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BC Sessional Papers


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Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1938.  To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully  submits  herewith  the  Annual  Report of  the  Provincial
Museum of Natural History for the year 1937.
Provincial Secretary.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
Victoria, B.C. Provincial Museum of Natural History,
Victoria, B.C., February 24th, 1938.
The Honourable Dr. G. M. Weir,
Provincial Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour, as Director of the Provincial Museum of Natural History, to lay
before you the Report for the year ended December 31st, 1937, covering the activities of the
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
The Honourable Dr. G. M. Weir, Minister.
P. Walker, Deputy Minister.
Francis Kermode, Director.
I. McTaggabt Cowan, Ph.D., Assistant Biologist. Margaret Crummy, Stenographer.
Winispred V. Hardy, Recorder Botanist. Lillian C. Sweeney, Assistant Preparator.
J. Andrew, Attendant. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Objects     7
Visitors      7
Activities     7
Accessions  12
Anthropology and Archaeology .  12
Botany.  10
Mammals  12
Birds    13
Amphibians and Reptiles  14
Fishes  14
Lepidoptera, Insects, etc j  14
Marine Invertebrates  14
Palaeontology  14
Library  10
Report on Study-trip to Eastern Museums, by Ian McTaggart Cowan  14
The Stomach Contents of Sperm Whales Caught Off the West Coast of British Columbia,
by Lewis L. Robbins, Frances K. Oldham, and E. M. K. Geiling  19
Hepatics of the Pacific Coast and Adjoining States, by A. H. Brinkman  21 REPORT of the
By Francis Kermode, Director.
(a.)  To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the Province.
(b.)  To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the Province,
(c.)   To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly to the
natural history of the Province, and diffuse knowledge regarding the same.
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, week-days, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.;   May 1st
to October 31st, Sunday afternoons, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m.
The Museum is closed on all statutory holidays, except on notification through the press.
The following figures show the difference between those who registered and those who
were checked by the staff.    While only 33,851 registered, the total of the check was 60,352.
Registered Checked.
January    610 1,284
February   810 1,621
March   1,242 2,471
April   1,376 2,419
May   2,093 3,892
June   3,085 5,497
July      8,441 14,504
August  8,832 15,596
September   4,042 6,968
October   1,702 3,070
November    939 1,678
December   679 1,352
Totals   33,851 60,352
The year 1937-38 being the fiftieth anniversary year of the opening of the Provincial
Museum of Natural History in Victoria, British Columbia, it is proposed to celebrate this
in a fitting manner some time during the year.
The first record that we have of visitors in the register is dated October 25th, 1887, and
during this first year in which the museum was open to the public, slightly over 500 names
were recorded. As will be noted by the list in this report, the number of visitors this year
was slightly in excess of 60,000, a small decrease from the previous year, which no doubt
reflects a corresponding slight decline in the tourist trade of the summer. A glance at the
register shows that people from all parts of the globe visited the natural history collections
in the Museum.
The staff of the Museum is now comparable with what it was prior to 1914, which places
us in a better position to do the vast amount of scientific work needed in a Province of this
size with its wealth of fauna and flora.
The routine office-work and correspondence is increasing steadily, more filing-cabinets
are needed, as also is space for our display and in particular our study collections. L 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Early in the year, the Director, a member of the Canadian Advisory Committee to the
Carnegie Corporation, arranged with the Committee that I. McTaggart Cowan, Ph.D., the
Assistant Biologist, be granted a travelling scholarship to visit all the larger museums of
Eastern Canada and United States and study their methods of recording, preservation,
display, and museum technique which could be adapted to a smaller museum. A travelling
scholarship of this kind is a great help to museum staffs, enabling them to visit other
museums where scientific work is being pursued, and should be available to those studying
the different branches of museum-work whenever possible. I speak from practical experience
as I have visited many of these larger museums from time to time.
While Dr. Cowan was away he visited the National Museum, Ottawa; the Royal Ontario
Museum, Toronto; the American Museum of Natural History, New York; the Academy of
Sciences, Philadelphia; the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh; the Field Museum, Chicago;
and the United States National Museum and Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D.C.
The Director wishes to thank the Directors and staff of all these museums for the kindness
and attention shown to the Assistant Biologist on this study tour. This trip East also gave
Dr. Cowan the opportunity of attending the annual meeting of the Mammalogists' Society
of America, which was held in Washington, D.C.
The Dodge truck, purchased two years ago, has proved an indispensable part of the
Museum equipment. It is used frequently in collecting on Vancouver Island, and has proved
a very simple and cheap means of transportation in making trips to out-of-the-way regions
on the mainland of British Columbia and for lengthy expeditions to otherwise inaccessible
parts of the Province.
This last summer the Assistant Biologist, ably supported by his wife in the honorary
capacity of botanist, and Mr. Kenneth Racey as field zoologist conducted field studies through
the Okanagan District, the Monashee Range, and also in the Selkirk Mountains in Revelstoke
Park area. Thanks are due to the Dominion Parks Branch for permits readily granted and
for the assistance rendered by the Parks officials. On this trip many desirable birds,
mammals, and specimens of the flora of these regions were secured. A more detailed account
will be found farther on in the report.
Collecting on Vancouver Island has been steadily carried on when time permitted absence
from the office. One of the rare specimens secured this year was a Sharp-nosed Finner
Whale taken in the vicinity of Sooke, about 20 miles from Victoria, and presented by
Messrs. C. F. Todd and C. F. Goodrich.
Here again the truck proved useful as the Assistant Biologist, accompanied by Mr.
E. A. Cooke, went out to Sooke and fleshed this whale, bringing the skeleton back to the
Museum to be cleaned and reassembled.
Over 1,000 specimens of birds and mammals, including several Provincial records, which
had been collected by the late R. A. Cumming, of South Vancouver, were purchased by the
Museum.    A number of the specimens thus acquired were not represented in our collections.
We were also fortunate in receiving through Mr. W. A. Maquire, of New Westminster,
a specimen of a rare bird in this Province, the Barn Owl. This was taken at Sumas Prairie
by Mr. H. Smith.
The Director wishes to thank all those in the Provincial Police and Game Departments
and others who have so generously donated specimens for our collections, particularly Mr. G. A.
Hardy for his kindly assistance in examining and determining Coleoptera and Lepidoptera.
A paper on " The Stomach Contents of Sperm Whales Caught Off the West Coast of
British Columbia," a detailed report of the Assistant Biologist's trip to the East to study
museum technique, and a paper by Mr. A. H. Brinkman oh " Hepatics of the Pacific Coast
and Adjoining States " are printed in this report.
Dr. I. McT. Cowan, Assistant Biologist, reports to the Director:—
From April 1st to May 22nd the Assistant Biologist was on leave of absence from the
Department. During this period, through the generosity of the Canadian Museums Committee of the Carnegie Corporation, it was possible for him to undertake a study-trip to
several of the largest museums in Canada and the United States. A brief account of some
features of this trip will be found appended to this report.
