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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1937

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OF   THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1936
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937.  To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for the year
ended December 31st, 1936, with Appendices.
GEORGE SHARRATT PEARSON,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia. Honourable George S. Pearson,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Fisheries
Department for the year ended December 31st, 1936, together with appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEO. J. ALEXANDER,
Assistant Commissioner. JOHN PEASE BABCOCK, LL.D.
On October 12th, 1936, the Industry and the Provincial Department of
Fisheries suffered the loss of Dr. John P. Babcock. Affectionately known
as the Father of the Department, he devoted his active life to intelligent
conservation of the fisheries of the Province and to using his unique knowledge in the service of the people of British Columbia. Failing health obliged
him to lay aside the regular supervision in March, 1933, but until his
lamented death he remained a close associate, a highly valued adviser, and
a keenly and personally interested friend. In his thirty-one years of active
service he gained general respect and admiration, and his contribution to
the upbuilding of British Columbia's fishing industry will be lastingly
appreciated. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
REPORT OF THE  PROVINCIAL FISHERIES  DEPARTMENT  FOR  1936.
Value of Fisheries and Standing of Province	
Persons engaged and Capital invested	
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia	
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries shows Increase in 1936-
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1936	
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia by Districts—
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, Shell-fish)	
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1936.
Halibut Production	
Mild-cured Salmon	
Dry-salt Salmon	
Dry-salt Herring	
Fish Oil and Meal—
Pilchard Reduction	
Whale Reduction	
Herring Reduction-
Miscellaneous Reduction-
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Digest).
The Work of the International Fisheries Commission	
The Canadian Halibut Fleet (Digest) j	
Pilchard and Herring Investigation	
Page.
_ 7
— 7
.„_ 7
... 8
_ 9
— 9
..- 15
— 16
— 17
— 18
— 18
— 19
19
19
19
20
__ 20
— 21
—- 23
__ 28
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. (No. 22.) By Wilbur A.
Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, and Lucy S. Clemens,
Ph.D	
The Canadian Halibut Fleet.    By A. J. Whitmore, Commissioner for Canada	
Tagging British Columbia Pilchards : Methods and Preliminary Results.   By John
Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo	
26
45
49
- 55
Report on the Salmon-spawning Grounds of British Columbia, 1936.   By Major J. A.
Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries  68
Annual Report of the British Columbia Salt-fish Board, 1936  75
Tagging of Herring in British Columbia: Methods, Apparatus, Insertions, and
Recoveries during 1936-37. By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., and Albert L. Tester,
Ph.D., Pacfic Biological Station, Nanaimo	 REPORT OF THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1936.
VALUE OP CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF THE
PROVINCES, 1935.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1935 totalled $34,427,854.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of $15,169,529, or
44 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1935 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the production
of fisheries wealth.    Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second in rank, by $7,316,630.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1935 was $64,806 less
than in the previous year.    There was a decrease in the value of salmon amounting to $302,767.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1935 was $20,890,825, or nearly
48 per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the total invested
in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1935, $9,504,333 was employed in catching and handling
the catches and $11,386,492 invested in canneries, fish-packing establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1935 was 17,030, or 21
per cent, of Canada's total fishery-workers. Of those engaged in British Columbia, 10,965
were employed in catching and handling the catches and 6,065 in packing, curing, and in fish-
reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries in British Columbia in 1935 was
896 less than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery products
of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1931 to 1935, inclusive:—
Province.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
British Columbia	
$11,108,873
7,986,711
4,139,811
1,952,894
2,477,131
1,241,575
1,078,901
317,933
153,897
29,550
$9,909,116
6,557,943
2,972,682
1,815,544
2,147,990
1,204,892
988,919
186,174
153,789
20,060
$12,001,471
6,010,601
3,061,152
2,128,471
2,089,842
1,076,136
842,345
186,417
144,518
17,100
$15,234,335
7,673,865
3,679,970
2,306,517
2,218,550
1,465,358
963,926
219,772
245,405
14,625
$15,169,529
7,852,899
3,949,015
1,947,259
Ontario..—   	
2,852,007
1,258,335
Prince Edward Island- 	
899,685
252,059
225,741
Yukon Territory  	
20,725
Totals    - -	
$30,517,306
$25,957,109
$27,558,053
$34,022,323
$34,427,854
THE  SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British Columbia
for the years 1931 to 1935, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
$7,195,220
1,373,679
$7,586,479
960,166
$9,184,090
1,391,941
$12,402,042
797,390
36,439
628,982
549,910
324,669
33,402
44,057
32,325
34,921
17,758
38,922
2,400
5,216
$12,099,275
Halibut  	
860,349
80,513
Herring- 	
1,058,139
807,842
242,911
111,690
39,521
27,914
25,372
15,778
61,247
4,266
4,894
636,491
383,920
172,029
89,848
38,754
16,832
25,936
19,988
28,800
3,923
738,522
77,464
215,796
52,699
41,443
34,296
27,737
19,609
25,670
580,031
670,328
382,490
61,886
65,862
44,525
Soles   '	
Shrimps-   - -  	
30,808
25,492
41,609
Flounders  -	
5,208
3,773
Carried forward  - „.
$10,968,473
$9,863,166
1
$11,814,475
$14,948,433
$14,946,941 R 8
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
The Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Species.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
$10,968,473
10,937
3,893
14,928
3,774
1,156
4,271
477
603
$9,863,166
9,333
4,707
7,084
3,161
1,336
2,748
470
135
544
4,629
7,018
$11,814,475
5,629
3,428
4,916
6,006
1,048
2,483
771
1,180
1,062
13,783
26,299
110,030
7,060
4,301
$14,948,433
6,607
3,334
8,423
3,391
1,406
2,872
1,134
207
$14,946,941
10,409
5,054
Smelt      .
Sturgeon  -   	
Octopus.         - —	
Skate     - 	
9,578
6,936
1,094
3,363
1,110
Whiting.                      ...
170
Crayfish, etc.—
Oil        	
62,648
13,256
10,272
26,272
45,597
23,744
22,924
Whales        _ _        .   .    ■
183,738
547
2,374
105,360
7,004
7,181
4,885
1,671
Miscellaneous           _ 	
31,175
Totals
$11,108,873
$9,909,116
$12,001,471
$15,234,335
$15,169,529
Previous to 1934 the totals for halibut included landings at British Columbia ports by
United States vessels, whereas for 1935 the United States landings are excluded from the
statistics.
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES IN 1936 SHOWS INCREASE
OF OVER $2,000,000 ABOVE 1935.*
The value of production of the fisheries of British Columbia in 1936 was $17,231,534, compared with $15,169,529 in 1935. These totals represent the value of the product as marketed,
whether for consumption fresh or as canned, dried, etc. British Columbia is the leading Province of the Dominion with respect to fisheries production, its wealth lying in the abundant
product of its salmon-fishery. In 1936 the product of this fishery had a value of $13,387,344,
the chief item being canned salmon, with a value of $11,128,636. The number of cases (48 lb.
to the ease) of canned salmon produced was 1,881,025, an increase over the preceding year of
352,003 cases, while in value there was an increase of $1,474,739. British Columbia canned
salmon finds markets in all parts of the world—in 1936 the exports totalled 50,847,800 lb.
(roughly, 1,059,329 cases), valued at $7,394,632, while the countries of destination numbered
66, the larger part going to British Empire countries.
Following the salmon-fishery, but with much smaller values of output, are the herring and
halibut fisheries, the former with a value of $1,142,397 and the latter with $1,039,879. Both of
these kinds show increases in catch and in marketed value, compared with the preceding year.
The principal products of the herring-fishery are the dry-salted product and meal and oil.
All of the halibut caught was sold for consumption fresh, and there has of recent years developed a considerable demand for halibut-livers, which in 1936 had a marketed value of $96,311.
The products of the pilchard-fishery are chiefly meal and oil, and the catch of whales is used in
the manufacture of similar items.
The total quantity of fish of all kinds taken by British Columbia fishermen during the year
1936 was 4,896,753 cwt., with a value at the point of landing of $7,503,880, compared with a
catch of 4,041,788 cwt., and a value of $8,082,355 in 1935.*
CAPITAL EQUIPMENT AND EMPLOYEES.
In Primary Operations.
Capital.—The amount of capital represented by the vessels, boats, nets and other gear,
piers and wharves, etc., used in the primary operations of catching and landing the fish, during
the year 1936, is shown as $9,829,892, compared with $9,504,333 in the preceding year.    The
* Note.—These figures are taken from the Advance Report on British Columbia Fisheries, Dominion Department of Statistics. BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 9
chief items, in order of value, are gasoline-boats, sailing and gasoline vessels, collecting boats
and scows, and salmon drift-nets.
Employees.—The number of fishermen employed during the year was 11,393, of which 66
are credited to the steam-vessels, 1,326 to the sailing and gasoline vessels, 9,529 to the boats,
and 472 to the packers and collecting-boats.
In Fish Canning and Curing.
Capital.—There were 91 fish canning and curing establishments in operation in the Province in 1936, with a total capital investment valued at $12,376,841, compared with 91 establishments valued at $11,386,492 in the preceding year. The salmon-canneries, which numbered
forty-six, are credited with $9,228,852, or 75 per cent, of the total capital investment in
that year.
Employees.—The establishments furnished employment during the season of operations
for a total of 6,426 persons—3,769 male and 2,657 female. Compared with the preceding year,
an increase of 361 is shown in the total number. The period of greatest employment in the
canning and curing branch of the fisheries industry is from May to November, both months
inclusive.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1936.
The total pack of canned salmon in British Columbia for the season 1936 amounted to
1,864,503 full cases. This is an increase of 335,481 cases over the pack of 1935 and is the largest
annual pack since 1930, when 2,221,819 cases were canned. The 1936 pack is 361,961 cases
greater than the average for the ten-year period 1927-36.
The 1936 pack consisted of 414,809 cases of sockeye, 29,853 cases of springs, 1,068 cases of
steelheads, 229,750 cases of cohoes, 591,535 cases of pinks, and 597,488 cases of chums. Included
in the cohoe-pack are 29,516 cases of bluebacks.
Analysing the pack by species in the order named, the sockeye-pack, amounting to 414,809
cases, is 64,365 cases greater than the pack of this species in the previous year, and is the
largest pack of sockeye in British Columbia since 1930 and is 90,052 cases greater than the
average for the ten-year period 1927-36, inclusive. In considering these figures, due allowance
must be made for the very small pack at Rivers Inlet due to a strike of fishermen in this area.
The pack of spring salmon, amounting to 29,853 cases, is 7,933 cases greater than in the
previous year and exceeds the pack of this species in 1934 by 77 cases.
While steelheads are trout and not salmon, a few caught incidental to salmon-fishing are
canned each season and on this account the figures are included in the figures of the canned-
salmon pack.
The cohoe-pack amounted to 229,750 cases. This figure includes 29,516 cases of bluebacks
and is only 1,742 cases less than in 1935, which year set a record for this species.
There were packed 591,535 cases of pink salmon in 1936, as compared with 514,966 cases
in 1935 and 436,354 cases in 1934. The chum-salmon pack in 1936, amounting to 597,488 cases,
exceeded that of 1935 by 187,884 cases and is 84,307 cases greater than in 1934.
THE BRITISH COLUMBIA CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River System.
The Canadian pack of Fraser River sockeye in 1936 amounted to 184,854 cases, which is
the largest pack put up on the Canadian side of the line since 1914, when the Canadian pack
amounted to 198,183 cases. For comparison with the Canadian pack of this species on the
Fraser in more recent years the following figures are quoted:—
Cases.
1930    103,692
1931       40,947
1932      65,769
1933      52,465
1934     139,238
1935     62,822
The large increase in the Canadian pack should be encouraging to Canadian fishermen and
canners, particularly when it is realized that up to quite recently American fishing-gear caught R 10
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
by far the larger percentage of the total.    The percentages, in round numbers, taken by American and Canadian gear during the past ten years are as follows:—
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
erican.
Canadian
r Cent.
Per Cent.
61
39
68
32
64
36
78
22
68
32
55
45
71
29
72
28
47
53
25
75
Mention was made in this report for 1935 that the larger percentage taken by Canadian
gear in that year may have been the result of the elimination of trap-fishing in the State of
Washington. There would now seem to be no doubt that the restriction of this gear has reacted
favourably to the Canadian fishermen, but Canadians have still a long way to go to fully
equalize the catches over the past years, especially when due consideration is given to the size
of the Fraser River pack in the early years as compared with recent past years.
Another factor which without doubt has been of material assistance in increasing the
Canadian catch in 1936 was the increase in numbers in that portion of the run which habitually
reaches the Fraser through Johnstone Strait. In 1936 unquestionably a greater number of
sockeye found their way to the Fraser through Johnstone Strait than is usually the case.
The 1936 run of sockeye to the Fraser produced a total combined Canadian and American
pack of 244,359 cases. Based on a four-year cycle, this run is the result of the spawning of
1932, in which year the total pack amounted to 146,957 cases. The run in 1936 was much larger
than anticipated, as conditions on the spawning-grounds in 1932 and the size of the run that
year did not indicate a larger return than in 1932.
Another feature of the 1936 run of sockeye to the Fraser worth noting was the excellent
quality of the fish when taken in the commercial gear. The fish were all in prime condition,
being of fine colour, firm, and very fat. This characteristic was maintained during the duration of the run. Apparently the run proceeded up-river almost as soon as they arrived, as the
actual time spent in the commercial fishing area was short, as will be seen from the accompanying table showing the pack by weeks:—
Week-end Totals of Fraser River Sockeye packed at Fraser River Canneries
and in the State of Washington.
Date.
British Columbia.
Washington.
Total.
1936.
Week ending—
July      4                   —     —
Cases.
Cases.
35
75
7611/2
1,6761/.
20,473
13,041
7,1541/.
7,3251/2
2,901i/2
6,055
51/2
Cases.
35
75
2,4071/2
18,1441/2
40,042
75,716
22,536i/2
18,7341/2
.7,5811/2
8,524
2,4161/2
2,445
1,408
979
2,618
17
8
11             _	
18         ■ —
1,646
16,468
19,569
62,675
15,382
11,409
4,680
2,469
2,411
2,445
1,408
979
2,618
17
8
25                                 	
8                              -
15                                     	
22                        .            - 	
29                	
Sept     5                                                          	
12                            	
19 —
„      26 -- -	
Oct.     3  - -   -
10   - -
„      17                             	
	
