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BC Sessional Papers

PART F ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR THE YEAR ENDED… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1937]

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 PAET F
ANNUAL REPORT
OF  THE
MINISTEE OF MINES
OF   THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FOR  THE
Yeab Ended 31st December
1936
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY  OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937. BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Hon. George S. Pearson, Minister.
John F. Walker, Deputy Minister and Provincial Mineralogist.
James Dickson, Chief Inspector of Mines.
D. E. Whittaker, Provincial Assayer and Analyst.
P. B. FREELAND, Chief Mining Engineer.
R. J. Steenson, Chief Gold Commissioner. Home Cold Mining Co., Ltd.      Mill, Coquihalla Area.
Herbert Arm, Vancouver Island. ^mmm^^^^mmmimsm WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6). F 3
PART F.
WESTERN MINERAL SURVEY DISTRICT (No. 6).
BY
B. T. O'Grady.
GENERAL SUMMARY.
During 1936 one of the most important features in this district was the return to capacity
production by Britannia Mining and Smelting Company at their Howe Sound property. Other
operations, such as Pioneer and Bralorne, maintained production, and generally there was no
important change in the scope of mining activity in the Western Mineral Survey District.
Prospecting and investigation of dormant properties has latterly been stimulated by the
increase in the prices of base metals, notably copper, and new undertakings are expected to
result. Prospecting and development generally has been carried on actively throughout the
district.
Production was initiated at the property of the Ashloo Gold Mines, Limited, near Squamish
during the latter part of the year.
LODE-GOLD DEPOSITS.
Minto City Vicinity.
Bridge River Camp.
The property of this company, in the Lillooet Mining Division, includes the
Minto Gold      Alpha and Omega groups, consisting of fifteen surveyed mineral claims and
Mines, Ltd.      fractions held by location.    These holdings, which extend northerly and
southerly across Bridge River, are shown on B.C. Department of Lands
Mineral Reference Map No. 21T269.    The principal workings, on the Omega No. 1 claim, are
situated on the open, steep, sparsely-wooded ground sloping southerly to the river.    Elevations
in this area vary from 2,010 at the River adit to 2,531 feet at the highest open-cut.    The mine
and mill adjoin the highway to the north at a point about 34 miles from Bridge River Station
on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
The deposits are enclosed within the Bridge River series, the Minto ground being largely
underlain by sedimentary rocks, chiefly argillites and cherty quartzites, intercalated with
greenstones. The general trend of the rocks is northerly to north-westerly, rock-structures
being complex. Cutting the series there are several dykes, striking northerly with steep dips,
types noted including feldspar porphyry, andesite porphyry, and a highly-altered, fine-grained,
slightly porphyritic basic variety. The Minto dyke, considered to have had an important
structural influence on the localization of ore-shoots, is a dark, fine-grained, altered intrusive
up to 20 feet wide.
Mineralization, consisting of arsenopyrite, pyrite, stibnite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena,
and occasional chalcopyrite, is associated with quartz and calcite and, in places, conspicuous
green chlorite. The deposits occur in a fault-Assure chiefly in the sedimentary rocks along the
foot-wall of the Minto dyke. The fissure strikes about north and dips 75 to 80 degrees east.
The principal values are in gold with minor amounts of silver. Where the fissure trends away
from the dyke it has been less regular and mineralization has not been as strong, the productive
sections of the fissure having been found in the part contiguous to the dyke which forms a
clean hanging-wall to the ore-shoots. The foot-wall is less definite, stoping-widths, generally
varying from 3 to 5 feet, being determined by assay-widths. Greenstone lies immediately to
the west of the sediments, as exposed in crosscuts, but is entered by the fissure at a few points
as at the inner extremity of the uppermost or Warren adit and towards the northern faces of
the two deepest levels. At the two latter horizons the greenstone is more or less leached and
carbonatized and slightly mineralized.
Little work had been done on the property prior to 1930. At that time it was owned by
W. A. Davidson and was being explored, under option, by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting F 4
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936. WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6).
Company of Canada. Work done by this company in 1931 included driving the River adit to a
point 350 feet in from the portal to the south fault and about 50 feet of crosscutting westerly
from a point beyond it. Subsequently the option was relinquished and in 1933 the property
was acquired by the present operators. A 50-ton mill was put into operation in 1934 and has
since been stepped up to a rated capacity of 125 tons. Past references to the property, under
Alpha group, are contained in the Report of the Minister of Mines for 1930, 1931, 1932, and
Bulletin No. 1, 1932, " Lode-gold Deposits of B.C.," and under " Minto Gold Mines " in the
Report of the Minister of Mines for 1933. The accompanying longitudinal section shows the
stoped areas as at the end of September, 1936.
Surface workings include two open-cuts in a northerly-trending ravine at elevations of
2,531 and 2,468 feet. These expose widths, up to 8 feet, of sheared weathered material,
including oxidized decomposed streaks against a sharply-defined hanging-wall formed by the
Minto dyke, which here dips at 80 degrees to the east. Immediately adjoining the lower
showing to the west a small patch of cherty quartzite is exposed. The vein, completely oxidized,
is partially exposed at the portal of the Warren adit, its relationship to the dyke being similar.
On the surface, chaining to east and west of the portal, a section of the exposed rocks is as
follows: Beyond the dyke going east there is soil to 33 feet; quartzite from 33 to 39 feet; the
rocks are covered by soil and boulders from 39 to 71 feet; greenstone from 71 to 85 feet;
quartzite from 85 to 99 feet; highly-altered, fine-grained, slightly porphyritic dyke from 99 to
104 feet; and finally quartzites from 104 to 124 feet to where the formation is again covered.
A specimen from an outcrop of medium-grained crystalline rock, containing abundant biotite,
up the hill from, and a short distance to the north of, the section 71 to 86 feet was examined
microscopically. It was found to be composed of a mosaic of quartz grains and contained
abundant biotite as flaky aggregates and laths of fair size. In the former case the biotite was
often associated with a tabular to fibrous amphibole, probably anthophyllite, which was abundant in the section. A few fresh crystals of oligoclase were present and minor amounts of
yellowish apatite and chlorite.
The underground workings comprise a total footage of over 7,000 feet distributed in five
levels, the upper four of which were formerly known as the Warren, Hagmo, Main, and River
adits, at respective elevations of 2,386.13, 2,275.91, 2,091.55, and 2,010 feet. From top to bottom
these have been renamed 100, 200, 300, and 400 levels, and the new deepest working, reached
by winze from the 400 adit, is known as the 500 level at 1,875 feet elevation. The 100 adit,
510 feet long and containing three crosscuts aggregating 45 lineal feet, is a drift north on the
vein and dyke up to a point 27 feet back from the face where both are cut off by a pronounced
fault striking north 73 degrees west and dipping north-easterly at 55 degrees as exposed in
the eastern wall of the drift. On the western wall the fault dips easterly at a flat angle, being
dragged around to another fault-plane, marked by gouge, which strikes north 6 degrees west
and dips easterly at 75 degrees. South of the first fault the vein-fissure is in greenstone, but
immediately north of it argillaceous quartzite is exposed along the eastern wall of the drift.
In the 5-foot length between the second fault and the face, normal greenstone is exposed as
compared with the highly-altered, buff-coloured greenstone to the south of the southern fault.
Paralleling the strike of the northern fault, and 3 feet easterly from it, there is a vertical band,
from 16 to 18 inches wide, of quartz and calcite mineralized with pyrite. Two samples across
this showing, one in the eastern wall of the drift and the other in the back 4.5 feet southerly,
across the widths specified assayed respectively: Gold, 0.28 oz. per ton; silver, trace; and:
Gold, 0.26 oz. per ton; silver, 0.35 oz. per ton. A selected sample of this mineralization assayed:
Gold, 0.24 oz. per ton; silver, 0.4 oz. per ton. The 3-foot section of pyritized, sheared, altered
rock, containing numerous calcite-streaks, between the 16-inch sample and the northern fault,
assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton. A sample across the main vein, 5.5 feet
wide, just south of the southern fault, assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton.
The above-described faulted condition was not correlated in the deeper levels. The end of this
adit marks the approximate northern extremity of stoping done in the mine below. A limited
amount of exploration in this location might afford information bearing on the north end of the
mine on this and other levels. In the stoped area, about 235 feet in from the portal of the 100
level, another fault, striking east-west and dipping north at 49 degrees, causes a displacement
of 10 feet to the west going north along the drift. This fault is reported to continue to the 200
and 300 levels, causing similar displacements. F 6 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
The 200-level adit, driven northerly, is 1,160 feet long and contains crosscuts aggregating
300 lineal feet, the longest of which extends 120 feet east at a point 20 feet back from the face.
North of a point about 670 feet in from the portal, the workings on this level were in bad shape
for examination due to caving of the sheared ground and backing-up of water. Beyond the
northern end of the stoped area shown on the section conditions are indefinite, the altered
rocks being sheared along planes paralleling the general attitude of the fissure. Occasional
low assays are said to have been obtained for some distance north of the point specified.
The 300-level adit comprises about 2,000 lineal feet of workings, approximately half this
footage being distributed in crosscuts. The adit is driven north-westerly to the mineralized
fissure, the deposits being encountered on the north side of a strong post-mineral fault, known
as the south fault, which strikes north 75 degree west and dips northerly at about 50 degrees.
To the south of this fault the fissure has been displaced 250 feet to the east. Northerly from
the stoped section on the 300 level conditions are indefinite. The sheared ground has caved
in places and dammed up water, making examination difficult. The 400-level adit is driven
350 feet north on the fissure to the south fault. The fissure is strong and well mineralized in
places, the average gold values being low. In this 350-foot section the Minto dyke lies on one
or other wall or is split by the fissure. From a point north of the south fault a crosscut is
driven westerly to where the mineralized fissure is encountered on its projected dip below the
300 level, the same dyke forming the hanging-wall at this lower horizon as at other productive
points in the mine. The fissure is followed north from the fault, the first short drift being
extended in March, 1936. Values improved at a point about 46 feet north of the intersection
and, at the end of March, channel samples were taken by the writer at 5-foot intervals over a
length of 152 feet or to a point 198 feet from the crosscut. These gave an average assay of:
Gold, 1.66 oz. per ton across 4.9 feet, including a section 100 feet long, which assayed 2.09 oz.
gold per ton across 5.25 feet. At the end of September this drift had been advanced to a point
about 440 feet from the crosscut. Similar sulphide concentrations, separated by short sections
of light mineralization, persisted to a point 330 feet from the crosscut, over an average width
of over 5 feet. The dyke and vein relationships are normal throughout the above drift section,
but towards the face the mineralized fissure, splitting the dyke, narrowed to 1 foot in width.
Southerly from the crosscut the drift was extended back about 50 feet to the south fault. As
shown on the section, a winze was sunk 143 feet on the dip of the fissure to the 500 level,
where the south fault was encountered. The heavy sulphide mineralization continued down
the winze to between 35 and 40 feet below the collar. The 500 level comprises about 400 lineal
feet of work, of which 350 feet consists of a drift north of the winze-bottom. In this working
the Minto dyke forms the hanging-wall of the mineralized fissure to a point about 50 feet back
from the face. The dyke is silicified and mineralized in places along the wall and in the first
60-foot section north of the winze, where it is partly included in the fissure as a " horse " up to
5 feet wide. In the 300-foot length specified mineralization is generally similar to the material
stoped above the 300 level with some sections of sulphide concentrations, no continuous showing
. of high-grade, as on the 400 level, having been encountered. In the last 50-foot section back
from the face, where the dyke is not in evidence, the fissure narrows and mineralization is
sparse. South of the winze-bottom the drift was extended through the south fault for about
45 feet and a raise put up to the 4001 level, connection being made with an existing raise from
the 400 to the 300 level, facilitating hoisting to the main working-adit leading to the mill.
A station was cut and preparations were being made for a working-shaft at the point
indicated on the illustration to be sunk below the 400 level and continued up as a raise to a
crosscut which extends about 440 feet north-easterly from the main or 300 level. The shaft
location is centrally situated for exploration on both sides of this fault at deeper horizons.