During 1937, as in subsequent years, routine curatorial duties, particularly those dealing
with the cataloguing and identification of the large accumulation of uncatalogued material in all phases of our work, comprised the bulk of the year's activities. At the same time,
during the year a number of the older historically valuable bird-study skins were cleaned,
degreased, and remade; a number of bird and mammal specimens were received in the flesh
and prepared; several specimens of birds and mammals were mounted for addition to the
exhibition galleries;   760 skulls and skeletons were cleaned, labelled, and installed.
A specimen of the Sharp-nosed Finner Whale, received in the flesh through the generosity
of Messrs. C. F. Todd and C. F. Goodrich, taxed our preparatory facilities to their utmost.
The skeleton has been cleaned and now awaits further degreasing and bleaching before it is
set up in the exhibition galleries.
In continuance of our co-operation with the Game Department," post-mortems were
conducted to determine cause of death of certain game birds and fur-bearing mammals.
Several innovations have been started in the exhibition galleries. It has been decided to
supplement the exhibit of fossil vertebrates with a scale-model restoration of each species
known to have occurred in the Province. Already models of the three Pleistocene and
Pliocene elephants have been prepared by Mrs. L. Sweeney and placed on display. It is
hoped to complete the series as time permits.
With the able assistance of Mrs. Sweeney, a start has been made in the preparation
of a new exhibit of the reptiles and amphibians of the Province. Already eighteen coloured
casts have been prepared. These will shortly be put on display, to replace the almost
unidentifiable alcoholics that have thus far represented this interesting section of our fauna.
A start has been made toward completing our series of coloured casts of the fishes of
the Province. In this work the very latest techniques are being used with highly gratifying
results. The extra time involved in preparation is amply repaid by the superiority of the
finished product over the old type of replica.
Throughout the year work on the bibliographies of British Columbia amphibians, reptiles,
birds, and mammals has been continued, with the addition of many hundreds of cards to
these files.
The increased demand for identification of specimens by other Government departments,
institutions, private collectors, and the general public has demonstrated a growing museum-
consciousness within the Province.
The addition of new metal dust-proof storage-cases and a number of filing-cabinets has
enabled the reorganization of the mammal collection, the catalogues, and bibliographies in a
way that greatly facilitates their use.
Systematic work on the study collection in the Museum was continued. In this connection
several special studies are under way, and the following papers have been published:—
A Review of the Reptiles and Amphibians of British Columbia. Ann. Rept. Prov. Mus.,
1936  (1937):   K 16-K 25.
The distribution of flying squirrels in Western British Columbia, with the description
of a new race.    Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 50: 77-82.
Additional breeding colonies of the Herring Gull in British Columbia. Murrelet, 18,
No. 1-2:   28.
The House Finch at Victoria, British Columbia.    Condor, 39, No. 5:   225.
A new race of Peromyscus maniculatus from British Columbia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash.,
50:  215-216.
Educational Work.
Apart from co-operating with teachers in identification of material and demonstration
of Museum exhibits, thirteen illustrated lectures were delivered at educational institutions,
game associations, and natural history societies.
Field-work, especially with regard to vertebrate zoology and botany, has been conducted
periodically throughout the year. In the vicinity of Victoria special attention has been
paid to the water-birds. This has resulted during the year in the addition to the Museum
of some rare species and some new. to our collections.
During the summer the Museum field party collected first in the Monashee Mountains
and later in the Selkirks. The working of these two regions marks one more step in the
biological exploration of the Province.    It will be many years, however, before, with the L 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
limited staff and finances available for this work, we will have even an approximate idea of
the distribution of many of our vertebrate inhabitants.
Mrs. Lillian Sweeney, assistant preparator, has continued to assist in the cataloguing
of the Museum collections, the mounting of Herbarium specimens, - and in the complete
reorganization of the Museum correspondence files. The latter was made possible by the
acquisition of a battery of filing-cabinets.
In addition, Mrs. Sweeney has during the year prepared or assisted in the preparation
of eighteen casts of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, has prepared three scale models of extinct
elephants, and has made a number of colour sketches of fish, etc., incident to the work of
the Museum.
Miss M. Crummy, in addition to her regular stenographic work, has assisted in the
library and in the compilation of the various bibliographies.
The Library.
Mrs. W. Hardy, botanist-recorder, has continued the reeataloguing and reorganization
of the Museum's quite extensive pamphlet collection.
External use of the library has greatly increased, and it is becoming appreciated by the
public that there is a very fine reference library in the Museum, to which access may be
obtained upon application at the general office. It is hoped that this will be taken advantage
of by those engaged in scientific work, upon the understanding that as a general rule books
loaned may not be taken out of the building.
Publications received during the year total 334. Of these, seventy-five were secured
by subscription and purchase. We are indebted to the following for scientific separates
received during the year: Mr. A. Budd, Dr. I. McT. Cowan, Mr. J. A. Munro, Mr. A.
La Rocque, Dr. K. Lamb, Dr. H. St. John, and Mr. J. Dewey Soper.
The seasonal wild-flower exhibit on the main floor of the Museum continues to be of
great interest to visitors and students, and 275 species were shown throughout the year.
A noticeable increase of inquiries concerning the local flora was evidenced by students
and visitors, for whom 1,047 specimens were identified, while many requests were received
for information relative to the collecting and preserving of plants.
Additions to the Herbarium during the past year total 489 specimens. Of these, 396
have been mounted and placed in the Herbarium and the remaining eighty are awaiting
determination. These include many species not hitherto represented in our collection, chiefly
from Mount Revelstoke Park, B.C. (Mrs. I. McT. Cowan), Peace River District, B.C. (Bear
Flat School), Alta Lake District, B.C. (K. Racey), and Mount Rooster Comb, Strathcona
Park, V.I., B.C. (N. C. Stewart).
Botanical investigations within the Province during the past two years have resulted in
securing for the Herbarium many species not previously contained therein. Furthermore,
a somewhat cursory survey of the literature seems to indicate that several of the species
in the following list have not been previously recorded from within the borders of British
Columbia. Although admitting that we have not had access to certain publications which
might contain such records, it seems to us that those species marked with an asterisk may be
new Provincial records.
Selaginella scopulorum Maxon.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 30th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
*Alopecurus sequalis Sobol.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 26th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
*Carex Hassei Bailey.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 26th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
*Zygadene paniculatus (Nutt.) Wats. Anarchist Mountain, B.C., June 20th, 1936,
Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
Alnus incana Willd. var. pinnatifida Spach. Cowichan Lake, V.I., August 8th, 1936,
E. A. Cooke.
Rumex paucifolius Wats.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 23rd, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
Arabis canescens T. & G. Anarchist Mountain, B.C., June 20th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT.
Sisymbrium incisum Engelm. var. filipes Gray. Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 23rd, 1936,
Parnassia montanensis Fern. & Rydb.    Bear Flat, B.C., July 7th, 1935, Phyllis Freer.
Ribes glandulosum Grauer.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 14th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
Ribes petiolare Dougl.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 28th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
Fragaria pauciflora Rydb.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 14th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
*Potentilla dascia Rydb.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 24th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
Potentilla macropetala Rydb.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 23rd, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
*Potentilla longiloba Rydb.    Anarchist Mountain, B.C., June 22nd, 1936, Mrs. I. McT.
