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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1938

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOBT
OF  THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1937
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED by
AUTHORITY  OF  THE  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1938.  To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for the year
ended December 31st, 1937, with Appendices.
GEORGE SHERRATT PEARSON,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia. Honourable George S. Pearson,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Fisheries
Department for the year ended December 31st, 1937, together with Appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEO. J. ALEXANDER,
Assistant Commissioner^ LUCY S. CLEMENS, Ph.D.
It is with regret that we have to record the passing on May ^rd, 1937,
of Dr. Lucy S. Clemens, wife of Dr. W. A. Clemens, Director of the Pacific
Biological Station at Nanaimo, B.C. Mrs. Clemens was born in Sheffield,
Massachusetts. She received her early education at the public and high
schools in Maiden, Massachusetts, and graduated in 1909 from Mount
Holyoke College, receiving the Ph.D. degree from Cornell University in 1914.
During her residence at the Pacific Biological Station, Mrs. Clemens
continued a keen interest in zoological work and was associated with her
husband in studies on the life-history of the sockeye salmon. All those who
were privileged to know Mrs. Clemens regretfully realize that in her passing
they have lost a valued friend. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1937.
Page.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Province in 1936  7
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries shows a Decrease in 1937  8
Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia in 1937  9
British Columbia Salmon-pack by Districts  10
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry in 1937  16
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish)  17
Mild-cured Salmon  17
Dry-salt Salmon  17
Dry-salt Herring   18
Halibut Production .  18
Fish Oil and Meal  19
Clams  20
Conditions of British Columbia's Spawning-grounds......  21
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. (No. 23.)   (Digest)  21
A Brief Account of the Life-history of the Pilchard  23
Pilchard and Herring Investigations  23
Contributions to the Limnology of Shuswap Lake  24
International Halibut Fisheries Commission, 1937  25
International Pacific Salmon-fisheries Commission  27
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.   (No. 23.)   By Wilbur A.
Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo  32
A Brief Account of the Life-history of the Pilchard.   By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo  50
Tagging British Columbia Pilchards (Sardinops cxrulea (Girard)) :  Insertions and
Recoveries FOR 1937-38.    By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station,
Nanaimo  57
Tagging of Herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:   Apparatus, Insertions,
and Recoveries during 1937-38.    By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., and Albert L.
Tester, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo  64
Contributions to the Limnology of Shuswap Lake, B.C.   By W. A. Clemens, R. E.
Foerster, N. M. Carter, and D. S. Rawson, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.-. 91
Annual Report of the British Columbia Salt-fish Board, 1937  98
Report on the Inspection of Salmon-spawning Grounds, 1937.   By Major J. A.
Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries  104
Sockeye-salmon Fisheries Convention  110 REPORT OF THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1937.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF THE
PROVINCES, 1936.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1936 totalled $39,165,055.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of $17,231,534, or
44 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1936 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second in rank, by
$8,326,266.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1936 was $2,062,005
more than in the previous year. There was an increase in the value of salmon amounting
to $1,288,069.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1936 was $22,360,630, or
nearly 49 per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the total
invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1936, $9,829,117 was employed in catching and
handling the catches and $12,531,513 invested in canneries, fish-packing establishments, and
fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1936 was 17,989, or 25
per cent, of Canada's total fishery-workers. Of those engaged in British Columbia, 11,393
were employed in catching and handling the catches and 6,596 in packing, curing, and in fish-
reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries in British Columbia in 1936 was
959 more than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery products
of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1932 to 1936, inclusive:—
Province.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
British Columbia —	
$9,909,116
6,557,943
2,972,682
1,815,544
2,147,990
1,204,892
988,919
186,174
153,789
20,060
$12,001,471
6,010,601
3,061,152
2,128,471
2,089,842
1,076,136
842,345
186,417
144,518
17,100
$15,234,335
7,673,865
3,679,970
2,306,517
2,218,550
1,465,358
963,926
219,772
245,405
14,625
$15,169,529
7,852,899
3,949,615
1,947,259
2,852,007
1,258,335
899,685
252,059
225,741
20,725
$17,231,534
8,905,268
New Brunswick—   	
4,399,735
2,108,404
3,209,422
1,667,371
953,029
367,025
309,882
13,385
Yukon Territory  —	
Totals  	
$25,957,109
$27,558,053
$34,022,323
$34,427,854
$39,165,055
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British Columbia
for the years 1932 to 1936, inclusive, is given
m the following table:—
Species.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
$7,586,479
960,166
$9,184,090
1,391,941
$12,402,042
797,390
36,439
628,982
549,910
324,669
33,402
44,057
$12,099,275
860,349
80,513
580,031
670,328
382,490
61,886
65,862
$13,387 344
Halibut 	
943,568
96,311
536,491
383,920
172,029
89,848
38,754
738,522
77,464
215,796
52,699
41,443
1,142,397
Pilchard 	
Cod, ling   -—	
667,313
418,142
88,422
53,497
$9,767,687
$11,701,955
$14,816,891
$14,800,734
$16,796,994 T 8
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Species.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
$9,767,687
16,832
25,936
19,988
28,800
$11,701,955
34,296
27,737
19,609
25,670
$14,816,891
32,325
34,921
17,758
38,922
2,400
5,216
6,607
3,334
8,423
3,391
1,406
2,872
1,134
207
$14,800,734
44,525
30,808
25,492
41,609
$16,796,994
38,855
37,019
Crabs      	
Shrimps       	
Oysters. 	
9,827
59,687
34
Flounders
3,923
9,333
4,707
7,084
3,161
1,336
2,748
470
135
544
5,208
5,629
3,428
4,916
5,006
1,048
2,483
771
1,180
1,062
13,783
26,299
110,030
7,060
4,301
3,773
10,409
5,054
9,578
6,936
1,094
3,363
1,110
170
3,332
13,875
7,633
Smelt _	
7,621
2,053
982
3,233
Octopus  	
Skate       _
Oolachans   _
Whiting     .    -   _      .	
803
69
Trout 	
Grayfish, etc.—
68
Oil     ,
4,629
7,018
26,272
45,597
183,738
547
2,374
23,744
22,924
105,360
1,671
31,175
34,745
34,906
172,201
4,885
5,664
1,933
Totals	
$9,909,116
$12,001,471
$15,234,335
$15,169,529
$17,231,534
Previous to 1934 the totals for halibut included landings at British Columbia ports by
United States vessels, whereas for 1935 and onwards the landings by United States vessels
are excluded from the statistics.
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES IN 1937 SHOWS A DECREASE
OF OVER $1,000,000 OVER THE PREVIOUS YEAR.*
The value of production of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1937 was $16,155,439,
compared with $17,231,534 in 1936. This is a decrease of $1,076,095. The totals represent
the value of the product as marketed, whether for consumption fresh, or canned, dried, smoked,
salted, etc. British Columbia is still the leading Province of the Dominion with respect to
fisheries production, its wealth lying in the abundant product of its salmon-fishery. The drop
in the total value of the output of the fisheries of the Province is due to the decrease in the
value of the product of the salmon-fisheries. The market value of the catch of British Columbia salmon in 1937 was $11,907,905, a decrease of $1,479,439 from that of the previous year.
The main item in the output of the salmon-fishery is canned salmon. The value of this
product in 1937 amounted to $9,261,988, compared with $11,128,636 in 1936. A very large
part of the canned salmon produced is exported. In 1937 approximately 1,232,902 cases found
a market outside of Canada. These were shipped to sixty-eight countries, the largest quantities going to the United Kingdom and Australia, with France third, the United States
fourth, and New Zealand fifth. The exports of canned salmon in 1937 exceeded those of
1936 and the value of export canned salmon for 1937 shows an increase of $1,166,325 over
the previous year.
Among the other important fisheries of British Columbia are the halibut and herring
fisheries, the former with a product in 1937 valued at $1,190,056 and the latter with $1,181,466.
Both of these show increases over 1936 in quantity and in marketed value. A considerable
portion of the herring-catch is used in the manufacture of meal and oil, which also applies in
the case of pilchards.
The number of whales taken by British Columbia fishermen in 1937 was 317, with a
marketed value of $220,251, compared with a catch of 376 and a marketed value of $172,201
in the preceding year. The chief product of the whale-fishery is oil, and although the
quantity produced in 1937 was less than in 1936 the total value increased owing to the
higher average price per gallon received for the oil. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 9
The total quantity of fish taken of all kinds (exclusive of fur-seals and whales) by
British Columbia fishermen during 1937 was 4,954,195 cwt., with a value at point of landing
of $7,837,930, compared with a catch of 4,896,753 cwt. and a landed value of $7,503,697 in 1936.
CAPITAL, EQUIPMENT, AND EMPLOYEES.
In Primary Operations.
Capital.—An amount of $9,207,478 is recorded as the value of the vessels, boats, and gear
used in the primary operations of catching and landing the fish, compared with a total of
$9,870,417 in 1936. The principal items, in order of value, are gasoline and Diesel boats
valued at $4,119,124, sailing, gasoline, and Diesel vessels valued at $2,802,790.
Employees.—The number of fishermen employed during the year was 11,184, compared
with 11,393 in 1936. T    „
In Fish Canning and Curing.
Capital.—The amount of capital invested in the fish canning and curing industry in
British Columbia in 1937 is placed at $11,771,130, of which the investment of the salmon-
canneries accounts for $8,377,110 or 70 per cent, of the total. Compared with the previous
year the total capital employed shows a decrease of $760,383. The number of establishments
in operation was eighty-four, compared with ninety-one in 1936.
Employees.—There were 5,574 persons employed by the establishments during the year,
this total comprising 3,250 male and 2,324 female employees. Comparative figures for 1936
are:   Male, 3,859;  female, 2,737;  total, 6,596.
The period of greatest employment in the canning and curing branch of the fishing
industry is from May to November.
* Note.—The above figures are taken from the advance report on British Columbia Fisheries, Dominion Department of Statistics, Department of Trade and Commerce.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1937.
The total pack of all species of salmon canned in British Columbia in 1937 amounted to
1,509,677 full cases. This was less than the previous year's pack by 354,826 cases, but in
comparing the packs of these two years it must be remembered that the pack of 1936 was the
largest since 1930 and very much above the ten-year average. The 1937 pack was 7,770 cases
less than the average for the past ten years—1928-37, inclusive—and 40,746 cases less than
the average for the five-year period 1933-37, inclusive.
The pack in 1937 consisted of 325,836 cases of sockeye, 16,174 cases of springs, 844 cases
of steelhead (trout), 133,489 case of cohoe, 585,574 cases of pinks, and 447,760 cases of chums.
In the above figures 19,226 cases of bluebacks are included in the figures for the cohoe-pack.
Examination of the pack figures by species shows that the sockeye-pack of 1937, amounting to 325,836 cases, was 88,973 cases less than in 1936, but here again due allowance must
be made for the exceptionally large pack of this species in 1936. The comparison between
the 1937 pack and the average for the five-year period 1933-37, inclusive, shows the 1937 pack
to be 19,572 cases below the five-year average and 699 cases less than the average annual pack
for the previous ten-year period 1928-37, inclusive.
The spring-salmon pack in 1937, amounting to 16,174 cases, was .13,679 cases less than
1936, and was also less than the average for the previous five-year period by 7,424 cases. In
considering the spring-salmon pack it should be pointed out that the pack figures for this
species are not necessarily indicative of the quantity available in any given year, as the
quantity canned in any year is conditioned by the requirements of the fresh, frozen, and mild-
cured trade.
While steelheads are trout and not salmon, a few are caught and canned each year incidental to salmon-fishing, and on this account the amounts are included in the figures of the
canned-salmon pack.    There were 844 cases of steelhead canned in 1937.
The pack of canned cohoe for the year in question amounted to 133,489 cases. This was
the smallest pack of this species since 1931, when the total pack amounted to 102,175 cases,
and is 96,261 cases less than in 1936. This year's pack was also 62,354 cases below the
average of the five-year period 1933-37, inclusive. T 10 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
The pink-salmon pack of 585,574 cases for 1937 was 5,961 cases less than in 1936 and
53,381 cases greater than the average for the five-year period 1933-37, inclusive.
The total pack of chums amounted to 447,760 cases in 1937, which was 149,728 cases less
than in 1936 and 4,572 cases below the average for the previous five-year period.
BRITISH COLUMBIA CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River System.
Sockeye.—The Canadian pack of Fraser River sockeye in 1937 amounted to 100,272 cases
compared with 52,465 cases in 1933, the cycle-year for this run. The combined Canadian and
American packs of sockeye running to this river in 1937, however, was slightly less than in
1933, amounting to 160,531 cases in 1937 compared with 179,069 cases in 1933. In their
" Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon," published in this Department's
report for 1936, Drs. Clemens pointed out that " The run of 1937 will be derived largely from
the brood-year of 1933. In that year the pack was 179,069 cases and the escapement was
reported as disappointing, except in the Chilco area, where at least 100,000 fish were estimated
to have spawned.   There are no known factors which would indicate an increased run in 1937."
The sockeye-run to the Fraser in 1937 belonged to the cycle-year which formerly produced
the large run known as the " big year," but since 1913 this " big year " has largely disappeared. It will be recalled that a rock-slide at Hell's Gate in 1913 effectively blocked the
progress to the spawning-grounds of a large number of the sockeye which habitually spawn
in the upper regions of the Fraser River. The effect of this rock-slide was noticeably felt in
the decrease in numbers of sockeye composing the 1917 run. Notwithstanding the decrease
in the run, however, there were packed a total of 559,702 cases. It is obvious that this large
pack, together with overfishing since, has had a cumulative effect in reducing the fourth " big
year " to the level of the average of the three intervening years. In view of the circumstances, the 1937 pack must be considered as being satisfactory.
Another feature of the 1937 run of sockeye which should also be noted, is the fact that
the fish again proceeded up-river shortly after reaching the fishing-grounds off the mouth.
This has the effect of producing a pack of averagely high quality.
The escapement to the principal spawning-grounds, generally speaking, must be considered as fair. The reader is referred to Major Motherwell's report on the " Inspection of
Salmon-spawning Grounds for 1937," which is published in full in the Appendix to this
report. The principal spawning area in the upper reaches of the Fraser River watershed is
at Chilco Lake and the run to this area in 1936 was exceedingly good. It is reported that at
least 110,000 sockeye were observed on the spawning-grounds. Spawning conditions are reported as being favourable. Another feature of the spawning season of 1937 was a remarkably fine return of sockeye to the Seton-Anderson Lake area. It is estimated that approximately 60,000 adult sockeye returned to this area. It is pointed out in Major Motherwell's
report that in connection with this area the Federal Department of Fisheries has been endeavouring for a number of years to build up a run of sockeye similar to that occurring previous to 1913 by means of plantings of eyed-eggs and fry. The return of adults in 1936
amounted to some 10,000, while, as stated above, approximately 60,000 were observed in 1937.
This is indeed most encouraging.
Canadian gear again in 1937 obtained the largest share of the total catch of sockeye
proceeding to the Fraser River, the catch on the Canadian side amounting to, as stated above,
100,272 cases while Washington gear accounted for 60,259 cases. Expressed in percentages,
Canadians obtained approximately 62% per cent, of the total catch while American gear
accounted for approximately 37% per cent. The percentages, in round figures, taken by
American and Canadian gear during the past ten years are tabulated for comparison:—
Year.
1928 	
1929 	
1930 	
1931 	
1932 	
1933 	
erican.
Canadian
• Cent.
Per Cent.
68
32
64
36
78
22
68
32
55   .
45
71
29 BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 11
American.       Canadian.
Year. Per Cent.        Per Cent.
1934  '     72 28
1935  ,     47 53
1936      25 75
1937  1     38 62
The figures quoted above for the 1937 sockeye-salmon pack include 72 cases of sockeye
caught in the State of Washington and canned by Canadian canners.
Spring Salmon.—The canned pack of this species caught on the Fraser River in 1937
amounted to 5,444 cases, compared with 15,126 cases in 1936, 9,401 cases in 1935, 16,218 cases
in 1934, and 5,579 cases in 1933. From the above figures it will be observed that the 1937
pack was very much below the average for the past five years. In the case of springs, however, the canned pack of this variety is not altogether indicative of the size of the run, as
spring salmon finds an outlet in other markets. Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the numbers of spring salmon passing through the commercial fishing area were
about normal.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack on the Fraser River, like most other districts in British
Columbia, was smaller than anticipated. The pack amounted to 11,244 cases. This figure
is compared with 28,716 cases in 1936 and 24,950 cases in 1935, the cycle-year. A special
closed period in District No. 1 during the cohoe-run had the effect of permitting a larger percentage of the run to pass to the spawning-grounds, which, according to reports, indicate that
the seeding, though not heavy, was considered fair.
Pink Salmon.—The year 1937 was the cycle-year for the pink-salmon run to the Fraser
River. This run occurs every alternate year, coinciding with the odd-numbered years. The
pack of this variety in 1937 amounted to 94,010 cases, compared with 111,328 cases in 1935
and 92,746 cases in 1933. The pack of pinks in 1937, though less than the pack for 1935,
must be considered as satisfactory when it is recalled that the pack in 1935 was, with the
exception of that of 1929, the largest pack of pinks put up in this district since 1917. Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that seeding was adequate.
Chum Salmon.—The Fraser River in 1937 produced a pack of canned chums amounting
to 20,878 cases, compared with a pack of 31,565 cases in 1936, 8,227 cases in 1935, and 104,092
cases in 1934. The pack figures for this species are not necessarily indicative of the size of
the run, however, as large numbers of chum salmon find a market in a frozen and salted condition. It should be mentioned, however, that the run of chums in the southern portion of
British Columbia in 1937 was considerably short of the requirements of the salt- and frozen-
fish trade. This created a brisk demand with considerably higher prices prevailing. This is,
no doubt, reflected in the size of the canned pack.
Comparing the canned-salmon pack figures for the Fraser River for the years 1936 and
1937 with previous years, the reader's attention is drawn to a change made in allocating the
pack figures since 1936. Previous to that year all Johnstone Strait caught sockeye were
credited to the Vancouver Island District. In order that each principal watershed might be
credited with the proper amount regardless of where the fish were caught, and due to the
continued growing practice of transporting fish from the district where caught to be canned
in another, the Provincial Department of Fisheries in 1936 required the canners to submit
a return showing the location where the fish were taken, together with the quantities of the
various species canned. All canners make this return, and as a result the Department has
been able to present figures more truly indicative of the production of the various salmon-
producing rivers.
In the figures quoted above for the Fraser River sockeye-pack 33,689 cases caught in
Johnstone Strait are included. Prior to 1936 all Johnstone Strait caught sockeye were shown
in the pack figures for Vancouver Island District.
The Skeena River.
The total pack of all species of salmon canned on the Skeena River in 1937 amounted to
132,638 cases. This was the smallest total pack recorded for this river since 1905, practically
all varieties showing a decline in the amount packed compared with the packs of recent past
years. The 1937 total pack on the Skeena was 65,612 cases less than the average for the
past five years and 103,089 cases less than the ten-year average.    The Skeena pack consisted T 12 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
of 42,491 cases of sockeye, 4,401 cases of springs, 21 cases of steelhead, 15,514 cases of cohoe,
59,400 cases of pinks, and 10,811 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack for 1937, amounting to 42,491 cases, was the smallest
since 1933, when 30,506 cases were packed. In 1937 the sockeye-pack was slightly more than
half the size of the sockeye-pack for the previous year. The comparatively small pack of
sockeye in 1937 was not unexpected. Dr. Clemens, in his paper " Contributions to the Life-
history of the Sockeye Salmon" (No. 22), published in this Department's report for 1936,
pointed out that " The run of 1937 will be the product of the spawnings of 1932 and 1933. In
the former year the pack was 59,916 cases with a fair escapement in the Babine area and a
good one at Lakelse, but with the possibility of freshets doing considerable damage. In the
latter year the pack was 30,506 cases and the escapement was reported as fair. The above
data would seem to indicate a relatively small return and that the catch should be on a conservative basis."
In discussing the Skeena River pack for 1937 it should also be pointed out that in order
to restore the Skeena River to its original state of productivity, particularly in connection
with the sockeye-salmon fisheries, the Federal Department of Fisheries has in the past few
years put into effect the following regulations:—
1. The upper fishing boundary in 1936 was lowered to a point approximately 10 miles
below the original fishing boundary, thus cutting off some of the most productive drifts.
2. Since 1935 the date of opening the sockeye-fishing season has been altered from June
20th to July 1st.
These measures, no doubt, have had the effect of reducing the pack somewhat, but the
action was justified as the success of these regulations is reflected in the increase in the
numbers of sockeye reaching the spawning-beds. It is reported that an excellent escapement
occurred to the principal spawning areas tributary to the Skeena River. (See Major Motherwell's report on the inspection of spawning-grounds, 1937, published in the Appendix to this
report.)
Another factor which should be considered in addition to the above is the voluntary
reduction made by the industry in the number of fishing-boats operating in 1937. This
reduction was made in order to avoid further increase in the weekly closed time.
Spring Salmon.—The spring-salmon pack on the Skeena in 1937, amounting to 4,401
cases, was 150 cases less than in the year previous, but should be considered as normal. As
pointed out elsewhere in this report, the canned pack of spring salmon is not indicative of
the amount available due to the requirements of other market outlets for this variety. The
escapement of this species to the spawning-grounds is reported as good.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 15,514 cases of cohoe canned on the Skeena in 1937. This
was the smallest pack of this species since 1931, and was 9,876 cases less than in the previous
year and 7,984 cases less than in 1935, the cycle-year. It is worthy of note that the cohoe-
salmon pack in all districts in 1937 was considerably short of expectation.
Pink Salmon.—The pack of pink salmon on the Skeena, amounting to 59,400 cases, was
considerably lower than in recent past years, the packs for the previous five years being as
follows: 1932, 58,261; 1933, 95,783; 1934, 126,163; 1935, 81,868; and 1936, 91,389. It is
pleasing to note, however, that the numbers of pink salmon reaching the spawning-beds in
1937 are reported to have been heavy; in fact, it is stated that this was the largest escapement observed since 1929.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-pack on the Skeena in 1937 amounted to 10,811 cases. This
was 4,486 cases less than was packed in 1936 and 2,698 cases greater than the pack in 1935.
It may be well to mention that the Skeena River is not a heavy producing area for this species
but the escapement is reported as being normal.
The Nass River.
The total pack of all varieties of salmon canned on the Nass River in 1937 amounted to
49,042 cases, compared with a total of 139,575 cases in 1936. In making this comparison, however, it should be remembered that the total pack in 1936 was the largest in any year since
1924. The 1937 pack consisted of 17,567 cases of sockeye, 1,251 cases of springs, 46 cases of
steelhead, 12,067 cases of cohoe, 8,031 cases of pinks, and 10,080 cases of chums; all varieties
showing a decrease from the 1936 pack, except that for cohoe, which was slightly greater. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 13
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack on the Nass in 1937, amounting to 17,567 cases, was
the product of the spawning of 1932. In that year the pack amounted to 14,154 cases;
therefore a large run in 1937 was not anticipated, although the complicated age-groups representing the sockeye-runs to the Nass make it most difficult to attempt any prediction on the
future runs. The 1937 sockeye-pack was 3,401 cases less than the average previous five years
—1933-1937, inclusive. Reference to the sockeye-packs for previous years will indicate the
variable nature of the runs to this watershed.
The escapement of sockeye to the spawning-grounds, particularly in the Meziaden Lake
District, is reported to have been quite good.
Spring Salmon.—The pack of spring salmon is never very large on the Nass River, and
although the pack in 1937, amounting to 1,251 cases, was slightly smaller than the pack of
this variety for the year previous, it must be considered as average.
Cohoe Salmon.—The pack of cohoe amounted to 12,067 cases, which was 225 cases
greater than the pack of this variety for the previous year, while 21,810 cases were packed
in 1935, 9,935 cases in 1934, and 3,251 cases in 1933. It is reported that a fairly heavy
escapement of cohoes was observed in all the streams frequented by this variety.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack, amounting to 8,031 cases, was somewhat disappointing. The run in 1937 was derived from the spawning of 1935, in which year the
pack amounted to 25,508 cases, while in 1933, the same cycle, the pack was 44,306 cases.
Reports from the spawning-grounds also indicate that the seeding of the areas frequented
by pink salmon was poor. It is interesting to note also that a heavy toll of this species
was taken by the numerous seines and traps operating in Alaska, just north of the International Boundary, and it is possible that this heavy fishing may be a factor in the fluctuating
runs of pink salmon to the Nass River.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chums on the Nass River is never a large one, and the pack
of 10,080 cases in 1937 must, therefore, be considered as a normal one, although amounting
to approximately only one-half of the amount of this variety canned in the previous year.
It was pointed out in this Department's report for 1936 that the pack for that year was the
largest pack of chums on the Nass since 1925.
Rivers Inlet.
The total pack of all varieties of salmon canned at Rivers Inlet in 1937 amounted to
108,782 cases. The pack consisted of 84,832 cases of sockeye, 917 cases of springs, 70 cases
of steelhead, 6,012 cases of cohoe, 7,536 cases of pinks, and 9,415 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack of 84,832 cases must be considered as a fair pack
for this cycle. The 1937 run was the result of the spawning of 1932 and 1933. The packs
in these years amounted to 69,732 cases and 83,507 cases respectively. In 1932 the escapement to the spawning-beds was not entirely satisfactory, while in 1933 the spawning-beds
were reported to have been heavily seeded. In view of these conditions, a pack of medium
size was all that could be reasonably expected.
The pack of sockeye in 1937 was 498 cases below the average for the previous five-year
period, but was 2,604 cases above the average for the preceding ten-year period. Reports
from the spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement in 1937 was satisfactory, the
conditions equalling those of 1933 and an improvement over 1932. It will be recalled that
in 1933 the spawning-beds were reported to have been heavily seeded. For a full account
of the conditions at the various spawning-beds in British Columbia the reader is referred
to the " Report on the Salmon-spawning Grounds, 1937," by Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief
Supervisor of Fisheries, Federal Government, which is printed in the Appendix to this report.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are never a large factor in the packs of Rivers Inlet,
although the pack of 4,401 cases is quite large, compared with the packs of recent past
years—i.e., 1936, 582 cases; 1935, 429 cases; 1934, 436 cases; 1933, 449 cases; and 1932,
459 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack at Rivers Inlet, amounting to 6,012 cases, must be considered as fair. This variety is never packed in large quantities in this area and the pack
is compared with 7,123 cases in 1936, 8,375 cases in 1935, 4,852 cases in 1934, 3,446 cases in
1933, and 7,062 cases in 1932. Reports from the spawning-beds indicate that the escapement
was light. T 14 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Pink Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is considered chiefly as a sockeye area and most other
varieties canned here are principally caught incidental to the sockeye-fishery. The pink-pack
in 1937, amounting to 7,536 cases, was 1,104 cases above the pack for the year previous,
while in 1935 there were packed of this variety 4,554 cases, and 2,815 cases in 1934.
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are also caught at Rivers Inlet incidental to the sockeye-
fishery. There were packed in 1937, 9,415 cases of this variety, compared with 11,505 cases
in 1936, 7,136 cases in 1935, and 895 cases in 1934.
Smith Inlet.
The total pack of all varieties canned in Smith Inlet in 1937 amounted to 35,502 cases,
consisting of 25,258 cases of sockeye, 21 cases of springs, 5 cases of steelhead, 241 cases of
cohoe, 483 cases of pinks, and 9,494 cases of chums. Smith Inlet, like Rivers Inlet, is considered chiefly a sockeye area. Other varieties canned, with the exception of the chum
salmon, are caught incidental to the sockeye-salmon fishing.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack, amounting to 25,258 cases in 1937, was the product
of the spawning of 1932 and 1933. In these years the packs amounted to 25,488 and 37,369
cases respectively. In 1936 the pack amounted to 12,788 cases, while in 1935 the pack was
31,648 cases. The 1937 pack was 924 cases above the average for the previous five years.
Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that while the escapement was found to be
good in the Geluck River it was poor in the Delabah River. In summing up, the conditions
are not considered as satisfactory as were hoped for, although the run to the principal
spawning-stream, the Delabah River, was considered satisfactory.
Spring Salmon.—Springs are never a factor in the pack at Smith Inlet, there being 121
cases packed in 1937.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe are not fished in Smith Inlet, but a few are taken incidental to
sockeye-fishing.    There were 241 cases packed in 1937.
Pink Salmon.—Remarks contained in the above paragraph also apply to this species.
There were 483 cases of pink salmon packed in this inlet in 1937.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chum salmon, amounting to 9,494 cases, is compared with
packs for the previous five years in the following figures: 1936, 1,653 cases; 1935, 12,427
cases; 1934, 15,548 cases; 1933, 8,841 cases. A pack of this variety is not altogether
indicative of the supply, as occasionally much more fishing effort is expended in the fall of
the year, largely depending on the demand. In 1937 this species was in demand, both by the
canners and the dry-salteries. The escapement to the spawning-grounds of this variety
is reported as normal.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Salmon-canning in the Queen Charlotte Islands is confined almost exclusively to pinks
and chums, other varieties reported from these islands are caught incidental to these.
There were packed 4,631 cases of cohoe and 72,689 cases of chums.
Pink Salmon.—This variety appears in the waters adjacent to the Queen Charlotte
Islands in every alternate year, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered years. There
was no run of pink salmon in the Queen Charlotte Islands District in 1937.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack of 72,689 cases in these islands is somewhat
larger than the pack of 1936, in which year it amounted to 69,304 cases, while the pack in
1935 was 86,298 cases and in 1934, 38,062 cases. Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate
that the escapement was normal.
Other varieties canned in these islands were: Sockeye, 2 cases; springs, 140 cases;
and pinks, 13 cases.
Central Area.
The Central area includes all the waters from Cape Calvert to the Skeena River and
the adjacent waters, exclusive of Rivers Inlet. The total pack of all varieties in this area
for 1937 amounted to 265,065 cases, consisting of 29,987 cases of sockeye, 1,641 cases of
springs, 614 cases of steelhead, 25,009 cases of cohoe, 97,321 cases of pinks, and 110,493
cases of chums. In the year previous the total pack in this area amounted to 420,496 cases.
The principal difference in the totals of the two years is accounted for by the large pack of
pinks in 1936, which amounted to 246,378 cases. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 15
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye salmon produced in the Central area are caught principally in Fitzhugh Sound and Burke and Dean Channels. The 1937 pack of 29,987 cases
must be considered as of reasonable size for this area when compared with the packs in
recent past years, there having been packed 27,499 cases in 1936, 32,417 cases in 1935,
20,438 cases in 1934, and 26,106 cases in 1933. The 1937 pack of sockeye was the largest
in this area since 1930, in which year 39,198 cases were packed. Reports from the principal
spawning-areas indicate that the escapement was satisfactory.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack, amounting to 25,009 cases in the Central area, was
considerably below the packs for this area in recent past years. The pack in 1936 amounted
to 45,824 cases; in 1935, 41,831 cases; and 1934, 53,850 cases; while in 1933 the pack
was 33,471 cases. This small pack of cohoe is not peculiar to the Central area however, as
this species was noticeably short in all districts in 1937.
Pink Salmon.—The pack of pink salmon, amounting to 97,321 cases, compares favourably
with the pack of 1935, the cycle-year, although the 1937 pack was considerably lower than
the pack in 1936, when 246,378 cases were packed. The pack in 1935 amounted to 94,190
cases. The year 1937 was a bad one for pinks in certain parts of the Central area, but
reports from the various spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement was fair to heavy.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack, amounting to 110,493 cases, compares favourably
with the pack in 1934, the cycle-year, when 117,309 cases were packed in this area. The
pack of this variety in 1936 amounted to 99,592 cases, while in 1935 it was 125,953 cases.
Escapement to the various spawning-grounds is reported to have been good, while in certain
districts in this area the inspecting officers report a heavy escapement.
Other Varieties.—In addition to the above, there were packed 1,641 cases of springs and
614 cases of steelhead.
Vancouver Island.
The total canned-salmon pack credited to Vancouver Island District amounted to
608,798 cases. This exceeds the previous year's large pack by 49,052 cases. The principal
increase is reflected in the figures for the pink-pack. The total pack consisted of 25,427
cases of sockeye, 2,359 cases of springs, 88 cases of steelhead, 58,244 cases of cohoe, 318,780
cases of pinks, and 203,900 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The total sockeye-pack credited to Vancouver Island in 1937 was
25,427 cases, compared with 32,696 cases in the previous year, 22,928 cases in 1935, 27,282
cases in 1934, and 18,397 cases in 1933. Reports from the different spawning-areas of the
Vancouver Island District indicate that the needs of conservation are being taken care of
adequately.
Spring Salmon.—The pack of springs in this district, amounting to 2,359 cases, was
considerably below the packs for 1936 and 1935, although somewhat better than in 1934.
It should be mentioned in relation to canned springs, however, that the pack figures are not
indicative of the quantities available, as this species finds its largest outlet in the fresh- and
frozen-fish trade; therefore, any comparison of pack figures should be made keeping this
factor in mind.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack, amounting to 58,244 cases, including bluebacks, was
disappointing. It might here be mentioned that the run of cohoe in all districts in British
Columbia shows a considerable drop compared with recent past years. There would seem
to be no particular reason for this for it is noted that such seasonal fluctuations occasionally
happen. The pack of this variety for recent past years was as follows: 1936, 90,625 cases;
1935, 104,366 cases; 1934, 78,670 cases; and 1933, 60,019 cases. The reader is referred to
Major Motherwell's " Report on the Spawning-grounds, 1937," for detailed information on
escapements.
Pink Salmon.—The pack of pinks credited to Vancouver Island District for 1937
amounted to 318,780 cases. This was considerably larger than the packs of this species in
recent past years, the pack in 1936 amounting to 82,028 cases, while in 1935, the cycle-year,
the pack was 191,627 cases.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack credited to Vancouver Island for 1937 amounted
to 203,900 cases, compared with a pack of 347,951 cases in 1936, 143,960 cases in 1935,
210,239 cases in 1934, and 96,642 cases in 1933. In the case of chum salmon, large quantities also find a market in the salt- and frozen-fish trades, which somewhat affects the size T 16 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
of the canned pack. In making comparisons this factor should be remembered, as the
amount disposed of in the salt- and frozen-fish trades materially affects the quantity canned.
In considering the detailed figures for the various species of salmon canned in several
districts of the Province, due consideration must be given to the numbers reaching the many
spawning-grounds. Inspection of the spawning-beds is made each year by Fishery Officers
of the Federal Department of Fisheries. The reader is referred to the detailed " Report on
the Salmon-spawning Grounds, 1937," by Major J. A. Motherwell, and published in the
Appendix to this report by his kind permission.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY, 1937.
There were thirty-seven salmon-canneries operated in British Columbia in 1937, compared with forty-six which operated in the previous year.
The canneries operated in the various districts were as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands  1
Nass River  2
Skeena River  7
Central Area   4
Rivers Inlet   5
Smith Inlet  1
Johnstone Strait   3
Fraser River and Lower Mainland  10
West Coast of Vancouver Island  4
A comparison of districts with the previous year shows that there were in 1937 three
less canneries operating in the Queen Charlotte Islands, one less on the Nass River, one less
on the Skeena River, one less on Rivers Inlet, one less on Smith Inlet, one less in Johnstone
Strait, and one less on the Fraser River and Lower Mainland.
The year 1937 was an off-year for pinks in the Queen Charlotte Islands which, no doubt,
accounts for the lessened activity in this district. On the Nass River one cannery owned by
one of the larger operators was closed as a cannery but operated as a fish-camp, the fish being
transported to the Skeena River for processing. A similar curtailment programme on the
Skeena River accounted for one less operating cannery in that district. In the Central area
the same number of canneries—i.e., four—operated as in the year previous; while at Rivers
Inlet one of the older canneries was closed as an operating plant and the production canned
at another of this company's canneries operating on the inlet. In Smith Inlet one of the two
canneries which operated in the previous year was closed as a cannery but operated as a
net-camp, the production being canned at Rivers Inlet. In Johnstone Strait the cannery of
the Deep Bay Packing Company, at Bowser, British Columbia, was destroyed by fire just
previous to the commencement of the operating season. This cannery was not rebuilt, which
accounts for one less in this area. On the Fraser River the Ladner cannery which operated
the previous year was closed, while on the west coast of Vancouver Island the same number
was operated in 1937 as in 1936.
In this Department's report for 1936, attention was drawn to the growing practice of
closing down operating canneries and consolidating the canning operations in fewer plants,
while retaining a net-crew at the non-operating cannery and fishing that cannery's full complement of gear but canning the product of several canneries' gear in one operating cannery.
This tendency is again reflected in the reduction in the number of canneries operated. As
was pointed out in these pages in 1936, this tendency is, no doubt, an attempt on the part of
the operator to lower production costs, but would seem that unless the amount of gear operated
is also curtailed the financial gain to be derived by the operator is less than what otherwise
might be expected. In " A Brief Statistical Review of the Sockeye-fishing Industry in Rivers
Inlet," published in this Department's report for 1934, attention was drawn to the fact that
the number of boats operating was far in excess of the number required to produce the pack
normally canned, and that by a reduction in gear lessened production costs would be the
natural result. It is again pointed out that the consolidation of canneries while maintaining
the full complement of gear is not the complete answer to the question of lessening production costs. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 17
The 1937 season opened on July 1st in the northern areas, and early reports indicated
that the season got off to a fair start, particularly on the Nass, while on the Skeena River
and Smith Inlet the season commenced rather slow. At Bella Coola, due to a misunderstanding between the canners and some of the Indian fishermen, the boats did not commence
fishing the first day. This misunderstanding was rectified over the week-end and no further-
labour troubles occurred during the season, although in Rivers Inlet negotiations and adjustments on prices were continued after the season commenced. These negotiations were
occasioned by the fact that an attempt was made to change the price of buying sockeye by
the piece to that of a per pound basis.
From the view-point of the quantity canned, the 1937 season must be considered as
generally satisfactory, although the cohoe-pack was very much smaller than anticipated or
desirable.
Another outstanding feature in relation to the sockeye-runs to various districts in 1937
was the noticeably smaller size of the individual fish. This was particularly noticeable on
Rivers Inlet, while reports reaching this office from other areas indicate that a similar reduction in size from that of previous years was quite in evidence.    «
OTHER CANNERIES   (PILCHARD, HERRING, AND SHELL-FISH).
Pilchard.—The canning of pilchards on the west coast of Vancouver Island continues to
show a slight increase from year to year, no doubt reflecting the increase in consumer demand
for this product. Production of canned pilchards in 1937 amounted to 40,901 cases, compared
with 35,007 cases in 1936 and 27,184 cases in 1935. There is no doubt that the 1937 production of canned pilchards would have been very much greater if a greater amount of fish
suitable for canning had been available. The pilchard-runs to the west coast in 1937 did
not materialize, and as a consequence the boats caught most of the pilchards canned in British
Columbia off the coast of Washington, which necessitated long hauls, thus seriously reducing
the amount of pilchards of a quality suitable for canning purposes. The industry continued
to can pilchards in a variety of can sizes, and it would appear that by offering the public
such an excellent food in a variety of different sized containers at a low cost the effect will
be to encourage a wider distribution of this valuable fish-food. There were three pilchard-
canneries operated in British Columbia in 1937.
Herring.—The canned-herring production in 1937 amounted to 27,365 cases as compared
with 20,914 cases in 1936 and 26,143 cases in 1935. Two herring-canneries operated in British
Columbia in 1937.
Shell-fish.—Shell-fish are canned in British Columbia to some extent, but the production
is never large. In 1937 there were canned 12,596 cases of clams compared with 12,173 cases
the previous year; 1,419 cases of crabs in 1937 as against 1,869 cases in 1936; and 800 cases
of shrimps. There were no shrimps canned in 1936. In 1937 there were canned 370 cases of
oysters while 3,601 cases of oysters were canned in 1936. In addition to the above, one small
cannery canned 53 cases of abalone.
There were six plants licensed to operate as shell-fish canneries in the 1937 season.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
The production of mild-cured salmon in British Columbia in 1937 shows an encouraging
increase over the pack figures for 1936. There were packed in 1937, 3,798 tierces, compared
with 1,642 tierces in 1936. The pack for 1935 amounted to 2,775 tierces, while in 1934 the
production figures reached 4,447 tierces. There were six tiereed-salmon plants operated in
1937 as against five in the previous year.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
In 1935 and 1936 the production of dry-salt salmon was controlled by the British Columbia
Salt-fish Marketing Board, which was a scheme set up under the Federal Government's
"Marketing Act." Court judgments ruled that this "-Marketing Act" was ultra vires
Federal jurisdiction, and previous to the commencement of the salt-salmon operating season
the operators petitioned the Provincial Government for a scheme under the " Natural Products
Marketing (British Columbia) Act," similar to the scheme under which they had been
operating previously.    The members of the British Columbia Salt-fish Board are appointed T 18 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
by the industry, with a chairman designated by the Commissioner of Fisheries. In 1937 the
Board functioned in a similar manner to the Federal Board in previous years. The reader is
referred to "Detailed Report of the British Columbia Salt-fish Board," published in the
Appendix to this report.
In 1937 there were twenty-six salmon dry-salteries operated, whereas in 1936 thirty-one
plants were licensed. The production in 1937 amounted to 5,523 tons, as compared with
8,190 tons in 1936. The chum-salmon season in British Columbia in 1937 was not good from
the standpoint of the salters. In the Queen Charlotte Islands the season closed early and
before the salters operating in that district had produced their quotas allowed by the Marketing Board. Similar conditions prevailed on the west coast of Vancouver Island, and there
was also a shortage of chum salmon in the southern districts of the Province, the result being
that very few of the salters were able to complete the quota allowed by the " Marketing Act."
DRY-SALT HERRING.
The production of dry-salt herring in British Columbia in 1936 was regulated by the
British Columbia Salt-fish Board under the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia)
Act." The total production of dry-salt herring is exported to the Orient. In previous years
practically the total production went to China, but in recent past years Japan has been taking
a fairly large quantity for re-export to Manchukuo. Unsettled conditions in the Orient during
the producing season rendered marketing a most difficult problem, with the result that production was drastically curtailed. Here again the reader is referred to the " Report of the
British Columbia Salt-fish Marketing Board," published in the Appendix to this report. As a
result of curtailed production, the total herring salted in British Columbia in 1937 amounted
to 10,230 tons. The production in 1936 amounted to 16,457 tons. Five herring-salteries were
licensed to operate in 1937, while the number operating in 1936 was eighteen.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
The total halibut landings on the Pacific Coast of North America are regulated and fixed
by the International Halibut Commission. The Coast, for administrative and regulative
purposes, is divided into four areas, the principal areas from a production standpoint being
Areas Nos. 2 and 3, the waters off the coast of Washington and British Columbia corresponding with Area No. 2 and the waters off the coast of Alaska corresponding with Area No. 3.
The total allowed to be landed in 1937 from these two areas was fixed at 46,000,000 lb., which
has been the amount fixed by the Commission since its commencement of regulation. On
this account there is little opportunity for a wide variation in the total catch figures from
year to year. In 1937 the total landings from Areas Nos. 2 and 3 amounted to 48,768,127 lb.,
compared with 48,175,466 lb. from these two areas the year previous. The total landings
from all areas in 1937 amounted to 49,517,489 lb., compared with 48,874,672 lb. in 1936.
Previous to 1935 very little, if any, halibut was caught in what is known as Area No. 1. In
1935, however, this area produced 1,290,000 lb., while in 1936 Area No. 1 is credited with
699,206 lb. The production for this area in 1937 amounted to 749,362 lb., which figure is
included in the figures quoted above for all areas.
The halibut-fishery is shared in by both Canadian and American fishing-vessels, and some
American caught halibut is landed in Canadian ports while some Canadian caught halibut is
landed in American ports. The total landings in Canadian ports by all vessels, Canadian and
American, in 1937 amounted to 18,761,711 lb., while in 1936 the total Canadian landings by all
vessels amounted to 16,790,345 lb. The comparison of these figures indicate that the total
halibut landed in Canadian ports increased from the year previous 1,971,426 lb.
Canadian vessels' share of this fishery in 1937 amounted to 11,733,914 lb., of which
9,827,533 lb. were caught in Area No. 2 and 1,916,381 lb. were caught in Area No. 3. The
total Canadian catch for 1937 shows an increase for the Canadian fleet of 1,144,701 lb. over
the Canadian catch for the previous year.
Based on the unweighted average prices paid for all Canadian landings at the port of
Prince Rupert, the prices paid to Canadian fishermen again show a continued upward trend.
The average price calculated on the above basis in 1934 was 5 cents per pound; in 1935 the
average price was 5.6 cents per pound, and in 1936 it was 6.2 cents per pound, while the unweighted average price for Canadian halibut in 1937 was 6.5 cents per pound.    Attention is called to the fact that these prices are the unweighted average prices for all Canadian landings
and should be used only as indicating the trend.
Halibut-liver is in continued demand by the pharmaceutical houses as a valuable source
of concentrated vitamins. Halibut-livers have now become a source of considerable revenue
to the fishermen, whereas previously they were thrown away. The value of the halibut-liver
production in 1937 amounted to $475,350, while this source of revenue accounted for $424,350
in 1936 and $363,082 in 1935.
The above figures are compiled from information supplied by the International Fisheries
Commission.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
Fish oil and meal is produced in British Columbia from several sources. The principal
source ordinarily is the pilchard-fishery. These fish are caught almost exclusively for
reduction to oil and meal. In recent years considerable quantities of herring were also
reduced to fish meal and oil, while fish-offal, salmon-cannery waste, and dogfish reduction
account for the remainder of the oil and meal produced, except the production from whales.
This branch of the industry has now attained the proportions of a major fishery. Contrary
to general belief, the fish-meal manufactured in British Columbia plants is not used as
fertilizer, but is used altogether as a supplementary food for the feeding of domestic
animals—cattle, hogs, poultry, etc. The oil finds a market in various manufacturing industries, largely in the making of soaps, paint, linoleum products, etc. There is also a continually
expanding outlet for certain grades of fish-oil for the feeding of poultry and other live stock,
due to its high vitamin content. Plants are now established in British Columbia to refine the
raw oil and to supply those requiring an oil of a guaranteed vitamin content.
Pilchard Reduction.—The pilchard-fishery is conducted principally on the west coast of
Vancouver Island. A few years ago fishing activity was confined almost entirely to the
inlets and sounds on the west coast, but the vessels now proceed far to sea for their catches
and this fishery may rightfully be termed a " deep-sea " fishery. Fishing usually commences
about the first week in July and continues until the first fall storms, usually about the middle
of September.
In 1937 fishing commenced around July 10th with limited catches. Ordinarily pilchard
are taken off the west coast as far west as Quatsino, but in 1937 the fish did not show in
their usual haunts and, as a result, the fishing-vessels finally located them off the coast of
Washington. The schools of pilchard did not come to the west coast at all during the fishing
season, and as a result Canadian vessels had to proceed a long way to the fishing-grounds,
necessitating a considerable loss of time running to and fro with their catches. As a result,
the reduction plants operating in Barkley Sound did very well, while those plants operating-
farther to the west were at a disadvantage due to the extra long haul. Notwithstanding
these difficulties, the production of pilchard-meal in 1937 amounted to 8,483 tons, compared
with 8,561 tons produced in 1936 and 8,666 tons in 1935. The production of pilchard-oil in
1937 amounted to 1,709,981 imperial gallons, as against 1,271,144 imperial gallons in 1936.
There were eight pilchard-reduction plants licensed to operate in 1937, the same number as
operated in 1936.
Whale Reduction.—Two whaling-stations operated in 1937, the same number as were
operating in 1936. A total of 317 whales were captured as against 376 in the previous
year, 202 in 1935, and 350 in 1934. The 1937 catch of 317 whales produced 268 tons of meal,
527 tons of fertilizer, and 662,355 imperial gallons of oil, compared with 332 tons of meal,
687 tons of fertilizer, and 763,740 imperial gallons of oil in 1936. Of the 317 whales captured
in 1937, 265 were sperms.
Herring Reduction.—Herring were again permitted to be reduced to meal and oil in 1937
in definite limited quantities. In 1936 the catch-limits for the various districts were set by a
small committee consisting of the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government, the Director of the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo, and the Assistant Commissioner of Fisheries for British Columbia. In 1937 the limits so set the previous year for the
various districts were incorporated in the Special Fisheries Regulations for British Columbia.
The catch-limits for 1937 are as follows: East Coast of Vancouver Island, 25,000 tons;
West Coast area, 40,000 tons. T 20 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Provided that in the following described sub-districts of the West Coast area not more
than the quantity of herring shown opposite each shall be so fished for, caught, or killed in
any season, even though by the time it is taken the total quantity authorized for the West
Coast area has not been caught. Tons
Barkley Sub-district   SUKGOff
Clayoquot Sub-district      5,000
Nootka Sub-district  10,000
Kyuquot Sub-district   10,000
Quatsino Sub-district      5,000
The above quotas are extracted from the Special Fisheries Regulations for the Province
of British Columbia.
In 1937, due to the very limited demand for dry-salt herring, only a portion of the
East Coast quota was required by the salters. The balance of the quota, however, was
caught and reduced to meal and oil, some being taken to the West Coast, while the balance
was processed in East Coast plants.
Commencing in 1936, considerable activity in winter herring-fishing was manifest in
District No. 2 in the vicinity of Namu, Bella Bella, and Ocean Falls, as well as in the Prince
Rupert areas. This activity was continued in 1937. Due to the fact that herring-fishing
has not been conducted extensively in this area prior to 1936, no catch-limits have as yet
been set, but the Biological Officers in charge of the pilchard-herring investigation are maintaining a close observation as to the effect of fishing on these parent stocks, with a view to
obtaining factual information which will indicate what conservation measures may be
deemed advisable in the light of the information obtained.
Thirteen plants were licensed to reduce herring in 1937. These thirteen plants produced
14,643 tons of meal as against 10,340 tons in 1936, and 1,333,245 imperial gallons of oil
compared with 786,742 imperial gallons in 1936. Of the thirteen plants operated in 1937,,
eight were located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, two in the Prince Rupert area,
two in the Central area, and one on the Fraser River.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Fish oil and meal is also produced in lesser quantities in
plants operated on other than whales, pilchard, and (or) herring—principally on dogfish and
cannery-waste. Eight plants were licensed in this category in 1937, producing 2,445 tons of
meal and 266,009 imperial gallons of oil.
CLAMS.
During the past two or three years digging activities for clams in British Columbia
have increased most rapidly, particularly in those areas adjacent to the south end of Vancouver Island on the east coast. This activity has been occasioned largely by the demand
for clams by American canners while in the past year the demand by Canadian canners has
also increased, adding a further drain on those beds which are of easiest access. In addition
to the digging centered largely on the east coast of Vancouver Island, the buyers have gone
farther afield and considerable quantities in 1937 were taken in the Alert Bay and Bella
Bella areas.
Until recently digging for clams commercially was done on such a small scale that it
was felt the regulations were adequate to prevent depletion. In view of the increased digging
activity, however, the Provincial Department of Fisheries and representatives of the
