposed but arenaceous argillite and slate are adjacent on the north; B 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
the foot-wall is siliceous agglomerate and graywacke adjacent to greenstone and porphyritic
intrusive rock. Easterly of this working to V4, the vein outcrops along the edge of a low
medial ridge.
To the south is a small wedge-block fault between a minor longitudinal and two minor
transverse faults.
To the east from V3, the continuation of the vein swings north, away from the intrusive
rock to the south, in conformity to the slope of a transverse gully.
V4—Elevation 5,435 feet. Deep overburden. Pit down the dip, 8 feet deep at the face.
Compact quartz vein 2 feet wide, strike south 86 degrees west, dip 45 degrees northerly.
No evident mineralization. The hanging-wall is crushed decomposed argillite; the foot-wall
is quartzose agglomerate and graywacke.
V10—Elevation 5,415 feet.    Caved trench 2 to 6 feet deep.    Some quartz on the dump.
Vll—Elevation 5,400 feet. Compact quartz vein 3 feet in width, strike south 86 degrees
west, dip 31 degrees northerly. No evident mineralization. The hanging-wall is crushed
argillite;   the foot-wall is not exposed.
V13—Elevation 5,382 feet. In open-cut, barren, dense, quartz stringer 4 to 12 inches
wide, strike north 87 degrees west, dip 40 degrees northerly. The hanging- and foot-wall
rock is crushed and decomposed arenaceous argillite. At 25 feet south, in the trench, is a
compact well-ribboned quartz vein 2.7 feet wide, strike south 63 degrees west, dip 47 degrees
north-westerly. The hanging-wall is crushed and decomposed argillite; the foot-wall is
crushed and decomposed agglomerate and graywacke with green streaks of fuchsite.
In the gully of the Blue Ribbon Fraction, adjacent to V13 on the east, is a major
transverse fault. The continuation of the vein-outcrop in the easterly-adjoining Alice claim
has not been established. In this section the structure is probably thrown south of the south
boundary of the Alice and into the southerly-adjoining Red Hill Fraction.
V8—Elevation 5,430 feet; 60 feet south of cut V4 and in the downthrow block of the
wedge-fault. The cut abuts the angle between the longitudinal fault-plane and the west
transverse fault-plane of the block. The longitudinal fault forms the north face of the
cut and strikes north 73 degrees east and dips 58 degrees southerly. The transverse fault
forms the west wall of the cut and strikes north 25 degrees west and dips north-easterly.
The plane of the transverse fault is slickensided and brecciated, and its foot-wall is porphyritic, intrusive rock. The working exposes a compact, well-ribboned quartz vein 9.5 feet in
width, strike south 83 degrees west, dip 30 degrees northerly. There is no evident mineralization. The foot-wall of the longitudinal fault is siliceous agglomerate and graywacke.
The foot-wall of the vein is siliceous agglomerate and graywacke adjacent to greenstone and
porphyritic intrusive rock.
Of interest is the comparison of the compact and well-developed character of the vein
in this exposure adjacent to the intrusive on its foot-wall, as opposed to its tendency to rapid
dispersal in the exposures farther removed from the intrusive at cuts V4, V10, Vll, and
V13 in the upthrow block. In view of the fact that the latter represent the continuation of
the vein down the dip on the footwall-side of the transverse fault, the marked difference in
the character of the vein in these two positions is significant.
V9—Elevation 5,3.90 feet; 350 feet south-easterly from cut V8 and 215 feet southerly
from cut V13. This exposure is in a minor, intertransverse fault-block of the downthrow
wedge described under V8, and its significance relative to the V4, V10, Vll, and V13 exposures
in the upthrow block is similarly indicative. The intertransverse fault-plane strikes north
23 degrees east and dips 52 degrees south-easterly. It abuts on and forms the west side of
the cut. The plane of the fault is brecciated and slickensided and its foot-wall is tuffaceous
chert adjacent to and intermixed with porphyritic intrusive rock. The vein is offset to the
south from its alignment at V8. The vein is compact, well-ribboned quartz 4.4 feet in width,
striking north 68 degrees west and dipping 40 degrees north-easterly. On the hanging-wall
side, sparse blebs of galena and chalcopyrite with malachite occur. The hanging-wall is
crushed, siliceous argillite; the foot-wall is crushed and oxidized. A sample across 4.4 feet
assayed:   Gold, 0.12 oz. per ton;   silver, 0.2 oz. per ton;   copper, trace;  lead, nil.
V7—Elevation 5,368 feet. This exposure is the continuation of the vein from V9 in the
intertransverse fault-block of the downthrow wedge, described under V8, and its significance
relative to the V4, V10, Vll, and V13 exposures in the upthrow block is similarly indicative. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 33
It is a compact quartz vein, 9.1 feet in width, well-ribboned on the hanging-wall and foot-wall
sides, striking north 68 degrees west and dipping from 48 to 56 degrees north-easterly.
Sparse specks of chalcopyrite with malachite occur on the foot-wall side. The hanging-wall
rock is obscured by sloughed soil. The foot-wall is impure quartzite adjacent to greenstone
and porphyritic intrusive rock. A sample across 7.1 feet (excluding 2 feet on the hanging-
wall) assayed:   Gold, 0.80 oz. per ton;   silver, trace.
The continuation of the vein to the east is disrupted by a major transverse fault which
occupies the gully contiguous to the east of cut V7. The immediate easterly continuation is
probably offset south into the Red Hill Fraction.
BR1—Elevation 5,370 feet.    No vein.
M4—Elevation 5,193 feet. Two dense quartz stringers, 6 and 8 inches wide 17 feet apart,
striking respectively north 78 degrees east and north 33 degrees east. Between the stringers
are several quartz veinlets.    The formation is crushed and oxidized carbonatized tuff.
M3—Elevation 5,193 feet. At the south end of the trench is exposed a compact quartz
vein 1.3 feet in width, striking west and dipping 15 degrees north. A width of 7 inches on
the hanging-wall is well-ribboned, and fine flakes of native gold occur in the ribbons, with
some galena and tetrahedrite blebs. The hanging-wall is crushed carbonatized tuff adjacent
to crushed agglomerate and graywacke; the foot-wall rock is not exposed. Two minor
transverse faults adjacent on the east and west of the working offset this vein-segment
slightly to the north. A sample of the ribboned hanging-wall streak 7 inches in width
assayed:   Gold, 1.76 oz. per ton;   silver, 0.5 oz. per ton;   copper, trace;   lead, nil.
M2—Elevation 5,185 feet. A dense and partly-ribboned quartz vein 14 to 26 inches in
width is exposed, striking south 85 degrees west and dipping 27 degrees towards the north.