Potentilla valida  Greene.    Anarchist  Mountain,  B.C.,  June 22nd,  1936,  Mrs.  I.  McT.
Rubus pubescens Raf.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 24th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
*Sieversia   canescens   (Greene)    Rydb.    Anarchist   Mountain,   B.C.,   June   20th,   1936,
Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
*Lupinus alpicola Henderson.    Anarchist Mountain, B.C., June 22nd, 1936, Mrs. I. McT.
Epilobium palustre L.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 14th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
Lomatium foeniculaceum (Nutt.) Coult. & Rose.    Bear Flat, B.C., May 19th, 1935, Melba
Androsace diffusa Small.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 24th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
Phlox linearifolia  (Hook.)   Gray.    Vaseaux Lake, B.C., June 28th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT.
Polemonium occidentale Greene.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 24th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
*Cryptantha affinis  (Gray)   Greene.    Anarchist Mountain, B.C., June 22nd, 1936, Mrs.
I. McT. Cowan.
Cynoglossum boreale Fernald.    10-Mile Lake, Quesnel, B.C., July 5th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT.
Castilleja  purpurascens   Greenm.    Anarchist   Mountain,   B.C.,   June   20th,   1936,   Mrs.
I. McT. Cowan.
*Arnica confinis Greene.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 23rd, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
*Arnica humilis Rydb.    10-Mile Lake, Quesnel, B.C., July 2nd, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
Aster Lindleyanus Torr & Gray.    Ootsa Lake, B.C., July 26th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
*Antennaria arida Nels.   Anarchist Mountain, B.C., June 20th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
Crepis gracilis  (D. C. Eaton)  Rydb.    Anarchist Mountain, B.C., June 20th, 1936, Mrs.
I. McT. Cowan.
Erigeron pumilis Nutt.    Anarchist Mountain, B.C., June 30th, 1936, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan.
In 1921 the Provincial Museum published " A Preliminary Catalogue of the Flora of
Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands." Supplementary additions to this were printed
in the Annual Reports from 1921-1926, inclusive. Supplementary additions since 1926 are
as follows:—
Juncus fucensis. Comox, V.I., June 20th, 1915, John Macoun. (Original description
in Ann. Rep. Prov. Mus., 1927, p. 14, H. St. John.)
Alnus incana Willd. var. pinnatifida Spach. Cowichan Lake, V.I., August 9th, 1936,
E. A. Cooke.
Radicula sylvestris (L.) Druce.    Sidney, V.I., June 19th, 1937, C. McTavish.
Sanguisorba annua Nutt.    Keating, V.I., June 30th, 1937, S. Phillips.
Trifolium subterraneum Linn.    Comox, V.I., June, 1936, per C. Tice.
Pentstemon ovatus Dougl.    Saanich Arm, V.I., May 27th, 1936, J. and E. Lohbrunner.
Tragopogon dubius Scop.    Victoria, B.C., June 9th, 1937, J. C. Bridgman.
Sanguisorba annua Nutt.    Keating, V.I., June 30th, 1937, S. Phillips.
(Introduced plants are printed in Roman type.)
Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following contributors who assisted in maintaining the seasonal flower exhibit and donated specimens for the Herbarium: A. H. Bennett,
C. Boyd, Captain and Mrs. Bridge, J. Bridgman, Miss M. Brooker, Miss M. Brown, A. C.
Budd, A. E. Cooke, L. Constance, R. W. Costello, Mrs. I. McT. Cowan, A. Evans, G. A. Hardy,
J. Hibbertson, Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Lett, C, McTavish, S. Phillips, K. Racey, Mrs. M. Ritten-
house, J. Shelford, N. C. Stewart, M. Testor, and Constable Tweedhope. L 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In the Provincial Museum Report for 1936 on page 11, lines 4 and 5, for Mount Garibaldi
read Mount Waddington.
To December 31st, 1937, the catalogued collections in the Museum number as follows:
Anthropological and ethnological, 4,890; botanical, 10,572; ornithological, 7,092; mamma-
logical, 2,435.
Botanical Collections.
Mrs. I. McT. Cowan  237
Bear Flat School   117
K. Racey __     74
N. C. Stewart —: >_   27
I. McT. Cowan        7
Miscellaneous      27
Ethnological Collections.
By gift      15
Salishan (Island).
Wm. Herod, Vancouver, B.C.    Fragment of hand-hammer from Sooke, V.I.
P. W. Martin, Victoria, B.C.    Grey stone chisel and iron adze-head.
H. Smethurst, Sidney, B.C.    Stone hand-hammer.
Bella Coola.
T. W. S. Parsons, Assistant Commissioner, B.C. Provincial Police, and Constable M.
J. Condon.    A unique cedar-bark rattle.
J. Bridden, Masset, Q.C.I. One stone mortar, 1 fragmentary mortar, 1 hand-
hammer, and 1 cranium.
T. W. S. Parsons, Assistant Commissioner, B.C. Provincial Police. One large piece
of obsidian, 1 obsidian arrow-head, 1 stone skin-scraper.
R. E. Bowser, per Assistant Commissioner T. W. S. Parsons. One obsidian spearhead.
P. deN. Walker, Deputy Provincial Secretary.    A skull showing signs of trephining.
H. E. Collins, B.C. Forest Branch. One cambicum scraper made from rib of a
In the Provincial Museum Report for 1936, page K 11, Anthropological and Ethnological
Collections, Salishan (Coast and Interior), first line, read: H. Mortimer Lamb, Vancouver,
B.C.    Stone paint-dish found at Burnaby, B.C.
Zoological Collections.
Mammals received and catalogued  659
Birds received and catalogued  1,093
Amphibians and Reptiles received and accessioned  140
Fish received and accessioned  8
Insects and arachnids received and accessioned  745
By gift      300
J. C. Shelford, Wistaria, B.C. Skulls of 33 short-tailed weasel, 3 coyote, 3 fox,
2 bear, 1 beaver, 7 muskrat, 3 squirrel, 3 marten, 1 mink; skins and skulls of
1 little brown bat, 2 white-footed mice, 1 long-tailed weasel, 2 marmots, 5 flying
squirrels. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1937. L 13
D. Leavens, Vedder Crossing, B.C.    One flying squirrel, 1 long-tailed weasel, 1 mink,
1 shrew mole, 1 mole, 2 short-tailed weasel.
R. A. Cumming, Vancouver, B.C.    One meadow-mouse.
Game  Warden  A.   Monks,  Alberni,  B.C.    One  elk  skull,   3   wolf   skulls,   3   otter
0. F. Maisonville, Pultney Point Light, B.C.    Partial skeleton of Least Rorqual.
P. W. Tow, Victoria, B.C.    One marten skull, 1 otter skull.
A. Peake, Quatsino, V.I., B.C.    Skulls of:   3 marten, 3 black bear, 3 mink, 4 racoon,
deer, 2 sea-lion.
Game Warden F. P. Weir, Cowichan Lake, B.C.    Three weasels.
J. Zarelli, Sointula, B.C.    Skulls of 1 otter, 2 racoon, 36 mink.
P. W. Martin, Victoria, B.C.    Two shrew, 2 squirrels, 1 white-footed mouse.
Inspector Robertson, B.C. Game Branch.    Horns of mountain-sheep.