Dominion Department of Fisheries, including the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for British
Columbia, held a conference at which it was decided to make representations for a change in
the regulations which would have the effect of giving the necessary added protection. At the
same time it was also recommended that the Fisheries Research Board undertake a preliminary survey with a view to ascertaining whether a more comprehensive investigation was
necessary. This preliminary survey was made in December, 1937. Due to the short time
available the survey was confined to that area from Dodd Narrows to Sidney, B.C., the area
which had been most heavily exploited. The results of this preliminary survey indicate
that a more comprehensive investigation is not only desirable but necessary if regulations
are to be devised which will effectively prevent serious depletion of this resource. The
preliminary survey indicates that in certain areas digging has already taken place to such
an extent as to  cause  some depletion of the beds,  and  it is  expected that the  Fisheries BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 21
Research Board will, in the near future, institute a thorough investigation in respect to the
clams of the Province. In the meantime it is felt that the recent change in the regulations
recommended by the above-mentioned conference, and already in effect, will adequately take
care of the situation until such time as investigation shows a further change in regulations
to be desirable.
CONDITIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS.
Owing to this Department having discontinued making personal inspections of the various
salmon-spawning areas in the Province, we are indebted to Major Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, and the officers of his Department who conducted the investigations, for
furnishing us with a copy of his report. His courtesy in supplying us with this report is
gratefully acknowledged.
Major Motherwell's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-spawning
grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON  (DIGEST).
(No. 23.)
The twenty-third paper of the above-named series appears in the Appendix to this
report, and is contributed by Dr. W. A. Clemens, Director of the Pacific Biological Station,
Nanaimo. In this contribution Dr. Clemens points out that the run of the sockeye salmon in
1937 to the four principal river systems in British Columbia—namely, the Fraser, Nass,
Skeena, and Rivers Inlet—were very close to expectation, the total pack for the four areas
amounting to 305,421 cases, which was nearly 100,000 cases less than in 1936. It is pointed
out, however, that reports of conditions on the spawning-grounds indicate good escapements
for the particular cycle-years in relation to the commercial catches.
The Fraser River Sockeye Run of 1937.—The sockeye-run to the Fraser River in 1937
belongs to the cycle-years which once produced packs exceeding 2,000,000 cases. Since 1917
the cycle has maintained itself at a fairly steady level, producing 160,000 cases a year. The
author points out that the pack in 1937 was 160,531 cases and that the escapement was
reported as good. Of the total pack, 100,272 cases were packed in the Province of British
Columbia and 60,259 cases in the State of Washington, the percentages of these two packs
being 62 per cent, and 38 per cent, respectively. It is pointed out that included in the
number of cases attributed to the Fraser River are 33,689 cases of fish which were caught
in Johnstone Strait. This amounts to 21 per cent, of the total pack for that river and again
indicates a run of considerable size coming in by the northern route. The author also points
out that the fish were well distributed throughout the river system in 1937. Approximately
6,000 were reported from the Stuart Lake area; small numbers in the Francois Lake and
Quesnel systems; at least 110,000 to Chilco Lake; light runs to the Shuswap and North
Thompson areas; and at least 60,000 to the Seton-Anderson Lake area; while in the lower
areas the escapements to Harrison and Pitt Lakes were good, but only 3,055 fish, by actual
count, reached Cultus Lake.
The author points out that, while these spawning escapements would seem to be encouraging, the fact that the total escapement was very small in relation to the catch must not be
overlooked. The two large escapements to Chilco and Seton Lakes together accounted for
only 170,000 fish, and it is doubtful if the combined escapements to all other areas would
greatly exceed half the above number. As against this, the pack represents approximately
3,250,000 fish.    This is a consideration which should not be overlooked.
In commenting on the sockeye-runs for 1938 to this river, the author points out that
this is the cycle-year of the large late runs. In 1926 a large number of sockeye appeared
in Adams River late in the season. Again, in 1930 there was a large return with a total pack
of 455,886 cases and an escapement to Adams River estimated at 400,000 fish. In 1934 there
was again a large pack of 491,817 cases and an estimated escapement to Adams River of
500,000 fish, so that there is every reason to expect a large return in 1938. Further, it
is pointed out that large runs to the upper Fraser River have usually been preceded by the
appearance of relatively large numbers of three-year-old fish or what are commonly known
as grilse. These were particularly abundant in the run of 1937, and this fact may be taken
as further indication of the large return of four-year-old sockeye in 1938. T 22 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Sampling was made from fish obtained as usual from the traps at Sooke, random
samplings from the catch being taken from May 10th to September 14th, thirty-four samplings
in all; the 4s age-group being represented by 77.9 per cent, of the total sampled, the 52
account for 12 per cent., the 53 by 5.3 per cent., while of the 63 only three fish appeared in
the samplings. The 32, or grilse, accounted for 4.1 per cent, of the total sampled. There
were also four fish of the 4i, three of the 3i, and one of the 43 age-groups.
Rivers Inlet Sockeye Run of 1937.—In his remarks on Rivers Inlet, Dr. Clemens points
out that this inlet produced a medium-sized pack in 1937 and the escapement was reported as
satisfactory. The pack is termed medium-sized because it falls in the range of 60,000 to
100,000 cases. Less than 60,000 cases is considered small and greater than 100,000 cases
large. Over the period from 1907 to 1935, inclusive, the packs on this basis have been
distributed as follows: Small, 4; medium, 17; large, 8. Attention is drawn to the following
proportions of the four- and five-year-old fish in the runs to Rivers Inlet, and on this account
it is difficult to discern cycles, but one five-year cycle stands out, that of 1910-15-20-25-30-35,
which has consistently produced packs of over 100,000 cases. The 1937 run was one which
could not be identified as a five-year in preference to a four-cycle year.
In commenting on the 1938 run, Dr. Clemens says this will be the result of the spawnings
of 1933 and 1934. In the former year the pack was 83,507 cases and the escapement was
reported as very good. In the latter year the pack was 76,923 cases with an average escapement. The factors which determine the age of maturity are not definitely known, therefore
it is impossible to determine what proportion of the progeny of a given year's spawning will
return as four-year-olds and what as five-year-olds. Taking all available data into consideration, it would appear that the return of 1938 should be one producing a medium-sized pack.
The usual data were obtained in 1934 from 1,824 individuals taken in twenty-two random
samplings from July 1st to August 5th. Of the individuals represented, 60 per cent, were of
the 42 age-group, 37 per cent. 52 age-group, 2 per cent, of the 53, and of the 63 age-group
approximately 0.5 per cent. Only one of the 4i age-group appeared in the sampling. It is
pointed out that, while the proportions of the 42 and 52 age-groups over the period of the
past twenty-four years have varied greatly, the average has been approximately 50:50. The
extremes have been from 5:95 to 81:16. The percentages in 1937 are somewhat in favour of
the 42's but are not exceptional.
It is also pointed out that in respect to the average lengths and weights of both sexes in
the 42 and 52 age-groups for 1937, the averages are somewhat below that for the past
twenty-two and twenty-five years. It is suggested that the size of the mesh used in taking
the commercial catch may have some bearing.
Skeena River Sockeye Run of 1937.—The pack on the Skeena River, amounting to 42,491
cases, is relatively small. The author points out that it would appear to have fulfilled expectations. A very good escapement was reported from both the Lakelse and Babine Lake
areas.
The author points out that the sockeye in the Skeena River mature for the most part at
four and five years of age. The return of 1938 will be derived from the spawnings of 1933
and 1934. In 1933 the pack amounted to 30,506 cases, the smallest on record, with a relatively
small escapement. In 1934 the pack was 70,655 cases and the escapement was reported as
being " doubtful." In view of these facts, the inevitable conclusion is that the return of 1938
will be small. Only some at present unknown condition could produce an exceptionally large
return.
The usual data were obtained again in 1937 from 1,597 fish taken in twelve random
samplings from July 6th to August 4th; the 42 age-group accounting for 45 per cent, of the
total, while the 52's represented 40 per cent., the 53's 11 per cent., and 63's 4 per cent. In
addition to this the 32 age-group is represented by seven individuals which, however, are not
taken into the calculations.
Nass River Sockeye Run of 1937.—The pack on the Nass River was 17,567 cases, and the
escapement was reported as " quite good on the whole." While the escapement was apparently satisfactory in relation to the catch, the author points out that it is apparent that
the run of 1937 was relatively small. Dr. Clemens points out that for the past twenty-five
years 67 per cent, of the Nass River sockeye have been five-year-old fish with two years'
residence in fresh waters  (5s's).    In 1933 the pack consisted of 9,757 cases and the escape- BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 23
ment was reported as " not particularly satisfactory." It would seem, therefore, that little
may be expected in 1938 from the 1933 spawning. In 1934 the pack was 36,242 cases, which
was exceptionally large. The escapement was also stated to have been heavy, but since four-
year-old fish usually form a relatively small proportion of the population (the average for
the past twenty-five years being 15 per cent.) the 1934 spawning is not likely to produce a
very large group of mature fish in 1938. The prospects for a large return in 1938 are not,
therefore, particularly bright. The author points out, however, that returns to the Nass
River have been very erratic and it has been almost impossible to predict production for any
year for this river system. There is apparently some as yet unknown factor operating
which causes considerable irregularity in the cycle returns.
The analysis of the 1937 run is based on data collected from 1,491 fish in thirteen random
samplings between July 6th and August 17th. The 53 age-group predominates and amounts
to 68 per cent. This is practically identical with the average for the past twenty-five years.
The 42's are represented by 22 per cent., the 6a's by 6 per cent., and the 52's by 4 per cent.
It is interesting to note that the average lengths and weights for nearly all age-groups is
considerably below the averages for the last twenty-five years. It is also worthy of note that
for the first time since 1918 the males have outnumbered the females, the percentages being
51 per cent, and 49 per cent, respectively.
A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE PILCHARD.
Included in the Appendix to this report will be found a timely paper by Dr. John Lawson
Hart, outlining briefly what is known in regard to the life-history of the British Columbia
pilchard. It is not Dr. Hart's purpose in this paper to describe the original research, but
rather an attempt has been made to summarize, in condensed form, the more recent findings
relating to the life-history of this fish and to make this information available to the Canadian
fishing industry.
The facts as outlined in Dr. Hart's paper have been obtained from many sources, not the
least important of which may be credited to the original research-work of Dr. Hart and his
associates at the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo. It is felt that this brief report will
fill a much-felt want in that for the first time it briefly summarizes those facts which are
known relating to the life-history of the British Columbia pilchard (Sardinops cxrulea).
PILCHARD AND HERRING INVESTIGATIONS.
The investigations on pilchards and herrings have continued under the joint auspices
of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department.
Emphasis has been continued on the tagging programme for both species, but the routine
sampling of the catehes has been continued. The work has been organized by Dr. J. L. Hart
and Dr. A. L. Tester and has been carried out by them and their assistants.
Pilchards.
The 1937 pilchard season was in marked contrast with that of the previous year.
Whereas in 1936 there was evidence for believing that the fish occurred to the north-west
of the Vancouver Island fishing-grounds, in 1937 only a very few pilchards were taken as
far to the north as Vancouver Island. A very large proportion of the Canadian catch was
made off the Washington coast between Cape Flattery and the Columbia River. In consequence of this southern distribution, the fish-reduction plants situated in Nootka Sound and
Esperanza Inlet operated at a disadvantage as compared with those in Barkley Sound.
Sampling showed that in length the fish were larger than average but were not so large
on the average as in some years. The sizes were grouped around the average so that
comparatively few lengths were recorded which differed from the average by more than 1 inch.
The results of the work on tagging pilchards and recovering the tags are reported in
some detail in the Appendix. The report records the recovery of Canadian tags by California,
Oregon, and Washington operators, and the recovery of California tags in Canadian reduction plants. The evidence indicates that during 1937 a considerable proportion of the
Canadian pilchard-catch consisted of fish which had been off the California coast during the
previous winter.
Included in the Appendix is a general account of the life-history of the pilchard as it
is known at present. T 24 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Herring.
The most noteworthy feature of the herring-fishery has been its continued development
in the areas north of Vancouver Island. The rapid growth would appear to call for an
intensive study of the herring in the area to provide information to facilitate the most
advantageous method of exploiting the resource. Herring were relatively abundant on the
east coast of Vancouver Island and in Quatsino Sound on the west coast, but less abundant
in other west coast areas.
Herring sampling for length, age, weight, sex, and vertebral number has been continued
and expanded to include the newly-opened areas. These studies are designed to determine the
effect of inequality of successive year broods on the availability of herring to the fishermen
and to provide information concerning the extent of intermingling of herring from different
areas.
The collection of herring-spawning reports has continued through the co-operation of
the Dominion Department of Fisheries. A detailed study of the Barkley Sound spawning-
grounds was made during the spring of 1938. It was found that spawning was very light
and took place mostly along exposed shores (Macoah Passage). The extension of the
spawning-grounds below the intertidal zone presented a formidable obstacle to the original
programme—the quantitative sampling of the egg deposition to determine the absolute
abundance of the spawning population.
Catch records for herring purse-seines have been collected in recent years to supply
information concerning availability of fish in different years and different areas. In 1937-38
a new system was put into effect. Pilot-house record-books were distributed to seine-boat
captains with instructions to record carefully the date, time, place, tonnage, and incidental
information for each set and to return copies to the Pacific Biological Station. The new
system has met with considerable success. The data show differences among the various
fishing areas in the time of day at which most of the herring are caught. For the fishery
on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island a relationship between the availability of herring,
the tide, and the moon has been established; more fish for unit effort being taken in the
first and third quarters than in the new and full phases of the moon. This appears to be
related to the tidal series present during these lunar weeks and is possibly caused by the
effect of tide on the movements of herring to the fishing-grounds. Undoubtedly as more
data are accumulated under the improved system other relationships will be disclosed and
much will be learned of the causes of short-term, annual, and long-term fluctuations in the
herring-fishery.
An account of the herring-tagging work is included in the Appendix. The paper
describes the installation of a new induction detector at Ueluelet and the improvements on the
old one at Galiano Island. The magnets installed for the recovery of pilchard-tags were
also used for the recovery of herring-tags, but the data obtained from them are not so
satisfactory. The results give partial support to the conclusions based on racial studies
that there is a tendency for separate populations to be formed on the west coast, but indicate
that there is a considerable proportion of wandering, estimated at 15 to 20 per cent. There
is, however, no evidence of intermingling of fish from the east coast and west coast.
Evidence from fish tagged at Sooke shows that a large body of fish moves up the east coast
of Vancouver Island and are subsequently taken on the Swanson Channel fishing-grounds.
In view of this, it is worthy of note that one Sooke tag was recovered in Barkley Sound.
It is proposed to continue and extend work under the tagging programme.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIMNOLOGY OF SHUSWAP LAKE.
In the Appendix to this report will be found a paper contributed by Drs. W. A. Clemens,
R. E. Foerster, N. M. Carter, and D. S. Rawson, which contains a considerable amount of
information concerning the limnology of a portion of Shuswap Lake.
The material for this paper was obtained, as the writers point out, during two weeks in
July of the years 1931 and 1932. As very little work of this nature has been previously done
in the many lakes of British Columbia, the observations made, it is felt, may be of real value
particularly in view of the importance of this body of water in relation to the Fraser River
sockeye-salmon runs.    The paper describes the lake, the geology, gives certain soundings, also BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 25
physicochemical observations, deals with the higher aquatic vegetation, the plankton, lists a
number of shore invertebrates and bottom organisms, as well as lists a number of the fish
indigenous to this lake.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1937.
The International Fisheries Commission continued the investigation of the life-history of
the Pacific halibut and the observation and regulation of the halibut-fishery, as provided in
the treaties of May, 1930, and the new, supplanting treaty of January, 1937. Under its
regulations the condition of the stocks on the banks continued to improve.
Canadian representation on the Commission was changed during-the year. Mr. George J.
Alexander, Chairman and Assistant Commissioner of Fisheries for British Columbia,
resigned, and Mr. Louis W. Patmore was appointed to fill the vacancy. Mr. Edward W. Allen
was elected Chairman to succeed Mr. Alexander.
The Commission maintained its usual close contact with the halibut industry. Informal
meetings were held with various committees and individuals and the annual meeting with the
Conference Board, composed of representatives of the different sections of the fishing fleet,
was held in Seattle on December 3rd. The meetings afforded opportunities of explaining the
progress of the Commission's investigations to the fishermen and of discussing the problems
and difficulties encountered by the fishermen.
The 1937 halibut treaty gave the Commission additional regulatory powers at the request
of the fishing fleets. The additions authorized the Commission to permit, regulate, or prohibit the retention and landing of halibut caught incidental to fishing for other species of fish
in any area; when halibut-fishing is prohibited there, and the possession of halibut of any
origin during such fishing. They also empowered the Commission to limit the departure of
vessels for halibut-fishing in an area when the vessels which have departed for that area are
sufficient to catch the limit set by the Commission. The new treaty did not become effective
until August, 1937.
The 1937 halibut season opened on March 16th, as in the preceding year. Regulations
governing fishing were essentially the same as in 1936 until August, after the closure of Areas
1 and 2, when new regulations were issued under the 1937 treaty.
The catch-limits in Areas 2 and 3 were attained and the areas were closed earlier than
in 1936, in spite of the system of voluntary curtailment by the American fleet and the regulations under the " Marketing Act " in British Columbia, which proved generally effective in
distributing the permitted catch over a longer season than would otherwise have been the case.
Areas 1 and 2 were closed to halibut-fishing at midnight of July 28th, with catches of approximately 747,000 and 22,832,000 lb. respectively. September 29th was set as the date of last
clearance for halibut-fishing in Area 3 and the area was closed to fishing at midnight of
October 19th with a catch of approximately 25,556,000 lb. No halibut were landed from Area
4, which was closed at the same time as Area 3.
The regulations, issued August 11th, were modified from the previous ones in several
respects. They provided for the closure of Area 3 by prohibition of clearance for that area,
when the boats already cleared for or fishing there were sufficient to catch the limit allowed,
and by the setting of a subsequent date of last fishing. This permitted a full trip by all
vessels which were allowed to clear, and eliminated any desire to fish illegally after closure.
No law-breaking of this kind was observed or suspected in 1937. The new regulations continued midnight of November 30th as the date of commencement of the closed season, in the
event that closure was not already in effect as a result of catching the limits allowed, but
provided that the Commission might substitute any earlier date subsequent to November 1st
as the beginning of the closed season. They also changed the date of termination of the
closed season from midnight of March 15th to midnight of March 31st of each year. Other
provisions were essentially unchanged.
The provision, in the regulations issued under the 1937 treaty, for the retention and sale
of a limited proportion of halibut caught incidental to fishing for other species in areas closed
to halibut-fishing, proved very effective in reducing the amount of illegal fishing in Area 2
after closure, but it was a boon to law-observing fishermen. Halibut could no longer be held
in possession after closure without a permit, which was not good for fishing in an open area
and which limited the amount which could be held.    But one pound of halibut could be sold T 26 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
for every seven of other species, exclusive of salmon. The halibut landings by individual
vessels under this provision were in general considerably less than the proportion legally
allowed. Total landings from this source were only 278,000 lb., but they provided additional
revenue, and, moreover, stimulated the cod-fishery.
The investigations of the scientific staff were continued where necessary for the fulfillment of the purposes of the treaty. They included the collection and analysis of current
statistical and biological data by which the success of regulation can be determined and on
which continued intelligent control must be based. The collection of biological data made
necessary the operation of a vessel.
Further improvement in the stocks of halibut due to regulation was revealed by the
investigations. The abundance of fish, as indicated by the catch per unit of fishing effort,
increased in 1937 according to expectations. This increased abundance and the consequent
ease of securing trips has had a very salutary effect upon the quality and size of fish landed.
Observation of the effects of regulations upon the stock of halibut by means of market
measurements was continued. A total of more than 96,000 halibut from 102 representative
trips were measured at Seattle. Data were simultaneously taken for the study of the age
and sex composition of the stocks. The reduction in the rate of capture of the fish resulting
from regulation was reflected in a further small increase in the size of the fish landed, which
in conjunction with the general increase in abundance proved a further small increase in the
spawning stock on the grounds. It is noteworthy that the increase in spawning stock, particularly in Area 2, is being achieved with no reduction in the total catch permitted the fleet.
Particular attention was devoted to the measurement of the production of spawn, the
most direct way of determining the changes in spawning conditions at the time they occur.
Vessel operations by charter of the schooner " Eagle " were carried on from December 4th,
1936, to February 6th, 1937, in the neighbourhood of Cape St. James, British Columbia. The
materials from the net-hauls taken at eighty-seven stations during this period were sorted in
the laboratory and analyzed. They showed a further increase in the abundance of spawn
over the record of the previous winter. The collection of new materials in the same region
was begun in December, 1937, and continued in January and February of 1938.
Numerous factors, such as the accidental occurrence of favourable hydrographic conditions for spawning and survival of the young, or the presence of unusual conditions of the
ocean currents tending to concentrate the eggs in the vicinity of the spawning-banks rather
than scatter them along the coast, cause sudden changes in the amount of spawn found in any
areas. Only an increase in the number of eggs taken in the nets over a series of years may
be interpreted as positive proof of an increase in spawning within a region. The numbers
taken in Area 2 during the past four years have more or less steadily increased, and are
reasonable proof of an actual increase in the number of spawners there.
As indicated in the report of last year, the increase in production of spawn that has
occurred is due to the longer life allowed the fish on the banks and is not yet due to an
increase in the number of fish entering the fishery. Since the female halibut does not mature
until the age of twelve years on the average, it will be some years before the increase in
spawning and the resultant increase in number of young have any effect upon the number of
spawning fish.
One report, No. 12, and three additional circulars, Nos. 5, 6, and 7, were published during
the year. The report dealt with Theory of the effect of fishing on the stock of halibut, by
W. F. Thompson. This report gave the theory which explains the effect of the present regulations, and was written after the author's careful study of the changes in fisheries of other
regions, particularly those of the North Sea. There is every reason to believe that the theory
found practical here applies in other fisheries.
The subjects of the three circulars were, respectively: Why are there separate areas?
by H. A. Dunlop; Halibut-tagging experiments, by John Laurence Kas; and The early life-
history of the halibut, by Richard Van Cleve. They were written with a view to explaining
the work of the Commission in simple, understandable form.
The investigations of the Commission continued to explain the changes taking place in
the stocks of halibut on the banks. They demonstrated that the condition of the stock was
improving as a result of regulation, and offered fresh assurance of the ultimate success of the
Commission in rebuilding the fishery to a higher level of productiveness. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 27
INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON-FISHERIES COMMISSION.
Probably the most outstanding happening in the recent history of British Columbia's
fisheries was the conclusion of what had become known as the " Sockeye Treaty" between
Canada and the United States.
To appreciate more fully the significance of this happening, it would probably not be
amiss to briefly summarize the negotiations leading up to the final ratification of this treaty.
The Provincial Department of Fisheries has, for many years, advocated the necessity for
international action if the sockeye-fishery of the Fraser River was to be preserved. The
Department also has continuously and diligently worked hard to bring about international
action, as it has been realized for many years that only through international action could
the Fraser River fisheries be preserved. The problem was most complex and complicated
because of the various interests involved. It should be pointed out that the sockeye salmon
returning to the Fraser River to spawn pass through American waters. This fact has, for
forty years, prevented what might be considered any sensible action being taken relative to
the preservation of the Fraser River sockeye. The reason for this is that when the sockeye
pass through United States waters they are caught by American fishermen who are subject
to rules and regulations which differ from those in force on the Canadian side. This condition of affairs has threatened to extinguish the Fraser River sockeye-run. American
fishermen were opposed to the introduction of greater limitations upon the methods of fishing
effective in their waters, while the Canadians were unwilling to further limit their own
catches, unless their neighbours across the line were willing to act with them in a similar
manner.
The sockeye-fisheries in the waters contiguous to British Columbia and the State of
Washington first became a subject of international action as the result of negotiations between
the American Secretary of State and the Canadian Fisheries Delegation, which took place at
Washington, D.C, on February 15th, 1892, forty-five years ago. As a result of this conference a proposal was made by Senator Foster of the United States, on October 4th, 1892,
to the Canadian Government, the proposal being that two experts, one representing each
country, should be appointed to inquire into the following questions:—
(a.) The limitation or prevention of exhaustive or destructive methods of taking fish
in the territorial waters and contiguous waters of the United States and Canada respectively,
and also in the waters of the open ocean outside of the territorial limits of either country, to
which the habitants of the respective countries habitually resort for the purpose of fishing.
(6.) The close seasons expedient to be enforced or observed by the inhabitants of both
countries.
(c.) The adoption of practical methods of restocking and replenishing such waters with
fish and by means of which such fish life may be preserved and increased.
These proposals were immediately agreed to by the Canadian Government and the agreement was brought into effect and completed on December 6th, 1892. Dr. Wakeham was
appointed Canadian representative and Mr. Rathbun represented the United States. On
December 31st, 1896, their report was finally submitted. The international agreement under
which the Commission was appointed contained a clause which provided that as soon as the
reports of the Commissioners were placed before the respective Governments an exchange of
views thereon would take place and, if it was found expedient, the two Governments would
undertake a treaty of concurrent legislation or such action as was found to be most desirable.
The findings of the Commissioners, however, indicated that there was no acute fisheries
problem in the Fraser River District at that time; consequently no action of the sort provided
for was taken.
Events of the next few years, however, brought the international aspect of the fishery
into a strong relief. By the late '90s fishing by Americans in the waters of Puget Sound had
increased greatly. This competition of American fishermen with their more efficient trap-nets
and purse-seines had become so vigorous by 1901 that on January 24th, 1902, the Canadian
Government appointed a Commission to investigate the proper production and future development of the various branches of the salmon-fishing industry in British Columbia. Professor
Prince was chairman of this Commission. The evidence submitted to the Commission was of
such a nature that it was obvious the question was far wider and called for a more thorough
investigation than that body had been authorized to make.    That Commission's report con- T 28 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
cerned itself merely with indicating the complexity of the problem and refrained from making
any comprehensive recommendations.
Until the fishing season of 1902, no great anxiety had been felt in respect to the salmon-
run. The run of 1901 had been satisfactory and up to this time the real issue had been the
distribution of the catch between the Canadian and American interests. Limitation of the
total catch was not, as yet, regarded as a matter of paramount importance. The season of
1902, however, was such a failure that the late J. P. Babcock, Deputy Commissioner of
Fisheries for British Columbia, in the Department's report pointed out that: " Our fishermen
should be permitted to take only that portion of the run which is in excess of the number
necessary to the perpetuation of the species. The present regulations for the Fraser River
do not accomplish the object for their enactment. Those in force in 1901 were shown to be
effective and no further restrictions should be placed upon fishing in that stream in the
known years of abundance. It was demonstrated in 1902 that these regulations did not
produce the desired result, so it is evident that more stringent restrictions should be enforced
during the years of poor runs." Babcock fully realized the difficulties inherent in the situation, particularly the very important one that further reduction of fishing in Canadian
waters would only mean that Canadian fishermen and canners were being penalized for the
benefit of American fishing interests. Mr. T. R. Kershaw, Fisheries Commissioner for the
State of Washington, also saw the injustice of the situation and discussed the matter with
Babcock at Victoria with a view to rectifying the situation. Kershaw's proposal was that
of establishing an American hatchery on the Fraser River. Babcock felt that remedial
measures were by treaty arrangement. The conference was not encouraging, and the
proposal was later made to Professor Prince at Ottawa and Senator Foster at Washington.
International correspondence on the subject followed. The Canadian Government was not
favourably inclined towards the suggestion. Bowers, then U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries,
suggested a conference between the representatives of his Bureau and those of Washington
State Fisheries Commission, the Canadian Department of Marine and Fisheries, and the
Fisheries Department of British Columbia.
In the meantime, the situation in the Fraser River fisheries was becoming strained. The
catch of 1903 was a very poor one and both sides were ready to put the blame on the other.
No effective action was taken, however, and it remained for Canada to take the initiative, and
on July 22nd, 1905, another Commission was appointed by Order in Council to examine the
entire fisheries situation on the British Columbia coast. Stress was laid, however, on the fact
that the Fraser River question urgently demanded solution. Professor Prince was again
Chairman of this Commission, which later became known as the " Prince Commission." The
work of the Commission commenced on September 19th, 1905. After a year of sittings, hearings, and a conference with the Washington State Fish Commission, which had recently been
appointed by the State of Washington, the Prince Commission was ready to make certain
interim recommendations to the Federal Government. It was not prepared to make these
recommendations, however, unless the Washington State Commission was prepared in its turn
to make similar recommendations to its Government. This was agreed to by the Washington
Commission in 1906. Action on these recommendations was first taken by the State of
Washington on March 19th, 1907. It was not until June 8th, 1908, that Canadian action was
taken. While these negotiations between Canada and the State of Washington were helpful,
they promised little, however, as the recommendations required concurrent regulations on
either side of the International Boundary. The degree of co-operation was bound to vary
with the changes in the complexion of political affairs on each side of the line. The Provincial
Department of Fisheries realized at this time that the paramount need was for a joint Commission with control over the international waters. However, such a Commission could not
be established through negotiations of the Canadian Government with the Washington State
Government, the latter not having treaty-making powers necessary; hence negotiations between the two Federal Governments commenced, and on April 11th, 1908, the Bryce-Root
Treaty was signed. Ratifications were exchanged on June 4th and the treaty was proclaimed
on July 1st, 1908. The treaty provided for an International Commission, assisted by one
expert named by each Government; the Commission to be empowered to draw up regulations
which were to be international in scope. The Commission was also to study the problem of
fish-culture and  make  recommendations in regard to  this  matter.    It was to exercise its BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 29
control throughout the duration of the convention, and its regulations, as drawn up, were to
remain in force for a period of four years, and thereafter until one year from the date upon
which either Government notified the other of its desire for a change in the regulations.
The Commission appointed consisted of Dr. David Starr Jordan, of Stanford University,
for the United States, and Professor E. E. Prince, Canadian Commissioner of Fisheries, for
Canada. A code of regulations was agreed upon by these Commissioners on May 29th, 1909,
and specific recommendations applicable to the Fraser River fishing district were made.
These eminently desirable regulations met with a sad fate. The Canadian Government
amended the " Fisheries Act " during the following parliamentary session so as to permit the
proclamation of the regulations whenever the United States should see fit to adopt similar
legislation, but political activity in the State of Washington was too strong. By 1914 the
Canadian Government had become extremely impatient at the delay in action on the part of
the United States, and notified that Government that it would abrogate the treaty unless the
latter took legislative steps necessary to make the convention effective. An appeal by President Wilson that Congress expedite the dispatch of the required Bill was ignored, and on
October 19th, 1914, the Canadian Government notified the United States that it was its intention to assume its liberty of action in the matters with which the treaty was concerned. Thus,
these negotiations which had promised so much came to an ignominious end. The State of
Washington, having been satisfied that its sovereign rights were not impaired, again assumed
its 1906 policy of negotiating with the Canadian Federal Government. However, the somewhat strained feeling between the people of Canada and the United States, which obtained
until the latter country entered the war in 1917, constituted a temporary but effective barrier
to international fisheries negotiations. It was not until 1917 that several important developments happened which changed the situation, principally the entry of the United States into
the World War as an ally, the shortage of food, and the failure of the expected big run of
Fraser River sockeye to materialize. These all combined to renew the willingness of the two
countries to assume negotiations for an international treaty. The situation was considered
sufficiently serious by both countries to justify the appointment of an investigatory Commission, and a Canadian-American Fisheries Conference was appointed in December, 1917.
This Commission or Conference was composed of J. D. Hazen, G. J. Desbarats, and W. A.
Found, representing Canada, while William C. Redfield, E. F. Sweet, and H. M. Smith represented the United States. An extensive survey revealed to the Commission that the conditions
in the Fraser River fisheries had now become extremely serious, a $30,000,000 industry having
fallen off to a $3,000,000 one and being threatened with complete extinction by overfishing.
Both sides were apparently eager for international action. However, the situation was complicated by the unwillingness of the United States Federal Government to invade the sovereign
rights of the State of Washington. On the basis of the Hazen-Redfield report, negotiations
for the conclusion of a new international treaty commenced. This convention, the terms of
which substantially were the same as the treaty of 1908, was approved by the Canadian House
of Commons on October 21st, 1919, but on the American side of the border Washington
State requested that the Senate refuse to ratify the convention, which again effectively killed
the treaty.
The Canadian Government, therefore, dispatched a delegation to the Pacific Coast for
the purpose of taking up the matter with the Fisheries Board of the State of Washington,
which had recently been appointed with administrative powers sufficiently wide to enable it
to take whatever steps were necessary for effectually dealing with the matter.' The conference
was held by the negotiants in December, 1921, and it was agreed by both sides that it was
desirable to stop all fishing in the Fraser River district for a period of five years. A satisfactory conclusion, however, was not reached because the Canadian representatives demanded
that at the end of the proposed five-year period of closed fishing, effective regulations should
be made to properly regulate the fishery thereafter, otherwise the benefits of the five-year
close period would soon disappear. Washington State representatives were not willing to
accede to this proposal and the conference broke up abruptly.
Still another Fisheries Commission was appointed by Canada by Order in Council on
July 10th, 1922. Its main task was to pick up the threads of negotiations where they had
been abruptly dropped by the previous delegation. Recommendations of this Commission
received scant consideration by the representative  Governments and the condition  of the T 30 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
salmon-runs to the Fraser River continued to diminish. The combined Canadian and American sockeye-pack for the year 1928 was one of the three poorest years on record. As a consequence, negotiations for the conclusion of an international fisheries treaty again began.
Except in one important respect, the new treaty differed very little from its precursors of 1908
and 1919. The important difference lay in a clause which provided that the International
Commission, the establishment of which the treaty contemplated, was to devise regulations
which would insure an approximately equal division of the season's sockeye-catch between
Canadian and American fishermen. While this treaty was in its proper aspects satisfactory,
a new development on the Pacific Coast promised to make the treaty, as it stood, ineffective.
In 1928 large numbers of the American purse-seine fishermen decided to try their luck in the
extraterritorial waters west of the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Here, subject to
no restrictions, they found a salmon-fisherman's paradise, for they were able to intercept the
fish before the latter entered the Straits. Partly caused by this new development and partly
caused by other minor flaws, legislative consideration of the treaty was temporarily halted, and
the document was revised so as to lessen the powers of the contemplated International Commission and also to introduce provisions for the control of all nationals of either country who
fished in the international waters beyond the Strait of Juan de Fuca. In this amended form t>>e
treaty was approved by the Canadian House of Commons on May 26th, 1930. Formal ratification, however, did not take place until July, 1937. The main opposition to the treaty arose
from the purse-seiners of the State of Washington, who did not wish to be deprived of their
fishing in extraterritorial waters, free of any regulation. During the interim, 1928 to 1934,
Canadians had more or less given up hope of a successful conclusion of the pending treaty.
Early in 1934 an exchange of correspondence between Governor Clarence D. Martin, of the
State of Washington, and Premier T. D. Pattullo, of the Province of British Columbia, resulted in an informal conference being held in Seattle between interested parties on both sides
of the line. Present at the conference were Governor Martin, of the State of Washington;
B. M. Brennan, Director of the Washington State Department of Fisheries; Frank T. Bell,
United States Commissioner of Fisheries; Miller Freeman, publisher; Dr. W. F. Thompson,
Director of Investigations for the International Pacific Halibut Commission; Hon. Geo. S.
Pearson, Commissioner of Fisheries for British Columbia; W. A. Found, Deputy Minister of
Fisheries, Federal Fisheries Department; George J. Alexander, Assistant Commissioner of
Fisheries for the Province of British Columbia; and J. P. Babcock, former Assistant Commissioner of Fisheries for British Columbia. At this conference the whole matter was reviewed and brought up to date, and largely as a result thereof the opposition of the American
purse-seiners was gradually overcome. Another factor which, no doubt, had its effect on the
final result was the passage by the people of Washington State of Initiative No. 77. This
measure prohibited the use of traps in waters over which the State had jurisdiction. Previous
to the passage of this measure, the American percentage of the total catch of sockeye proceeding to the Fraser River amounted to from 60 per cent, to 75 per cent. Immediately after
the passage of Initiative No. 77, the position was reversed and Canadian gear caught the
larger percentage of Fraser River fish. One of the provisions in the treaty under review
required that the Commission should regulate the fishery in such a way that, as near as practicable, the catch should be equally divided between the nationals of both countries. Thus the
clause which had previously been largely instrumental in effectively blocking the ratification
of the treaty was now largely responsible for the final passage.
In order to satisfy the position of the American fishermen, the original treaty of 1930,
as finally ratified, contains three added conditions under which the treaty was approved by
Canada and the United States. A copy of the treaty, together with the conditions attached,
will be found printed in the Appendix to this report.
The treaty of 1930 was signed early in 1937; formal ratification, however, did not take
place until July 28th, 1937. The Canadian members of the Commission were appointed April
15th, 1937. These men are A. L. Hager, President and General Manager of the Canadian
Fishing Company, Limited; Tom Reid, Member of Parliament for New Westminster District;
and W. A. Found, Deputy Minister of Fisheries, Federal Fisheries Department, Ottawa. It
was hoped that a similar action by the United States in naming its representatives on the
Commission would be taken early in 1937, so that the Commission would commence to function
without undue loss of time.    However, the American representatives were not appointed until BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 31
August 24th, which, of course, was too late for any effective action by the Commission in that
year. The American representatives are Charles E. Jackson, Assistant Commissioner of
Fisheries for the United States; B. M. Brennan, Director of Fisheries for the State of Washington; and E. W. Allen, Secretary of the International Pacific Halibut Commission. Shortly
after the appointment of the American representatives, the Commission held its first meeting
in Vancouver for the purpose of organizing. A. L. Hager was elected Chairman, while B. M.
Brennan was named Secretary. The Commission later named Dr. W. F. Thompson as
Director of Investigations. Dr. Thompson still retains his position as Director of Investigations for the International Pacific Halibut Commission.
According to the conditions attached to the treaty a period of eight years was to lapse
before this Commission may make regulations. This time will be utilized, no doubt, to
thoroughly investigate the problem relating to the restoration of the Fraser River sockeye-
runs, and it is hoped that the Commission will be in possession of sufficient factual data by
that time to enable it to effectively regulate this fishery with a view to rehabilitating the runs
in as short a time as possible to something like this river's former activity. T 32 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 23.)
By Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
The runs of sockeye salmon to the four main river systems of British Columbia were
very close to expectation. The total pack for the four areas was 305,421 cases, which was
nearly 100,000 less than in 1936. On the other hand, the reports of spawning conditions as
supplied by the Dominion Department of Fisheries indicate good escapements for the
particular cycle-years and in relation to the commercial catches.
The Fraser River run belongs to the cycle-years which once produced packs exceeding
2,000,000 cases. Since 1917 the cycle has maintained itself at a fairly steady level, producing
approximately 160,000 cases per year. The pack of 1937 was 160,531 cases and the escapement was reported as good.
Rivers Inlet had a fairly large return with a medium-sized pack of 84,832 cases and a
satisfactory escapement.
The run to the Skeena River was relatively small, but all that could be expected from the
brood-years. Although the pack amounted to only 42,491 cases, the escapements to the
Lakelse and Babine areas were reported as excellent.
The Nass River return as represented by the pack of 17,567 cases was small and the
escapement, particularly to the Meziadin Lake district, was stated to be good.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating
the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the fish migrated
from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers, one in large type,
which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to the right and
below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water. The age-groups
which are met most commonly in these river systems are:—
3i, 4i—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature at the
ages of three and four years respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and mature at
the age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four and
five respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five and six
respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six and
seven respectively.
1. THE FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1937.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in the season of 1937 amounted to 160,531 cases,
of which 100,272 cases were packed in the Province of British Columbia and 60,259 cases in
the State of Washington. The percentages of these two packs are 62 and 38, respectively
(Table I.).
Included in the number of cases attributed to the Fraser River are 33,689 cases of fish
caught in Johnstone Strait. This is 21 per cent, of the total pack, and again indicates a run
of considerable size coming in by the northern route. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 33
The fish were well distributed throughout the river system in 1937. In the upper areas
approximately 6,000 were reported in the Stuart Lake areas, small numbers in the Francois
Lake and Quesnel systems, at least 110,000 to Chilco Lake, light runs to the Shuswap and
North Thompson areas, and at least 60,000 to the Seton-Anderson Lakes. In the lower areas,
the escapements to Harrison and Pitt Lakes were reported as good, but only 3,055 by actual
count reached Cultus Lake.
While this review of the spawning escapements would seem to be encouraging, the fact
that the total escapement was very small in relation to the catch must not be overlooked. The
two large escapements were those to Chilco and Seton Lakes, and together they accounted
for only 170,000 fish. It is doubtful if the combined escapements to all other areas would
much exceed half the above number. As against this, the pack represents approximately
3,250,000 fish.
The year 1938 brings around the cycle of the large late runs to the Fraser River. It will
be recalled that in 1926 a large number of sockeye appeared in Adams River late in the
season. In 1930 there was a very large return with a total pack of 455,886 cases and an
escapement to Adams River estimated at 400,000 fish. In 1934 there was again a large pack
of 491,817 cases and an estimated escapement to Adams River of 500,000 fish. There is thus
every reason to expect a large return in 1938.
Large runs to the upper Fraser River have usually been preceded by the appearance of
relatively large numbers of three-year-old fish (grilse). Grilse have been particularly abundant in the run of 1937, and this fact may be taken as a further indication of a large return
of four-year-old sockeye in 1938.
(2.) Age-groups.
The material for this year's study consists of data and scales from 1,693 sockeye salmon
taken at random from the catch in the traps at Sooke from May 10th to September 14th in
thirty-four samplings. The 42 age-group is represented by 1,318 individuals or 77.9 per cent.,
the 52's by 204 or 12 per cent., the 53's by 90 or 5.3 per cent., the 63's by 3 fish, and the 32's
(grilse) by 70 or 4.1 per cent. In addition there were four fish of the 4i, three of the 3i, and
one of the 43 age-groups.
These distributions and percentages are not unusual, as shown by Table II., except in the
case of the 32 age-group which has the highest representation since the year 1920.
The information concerning age-groups, lengths, weights, etc., are given in Tables III.
and IV.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The outstanding feature of the fish in the 1937 run is the small size. The average
lengths of the fish of the dominant 42 age-group are greatly below the average of the past
seventeen years, while their average weights are the lowest on record. The average weight
of the males is a pound less than that of the past fourteen years and that of the females
almost three-quarters of a pound (Tables V. and VI.).
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 825 and of females 868, percentages of
49 and 51, respectively. In the dominant 42 age-group the sexes are approximately equal,
with percentages of 48 for the males and 52 for the females. Among the 52 and 53 age-
groups the males are decidedly in the minority (Table VII.). On the other hand, the 32 age-
group (grilse) is represented by sixty-nine males and only one female. T 34
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Table I.—Fraser River Packs, 1895-1937, arranged in accordance with the
Four-year Cycle.
B.C.   1895—   395,984 1896—   356,984 1897—   860,459 1898—   256,101
Wash  65,143 72,979 312,048 252,000
Total  461,127 429,963 1,172,507 508,101
B.C     1899—  480,485 1900—   229,800 1901—   928,669 1902—   293,477
Wash.     499,646 228,704 1,105,096 339,556
Total  980,131 458,504 2,033,765 633,033
B.C   1903—  204,809 1904—     72,688 1905—   837,489 1906—   183,007
Wash     167,211 123,419 837,122 182,241
Total  372,020 196,107 1,674,611 365,248
B.C.   1907—     59,815 1908—     74,574 1909—   585,435 1910—   160,432
Wash   96,974 170,951 1,097,904 248,014
Total  156,789 245,525 1,683,339 398,446
B.C    1911—     58,487 1912—   123,879 1913—   719,796 1914—   198,183
Wash   127,761 184,680 1,673,099 335,230
Total  186,248 308,559 2,392,895 533,413
B.C    1915—     91,130 1916—     32,146 1917—   148,164 1918—     19.697
Wash  - 64,584 84,637 411,538 50,723
Total   155,714 116,783 559,702 70,420
B.C       1919—     38,854 1920—     48,399 1921—     39,631 1922—     51,832
Wash    64,346 62,654 102,967 48,566
Total   103,200 111,053 142,598 100,398
B.C  1923—     31,655 1924—     39,743 1925—     35,385 1926—     85,689
Wash    47,402 69,369 112,023 44,673
Total   ~  79,057 109,112 147,408 130,362
B.C  1927—     61,393 1928—     29,299 1929—     61,569 1930—   103,692
Wash  97,594 61,044 111,898 352,194
Total  158,987 90,343 173,467 '    456,886
B.C    1931—     40,947 1932—     65,769 1933—     52,465 1934—   139,238
Wash _   87,211 81,188 126,604 352,579
Total    128,158 146,957 179,069 491,817
B.C  1935—     62,822 1936—   184,854 1937—   100,272
Wash._ .  64,677 59,505* 60,269
Total  117,499 244,359 160,531
* This  figure  includes  16,611  cases  of  fish  caught in  British   Columbia waters  but  packed in  the  State  of
Washington. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 35
Table II.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Percentages of the
Year-classes from 1920 to 1937.
42
52
53
Year.
63
3i
4i
h
1920
69.6
78.1
70.5
67.1
68.2
67.9
66.1
84.6
71.4
77.3
75.7
79.0
80.7
83.6
84.2
71.3
83.0
77.9
21.2
14.6
9.3
10.8
18.7
24.9
20.3
7.5
18.8
11.9
19.6
13.1
13.5
9.2
10.7
22.9
11.7
12.0
6.2
4.1
4.5
3.9
9.2
3.4
5.2
3.0
5.3
7.8
2.8
1.3
2.8
1.9
2.3
2.3
4.1
5.3
0.2
0.7
2.0
1.2
0.5
0.2
1.6
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.6
1.9
0.5
6.3
6.7
0.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
2.0
0.1
0.2
2.0
0.8
1.4
0.1
0.4
0.9
2.0
5.6
9.9
2.0
2.5
2.2
0.7
0.1
0.7
2.0
0.8
0.5
1.2
1.3
1921  	
1922                                   	
0.9
1923
0.4
1924             	
0.8
1926
0.6
1926 	
2.1
1927     .             	
1928     	
1929 	
1.0
2.5
1930 	
1931                                    	
0.5
2.6
1932                    	
1.4
1933 	
1934 	
3.4
1.5
1935
1936   	
1937  	
1.5
0.7
4.1
Table III.—Fraser River Sockeyes, 1937, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age,
Sex, and Length, and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
5
2
$
63
h
Length in Inches.
5
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
0
E-i
15                                                         	
2
3
1
1
4
4
5
19
34
104
107
113
79
89
35
19
6
3
1
2
5
4
4
4
6
8
21
77
160
143
142
74
27
6
6
2
2
2
1
4
5
6
7
15
12
13
8
2
4
2
1
2
1
2
7
4
13
16
19
31
11
9
3
2
1
2
5
8
5
3
2
6
1
1
1
4
16
10
8
9
1
5
1
2
2
2
5
4
19
22
9
2
3
1
1
2
15%                                                ...           - -    -
16
2
16%	
17
5
17%                                    	
8
18                                         	
28
18%                                           	
27
19
14
19%                                             	
10
20                               	
12
20%                                     - -
14
21	
48
21%     .     	
115
22                                                 	
273
22%	
280
23                       :	
278
23%                                                             -•-	
183
24                  	
149
24% 	
69
25 	
77
25%                 	
33
26          ...                                	
25
26%    ....                         - 	
16
27                            	
9
27%              .     	
2
28   	
28% 	
29  	
4
2
Totals                                                 	
629
689
85
119
36
54
1
2
69
1
1,685
Average lengths	
22.9
22.4
25.5
24.4
23.4
23.2
25.0
25.0
18.3 j 18.0
	 T 36
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Table TV.—Fraser River Sockeyes, 1937, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age,
Sex, and Weight, and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
h
63
3
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.        F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
B
O
H
2                                      	
5
11
16
76
169
130
100
78
25
18
4
2
3
9
10
40
135
218
148
85
29
9
1
1
1
1
3
2
2
7
10
15
8
10
14
4
5
2
2
3
1
10
14
13
26
20
17
6
8
1
1
1
4
6
7
8
2
2
6
1
7
11
13
9
7
4
2
1
1
1
5
14
37
8
3
1
1
1
8
2%                                       —	
28
3                              	
60
3%     -	
4  	
70
229
4%                                   	
416
5.  	
5%  -	
6
315
222
149
6 % -	
7                                            	
76
52
7%	
21
8 	
25
8%               	
5
9                                          	
5
9%	
10                                     	
2
2
Totals                          	
629
689
85
119
36   |      54
1
2
69
1
1,685
Average weights	
5.0
4.7
6.9
6.1
5.3 |    5.1
1
6.0
6.3
3.0
3.0
	