This company's Dauntless prospect, in the Lillooet Mining Division, is stated
Reward Mining  to consist of fifty-four mineral claims held by location, in which an option
Co., Ltd.        to a 75-^per-cent. interest was acquired early in 1936 by the Reward Mining
Company, Limited, from the Federal Gold Mines, Limited.    The holdings lie
to the north-east and east of the Minto property,  the  workings  examined being  on  the
Dauntless No. 2 claim, near its western boundary, which is located a few hundred feet east
of Mowson Lake.    This lake and the Minto property are shown on B.C. Department of Lands
mineral reference map 21t269, the area now occupied by the Dauntless No. 2 claim being indicated as the Peerless No. 2, under which name this ground was formerly held. The camp at 2,149 feet elevation, and workings at from 2,256 to 2,356 feet elevation, are
on the south-western side of a narrow valley occupied by a dry creek-bed which extends
south-easterly from the Mowson Lake vicinity to Bridge River at 2,000 feet (assumed elevation). The adit, and neighbouring camp on the Peerless claim, are connected by branch road,
1,800 feet in length, extending north-westerly from the highway at a point about 34 miles
from Bridge River Station on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. Backed by a low ridge
separating the Reward claims from the Minto property, the workings are situated on the
north-easterly slope, of about 25 degrees, to the valley-floor, at 2,200 feet elevation. Beyond
this depression the ground rises steeply to the north-east. The country is generally open,
the scattered trees consisting of pine and fir up to 18 inches in diameter. The overburden is
generally deep, or from 10 to 12 feet thick on the south-western side of the valley and up to
200 feet thick to the north-east. Outcrops are comparatively scarce and the deposits were
found by ground-sluicing following constructive and systematic prospecting of the local dyke
system.
The area is underlain by rocks of the Bridge River series, local exposures consisting of
quartzites, cherty in part, argillites, and intercalated greenstone. The formation, striking
north-westerly and dipping south-westerly from 65 to 75 degrees or vertical, is cut by
numerous dykes of felsite, feldspar porphyry, and quartz porphyry, from 10 to 100 feet in
width. Of these, a wide, northerly-striking feldspar-porphyry dyke cuts the sediments just
west of the workings.
The principal showing, being developed by the drift-adit, is in siliceous sediments which
include small irregular patches of altered greenstone. It is associated with a well-defined
shear-zone, 8 to 13.7 feet wide, striking north 52 degrees east, thus crossing the strike of the
formation at a wide angle. Dips are north-westerly at angles of from 80 to 87 degrees, the
hanging-wall fracture being marked by gouge from a seam to 2 inches thick. The adit is
driven south-westerly, in which direction the shearing should continue in sediments to the
Reward boundary, a little over 200 feet from the portal. About 100 feet north-easterly from
the portal it should enter a large body of greenstone, the company's holdings in this direction
being extensive. The writer's samples indicate low but consistent gold values over accessible
exposures from 8.5 to 13.7 feet wide. Within the hanging-wall and foot-wall fractures, which
have diverged in strike going south-westerly, the mineralization is made up of: (1) A band
along the foot-wall, 2.5 to 5 feet wide, consisting mainly of calcite with small amounts of
arsenopyrite, pyrite, and stibnite; and (2) irregular masses of altered greenstone and sediments, containing finely-disseminated pyrite and arsenopyrite, and intersected by numerous
streaks and veinlets, up to 2 inches wide, of quartz and calcite sparingly mineralized with the
same sulphides. The shear-zone in general carries a small proportion of metallic minerals,
the average percentage of stibnite being much smaller than in neighbouring mines. A polished
section of selected mineralization, examined under the microscope, consisted of arsenopyrite,
in a fine-grained crystalline form, disseminated, commonly in rough bands, through a quartz
gangue containing abundant minute needles of stibnite. This mineral also forms relatively
large irregular masses associated, in places, with a carbonate gangue-mineral. A few grains
of pyrite were noted. In the section examined the arsenopyrite-stibnite association is not, in
general, an intimate one and it is probable that a separation could be made. Fine crushing of
similar material would be necessary to release the sulphides from the gangue.
The property has no history of consequence, the deposits of interest being recent
discoveries.
Surface work on the shear-zone is limited to an exposure of oxidized siliceous material in
ground-sluicing done just above, and south-westerly from, the portal of the adit. This had
been driven 42 feet to September 29th, 1936, exposing the shear-zone over a width of from 8
feet at the portal to 13.7 feet at the face. Close timbering extended for a length of 22 feet
in from the portal, preventing sampling in this section, where, however, strong sulphide
mineralization is visible in places between the lagging. The face was sampled in three
sections, from foot to hanging wall, assays being as follows: (1.) Across 4.2 feet: Gold, 0.20
oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per.ton; arsenic, trace; antimony, trace. (2.) Across 4.5 feet:
Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton; arsenic, 0.2 per cent.; antimony, nil. (3.) Across
5 feet: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, trace; arsenic, 0.2 per cent.; antimony, nil.
At 33 feet in from the portal the vein was sampled in two sections, from foot to hanging F 8 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
wall, as follows: (1.) Across 31 inches: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, trace. (2.) Across
75 inches: Gold, 0.07 oz. per ton; silver, trace. A muck sample taken from the same place,
before the face had been advanced, assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, trace. At 22 feet
in from the portal, and at the end of the lagging, the vein was sampled in two sections, from
foot to hanging wall, as follows: (1.) Across 5.5 feet: Gold, 0.14 oz. per ton; silver, trace.
(2.) Across 3 feet: Gold, 0.26 oz. per ton; silver, trace. Selected mineralization from this
working assayed: Gold, 0.56 oz. per ton; silver, trace. The channel samples indicate that
low average gold values are contained throughout the exposed portion of the shear-zone.
While these are below commercial grade, they are of interest in view of the width and
apparent strength of the shear-zone and the possibility that better-grade material might be
encountered in further development. To explore the shear-zone north-east of the adit it will
be necessary to sink before drifting, due to the exceptionally heavy overburden in this
direction.
Other mineral occurrences, in quartzite, are as follows: At 2,326 feet elevation and 180
feet west of the adit-portal a showing has been traced for a length of 50 feet, of which 30 feet
has been stripped. This consists of a zone of quartz and calcite stringers, from 12 to 18
inches wide, associated with fracturing striking north 10 degrees east, with an easterly dip
of 75 degrees or vertical. A selected sample of the mineralization, which consists chiefly of
pyrite with occasional sphalerite, assayed: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, trace. The outcrop
is covered at both ends. Fifteen feet to the east a parallel, similar narrow occurrence, lightly
mineralized with pyrite, is exposed. At 2,356 feet elevation and 280 feet west of the adit-
portal, ground-sluicing has exposed a lenticular showing, up to 10 inches wide, of banded
quartz and calcide containing massive pyrite-streaks with occasional sphalerite and galena.
A sample across 6 inches assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace. The lens strikes north 10
degrees west, with a westerly dip of from 40 deg'rees to 50 degrees.
The property is equipped with a 2-drill compressor plant at the mine portal and camp
buildings include three small bunk-houses and a cook-house.
The property of this company, in the Lillooet Mining Division, consists of
Reliance Gold   eighteen mineral claims and fractions held by location, of which sixteen have
Mines, Ltd.      been surveyed.    The precise location of the Reliance group is shown on B.C.
Department of Lands Mineral Reference Map 21t269, on the southern side
of Bridge River opposite the S*ibni*e group, now Congress mine.    The wooded ground slopes
steeply to the river and the principal workings, at elevations varying from 2,175 to 3,655 feet,
are situated on a ridge trending north-north-west between Camp Creek to the west and a
small unnamed creek to the east.    The property is reached by a suspension bridge, recently
constructed by the company, and half a mile of road traversing the fiats (2,140 feet elevation)
north of the river and connecting with the highway at a point about 37 miles from Bridge River
Station on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.    The camp and compressor plant are situated
on the flat ground north of the river.
The Reliance group is in an area of the Bridge River series, consisting of greenstone and
sediments forming alternating, northerly-striking belts of varying width. In the case of the
Reliance no dykes were observed in the developed area, but there is said to be a feldspar-
porphyry dyke exposed in outcrops on the Ophir and Banker No. 5 claims at the south-eastern
corner of the property adjoining the 4,500-foot contour. The workings examined are at
widely separated points along the previously mentioned ridge, which is largely composed of
greenstone. This belt, which includes phases of purple volcanic rock bordering the sediments,
is about 1,400 feet wide near the river and 1,000 feet wide at the upper workings.
The deposits are associated with fracturing and shearing cutting the greenstone along
variable strikes and dips. In the Fergusson and Turner adits, described later, the strikes vary
from north 55 degrees east to north 80 degrees east, with north-westerly and northerly dips
of from 65 degrees to approximately vertical. At the uppermost workings strikes are from
south 40 degrees east to south 55 degrees east, with north-easterly dips of 80 degrees.
Adjoining fractures, the rocks are frequently silicified with, in places, an incipient development of the finely-mineralized ankeritic-carbonate alteration typical of the Congress deposits.
Stibnite is the most prominent mineral, occurring in streaks, disseminations, or narrow bands
in a siliceous gangue, frequently oxidized, with occasional quartz and calcite. The stibnite
vein-like occurrences are generally associated with the more indefinite type of mineralization WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6). F 9
consisting of fine specks of pyrite and occasional arsenopyrite either disseminated or in
minute seams. The writer's channel samples show generally less than 0.1 oz. gold per ton
over widths up to 5 feet, the assay in one case being 0.26 oz. gold per ton across 1.8 feet. Silver
values were from a trace to 0.2 oz. per ton. The largest stibnite-showing is 81 feet long and
varies in width from a seam to 6 inches, a selected sample assaying: Gold, trace; silver, trace;
antimony, 58.8 per cent.
The property is mentioned briefly in Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 130, " Geology
and Mineral Deposits of the Bridge River Map-area," published in 1922, and in the Report of
the Minister of Mines for 1933. In the latter year the company, a Washington incorporation,
was registered in British Columbia, and most of the development-work has been done since.
Among other improvements made during 1936, a Gardner-Denver compressor plant was
installed, an office and other small buildings were erected at the camp-site, and a suspension
bridge was constructed over the river.
Commencing at the uppermost workings and descending the steep ridge, conditions are
as follows: At 3,655 feet elevation and on the edge of the abrupt slope to Camp Creek, an
open-cut exposes a sheared oxidized zone, from 2 to 3 feet wide, striking south 40 degrees east,
with a north-easterly dip of 80 degrees. Here a sample across 3 feet assayed: Gold, 0.08 oz.
per ton; silver, trace. Directlv below this open-cut to the north-west, the Old Reliance
adit, at 3,625 feet elevation, has been driven south 55 degrees east for 23 feet along the same
shear, the dip being similar. Going north 17 degrees east for 100 feet from the adit-portal,
and at the same elevation, trenching exposes vertical shearing striking south 17 degrees west
in rusty partially-decomposed greenstone, solid rock just having been reached.
The Fergusson adit, at 3,357 feet elevation, is 630 feet north 34 degrees west from the Old
Reliance adit-portal. At 3,380 feet elevation, directly above the portal of the Fergusson
adit, the ground flattens where a trench, 5 feet wide, from 8 to 15 feet deep, and 100 feet
long, extends along a bearing of about north 75 degrees east. Conditions were obscured
by debris in the floor of the trench. From this working a shipment of sorted stibnite
is reported to have been extracted in 1917, but no record of this has been found.
The adit below is driven as follows: From A at the portal east for 35.8 feet to B;
north 72 degrees east for 45.5 feet to C; south 45 degrees east for 12.75 feet to D;
and north 55 degrees east for 27 feet to the face. From C a branch is driven north 45
degrees west for 7.5 feet. The vein, 4 feet wide, and standing approximately vertical, is
followed in the drift sections A to C and D to E, the offset from C to D being caused by displacement along a fault striking south 45 degrees east and dipping at from 65 to 70 degrees to the
south-west. From A to C there is practically a continuous streak of stibnite from a seam to
6 inches wide, the gangue being siliceous wi*h some calcite and shattered quartz. Adjoining
the stibnite fracture on one or both sides in places, the greenstone is altered and contains
finely disseminated sulphides, this mineralization being indefinite. Similar conditions apply
to the drift section D-E, where, however, the stibnite is in discontinuous streaks. The following samples were taken: (1.) Selected stibnite, with a little quartz, from the A^C showing,
assaying: Gold, trace; silver, trace; antimony, 58.8 per cent. (2.) Across 22 inches at 18
feet in from the portal at A, assaying: Gold, 0.26 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton; antimony,
9.1 per cent. (3.) Across 32 inches at C, assaying: Gold, 0.06 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per
ton; antimony, 3.3 per cent. (4.) Across 46 inches at E, assaying: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;
silver, trace;   antimony, trace.