A length of 9 feet of the vein in the west end of the working is crumpled and well-ribboned,
with fine flakes of native gold occurring in the ribbons. The hanging-wall is crushed argillite;   the foot-wall is crushed, fine agglomerate and carbonatized tuff.
Ml—Elevation 5,181 feet. Well-ribboned quartz vein 2.2 feet in width, striking south
62 degrees west and dipping 41 degrees north-westerly. The hanging-wall is crushed argillite; the foot-wall is crushed and oxidized carbonatized tuff. A sample across 2.2 feet
assayed:   Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton;   silver, trace.
M6—Elevation 5,150 feet. A dense quartz stringer 8 inches in width, slightly ribboned
and with limonite patches and streaks, is exposed. This stringer strikes south 73 degrees
west and dips 40 degrees northerly. The hanging-wall is crushed argillite; the foot-wall is
crushed and oxidized carbonatized tuff.
In the centre of a small draw 60 feet south-easterly of this working, a dense, barren
quartz vein, 20 inches in width, outcrops in carbonatized tuff for 50 feet, striking south 82
degrees west and dipping 80 degrees north. On a low medial ridge about 25 feet southerly of
this, several small, dense and barren quartz stringers and lenses outcrop in quartzite and
siliceous greenstone. These quartz bodies differ in type to the " Vollaug" vein and are
similar to the quartz bodies occurring in the McDame Creek basin area in the greenstone-tuff
phase of the McLeod series. The north rim of this ridge shows siliceous replacement with
sparsely disseminated arsenopyrite. A selected sample of this assayed: Gold, trace; silver,
trace;  arsenic, trace;  antimony, trace.
M5—Elevation 5,147 feet. At 29 feet from the portal of the cut a dense white quartz
stringer is exposed, striking south-easterly. The hanging-wall is crushed and decomposed
arenaceous argillite;   the foot-wall is oxidized carbonatized tuff.
02—Elevation 5,102 feet. For 20 feet from the portal is oxidized, carbonatized tuff
with several dense and barren quartz stringers.    Beyond this the cut is sloughed.
03—Elevation 5,107 feet. A ribboned quartz vein 10 inches in width striking northeasterly and dipping north-westerly is exposed. The hanging-wall is crushed siliceous argillite ; the foot-wall is crushed and oxidized carbonatized tuff, with a band of soapstone cutting
through it at 30 feet from the portal of the cut. ''
04—Elevation 5,102 feet.    No vein.
Ol—Outcrops on a low ridge between Ol and 04, and is exposed in trenches with a band
of soapstone along 30 feet of the northerly end of the central trench.    No vein.
3 B 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
05—Elevation 5,080 feet. A dense and barren quartz stringer 6 to 8 inches in width
occurs in decomposed argillaceous rock. Greenstone outcrops adjacent to the portal of the
incline.
06—Elevation about 4,960 feet.    The pit is in clay and talus and does not reach bed-rock.
On the east of 06, down the flat slope of Friendlison Creek trough, the terrain is covered
with an appreciable thickness of overburden. At the time of examination by the writer
(July) no work had been done east of 06. Diamond-drilling by the Consolidated Company
had, however, progressed east from the locality of cut B6 at the west end of the west section,
and was proceeding at a set-up 600 feet north-west of cut M4. Two diamond-drills were being
used in the exploratory-work, with the second investigating the dip-continuity of the west
section of the " Vollaug " vein along the north slope of Table Mountain, east of Erickson
Creek.
On the westerly slope of the west shoulder of Table Mountain, several hundred feet west
and south-west of the Bertha claim, several irregular bodies of dense, bone-white, barren
quartz outcrop in porphyritic intrusive rock adjacent to its easterly contact with quartzite.
These are similar in type to the quartz-bodies of the McDame Creek basin area as described
in the Bird, Homestake, and Crawford group special reports. They are entirely different in
character, attitude, and alignment from the " Vollaug " vein, with which they cannot be
correlated.
F. Crawford and associates, of McDame Creek, own a block of twenty-
Crawford       eight claims and fractions located on the south side  of McDame Lake
Claims. on the north slope of Table Mountain.    In 1937 these were optioned by
the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, who carried
out an extensive programme of exploration by trenching, stripping, open-cutting, and shallow
shaft-sinking, with a crew of fourteen men under the direction of McLeod White and Phil
Emery.
The claims are reached by a branch trail from the main McDame Creek trail extending
for about 3 miles from " Wing's Camp " at 3,475 feet elevation to the north shore of McDame
Lake at 3,054 feet elevation. The lake, about a quarter of a mile wide, is crossed by a
primitive rowboat to its south shore. The tent-camp is located on a dry gravel bench
timbered with jack-pine, fronting and 16 feet above the lake. The freighting of supplies
and equipment for this operation and for that of the Consolidated Company on the Vollaug
group on Table Mountain was continuously carried out throughout the season by Northern
Airways, Limited, from its air bases at Atlin and Carcross, and with landings on McDame
and Cook Lakes. The McDame Lake camp was equipped with radio broadcasting and receiving apparatus, enabling radio communication with the Table Mountain camp, and from thence
direct communication with McDame Post, Dease Landing, Atlin, Carcross, and Prince
Rupert, and by relay through the latter three places with Anyox and Trail.
A series of timbered rock knolls and ridges, bearing east-west, parallel to McDame
Lake and rising to 300 and 400 feet above the lake, occupies a belt about three-quarters of
a mile wide between the lake and the north slope of Table Mountain. The low-lying area
between the knolls and ridges is deeply covered with gravel-wash and frequent swamps.
The main showings are located on the slopes of the ridges and knolls.
The locality is situated about 6 miles east of the main eastern contact of the Cassiar
granodiorite batholith which, in this area, strikes north across the Cottonwood River at
Twin Peaks and about a mile west of Petefowler Mountain (Needle Point). The area of
the main showings is underlain chiefly by intrusive rocks, with some bands and lenticular
areas of tuff of the McLeod Series of possibly Jurassic age. The intrusive rocks vary from
fine-grained to granular and coarse diabasic textures, and are possibly composed in part
of closely-spaced dykes of varying but generally appreciable width, striking north-easterly.
They are altered by carbonatization and development of epidote, chlorite, sericite, and
kaolin, but may have originally possessed the composition of dacite and augite porphyry.