Table V.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Average Lengths in Inches
of Principal Age-groups, 1920 to 1937.
Year.
42
5
2
h
6
3
3i
4
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1920                          -          	
24.1
23.7
24.0
24.3
23.8
23.5
22.6
24.1
23.4
23.7
24.4
23.4
23.6
23.1
23.9
23.8
23.9
23.2
23.0
23.0
23.3
22.8
22.9
22.3
23.1
23.0
22.9
23.6
22.8
22.8
22.7
23.2
22.8
23.2
25.7
25.9
25.8
25.8
24.9
25.8
24.6
26.1
25.5
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.3
24.9
24.2
26.4
25.8
24.6
24.6
24.1
24.8
23.9
24.6
24.0
24.6
24.7
24.3
24.6
24.6
24.2
24.0
24.1
24.9
24.3
24.3
23.5
24.2
23.7
24.0
23.2
21.7
24.2
24.8
24.4
24.3
24.6
24.0
23.0
23.6
23.2
23.2
22.7
22.9
22.7
22.0
22.4
22.0
23.4
23.7
23.5
24.1
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.5
23.2
25.7
25.4
26.3
24.3
25.5
25.3
27.1
26.2
26.7
27.0
25.5
24.3
24.9
23.7
24.6
26.0
24.8
26.0
24.0
25.3
23.3
23.0
23.3
21.9
22.5
23.4
23.4
19.1
22.5
21.5
21.9
22.5
22.2
21.8
22.6 -
22.7
20.4
21.7
22.5
22.2
18.7
23.0
20.7
21.6
21.5
22.3
22.2
25.5
25.5
25.2
25.2
25.4
25.1
19.8
25.0
24.7
25.3
23.0
24.3
23.5
23.0
24.3
1921    -     -
1922                            . 	
24.2
1923                        	
24.1
1924                            	
24.4
1925                                  	
1926- 	
1927                                  	
24.6
24.5
1928        -
1929 .
24.0
1930.  	
1931                          	
23.2
22.5
1932	
1938                                   	
23.4
23.8
1934 . -    .. 	
1935  	
22.1
23.5
1936                               	
23.7
22.9
25.5
24.4
23.8
23.0
25.9
24.8
22.3
21.7
24.3
23.7
1937	
22.9
22.4
25.5
24.4
23.1
23.2
25.0
25.0
22.5  |
1
24.7
22.7 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 37
Table VI.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Average Weights in Pounds
of Principal Age-groups, 1922 to 1937.
Year.
42
5
2
53
6
3
3
I
41
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1922   ...
6.4
6.6
5.8
5.2
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.9
5.8
6.1
6.4
6.3
6.0
6.3
5.7
5.8
5.2
4.9
5.5
5.5
5.3
6.1
5.2
5.4
5.0
5.6
5.2
5.7
7.0
7.8
7.6
6.2
7.3
7.4
7.2
7.7
7.3
7.3
7.0
6.5
8.6
7.7
6.1
6.9
6.6
5.7
6.8
6.9
6.3
6.7
6.5
6.7
6.3
6.4
7.1
6.5
6.1
6.0
6.1
5.4
4.5
6.5
6.7
6.6
6.1
6.6
6.0
5.2
6.2
5.5
5.4
5.2
5.3
4.8
4.8
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
5.4
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.2
7.2
7.3
7.4
6.5
8.6
7.5
7.7
8.8
6.0
5.5
6.5
5.7
5.5
8.0
6.5
6.0
6.0
7.2
6.9
6.2
5.3
6.1
5.9
6.4
5.5
4.5
4.9
5.1
6.2
6.2
5.3
4.6
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.0
4.2
4.6
4.4
4.9
5.5
7.9
7.3
7.3
7.2
8.0
6.5
6.3
7.3
5.7
6.5
6.6
5.0
6.9
1923 	
1924     	
6.5
1925      	
1926          	
6.6
1927 	
6.8
1928  	
1929  	
1930             	
6.6
6.0
6.8
1931	
6.0
1932 	
1933  	
1934 	
5.9
6.1
6.1
1935	
1936 	
5.6
6.1
5.4
7.3
6.5
6.0
5.4
7.6
6.3
5.5
4.9
7.0
6.2
1937  	
5.0
4.7
6.9
6.1
5.3
5.1
6.0
6.3
5.0
	
6.7
5.0
Table VII.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
42, 52, and 5y Age-groups, 1915 to 1937.
Year.
M.
M.
M.
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
1915
1916
1917.
1918
1919
1920.
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927..
1928
1929.
1930 .
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934
1935..
1936-
1937...
Average..
55
45
49
51
50
50
51
49
53
47
50
50
48
52
49
51
61
49
51
49
46
54
52
48
48
52
63
47
46
54
42
58
47
53
44
56
49
51
54
46
48
52
42
58
48
52
67
50
50
56
63
47
42
52
55
50
53
48
58
64
55
55
56
58
50
56
52
47
42
51
43
50
60
44
47
63
58
48
45
50
47
52
42
36
45
45
44
42
50
44
48
53
58
47
53
38
49
57
48
47
43
46
46
47
43
50
41
66
50
44
42
30
47
46
35
44
40
46
47
62
51
43
62
53
57
54
54
53
67
50
59
34
50
56
58
70
53
54
65
56
60
54
61
50
52
62
49
47
53
50
51
49
51
48
56
49
45
48
46
61
55
48
43
49
50
46
49
50
48
48
51
53
47
50
49
51
49
52
44
61
55
52
54
49
45
52
57
51
50 T 38 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
2. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1937.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The sockeye-salmon run to Rivers Inlet in 1937 produced 84,832 cases, which may be
termed a medium-sized pack, and an escapement which has been reported as satisfactory.
The pack is termed medium-size because it falls within the range of 60,000 to 100,000 cases.
Less than 60,000 cases is considered small and greater than 100,000, large. Over the period
from 1907 to 1935, inclusive, the packs on this basis have been distributed as follows: Small
four, medium seventeen, large eight. Because of the varying proportions of four- and five-
year-old fish, it is difficult to discern cycles, but one five-year cycle stands out—namely,
1910-15-20-25-30-35—which has consistently produced packs of over 100,000 cases. The
year 1937 is an example of one which cannot be identified with a five in preference to a four-
year cycle.
The return to Rivers Inlet in 1938 will be the result of the spawnings of 1933 and 1934.
In the former year the pack was 83,507 cases and the escapement was reported as very good.
In the latter year the pack was 76,923 cases with only an average escapement. The factors
which determine the age of maturity are not definitely known. It is impossible, therefore,
to determine what proportion of the progeny of a given year's spawning will return as four-
year-olds and what as five-year-olds. Taking all the available data into consideration, it
would appear that the return of 1938 should be one producing a medium-sized pack.
(2.) Age-groups.
The usual data were obtained from 1,824 individuals taken in twenty-two random samplings from July 1st to August 5th. The 42 age-group is represented by 1,089 individuals or
60 per cent.; the 52 by 682 or 37 per cent.; the 53 by forty-four or 2 per cent.; and the 63 by
9 or approximately 0.5 per cent. A single male of the 4i age-class occurred. It has not been
included in the tabulations or calculations.
While the proportions of the 42 and 52 age-groups over the period of the past twenty-four
years has varied greatly the average has been approximately 50:50. The extremes have
been from 5:95 to 81:16 (Table IX.). The percentages in 1937 are somewhat in favour of
the 42's, but not exceptional.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths and weights of both sexes in the 42 and 52 age-groups are somewhat
below the averages for the past twenty-two and twenty-five years (Tables X., XL, XII., and
XIII.). For both lengths and weights the averages of the females in the 42 age-group are
almost equal to those of the males. It is interesting to note that in some years the values
have exceeded those of the males. It is possible that the size of mesh used is such that the
smaller females escape capture.
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 883 and of females 941, percentages of 48
and 52 respectively. The distribution is not much removed from the average percentages of
the past twenty-two years—namely, 51 and 49. The males in the 42 age-group are in the
majority and in the minority in the 52 age-group (Table XIV.). BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 39
Table IX.-—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
(87.874 cases) —
(64,652 cases)...
(89,027 cases) —
(126,921 cases) _
(88,763 cases) —
(112,884 cases).
(61,745 cases) —
(89,890 cases) —
(130,350 cases).
(44,936 cases) —
(61,195 cases)...
(53,401 cases) —
(56,258 cases)...
(121,254 cases).
(46,300 cases)...
(60,700 cases) —
(107,174 cases) .
(94,891 cases)...
(159,654 cases).
(65,581 cases)...
(64,461 cases)...
(60,044 cases) —
(70,260 cases) —
(119,170 cases) .
(76,428 cases)...
(69,732 cases) —
(83,607 cases) —
(76,923 cases) —
(135,038 cases).
(45,351 cases) ..
(84,832 cases)...
21
80
35
13
26
39
67
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
69
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
79
20
66
87
74
61
43
64
95
61
18
24
64
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
66
20
41
46
37
Table X.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1937, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
•F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
S
o
2
5
4
	
	
	
2
9
20  	
27
12
	
39
20%—	
84
44
	
2
2
3
	
135
21     — —	
136
77
1
2
2
3
	
	
221
21%	
78
58
3
3
4
146
22	
71
62
5
18
2
158
22% 	
41
62
9
33
3
1
	
149
23 _	
63
57
26
68
4
2
1
1
222
23% -	
49
31
17
87
3
4
1
192
24                           	
59
32
13
5
27
22
80
69
5
1
3
2
1
189
24%. --
130
25         	
9
4
2
24
18
60
38
1
1
1
96
25%         -
62
26 	
2
18
24
.	
44
26%                           	
13
2
1
16
27                                	
9
1
1
2
	
1
11
27% _	
3
Totals	
662
427
193
489
25
19
3
«
1,824
Ave. lengths	
22.0
21.9
24.5
24.0
22.8
22.6
24.3
24.6 T 40
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Table XI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1937, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
<3
O
3%  	
4 	
2
45
189
185
105
87
38
9
2
2
29
126
163
80
19
6
2
1
13
32
37
35
26
21
16
10
2
9
59
75
103
99
77
45
18
3
1
7
6
6
2
2
1
1
2
5
1
5
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
4
76
337
4%  —	
5  	
427
305
5%
253
6   	
183
6%   ..-■--	
7  	
117
70
7%	
8	
8%...	
34
14
4
Totals	
662
427
193
489
25
19
3
6
1,824
Ave. weights	
4.6
4.4
6.1
5.8
4.9
4.8
6.5
6.3
Table XII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the 4o and 52
Groups, 1912 to 1937.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912....                                                       	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
22.1
22.3
22.6
22.7
21.9
22.4
22.1
22.4
22.4
21.0
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
22.8
22.2
22.6
22.0
22.4
22.0
22.2
22.4
20.9
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.6
26.1
25.2
26.0
25.2
25.2
25.6
25.6
25.8
24.6
24.6
1913   ..	
1914                                        	
25.2
25.2
1915                                                                     ~    	
25.1
1915 ....    ..         	
1917     	
1918                                      ...	
25.0
24.4
24.5
1919                                                   .            	
24.4
1920  - 	
1921 -  	
1922  	
25.0
24.2
24.2
1923   ..       ..    .  	
1924   	
24.1
24.3
1925                                         	
24.8
1923  	
24.6
1927                                         	
24.2
1928      	
1929 ....                                         	
25.2
25.3
1930                                                     	
25.2
1931...    	
1932    	
1933                .	
24.8
24.6
24.7
1934    	
1935 	
25.0
25.1
1936    	
23.4
22.5
22.4
25.4
24.7
1937-              -	
22.0
21.9
24.5
24.0 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 41
Table XIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weight in Pounds of the 42 and 52
Groups, 1914 to 1937.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914	
1915  ......   	
1916                                               ...              	
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.0
4.9
4.5
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.5
4.9
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.0
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.3
4.1
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.6
7.5
6.7
6.5
7.3
7.3
6.9
7.9
6.8
6.6
6.7
1917           .—               ...	
6.2
1918 —       	
1919                                 	
6.7
5.9
1921   	
1922                                        .    ...            	
6.0
7.0
1923       -	
1924           	
5.9
6.1
1925           	
6.2
1925  	
1927-   	
1928 —        	
1929       	
1930            	
6.3
7.6
6.7
6.7
6.9
1931    —	
6.4
1932      .   —  	
6.5
1933                            ,
6.6
1934  -   ...     ...
1935         .          —               	
6.7
6.1
1936                                             	
6.7
5.0
4.9
7.0
6.5
1937
4.6
4.4
6.1
5.8
Table XIV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
42 and 5o Age-groups, 1915 to 1937.
Year.
42
52
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915	
65
63
79
77
74
63
66
71
74
66
63
68
63
57
56
59
54
56
55
63
43
61
35
37
21
23
26
37
34
29
26
34
37
32
37
43
44
41
46
44
45
37
57
39
43
39
49
41
48
40
38
31
31
34
32
35
30
36
37
33
28
32
27
39
20
28
57
61
51
59
52
60
62
69
69
66
68
64
70
64
63
67
72
68
73
61
80
72
45
49
48
66
58
49
51
61
62
50
41
51
62
50
53
47
47
47
42
49
53
32
48
55
1916                  	
51
1917   -
1918    -
1919    _	
1920  	
52
34
42
51
1921   . 	
1922                             	
49
39
1923    -
38
1924	
1925   	
1923                                                   	
59
49
1927	
1928    	
1929 	
1930    	
50
47
63
1931     	
1932	
1933  ...
1934 	
1935  	
98
51
1987                     	
68
62
Average	
63
37
35
65
51
49 T 42
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
3. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1937.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The return to the Skeena would appear to have fulfilled expectations. It produced a
relatively small pack of 42,491 cases, but a very good escapement was reported from both
the Lakelse and Babine areas.
It may be recalled that production reached a low point in the years of 1933, 1934, and
1935. Limitation of catch in the succeeding cycle-years has been necessary to provide increased escapements for the restoration of the runs of these cycle years.
The sockeye of the Skeena River mature for the most part at four and five years of age.
The return of 1938 will therefore be derived from the spawnings of 1933 and 1934. In the
former year the pack was 30,506 cases, the smallest on record, and the escapement relatively
small. In the latter year, the pack was 70,655 cases and the escapement was reported as not
being " adequate." In view of these facts the inevitable conclusion is that the return of 1938
will be small. Only some at present unknown condition could produce an exceptionally large
return.
Table XV.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
(108,413 cases)_
(139,846 cases).
(87,901 cases)....
(187,246 cases).
(131,066 cases) .
(92,498 cases) —
(62,927 cases) —
(130,166 cases).
(116,553 cases).
(60,923 cases) —
(65,760 cases) —
(123,322 cases).
(184,945 cases) .
(90,869 cases)...
(41,018 cases)...
(96,277 cases) —
(131,731 cases).
(144,747 cases).
(77,784 cases) —
(82,360 cases)....
(83,996 cases) —
(34,659 cases) —
(78,017 cases) —
(132,372 cases).
(93,023 cases) —
(59,916 cases) —
(30,606 cases)..
(54,558 cases)...
(52,879 cases) —
(81,973 cases)-
(42,491 cases)...
67
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
67
58
49
67
45
43
60
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
46
26
28
39
30
62
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
18
5
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
(2.) Age-groups.
Scales and length, weight and sex data were obtained from 1,597 fish from July 6th to
August 4th in twelve random samplings. The 42 age-group is represented by 720 individuals
or 45 per cent., the 52's by 631 or 40 per cent., the 53's by 183 or 11 per cent., and the 63's by
63 or 4 per cent. The percentage of 42's is only slightly below the average of the past twenty-
five years and that of the 52's, while somewhat higher than in recent years, is equal to the BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 43
twenty-five-year average.    The representations of the 53 and 63 age-groups is comparatively
high (Table XV.).
In addition to the above, there were seven individuals of the 32 age-group (grilse). These
have not been included in the tables or the calculations.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The length and weight data are presented in Tables XVI., XVII., XVIIL, and XIX. The
average lengths of the 42 age-group are slightly less than the averages of the past twenty-
five years, while those of the other age-groups are much above the gross averages, approaching the past high records in the 52 and 5s groups and setting new high records in the case
of the 63's.
The average weights of the 42 age-group are very low, equalling the lowest of the past
years of record. Those of the 5o's are-considerably below while those of the 53's are exactly
equal to the gross averages of the past years. On the other hand the average weights of
the 63's are above the average.
(4.) Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 670 and of females 927, percentages of 42
and 58 respectively. The females outnumbered the males in all the year-classes. In recent
years this has been the usual condition and may possibly be associated with change in size of
gill-net mesh (Table XX.).
Table XVI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1937, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
5
2
E
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3
20   	
1
1
20%	
1
2
	
3
21   	
9
7
1
21%	
15
34
1
50
22  	
34
62
	
1
2
5
104
22%    	
26
63
1
6
3
10
109
23	
45
91
2
12
3
12
2
167
23%  	
50
54
5
21
11
13
154
24  ,,  	
50
50
16
47
7
16
2
188
24% 	
35
19
14
61
12
11
7
159
25  -
27
11
25
75
13
16
12
179
25%-	
14
4
27
60
9
3
2
5
124
26	
11
1
1
46
22
52
25
8
5
7
3
6
3
6
3
137
26% -
62
27 	
3
35
16
2
2
2
2
62
27%	
	
20
6
5
1
1
2
35
28 	
	
	
11
2
1
3
1
18
28%.	
	