T. T. and E. B. McCabe, Berkeley, Calif.    Ten squirrels, 21 shrews, 1 wolf skull,
5 red-backed mice, 2 meadow-mice, 1 silvery-haired bat, 89 white-footed mice.
K.  Racey,  Vancouver,  B.C.    Three  squirrels,  1  white-footed  mouse,  2  chipmunk,
1 red-backed mouse, 1 dusky shrew, 1 muskrat.
Mrs. T. L. Thacker, Hope, B.C.    One Yuma bat.
Mr. Orchard, Victoria, B.C.    One hair-seal.
J. Bridden, Masset, Q.C.I.    Fragments of sea-otter skulls.
J.   A.   Munro,   Okanagan   Landing,   B.C.    Type  specimen   of   Glaucomys  sabrinus
E. Cooke, Victoria, B.C.    One racoon skull, 1 black-tailed deer.
R. I. McPhee, Texas Creek, B.C.    One mountain-lion skull, 1 mountain-goat skull.
P. deN. Walker, Victoria, B.C.    Skulls of black wolf and bobcat.
H. R. Goodrich, Victoria, B.C.    A Least Rorqual in the flesh.
A. Hammer, Hagensborg, B.C.    Fragmentary skull of hair-seal from shell-mound.
E. Tait, Summerland, B.C.    Two Hoary bats.
By purchase    28
By the staff—
K. Racey  113
1. McT. Cowan  201
Bygifl^- Birte-
R. A. Cumming, S. Vancouver, B.C.    Fifteen Chinese Starlings.
P.  W. Martin, Victoria, B.C.    One  Peale's  Falcon,  1  Cassin's  Auklet,  1  Brandt's
Cormorant, 7 Sooty Shearwater, 1 Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, 3 Bonaparte Gulls,
1 Beal's Petrel.
Game Warden J. W. Jones, Saanich, V.I., B.C.    One Rough-legged Hawk.
M. Lohbrunner, Victoria, B.C.    One Fork-tailed Petrel, 1 Albino Marbled Murrelet.
D. Leavens, Vedder Crossing, B.C.    One Pigmy  Owl,  1  Saw-whet Owl,  1  Great-
horned Owl, 1 Goshawk.
T. T. and E. B. McCabe, Berkeley, Calif.    Two Wandering Tattler.
A. Peake, Quatsino, V.I., B.C.    One Steller's Jay, 1 Horned Owl, 1 Fox Sparrow,
1 Brewer's Blackbird.
E. G. Kermode, Victoria, B.C.    One Fork-tailed Petrel.
E. M. Tait, West Summerland, B.C.    Specimen representing first record of Black-
crowned Night Heron for British Columbia.
K. Racey, Vancouver, B.C.    One Pipit, 1 White-crowned Sparrow.
H. Smith and W. S. Maguire, New Westminster, B.C.    One Barn Owl.
W. S. Maguire, New Westminster, B.C.    One Albino Crow.
By purchase   1,002
By the staff—
I. McT. Cowan       50
K. Racey        70 L 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Amphibians and Reptiles.
By gift      127
A. Peake, Quatsino, V.I., B.C.    Twelve garter snakes, 53 toads, Rusty salamanders,
2 British Columbia salamanders.
K. Racey, Vancouver, B.C.    Six toads, 1 British Columbia salamander.
By the staff—
I. McT. Cowan        13
A. Peake, Quatsino, B.C.    One hake.
Todd & Goodrich, Victoria, B.C.    One barracuda, 1 thresher shark.
Kyuquot Trollers.    One handsaw fish.
G. E. Pallister, Vancouver, B.C.    One moon fish, 1 pomfret.
E. Cooke, Victoria, B.C.    One tadpole sculpin, 1 window-tailed sea poacher.
By gift— Insects.
Mrs. Hedley Peake, Colwood, V.I., B.C.    A collection of 744 specimens of coleoptera.
S. L. Neave, Kyuquot, V.I., B.C.    One eyed sphinx moth.
Marine Invertebrates.
A. Peake, Quatsino, B.C.    One shrimp.
R. Doe and O. Alexander, Victoria, B.C.    Seven gastropod shells.
Pal^eontological Collection.
Mr. and Mrs. A. Lowe, Sooke Lake, V.I., B.C.    One cast in stone of Trigonia evansii
from Wellington, B.C.
By Ian McTaggart Cowan, British Columbia Provincial Museum.
The trip upon which this report is based covered the period between March 31st, 1937,
and May 22nd, 1937, and took me to the museums in Ottawa, Toronto, New York, Philadelphia,
Washington, Pittsburgh, and Chicago.
I want to tender my most cordial thanks to the Canadian Museums Committee of the
Carnegie Corporation for their liberality in financing this study-trip and to the directors
and staff members of the museums visited for their whole-hearted co-operation in furthering and facilitating my investigations.
As must always be the case, much of what was learned cannot be set forth in any formal
report, but must remain in the recesses of the mind and note-book of the observer, to make
their appearance as the appropriate occasions arise. The following report pretends to be
no more than a summary of certain of the outstanding museum methods encountered.
In this survey I had three objectives—namely, to study methods of museum extension
developed by the various institutions, to acquaint myself with the most effective display
techniques adapted to the various fields of natural history and ethnology, and the most
economical ways of carrying out these displays. Where time permitted I hoped to be able
also to examine certain mammal specimens of critical importance to studies now in
In each instance my observations were made with an eye for methods and techniques
that would lend themselves to adaptation to the conditions in a small museum with but
limited funds.
Museum Extension.
The methods of extending the influence of the museum beyond the confines of the
casual visitor fall into two natural categories: (1) Methods primarily calculated to bring
the public to the museum;  and (2) methods designed to take the museum to the public.
To be practicable any museum extension plan must be capable of being organized and
maintained by a small headquarters staff. It is in the failure to comply with this requirement that any large-scale attempt to  bring numbers  of  people  in  study-groups  to  the REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1937. L 15
museum falls down. One of the larger museums, besides the regular ably conducted study-
groups of school-children, has in co-operation with the railways promoted excursions to the
museum from neighbouring towns. While this plan certainly reaches a part of the population not otherwise contacted, nevertheless, from my limited experience with such, the visitors
are confronted with so much in so short a time that definite impressions on any one subject
are probably few. An effort was being made to overcome this by dividing the hundreds of
excursioners into groups of twenty-five, each with an instructor. Each group was taken
through one or two sections of the museum and certain special features pointed out and explained to them. These periodic influxes necessitate large numbers of guides and consequently such a plan seems to me to be of very limited practicability.
Saturday-morning lectures for children and evening lectures for adults are conducted at
several of the Canadian and American institutions and fill a valuable place in the educational
programme of such museums. An adaptation of this developed at the Royal Ontario Museum
is the " Open evening," on which an organized group, such as a service club, is invited.
Short resumes of work in progress are given by various staff members and the visitors are
then conducted through the portions of the museum they are most interested in. Oftentimes to take the visitor behind the scenes into the laboratories, etc., is sound psychology
as it develops in that person a more genuine interest in the work of the museum.