White quartz veins, 1 to 9 feet wide, strike north to north-easterly and dip generally
steeply south-easterly. They are lenticular and appear to occupy an " en echelon " arrangement of Assuring parallel to the strike of the intrusive belt. The structure suggests an
intimate relation between the quartz bodies and the intrusive complex and the possible
occurrence of the veins, at least in part, along the contacts of the dyke-phases of these rocks
with each other and with narrow included or intercalated bands of tuff.    The rock-alteration NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1). B 35
already referred to is especially pronounced adjacent to the veins, and in some instances the
wall-rocks are appreciably silicified and impregnated with disseminated pyrite. In some
veins minute streaks of a dark and glassy quartz can be observed under the magnifying-glass
interlacing the white " bone quartz " and intersecting each other, indicating a quartz-filling
of at least two succeeding ages. A sparse mineralization of pyrite is locally associated with
the glassy, darker quartz streaks.
The veins are generally barren of sulphide mineralization, and where such does occur
it is sparingly distributed. Occasional isolated blebs of what is possibly a variety of ten-
nantite, and small blebs of chalcopyrite, also occur. The quartz is frequently vuggy and
cellular, and these small cavities probably originate from the decomposition of iron sulphides
or included ferruginous carbonate gangue. Sparse particles of native gold up to about the
size of rice were observed in quartz cavities in one vein, and also adhering to limonite in
cellular quartz on the dump from another vein. The veins are generally rusty and the
quartz frequently contains streaks and patches of ankerite. The rusty filament on the
quartz and the limonite in the cavities probably originates from both the pyrite and ankerite.
Trenching, stripping, open-cutting, and shallow shaft-sinking was being carried out by
the Consolidated Company on the main showings on the Camp, Porcupine, and Lakeview
claims, and general prospecting of the optioned holdings was also proceeding.
The showings on the Porcupine claim occur on the slopes of a rock ridge a short distance
easterly of the camp. At 3,090 feet elevation at the foot of this ridge, about 200 feet easterly
from the camp, an open-cut exposes two contiguous rusty quartz veins 3 and 2.5 feet
wide. The veins outcrop in oxidized carbonatized rock and are separated by a band of
decomposed rock, 2 feet wide. The quartz is fractured and contains bands of limonite and
ankerite. The veins strike north 88 degrees east and dip 75 degrees south. The southerly
vein is naturally exposed for 30 feet in an easterly direction, but further continuity in both
directions is obscured by overburden.
At 3,085 feet elevation and 80 feet southerly of this, an open-cut exposes a quartz vein
striking south 79 degrees east and dipping 80 degrees southerly, in oxidized and carbonatized
tuff. The quartz is rusty and contains some limonite streaks, but no metallic mineralization
was observed. It is stripped for a length of 14 feet, and further continuity at both ends is
obscured by deep gravel overburden.
At an elevation of 3,110 feet, and 250 feet north 56 degrees east from this, a pit 8 to
10 feet deep has been sunk on a vein 6.6 feet wide. This vein occurs in greenstone, strikes
north 79 degrees east and dips 57 degrees south-easterly. The walls of the vein are not
well-defined, and the adjacent greenstone shows siliceous replacement and is impregnated
with small pyrite crystals for a width of 18 inches on each side of the vein. The main
body of the quartz in the vein is bone-white and dense-textured. It contains bands of
ankerite and is very sparsely mineralized with isolated blebs of tetrahedrite with some
intermixed specks of chalcopyrite. Along the centre of the vein, however, a plane of
refracturing is filled for a width of 8 to 10 inches with a dark-coloured glassy quartz
mineralized with blebs, streaks, and small patches of crystalline pyrite. A sample of this
mineralized centre streak, across 8 to 10 inches, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace. A
sample of the main body of the " bone " quartz on each side of the centre streak at the
bottom of the pit, across a width of 5.5 feet, showing a sparse mineralization of tetrahedrite,
chalcopyrite, and some ankerite films, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton. A sample
of the pyritized ar*d silicified wall-rock across 12 inches of the hanging- and foot-wall sides
(total 24 inches) assayed:   Gold, trace;   silver, trace.
At 3,110 feet elevation, 80 feet north-easterly of this vein and in approximate alignment with its strike, a trench in overburden 18 inches deep exposes a barren, rusty quartz
vein 2.5 feet wide. This vein outcrops in a decomposed carbonatized rock, strikes north 73
degrees east and dips 55 degrees south-easterly. At 3,110 feet elevation, 28 feet north 73
degrees east from this, a trench exposes oxidized and sheared rock 20 inches in width, striking
north 68 degrees east and dipping steeply south-easterly. At 3,135 feet elevation and 60
feet north-easterly of this, a pit 5 feet deep exposes a width of 2 feet of rusty quartz and
oxidized rock striking north 73  degrees east and dipping steeply south-easterly.
At 3,125 feet elevation and 50 feet north-westerly of the second trench at 3,110 feet
elevation an open-cut exposes a rusty and fractured quartz vein 5 feet wide, striking south B 36 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
87 degrees east and dipping vertically. This vein has been stripped for 12 feet in an easterly
direction from the cut, and the continuity at both ends of the exposure is obscured by overburden. The quartz contains some ankerite bands and is very sparsely mineralized with an
occasional bleb of tetrahedrite and some chalcopyrite. At 60 feet east, in alignment with the
strike, a cross-trench 9 feet long, 10 feet deep, and 3 feet wide in overburden does not reach
bed-rock.
At 3,075 feet elevation at the base of the southerly slope of this ridge and 200 feet
south 67 degrees east from the second-mentioned showing at 3,085 feet elevation, a shaft
10 feet deep exposes a barren quartz vein 20 inches wide at the collar and 10 inches wide
at the bottom. This vein occurs in oxidized, carbonatized tuff, strikes south 67 degrees east
and dips 65 degrees south-westerly. At 70 feet south-easterly and in approximate alignment, a cross-trench 20 feet long and 3 feet deep has been dug in gravel-wash adjacent to
a swampy depression. The gravel and topography at this locality suggests the possible
site of an old abandoned stream-channel.
The Camp claim showings are located at about 3,080 feet elevation and about 2,000
feet south-easterly from the camp. These are situated in an area of low rock knolls around
the base of the south-easterly slope of the " Porcupine " ridge, adjacent to and northerly
of a swampy depression and about half a mile south of the east end of McDame Lake.
In this locality a white quartz vein 2 feet wide outcrops in altered augite porphyry for a
length of about 30 feet along the base and on the south side of a small knoll. The vein
strikes north 65 degrees east and dips 50 degrees south-easterly. The quartz is vuggy and
cellular and a few specks of gold up to about the size of rice are seen in it, generally in the
vugs. Pyrite also occurs very sparingly in small blebs. A selected sample from this vein,
showing sparsely distributed pyrite and oxidized material in somewhat vuggy quartz,
assayed:   Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton;   silver, trace.