„      24    -  	 BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 11
Due to the excellent quality of this run of sockeye, which compared favourably with the
quality of the sockeye which formerly composed the " big year," it was suggested that the 1936
run was probably seeking the spawning-grounds at the upper reaches of the watershed.
Examination of these spawning-grounds as reported by the Federal Fisheries Officers indicates
conclusively that this was not the case. For a detailed report on the salmon-spawning grounds
in the various districts the reader is referred to the " Report of the Salmon-spawning Grounds,
1936," by Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, published in the Appendix to
this report. We wish to acknowledge Major Motherwell's courtesy in supplying us with this
information.
Spring Salmon.—The canned pack of this species on the Fraser River in 1936 amounted
to 15,126 cases, compared with 9,401 cases in 1935, but was 1,092 cases less than in 1934 and
was 121 cases greater than the average for the past five years. Reports from the spawning-
grounds indicate greater numbers of spring salmon on the beds than during recent past years.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack in this district in 1936 amounted to 28,716 cases. This is
3,766 cases greater than in 1935 and 17,324 cases more than in 1934. The 1936 cohoe-pack in
the Fraser District is the largest since 1930, when 53,464 cases were packed, and is 9,561 cases
above the average over the past five years.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon run occurs in this district only every alternate year.
There was no run of this species in 1936.
Chum Salmon.—The Fraser River District produced a pack of chums in 1936 amounting
to 31,565 cases, compared with 8,227 cases in 1935, 104,092 cases in 1934, 34,391 cases in 1933,
and 14,948 cases in 1932. The pack figures for this species are not necessarily indicative
of the size of the run, as large numbers of chums find a market in a frozen and salted condition.
Spawning-ground reports indicate that chum salmon were found in greater numbers than in
recent years on all grounds in District No. 1 which are frequented by this variety.
In comparing the figures for the Fraser River pack of 1936 with previous years, the
reader's attention is drawn to a change made in allocating the pack figures for 1936. Previous
to this year all Johnstone Strait caught sockeye were credited to the Vancouver Island District.
In order that each principal watershed might be credited with the proper amount regardless of
where the fish were caught, the Provincial Department of Fisheries in 1936 required the
canners to submit a return showing the location where the fish were taken, together with the
quantities of the various species canned. The response has been 100 per cent., and as a result
the Department is now able to present figures more truly indicative of the production of the
various salmon-producing rivers. In the figures quoted above for Fraser River sockeye 23,153
cases caught in Johnstone Strait are included. Prior to 1936 all Johnstone Strait sockeye
were shown in the Vancouver Island District pack.
The Skeena River.
The total canned-salmon pack on the Skeena in 1936 amounted to 218,634 cases. This is
48,214 cases greater than in 1935, but is 65,462 cases less than in 1934. The 1936 pack of all
varieties on this river exceeds the five-year average by 169 cases, but is 22,601 cases less than
the average over the past ten years.
The Skeena pack was composed of 81,973 cases of sockeye, 4,551% cases of springs, 33 cases
of steelheads, 25,390 cases of cohoe, 91,389 cases of pinks, and 15,297% cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The soekeye-pack in 1936 was the largest on the Skeena since 1931, when
93,023 cases were packed. It is 29,094 cases greater than in the year previous and is 22,787
cases more than for the five-year average, and is also more than the average for the ten-year
period 1927-36 by 10,184 cases. The Skeena sockeye-pack in 1936 was largely derived from
the 1932 cycle-year, with which it compares favourably.
Reports from the spawning-beds indicate that a heavy seeding took place under favourable
conditions, which augurs well for this cycle four years hence.
Spring Salmon.—The pack of this variety on the Skeena in 1936, amounting to 4,551 cases,
was slightly in excess of that for the previous year, when 4,039 cases were canned. The packs
in recent past years were: In 1934, 8,300; 1933,3,297; 1932, 28,269 cases. It is pointed out
that the pack figures for spring salmon are not necessarily indicative of the amount caught, nor
of the size of the run, as large quantities of this variety find a ready market as fresh, frozen, R 12 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
mild-cure, etc. Major Motherwell reports the supply of springs on the spawning-beds as being
quite satisfactory, especially in the Ecstall River.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 25,390 cases of cohoe canned on the Skeena in 1936. This was
1,892 cases more than the year previous, but is 29,066 cases less than in 1934 and 14,506 cases
less than 1933, the cycle-year, when the pack amounted to 39,896 cases. As cohoe also find a
considerable market through the frozen-fish trade, the remarks in respect to spring-salmon
figures apply also to cohoe. The quantities of cohoe found on the spawning-beds of the Skeena
in 1936 are reported to be better than for several years.
Pink Salmon.—The canned pack of this variety was 91,389 cases, which was 9,521 cases
greater than the year previous, but was 34,774 cases less than in 1934, the cycle-year. The year
1936 falls in the cycle of big years for this variety on the Skeena and it was hoped that the
pack would have been larger. Apparently large numbers escaped the fishing-gear, however,
as spawning-bed reports indicate a heavy escapement to beds in the lower watershed superior
to that of the preceding cycle-year.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chums amounted to 15,297 cases, compared with 8,122 cases
in 1935, 24,388 cases in 1934,15,714 cases in 1933, and 38,549 cases in 1932. The chum-pack on
the Skeena varies over a wide range from year to year, no doubt due in some measure to the
demand from foreign markets. Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate a heavy run for
this area, although large quantities do not use the Skeena River spawning-grounds.
The Nass River.
The total pack of all varieties of salmon canned on the Nass River in 1936, amounting to
139,575 cases, is the largest pack in any year since 1924, when 142,939 cases of all varieties
were canned. The 1936 pack consisted of 28,562 cases of sockeye, 2,167 cases of springs, 496
cases of steelhead trout, 11,842 cases of cohoe, 75,887 cases of pinks, and 20,620 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The comparatively large pack of sockeye in this district, amounting to
28,562% cases, again demonstrates the very erratic nature of the runs to the Nass. The pack
in 1936 is the product of 1931; the pack in that year amounted to 16,929 cases and in that year
reports from the spawning-beds did not indicate a good return in 1936. The pack in 1936 is
9,785 cases greater than the average for the five-year period 1931-36 and is 13,167 cases more
than the average for the five-year period 1927-31.
The following table gives the average sockeye-packs on the Nass for the last three five-year
cycles:—
1922-27  23,512
1927-31   15,395
1931-36   18,777
The 1936 pack of 28,562 cases is 139 cases less than that of 1934, in which year the pack
was the largest since 1924, when 33,590 cases were packed.
In addition to the favourable pack of sockeye, reports from the spawning-beds indicate
an adequate escapement. In the Meziadin Lake District the officers report greater numbers
on the spawning-beds than for the past fifteen or twenty years and a heavy escapement to the
watershed above Meziadin Lake.
Spring Salmon.—This variety is never a large factor in the Nass River pack, although the
1936 pack of 2,167 cases was 324 cases above the ten-year average for this variety. The run
to the spawning-beds is reported to have been quite satisfactory.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack on the Nass amounted to 11,842 cases, compared with
21,810 cases in 1935, 9,935 cases in 1934, and 3,251 cases in 1933. The 1936 pack is 3,766 cases
above the average for the past ten years. The numbers of cohoe found on the spawning-beds
is reported as considerably greater than four years ago and the escapement heavy.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-pack of 75,887% cases in 1936 was the largest since 1930, when
79,967 cases were canned, and would indicate that this cycle is returning to former levels.
The pack for this variety in previous cycles was as follows: 1934, 32,964 cases; 1932, 44,629
cases; 1930, 79,976 cases; 1928, 83,183 cases;  and in 1926, 50,815 cases.
Federal officers inspecting the spawning-grounds report that this variety reached the
spawning-grounds in large quantities, both in the Nass River proper and in the streams tributary to Portland and adjoining inlets. BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 13
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack on the Nass in 1936, amounting to 20,621 cases,
must be considered as a large one when viewed in relation to the size of former packs in this
district. It was the largest pack of chums on the Nass since 1925, when 22,504 cases were
packed, and exceeds the ten-year average by 13,675 cases, while the escapement to the spawning-
grounds is reported large and greater than in recent years.
Rivers Inlet.
The total Rivers Inlet pack in 1936, amounting to 72,011% cases of all varieties, was one
of the smallest on record. The pack consisted of 46,351 cases of sockeye, 581 cases of springs,
19 cases of steelhead trout, 7,122 cases of cohoe, 6,432 cases of pinks, and 11,505 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack of 46,351 cases was the smallest pack in this inlet in
many years. The small pack, however, was not due to a scarcity of fish, but to a fishermen's
strike which completely stopped all fishing from July 6th to 23rd. The run in 1936 was derived
from the spawning-cycle 1931 and 1932, and, while this cycle is not the heaviest producer, the
run in 1936, it was anticipated, would produce a pack in the neighbourhood of 75,000 to 80,000
cases. On account of the cessation of all fishing during the main run, the fish had an
unobstructed passage to the spawning-beds and, as might be expected, a heavy spawning took
place. Unfortunately a heavy freshet, the heaviest in many years, occurred, which will
undoubtedly have destroyed many of the eggs deposited. This unfortunate circumstance may
have the effect of considerably lessening the pack which otherwise might have been expected
four and five years hence.
Spring Salmon.—This variety is never a large factor in Rivers Inlet and the pack of 582
cases corresponds favourably with past seasons.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack, never large in this inlet, amounted to 7,123 cases, compared with 8,375 for the year previous, 4,852 cases in 1934, and 3,446 in 1933; while 7,062
cases were canned in 1932.
Spawning-bed reports indicate the escapement better than usual in this area, but the
supply on the spawning-beds was not as great as might be desired.
Pink Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is considered chiefly as a sockeye area and other varieties
canned here are largely caught incidental to the sockeye-fishery. The pink-pack in 1936
amounted to 6,432 cases, compared with 4,554 cases the year previous and 2,815 cases in 1934,
the cycle-year. The numbers found on the spawning-grounds are reported to justify the
conclusion that the runs are being maintained.
Chum Salmon.—The remarks contained in the foregoing paragraph in respect to pinks
apply also to chums, and the pack of this variety, amounting to 11,505 cases, is a large one, the
largest since 1926, when 11,727 cases were canned.
Smith Inlet.
The strike at Rivers Inlet extended to this neighbouring sockeye-fishing ground, resulting
in similar disastrous results from the point of view of production, only 14,888 cases of all
varieties being canned. The total pack in 1935 amounted to 49,928 cases and 41,256 cases in
1934, while the pack in 1933 was 71,714 eases.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack, which is the principal variety canned in this inlet,
amounted to 12,788 cases. As was the case in Rivers Inlet, the small pack was not due to
scarcity of fish but to a strike of fishermen. Judging from the size of the packs in previous
years falling in the same cycle, a pack of between 25,000 and 35,000 cases may be considered
reasonable expectation. Reports from the officers inspecting the spawning-beds are to the
effect that large numbers were observed spawning under favourable conditions. This should
prove beneficial for future runs of this cycle.
Spring Salmon.—Springs are never a factor in Smith Inlet, 30 cases only being canned in
1936.
Cohoe Salmon.—This species is not fished in Smith Inlet, but a few are taken incidental
to sockeye-fishing.    There were 310 cases canned in 1936.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon are not canned to any extent in this inlet, although in recent
past years as many as 20,000 cases have been packed in a season. The pack in 1936 amounted
to 65 cases. R 14 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Chum Salmon.—There were 1,653 cases of chums canned on Smith Inlet in 1936, the pack
of this variety amounting to 12,427 cases in 1935 and 15,548 cases in 1934. Reports from the
spawning-grounds indicate satisfactory seeding for all varieties except pinks, which were
not quite as well seeded as usual.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Salmon-canning .activities in the Queen Charlotte Islands is confined almost exclusively
to pinks and chums; other varieties are canned only incidental to these. The total packed in
these islands in 1936 amounted to 178,891 cases, mostly pinks and chums, although cohoe
accounted for 19,920 cases. The total pack of all varieties in 1935 amounted to 93,301 cases,
while in 1934 the pack was 100,041 cases.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon appear in the waters adjacent to the Queen Charlotte Islands
every alternate year, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered years. The run in 1936
was the result of the spawning in 1934. In that year the pack amounted to 53,398 cases, while
in 1936 the run produced a pack of 89,355 cases. While this is not so large a pack of this
variety as was usual in the cycle-years previous to 1930, it nevertheless is most encouraging
when considered in conjunction with the escapement to the spawning-grounds, and when it is
recalled that the run was almost a complete failure in 1932, when only 2,415 cases were canned,
while the pack in 1930 amounted to 224,902 cases.
Major Motherwell reports that, apart from an odd stream, the escapement was excellent.
Chum Salmon.—The chum pack in 1936 amounted to 69,304 cases in this district, compared
with 86,298 cases in 1935, while the packs for 1934 and 1933 were 38,062 cases and 6,988 cases
respectively. Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the supply of spawning chums
was greater than usual.
Other Varieties.—There were 19,920 cases of cohoe, 227 cases of springs, and 85 cases of
sockeye canned in Queen Charlotte Islands canneries in 1936.
Central Area.
This includes the area from Cape Calvert to the Skeena River and adjacent waters
exclusive of Rivers Inlet. The total production of canned salmon of all varieties in 1936
amounted to 420,496 cases, as against 295,433 cases in 1935. The increase is mainly due to
the large pack of pinks, which amounted to 246,378 cases in 1936. Other varieties making up
the total were 27,499 cases of sockeye, 830 cases of springs, 45,824 cases of cohoe, 99,592 cas3s
of chums, and 373 cases of steelhead trout.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack of 27,499 cases was 4,918 cases less than in the year
previous, but was 7,061 cases greater than in 1934. The fishermen's strike at Rivers and
Smith Inlets interrupted for a time sockeye-fishing in a part of this area and no doubt reduced
somewhat the size of the pack. Notwithstanding this, however, the 1936 pack was 1,870 cases
above the average for the past five years.
Reports from the various spawning-grounds in this area indicate a good escapement under
favourable weather conditions at all points, except to the streams on the west coast of Banks
Island. Major Motherwell advises in this regard that precautions will be taken in the cycle-
year to see that a reasonable percentage of the return of fish pass unmolested to the spawning-
grounds.
Pink Salmon.—The pack of pinks in this area, amounting to 246,378 cases, is most encouraging. This is the largest pack since 1930, when 376,084 cases were canned, and is 89,042
cases greater than in the cycle-year 1934. The pack in 1936 was also 111,050 cases greater
than the five-year average 1932-36.
The escapement to the spawning-grounds is reported as being good in most streams in
this area, with the possible exception of Bella Coola area, where the spawning is reported as
only fair and not equal to the brood-year.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-pack amounted to 99,592 cases, which is slightly lower than in
recent past years. Previous years' packs were: 1935, 125,953 cases; 1934, 117,309 cases;
1933, 128,602 cases; and 166,653 cases in 1932. The size of the chum-pack is conditioned
somewhat by the demand for this variety when canned and this factor no doubt lessened the
pack somewhat. BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 15
The escapement is reported as having been heavy in all the principal spawning areas in
this district. In the Bella Coola area, however, unusually heavy freshets occurred after
spawning, destroying large quantities of eggs, which will necessitate special precautions being
taken in the cycle-year.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 45,842 cases of cohoe canned in the Central Area in 1936.
This was a better than average pack for this variety, 41,831 cases having been packed in 1935,
while the pack in 1934 was 53,850 cases and 33,471 cases in 1933.
A good escapement to the spawning-grounds is indicated by reports from the Federal
officers.
Other Varieties.—There were 830 cases of springs and 373 cases of steelhead trout also
packed in this area.
Vancouver Island.
The total canned-salmon pack credited to Vancouver Island District amounted to 559,743
cases. This is the largest pack yet recorded and exceeds the previous year's large pack by
90,319 cases. The increase is reflected in the figures for all varieties, with the exception of
springs. The 1936 pack was composed of the following: 32,696 cases of sockeye, 6,340 cases
of springs, 90,625 cases of cohoe, 82,028 cases of pinks, 347,951 cases of chums, and 105 cases
of steelhead trout.
Sockeye Salmon.—The total sockeye-pack credited to Vancouver Island District of 32,696
cases was 9,768 cases greater than in the previous year and is the largest pack for many years.
It exceeds the pack of 1932 by 5,085 cases and is 6,914 cases above the average for the last five
years.
Reports from the numerous spawning-beds indicate that the needs of conservation are
being satisfactorily taken care of.
Spring Salmon.—The pack of this variety, amounting to 6,340 cases, was slightly less
than the year previous, but was greater than in 1934 and 1933—the respective packs for the
three previous years being: 1935, 6,525 cases; 1934, 1,630 cases; 1933, 4,875 cases. Due to
the importance of this variety in the fresh, frozen, and mild-cure trade, the quantity canned
must not be taken as an indication of availability.
Cohoe Salmon.—This species canned amounted to 90,625 cases in 1936. This figure includes
29,516 cases of bluebacks taken in the Gulf of Georgia. The pack was less than in the year
previous, when 104,366 cases were canned, but is nevertheless a large pack of this variety
for this district.
Pink Salmon.—The pack of pinks amounted to 82,028 cases, compared with 54,526 cases
in 1934, the cycle-year. The 1936 pack was less than in 1935, when 191,627 cases were canned,
but must be considered as satisfactory when compared with previous years in the same cycle.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-pack credited to Vancouver Island in 1936 amounted to 347,951
cases, which must be considered a large pack. The packs for the previous four years were as
follows: 1935, 143,960 cases; 1934, 210,239 cases; 1933, 96,642 cases; 1932, 70,629 cases.
In the case of chums large quantities also find a market in the salt- and frozen-fish trade,
which somewhat affects the size of the canned pack. The foreign demand for canned chums
is also an important factor which must be considered.
In considering the detailed figures for the various species of salmon canned in the several
districts in the Province, due consideration must be given to the numbers reaching the many
spawning-grounds. Inspection of the spawning-beds is made each year by the Fishery Officers
of the Federal Department. The reader is referred to the detailed " Report on the Salmon-
spawning Grounds, 1936," by Major J. A. Motherwell, published in the Appendix to this report.
OTHER CANNERIES  (PILCHARD, HERRING, SHELL-FISH).
Pilchards.—The canning of pilchards on the west coast of Vancouver Island was continued
in 1936 at about the same level as in the previous year, although a greater number would
probably have been canned if fishing conditions had been more suitable during the time the
fish were in the best canning condition. Production of canned pilchards in 1936 amounted to
35,007 cases, while in 1935 27,184 cases were canned. In connection with the canning of
pilchards, it is interesting to note that this valuable food-fish is now being offered to the public R 16 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
in a variety of canned sizes, which should no doubt have the effect of encouraging a wider
distribution.
Herring production in 1936 amounted to 20,914 cases, compared with 26,143 cases canned
in 1935.
Shell-fish.—Shell-fish are canned in British Columbia to some extent, but the production
is never large. There were canned in 1936 1,869 cases of crabs, compared with 1,748 cases
the year previous; 12,173 cases of clams, compared with 10,212 cases in 1935; and 3,601 cases
of oysters, compared with 2,246 cases of oysters in 1935. There were no shrimps canned in
British Columbia in 1936.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY.
There were forty-six salmon-canneries licensed to operate in British Columbia in 1936,
which is three more than were operated the year previous and three less than in 1935.
The canneries operated in the various districts were as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands      4
Nass River     3
Skeena River     8
Central Area      4
Rivers Inlet      6
Smith Inlet     2
Johnstone Strait     4
Fraser River and Lower Mainland  11
West Coast of Vancouver Island    4
A comparison by districts with the previous year shows that there were in 1936 three more
canneries operating in Queen Charlotte Islands; one less on the Skeena River; one less in the
Central Area; one more in the Fraser and Lower Mainland area; and one more on the West
Coast of Vancouver Island.
The year 1936 was the cycle-year for pinks in Queen Charlotte Islands, which no doubt
accounts for the increased activity in that district. One cannery on the Skeena changed hands,
the new owners operating only as a fish-camp, but fishing the full complement of gear and
canning the product at other canneries in the district. One less cannery operating in the
Central Area is accounted for by similar action on the part of the owners as mentioned above
for Skeena River. On the Lower Mainland the one additional cannery over the number
operated in 1935 was operated only for a short season during the run of chums in the fall of
the year. On the West Coast the extra cannery was due to the purchase of a non-operating
cannery by new owners and its removal to a new site farther up the coast.
In addition to the canneries operated as such, and further to the remarks contained in the
above paragraph, attention is drawn to the growing practice of closing down operating
canneries and consolidating the canning operations in fewer plants, retaining a net-crew at
the non-operating cannery, and fishing that non-operating cannery's full complement of gear,
but canning the product of several canneries' gear in one operating cannery. This tendency
is no doubt an attempt on the part of the operator to lower production costs, but in so doing
the operator should assure himself that the slight saving thus gained is not at the expense of
impaired quality.
From the view-point of quantity canned, the 1936 season must be considered as generally
satisfactory. The grand total packed was 335,481 cases greater than the year previous. The
increase is reflected in the totals of all varieties, with the exception of cohoe, but it must be
remembered that the pack of cohoe, amounting to 231,492 cases in 1935, was the largest pack
of this variety ever canned in British Columbia.    The 1936 pack was only 1,742 cases less.
The season opened in District No. 2 on June 28th, and, while the weather was not conducive
to good fishing, nevertheless by July 3rd all districts reported gill-net fishing as being good.
On Monday, July 6th, the Rivers Inlet gill-netters went out on strike. Sockeye prices offered
in all districts except Rivers Inlet were 45 cents per fish, while 40 cents was being paid for
Rivers Inlet sockeye, the operators claiming that due to the smaller size and poorer quality of
Rivers Inlet sockeye they were forced to sell their Rivers Inlet pack at prices considerably lower
than what they received for standard-quality goods, thus forcing them to pay less for the
lower-grade Rivers Inlet fish.    After fishing a week the Rivers Inlet fishermen went on strike, BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 17
asking 50 cents per sockeye. Negotiations between the fishermen and operators failed, and
on Friday, July 10th, the operators notified the fishermen that not more than 40 cents could be
paid, and unless fishing recommenced on Sunday, July 12th, the operators would have to
seriously consider closing down entirely.
In the meantime the strike had spread to Smith Inlet, Knight Inlet, the Namu area, all
gill-net areas, and the Alert Bay and Butedale seine-boats also went out. Fishing continued
on the Skeena and Nass Rivers.
On Wednesday, July 15th, the operators met the strike committee at Rivers Inlet and
explained their inability to meet strikers' demands. The strike committee notified the operators
that they could not discuss anything but 50 cents for sockeye. The operators then proposed
that the men return to work immediately at a guaranteed minimum price of 40 cents and that
the question of a higher price be submitted to the Commissioner of Fisheries for arbitration.
During the time negotiations were taking place the salmon run was passing unmolested
to the spawning-grounds and on Friday, July 17th, sufficient numbers had reached the spawning-grounds to warrant the Chief Supervisor announcing that the weekly close season at
Rivers and Smith Inlets would be dispensed with for the balance of the run as the escapement
was excellent.
Later on Wednesday, July 15th, the operators asked the Commissioner of Fisheries for
arbitration under the " Fisheries Act" on the understanding that the fishermen immediately
commence fishing without further loss of time, guaranteeing a minimum price of 40 cents for
all sockeye taken and, in the event that the Arbitration Board award was higher, to abide by
the award. On July 16th the operators' proposal was submitted to the Strike Committee by
the Commissioner of Fisheries, asking the fishermen to name a representative if the proposal
was acceptable.    The offer of arbitration was rejected by the strike committee on July 18th.
In the meantime numerous fishermen were commencing to leave the inlets, and as negotiations had broken down completely the operators commenced preparations for closing down the
canneries for the balance of the season.
The seine-fishermen at Alert Bay had in the interval returned to work, as had the majority
of the seiners at Butedale.
On July 23rd seventy-odd boats from Namu commenced fishing in Rivers Inlet and, while
these boats did very well, the season was too far advanced to warrant reopening those canneries
which had closed down. Two canneries remained open during the balance of the sockeye
season.
There is no doubt that but for this interruption of fishing the pack on Rivers Inlet would
have been in the neighbourhood of close to 100,000 cases and that Smith Inlet would also have
produced a normal pack. While the interruption of fishing in other districts due to the strike
was much less than at Rivers and Smith Inlets, the result must be a considerably reduced pack,
lessening the value of British Columbia's fisheries proportionately and causing a heavy loss to
both fishermen and operators.
Probably the most outstanding feature of the salmon season in 1936 was the exceptionally
heavy catches of sockeye made in the Fraser River. These large catches were not anticipated
and numerous theories have been advanced as to the reason. Whether these theories are
correct or not need not be dealt with at this time. The Canadian fishermen's share of the
Fraser River run in 1936 was very much larger than in previous years. There is no doubt
that the elimination of the traps in Puget Sound has in some measure lessened the numbers
taken in United States waters, which has left a larger proportion available to Canadian gear.
On the other hand, there is always a portion of the Fraser River run of sockeye which makes
its way to the river by way of Johnstone Strait, and from the records of catches made in
Johnstone Strait in 1936, it would appear that a larger proportion proceeded to the Fraser
River by way of Johnstone Strait than is usually the case. The effect has been most beneficial
from the standpoint of Canadian fishermen and canners.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
Owing to the fact that total halibut landings from Areas No. 2 and No. 3 are fixed by the
International Commission at 46,000,000 lb. annually and that very little is landed from Areas
No. 1 and No. 4, there is little opportunity for wide variation in the total catch figures from
year to year.    In 1936 the total landings from Areas No. 2 and No. 3 amounted to 48,175,466
2 R 18 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
lb., compared with 46,060,000 lb. from these two areas in the year previous. The total landings
-from all areas in 1936 amounted to 48,874,672 lb., compared with 47,350,000 lb. in 1935.
Previous to 1935 very little, if any, halibut was caught in what is known as Area No. 1.
In 1935, however, this area produced 1,290,000 lb. while in 1936 this area is credited with
699,206 lb.
Canadians are most interested in the quantities landed by all vessels in Canadian ports
and the quantity taken by Canadian vessels. Notwithstanding the fact that total landings
in 1936 were 1,524,672 lb. greater than in 1935, the total landed in Canadian Pacific ports in
1936 was less than in 1935 by 336,655 lb; the figures for 1935 were 17,127,000 lb., while in
1936 16,790,345 lb. were landed. One factor which no doubt had an adverse effect on Canadian
landings was a complete tie-up of all train service out of the port of Prince Rupert for several
weeks during the height of the halibut season. This tie-up, which was caused by a bad washout, no doubt diverted many American vessels to Seattle which would ordinarily have landed
some of their trips in Prince Rupert.
The total Pacific catch by Canadian vessels in 1936 again shows an increase over 1935
by 383,213 lb. The total Canadian catch in 1935 amounted to 10,206,000 lb., while in 1936 the
Canadian catch was 10,589,213 lb. Expressed in percentage of the total, however, the Canadian
catch is somewhat less than in the year previous, amounting to nearly 22 per cent., while in
1935 Canadian vessels caught 28.4 per cent, of the total.
Based on the unweighted average prices paid for all Canadian landings at Prince Rupert,
the prices paid to Canadian fishermen again show a continued upward trend. The average
price calculated on the above basis in 1934 was 5 cents per pound. In 1935 the average was
5.6 cents and in 1936 it was 6.2 cents. Attention is called to the fact that these prices are the
unweighted average prices of all Canadian landings in the port of Prince Rupert and should
be used only as indicating the trend.
Halibut-livers continue in demand by the pharmaceutical houses as a valuable source of
concentrated vitamins. In consequence of the increased demand, prices paid in 1936 were
again higher than in the year previous; the price received in 1936 was 45 cents per pound,
against 40.75 cents in 1935 and 12 cents in 1932. Halibut-livers have now become a source
of considerable revenue to the fishermen, whereas previously they were thrown away. The
total amount landed by the Canadian and American fleets in 1936 was 943,000 lb., producing
a revenue of $424,350, compared with 1935, when 891,000 lb. were produced, valued at $363,082.
MILD-CURED  SALMON.
The market for Canadian mild-cured salmon has during the past few years been most
discouraging and, as a result, production figures have declined drastically. Whereas in 1934
the production amounted to 4,447 tierces, in 1935 there were packed 2,775 tierces. Production
in 1936 was again curtailed, resulting in a pack of only 1,642 tierces. Five plants operated
in 1936, the same number as in 1935.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
In 1936 the production of dry-salt salmon was again controlled by the British Columbia
Salt-fish Marketing Board, which is a scheme set up under the Federal Government's " Marketing Act." The Board was composed of members representative of the industry under a
chairman appointed by the Deputy Minister of Fisheries, Ottawa, the purpose of regulation
being to keep production in line with market demands and thereby secure a reasonable price
for the product. On the whole, the results may be considered to have been most beneficial,
but a ruling by the Privy Council has since been handed down which is to the effect that the
" Marketing Act" was ultra vires Federal jurisdiction. This will result no doubt in a return
to conditions prevailing in this branch of the industry previous to 1935—unless the operators
are able to effect some sort of voluntary control in the light of the experience gained in the past
two seasons. The reader is referred to the 1936 report of the British Columbia Salt-fish
Board, which is published in the Appendix to this report, covering the operations of the Board
regulating dry-salt salmon and herring.
In 1936 there were thirty-one salmon dry-salteries licensed to operate, the same number
as in the year previous. These plants produced 8,190 tons of dry-salt salmon, as compared
with 8,474 tons in 1935 and 4,675 tons in 1934. BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 19
DRY-SALT HERRING.
Dry-salt herring production was again in 1936 under the control of the British Columbia
Salt-fish Marketing Board. This branch of the industry is still experiencing difficulties, due
largely to the unsettled conditions in China, to which country the product is exported. Production has fallen from a high of over 50,000 tons a few years ago to a low of 14,983 tons in 1935.
The records of the Department show that in 1936 there were 16,457 tons produced. British
Columbia is capable of supplying a much larger pack without endangering the stocks, but
substantial increases in the size of the pack should not be anticipated until conditions in the
Orient are materially improved.
There were eighteen herring dry-salteries licensed to operate in 1936, not all of which
actually operated.
The reader is referred to the report of the British Columbia Salt-fish Marketing Board,
published in the Appendix to this report, for details of the marketing of this product.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
The production of fish meal and oil in this Province has attained proportions of a major
branch of British Columbia's fishing industry. Contrary to general belief, the fish-maal
manufactured in British Columbia plants is not used as fertilizer, but is used altogether as
a supplementary food for feeding to domestic animals—cattle, hogs, poultry, etc. The oil
similarly produced finds a market in various manufacturing industries, largely in making
soaps, paints, linoleum products, etc. In recent years, however, a continuously increasing
amount is being used to feed poultry and other live stock, for which it is most valuable due to
its vitamin content. Plants have been established to refine the raw oil and there is now a
continuous supply of guaranteed vitamin-tested oil available.
Pilchard Reduction.—The pilchard-fishery is conducted principally on the west coast of
Vancouver Island. This fishery, which was formerly confined largely to the inlets, has now
developed into what may properly be called a deep-sea fishery. While some fish are still taken
in inside waters when available, a large portion of the catch is taken far out on the open ocean.