The Turner adit, at 2,721 feet elevation, is 1,050 feet north 58 degrees west from the
portal of the Fergusson adit. It was being advanced by hand at the time of the writer's
examination in August, 1936, and had been driven first as a crosscut south 45 degrees east
for 86 feet, then as a drift on the shear north 73 degrees east for 27 feet. In the crosscut
section the greenstone-walls grade into purple volcanics in places as at the portal and on the
south-west side of the working near the sharp bend, but the drift is all in greenstone. The
shear, up to 5 feet wide, is associated with irregular fracturing striking north 80 degrees
east, with northerly dips of from 65 to 80 degrees. From hanging-wall to foot-wall a section
sampled in the face c^nns^ed rf: H\ 14. inches of sheared, oxidized, partly-decomposed greenstone containing a thin streak of stibnite underlying a fracture dipping northerly at 80
degrees; (2) 26 inches of altered silicified greenstone containing disseminated sulphide
specks;   (3) 3-inch oxidized decomposed streak underlain by fracture dipping northerly at 65 F 10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
degrees; (4) 12 inches of altered silicified greenstone containing scattered sulphide specks.
The fractures adjoining Nos. 1 and 3 sections were converging in strike as well as in dip.
A sample across the whole width of 55 inches assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, trace.
A sample across 5 feet, where the shear was first encountered at 80 feet in from the portal,
assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace; antimony, nil; arsenic, nil. A grab sample from a pile
of sorted antimonial material at the portal assayed: Gold, 0.05 oz. per ton; silver, 0.05 oz.
per ton; antimony, 14.5 per cent.; arsenic, nil.
Along the strike of the shear, in the opposite direction from the drift, sediments are
exposed adjoining Camp Creek about 175 feet away. The River adit, at 2,175 feet elevation,
is about 950 feet north 11 degrees east from the Turner adit portal and about 50 feet above
the river-level. It is a crosscut which, to August 26th, 1936, had been driven south 11 degrees
east for 123 feet, its main objective being the shear in the Turner adit. This working, then
being advanced with a machine, was in greenstone with included patches of purple volcanic
rock. In addition to the workings specified, there are several open-cuts exposing fracturing
or zones of shearing striking across the trend of the greenstone, but conditions are too
indefinite for individual description at the present stage.
This company's property, in the Lillooet Mining Division, consists of twenty-
Congress Gold    three mineral claims  and fractions held by location, which  extend from
Mines, Ltd.      Bridge  River  northerly  across  Gun   Creek.    The  precise  location  of  the
property is shown on B.C. Department of Lands Mineral Reference Map
21t269.    The main workings, at elevations of from 2,141 feet to 2,565 feet, are on the sparsely-
wooded, open ground sloping steeply to Bridge River.    The mine buildings, below the workings,
adjoin the highway at a point 37 miles from Bridge River Station on the Pacific Great Eastern
Railway, or about 1,500 feet westerly from the Gun Creek Bridge.
The formations underlying the Congress holdings are mainly greenstone and sediments
of the Bridge River series. These rocks are irregularly intruded by much younger dykes and
small stocks, including felsitic varieties and porphyritic quartz diorite. An altered intrusive
body of the latter type, 60 feet wide or more, striking north-westerly, with generally steep
south-westerly dips, is cut by the main fissure in the upper two levels. The greenstones and
argillaceous sediments form alternating northerly-striking belts of varying width, rock-
structures being complex.
The mineral deposits developed by the main workings follow a sheared fissure up to
several inches in width, which varies in strike and dip and in places splits into two or more
fractures. The strike of the main shear is north-easterly, dips being north-westerly at angles
of from 35 to 57 degrees. It is well defined1 through the quartz-diorite porphyry and the
greenstones, but where the shear encounters the sediments, as at the south-western extremity
of the No. 2 level drift and both ends of the No. 3 level drift, it becomes obscure or is dissipated.
Mineralization is best developed where the shear cuts greenstone which in places, as when
approaching the sediments, grades imperceptibly into purple volcanic rock. In the latter rock
mineralization is less pronounced and values are lower. The principal type of deposit consists
of replacement of greenstone, the wall-rocks along the main shear being altered to a dense,
tan-coloured, ankeritic carbonate with which is associated varying amounts of dense to finely
crystalline quartz. This zone of alteration, which generally grades into normal greenstone
without definite lines of demarcation, is from 2 to 30 feet wide, irregularly distributed on
either side of the shear, the larger widths occurring in flat rolls or where the fissure splits
into several fractures. The altered rock has a mottled appearance due to the presence of dark
" hair-line " streaks and films of fine-grained sulphide aggregates, including pyrite, arsenopyrite, with rarely sphalerite. This mineralization, which at points, as on the No. 3 level, is
more coarsely crystalline, diminishes in intensity outwards from the shear which serves
generally as a central marker, assay-widths varying from 3.5 to 18.2 feet. Associated with
this finely-mineralized zone, and following its main fissure and subsidiary fractures, are
streaks and elongated lenses of stibnite, up to 6 inches in width and 25 feet in length, frequently
associated with quartz. The stibnite occurs in massive or banded form and is from fine-grained
to coarsely columnar in structure. It is occasionally coated with cherry-red films of the
oxidation product kermesite. Small cinnabar occurrences have been definitely recognized at
points in the upper two levels. Gold values, chiefly associated with the replacement mineralization in the greenstone, are generally low, but consistent, with a distinct tendency to improve WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6).
F 11
LEGEND
Quarij   diorite   (Porphyritic)
Sediments
Mineralised  shear   jone
Open   Cuts
Scale
One   section
135'   wide
Antimony;- Nil.
Width      Oj.Gold    Oj. Silver   ^Antimony
4.6' 0.14- Tr
4.6'
0.04
Tr
7.0'
0.20
0.2
Nil.
 SO'
0.42
0.6
7.2
O^.Goid     Oj.Silver
020 Q.6
4.5'
0.20
0.6
4.0'
0.09
0.2
4.2'
0.09
0.6
'      5 0'
O.OS
0.6
"       3 6'
Tr
Tr.
Width    Oj.Gold    Oj.Silver
^yy
3.5'
0.22
O.I    )
/f\\Z
feO'
0 29
Tn
1 vu
 — 8.7'
Q24
Tn  (
section
Except where  differentiated   the formation
in drifts   is   qreenstone, including   small
areas of   purple   volcanic   rock..
V NO 3. Ad it (Portal 300' S.S.E
I"   El. 2141' from el
from o)
Congress Gold Mines, Ltd.    Plan of Workings.    After Company's Plan. F 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
at depth as on the No. 3 level, where average widths are also greater. At this horizon, where
there is apparently more arsenopyrite, stibnite is less in evidence, average percentages of the
latter mineral being, according to the management, appreciably lower than on the No. 2 level,
where it reaches its maximum development. Large sampling operations, beyond the scope of
the writer's examination, would be necessary to determine average values. Twenty-three
channel samples, taken for information, gave assays from a trace to 0.54 oz. gold per ton and
from a trace to 1 oz. silver per ton, widths being from 3.5 to 18.2 feet normal to the dip.
One section, 5 feet wide, typical of strong stibnite mineralization, assayed 7.2 per cent,
antimony.
The nucleus of the property was formerly known as the Stibnite group, located by E. J.
Taylor and J. Shuster. It was relocated in 1915 by C. H. Allan and associates, a small amount
of underground work having been done in the same year. Subsequently the property was
acquired by T. Turner and in 1933 was transferred to the present company, since when most
of the development-work has been done. References to the Congress mine are contained in
the Report of the Minister of Mines for the years 1933, 1934, and 1935.
During the period under review the principal work consisted in putting up a raise from
the No. 3 to the No. 2 level and cutting a station, with hoist-raise and ore-pocket, preparatory
to sinking a 2-compartment main inclined winze. A new 4-drill Sullivan compressor was
installed, electrically driven by the local commercial power. The mine-workings are shown
on the accompanying plan. Of the four open-cuts on the drift-covered steep slope above No. 1
adit, the two central ones are caved. The two outer cuts expose widths of from 6 to 7 feet
of weathered, mineralized greenstone associated with north-easterly-striking shearing and
accompanying stibnite-quartz-filled fractures. The underground workings comprise Nos. 1,
2, and 3 levels at corresponding elevations of 2,457, 2,325, and 2,141 feet. The No. 3 adit, or
main working-level, is about 40 feet above the highway. No. 1 level is a drift on the shear,
402 feet from the portal, while the Nos. <2 and 3 level drift sections, 473 and 650 feet long
respectively, are reached by crosscuts. Connecting raises extend between the three drifts
as shown.
Conditions underground in regard to exposed widths of the more definite mineralization
are briefly described in the following notes. Unless specified, the formation is composed of
greenstone, including patches of purple volcanic rock, not differentiated. Chaining from the
portal of the No. 1 adit the average width is 4.9 feet between 22 and 262 feet. Up to chainage
80 feet the shear cuts porphyritic ouartz diorite, sediments being exposed on the southern wall
of the drift between the portal and the first crosscut. In the irregular triangular area of
drifting just beyond chainage 262 feet, where the shear splits into several fractures, widths
of altered mineralized greenstone are up to 20 feet or more. Three samples in the southeasterly crosscut here averaged 0.25 oz. gold per ton across 18.2 feet. In the last 80 feet back
from the face the average width is 5.3 feet and in this section there are scattered patches or
narrow bands of sediments as along the north-western wall and in the face.
Near the south-western extremity of the No. 2 level drift the shear ends where it encounters sediments. Going north-westerly from this face, the shear cuts the quartz-diorite-
porphyry dyke between 16 and 99 feet, widths of mineralization in this section being from
2 to 3 feet wide. From the latter point the shear persists to the north-eastern face, the
average width of mineralization being about 4 feet. In the drift adjacent to the main
crosscut small areas of sediments are exposed on one or other side of the sheared, mineralized
greenstone.
At the south-western extremity of the No. 3 level drift the shear terminates in sediments.
Going north-westerly, the average width is 5.5 feet to the end of the shear 58 feet back from
the north-easterly face, exclusive of the wide section adjoining the winze-site, where three
samples averaged 0.427 oz. gold per ton, and antimony nil, across 13.5 feet, and another
sample across 11 feet, at 10 feet south-westerly, assayed 0.40 oz. gold per ton. In the 58-foot
length measured back from the north-easterly face the fissure is not present, the formation
here being chiefly purple volcanic rock with patches of sediments. Diamond-drilling was done
from the three levels to outline the widths of altered mineralized greenstone on either side of
the main shear and to explore the adjoining formation for varying distances up to 200 feet
from it. Stibnite occurrences are reported to have been discovered by prospecting and superficial work done at other points on the property, and a new adit has been started at a point 1,200 WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6). F 13
feet east of the Congress workings to intersect a mineralized shear, approximately parallel
with the one developed in the mine, which outcrops in greenstone bluffs above.
Taylor Basin Area.
This company's option on the Northern Light group, described on page F 13
Goldside Mines, of the Report of the Minister of Mines for 1936, has been relinquished, and
Ltd. new work done is on the Lucky Strike group of seven claims which was
acquired by option late in 1935, and subsequent to the writer's first examination. Including the Lucky Strike group, the holdings of the Goldside Mines, Limited, are now
stated to consist of thirty-one mineral claims and fractions. The claims are situated within
and adjacent to Taylor Basin at the head of Taylor Creek, a tributary of Tyaughton Creek,
which in turn flows into Bridge River. The mine camp, located 1,600 feet measured south
30 degrees west from the forks of Taylor Creek 4 miles above its mouth, is situated on a wooded
knoll adjoining the creek at about 6,050 feet elevation. The boundaries of the basin consist
of broad, smoothly-rounded, bare ridges rising to elevations of about 8,000 feet; the upper
slopes being covered with talus and rock-slides through which emerge rugged outcrops of rock.