About 200 feet south-westerly from this exposure across a gravel flat and offset about
50 feet south-east, a well-defined white quartz vein 1 to 3.2 feet wide outcrops in altered
augite porphyry at the easterly end of another rock knoll. This vein strikes north 63
degrees east and dips 70 degrees south-easterly. A shaft, 12 feet deep, has been sunk at the
north-easterly end of the exposure. In this the vein is 3.2 feet wide at the collar and 2.8
feet wide at the bottom and very sparsely mineralized with an occasional small bleb of
tetrahedrite. Beyond this shaft, in a south-easterly direction, the vein has been stripped
for 45 feet. At 30 feet along this stripping it diminishes to 12 inches in width, and at 45
feet continues in two stringers 1 and 6 inches wide. To the north-east, beyond the shaft
the possible continuity in this direction is obscured by gravel overburden.
About 90 feet north of the first-mentioned vein on this claim, a barren white quartz
vein 18 to 20 inches wide in altered augite porphyry is exposed for a length of 15 feet on
the north side of the knoll. This vein strikes north 65 degrees east and dips 75 degrees
south-easterly. Further continuity in both directions beyond this working is obscured
by overburden. A possible continuation of this vein is found about 80 feet to the southwest, where a quartz vein 9 inches in width, striking north 65 degrees east and dipping 75
degrees south-easterly, is exposed in a small open-cut in low ground. A few minute specks
of gold were observed in specimens on the dump at this working. About 15 feet south
of this cut a lateral quartz stringer, 6 inches wide, outcrops.
The Lakeview claim showings are located about 2,500 feet south-westerly of the camp
in an area of intrusive rocks and tuff bands, composing ridges and knolls bearing east-west,
parallel to the south shore of McDame Lake. In this locality at 3,190 feet elevation on the
northerly 30-degree slope of the ridge and about 700 feet southerly of the south shore of
McDame Lake, an open-cut exposes a barren white quartz vein 5 feet in width. The vein
strikes north 13 degrees east, is slightly rusty, and occurs in an appreciably oxidized rock.
The dip is not clear. It is traced by shallow stripping for 15 feet in a southerly direction
up  the hill-slope,  but the  further  continuity  down  the  slope  is  obscured  by  overburden.
About 50 feet southerly from this at 3,240 feet elevation, and offset about 20 feet to
the west, a shaft 12 feet deep exposes a quartz vein 8.3 feet wide in an appreciably oxidized
and altered rock. This vein strikes north 11 degrees east and dips 75 degrees westerly.
For a width of 1.5 feet on the hanging- and foot-wall sides the vein consists of dark quartz
with pyrite blebs and siliceous, pyritized wall-rock.    A sample of this mineralized section NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 37
across 18 inches On the hanging- and foot-walls (total 3 feet) assayed: Gold, trace; silver,
trace.
At 3,240 feet elevation and 50 feet southerly, in alignment with the attitude of this
vein, a pit 5 feet deep exposes oxidized and decomposed rock with some crushed quartz and a
barren quartz stringer 8 inches in width. About 10 feet southerly from this, shallow
stripping exposes oxidized and decomposed rock with some crushed quartz.
At an elevation of 3,250 feet on the southerly slope of the ridge and 370 feet southerly
from the shaft, two open-cuts on the face of a rock-bluff expose a barren white quartz vein
6 feet in width. Several barren quartz outcrops in oxidized and decomposed rock, which
is probably carbonatized tuff, also occur along the southerly base of this ridge. Several
hundred feet southerly of the Lakeview showings, a series of barren quartz outcrops of
appreciable width occupy protruding humps in a low terrain, and are naturally exposed at
offset intervals along a general north-easterly bearing for a distance of about 400 feet.
An open-cut in one such occurrence exposes an erratic body of dark-banded quartz with
some disseminated pyrite in a rock-formation of argillaceous and tuffaceous sediments.
These probably represent lenticular bodies of quartz in  " en echelon " alignment.
At the conclusion of its exploration during the 1937 season, the Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Company of Canada relinquished its option on these claims.
PLACER-GOLD DEPOSITS.
O'Donnel River.
Field-work in this section during the 1937 season had as its main objective the commencement of a detailed study of the O'Donnel River area for the purpose of outlining a possible
old channel or channels and the establishment of their location and continuity. As the
majority of mining-work in this area has been and is being carried out in the central section
of the main trough, and as this section is indicated as affording information that would assist
in the delineation of the various factors governing the problem relative to the whole area,
the work was initiated in this section. The following report must be considered as preliminary to the continuance of the work in future field-seasons and subject to modification in
relation to factors and evidence that may be accumulated as the study progresses.
O'Donnel River flows into the east side of Atlin Lake about 14 miles south of the town
of Atlin. It is about 30 miles long and is the largest stream flowing into Atlin Lake. The
many tributaries of its headwaters and of the north side of its lower half drain an appreciable
extent of the southerly slopes of the divide between it and the Surprise Lake drainage-trough.
On the east it drains the westerly slopes of McMaster and Farnsworth Mountains which form
the divide to the headwaters of the Sucker River.
The lower area of the river for about 3 miles from its mouth is underlain by mainly black
slate, quartzite, and some schist. Above this, a belt of limestone about 3 miles wide strikes
south-easterly across the trough. For the rest of its course to the headwaters the creek-
trough is underlain by slate, quartzite, and schist, with some areas of volcanic breccia and
calcareous and carbonatized rocks, adjacent on the east in the central section to a granitic
boss forming McMaster Mountain.
In the early days of the Atlin camp, some gold was taken out by small hydraulic outfits
and by individuals from the main river-valley and from several tributaries. In 1912 rich
" pay " was discovered in a pre-Glacial channel or bench buried under a high bench in the
central section, about 12% miles from the mouth, and during 1913 there was a sizable rush to
this stream. Considerable hydraulicking, drifting, and sluicing carried out on the bench-
ground and in the creek-bed during that year yielded good values from scattered patches.
Although an appreciable quantity of gold was extracted, a combination of factors, chief of
which were insufficiency of water for hydraulicking and the flat gradient of the river, prevented the hopes for an extensive and sustained output being realized. Since that time small-
scale drifting, some shovelling-in, and some spasmodic prospecting have been carried out.
For several years Nathan Murphy has operated continuously by drifting on flat, decomposed bed-rock under the west bench on the Ethel M. bench lease and has made satisfactory
gold recoveries. During the 1937 season Murphy, with one assistant, reported values averaging about $1 to the half-yard car, and a total recovery for the season of 33 oz. of gold
valued at $924, recovered from 500 yards of gravel sluiced. This section is reached by a good motor-road extending for 32 miles from the town of
Atlin (elevation 2,200 feet) to Nathan Murphy's camp (elevation 3,220 feet), on the west
bench of the river.