Of necessity, plans to bring people to the museum are very limited in scope and cannot hope to tap more than a closely circumscribed area about the museum; they cannot
reach to all corners of the state or province. Their great advantages are that the display
collections of the museum are used and that the visitors have the advantage of the trained
museum staff.
There are many ways in which the activities of a museum may be extended to a much
wider public than it would normally reach.
A popular museum publication is one method. The business like annual report serves
in a small way; better still is an annual report with appended articles of general interest.
However, these are made even more effective by a periodic mimeographed news-letter outlining work in progress, any interesting new accessions, and requesting information on
certain subjects. It has been found that persons who can be led to feel that they have in
some way contributed to the research or display at the museum are henceforth more closely
allied with the museum and will act as ambassadors in their district. Furthermore, the
cost of carrying on such a news-letter is extremely small in comparison with the benefits
A publication such as " Natural History," published by the American Museum, is the
ultimate in this type of museum extension work—but it necessitates a large financial outlay
and an organized editorial staff. In most states and provinces there is already a periodical
devoted to news in the teaching world. This is read by nearly all the teachers in the
province and is an excellent medium of contact with that part of the public. It has been
found at Toronto and one or two other institutions that leaflets can be published in such
a periodical, reprinted, and sold to teachers at a few cents a copy for distribution to the
classes, or for use in teaching. This is a service much appreciated by the teachers in more
remote areas, and as a source of contact between museum and public it can hardly be overvalued.
The most widely used extension technique is the distribution of lantern-slides and motion
pictures to schools and other institutions desiring such. A plan of this sort can vary from
half a dozen slide series, covering the birds, mammals, plants, etc., of the district involved,
to a highly organized programme in which the teaching curriculum is used as a basis and
slide series or motion pictures prepared to supplement the curriculum. Such a co-operative
educational programme has been developed to a high degree at the American Museum of
Natural History, where a fleet of trucks is engaged throughout the school year picking up
and redistributing this material to the schools of New York. A list of available material is
issued—arranged for the various school grades—and the teacher signs up for the service
several months ahead of the requirements, delivery being made on a specified date.
Such slide series should always be accompanied by a descriptive booklet of some sort.
Mimeographed sheets stapled together are found to be completely satisfactory. L 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It seems to have been the general experience of directors of such programmes that the
silent moving picture with adequate titles is preferable to the sound movie for children
up to high-school age—even at that age it is doubtful if the sound movie, except in special
phases, justifies the extra expense involved.
A more recent innovation is the preparation and distribution of actual portable museum
exhibits. These are primarily adapted for the use of the school-teacher, and with a little
ingenuity on the part of the preparator and designer can be made to cover a wide variety
of subjects.
In its simplest form such an exhibit may be a small case, with one glass side, this
covered by a removable wood panel. Such a case may contain one bird, mammal, or other
exhibit with no attempt at background or habitat accessories. In their more elaborate
stage each exhibit is a portable habitat case showing one or several natural-history subjects,
or perhaps an Indian village in miniature, with built-in lighting to be plugged into the
school circuit.
The American Museum, Field Museum, and the Carnegie Museum have developed this
most satisfactory extension service to a high degree. Catalogues obtained from these institutions will illustrate the adaptability of this type of exhibit, but to serve as an example
I might cite the following subjects which impressed me as being particularly good: Bird
habitat groups, bird bills and their uses, bird feet and their adaptation to different methods
of locomotion, types of bird-nests, insect life-histories, mimicry and protective coloration
among insects, insects of economic importance, mammal skulls, types of fossils, composition
of rocks, zoological orders from amoeba to mammal, Indian villages in miniature, growth and
preparation of cocoa, coffee, rubber, wool, with wool-producing animals, etc.
In the preparation of the economic products cases, it will often be found that local
companies handling these products will readily co-operate in supplying the component
In addition to the cases described above, the Carnegie Museum has found the standard
bird-study skin, prepared with a wire completely through the skin from head to tail and
projecting at both ends, can be fixed into a glass tube by passing the wire through corks
at each end of the tube. In this way, with the tube enclosed in a pasteboard mailing-tube,
it is possible to send bird specimens by mail for use by teachers in more remote districts to
which expense of forwarding a large case would be prohibitive. Inasmuch as this type of
loan specimen cannot be handled, the mortality rate is very much lower than is the case
where unprotected study-skins are loaned. The same museum has developed a simple yet
highly effective technique for preparing loan exhibits of bird eggs and nests. Nests are
soaked in a dull-finish lacquer, eggs filled with paraffin, with a wire anchored into each and
clinched through the nest. When prepared in this manner nests and eggs in portable cases
are almost indestructible.
It might be possible to develop the travelling collection on a somewhat larger scale for
semi-permanent exhibition in towns and villages throughout the province, or as a moving
exhibit installed in a truck. Such exhibits would require very careful preparation, and even
then I am afraid that none of the present known techniques for the preparation of natural-
history material would last more than a few hundred miles on most Canadian roads off the
beaten track.
In my opinion, a lecture-truck with generating equipment for operating moving-picture
projectors and lanterns is more practicable, less costly, and just as effective for natural-
history subjects.
While visiting the various museums I made a point of noting the action of visitors to the
displays of various kinds of material. Some of the results, while probably widely realized by
most directors, were most interesting to me.
In the first place, it may be said that display was almost 75 per cent, of the exhibit no
matter what the material. An indifferent collection well displayed will accomplish more,
attract more attention, and leave more impression than a splendid collection (as regards
components) poorly displayed.    Concise descriptive labels are essential.
The Royal Ontario Museum has by far the best displayed collection of anthropological
material seen by me in North America.    The care and thoroughness that has been used in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1937. L 17
arranging the halls of anthropology at that institution reflect great credit on director and
preparator alike, and their reward can be seen in the popularity of these halls. It would be
next to impossible to pass through these halls without gaining some lasting impression. The
same careful treatment and arrangement of the research material facilitate reference to an
astonishing degree.
My analysis of the situation here was that one of the most important features contributing to the exhibit was the lack of crowding. In most institutions, to examine any single
piece is like attempting to concentrate on one brick in a chimney—well-nigh impossible. Then
again the totem-poles, feast-dishes, and other wooden objects had been carefully prepared;
there was no dry-rot—no piles of insect sawdust. Each piece is soaked with kerosene and
afterwards waxed and kept waxed. As a result deterioration is reduced to a minimum and
the entire collection is given a " well-kept " appearance. The small individual stands, supplied for many pieces, are unique and contribute greatly to the effectiveness of the display.
The value of such painstaking display methods was emphasized for me as I went from
Toronto to a large American institution having a much larger collection and a much larger
population to draw upon. In spite of this, the dimly lit halls, with their indifferently cared-
for, indifferently displayed exhibits, were almost without visitors.
In the anthropological collections it was very evident that a sharp line must be drawn
between display material and study material. A case containing several hundred arrowheads, spear-heads, bone needles, or other type of artefact is merely a glass-topped storage-
case, while a few of the arrow-heads, etc., selected for their perfection, for their illustrative
value in reference to method of making, use, etc., and with these features pointed out in the
labelling, becomes a valuable exhibit that will accomplish its purpose of conveying a definite
positive impression to the interested viewer.