This change has been brought about by the introduction of new, large, modern vessels equipped
with powerful Diesel engines and capable of operating in comparatively rough water. The
fishermen, too, have by experience improved their methods in many ways, which has added
greatly to the general success of this branch of the industry.
Fishing commenced very spotty, the fish appearing in very small scattered schools, and by
September 10th the total production was slightly lower than at this date the year previous,
notwithstanding one additional plant operating at this time. Production continued below that
of 1935 throughout the season. In addition to lower production of raw fish, the yield of oil
per ton was considerably less than usual due to the lean condition of the fish. Pilchards
became very hard to locate off the west coast later in the season, but quantities were later
caught in the Namu-Bella Bella area. This is the first time that pilchards have been taken in
these localities in any quantity.
Eight reduction plants were licensed to operate for pilchards in 1936, one more than in
1935. The total production of meal in 1936 was 8,561 tons, compared with 8,666 tons in 1935.
The eight plants produced 1,271,144 imperial gallons of oil in 1936, as against 1,634,592 gallons
from seven plants in 1935.
Whale Reduction.—Two whaling-stations were in operation in 1936, whereas only one
operated in 1935. A total of 376 whales were captured, compared with 202 in 1935 and 350
in 1934, in which latter year two stations were also operated. The 376 whales produced 332
tons of meal, 687 tons of fertilizer, and 763,740 gallons of oil, compared with 211 tons of meal,
354 tons of fertilizer, and 426,722 gallons of oil in 1935. Of the 376 whales killed in 1936,
311 were sperms.
Herring Reduction.—Herring were permitted to be reduced to meal and oil in 1936 in
definitely limited quantities. By agreement with the Federal Minister of Fisheries, the Chief
Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government, the director of the Pacific Biological
Station, and the Assistant Commissioner of Fisheries for British Columbia were instructed to
set catch-limits for the various sub-districts in District No. 3. In the East Coast area the
limit was set at 25,000 tons, while for the West Coast area the total allowed was 40,000 tons.
The West Coast was divided into sub-districts and allotted catch-limits as follows:    Barkley 	
R 20 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Sound, 15,000 tons; Clayoquot Sound, including Sydney Inlet, 5,000 tons; Nootka, including
Esperanza Inlet, 10,000 tons; Kyuquot, 10,000 tons; Quatsino, 5,000 tons. The catch-limit
for Barkley Sound was increased to 20,000 tons later in the season, as it was found that the
run of herring to this area was very heavy and that the increase would in no way endanger
the future supply.
Herring caught on the East Coast of Vancouver Island are nearly all used in the dry-salt
trade; small quantities only find a market for canning and as frozen bait. On the West
Coast the only outlet for herring in quantity in recent years is through their reduction to meal
and oil. Only two salteries operated in Barkley Sound in 1936 and these operations were
very limited.
Considerable activity in herring-fishing was manifest in 1936 in District No. 2 in the
vicinity of Namu, Bella Bella, and Ocean Falls areas. This district has never been fished
extensively for herring, so that little is known regarding its potentialities. No catch-limits
have been placed on fishing in this district, but close observations are being maintained.
Nine plants were licensed to operate in 1936; seven of these were located on the West
Coast of Vancouver Island and one at Prince Rupert. The total production of herring-meal
in 1936 was 10,340 tons, compared with 5,313 tons by five.plants in 1935. Oil produced in
1936 amounted to 786,742 gallons, as against 328,639 gallons in 1935.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Fish oil and meal is also produced in lesser quantities in several
plants operating on other than whales, pilchards, and herring—principally on dogfish and
cannery waste. Five plants were licenced to operate in this category in 1936. Total production amounted to 2,857 tons of meal and 356,464 gallons of oil. Six plants operated in 1935,
producing 2,226 tons of meal and 260,387 gallons of oil.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS.
Owing to the discontinuance by the Department of making personal inspections of the
various salmon-spawning areas, we are indebted to Major Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of
Dominion Fisheries, who conducted these investigations, for furnishing us a copy of his report.
His courtesy in supplying us with these reports is gratefully acknowledged.
Major Motherwell's report on the condition of the British Columbia salmon-spawning
grounds will be found in the Appendix to this report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE
SALMON   (DIGEST).
In the Appendix to this report, Drs. W. A. and Lucy S. Clemens contribute the twenty-
second paper on the life-history of the sockeye salmon. They point out that the runs to the
four main river systems—namely, the Fraser, Skeena, and Nass Rivers and Rivers Inlet—were
relatively good, producing comparatively large packs and good escapements.
The Fraser River Sockeye Run.—The authors refer to the peculiar features in connection
with the Fraser River run of 1936—namely, the large size of the pack, the high proportion of
the catch in Canadian waters, the large catches in the Johnstone Strait area, and the small
catches in the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Washington Sound—but point out that lack of
adequate data prevents an adequate explanation of these peculiarities. The sampling was
made from fish obtained as usual from the traps at Sooke, but was somewhat smaller than
in previous years. The dominant 42 age-group comprised 83 per cent, of the sample; the
52, 11.7 per cent.; and the 53, 4 per cent. The grilse (32) were represented by only six
individuals, while the sea-types (3i and 4i) were entirely absent. The average size of the
fish was large, particularly in respect to weight.
The distribution of the sexes was peculiar, in that the males constituted only 43 per cent,
and thereby forming the lowest percentage on record.
Rivers Inlet Sockeye Run.—In connection with the data for Rivers Inlet, Drs. Clemens
emphasize the fact that the sampling was inadequate to give a complets picture of the run to
this area. Owing to a strike among the fishermen, samples were secured only from July 24th
to August 4th, and while the data have been compiled in the usual way, they should be used
with caution in making comparisons with other years or with other river systems.
The following points are shown in connection with the run of the twelve-day period:
(1) the 42 and 52 age-groups were approximately equally represented;    (2) the 42 fish were BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 21
small both as to length and weight, while the 52 fish were small as to length only; (3) there
was a great preponderance of females.
Skeena River Sockeye Run.—The authors refer to the pack of 81,973 cases as a decided
improvement over those of recent years and as an apparently reasonable one in view of the
reports of good escapements. The run was composed predominately of four-year-old fish
(67 per cent.). The lengths and weights of the fish in all the age-groups were above the
averages of the past years of record, indicating fish of relatively large size. The females were
greatly in excess of the males, constituting 62 per cent.
Nass River Sockeye Run.—Again the Nass River sockeyes have defied prediction and
produced an exceptionally good run, which provided a pack of 28,562 cases and apparently
a very satisfactory escapement. The 42 fish as usual formed the major age-group (67 per
cent.). As in the cases of the Fraser and Skeena Rivers, the fish were large, particularly in
respect to weight, and the females greatly outnumbered the males.
Concerning the runs of 1937, the authors indicate that for the two southern areas fairly
good returns may be expected, but for the two northern rivers the prospects are rather for
relatively small returns.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1936.
The International Fisheries Commission, established by treaty between Canada and the
United States, continued to perform its duties—the investigation of the life-history of the
halibut and the investigation, and regulation of the fishery.
Canadian representation on the International Fisheries Commission was changed during
the year. Dr. John Pease Babcock, Chairman, and Dr. William A. Found, Deputy Minister
of Fisheries for Canada, who had served as Commissioners from the formation of the Commission, resigned. The vacancies were filled by the appointment of Mr. George J. Alexander,
Assistant to the Commissioner of Fisheries for British Columbia, and Mr. A. J. Whitmore,
Chief of the Western Division of the Department of Fisheries of Canada. Mr. Alexander was
elected Chairman to succeed Dr. Babcock.
The long and distinguished career of Dr. John Pease Babcock ended with his death at
Victoria, B.C., on October 12th. Dr. Babcock was a leading advocate of the rational use of
our fishery resources and of scientific research as a means to that end, principles which he
consistently applied as Chairman of the Commission. His death is felt as a heavy loss by
his many friends and associates in fishery-work.
Fishing regulations for 1936 were altered in several respects from those of the preceding
year. The opening of the fishing season was set for March 16th, two weeks later than in 1935.
The boundaries of Areas 1 and 4 were changed, so that Area 1 included all waters south of
Willipa Harbour and Area 4 the waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Bering Sea. Dory-
fishing was prohibited in Areas 1 and 2. The setting of a separate date of closure for the
spawning-grounds between Ocean Cape and Cape St. Elias was discontinued and December
1st was set as the date of closure of all grounds not previously closed.
The boundaries of Areas 2 and 3, their catch-limits of 21,700,000 and 24,300,000 lb.
respectively, the complete closure of the Masset and Timbered Islet nurseries, the closure of
Area 1 at the same time as Area 2, and the closure of Area 4 with which ever of Areas 2 and 3
closed later, were continued as in 1935.
Although the fishing season was opened two weeks later and the voluntary catch-curtailment programme was continued, the catch-limits of both Areas 2 and 3 were attained earlier
than in 1935. This was due to the strike which in 1935 delayed the beginning of fishing until
about April 1st, to a greater intensity of fishing in both areas, and to a considerable increase
in abundance in Area 3 in 1936. Areas 1 and 2 were closed at midnight of August 10th, with
catches of approximately 699,000 and 23,336,000 lb. respectively. Area 3 was closed at midnight of November 3rd with a catch of approximately 25,704,000 lb. Area 4, from which no
halibut was landed in 1936, was closed at the same time. The catch from Area 3 exceeded the
limit for the first time since the inauguration of regulation by limitation of catch.
The close contact with the halibut industry, which has contributed largely to the success
of the Commission, was maintained as in previous years. On November 21st meetings with
the vessel-owners  and fishermen and  a  public hearing were held  in  Prince  Rupert.    On December 22nd a meeting with the Conference Board, composed of representatives of the
fishing fleets at the different ports, was held in Seattle. At the meetings and hearing the
purpose and progress of the Commission's investigations and the effects of regulation were
explained and the problems of the fleets were discussed.
The scientific investigations of the Commission were continued as required by treaty.
They include the current collection and analysis of statistical and biological data and form
a system of observation of the changes occurring as a result of regulation and a necessary
basis for the continued intelligent control of the fishery.
The investigations reveal that the abundance of fish, as indicated by the catch per unit
of gear fished, is 50 per cent, higher in Area 3 and about 70 per cent, higher in Area 2, which
includes the banks off the coast of British Columbia, than it was in 1930, the last year of
unrestricted fishing. The rate of recovery of the stocks as a result of the present degree of
regulation is slackening off. The maximum has apparently not yet been reached, but the
annual increase is now at times temporarily overshadowed by the variations in catch due to
changes in natural conditions.
The work of following the effects of regulation upon the production of spawn in Area 2
was continued. The materials collected in the net-hauls taken in the vicinity of Cape St.
James during the winter of 1935-36 were sorted in the laboratory and new materials were
collected in the same region during the winter of 1936-37. Halibut-eggs are still scarce,
though their abundance in that region during the winter of 1935-36 was about twice as great
as in the preceding winter. An increase in the production of spawn, the first step in the
rebuilding of the fishery, is definitely taking place.
The increases in abundance and in the production of spawn to date are due not to an
increase in the number of fish entering the fishery, but to the better utilization of the fish
already in existence at the time regulation began. The reduction in the rate of removal, due
to regulation, has allowed those fish to live longer on the average and to reach a larger size,
and has permitted a greater proportion of them to reach maturity before capture.
An increase in the number of young fish is necessary to rebuild the stocks to a higher
level of productiveness, the ultimate aim of the Commission. The beginning of such an
increase is believed to be imminent and special attention is being devoted to investigations by
which the improvement may be detected whan it occurs.
Three new scientific reports, Nos. 9, 10, and 11, were published dealing with the following
subjects: Life-history of the halibut. (2) Distribution and early life-history, by William F.
Thompson and Richard Van Cleve; Hydrographic Sections and calculated currents in the
Gulf of Alaska, 1929, by Thomas G. Thompson, George F. McEwen, and Richard Van Cleve;
and Variations on the meristic characters of flounders from the Northeastern Pacific, by
Lawrence D. Townsend.    Their contents were outlined in the report for 1935.
A series of non-technical circulars were begun by the Commission to inform the fishermen,
vessel-owners, and dealers regarding the results of the Commission's investigations and of
other matters relating to the halibut and to the regulation of the fishery. Four circulars were
issued: The halibut commission, its legal powers and function, by Edward W. Allen; Science
and the halibut, by G. J. Alexander; The Canadian halibut fleet, by A. J. Whitmore; and
The American halibut fleet, by Frank T. Bell. The contents of the first are clearly indicated
by its title. The second summarizes the scientific basis on which the regulation of the halibut-
fishery rests. Circulars 3 and 4 give the results of studies of the economic effects of regulation
upon the halibut fleets of Canada and the United States respectively.
Th? third circu'ar, The Canadian halibut fleet, shows that as a direct result of regulations
the halibut live longer and reach a larger size and more valuable grade before capture. The
increase in abundance of fish and an increase in the number of boats fishing have reduced the
length of the fishing season. In spite of this reduction, the total halibut-catch per boat in
the Canadian fleet has increased. The Canadian share of the total landings from both Areas
2 and 3 has increased. Moreover, the shorter season has enabled the vessels to engage in
other activities and thereby to supplement their earnings from halibut. The earnings of the
Canadian fleet have risen more than general prices from 1932 to 1936, and when halibut prices
again reach the pre-depression level the Canadian fleet should be in a much better financial
position than formerly. BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 23
THE CANADIAN HALIBUT FLEET.
The reader will find in the Appendices of this report a reprint of Circular No. 3 of the
International Fisheries Commission. This circular is by A. J. Whitmore, one of the Canadian
Commissioners, and points out the remarkable improvement in the halibut banks, particularly
in Area 2, and indicates the beneficial effects which this has had on the Canadian fleet.
An examination of the figures quoted shows. that the value of halibut landings by the
Canadian fleet has risen from a total of $268,655 in 1932 to $745,657 in 1936. It is also pointed
out that this increase in revenue has been contributed to by a general recovery in prices, by
the increase in the price of halibut-livers, by the increased proportion of first-class fish as
a result of regulation, by better prices for the lessened proportion of second-class fish, and
by an increase in the total amount landed by the Canadian fleet.
The figures quoted show that the Canadian fleet has increased its share in the total catch
from Area 2 from 30 per cent, in 1931 and 1932 at the beginning of regulation to 40 per cent,
in the years 1934, 1935, and 1936. It is also shown that the Canadian catch from Area 3 has
been doubled; whereas before regulation it took from 600,000 to 700,000 lb., in the last two
years it has taken an average of 1,500,000 lb.
The circular points out how the regulations of the International Fisheries Commission
have been most beneficial to this fishery, and in particular to the Canadian fleet.
These circulars are published by the Commission and contain brief non-technical accounts
of the investigations of the Commission and other matters relating to the halibut and the
regulation of its fishery. The circulars are numbered consecutively and appear at irregular
intervals.
PILCHARD AND HERRING INVESTIGATION.
The Provincial Department of Fisheries in 1936 again gave financial assistance to the
investigation of pilchard and herring which was begun in 1929 as a joint undertaking of the
Biological Board of Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department and which was continued
from 1932 by the Biological Board alone. Progress has been made in both investigations, and
for each species methods of tagging and recovery have been instituted which have already
yielded valuable data and which give indications of providing practical results in the near
future. The pilchard-work has been undertaken by Dr. J. L. Hart; Dr. A. L. Tester has been
responsible for the general work on herring; and the work in herring-tagging has been done
by the two investigators working together.
Pilchard.
The 1936 pilchard-fishing season was notable in ssveral ways. The catch made off the
coast of Vancouver Island was very materially smaller than usual, the deficiency being sufficient
to lead to operating losses for some of the operators. On the other hand, a considerable body
of fish penetrated beyond the west end of Vancouver Island, with the result that a small but
successful reduction operation was carried on at Namu. Many small fish were mixed with
the commercial schools; these constituted a major nuisance to the fishermen as they gilled in
the nets, making them difficult to lift. The biological causes of these phenomena were
investigated by sampling the commercial catch for length and sex during the season.
For the first time since the sampling of the pilchard-catch for length was begun in 1929,
the length-frequency distribution shows two definite groups of fish, the appropriate curve
having well-marked modes with centres at approximately 193 mm. and 245 mm. for males and
195 mm. and 250 mm. for females, and minima at 213 mm. for males and 218 mm. for females.
Fish of the size included in the smaller group in length are an entirely new element in.the
British Columbia pilchard-fishery, and consequently no forecasts in regard to their future
in the pilchard stock can be made. Evidently it is a different year-class or group of year-
classes, but it cannot be stated whether its phenomenal appearance is due to the presence in
the pilchard stock of this group in unusual abundance, whether its high representation is only
relative being due to reduction in the numbers of larger older pilchards, or whether in association with the general northward movement of the pilchard population small southern fish such
as occur in California waters entered the area fished by Canadian seiners. Inspection of th3
mode for larger fish indicates its position as being somewhat lower than during the previous
year.    This change may be due to  differences  of technique associated  with  a  change  of R 24
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
investigator, dying-out of the older and larger fish in the population, or the influx of a new
group of fish in addition to that represented by the distinct group of small fish.
The average vertebra numbers of fish in the two groups have been determined separately.
They have been found to be 50.75 (5) for the group of small fish and 50.60 for the larger fish.
This shows that marked year-class variation exists between pilchards in vertebra number.
Indices of availability of pilchards have been prepared from records supplied by the
fishing companies and are shown compared with the indices for previous years in the following
tabulation:—
1934.
1935.
1936.
Average season's catch per boat (tons)-
Average catch per boat per day (tons)-
2,120
25.3
2,170
2*7.0
1,520
18.6
There is no reasonable doubt but that the decline in availability indicated by these figures
is significant. It is believed that the decline is not principally the result of unfavourable
weather conditions, and it is accordingly the result of either a sharply reduced abundance of
fish or of a change in their summer feeding-grounds, which in turn is probably related to
oceanographic conditions.
A preliminary report on the tagging programme for pilchards is included in the Appendix.
The report describes the method of using internal tags of magnetic material in the abdominal
cavities of the fish and their recovery by the use of electromagnets. The California State
Fisheries Laboratory, which is engaged in a similar programme of tagging and recovery, has
given full co-operation, and it is interesting to note that already five British Columbia tags
have been returned from the California sardine-fishery.
| Herring.
The programme of examining representative portions of the herring-catch from different
fishing-grounds around Vancouver Island has been continued with the object of determining
the changes taking place each year in the length, age, and abundance of the fish, and of
Investigating the extent to which herring migrate or, conversely, form local populations.
The standard length of the Saltspring Island herring averaged 196.2 mm.—the largest
value obtained over a period of seven years. The average length for Barkley Sound was
somewhat less—192.5 mm. This value is similar to those obtained in previous years for the
same locality.    The percentage age compositions in the two regions are as follows :■—■
Locality.
In Year of Age.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIIL
IX.
Saltspring Island   	
1.3
2.6
39.9
66.0
31.5
16.7
20.5
13.1
1.3
1.3
4.2
0.1
1.0
0.1
0.3
The exceptionally large percentage of fish (27.3) over age IV. accounts for the large
average length of the Saltspring Island fish. The percentage of V.'s is the largest encountered
in seven years. This year-class (1931) has been considerably above average strength since
it entered the fishery as III.'s in 1933-34. Another rich year-class, that of 1929, is relatively
well represented as VII.'s in 1935-36. The results suggest that the number of older fish in
the catches is tending to increase as a result of the decreased fishing activity during the past
three or four years. The exceptionally large percentage of III.'s in the Barkley Sound samples
indicates that a year-class (that of 1933) considerably above average strength entered the
fishery in force during the past season.
Racial studies on the populations have included a consideration of vertebral count, sex
ratio, and rate of growth. As has usually been the case in past years, the total vertebral
counts of the same year-classes at Saltspring Island and in Barkley Sound were not significantly different. However, the abdominal count was significantly lower in the former locality
(23.096  as  compared  with  23.262).    The  percentage of  the  sexes  was   also   considerably BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 25
different in the two localities, males forming 59.9 per cent, at Saltspring Island and 47.3 per
cent, in Barkley Sound. On the average the rate of growth of the east-coast fish was slower
than that of the west-coast fish. All of the above results confirm those of previous years and
prove that the herring of the two localities form essentially distinct populations. Sufficient
data are not available as yet for a detailed study of the racial characters of each population.
Daily catch records have been collected and analysed in an effort to estimate the changes
which take place in the availability of fish within seasons and between seasons. On the southeast coast of Vancouver Island the fishery was concentrated in Swanson and Satellite Channels.
During the 1935-36 season availability was at its height during the fourth week of fishing
(October 21st to 26th). The daily catch records indicate that there has been an increase in
the three successive seasons 1933-34 to 1935-36, which is possibly related to the trend in age
composition noted above. On the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1935-36 herring were
found to be more available in Nootka and Kyuquot Sounds than in Barkley Sound, where they
were found to be less available than in the two previous years.
Reports on herring spawning made by Dominion Fisheries Inspectors have been analysed,
with the result that considerable information has been derived about the places and time of
spawning and more especially about the mortality on the spawning-grounds and the intensity
of spawning.
A description of the methods and apparatus used and the results obtained in the herring-
tagging work is printed in the Appendix. The apparatus described detects the tagged herring
by the disturbance caused in a magnetic field by an iron internal tag, and by-passing the tagged
individual into a box along with those near it in the chute. Use of this equipment has already
demonstrated the instability of schools as units on the fishing-grounds and the existence of
a movement of herring from the Strait of Juan de Fuca to the Strait of Georgia in the
neighbourhood of Porlier Pass. However, the principal result of the first year's work has
been to demonstrate that the methods are applicable to the study of herring movements in
Southern British Columbia. R 26 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 22.)
By Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
and Lucy S. Clemens, Ph.D.
INTRODUCTION.
During the year 1936 the runs of sockeye salmon to the four main river systems of British
Columbia were very satisfactory. In spite of the limited amount of fishing at Rivers Inlet,
the total pack for the four areas was approximately 80,000 cases larger than that of 1935.
At the same time the escapements on all four river systems were reported as particularly good.
The run to the Fraser was exceptionally large, resulting in a pack of 244,359 cases, the
largest in that cycle since 1912. The small catch in the Strait of Juan de Fuca and in
Washington Sound and the large catch in the Johnstone Strait area presented a rather puzzling
situation. In the future it would be most desirable to have made available for this report more
accurate data on the Johnstone Strait catches.
Owing to a strike of the fishermen in the Rivers Inlet area, fishing was greatly curtailed
and a pack of only 46,351 cases was made. As a consequence the escapement was exceptionally
good. There was no evidence of overcrowding on the spawning-beds and, unless freshets did
a great deal of damage, there should be good returns in 1940 and 1941. As a matter of fact,
a reduction in catch of 30,000 cases represents approximately 400,000,000 additional eggs on
the spawning-beds, and may mean a very good investment.
The pack on the Skeena River of 81,973 cases indicated a fair run with an apparently
satisfactory escapement.
The Nass River had an unexpectedly good return with a pack of 28,562 cases and a very
good escapement, in spite of the fact that in 1931 the pack was only 16,929 cases and the
spawning-beds were reported as poorly seeded. The pronounced fluctuations in the runs to
this river present an interesting problem.
In respect to the fish comprising the runs to the Fraser, Skeena, and Nass Rivers two
points are of interest. In the first place, they were of comparatively large size, particularly
in weight.    In the second place, the percentage of males was exceptionally low.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating
the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the fish migrated
from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers, one in large type, which
indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to the right and below, which
signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water. The age-groups which are met
most commonly in these river systems are:—
3i, 4i—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature at the
ages of three and four years respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and mature at
the.age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four and
five respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five and six
respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six and
seven respectively. LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON. R 27
THE FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1936.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in the season of 1936 amounted to 244,359 cases,
of which 184,854 cases were packed in the Province of British Columbia and 59,505 in the State
of Washington (Table I.). Included in the latter figure are 16,611 cases of fish caught in
British Columbia but packed in the State of Washington. The percentages of the two packs
are 75 and 25 respectively.
The run was remarkable in several respects. In the first place, it was unexpectedly
large. Not only was the pack the largest in its cycle since 1912, but the escapements to certain
areas such as Chilco, Seton-Anderson, Birkenhead, Harrison Lake, Pitt Lake, and Cultus Lake
were very good. The reports indicate that comparatively few fish reached the Upper Fraser
River at Stuart and Quesnel Lakes and only a small number at Shuswap Lake. In the second
place, a very considerable number of sockeye came in through Johnstone Strait. It is well
known that some sockeye take this route to the Fraser River each year and the larger catch
in 1936 may have been merely a reflection of the greatly increased run of this year.
There has always been difficulty in determining what percentage of the catch in the
northern area should be credited to the Fraser River. In this year a special effort has been
made to arrive at a reliable figure and 23,153 cases are assigned to the Fraser and are included
in its total pack of 244,359 cases. No part of 6,346 cases packed at the Quathiaski cannery
are so credited. In the third place, the catch in British Columbia waters was very much in
excess of the catch in Washington waters. Whether this was related to the absence of traps
in American territory or to a peculiar movement of the fish through the southern waters
cannot be discovered.
The run of 1937 will be derived largely from the brood-year of 1933. In that year the
pack was 179,069 cases and the escapement was reported as disappointing, except in the Chilco
area, where at least 100,000 fish were estimated to have spawned. There are no known factors
which would indicate an increased run in 1937.
(2.) Age-groups.
The material for this year's study consists of data and scales from 826 sockeye salmon
taken at random from the -catch in the traps at Sooke from April 30th to September 17th in
twenty-six samplings. The 42 age-group is represented by 685 individuals or 83 per cent.,
the 52's by 97 or 11.7 per cent., and the 53's by 34 or 4 per cent. The remaining groups are
present in small numbers as follows: 63's, 4 fish; 32's, 6 fish; together constituting about 1
per cent. The 3i and 4i age-groups, usually represented by a few individuals, are absent this
year probably because of the relatively small total sampling. The absence of these two classes
and the high percentage of four-year-old fish are the two features of note.
Samplings from 143 sockeye caught in the Johnstone Strait area were obtained at the
cannery at Quathiaski. The distribution of the age-groups was as follows: 4o's, 134 fish or
94 per cent.;  52's, 7 or 5 per cent.;   53's, 2 or 1 per cent.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
While the average lengths and weights of the various classes do not show any outstanding
features, it may be noted that the fish of the dominant 42 age-group are of large size, particularly in respect to weight (Tables V. and VI.).
The average lengths and weights of the Johnstone Strait fish are considerably greater
than those of the Sooke fish, as shown in Table VIIL The difference is probably not significant
because the northern sampling is relatively small and taken within a rather narrow time period.
(4.)  Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 356 and of females 470, being percentages of
43 and 57 respectively. This is the lowest percentage of males on record. In both the 42 and
52 age-groups the discrepancy is very pronounced. In Table VII. are shown the percentages
of the sexes for the past twenty-two years.
Among the Johnstone Strait fish the males formed 45 per cent, and the females 55. R 28
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Table I.—Fraser River Packs, 1895-1936, arranged in accordance with the
Four-year Cycle.
B.C	
Wash-
Total .
B.C. ...
Wash..
Total..
B.C	
Wash-
Total..
B.C.-.
Wash.
Total..
B.C.	
Wash-
Total..
B.C	
Wash..
Total..
B.C	
Wash..
Total..
B.C	
Wash-
Total .
B.C.	
Wash-
Total..
B.C—.
Wash...
Total.
B.C	
Wash..
Total-
* This  figure includes   16,611  cases  of  fish  caught  in  British   Columbia   waters  but  packed  in  the   State   of
Washington.
1895—
395,984
65,143
1896—
356,984
72,979
1897-
- 860,459
312,048
1898—
256,101
252,000
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
508,101
1899—
480,485
499,646
1900—
229,800
228,704
1901-
- 928,669
1,105,096
1902—
293,477
339,556
980,131
458,504
2,033,765
633,033
1903—
204,809
167,211
1904—
72,688
123,419
1905-
- 837,489
837,122
1906—
183,007
182,241
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
1907—
59,815
96,974
1908—
74,574
170,951
1909-
- 585,435
1,097,904
1910—
150,432
248,014
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
Wil
58,487
127,761
1912—
123,879
184,680
1913-
- 719,796
1,673,099
1914—
198,183
335,230
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
ms—
91,130
64,584
1916—
32,146
84,637
1917-
- 148,164
411,538
1918—
19,697
50,723
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
1919—
38,854
64,346
1920—
48,399
62,654
1921-
- 39,631
102,967
1922—
61,832
48,566
103,200
111,053
142,598
100,398
1923—
31,655
47,402
1924—
39,743
69,369
1925-
-  35,385
112,023
1926—
85,689
44,673  '
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
1927—
61,393
97,594
1928—
29,299
61,044
1929-
-  61,569
111,898
1930—
103,692
352,194
158,987
90,343
173,467
455,886
1931—
40,947
87,211
1932—
65,769
81,188
1933-
-  52,465
126,604
1934—
139,238
352,579
128,158
146,957
179,069
491,817
1935—
62,822
54,677
1936—
184,854
59,505*
117,499
244,359 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE  SALMON.
R 29
Table II.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Percentages of the
Year-classes from 1920 to 1936.
Year.
1920-
1921..
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925-
1926..
1927-
1928.
1929..
1930.
1931-
1932.
1933-
1934.
1935-
1936.
69.6
78.1
70.5
67.1
68.2
67.9
66.1
84.6
71.4
77.3
75.7
79.0
80.7
83.6
84.2
71.3
83.0
21.2
14.6
9.3
10.8
18.7
24.9
20.3
7.5
18.8
11.9
19.6
13.1
13.5
9.2
10.7
22.9
11.7
6.2
4.1
4.5
3.9
9.2
3.4
5.2
3.0
5.3
7.8
2.8
1.3
2.8
1.9
2.3
2.3
4.1
0.2
0.7
2.0
1.2
0.5
0.2
1.6
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.5
1.9
0.5
6.3
6.7
0.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
2.0
0.1
0.2
2.0
0.8
1.4
0.1
0.4
0.9
2.0
5.6
2.5
2.2
0.7
0.1
0.7
2.0
0.8
0.5
1.2
1.3
0.9
0.4
0.8
0.6
2.1
1.0
2.5
0.5
2.6
1.4
3.4
1.5
1.5
0.7
Table III.—Fraser River Sockeyes, 1936, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age,
Sex, and Length, and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
53
63
32
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
rn
o
m
17                                    -  	
7
3
3
10
8
2
5
1
6
8
10
28
32
45
47
35
28
7
2
1
1
3
6
13
5
12
10
7
7
8
26
51
75
64
59
35
10
4
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
7
6
7
5
3
1
2
4
2
1
4
1
2
2
3
4
9
8
10
2
5
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
2
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
	