The middle slopes, covered by a heavy mantle of glacial drift, are traversed by snow-fed creeks
and are covered by a shrub-like growth of balsam-fir, together with a rank growth of grass and
wild flowers. The low areas along the creek and basin are well wooded with balsam-fir and
occasional spruce. The summits to the north and south of the basin rise to elevations of about
8,000 feet. The new adit on the Lucky Strike ground, and at elevation 6,275 feet, is situated
about 1,400 feet south-westerly from the camp, which is on the edge of timber-line.
The surface workings, at elevations of from 6,600 to 6,610 feet, are on both sides of an
easterly-westerly-trending ridge, just below its apex. The ground slopes steeply to north and
south, the adit-crosscut approach being driven into the base of the ridge from its southern side.
Until recently the Taylor Basin prospects were reached by pack-trail from 8 to 9 miles in
length, which branches off the road near the south-western extremity of Tyaughton Lake. This
road, about 3.5 miles in length, leaves the Bridge River Road east of the Pearson ponds at a
point about 33.5 miles from Bridge River Station on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The
trail climbs from about 3,200 feet elevation at the lake to 6,950 feet (revised elevation) at the
Taylor Basin Pass in a distance of about 6 to 7 miles. From the latter point the trail, about
2 miles in length, descends to the Goldside camp, passing the Lucky Strike adit en route. At
the time of the writer's last visit, in September, 1936, a crew was employed by the company
on the construction of a road extending from the end of the existing branch road first along
the north-western side of Tyaughton Lake, then along the high ground bordering the western
side of Tyaughton Creek to Cinnabar Creek, and finally north-westerly to Taylor Creek, its
north-western side being followed to the camp, a total distance of about 14 miles, of which
11 miles has been completed (to a point 3 miles below the camp).
The oldest underlying rocks exposed consist of highly-metamorphosed sediments of the
Bridge River series. Next in ascending order are serpentines of the Shulaps volcanics and
the Eldorado series, referred to the Lower Cretaceous, which are locally represented by outcrops of argillite, grey feldspathic sandstone, and conglomerates. Intruding the last-mentioned series are large bodies of diorite mapped as being related to the Bendor batholith. The
writer's 1935 report was chiefly concerned with the narrow quartz-arsenopyrite veins in this
diorite. In the new workings, on Lucky Strike ground, geological conditions are complex, the
rocks being highly metamorphosed and structures difficult to determine. At the present stage
of exploration it is not possible to definitely correlate conditions on the surface and underground. The deposits occur as lenses along the walls of dykes cutting serpentine and altered
rock consisting largely of ferruginous carbonate. The dykes, striking northerly with steep
westerly or vertical dips, are from 4 to 10 feet wide. At underground points the dyke is finegrained and porphyritic, and a specimen, examined under the microscope, consists of a highly-
altered complex of sericite, chlorite, and feldspar. Phenocrysts of feldspar were largely
altered to white mica; some granular epidote is present in places, together with a very little
quartz, probably secondary. Pyrite is disseminated through the rock associated in places
with pale chlorite. The specimen is tentatively classified as an altered latite porphyry.
Another specimen, examined megascopically, consists of leached, carbonatized, and mineralized
rock of indecipherable origin.    To the south of the dyke, in the crosscut-approach section, there F 14 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
are irregular areas of hornblende diorite, a medium fine-grained holocrystalline, greenish rock.
A specimen of comparatively fresh material, examined under the microscope, consists of
plagioclase (andesine) 80 per cent, and hornblende 20 per cent., the whole rock being highly
chloritized. Both white mica and epidote are present. The hornblende diorite merges without
definite boundaries into a dense dark rock with green serpentinized phases.
The mineralization consists mainly of sulphide streaks and masses occurring in irregular
lenses on one or both sides of the dykes, also penetrating them in places. The gangue is
generally silicified altered rock, with minor amounts of quartz and occasional calcite, the
sulphide-masses at underground points frequently being associated with a bright-green
chlorite mineral. Two polished sections were examined microscopically. In the first case
the minerals noted in order of abundance are sphalerite, jamesonite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite.
Sphalerite and jamesonite form relatively large irregular masses, in places rather intimately
associated. Pyrite occurs as cubes up to 2 mm. in size, fractured in places and veined by the
other sulphides. Chalcopyrite was noted only in ex-solution blebs in sphalerite. No. 2 section
is composed of massive to crystalline arsenopyrite in a quartzose gangue. Fourteen channel
samples showed gold values of from 0.12 to 1.30 oz. per ton and silver values of from 0.1 to 6.0
oz. per ton.    Sampling-widths varied from 4 inches to 7.5 feet.
The Lucky Strike claims were staked by Jack McPhail, the only previous mention of the
property being in the Report of the Minister of Mines for 1933. Surface showings on the steep
southerly slope of the ridge are at elevations of from 6,575 to 6,620 feet, the top of the ridge
being at about 6,650 feet elevation. For purposes of description they are referred to point A,
which is directly above Station No. 2 in the drift below. In this outcrop section, which follows
a bearing of about north 7 degrees west, the showings examined are along the eastern side of a
basic dyke from 8 to 10 feet wide, dips being westerly at angles of from 65 to 85 degrees or in
some cases vertical. The dyke cuts brown-weathering soft rock, probably altered serpentine,
which is traversed, in places, by numerous veinlets of chalcedony. Chaining southerly from
point A an open-cut, at 20 feet, exposes the following section: Against the dyke, 5 inches of
oxidized decomposed material containing sulphide remnants; a 29-inch central parting of
weathered silicified rock; and next to it a 6-inch oxidized decomposed streak. From 20 to 84
feet there is overburden or shattered rock. At the latter point there is an outcrop of sheared,
oxidized, silicified rock, showing some green stain. At 96 feet there is a 40-inch width of
silicified rock containing heavily oxidized streaks with sulphide remnants, chiefly sphalerite.
From 96 to 133.5 the vein has been traced and partially stripped where it consists chiefly of
sheared silicified rock with oxidized streaks in places. At the latter point an open-cut exposes
a 56-inch width of oxidized green-stained material containing masses and bands of sulphides,
in which sphalerite and pyrite predominate. A sample across 56 inches assayed: Gold, 0.12
oz. per ton; silver, 3 oz. per ton; zinc, 10.1 per cent. At 145.5 feet an open-cut exposes a
62-inch width of dark rusty rock containing heavily oxidized streaks. At 161.5 feet an open-
cut shows an 8-inch width of oxidized decomposed material, the adjoining rock on the eastern
side being silicified and iron-stained in part. From 161.5 to 179.5 feet the outcrop is covered
by slide-rock. At the latter point an open-cut exposes a 40-inch width of sheared rock, including an oxidized streak on the western side and a 15-ineh oxidized decomposed band on the
eastern side. The outcrop is covered from 179.5 to 197.5 feet. At the latter point an open-
cut shows a 3-foot width of sulphide masses and oxidized iron-stained material. A sample
across 3 feet assayed: Gold, 1.02 oz. per ton; silver, 6 oz. per ton; zinc, 18.3 per cent. At
233.5 feet an open-cut exposes a 6-foot width of oxidized, black to brown, decomposed material
with some included silicified rock containing sulphide-streaks. At 253 feet, the intervening
ground being covered, an open-cut exposes shearing with from 3 to 4 feet of underlying iron-
stained rock, no definite mineralization being in evidence.
Another section of vein-outcrop, possibly the faulted southerly continuation of the previously described showings, is exposed in bluffs at 6,600 to 6,610 feet elevation on the western
and south-western slope of the ridge just below its apex. This section, 70 feet long and from
6 to 10 inches wide, has about the same strike and lies 110 to 120 feet to the west, its northern
end being opposite a point 190 feet southerly from point A. At its southern extremity the
showing splits into stringers and at the northern end it curves north-easterly and is then
dragged south-easterly along an apparent fault striking towards the first described vein
section.    Just south of the fault a hornblende-porphyry dyke, 3 to 4 feet wide, causes minor WESTERK DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 15
displacement. The vein consists of banded sulphides and decomposed streaks between smooth,
approximately vertical walls. A sample across 10 inches assayed: Gold, 1.04 oz. per ton;
silver, 2 oz. per ton. Northerly from point A the dyke, about 5 feet wide, with no accompanying mineralization, can be traced for about 100 feet or to a point above Station No. 1 in
the drift below. In about the centre of this section, the dyke, looking northerly, is displaced
about 9 feet to the east on a south-easterly-striking fault.
The portal of the adit, at 6,275 feet elevation, is 422 feet on a bearing of north 32 degrees
35 minutes east from point A. This working is first driven as a crosscut south 43 degrees 40
minutes west for 390 feet. At Station No. 1, 368 feet in from the portal, drifts extend northerly and southerly. The north drift, extending north 21 degrees west for 66 feet, contains
a winze 11 feet deep, between points 25 and 35 feet from Station No. 1. The south drift has
been driven south 13 degrees east for 99 feet to Station No. 2, then south 18 degrees 45 minutes
east for 84 feet to Station No. 3, and finally south 34 degrees 20 minutes east for 20 feet to
Station No. 4, where a fault cuts off the dyke and shearing and a crosscut extended south
50 degrees west for 37.5 feet. (This face was being advanced.) Beyond Station No. 4 the
main working continues south 45 degrees east for 17 feet to the face. Other workings consist
of a curving branch driven 25 feet southerly from Station No. 2 and a branch 6 feet long east
of Station No. 3. In the drift sections the dyke is from 4 to 5 feet wide, its western wall being
generally well marked with gouge and evidence of shearing. The eastern wall is poorly defined
in general. Dips at underground points approximate the vertical with a tendency to dip
westerly. In the north drift between Station No. 1 and the winze, 25 feet northerly, mineralization is present on both sides of the dyke, the two narrow pay-streaks joining and forming a
short lens across the full width of the drift at a point 2 feet southerly from the winze. In the
roof, 10 feet above the drift-floor and directly above the winze, the vein along the western
wall is 3 feet wide and largely decomposed, some sphalerite-streaks being present. Northerly
from the winze the western pay-streak, averaging 4 inches wide, extends for 16 feet. The
dyke comes to a point, terminating here, and beyond to the face, which is in schistose greenstone, the sheared western fracture continues without any mineralization. Along the eastern
wall, between chainage-points 8 and 10 feet northerly from the winze, there is a 2-foot length
of mixed sulphide mineralization 3 inches wide. The following samples, taken along the continuous western pay-streak section, 45 feet in length, are referred to chainage-points northerly
from Station No. 1: (1.) Across 6 to 8 inches at 10 feet: Gold, 0.26 oz. per ton; silver, 1 oz.
per ton. (2.) Across 10 inches at 15.5 feet: Gold, 0.40 oz. per ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton.
(3.) Across 64 inches at 23 feet: Gold, 0.74 oz. per ton; silver, 2.8 oz. per ton; zinc, 4.7 per
cent.; arsenic, 1.15 per cent.; antimony, 4 per cent. (4.) Across 3 feet at 30 feet: Gold, 0.56
oz. per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton. (5.) Across average width of 4 inches representing 16-foot
length between 35 and 51 feet: Gold, 0.60 oz. per ton; silver, 2 oz. per ton. A sample across
10 inches representing a 2-foot lens on the eastern wall, between chainages 43 and 45 feet
northerly from Station No. 1, assayed: Gold, 0.40 oz. per ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton. A sample
representing a narrow lens, swelling up to 24 inches, along the eastern wall between chainages
10.5 feet northerly and 3.5 feet southerly from Station No. 1, extending across the drift-crosscut
intersection, assayed: Gold, 1.30 oz. per ton; silver, 1.2. At its northern end this showing
pinches and then reappears just south of the winze, where it is included in the 64-inch width
sampled at the junction of the two pay-streaks. In the 11-foot winze, where mineralization
is irregular, the two pay-streaks have joined and form a 7.5-foot width at from 7.5 to 8.5 feet
down from the collar, just above the water-level. Samples across this 7.5-foot section on the
northern and southern sides of the winze assayed respectively: Gold, 0.44 oz. per ton; silver,
3 oz. per ton; arsenic, 5.3 per cent.; and: Gold, 0.50 oz. per ton; silver 1 oz. per ton; zinc,
8.2 per cent.; arsenic, 0.65 per cent. On the southern side of the winze, 6 feet below the collar,
the vein complex from west to east is as follows: (1) 6 inches of massive sulphides; (2) 49
inches of rock-parting; (3) 28 inches chiefly consisting of massive sulphides. The 6-inch
section assayed: Gold, 0.20 oz. per ton; silver, 1 oz. per ton; arsenic, 9 per cent.; and the
28-inch section assayed:  Gold, 0..7 oz. per ton;  silver, 2.2 oz. per ton;  arsenic, 8.7 per cent.