For natural-history subjects many types of display are in use. For most of these absolute exclusion of daylight from the galleries is essential if the specimens are to last more than
a very few years.
For birds and mammals the most pretentious is of course the habitat group as found in
the American Museum of Natural History. These are in many cases breath-taking and awe-
inspiring in their reaction on the viewer and will repay as much revisiting as it is possible to
give them. Unfortunately the cost of this type of exhibit puts it completely out of reach of
the small museum. However, the less pretentious habitat group is the only really effective
way of displaying large- and medium-sized mammals and large birds.
Many different types of construction of such cases are being used by different institutions.
The most costly is the lath and plaster background as used in the American Museum. For
large cases the system used by the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences seems to me to combine
effectiveness with low cost. The framework for the backgrounds is of vertical 2 by 4 timbers
set 6 to 8 inches apart, with 2 by 4 blocks set on the horizontal between them in circles about
2 feet apart; behind these blocks long lath-like strips are nailed fast—after the fashion of
barrel-hoops. On the inside (case side) of this framework is applied Mastex board that has
been previously soaked in water for two days. Canvas is applied and painted. This institution has also reduced the accessories to a minimum without losing the effectiveness of the case.
For exhibition of medium-sized mammals such as skunk, muskrat, etc., I saw nothing to
approach the exhibits in the Children's Hall at the Carnegie Museum, and though the labelling
was in childish terms the adults seemed to enjoy the exhibits infinitely as much as the children. These habitat groups were small, about 4 by 2% feet in floor-space; the cases were
panel wood with the bottom of the exhibition compartment raised above the floor so as to be
almost on the level with the eyes of a small child—the accessories were simple but effective.
The background was what took my fancy. To a simple wood framework good-quality battleship cork linoleum was tacked, making a panoramic background at once cheap, easily constructed, and taking paint well. These cases were so constructed that the exhibit was assembled in the laboratory and slid into the case, the front being fastened into place afterwards.
A separate compartment at the top with a ground-glass reflector sealed off from the rest of
the case made it possible to change light-globes without opening the case.
For exhibition of small- and medium-sized birds the small habitat bracket as used in the
National Museum of Canada is as effective as any. An unbleached-linen background is ideal
for this type of exhibit, as it is for all fish exhibits.
Apart from the usual displays of birds, mammals, etc., of certain regions, the ingenious
director and preparator can conceive and execute many different types of systematic, anatomical, adaptive, evolutionary, or other types of exhibits. In all instances a carefully prepared
and properly placed label is as essential as any part of the exhibit.
Other types of vertebrate material such as amphibians, reptiles, and fish are displayed in
many ways. The poorest type—one with almost no educational value—is the row of glass
bottles containing as many bleached specimens in discoloured preservative with no labelling
beyond name and date of capture. All such specimens should be in the storage-cabinets of
the study collection. The only effective methods yet devised for reptiles and amphibians are
casts, or infiltrated specimens. Many techniques are in use; each has its advantages and its
disadvantages. The celluloid casts prepared by the Field Museum are marvels of accuracy
and appearance, but the technique is difficult and requires more facility and ingenuity than
possessed by the preparators available in many smaller museums. The wax cast is almost as
life-like in appearance and much easier to execute. To my way of thinking, for all smaller
subjects wax is superior to plaster. Such casts when carefully coloured and displayed amid
a small section of natural habitat are most effective. For fish one can but judge by results
seen, and I must say that the finest display of small- and medium-sized fish encountered is
that of the Royal Ontario Museum. The fish are all casts, most of them being in plaster with
celluloid fins cast separately. Some are completely of celluloid, some of plaster, a few in
plastic wood. Different fish lend themselves to different methods of treatment. The use of
pearl lacquer is perhaps the greatest advance in colouring technique in years, as it gives the
natural pearly sheen to the white parts of the fish impossible to obtain with the older methods.
Invertebrate material other than insects is extremely hard to display effectively. For the
protozoa and many ccelenterata and other soft forms glass models constitute the best method
in use to-day, but here again the technique is highly specialized. Certain types lend themselves to casting in wax or celluloid; others to modelling in wax. Dried or pickled specimens
are almost hopeless, as bleaching rapidly renders them unrecognizable to the unpractised eye.
All techniques mentioned above can be found in the files of " Museum News."
In closing, the knowledge of museum methods and the contacts with other museums established through the granting of this travelling scholarship seem to me to be so valuable to
myself and to the institution with which I am connected that I should like to recommend that
any plan which would enable the museum-men of Canada to meet one another more frequently
be given very serious consideration. While the American Association of Museums fulfils a
felt need among the smaller museums of the United States, the distances to be travelled by
Canadians going to meetings of that Association often preclude the possibility of attendance.
The further growth of museums in Canada would be greatly fostered by the organization of
a comparable association the regular meetings of which would serve to stimulate museum
activity in a way nothing else would. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1937. L 19
By Lewis L. Robbins, Frances K. Oldham, and E. M. K. Geiling.
(Department of Pharmacology, University of Chicago.)
*During the summer of 1936 and 1937, while collecting research material from various
species of whales at the Consolidated Whaling Corporation's station at Rose Harbour,
Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, we became interested in the stomach contents of
the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). This interest was prompted by the fact that one
of the legal requirements in connection with modern whaling operations is the routine recording of the stoma;h contents. The individuals at the station charged with this duty are not
trained in biology, hence their reports are of a general nature only. However, the officials
of the whaling company were desirous of having a more accurate identification of this
material. At their suggestion, we undertook this work and our more interesting findings
are reported in this note.
The fish most commonly found in the stomach of the sperm whale was colloquially
called " bastard halibut," presumably because of it vague resemblance to a halibut. It is not
unusual to find four or five large specimens in good condition in the first chamber of the
stomach and many other badly mutilated individuals in the other chambers.!
Photographs and measurements were made and a head preserved in formalin was taken
back to Chicago for further study. This was later presented to the Field Museum. From
our data, which accord well with those of the standard texts, and with the help of Dr. Ian
Cowan, of the Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C., we were able to identify the specimen as the
rag-fish (Acrotus willoughbyi).     (See Fig. 1.)
The rag-fish are generally considered to be deep-sea forms (1, 2). Additional evidence in
support of this fact was obtained by examination of the head and brain of our specimen.
The skull is protected by a thick pad of a dense cartilage-like material suitable for withstanding pressure. The brain is that of any teleost, remarkable only for its small size in comparison with that of the whole animal. The eye appears normal,.but the periorbital connective tissue is also peculiarly dense and resistant, another adaptation to the deep-water
The presence of these fish in the stomach of the sperm whale affords additional evidence
that these animals obtain their food at a considerable depth.
The frequence with which the rag-fish is encountered in the stomach contents is of special
interest in view of the fact that heretofore this species was regarded as rare. We can find
records of the capture of only ten specimens since the species was first discovered by
Willoughby in 1887 (2).