14
2
1
	
2
19
29  	
	
	
6
	
	
1
7
29%	
	
	
1
	
1
2
Totals	
322
398
245
386
83
100
20
43
1,597
23.5
22.9
26.2
25.1
24.9
24.1
26.9
25.5 T 44
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Table XVII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1937, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
5
3
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
SS
rt
O
3%       -
6
52
80
81
67
30
5
1
6
109
150
102
23
8
1
1
9
18
42
43
38
38
25
13
11
4
2
3
22
64
106
95
58
27
7
4
3
9
.    22
7
17
16
8
1
2
4
24
28
28
13
1
3
5
7
1
1
3
1
7
10
10
6
3
4
2
15
4	
172
4%       —
5 	
5%                	
295
322
283
6	
219
6% .            	
128
7 	
85
7%.	
38
8	
20
8%.	
9 	
9%  	
14
4
2
Totals	
322
398
245
386
83
100
20
43
1,597
4.9
4.6
6.4
5.8
5.7
5.1
7.0
6.1
Table XVIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1937.
Year.
42
h
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.                 F.
M.
F.
1912 	
1913  	
1914 _	
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23.8
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.8
23.9
23.3
22.9
23.1
23.5
23.4
23.2
23.8
23.1
23.8
23.5
22.9
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.3
22.8
23.4
23.3
22.8
22.7
22.7
23.1
22.7
22.8
23.2
22.9
23.2
26.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2
25.6
25.9
25.7
26.2
25.2
25.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.7
25.3
25.5
24.7
25.7
25.2
26.1
26.3
26.3
26.0
25.2
24.7
25.1
25.0
25.0
24.7
25.0
24.8
25.3
24.2
24.4
24.5
25.2
24.7
24.8
24.8
24.7
24.7
23.9
24.8
24.4
25.2
25.2
25.2
25.2
24.5
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
24.2
23.8
23.9
24.7
24.1
24.6
24.1
23.5
23.8
23.5
23.8
24.1
24.3
25.2
23.6
24.4
23.4
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.3
23.8
23.5
22.8
22.8
22.4
23.1
22.8
23.4
24.1
22.8
23.5
25.6
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
25.6
25.8
25.8
26.0
26.2
25.6
26.5
24.6
25.8
25.4
26.4
26.0
26.2
26.3
—
1915	
1916 —	
1917  	
1918 —  ....
1919  	
1920  - .-,
1921    	
1922 	
1923 	
1924 	
1925	
24.4
24.8
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.1
24.2
24.1
24.4
24.8
24 8
1926 .....	
1927 	
1928 - - -
1929	
1930    ...
1931                               	
25.0
24.9
24.7
24.3
23.2
24 7
1932   	
1933 —	
1934   	
1936
24.4
25.3
24.9
26 1
1936    ...
25.0
23.7
23.1
25.7
24.8
24.1
23.3
25.6
1937  _
23.5
22.9
26.2
25.1
24.9
24.1
26.9
25.5 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 45
Table XIX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 191. to 1937.
Year.
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914 	
1915. --  	
1916 	
1917 	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.4
6.0
4.9
5.4
5.4
5.4
4.9
5.7
6.1
5.6
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.5
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.6
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.9
4.7
5.2
4.9
5.2
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.9
7.0
7.2
6.4
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.7
7.4
7.3
6.3
6.2
6.3
6.0
6.4
6.2
6.4
5.7
5.7
5.7
6.3
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.8
6.2
6.0
6.3
6.1
6.3
6.6
6.5
6.6
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.7
6.1
6.3
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.5
5.9
5.4
5.0
5.6
5.6
5.5
6.0
5.7
6.7
6.5
6.1
5.2
6.4
6.2
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.8
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.0
4.6
4.9
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.8
4.7
5.5
6.6
7.1
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.3
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.9
6.9
6.0
6.5
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.8
7.1
7.7
7.2
7.4
6.0
5.9
6.8
1918 	
1919 —     	
1920.   	
1921 	
1922  	
1923—	
1924	
1925 - - 	
1926  -	
1927 - —  	
1928
6.1
6.3
6.3
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.8
5.4
6.2
5.8
5 8
1929 	
5 7
1930   	
1931  	
1932 	
1933   	
1934 	
1935
6.8
6.0
5.9
6.3
6.2
6.4
1936  	
6.2
Average weights	
5.4
5.0
6.8
6.1
5.7
5.1
6.8
6.9
1937...   . .. 	
4.9
4.6
6.4
5.8
5.7
5.1
7.0
6.1
Table XX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
42 and 52 Age-groups, 1915 to 1937.
Year.
42
52
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915 	
56
70
66
63
53
41
44
52
60
50
57
40
45
48
50
47
43
47
48
42
41
38
45
44
30
34
37
47
59
56
48
40
50
43
60
55
52
50
53
57
53
52
58
59
62
55
45
43
48
46
46
37
44
41
37
43
42
43
41
45
46
56
39
63
40
33
32
36
39
55
57
52
54
54
63
56
59
63
57
58
57
59
55
54
44
61
37
60
67
68
64
61
49
55
60
67
49
38
45
50
52
45
50
42
44
46
50
53
44
54
45
39
40
39
42
1916     	
1917    . 	
45
40
1918   	
1919	
43
1920 -	
1921    	
1922  _  	
1923 	
62
55
50
1924      	
1925 .... .     _          	
55
50
58
56
54
1926 	
1927      	
1928  ..    	
1929	
1930    	
1931 _	
1932  ■ ■	
47
56
1933   _	
1934  - 	
55
61
60
61
58
1935         	
1936 	
1937    -	
Average   	
50      50
43
67
47   I   63
! T 46
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
4. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1937.
(1.) Genseral Characteristics.
The pack on the Nass River amounted to 17,567 cases and the escapement was reported
as "quite good on the whole" (Table XXL). While the escapement was apparently satisfactory in relation to the catch, it is apparent that the run of 1937 was a relatively small one.
Over the past twenty-five years, 67 per cent, of the Nass River sockeye have been five-
year-old fish with two years residence in fresh water (53's). In 1933, the pack consisted of
9,757 cases and the escapement was reported as " not particularly satisfactory." It would
seem, therefore, that little may be expected in 1938 from the 1933 spawning. In 1934 the
pack was 36,242 cases, an exceptionally large pack, and the escapement was stated to have
been " heavy." Since four-year-old fish usually form a relatively small proportion of the
population (the highest percentage so far recorded has been 35 per cent., and the average
during the past twenty-five years 15 per cent.), the 1934 spawning is not likely to produce a
very large group of mature fish in 1938. The prospects for a large return in 1938 are not
therefore particularly bright. However, returns to the Nass River have been very erratic,
and it has been almost impossible to predict production for any year for the river system.
There is apparently some as yet unknown factor operating to cause considerable irregularities
in the cycle returns.
Table XXI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
from 1912 to 1937 and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals that spent
One Year in Lake.
Four Years     Five Years
old. old.
Two Years in Lake.
Five Years      Six Years
old. old.
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
(36,037 cases)
(23,574 cases)
(31,327 cases)
(39,349 cases)
(31,411 cases)
(22,188 cases)
(21,816 cases)
(28,259 cases)
(16,740 cases)
(9,364 cases).
(31,277 cases)
(17,821 cases)
(33,590 cases)
(18,945 cases)
(15,929 cases)
(12,026 cases)
(5,540 cases) ..
(16,077 cases)
(26,405 cases)
(16,929 cases)
(14,154 cases)
(9,757 cases).
(36,242 cases)
(12.712 cases).
(28,562 cases)
(17,567 cases)
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
10
8
8
4
9
6
6
8
1
6
2
2
13
4
10
6
(2.) Age-groups.
The analysis of the run of 1937 is based on data for 1,491 fish collected in thirteen random
samplings between July 6th and August 17th. The 53 age-group predominates with 1,015
fish or 68 per cent., which is practically identical with the average for the past twenty-five
years—namely, 67 per cent. The 42's are represented by 320 fish or 22 per cent.; the 63's by
96 or 6 per cent.; and the 52's by 60 or 4 per cent. The representation of these age-groups
does not present any unusual features (Table XXL). BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 47
In addition and not included in the above calculations there were two individuals of the
64 age-group, females, average length 25 inches and average weight 6 pounds; also one
individual of the 74 age-group, male, 27 inches in length and 8 pounds in weight.
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of both males and females of all the age-groups is considerably below
those of the past twenty-five years, with the exception of the 63 females. The latter, while
attaining the gross average, are much shorter than those of the past six years. The 53's are
particularly small with lengths of 25 and 24.2 inches for males and females respectively.
These values are slightly over an inch shorter than the gross average and the shortest on
record.
The situation is almost identical with respect to average weights, except that in the 53
age-group the weights do not reach such extremely low values (Tables XXII., XXIIL, XXIV.,
and XXV.).
(4.)  Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 766 and of females 725, percentages of 51
and 49 respectively. For the first time since 1918 the males have outnumbered the females.
This is largely due to the large numbers of males in the 42 age-group. Not since 1925 have
the 42 males exceeded the females in numbers. In the dominant 53 age-group the sexes were
almost equally represented with 508 males and 507 females. Usually the females are slightly
in excess in this age-class.
Table XXII.—Nass Rh
er Sockeyes, 1937, grouped by Age
Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
42
h
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
0
H
21                                  	
2
2
3
1
1
5
21%	
4
22        	
8
6
19
5
1
4
2
7
8
	
38
22% -    	
22
23                               	
41
18
50
17
3
4
26
16
78
41
4
1
203
23%        	
96
24      	
63
6
29
5
4
1
11
2
87
30
173
38
2
369
24%          .                     	
82
26 —  -	
27
10
5
2
146
106
3
5
304
25% 	
4
1
1
4
53
24
1
3
91
26                                           	
3
1
6
1
6
103
15
23
2
4
2
12
1
158
26%                                      —
21
27    	
4
1
21
6
13
7
52
27%                           —
1
2
1
2
6
28	
2
1
12
9
24
28%  	
6
6
29 	
7
7
29%	
1
30     -	
1
30%	
	
	
	
	
31. —	
31% 	
	
	
	
32	
	
1
	
	
Totals  	
178
142
26
34
508
507
54
42
1,491
Average lengths.      	
23.8
23.3
26.0
24.5
25.0
24.2
27.2
26.3
	 T 48
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Table XXIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1937, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
h
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
o
Eh
3%   -   	
4       	
4% 	
5    ....                               	
2
12
38
62
47
14
3
4
15
59
47
13
4
4
2
5
7
5
2
1
2
2
10
6
6
7
1
2
9
36
81
118
137
92
25
7
1
1
22
109
172
136
49
14
3
1
3
3
6
15
9
8
9
1
1
6
7
12
10
4
2
9
60
244
5%   	
377
6    	
331
6%- -
7 	
7% 	
8       	
225
141
58
23
8%     .            	
13
9	
9
9%                	
1
Totals	
178
142
26
34
508
507
54
42
1,491
5.5
5.2
6.8     1       6.1
6.2
5.5
7.8
7.0
Table XXIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, A.verage Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1937.
Year.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 	
1913  _   .
1914    	
1915                 	
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.6
24.9
24.6
24.9
24.9
24.9
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.6
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
23.8
23.9
23.7
24.1
24.0
24.1
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.1
25.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
26.5
26.4
27.1
26.9
27.3
26.8
25.1
24.8
26.1
26.2
25.0
24.7
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.4
25.7
25.2
25.8
25.9
25.9
25.8
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
26.1
26.6
25.9
26.3
26.6
26.6
25.4
25.2
25.5
26.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
26.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
26.3
25.3
25.6
25.2
25.4
25.2
25.6
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9
26.5
27.2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2
27.9
28.2
28.3
28.4
28.6
28.9
28.3
25.6
26.6
25.6
25.3
1916      „
1917.	
25.7
26.5
1918   	
1919  	
1920 	
1921   	
1922 	
25.2
26.7
25.9
26.2
25.9
1923 —	
26.6
1924 	
1925 -   - .
1926 	
1927   	
1928 	
25.4
25.4
27.0
26.6
26.2
1929 	
1930 	
26.2
26.8
1931   -	
1932 --	
1933               	
27.1
27.1
27.9
1934  	
27.1
27.6
1936
27.1
i
Average lengths	
24.5
23.7
26.2    |      25.2
26.2
25.3
27.6
26.3
1937    .                             	
23.8
23.3
26.0
24.5
25.0
24.2
27.2
26.3 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 49
Table XXV.-—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914. to 1937.
Year.
h
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914  	
1916
1916  	
1917  	
1918 	
1919 	
1920    	
1921 	
1922.    	
1923. .	
1924  .
1925     -	
1926.  	
1927 	
1928             	
6.2
5.6
6.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
6.2
6.7
6.1
6.6
6.0
6.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.6
5.4
5.9
6.2
5.7
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.4
7.5
8.1
8.4
7.8
7.8
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
6.5
6.8
6.6
7.0
7.3
6.6
7.1
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4.
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
7.1
6.8
7.3
7.0
7.6
7.0
7.6
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.5
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.7
6.1
6.7
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.0
8.2
8.3
8.7
8.4
9.4
8.4
8.7
6.8
6.5
6.4
6.4
6.7
6.7
7.0
6.6
6.6
6.8
6.5
6.3
7.1
7.0
6.6
1929	
1930   	
1931	
1932  	
1933 —	
1934    	
1935
6.8
7.2
7.4
7.5
7.9
8.1
7.4
1936— -  —
7.5
6.0
5,4
7.2
6.4
6.9
6.2
8.0
6.9
1937  	
5.5
5.2
6.8
6.1
6.2
5.5
7.8
7.0
Table XXVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
42, 52, 53, and 63 Age-groups, 1915 to 1937.
Year.
42
52
h
63
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.   F.
M. I F.
1
Females.
1915     —.       	
55
61
65
52
53
46
40
36
43
55
58
43
39
50
48
49
49
49
49
48
39
42
56
45
39
45
48
47
54
60
64
57
45
42
57
61
60
62
51
51
51
61
52
61
58
44
49
61
47
40
48
39
45
32
43
44
52
44
64
48
51
43
53
46
56
51
40
35
43
61
39
63
60
52
61
55
68
57
56
48
56
46
52
49
67
47
54
44
49
60
65
57
52
50
46
50
46
40
47
46
47
47
45
44
45
42
44
40
43
45
47
50
39
43
50'
48
50
54
50
54
60
63
54
53
53
55
56
55
58
56
60
57
55
53
50
61
57
50
63
68
58
70
54
66
54
64
60
67
68
57
61
62
58
63
70
72
76
58
71
60
56
47
32
42
30
46
34
46
36
40
33
32
43
39
38
42
37
30
28
24
42
29
50
44
62
55
47
61
48
42
46
44
46
48
49
46
46
46
46
43
47
48
49
50
42
43
51
48
1916 -
1917
45
1918    	
1919 	
1920 —
1921  	
1922   	
1923  —	
1924 - 	
1925  	
1926	
1927  —	
49
52
58
54
56
54
52
51
54
1928        —
1929 .        	
1930 	
54
57
1931 -  	
1932 	
53
52
1933   	
1934   •	
1936
51
50
68
1936	
1937     	
57
49
48
52
46
54
46
54
62
38
47 T 50 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE PILCHARD.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station.
The fish which is known to the Canadian as a pilchard, to the Californian as a sardine,
and to the unfortunate fisheries investigator as Sardinops cserulea is one of the greatest
importance. In each of the last four years it has supplied the Pacific Coast fishing industry
with more than half a million tons of raw fish. The Canadian share of this huge catch has
been relatively small (5 to 10 per cent, of the total), but in spite of that the pilchard has
provided what is one of British Columbia's major fisheries, judged from the standpoint of
tonnage caught.
In spite of the prevalence of the pilchards along the Pacific Coast the facts of its life-
history proved to be very difficult to unfold. During the present decade, however, many of
the important features of its private life have been uncovered. This report is intended to
summarize the more recent findings in a publication which is available to the Canadian fishing
industry. It is not the purpose to describe original research. The facts are drawn from the
published accounts of investigations carried out in British Columbia, and papers of the California State Fisheries Laboratory* have been freely called upon.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE FISHERY.
The first organized fishery for sardines was in 1904, when the Booth cannery at Monterey
used approximately 100 tons of fish. These were taken with gill-nets or purse-seines. Nets
and boats were, for the most part, company gear. In 1907 the lampara-net was introduced.
By 1913 the success of this type of gear, operated by small launches which loaded their catches
into " lighters," was so great that the fishermen using other kinds tried to have a law passed
preventing its use. This attempt failed and the lampara gradually became constituted as the
standard gear in the sardine-fishery until 1929 when purse-seines were introduced in numbers
on modern boats having power winches and sufficient hold capacity to carry the catch. This
type of net and its modification—the so-called ring-net—have become more and more important in the California fishery in recent years. The change back to the purse-seine met
with considerable opposition from the conservative elements in the fishery. However, as
investigation showed that purse-seines were not wastefully destructive of fish life, no restrictions were placed upon them. It is worthy of note that in contrast with the condition during
the early years of the industry practically all of the boats and gear are now independently
owned by the fishermen.
In  the  1930-31  fishing  season  in   California  the  first  offshore  floating  reduction  plant.
began operation.     " Floaters " since then have operated each year and have added considerably to the production of sardine products.    The total catch off the California coast delivered
to shore plants and floaters is now more than half a million tons annually.
In comparison with the California sardine-fishery, the British Columbia pilchard-fishery
is comparatively new. The beginnings of the fishery were in 1917 when a few pilchards were
canned. In 1925 the first reduction plants began operation and the amount of pilchards used
was increased by more than 1,000 per cent. From then on the production increased rapidly
until the peak was reached in 1929 with a total catch of more than 86,000 tons. For the first
ten years the fishing was carried on in the inlets with small herring purse-seines. The catch
was handled on deck-scows. Small boats and light nets were found adequate, although considerable improvements were made to meet the increased demands of the growing reduction
industry. In 1928 the fishery started to change slowly from one in the inlets to one in the
open sea. This accelerated the improvement in gear which had begun as early as 1926. As
a result the seiners and tenders used in the present fishery are fine, capable, modern boats,
with sufficient hold capacity to pack the catch, and the large nets are made of heavy web to
withstand the strain placed upon them when the seas raise the boats.
* No attempt is made to refer to specific publications. A great many investigators, many of whom have since
been prominent in other fields of investigation, have applied their attention to problems relating to the California
sardine under the auspices of the California State Fisheries Laboratory. During the preparation of the present
account conscious reference has been made to one or more papers by the following: C. B. Andrews, P. Bonnot,
F. N. Clark, G. H. Clark, D. H. Fry (Jr.), H. C. Godsil, E. Higgins, C. L. Hubbs, J. F. Janssen (Jr.), M. J.
Lindner, J. B. Phillips, O. E. Sette, E. C. Scofleld, N. B. Scofleld, W. L. Scofleld, W. F. Thompson, R. B. Tibby;
as well as J. L. Hart, R. C. Lewis, G. H. Wailes, and M. Watanabe of other institutions. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 51
The average Canadian seine-boat crew consists of seven or eight men. The boats fish in
pairs consisting of a seine-boat and a tender. The latter is a boat usually similar in size and
design which is used to tow the seine-boat off the net after it is set and to help pack the catch.
With one or two notable exceptions the Canadian fishing fleet and gear are company owned.
During the last two years reduction plants have been opened on the coasts of Washington
and Oregon. These plants have depended for the most part for their fish upon the more
modern privately-owned fishing units which come up from California. As when they are in
home waters, these boats fish singly and carry ten to thirteen men on a boat.
Pilchards and sardines are used mainly for three purposes. By far the greatest part of
the total catch is reduced to make oil and meal. Large quantities, too, are used in canning.
Canadian operators have depended mainly upon packs of cross-cuts of pilchards in %-lb. flat
and 1-lb. tall tins, although in the last couple of years more or less successful marketing
experiments have been tried with packs put up in 5-oz. or oval cans, and packs of fillets.
California canners, on the other hand, have consistently made use of more complicated packing
methods, involving such refinements as the use of tomato sauce and precooking. The third
use is as bait. Very large quantities of young sardines are used as live bait in southern
California. In British Columbia herring is generally preferred as bait by the line-fishermen,
but fresh pilchards are quite frequently used during the summer months.
SPAWNING.
For a long time nothing was known about the spawning of pilchards or sardines. Recently, however, spawn has been found off the coast of southern California. As a result the
surrounding area has been made the subject of a thorough survey. The survey, lasting for
four years, involved taking samples at 358 places between Eureka, California, and Cape San
Lucas, Mexico. It showed that the area of maximum spawning was determined with reasonable accuracy and that it was fairly constant from year to year. This area is comparatively
small, " 200 miles in length and 100 miles in width. It is situated off the coast of southern
California between San Diego and Point Conception and offshore to a distance of 100 miles.
. . . The location of the maximum spawning area has remained constant from 1929 to
1932. The egg and larva productivity has been more than double that of all other spawning
areas combined." Less intense spawning occurred over a larger area from near Cape San
Lucas to off San Francisco and for more than 250 miles offshore. It is noteworthy that the
bulk of sardines from all of its huge range appears to concentrate in such a limited area for
spawning. On the other hand, attention should be drawn to the observation that 9 per cent,
of the larva? recorded in 1931 were taken off Point Arena (north of San Francisco). Evidently, in some years at least, spawning of considerable importance takes place well to the
north of the area of maximum spawning.
There is no adequate reason for believing that pilchard spawning takes place off the
British Columbia coast. This is in spite of the fact that in several years the early fish taken
in July have had rather large eggs in them. But, although thousands of individuals have
been examined, a fish with many free eggs in its body-cavity has never been observed. As
the season advances the proportion of pilchards having the large eggs drops, and it is believed
that the eggs are either reabsorbed or the early egg-containing fish are caught off. The
opinion that no spawning takes place off the coast is confirmed by a rough survey made off
southern Vancouver Island during the spring of 1932. Repeated hauls made with suitable
nets failed to demonstrate the presence of anything even resembling a pilchard-egg.
The evidence obtained by the spawning-ground survey and from the examination of mature fish indicates a long-drawn-out spawning lasting from January to June, with the greatest
intensity in April and May.
A well-defined relationship has been found to occur between the extent and abundance of
spawning and the surface temperature of the water. No evidence of spawning was found
in places where the water temperatures were below 55° F., and the optimum range appeared
to be between 59° and 65° F. It was concluded from the study of the relationship with
water temperature that " Spawning may not be expected inshore in the San Francisco region
or farther north, with the exception of an occasional fortuituous spawning of very minor importance in years of unusually high surface temperature." T 52 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
The smallest fish to spawn are less than 7 inches in body-length, but such very small
mature fish are rare. However, of the fish examined it was found that about half of those-
which were 8% inches long were mature and of fish 9% inches long practically all were mature.
Reproduction in pilchards is unlike that of other familiar British Columbia fish in that
individual fish spawn more than once during each spawning season. It is not known with
certainty how many batches of eggs are ripened and spawned each year, but it is known that
the larger fish not only produce more eggs in each batch but that they ripen more batches of
eggs during each spawning season. The investigations indicate that the larger fish spawn
three times during a season, but there are suggestions that this estimate is on the low side
and that more spawnings may take place. The number of eggs produced at a spawning varies
considerably with the size of the fish. Small pilchards (of a size smaller than those commonly
encountered in Canadian waters) were found to be ripening approximately 30,000 eggs,
average-sized pilchards were on the point of spawning nearly 50,000 eggs, and a rather large
specimen was found to be maturing some 65,000 eggs. It is apparent that three such spawnings as the one anticipated for the large pilchard would produce close to 200,000 eggs during
the single season.
EGGS AND YOUNG FISH.
The unfertilized pilchard-egg averages about one-twentieth of an inch in diameter. On
fertilization and exposure to sea-water the diameter increases to approximately one-sixteenth
of an inch. This increase is largely the result of the absorption of water, so that the resulting
egg shows a comparatively small yolk (about one twenty-seventh of an inch in diameter)
floating freely inside the spherical membrane which constitutes the shell. While in the water
the eggs are relatively transparent and difficult to see, but when placed under magnification
details of the yolk can be made out showing that it contains a single oil-globule (about one-
sixtieth of an inch in diameter) and that it is divided into a large number of irregularly-
shaped segments. As development proceeds it is around the yolk that the growing embryo
lies. Until hatching the eggs float freely in the water at various depths. Some have been
found as deep as 50 fathoms, but the greatest concentration is in the upper 25 fathoms, with
the average level at 15 fathoms.
The length of time necessary for the eggs to hatch is not definitely known, but in the
warm water in which they are found it is believed that the hatching period is less than a week.
When the young pilchards hatch they are little more than one-eighth of an inch long, they
carry the yolk-sac complete with oil-globule, and are so incompletely organized that they could
scarcely be recognized as fish at all. In about two weeks the yolk-sac has been absorbed and
a long, slender youngster has been produced which, although it has achieved a general fish-like
look, still bears no resemblance to the adult. Even at this stage, however, the identity of the
young fish is recognized by certain characteristic pigment spots on the body and tail. By
summer most of the young pilchards are more than 1 inch in length and have taken on the
adult characters sufficiently to be recognized by their resemblance to the adults.
As the young fish can swim about after hatching it is not surprising to find that they are
not always to be found in the same place. At night they are always found in the upper 5
fathoms, but in the daytime they occur at considerably greater depths, down to those in the-
neighbourhood of 25 fathoms.
During the early part of their first summer the young fish are carried or make their
way toward the shores of southern and lower California where they are found when 1 to 3
inches long concentrated in a narrow strip and along the mainland shore. They remain relatively close to shore for a year or more, during which they are taken in large quantities for
use as bait.
FOOD OF PILCHARDS.
The smallest fish examined apparently eat the small, shrimp-like copepods which are
usually plentiful in the sea. Among the next largest sizes (1 to 3 inches) copepods are
evidently still the favoured food. With fish of 4 inches and more, however, a new type of
food is taken more plentifully. This is the diatom, a very small plant which is characterized
by growing two glass-like half-shells, fitting together like square brackets ([] ), within which
it carries on its vital functions. Extensive food-studies on the British Columbia pilchards
show that the adults depend chiefly on these diatoms as food during the summer, although the>
copepods remain an important secondary food. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 53
STUDYING PILCHARDS BY SAMPLING THE CATCH.
When the sardine and pilchard investigations began nothing was known about the early
life-history of the species and there was, consequently, no assurance that a profitable investigation of the early stages was possible. Accordingly, attention was concentrated on the larger
young and mature fish which supply the commercial fishery. The study was planned to
provide a basis for comparative estimates of the total mortality affecting the fish of commercial size each year. Consequently, attention is focused on the problem of defining the condition which is of principal interest economically.
In the case of a fish like the pilchard, which remains in the fishery and spawns annually
for a number of years after reaching maturity, it is evident that the fishery will depend simultaneously upon a number of year-broods or crops of fish. Each one of these year-broods may
be a success or a failure, just as a grain-crop may be a success or a failure. With the fish,
however, the harvest for each crop is spread over a number of years, so that the abundance
of fish for any year's fishery depends upon the degrees of success of a series of spawning for
some years back. It was the comparative success of the different year-broods of fish which
was chosen for study. This was done by taking a representative sample of each season's
catch and recording the lengths of the fish in the sample. It would have been preferable
to record the ages, but repeated trials have shown that it is not practical to determine the
ages of pilchards by any of the methods usually applied to other fishes. Accordingly, it was
found necessary to make use of the lengths, assuming that, as is the case for other fishes,
pilchards continue to grow as long as they live and that length may be used as a rough index
of  age.
It was not anticipated that the work along these lines would solve the major problems
within a few years. There are, however, a few immediate results which increase our knowledge of the pilchard and sardine populations. The sizes of fish taken by the various fisheries
and at various times are, for example, accurately known. In California the average length
of sardines taken is small during the autumn months, increases to a maximum in the winter
and then falls off slightly. The increase in size takes place around the early part of December at Monterey and about a month later at San Pedro. This seasonal fluctuation in size can
be satisfactorily explained by the movement of different-sized fish into and off the fishing-
grounds. In British Columbia the situation is quite different, as there is no well-marked
trend in the size of the pilchards taken during the fishing season. In average size they are
always similar to or larger than the large fish taken by the California winter fishery.
Female pilchards appear to be more numerous than males throughout most of the range
of the species. This is especially true off the British Columbia coast where a very extensive
sampling shows the females to comprise nearly 56 per cent, of the total population. The
females are not only more numerous but on the average they are longer. In Canadian waters
female pilchards are found to be rather heavier than males of the same length, but this does
not appear to be the case in California.
Certain treatment of the length measurements is necessary in order to learn anything
further about the supply of fish. The following is a general outline of what is done, although
some complicating refinements are not mentioned. The original measurements are made accurate to 1 mm. (about %s in.). All the fish from one season and locality are taken together
and all the fish of each length are counted and tabulated. That is, a record is made of the
number of fish 240 mm. in length, the number of fish 241 mm. in length, etc. The lengths of
the fish are then indicated by a scale along the bottom of a diagram and the numbers of occurrences along the side. Then marks are made on the paper to indicate the number of fish
occurring at each length. When the marks are joined they give a diagram something like
one of those in Fig. 1. The line so formed illustrates diagrammatically the distribution of
sizes of fish. It will be observed that the line is not regular, but consists of a number of
humps and hollows. Some of these may be followed through from year to year as is indicated
by the arrows on the diagram. In this way we can get a fairly accurate idea of how much
the fish comprising the hump are growing from year to year. Careful estimates made in this
way show that the rate of growth is remarkably slow among the larger fish, amounting to only
about one-quarter of an inch annually. It cannot be said with certainty that the humps in
the diagram represent single-year broods, but it is evident that they do represent size-groups
of fish which are present in predominating abundance.    Examination of many diagrams, such T 54
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
as the one shown here, indicates that in California a group of sardines used to enter the
fishery every two to four years and from that time on it could be followed for a number of
years by its influence upon the length-distribution. These dominating groups during the last
few years have been less frequent and they have not succeeded in maintaining their domi-
-46    S.G    6.S    7<4   8.3    9J3   SOZ  //■/   /Z./ /-?Q AS.9
ZOO-
/oo —
zoo
/oo
■9
^ zoo
t-    /oo
\
\ 200
% /oo
200
/oo
200
/oo
Y<s*?s~    /
y&<&/~  //
r<?<3r~    ///
y&£>/~ /f
Ye^r*   1/
y&?r    V7
/OO   /ZO   /40   /GO   /SO ZOO ZZO Z40 2€0 Z90 300
/?OC/y    /&7<??/*.     /'/?  rt77////rr>eftS'<s&
Fig. 1. Showing the distribution of lengths of California sardines and the way in which it is affected
by dominant size-groups.
nance for such a long time. It is uncertain whether this has been the result of a series of
relatively unsuccessful years of reproduction or whether the fall fishery in California which
is directed against the small fish has been so intense as to materially reduce the incoming
groups as they appear. If the suggestion is true that there have been few and relatively
weak dominant size-groups entering the sardine-fishery and that serious inroads are being BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 55
made on them before they are large enough to enter the winter fishery, it may be expected
that the supply of old sardines will become reduced. If that occurs, the Canadian fishery
will have a real scarcity of fish to contend with as well as the more accustomed trials of
weather, wildness, and fish not showing or not appearing on the usual fishing-grounds. It
is worthy of note that any fishery which is thus dependent upon dominating groups of fish
may be expected to show fluctuations in abundance which are not associated with the activities
of the fishery.
The sort of diagram which is obtained for British Columbia pilchards when the length
measurements are subjected to the treatment described above is shown in Fig. 2. It is evident
that there is a single hump. This has always been the case, except for the one year—1936.
The passage of a dominant year-class through the British Columbia fishery is shown by a
gradual change in the position and shape of the hump as shown in the figure.
M&/&S- fr<°/rtT&/<2&
7c>/-<sr/    /S/TO'//?    //.     //ye?/?&■£•
//./ /3.0   3.3 //■/
/3.0
zso rtjoo J24o zeo
S&/7g//,/t?     /S7    /77//A-/77C3j/s~&&
Fig. 2. Showing the distribution of lengths of British Columbia pilchards and the way in which the position
and shape of the hump are affected by dominant size-groups.
MOVEMENTS OF PILCHARDS AND SARDINES.
Since the early days of pilchard reduction in Canada there has been considerable discussion as to whether the pilchard of British Columbia and the sardine of California were
identical. The fishing industry proved to be pretty well divided on the question, but gradually
the scientific workers became convinced that the pilchards were merely the largest sardines
which made a northward migration each summer. This view is supported by the times of
occurrence of sardines of different sizes at various points along the California coast. The
younger sardines are more abundant in southern and lower California than in central California.    Each succeeding summer as they grow older the sardines move a little farther north T 56 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
along the California coast, returning southward again in the autumn. Since the larger fish
go farther, they take a longer time getting back. This is especially true of the largest sizes
(believed to be returning from Canada) which appear off San Francisco early in the winter,
at Monterey somewhat later, and in middle or late winter off San Pedro and San Diego.
Further support is to be obtained by studies in variation in body characters in sardines and
pilchards. Such studies usually demonstrate differences in characters such as average length
of head or average vertebral number between populations which do not mix to any great extent.
Although Canadian investigators have made vertebral counts on many thousands of- pilchards,
and California workers have made corresponding counts on sardines, no such consistent
differences were found between the fish from the two localities. Accordingly, the tentative
conclusion is that rather free intermingling takes place. The location of the main spawning-
grounds south of Point Conception has already been mentioned and again supports the view
that the large British Columbia fish move southward as the spawning season approaches.
When the use of iron tags and recovery by magnets in reduction plants was developed it
became possible to put these theories to a test. This has been done by tagging pilchards in
British Columbia and sardines in California and installing magnets in the reduction plants in
both places. As British Columbia magnets have recovered twenty-one California tags and
California magnets have recovered ten Canadian tags, it is evident that the tagging experiments fully confirm the previous deduction concerning at least part of the British Columbia
pilchard stock.
The foregoing account outlines the essential features of the life-history of the pilchard
as it is known at present. Certain general statements have been made to which particular
exception may be taken. For example, it is fairly common for a set of pilchards to contain a
few small individuals which usually escape. However, it is generally true (except in 1936)
that the British Columbia fishery depends upon large adult fish. A similar example concerns
migration. In some years a considerable body of pilchards winter over in Vancouver Island
inlets. Nevertheless, the condition as described above is essentially true, since the great body
of fish on which the British Columbia industry depends is definitely migratory. If any readers
have good grounds for disagreement with statements made in this article their ideas will be
gratefully received. It is only by such interchange of ideas and by investigation that knowledge can be advanced.
There is still much vital information to be gained. For example: absolute measures of
the abundance of fish in the dominating size-groups are highly desirable, but so far the only
estimates available are relative to other groups of fish present in the catch; it is known that
part of the British Columbia catch comes from California, but we as yet have no proof that
all of it does; there is no satisfactory information concerning the older ages which contribute
to the pilchard and winter sardine fisheries; there is no idea as to what minimum population
of pilchards is capable of producing enough spawn to produce an adequate dominating size-
group; and there is no accurate information as to the way in which hydrographic conditions
affect the annual migrations either of pilchards or sardines. The solutions for some of these
problems require continued investigation along the lines described. Others require the employment of new additional methods. Necessary new techniques are, in fact, being developed
and applied as the results suggest and time and resources permit. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 57
TAGGING BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARDS   (SARDINOPS CJERVLEA
(GIRARD)) :   INSERTIONS AND RECOVERIES FOR 1937-38.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
The programme of pilchard tagging and recovery begun in 1935 in an exploratory way
and actively pursued in 1936 was continued during the 1937 season. The primary purpose of
this programme is to investigate the movements and migrations of the commercial schools of
pilchards. It is hoped, in addition, that by its continuation results will be obtained which
may prove useful in enlarging our knowledge of other factors influencing the availability of
pilchards to the fishermen. Several accounts of the tagging-work on Pacific Coast pilchards
have already appeared. The returns for 1936 (Hart, 1937) indicate a rather random movement soon after tagging off the west coast of Vancouver Island, demonstrate the movement of
fish into the west-coast inlets, and include the recovery of five Canadian tags by California
plants. The recovery of twenty-one California tags by British Columbia plants during the
summer of 1937 was covered by Janssen (1938) and was mentioned in a general preliminary
account of the progress made in the Canadian tagging-work in 1937 (Hart, 1938). The
present report is intended to describe in some detail improvements in methods and technique,
to record recoveries, and to discuss the conclusions based on the results.
METHODS.
The method used for obtaining fish for tagging was essentially the same as that employed
in 1936 (Hart, 1937). It involved tagging from the skiff of a commercial seine-boat. Trial
showed that tagging could be somewhat speeded up by confining a few fish in a pocket of the
net early in the set. This materially increased the time during which fish in good condition
were readily available.
Another means of speeding up tagging was provided by the use of a so-called " tagging-
gun," which greatly facilitated tagging under the trying conditions involved in this type of
work. This instrument as modified for use on herring is fully described and figured in Hart
and Tester (1938). The gun used on pilchards differs in having a magazine of only half the
length.    This is sufficient to accommodate 100 of the thinner pilchard-tags.
The same kind of numbered nickel-plated iron tags as used last year were employed again.
Recoveries were again made by the use of electromagnets fixed in the meal-lines of the
reduction plants. Two new magnets have been installed, so that now magnets are operating
in all plants. Owing to the design of certain plants it has not yet been possible to arrange
to have all the meal pass over the recovery-magnets.
As before, the California State Fisheries Laboratory has co-operated by returning Canadian tags recovered by their magnets. New magnets have been installed in reduction plants
in Washington and Oregon, and tags from these have been returned through the co-operation
of fisheries officials.
TAGS APPLIED.
During the 1937 season 6,936 tags were used on pilchards taken on the grounds fished by
the Canadian fleet.    A summarized record of the tagging is given in Table I.
RECOVERIES.
The present report deals with eighty-seven recovered tags. They may be classified as
follows:—
Canadian tags recovered in Canadian plants  43
Canadian tags recovered in Washington plants      9
Canadian tags recovered in Oregon plants      9
Canadian tags recovered in Californian plants      5
Californian tags recovered in Canadian plants  21
Total  87
Along with other information, Table II. shows the distribution of British Columbia recoveries according to the plant returning the tag. Table III. summarizes the information
concerning the recovery of Canadian tags. T 58
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
TABLE I.—Summary of Tagging, giving Reference Numbers, Dates, Number of Tags
inserted, Locality of Release of Fish and Serial Numbers of Tags used.
Tagging
Reference
No.
Date.
No.
Tags.
Place Fish released.
Serial Nos.
(P).
1937.
I.
July    6
July  17
200
200
10 mi. S. Effingham Is..
8101 8300.
II.
10 mi. S. Quillayute R.   	
8601-8700, 8801-8900.
III.
July  18
200
8301-8500.
IV.
July  19
100
10 mi. S.W. Quillayute R 	
7401-7500.
V.
July   20
300
15 mi. S. Quillayute R 	
8701-8800, 8901-9100.
VI.
July  20
July  20
400
100
10 mi. S.W. Destruction Is	
8501-8600, 9101-9400.
VII.
5 mi. off Destruction Is	
9401-9600.
VIIL
July 21
500
10 mi. S.W. Destruction Is	
A001-A300, A401-A500, A901-A1000.
IX.
July 23
July 28
400
500
A501 A900.
X.
20 mi. S.W. Grays Hr...	
7501-7700, 9801-10000, A301-A400.
XI.
July 29
400
15 mi. S.W. Grays Hr.    	
4101-4200, 7701-7800, 9501-9700.
XII.
July 29
300
30 mi. S.W. Destruction Is	
4001-4100, 4701-4800, 9701-9800.
XIII.
July  31
300
15 mi. N.W. Cape Flattery	
6801-7100.
XIV.
July   31
436
10 mi. S.W. Portage Head	
1301-1498 (part), 2506-2600 (part),
3202-3298 (part), 6601-6800, 7201-
7300.
XV.
Aug.    1
300
5 mi. S.W. Quillayute R.    	
3801-3900, 4501-4600, 6501-6600.
XVI.
Aug.    2
600
35 mi. S. Destruction Is.	
4301-4500, 6101-6500.
XVII.
Aug.    2
200
10 mi. S. Aberdeen Light 	
5801-6000.
XVIII.
Aug.    2
300
20 mi. S.W. Aberdeen Light	
5601-5800, 6001-6100.
XIX.
Aug.    5
200
15 mi. S.W. Aberdeen Light	
6301-5400, 5501-5600.
XX.
Aug.    5
600
20 mi. S.W. Aberdeen Light	
4801-5300, 5401-5500.
XXI.
Aug.    7
300
20 mi. S.W. by S. Columbia R......
3901-4000, 4201-4300, 4601-4700.
XXII.
Aug.    7
100
15 mi. S.W. Columbia R	
7101-7200.
Barkley Sound to Columbia R.
c.
1937
6,936
A.
1935
978
Off Vancouver Is. near Nootka
101-1080.
B.
1936
2,535
Off Vancouver Is. between Bajo
Rf. and Clayoquot Sd. and in
Total
1
Bedwell Sd	
1101-3700 (part).
10,449
TABLE II.—The Number of Tons of Pilchards processed by British Columbia Plants,
the Number of Canadian and Californian Tags recovered by each, and the Number
of Tags of each Kind recovered per 1,000 Tons of Fish processed.
Tons
processed.
Ucluelet—
Kildonan	
Ecoole —	
Ceepeecee..
Toauart	
Nootka	
Espinosa....
Hecate	
Totals-
12,660
9,647
8,949
7,617
5,193
2,106
1,784
124
48,080"
Total
Tags.
7
12
Canadian
Tags.
No.
24
5
6
6
0
2
43
No. per
1.0-00 Tons
1.90
0.52
0.67
0.79
0.95
Californian
Tags.
No.
No. per
1,00-0- Tons
0.71
0.21
0.67
0.26
0.19
0.47 BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 59
DISCUSSION.
Before drawing attention to the various points in the foregoing tables, sources of uncertainty in the data should be mentioned. Returns are open to two types of error. In the first
place tags may be held up on the drier or conveyers of the reduction plant. This results in
the tag being finally reported as coming from a catch made much later than that from which
it really originated. Errors of this kind are inherent in the method. Defects of another type
are of a clerical nature. These are the result of company employees failing to turn in tags
promptly to the office, or of errors or negligence in recording the pertinent data. Where
such errors have been detected the data concerned have not been used. Consistent negligence
has been detected in one case only, but occasional mistakes have possibly been included. Some
of the more interesting results are fortunately not affected greatly by this type of error.
One pilchard-tag was returned from a run of herring which were caught in Swanson
Channel for a Porlier Pass saltery and subsequently sold to a west-coast reduction plant.
Two explanations may be offered for this return. Pilchards occur in small numbers each
year among east-coast herring and in 1937 they were especially numerous. It is possible,
accordingly, that the tagged pilchard made its way to the Swanson Channel herring fishing-
grounds (see Hart and Tester, 1938) where it was recaptured along with a school of herring.
In that case, the record constitutes a valid return. On the other hand, it is quite probable
that the tag entered the plant with a load of pilchards captured some weeks previous to the
date given and became stuck in the plant. In such an event the recovery is only a further
example of the disadvantage of the magnetic method of tag recovery  (cf. Hart, 1937).
The returns in Table III. show a tendency for a very high proportion of the tags from
all tagging areas to be returned from localities similar to " off Destruction Island." This
may indicate some kind of milling movement of pilchards on a large scale so that a very high
proportion were caught in the area where the fishery was most intense. On the other hand,
it may merely represent the tendency on the part of operators making the returns to indicate
all tags as having been recovered from the place where most of the fishing was done.
There is only one return from the 700 tags used in the first four taggings. As no selection of whole taggings can be made to yield such a poor return from 700 tags it seems likely
that the number is significantly low. Whether this is a matter of different techniques early
in the season or whether the significance is connected with the movement of the fish cannot be
said at present.
Fish tagged in the vicinity of Cape Flattery were recovered around Destruction Island
and Grays Harbour. Some tags used at Destruction Island were recovered at the same place
two months later; one was taken off the mouth of the Columbia one week after tagging, indicating a speed of travel of 9 or 10 miles per day; others continued to be returned from the
area between Tillamook Head and the mouth of the Columbia; and still another was returned
from off Heceta Head after nine weeks. Tags used at Grays Harbour were recovered at both
Destruction Island and off the Columbia River, one of the fish making the latter trip in three
days. To summarize, more tags are returned from areas south of that of tagging than from
those to the north. This may represent a general movement among the fish, or it may be
attributed to the rather vague way in which localities of return are specified in many cases.
There is evidence of fairly general mixing on the fishing-grounds. This is believed to be more
extensive than indicated by the actual returns.
It has already been mentioned that five Canadian tags were recovered in California
during the past season. One was a tag used in 1936 off Nootka light and recovered in Monterey. The other four were inserted in 1937. One of them was recovered in Monterey and
three in San Pedro. Disregarding any digression from the straight line and assuming that
the fish were captured as soon as arriving at their destinations,* the minimum rate of travel
can be calculated as 3.2 and 3.6 miles per day. This corresponds closely with the rate of
travel for the Heceta Head recovery (3.5 miles per day), but is considerably slower than the
speed made on the northward migration as indicated by the recovery of California tags in
British Columbia.    The average speed of migration for all fish as calculated in a comparable
* It is quite reasonable to assume that the fish were caught soon after their returns to the fishing-grounds on
which they were taken. The California sardine-fishery is actively pursued during the fall and winter, but fish of
the size commonly taken by the Canadian fishery are not abundant until about a month before the time that the
tags were recovered at the respective localities.    The time at which the southward movement began is less certain. T 60
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
way from the California data presented by Janssen (1938) was 5 miles per day, and one
pilchard travelled at an average rate of 9.2 miles per day. It is worthy of note that in both
1937 (Hart, 1937) and 1938 the first recoveries of Canadian tags in California were in the
more northerly fishing centres of San Francisco and Monterey. The recovery of Canadian
tags in California and of California tags in Canada demonstrates definite movements between
the respective fishing-grounds. The evidence to date indicates a rapid northward migration
in the spring and early summer followed by a slower return trip in autumn and winter.
TABLE III.—Number of Recoveries and Percentages recovered of Tags inserted for
each Tagging by all Plants, and all Plants except Ucluelet, with a Summary
of reported Localities of Recovery.
Tagging
Reference
All Recoveries.
Recoveries excluding Ucluelet.
Summary of Recoveries.
No.
(Dates 1937 except where noted.)
No.
Per Cent.
No.
Per Cent.
I.
0
0
0
0
II.
0
0
0
0
III.
1
0.5
0
0
Destruction Is., Sept. 25.
IV.
0
0
0
0
V.
4
1.3
3
1
Tillamook Hd., Aug. 13 ; Westport, Sept. 4 ; Destruction Is., Sept. 14;   Heceta Hd., Sept. 22.
VI.
2
0.5
1
0.2
2 Destruction Is., Sept. 14 and 26.
VII.
0
0
0
0
VIIL
6
1.2
6
1.2
All U.S.; Columbia R., Aug. 19 ; 2 Grays Hr., Sept. 15
and 23; Monterey, Jan. 11, 1938; 2 San Pedro,
Mar. 4 and 10, 1938.
IX.
4
1.0
3
0.8
Tillamook Hd., Aug. 6 ; Westport, Sept. 6; 2 Destruction Is., Sept. 16 and 23.
X.
5
1.0
5
1.0
Tillamook Hd., Aug. 7; 2 Destruction Is., Sept. 9 ; 2
Grays Hr., Sept. 17 and  ?.
XI.
2
0.5
0
0
Destruction Is.   (1?), July 29 and Sept. 10?.
XII.
5
1.7
3
1.0
2 Destruction Is., July 29 and Sept. 21; 2 Tillamook
Hd., Aug. 7 and 19;    (1,  1,  ?).
XIII.
4
1.3
3
1.0
2 Destruction Is. or Umatilla Lt., Aug. 1 ; Destruction Is.,  ? Aug. 23?;   Westport, Sept. 7.
XIV.
5
1.1
1
0.2
4 Destruction Is. (3?), July 13? and 22, 2 Aug. 23?;
Grays Hr., Date 1.
XV.
3
1.0
1
0.3
3 Destruction Is., Sept. 17, 26, and ?.
XVI.
2
0.3
2
0.3
Grays Hr., Sept. 18 ;   Porlier Pass, Herring, Oct.   ?.
XVII.
4
2.0
3
1.5
Columbia R., Aug. 19 ; 2 Destruction Is., Aug. 28 and
? ;   Grays Hr., Date  ?.
XVIII.
3
1.0
1
0.3
2 Destruction Is. (1?), Sept. 16 and ?; Westport,
Sept. 4.
XIX.
2
1.0
2
1.0
Columbia R., Aug. 8;   San Pedro, Mar. 9, 1938.
XX.
8
1.3
3
0.5
6 Destruction Is. (5?), Aug. 3?, 23?, 27?, 27, Sept.
1 ? and ?;   2 Grays Hr., Sept. 12 and 17.
XXI.
1
0.3
1
0.3
Pt. Brown, Sept. 17.
XXII.
1
1.0
1
1.0
Destruction Is. to Grays Hr., Sept. 11.
1
1
	