Chaining southerly from Station No. 1, mineralized sections along the western wall of
the south drift are as follows: (1) 28-foot length, averaging 11 inches in width, between 8
and 36 feet, which assayed: Gold, 0.24 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton; (2) 18-inch length,
up to 4 inches wide, between 51 and 52.5 feet;   (3) 16-foot length of irregular mineralization, F 16 REPORT OF THE  MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
4 to 8 inches wide, between 59 and 75 feet. According to the company's assay-plan, values in
the above Nos. 2 and 3 sections are low grade.
The most southerly mineralization encountered underground is a 14-foot length, up to 3
inches wide, between points 3.5 and 17.5 feet southerly from Station No. 2. The fault at
Station No. 4, which cuts off the dyke and shearing, strikes about south 7 degrees 30 minutes
west and dips westerly at 36 degrees. The crosscut driven south-westerly from Station No. 4
starts beyond or under the fault, but cuts through it, returning to its upper or western side.
The face of the crosscut had just broken into a silicified and slightly carbonatized feldspar-
porphyry dyke with a northerly strike and 65-degree easterly dip. The most southerly face
of the main workings, beyond the fault, was in silicified argillite.
New work done included ground-sluicing at a point known as 36-X, which is on the Home-
stake No. 3 claim, 3,600 feet from the Lucky Strike workings, or 2,200 feet north-easterly from
the camp. Extensive ground-sluicing, now largely caved, has been done in deep overburden
at the toe of the slope on the north-western side of the Taylor Creek Valley, adjoining a small
creek. In this vicinity there are numerous small masses, up to 1 foot in diameter, of float
consisting of sphalerite, pyrite, stibnite, and arsenopyrite, in a gangue of quartz and calcite.
A grab sample assayed: Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton; silver, 2.4 oz. per ton. In the ground-sluiced
area, and for several hundred feet along the creek, there is much blue clay, in compact masses,
which contains rusty streaks with disseminated sulphide specks including pyrite and arsenopyrite. A grab sample of this material assayed: Gold, 0.12 oz. per ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton.
The float and clay appear to be derived from a decomposed outcrop in this vicinity.
C. D. Salkeld, manager, reports that a compressor plant was installed in December, 1936.
The equipment includes a Gardner-Denver compressor rated at 115 c.f .m. and a 33-horse-power
Diesel caterpillar engine. Recently it has been announced that the Lucky Strike Gold Mining
Company has been incorporatetd in connection with the property.
Roxey Creek.
Gun Creek Area.
This group, in the Lillooet Mining Division, consists of eleven mineral claims
Gem. and fractions held by location and owned by W. Haylmore.    The property
is situated on the eastern side of Roxey Creek, a north-easterly-flowing
tributary of Gun Creek, the approximate latitude and longitude being 50 degrees 52 minutes
and 123 degrees 01 minute respectively. The workings, at elevations of from 6,420 to 6,480
feet, are on the very steep to precipitous, rocky, open ground sloping westerly from the top of
the ridge at 6,860 feet elevation to about 6,000 feet elevation, where slopes flatten to the creek
at approximately 5,400 feet elevation. The lower slopes are wooded, vegetation at higher levels
being limited to scattered clumps of small evergreens.
Access to the camp-site, at 6,100 feet elevation, is by pack-trail 6 miles in length, roughly
estimated, from the road at the Pilot mine, situated towards the centre of the western side of
Gun Lake. This branch road, 7 miles in length, connects with the highway near the junction
of the Bridge and Hurley Rivers, 40 miles from Bridge River Station on the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway. Another pack-trail, possible 7 miles in length, used to reach the Gem and
other prospects in the adjoining district, leaves the highway near the Wayside mine and
extends north-westerly around the head of Gun Lake and eventually connects with the trail
from the Pilot mine.
The formation is composed of quartz diorite of the Bendor batholith, the local phase being
a biotite quartz diorite, a medium-grained light-greenish rock highly altered in the vicinity of
the deposits. Parallel to the main showing, and 25 feet to the east of it, a brown-weathering
dyke of ferruginous carbonate composition cuts the batholithic rock along an easterly strike
with a vertical dip.
The work done, consisting of open-cuts and stripping, is localized in the vicinity of two
lenticular mineralized bodies located en echelon along an easterly-westerly trend. The larger
showing is associated with an easterly-striking fracture which was traced for a length of
45 feet, conditions at both extremities being obscure. The deposits consist of massive to finely
crystalline arsenopyrite, which shows incipient oxidation along some of the fractures, in
streaks, masses, and disseminations in the irregularly silicified igneous rock. Quartz is occasionally present, and cobalt-bloom is comparatively well developed in places.    The arsenopyrite, WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 17
generally uniformly distributed throughout the gangue, also occurs in exceptionally large
masses, as, for instance, a sample across 5.5 feet which assayed: Gold, 1.32 oz. per ton; silver,
trace; arsenic, 44.2 per cent. Selected material with a little included quartz assayed: Gold,
1.24 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.20 oz. per ton.
In the most northerly or No. 1 showing, stripped for a length of 45 feet between elevations
of 6,440 and 6,480 feet, the width of the mineralization is only partially exposed in most places.
Commencing at the top and chaining westerly down the steep to precipitous slope, widths of
arsenopyrite mineralization are as follows: At zero, elevation 6,480 feet, 4.5 feet; at chainage
4 feet, 10.5 feet, which assayed: Gold, 0.56 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton. At chainage
14 feet, 2.5 feet, which assayed: Gold, 0.42 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton. At chainage 28
feet, 2.5 feet, which assayed; Gold, 0.32 oz. per ton; silver, trace; the adjoining 2-foot width to
the north being more lightly mineralized with arsenopyrite. At chainage 36 feet, 1.5 feet;
and at chainage 45 feet, 8 inches of oxidized material containing specks of arsenopyrite and
spots of cobalt-bloom. Below the latter point the fracture could not be traced where the
ground falls abruptly. To the west going towards Roxey Creek the rocks are iron-stained in
places along the general trend of the deposit.
The No. 2 lens, the eastern or upper end of which is 17 feet southerly from chainage 42 feet
on No. 1 lens, has been stripped for a length of 24 feet between elevations of 6,435 and 6,450
feet. No definite fracturing was observed in the case of this showing, which is heavily mineralized with arsenopyrite throughout its length, widths varying from 5 or 5.5 feet at the
extremities to 1.5 feet where it narrows locally between points 7 and 10 feet from the lower end.
No continuity was apparent beyond the upper point and the ground immediately below was
covered by talus. A sample across 5.5 feet at the lower extremity of the exposure assayed:
Gold, 1.32 oz. per ton; silver, trace. Fifteen feet to the south-west there is an open-cut at
6,420 feet elevation, where arsenopyrite occurs in streaks and disseminations, with some quartz
in the altered siliceous igneous rock, the mineralization being associated with a local fracture
striking north 40 degrees east and dipping at 45 degrees to the south-east. A sample across
the 2.5-foot section next to the hanging-wall assayed: Gold, 0.24 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per
ton; and a sample across the adjoining 3 feet on the foot-wall side assayed: Gold and silver,
trace. Continuity is not apparent to the south-west, where the rock is largely decomposed,
and to the north-east loose rock separates the small exposure from lens No. 2. Prospecting
on the ground was carried on during the summer months.
Mainland Coast and Islands.
Loughborough Inlet Area.
This company's property, in the "Vancouver Mining Division, consists of
Loughborough twelve mineral claims held by location. They are situated on the eastern side
Gold Mines, Ltd. of Loughborough Inlet, about 139 miles in a direct line north-west of Vancouver. The camp, adjoining deep water, is 1.5 miles north of Roy Post-office
and 1 mile south of Gray Creek. The claims cover ground sloping irregularly to the inlet on
the west, the gentle to fairly steep slopes being interrupted by benches and depressions, or hills
with abrupt to almost vertical faces on their western sides. The various workings are at
elevations of from a little above sea-level to 900 feet, the upper of two closely spaced adits on
the Loughborough claim, being driven into the base of a vertical bluff, at 570 feet elevation,
above a swampy bench. The area is densely wooded and near Gray Creek there are patches
of big timber, the trees, up to 5 feet in diameter, including hemlock, cedar, and Douglas fir.
Water is plentiful on the claims and conveniently accessible for general purposes. A small
creek, situated about 1,200 feet southerly from the main workings, has a fall of 300 feet in a
comparatively short distance, affording potentialities for a useful water-power development
at moderate cost. The property is well situated for cheap transportation, a weekly passenger
and freight service being maintained by the Union Steamship Company to Roy Wharf. Heavy
freight, including sacked ore shipments, have been handled at the landing near the camp-site,
from which a tractor-road 1.3 miles in length leads easterly to the mine.
The predominating formation consists of hornblende diorite of the Coast Range batholith.
Locally this rock has a medium to coarse-grained texture, being composed essentially of altered
andesine with a few grains of interstitial quartz and abundant fresh hornblende. Chlorite,
epidote, calcite, and kaolin are common and some relatively large apatite aggregates are present. F 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
The rock is traversed in places by veinlets containing epidote and sanidine. Complexly associated with the hornblende diorite are dykes and intrusive bodies of highly-altered, acidic
character, two specimens of which were determined as follows: (1.) Light-coloured phanero-
crystalline rock, which, under the microscope, shows abundant quartz (30 to 40 per cent.)
occurring as anhedral grains in a complex of shreddy white mica, kaolin, and calcite, with a
few unaltered fragments of feldspar, " ghosts " of old feldspars being outlined by the complex.
A little hornblende, largely gone over to chlorite, with epidote, chlorite, and iron ore, are
present, apatite occurring as an accessory mineral. (2.) Light-coloured, medium- to finegrained equigranular rock composed of equal amounts of quartz and feldspar, the latter
mineral being highly altered and in places showing fine twinning, probably both orthoclase
and albite or albite-oligoclase. The rock contains a little disseminated chlorite, epidote, and
iron ore.
The principal veins follow fractures or narrow shear-zones having a general north-easterly
strike with steep south-easterly dips. They generally occur along the irregular contact of the
hornblende diorite and the acidic intrusives, but in places penetrate the latter, which are sometimes silicified and pyritized. Mineralization consists of disseminated grains and crystalline
aggregates of pyrite irregularly distributed through the gangue of quartz and altered, sheared,
frequently silicified rock. No other minerals were noted, but small percentages of copper are
present in some shipments listed below. Values are principally in gold with accessory silver.
In one polished section, examined under the microscope, no gold was seen with magnifications
up to 450 diameters. Crushing of similar material to 200 mesh should release almost all the
sulphide from the gangue. The following shipments of sorted ore, made to the Tacoma smelter
in 1935 and 1936, total 110 tons, averaging 0.9 oz. gold per ton and 3.5 silver per ton:—
Date shipped.
Dry Weight.
Silver.
Copper.
July, 1935...
Dec, 1935 ...
Sept., 1936 .
Sept., 1936..
Tons.
48.8885
12.0705
41.1070
8.0465
Oz. per Ton.
1.10
0.64
0.55
1.88
Oz. per Ton.
4.37
2.38
2.40
7.17
Per Cent.
0.19
0.10
0.08
The property, first known as the Golden Gate group, was staked in 1933 by W. Willis,
being acquired in 1935 by the Loughborough Gold Mines, Limited, a private company. In
September, 1936, the present public company was incorporated.