In all the individuals that were removed from the stomach, the skin was completely
digested away, except for that portion which is under the operculum. One of us (L. L. R.),
while out on a whaling-boat, had the opportunity of observing a rag-fish as it was vomited
by a harpooned whale. The fact that the skin of that specimen was fairly intact suggested
that it had been recently swallowed. Observation was of necessity at a distance; however,
the skin appeared dark brown in colour, similar to that of the specimen in the Provincial
Museum at Victoria.
In addition to the rag-fish, a species of giant squid was frequently found amongst the
stomach contents. One intact specimen measured approximately 10 feet from the end of the
mantle to the tip of the tentacles. So far as it was possible to determine from the rather
mangled specimen in our possession (Fig. 2), this species is probably Moroteuthis robusta (3).
In the digestive chambers of the whale's stomach were found peculiar cartilaginous cones,
8 to 12 inches in length, an inch or more in diameter at the base, and tapered to an acute
point.    These are probably a part of the internal shell of the squid.
*This work has been conducted through grants-in-aid from the Rockefeller Foundation and the University
of Chicago and with the full co-operation of the officials of the Consolidated Whaling Corporation.
fThe stomach of the sperm whale consists of four large chambers, the first of which appears to be a reservoir
in which fish squid and octopi are commonly found in a good state of preservation. In the succeeding chambers
the food is more mutilated and less recognizable. L 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The skin about the mouth and head of the sperm whales frequently bears many curious
circular marks, half an inch or more in diameter. (Fig. 3.) It is believed that these are
sucker-marks left by the squid in their attempt to free themselves from the jaws of the
While these two forms seem to comprise the greatest proportion of the food of the sperm
whale in the waters adjacent to the Queen Charlotte Islands, other types are occasionally
eaten. Octopi of varying sizes, with tentacles from 6 to 18 inches in length, were quite
often associated with the squid and rag-fish. On one occasion a small codfish had been
eaten; on another a lamprey. It seems probable that the latter was ingested incidentally
along with its host.
The sperm whales are caught some 30 miles west or south-west of Rose Harbour, Q.C.I.
They frequent this area from the end of May until the middle of September, the greatest
number being present in July and August. Possibly their appearance at this time is dependent upon seasonal movements of the food-supply, possibly upon seasonal variations in
weather conditions and water temperatures. Since the station at Rose Harbour has been in
operation, the proportion of sperm to baleen whales has increased many times. Of 36,908
recorded captures of sperm whale obtained from the log-books of 19th century whaling
schooners (4), there were but twelve for the entire north-east Pacific Ocean north of the 49th
parallel. To-day the majority of the 300-odd whales annually captured in this area are
sperms. The reason for this incx'ease is not known, but it may be related either to the food-
supply or to change in water-temperature.
1. Cambridge Natural History, Vol. VII., 644, 1904.     ■
2. Fishes of North and Middle America.    Jordan and Evermann   (Bulletin of the
United States Natural Museum No. 47, 973, 1896).
3. A review of the Cephalopods of Western North America.    Berry (Bulletin of the
Bureau of Fisheries, Vol. XXX., 314, 1910).
4. The distribution of certain whales as shown by log book records of American
whaleships.    C. H. Townsend (Zoologica, Vol. XIX., No. 1). Fig. 1.—Side view of entire rag-fish   (Acrotus willoughbyi).    Six-foot ruler alongside.
Fig. 2.—Giant squid with 6-foot rule alongside.
Fig. 3.—Circular marks in the skin of a sperm whale—probably sucker-marks from the arms of a giant squid.  REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1937. L 21
By A. H. Brinkman.
Since the issuance of my two previous papers on the hepatics of this general region
(Ann. Rep. B.C. Prov. Mus., 1933: B 24-B 33, and 1934: 14), continued interest in the group
has made necessary the revision of certain state and provincial lists by the addition of newly
discovered species for the region and new regional additions. In light of increasing information deletions have become necessary.
C. L. Porter (Bryologist, Vol. 38, 1935, pp. 101, 102) gives a list of Wyoming Hepatics,
bringing the records for that state up to date. Clarke and Frye (Bryologist, Vol. 39, 1936,
pp. 92-94) give a number of new records and extensions of range for California. The latter
authors also (Bryologist, Vol. 40, 1937, pp. 13-16) give a list of additions and revised ranges
for other Western States, among which is an unexpected addition for Wyoming, Odonto-
schisma prostratum, a plant of the South and East. M. Fulford, in a revision of the genus
Bazzania in the United States and Canada, gives a number of records of Bazzania denudata
and Bazzania ambigua for the West, the former new to the list (The American Midland
Naturalist, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 385-424, 1936). A. W. Evans (Rhodora, Vol. 38, 1936, pp.
77-90) gives a number of Western references for Scapania mucronata. Fulford, in " Some
Hepaticae from Washington, etc." (Bryologist, Vol. 39, 1936, pp. 105-111), gives a long list of
Washington Hepatics and some from Oregon and Idaho. Seville Flowers, in " The Bryo-
phytes of Utah" (Bryologist, Vol. 39, 1936, pp. 97-104), gives a list of Utah Hepatics that
covers a territory hitherto not included for lack of references, although within the area concerned in my investigations.    The list below is almost entirely drawn from these references.
Mrs. E. A. Mackenzie, in her 1937 gatherings on Vancouver Island, found such rarities
as Diplophyllum plicatum, Gyrothyra Underwoodiana, and Scapania aspera, along with a
considerable number of other interesting species. But while there is an addition of two new
species and one new variety to the list of Hepatics known to occur in the Pacific Coast region,
others have had to be deleted.
In the report for 1934, doubt was cast on the record of Scapania Evansii, from Mount
Arrowsmith, Vancouver Island, B.C. Evans (Postelsia, 1906, p. 229) lists this species for
B.C., with a note to the effect that some critical species of Scapania have been referred to K.
Muller. Among others was the plant referred to as jS. Evansii, so named by Muller. Dr.
Evans now concurs in the decision that the plant is really Scapania intermedia.
In reaching this decision it has been possible to make comparisons with type Scapania
intermedia of Husnot and also type Scapania Evansii of Holzinger's gathering, and a number
of jS. intermedia collections.
It is believed that all Western records of S. Evansii will, upon examination, prove to be
S. intermedia, or some other closely allied species of Scapania, and that the true Evansii is
monotypic, plainly distinguishable from intermedia, though related to it. Besides the Mount
Arrowsmith plant referred to, other S. intermedia collections are as follows: Nos. 620 and
622, Shuswap Lake, B.C., and a plant collected by A. S. Foster at Callumet, Washington,
Oct. 20th, 1906.
While Evansii makes some approach to intermedia, the following differences may be
noted: Teeth of leaves in Evansii small and almost needle-like, usually one cell high, cells
thick walled throughout with noticeable trigones below but not above, and showing no signs
of a border of smaller cells; cells above averaging 13 microns, irregular in size; below a few
reaching to 20 by 40 microns. Postical lobe high-arched decurrent, the decurrency reaching
but little below the heel of the keel, gemmae oval, ochraceus. S. intermedia, teeth large, 2-3,
sometimes to 4 cells high, and broad at base, a noticeable margin of smaller cells present;
about 13 microns diameter, basal cells to 20 by 50 microns, in a narrow band, gemmae green.