17y2                             	
18   -    -   	
18«, —
10
10
19                                                         .           	
18
20                                     —  	
27
20%
21                                              	
13
21%                                —  	
12
22            .    .                  - -	
16
22%                                          	
39
23	
70
23%                                            —
108
24  	
24%          .                	
104
119
25                                            	
101
25%         -                —	
C3
26 —	
26% 	
27..       	
27%                                             	
41
20
7
2
28 —	
28%       -	
3
4
29	
2
29%                                   	
30               	
1
Totals                        	
288
397
46
51
15
19
1
3
6
	
826
Average lengths  	
23.9
23.2
25.8
24.3
23.2
23.2
25.3
18.8 R 30
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Table IV.—Fraser River Sockeyes, 1936, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age,
Sex, and Weight, and by their Early History.
Number op Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
42
52
53
63
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
rrj
O
m
2                        .  .- —	
7
17
11
5
11
14
28
37
26
52
24
32
14
8
1
1
3
5
24
13
18
18
49
51
81
58
45
19
8
3
2
1
1
2
3
1
3
5
3
6
3
4
3
1
5
1
3
1
4
3
4
3
5
4
11
10
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
2
1
2
4
1
2
1
5
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
4
16
3 —-	
44
33
30
33
74
5%                                     —	
87
6                	
133
98
7       	
115
59
8                              	
45
8%                                 	
21
15
9%	
7
10  	
10%                            	
5
1
2
11 %                      	
3
12                            	
1
Totals            	
288
397
46 |     51
15
19
1
3
6
826
6.3
5.7
7.7  1     6.5
5.5   1     5.2
7.2
2.9
Table V,
-Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Average Lengths in Inches
of Principal Classes from 1920 to 1936.
Year.
42
52
53
63
3i
41
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1920	
1921 	
24.1
23.7
24.0
24.3
23.8
23.5
22.6
24.1
23.4
23.7
24.4
23.4
23.6
23.1
23.9
23.8
23.2
23.0
23.0
23.3
22.8
22.9
22.3
23.1
23.0
22.9
23.6
22.8
22.8
22.7
23.2
22.8
25.7
25.9
25.8
25.8
24.9
25.8
24.6
26.1
25.5
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.3
24.9
24.2
26.4
24.6
24.6
24.1
24.8
23.9
24.6
24.0
24.6
24.7
24.3
24.6
24.6
24.2
24.0
24.1
24.9
24.3
23.5
24.2
23.7
24.0
23.2
21.7
24.2
24.8
24.4
24.3
24.6
24.0
23.0
23.6
23.2
22.7
22.9
22.7
22.0
22.4
22.0
23.4
23.7
23.6
24.1
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.5
25.7
25.4
26.3
24.3
25.5
25.3
27.1
26.2
26.7
27.0
25.5
24.3
24.9
23.7
24.6
26.0
24.8
26.0
24.0
23.3
23.0
23.3
21.9
22.5
23.4
23.4
19.1
22.5
21.5
21.9
22.5
22.2
21.8
22.6
22.7
20.4
21.7
22.5
22.2
18.7
23.0
20.7
21.6
21.5
22.3
22.2
25.5
25.5
25.2
25.2
25.4
25.1
19.8
25.0
24.7
25.3
23.0
24.3
23.5
23.0
24.3
1922  	
24 2
1923 	
1924	
1925  	
24.1
24.4
1926 	
24 6
1927	
1928-    - -
1929 	
1930 -	
1931 	
1932- -	
1933 	
1934 	
1935. 	
24.5
24.0
23.2
22.5
23.4
23.8
22.1
23.5
23.7   [   23.0
25.5
24.4
23.8
23.0
26.0
24.8
22.4
21.7 |   24.4
1936	
23.9  1   23.2
25.8
24.3
23.2
23.2
25.3
	
	 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
R 31
Table VI.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Vancouver Island Traps, Average Weights in Pounds
of Principal Classes from 1922 to 1936.
Year.
42
5
2
53
63
h
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.   F.
1922         	
6.4
6.6
5.7
5.8
7.0
7.8
6.1
6.9
6.1
6.0
5.4
5.2
7.2
7.3
5.5
6.5
5.9
6.2
5.2
5.3
7.9
7.3
6.9
1923 —
6.5
1924 	
	
1925           	
6.8
6.2
5.2
4.9
7.6
6.2
6.6
5.7
6.1
5.4
5.3
4.8
7.4
5.7
5.3
6.1
4.6
5.4
7.3
1926 	
6.6
1927 	
6.1
5.5
7.3
6.8
4.5
4.8
6.5
5.5
5.9
5.2
7.2
6.8
1928 	
6.0
5.5
7.4
6.9
6.5
5.7
8.6
8.0
6.4
5.4
8.0
6.6
1929            	
6.0
6.9
5.3
6.1
7.2
7.7
6.3
6.7
6.7
6.6
5.9
6.0
7.5
7.7
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.2
6.5
6.3
6.0
1930 	
5.8
1931 	
5.8
5.2
7.3
6.5
6.1
6.3
4.5
4.6
7.3
6.0
1932  	
6.1
5.4
7.3
6.7
6.6
5.4
4.9
4.4
5.7
5.9
1933  -
5.4
5.0
7.0
6.3
6.0
5.2
8.8
5.1
4.9
6.5
6.1
1934 	
6.3
5.6
6.5
6.4
5.2
5.1
6.6
5.1
1935 	
6.0
5.2
8.6
7.1
6.2
5.0
6.0
6.0
5.2
5.5
5.0   5.6
Average weights	
6.1
5.4
7.3
6.5
6.0
5.4
7.6
6.3
5.6
4.9
7.0 | 6.2
1936 	
6.3
5.7
7.7
6.5
5.5
5.2
7.2
	