On the Loughborough claim, adit-workings, at elevations between 530 and 570 feet, develop
two closely-spaced veins which appear to join going north-easterly. They strike about north
75 degrees east and have south-easterly dips of from 65 to 80 degrees. On the surface they
outcrop on a bluff at, and to a height of about 35 feet above, the portal of the upper adit. The
possible south-westerly extension of the outcrop is covered in the swampy flat ground below the
adits. Going north-easterly for 125 feet up the steep ground beyond the top of the cliff, a
small stripped patch, at 660 feet elevation, exposes a width of 20 inches of iron-stained hornblende diorite and quartz containing light pyrite mineralization and some oxidized streaks. A
sample across the width specified assayed: Gold, 0.12 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton. At
from 850 to 900 feet elevation and 725 feet to 755 feet north-easterly from the upper adit-
portal, two small cuts show quartz, 1 to 3 feet wide, in granitic rock along a fracture striking
north 75 degrees east and dipping 65 degrees to the south-east. In both cuts minor amounts
of scattered pyrite are present in the quartz. These showings are along the trend of the main
vein in the upper adit and have similar dips, but surface-trenching at shorter intervals would
be necessary to definitely correlate them. Hornblende diorite is exposed at and adjacent to
the portal of the upper adit, at 570 feet elevation, but the workings on this level are chiefly in
one or other type of the altered acidic intrusives. Measuring from the portal, or point A, it is
driven as follows: East for 18 feet to B; north 81 degrees east for 16.7 feet to C; north
65 degrees east for 13 feet to D; and south 80 degrees east for 12.5 feet to the face at E. An
offset is made from D for 5 feet north 22 degrees west to F, from which point a stope extended
north 77 degrees east for 26 feet and south 77 degrees west for 18 feet. At the north-easterly
and south-westerly ends the back of the stope was 35 and 20 feet respectively above the level,
the stope-fioors sloping down towards Station F.    Since the writer's examination in June, 1936, WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 19
this stope is reported to have been enlarged and extended towards the adit-portal. From the
latter point, or A, to 8 feet east the drift passes over the top of a raise, inclined to the east,
which connects with the stope extension below the floor of the level. For the next 10 feet to B
the drift passes over a pillar, and from B to 6 feet east over the top of a shaft sunk on the steep
southerly dip of the vein and connecting with the lower adit 40 feet below. The northern vein,
following the main fracture, was first exposed on the north side of the drift where side-swiping
had been done 3 feet east of B. It is well defined, striking north 75 degrees east, with a southeasterly dip of 80 degrees. The same showing, sampled where it went into the north wall of
the drift opposite the east side of the shaft, 6 feet beyond B, gave an assay, across 3 feet, of:
Gold, 0.78 oz. per ton; silver, 4 oz. per ton. Next to this sample section, going south across the
roof of the drift, there was 22 inches of silicified rock, then 4.6 feet of scattered pyrite in a
siliceous gangue which assayed: Gold, 0.1 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton. This last section
is associated with the subsidiary southern fracture which is fairly well defined over the shaft,
but becomes irregular and curves north-easterly going towards the stope. East of the shaft
conditions are indefinite, and pyrite is of sparse occurrence in scattered quartz and silicified
rock over narrow widths chiefly along the northern wall of the drift. The stope is along the
north-easterly extension of the northern vein as sampled previously in the drift, but both veins
have been stoped together in places. The northern vein is well marked with a smooth foot-wall
dipping from 65 to 75 degrees to the south-east, its width averaging about 2 feet. Some quartz-
pyrite mineralization was visible along the greater part of the back of the stope, which was
about 20 feet, roughly estimated, below the surface. The following three samples, representing one section from foot-wall to hanging-wall, were taken at the upper north-easterly
end of the stope: (1) 22 inches assaying: Gold, 0.22 oz. per ton; silver, 1.2 oz. per ton; (2)
26 inches of rock-parting assaying: Gold, 0.03 oz. per ton; silver, trace; (3) 22 inches assaying: Gold, 0.54 oz. per ton; silver, 2 oz. per ton. A sample across 32 inches in the face at the
upper south-westerly end of the stope assayed: Gold, 0.62 oz. per ton; silver, 2.2 oz. per ton;
and a sample across 5 feet in the roof, 4 feet back from the last sample location, assayed: Gold,
0.26 oz. per ton;  silver, 1.2 oz. per ton.
The lower adit-portal, or point G, is 70 feet west of point A and at 530 feet elevation. It
is driven as follows: South 65 degrees east for 53 feet to H; north 65 degrees east for 19 feet
to J; east for 51 feet to K; south 80 degrees east for 46 feet to L; north 55 degrees east for
12.5 feet to M; and north 10 degrees west for 36 feet to the face at N. There is a crosscut,
6.5 feet west of K, which extends north 2 degrees east for 12.5 feet. Connection is made with
the shaft (east of B in the upper level) at points 23 to 29 feet east of J. This shaft is said to
continue down on the same steep incline for 40 feet below, but is inaccessible, being largely
filled in. A sample across 2 feet 20 feet easterly from the shaft at a point midway between the
two levels, where stoping on the northern vein was proceeding, assayed: Gold, 0.46 oz. per ton;
silver, 2.4 oz. per ton; and a sample across 28 inches, just west of the shaft at the same intermediate level, assayed: Gold, 0.22 oz. per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton. The first course of the
lower adit, from G to H, passes through talus and is close-timbered. In the drift section,
beyond this crosscut approach, the veins follow the irregular contact-zone of the hornblende
diorite and altered intrusives, the former rock lying to the north of the vein system. The
northern vein is first encountered at H, where it is from 20 to 32 inches wide and apparently
low grade as exposed in the roof on the northern side of the drift. Continuing easterly, this
vein, swelling and pinching with average narrow width, is followed by showings in the floor
to K, a section 20 feet long adjoining the shaft having been stoped. At K an 8- to 10-inch vein
comes into the south wall from the hanging-wall side, where a sample across 8 inches assayed:
Gold, 0.26 oz. per ton; silver, 0.15 oz. per ton. At a point 11 feet easterly from K the two
veins have joined and form one vein, which is followed to within 10 feet of L, where it breaks
up into several narrow stringers. In the face at L there is no definite fracture, slip-planes
tending to strike easterly, with southerly dips of 70 degrees to 80 degrees. A sample across
30 inches in the floor of the drift, 16.5 feet easterly from K, assayed: Gold, 0.26 oz. per ton;
silver, 3.6 oz. per ton; and a sample across 9 inches, 10 feet westerly from L, assayed: Gold,
0.34 oz. per ton; silver, 0.05 oz. per ton. Between L and M the working is largely in altered
rock and from M to N in hornblende diorite. Opposite M a branch has been driven easterly
for 4 feet along a narrow aplite dyke contained within a zone of altered, silicified, crushed rock
bordered by fracture-planes striking south 65 degrees east and dipping steeply to the southwest.    The short crosscut west of K is in hornblende diorite.    The combined dumps of the two F 20 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
adits are estimated to contain about 700 tons of mineralized quartz and vein material which is
lower grade than the ore shipped but of potential contributory value if future development
warrants mill-installation. A grab sample from these dumps, not representative of bulk,
assayed: Gold, 0.36 oz. per ton; silver, 1.2 oz. per ton. The outcrop of the above vein system
can be explored for new ore-shoots by surface work. Lateral extensions to the partly-exploited
shoot may be found by further drifting and its downward extension can be tested by cleaning
out the shaft and continuing work at a lower horizon, if found warranted by conditions.
South-east of the adit-workings a quartz vein has been exposed by open-cuts and stripping
over a length of 50 feet at 865 feet elevation. It strikes north 75 degrees east and dips southeasterly at 65 degrees and, with silicified rock inclusions, is from 2 to 8 feet wide, containing
finely disseminated pyrite in places.
On the Stuart claim, about 3,000 feet north-north-west of the above-described main
workings, a limited amount of exploratory work has been done, at 280 feet elevation, on
timbered ground sloping gently towards the inlet. A small quartz-outcrop is exposed at the
top of a 20-degree inclined shaft which is said to be from 15 to 20 feet deep. It was nearly
full of water, so that the character and attitude of the vein were difficult to determine. It
appears to strike easterly with a southerly dip approximating 30 degrees and, at the collar of
the incline, consists of a width of 1.5 feet of quartz containing scattered small masses and
disseminations of pyrite. Adjoining this showing, the intrusive igneous rock is highly altered
and silicified. A selected sample of massive pyrite, with a little quartz, assayed: Gold, 0.24
oz. per ton; silver, trace. At 255 feet elevation, and 86 feet south-easterly from the incline,
there is a 26-foot adit, driven along a curving south-westerly course, which has not reached
its objective. More trenching would be necessary to determine the true strike and attitude
of the vein at the incline from which good assays are said to have been obtained.
At 260 feet elevation, about 400 feet north-easterly from the incline and beyond a small
creek, there is an 8-foot adit leading to a 9-foot winze full of water. These workings expose
irregular, sparsely-mineralized quartz-bands and stringers lacking specific definition. Selected
quartz and pyrite from this point assayed:  Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;  silver, trace.
Near the shore on the Leora claim, about 1,500 feet west of the Stuart incline, there is a
10-foot adit cutting a vein, 6 to 12 inches wide, which strikes north-easterly with a steep southeasterly dip, no definite mineralization being present at the point exposed.
Intensive prospecting of the property should disclose extensions of present veins and
other veins, the surface being largely covered with brush, moss, and soil which conceal most
outcrops.
Adjacent to the freight platform and float, camp buildings on the Gordon claim include
bunk- and cook-house accommodation for about twelve men, change-room, and office. At the
mine a Gardner-Denver compressor, of about 125 c.f.m. capacity, is driven by a Leland 65-
horse-power gas-engine. A Massey-Harris 50-horse-power tractor and trailer were in use
for hauling sacked ore to the landing.
East Thurlow Island Area.
The property of this company, in the Vancouver Mining Division, consists of
Thurlow Gold    sixteen mineral claims held by location.    Since 1934 work has been carried
Mines, Ltd.      on intermittently under lease by the Northern Mining and Milling Company.
The claims are on the easterly side of East Thurlow Island contiguous to
Nodales Channel, about 127 miles in a direct line north-westerly from Vancouver. The general
topography of the island is of rugged character, the summits of the wooded hills being at"
elevations of from 1,400 to 2,203 feet above sea-level. The vegetation is dense, which, taken
into consideration with the generally deep overburden, impedes prospecting. The adit, at 200
feet elevation, is at the foot of the steep to precipitous ground sloping south-easterly to a
bench, at from 170 to 185 feet elevation, on which the shaft-site and camp buildings are
situated, the workings being within 1,800 feet of the beach. Deep water extends close to the
shore, the float, at which freight is handled, being about 5.25 miles easterly by water around
the north-eastern end of the island from Thurlow (Shoal Bay), the nearest settlement.
Transportation to Thurlow and local points is provided by Union Steamship Company boats.
From the landing a tractor-road, over which a truck has been driven, extends for 2,000 feet
to the main workings. WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 21
The formation is chiefly composed of granodiorite of the Coast Range batholith, which,
adjacent to the developed section of the vein, contains numerous scattered inclusions of
andesite. The vein, generally varying in width from 3 to 7 feet, strikes north-westerly and
dips south-westerly at angles of from 50 to 70 degrees. It is somewhat irregular in strike
and dip and is broken at several points by pronounced faults. At points in the main adit-drift
the vein contains flat-lying " horses " of granodiorite 2 to 4 feet thick.
Mineralization consists of pyrite, with occasional chalcopyrite, the sulphides being irregularly distributed as disseminations, streaks, or masses through the quartz gangue. The
following assays indicate the value in specimen and selected material: (1.) Massive pyrite:
Gold, 5.54 oz. per ton; silver. 4.4 cz. per ton. (2.) Mixed chalcopyrite and pyrite with a little
quartz: Gold, 1.14 oz. per ton; silver, 7.2 oz. per ton; copper, 6.5 per cent. (3.) Quartz,
lacking visible sulphides: Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton. (4.) Mill concentrate:
Gold, 1.64 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.6 oz. per ton;  copper, 1 per cent.