Defaced.
A (in 1936)
2
0.02
A (in 1937)
0
0
	
—
B (in 1936)
23
0.92
B (in 1937)
3
0.06
2
0.04
Destruction Is., July 16 ?; Sydney In., July 30 ; Monterey, Jan. 11, 1938.
Although the recovery of California tags from fish caught off Barkley Sound and off the
Washington coast indicates that the main run of pilchards, or at least part of it, came up
from California, there is evidence for believing that the fish which comprised a few small
catches made in Sydney Inlet had a different source. These fish yielded one Canadian tag
which had been used in a fish released in Bedwell Sound the previous year. Two other tags
used at the same time were recovered in the inside waters of Clayoquot Sound and Sydney
Inlet during the autumn and winter of 1936-37. These returns, together with the known
fact that pilchards do remain at the heads of some of the inlets during the winter, suggest,
although they do not prove, that the small run of pilchards encountered in Sydney Inlet were
moving out from the inside waters. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 61
o &
I**        if*  p
^/crrr?/?^
&3/7  Piec//~c.       6/£ AT?/.
A/etH/pos-f- /?&/-.   <&3Q sr?/_
Co/-os-£?c/o     680 /T7/'.
SO f73uf/c&/ /n//es
//etre/^sr    /p&shzS T 62 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
The third 1936 Canadian tag to be returned in 1937-38 was applied 20 miles south of
Rafael Point on August 26th and was recovered off Destruction Island. It shows that at
least some of the fish off the Washington coast in 1937 had been off Vancouver Island the
previous year.
In Table II. are shown figures for the number of tags recovered by each plant. In
addition are given the numbers of tags recovered per thousand tons of fish processed. It is
believed that such figures are capable of giving a good relative estimate of the efficiency of
the magnets in recovering tags. Canadian tags and California tags have been treated
separately. It will be noticed that the apparent efficiency for Canadian tags is very high for
the Ucluelet plant. It is believed that the high figure is a result of tagged fish getting back
into the net while tagging is actually in progress. A potential cause of irregularity in the
results is the recapture by other boats of tagged fish shortly after their release. In order to
avoid errors from either of these two sources the returns for California tags have been considered as offering a rough estimate of recovery efficiency at the various plants. They indicate that the Ucluelet and Ecoole installations are most efficient and these are probably to be
considered as "satisfactory." Room for improvement is apparent in other cases. At Kil-
donan the installation has already been improved, and it is hoped that in other plants changes
may be made to increase the efficiency of recovery.
A comparison on the above basis is possible between British Columbia and California
recoveries of California tags. The index of efficiency for Canadian plants as shown in Table
II. is 0.44. That for California may be calculated on the basis of 302 (Janssen, 1937) recoveries from 727,000 tons of fish handled by shore plants and reduction ships at 0.42. This
is a purely arbitrary figure. It cannot be used in comparing the concentration of tagged fish
on the two fishing-grounds without taking a number of factors into consideration. In the
first place, the California tagging was carried out while recovery was going on. It can be
shown mathematically that only one-half as many tags can be expected under those circumstances as when all the tagged fish were present at the beginning of the season. Secondly,
not all California shore plants had magnets and some were installed during the course of the
operating season. Thirdly, there is no satisfactory knowledge concerning the proportion of
meal in the 239,000 tons of pilchards taken by reduction ships which was passed over magnets.
Fourthly, there is no adequate information available about the efficiency of the various
magnets. It would appear that there is considerable variation among the British Columbia
installations and it is reasonable to suppose that a similar and comparable variation exists
in California. Fifthly, a large proportion of the catch delivered to California shore plants
is canned and it is believed that tag-recovery from the offal of cannery fish is less efficient
than for fish passing directly through a reduction plant. Sixthly, there is a tendency for
tags to be taken especially rapidly for the first few days after tagging. The cause for this
is not known, but probable reasons are the release of fish close to the fishing-grounds
frequented by the fishing-boats at the time and the mortality induced by the actual tagging
operation. Finally, a large proportion of the tags were applied to fish smaller than those
which usually enter into the Canadian fishery.
With so many unknowns involved comparison of the concentrations of tags among fish
on the two fishing-grounds cannot be made with any degree of certainty. However, it is
evident that the first five factors discussed tend to decrease the proportion of tags recovered
by California magnets of those used during the California fishing season. The last two
decrease the proportion of recoveries made by British Columbia plants from the same tagging.
As two of the seven factors decrease the Canadian recoveries, there is no satisfactory evidence
for believing that the proportion of large fish which carried tags was greater on the California
grounds than on those exploited by Canadian boats.
In 1937, five British Columbia tags were recovered in California from 2,535 used during-
the previous summer. In 1938, the same number of British Columbia tags were recovered in
California from 6,936 tags put in off the Washington coast during the previous summer. The
decline in percentage recovery (0.20 to 0.07) was in spite of a greatly increased efficiency
of recovery. It is possible that the apparent discrepancy is due to chance. Two other
possibilities remain. One is that the unexpectedly low return was a consequence of faulty
tagging technique.    The other is that the reason lies in biological factors which are not yet BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 63
understood. In the continuation of the work it is proposed to compare the percentage
recovery of tags applied with a knife with those applied with a tagging-gun as a check on the
newer technique.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The pilchard-tagging programme has depended upon the co-operation of a great many
individuals and organizations. The co-operation has been so sincere that it is a pleasure
to acknowledge it.
The work of Mr. Lennard Quickenden in continuing the tagging under rather arduous
conditions has been invaluable. He worked from the boats of the Nootka Packing Company
with Captain John Dale and Captain Gordon Wilks. Their help in the work is much
appreciated.
We are indebted to the companies who have installed magnets and to the employees who
have examined the magnets for tags. They have contributed a very essential part of the
programme.
We have enjoyed the fullest co-operation of State officials of the Pacific Coast States.
Mr. L. Royal, of the Washington State Fisheries Department, and Mr. M. T. Hoy, Master
Fish Warden of the Fish Commission of Oregon, have been diligent in looking after tags
recovered on the magnets in their respective States and returning them to us with the data.
The programme has been carried out in full co-operation with the California State Fisheries
Laboratory. To its director, Mr. W. L. Scofleld, and to Dr. Frances N. Clark and Mr. John
Janssen (Jr.), I am specially grateful for the return of tags, suggestions concerning programme, and other courtesies.
The work has been carried out under the auspices of the Pacific Biological Station of the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Department of Fisheries of the Province of
British Columbia. Their help and the support of the respective executive officers, Dr. W. A.
Clemens and Mr. George J. Alexander, are gratefully acknowledged.
REFERENCES.
Hart, J. L.    Tagging British Columbia Pilchards (Sardinops cxridea (Girard)) :   Methods
and preliminary results.    Report, B.C. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1936, R 49-54, 1937.
Hart, J. L.    Returns of pilchard tags applied in 1936 and 1937.    Fisheries Research Board
of Canada, Progress Reports, Pacific, No. 35, 9-11, 1938.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
apparatus,  insertions,  and  recoveries  during  1937-38.    Report,  B.C.   Commissioner  of
Fisheries, 1937.    1938.
Janssen, J. F.   (Jr.).    First report of sardine tagging in California.    California Fish and
Game, Vol. 23, No. 3, 190-204, 1937.
JANSSEN, J. F.   (Jr.).    Northern recovery of California sardine tags.    California Fish and
Game, Vol. 24, No. 1, 70-71, 1938. T 64 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
THE TAGGING OF HERRING (CLUPEA PALLASII)  IN BRITISH
COLUMBIA:   APPARATUS, INSERTIONS, AND
RECOVERIES DURING 1937-38.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., and Albert L. Tester, Ph.D.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo.
CONTENTS. PAGE
Introduction  64
Tagging Apparatus  66
Tagging-knife  66
Tagging-gun  66
Floating Pound  67
Tagging  67
Tags inserted during the Fall and Winter of 1937  70-
Tags inserted during the Spring of 1938  71
Recapitulation  72
Recovery Apparatus  72
Galiano Island Detector  72
Ucluelet Detector  72
Magnets  77
Recovery of Tagged Fish by the Galiano Detector.:  78
Stability of Populations and Movements  78
Intensity of the Fishery  81
Conclusions concerning Technique  81
Recovery of Tagged Fish by the Ucluelet Detector  82.
Recovery of Tags by Magnets  82
Sources and Limitations of Recoveries  82
Tags of the Previous Season (1936-37)  83
Tags of the Current Season (1937-38)  84
Intensity of the Fishery in Barkley Sound  86
Movements and Intermingling of Herring as indicated by the Recovery of Tags  86
Acknowledgments  87
References  8&
Table IV  89
INTRODUCTION.
In the autumn of 1936 a herring-tagging recovery programme was started in British
Columbia for the purpose of obtaining direct information on the extent of intermingling of
the various runs and the nature and extent of herring movements. Indirect information
obtained from an analysis and comparison of racial characters had already indicated the
presence of " local runs " or " local populations," and it was hoped that the results from
tagging would provide a check on these conclusions and would also yield information, which
was not readily obtainable by the indirect method of study, on the extent of intermingling
of closely-situated runs.
A previous publication appearing in the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department
for 1936 contains an illustrated and detailed account of the internal metal tags, the methods
of tagging, and the induction detector used for recovering tagged fish from the conveyer
system of a saltery. It also includes a list of the tags inserted and the recoveries made
during the 1936-37 season. The results which were obtained demonstrated the feasibility
of applying these tagging and recovery methods to study the movements of British Columbia
herring and were sufficiently encouraging to warrant an expansion of the programme and
the purchase of additional recovery equipment. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 65
Horizon/■*?/   &&C/-/&/7
a r   £ (   c*   )l
\
V&s-ric:,*?/    ^s&c?~/c>/-7
Fig. 1. Diagrammatic sections illustrating the mechanism of the tagging-gun. After an incision has been
made in the side of the fish with the cutting-edge (A), the plunger (B) is depressed. This pushes the lowermost tag (C) from the stack of tags in the barrel (D) along a groove (E) and over the knife edge (A) into
the incision in the fish. The plunger is forced back by the compression-spring (F) when the thumb is removed
from the plate  (G)  and another tag drops into place. T 66 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
The present paper describes the progress of the investigation during the season 1937-38.
It includes a description of improved tagging apparatus and additional recovery apparatus.
It contains data on tags inserted and tags recovered during the season. In it are discussed
the significance of the results and their contribution to knowledge of the movements of
herring in British Columbia.
TAGGING APPARATUS.
Tagging-knife.
During the first season of tagging, a specially constructed knife or " tagging-iron," with
the cutting-edge at the end, was used to make a small slit in the side of the body-wall of the
fish (Hart and Tester, 1937). After the incision was made, a tag was removed from a
container, usually a shallow dish, and was slipped through the opening into the body-cavity.
Although this procedure was fairly satisfactory, it was slower than desirable, particularly
under unfavourable weather conditions. Sometimes the dish containing the tags was upset
and this involved a considerable loss of time. Cold weather also numbed the hands and
slowed down tagging operations. It was believed that greater speed and efficiency could be
obtained by the use of some mechanical device for holding and inserting the tags.
Fig. 2. Using a tagging-gun to insert a tag in a herring.
Tagging-gun.
This apparatus (Fig. 1), devised by Mr. L. Quickenden, overcame many of the difficulties
and almost doubled the speed of tagging. Essentially it consists of a magazine which holds
100 tags, a sliding plunger which works in a groove and is controlled by a compression-spring,
and a cutting-edge at the end of the groove which makes the incision in the body-wall. The
action of the apparatus is illustrated in Fig. 2. When the magazine is loaded, the lowermost tag rests in the groove. The gun is held in the right hand with the thumb on the
plunger. The fish is removed from a dip-net and held firmly against the body with the left
hand. A few scales are scraped away from the side of the fish with the cutting-edge and
the latter is pushed into the flesh, making a small incision between the ribs. The plunger is
then depressed and it slides along the groove pushing the lowermost tag down the groove to
the knife edge and thence through the opening into the body-cavity of the fish. When the
thumb is removed the compression-spring forces the plunger back beyond the base of the
magazine and another tag drops into place in the groove. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 67
The gun is loaded by means of clips made of shim copper or other thin metal. The
clips, each holding 100 tags, are loaded at leisure. When the gun is empty it is held upside
down and the loaded clip is fitted into the mouth of the magazine. By means of a stick of
wood shaped to fit inside the clip, the tags are forced down the magazine until the first tag
rests in the groove. The gun is then turned to its operating position and a cap is fitted over
the end of the magazine. The use of loading-clips is necessary to prevent tags from resting
edgewise in the magazine and thus causing the gun to jam.
Under average conditions two men, one dipping the fish from a net or pound and the
other tagging with the gun (Fig. 3),  are able to insert up to 300 tags per hour.
Fig. 3. Tagging herring at Sooke from a light seine suspended between a boat
and a small scow.
Floating Pound.
At times during the year a floating pound was used to hold fish prior to tagging. The
pound used during 1937-38 was a distinct improvement over that used the previous year.
It was made by cutting one end off a metal life-boat, leaving it with a length of 14 feet, a
beam of 6 feet, a pointed bow and a square stern. The open end was covered with galvanized
iron with sufficient perforations to allow some water circulation. Copper air-tanks along
both sides gave the craft sufficient buoyancy to float with the gunwhales just above water-
level. Decking 18 inches in width along either side above the copper tanks provided working
room. Wooden partitions encasing the air-tanks formed the sides and a cross-partition
forward formed the end of the live well. This had a capacity of about 75 cubic feet. The
top was covered with hinged lids. The shape and construction of the pound was such that
it could be towed at full speed without damage to the fish in the well.
TAGGING.
A summary of information on tags inserted during both 1936-37 and 1937-38 is given
in Table I. An identification code (IA to IL for the twelve taggings in 1936-37; 2A to 2T
for the twenty taggings in 1937-38) has been used for the purposes of brevity and convenience in tabulating and presenting the results.
Detailed information on the tags inserted during 1936-37 has already been published
and will not be repeated. In Table IV. is given a complete list of the identification numbers
of the tags inserted during 1937-38, together with other details of tagging. The general tagging
locality is given by code and may be obtained by reference to the summary given in Table I. T 68 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
QiA^Asv
{Scr*. c/^-jl&t
•      7Z?greZ/s7g   /oca/S/y BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 69 T 70
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
TABLE I.—A Summary of Tags inserted during the Seasons 1936-37 and 1937-38.
Tagging
Code.
Date.
No. of Tags
inserted.
Place of Tagging.
IA
IB
1C
ID
IE
IF
1G
IH
II
IJ
IK
IL
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
2G
2H
21
2J
2K
2L
2M
2N
20
2P
2Q
2R
2S
2T
Oct. 6, 7, 8, 1936-
Oct. 15, 1936	
Oct. 17, 19, 20, 1936	
Nov. 8, 12, 18, 19, 1936 .
March 4, 1937.	
March 11, 1937 	
March 12, 1937	
March 14,1937—	
March 17, 1937.	
March 17, 1937	
March 19, 1937	
April 25, 1937	
Sept. 25, 1937-	
Oct. 9, 1937 	
Oct. IS, 22, 23, 1937--.
Nov. 9, 10, 12, 1937.	
Nov. 18, 25, 1937	
Nov. 21, 23, 28, 1937—
Nov. 23, Dec. 1, 4, 1937
March 7, 8, 1938	
March 9, 1938	
March 11, 1938	
March 12, 1938 	
March 21, 1938—	
March 25, 1938-	
Feb. 25, 1938	
March 7, 8, 1938	
March 15, 1938	
March 16, 17, 1938.	
March 23, 1938	
April 2, 3,1938	
April 22, 1938 	
2,392
1,500
2,398
2,300
700
898
1,199
899
1,000
798
1,198
499
700
1,257
2,829
700
1,298
800
2,299
899
1,293
995
1,198
1,395
699
791
497
799
500
1,196
797
Swanson Channel.
Off Sooke, near Victoria.
Swanson Channel.
Trincomali Channel, Porlier Pass.
Horswell Point, near Nanaimo.
Uchucklesit Harbour, Barkley Sound.
Macoah Passage, Barkley Sound.
Head of Kendrick Arm, Nootka Sound.
Blind Entrance, Kyuquot Sound.
Scow Bay, Bunsby Islands, entrance Ououkinsh
Inlet.
Head of Ewin Creek, Nootka Sound.
Head of Tod Inlet, Saanich Inlet.
Off Sooke, near Victoria.
Off Sooke, near Victoria.
Swanson Channel.
Swanson Channel.
Rainy Bay, Barkley Sound.
Effingham Inlet, Barkley Sound.
Middle Channel, Barkley Sound.
Macoah Passage, Barkley Sound.
Calm Creek, Clayoquot Sound.
Queens Cove, Esperanza Inlet.
Plumper Harbour, Nootka Sound.
Winter Harbour, Quatsino Sound.
Bella Bella, Milbanke Sound.
Ganges Harbour.
Horswell Point, near Nanaimo.
False Narrows, S.E. side.
False Narrows, N.W. side.
Departure Bay, near Nanaimo.
Union Bay, Baynes Sound.
Birch Bay, near Blaine, U.S.A.
Tags inserted during the Fall and Winter of 1937.
As in the previous year, herring were tagged at the Sooke salmon-traps near Victoria at
the beginning of the season. These taggings (2A and 2B) took place on September 25th and
October 9th, prior to the opening of the fishery on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island
(October 18th). The fish were seined in the trap and were tagged from a small scow and
released over the side of the trap.    In all, 1,199 tags were inserted.
The fishery on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island was confined to the vicinity of
Swanson and Satellite Channels and lasted from October 18th until December 11th. Herring
were tagged during two periods, one (2C) at the beginning and one (2D) towards the middle
of the fishing season. In both taggings three separate lots of fish were tagged on three
separate days. In most cases, the fish were transferred from the partially dried-up
commercial seine to the floating pound and this was towed a short distance away before the
fish were tagged and released. On October 22nd, however, 195 fish were tagged and
released at the commercial seine.    In all, 4,086 tags were inserted.
Tagging on the west coast of Vancouver Island during the fishing season was confined to
Barkley Sound. In this locality fishing extended from October 19th to December 6th, and
tags were inserted at intervals from November 18th to December 4th. As a suitable boat
was not available, the taggers lived on a seine-boat tender and worked from a skiff. After a
set was made and before the seine was completely dried up, the herring were dipped from
the net, tagged, and released on the outside of the seine. The various individual taggings
have been combined into groups corresponding to three more or less separate areas: Rainy
Bay (2E), Effingham Inlet (2F), and Middle Channel (2G), the last including Vernon Bay.
In all, 2,798 tags were inserted in Barkley Sound. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 71
Tags inserted during the Spring of 1938.
Practically all of the fish tagged during the spring were caught on the spawning-
grounds and were either full of spawn, partially spent, or completely spent. Usually all
three types were present in one catch, but the proportions of each varied among the various
catches. Completely spent fish were tagged most satisfactorily as there was less danger of
rupturing the body-wall and the gonads when the incision was made.
In the Strait of Georgia fish were tagged in seven different localities during the spawning season: At Ganges Harbour at the south end of Saltspring Island (2N) ; at Horswell
Point, off Departure Bay (20) ; at False Narrows on the south-east side (2P), and on the
north-west side (2Q) ; at Departure Bay (2R) ; at Union Bay in Baynes Sound (2S) ; and
at Birch Bay, near Blaine, U.S.A. (2T). The fish for the 2N tagging were caught by means
of a small purse-seine and those for the 2T tagging were taken from a herring-weir (Fig. 4).
In both instances the fish were tagged from a boat or scow and were released into deep water.
All others were caught by means of a small beach-seine and were tagged at the shore-line
and released in shallow water. In several instances some of the tagged fish were eaten by
gulls before they were able to escape to deep water. In all, 5,279 fish were tagged in the
Strait of Georgia.
Fig. 4. A herring-weir at Birch Bay used for taking herring for bait.    This
method of capturing herring has not been developed on the Canadian side.
On the west coast of Vancouver Island herring were tagged during the spawning season
at Macoah Passage, Barkley Sound (2H) ; at Calm Creek, Clayoquot Sound (21) ; at
Queens Cove, Esperanza Inlet (2J) ; at Plumper Harbour, Nootka Sound (2K) ; and at
Winter Harbour, Quatsino Sound (2L). The fish for the last tagging (2L) were taken
from a herring-pound. All others were caught by means of a small purse-seine operated from
a pair of skiffs. The fish were tagged from one of the skiffs after the net had been partially
dried up and were released into deep water. In all, 6,684 tags were inserted on the west
coast of Vancouver Island.
The small purse-seine was again used to catch fish for tagging at Bella Bella in Milbanke
Sound (2M). This is the first time that herring have been tagged north of Vancouver
Island in British Columbia waters.    In this locality, 1,395 tags were used. T 72 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Recapitulation.
The tags inserted during 1936-37 (previously published) and 1937-38 (listed above) may
be summarized according to locality and number as follows:—
1936-37. 1937-38.
Locality. Fall.
Strait of Juan de Fuca  J     1,500 1,199
South-east coast Vancouver Island      7,090 4,086
Barkley Sound      2,798
Spring.
Strait of Georgia      1,898 5,279
West coast Vancouver Island     5,692 6,684
North of Vancouver Island       1,395
Total   16,180        21,441
RECOVERY APPARATUS.
Galiano Island Detector.
The " electronic " or " induction " tag detector used at a saltery on Galiano Island in
the fall of 1936 was again used at the same plant (the Moresby Island Fisheries Co., Ltd.),
in the fall of 1937. This apparatus has already been described in detail (Hart and Tester,
1937) and it is only necessary to review the principle on which it works. After passing up
an elevator, the fish slide down a chute to a horizontal conveyer which carries them to the
salting-tanks. In their progress down the chute they pass through a rectangular compound
coil and over a trap-door. The compound coil is held in delicate electrical balance with a
second identical coil a short distance away. Almost immediately after a tagged fish passes
through the coil the trap-door opens and closes resulting in the capture of about 100 fish, one
of which is the tagged individual. This tagged fish is subsequently isolated by passing the
trapped fish through the coil a few at a time. The action of the trap-door is due directly
to the operation of a reversible compressed-air piston and this in turn is the culmination of
a series of electrical and mechanical changes arising from the electrical disturbance caused
by the temporary presence of the metal tag in the coil. In this series of changes thermionic
amplifiers, relays, a solenoid pneumatic valve, and a mercoid switch all play important parts.
The addition of an A.C. voltage stabilizer and a plate-voltage control for the detector
tube simplified the operation and increased the efficiency of the apparatus as compared with
the previous season. Increased familiarity with the intricacies of the machine also contributed to more satisfactory service.
The efficiency of the induction detector in recovering tagged fish was determined by
placing these in the scows at intervals throughout the season. Of the thirty-five tagged
fish planted in this way, thirty-two, or 91.5 per cent., were recovered. This figure, roughly
90 per cent., may be considered as the average operating efficiency of the apparatus. Its
actual efficiency, calculated on the basis of total tonnage of fish passing through the coils,
would be lower as the machine was sometimes temporarily out of commission (but not
during the above tests). The 10-per-cent. loss in operating efficiency may be attributed
to variation in the speed of flow of the fish down the chute. It is possible to compensate
partly for this variation in speed of flow by adjusting the sensitivity of the coil. It may
be possible to further reduce the effects of this factor by decreasing the distance between the
coil and trap-door. This can be accomplished if it proves possible to decrease the lag between
the time of reception of the impulse and the operation of the trap by the use of larger air-
hoses in the compressed-air system operating the trap-door.
Among the many factors which temporarily interfere with the action of the detector
might be mentioned failure of the plant D.C. supply; interference from the ignition system of
gas-engines; loose connections caused by vibration; and sticking of the solenoid valve.
Some of these difficulties are readily overcome; others may be reduced in the future by
further adjustment of the equipment.
Ucluelet Detector.
At the beginning of November, 1937, a second induction detector was installed at the
Ucluelet reduction plant of the Banfield Packing Co., Ltd.    In fundamental principle this BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 73
unit resembles that installed at  Galiano  Island.    It  differs  from  it,  however,  in  several
important respects.
Details of installation are different because of differences in the method of unloading.
The unloading apparatus at the Galiano Island saltery consists of a single long-slat conveyer
with a hopper at the bottom into which the fish are shovelled. The unloading apparatus at
the reduction plant (Fig. 5) at Ucluelet is a marine leg having deep metal buckets which
for the most part fill themselves during the unloading process. At the top of the marine
leg the fish are spilled into a long, more or less horizontal, conveyer which has shallow iron
buckets and which is pivoted at the end near the reduction plant (Fig. 6). By the movement
of this conveyer the marine leg is lowered into and raised from the ho\ds of the packers.
The pivoted conveyer in turn empties into a fixed slat conveyer which raises the fish at a
slight angle to the plant. It is between the pivoted and the slat conveyers that the chute
containing the coil and trap-door used in recovering tagged fish is placed.
Fig. 5. Unloading herring from the hold of a boat at the Banfield Packing
Company's   plant  at Ucluelet.      (A)    Marine   leg;     (B)   pivoted   conveyer.
The chute is considerably wider than that at the Galiano Island saltery and this
necessitates the use of a coil which has inside measurements of 7 by 21 inches in place of
7 by 16 inches. The size of the trap-door is similarly enlarged. As the working-space is
small, the fish-bin is placed immediately below the trap-door rather than below and off to one
side as in the Galiano unit. When handling sticky fish a stream of water through a specially
constructed distributing nozzle is necessary to enable them to slide freely down the chute.
Certain details of the Ucluelet installation are shown in Figs. 7, 8, 9, and 10.
Several parts of the air system in- the new unit are of larger size and this results in
more rapid action of the trap-door. These include the compressed-air tank, the air-hoses, and
the air channels of the solenoid valve.
Instead of the gasoline-driven motor-generator unit used at Galiano Island, a rotary
converter provides a source of alternating current from the D.C. supply of the plant. In
order to give some control over the voltage input to the set, an autotransformer is placed in
the circuit. The latter proved to be very necessary as the plant's supply of current was
found to be very erratic.
After the installation of the apparatus on November 3rd, tests indicated a very low
efficiency in recovering tagged fish and it was necessary to decrease the slope of the chute.
Mechanical difficulties with the trap-door and electrical difficulties with the balancing system
prevented satisfactory operation until November 16th. Following that date, comparison of
the number of detector and magnet  (see next section)  recoveries indicated an efficiency of T 74
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
about 50 per cent, in recovering tagged fish. This low value indicates the need for further
adjustments in the future to give more satisfactory service. Several methods of improvement are possible.
Fig. 6. Diagrammatic representation of the installation of the principal mechanical parts of the induction
detector at Ucluelet. (A) represents a section of the boat being unloaded by the marine leg (B) with its deep
buckets. These are emptied into a pivoted section (CC), which operates at only a slight angle and consequently requires only shallow buckets. From this conveyer the fish slide down a short chute (DD) through the
detector coil (E) and over the trap-door (F) into a slat conveyer (GG). In the lower diagram the essential
features of the trap-door and the air system are shown in some detail. (H) is a curtain which prevents the fish
from being thrown clear of the fish-bin (I) when the trap-door is closing. When there is no current going
through the solenoid (J) the air pressure is applied from (S) to the top of the piston (K) through the upper
opening in the valve (L), and air is exhausted through (T) via the lower vent (M) so that the trap-door is
held tightly closed. When the solenoid is energized the part of the valve shown stippled is raised, applying the
air pressure through (M) to the lower side of the piston and exhausting the upper part of the cylinder through
(L). This opens the trap-door allowing the fish tq drop into the bin (I). When the door reaches the open
position the mercury in the mercoid switch (N) runs away from the points, breaking the circuit. The solenoid
is de-energized, the valve is restored to its normal position, and the trap-door is forcibly closed until another
impulse produced by a tagged fish passing through the detector coil re-energizes the solenoid.
At present, insufficient space is available for the satisfactory installation of the coil-
trap system. With further co-operation of the company it may prove possible to alter the
conveyer system to permit the installation of a longer chute. The pick-up coil could then
be moved to a greater distance from the pivoted metal conveyer and this would reduce the
electrical interference caused by the moving buckets and enable a greater sensitivity to be
maintained. It would also be possible to increase the distance between the coil and the
trap-door and so recover those tagged fish which at present pass partially or completely over
the door before it opens. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 75
Fig. 7. Herring passing down the chute and
over the trap-door before being carried up
the slat conveyer.
(A) Coil; (B) chute;
(C) slat conveyer.
■:\:-;ihi ■ipsss
Fig. 8. The trap-door
closed in the same
position as in Fig. 7.
(A) Coil; (B) trapdoor ; (C) cylinder
containing    piston ;
(D) slat   conveyer;
(E) pivoted conveyer. T 76
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Fig. 9. A corresponding view of the trap-door open. Several of the essential parts can be made out on the lower side
of the trap-door. (A) Coil; (B) under-side of trap-door;
(C) cylinder containing piston; (D) slat conveyer; (F)
mercoid   switch.
Fig. 10. Installation of the electrical equipment for the Ucluelet unit. The
use of an oscilloscope and a micro-ohmmetre was necessary to procure a satisfactory electrical balance between the two coils. (A) Balancing-oscillator—
detector unit; (B) relay power-amplifier unit; (C) oscilloscope; (D) micro-
ohmmetre. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 77
The addition of a delayed-action relay to the trap-door circuit would hold the door open
for a fraction of a second and so ensure the capture of those fish which at present reach the
opening too late, and those which at present reach the centre of the door and remain there by
their own inertia during the complete cycle.
The addition of certain amplification units to the control-cabinets (already present in
the Galiano detector) may enable a greater sensitivity to be maintained. It may also be
possible to obtain greater sensitivity to tags and less interference from outside sources by
reducing the size of the coils.
It should prove possible to make several of these proposed changes before the next
fishing season and thus to increase the efficiency of the Ucluelet detector.
Fig. 11. Installation of a magnet for the recovery of tags at the Ucluelet
plant. This magnet recovered 197 herring-tags during the past season. (A)
Casing for worm-conveyer; (B) chute for meal; (C) grinder; (D) magnet
installed in bottom of chute.
Magnets.
Powerful electromagnets, located in a chute between the drier and grinder in the meal-
lines of reduction plants, have already been used successfully for the recovery of herring-
tags in Alaska (Rounsefell and Dahlgren, 1933; Dahlgren, 1936) and pilchard-tags in both
British Columbia (Hart, 1937) and California (Janssen, 1937). Those already installed in
the reduction plants on the west coast of Vancouver Island in connection with the pilchard-
work were used for the recovery of herring-tags during the past season (Fig. 11). Details of
their installation may be obtained by referring to Hart (1937). A list of the plants making
recoveries follows:—
B.C. Packers, Ltd.  Kildonan, Barkley Sound.
B.C. Packers, Ltd.  Ecoole, Barkley Sound.
Armac Packers, Ltd.  Toquart, Barkley Sound.
Banfield Packing Co., Ltd.  Ucluelet, Barkley Sound.
Nootka Packing Co., Ltd.  Nootka, Nootka Sound.
Nelson Bros. Fisheries, Ltd.  Ceepeecee, Esperanza Inlet.
B.C. Packers, Ltd.  Hecate, Esperanza Inlet.
While the reduction plants were operating, the magnets were inspected at irregular intervals by various company employees and tags adhering to the magnets were removed and
turned in to plant officials, together with information on the date of recovery and the
locality of capture of the fish which were being processed at the time. A reward of 50 cents
was paid for each tag. T 78 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
The information from tags recovered by magnets is less satisfactory than that from tags
recovered by the induction detector in tracing the movements of herring. With magnet
recoveries there is often considerable doubt as to the time and locality of capture of the fish
which originally bore the tag. Often fish from two different areas are processed on the
same day and because of the variable lag between the time a tagged fish enters the plant and
the time the tag is recovered from the meal by the magnet, it is impossible to state with
certainty from which of the two areas the tagged fish originated. Even when loads of fish
from different areas are processed on different days, and even if the fish-bins, cookers, and
presses are cleaned between runs, there is always the possibility of tags being held over for
varying lengths of time in crevices behind the flanges of the drier or in the bottom of the
screw-conveyer leading from the drier to the grinder. In fact, three tags were found in
driers when they were being overhauled during holidays or after the close of the season.
During the course of the season while the plants were in operation employees often recovered
tags from the bottom of the worm-conveyer where they tended to accumulate at joints and
other obstructions.
While the possibility of a tag being retained in the drier or worm-conveyer for one or
several days is present in all plants, evidence from the sequence of the returns indicates that
this probably happens to a lesser extent in some plants than in others. However, this and
also the efficiency of the various magnets in recovering tags will be checked more closely in
the future by planting tagged fish in the unloading conveyers and determining both the
time-lag and the percentage recovery.
RECOVERY OF TAGGED FISH BY THE GALIANO DETECTOR.
Stability of Populations and Movements.
The Galiano detector was in operation from the opening of the fishing season on October
18th until the plant ceased operations on December 4th. During this interval 4,920 tons
(estimated) of fish passed along the conveyer system of the plant. Of these, 4,512 tons
(estimated) passed through the coils while the detector was in operation and yielded 104
tagged fish.    A list of the daily recoveries is included in Table II.
Of special interest are the five returns from the 1936-37 taggings. Two of these were
inserted at Swanson Channel on October 7th and 8th, 1936 (IA), one was inserted at Sooke on
October 15th, 1936 (IB), one was inserted at Trincomali Channel on November 12th, 1936
(ID), and one was inserted at Tod Inlet, Saanich Arm, on April 25th, 1937 (IL). There
were no recoveries from the Swanson Channel catches of tags inserted on the west coast of
Vancouver Island during the spring (IF to IK, inclusive). These results show that at least
some of the herring come to the south-east coast of Vancouver Island in two successive
seasons.* They offer no evidence for believing that fish from the west coast join the southeast-coast run. They are, therefore, in accord with the conclusions drawn from population
studies   (Tester 1936, 1937)  in regard to the local nature of the south-east-coast run.
Of interest also is the recovery from Swanson Channel of tags inserted at Sooke during
the current season. Eleven from the 2A and ten from the 2B taggings were recaptured.
These results, combined with the two similar recoveries made last year (Hart and Tester,
1937) and supported by this year's IB recovery, indicate that a large proportion of the fish
supplying the south-east-coast grounds move in through the Strait of Juan de Fuca during
September and October.
Certain fishermen have expressed the belief that there is no direct movement of herring
between the Swanson Channel fishing-grounds and those in Trincomali Channel near Porlier
Pass. Some of the evidence from the tagging-work seems to support this view. The evidence,
chiefly contained in last season's results, is the lack of recovery of Swanson Channel tags
and the recovery of both Trincomali Channel and Sooke tags from the Trincomali grounds
in 1936—37. It is fairly certain that the fish supplying the two grounds belong to the same
run, as a Trincomali tag (ID) was recovered along with two Swanson tags (IA) from
Swanson   Channel  catches  during   1937-38.    Although  the  evidence  suggests  that  direct
* Here, and throughout this discussion, it is assumed that the principal body of fish, after spawning, leaves
the waters of the south-east coast of Vancouver Island, probably by way of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Although
there is no definite proof of this, the assumption seems justified as no large schools are seen during the summer
on the south-east coast of the island prior to their appearance at Sooke in the early autumn. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 79
movements from the Swanson Channel to the Trincomali Channel grounds do not take place
there is no evidence concerning the migration route actually followed. The fish on the
Trincomali grounds may come in through Porlier Pass as believed by fishermen or they
may reach there by some devious course through the islands.
TABLE II.—Daily Recoveries made by the Detector at Galiano Island from Catches
taken in the Vicinity of Swanson Channel.
(The number of tons of fish examined each day is given in the last column.)
Tagging.
Tonnage
tested.
Recovery.
ia
(2,392).
IB
(1,500).
ID
(2,300).
IL
(1,198).
2A
(499).
2B
(700).
2C
(1,257).
2D
(2,844).
Oct. 19   	
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
35
„  20   ,..
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
	