In this section, the river has a gradient of about 0.97 per cent, and occupies a trough
about 500 to 1,000 feet wide, striking north-easterly between banks composed of 100 to 200
feet of glacial drift and clay. Sections of weathered rim-rock are exposed at intervals along
the base of the west bench.
In this section high rim-rock is extensively exposed along the east bank, and although
some gold may be found in the remnants of pre-Glacial bench-gravel embayment-patches
covering this rim-slope, there seems to be little chance for a main ancient channel to have broken
through on this side. On the other hand, the low rim outcropping at intervals along the base
of the high bench of the west bank is indicated as the probable east rim of a buried pre-
Glacial channel or of an east bench of such a channel buried under the high bench of the
west bank. This east rim strikes generally north 33 degrees east and where it has been
crosscut from its east to its west side, slopes at varying angles to the west and flat decomposed bed-rock on this (west) side. In the Murphy workings at 625 feet from the adit-portal,
the flat, decomposed bed-rock on the west side of the east rim is at 3,052 feet elevation, 17
feet higher than the portal of the adit and 64 feet above the level of O'Donnel River at this
point. The old and present drifting operations also indicate that the pre-Glacial stream was
of greater extent than the present river. The possibility that the main drift workings in
Nathan Murphy's operation under the west bank may be on the site of a bench of the old
channel is indicated by the steep westerly plunge of bed-rock at the westerly extremity of
several adits, and also by the occurrence of patches of yellow gravel and weathered bed-rock
in John Thomson's workings on the east bank of the river, about 1,200 feet north-easterly of
Murphy's workings. In Murphy's workings, the bed-rock is flat to about 800 feet from the
main adit-portal, where it plunges steeply west. This adit and its lateral workings also
indicate that the ancient channel was a wide compound channel; that is, composed of a wavy
bed-rock, between the humps of which were several subsidiary channels of varying width,
rim-slope, and depth.
This condition would also explain what appeared to be a patchy occurrence of " pay " in
the old workings. About thirty-eight or more adits of various lengths have been driven at
different elevations along a stretch of about 2 miles of the west limit of this central section
of the O'Donnel River in efforts to hit the extension of the flat bed-rock of Murphy's workings.
Although some gold has been recovered on both the east and west sides of the east rim, in
several of these adits, due to lack of the necessary surveying, they have been too high, too
low, or not of sufficient length to reach the objective. It must also be considered that the
bed-rock in Murphy's workings may be a bench of the old channel and, if so, it would not be
consistently continuous.
The bearing of the east rim of the pre-Glacial channel or its bench in the old and present
workings under the west bench, the local outcrop of this rim along the base of the west
bench, the slight westerly embayment of this section of the O'Donnel trough and the upstream outcrop of rim-rock, indicates that the east rim of the buried pre-Glacial channel or
its bench approaches to approximate coincidence with the west limit of the river-trough at
3,065 feet elevation at the southerly end of the upper canyon, about 1 mile above Murphy's
adit. In places along this stretch the present stream has cut across and through the edge of
the east rim with its possible pre-Glacial bench and may have produced some concentration of
gold in the present creek-trough.
Gold, possibly contained in lenticular bands of stratified inter-Glacial wash of appreciable
thickness occurring in the high moraine-bench confining the trough, would also be reconcen-
trated in the river-trough during its process of cutting-down. About 1,000 feet above the
portal of Murphy's main adit, fair values in coarse gold have been recovered by Tom Prpich,
from shovelling-in, on flat schist rim-rock under 6 to 8 feet of gravel, on the west bank of
the river. The depth to bed-rock in the river-trough of this section is not known, and primitive pumping outfits have been inadequate to remove the water encountered in several
attempts at shaft-sinking. The gradient of the O'Donnel River along the distance of about
1 mile above Murphy's adit to the upper canyon is 1.7 per cent. Below this for about 1%
miles along the river to the upper end of the lower canyon at 2,917 feet elevation, the gradient NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1). B 39
of the stream is 0.97 per cent. For the total distance of about 2% miles between the two
canyons, the composite gradient of the stream is 1.19 per cent., and the trough varies from
about 300 to 1,000 feet in width between the confining east and west high benches of glacial
moraine.
Above the southerly end of the first canyon, 1 mile above Murphy's adit, outcrops of the
east and west rim-rock from 1,500 to 2,000 feet apart, confine the possible extension of the
buried pre-Glacial channel along a bearing of north 33 degrees east, on the west side of and
paralleling the O'Donnel trough.
At Canyon Creek, 3,115 feet elevation and 3 miles above Murphy's adit, the west side of
the east rim crosses the creek at about 400 feet from its confluence with the O'Donnel, and
the east side of the west rim at about 1,000 feet westerly from this. In this locality, a defined
depression marks the gap between the east and west rim-outcrops, with the central point
between the rims at 3,173 feet elevation in the locality of Murphy's refuge-cabin.
Down-stream from Murphy's main adit-workings, the O'Donnel trough swings slightly
to the east, away from the down-stream projection of the buried pre-Glacial channel. At
about 10,830 feet below Murphy's, at 2,855 feet elevation in the lower creek-canyon and 2,895
feet elevation on the top of the bench, the lower creek-canyon swings due west for three-
quarters of a mile and extends across the southerly projection of the bearing of the pre-
Glacial channel. Assuming an average gradient of 1 per cent, for the pre-Glacial channel
or bench bed-rock as indicated in Murphy's workings, and projecting it from 3,052 feet
elevation in Murphy's workings for a distance of 10,830 feet southerly, would place this pre-
Glacial bed-rock at 2,944 feet elevation in the locality of the west swing in the lower canyon.
In other words, this projection would place this pre-Glacial bed-rock 89 feet above the canyon-
bottom and 49 feet above the top of the bench at this point.
Morainal hummocks bordering the margin of the west swing of the canyon and continuing in a line to the east and to the west, blue glacial clay resting on the top of the canyon
rock-walls, together with some evidence of glacial grooving and the occurrence of defined
" roche moutonnee " along the line of the continued southerly projection of the pre-Glacial
bed-rock bearing to Dixie Lake, at 2,822 feet elevation, indicates the possible destruction by
transverse glaciation of this old channel weathered bed-rock at some point between Murphy's
workings and the west swing of the lower canyon. Should this bed-rock be that of a pre-
Glacial bench with a deeper channel bordering it on its west side, it is possible the deeper
channel may continue for some distance along the bearing of this southerly projection. Of
importance in this consideration, however, is a wide major, transverse U-shaped valley
extending north-westerly across this area from the Coast Mountains at the low divide to the
headwaters of the Silver Salmon River, and merging to coincidence with the O'Donnel River
valley along the course of its lower section to Atlin Lake at 2,200 feet elevation.