The history of the property, as recorded in the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines
for 1919, 1927, 1928, 1930, and 1933, and in Bulletin No. 1, 1932, "Lode-gold Deposits of
British Columbia," is summarized as follows: The nucleus of the present property, first
known as the Dawn group, was staked by A. Pritchard. Development-work was initiated by
the Ladysmith Smelting Corporation in 1919. It was renamed Hope group in 1927. The
Thurlow Gold Mines, Limited, was incorporated in 1928, and in 1931 the Pacific Copper Mines,
Limited, acquired an option and continued development. In 1933 the property was under
option to the Federal Gold Mines, Limited, and since 1934 it has been worked at intervals
by R. W. Burton, H. W. Dewhurst, and associates of the Northern Mining and Milling
Company. They installed a mill of a nominal capacity of 10 tons in 24 hours at the portal
of the adit at 200 feet elevation. The equipment includes a 5- by 7-inch " Universal" jaw-
crusher, a 36- by 30^inch Union Iron Works ball-mill, plunger-type Vancouver Engineering
Works feeder, and Wilfley concentrating-table, the machinery being driven by Fairbanks-
Morse 12-horse-power oil-engine. Small lots of concentrates and sorted ore were shipped to
the Tacoma smelter at intervals during 1935 and 1936.
Going south-easterly from the highest point, the workings are located as follows: Connected open-cuts along a line of low bluffs between 365 and 345 feet elevation; portal of adit,
60 feet south 30 degrees east from the lowest surface showing and at 200 feet elevation;
open-cut (south-eastern end) 177 feet south 23 degrees east from the adit-portal and at 190
feet elevation; collar of inclined shaft 212 feet south 23 degrees east from the adit-portal
and at 185 feet elevation. The first-mentioned open-cuts expose an outcrop-length of 37 feet
along an irregular northerly strike with a westerly dip of 50 degrees, the vein being cut off
at its southern end by a fault striking north 88 degrees east and dipping northerly at 72
degrees. At the northern end conditions are indefinite, the vein pinching, possibly approaching
another fault not exposed. With the exception of the 8-foot northerly section, which is slightly
displaced on a minor fault, the showing is continuous, widths being from 46 to 64 inches.
A sample taken across 48 inches on the foot-wall side of the vein at the southern end of the
exposure, next to the fault, assayed: Gold, 0.32 oz. per ton; silver, 0.5 oz. per ton; and a
sample across the adjoining 16 inches on the hanging-wall side assayed: Gold, 0.03 oz. per
ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton. A sample across 46 inches, 17 feet northerly from the southern
end, assayed:  Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.3 oz. per ton.
The adit is driven north 20 degrees west for 136 feet, conditions being described by
measurements from the portal. At 92 feet a branch extends north 70 degrees west for 34
feet, and at 102 feet another branch extends first north 50 degrees for 33.5 feet, then north
30 degrees east for 21.5 feet. Between points 82 and 90 feet there is a winze, about 15 feet
deep, sunk on the vein, dipping 60 to 65 degrees westerly. Above the level the vein has been
stoped to the surface over a width of from 7 to 8 feet between points 11 and 32 feet in from
the portal, the foot-wall dip here being 65 degrees south-westerly. In this section, at chainage
20 feet, the vein was displaced 2.5 feet south-westerly on a fault striking north 70 degrees
east and dipping from 75 to 80 degrees southerly. This vein does not persist in the back of
the stoped section, 27 to 13 feet above the level, between chainages 32 and 67 feet, its crest
plunging north-westerly down to the winze location, where it is 2.5 feet below the adit-floor.
No definite break or fault was noted to account for this condition. Just beyond chainage 32
feet there is a short length of pyritized quartz, 12 to 18 inches wide, associated with poorly- F 22 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
defined fracture-planes dipping 50 degrees easterly, the quartz appearing to continue up on
this dip towards the surface. The easterly-striking fault noted on the surface, at 245 feet
elevation, was not definitely located in the drift, but its projected position at the latter horizon
corresponds closely to the end of the stoped section at chainage 67 feet. In the main adit at
chainage 116 feet, and crossing its two branches, there is a pronounced fault striking about
north 81 degrees east and dipping 76 degrees northerly, this being beyond the vein-exposures.
The vein, showing in places in the floor of the adit, between the portal and chainage 92
feet, is not properly exposed for sampling at regular intervals. Samples taken at accessible
points gave the following results: Across 4 feet of massive pyrite mineralization at 92 feet,
or 2 feet northerly from the winze-collar, 2.5 feet below the floor-level: Gold, 4 oz. per ton;
silver, 2.8 oz. per ton. Across 6 feet, 12 feet down the winze and just above water-level:
Gold, 0.26 oz. per ton; silver, 0.15 oz. per ton. Across 2.5-foot partial exposure at 73 feet:
Gold, 1.24 oz. per ton; silver, 2 oz. per ton. Across 2-foot partial exposure at 34 feet: Gold,
0.12 oz. per ton; silver, 0.4 oz. per ton. Across 3.5-foot partial exposure at 32 feet: Gold,
0.30 oz. per ton; silver, 0.5 oz. per ton. The vein in the floor is evidently continuous and
irregularly mineralized throughout the section specified, or for a length of 92 feet, with concentrations of pyrite adjacent to the winze. It will be noted that the 50-degree westerly
dipping, 37-foot outcrop section, lies a little to the west of and opposite the adit vein section
in the floor between points 66 and 103 feet in from the portal. This roughly corresponds
to the missing top portion of the vein over its plunging crest. The relationship of the two
vein sections is not known, but they could be connected with a small amount of work from
the level. This might disclose information having a bearing on the continuity of the vein to
the north. Extension of the north-westerly branch for a short distance should encounter the
surface showing on its dip, unless it has been disturbed by faulting before reaching the level.
The open-cut, 177 feet south-easterly from the adit-portal, is from 15 to 20 feet long but
largely caved. Pyritized and iron-stained quartz up to 22 inches wide is visible in the floor
for a length of 12 feet at the south-westerly end of this working, which extends along a
bearing north 35 degrees west. The 2-eompartment inclined shaft, full of water to within
6 feet of the collar, was sunk westerly about 65 degrees. An authoritative plan shows it to
be 72 feet deep, with a drift at 120 feet elevation extending along a crooked north-westerly
course for 80 feet to where the vein was cut off by a fault striking north 35 degrees east and
dipping 35 degrees south-easterly. Beyond the fault a crosscut 20 feet long is shown extending
northerly. This fault, projected to the surface, would pass a short distance in front of the
portal of the adit. From the relative position of the two vein sections and assuming a dip
of 65 degrees, a crosscut driven approximately 40 feet south-westerly from a point beyond
the fault in the lower level should cut the extension of the vein developed by the adit. There
is a considerable amount of quartz on the shaft-dump from which a small tonnage is said to
have been sorted for milling or shipping. A grab sample, not necessarily representative of
the remaining material, assayed:   Gold^ 0.10 oz. per ton;   silver, 0.4 oz. per ton.
On the gentle slope adjoining the shore, between points about 1,200 and 1,400 feet southeasterly from the shaft-"collar, an outcrop has been traced by trenching and stripping for a
length of 200 feet. The showings here, which are along the general trend of the previously
described vein section, are associated with well-defined fracture-planes striking from north 45
degrees west to north 50 degrees west and dipping 80 degrees south-westerly or vertical.
Pyrite mineralization in this section is generally light, with occasional massive streaks.
Widths are from 15 inches at the shore to 18 inches at the northern end, the maximum width
noted being 28 inches, where a sample assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, trace. Accommodation for a small crew is provided by buildings near the mine and there is a manager's
residence at the landing.
Phillips Arm Area.
This property, in the Vancouver Mining Division, consists of the following
Doratha Morton,  nine Crown-granted mineral claims and fractions:  Doratha Morton, Doratha
Morton Fr., Percy, Africa, Comox Fr., Chimnang, Eva, Douglas, and Banker,
said to be held under working agreement by interests locally represented by R. Crowe-Swords,
of the Hercules Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and Power Corporation. This company is
said to hold forty-eight adjacent claims by location, these being recent stakings. The precise
location of the Crown-granted claims is shown on B.C. Department of Lands Mineral Reference WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 23
Map No. 5t280. The holdings extend westerly from the western shore of Phillips Arm,
covering an area immediately south-west of Fanny Bay, the beach camp being approximately
135 miles in a direct line north-westerly from Vancouver. The mine camp, adjoining the
principal workings on the Doratha Morion claim, is on a bench at 2,300 feet elevation, which
interrupts the general, steep, north-easterly slope to Phillips Arm. The area is well timbered
with hemlock, cedar, and yellow cedar, with some fir at lower altitudes. Deep water extends
close to the shore, the upper camp being connected with the landing by a steep, wide trail.
The deposits occur in a shear-zone, up to 100 feet or more in width, striking northwesterly and dipping south-westerly at angles of from 70 to 80 degrees. In a general way
it follows the irregular contact between argillaceous, schistose rocks, and granitic rocks of
the Coast Range batholith, but, in detail, cuts both formations in places. The igneous
intrusives are of two distinct types, the deposits, which consist of numerous bands, stringers,
and lenses of quartz, being found mostly in a medium- to coarse-grained, light-coloured, altered
granite. The other type is a medium-grained, dark-coloured diorite or quartz diorite, a
specimen of which, examined microscopically, was composed of abundant basic andesine,
quite fresh but fractured and veined by epidote and hornblende, with a little orthoclase and
microline, quartz being common, some of it undoubtedly secondary. Hornblende was abundant,
commonly associated with iron ore, epidote, zoisite, and white mica. Some calcite was present
in the rock, which was highly fractured, the fractures being filled with a complex of secondary
minerals. The relative proportions of the principal minerals present were andesine, 50 per
cent.;   quartz, 15 per cent.;   and hornblende, 25 per cent.
The formations and the deposits are cut by numerous irregular dykes and intrusive bodies
of fine-grained andesitic rock which are later than the mineralization. The lenticular occurrences of quartz or silicified altered rock are irregularly mineralized with pyrite, which is
generally in banded streaks or seams roughly parallel with the trend of the zone, concentrations being found where shearing has been intense. At a few points copper-carbonate stains
accompany the pyrite, which occurs in massive form or as well-defined crystals. Gold values
appear to be largely associated with pyrite, samples of selected material assaying from 1.10
to 2.34 oz. gold per ton and from 1.5 to 9.5 oz. silver per ton.
The history of the Doratha Morton group dates back to 1898 and 1899, this original
operation having been closed down after about 10,000 tons of ore had been mined and treated
in the cyanide-mill, situated at tide-water, which was connected with the mine-workings by an
aerial tramway. Subsequently the machinery and mining equipment were removed and the
property is reported to have remained idle until 1924, when some development was done by the
Glasair Mining Company, of Vancouver.
Work was continued in 1933 and 1934 by the Hercules Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and
Power Corporation, while the Santiago Mines, Limited, carried out a little work in 1935 under
a lease agreement. No activity occurred at the property during 1936. References to the
Doratha Morton are contained in the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines for 1898, 1899,
1925, 1926, 1927, 1933, and 1934. In the last mentioned, page F 8, it is recorded that the
production made in 1898 and 1899 yielded approximately 10,000 oz. silver and 4,434 oz. gold.
The same report contains the assay results of numerous samples taken in the new and old
workings. The latter, comprising five adits, include a total footage of about 2,100 feet of
drifts and crosscuts, most of the stoping having been done above the No. 1 level, which
develops the vein-zone for a length of 500 feet to a depth of from 10 to 150 feet. Work done
on the Doratha Morton claim by the Hercules Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and Power
Corporation consists of three adits, aggregating a total footage of about 250 feet, and a
number of open-cuts. This later development, with which the present report is chiefly concerned, is located north-westerly from the old workings, the shear-zone now having been
traced by openings, generally superficial, for a combined length of about 1,400 feet.