	
Table VII.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
4.2, 52, and 5s, Age-groups, 1915 to 1936.
Year.
42
52
h
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915   	
1916   	
1917 	
1918  	
1919 -	
1920 	
1921    —
1922	
1923              -	
55
49
50
51
53
50
48
49
51
51
46
52
48
53
46
42
47
44
49
54
48
42
45
51
50
49
47
50
52
51
49
49
54
48
52
47
54
58
53
56
51
46
52
58
57
50
50
56
53
47
42
52
55
50
53
48
58
64
65
55
56
58
50
56
52
47
43
50
50
44
47
53
58
48
45
50
47
52
42
36
45
45
44
42
50
44
48
53
53
38
49
57
48
47
43
46
46
47
43
50
41
66
50
44
42
30
47
46
35
44
47
62
51
43
52
53
57
54
54
63
57
50
59
34
50
56
58
70
53
54
65
56
54
51
50
52
52
49
47
53
50
51
49
51
48
56
49
45
48
46
61
55
48
43
46
49
50
48
48
51
63
47
50
49
51
49
52
44
51
65
52
64
49
45
52
1924 	
1925 	
1926  - -   	
1927     . 	
1928	
1929 —	
1930 .  	
1931  	
1932 	
1933  	
1934-  	
1935—   - 	
1936 _    .	
Average   	
49
51
53
47
46
54
50
50 R 32
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Table VIII.—Comparison of Lengths and Weights of Sockeyes taken in 1936 at
Sooke and in the Quathiaski Area.
Sooke.
Quathiaski.
Number.
Ave. in
Inches.
Ave. in
Pounds.
Number.
Ave. in
Inches.
Ave. in
Pounds.
40                	
M. 288
F. 397
M. 46
F. 51
M. 15
F. 19
23.9
23.2
25.8
24.3
23.2
23.2
6.3
5.7
7.7
6.5
5.5
5.2
M. 62
F. 72
M. 2
F. 5
M. 1
F. 1
25.0
24.1
27.3
25.9
26.0
25.0
7.3
6.5
8.5
7.7
7.5
7.0
2. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1936.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The sampling of the run of sockeye to Rivers Inlet was entirely inadequate in 1936 because
of a strike among the fishermen. Data and scales were obtained from only 996 fish in eight
samplings from July 24th to August 4th, inclusive. Only 46,351 cases were packed. Correspondingly the escapement was large, but during the autumn a freshet occurred over the whole
area and the officers of the Dominion Department of Fisheries are of the opinion that possibly
considerable damage was done to the spawning-beds.
It does not seem of value at this time to attempt to compare cycle-years as to packs or
percentages of age-groups, but it is interesting to recall that the cycle-years 1910-15-20-25-
30-35 have consistently produced large packs, over 100,000 cases. Other years have produced
medium-sized packs, 60,000 to 100,000 cases, with an occasional small pack (as low as 45,000
cases).
The years 1932 and 1933 will be the brood-years for the run of 1937. The packs in these
years were 69,732 and 83,507 cases respectively. In the former year the escapement was
apparently not very satisfactory and the spawning-beds probably damaged by freshets. In the
latter year the spawning-beds were reported to have been heavily seeded. On the basis of the
above there would seem to be grounds for expecting a medium-sized run in 1937.
(2.) Age-groups.
As stated previously, the sampling was curtailed. Size and sex data were obtained from
996 individuals taken in eight random samplings from July 24th to August 4th. The data
from this limited material are presented in the usual way, but comparisons should be made
with some reservations. The 42 age-group was slightly more abundant than the 52, being
represented by 524 individuals or 53 per cent.; the 52 group by 462 or 46 per cent.; the 53 by
10 or 1 per cent. The 63 age-group was unrepresented this year. As may be seen in Table
IX., the percentages of the two dominant age-groups, 42 and 52, have varied a great deal over
the period of record, and the present proportions are apparently not of unusual significance.
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The length and weight statistics are presented in Tables X. and XI. and the comparative
average sizes over a period of years in Tables XII. and XIII. The lengths of the fish in the
sample are exceptionally small; in fact, the smallest on record. Both the males and females
of the 42 age-group were an inch and a half less than the averages of the past twenty-three
years. In the 52 age-group the differences are not quite so great, but even so the females
strike a new low record.
The average weight data present some unusual features, in that the 4o females show the
lowest average weight on record and the 52 males the highest.
The males of both the 42 and 52 classes were apparently short but relatively plump. LIFE-HISTORY OF THE  SOCKEYE  SALMON.
R 33
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
During the short period of sampling there was a marked preponderance of females (Table
XIV.). In past years, when the sampling was carried out throughout the fishing season, the
males of the 42 age-group have always outnumbered the females, but the limited data of this
year show a percentage of 43 for the males as compared with a usual average of 65.
Even in the 52 age-group, where the males have always been in the minority, they form
only 20 per cent, as contrasted with a usual average of 36.
As shown in the data presented for 1935, the males are more abundant in the early part
of the season and there is no doubt that the peculiarities in the data of 1936 are the result of
the late and limited sampling.
Table IX.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage op Individuals.
42
h
h
h
1907 (87,874 cases)    _	
21
80
35
13
26
39
67
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55 '
77
49
63
67
44
77
67
53
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
61
18
24
64
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
65
20
41
46
i
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
6
1
2
1
1
1908 (64,652 cases).   ,
1909 (89,027 cases)  	
1910 (126,921 cases)	
1911 (88,763 cases)  .._ _
1912 (112,884 cases)    	
~\
1913 (61,745 cases) 	
1914 (89,890 cases). 	
1915 (130,350 cases) _ —	
1916 (44,936 cases)  	
1917 (61,195 cases) 	
1918 (53,401 cases)	
1919 (56,258 cases) 	
~~
1920 (121,254 cases)	
1921 (46,300 cases) 	
—
1922 (60,700 cases)-  	
1923 (107,174 cases)	
1924 (94,891 cases)	
1925 (159,554 cases) 	
—   '
1926 (65,581 cases)-	
1927 (64,461 cases)	
1928 (60,044 cases) .  	
1929 (70,260 cases)  	
1930 (119,170 cases) ._	
1931 (76,428 eases) 	
1932 (69,732 cases)   	
1933 (83,507 cases)	
1934 (76,923 cases)... ,	
—
1935 (135,038 cases)— -	
1936 (43,351 cases)- -	 R 34
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Table X.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1936, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
5
2
5
3
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3
0
E-i
17 •	
1
2
12
19
38
28
36
27
29
12
12
3
5
1
6
18
55
49
122
25
10
9
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
5
9
6
14
8
14
7
11
5
4
4
5
4
12
12
27
23
80
60
62
32
37
11
5
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
	
	
1
17%	
18	
18%  	
19-	
19% 	
20  	
20%           -	
2
18
37
98
85
21  - .
21%         	
175
66
22   	
22%-  	
23             	
69
49
103
23%            - -
71
24    .         	
81
24%
40
25             	
52
25 %         	
18
26 	
26%          	
17
6
27 -	
27%          	
4
4
225
299
91
371
3
7
--      1       	
996
21.0
20.9
24.6
23.4
21.3
21.0
I                   1
Table XI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1936, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
5
3
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3
0
m
2%            	
1
4
12
36
57
39
31
24
14
3
3
1
6
22
40
94
69
42
20
3
2
1
3
1
6
13
9
17
12
3
6
5
5
7
3
1
1
1
4
8
26
35
54
56
69
50
33
16
11
6
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
	
	
3 	
3%
11
4  	
4%           	
81
163
139
110
5% 	
6       —	
6%             	
86
83
71
46
19
17
11
6
7
3
1
7            - —
7%
8         	
8% 	
9         -
9%	
10— 	
10%              —
11 - 	
11%
Totals	
225
299
91
371
3
7
996
Ave. weights	
4.9
4.1
7.9
6.7
5.5
4.7
	 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
R 35
Table XII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Length in Inches of the U2 and 52
Groups, 1912 to 1936.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912—	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
22.1
22.3
22.6
22.7
21.9
22.4
22.1
22.4
22.4
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
22.8
22.2
22.6
22.0
22.4
22.0
22.2
22.4
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.6
26.1
25.2
26.0
25.2
25.2
25.5
25.6
25.8
24.6
1913 _	
25.2
1914  	
25.2
1915      	
25.1
1913  	
25.0
1917  	
1918  	
24.4
24.5
1919                	
1920 - -
24.4
25.0
1921—   	
24.2
1922  -	
24.2
1923	
1924	
1925     ■
1923.	
1927  	
1928   	
1929   _  	
1930  - „ -
1931    ,	
1932	
1933  ,   -.
1934    	
1935 	
24.1
24.3
24.8
24.6
24.2
25.2
25.3
25.2
24.8
24.6
24.7
25.0
25.1
22.5
22.4
25.4
24.7
1936                                   	
21.0
20.9
24.6
23.4
Table XIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weight in Pounds of the U2 and 52
Groups, 191U to 1936.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914       -  	
1915    	
1913    	
1917                                                  -  	
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.0
4.9
4.5
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.5
5.2
5.1
6.0
4.9
6.1
4.8
4.9
6.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.0
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.3
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.6
7.5
6.7
6.5
7.3
7.3
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.7
6.2
1918-  	
1919    „.
1921                                                        	
6.7
5.9
6.0
1922 	
1923                                                      	
7.0
5.9
1924   -	
1925                                                 	
6.1
6.2
1925                                                 . — - , 	
6.3
1927                                                  	
7.6
1928                                                  	
6.7
1929 	
1930                                                 —     	
6.7
6.9
1931                                                  	
6.4
1932       —
1933                                     - - -   -
6.5
6.6
1934   —	
1935       - -	
6.7
6.1
5.0
4.9
7.0
6.5
4.9
4.1
7.9
6.7 R 36
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Table XIV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
42 and 52 Age-groups, 1915 to 1936.
Year.
42
h
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915 	
65
63
79
77
74
63
66
71
74
66
63
68
63
57
56
59
54
56
55
63
43
35
37
21
23
26
37
34
29
26
34
37
32
37
43
44
41
46
44
45
37
57
43
39
49
41
48
40
38
31
31
34
32
33
30
36
37
33
28
32
27
39
20
57
61
51
59
52
60
62
69
69
66
68
64
70
64
6S
67
72
68
73
61
80
45
49
48
66
58
49
51
61
62
50
41
51
62
50
53
47
47
47
42
49
53
32
55
1913   	
1917	
51
52
1918      	
1919  	
1920   	
1921  	
1922   	
1923.   	
1924  -   —
1925 -   -
1923   	
1927 '	
34
42
51
49
39
38
50
59
49
38
1928  	
1929  	
1930  '. 	
1931  	
1932     ..
1933  	
50
47
53
53
53
58
1934    	
1935   ...  ...
1936    	
51
47
68
Average	
63
37
35
65
51
49
3. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1936.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The pack on the Skeena River amounted to 81,973 cases, which was a decided improvement
over those of recent years (Table XV.).
The reports from the spawning-beds indicate good escapements both to the Lakelse and
the Babine areas, with excellent conditions for spawning and incubation. It may be noted that
the fishing boundary was lowered on the river in order to secure the escapement of a larger
percentage of the run, and this action apparently had the desired result.
The run of 1937 will be the product of the spawnings of 1932 and 1933. In the former year
the pack was 59,916 cases, with a fair escapement in the Babine area and a good one at Lakelse,
but with the possibility of freshets doing considerable damage. In the latter year the pack
was 30,506 and the escapement was reported as fair. The above data would seem to indicate
a relatively small return and that the catch should be on a conservative basis.
(2.) Age-groups.
Scales and length, weight and sex data were obtained from 2,070 fish from June 29th to
August 21st in nineteen random samplings. The 42 age-group is represented by 1,393 fish
or 67 per cent.; the 52's by 414 or 20 per cent.; the 53's by 215 or 11 per cent.; and the 63's by
48 or 2 per cent. The run is thus composed predominately of four-year-old fish, but the
percentage of occurrence of this or the other three age-groups is not exceptional (Table XV.).
In addition to the above and not recorded in the calculations, there are four individuals
of the 32 age-group averaging 17 inches and 2V2 lb. The dates are July 31st, August 14th,
17th, and 19th.
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
The length and weight data are presented in Tables XVI., XVII., XVIIL, and XIX. In all
cases, in both lengths and weights, the averages are slightly above the gross averages of the
past years of record, and while not exceptional they indicate fish of relatively large size. LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
R 37
(4.)  Proportions of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 792 and of females 1,278, percentages of
38 and 62 respectively. The females greatly outnumber the males in the 42, 52, and 53 age-
groups, but are slightly in the minority in the 63's. Not since the year 1920 has there been
such a small proportion of males (Table XX.).
Table XV.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage op Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
(108,413 cases)-
(139,846 cases) ..
(87,901 cases) —
(187,246 cases)..
(131,066 cases)..
(92,498 cases)—.
(52,927 cases) —
(130,166 cases)..
(116,553 cases)..
(60,923 cases)....
(65,760 cases)....
(123,322 cases)..
(184,945 cases)..
(90,869 cases) —
(41,018 cases) —
(96,277 cases)—.
(131,731 cases)..
(144,747 cases)..
(77,784 cases) —
(82,360 cases) —
(83,996 cases) —
(34,559 cases) —
(78,017 cases)...
(132,372 cases).
(93,023 cases) —
(59,916 cases)-
(30,506 cases) —
(54,558 cases) —
(52,879 cases) —
(81,973 cases) ...
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
18
5
6
4
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2 R 38
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Table XVI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1936, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3
o
m
19% 	
1
l
20 -	
1
	
	
	
	
	
l
20% 	
6
4
—
	
1
	
n
21  	
11
13
	
	
1
	
25
21%	
16
30
	
3
	
49
22 	
27
74
2
3
9
1
116
22%  	
33
128
3
1
17
1
	
183
23 	
51
211
4
3
8
19
	
296
23%   -
78
175
2
18
15
33
	
	
321
24	
117
137
4
31
13
17
5
324
24%     —
83
65
67
17
17
19
35
46
13
13
19
4
2
1
5
5
241
25 	
170
25% ----- -
30
3
16
34
7
2
5
2
99
26     	
10
3
2
29
14
51
22
7
1
4
3
5
3
1
108
26 %  	
47
27 	
15
13
2
4
1
35
27% 	
	
16
2
	
3
21
28 	
	
9
1
2
1
13
28%  -	
5
2
7
29 	
	
1
	
1
29%	
	
	
30  	
1
1
Totals „.
531
862
151
263
83
132
27
21
2,070
Ave. lengths	
23.8
23.2
26.0
25.2
24.4
23.5
26.3
25.0
	
Table XVII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1936, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
E
2
S
3
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3
0
3           	
2
4
3%    	
13
25
10
51
1
1
6
23
4...	
84
4%	
5    -
48
72
173
268
2
5
4
19
5
7
19
26
1
1
253
397
5%- 	
124
201
10
39
21
30
4
429
6	
112
111
14
37
12
28
3
10   .
327
6% 	
73
34
24
50
15
8
2
3
209
7   	
50
11
19
44
14
8
7
153
7% -	
8     	
8
4
1
1
20
19
15
34
26
6
4
4
5
1
5
2
5
1
2
78
59
8%	
26
9	
	
10
7
5
1
1
2
2
9%	
10	
10%  .-
5
1
Totals	
531
862
151
263
83
132
27
21
2,070
Ave. weights -	
5.6
5.2
7.3
6.6
6.1
6.5
7.4
6.2 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
R 39
Table XVIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1936.
Year.
*2
h
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912  	
1913   	
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23.8
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.8
23.9
23.3
22.9
23.1
23.5
23.4
23.2
23.8
23.1
23.5
22.9
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.3
22.8
23.4
23.3
22.8
22.7
22.7
23.1
22.7
22.8
23.2
22.9
26.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2
25.5
25.9
25.7
26.2
25.2
25.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.7
25.3
25.5
24.7
26.7
25.2
26.1
26.3
26.3
25.2
24.7
25.1
25.0
25.0
24.7
25.0
24.8
25.3
24.2
24.4
24.5
25.2
24.7
24.8
24.8
24.7
24.7
23.9
24.8
24.4
25.2
25.2
25.2
24.5
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
24.2
23.8
23.9
24.7
24.1
24.6
24.1
23.5
23.8
23.5
23.8
24.1
24.3
25.2
23.6
23.4
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.3
23.8
23.5
22.8
22.8
22.4
23.1
22.8
23.4
24.1
22.8
25.6
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
26.6
25.8
25.8
26.0
25.2
25.6
25.5
24.6
25.8
25.4
26.4
26.0
26.2
	