Between the Murphy workings and Canyon Creek there is the possibility for a buried
subsidiary or tributary old channel bearing north-south along the lower, east slopes of the
Laurie Range from the divide to the headwaters of Spruce Creek. In this area a drift-filled
depression, striking north-south and occupied by Blind Creek, breaks through the west rim-
rock of the O'Donnel old channel, a short distance west of Canyon Creek canyon. Canyon
Creek in its present course quite apparently now occupies a youthful, consequent trough east
of the centre line of its original valley, and has incised its bed along the fringe of the steep
west slope of Melvin Mountain and cut its canyon through the west rim-rock of the O'Donnel
old channel. Its old channel-site consequently must lie to the west, buried under the moraine
filling the valley-trough, with its entry into the O'Donnel trough at an indicated break-through
of the O'Donnel old channel east rim at 3,055 feet elevation in the O'Donnel trough, about
3,550 feet up-stream from Murphy's and about 1,650 feet below the upper canyon. In the
upper section of Blind Creek some yellow gravel is exposed under glacial moraine, and in a
swamp at 3,402 feet elevation the timbers of an old flooded shaft are located. In 1935, Neil
Forbes and partners sank a shaft at 3,412 feet elevation in this locality in glacial moraine
with yellow gravel at the bottom, but the shaft was flooded before bed-rock was reached.
In the headwaters area of the O'Donnel River, intermittent individual prospecting has
been carried out over a period of years on Feather, Dixie, Slate, Carvell, and McKinley Creeks,
and Bull Creek and its tributaries. Coarse gold has been discovered on these creeks and
small recoveries have been made by individuals from time to time.    No systematic or detailed B 40 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
investigation of this upper area has as yet been made and its potentiality is unknown. From
a small canvas-hose hydraulicking outfit on Bull Creek in 1904, a recovery of 100 oz. of gold
is reported in the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines for that year. Between 1914 and
1921, John Noland, of Atlin, sank a shaft 52 feet to bed-rock in the vicinity of the fork of
Feather and Dixie Creeks, and drifted 40 feet to the north-east and 160 feet to the south-west.
He reports values of about % oz. of fine and coarse gold to the set, for a length of 40 feet
south of the shaft. Noland also reports creek wash-gravel in this locality averaging 16 to
17 cents per cubic yard and gravel on " hard-pan " 4 to 6 feet below surface averaging 30 to
35 cents to the yard with gold valued at $20 per ounce. The ground in this old working is
reported by Nolan to be comparatively free from large boulders.
No data covering complete gold recovery in the O'Donnel River area are available, but
some very rich patches are reported in the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines to have
been encountered in some of the old workings in the central section. Relative to this, Nathan
Murphy cites the following tests, with gold figured at $15.75 per ounce, of rich ground encountered in drifting under the bench at 400 feet in, in an old adit on the Gold Hill bench lease
(now the Grace), a short distance down-stream from his present workings:—
Test No. 1:   One pan, $89.30.
Test No. 2:   Rocking one wheelbarrow (five wheelbarrows to % cubic yard), $61.40.
Test No. 3:   Sluicing one car of gravel (% yard), $108.50.
Test No. 4:   Three pans of gravel, $115.30.
Various references to the O'Donnel River area are contained in the Annual Reports of
the Minister of Mines, British Columbia, for the years 1898, 1899, 1903, 1904, 1906, 1907, 1908,
1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1925, 1926, 1929, 1930, 1932, 1933,
and in Bulletin No. 1, 1931, " Placer Mining in British Columbia."
SPECIAL REPORTS.
Typewritten copies at 25 cents each are available to those who specially request reports
on the following properties:—
Stewart-Canal Gold Mines, Limited  (N.P.L.).
Atlin Area:    Last Chance Group;    Snake  Creek.
Red Reef Group.
Homestake  Group.
Bird No.  1  and No. 2  Mineral  Claims.
Hunter Group.
Cornucopia Group.
PROGRESS NOTES.
BY
Charles Graham.
LODE-GOLD DEPOSITS.
Atlin Mining District.
Tulsequah District.
Polaris-Taku Mining Co., Ltd.—D.  C.   Sharpstone, general manager;    B.  B.  Neiding,
general superintendent.    This is the only lode operation in the Mining Division, and is located
on Whitewater Creek, a tributary of Tulsequah River, about 6 miles up from its junction with
the Taku River.
This company started active prospecting and development on the property in 1935. Some
drilling, open-cutting, and drifting had previously been done by the N. A. Timmins Corporation and the Alaska Juneau Mining Company. The property responded to development under
the present management, and a 200-ton mill was erected during the summer and started
milling ore on October 15th. Considerable drifting, crosscutting, and raising had been done
and several stopes opened. NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 41
A 44-room bunk-house, together with a cook-house, dining-room, dry-room, and other
buildings for the accommodation of the employees were built.
Additions were made to the Diesel power plant and a 625-k.v.a., 60-cycle, 440-volt hydroelectric plant was installed.
General conditions were good and 120 men are employed. Six miles of road was built
from Taku River to the mine. Concentrates have to be stored during the winter as the Taku
River is not navigable during the winter months.
Portland Canal Mining Division.
Salmon River Area.
Silbak Premier Mines, Ltd.—B. F. Smith, general manager; J. G. Pearcey, mine superintendent.
Active development has been carried on in the Sebakwe and B.C. Silver sections; 14,836
feet of drifting and raising having been done and several stopes opened. Diamond-drilling
has also been carried on continuously. The mine operated 313 days and produced 201,206
tons of ore, yielding 47,746 oz. gold and 913,510 oz. silver.
Big Missouri Mine.—Buena Vista Mining Company, owners; Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, operators. D. S. Campbell, general superintendent;
E. James, mine superintendent.
Development consisting of 952 feet of drifting, 245 feet of crosscutting, 2,768 feet of
raising, and 753 feet of side-swiping, has been done. The 750-ton mill in course of construction will not be completed until about the end of February, 1938. It is located underground
between the 2,100- and 2,300-foot levels on the Salmon River side of the ridge. Eighty thousand tons of rock was excavated for the mill-site, which is approximately 200 feet long, 60
feet wide, and 40 feet high. All storage-bins for raw and fine crushed ore are cut out of
solid rock.
All the heavy equipment for the mill was hauled from the townsite over the Missouri
Ridge and taken down the Salmon River side of the ridge by sleigh and tractor to the surface
tramway between the 2,800- and 2,300-foot levels. The 2,300-foot level had to be widened and
heightened to take the machinery. An inclined tramway was used underground to lower
the equipment from the 2,300-foot level to the various sections of the mill. The small equipment was taken through the 2,800-foot level and lowered down the tramway.