The perianth differs also, being in Evansii somewhat constricted at the mouth, giving it an
oval appearance;   in intermedia, wide at mouth and rather longer in proportion, cylindrical.
Evans (Rhodora, 1906, pp. 41-42) treats of Scapania Oakesii, and there agrees with
Muller's decision, that the carinal teeth, the supposed main character of this species, are
found in several different species, and that consequently Oakesii does not warrant specific
rank. A conclusion that examination of various material by the writer seems to justify.
In Rhodora, 1916  (pp. 75-77), the question of jS. Oakesii is reopened, and though, as Evans L 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
puts it, " its claim for recognition as a species are not very strong," he accepts it as a " kleine
Arten" or species in the making. This was following the recognition by Kaalaas of jS.
Oakesii in Norway, and the concurrence of Muller in its recognition.
In an attempt to review the evidence with regard to the taxonomic status of this species,
I have examined a specimen of Austin's White Mountain, New Hampshire, plant; Miss
Lorenz' plant from Round Mountain Lake, Maine; the Eureka, California, plant; and the
Observatory Inlet, B.C., plant collected by Scouler. I wish to thank Dr. M. A. Howe for the
opportunity to make these examinations.
Austin's plant (the original of S. Oakesii, collected by Oakes), with well-developed
carinal teeth on the wings of the keel, was considered by Muller to be Scapania dentata, a
conclusion accepted previously by Evans. In this view the writer concurs. The plant collected by Miss Lorenz was also dentata, though making some approach to intermedia. This
has the well-developed carinal teeth on the wings noted for Oakesii. A specimen from Lake
Superior, referred to as a variety by Austin, has not yet been examined with certainty,
though a full set of Lake Superior Scapanias, dated 1869, collected by Macoun, has been
examined, and found to include S. nemorosa, S. dentata, and jS. subalpina, as well as S. undu-
lata. In this lot, however, there is no specimen with sufficiently marked carinal teeth to
suggest its being the plant referred to by Austin.
The Observatory Inlet plant, however, has other characters. A coarse tooth-like, almost
lobe-like projection is seen near the base of the antical lobe in some leaves, the perianth has
longer and thinner walled cells, the wings may be either one or two at the base of the keel,
and either, usually both, have the strong carinal teeth, stressed as peculiar to S. Oakesii. At
the same time the leaves are strongly verrucose, the verrucae showing plainly on the margins,
a combination of characters good enough to mark the plant off from other North American
Scapanias. The Eureka plant, while not exactly similar, comes closer to above than to any
other Scapania known to me. In common with the Observatory Inlet plant, it has the following characters: A coarse tooth-like or lobe-like projection on some of the antical lobes; the
keel often double-winged, with strong carinal teeth on both; the cells strongly verrucose, and
quite obvious on the margins of the leaves. Howe was of the mind that the Eureka plant
came closer to the Observatory Inlet plant than to jS. dentata. The B.C. record of S. Oakesii
proves to be S. subalpina, which occasionally has well-developed carinal teeth on some of the
upper leaves. S. cordifolia has also been found with well-developed carinal teeth. In the
face of this evidence, it seems best to place most of the records of S. Oakesii in synonomy, and
if the character of the well-developed carinal teeth is thought of sufficient importance, make
it S. subalpina (Nees) Dum var. alata, S. dentata Dum var. alata, and probably S. intermedia
(Husnot) Pears var. alata, and if the usual procedure is followed, which is to drop those
plants evidently belonging somewhere else and leave the name attached to the remaining
specimen named by Austin, then the Observatory Inlet plant becomes S. Oakesii Aust. with
the Eureka plant as a closely connected form.
Kaalaas' plant is unknown to the writer, but a reference in literature does suggest it may
be a form of S. subalpina with strongly developed carinal teeth. If so, it could be partly
duplicated by the B.C. plant of S. subalpina before referred to.
Diplophyllum apiculatum, referred to in the 1934 report, would seem to be a form of
Diplophyllum taxifolium, and is referred to elsewhere, while the specimen of Diplophyllum
gymnostomophilum upon examination and comparison is not that species, but an undescribed
species of possibly Scapania.
This deletes Scapania Evansii, S. Oakesii, and Diplophyllum gymnostomophilum from the
B.C. records, unless the Observatory Inlet plant is kept as S. Oakesii. Evidence submitted to
me by W. A. Newcombe suggests that the place where Scouler collected the Observatory Inlet
plant lies in B.C., though so close to Alaska as to suggest the probable presence of the same
species there. If the Eureka plant is accepted as a form, then S. Oakesii holds good for
This brings the information up to date, as far as the writer knows, though, when
circumstances permit, it is hoped to add for California a new Jungermannia, described and
figured, but not published; for B.C. a new variety of Jungermannia cordifolia, and for the
British Columbia-Alberta boundary district two species of Scapania, new and distinct, also
described and figured but not published. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1937. L 23
The following list will summarize the changes in known distribution of the Hepatics
of the Pacific Coast and adjoining states since 1934:—
Riccia crystallina.    W. B.C.
Riccia glauca.    Wy.
Riccia sorocarpa.    Wy. M.
Riccia fluitans.    U.
Ricciocarpus natans.    U.
Asterella Ludwigii.    Wy. I. U.
Asterella saccata.    Wy.-Al.
Gonocephalum conicum.    U.
Marchantia polymorpha.    U.
Riccardia pinguis.    0.
Riccardia latifrons.    U.
Pellia epiphylla.    Wy. M.
Pellia Fabbroniana.    C.
Lunaria cruciata.    U.
Marsupella ustulata.    W.
Nardia geoscyphus.    Wy. M.
*Nardia geoscyphus var. insecta  (Lindb.)  K. Muell.    Wy. W-
Jungermannia atrovirens.    C. M.
Jungermannia lanceolata.    U.
Lophozia porphyroleuca.    C.
Lophozia lycopodioides.    U.
Sphenolobus exsectxformis.    M.
Plagiochila asplenoicles.    M.
Mylia Taylori.    W.
Chiloscyphus rivularis.    U.
Chiloscyphus pallescens.    U.
Calypogeia Neesiana.    W. Wy.
Calypogeia suecica.    C.
*Odontoschisma prostratum  (Sw.)  Trev.    Wy.
*Odontoschisma sphagni (Dicks)  Dum.    M. AI.
Bazzania tricrenata.    C.
Bazzania ambigua.    0. W. I. B.C. AI.
*Bazzania denudata (Torr)  Trev.    W. B.C. AI.
Scapania subalpina.    Wy. AI.
Scapania paludosa.    AI.
Scapania var. vogesiaca.    M.
Scapania Evansii.    C.
Scapania intermedia.    W.
Scapania irrigua.    M.
Scapania mucronata.    B.C. Y. AI.
Diplophyllum plicatum.    W.
* Species new to the list.
The letters used are for States and Provinces, and are as follows:—
C. California. U. Utah.
Co. Colorado. W. Washington.
I. Idaho. M. Montana.
Wy. Wyoming. B.C. British Columbia.
Y. Yukon. AI. Alaska.
O. Oregon. A. Alberta.
Printed by Chakles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.


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