1914	
1915 	
1916  	
1917 ' 	
24.4
24.8
25.0
1918 	
24.7
1919 -   -	
24 7
1920 -	
1921  -	
1922	
25.1
24.2
24.1
1923  	
1924 .'.	
1925 .    	
24.4
24.8
24.8
1926 	
1927  - -	
1928	
1929  	
25.0
24.9
24.7
24.3
1930  -	
1931            	
23.2
24.7
1932      -	
24.4
1933 -	
1934	
1936
25.3
24.9
26.1
23.7
23.1
25.7
24.8
24.1
23.3
25.6
24.6
1936  -
23.8
23.2
26.0
25.2
24.4
23.5
26.3
25.0
Table XIX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1936.
Year.
42
h
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914 -	
1915         _	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.4
5.4
5.4
4.9
5.7
5.1
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.3
6.5
6.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.6
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.9
4.7
5.2
4.9
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.9
7.0
7.2
6.4
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.7
7.4
6.3
.6.2
6.3
6.0
6.4
6.2
6.4
5.7
5.7
5.7
6.3
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.8
6.2
6.0
6.3
6.1
6.3
6.6
6.5
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.7
6.1
6.3
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.5
5.9
5.4
5.0
5.6
5.6
5.5
6.0
5.7
6.7
5.5
5.2
6.4
5.2
5.3
5.4
6.1
5.1
5.1
4.8
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.0
4.6
4.9
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.8
4.7
6.6
7.1
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.3
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.9
6.9
6.0
6.5
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.8
7.1
7.7
7.2
6.0
1916 -
1917     _	
6.9
5.8
1918     	
6.1
1919     	
6.3
1920         	
6.3
1921 -	
5.6
1922 -
1923  - -	
5.7
6.4
1924 	
1925 -	
1926  - —	
1927      -	
5.8
5.4
6.2
6.8
1928     	
5.8
5.7
1930     -	
5.8
1931 -
6.0
1932         -
5.9
1933 	
6.3
1934 	
1935     — 	
6.2
6.4
5.4
5.0
6.8
6.1
5.7
5.1  |   6.8
5.9
1936            	
5.6
5.2
7.3
6.6
6.1
5.5  1   7.4
6.2 R 40
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Table XX.-
-Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
42 and 52 Age-groups, 1915 to 1936.
Year.
4
2
5
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915
56
70
66
63
53
41
44
52
60
50
67
40
45
48
50
47
43
47
48
42
41
38
44
30
34
37
47
59
56
48
40
50
43
60
55
52
50
53
57
53
52
58
59
62
45
43
48
46
46
37
44
41
37
43
42
43
41
45
46
56
39
63
40
33
32
36
55
57
52
54
54
63
56
59
63
57
58
57
59
55
54
44
61
37
60
67
68
64
49
65
60
57
49
38
45
50
52
45
50
42
44
46
50
53
44
54
45
39
40
39
61
1916
45
1917    	
1918   - 	
40
43
1919 	
51
1920       -
1921-   	
1922 - - 	
62
55
50
1923     —
1924                   	
48
55
1925                         ..   .-
60
1926     .  -  .
68
1927  .     ... „   	
56
1928—   	
1929   -
54
50
1930 - -    -
1931    - — -
1932
47
56
46
55
1934  —	
1935    -	
61
60
1936      -	
61
Average- - - 	
50
50
43
57
48
52
4. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1936.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The run to the Nass River was exceptionally good. Not only was a pack of 28,562 cases
put up, but the escapement was reported to have been very good. It may be recorded here that
the fishing boundary in the river was lowered by 6 miles in order to provide for increased
escapements  (Table XXL).
The brood-year for 1937 is 1932. In that year the pack amounted to 14,154 cases and the
rescapement to Meziadin Lake was reported to have been satisfactory. A small return in 1937
would seem to be indicated, but in view of the vagaries of the runs to the Nass River it is
inadvisable to attempt a prediction.
(2.) Age-groups.
The analysis of the run is based on data for 1,447 fish collected in thirteen random samples
between July 1st and August 14th. As usual, the 5s's constitute the major group with 972
fish or 67 per cent. The 42's are represented by 230 individuals or 16 per cent.; the 5o's by
96 or 7 per cent.; and the 63's by 149 or 10 per cent. The distribution of these age-groups does
not present any unusual features, except that the 63's are somewhat better represented than
they have been during the past nine years (Table XXL), As in recent years, representatives
of the sea-type classes do not appear.
In addition, there are three fish not included in the calculations, as follows:—
62, female, 27 inches, IV2 lb.
64, female, 26 inches, 6% lb.
73, male, 30 inches, 10 lb.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
For the most part, the fish of 1936 maintain the large average size of recent years. All
the average length and weight measurements are above the averages of the past twenty-four
and twenty-two years (Tables XXII., XXIII., XXIV., and XXV.). LIFE-HISTORY OF THE  SOCKEYE SALMON.
R 41
The Fishery Inspector in his report states: " For some reason, the fish appeared to be
deeper and of more girth but not as long this year." These observations tend to be confirmed
by the data of Tables XXIV. and XXV. It will be noted that while the fish of 1936 are not
significantly longer than those of 1935, they are definitely heavier. Such increase in weight
might well be shown by increase in depth and girth.
It may be of interest to again point out: (1) That the average size of the Nass River
sockeyes in all the age-groups is considerably greater than those of the Skeena River, Rivers
Inlet, and the Fraser River in the corresponding age-groups; (2) that the 53's reach as large
a size as the 52's, whereas the 53's of the Skeena and Fraser Rivers are approximately the size
of the 42's; in other words, the 53's of the Nass do not lose a year's growth by reason of
spending two years in fresh water as seems to be the case of the 53's in the Skeena and Fraser.
The following average length data illustrate these points:—
42
52
53
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
24.5
23.7
22.5
23.7
23.7
23.1
22.4
23.0
26.2
25.7
25.4
25.5
25.2
24.8
24.7
24.4
26.2
24.1
23.8
25.3
23.3
23.0
(4.)  Proportions of the Sexes.
Except in the 63 age-group, the males are much outnumbered by the females. Reference
to Table XXVI. shows that the percentages in the various classes are much like those of 1935,
except in the case of the 63's, where the proportions of the sexes were equal. As stated in
previous reports, it is believed that the shortage of males is in part associated with early
maturity, with the result that the smaller males pass through the nets.
(5.)  The Meziadin and Bowser Sockeye Colonies.
Although some data were collected from the Upper Nass River, it does not seem of
particular value to continue the presentation of their analyses. A summary of the information
up to and including the year 1935 was given in the report of last year. R 42
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Table XXI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
from 1912 to 1936, and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals that spent
One Year in Lake.
Four Years     Five Years
old. old.
Two Years in Lake.
Five Years  i   Six Years
old. old.
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1936
1936
(36,037 cases).
(23,574 cases).
(31,327 cases).
(39,349 cases).
(31,411 cases).
(22,188 cases)-
(21,816 cases).
(28,259 cases)-
(16,740 cases).
(9,364 cases)-.
(31,277 cases)..
(17,821 cases).
(33,590 cases) .
(18,945 cases).
(15,929 cases).
(12,026 cases)
(5,540 cases) —
(16,077 cases)
(26,405 cases).
(16,929 cases).
(14,154 cases)..
(9,757 cases) -
(36,242 cases)..
(12,712 cases )-.
(28,562 cases)-
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
65
74
73
67
2
2
10
2
2
13
4
3
6
3
6
7
3
4
6
10
Table XXII.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1936, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
M.
M.
F.
M.
5
o
m
20%..
21%-
22	
22%..
23	
23%..
24	
24% 	
25	
25% 	
26 „	
26%-	
27    - 	
27%	
28 	
28% 	
29	
29% 	
30 _.
Totals	
Average lengths
15
26
18
7
10
1
2
6
11
22
44
15
20
1
1
4
3
10
10
15
7
6
2
3
62
25.8
2
2
2
10
30
34
63
59
105
52
40
10
5
7
31
38
116
77
144
69
58
1
5
5
5
19
12
16
5
7
2
4
1
12
6
11
11
16
5
4
1
417
555
76
73
1
1
4
8
22
35
90
83
209
150
254
159
195
78
86
27
30
7
1,447
26.6
25.6
28.3
27.1 LIFE-HISTORY OF THE  SOCKEYE  SALMON.
R 43
Table XXIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1936, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
S
o
m
3%    ...	
1
1
2
3
7
17
29
21
9
5
2
4
27
40
36
20
3
2
1
1
3
2
5
4
6
7
2
2
2
1
2
1
6
10
18
8
10
5
1
1
3
3
16
46
77
80
92
68
21
7
3
1
12
42
108
129
123
103
29
8
2
2
5
11
19
16
13
4
4
4
4
8
11
20
11
9
2
3
1
2
4      ...                —	
i
4%.. - -	
9
5 -
5 %	
6                                  	
47
97
190
6%    ....               	
246
7         ...               	
260
7%             	
231
8     	
164
8%  	
9                                                     	
118
42
9%    .                                        	
26
10   	
8
10% - - 	
6
Totals	
97
133
34
62
417
555
76
73
1,447
6.5
5.7
7.8
7.1
7.6
6.7
8.7
7.5
Table XXIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Classes from 1912 to 1936.
Year.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 	
24.6
23.3
26.5
25.1
26.2
25.4
27.0
25.6
1913  	
24.1
23.5
25.6
24.8
26.0
25.2
26.0
26.6
1914               	
24.6
24.0
22.7
23.5
26.1
25.9
25.1
25.2
26.3
26.5
25.5
25.9
26.9
26.6
25.6
1915   	
25.3
1916 	
24.5
23.3
26.4
25.0
26.5
25.6
27.9
25.7
1917 -	
23.4
23.2
25.5
24.7
25.3
24.7
26.5
25.5
1918 	
25.0
24.9
24.3
24.1
25.7
26.2
24.7
25.2
25.9
26.5
25.0
25.8
27.2
27.9
25.2
1919  	
26.7
1920	
24.0
24.3
23.4
23.5
26.3
25.5
25.0
24.3
26.7
26.2
25.9
25.6
27.4
27.9
25.9
1921	
26.2
1922	
24.2
23.4
25.6
24.6
25.7
25.0
28.0
25.9
1923 	
24.3
23.7
25.9
25.3
26.2
25.5
27.2
26.5
1924-	
24.7
23.8
26.2
24.9
26.3
25.4
28.0
25.4
1925                 	
24.4
24.9
23.8
24.1
25.9
26.1
24.7
25.3
25.9
26.1
25.0
25.3
26.9
27.9
25.4
1926  	
27.0
1927             	
24.9
24.3
24.2
23.5
25.3
26.0
25.2
25.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
24.6
27.6
28.1
26.5
1928  -
23.2
1929...   -
24.1
23.5
26.1
25.2
25.9
24.9
27.2
26.2
1930	
24.5
23.7
26.5
25.4
26.4
25.3
27.9
26.8
1931    -.                      	
24.5
24.9
23.8
23.9
26.5
26.4
25.7
25.2
26.1
26.6
25.3
25.6
28.2
28.3
27.1
1932    	
27.1
1933   	
24.6
23.7
27.1
25.8
25.9
25.2
28.4
27.9
1934	
24.9
24.9
24.1
24.0
26.9
27.3
25.9
25.9
26.3
26.5
25.4
25.2
28.6
28.9
27.1
1935
27.6
24.5
23.7
26.2
25.2
26.2
25.3
27.6
26.2
1936     -
24.9
24.1
26.8
25.8
26.6
25.6
28.3
27.1 R 44
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Table XXV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Classes from 1914 to 1936.
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914   -
1915	
1916    	
1917  	
1918	
1919  	
1920 -
1921  	
1922  	
1923 	
1924  ;	
1925	
1926—- 	
1927 	
1928   -
1929   	
1930 -   -
1931         .— 	
6.2
5.6
6.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.3
6.2
6.7
6.1
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.6
5.4
5.9
6.2
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.4
7.5
8.1
8.4
7.8
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
6.5
6.8
6.6
7.0
7.3
6.5
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
7.1
6.8
7.3
7.0
7.6
7.0
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.5
5.9
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.7
6.1
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.6
8.2
8.3
8.7
8.4
9.4
8.4
6.8
6.5
6.4
6.4
6.7
6.7
7.0
6.6
6.6
6.8
6.5
6.3
7.1
7.0
6.6
6.8
7.2
7.4
1932 	
1933 	
1934	
19HK                         	
7.5
7.9
8.1
7.4
Average weights	
6.0
5.4
7.2
6.4
6.9
6.2
8.0
6.9
1936  	
6.5
5.7
7.8
7.1
7.6
6.7
8.7
7.5
Table XXVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females of the
4z, 52, 5s, and 6s Age-groups, 1915 to 1936.
42
52
53
63
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
1915  	
55
61
55
52
53
46
40
36
43
55
58
43
39
50
48
49
49
49
49
48
39
42
45
39
45
48
47
54
60
64
57
45
42
57
61
50
52
51
51
51
51
52
61
58
49
61
47
40
48
39
45
32
43
44
52
44
54
48
51
43
53
46
56
51
40
35
51
39
53
60
52
61
55
68
57
56
48
56
46
52
49
57
47
54
44
49
60
65
52
50
46
50
46
40
47
46
47
47
45
44
45
42
44
40
43
45
47
50
39
43
48
50
54
50
54
60
53
54
53
53
55
56
55
58
56
60
57
55
53
50
61
57
53
68
58
70
54
66
54
64
60
67
68
57
61
62
58
63
70
72
76
58
71
50
47
32
42
30
46
34
46
36
40
33
32
43
39
38
42
37
30
28
24
42
29
50
52
55
47
51
48
42
46
44
46
48
49
46
46
46
46
43
47
48
49
50
42
43
48
1916 —	
1917   	
1918           	
53
49
1919 —
1920  	
1921  - .     	
58
54
56
54
52
51
54
54
1922 —	
1923 -	
1924. —	
1925— 	
1926-   	
1927  	
1928 	
1929- 	
54
57
53
52
51
50
58
57
1930 -- -
1931. 	
1932 —  	
1933  - 	
1934 	
1935        	
1936    	
Average—	
48
52
46
54
45
55
63
37
47
63 THE CANADIAN HALIBUT FLEET.
R 45
THE CANADIAN HALIBUT FLEET.*
By A. J. Whitmore, Commissioner for Canada.
Improvement in the condition of the halibut banks on the Pacific Coast and particularly
off British Columbia as the result of regulation is unmistakable. Success is attending the
efforts of the International Fisheries Commission in rebuilding the supply of spawning fish
and stopping the decline in abundance which went on for many years before 1930. The drop
in annual catch on the grounds south of Cape Spencer from 65,000,000 to 22,000,000 has been
brought to a stop with every prospect of an increase as soon as young fish appear as the
result of more spawning. A decline in catch per day, or per unit of gear, which would have
made every trip a loss at present prices, has been reversed.
Fear for the future of the halibut-fishery off British Columbia can be dismissed, unless
we permit what has been and is being done by international co-operation to be destroyed.
Such a remarkable change has been accomplished in no other marine fishery. And it is
still more remarkable that it has been accomplished without a reduction in the catch, which
might well have been a radical one in view of the condition of the banks.
The Canadian Commissioners feel themselves fortunate in being able to report that the
banks frequented by British Columbia fishermen show this improvement in somewhat greater
amount than the banks elsewhere in Area 2, the grounds south of Cape Spencer; greater, in
fact, to the extent of 17 per cent, since 1930. Canada has had its full share of the benefits
of conservation, and no more than its share of restriction.
The Commissioners have had no responsibility for the system of voluntary curtailment
and its effects upon price and distribution of the landings. They have no control over the
prices obtained and cannot be expected to maintain the earnings of the fleet in the face of
decreased prices obtained; for instance, the decrease from 11.3 cents for southern mediums
in Prince Rupert in 1930 to 6.6 cents in 1936. Only the general economic situation can do tha\
They can, however, show clearly by the statistics of the annual catches since 1931, when their
regulations first became effective, that they have dons their full share to preserve the halibut
industry for Canada.
Canadian official records show that since regulation began the value of the halibut landings
by Canadian vessels in Pacific ports has risen remarkably. This increase is such, having
regard to the trend of other businesses caught in the depression, that the fleet and trade should
feel greatly encouraged. This increase has been contributed to by a general recovery in
prices, by the increase in price of halibut-livers, by the increased proportion of first-class fish
as a result of regulation, by better prices for the lessened proportion of second-class fish, and
by an increase in the total amount landed by the Canadian fleet.
Value of Landings by the Canadian Fleet (1936 estimated).
Year.
Value of
Halibut.
Value of
Halibut-livers.
Total.
1932                                    —          -   -
$257,855
369,797
528,874
635,227
666,057
$10,800
21,800
34,000
72,200
79,600
$268,655
1933                          	
391,597
1934	
562,874
1935  - -	
1936 -       	
707,427
745,657
This change in quantity of second-class fish is shown clearly by the fact that, due to
overfishing, the proportion of chickens in the Area 2 catch had risen steadily to 42 per cent,
in 1932, whereas it had fallen to 28 in 1935. The price for second-class fish was 50 per cent,
of that for first-class in Prince Rupert until 1933. In 1935 it was 88 per cent, and 80 per cent.
in 1936.
The Canadian fleet has done well, both from the local grounds south of Cape Spencer in
Area 2 and from Area 3. It has increased its share of the catch in the local Area 2 ffom 30
per cent, in the two years 1931 and 1932 at the beginning of regulation to 40 per cent, in the
* Note.—Reprinted from bulletin  published by International  Fisheries  Commission. R 46
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
last three years—1934, 1935, and 1936. Its share is greater than in 1929, when a full nine-
month season was necessary, and a million and a half greater than in 1931 just before regulation began. It is two and a half million greater than in 1932, at the depth of the economic
depression.    The following table shows this:—
Canadian Catch in Area 2.
Year.
Lb.
Percentage of Total
United States and
Canadian.
Year.
Lb.
Percentage of Total
United States and
Canadian.
1929 	
1930—            	
8,386,000
7,009,000
7,018,000
5,960,000
34
33
32
27
1933  	
1934     -	
7,649,000
8,967,000
8,954,000
8,585,000
34
40
1931... 	
1932. - —	
1935...	
1936	
41
39
If, as some fishermen are prone to say, the large Area 3 boats have been using an undue
amount of Area 2 fish, it has certainly not been at the expense of the Canadian fleet.
The share of the Canadian fleet in the catch from Area 3, or the western area, has doubled.
Where before regulation it took 600,000 to 700,000 lb., in the last two years it has taken an
average of 1,500,000, making its total from the coast very much larger. These figures are
most significant when it is remembered that to rebuild the banks has required the total international catch from Areas 2 and 3 to be temporarily limited to a fixed amount since 1931.
Canadian Catch in Area 3 and Total for the Coast (1936 estimated).
Year.
Area 3, Lb.
Combined Areas
2 and 3, Lb.
Year.
Area 3, Lb.
Combined Areas
2 and 3, Lb.
1929  	
1930 -	
1931	
656,000
617,000
765,000
452,000
9,042,000
7,626,000
7,783,000
6,412,000
1933  	
1934 	
1935    	
637,000
751,000
1,251,000
1,725,000
8,286,000
9,718,000
10,205,000
1932 	
1936	
10,310,000
The fact of these increased landings is the important point, but this increase has not come
from the remaining Area 2 fleet to south and north. At one time dory-fishing by large vessels
was extensive in Area 2, totalling 1,799,000 lb. in 1932. At that time the Commission took
action to reduce this fishing and in 1935 completely prohibited it. The vessels which carried
on this fishery then left Area 2, catching but 246,000 lb. by " long-line " fishing there in 1936,
a saving of over 1,500,000 lb. for the other vessels in that area. The catch of other large
vessels usually fishing in Area 3 shows a reduction in the amount credited to Area 2 in the
accounts of the Commission from 735,000 lb. in 1932 to 353,000 lb. in 1936, thus adding another
400,000 lb. to that available for the smaller vessels of both the United States and Canada in
that area.
Catches of Large Vessels in Area 2.
Year.
By Vessels
formerly
using Dories.
By other
Large Vessels.
Total.
1932-
1933-
1934-
1935-
1936-
1,799,000
877,000
293,000
559,000*
246,000*
735,000
660,000
436,000
575,000
353,000
2,534,000
1,537,000
732,000
1,134,000
599,000
* By long-line fishing which is legal in Area 2.
The Area 2 fleets, including of course the Canadian vessels, have profited in another way.
There has been a steady increase in the number of trips made to Area 3 by boats which belong to Area 2.    This, it is important to note, is a net gain for the Area 2 fleets, because it was not
made from the quota given Area 2.
Landings from Area 3 by Vessels usually fishing Area 2 (1936 estimated).
Year.
Canadian.
United
States.
Year.
Canadian.
United
States.
1932 	
224,000
1,232,000
1,277,000
1935	
670,000
917,000
1,607,000
1933 	
130,000
. 252,000
1936 --	
2,715,000
1934	
It is clear that there is a decided shift toward Area 3. In 1932 the larger vessels were
taking 2,534,000 lb. from Area 2; in 1936, 599,000. In 1932 the smaller vessels were taking
224,000 lb. from Area 3;   in 1936 this increased to 3,632,000 lb.
This shift is to the advantage of the Area 2 fleet in two ways, because it leaves a greater
poundage in Area 2 for this fleet and because it tends to reduce the number of vessels sharing.
On the other hand, new Canadian vessels have joined the halibut fleet, and it is of interest to
see whether these additions have been great enough to affect the earnings of the individual
vessel. For the three years before regulation, 1929—31, the average number of men engaging
in the fishery was 488; in 1932-33, the first two years of regulation, the number was 342;
and in 1934-36 it had risen to 511, with 585 the last year. From the standpoint of national
interest it may be desirable to spread employment in that way. If some complaint should
arise as a result, it is not a matter in which the Halibut Commission could or should intervene.
But this tendency toward spread of employment has not been sufficient to decrease the
landings per vessel of the regular halibut fleet. These landings are now as great as in 1927
and .1928. Before regulation the pounds caught annually by each of the vessels in this fleet
had fallen regularly from year to year as a result of overfishing. This had caused a decline
in abundance which the Commission has shown to have been from a yield of 300 lb. per set
of a skate of gear in 1906 to 35 lb. per set in 1930. The decline of catch per vessel is very
close to that of abundance. For example, in 1927 and 1928 the average season's landings of
vessels fishing the whole season was 144,600 lb., and the catch per skate was 47.4 lb. In 1930
the same vessels took 112,700 lb. each, and the catch per skate was 35.4 lb., in both cases a fall
to 75 per cent, of the amounts in 1927 and 1928. The years 1929, 1930, and 1931 were nearly
on a par, averaging 117,100 lb. per season per boat.
As soon as regulation became effective in 1932, the abundance and the catch per set of
a skate of gear rose. The result was a much higher total catch for the season of these
Canadian vessels, averaging 161,300 lb. in 1932 and 1933, but dropping to 143,700 in the last
three years, 1934 to 1936. This drop was due to the adoption of curtailment in order that
a better price might be obtained. The season's catch in the last three years was therefore very
nearly the same as in 1927 and 1928, and much better than during the year 1930, in which the
banks were in the poorest condition. This depletion and low yield were the result of the most
intensive fishery the banks had ever known, reaching a climax in 1929, and were not due to
bad economic conditions. The recovery in abundance and in greater catch per vessel has
been due to the rebuilding of the banks by regulation.
Regulation, giving halibut a longer life and the chance to spawn, has benefited the fleet
in another way which should not be overlooked. The greater amount of growth has produced
larger fish and a higher percentage of first-class fish. In fact, " chickens " have become
fewer and are wanted, so that the price paid for them is approaching that paid for mediums.
There are good prospects for activities supplementing the earnings during the halibut
season. In 1936, of 131 Canadian vessels, but five tied up at the end of the halibut season in
Area 2, and sixty-eight had left considerably before the end, engaging in salmon, pilchard,
and other fisheries. When Area 2 closed the remaining vessels engaged in salmon and black-
cod fishing, and nineteen went to Area 3 for halibut. The black-cod market is increasing
steadily. This is tending to divert vessels from the halibut-fishery, and should be encouraged
as leaving more halibut for the remainder of the fleet. Fisheries of this sort after the end
of the season are additional to the income from halibut, which is not reduced. R 48 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
The larger vessels (schooners) in Area 3 have not had an increase in the average season's
catch per boat corresponding to that of the Area 2 fleet. They have, however, sold their catch
at higher prices because they have prolonged their season by their own efforts. If this
opportunity to sell at higher prices after the closure of Area 2 were lost to them, an inspection
of their records shows that they would need an increase in poundage from Area 3 of more
than 35 per cent, to bring their catch to equal that of 1927 and 1928, as Area 2 vessels have
done. This is not a matter of opinion but of facts easily obtained from records of landings
in the markets. TAGGING BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARDS. R 49
TAGGING BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARDS   (SARDINOPS CjERULEA
(GIRARD)) :   METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
That the pilchard is rather freely migratory on the British Columbia fishing-grounds has
been indicated by the fishery from its very beginning. However, no definite information has
been available on the total extend of its movements. Accordingly, the men engaged in the
industry have had considerable diversity of opinion in regard to the identity of the British
Columbia pilchard and the California sardine. Some maintained that the pilchards were adult
sardines which made a northward feeding migration during the late summer and early fall,
only to return to California during the winter. Others considered that the movement of
pilchards to the fishing-grounds was from the ocean offshore. Much of the evidence appeared
to corroborate the former idea, but all of it was indirect and as a result neither hypothesis
could be regarded as proved. It was apparent that the question could be submitted to a critical
test by means of a practical tagging programme. However, for some time it appeared that
such an approach to the problem was impossible for two reasons. In the first place, it seemed
that the pilchard was too small and too delicate a fish to carry a tag such as was commonly
used in halibut and salmon. In the second place, it was obvious that in the case of a fish such
as the pilchard, which was being passed by the ton in mechanical conveyors through reduction
plants, the chances for recovery were very small indeed if the detection of the tag depended
upon its being seen.
In 1933 Rounsef ell and Dahlgren described the methods developed by them in investigating
the migration of Alaska herring. It appeared that their methods might be modified to be
applied to pilchards. This has been done and the present report describes the methods which
have been used and the results obtained to date in this work.
TAGS.
As the method of recovering the tags depends upon their being attracted by a magnet,
they are made from the most easily obtained magnetic material available—iron. These tags
are stamped with serial numbers, preceded by the letter P, and are nickel-plated. In size they
are 19 mm. (% in.) long, 4 mm. (%o in.) wide, and 0.86 mm. (%i in.) thick. The weight is
approximately 0.44 g. (%8 oz.).
TAGGING METHODS.
The pilchard-fishery for the most part is carried out offshore, where large or choppy seas
are the rule rather than the exception. For this reason, and because pilchards have been
found to die rather rapidly when confined, the following method of tagging was fixed upon.
The man responsible for the tagging-work lived on the tender of a commercial seine-boat.
When a set was made, he took up his position in the seine-skiff. From there the pilchards
were taken with a dip-net from the seine while it was being fleeted in. The fish were tagged
by cutting a small slit in the side of the fish about midway between the pectoral and pelvic
fins with a specially made knife having its cutting-edge at the end. The tag was then inserted
into the body-cavity of the fish which was immediately released outside the net. As a rule,
100 to 300 pilchards could be tagged in this way before the fish appeared to suffer any injury
from being confined in the net.
RECOVERY METHOD.
The tags are recovered by the use of electromagnets placed in the meal-lines of pilchard-
reduction plants. These magnets are put in the bottom of the inclined chute down which the
meal slides into the grinder in such a way that all of the meal produced by the plant cascades
over a small iron step attached to the upper pole of the magnet. Any iron or steel which has
passed through the plant with the fish is attracted and held to the magnet as long as the power
is left on, or until the metal is removed by hand. Tests have shown that the tags also stay
on the magnet, from which they are recovered by the plant crews, to be turned in later with
all available information in regard to the point of origin of the fish from which the tag was
believed to come.
4 R 50
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
A similar programme of tagging and recovery has been undertaken by the California
State Fisheries Laboratory. The officials of that organization and the Biological Board keep
each other posted in regard to progress made in both the tagging and recovery phases of their
programmes.
Fig. 1. Map of Southern Vancouver Island showing the reference points for the locations of places
where pilchards were tagged and for the British Columbia recoveries.
TAGS APPLIED.
In all, more than 3,500 tags have been applied to pilchards in British Columbia waters.
About 1,000 were used during 1935 to test the feasibility of the methods, and the remainder
in 1936. Table I. shows the place and date at which the tags were applied. The tagging done
on August 22nd and 23rd, 1936, was not carried out as described in the text: as an experiment
in technique a floating pound was used similar to that used in the herring-tagging (see Hart
and Tester, 1937). In cases where "(in part)" occurs in the table, the detail is available on
file at the Pacific Biological Station.
CONVEYOK TO
EAL SACKING
ACHINE
Fig. 2. Diagrammatic representation of a pilchard- or herring-reduction plant showing the direction of the
flow of fish and meal and the location of the magnet used for recovering pilchard-tags. TAGGING BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARDS.
R 51
Fig. 3. Photograph of the electromagnet for the recovery
of pilchard-tags as installed in the meal-line of the Nootka
Packing Co. plant at Nootka. C is the bottom of the screw-
conveyor from the drier; S is the chute leading from the
conveyor into H, the hopper for G, the meal-grinder; O is
the electromagnet.
Fig. 4.  Miscellaneous iron and steel collected on the magnet.    In bulk this represents
approximately one week's accumulation on a magnet. R 52 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
RECOVERIES AND DISCUSSION.
Of the 3,513 tags applied, twenty have been recovered from reduction plants in British
Columbia and five from California. The pertinent details in regard to these recoveries are
shown in Table II.
The discovery of five British Columbia tags in the sardine-fishery of California, taken in
combination with the indirect evidence cited by Clark (1935) and reviewed by Hart (1937),
indicates strongly that a general southward movement of pilchards takes place during the
fall months.
From the tagging done on August 22nd, 1936, in which a floating pound was used, seven
returns (two from California) have been obtained from the 500 tags applied. This is a
considerably higher proportion than that obtained by the other method of tagging, but the
difference may be in part due to the fact that those fish were tagged first during the 1936
season and were exposed to capture for a longer period of time. In any case, the results are
not yet extensive enough to permit a final comparison between the two methods. This is
especially the case in view of the high degree of variability in the proportion of recoveries
from different taggings made by the same method. For example, of the 353 fish tagged on
August 29th, 1936, seven recoveries were made, six within two days and the remaining one
more than five months later, while, on the other hand, from the 300 tags applied on August
26th, only one was returned.
Only two tags were recovered from the 978 used during 1935. The low value is undoubtedly
due to the fact that the recovery equipment was not installed until part way through the 1936
season.
One weakness of the method of recovery is illustrated by the returns for tags P1235 and
P2165 from runs of salmon-offal. As the salmon were chiefly chums, it seems improbable that
the tags could have originated from pilchards eaten by them. Accordingly, the tags must
have been retained in the drier or some other part of the reduction machinery for some time.
This gives a definite indication of what had been realized on theoretical grounds, that it is
impossible to determine with certainty the exact source of the fish from which tags are
recovered. Experimental trials at the plants and the immediate returns at two plants of tags
applied on August 29th demonstrated, however, that many tags pass directly through the
reduction plants without being held up at all.
The recoveries of tags P235 and P2230 indicate the movement of pilchards from offshore
into the inlets. To date, no movement in the reverse direction has been indicated, although
two recoveries have been made in the inlets of the Clayoquot Sound area of tags applied in
Bedwell Sound.
The results to date have demonstrated that the use of internal tags and their recovery
by electromagnets placed in the meal-line is suitable for studying the movements of pilchards.
A southward fall migration has already been established as well as small movements into
the west-coast inlets. It is expected that further work will provide more complete information
on both the general and local movements.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The work described in this report has been carried out under a joint arrangement between
the Biological Board of Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department of British Columbia.
Acknowledgment is made of the financial assistance given by both organizations and to the
directors concerned, Dr. W. A. Clemens and Mr. George J. Alexander, for their sympathetic
interest in the work.
Thanks are due to the officers of the California State Fisheries Laboratory for their
interest in attending to the recovery of tags in California and returning them to British
Columbia for identification.
Mr. Lennard Quickenden carried out the exacting work of tagging and to him special
thanks are due.
It is a pleasure to acknowledge the co-operation of members of the fishing industry. They
have been most obliging in installing magnets, in collecting tags from them, and in supplying
fish for tagging.    In the latter, Captain John Dale has been particularly helpful. TAGGING BRITISH COLUMBIA PILCHARDS.
R 53
REFERENCES.
Clark, F. N.    A summary of the life-history of the California sardine and its influence on the
fishery.    California Fish and Game, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1-9, Jan., 1935.
Hart, J. L.    Pilchard tag returns from British Columbia and California fishing grounds.
Biological Board of Canada, Pacific Progress Reports, No. 31, 7—10, 1937.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii): methods, apparatus,
insertions, and recoveries during 1936-37.     Report, B.C.  Commissioner  of  Fisheries,
1936-37.
Rounsepell, G. A., and E. H. Dahlgren.    Tagging experiments on the Pacific herring {Clupea
pallasii).   Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, Vol. III., No. 3,
371-384, 1933.
TABLE I.—List of Tags applied.
Date.
No. of
Tags
inserted.
Serial No.
of Tags P.
Place Tagged Fish released.
Remarks.
Aug. 25, 1935..	
150
101-250
22 mi. S.S.W. of Nootka Light.
Aug. 25, 1935 	
77
251-300
351-400
(in part)
20 mi. S.W. of Nootka Light.
Aug 26, 1935 	
100
301-350
401-450
2y2 mi. S.E. of Estevan Point.
Aug. 27, 1935  '.
50
501-550
3 mi. S. of Estevan Point.
Aug. 27, 1935.-	
200
451-500
551-700
10 mi. S. by W. of Nootka Light.
Aug. 28, 1935.—	
150
701-750
801-900
14 mi. S.S.E. of Nootka Light.
Aug. 28, 1935..-	
141
251-400
(in part)
751-800
901-950
951-1000
(in part)
16 mi. S.E. of Nootka Light.  ..
Escaped with a 40-ton school
when seine burst.
Aug. 29, 1935.	
80
951-1000
(in part)
1001-1050
5 mi. S.E. of Nootka Light.
1004 and 1010 not used.
1051-1080
(in part)
Aug. 30, 1935—..	
30
1051-1080
(in part)
15 mi. S.E. of Nootka Light.
Aug. 22/ 1936 	
500
1101-1300
1701-1800
2001-2100
2201-2300
10 mi. S. by E. of Nootka Light
Fish    tagged    from    floating
pound.
Aug. 23, 1936 -.--
62
1401-1500
(in part)
Inside entrance of Nootka Sound   .
Fish    tagged    from    floating
pound.
Aug. 23, 1936	
163
1301  1400
(in part)
pound inside and hauled off
1501-1532
shore to be released.
1534-1600
300
1601-1700
1901-2000
20 mi. S. of Rafael Point...	
2101-2200
Aug. 26, 1936...	
100
1801-1900
20 mi. S. by E. of Rafael Point	
Mixed sizes.
Aug. 26,1936.	
99
2401-2481
2483-2500
20 mi. S. of Clayoquot Sound	
Mixed sizes.
Aug. 27,1936..—	
58
2501-2600
(in part)
8 mi. S.W. of Bajo Reef.
Aug. 28, 1936	
100
2301-2400
15 mi. S. of Bajo Reef.
Aug. 28,1936 -
200
2601-2700
25 mi. S.W. of Nootka Light.
2701-2800
Aug. 28,1936..
200
2801-2900
15 mi. S.W. of Bajo Reef.
3501-3600
Aug. 29,1936..	
353
2901-2952
2954-3000
3001-3200
3201-3300
(in part)
15 mi. S.W. of Nootka Light. R 54
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
TABLE I.—List of Tags applied—Continued.
Date.
No. of
Tags
inserted.
Serial No.
of Tags P.
Place Tagged Fish released.
Remarks.
Aug. 30, 1936..
Aug. 30, 1936..
Sept. 2, 1936-
100
200
100
3401-3500
3301-3400
3701-3800
3601-3700
15 mi. S.W. of Estevan Point.
5 mi. off Estevan Point.
Bedwell Sound.
TABLE II.—Details in regard to Place and Time of Tagging and Recovery
for Tags which were returned.
Tag No.
Date
Date
Probable Place of
Plant making
P.
applied.
recovered.
Recovery.
Recovery.
180
Aug. 25, 1935..
22    mi.
Light
S.W.     Nootka
Aug. 22, 1933
9 mi. S. of Gowland Rocks...
Kildonan.
235
Aug. 25, 1935-
22    mi.
S.W.     Nootka
July 7, 1936	
Light
1150
Aug. 22, 1936 .
S.E.     Nootka
Aug. 28, 1936
Light
1209
Aug. 22, 1936-
10 mi. S
by E. Nootka
March 5, 1937 ...
Off San Pedro	
Light
1235
Aug. 22, 1936-
10 mi. S
Light
by E. Nootka
Oct. 11, 1936
Recovered in run of salmon-
offal
Kildonan.
1288
Aug. 22, 1936..
10     mi.
Light
S.E.     Nootka
Aug. 25, 1936
Off Bare Island	
Hecate.
1792
Aug. 22, 1936-
10     mi.
Light
S.E.     Nootka
Aug. 31, 1936
20 mi. off Pachena or 15 mi.
off Lennard Island
Ecoole.
2165
Aug. 26, 1936..
20 mi. S.
Oct. 9, 1936	
offal
2230
Aug. 22, 1936
10     mi.
Light
S.E.     Nootka
Sept. 2, 1936
Quatsino   Sound   or   Ouou-
kinsh Inlet
Nootka.
2285
Aug. 22, 1936
10 mi. S
Light
by E. Nootka
Jan. 29, 1937
Off San Francisco.	
Floater
" Manatauny."
2521
Aug. 27, 1936
8 mi. S.W. Bajo Reef ....
Aug. 31, 1936 —
20 mi. off Pachena or 15 mi.
Ecoole.
off Lennard Island
2655
Aug. 28, 1936 .
25     mi.
S.W.     Nootka
Aug. 29, 1936	
Sound
2784
Aug. 28, 1936
25     mi.
Sound
S.W.     Nootka
Aug. 31, 1936	
Between     Esperanza     Inlet
and Estevan Point, 25 mi.
off
Nootka.
2818
Aug. 28,1936.
15 mi. S.W. Bajo Reef ...
Jan. 8, 1937	
Wilbur-Ellis.
2839
Aug. 28, 1936..
15 mi. S.W. Bajo Reef...
Aug. 29, 1936 —
Off Esperanza Inlet 	
Hecate.
2974
Aug. 29, 1936-
S.W.     Nootka
Aug. 29, 1936	
Light
2985
Aug. 29, 1936-
15    mi.
Light
S.W.     Nootka
Aug. 29, 1936
Between     Esperanza     Inlet
and Estevan Point, 25 mi.
off
Nootka.
3040
Aug. 29, 1936
S.W.     Nootka
Aug. 29, 1936
Light
3127
Aug. 29, 1936-
15    mi.
Light
S.W.     Nootka
March 25, 1937-
Off San Pedro  -
Van Camp, N. K.
3139
Aug. 29, 1936..
15     mi.
Light
S.W.     Nootka
Aug. 30, 1936 ...
Between     Esperanza     Inlet
and Estevan Point, 25 mi.
off
Between     Esperanza    Inlet
Nootka.
3146
Aug. 29, 1936
15    mi.
S.W.     Nootka
Aug. 29, 1936 —
Nootka.
Light
and Estevan Point, 25 mi.
off
3198
Aug. 29, 1936.
15     mi.
S.W.     Nootka
Aug. 29, 1936 —
Hecate.
Light
3329
Aug. 30, 1936
5     mi.
Point
S.W.     Estevan
March 20, 1937
Off San Pedro.	
Van Camp, N. K.
3652
Sept. 2, 1936..
Bedwell Sound 	
Dec. 14, 1936	
Deer Creek, Tofi.no Inlet	
Ecoole.
3677
Sept. 2, 1936...
Bedwell Sound  	
Sept. 4, 1936
Bedwell Sound 	
Nootka. TAGGING OF HERRING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 55
THE TAGGING OF HERRING (CLUPEA PALLASII) IN BRITISH
COLUMBIA:   METHODS, APPARATUS, INSERTIONS,
AND RECOVERIES DURING 1936-37.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., and Albert L. Tester, Ph.D.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo.
Until quite recently, knowledge of the extent of mixing of the runs of herring to different
localities has depended on an indirect method of study—the analysis and comparision of
" racial" characters such as vertebra number, head-length, rate of growth, etc. If constant
and statistically significant differences in these characters are found between fish of two runs,
they are taken as proof that intermingling is limited. Using this method, it has been shown
(Tester, 1936,1937) that many of the runs of herring in British Columbia tend to comprise local
populations. But the shortcomings of the method have also been pointed out. Although two
runs may be essentially discrete from each other, these differences may not be present, or,
if they are, they may be too small to be detected without examining enormous numbers of fish.
Even when significant differences in racial characters between two runs are found, a slight
degree of intermingling is still possible and its exact extent cannot be ascertained. The method
gives no positive information on the movements of herring, although it may be assumed that
migration between localities in which local populations are found is limited during the time
of year for which samples are available, and that, if seasonal movements take place, local runs
return each year to the same general areas.
For many years, the direct method of studying migration by tagging or marking and
subsequent recovery of the tagged or marked fish has been applied successfully in other species
such as the salmon and halibut. But only recently, through the efforts and enterprise of
Dr. G. A. Rounsefell and Mr. E. H. Dahlgren, United States Bureau of Fisheries, has a satisfactory procedure been developed for the herring. Their methods involve the use of a small
metal tag which is inserted in the body-cavity of herring and the recovery of this by means
of an electromagnet in the meal-line of a reduction plant (Rounsefell and Dahlgren, 1933) or
by an "electronic" or "induction" detector (Dahlgren, 1936) in the conveyor system of
either a saltery or a reduction plant. The idea of the detector was first conceived by Mr.
Dahlgren and was designed and built by engineers of the University of Washington.
In 1936 a tagging and recovery programme was started in British Columbia, using a
procedure similar to that of Dahlgren. This report describes the methods of tagging, the
recovery apparatus, and gives the results to date. The investigation has been confined to the
south-east and west coasts of Vancouver Island, where the major herring-fisheries are located.
It is believed that, within a relatively short time, exact information on the extent of intermingling and migration of the runs of herring to these areas will be obtained, and that, in
addition, the results will enable an estimate of " fishing mortality " to be made. The important
bearing of this information on the efficient management of the fishery has already been pointed
out (Tester, 1936).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
This investigation has been undertaken under the combined auspices of the Provincial
Fisheries Department and the Biological Board of Canada. Sincere thanks are offered to
Dr. W. A. Clemens, Pacific Biological Station, for direction and advice, and to Mr. G. J.
Alexander, Assistant Commissioner of Fisheries, for interest and stimulation in the work.
The authors are indebted to the United States Bureau of Fisheries and the University of
Washington for permission to copy their design of the detector, and to the Washington Instrument Company, Seattle, for many services rendered in connection with its construction and
installation. Thanks are due to the Moresby Island Fisheries Co., Ltd., North Galiano Island,
for permission to alter their conveyor system to accommodate the detector unit.
Sincere thanks are also offered to the Canadian Fishing Co., Ltd., Vancouver, for supplying"
the seine-boat " Cape Mudge " for tagging operations on the west coast of Vancouver Island
during March, 1937, and to the crew, Capt. T. Dunnvick, and Mr. T. Mitchell, for their assistance in these operations.
Mr. L. Quickenden, of this Station, has assisted in the actual tagging and for this and
other help we wish to express our appreciation. R 56
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
TAGS.
The " belly " tags used in this investigation are made of magnetic, nickel-plated iron with
rounded ends and smooth edges. They are 19 mm. (% in.) long, 4 mm. (%% in.) wide, 1.6 mm.
(Yie in.) thick, and weigh 0.95 g. (%<) oz.).    In material, shape, length, and width they are
oV
J-Uii
lUfifM-LiXj.
I  '  '    ti
ENCERLENS
Fig. 1. Herring-tags and tagging " irons " or knives.    The implement is sharpened at the end and is used to
make a small cut in the side of the fish through which the tag is pushed into the body-cavity. TAGGING OF HERRING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
R 57
Fig. 2. Tagging herring.    Fish are removed from a pocket of the bait-seine by means of
a dip-net and are then tagged.
Fig. 3. Tagging herring.    The fish is held firmly in one hand, a small incision is made with the tagging-knife, and
the tag is pushed through the opening into the body-cavity.     The fish is then returned to the water. R 58
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
similar to those used by Dahlgren and found by him to be most efficient (Dahlgren, 1936;
Fig. 2, type 4), but, to enable them to be recovered more readily by the induction detector,
they are of greater thickness (1.6 as compared with 1 mm.) and weight. Each tag bears an
individual serial number preceded by the letter " H " (Fig. 1).
TAGGING.
The metal tags are designed to be carried inside the body-cavity of the fish. In the process
of tagging, a fish is selected from a dip-net (Fig. 2) and held firmly with one hand; after
scraping away a few scales, a small incision is made in its side about midway between the
opercle and vent by means of a sharp knife or " tagging-iron," with the cutting-edge at the
end (Fig. 1); the tag is pushed through this small opening into the body-cavity (Fig. 3) and
the fish is quickly returned to the water. The whole operation usually takes less than ten
seconds. Care is taken to keep the hands moist, to avoid harming the fish more than necessarily,
and to use only those fish which are in good condition.
Using this procedure, herring were tagged during the fall of 1936 and during the spring
of 1937. In the fall taggings the fish were obtained for the most part from the commercial
purse-seines. As soon as possible after the seine was pursed the fish were dipped into a small
floating pound, and this was towed away from the scene in order not to interfere with fishing
operations. The tags were then inserted, and the fish were either released immediately or were
returned to a second section of the pound and released later. In one instance (October 15th,
1936) the fish were obtained from and released at a salmon-trap; in another instance
(November 8th, 1936) the fish were tagged and released direct from the purse-seine. In the
spring taggings the fish were captured on or close to spawning-grounds by means of a bait-
seine with a purse-line. After a set was made the net was pursed, partially dried up, and the
fish were dipped from the pocket, tagged, and released at the net.
Dates, serial numbers, numbers of tags inserted, localities, and other information relative
to tagging are given in Table I.
TABLE I.—Data on Herring-tagging during 1936-37.
Date.
No. of
Tags
inserted.
Serial No.
of Tags H.
Place Tagged Fish released.
Remarks.
Oct. 6, 1936.....	
172
1-100
101-200
(in part)
Swanson Channel, xk mi- W. of
Beaver Point.
Oct. 7, 1936....	
897
201-1100
Swanson Channel, Beaver Point
201-700 released at dock ; 701-
1100 released in channel; 257,
439, 647, missing.
Oct. 8, 1933 	
1,323
1101-2400
Swanson Channel, area between
1286,    1457,    1771,    2252,    2388,
101-200
Beaver    Point,    Shingle   Bay,
missing.
(in part)
and Wallace Point
Oct. 15, 1936	
1,500
6001-7500
Strait of Juan de Fuca,  Sooke
traps
Taken from salmon-traps.
Oct. 17, 1936 _
390
2401-2700
2901-3000
(in part)
Swanson Channel, Beaver Point
dock.
Oct. 19, 1936	
700
2701-2900
Swanson      Channel,      between
Drifting   S.   while   fish  released
3001-3500
Beaver    Point    and    Moresby
Pass
in order of serial numbers.
409
3501-3900
2901-3000
(in part)
Swanson     Channel,     off     Coal
Island.
Oct. 20, 1936	
899
3901-4800
Swanson   Channel,   off  Wallace
Point
4711 missing; 3901-4300 a.m.,
4300-4800 p.m.
Nov. 8, 1936.	
300
4801-5000
5901-6000
Trincomali     Channel,     Porlier
Pass
Fish tagged direct from seine.
Nov. 12, 1936	
500
5001-5500
Trincomali   Channel,   just   S.E.
of Porlier Pass.
700
5501-5900
7501-7800
Trincomali     Channel,     Porlier
Pass. TAGGING OF HERRING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
R 59
TABLE I.—Data on Herring-tagging during 1936-37—Continued.
Date.
No. of
Tags
inserted.
Serial No.
of Tags H.
Place Tagged Fish released.
Remarks.
Nov. 18, 1936. -
500
7801-8300
Trincomali     Channel,     Porlier
Approximately half of 8001-8200
(appr.)
8901-9000
Pass
lost overboard.
Nov. 19, 1936
300
8301-8400
8701-8900
Trincomali     Channel,     Porlier
Pass.
March 4, 1937
700
10001-10700
Strait     of     Georgia,     Horswell
Point.
March 11, 1937
898
10701-11100
11301-11400
11901-12000
12301-12600
Barkley      Sound,      Uchucklesit
Harbour
10860, 12490, missing.
March 12, 1937	
1,199
11101-11200
Barkley   Sound,   Macoah   Pass
15455   missing;   fish   spawning
12201-12300
age, near Toquart
when captured.
14101-14200
14501-14600
14901-15700
March 14, 1937
899
11201-11300
12001-12200
12601-12800
12901-13000
13301-13500
14401-14500
Nootka Sound, head of Kendrick
Arm
14479 given away.
March 17, 1937
1,000
11601-11700
12801-12900
13201-13300
13601-13700
14201-14400
14601-14900
15901-16000
Kyuquot Sound, Blind Entrance
Fish spawning when captured.
March 17, 1937    	
898
11401-11600
11701-11800
Entrance Ououkinsh Inlet, Scow
Bay, Bunsby Islands
16095, 16235, missing.
13701-13900
15801-15900
16001-16300
March 19, 1937	
798
11801-11900
Nootka   Sound,   head   of   Ewin
15724  given  away;   15794  miss
13001-13200
Creek
ing.
13501-13600
13901-14100
15701-15800
16301-16400
April 25, 1937	
1,198
16401-16600
16701-16900
17001-17100
17301-17700
17801-17900
18001-18100
19701-19800
Saanich Inlet, head of Tod Inlet
16825,    17413,    missing;    fish
spawning.
The following schedule gives in summarized form the number of tagged herring released
in each locality during the fall and spring tagging operations, all of which took place on the
south-east and west coasts of Vancouver Island:—
South-east Coast.
West
Coast.
Fall, 1936.
Spring, 1937.
Spring, 1937.
1,500
700
Barkley Sound
2,098
4,790
Tod Inlet 	
.. 1,198
1,697
Trincomali Channel -	
... 2,300
8,590
1,898
.....  1,000
...     898
5,692 R 60
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
The localities in which the tags were inserted are shown on the accompanying map
(Fig. 4).
W7" TAGGING OF HERRING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
R 61
INDUCTION DETECTOR.
Even if the herring-tags were applied to the outside of the fish, it would be practically
impossible to pick a tagged fish from the several million untagged individuals which pass
through a saltery or reduction plant in one season unless some mechanical aid were available.
This was furnished by the induction detector which was installed in a saltery at North Galiano
Island, on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island, during the fall of 1936.
The equipment consists essentially of a pair of rectangular' compound coils of wire in
water-proof cases, two control cabinets of electrical equipment (Fig. 5), a trap-door operated
by a compressed-air piston, a four-way pneumatic valve operated electrically by a solonoid,
an air-compressor, and a motor-generator unit. An inclined chute is built between the head
of the elevator and the horizontal conveyor leading to the salting-tanks. Towards the top of
this one of the compound coils is inserted in such a way that the fish will pass through it on
their way down the chute. About 50 cm. (20 in.) down the chute from the coil is installed
a trap-door made of heavy fibre-board (" Masonite "), pivoted at the centre transverse to the
chute and connected from below towards its lower end to a piston (Fig. 6).    When the piston
j                                                                            :      I
■1
■SMMBwRfeBi^Hi       BEw ■ ■
Fit
5. Part of the recovery apparatus—the cabinets of electrical equipment
and the compound coils.
is extended, the lower edge of the trap-door swings up and the upper edge swings down about
the pivot, forming a barrier at right angles to the flow of fish and deflecting the flow downwards
into a by-pass chute leading to a bin off to one side. The piston is operated by compressed
air and its action is controlled by means of the pneumatic-solonoid valve, a mercury switch
attached to the under-surface of the trap-door, and relay systems in the cabinets of electrical
equipment. In constructing the chute and installing the coil and trap-door, copper or brass
is used throughout in order that the magnetic field about the coil will be influenced as little
as possible. The second compound coil is suspended from a beam a short distance from
the chute. The control cabinets are kept in a small heated room built near the conveyor.
A diagram of the apparatus is given in Fig. 7 and part of the actual installation is shown in
Fig. 8.
Each compound coil has two windings and these are arranged in Wheatstone-bridge
formation. Alternating current, supplied by the motor-generator unit, is stabilized, passes
through the coils, and the two phases are held in delicate balance by variable resistances and
condensers in the control cabinets. When the machine is in operation, the coils are " balanced "
and the trap-door is held closed by the piston, air being forced into the cylinder from above. Fig. 6. The chute between the elevator and the horizontal conveyor showing the coil (A)
and the trap-door  (closed)   (B). TAGGING OF HERRING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
R 63
Fish pass up the elevator, drop to the chute, pass through the coil, over the trap-door, and drop
to the horizontal conveyor. When a tagged fish passes through the coil, the metal tag changes
the magnetic field about the coil and throws it momentarily " out of balance " in respect to
the other coil. The disturbance is amplified, detected, reamplified, and momentarily closes
a sensitive relay which in turn closes a latching-relay and allows direct current to pass through
the solenoid of the pneumatic valve and through the mercury switch on the under-surface of
the trap-door. When the solonoid is energized a plunger in the valve is raised; this allows
air to pass into the bottom of the cylinder and at the same time allows it to escape from the
Fig. 7. Diagram of the complete recovery apparatus.
top, causing the piston to be forced up and the trap-door to open. When the door opens to
a certain aperture, the current passing through the mercury switch is cut off and this opens
the latching-relay, cutting off the current from the solonoid in the pneumatic valve, causing
the plunger to drop, air to be forced into the top of the cylinder and exhausted from the
bottom, thus forcing the piston down and the trap-door shut again. The machine is now
ready for the reception of another impulse through the coil. The whole operation, from the
" unbalancing " to the restoration of balance and the closing of the trap-door, takes less than
two seconds. The tagged fish which creates the disturbance, along with about one hundred
other fish, drops through the opening, down the by-pass chute, and into the retaining-bin before R 64
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
the trap-door closes and the normal flow over the trap is restored. When unloading is not
under way the fish in the bin are passed down the chute a few at a time, or, if only a few are
present, they are passed through the coil one at a time by hand, until the tagged fish is finally
isolated.    The fish is then cut open and the tag is removed.
The efficiency of the induction detector in recovering tagged fish has not been definitely
ascertained as yet. During this first season of operation, a number of mechanical difficulties
were encountered and the machine had to be shut off several times during the process of
unloading to make adjustments and repairs. In addition, the detector had to be rebalanced
at about ten-minute intervals, and during this procedure, which took up to one minute, the
trap circuit was cut off. It is estimated that, because of these two factors, only about 85 per
cent, of the fish which were unloaded passed through the coil while the apparatus was in
effective operation. With increased experience and greater familiarity with the apparatus,
a higher percentage run should be obtained.
Fig.
!. Photograph of the installation at North Galiano Island showing the coil (A), the trap-door (open)   (B),
the retaining bin (C), and the pneumatic-solonoid valve (D).
Variation in the speed of flow of the fish reduces the efficiency of the induction detector
to some extent. The distance from the coil to the trap-door is adjusted for the average speed
with which the fish pass down the chute (about 100 per sec). At the beginning of unloading,
before the chute becomes wet and slimy, and during unloading if the fish are sticky, the speed
is retarded and a tagged fish may reach the trap after the door has closed. This difficulty may
be overcome to some extent by passing a stream of water down the chute to make the fish
slide more easily. However, even under normal conditions, the speed of the flow is more rapid
at the centre than towards the sides of the chute and a tagged fish may not be trapped if it
happens to pass close to one side or the other. This difficulty is reduced by adjusting the
mercury switch to increase the gape of the trap-door and its time of swing, although the task
of isolating the tagged fish is rendered more difficult because more fish are trapped. If, as
sometimes happens, the elevator is loaded to capacity, a few fish on falling to the chute rebound
and land on the trap-door. If one of these happens to contain a tag, the trap-door will operate
after the fish has passed over. The difficulties caused by variation in the rate of flow are
again present when the fish which have been by-passed are rerun through the apparatus, TAGGING OF HERRING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
R 65
and in at least two known cases tagged fish have been lost because the trap-door opened and
closed too soon or too late.
In all cases of possible loss of tagged individuals discussed in the preceding paragraph
the tags have been assumed to create the electrical disturbance necessary for the operation of
the trap-door. Some tags may also be lost because of failure to do this. If the tag inside
the fish passes through the coil so that its long axis is exactly parallel to that of the coil—i.e.,
transverse to the chute—no impulse will be generated. Apart from this one position, the
reaction will be obtained regardless of the speed of transit, provided that the coils are held
in delicate balance.
During the coming season it is planned to plant a known number of tags in each of several
scow-loads of fish in order to determine experimentally the average efficiency of the recovery
apparatus.
RECOVERY OF TAGS.
Although the fishing season on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island extended from
October 1st to November 27th, 1936, the installation of the induction detector at a saltery. on
North Galiano Island was not completed until November 1st, and, due to subsequent mechanical
difficulties, the machine was operating effectively for only the last three weeks of fishing
(November 8th to 27th, 1936). The estimated daily catch of the plant, the estimated tonnage
tested for tags, the locality in which the fish were caught, and the serial numbers of the tags
which were recovered are given in Table II. The number of recoveries per day from each
tagging is shown in Table III.
TABLE II.—Data on Herring-tag Recoveries during 1936-37.
Date of
Capture,
1936.
Estimated
Tonnage
caught.*
Estimated
Tonnage
tested.*
Locality of Fishing.
Recoveries, Serial No. H.
Nov. 8
240
110
240
30
30
120
140
70
210
195
60
60
100
100
15
30
25
40
140
176
99
204
15
29
86
136
63
203
182
58
51
40
90
6
27
15
39
133
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Tree Island   .
Pylades Channel  	
Nov. 9	
Nov. 10  .
4895                                    >
4871, 4994, 5917, 5982
Nov. 11
Nov. 12	
4950
Nov. 12
Nov. 15 	
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
5264, 5308
4892, 5101, 6015, 7665
4865, 5241, 5353, 5697, 7605,
4878, 5049, 5733
Nov. 16 	
Nov. 17.	
Nov. 18 	
Nov. 20
7773
Nov. 21	
Nov. 22 	
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass ..
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass	
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
Trincomali Channel, off Porlier Pass
8107
4972, 5250, 6354, 7606, 7647,
8775
7904,
Nov. 23
Nov. 24	
4855, 5623, 7955
Nov. 25
Nov. 23     	
Nov. 27.-	
5894, 8285
4977, 7571, 7635, 7692, 8211,
8288, 8720, 8986
8233,
Totals	
1,955
1,652
* Approximate. R 66
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
TABLE III.—The Number of Recoveries from each Tagging during 1936-37.
Sooke,
Oct. 15
(1,500).
Swanson
Channel,
Oct. 6-20
(4,790).
Trincomali Channel
near Porlier Pass.
Date, 1936.
Nov. 8
(300).
Nov. 12
(1,200).
Nov. 18
(500).
Nov. 19
(300).
Nov. 8 	
Nov. 9  	
1
Nov. 10             	
	