36
„  21.- „	
0
°
0
0
0
0
2
	
97
„  22 - 	
0
o
0
0
3
1
3
185
„  23
„ 24	
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
155
„ 25-   	
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
.-
128
„ 26   	
30
„  27 -	
145
„  28  -
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
3
1
190
„ 29 	
203
„  30  -
„ 31	
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
30
Nov. 1	
266
„ 2 -
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
80
„ 3 	
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
285
„  4. 	
210
„  5 	
„ 6   ...	
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
75
„ 7 	
„ 8	
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
3
0
0
0
4
5
140
„ 9  -	
38
„ 10  	
235
„ 11  - -	
„ 12 _ --
55
„ 13  	
__
-.
„ 14- -	
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
55
„ 15 	
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
75
„  16	
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
100
„  17  	
0
0
0
0
0
1
6
5
195
„ 18 - -
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
45
„ 19  	
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
30
„  20  	
„  21   	
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
3
158
„ 22 	
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
60
„  23 -	
1
0
0
0
0
2
3
7
380
„ 24. 	
„ 25  	
0
0
0
0
o
0
0
0
83
„  26 	
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
„  27  	
„ 28 -	
o
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
45
„ 29 	
0
0
0
0
o
0
5
2
195
„ 30 	
0
1
0
0
o
0
1
2
138
Dec. 1  	
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
115
„ 2  	
0
0
0
0
0
o
1
1
180
„ 3 .... 	
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
10
Totals	
2
1
1
1
11
10
43
35
4,512
From the 2C and 2D taggings on the Swanson Channel grounds there were forty-three and
thirty-five recoveries respectively. These are of little interest from the migration standpoint as they were recovered from approximately the same locality and during the same
season in which they were liberated. T 80
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
*
k
I
i
200
/eo
/60
/40
/20
/oo
A
/4
/3
/2
//
/o
9
a
B
>2c
7
6
£
3
2
/
n
r\   N
Zo
2A<£
2 b
& / 2 3 -4 £ e 7
K Week^     of  fisfring
Fig. 12. (A) Weekly variation in the availability of herring as shown by the average catch per unit of
effort. (B) Weekly variation in the number of tags recovered per 1,000 inserted per 1,000 tons of fish for the
taggings at Sooke (2A and 2B), the first Swanson Channel tagging (2C) and the second Swanson Channel
tagging  (2D).    Please consult the text for further explanation.
Weekly variation in the recoveries from the current taggings is shown in Fig. 12. The
points on these graphs represent the number of tags recovered for each thousand inserted
per 1,000 tons of fish taken by the fishery. For example, in the first week of fishing (ending
October 22nd and consisting of four instead of the usual six fishing days) there were five
recoveries from the 2A and 2B (combined) taggings, out of 353 tons of fish. This is equivalent to the recovery of 1,000 X 5/353 or 14.2 per 1,000 tons of fish. As there were 499 plus
700 or 1,199 tags inserted, this recovery is equivalent to 1,000 x 14.2/1,199 or 11.8 tags per
thousand used. The recovery graphs, based on similar calculations, are directly comparable
as allowance has been made for both variation in the weekly catch and variation in the number of tags used at each tagging. In the figure is also included a graph showing the
weekly variation in average catch per boat per day's fishing (compiled from daily catch
records submitted by seine-boat captains).    This graph traces the weekly availability of fish.
The actual number of recoveries for each tagging in each week is so small that the
positions of the points on the graphs must be regarded as only approximate. Accordingly,
definite conclusions cannot be based on the graphs, but it is perhaps appropriate to call
attention to certain indications which they offer. There is a suggestion that at the beginning
of the season there was an accumulation of fish on the Swanson Channel grounds which had
moved in from the Strait of Juan de Fuca (2A and 2B). As these fish had been tagged for
twenty-three and nine days, respectively, before the opening of the season, it seems probable
that the subsequent decline in recovery rate resulted more from the inroads in the population
by the fishery than from the initial mortality of tagged fish. Comparison of the Sooke
recovery graph with the catch-record graph suggests that during the fourth and sixth weeks
of fishing there were substantial influxes of fish from the Strait of Juan de Fuca to the
Swanson Channel grounds.
The graph for the first Swanson Channel tagging (2C), contained in Fig. 12, appears
to vary somewhat erratically. The steeper slope of the initial decline compared with that for
the Sooke recoveries may be caused by the high initial mortality of tagged fish, which is
probably at its maximum during the first day or two after tagging. It does not appear
probable that the excessively high recoveries of the fifth and seventh weeks are the result
of chance. They can be tentatively explained as the result of erratic addition of the 2C
tagged fish to the schools. Of the tags recovered during these two weeks 78 and 86 per cent,
were inserted on one day (October 22nd). It is possible that a large number of the fish
tagged on this day did not enter the fishery until these two periods because of delay in mixing
with other fish as a result of temporary segregation following tagging or because of joining
temporarily isolated schools which were not fished immediately.
The graph for the 2D recoveries shows an initial decline of somewhat smaller slope than
that of the 2C graph. On the whole, however, it is very similar to that of 2C for the first
four weeks after tagging.
Intensity of the Fishery.
As the 2C tags were inserted at the beginning of and were recovered throughout the
fishing season, although quite erratically in the latter part, they may be used to give a rough
idea of the minimum fishing mortality. The forty-three recoveries may be considered equivalent to 47.8 recoveries on the basis of the 90-per-cent. efficiency of the apparatus. These
were taken from 4,512 tons of fish. As the total catch was 25,059 tons (from statistics of
the Department of Fisheries), there was a probable recovery of 25,059 X 47.8/4,512 or 265
tags. As there were 1,257 inserted, this is a probable recovery of 100 x 265/1,257 or 21.1
per cent. From this it would seem that the fishermen caught at least 21 per cent, of the fish
on the grounds during the fishing season. This percentage is probably too low, as allowance
has not been made for several important factors tending to reduce the number of recoveries.
(See Hart and Tester, 1937, p. R 67.)
Conclusions concerning Technique.
There is some evidence from the current taggings that overcrowding in the pound prior to
and during tagging causes a high mortality among the tagged fish. The data on which this
opinion is based are shown in the following tabulation, which gives the date of tagging, the
probable percentage recoveries of tags inserted for the twenty-one days following the date of
insertion, and the numbers of fish tagged.
Percentage Number
Date. recovered. tagged.
November 9   4.5 1,350
November 10   6.1 1,094
November 12   7.5 400
It is evident that the percentage recovery increases as the number of fish tagged and
held in the pound at one time decreases. In the individual 2C taggings less than 500 fish
were tagged from the pound and there was no similar relationship between the percentage
recovery and the number tagged. The average probable percentage recovery for the three
2C taggings for twenty-one days following the date of insertion was 7.9, which is comparable
6 T 82 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
with that of November 12th above. Although trials have shown that the differences are not
statistically significant, the results suggest that for the optimum survival of tagged fish not
more than about 500 should be confined in and tagged from the pound at one time under
present tagging conditions.
During the course of the season, observations were made at the time of recovery of the
condition of the wound caused by tagging. In the five fish tagged in 1936-37, the wound had
healed without sign of a scar and had become completely covered with scales. In the recoveries from the current taggings, some showed definite signs of healing from three to four
weeks after insertion. The wounds in several fish were completely healed with only the scars
showing two months after tagging. Two fish were recovered with the tags protruding from
large, gaping wounds surrounded by irritated and probably infected tissue. In a few cases
the wounds were rather large, ragged, and occasionally double; these were mostly due to
inexperience in manipulating the tagging-gun at the beginning of the season. The majority
of the wounds, however, were small, neat incisions which showed no signs of infection and
which should have healed within a short time.
RECOVERY OF TAGGED FISH BY THE UCLUELET DETECTOR.
From November 12th to December 5th, inclusive, the Ucluelet detector recovered fifty-five
tagged fish from 2,788 tons (plant records) which passed through the plant. Details of these
recoveries follow:— Number
Tagging. recovered.
2C;   Swanson Channel      1
2D;   Swanson Channel      1
2E;   Rainy Bay, Barkley Sound      5
2F;   Effingham Inlet, Barkley Sound   37
2G;   Middle Channel, Barkley Sound   11
The two Swanson Channel tags were recovered from 406 tons of fish caught in Swanson
Channel and transported to the Ucluelet plant. The fifty-three Barkley Sound tags were
recovered from 2,382 tons of fish caught in Barkley Sound.
Although most of the tagged fish were recovered close to the area in which they were
liberated, the results give some provisional indication of the nature and extent of the movements of herring within Barkley Sound.  ■ The pertinent data are included in the following
table:  Tagging. Recovery. No.
2E;   Rainy Bay, Nov. 18. Middle Channel, Dec. 3-4 1
2G;   Middle  Channel, Nov. 23. Rainy Bay, Nov. 25 5
2E;   Rainy Bay, Nov. 25. Middle Channel, Dec. 3-4 2
2F;   Effingham Inlet, Nov. 28. Middle Channel, Dec. 2 1
The 2G recoveries indicate an early movement of fish from Middle Channel to Rainy Bay-
where they joined those already there. The 2E recoveries indicate a movement of fish from
Rainy Bay back to Middle Channel in the early part of December. The recovery of the one
Effingham Inlet tag (2F) about the same time indicates a more general movement into Middle
Channel towards the close of the fishing season.
It is interesting to note that from one catch of 200 tons made in Effingham Inlet (November 28th) twenty-six tags were recovered by the detector even though it was operating at a
relatively low efficiency. This concentration of tagged fish in the Effingham Inlet catches
will be discussed later in connection with the magnet recoveries.
RECOVERY OF TAGS BY MAGNETS.
Sources and Limitations of Recoveries.
The seven magnets which were in operation on the west coast of Vancouver Island
recovered 770 tags, which were distributed among the various plants as follows: Kildonan,
75; Ecoole, 288; Toquart, 117; Ucluelet, 197; Nootka, 38; Ceepeecee, 54; Hecate, 1.
Among these were represented one or more recoveries from eleven of the twelve taggings of
1936-37 (IA to IL, except IK) and from all seven taggings of the fall of 1937 (2A to 2G>.
The catches yielding these tags came from a great diversity of fishing areas. All of the
west-coast plants except Kildonan processed fish from the south-east coast of Vancouver Island
at one time or another during the season.    Although the Barkley Sound plants operated only BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 83
on Barkley Sound fish in addition to the east-coast fish, those to the westward received herring
from most of the west-coast inlets extending from Barkley to Quatsino Sounds, and also from
Rivers and Cousins Inlets to the north of Vancouver Island.
As has already been pointed out in a preceding section, when fish from different areas
are passed through a reduction plant at close intervals or even during the same season, there
is usually a measure of uncertainty as to the origin of tags picked up by the magnet because
of the possibility of delay in their transit through the reduction machinery. This uncertainty
not only detracts from the value of magnet recoveries in tracing the movements of herring
but also renders difficult the task of presenting and assaying the results. The tags recovered
by all magnets have been arranged according to locality of insertion and probable locality of
capture in Table III., and foot-notes have been added to facilitate their interpretation.
TABLE III.—Tags recovered by Magnets during 1937-38.
Reported Probable Place of Capture.
Code.
Place and Date
of Tagging.
J3
O
c
0
ta
B
tf
m
o
J3    .
tnca
■B
>,
0)
S3
tf
-
T3
CO.
B
M
0
o
55
rt
0    .
■nm
oi*.
rt 2
rt 0"
0 B
O >,
-6
w
o
B
B
>,
rt
° B
-B*l
'XfB
■g.s
a a
B o
>. B
WO
0
tj  .
w e
0 w
3 C
3 3
>>o
WO
e-.
Total.
IA
Swanson Channel, Oct., 1936 -
1
1
IB
Sooke, Oct., 1936
1»
1*
2
1C
1
1
ID
Trincomali Channel, Nov., 1936	
1
_
1
IE
Horswell Point, March, 1937	
1
2
1*
	
	
	
	
....
4
IF
Barkley Sound, March, 1937-	
1
1
1G
Barkley Sound, March, 1937 	
....
lit
	
	
It
	
2
IH
Nootka Sound, March, 1937	
1
1
2
11
Kyuquot Sound, March, 1937 	
311
3§
2
4
4
3
1§
20
IJ
Ououkinsh Inlet, March, 1937	
	
1§
1
2
IK
Nootka Sound, March, 1937	
IL
1
1
2A
Sooke, Sept., 1937  	
4
4t
1*
. 9
2B
Sooke, Oct., 1937  --	
5
10
5
9
6*
8*
—
1*
17
2C
Swanson Channel, Oct., 1937 	
27
2D
Swanson Channel, Nov., 1937	
6
1
4*
11
2E
Barkley Sound, Nov., 1937	
122
122
2F
Barkley Sound, Nov., 1937 ~	
n
422
5t
429
2G
Barkley Sound, Nov.. 1937	
Total	
n
116
It
- 1 --
118
-     1     	
....  |  ....
....
1             1     770
* Plants making recoveries processed fish from the east coast of Vancouver Island during the season.
t Plants making three recoveries processed fish from the east coast of Vancouver Island during the season.
One recovery from plant processing only Barkley Sound fish.
t Plant making recovery processed fish from Barkley Sound during the season.
§ Plant making recovery processed fish from Kyuquot Sound during the season.
|[ Plant making one recovery processed fish from Kyuquot Sound during the season. Other two recoveries from
plants which did not process Kyuquot Sound fish.
11 Tag mutilated; probably H15119, inserted at Barkley Sound on March 12th, 1937; but possibly H16119,
inserted at Ououkinsh Inlet on March 17th, 1937.
Tags of the Previous Season (1936-37).
Considering first the recovery of tags inserted on the east coast of Vancouver Island and
at Sooke in the fall of 1936 (IA to ID) and in the spring of 1937 (IE and IL), it will be
observed that four recoveries are reported as coming from Swanson Channel, three from
either Swanson Channel or Barkley Sound, two from Barkley Sound, and one is of unknown
origin. The last three deserve further consideration. The IB tag (H7300) was recovered
by Ecoole on November 27th, 1937. Two days previously this plant had been operating on
east-coast fish and there is a strong possibility that this tag came from those. The IE tag
(H10446) was recovered by the Toquart plant on December 5th-6th, 1937, and may actually
have originated from Barkley Sound fish as the last delivery of east-coast herring took place T 84 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
on November 1st, 1937. However, it must be remembered that there is always the possibility
of a tag being delayed in its passage through the plant for a month or even longer. The
second IB tag (H6913) is of unknown origin as it was picked up in the drier of the Ceepeecee
plant about December 25th, 1937. This plant had also processed fish from the east coast, the
last delivery taking place on November 23rd, 1937. It seems certain that most, if not all, of
the ten east-coast tags originated from east-coast fish, but it is possible that one or more were
recovered from the Barkley Sound run.
From the two Barkley Sound taggings of the spring of 1937 (IF and 1G) there were only
three recoveries. That of the IF tagging (H12354) was recovered by the Kildonan plant and
came from catches made in Barkley Sound, the only locality fished. There is some doubt concerning the 1G recoveries. One of these is included as a 1G tag (H15119), but it was so
badly damaged in passing through the plant that the serial number was almost illegible. An
alternative reading (H16119) would identify it as a IJ tag, inserted at Ououkinsh Inlet.
However, unbiased opinion favours the former. It was reported recovered from Barkley
Sound catches by the Ecoole plant. The second 1G recovery (H14116) is reported as originating from Kyuquot Sound or Cousins Inlet. However, it may have actually originated from
one of several localities, including Barkley Sound, as fish from a number of areas were processed a short time previous to the recovery.
The recoveries from the IH, II, and IJ taggings yield no reliable information on the
extent of intermingling of fish of the Nootka and Kyuquot areas. However, the results from
the Kyuquot tagging (II) yielding the most returns suggest that intermingling is limited, for
only three recoveries are reported from Nootka Sound as compared with eight from Kyuquot
Sound and Ououkinsh Inlet. If, as seems highly probable, the tags reported from Kyuquot
Sound or Cousins Inlet also originated in Kyuquot Sound, the ratio is even higher (3:11).
However, because of the great uncertainty of the true origin of the tags, the results for the
two areas  (including Ououkinsh Inlet) will be considered together.
Of the twenty-four recoveries from the Nootka-Kyuquot taggings (IH, II, and IJ), four
are reported as originating in Barkley Sound catches. There is no doubt that the IH tag
(H14407) came from Barkley Sound fish as it was recovered by the Kildonan plant which
operated on fish from this area only. Likewise, one of the II tags (H13688), recovered by
the same plant, came from Barkley Sound fish, but was picked from the drier after the close
of the season. The second II tag (H14717) was recovered by the Toquart plant and very
probably came from Barkley Sound fish, although it may have come from a small quantity
of east-coast fish which were reduced at the beginning of the season. The fourth II tag
(H14814), recovered by the Ceepeecee plant, may well have originated from Kyuquot Sound
fish which were processed just prior to those from Barkley Sound. Therefore, of the twenty-
four recoveries from the Nootka-Kyuquot taggings, three (including the Toquart recovery)
definitely show a migration of Nootka-Kyuquot spawning fish to Barkley Sound. Some
degree of intermingling between these two runs therefore takes place and, although its exact
extent is unknown, it would appear to involve about 15 to 20 per cent, of the Nootka-Kyuquot
fish. This figure, however, is a very rough approximation and should be accepted with reservation. A satisfactory estimate of the amount of intermingling requires some knowledge
concerning the sizes of the populations involved and fuller recovery data than are now
available.    Accordingly, further discussion is reserved for future reports.
Tags of the Current Season (1937-38).
From the Sooke taggings of the fall of 1937 (2A and 2B), twenty-six recoveries were
made by west-coast magnets. Of these nine are reported as coming from Swanson Channel,
five from either Swanson Channel or Barkley Sound, ten from Barkley Sound, one from Kyuquot Sound, and one from either Kyuquot Sound or Cousins Inlet. It is probable that most
or these tags originated from east-coast fish. On the other hand, at least one of the ten
recoveries reported from Barkley Sound actually came from catches made in that area. This
recovery (H19334) from the 2A tagging was made by the Kildonan plant from fish taken at
the close of the Barkley Sound fishing season. The 2A tag reported as being recovered from
Kyuquot Sound fish by Ceepeecee and the 2B tag from either Kyuquot or Cousins Inlet fish
by Nootka may have originated from east-coast' fish which passed through the plants one and
three days previously. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 85
The one definite recovery of a Sooke tag from Barkley Sound catches demonstrates that
at least a small percentage of the fish tagged at Sooke moved along the west coast of Vancouver Island to Barkley Sound, rather than along the south shore to the east coast of the
island. It suggests, also, that some of the other Sooke tags reported as coming from Barkley
Sound catches may be considered to be authentic records. This applies particularly to three
recoveries made by the Toquart plant about November 24th, 1937, and to three recoveries
made by the Ucluelet plant from November 30th to December 4th, 1937. The last delivery of
east-coast fish to the former was on November 1st and to the latter on November 18th. However, evidence that only a very small percentage of the fish tagged at Sooke moved to Barkley
Sound is available in a comparison of the number of Sooke tags recovered per 1,000 tons of
east-coast fish by the magnets and by the Galiano detector. West-coast plants which recovered
the twenty-six Sooke tags processed 5,984 tons of east-coast fish. This represents 4.3 tags
per 1,000 tons. The Galiano detector recovered twenty-one Sooke tags from 4,512 tons or 4.7
per 1,000 tons. If any considerable number of fish bearing Sooke tags were present in west-
coast catches the former figure (4.3) would have been larger than the latter (4.7), assuming-
random distribution of tagged fish in east-coast catches and a similar efficiency in the two
methods of recovering tags.
Concerning the thirty-eight Swanson Channel tags recovered by west-coast magnets, little
need be said. It seems probable that all originated from east-coast fish, even although twelve
are reported as having been recovered from Barkley Sound catches. All of the plants which
recovered the latter processed east-coast fish a short time previous to each recovery. No
Swanson Channel tags were recovered from Barkley Sound fish by the Kildonan plant.
By far the largest number of magnet recoveries consist of Barkley Sound tags (2E, 2F,
and 2G) which were recovered from Barkley Sound fish soon after they were inserted. Of
the 669 recoveries only nine were reported from catches made in other areas. Three of these
were reported from Swanson Channel fish, but the plant making the recoveries (Ecoole) was
operating on Barkley Sound fish at the same time. It seems certain that the tags came from
the latter as they were recovered within a few days after the time they were used. More
doubt surrounds the six tags recovered by the Nootka plant and reported as coming from
Nootka Sound catches. These were recovered some time after the last Barkley Sound
delivery (December 6th, 1937) as follows: December 16th, two; December 18th, three; January 9th, one. Between December 10th and December 15th, both the dust-chamber at the end
of the drier and the conveyer leading from the drier to the grinder were cleaned out, thus
reducing the possibility of tags from previous runs remaining there. Members of the plant
crew noted that the tags collected on the magnet during or immediately following the processing of fish from one particular place—Ewin Creek. It "would seem, therefore, that these
results show a migration of fish from Barkley Sound to Nootka Sound after the close of the
fishing season in the former area. However, this cannot be concluded with certainty as there
is always the possibility of tags being temporarily caught in some hidden recess of the plant
system, even though the latter was cleaned out following the processing of Barkley Sound fish.
The magnet recoveries of the Barkley Sound tags, although subject to considerable uncertainty in regard to their exact origin within the sound, nevertheless tend to confirm the
local movements of fish shown by the induction detector recoveries and indicate that the
movements involved considerable quantities of fish. In the following table are included only
those recoveries which were reported as coming from Rainy Bay, Effingham Inlet, and Middle
Channel, the three tagging localities. Other recoveries reported from intermediate points, and
those in which the locality of capture is vague or is questioned by the operators, are omitted.
Tagging Locality.
No. REPORTED AS RECOVERED FROM
Rainy
Bay.
Middle
Channel.
Effingham
Inlet.
Rainy Bay (2E)              	
21
12
15
19
54
51
13
Effingham Inlet (2F)                                -	
181
Middle Channel (2G) - 	
7 T 86
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937,
It may be seen that in each case the largest number of recoveries were reported from the
tagging locality. However, the next largest numbers from the Rainy Bay and Effingham
Inlet taggings were reported from Middle Channel, and the next largest number from the
Middle Channel tagging was reported from Rainy Bay. Results such as this would be expected if, as shown by the Ucluelet detector returns, there was a movement of herring from
Middle Channel to Rainy Bay, which was followed by a movement from both Rainy Bay and
Effingham Inlet to Middle Channel.
Intensity of the Fishery in Barkley Sound.
The percentage recovery of tags inserted in Barkley Sound is included in the following
schedule:—
Tagging.
No.
inserted.
No. RECOVERED.
Per Cent.
Magnets.
Detector.
Total.
recovered.
2E                                          _
700
1,298
800
122
429
118
5
37
11
127
466
129
18.2
2F  ,	
2G   	
35.9
16.1
All 	
2,798
669
53
722
25.S
As magnets were installed in all plants operating on Barkley Sound fish, these percentages represent the minimum percentage of fish taken by the fishery during the interval
between the date of tagging and the close of the fishing season (assuming for the present that
all recoveries came from fish caught in Barkley Sound). The high value for Effingham Inlet
(2F) may have been due partly to the capture of isolated lots of tagged fish immediately after
their liberation; but, even so, it is taken as an indication of particularly intensive fishing on
the schools which were present in that inlet. The average percentage recovery from all
Barkley Sound taggings (25.8), over an average period of about two weeks, is somewhat
greater than the probable percentage recovery of Swanson Channel tags (21.1) by the Galiano
detector over a period of seven weeks. This is taken as an indication of a more intensive
fishery in Barkley Sound than in Swanson Channel, relative to the quantities of fish present
at the time. However, what proportion the latter form of the total population in each
locality is not known.
MOVEMENTS AND INTERMINGLING OF HERRING AS INDICATED BY
THE RECOVERY OF TAGS.
The results of the first two seasons of tagging and recovery have yielded considerable
positive information on the movements of herring and certain indications of the extent of
intermingling between fish of different localities. In the following summary of the information which has been gathered to date, the terms " certain " recovery and " probable " recovery
are used in connection with magnet returns concerning which there is no doubt and some
doubt, respectively, as to their origin.
The recoveries by the Galiano detector during the fall of 1936 and 1937 have shown that
most if not all of the fish supplying the Swanson Channel and Trincomali Channel fishing-
grounds on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island move in from the Strait of Juan de Fuca
prior to and during the fishing season. There are indications that in 1936 the herring did
not move directly from Swanson to Trincomali Channels, but arrived at the latter by some
devious migration route, probably through Porlier Pass.
That some of the fish occurring in the Strait of Juan de Fuca during late September
move along the west coast of Vancouver Island to Barkley Sound rather than to the east coast
in shown by the certain recovery of one Sooke tag in Barkley Sound catches. However, the
results indicate that the proportion of fish moving in this direction is quite small.
The probable recovery of Horswell Point tags from east-coast catches by magnets indicates that the run to the south-east coast of the island embraces waters at least as far to the
north-west as Departure Bay. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 87
The results of tagging to date have shown that at least some of the east-coast fish have
come to the same general locality for two consecutive seasons. The Galiano detector returns
and most of the magnet returns give no indication of intermingling between the runs of
herring of the east and west coasts of the island. However, the probable recovery of one
Horswell Point tag in Barkley Sound catches suggests that intermingling on a small scale may
take place, although it has not been definitely proven as yet.
The majority of tags inserted in the spring and recovered by magnets in the fall on the
west coast of Vancouver Island were reported from catches made in the same general areas
in which they were liberated. For the present the Nootka-Kyuquot runs are considered as
one, although there is some evidence that intermingling between them is limited. At least
three of these magnet recoveries definitely show the movement of some fish from Nootka and
Kyuquot Sounds in the spring to Barkley Sound in the fall. The exact extent of this intermingling is unknown, but it would appear to involve about 15 to 20 per cent, of the Nootka-
Kyuquot fish. It should be borne in mind that this estimate applies only to the one year
(spring to winter, 1937).
During December, 1937, some of the fish tagged in Barkley Sound during the previous
month may have moved to the westward along the coast to Ewin Creek, Nootka Sound.
This is strongly indicated, but not proven, by the probable recovery of Barkley Sound tags
in catches from the latter locality.
Local movements of herring as shown by Ucluelet detector and magnet recoveries took
place within the waters of Barkley Sound during the 1937 fall fishing season. These, however, are of minor importance.
A general discussion of the extent of intermingling of the herring-runs to the various
inlets as revealed by the recovery of tags, and a comparison of these findings with those
derived from racial studies (Tester, 1936 and 1937) will be reserved for the future, pending
the collection of more complete data. For the present it may be stated that so far the general
conclusions from the two methods of study are in accord, but that intermingling on the west
coast of Vancouver Island appears to be somewhat more extensive than was expected from
former work.
The present indications are that with the direct method of attack afforded by the application and recovery of internal tags it should be possible to solve the problems connected with
the movements of herring within a relatively short time, and thus enable positive statements
of practical importance to be made regarding the extent of intermingling of the various runs.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The whole-hearted support and assistance of members of the herring fishery, including
managers, plant crews, and fishermen, has been one of the major factors contributing to
the advancement of this investigation. To all who have helped, we wish to express our
sincere thanks.
We are particularly indebted to Mr. J. Lysnes and Mr. D. Wilson, in charge at the Ucluelet plant of the Banfield Packing Co., Ltd., for building the conveyer system to accommodate
the Ucluelet detector and for assistance during its operation. We are also greatly indebted
to the Moresby Island Fisheries Co., Ltd., Galiano Island, and to Mr. Condo, the plant manager, for permitting the Galiano detector to be installed and operated for the second season,
even though this entailed some inconvenience to their own operations.
Again the assistance of the industry was invoked in carrying out the spring tagging
programme. The British Columbia Packers, Ltd., placed the seine-boat " Chamiss " at our
disposal during the month of March. To Mr. Frank Ellis and the company at large we
express our appreciation, and to the crew—Captain J. H. Auchterlonie; Mr. Wm. Burgess,
engineer; and Mr. J. Sherlock, cook—our sincere thanks for their assistance during the cruise.
We are indebted to Mr. W. Ashby and Mr. N. Gerard, of the British Columbia Packers,
Ltd., for permission to tag herring in Barkley Sound from the company's boats; and to Mr.
J. Akerman, captain of the tender " Ispaco No. 1," and Mr. J. Kasulandish, captain of the
seine-boat " Dominion No. 1," for assistance during this tagging.
We are grateful to Mr. George McLean, who provided us with fish from his herring-weir
at Birch Bay, Washington, and to Mr. Loyd Royal, of the Washington State Department of
Fisheries, who made the arrangements for procuring the fish.    We acknowledge our debt to many fishermen who have allowed us to remove fish from their seines, sometimes to their own
inconvenience. Once more our thanks are due to Mr. H. Goodrich, who has again given every
assistance in helping us to tag herring taken in the salmon-traps at Sooke.
Mr. L. Quickenden, of this Station, has been of the greatest assistance in all phases of
the work. He has done much of the actual tagging during both the fall and spring, and
he both devised and manufactured the tagging-guns described in this report. We are very
grateful to him for his many services.
The investigation has been undertaken under the combined auspices of the Provincial
Fisheries Department and the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Sincere thanks are again
offered to Dr. W. A. Clemens, Pacific Biological Station, for direction and advice, and to Mr.
G. J. Alexander, Assistant Commissioner of Fisheries, for interest and stimulation in the work.
REFERENCES.
Dahlgren, E. H. Further developments in the tagging of the Pacific herring (Clupea pal-
lasii). Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer. Vol. XL, No. 2,
229-247, 1936.
Hart, J. L. Tagging British Columbia pilchards (Sardinops cserulea (Girard)): Methods
and preliminary results.    Report, B.C. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1936, 49-54, 1937.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester. The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
Methods, apparatus, insertions and recoveries during 1936-37. Report, B.C. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1936, 55-67, 1937.
Janssen, J. F. First report of sardine tagging in California. California Fish and Game.
Vol. 23, No. 3, 190-204, 1937.
Rounsefell, G. A., and E. H. Dahlgren. Tagging experiments on the Pacific herring
(Clupea pallasii): Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer. Vol.
VIIL, No. 3, 371-384, 1933.
Tester, A. L. Some results of the British Columbia herring investigation and their economic
bearing.    Report, B.C. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1935, 74-80, 1936.
Tester, A. L. Populations of herring (Clupea pallasii) in the coastal waters of British Columbia.    Journal, Biological Board of Canada.    Vol. III., No. 2, 108-114, 1937. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 89
TABLE IV.
Detailed List of the Tags inserted during 1937-38.
Series
H.
Date
released.
Tagging
Code.
Where released.
No. of
Tags
used.
8407- 8605
Oct.   22, 1937
Nov.     9, 1937
Oct.    22, 1937
Oct.    22, 1937
Nov.     9, 1937
Sept. 25, 1937
Oct.    23, 1937
Nov.     9, 1937
Sept. 25, 1937
Nov.    9, 1937
Sept. 25, 1937
Nov.     9, 1937
Nov.     9, 1937
Nov.     9, 1937
Oct.    18, 1937
Oct.     9, 1937
Oct.     9, 1937
Oct.   18, 1937
Oct.   18, 1937
Oct.     9, 1937
Oct.    22, 1937
Oct.      9, 1937
Oct.    18, 1937
Oct.      9, 1937
Nov.     9, 1937
Sept. 25, 1937
Nov.     9, 1937
Sept. 25, 1937
Oct.    22, 1937
Nov.     9, 1937
Nov.   25, 1937
Nov.  28, 1937
Feb.   26, 1938
Nov.   25, 1937
Nov.  28, 1937
Nov.  23, 1937
Nov.   23, 1937
Nov.  28, 1937
Nov.   25,  1937
Nov.   28,  1937
Dec.      1, 1937
Nov.  23, 1937
Nov.  23, 1937
Nov.   28,  1937
Nov.   21,  1937
Nov.   25, 1937
Nov.   28, 1937
Nov.   23, 1937
Nov.   21, W37
Nov.   18, 1937
Mar.    7, 1938
Dec.     4, 1937
Mar.   15, 1938
Mar.     7, 1938
Mar.    8, 1938
Mar.    7, 1938
Mar.    7, 1938
Mar.     8, 1938
Mar.     9, 1938
Mar.   15, 1938
Mar.     7, 1938
Mar.     8, 1938
2C
2D
2C
2C
2D
2A
2C
2D
2A
2D
2A
2D
2D
2D
2C
2B
2B
2C
2C
2B
2C
2B
2C
2B
2D
2A
2D
2A
2C
2D
2E
2F
2N
2E
2F
2F
2G
2F
2E
2F
2G
2G
2F
2F
2F
2E
2F
2G
2F
2E
2H
2G
2P
2H
2H
2H
20
2H
21
2P
20
20
100
8606- 9018
100
9019- 9128
99
9130- 9289
100
9201- 9298
35
9301- 9400
Off Sooke                          ....	
100
9401- 9500
9501- 9600
Off Shingle Bay      	
83
100
9601- 9700
Off Sooke          —- -	
99
9701- 9800
9801- 9900
Swanson Channel        	
Off Sooke          . ...             - 	
100
100
9901-10000
100
16601-16700
100
16901-17000
17101-17200
Swanson Channel —   — 	
100
100
17201-17300
Off Sooke          .- -             	
100
17701-17800
Off Sooke - -	
100
17901-18000
99
18101-18200
Off Beaver Point  —	
100
18201-18500
Off Sooke
300
18501-18600
96
18701-18800
Off Sooke          - .                       	
100
18801-18900
Off Beaver Point-           	
100
18901-19000
Off Sooke       	
100
19201-19300
100
19301-19400
Off Sooke -	
100
19401-19500
Off Beaver Point.	
100
19501-19600
Off Sooke    	
100
19801-19900
100
19901-20000
100
20001-20100
Off Knob Point	
100
20101-20300
Effingham Inlet ..—  	
199
20301-20400
100
20401-20600
200
20601-20700
100
20701-20800
100
20801-20900
Off Pill Point   -	
100
20901-21000
100
21001-21100
21101-21200
Off Knob Point   	
100
100
21201-21300
100
21301-21600
Off Pill Point     ....	
300
21601-21800
200
21801-21900
100
21901-22000
100
22001-22100
Off Knob Point   _	
100
22101-22200
100
22201-22300
Off Pill Point  	
100
22301-22400
100
22401-22500
100
22501-23200
700
23201-23300
Off Bird Rocks 	
100
23301-23400
100
23401-23700
Macoah Passage  _	
300
23701-24100
400
24101-24200
99
24201-24300
Horswell Point  	
100
24301-24800
24801-25000
199
25001-25100
False Narrows :   S.E. side 	
100
25101-25200
Off Horswell Point  	
100
25201-25500
Off Horswell Point    	
300 T 90
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Detailed List of the Tags inserted during 1937-38—Continued.
Series
H.
Date
released.
Tagging
Code.
Where released.
No. of
Tags
used.
25501-
25601-
25701-
26801-
26201-
26301-
26401-
26501-
26601-
26701-
26801-
26901-
27001-
27201-
27301-
27401-
27601-
27701-
27801-
28101-
28501-
28601-
28801-
28901-
29201-
29301-
29401-
29601-
30201-
30801-
31501-
32501-
33401-
33501-
33701-
33801-
33901-
35101-
36201-
35301-
35401-
35501-
35601-
35901-
36001-
41901-
43001-
43301-
44001-
45001-
45301-
45801-
■25600
25700
25800
■26100
■26300
26400
26500
26600
26700
26800
26900
27000
27200
27300
27400
27500
27700
27800
28100
28500
28600
28800
28900
29200
29300
29400
29600
30200
30800
31500
32500
33400
33500
33700
33800
33900
35100
35200
35300
35400
36500
35600
35900
36000
36300
42000
43300
43800
44300
45300
45800
46000
Mar.
Dec.
Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Feb.
Mar.
Feb.
Oct.
Nov.
Oct.
Oct.
Mar.
Feb.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Apr.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
1938
1937
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1937
1937
1937
1937
1938
1938
1937
1937
1937
1937
1937
1937
1937
1937
1937
1937
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
1938
17 1938
23, 1938
20
2G
2N
2P
2H
2N
20
2H
2N
20
2N
2C
2D
2C
2C
2H
2N
2E
2D
2D
2D
2D
2D
2D
2D
2F
2D
2J
21
2J
2K
2L
2M
2L
2M
2L
2M
2S
2S
2T
2S
2T
2S
2S
2T
21
2R
2S
2T
2Q
2Q
2R
Off Horswell Point..
Useless Inlet 	
Ganges  Harbour	
False Narrows:   S.E.
Macoah   Passage.	
Ganges Harbour	
Off Horswell Point-..
Macoah Passage	
Ganges  Harbour	
Off  Horswell  Point-
Ganges Harbour	
Off Moresby Island.....
Swanson Channel -
Beaver Point Bay.	
Off Beaver Point	
Macoah  Passage	
Ganges Harbour —
Rainy Bay 	
side-
Moresby Passage.—
Moresby Passage.—
Moresby Passage-
Moresby Passage....
Off Beaver Point-
Swanson Channel..
Off Beaver Point...
Effingham Inlet	
Swanson Channel-
Queens   Cove	
Calm Creek	
Queens Cove...	
Plumper Harbour-
Winter Harbour-
Off Bella Bella	
Winter   Harbour..
Off Bella Bella	
Winter Harbour..
Off Bella Bella-
Union   Bay	
Union Bay	
Birch  Bay 	
Union   Bay	
Birch Bay 	
Union Bay.	
Union Bay.—--	
Birch Bay 	
Calm Creek..	
Departure Bay-
Union   Bay	
Birch Bay	
False Narrows:
False Narrows:
Departure  Bay..
N.W. side..
N.W. side .
100
100
100
297
100
99
100
100
100
91
100
100
200
83
97
100
200
100
300
398
100
196
100
300
100
99
200
594
600
699
995
898
100
200
99
100
1,196
100
99
99
100
100
, 299
99
298
100
300
499
300
300
499
200
NOTE.—The  general locality  in  which  each  tagging  took  place  may be  obtained  from  the tagging  code   by
reference to Table I. r
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 91
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE LIMNOLOGY OF SHUSWAP LAKE,
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By W. A. Clemens, R. E. Foerster, N. M. Carter, and D. S. Rawson,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
During two weeks in July in each of the years 1931 and 1932 the writers conducted
courses of instruction at Shuswap Lake for the Dominion Hatchery Officers in British
Columbia. The headquarters in both years were at Sorrento, the field-work being carried
out on the main arm of Shuswap Lake near its outlet. During the four weeks a considerable
amount of information was obtained concerning the limnology of that section of the lake and
it has seemed of value to record the data.
DESCRIPTION.
The lake lies at an elevation of 1,150 feet above sea-level and has roughly a shape of a
distorted letter " H." The area is somewhat over 100 square miles, but the length and
narrowness of the arms are such that the shore-line has a length of approximately 600 miles.
The lake is drained by the South Thompson River into the Thompson River and thence into
the Fraser. There are several large tributaries, notably, Adams River, Scotch Creek, Seymour
River, Eagle River, Shuswap River, and Salmon River. The arm of Shuswap Lake investi-
gated is shown in Fig. 1. GEOLOGY.
Geologically, the area surrounding Shuswap Lake is very complex, and a full discussion
is given in the Canadian Geological Survey Memoir No. 68 (Daly, 1915). Three major
events are of interest: (1) The extension of an arm of the ocean into the area in very
early geological time; (2) a later uplift to the extent of 2,000 feet; (3) glaciation by an
ice-sheet, 6,000 feet in thickness. S0UNDINGS.
Soundings were taken across the arm at various places and at a few isolated points.
The positions were located by means of cross-sights from two known positions on shore. The
locations and depths (in feet) are shown in Fig. 1. The five soundings in parentheses are
the only ones previously on record, and it will be observed that depths up to 345 feet have
been found. Probable positions of the 50-, 100-, and 150-foot contours of the bottom are
indicated. The bottom in the deeper parts consists of grey clayey ooze with a brownish
surface, while toward the shore opposite Sorrento it is largely gravel which was probably
brought down by Scotch Creek through an earlier outlet.
PHYSIC-CHEMICAL OBSERVATIONS.
On July 17th, 1931, between 3 to 4 p.m. on a hot, clear day, a vertical series of water
samples was taken at a point one-half mile south-west of Copper Island. Observations of
temperature were made with a reversing thermometer, dissolved oxygen determinations by
the Winkler method, and pH determinations by a La Motte colour-comparison set. On
September 5th, 1931, another series of observations was made off Sorrento when a strong
north wind was blowing.    These two sets of data are given in Table I.
TABLE I.—Temperature, Oxygen, and pH Data, Shuswap Lake, 1931.
Temperature in
Degrees Centigrade.
Oxygen in
cc. per Litre.
pH.
July 17, 1931:
Surface
19.2°
6.5
7.65
2 m.
18.4
	