A ventilating fan of 50,000 cubic feet per minute capacity is being installed to ventilate
the mill section.
Salmon Gold Mines, Ltd.—Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, operators; D. S. Campbell, general superintendent. The property is on Summit Lake,
about 8 miles from the Big Missouri. The crosscut adit started in 1936 was extended to
intersect the ore-zone, without encountering it. Operations can only be carried on during
the summer months.    Preparations have been made for an early start in 1938.
Hercules Group.—Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited,
operators. Considerable diamond-drilling has been done from the surface. The 306 drift
north in the 2,800-foot level of the Big Missouri mine has been extended 217 feet towards the
Hercules Group.
Troy Group.—Lake and McDonald, owners. Some additional prospecting was done on
this group during the summer.
Several other groups of prospectors did assessment-work on their claims.
Bear River Area.
Stewart Canal Gold Mines.—J. Haathi, manager.    This property adjoins the Oral M.
Some surface-stripping and a short drift was driven on one of the veins.
Red Reef.—This property also adjoins the Oral M.    Some prospecting was done here.
Rufus Argenta.—A contract was let for driving 150 feet of tunnel.    This contract was
completed during the summer. .
American Creek Area.
American Boy.—Some high-grade ore was mined and shipped by leasers from this
property.
Kansas Group.—Sam Deschamps, owner of the group, made several small shipments of
high-grade ore during the year. B 42 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
Marmot River Area.
Several groups of prospectors did assessment-work on their claims.
Georgia River Area.
Georgia River, Gold Leasers, operators. A Hadsel dry-grinding mill was installed
during the spring months. All the equipment for the mill had to be taken up on pack-horses
or sleighs.    The property is 10 miles from the beach and at 3,200 feet elevation.
Operations were commenced in May. As they had no reserves of broken ore, all mill
requirements had to be mined daily. One stope was opened and another was being made
ready. There was no ventilation in the stope and instructions were given to have a fan
installed.
Operations were suspended at the end of August.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
South Easter Mine.—Skidegate Gold Mines, Limited.    A Hadsel dry-grinding mill was
installed at this property.    Operations started about the beginning of December, 1936, and
were suspended early in 1937.
Skeena Mining Division.
Coast Area.
Surf Inlet.—Surf Inlet Consolidated Gold Mines, Limited; Angus McLeod, superintendent. Active operations have continued throughout the year, principally in the Pugsley vein
where some new stopes have been opened on the 700-, 800-, and 900-foot levels beyond the old
workings.    Some development has been carried on in the 1,000-foot level.
A start has been made cleaning up the 900-foot level in the old Surf mine across the
valley from the Pugsley.
Porcher Island.
Surf Point.—Reward Mining Company, Limited;   Alex.  Smith, superintendent.
The Surf Point mine, formerly operated by the N. A. Timmins Corporation, was acquired
by the Reward Mining Company early in the year. The mine operated 299 days, producing
17,043 tons of ore, yielding 2,769 oz. gold and 944 oz. silver. Four hundred and thirty-three
feet of development was done.
Edye Pass Mine.—Reward Mining Company, Limited. A total of 2,146 feet of development-work was done, the mine working 254 days. Operations were suspended at the end of
September.
COPPER DEPOSITS.
Anyox Area.
The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, having acquired
the property of the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and Power Company at Anyox,
commenced a programme of diamond-drilling adjacent to the old Hidden Creek mine early in
the summer. Two drills were employed continuously until November, locating some additional ore-bodies.
Preparations are now being made to drift from the old 150-foot level in the Hidden Creek
mine into the new location for further prospecting.
SILVER-LEAD DEPOSITS.
Alice Arm Area.
Esperanza Mining Co., Ltd.—This company ceased operations early in the year.
Dolly Varden.—T. W. Falconer, lessee. One hundred and ninety tons of high-grade ore
carrying approximately 32,000 oz. of silver was mined from one of the old glory-holes. The
ore was shipped direct to the Tacoma smelter.
PLACER-GOLD DEPOSITS.
Atlin District.
All the active operations in the Atlin District are placer. There has been increasing
activity with better recoveries during the year;   a total of 21,475 oz. of gold having been NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 1). B 43
recovered.    An additional 208 oz. was produced in the Squaw Creek District, making the total
placer production for the year in the Atlin Mining Division 21,683 oz.
There were forty-three leases operating; thirty of these are underground operations
drifting on bed-rock.
Spruce Creek.
This is the most important creek in the Division. Nineteen properties are operating on
the creek. All are underground operations except the steam-shovel operation of the Columbia
Development Company, Limited. Spruce Creek produced 14,516 oz., which was contributed
principally by the Colpe Mining Company, Limited, with 8,785 oz., and the Columbia Development Company, Limited, with 3,429 oz. The balance of 2,302 oz. was produced from the other
seventeen operations.
Two cases of suspected encroachment on this creek were reported. J. W. Noland, owner
of the Dream lease adjoining the Sunlight lease of the Colpe Mining Company, Limited,
requested information regarding the possibility of that company having encroached on the
Dream lease. The pay-channel apparently strikes into the Dream lease from the Sunlight
lease just above the Dream shaft. The working-maps of the Colpe Mining Company, Limited, were examined but did not show any encroachment. The management of the Colpe
Mining Company, Limited, claimed that they left from 10 to 25 feet of pillar along the
boundary. This could not be checked as the extraction of pillars had begun and this was
some distance back from the boundary at time of examination. The information obtained
from the maps was given to J. W. Noland.
The Columbia Development Company, Limited, operating steam-shovels on the Olalla
lease, requested information re the possible encroachment from the Poker lease, owned by
I. Matthews and operated on a lay agreement by A. Siranovich and partners. There being
no map of the underground workings of the Poker lease, it was necessary to make an approximate survey with a Brunton compass. The result of this survey was given to the manager
of the Columbia Development Company, Limited, who expressed himself as satisfied, and the
matter was dropped.
Colpe Mining Co., Ltd.—Chas. H. Colpe, manager. This is the largest operation in the
district, employing seventy-three men, and produced 8,785 oz., valued at $242,921. Three
shafts are operating. In the upper two shafts pillar-extraction is being carried on. The
lower or No. 4 shaft, which was sunk on the old Morse, McKechnie and Bratt property
acquired by the Colpe interests last year, is advancing up-stream to the Chance lease.
Some difficulty was experienced at this property in having the requirements of the
" Metalliferous Mines Regulation Act" complied with. A prosecution was launched against
the manager for failure to comply with an order of an Inspector, and a conviction secured.
This was later appealed, but the Supreme Court upheld the conviction.
At a later visit the operations in the No. 4 shaft were suspended until the requirements
of the Act were complied with.