4
	
Nov. 11      ._	
Nov. 12 	
	
1
Nov. 13   	
Nov. 14 	
	
	
	
Nov. 15    -
	
2
	
Nov. 16 -	
1
	
1
2
Nov. 17	
1
5
Nov. 18  	
1
2
	
Nov. 19  	
	
	
	
Nov. 20               	
	
	
1
Nov. 21... 	
Nov. 22	
1
1
3
1
1
Nov. 23 	
Nov. 24....	
	
1
1
1
Nov. 25	
Nov. 26	
1
1
Nov. 27                        _ 	
	
1
3
4
1
Totals--	
2
12
19
8
2
During the three-week period, all of the fish passing into the saltery were taken in
Trincomali and Pylades Channels near Porlier Pass, with the exception of 60 tons from
Swanson Channel. From approximately 1,652 tons which were tested forty-three tagged
herring were recovered. Of these, forty-one were released from November 8th to 19th in
Trincomali Channel and were recovered from November 9th to 27th in the same area. The
remaining two were released at Sooke, in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, on October 15th and
were recovered from Trincomali Channel on November 16th and 22nd. Of the large number
of fish tagged at Swanson Channel from October 6th to 20th, not one was recovered from
catches made in Trincomali Channel nor from the one catch made in Swanson Channel. From
Table III. it may be seen that the largest number of tags was recovered from the largest
tagging (November 12th), but that, as might be expected, the greatest percentage recovery
(4 per cent.) was made from the earliest tagging (November 8th) in the Trincomali area.
It may also be seen that often tags from two, three, or all four separate taggings were present
in the same catch.
DISCUSSION.
The initial attempt at tagging herring with metal " belly " tags and recovering the tagged
fish by means of the induction detector has demonstrated the feasibility of applying the methods
to British Columbia herring. In addition, the results have already yielded some information
of value. The two recoveries from the Sooke tagging show a migration of some fish from
the Strait of Juan de Fuca to Trincomali Channel near Porlier Pass, a distance of approximately 65 nautical miles. The lack of recovery of Swanson Channel tags indicates that the
herring fished in Trincomali Channel were not those which were being fished in Swanson
Channel, 20 nautical miles to the south, while tagging was going on. The fact that tags from
several different taggings at Trincomali Channel were recovered from the same catches
indicates that considerable intermingling of the fish took place on the grounds.
It is hoped that the tagging and recovery programme, in addition to yielding information
on the extent of intermingling and migration, will give some indication of the " fishing
mortality." An example will show how this may be accomplished. Of the 300 tags inserted
on November 8th at Trincomali Channel, twelve were recovered during the period November
9th to 27th from 1,425 tons of fish taken on the same ground (1,652 less 176 and 51 tons taken
on November 8th and 20th).    Now, the total catch by all plants during the same period in TAGGING OF HERRING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. R 67
this area was approximately 5,441 tons. In this tonnage there were probably forty-six tagged
fish (12 by 5441/1425), representing a probable recovery of 15 per cent, if the total catch had
passed through the machine. From this calculation it would appear that the fishermen must
have caught about 15 per cent, of the fish which were present on the grounds during the
interval. However, this value is definitely a minimum, for in its calculation allowance is not
made for tagged fish which might have passed through the apparatus undetected, for fish
which died as a result of tagging, or for the movements of fish on and off the fishing-grounds.
It is likely, therefore, that between November 9th and 27th the fishermen took considerably
more than 15 per cent, of all the fish on this particular ground.
In calculations such as the above it is very important to have a reliable estimate of the
number of fish which die as a result of handling and tagging, or the " tagging mortality."
Initial experiments to determine this have already been performed and a preliminary account
of the results has been published (Hart and Tester, 1937). This investigation will be continued
during the next fishing season if opportunity permits.
Plans have been made for the installation of a second induction detector in the conveyor
system of a reduction plant in Barkley Sound, on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Electromagnets have already been installed in the meal-lines of reduction plants in several localities
on the west coast of Vancouver Island in connection with the pilchard investigation (Hart,
1937), and these will also be used for the recovery of herring tags during the season 1937-38.
The two detectors, together with the electromagnets, should make possible the recovery of tags
inserted on the east coast in the fall of 1936, on the east and west coasts in the spring
of 1937, and those to be inserted on the east and west coasts in the fall of 1937. The results
of the coming season should be of great interest and value in providing information on the
movements of herring and the fishing mortality.
REFERENCES.
Dahlgren, E. H.    Further developments in the tagging of the Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii.
Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer.    Vol. XL, No. 2, 229-247,
1936.
Hart, J. L.    Tagging British Columbia Pilchards (Sardinops cxrtdea (Girard)):   Methods
and preliminary results.    Report, B.C. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1936, p. 49, 1937.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    Tagging mortality of herring.    Biological Board of Canada
Progress Reports Pacific.    No. 31, 19-20, 1937.
Rounsefell, G. A., and E. H. Dahlgren.    Tagging experiments on the Pacific herring, Clupea
pallasii.    Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration  de la  Mer.    Vol. VIIL,
No. 3, 371-384, 1933.
Tester, A. L.    Some results of the British Columbia herring investigation and their economic
bearing.    Report, B.C. Commissioner of Fisheries, 1935, L 74-L 80, 1936.
Tester, A. L.    Populations of herring  {Clupea pallasii)   in the coastal waters of British
Columbia.    Journal Biological Board of Canada.    Vol. III., No. 2, 108-114, 1937. R 68 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
REPORT ON SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS, 1936.
By J. A. Motherwell.
Generally speaking, the year of 1936 has been an unusually favourable one from the
standpoint of conditions found on the spawning-beds of the salmon. Of course, there have
been exceptions where conditions have not been all that might be expected, but in the areas
frequented by the valuable sockeye species, for instance, the catch in the year under review
has been the largest since 1930, but notwithstanding this fact the quantities found on the
spawning-grounds were found to be highly satisfactory.
Efforts of the Department with a view to assuring of the escapement of a reasonable
percentage of the several runs by means of closed times and the moving of boundaries farther
down the main rivers and farther out from the mouths of smaller streams are undoubtedly
producing the results desired, and there need be little fear of the salmon-supply of the Province
being seriously depleted as long as it is possible to maintain the machinery at present in force
for the purpose of enforcement of regulations.
A more detailed description of conditions is given as follows:—
QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.
There is no commercial fishing of sockeye in these waters, but the supply which reaches
the two or three small streams and which is used largely by local residents for their own food
purposes is being maintained.
Cohoes do not use the streams in this area to any large extent, but the escapement was
normal.
The pink variety is the one which utilizes spawning areas in the Queen Charlottes to the
greatest extent, and in the year under review the escapement was found to be excellent,
generally speaking, apart from an odd stream. The Yakoun River, which is the one which
produces the largest number of pinks, was found upon examination by the inspecting officer to
be crowded with pinks. The number found was considerably in excess of what might be
expected from the pack. The quantity caught, of course, is largely dependent on tidal and
weather conditions.
The chum-supply on the spawning-grounds was found to be heavier than usual. There
is no doubt that the precautions taken during recent years by the Department are restoring the
runs of this variety to their original state.
NASS RIVER.
The numbers of sockeye reaching the spawning-grounds of the Meziadin Lake District
are reported as being larger than that of the past fifteen or twenty years. There was also
a heavy escapement to that portion of the Nass watershed lying above Meziadin Lake. This
year's escapement would appear to be additional evidence showing that the lowering of the
boundary in the Nass River by 6 miles was a most efficient method of conservation. The
spring-supply was heavier than for several years past and can be considered as quite satisfactory.
The number of cohoes found was considerably greater than that of four years ago and
the escapement is reported as being heavy.
The pinks also reached the spawning-grounds in large quantities and the escapement is
reported to be considerably greater than that of the brood-year of 1934, both in the Nass River
proper and the streams tributary to Portland and adjoining inlets.
The chum-supply also on the spawning-grounds was found to be large, both in the
spawning-grounds of the Nass River and the streams draining into the salt water. The
escapement was greater than in recent years.
SKEENA RIVER.
At Lakelse Lake there was a heavy escapement which was estimated to be considerably
greater than that of the brood-year of 1932. The fact that the hatchery was not operating
during the season would, of course, permit to pass to the spawning-grounds a number of fish
that would otherwise have been taken in the fish-cultural operations. Even so, the escapement
was very good. REPORT ON SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS. R 69
In the Kitsumgallum area the supply was also good and better than that of the cycle-year.
In the Babine Lake and River areas the sockeye escapement was reported as being fairly
heavy and very similar to the spawning of 1931 and 1932. The inspecting officer reports in
part as follows:—■
- " I would consider that this has been a very favourable year with plenty of fish that
spawned freely under very favourable conditions, with lots of water covering the areas and
going into the fall well covered. I am of the opinion that this has been the best year, in respect
to natural conditions, that I have seen on the area; areas covered with plenty of water during
and after the spawning, and practically no frosts; while there were freshets, no extremes;
on the whole, large fish, and the sexes fairly even."
Quite a satisfactory supply of springs and cohoes were also found on the spawning-grounds
and a particularly large number of the former variety in the Ocstahl River. The quantities
of the latter variety were found to be much better than for several years. The season was
an " off " year for the pinks to the upper portions of the Skeena, but heavy escapement took
place all over the lower reaches of the Skeena watershed and the escapement of this variety
in general was superior to that of the preceding cycle-year.
' The supply of chums was better than usual and it is reported as a heavy run for the area,
although large quantities do not use the Skeena River spawning-grounds.
The upper fishing boundary of the Skeena River in the year under review was lowered
to a line between Lambert Point and Mowitch Point in order to secure the escapement of a
larger percentage of the runs of the several varieties. This action appears to have obtained
the results desired, judging from the reports from the spawning areas.
LOWE INLET.
The sockeye streams and lakes in this area are quite near the coast and the streams are
affected more than the larger ones by the rainfalls, or lack of them. During this season
conditions were good, from the standpoint of water, and the escapement of sockeye was reported
as heavy, with the exception of the streams on the west coast of Banks Island. Precautions
will be taken in the cycle-year, however, to see that a reasonable percentage of the return of
fish pass unmolested to the spawning-grounds.
The supply of pinks was found to be quite satisfactory and there was a heavy escapement,
reported to be much greater than 1934, the brood-year, and similar to the big escapement of
1930. It will be remembered that in this area special precautions have been taken in recent
years to assure protection for the pink salmon in view of the intensive fishing which has
prevailed for some time.
The chum-supply is also reported as heavy and similar to that of four years ago.
BUTEDALE AREA.
This is not a prolific sockeye area, but the escapement was similar to that of the brood-
year.
The escapement of cohoes was better than usual and was no doubt due to the closing of
fishing unusually early.
In the case of pinks, all the streams in the Douglas Channel area were heavily seeded.
The supply in the southern portion of the area, however, was not so great, but due to the fishing
operations being concentrated largely in the northern portion the percentage of escapement
was greater and the conditions are reasonably satisfactory. The escapement generally all
over the area is reported as a decided increase over that of the brood-year.
In the case of the chums, the fishing intensity was considerably less as a result of lack of
demand by the canners. A large percentage of the runs escaped to the spawning-grounds and
the supply found was large, although possibly not equal to the unusually large escapement in
the year 1932.
BELLA BELLA AREA.
The sockeye-supply on the spawning-grounds is reported as being heavier and greater than
that of the brood-year. Fortunately, the streams were high during the run and the salmon
were able to pass directly to the spawning-grounds instead of waiting around the mouths of
the streams, as always happens in dry seasons. R 70 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
The cohoe-supply in this area as well was reasonably good, as fishing was closed earlier
than usual and the streams were high when this variety of salmon arrived.
In the case of the pinks, the fishing effort was greatly curtailed as supplies were more
plentiful in other areas. This permitted a large percentage of the run to pass safely to the
spawning-grounds.    The main pink-streams were well seeded and the small streams fairly so.
The bulk of the chum run arrived after the closing date of September 25th and passed
unmolested to the spawning-grounds.    The main spawning areas were well seeded.
BELLA COOLA AREA.
The escapement of sockeye as compared to the brood-year of 1932 was heavy. Undoubtedly
the strike of the gill-net fishermen had a good deal to do with the satisfactory escapement.
The spring supplies were found to be fair, but there has never been a large run of this
variety to this area.
The cohoe escapement is reported as quite heavy, although the pink-supply was only fair
and not equal to the brood-year of 1934.
Large quantities of chums were found on the spawning-grounds. Unfortunately, since
the spawning of the salmon, there have been unusually severe freshets in the Bella Coola area,
resulting in the destruction of large quantities of eggs. Precautions will be taken to see that
in the cycle-year provision is made for the escapement of a reasonable percentage of the runs.
RIVERS INLET AREA.
The supply of sockeye in this important gill-net area has been maintained well during
recent years. This season, due to a strike amongst the gill-net fishermen, the bulk of the sockeye
were enabled to pass unmolested to the spawning-grounds and the resultant spawning, as
might be expected, was heavy. A disquieting factor, however, has been a freshet, the severity
of which has not been known for many years. Undoubtedly quite a percentage of the eggs
deposited in the gravel have been destroyed, and this may nullify to some extent the excellent
results which might be expected four and five years hence.
In this area also the escapement of cohoes was better than usual due to the early closing
of fishing, although the supply found on the spawning-grounds was not as great as might be
desired.
The pinks and chums do not frequent the Rivers Inlet area in any large quantities, but the
numbers found on the spawning-grounds would justify the conclusion that the runs are being
maintained.
SMITH INLET AREA.
The same conditions in this area, from the standpoint of striking fishermen, obtained as in
the case of the Rivers Inlet area, and a greater percentage of the sockeye was permitted to
pass safely to the spawning-grounds, where large quantities were observed spawning under
favourable conditions.
There was a larger number of springs observed than usual, although the quantity of this
variety frequenting Smith Inlet area does not justify at the present time intensive fishing.
The cohoe-supply has never been a very important one, but the run appears to be maintaining itself.
The pink-supply, although never heavy, was not quite as good as usual.
The chums do not appear in large quantities in the inlet, apart from the Takush River.
The escapement for this season was quite a heavy one at that point and is undoubtedly the
result of the closure of fishing which has been in effect for four years.
FRASER RIVER WATERSHED.
The escapement of sockeye to the Fraser River spawning areas was much larger than
expected. It is difficult to explain the situation, as the indications on the spawning-grounds
in the brood-year of 1932 did not justify the expectation of so large a seeding. The quality
of a very large percentage of this run was unusually high and compared very favourably with
that of the previous big fourth-year run, now a thing of the past. This being the case, it was
suggested that possibly these salmon were heading for the upper reaches of the watershed,
which was the area to which the big fourth-year run ascended for spawning purposes. The
usual examinations of the spawning-grounds, however, showed very clearly that there was REPORT ON SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS. R 71
no merit in this suggestion, as the quantities found in the Quesnel, Horsefly, Bowron Lake,
Stuart Lake, and Francois Lake District showed no appreciable increase over recent seasons.
There was, however, a considerably larger supply than expected found in the spawning areas
of the Pemberton and Pitt Lake Districts and an unexpectedly large return to the Seton-
Anderson Lake system, whilst in the Chilko Lake area, where four years ago some 70,000
sockeye had been estimated, there was this year found at least an equal supply, and probably
more.
Water conditions at Hell's Gate were unusually favourable all through the summer and
salmon found the ascent past this point easier than usual.
Each year there has been a run of sockeye by way of Johnstone Strait, which is between
Vancouver Island and the mainland, in addition to the bulk of the run by way of Juan de Fuca
Strait and Puget Sound waters. Undoubtedly in the year under review the number using the
first-mentioned route was somewhat greater than usual and must have been responsible for
a considerable portion of the unexpected supply reaching the Fraser spawning-grounds. On
the other hand, it is probable that the restriction placed on fishing-gear in the Puget Sound
waters has had the effect of permitting a larger percentage of the run passing through Puget
Sound waters to reach the Fraser River.
Spring salmon were found in numbers greater than during recent years on the spawning-
grounds of the Fraser, and this also applies to the quantity of chums in all the spawning-
grounds in District No. 1 frequented by this variety.
Cohoes.—The supply, generally speaking, was not found to be satisfactory, but indications
were that due to the unusually low water in the streams frequented by this variety they had
not passed up to the usual spawning-grounds. Salmon-fishing was therefore closed in the
Fraser District until the rains provided sufficient water to fill the streams. There are cohoe
on the spawning-grounds of the Fraser River watershed as late as February and March in
each year.
The year 1936 was the " off " year for the pink run and none was found.
In more detail, conditions found during 1936 were as follows:—
Prince George Area.—In the Stuart Lake District there were extremely few sockeye found.
The supply reaching the Fraser-Francois Lake watershed was less than expected and about
six weeks later in arriving than in recent years. These were observed during the last week in
September.
Quesnel Area.—In the Bowron Lake area indications were that more sockeye were observed
than in recent years, although not more than 1,000 were seen. In the Quesnel Lake area also
the supply was a disappointment, but conditions found in the brood-year were not encouraging.
•It is estimated that 70,000 spawning sockeye were observed on the beds in Chilko Lake. This
was the main run, but a later run passed up the Chilko River in October. It was estimated
at possibly 4,000 fish. The first were in good physical condition, but the second were very
weak.
The supply of springs in the.Quesnel area, generally speaking, showed considerable
improvement over that of recent years.
Kamloops Area.—Although sockeye ascend the North Thompson River, this branch is not
considered one of the very important spawning areas. The supply this year was reasonably
satisfactory; in fact, at Raft River, those living in the district contend that there were more
sockeye observed this year than for the past twelve seasons. The Clearwater River was
inspected more thoroughly this year than before in order to ascertain whether it is used by
sockeye.    None of this variety was observed, however.
The South Thompson system, as in the past, contained larger quantities of sockeye than
the North Branch. Favourable conditions make it possible to estimate pretty accurately the
quantity of salmon seen. At Adams River the number of spawning sockeye seen was estimated
at 4,000, as compared with 2,000 in the cycle-year of 1932. These made their first appearance
on October 18th, in a fairly advanced stage towards spawning.
At Little River it is estimated some 2,000 sockeye were observed. In this district also
the supply of springs found on the spawning-grounds was quite satisfactory, compared with
recent years, and cohoe could be seen in reasonable quantities all over. The run of this
variety extends over several months in the fall, and at the time of inspection it was not possible
to obtain a complete picture. R 72 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
Hope Area.—Sockeye were first observed in the vicinity of Yale on July 10th and from
that date on the run steadily increased, with the local officer reporting a heavy escapement
through Hell's Gate and past the rapids in the Fraser River at the confluence with Bridge
River.
Apparently there was no difficulty in passing through Hell's Gate as the water conditions
during the whole run were unusually favourable. The local officer, who has been observing
the conditions at Hell's Gate for the past twenty years, is satisfied that the sockeye run
ascending to points above Hell's Gate was heavier than for any previous year since 1913.
An unusual feature in this sub-area was the unexpected large quantity of sockeye reaching
the Seton-Anderson Lake system. For many years past there have been observed no more
than 200 or 300 individual spawners, but during the season just past the number found was
estimated at approximately 12,000 fish. This is the greatest number found in the past twenty
years. They commenced to arrive in the middle of August and continued until about the
third week in October. Spawning took place in Gates Creek, Portage Creek, and Seton Creek.
Some small schools were observed on the lake-shore at the mouths of some very small streams.
The spring-salmon spawning in this sub-area was also heavier than usual.
Pemberton-Birkenhead Area.—Although a good seeding was expected, the supply of
sockeye found this year was considerably larger than usual, and it was estimated by those
observing to be the largest in the past twenty years.    The fish individually were large also.
The Harrison Lake portion of the area, which includes Morris Creek, Silver Creek, and
Harrison River, showed quite a good supply of sockeye in comparison with the run of recent
years.
Cohoes in satisfactory quantities were also observed, although the supply of spring
salmon was only fair.
The supply of chums in Harrison Lake and River was found to be unusually heavy.
Cultus Lake.—The return of sockeye to the Cultus Lake was larger than expected and
considered quite satisfactory. The normal supply passed up the Chilliwack River to the lake
of that name.
The chum run to this area was quite good and the cohoes were found to bs abundant.
Chilliwack-Pitt Lake Area.—In the Pitt River the run of sockeye was reported to be
larger than expected and'the individual fish were big. There is no doubt but that the Pitt
system will receive a heavy seeding.
Coastal Streams.—In the Serpentine and Nicomekl Rivers, draining into Boundary Bay,
cohoes were found to be more plentiful than usual.
In the Howe Sound area a very large supply of chum salmon arrived; in fact, it is
reported as the heaviest for twelve years.
These conditions also apply in a lesser degree to the Indian River at the head of Burrard
Inlet.
ALERT BAY AREA.
The quantity of sockeye found on the spawning-grounds of the Nimpkish River system
was much greater than for many years owing to comparatively light fishing as a result of
a strike amongst the salmon purse-seine fishermen. The inspecting officer reports the spawning-grounds as being crowded with sockeye, with large numbers still showing in the various
lakes. In Fullmore River, Port Neville, the supply was greater than in any year since 1928.
Spawning at McKenzie, Nahwitti, Shushartie, and Keough Rivers was normal, but in the
Kakweiken River there was some falling-off compared with the brood-year.
The beds frequented by the spring variety can be considered as being fairly well supplied.
The cohoe-supply was satisfactory in all the streams usually frequented by them.
In the case of pinks the run was estimated at about 20 per cent, greater than that of the
brood-year, generally speaking, although the seeding was not so heavy at Wakeman and
Kingcome Rivers.
In the case of chums the seeding generally was heavier than for many years, the inspecting
officer estimating an increase of 25 per cent, over the heavy run of the brood-year of 1932.
The supply to the Nimpkish area is reported as being the largest in twenty years.
QUATHIASKI AREA.
Sockeye in this area spawn at Hayden Bay Lake and in the stream entering the head of
Phillips Arm.   In the former area the supply was much heavier than the brood-year of 1932, REPORT ON SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS. R 73
but in Phillips Arm the quantities were not so great as in the brood-year. Due to lack of
intensive fishing, however, the seeding was satisfactory.
Good runs of springs occurred at Campbell River and Phillips Arm, and the spawning-
grounds generally throughout the area were better seeded than during the previous season
with this variety.
The cohoe-supply was not what could be desired, except at Bute Inlet, where there was
a good spawning.    In the remainder of the area the conditions were not so satisfactory.
As a result of the heavy freshets of the winter of 1934-35 and the consequent scouring
of the spawning-beds, the return this season of pinks was considerably smaller than usual,
but the escapement was large and under the circumstances there was a reasonably good seeding.
The chum run was reported to be heavier than for four yars. Fishing was not intensive
and the spawning areas have been better seeded than for many years.
PENDER HARBOUR AREA.
Saginaw Creek is the only sockeye-stream of any value and there was a normal supply
found of this variety on the spawning-beds, as well as at several other minor streams.
The run of cohoe was fairly light, but a good proportion escaped to the spawning-beds.
The pink run was lighter than that of the brood-year, due to the scouring of the spawning-
beds.in the winter of 1934^35. The return was estimated at only about 75 per cent, of the
run two years previously, but owing to there being practically no fishing of this variety the
escapement was quite satisfactory.
All streams throughout the area were plentifully seeded with chums.
COMOX AREA.
The Puntledge River received a larger supply of springs than for some years. Spawning
was satisfactory in the usual area below the impounding-dam, but considerable numbers
spawned in the lower portion of the river.    This was due to low-water conditions.
The cohoe-supply was normal in all the streams of the area, although late in ascending,
due to low water.
The Oyster, Puntledge, and Tsolum Rivers, which are the main pink-streams in the area,
received only from 5 to 10 per cent of the usual supply of pinks. The only exception was in the
case of Tsable River.    This condition is the result of the heavy floods of 1934.
The chum spawning at all streams was heavier than for many years.
NANAIMO AREA.
The seeding of springs was greater than for several years.
Cohoes were not as numerous as the supply four years previously, but due to low-water
conditions they were late in arriving and at the time of inspection were still passing up the
streams in good numbers. Extra precautions were taken, particularly opposite the Qualicum
Rivers, by means of the 2-mile boundary, to assure of a proper escapement.
The pink seeding, whilst light, was better than for several years.
The chum run to Nanaimo River was much better than that of the brood-year, and this
condition was fairly general, although low-water conditions interfered somewhat with the
ascent of the fish. LADYSMITH AREA.
Springs spawned in greater numbers in Chemainus River than for several seasons. This
is the main stream in the area.
A good average supply of cohoes was found in the Chemainus River and satisfactory
quantities appeared in Bonsall and other smaller streams.
There is only a light run of pinks to the Chemainus River at any time, but the supply
found on the spawning-grounds showed an improvement over that of recent years.
The chum seeding in the Chemainus River was much heavier than that of the past four
years. The smaller streams also received reasonable supplies, although some of the early
run, due to low-water conditions, were not able to pass up the small streams.
COWICHAN AREA.
The early run of springs occurs during the months of May and June, but, as has been
the case in recent years, the run was found to be light, although this year the fish succeeded in
6 R 74 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
passing up the Cowichan River before the water receded. The main run during August and
September was of good average size. These were delayed later than usual, but on the arrival
of the delayed rains the salmon were able to pass up to the spawning-grounds. The supply
on the beds, however, is not considered entirely satisfactory.
A medium early run of cohoes had difficulty in passing up the river, but eventually
succeeded. A good late run, however, was passing safely to the spawning-grounds at the time
of inspection.
The chums appeared in larger quantities than for several years and the seeding has been
satisfactory. VICTORIA AREA.
This is chiefly a cohoe and chum area and the supply of both these varieties was normal.
ALBERNI AREA.
The sockeye-supply on the spawning-grounds shows an improvement over all years in the
knowledge of the local officers. Notwithstanding the record commercial catch, the escapement
to Sproat and Great Central Lake areas was the heaviest in experience, and that to the
Anderson Lake system was better than that of the brood-year. This is undoubtedly the direct
result of conservation and fish-culture by the Department and shows what can be done.
Spring salmon are reported to have appeared on the spawning-grounds in much greater
numbers than for several years, the Somass River and tributaries and the Sarita River
receiving particularly large supplies.
The cohoe-streams received supplies comparable with those of the brood-year and the
spawning was reasonably satisfactory.
The" chum seeding was heavier than for several years, particularly that in the Nitinat
District
CLAYOQUOT AREA.
The seeding of sockeye exceeded that of the brood-year and can be considered as satisfactory.
The springs were not so plentiful as during the past two years, but there was a reasonably
good seeding.
The cohoes were quite plentiful and the spawning-beds were well seeded with this variety.
This area is not frequented by any considerable number of pinks, but the normal supply
was observed.
The supply of chums was the heaviest seen for a number of years.
NOOTKA AREA.
The sockeye and spring varieties were found in normal quantities in the streams. As a
matter of fact, this applies also to the cohoes and pinks. All the streams were heavily seeded
with chums and the numbers appearing were even greater than in the brood-year, which in
turn was heavier than that of the several preceding seasons.
KYUQUOT AREA.
Sockeyes and springs were found in normal numbers in this area, but the cohoe seeding
was a fair average only, compared with that of recent seasons.
The run of pinks to this system is always light, but there was observed probably double
the number during the year under review as compared with that of normal seasons.
QUATSINO AREA.
Sockeye do not run in large numbers to this district and the Mahatta River is the one
containing the only supply of any particular value. The numbers appearing this year showed
an increase over the runs of recent years.
The supply of springs to Marble Creek was lighter than for several seasons. The cohoes,
on the other hand, were a good average over the whole area, with an increase in the Rupert
Arm and Marble Creek portions.
Pinks were found to be considerably more numerous in some streams than others, and in
comparison with the brood-year the run was very fair.
The chum-supply was very heavy and there was a good spawning of this variety. ANNUAL REPORT, B.C. SALT-FISH BOARD. R 75
THIRD ANNUAL REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH
BOARD.
The following are the members of the Board, appointed in accordance with the provisions
of the Scheme, for the year 1936^37 :—
Appointees of the Meal, Oil, and Salt-fish Section, B.C. Division, Canadian Manufacturers'
Association.—Mr. Geo. E. Crawford, foot Gore Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.; Mr. A. J. Blackwell,
119 Pender Street West, Vancouver, B.C.
Alternates.—Mr. R. Nelson, 325 Howe Street, Vancouver, B.C.; Mr. J. J. Dorsey, 207
Hastings Street West, Vancouver, B.C.; Mr. G. L. Davies, 1575 Sixteenth Avenue West,
Vancouver, B.C.
Appointees of Messrs. Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Ltd.—Mr. K. Kimura, 217
Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.;   Mr. T. Matsuyama, 467 Powell Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Alternates.—Mr. K. Shiraishi, 219 Dunlevy Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.; Mr. R. Suzumoto,
208 Hastings Street East, Vancouver, B.C.;  Mr. S. Yoshida, P.O. Box 8, Steveston, B.C.
Mr. Hugh Dalton was reappointed Chairman of the Board by the Deputy Minister of
Fisheries, Ottawa, and Mr. G. R. Clark continued as Secretary.
On September 2nd, 1936, the first meeting of the newly appointed Board was held for the
purpose of recording officially the appointees of the two producers' organizations. At this
meeting the Chairman of the Board was not in attendance, and accordingly the meeting
reviewed in general terms the marketing prospects for dry-salt salmon. It was reported that