7.75
5 m.
17.7
	
7.7
7.5 m.
16.9
	
10 m.
15.2
	
7.5
15 m.
11.4
	
	
17.5 m.
9.9
	
20 m.
8.0
7.6
7.45
29 m.
6.6
44 m.
5.8
7.3
64 m.
5.4
7.3
7.35 T 92
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
TABLE I.—Temperature, Oxygen, and pH Data, Shuswap Lake, 1931—Continued.
Temperature in
Degrees Centigrade.
Oxygen in
cc. per Litre.
pH.
Sept. 5, 1931:
Surface
19.2
7.5
7.7
10 m.
19.2
	
	
12.5 m.
19.2
	
	
15.0 m.
15.1
	
17.5 m.
10.5
	
	
20.0 m.
30.0 m.
8.6
5.8
6.4
7.2
On July 23rd, 1931, a vertical series was taken at a point south-west of Copper Island
by the men attending the course. Owing to the number of observers and lack of experience
the results may not be absolutely accurate, but they afford a general picture of existing
conditions. A second series was taken on July 8th, 1932, at a point 1 mile north-east of
Sorrento, by the second group of hatchery officers. These two sets of data are shown
graphically in Fig. 2, along with oxygen and pH records obtained at the same time.
It will be noted that on July 17th, 1931, the change in temperature between 8 and 18
metres (8.7 and 19.7 yards) constitutes a thermocline in the strict sense of the term. In
spite of this stratification the lower water has more than 7 cc. per litre of dissolved oxygen
and there is no indication of stagnation. Immediately prior to September 5th, 1931, strong
winds had brought about a thorough mixing of the upper 12 metres (13 yards) of water so
that the thermocline on that date occurs between 13 and 20 metres (14.2 and 21.8 yards).
The oxygen content of the hypolimnion was still more than 6 cc. per litre at 30 metres (32.8
yards).    The great volume of the hypolimnion in Shuswap Lake provides a large store of
°Xygen" HIGHER AQUATIC VEGETATION.
The shore-line in general is stony and while potamogetons occur to some extent offshore,
abundant growths of aquatic plants occur only in the sheltered bays. In some areas Chara
occurred more or less sparsely. The following forms were collected: Equisetum variegatum,
Isotes bolanderi, Potamogeton epihydrus, P. heterophyllus, P. americanus, P. richardsoni,
Triglochin palustris, Sagittaria latifolia, Ranunculus aquatilis var. capillaceus, Hippurus
vulgaris, Myriophyllum spicatum, Utricidaria intermedia. The various species were abundant
in Blind Bay and in a backwater near Scotch Creek landing—the potamogetons and bladder-
wort particularly so. PLANKTON.
The plankton in the open waters was relatively small in amount and in number of species,
but in sheltered bays it was considerably more abundant.    A total vertical haul with a large
No. 20 net on July 17th, 1931, gave 2.55 cc. of plankton and on September 5th, 1931, 1.95 cc,
an average of 2.25 cc.    The average of eight similar hauls in Paul Lake in July and August,
1931, was 4.4 cc.   (Rawson, 1934),   and the average of eleven similar hauls in Okanagan
Lake in July and August, 1935, was 1.4 cc (manuscript).    The following forms occurred:—
Algae:     Glceothece,    Gloeacapsa,    Anabsena,    Melosira,    Stephanodiscus,    Synedra,
Fragillaria,    Asterionella,    Tabellaria,    Desmidium,    Staurastrum,    Spirogyra,
Mougeotia.
Protozoa:   Ceratium hirundinella, Dinobryon sertularia.
Rotifera:   Conochilus, Keratella cochlearis var. macracantha, Notholca longispina,
Polyarthra.
Copepoda:  Cyclops bicuspidatus, Diaptomus ashlandi, Epischura nevadensis, Cantho-
camptus minutus.
Cladocera: Sida crystallina, Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Holopedium gibberum,
Daphnia longispina, Simocephalus vetidus, Scapholeberis mucronata, Cerio-
daphnia reticulata, Bosmina longispina, Eurycercus lamellatus, Chydorus
sphsericus, Acroperus harpse, Alona costata, Alona affinis, Pleuroxus denticula-
tus, Pleuroxus procurvatus, Leptodora kindtii. Mr. G. M. Neal took the following in Salmon Arm in July, 1935: Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia megalops,
Kurzia latissima.  T 94
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
7empensfuns O/sso/vec/ Oxygen
afegsiees Ce/if/grtsc/e cc. p&r ///re
o /o 20 7 a 7.6
/>"
/o
8»
\
$.30
<U>
so
20
7.6
7.3
I/O
\
%20
30
40
Fig. 2. Temperatures, dissolved oxygen, and pH, Shuswap Lake, July 23rd, 1931, and July 8th, 1932. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 95
SHORE INVERTEBRATES.
Aquatic invertebrates, exclusive of plankton forms, were abundant among the aquatic
vegetation, and certain species were found in considerable numbers clinging to the stones
along the general shore-line. It has not been possible to obtain identifications in all groups,
but the examinations which have been completed are as follows:—
Hirudinea:   Helobdella stagnalis, Glossiphonia heteroclita, Erpobdella punctata.
Crustacea:  Hyalella azteca.
Ephemeroptera:     Hexagenia   limbata,   Heptagenia,   Ephemerella   doddsi,    Csenis,
Trichorythodes, Centroptilum, Chlceon, Bastis, Callibxtis, Siphlonurus occidentalis.
From   Scotch   Creek:    Iron,   Cinygmula,   Rhithrogena,   Ephemerella   doddsi,
Ephemerella coloradensis.
Hemiptera:   Arctocorixa modesta, Arctocorixa sp. near alternata.
Trichoptera:   Limnephilidse, Polycentropidss, Leptoceridze, Lepidostomatinse.
Coleoptera:   Rhantus binotatus, Tropisternus sp. near lateralis, Berosus, Laccophilus
maculosus, Gyrinus confinis, Hydroporus septentrionalis, H. signatus, H. striatil-
lus, Halipus leechi, Eurygenius campanulatus.
Mollusca:    Musculium  truncatum,  Valvata  lewisi,   Gyraulus   vermicularis,  Physa,
Helisoma subcrenatum, Stagnicola johnsoni.
BOTTOM ORGANISMS.
By means of an Ekman grab-dredge, bringing up 81 square inches of bottom, a quantitative study was made of the distribution of bottom invertebrates. In 1931, a series of eleven
dredgings was taken across the arm from the Scotch Creek ferry landing to Sorrento. Again
in 1932 a series of twenty-eight samplings was taken at five stations extending from Sorrento
toward the Scotch Creek ferry landing. The results have been combined and calculated on the
basis of a square yard of bottom and are shown in Table II. and Fig. 3. It will be seen
that from the south shore, the crop of bottom organisms was most abundant at about the
25-foot depth. There was a sparse growth of Chara and Potamogetons in this area and
young spring salmon, lake chub, and squawfish were abundant here.
The number of bottom organisms varies from 128 to 449 per square yard, an average of
254. This is rather low in comparison with Okanagan with 304 bottom organisms in 1935 and
Paul Lake with 1,136 in 1931.
TABLE II.—Bottom Organisms per Square Yard, Shuswap Lake, 1931 and 1932.
From South Shore (Sorrento).
From
North Shore (Scotch Creek).
1
125 ft.
15 ft.
Silt
5
8
5
11
8
85
51
5
8
2
250 ft.
25 ft.
Silt
21
36
3
3
99
103
105
36
43
3
500 ft.
50 ft.
Silt
141
3
3
5
77
8
40
3
4
1,000 ft.
80 ft.
Silt
76
56
1
5
1,500 ft.
100 ft.
Silt
43
123
5
1,300 ft.
140 ft.
Ooze
48
64
16
4
300 ft.
80 ft.
Ooze-
clay
48
240
3
200 ft.
30 ft.
Mud
32
128
48
64
2
150 ft.
10 ft.
Gravel
272
16
48
16
1
100 ft.
Depth 	
6 ft.
16
16
Mayfly Nymphs
Caddis larv.-e (Trichoptera) —
Midge larvte (Chironomidaa) —
208
16
White clams (Sphasriidie)..
Miscellaneous —	
32
186
449
280
133
166
128
288
272
352
288 T 96
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
2>00
/S 2S
SO
Oeptf?   /n -free.
SO /OO     /40
8O3O/0€
O /0O20O300     SOO
/OOO /SCO    /300 /OOO
0/&rt&s?ce   /vtc/77 &/?ore   /'r> fee.
SOO   SOO 200/00 0
Fig. 3. Distribution of bottom organisms, Shuswap Lake, 1931 and 1932.
FISH.
Collections of fish were made by means of seine hauls and gill-net settings and the following species were obtained:—
Coarse-scaled sucker   (Castostomus macrocheilus),   fine-scaled sucker   (Catostomus
catostomus),    lake   chub    (Mylocheilus   caurinus),    squawfish    (Ptychocheilus
oregonensis),  lake shiner  (Richardsonius balteatus),   dace  (Apocope falcata),
carp   (Cyprinus carpio),  Eastern whitefish   (Coregonus  clupeaformis),  Rocky
Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni),  young spring salmon (Oncorhyn-
chus tschawytscha),   young coho salmon  (O. kisutch),   young sockeye salmon
(0. nerka),  kokanee (O. nerka kennerlyi),   Kamloops trout (Salmo gairdneri
kamloops),   Dolly Varden  char   (Salvelinus  malma),   ling   (Lota  maculosa),
sculpin (Cottus asper).
Shuswap Lake has always been a very important salmon-spawning area.    Spring salmon
spawn in various tributaries and the young spend several months in the lake before commencing their seaward migration.    In both 1931 and 1932, very large numbers of these young fish,
about ZVi inches in length, were feeding along the entire shore length of the portion of the
lake  under  observation,  breaking  the  surface  of  the  water  everywhere  in  the  evenings.
Examination of stomach contents showed the food to consist largely of midge pupa?, water
boatmen, and water fleas, chiefly Daphnia   (Clemens, 1934).    Large numbers of these fish
were leaving the lake during July, and Kamloops trout were apparently feeding extensively
upon them at the mouth of Little River.    Anglers were making good catches of the trout by
the use of a silvery lure.
Coho salmon also spawn extensively in the tributaries of the lake, particularly in Eagle
River.    The young usually spend a year in the streams and lakes before going to sea.
In earlier days, Shuswap Lake was one of the most important sockeye-salmon spawning
areas in British Columbia. The adult sockeye in their red spawning livery formed during
August and September a continuous procession in the South Thompson River and were
referred to as the " long red line." They passed into all the tributary streams in almost
incredible numbers. The following account by Mr. D. S. Mitchell is of interest: " Many
years ago I rowed in the moonlight up the Salmon River. About a mile from its mouth I
tied the bow to a long stake that was driven in the bed of the stream. There was no sign of
salmon. I unrolled my blankets in the stern and went to sleep. In the grey of early morning
I was aroused by a commotion and found the river full of sockeye salmon running up-stream.
I put in an oar and felt that the river was half fish. The increasing light soon showed that
it was red from bank to bank. Then a stampede or panic occurred and salmon came surging
down but the river was so full of ascending fish that they blockaded and made a great, flat BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 97
wriggling dam. So jammed were they that they were crowded out and pushed up the sloping
banks out of water. Where the banks steepened these struggling, flapping fish were rolled
down on to the backs of the fish in the river, into the mass of which they would again sink.
The fish lower down stream, suffocating for oxygen, had turned and were rushing back to the
lake to breathe fresh water through their gills. They rushed down-stream creating a great
noise like the roar of a storm or the noise of thousands of wild ducks rising from a lake, and
followed down-stream by a succession of waves. The river was quiet again, flowing by the
stake 14 inches below the wet high-water mark reached a few minutes before. Not a fish
was in sight, but in twenty minutes or so they came back filling the river again from bank
to bank."
Since the time of the rock-slide in the Fraser River Canyon at Hell's Gate in 1913, the
runs to the upper areas of the Fraser River, including Shuswap Lake, have been small. The
first large escapement in recent years took place in 1926, when several hundred thousand
spawned in Adams River and large numbers have appeared in the succeeding cycle-years,
namely, 1930 and 1934.
The young of the sockeye spend a year in the lake and feed largely upon the zoo-plankton.
The productive capacity of the lake in plankton must have been enormous to support the
hundreds of millions of young fish. Since all the Pacific salmon die after spawning the
decomposition of the carcasses may have contributed very much to the fertility of the waters.
Many of the sockeye do not go to sea, but complete their life-cycle in the lake and spawn
in the tributary streams as do the sea-run sockeye. These fish are called kokanees and
constitute a subspecies of the sockeye under the name Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi. They
are known to spawn in Eagle River, and undoubtedly they make use of many other streams.
The Kamloops trout is abundant in the lake and provides an excellent angling fishery.
The Dolly Varden char is also abundant and taken frequently by anglers.
The Rocky Mountain whitefish is common and the young were taken regularly in the
seine hauls. A single specimen of the Eastern whitefish, approximately 15 inches in length,
was taken in a gill-net. While there is no official record of this species having been introduced
into Shuswap Lake, there are rumours to the effect that a planting was made years ago
during the period when whitefish eggs were being brought from Manitoba and Ontario. It
is probable that the species now occurs in limited numbers as it does in Okanagan Lake.
Suckers, minnows, and sculpins are particularly abundant. The origin of the carp is not
known but it has become rather common in the vicinity of Salmon Arm.
The ling is also reported to be abundant in the lake, and considerable numbers appear in
Eagle River in the autumn at the time of salmon spawning.
It is hoped that the account of the natural history of a limited portion of Shuswap Lake,
incomplete as it is, may form the basis for a more extensive study of this interesting and
important body of water.
We wish to gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the following persons in the identification of plants and animals: Dr. F. C. Baker, Dr. C. Betten, Dr. G. C. Carl, Professor
J. Davidson, Professor J. R. Dymond, Dr. F. P. Ide, Dr. J. McDunnough, and Dr. J. Percy
Moore.
REFERENCES.
Clemens, W. A.    Can. Field Nat.    XLVIL, 9, 1934.
Daly, R. A.    Can. Geol. Survey, Mem. 68, 1915.
Rawson, D. S.    Bull, XLIL, Biol. Bd. Can., 1934. T 98 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
ANNUAL REPORT BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH BOARD,
1937-38 SEASON.
Following the decision of the Privy Council in January, 1937, that the " Natural Products
Marketing Act, 1934," was ultra vires the Parliament of Canada, the salt-fish producers of
this Province, comprising the majority of the industry, made application through the Meal,
Oil, and Salt-fish Section, B.C. Division, Canadian Manufacturers' Association, and the
Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited, to the Provincial Department of Agriculture for
a salt-fish marketing scheme under the provisions of the " Natural Products Marketing
(British Columbia) Act."
The application of the producers was  granted and the present  Board  constituted on
August 25th, 1937.    Under subsection   (2)   of section 3 of the Scheme the members of the
Board appointed for the period until  September 30th,  1937, were:—
Mr. Hugh Dalton, Vancouver, B.C.  (Chairman).
Mr. Geo. E. Crawford, Vancouver, B.C.
Mr. A. J. Blackwell, Vancouver, B.C.
Mr. K. Kimura, Vancouver, B.C.
Mr. T. Matsuyama, Vancouver, B.C.
On August 30th, 1937, the above Board held its first meeting, at which time Mr. G. R.
Clark was appointed Secretary. The Board at its inaugural meeting instructed that cables
be dispatched to the Canadian Government Trade Commissioners at Tokyo, Kobe, and Hong
Kong advising them of the setting-up of the Board under the " Natural Products Marketing
(British Columbia) Act," and requesting them to cable an indication of the quantity of
dry-salt herring and dry-salt salmon which could be handled in their respective territories
during the 1937-38 season.
At the outset the Board was faced with difficult conditions in the Orient due to the outbreak of hostilities between Japan and China. On receipt of replies from the different
Canadian Trade Commissioners, including the one located at Shanghai, who had been forwarded the information as to the constitution of the Board through Hong Kong, it became
apparent that the 1937-38 season was going to be an exceptionally difficult one from the
standpoint of marketing and obtaining payment for the goods. The Board, however, undertook every effort to ensure orderly marketing of the products, bearing in mind always the
desire to market as large a volume as possible consistent with the ability to obtain the
necessary funds from the Orient which would show a reasonable return to the producers.
In accordance with the provisions of subsection (3) of section 3 of the Scheme, the
following were appointed members of the Board for the period October 1st, 1937, to September
30th, 1938:—
Appointees of the Meal, Oil, and Salt-fish Section, B.C. Division, Canadian Manufacturers'
Association: Mr. Geo. E. Crawford, foot Gore Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.; Mr. A. J. Blackwell,
119 Pender Street West, Vancouver, B.C.
Appointees of Messrs. Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited: Mr. K. Kimura,
217 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.;  Mr. K. Shiraishi, 217 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Mr. Hugh Dalton, of Vancouver, B.C., was appointed Chairman of the Board by the
Honourable the Commissioner of Fisheries, and Mr. G. R. Clark continued as Secretary of
the Board.
From the initial meeting of the Board on August 30th every effort was made to secure as
much information as possible relative to marketing conditions in the Orient, and as dry-salt
salmon was the product requiring immediate attention the Board devoted its time to working
out some plan which would ensure orderly marketing and at the same time permit the
producer to operate on a reasonable basis. Official word was received through the Canadian
Government Trade Commissioner at Tokyo that the Japanese Government had imposed
currency-exchange restrictions covering imported goods, and as these regulations applied to
dry-salt salmon it became necessary to ascertain the total amount of exchange which the
Japanese Government would grant permits for covering dry-salt salmon. After lengthy
cable exchanges, the Board was advised that the total amount of currency exchange which
would be permitted for dry-salt salmon was 1,316,000 yen, which, converted at a rate of 28%
cents, indicated a total amount of $375,060.    On September 28th the Board was advised by BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 99
the Provincial Department of Fisheries that a total of twenty-six salmon dry-saltery plant
licences had been issued for the 1937-38 season, this being four less than in the previous year.
The Board's task in arriving at equitable individual marketable quantities is, at best, a
decidedly difficult one, but was further complicated in the season under review by the fact
that due to the currency-exchange restrictions implemented by the Government of Japan
the total amount of exchange available had to be taken as the common denominator; i.e., the
Board was faced with the problem of granting a marketable quantity to each of the twenty-
six licensees which would permit of an economical operation, at the same time keeping in
mind the obtaining of a sales price in line with the funds available. One feature of the
situation which was deprecated by the Board was the fact that plant licences were issued
in some cases to producers having no plants; i.e., the salting operations being conducted on a
rented scow. This practice, it is contended, reacts to the disadvantage of those producers
having investments in actual plants who are compelled to maintain and repair such plants,
pay taxes of various kinds, and otherwise contribute to the general welfare of the industry.
In this connection it is suggested by the Board that in future years the Provincial Department of Fisheries give consideration to only issuing salmon dry-saltery plant licences to
those producers having bona-fide plants. It is further suggested by the Board that a scow
operation can be construed as floating equipment and consequently at odds with the present
policy of the Department of Fisheries.
Following very careful consideration by the Board, in the light of all the circumstances,
on October 4th it was determined that the total marketable quantity of dry-salt salmon of all
varieties for the 1937-38 season should be 29,800 boxes, and the Board on this same date
proceeded to determine the individual marketable quantities covering the twenty-six holders
of Provincial plant licences. As previously stated, the task of arriving at a fair basis of
individual marketable quantities was even more difficult in the 1937-38 season. After taking
into consideration the past performance of the licensees, the Board determined the individual
marketable quantities and was, it is contended, most fair and equitable in its method. Following the announcement of the Board's determination of individual marketable quantities one
producer expressed himself as being dissatisfied. It was, however, pointed out by the Board
that the plan followed in arriving at marketable quantities was the fairest one which could
be devised in the interests of all concerned.
Under section 5, subsection (ft), all producers are required to be registered with the
Board, and in forwarding registration certificates to the twenty-six producers, indicating
their individual marketable quantities, the Board advised that the determination of the total
marketable quantity of dry-salt salmon of 29,800 boxes for the 1937-38 season turned on the
question of securing the maximum return for producers, in so far as possible in view of the
fact that twenty-six plant licences had been taken out with the Provincial Department of
Fisheries, or authorizing a much larger quantity which would have made the production and
marketing of the product a distinctly unprofitable venture for the licensees. Further, that
the marketable quantity indicated in the registration certificate represented the best compromise which the Board could arrive at, being designed to secure the maximum price for
producers in relation to the fixed amount of money available to cover marketing during the
season under review.
Under the authority of section 2 of the Scheme, the Board, on October 8th, 1937,
designated the following companies as its marketing agencies covering the marketing of dry-
salt salmon: Messrs. Salt Salmon Exporters of B.C., Limited, 217 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.; Messrs. Producers' Salt Fish Sales, Limited, 355 Burrard Street, Vancouver, B.C.
The Board determined that the terms of marketing covering dry-salt salmon should be
on consignment, with a minimum guaranteed advance to the producer covered by irrevocable
letters of credit without recourse and that the net-weight basis should be not less than 440 lb.
(fish and salt)   per box.
After full consideration by the marketing agencies they reported that the following
minimum guaranteed advances had been agreed upon, same being approved by the Board:—
Dry-salt Chum Salmon.—Fraser River, $14.50 per box U.S. funds, c.i.f. Yokohama, per box
of not less than 440 lb. net shipping weight (fish and salt) ; Island, $13 per box U.S. funds,
c.i.f. Yokohama, per box of not less than 440 lb. net shipping weight (fish and salt) ;   Queen T 100 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
Charlotte, $12.50 per box U.S. funds, c.i.f. Yokohama, per box of not less than 440 lb. net
shipping weight  (fish and salt).
It was decided with respect to varieties of dry-salt salmon other than chums that the
marketing price should be subject to the approval of the Board as the necessity arose. Dry-
salted chum salmon is the most important species as far as the Japanese market is concerned;
other varieties such as springs, pinks, sockeye, and cohoe being in limited demand. It is
also unfortunate that the only available market for British Columbia dry-salted salmon is
Japan. Japan herself is a large producer of dry-salt salmon and in view of the difficult
conditions obtaining in the Orient, which as the season advanced became worse, it was only
by strenuous efforts on the part of the Board and its marketing agencies that the interests
of the producers were protected.
In the 1936-37 season the minimum guaranteed advances secured for the producers were:
Fraser River, $12.50 per box; Island, $10 per box; and Queen Charlotte, $9.50 per box; a
total marketable quantity of 31,950 boxes having been determined. In that season the
Japanese market for our dry-salt salmon was particularly weak, due to a very heavy production of Japanese dry-salt salmon. The experience of the 1937-38 season, however, is really
not comparable with any other year for the reason that the Board, in order to secure the
maximum return to the producers for the amount of exchange available, was forced to curtail
the marketable quantity. It developed that the run of chum salmon in British Columbia
was not particularly heavy and there being a demand for the fish for other processing, such
as canning and freezing, raw-fish prices rose to the point where the salters could not operate
economically, resulting in the pack falling short of the total marketable quantity determined
by the Board. The final production and marketing of dry-salt salmon in the 1937-38 season
showed a total of 22,843 boxes, of which 323 boxes were pinks, the balance being chums.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
The British Columbia production of dry-salt herring is consumed entirely in the Orient—
the three main distributing territories being Kobe, Japan; Shanghai, China; and Hong Kong.
Since the inception of the original Salt-fish Board in 1934 under the Dominion " Marketing
Act," it has been the purpose of the Board to establish the system of marketing total given
quantities to each of the three distributing centres. The marketing agencies of the Board
were finally successful in effecting such arrangements with all three ports during the 1936-37
season; Kobe having taken a total of 10,000 tons; Shanghai, 6,500 tons; and Hong Kong,
2,400 tons. These quantities were fully covered by irrevocable letters of credit without
recourse established in Vancouver banks, an achievement never before known in the history
of the dry-salt herring trade.
The position facing the Board at the commencement of the 1937-38 season was, however,
a most complicated and difficult one. Hostilities between Japan and China were at their
height, particularly in the Shanghai area. As a matter of fact, it was not possible at this
time to communicate direct with Shanghai, cable connections being routed via Hong Kong
and at best were uncertain; trans-Pacific steamship lines had eliminated Shanghai as a port
of call with no immediate prospect of the situation clarifying. The situation in Japan, in so
far as dry-salt herring was concerned, was much the same as that for dry-salt salmon;
namely, that the Japanese Government had placed currency-exchange restrictions on the
purchase of our product. It was expected that Hong Kong, being the only uninterrupted
market, would purchase in fair quantity, but general conditions in the Orient tended to
weaken the Hong Kong situation to a marked degree.
Five plants were licensed by the Provincial Department of Fisheries to produce dry-salt
herring, all being located on the east coast of Vancouver Island. The information obtained
by the Board from the Canadian Trade Commissioners in the Orient as to the marketing
prospects had been passed on to the producers, and, as a result of the uncertain situation,
groups of producers joined together in securing a plant licence from the Government, thus
effecting joint operations which, in view of the conditions, paved the way for economic production. The producers also informed the Board, through their respective associations, that they
would not produce any quantity of dry-salt herring until such time as firm orders were
received and approved by the Board.
On November 4th the Board designated the following companies as its marketing
agencies covering the marketing of dry-salt herring for the 1937-38 season:   Messrs. Canadian BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 101
Salt Herring Exporters, Limited, 217 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.;   Messrs. Producers'
Salt Fish Sales, Limited, 355 Burrard Street, Vancouver, B.C.
During the intervening period negotiations were being carried on with a group of
importers in Japan for the purchase of a block of dry-salt herring under an exclusive arrangement. Information was received to the effect that the Japanese Government would grant an
import permit covering dry-salt herring to the value of 869,000 yen, this at an exchange
rate of 28% cents being equivalent to $247,665. Following further negotiations with the
importers in Japan a contract was consummated by the marketing agencies for a total of
8,000 tons of dry-salt herring. A monthly schedule of shipments and prices was submitted
and approved by the Board as follows:—
November     1,600 tons at $33.50    =      $53,600.00
December    2,300 tons at   30.50    =        70,150.00
January        2,400 tons at   28.00    =        67,200.00
February and March   1,700 tons at   26.50    =        40,050.00
8,000 tons at $29.50 (av.) $236,000.00
The condition of marketing the above quantity was subject to the establishment of an
irrevocable letter of credit without recourse in United States funds in a Vancouver bank, as
well as the drawing-up of a formal contract for the approval of the Board. These conditions
were adhered to, the first shipment going forward to Kobe, Japan, on November 18th, 1937.
Having in hand the definite marketing of at least 8,000 tons of dry-salt herring the Board,
on November 4th, determined that the total marketable quantity of dry-salt herring for the
1937-38 season should be 10,000 tons. In view of the extremely precarious position of the
Shanghai market and the weakened situation obtaining in Hong Kong, the Board felt that
extreme caution should be exercised by the producers in only having supplies available which
could be marketed. The operators concurred with the Board's view in this respect, and
in order that all five licensed plants should participate in the average proceeds of all sales
consummated by the marketing agencies the Board with the consent of the producers established a pooling arrangement on a pro rata basis to the marketable quantity determined for
each licensee.
During this time the marketing agencies had been in communication with the buyers in
Hong Kong, it developing that it was impossible to consummate a " single " or en bloc sale.
It transpired that the Hong Kong buyers purchased on a steamer-to-steamer basis, the total
tonnage involved amounting to 830 tons over the season, which worked out to an average
price of $36.27 per ton.
Towards the end of December conditions in Shanghai had improved to the point where
certain of the steamship companies had again placed this port on their schedules. Inquiries
had been received from different Shanghai buyers and the marketing agencies were finally
successful in effecting sales to the Shanghai territory, the first shipment going forward
on January 6th, 1938. In all a total of 1,170 tons was finally marketed in Shanghai at an
average c.i.f. price of $31.57.
The following table indicates the distribution of British Columbia dry-salt herring during
the 1937-38 season:—
Port.
Kobe, Japan 	
Hong Kong 	
Quantity
(Tons).
Average
C.I.F. Price
8,000
$29.50
830
36.27
1,170
31.57
Shanghai, China 	
Total   10,000 $30.30
The Board's survey of the quantity which could be profitably marketed in the 1937-38
season proved correct. Under the abnormal conditions obtaining in the Orient it is felt that
the Board's determination of a total marketable quantity of 10,000 tons was justified, and
it is known that the producers were enabled to operate at a small profit. Had production
been unlimited, however, the results would have been entirely different and would have meant
the carrying-over in storage of a large quantity of unsold stock. T 102 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
SUMMARY.
The Board has endeavoured, since its original inception under the Federal " Natural
Products Marketing Act " in 1934, to secure the maximum returns for the producers consistent
with orderly marketing of the two products. Experience has shown that the vagaries of
the Oriental market, both for dry-salt salmon and dry-salt herring, cannot be judged by any
set rules or regulations; the flexible policy of the Board in meeting and adjusting its
determinations from season to season is felt to be the only method whereby the interests of
the producers can be fully protected. In the case of dry-salt herring consignment shipments
have been entirely eliminated, and by joint operations the producers have demonstrated that
the business can be continued on a reasonably profitable basis. The following average c.i.f.
prices, per ton, for dry-salt herring indicates the progressive rise in the returns to the
producers. The last four years noted below cover the period of the Board's operation,
commencing with the setting-up of the Board originally under the Dominion " Marketing Act."
Average C.I.F. Price
Year. per Ton.
1927   $28.31
1928   27.80
1929   27.03
1930
1931
1932
1933
23.85
19.70
15.85
19.85
1934
1935
1936
1937
27.11
28.45
29.28
30.30
In so far as dry-salt salmon is concerned, as mentioned earlier in this report, British
Columbia is dependent entirely upon the Japanese market for the sale of her dry-salt salmon.
Conditions peculiar to the dry-salt salmon trade exist and it has not as yet been possible
to eliminate entirely the shipping of the product on consignment. The Board has, however,
endeavoured to secure for the producers, through the marketing agencies, a guaranteed
minimum advance per box as nearly in line as is possible with the value of the product, such
advances being covered by irrevocable letters of credit without recourse. The prices obtained
are governed usually by the law of supply and demand, although in the year under review
the restrictions imposed by the Japanese Government added another hazard to the business.
The underquoted table is a comparative statement of the minimum advances obtained in
recent years for our dry-salt salmon:—
Year.
Fraser River
Quality.
Island Quality.
Queen Charlotte
Quality.
1931-  	
$13.50
6.50
6.50
13.00
15.00
12.50
14.50
$11.00
5.50
6.00
12.00
13.00
10.00
13.00
$10.00
1932                                             	
1933	
1934	
1935 -  	
1936  	
1937   -	
12.50
9.50
12.50
The work of the Board was conducted in the most friendly spirit, the members devoting
their energy and time to the furtherance of the interests of the producers at all times. A
total of sixteen meetings was held by the Board during the period under review.
The marketing charges levied by the Board during the 1937-38 season were the same
as the previous season; namely, 10 cents per box on dry-salt salmon and 8 cents per box on
dry-salt herring, equal to 40 cents per ton for each of the regulated products.
In addition to the recommendation in regard to the restricting of salmon dry-saltery
plant licences to bona-fide plants, the Board desires to point out at this time, in connection
with the marketing of dry-salt fish during the  1938-39  season, that  advices from  official BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 103
sources in the Orient clearly indicate that with exchange restrictions imposed by the
Japanese Government and with rapidly declining exchange in China, which latter may
place the landed cost beyond the purchasing power of Oriental buyers, the volume which
can be marketed in Japan and China this coming year is likely to be still further restricted.
Therefore, the Board may find it necessary, as the operating season approaches, to recommend
to the Provincial Department of Fisheries the withholding of production plant licences
within limits which will correspond with the quantity of salt fish which can be produced
and marketed profitably and with the assurance that the producers will be paid for quantities
which may be shipped.
In conclusion, the Board wishes to record its sincere appreciation for the co-operation
extended by the Provincial Department of Fisheries. Also, the Board desires to take this
opportunity of expressing its warmest thanks for the extremely valuable assistance rendered
by the Canadian Government Trade Commissioners at Tokyo, Kobe, Shanghai, and Hong
Kong. Had it not been for the prompt and efficient service rendered by these Commissioners
in dealing and answering the many inquiries directed to them, the Board's efforts would
have been very seriously nullified.
Respectfully submitted.
BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH BOARD.
Hugh Dalton, Chairman.
Geo. E. Crawford, Member.
A. J. Blackwell, Member.
G. R. Clark, K. Kimura, Member.
Secretary. R. Suzumoto, Member.
Vancouver, B.C.,
July 28th, 1938. T 104 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
REPORT ON INSPECTION OF SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS,  1937.
By J. A. Motherwell.
QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.
Sockeye are not a real factor in the supplies of salmon to this area, although there is a
small run to Copper Bay and to Masset Inlet. This variety is used principally for food purposes by the Indians.
In the case of the cohoes the runs are always light and the year under review was no
exception.
This was the " off " year in the case of pinks and the situation was comparable to other
odd-numbered years.
The chum-supply was an average one, with apparently a larger percentage passing safely
to the spawning-grounds.
NASS AREA.
On the whole the escapement of sockeye was found to be quite good, particularly that
portion reaching the main spawning-grounds in the Meziadin Lake District in the early part
of the season.    The Nass appears to be holding up well.
The upper reaches of this area are inaccessible, and it is still felt that the cost and difficulties of a more comprehensive examination is not justified.
The fishway was found to be in good condition and the salmon have no difficulty in passing
into the lake.
Quite a satisfactory supply of springs was found, similar to the run of the preceding
season. A fairly heavy escapement of cohoes was observed in all the streams frequented by
this variety, and the situation is considered satisfactory.
The pink-run was quite light, and did not equal the small escapement of the brood-year
of 1935. The poor seeding cannot be attributed to the fishing operations on the Canadian side
of the International boundary, at any rate, but it is possible that the heavy tolls taken by the
numerous seines and traps off the Alaskan shores may be the cause. It is also observed that
in some years, for no apparent reason, pinks seem to avoid streams usually frequented by
them and pass to other areas close by; for instance, in the year of a recent failure at Masset
Inlet there was an abnormally large run of pinks which reached the streams immediately to
the north of the International boundary and came as a surprise to Alaskan authorities.
The Nass is not a large producer of chum salmon but the run of this variety was normal.
SKEENA RIVER.
An excellent escapement of sockeye occurred to the principal spawning-areas of Babine
Lake, Babine River, and Lakelse Lake. Due to bad weather, real inspections of the Kispiox
River and Morice Lake systems had to be abandoned, but the catches of sockeye taken by the
Indians at several points leading to these spawning-grounds, however, would appear to indicate a good escapement. A larger percentage than usual of the sockeye in the Babine area
ascended to the spawning-grounds, due to the fact that the Indians were not able this year to
take such a large toll of the run as the result of the bad weather for haying which delayed
these operations, and also due to considerable sickness.
The supply of springs was good, both at Babine River and at Ocstahl River.
The cohoes were also found to be reasonably plentiful, generally speaking, no doubt partly
as the result of all fishing closing on September 25th.
The pink-run was reported as heavy to the Babine River and Lakelse Lake areas, and
greater than the cycle-year of 1935; in fact, the inspecting officer states that it is the largest
he has observed since 1929.
The Skeena is not a heavy producing area in the case of chums. The escapement was
normal.
LOWE INLET.
The sockeye-supply was found to be quite good and better than the brood-year.
The cohoe escapement was light, for some reason not apparent. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 105
This was an " off " year for the pinks in the area, but the supply was smaller than in 1935.
This is quite a heavy producer of chum salmon and the escapement was even better than
USUal" BUTEDALE AREA.
Sockeye have not been a real factor in this area, apart from Gardner Canal. The
spawning-ground conditions were found to be normal.
The escapement of cohoes was found to be only fair, and in this respect was similar to
most areas along the Pacific Coast.
The pink-run, and the escapement, was disappointing in the northern portion of the district, but was somewhat better in the southern part.
This district will be watched closely in the future.
The escapment of chums was considered fair and compares favourably with recent years.
BELLA BELLA AREA.
Due to practically continuous rains during the sockeye-run, the bulk of the supply passed
safely to the spawning-grounds and the seeding was satisfactory.
The cohoe-supply was smaller than usual and cannot be regarded as particularly satisfactory.
The pink-spawning was entirely satisfactory and comparable with the escapement of
1935, the brood-year.
The chum escapement was quite heavy and the seeding very good.
BELLA COOLA AREA.
The inspecting officer reports that the season's supply of parent salmon on the spawning-
grounds of his area is entirely satisfactory. In addition to adequate supplies being observed
the spawning took place under most favourable conditions.
The sockeye areas of Kimsquit Lake and Atnarko River were well supplied with spawners,
the former being quite equal to that of the brood-year and the Atnarko supply considerably
exceeding that of 1933. The Inspector reports, however, that in the Atnarko area the number
of undersized sockeye appears to be increasing from year to year. This year hundreds of
fish were noticed that would not weigh over 1 lb., all apparently mature and spawning normally.    These small fish evidently do not appear in the Kimsouit system.
The supply of springs was found to be quite good. Practically the whole run which
reached the mouths of the rivers in this area passed safely up as they are not fished in the
district to any extent.
The cohoe-supply was found to be nuite a good one as compared with recent years.
The numbers of pinks found on the spawninec-grounds are classed as very heavy, and
better than the excellent run of 1935, the brood-year.
The chum-supply was also heavy, and better than that of recent seasons.
RIVERS INLET AREA
The inspecting officer, who has had considerable experience on the inlet, sums up the
sockeye-spawning conditions in this area by saying that he is well satisfied with the evidence
of escapement.
The conditions on the spawning-grounds are equal to those of 1933. and an improvement
over those of 1932.
The most satisfactory conditions were found in Genesi, Nookins, Dallec, Quap, and Whon-
nock Rivers.
The rivers at the head of the lake were somewhat disappointing, but not really poor,
other than the Waukwash, which was a failure because of the diversion of the stream caused
by a freshet.
There is usually a small run of spring salmon to the Waukwash River, but the spawning
area in that stream is not now available, but no doubt the springs spawned somewhere else.
The cohoe-supply was light and similar to that in most other areas.
Rivers Inlet is not an important area from the standpoint of pink salmon and most of the
run escapes year after year to the spawning-grounds unmolested.
The same remarks apply in the case of chums. The scarcity is not the result of intensive
fishing in the district.
8 T 106 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
SMITH INLET AREA.
Two inspections were made of this area also and the escapement of sockeye was found to
be good in the Geluck and rather poor in the Delabah River. There was still a supply of
sockeye in the lake after the second inspection, which is not an unusual condition, but it is