Conditions underground were satisfactory at the last visit.
Dream Lease.—J. W. Noland, owner and operator. A shaft has been sunk to bed-rock
which was reached at 210 feet. This is the deepest operation in the district. It is the
farthest up-stream operation on Spruce Creek. Drifting up-stream along the boundary of
the Sunlight lease has commenced and they expect to pick up the pay-channel where it
apparently swings off the Sunlight lease into the Dream lease.
Columbia Development Co., Ltd.—James Eastman, manager. This is the only surface
operation on the creek. Two steam-shovels are engaged, one on stripping overburden and
the other on the pay-gravels. Thirty men are employed on two shifts. A total of 3,428 oz.,
valued at $96,000, was produced.
Clydesdale Lease.—Buchanan and McPherson, owners; McDonald and MacKay, lay-men.
This is a bench lease parallel on the north side to the Chance lease of the Colpe Mining Company. Five men are engaged working two drives up-stream, single shift. Conditions underground were fairly good.
Wolf Lease.—N. LeJure, owner; Malm, Vickstrom, and Johnson, lay-men. Only lay-men
employed, working a single drive up-stream on the south side of the Dorothy lease of the
Colpe Mining Company.    Conditions underground were satisfactory. B 44 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1937.
Croker Lease.—I. Matthews, owner; Fred Ohman and partners, lay-men. Five men are
employed working two drives into the bench from the bottom of a shaft. Conditions underground were satisfactory.
Poker and Joker Leases.—I. Matthews, owner; A. Siranovich and partners, lay-men.
Five men are engaged working three drives up-stream and into the bench through the Poker
lease and extending into the Joker lease. Conditions underground were satisfactory. A
report was submitted on the suspected encroachment from this lease to the Olalla lease.
Naska Lease and Friendship Fraction.—Brown and Wright, operators. Five men are
engaged on two shifts. They were unable to get the shaft on the Naska to bed-rock on
account of excess water. An arrangement was made with the owners of the Sally lease for
drainage rights through the Sally bed-rock drain and to drive a drift from the Sally shaft
to the Naska shaft location. A single drive was driven up to the Naska shaft and the water
drained off through the drain permitting them to get the Naska shaft down to bed-rock.
Drifting on their own ground is now going ahead.
Sally Lease.—L. Shultz, owner; Nelson and Johnson, lay-men. Three men are employed
drifting up-stream and are in fairly good ground. It is very coarse gravel and requires to
be breast-boarded, the only place in the district requiring this method. There is considerable
water running on bed-rock at this point.
Peterborough Lease.—Otto Millar and Son, owners and operators. Only the two owners
are working, running a single drive into the bench in good ground. Conditions underground
were satisfactory.
Ollala Lease.—Columbia Development Company, Limited, owners. John Hunjet and
partners had stai-ted a slope off the Olalla lease to reach the lower end of the Poker lease,
owned by I. Matthews. They started work just below the shovel operations of the Columbia
Development Company, apparently without securing the consent of this company. The work
has been held up by Court injunction, and the matter is still unsettled.
Several other small operators were engaged on their claims or on lays on the lower end
of the creek.    These were all visited and conditions generally were found satisfactory.
Boulder Creek.
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd.—Norman Fisher, foreman.    This is a hydraulic operation working three shifts and employing twenty men.    Conditions in the pit
were good;   1,142 oz., value $31,000, was produced.
McKee Creek.
Atlin Gold Mines, Ltd.—Geo. Adams and partners, lay-men.    Six men are employed, all
partners in the lay.    This is a hydraulic operation working two shifts.    Conditions in the
pit were good;  153 oz., value $4,197.86, was produced.
O'Donnel River.
Grace M. Lease.—Murphy and Son, owners and operators. Only the two owners are
employed. These men have done considerable underground work over a period of years.
Conditions underground were satisfactory.
Several other groups were employed, mainly prospecting.   All were visited and conditions
generally were satisfactory. „.      '
Pine Creek.
Bessbrook Lease.—Gus Boquist, owner and operator. Three men are employed working
a single drift up-stream.    Working conditions at the face were good.
Anna C. Lease.—E. Woodean, owner and operator. Woodean is working alone drifting
into the bench.    Underground conditions were good.
Blackbird Lease.—Kennedy and Watt, owners and operators. These two men are working alone driving up-stream on pay.    Conditions underground were good.
Morning Glory Lease.—Ole Lovegrin, owner. Lovegrin has given an option to Alex.
Smith and associates, who have five men employed. They have done considerable keystone-
drilling and expect to get into operation either by hydraulic or drag-line in 1938.
Acheson Brothers have acquired options on Pine Creek and Willow Creek and have done
considerable drilling.
Baker and partners are operating a hydraulic. Six men are employed, all partners in
the lay.    They have ample water but the ground is hard, cemented gravel and does not NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 1). B 45
break down readily.    They produced 193 oz., value $5,300.    There seem to be prospects of
considerable activity on Fine Creek in 1938.
Wilson Creek.
Last Chance Lease.—Peter Nord, owner and operator. A shaft 5 by 6 feet in the clear
is being put down and was down 75 feet at time of inspection. Bed-rock is expected to be
reached at about 907 feet.    The shaft is well timbered and in good shape.
Several groups are engaged in ground-sluicing. Two engineers representing outside
interests were looking over the creek and taking up options on a number of leases.
Wright Creek.
Artie and Lynderbergh Leases—L. Hodges, owner and operator. This is a hydraulic
operation employing four men. Water is very scarce and they are further handicapped by
boulders and lack of sufficient dumping-ground. They struck some good ground towards the
close of the season, producing 343 oz., value $9,060.
Other groups are ground-sluicing farther up-stream.
Ruby Creek.
Surprise Lake Mining Co.—Matson and partners, lay-men. This is a hydraulic operation
employing six men. They have a good water-supply and are getting good results, producing
636 oz., value $17,000.
Farmer Lease.—E. Turnquist, owner and operator. Turnquist is working alone, drifting
into the bench down-stream from his old underground operation.
Ophir Lease.—McKay and Morrison, owners and operators. Nothing much was done
here during the year.
Blackstone Lease.—E. Krumbeigel, owner and operator.    A shaft on this property sunk
about 160 feet through the lava cap and is now in gravel.    Nothing was done this year due
to lack of finances. .
Birch Creek.
There are six different groups on this creek, all ground-sluicing. The only underground
operation is not working at present.
Squaw Creek District.
Several groups were engaged in ground-sluicing and prospecting on this creek, and
produced 208 oz.
The creek was not visited.
Some surface placer operations on McDame and Thibert Creeks were carried on during
the summer.    This section was not visited. 

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