information received from Japan indicated that the production of dry-salt salmon in that
country this season was approximately 400,000 boxes, this being an increase of about 33%
per cent, over normal and an increase of approximately 70 per cent, over 1935, which had
been a poor year.
In view of this information the Board considered that it was going to be exceptionally
difficult to market the British Columbia production on a profitable basis this year, and that
the producers would be well advised to move slowly in the direction of packing any great
quantity.
At this same meeting it was reported to the Board that the Provincial Department of
Fisheries had incorporated certain clauses in their applications for salmon-saltery licences
with a view to assisting the Board in its efforts to maintain orderly marketing. These clauses
were:—
"(1.) I also hereby agree that, if such licence is issued, I will conduct the operation and
dispose of the product of such in accordance with the regulations laid down by the British
Columbia Salt-fish Board.
"(2.) I also agree that this licence, if issued, will not be used as a means of obtaining
from the British Columbia Salt-fish Board an extra marketable quantity, but that the plant
covered by this licence will be operated to produce the quantity allowed by the British Columbia
Salt-fish Board."
In view of the Chairman's absence and the fact that September 14th had been set by the
Provincial Fisheries Department as the final date for the issuance of salmon-saltery licences,
it was decided to defer action, in so far as determining the total marketable quantity of salt
salmon was concerned, until a later date.
On September 23rd the Board, after full consideration of the information received from
the Canadian Government Trade Commissioner at Tokyo and other sources as to market
conditions in Japan, determined that the total marketable quantity of dry-salt salmon for the
1936 season should be 31,950 boxes of all varieties; i.e., chums, springs, etc. The Board,
having been advised by the Provincial Department of Fisheries that thirty producers had
been licensed (thirty-one in 1935), proceeded at this date to determine the individual marketable quantities covering the thirty Provincial licensees.
The difficulties experienced by the Board in arriving at equitable marketable quantities
for each producer will be fully realized, when it is pointed out that prior to the Board exercising
marketing control over dry-salt salmon there were only about fifteen producers licensed each
season. The fact that market conditions were unfavourable did not, of course, tend to assuage
the problem. Following lengthy consideration, it was determined to obtain the past performance of each producer over a period of years from the official records of the Federal Department R 76 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
of Fisheries. These particulars were obtained and the average of a two- or three-year
performance taken as the basis of arriving at individual marketable quantities. New licence-
holders—i.e., those holding Provincial salmon dry-saltery licences for the first time in 1936
(of whom there were six)—were placed in a separate category.
Following the announcement of the Board's determination of individual marketable
quantities, several producers- expressed themselves as being dissatisfied. It was, however,
pointed out by the Board that the basis of arriving at marketable quantities was, in so far as
the Board could ascertain, the most equitable one for all concerned. Resulting from the
voluntary co-operation of one or two packers, certain adjustments were made, as a consequence
of which the producers in the main were satisfied that the Board had, to the best of its ability,
determined in a fair manner the individual marketable quantities.
An attempt was made to have instituted a form of Government inspection as to the
merchantable quality of dry-salt salmon; that is to say, inspection prior to shipment. The
Federal Department of Fisheries was approached on this question and the Board was advised
that the Department would co-operate in every way possible. It developed, however, that the
season had progressed too far to put the necessary regulations into effect for the 1936 season,
and consequently this proposal was left in abeyance. It is considered highly desirable for
the protection of producers and shippers that a form of Government inspection be enforced.
Experience has shown that certain buyers in Japan are inclined to make claims as to the
quality of the fish on arrival in the Orient. In certain instances it is felt that these claims are
not justified, the sole purpose being to force down the price of the product. With the furnishing of a Government certificate stating that the goods had been inspected and had been found
to be in good, sound, merchantable condition prior to shipment, it would, in the Board's opinion,
tend to eliminate false claims. It is anticipated that prior to next season an inspection system
will be established.
Under the authority of subsection (1) of section 6 of the Scheme, the Local Board on
September 30th designated the following companies as its marketing agencies:—
Dry-salt Salmon.—Messrs. Salt Salmon Exporters of B.C., Limited, 217 Dunlevy Avenue,
Vancouver, B.C.; Messrs. Producers' Salt Fish Sales, Limited, 355 Burrard Street, Vancouver,
B.C.
Dry-salt Herring.—Messrs. Canadian Salt Herring Exporters, Limited, 217 Dunlevy
Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.; Messrs. Producers' Salt Fish Sales, Limited, 355 Burrard Street,
Vancouver, B.C.
The Board also determined that the terms of sale covering dry-salt salmon should be on
consignment, with a minimum guaranteed advance to the producer covered by irrevocable
letters of credit without recourse. Also, that the terms of sale should be on the basis of not
less than 440 lb. net weight (fish and salt)  per box.
After conferring with their respective producers the marketing agencies reported to the
Board that the following minimum guaranteed advances had been agreed upon: —
Dry-salt Chum Salmon.—Fraser River, $12.50 U.S. funds, c.i.f. Yokohama, per box of not
less than 440 lb. net shipping weight (fish and salt) ; Island, $10 U.S. funds, c.i.f. Yokohama,
per box of not less than 440 lb. net shipping weight (fish and salt) ; Queen Charlotte, $9.59
U.S. funds, c.i.f. Yokohama, per box of not less than 440 lb. net shipping weight (fish and salt).
All other Varieties.—$8 U.S. funds, c.i.f. Yokohama, per box of not less than 440 lb. net
shipping weight (fish and salt).
During the 1935 season the minimum guaranteed advances received by the producer were:
Fraser River, $15 per box; Island, $13; and Queen Charlotte, $12.50. The marketing agencies
reported, however, that in view of market conditions in Japan it was impossible to persuade
the buyers to advance more than the prices listed above for the 1936 pack. Indications from
Japan are, however, that fair selling conditions were experienced and it is believed that most
producers received a return of from 50 cents to $1 per box over the minimum guaranteed
advance.
Dry-salted chum salmon is the most important species as far as the Japanese market is
concerned, with the other varieties, such as springs, pinks, sockeye, and cohoe, being in limited
demand. After a rather slow beginning at the commencement of the season, due entirely
to the reluctance of the buyers to meet the minimum guaranteed advances, the marketing
agencies were successful in effecting contracts for the entire production.    The heaviest move- ANNUAL REPORT, B.C. SALT-FISH BOARD. R 77
ment of the product took place during the month of November, it being necessary to have the
goods arrive in Japan not later than December 15th in order to ensure a favourable market.
The run of chum salmon in British Columbia waters last fall was exceptionally good, both
as to quality and quantity. Had the domestic pack in Japan not been so large, it would have
permitted the marketing of a much larger quantity of British Columbia salmon. It is, however,
the considered opinion of those having full knowledge of the Japanese market that a total of
35,000 boxes is the maximum which can be absorbed of our product. It must be remembered
that while Japan is a large consumer of fish, our product is consumed almost entirely during
the festival season; i.e., Christmas and New Year's. Consequently, with the large Japanese
production of salt salmon, it meant that if British Columbia producers were to obtain a reasonable price it would be necessary to market a lesser quantity, otherwise prices would have fallen
far below an economic level.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
As stated in the last Annual Report of the Board, the British Columbia production of
dry-salt herring is consumed entirely in the Orient—the three main distributing territories
being Kobe, Japan; Shanghai, China, and Hong Kong. It has been the aim of the Local
Board to establish, through its marketing agencies, the system of en bloc sales. In the 1935-36
season the marketing agencies were successful in consummating such a scheme with a group
of buyers in Kobe who purchased a total of 10,000 tons. Attempts to effect the same arrangement with the Shanghai and Hong Kong territories were unsuccessful, due to the chaotic
conditions obtaining in China. In the 1936-37 season the Board's efforts were more successful,
in that the marketing agencies were able to effect en bloc sales to all three territories as
follows:—■
Tons.
Kobe   10,000
Shanghai      6,500
Hong Kong     2,400
Total  18,900
The marketing of entire quantities as noted above on an outright sale basis has never
before been accomplished in the history of the British Columbia dry-salt herring industry.
The above quantities were all covered by irrevocable letters of credit without recourse established in Vancouver banks. The amounts covered by these letters of credit were: Kobe,
$288,950;   Shanghai, $191,700;   and Hong Kong, $72,720;   a total of $553,370.
In determining the total marketable quantity of dry-salt herring for the current season
the Board secured from the Canadian Government Trade Commissioners at Kobe, Shanghai,
and Hong Kong estimates as to what volume their respective territories could handle. Based
on the information received from the Trade Commissioners, the Board determined, on October
1st, the following marketable quantities:—
Tons.
Kobe  10,000
Shanghai      6,500
Hong Kong ■_    4,500
Total  21,000
Eighteen producers were licensed by the Provincial Government this season to produce
dry-salt herring. Five of these licences were held by producers having plants located on the
west coast of Vancouver Island, the remaining thirteen being located on the east coast. It
developed, however, that four of the west-coast operators transferred their operations to the
east coast, while one east-coast producer transferred to the west coast, thus making sixteen
operators on the east coast and two on the west coast.
Two holders of Provincial herring dry-saltery licences were new operators (one east coast
and one west coast), the remaining sixteen operators having been consistent producers of dry-
salt herring. The Board determined that the sixteen consistent producers should be permitted
to market an equal proportion of the total marketable quantity, with the new plants marketing
the minimum quantity determined by the Board. This arrangement worked out to the satisfaction of all concerned, with the exception of the one new operator on the east coast who R 78 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
complained of the marketable quantity allocated to him. It was pointed out by the Board that
the marketable, quantities had been arrived at on an equitable basis; i.e., the ability of those
operators to produce. The operator who complained had neither the plant nor the equipment
to produce dry-salt herring and would have been compelled in any event to join forces with
another operator to produce his marketable quantity.
In connection with the marketable quantity for the Kobe territory—namely, 10,000 tons—
two groups of buyers were in touch with the marketing agencies for the purchase of the
tonnage. For the Kobe market the marketing agencies had decided upon the following
schedule of monthly shipments and prices on an en bloc basis:—
October  600 tons at $35.00 per ton.
November   2,000 tons at  32.50 per ton.
December  2,700 tons at  29.50 per ton.
January   2,800 tons at  26.50 per ton.
February   1,400 tons at  26.50 per ton.
March  500 tons at   24.00 per ton.
The average price per ton on 10,000 tons was $28.89% c.i.f. Kobe.
It is perhaps well at this point to mention the keenness displayed by the two groups of
buyers for the Kobe territory. Messrs. Kobe Salt Herring Importers' Association (the group
who purchased the 10,000 tons in the 1935—36 season) sent two of its representatives to Vancouver for the purpose of ensuring their participation in the business. The other Kobe group
sent a representative from their Seattle office. Both groups were prepared to contract with
the marketing agencies at the announced prices, but due to one of the buyers desiring to
incorporate certain ambiguous clauses and conditions in the sales contract it was decided,
in the interests of the producers, that the contract offered could not be accepted. Accordingly,
a contract was entered into with Messrs. Kobe Salt Herring Importers' Association by the
marketing agencies for the 10,000 tons for the Kobe territory. Messrs. Kobe Salt Herring
Importers' Association established irrevocable letters of credit for the entire amount of
$288,950 without delay, and shipments went forward regularly.
The marketing agencies had advised the buyers in Shanghai of the terms and conditions
of sale, which were as follows:—
October      400 tons at $36.00 per ton.
November  1,200 tons at   33.00 per ton.
December  2,000 tons at   30.00 per ton.
January  1,700 tons at   27.00 per ton.
February    1,200 tons at   26.50 per ton.
Total   6,500 at average price per ton
c.i.f. Shanghai, $29.49.
Following lengthy negotiations between the marketing agencies and the Shanghai
importers, on October 23rd it was reported to the Board that two of the Shanghai buyers had
purchased, on joint account, the total quantity of 6,500 tons and that irrevocable letters of credit
totalling $191,700 had been established.
During this time the marketing agencies had been in communication with the Hong Kong
buyers in an effort to get them to purchase the quantity allocated for their territory—namely,
4,500 tons. Hong Kong, unfortunately, is the most difficult market of the three distributing
centres, the importers there endeavouring at all times to force matters into their own hands.
After further consultation by cable with the Canadian Trade Commissioner, it became increasingly evident that it was going to be impossible to market the entire tonnage of 4,500 tons.
In view of this and considering it extremely advisable to protect the producers from having
distress cargo, and also taking into consideration the matter of jeopardizing the marketing
arrangements with Kobe and Shanghai territories, the Board on October 31st advised all
producers of the situation, stating that under the circumstances it had been found necessary
to reduce the total marketable quantity of 21,000 tons by 7 per cent. This meant that the
Hong Kong allotment was reduced to 3,030 tons. The marketing agencies reported that the
best that could be done with Hong Kong was a total of 2,400 tons.    After again reviewing the ANNUAL REPORT, B.C. SALT-FISH BOARD. R 79
situation, the Board determined that it was necessary to reduce the total marketable quantity
by another 3 per cent., making a total reduction of 10 per cent. As a result the marketing
agencies were successful in effecting the sale of 2,400 tons to the Hong Kong territory, as per
the following schedule:—
November      400 tons at $33.50 per ton.
December      800 tons at   31.00 per ton.
January      800 tons at   29.40 per ton.
February      400 tons at   27.50 per ton.
Total  2,400 tons at average price c.i.f.
Hong Kong, $30.30.
As in the case of the other two markets, the Hong Kong buyers established irrevocable
letters of credit amounting to $72,720 covering the above quantities.
In order that all producers would participate equally in the sales effected by the marketing
agencies, the Local Board determined that a monthly pooling arrangement should be entered
into. The mechanics of this pooling arrangement were that for the three distributing centres
each producer would receive monthly shipping orders from the marketing agencies on a pro
rata basis, according to his relationship to the total marketable quantity. If a producer in
a given month was not in a position to fulfil the shipping orders given him by the marketing
agencies he forfeited his share for that month. This arrangement worked out to the satisfaction of all concerned, the producers expressing themselves as being pleased with the Board's
innovation.
One important point which was established, during the season under review, was the
lessening of the price spread between shipments. In the past it developed that high prices were
paid for early shipments in October, whereas November shipments dropped as much as $18
per ton, with a corresponding reduction in price for later shipments. During the 1936-37
season it will be noted that the spread was gradual, the intention being to average out the price
over the season in a more equitable manner.
SUMMARY.
The purpose of the Board since its inception has been to obtain an increased return for the
products to the producer, coupled with orderly marketing. Conditions obtaining in the British
Columbia salt-fish industry prior to the formation of the Board have been covered in previous
reports. Suffice it to say that the practice in vogue prior to the establishment of the Board
was to ship on consignment. Naturally, consignment shipments were not conducive to a fair
return to the producer.
With respect to dry-salt herring, the Board in its first season of operation adopted the
policy of having established irrevocable letters of credit prior to shipment. The following
average c.i.f. prices per ton for dry-salt herring for the past ten years bear out the contention
that the Board has been successful in gradually increasing the return to the producer. The
last three years of the table cover the years of the Board's operations.
Average Price Average Price
Year. per Ton. Year per Ton.
1927   $28.31 1932   $15.85
1928   27.80 1933   19.85
1929   27.03 1934   27.11
1930   23.85 1935   28.45
1931   19.70 1936   29.28
In the case of dry-salt salmon the situation is a little different, in that owing to the fact
that dry-salt salmon is exported exclusively to Japan it has not been possible to bring about
the elimination entirely of consignment shipments. The Board, however, pursued the policy
of making it a condition of sale by the marketing agencies that a minimum guaranteed advance
per box, equal, so far as possible, to the value of the product, was established by irrevocable
letters of credit.    The following figures covering dry-salt salmon for the past six years indicate R 80
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
the success of the Board's efforts in obtaining a higher minimum guaranteed advance to the
producer:—
Year.
Fraser River
Quality.
Island
Quality.
Queen Charlotte
Quality.
1931	
$15.50
6.50
6.50
13.00
15.00
12.50
$11.00
5.50
6.00
12.00
13.00
10.00
$10.00
5 50
1932                  _
1933   	
1934     '	
10.00
1935                     	
1936   	
It is noted in the above table that the minimum guaranteed advance per box for 1936 was
not equal to that of 1935. This is caused, as mentioned earlier in this report, by the unusual
quantity of salt salmon available in Japan from that country's own production. In the first
year of the Board's operation, 1934, the season was too far advanced by the time the Board
came into existence to endeavour to regulate the marketing of dry-salt salmon.
The work of the Board was carried on in the most amicable manner, the members at all
times devoting their energy and time to the furtherance of the interests of the producers.
A total of twenty-three meetings was held by the Board during the season under review.
In closing this report, it is considered proper to incorporate a few words as to the future.
The Canadian Government Trade Commissioners in the Orient have all advised that they
strongly recommend the continuance of regulation by some competent authority. The buyers
in the Orient have also expressed the hope that the regulation of the products will be continued.
Certainly, the confidence which has been built up during the past three years with the buyers
of British Columbia salt fish would seem to be worth maintaining. In addition, the majority
of the salt-fish packers have stated their desire for continuation of regulated marketing of the
products.
The tolls levied by the Board during the season under review were the same as the previous
season—namely, 10 cents per box on dry-salt salmon and 8 cents per box on dry-salt herring,
equal to 40 cents per ton for each of the regulated products.
Respectfully submitted.
BRITISH COLUMBIA SALT-FISH BOARD.
Hugh Dalton, Chairman.
A. J. Blackwell, Member.
K. Kimura, Member.
G. Crawford, Member.
R. Suzumoto, Member.
G. R. Clark,
Secretary. ' PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON.
R 81
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1936.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoes.
Pinks.
Chums.
Grand Total
(Cases).
184,854
85
28,5621/2
81,973
46,351
12,788
27,499
32,6961/2
15,126
227
2,167
4,551 y2
5811/2
30
496
33
19
42
28,716
19,920
11,842
25,390
7,1221,2
310
45,824
90,6251/2
31,565
69,304
20,6201/2
15,2971/2
11,505
1,653
99,592
347,951
260,261
178,891
139,5751/2
218,634
72,0111/2
14,888
420,496
559,7461/2
89,355
75,8871/.
91,389
6,4321/2
65
246,378
82,0281/2
Rivers Inlet —
Smith Inlet	
830             373
6,340    1       105
Totals  	
414,809
29,853
1,068
229,750
591,5351/2
597,488
1,864,5031/2
In addition to the above table, 216 cases of Alaska sockeye and 16,316 cases of Alaska cohoes were packed at
canneries in British Columbia.
29,516 cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table.
In the above table, 23,153 cases of sockeye caught in Johnstone Strait are credited to the Fraser River. Prior to
1936 they were shown in the Vancouver Island District pack.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1921 TO 1936, INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
Sockeyes. -	
Springs, Red _. - - —	
Springs, "White— - 	
184,854
6,675
8,451
31,565
28,716
62,822
4,205
5,196
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
5,150
11,068
104,092
2,199
11,392
52,465
5,579
65,769
18,298
10,403
14,948
385
16,815
23
40,947
9,740
103,692
11,366
9,761
68,946
30,754
25,585
27,879
61,569
3,305
6,699
34,391
92,746
13,901
251
13,307
8,165
657
144,159
158,208
Cohoes  —- —	
40,520
12,013
Totals - -
260,261
213,728
273,139
199,082
126,641
73,067
277,983
426,473
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
29,299
1,173
3,909
193,106
2,881
27,061
795
61,393
7,925
10,528
67,259
102,536
24,079
10,658
85,689
12,783
20,169
88,495
32,256
21,783
13,776
35,385
7,989
25,701
66,111
99,800
36,717
5,152
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
31,655
3,854
4,279
103,248
63,645
20,173
15
51,832
10,561
6,300
17,895
29,578
23,587
817
39,631
11,360
Springs, White  — —
Chums  - -
5,949
11,233
8,178
29,978
1,331
Totals         	
258,224
284,378
274,951
276,855
212,059
226,869
140,570
107,650 R 82
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1921 TO 1936, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Skeena River.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
Sockeyes	
Springs.	
Chums	
Pinks    	
81,973
4,5511
15,2974
91,389
25,390
33
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
126,163
54,456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
9,857
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
58
78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
Steelhead Trout  -
13
Totals	
218,634
170,420
284,096
185,463
233,711
162,986
450,377
220,245
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
Sockeyes 	
Springs.	
34,559
6,420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
83,996
19,038
19,006
38,768
26,326
582
82,360
30,594
63,527
210,081
30,208
754
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
39,168
713
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
131,731
12,247
16,527
145,973
31,967
418
96,277
14,176
39,758
301,655
24,699
1,050
41,018
21,766
1,993
Pinks	
Cohoes 	
Steelhead Trout	
124,457
45,033
498
Totals   -
298,709
187,716
407,524
348,859
390,858
338,863
477,915
234,765
Rivers Inlet.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
46,351
581J
11,505
6,4321
7,1221
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
433
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
325
429
5,089
6,571
32
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
Springs 	
342
989
Pinks        	
2,386
Cohoes 	
Steelhead Trout	
1,120
29
Totals     .
72,0111
155,571
86,000
93,220
81,709
88,874
138,980
75,126
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
Sockeyes  	
Springs  	
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
868
7
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
65,581
685
11,727
12,815
7,286
11
192,323*
496
11,510
8,625
4,946
94,891
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
116,850
599
3,242
10,057
1,526
53,584
323
311
24,292
1,120
82
48,615
364
173
Pinks..   	
5,303
4,718
97
Steelhead Trout	
Totals—	
81,527
69,773
98,105
217,900
117,445
132,274
79,712
59,272
* Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu. SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
R 83
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1921 TO 1936, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
Smith Inlet, 1926-36.*
* Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other Districts.
Nass River.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
Sockeyes   - - 	
Springs, Red   	
12,788
2
28
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
214
2
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
37,369
354
25,488
46
2
273
1,148
165
20
12,867
122
Cohoes     	
Pinks	
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
5,068
19,995
8,841
87
112
824
133
Bluebacks and Steelheads 	
36
Totals  	
14,888
49,928
41,256
71,714
27,142
14,094
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
32,057
268
22
1,460
13,615
1,660
103
9,683
18
60
275
853
113
12
33,442
108
178
230
167
19
6
22,682
270
79
2,990
732
2,605
8
17,921
73
39
164
Pinks.  	
689
31
Totals        	
52,185
11,014
34,150
29,366
18,917
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
Sockeyes —
Springs.	
Chums  ,
Pinks	
Cohoes—- 	
Steelhead Trout                	
28,5621
2,167
20,6201
75,8871
11,842
496
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
651
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
9,757
1,296
1,775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
1,439
392
5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,123
84
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
Totals     	
139,5751
78,214
75,213
60,434
85,671
32,881
113,460
29,185
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
Sockeyes - -	
Springs          —	
5,540
1,846
3,538
83,183
10,734
36
12,026
3,824
3,307
16,609
3,966
96
15,929
5,964
15,392
50,815
4,274
375
18,945
3,757
22,504
35,530
8,027
245
33,590
2,725
26,612
72,496
6,481
1,035
17,821
3,314
25,791
44,165
7,894
595
31,277
2,062
11,277
75,687
3,533
235
9,364
2,088
2,176
Pinks- 	
Cohoes 	
Steelhead Trout     	
29,488
8,236
413
Totals	
104,877
39,828
92,749
89,008
142,939
99,580
124,071
51,765 R 84
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1921 TO 1936, INCLUSIVE—Contd.
-Vancouver Island District, 1927-36.
1936.
1935!
1934. .
1933.
1932.
32,696}
6,340
347,951
82,0281
90,625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
18,397
4,875
96,642
172,945
60,019
147
27,611
Springs    ...   	
10,559
70,629
Pinks     	
33 403
35,132
28,596
Totals   -	
559,746
469,427
372,347
353,025
205,930
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
22,199
4,055
16,329
81,965
26,310
24,638
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1,645
162,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
14,248
2,269
303,474
41,885
23,345
5,249
24,835
Springs     —   	
6,769
220,270
Pinks   	
52,561
58,834
10,194
175,541
340,395
294,854
390,470
373,463
Queen Charlotte and other Districts.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
27,584
1,057
168,896
335,733
65,744
373
32,417
750
212,251
95,669
47,292
355
20,438
2,374
155,371
210,734
62,165
733
26,106
4,416
135,590
101,701
33,471
827
21,685
3,514
167,011
82,449
44,977
591
29,071
1,608
34,570
55,825
16,141
466
39,198
1,852
143,781
600,986
61,418
1,204
35,331
1,020
111,263
136,758
56,938
575
599,387
388,734
451,815
302,111
320,227
137,661
848,439
341,873
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
Sockeyes. 	
Springs  -	
Chums 	
59,852
2,806
341,802
438,298
58,455
609
60,533
7,826
252,230
36,481
47,433
973
62,383*
3,650
348,682
380,243
47,183
973
49,962
5,002
305,256
120,747
40,269
1,520
40,926
4,245
195,357
141,878
26,031
497
24,584
2,711
148,727
146,943
29,142
732
47,107
4,988
80,485
113,824
31,331
409
18,350
4,995
21,412
14,818
Cohoes   	
Steelheads-	
18,203
2,790
Totals  -.
901,822
405,476
844,114
522,756
408,934
352,839
278,144
80,568
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet. SOCKEYE-PACK OF ENTIRE FRASER RIVER SYSTEM.
R 85
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE, BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1921 TO 1936, INCLUSIVE—Cont'd.
Total Packed by Districts in 1921 to 1936, inclusive.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
Fraser  	
260,261
218,634
72,0111
14,888
139,5751
559,7461
599,387
216,728
170,420
155,571
49,928
78,214
469,427
388,734
273,139
284,096
86,000
41,256
75,213
372,347
451,815
199,082
185,463
93,220
71,714
60,434
353,025
302,111
126,641
233,711
81,709
27,142
85,671
205,930
320,227
73,067
162,986
88,874
14,094
32,881
175,541
137,661
277,983
450,377
138,980
52,185
113,460
340,395
848,439
426,473
220,245
75,126
11,014
Smith Inlet	
Nass River— -	
29,185
294,854
Other Districts  _ 	
341,873
1,864,50311,529,022
1,583,866
1,265,049
1,081,031
685,104
2,221,819
1,398,770
1928.
1927.
1926.    1     1925.
1
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
258,224
298,709
81,527
34,150
104,877
390,470
901,822
284,378
187,716
69,773
29,366
39,828
373,463
405,473
274,951
407,524
98,105
18,917
92,749
3.47,722
844,139*
276,855
348,859
217,900
33,998
89,008
263,904
522,756
212,059
390,858
117,445
11,776
142,939
277,267
604,745
226,869
338,863
132,274
11,979
99,580
191,252
352,839
140,570
477,915
79,712
5,862
124,071
185,524
278,144
107,650
234,765
59,272
Smith Inlet    	
Nass River- 	
Vancouver Island -  	
51,765
69,528
80,568
2,035,629
1,360,634
2,065,190
1,719,282
1,745,213
1,341,677
1,285,946
603,548
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet.
STATEMENT  SHOWING THE  SOCKEYE-PACK  OF THE  ENTIRE
FRASER RIVER SYSTEM FROM 1894 TO 1936, INCLUSIVE.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
363,967
41,781
395,984
65,143
356,984
72,979
860,459
312,048
240,000
252,000
486,409
499,646
170,889
228,704
974,911
1,105,096
293,477
State of Washington
339,556
Totals 	
405,748
401,127
429,963
1,172,507
492,000
986,055
399,593
2,080,007
633,033
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
1910.
1911.
Fraser River, B.C.	
State of Washington	
204,809
167,211
72,688
123,419
837,489
837,122
183,007
182,241
59,815
96,974
74,574
170,951
585,435
1,097,904
150,432
248,014
58,487
127,761
Totals 	
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
186,248
1912.
1913.
1914.
1015.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
123,879
184,680
719,796
1,673,099
198,183
335,230
91,130
64,584
32,146
84,637
148,164
411,538
19,597
50,723
38,854
64,364
48,399
State of Washington	
62,654
Totals .-	
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
103,200
111,053
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
Fraser River, B.C.	
State of Washington	
39,631
102,967
51,832
48,566
31,655
47,402
39,743
69,369
35,385
112,023
85,689
44,673
61,393
97,594
29,299
61,044
61,569
111,898
Totals  	
142,598
100,398
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
158,987
90,343
173,464
1930.
1931.
1932.
.1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
1
1
Fraser River, B.C	
State of Washington
103,692
352,194
40,947
87,211
65,769
81,188
52,465
126,604
139,238
. 352,579
62,822
54,677
184,854
59,505
|
1
455,886
128,158
146,957
179,069
491,817
117,499
244,359
  I	 R 86
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1936.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1921 TO 1936, INCLUSIVE.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28,5621
34,4301
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
27,611
21,685
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
61,569
78,017
Rivers Inlet	
Smith Inlet                  	
70,260
9,683
Nass River  	
16,077
10,340
35,331
Totals  --	
414,809
350,444
377,844
258,107
284,355
291,464
477,678
281,277
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
29,299
34,559
60,044
33,442
5,540
14,248
26,410
61,393
83,996
65,239
22,682
12,026
24,835
37,851
85,689
82,360
65,581
17,921
15,929
25,070
44,462
35,385
81,146
192,323
33,764
18,945
14,757
16,198
39,743
144,747
94,891
11,435
33,590
15,618
20,579
31,655
131,731
116,850
11,864
17,821
12,006
12,720
51,832
96,277
53,584
39,631
Skeena River   ;  -
41,018
48,615
Smith Inlet      	
31,277
15,147
47,107
9,364
6,936
Other Districts —
18,350
Totals- - -
203,542
308,052
337,012
392,518
369,603
334,647
295,224
163,914
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the year
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PILCHARD INDUSTRY OF THE
PROVINCE, 1920 TO 1936, INCLUSIVE.
Year.
Total Catch.
Canned.
Used in
Reduction.
Oil.
Meal.
Bait.
1920
Cwt.
88,050
19,737
20,342
19,492
27,485
318,973
969,958
1,368,582
1,610,252
1,726,851
1,601,404
1,472,085
886,964
120,999
860,103
911,411
889,037
Cases.
91,929
16,091
19,186
17,195
14,898
37,182
26,731
68,501
65,097
98,821
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
Cwt.
Gals.
Tons.
Bbls.
9,937
1921  	
4,232
1922 -  -	
3,125
1923	
3,625
1924
923
1925	
220,000
940,000
1,310,000
1,560,000
1,654,575
1,438,840
1,456,846
876,700
119,545
845,849
896,586
495,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
3,997,656
.     2,856,579
3,204,058
2,551,914
1,315,864
275,879
1,635,123
1,634,592
1,271,144
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,823
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,561
4,045
1926	
2,950
1927-.-	
1928	
1,737
2,149
1929  .-	
1930 -..- -	
1931 	
1932	
1,538
926
1,552
1,603
20
40
521
1933. _	
1934 	
1935 	
1936   	
580 PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL.
R 87
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, 1920 TO 1936  (OTHER
THAN FROM PILCHARD).
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Year.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
.    Oil.
1920 	
Tons.
503
326
485
292
347
340
345
376
417
273
249
340
211
332
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
666
651
754
780
581
223
631
354
687
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,626
3,335
5,647
6,608
5,583
5,028
7,509
13,197
Gals.
55,669
1921 	
44,700
1922  	
1923	
1924	
283,314
706,514
645,657
556,939
468,203
437,967
571,914
712,597
525,533
75,461
180,318
241,376
1925 	
1926                 	
354,853
217,150
1927                	
250,811
1928 	
1929  -	
1930	
387,276
459,575-
243,009
1931  	
352,492
1932  	
231,690
1933                       	
509,310
813,724
426,772
763,740
497,643
1934   	
1935     	
441,735
588,629
1936	
1,143,206
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937.
1,525-737-7055 

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