difficult to estimate just what the supplies were compared with other years, in the lake.
The conditions are not as satisfactory as hoped for and are no doubt influenced to some
extent by the freshet conditions of 1932 from which the five-year .run originated. It is felt
that any reduction in the percentage of escaping fish is not due to overfishing, and in any
event the boundary at Quashela Creek may be depended upon to allow of a good percentage
of any run to pass safely to the spawning-grounds.
The Delabah is the main spawning-stream and there apparently was found an adequate
supply of spawning sockeye there.
There was a satisfactory supply of springs found, although these are of a variety which
is not in particular demand and is not intensively fished.
The cohoes, pinks, and chums do not frequent the area in large numbers, but the supplies
found were normal.
FRASER RIVER WATERSHED.
Sockeye.
The season 1937 was of a cycle which years ago produced immense runs of the highest
quality of sockeye salmon. Since 1913, however, as the result of the slide at Hell's Gate, and
undoubtedly due in part also to intensive fishing, this run has dropped to proportions very
similar to those of other years.
In 1936 there was an unexpectedly large run of sockeye to the Fraser, and this year has
also been comparatively good. An encouraging feature of this satisfactory run in the last
two years has been the fact that for some reason or other they did not remain off the mouth
of the river for any considerable period, but evidently finding conditions suitable passed without delay up to the spawning-grounds.
A detailed report by areas is given below.
Stuart Lake Area.—Whilst same 6,000 spawning sockeye were reported in this area, and
this quantity was larger than seen for some seasons, including the brood-year, the run cannot
be considered as good when compared with those of the years previous to 1913. However,
there would appear to be reason to believe that the cycle is gradually building up.
The first sockeye were observed in Stuart Lake about August 1st, but what is referred to
as the second run commenced about September 9th. The latter run apparently spawned in the
Tachie and Middle Rivers and did not enter the streams to which the earlier supply ascended.
This variety of salmon goes as far as the Driftwood River, at the head of Takla Lake.
Francois Lake System.—The return of sockeye this year was not as great as was expected
in view of the increase in parent sockeye which reached the area in 1933. This season's return
is estimated at not more than 30 per cent, of that four years previous.
Quesnel Area.—Bowron Lake and Quesnel Lake systems showed some improvement over
recent seasons, including the brood-year, and although the numbers were small yet the percentage of increase was encouraging.
Adult salmon were observed in Bowron River, Mitchell River, and Horsefly River.
The Chilco Lake run was very satisfactory, and exceeded the splendid run of the brood-
year by approximately 10 per cent. The local officer, who has had a considerable number of
years' experience in the examination of these spawning-beds, reports having seen this season
at least 110,000 spawning sockeye. They arrived in good condition and spawned under
favourable conditions.   The guardian suggests that this is the largest quantity seen since 1922.
North Thompson River Area.—Raft River and Finn Creek contained light runs showing
no increase over those of the fourth year previous.
Kamloops Area.—The principal sockeye-spawning beds in this district are to be found in
Adams River and Middle River. These were found to contain quantities very similar to the
runs of the brood-year, and spawned under good conditions.
Seton-Anderson 'Lake System.—A remarkably fine return of sockeye to this area was
observed, the local Inspector estimating the quantity at approximately 60,000 adults, compared with some 10,000 the preceding year, and practically nothing in the brood-year of 1933. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 107
It is interesting to note in connection with this area that for years the Federal Department
of Fisheries has been endeavouring, by means of eyed eggs and fry, to build up a run of
sockeye similar to that occurring previous to 1913. The last two years are the first real
encouragement observed.
At the commencement of the run this season it was observed that a small percentage of
the females were dying unspawned, and although samples were immediately forwarded to the
Biological Station, no cause for this loss was found.
Harrison-Birkenhead System.—The supply of parent sockeye during the season under
review was considerably greater than expected, in view of the disappointing conditions of 1933
in the Birkenhead system.    Satisfactory spawning has taken place.
In the streams tributary to Harrison Lake, supplies similar to those of recent years were
found on the spawning-grounds, with the exception of Morris Creek, where the numbers were
greater than for several seasons previous to 1936.
Cultus Lake-Chilliwack Lake System.—The quantity of sockeye returning to Cultus Lake
was for some reason smaller than anticipated, the total reaching only 3,055 compared with
3,425 in the brood-year of 1933, by actual count. There was a normal supply in the Chilliwack Lake system.
Pitt Lake System.—The inspecting officer reports the supply in this district was greater
that the preceding season, and considerably better than found in the brood-year of 1933.
Spring Salmon.
On the whole the supply of spring salmon found on the spawning-grounds was considered
to be about normal.
Cohoes.
The supply of this variety seems to have been short, in common with other districts along
the Pacific Coast. A special closed period, however, enforced in District No. 1, permitted a
larger percentage of the run to pass to the spawning-grounds and the seeding, while not
heavy, was fair.
Pinks.
This was the year of the big run of pink salmon to the Lower Mainland District, and
whilst the early portion of the run was disappointing, the special closed time enforced in
District No. 1 provided a satisfactory seeding of the spawning-grounds. The escapement to
the Chilliwack River, Harrison River District, Burrard Inlet streams, and those of Howe
Sound was very good.
Chums.
The early run of this variety was also disappointing, but again the special closed time
provided for an escapement sufficient to seed the spawning-grounds.
ALERT BAY AREA.
The early run of sockeye to the Nimpkish River system, which is the principal spawning-
ground of this variety, was rather light, but improved greatly as the season advanced. The
water conditions were such as to permit the salmon to pass safely up-stream as they arrived.
Whilst weather conditions prevented the usual comprehensive examination of this area, reliable information received shows that the spawning was quite satisfactory. At Port Neville
the escapement was quite good, whilst at Keough River, Mackenzie Sound, Shushartie, and
Nahwitti the escapement was fairly light.
The cohoe spawning was comparatively light, although early closing permitted a larger
percentage of the run to pass up-stream.
This being an " off " year for pinks, the escapement was quite light.
In the case of chums, there was a heavy seeding at Viner Sound although other chum
streams in the area were only fairly well seeded.
QUATHIASKI AREA.
The only sockeye areas in this sub-district are Hayden Bay and Phillips Arm. The seeding of the former was unusually good, but there was only a light supply at the latter point.
The spawning of springs was very satisfactory, particularly at Campbell River where
fishing is so intensive by sportsmen. T 108 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
The cohoe seeding was not as good as could be wished, but was comparatively satisfactory.
This was an " off " year in this area also for the pink variety, but the escapement was
quite good comparatively.
A satisfactory seeding was observed in the case of the chums.
COMOX AREA.
There are no sockeye in this subdivision.
The seeding of springs, however, was better than in an average year, particularly at the
Puntledge River, which is the main spring-salmon stream in the area.
The cohoe-supply on the spawning-grounds was not up to expectations; and 1937 being
an " off " year for pinks there was only a light supply, with the exception of Oyster River,
where the seeding was better than the last two years. In the Tsolum River, also, an unexpectedly large run reached the spawning-grounds.
The supply of chums was an average one.
PENDER HARBOUR AREA.
Sockeye appear only commercially at Saginaw Creek. The escapement this year was not
as good as usual.    The run to this point, however, is never large.
There was an average escapement of springs, but the seeding of the cohoe variety was
lighter than usual.
The pinks, on the other hand, showed a decided increase over the brood-year of 1935.
This is particularly the case in the streams tributary to Jervis Inlet.
The chum-supply was found to be only fair.
NANAIMO AREA.
Whilst this is not a sockeye area, the attempt was made by the Department to establish
a run of this variety at the Nanaimo River by the planting of sockeye-eggs taken from Rivers
Inlet. Over 100 parent sockeye were observed passing up to the spawning-grounds, and it is
assumed that these are the result of the Department's efforts.
The work done during the year by the Department in providing easier access to the
spawning-grounds past the falls in the Nanaimo River permitted a larger percentage of
parent salmon than usual to pass safely up-stream.
The spring-supply, for instance, was found to be greater than for several years past.
The same condition obtained in the case of the cohoes and pinks, although the pink-run
is never large.
LADYSMITH AREA.
Springs, cohoes, and pinks were found in this area in quantities about normal, and a good
run of chums passed up the Chemainus River.
COWICHAN AREA.
The supply of springs in this area was better than the average.
The cohoe escapement was about normal, and the chums a medium supply.
The supply of steelheads was found to be fully equal to the best of the runs in recent
years.
VICTORIA AREA.
Light supplies of cohoes and chums appeared on the spawning-grounds, but the situation
is not considered in any way alarming.
ALBERNI AREA.
Again this year there was ample evidence to show that the Department's efforts in the
way of rehabilitating the sockeye-runs to the Great Central, Sproat, and Anderson Lakes
systems have been very successful. Continued high water during the run of this variety
resulted in a smaller catch but an excellent escapement. At Anderson Lake the supply was
estimated at 50 per cent, greater than that of the brood-year. Conditions found at Hobarton
River, in the Nitinat area, were also good. The spring-supply in the Somass and Nitinat
systems was better than in recent years and the seeding at Sarita, Toquart, and Nitinat
Rivers was eminently satisfactory. BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 109
The cohoe-supply was found to be normal, but the pinks did not appear in any quantities,
apart from the San Juan River. This is not, however, an important pink area. In the case
of chums, the seeding was better than usual.
CLAYOQUOT AREA.
The seeding of sockeye in the Kennedy Lake system was better than that of the brood-
year of 1933.    This applies also to the smaller supply at Medgin River.
Springs were not so numerous, but the cohoes were found to be more plentiful than
during normal years.
This is not an important pink area, but the seeding was an average one.
The conditions in the case of the chums were found to be average.
NOOTKA AREA.
Few sockeye frequent this area, but the usual run to the Gold River spawning-grounds
was observed.    Normal conditions applied in the case of springs and cohoes.
Finks do not appear in commercial quantities.
The spawning of chums was found to be exceptionally good.
KYUQUOT AREA.
Only small runs of the creek variety of sockeye appear on the spawning-grounds of this
area and the spawning was normal.
The seeding in the case of the spring salmon is estimated as being about 100 per cent,
greater than during the previous season and as satisfactory.
The cohoe-supply was also found to compare favourably with that of other years.
In the case of chums, the situation is not so satisfactory, although special precautions
by means of early closure were taken to assure of the escapement of a larger percentage
of the run.
QUATSINO AREA.
The small supply of the creek variety of sockeye usually found was present.
The seeding of springs at Marble Creek was not up to normal.
The cohoe seeding was fair, but the pinks were few, due to the fact that this was an
" off " year.
Heavier supplies of chums were observed in the streams of the south-east arm, and the
seeding throughout the district was satisfactory. T 110 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
SOCKEYE-SALMON FISHERIES CONVENTION.
Convention between Canada and the United States for the Protection, Preservation,
and Extension of the Sockeye-salmon Fisheries in the Fraser River System,
signed at Washington on May 26th, 1930.
The conditions under which the Fraser River Sockeye-salmon Treaty was approved by
Canada and the United States are as follows:—
(1.) That the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission shall have no
power to authorize any type of fishing gear contrary to the laws of the State
of Washington or the Dominion of Canada;
(2.) That the Commission shall not promulgate or enforce regulations until the
scientific investigations provided for in the convention have been made, covering two cycles of sockeye-salmon runs, or 8 years;   and
(3.) That the Commission shall set up an advisory committee composed of five
persons from each country who shall be representatives of the various branches
of the industry (purse-seine, gill-net, troll, sport-fishing, and one other), which
advisory committee shall be invited to all non-executive meetings of the Commission and shall be given full opportunity to examine and to be heard on all
proposed orders, regulations, or recommendations.
SOCKEYE-SALMON FISHERIES CONVENTION.
His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland, and the British Dominions beyond the
Seas, Emperor of India, in respect of the Dominion of Canada, and the President of the
United States of America, recognizing that the protection, preservation, and extension of the
sockeye-salmon fisheries in the Fraser River system are of common concern to the Dominion
of Canada and the United States of America; that the supply of this fish in recent years
has been greatly depleted and that it is of importance in the mutual interest of both countries
that this source of wealth should be restored and maintained, have resolved to conclude a
Convention and to that end have named as their respective plenipotentiaries:—
His Majesty, for the Dominion of Canada:
The  Honourable Vincent  Massey,  a  member of  His  Majesty's  Privy  Council  for
Canada and His Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary for Canada
at Washington;   and
The President of the United States of America:
Mr. Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of State of the United States of America;
Who, after having communicated to each other their full powers, found in good and due
form, have agreed upon the following Articles:
Article I
The provisions of this Convention and the orders and regulations issued under the
authority thereof shall apply, in the manner and to the extent hereinafter provided in this
Convention, to the following waters:
1. The territorial waters and the high seas westward from the western coast of the
Dominion of Canada and the United States of America and from a direct line drawn from
Bonilla Point, Vancouver Island, to the lighthouse on Tatoosh Island, Washington—which
line marks the entrance to Juan de Fuca Strait,—and embraced between 48 and 49 degrees
north latitude, excepting therefrom, however, all the waters of Barklay Sound, eastward of a
straight line drawn from Amphitrite Point to Cape Beale and all the waters of Nitinat Lake
and the entrance thereto.
2. The waters included within the following boundaries:
Beginning at Bonilla Point, Vancouver Island, thence along the aforesaid direct line
drawn from Bonilla Point to Tatoosh Lighthouse, Washington, described in paragraph
numbered 1 of this Article, thence to the nearest point of Cape Flattery, thence following the
southerly shore of Juan de Fuca Strait to Point Wilson, on Quimper Peninsula, thence in a BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 111
straight line to Point Partridge on Whidbey Island, thence following the western shore of the
said Whidbey Island, to the entrance to Deception Pass, thence across said entrance to the
southern side of Reservation Bay, on Fidalgo Island, thence following the western and
northern shore line of the said Fidalgo Island to Swinomish Slough, crossing the said Swino-
mish Slough, in line with the track of the Great Northern Railway, thence northerly following
the shore line of the mainland to Atkinson Point at the northerly entrance to Burrard Inlet,
British Columbia, thence in a straight line to the southern end of Bowen Island, thence
westerly following the southern shore of Bowen Island to Cape Roger Curtis, thence in a
straight line to Gower Point, thence westerly following the shore line to Welcome Point on
Seechelt Peninsula, thence in a straight line to Point Young on Lasqueti Island, thence in a
straight line to Dorcas Point on Vancouver Island, thence following the eastern and southern
shores of the said Vancouver Island to the starting point at Bonilla Point, as shown on the
British Admiralty Chart Number 579, and on the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey
Chart Number 6300, as corrected to March 14, 1930, copies of which are annexed to this
Convention and made a part thereof.
3. The Fraser River and the streams and lakes tributary thereto.
The High Contracting Parties engage to have prepared as soon as practicable charts of
the waters described in this Article, with the above des-ribed boundaries thereof and the
international boundary indicated thereon. Such charts, when approved by the appropriate
authorities of the Governments of the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America,
shall be considered to have been substituted for the charts annexed to this Convention and
shall be authentic for the purposes of the Convention.
The high Contracting Parties further agree to establish within the territory of the
Dominion of Canada and the territory of the United States of America such buoys and marks
for the purposes of this Convention as may be recommended by the Commission hereinafter
authorized to be established, and to refer such recommendations as the Commission may make
as relate to the establishment of buoys or marks at points on the international boundary to
the International Boundary Commission, Canada and United States-Alaska, for action pursuant to the provisions of the Treaty between His Majesty in respect of Canada and the
United States of America, respecting the boundary between the Dominion of Canada and
the United States of America, signed February 24, 1925.
Article II
The High Contracting Parties agree to establish and maintain a Commission to be
known as the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, hereinafter called the
Commission, consisting of six members, three on the part of the Dominion of Canada, and
three on the part of the United States of America.
The Commissioners on the part of the Dominion of Canada shall be appointed by His
Majesty on the recommendation of the Governor General in Council. The Commissioners on
the part of the United States of America shall be appointed by the President of the United
States of America.
The Commissioners appointed by ea"h of the High Contracting Parties shall hold office
during the pleasure of the High Contracting Party by which they were appointed.
The Commission shall continue in existence so long as this convention shall continue in
force, and each High Contracting Party shall have power to fill and shall fill from time to
time vacancies which may occur in its representation on the Commission in the same manner
as the original appointments are made. Each High Contracting Party shall pay the salaries
and expenses of its own Commissioners, and joint expenses incurred by the Commission shall
be paid by the two High Contracting Parties in equal moieties.
Article III
The Commission shall make a thorough investigation into the natural history of the
Fraser River sockeye salmon, into hatchery methods, spawning ground conditions and other
related matters. It shall conduct the sockeye salmon fish cultural operations in the waters
described in paragraphs numbered 2 and 3 of Article I of this Convention, and to that end
it shall have power to improve spawning grounds, construct, and maintain hatcheries, rearing
ponds and other such facilities as it may determine to be necessary for the propagation of T 112 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
sockeye salmon in any of the waters covered by this Convention, and to stock any such waters
with sockeye salmon by such methods as it may determine to be most advisable. The Commission shall also have authority to recommend to the Governments of the High Contracting
Parties removing or otherwise overcoming obstructions to the ascent of sockeye salmon, that
may now exist or may from time to time occur, in any of the waters covered by this Convention, where investigation may show su?h removal of or other action to overcome obstructions
to be desirable. The Commission shall make an annual report to the two Governments as to
the investigations which it has made and other action which it has taken in execution of the
provisions of this Article, or of other Articles of this Convention.
The cost of all work done pursuant to the provisions of this Article, or of other Articles
of this Convention, including removing or otherwise overcoming obstructions that may be
approved, shall be borne equally by the two Governments, and the said Governments agree
to appropriate annually such money as each may deem desirable for such work in the light
of the reports of the Commission.
Article IV
The Commission is hereby empowered to limit or prohibit taking sockeye salmon in respect
of all or any of the waters described in Article I of this Convention, provided that when any
order is adopted by the Commission limiting or prohibiting taking sockeye salmon in any of
the territorial waters or on the High Seas described in paragraph numbered 1 of Article I,
such order shall extend to all such territorial waters and High Seas, and, similarly, when in
any of the Canadian waters embraced in paragraphs numbered 2 and 3 of Article I, such
order shall extend to all such Canadian waters, and when in any of the waters of the United
States of America embraced in paragraph numbered 2 of Article I, such order shall extend to
all such waters of the United States of America, and provided further, that no order limiting
or prohibiting taking sockeye salmon adopted by the Commission shall be construed to suspend
or otherwise affect the requirements of the laws of the Dominion of Canada or of the State
of Washington as to the procuring of a licence to fish in the waters on their respective sides
of the boundary, or in their respective territorial waters embraced in paragraph numbered 1
of Article I of this Convention, and provided further that any order adopted by the Commission limiting or prohibiting taking sockeye salmon on the High Seas embraced in paragraph
numbered 1 of Article I of this Convention shall apply only to nationals and inhabitants and
vessels and boats of the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America.
Any order adopted by the Commission limiting or prohibiting taking sockeye salmon in
the waters covered by this Convention, or any part thereof, shall remain in full force and
effect unless and until the same be modified or set aside by the Commission. Taking sockeye
salmon in said waters in violation of an order of the Commission shall be prohibited.
Article V
In order to secure a proper escapement of sockeye salmon during the spring or chinook
salmon fishing season, the Commission may prescribe the size of the meshes in all fishing
gear and appliances that may be operated during said season in the Canadian waters and/or
the waters of the United States of America described in Article I of this Convention. At all
seasons of the year the Commission may prescribe the size of the meshes in all salmon fishing
gear and appliances that may be operated on the High Seas embraced in paragraph numbered
1 of Article I of this Convention, provided, however, that in so far as concerns the High Seas,
requirements prescribed by the Commission under the authority of this paragraph shall apply
only to nationals and inhabitants and vessels and boats of the Dominion of Canada and the
United States of America.
Whenever, at any other time than the spring or chinook salmon fishing season, the taking
of sockeye salmon in Canadian waters or in waters of the United States of America is not
prohibited under an order adopted by the Commission, any fishing gear or appliance
authorized by the laws of the Dominion of Canada may be used in Canadian waters by any
person thereunto duly authorized, and any fishing gear or appliance authorized by the State
of Washington may be used in waters of the United States of America by any person thereunto authorized by the State of Washington. Whenever the taking of sockeye salmon on the
High Seas embraced in paragraph numbered 1 of Article I of this Convention is not pro- BRITISH COLUMBIA. T 113
hibited, under an order adopted by the Commission, to the nationals or inhabitants or vessels
or boats of the Dominion of Canada or the United States of America, only such salmon fishing
gear and appliances as may have been approved by the Commission may be used on such
High Seas by said nationals, inhabitants, vessels or boats.
Article VI
No action taken by the  Commission under the authority of this  Convention  shall  be
effective unless it is affirmatively voted for by at least two of the Commissioners of each
Contracting Party. „„
Article VII
Inasmuch as the purpose of this Convention is to establish for the High Contracting
Parties, by their joint effort and expense, a fishery that is now largely nonexistent, it is
agreed by the High Contracting Parties that they should share equally in the fishery. The
Commission shall, consequently, regulate the fishery with a view to allowing, as nearly as
may be practicable, an equal portion of the fish that may be caught each year to be taken by
the fishermen of each High Contracting Party.
Article VIII
Each High Contracting Party shall be responsible for the enforcement of the orders and
regulations adopted by the Commission under the authority of this Convention, in the portion
of its waters covered by the Convention.
Except as hereinafter provided in Article IX of this Convention, each High Contracting
Party shall be responsible, in respect of its own nationals and inhabitants and vessels and
boats, for the enforcement of the orders and regulations adopted by the Commission, under
the authority of this Convention, on the High Seas embraced in paragraph numbered 1 of
Article I of the Convention.
Each High Contracting Party shall acquire and place at the disposition of the Commission
any land within its territory required for the construction and maintenance of hatcheries,
rearing ponds and other such facilities as set forth in Article III.
Article IX
Every national or inhabitant, vessel or boat of the Dominion of Canada or of the United
States of America, that engages in sockeye salmon fishing on the High Seas embraced in
paragraph numbered 1 of Article I of this Convention, in violation of an order or regulation
adopted by the Commission, under the authority of this Convention, may be seized and
detained by the duly authorized officers of either High Contracting Party, and when so seized
and detained shall be delivered by the said officers, as soon as practicable, to an authorized
official of the country to which such person, vessel or boat belongs, at the nearest point to
the place of seizure, or elsewhere, as may be agreed upon with the competent authorities.
The authorities of the country to which a person, vessel or boat belongs alone shall have
jurisdiction to conduct prosecutions for the violation of any order or regulation, adopted by
the Commission in respect of fishing for sockeye salmon on the High Seas embraced in paragraph numbered 1 of Article I of this Convention, or of any law or regulation which either
High Contracting Party may have made to carry such order or regulation of the Commission
into effect, and to impose penalties for such violations; and the witnesses and proofs
necessary for such prosecutions, so far as such witnesses or proofs are under the control of
the other High Contracting Party, shall be furnished with all reasonable promptitude to the
authorities having jurisdiction to conduct the prosecutions.
Article X
The High Contracting Parties agree to enact and enforce such legislation as may be
necessary to make effective the provisions of this Convention and the orders and regulations
adopted  by the   Commission  under  the  authority  thereof,  with  appropriate  penalties  for
violations. , ■
Article XI
The present Convention shall be ratified by His Majesty in accordance with constitutional
practice and by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and T 114 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
consent of the Senate thereof, and it shall become effective upon the date of the exchange of
ratifications which shall take place at Washington as soon as possible and shall continue in
force for a period of sixteen years, and thereafter until one year from the day on which either
of the High Contracting Parties shall give notice to the other of its desire to terminate it.
In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention,
and have affixed their seals thereto.
Done  in  duplicate  at  Washington,  the  twenty-sixth  day  of  May,  one  thousand  nine
hundred and thirty.
VINCENT MASSEY,
HENRY L. STIMSON. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 115
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1937.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steel-
heads.
Cohoes.
Pinks.
Chums.
Grand Total
(Cases).
100,272
2
17,567
42,491
84,832
25,258
29,987
25,427
5,444
140
1,251
4,401
917
21
1,641
2,359
46
21
70
5
614
88
11,244
4,631
12,067
15,514
6,012
241
25,009
58,244
527
94,010
13
8,031
59,400
7,536
483
97,321
318,780
20,878
72,689
10,080
10,811
9,415
9,494
110,493
203,900
231,848
Queen Charlotte Islands  	
77,475
49,042
132,638
Rivers Inlet..	
Smith Inlet	
108,782
35,502
265,065
608,798
527
Totals	
325,836
16,174
844
133,489
585,574
447,760
1,509,677
19,226 cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table.
72 cases of sockeye caught in State of Washington waters are shown in the Fraser River pack.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1922 TO 1937, INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
BY
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
100,272
3,706
1,738
20,878
94,010
11,244
184,854
6,675
8,451
31,565
62,822
4,205
5,196
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
5,150
11,068
104,092
2,199
11,392
52,465
5,579
65,769
18,298
10,403
14,948
385
16,815
23
40,947
9,740
251
13,307
8,165
657
103,692
11,366
9,761
Chums	
Pinks        	
34,391
92,746
13,901
68,946
30,754
28,716
25,585
27,879
Totals. 	
231,848
260,261
216,728
273,139
199,082
126,641
73,067
277,983
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
61,569
3,305
6,699
144,159
158,208
40,520
12,013
29,299
1.173
3,909
193,106
2,881
27,061
795
61,393
7,925
10,528
67,259
102,536
24,079
10,658
85,689
12,783
20,169
88,495
32,256
21,783
13,776
35,385
. 7,989
25,701
66,111
99,800
36,717
6,152
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
31,655
3,854
4,279
103,248
63,645
20,173
15
51,832
10,561
6,300
17,895
29,578
23,587
Bluebacks and Steelheads	
817
426,473
258,224
284,378
274,951
276,855
212,059
226,869
140,670 T 116
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1922 TO 1937, INCLUSIVE—Contd,
Skeena River.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
Sockeyes   	
Springs  ....
42,491
4,401
10,811
59,400
15,514
21
81,973
4,5511
15,2971
91,389
25,390
33
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
126,163
54,456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
9,857
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
Pinks                         	
29,617
58
Totals   	
132,638
218,634
170,420
284,096
185,463
233,711
162,986
450,377
1929.
1928.
•
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
Sockeyes 	
-78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
13
34,559
6,420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
83,996
19,038
19,006
38,768
26,326
582
82,360
30,594
63,527
210,081
30,208
754
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
39,168
713
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
131,731
12,247
16,527
145,973
31,967
418
96,277
14,176
39,758
301,655
24,699
1,050
Totals     	
220,245
298,709
187,716
407,524
348,859
390,858
338,863
477,915
Rivers Inlet.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
84,832
917
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
46,351
5811
11,505
6,4321
7,122j
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
325
429
5,089
6,571
32
119,170
Springs .——:. —
434
492
18,023
Cohoes :  .	
756
105
Totals      —	
108,782
72,0111
155,571
86,000
93,220
81,709
88,874
138,980
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
Sockeyes  	
70,260
342
989
2,386
1,120
29
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
868
7
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
65,581
685
11,727
12,815
7,286
11
192,323*
496
11,510
8,625
4,946
94,891
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
116,850
599
3,242
10,057
1,526
53,584
323
Chums 	
Pinks 	
311
24,292
1,120
82
Totals 	
75,126
81,527
69,773
98,105
217,900
117,445
132,274
79,712
* Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 117
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1922 TO 1937, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Smith Inlet, 1926-37.*
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
25,258
21
12,788
2
28
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
214
2
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
37,369
354
25,488
46
Springs, White..—	
2
241
483
9,494
5
5,068
19,995
8,841
87
273
1,148
165
20
Totals    	
35,502
14,888
49,928
■
41,256
71,714
27,142
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
. .  .
12,867
122
32,057
268
22
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
9,683
18
60
275
853
113
12
33,442
108
178
230
167
19
6
22,682
270
79
2,990
732
2,605
8
17,921
73
, 39
112
824
133
36
164
689
31
14,094
52,185
11,014
34,150
29,366
18 917
'■ Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other Districts.
Nass River.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
Sockeyes	
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
28,5621
2,167
20,6201
75,8871
11,842
496
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
9,757
1,296
1,775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
1,439
392
5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
. 1,126
84
Totals
49,042
139,5751
78,214
75,213
60,434
85,671
32,881 | 113,460
i
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
5,540
1,846
3,538
83,183
10,734
36
12,026
3,824
3,307
16,609
3,966
96
15,929
5,964
15,392
50,815
4,274
375
18,945
3,757
22,504
35,530
8,027
245
33,590
2,725
26,612
72,496
6,481
1,035
17,821
3,314
25,791
44,165
7,894
595
31,277
2,062
11,277
75,687
3,533
Pinks _
Steelhead Trout	
Totals 	
29,185
104,877
39,828
92,749
89,008
142,939
99,580
124,071 T 118 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1922 TO 1937, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Vancouver Island District, 1927-37.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932,
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
32,6961
6,340
347,951
82,0281
90,625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
18,397
4,875
96,642
172,945
60,019
147
27,611
10,559
70,629
Springs       -          . ..
Pinks _	
35,132
28,596
Totals 	
608,798
559,746
469,427
372,347
353,025
205,930
1931.
1930.
1928.
1927.
Sockeyes.
Springs...
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelheads and Bluebacks.
Totals..-	
22,199
4,055
16,329
81,965
26,310
24,638
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1,645
162,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
14,248
2,269
303,474
41,885
23,345
5,249
175,541
340,395
294,854
390,470
24,836
6,769
220,270
52,561
58,834
10,194
373,463
Queen Charlotte and Central Area.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
31,987
1,781
183,182
97,334
29,640
614
27,584
1,057
168,896
335,733
65,744
373
32,417
750
212,251
95,669
47,292
355
20,438
2,374
155,371
210,734
62,165
733
26,106
4,416
135,590
101,701
33,471
827
21,685
3,514
167,011
82,449
44,977
591
29,071
1,608
34,570
55,825
16,141
466
39,198
1,852
143,781
600,986
61,418
1,204
342,540
599,387
388,734
451,815
302,111
320,227
137,661
848,439
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
35,331
1,020
111,263
136,758
56,938
576
59,852
2,806
341,802
438,298
68,455
609
60,533
7,826
252,230
36,481
47,433
973
62,383*
3,650
348,682
380,243
47,183
973
49,962
5,002
305,256
120,747
40,269
1,520
40,926
4,245
195,357
141,878
26,031
497
24,584
2,711
148,727
146,943
29,142
732
47,107
Springs 	
4,988
80,485
113,824
31,331
409
Totals  	
341,873
901,822
405,476
844,114
522,756
408,934
352,839
278,144
• Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 119
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1922 TO 1937, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Total Packed by Districts in 1922 to 1937, inclusive.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
Fraser  - -	
231,848
133,165
108,782
35,502
49,042
608,798
342,350
260,261
218,634
72,0111
14,888
139,5751
559,7461
599,387
216,728
170,420
155,571
49,928
78,214
469,427
388,734
273,139
284,096
86,000
41,256
75,213
372,347
451,815
199,082
185,463
93,220
71,714
60,434
353,025
302,111
126,641
233,711
81,709
27,142
85,671
205,930
320,227
73,067
162,986
88,874
14,094
32,881
175,541
137,661
•
277,983
450,377
Rivers Inlet	
138,980
52,185
113,460
340,395
848,439
l,509,677t
1,864,5031
1,529,022
1,583,866
1,265,049
1,081,031
685,104
2,221,819
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
Fraser 	
426,473
220,245
75,126
11,014
29,185
294,854
341,873
258,224
298,709
81,527
34,150
104,877
390,470
901,822
284,378
187,716
69,773
29,366
39,828
373,463
405,476
274.951
407,524
98,105
18,917
92,749
347,722
844,139*
276,855
348,859
217,900
33,998
89,008
263,904
522,756
212,059
390,858
117,445
11,776
142,939
277,267
604,745
226,869
338,863
132,274
11,979
99,580
191,252
352,839
140,570
477,915
79,712
5,862
124,071
185,524
Other Districts 	
278,144
1,398,770
2,035,629
1,360,634
2,065,190
1,719,282
1,745,213
1,341,677
1,285,946
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet.
t Including 527 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE ENTIRE
FRASER RIVER SYSTEM FROM 1894 TO 1937, INCLUSIVE.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
Fraser River, B.C	
State of Washington
363,967
41,781
395,984
65,143
356,984
72,979
860,459
312,048
240,000
252,000
486,409
499,646
170,889
228,704
974,911
1,105,096
293,477
339,556
Totals	
405,748
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
492,000
986,055
399,593
2,080,007
633,033
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.
1911.
204,809
167,211
72,688
123,419
837,489
837,122
183,007
182,241
59,815
96,974
74,574
170,951
585,435
1,097,904
150,432
248,014
58,487
State of Washington	
127,761
Totals	
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
186.248
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
123,879
184,680
719,796
1,673,099
198,183
335,230
91,130
64,584
32,146
84,637
148,164
411,538
19,697
50,723
38,854
64,364
48,399
62,654
State of Washington
Totals	
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
155,714
116,783
659,702
70,420
103,200
111,053
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1926.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
39,631
102,967
51,832
48,566
31,655
47,402
39,743
69,369
35,385
112,023
85,689
44,673
61,393
97,594
29,299
61,044
61,569
111,898
State of Washington	
Totals	
142,598
100,398
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
168,987
90,343
173,464
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1937.
Fraser River, B.C	
103,692
352,194
40,947
87,211
65,769
81,188
52,465
126,604
139,238
352,579
62,822
54,677
184,854
59,505
100,272
60,259
State of Washington	
Totals	
455,886
128,158
146,957
179,069
491,817
117,499
244,359
160,531 T 120
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1937.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1922 TO 1937, INCLUSIVE.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
100,272
42,491
84,832
25,258
17,567
25,427
29,989
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28,562J
34,430i
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
27,611
21,685
. 40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
Rivers Inlet—.	
Smith Inlet '	
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
Totals 	
325,836
414,809
350,444
377,844
258,107
284,355
291,464
477,678
1929.
1928.
1927.
Fraser River	
Skeena River....
Rivers Inlet	
Smith Inlet	
Nass River	
Vancouver Island-
Other Districts	
Totals	
61,569
78,017
70,260
9,683
16,077
10,340
35,331
29,299
34,559
60,044
33,442
5,540
14,248
26,410
61,393
83,996
65,269
22,682
12,026
24,835
37,851
281,277
203,542
308,052
85,689
82,360
65,581
17,921
15,929
25,070
44,462
35,385
81,146
192,323
33,764
18,945
14,757
16,198
39,743
144,747
94,891
11,435
33,590
15,618
20,579
337,012
392,518
369,603
31,655
131,731
116,850
11,864
17,821
12,006
12,720
334,647
51,832
96,277
53,584
31,277
15,147
47,107
295,224
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the year
1936.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PILCHARD INDUSTRY OF THE
PROVINCE, 1920 TO 1936, INCLUSIVE.
Total Catch.
Canned.
Used in
Reduction.
Year.
Oil.
Meal.
Bait.
Cwt.
88,050
19,737
20,342
19,492
27,485
318,973
969,958
1,368,582
1,610,252
1,726,851
1,501,404
1,472,085
886,964
120,999
860,103
911,411
889,037
Cases.
91,929
16,091
19,186
17,195
14,898
37,182
26,731
58,501
65,097
98,821
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
Cwt.
Gals.
Tons.
Bbls.
9,937
4,232
1922
	
3,125
3,625
1924                                            	
923
1925	
220,000
940,000
1,310,000
1,560,000
1,654,575
1,438,840
1,456,846
876,700
119,545
845,849
896,586
863,373
495,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
3,997,656
2,856,579
3,204,058
2,551,914
1,315,864   -
276,879
1.635,123
1,634,592
1,217,097
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,826
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
4,045
1926            -. .— —
2,950
1927	
1,737
1928                       	
2,149
1929.     ... 	
1930
1,538
926
1931    	
1,552
1932 	
1933	
1934	
1935
1,603
20
40
521
1938 	
580 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
T 121
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, 1920 TO 1937  (OTHER
THAN FROM PILCHARD).
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Year.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1920        	
Tons.
503
326
485
292
347
340
345
376
417
273
249
340
211
332
268
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
666
651
754
780
581
223
631
354
687
527
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,626
3,335
5,647
6,608
5,583
5,028
7,509
13,197
Gals.
55,669
1921       _  	
44,700
1922        .
283,314
706,514
645,657
556,939
468,203
437,967
571,914
712,597
525,533
75,461
1923  	
180,318
1924	
241,376
1925                _
354,853
1926 	
217,150
1927 	
1928 ...  	
1929	
250,811
387,276
459,575
1930 _ 	
243,009
1931    	
352,492
1932	
231,690
1933.  	
1934 	
509,310
813,724
426,772
763,740
662,865
497,643
441,735
1935    	
1936 	
1937.    	
588,629
1,143,206
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1938.
1,525-838-5175   

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