Conditions are described going south-easterly from the north-western extremity of the
developed area. The rock formation is altered, frequently silicified, granite unless otherwise
specified, and dykes are all of fine-grained andesitic type. In No. 2 open-cut, at 2,512 feet
elevation, on the hanging-wall side of a narrow dyke, there is a 32-inch width of rusty quartz
with pyrite-streaks, which assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 0.1 oz. per ton. Eighty
feet south-easterly the No. 1 open-cut, at 2,524 feet elevation, exposes a 17-inch width of
similar quartz containing pyrite-specks, which assayed:   Gold, 0.20 oz. per ton;   silver, 1.0 oz. F 24 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
per ton. This is on the hanging-wall side of a 42-inch width of interbanded quartz and rock,
on the foot-wall side of which there are three short, narrow sections of dyke with varying
westerly strikes and differing dips. The portal of the " 250 " level is at 2,455 feet elevation,
and 90 feet north 40 degrees east from the No. 1 open-cut. Driven south 31 degrees west as
a crosscut for 146 feet, it contains a drift, 55 feet in from the portal, which extends for 24
feet along the " foot-wall" fracture striking south 45 degrees east and dipping 80 degrees to
the south-west. Chaining from the portal, this working intersects highly-metamorphosed,
schistose, sedimentary rocks, including a narrow tongue of granite, to 47 feet; from 47 feet
to 72 feet the rock is chiefly altered, silicified granite and quartz on the south-eastern side of
the crosscut with fine-grained, somewhat altered, andesitic dyke on the opposite wall; this
dyke then extends on both walls to a contact, striking easterly with 73 degree southerly dip,
with altered silicified granite. The latter rock is then cut to 188 feet, where the " hanging-
wall " fracture strikes south-easterly and dips 70 degrees south-westerly. Between this fracture and the face there is diorite, the composition of which was previously described. Samples,
taken in the drift across 22 and 38 inches of ircn-stained auartz at points 7 and 12 feet respectively from the crosscut, both assayed a trace in gold and silver per ton. In the face of the
drift similar quartz is 1 foot wide and at the crosscut-drift intersection the showing is cut
off by the irregularly-shaped large dyke previously mentioned. A sample across 20 inches
of quartz and silicified granite at a point 12 feet back from the face of the crosscut, or at
chainage 134 feet, assayed: Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton; silver, 0.5 oz. per ton. The portal of the
" Old No. 2 workings " at 2,478 feet elevation is situated about 200 feet south-easterly from
No. 1 open-cut. Superficial and shallow underhand stoping was done near the portal of this
level, the main course of which extends westerly for about 145 feet. At 75 feet in from the
portal there is a 15-foot north-westerly drift which develops a quartz-lens up to 33 inches
wide. Its south-easterly end is cut off by a westerly-striking fault in the main adit and
beyond this fault a southerly 12-foot branch opposite the drift is all in dyke. A recent
extension consists of a 20-foot drift extending north-westerly from a point about 25 feet in
from the portal, gaining shallow depth. This working developed a short section of high-grade
ore which at its north-western extremity is cut off by a fault and at its south-eastern end
merges with the old stope. A grab sample from a small pile of well-mineralized quartz
assayed: Gold, 2.34 oz. per ton; silver, 6.5 oz. per ton. The small tonnages referred to in
the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines for 1934 were shipped to the Tacoma smelter from
this stope extension. In the main working the altered, silicified granite is exposed to a point
104 feet in from the portal, where there are spots of quartz adjoining a dyke which extends
to the face.
The portal of the " 100 " level, at 2,480 feet elevation, is 260 feet easterly from the last-
mentioned working. It is driven south 15 degrees east for 14 feet, then south 48 degrees east
for 39 feet, the latter course being a drift. Immediately above the portal, to the south-east,
there is a zone of alternating quartz bands and stringers, 8 feet wide, streaks of pyrite
occurring along the hanging-wall side of the showing. No. 1 cut East, at 2,518 feet elevation,
is about 40 feet south-easterly from the face of the " 100 " level. In this surface working
there is exposed a 20-foot section which, from hanging-wall to foot-wall, is as follows: 11-inch
quartz-lens; 11-inch diorite dyke; 12-inch quartz-band; 6 feet of diorite; 5 feet of sheared,
altered sedimentary rock containing quartz stringers; 5-foot quartz-band. A sample across
the last-mentioned section, which contained pyrite, assayed: Gold, 0.08 oz. per ton; silver, 0.4
oz. per ton. A selected sample from the same showing, which is 15 feet long and narrows to
20 inches at its north-western end, adjoining a slip, assayed: Gold, 1.10 oz. per ton; silver,
1.5 oz. per ton. Reverting to the " 100 " level, a sample across 12 inches from a quartz-
showing partially exposed along the south-western wall of the drift between the face and a
point 11 feet back assayed: Gold, 0.24 oz. per ton; silver, 0.7 oz. per ton. The north-western
end of the No. 1 level drift of the old workings, which breaks through to the surface, is about
150 feet south-easterly from the No. 1 cut East and at 2,510 feet elevation. This drift, reached
by a crosscut 103 feet long, is about 500 feet in length, developing the mineralized zone at
depths of from 10 to 150 feet below the surface. Chaining south-easterly along the drift
from the opening at the north-western end, stoping over an irregular area has been done above
the level to 220 feet, where the mineralized granite host-rock is cut by diorite which intersects
the drift to 265 feet.    Silicified granite containing bands and patches of quartz is then followed WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 25
to 323 feet, in which section there is a small stope. At the latter chainage-point the irregularly-branching drift cuts through altered andesitic rock to 388 feet. From here to 455 feet
conditions are complex with irregularly-trending, narrow zones and patches of silicified
granite lying between areas of diorite and andesitic rock. The last 45-foot drift section to
the face, in which there is another small stope, is largely in silicified granite and quartz, with
diorite along the north-eastern wall. Just back of the face a narrow tongue of diorite cuts
south-westerly through the granite.
No. 3 level, at 2,315 feet elevation, comprises 665 feet of workings. This footage includes
the crosscut approach, 475 feet long, from which 110 feet of drifting has been done under the
central part of the section stoped above No. 1 level. Mineralization at this horizon is sparse
in the silicified granite. Intermediate between Nos. 1 and 3 levels, the No. 4 adit, at 2,450
feet elevation, is a crosscut, said to be 190 feet long, which is directed towards a point below
the No. 1 level stope just north-west of the crosscut approach at the upper horizon. This
working, from which no drifting or stoping is reported to have been done, was in bad condition
for examination. At the south-eastern extremity of the old workings, No. 5 level, at 2,553
feet elevation, is a crosscut 75 feet long, the portal of which is 125 feet north-easterly from
the south-eastern face of the No. 1 level drift. This working has not reached the shear-zone
area.
Work done in the neighbouring area by the Hercules Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and
Power Corporation includes an adit-crosscut adjoining tide-water near Fanny Bay, which,
409 feet long according to the Report of the Minister of Mines for 1934, was not examined by
the writer.
Vancouver Island.*
This company is stated to own some thirty-five mineral claims and fractions,
Vancouver Island some of which are Crown grants, in the vicinity of Mineral Creek.    The
Gold Mines, Ltd. camp and workings are on Mineral Creek, a tributary of China Creek.    They
(N.P.L.).        are reached by following the reconditioned railway-grade of the Alberni
Pacific Lumber Company up China Creek for 8% miles from the city limits
of Port Alberni to the junction of Mineral and China Creeks at an elevation of 1,100 feet;
thence by approximately 1% miles of steep switchback road, passable by low-geared, short
wheel-base cars and by caterpillar tractor, up China Creek to camp at an elevation of 2,600 feet.
The workings are on the steep easterly slope of the " V-shaped " valley of Mineral Creek;
the lowest is a few feet above the creek-bottom and the highest is 200 feet above it. Although
the slopes of the valley are very steep, averaging 35 degrees, they are covered by a heavy stand
of tall timber and a light mantle of glacial till. The timber is mainly fir, hemlock being scarce,
and, although not of merchantable grade, is quite good enough for mine-timber.
The rock formation is highly-altered greenstone, which consists of slightly porphyritic,
amygdaloidal, and tuffaceous varieties. The average strike of these rocks, as determined from
the well-bedded tuffs, is north-south, the dips averaging 25 degrees westerly. Three main
quartz veins, known as the Mac, Belcher, and Dunsmuir, follow well-developed shears; of these
the Mac and Belcher veins strike north-westerly and range in dip from 40 to 55 degrees southeasterly, whereas the Dunsmuir strikes north-south and dips 80 degrees easterly. The quartz
in these shears occurs partly as filling, but the dark-grey colour and the numerous " ghosts "
of wall-rock fragments indicate that replacement of wall-rock, both that belonging to the shear
and that adjacent to it, was the more important process. A small amount of pyrite and some
free gold are the only minerals other than quartz in these veins.
The quartz in the veins is of varying ages. The earliest occurs as hair-like stringers contained only in the included fragments of wall-rock. These veinlets terminate against a later
dark-grey quartz that has replaced considerable wall-rock. This in turn is traversed by vein-
lets and large masses of watery-white quartz. The vein-pyrite occurs as fine grains in
numerous paper-thin ribbons of gouge roughly parallel to the vein-walls and as disseminated
grains in both grey and water-white quartz. The sporadic visible gold occurs either with such
pyrite-seams or as discrete grains in both grey and white quartz; the small amount occurring,
vitiating any conclusion as to which quartz was preferred in the gold-deposition. Numerous
calcite-seams, 1 mm. or less in thickness, traverse the veins, conspicuously at right angles to
* By J. S. Stevenson. F 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
and directly across the gouge ribbons, and are evidently later than these. The older reports
indicate that some sphalerite occurred in the quartz veins, but none was seen by the writer
at the time of his examination.
In addition to the quartz veins a carbonate-zone outcrops in the creek-bottom; it consists
of andesite and tuff that have been sheared in a north-south direction over a width of approximately 40 feet. The development of ankeritic carbonate, numerous hair-like stringers of
quartz, and occasional irregular pyrite veinlets, combined with kaolinitization, have so altered
the sheared rock that it is now buff-coloured on fresh surfaces and rusty-coloured on exposed
ones. Examination of the sheared rock under a microscope is necessary to establish the
andesitic or tuffaceous nature of different portions of this highly-sheared and altered rock.
The shear-zone follows the shearing, which ranges in strike from north 10 degrees east to
north 20 degrees west and dips 70 degrees easterly.
The description of the workings will be in two parts, the first devoted to the quartz veins
and the second to the shear-zone.
The quartz veins have been developed by surface-strippings, most of which have either
sloughed or have been covered by dumps from the adits, and by five adits in which small
amounts of stoping have been done.
Five adits have been driven on the quartz veins. They include the lower Mac adit at an
elevation of 2,627 feet; the upper Mac adit at an elevation of 2,715 feet and 120 feet north
27 degrees east from the lower Mac adit; the lower Belcher adit at an elevation of 2,781 feet
and 175 feet south 85 degrees east from the lower Mac adit; the upper Belcher adit at an elevation of 2.900 feet and 210 feet north 22 degrees east from the lower Belcher adit; and, finally,
the Dunsmuir adit at an elevation of 2,876 feet and 390 feet north 15 degrees west from the
upper Belcher adit.
The lower Mac adit has been driven from the portal as follows: North 33 degrees east for
15 feet; north 80 degrees east for 10 feet to where the Mac vein, striking north 45 degrees east
and dipping 40 degrees south-easterly, is first intersected; north 42 degrees east for 75 feet
along the vein (to point A) ; from here a short crosscut has been driven south 45 degrees east
for 15 feet and from it a short drift south 45 degrees west for 15 feet along a branch vein
striking north-easterly into the main Mac vein. At the end of this drift a raise has been driven
north 45 degrees west for 30' feet to break through at the surface at a point on the Mac vein
35 feet south 10 degrees east from the portal of the upper Mac adit; from point A (above) the
main drift has been continued north 42 degrees east for 15 feet, then north 82 degrees east for
30 feet, then swinging back on the vein in a direction north 47 degrees east for 35 feet to the
face.
The upper Mac adit has been driven in a direction north 42 degrees east for 420 feet along
the Mac vein. However, at this point the vein-shear has disappeared and 10' feet farther the
Dunsmuir vein is intersected. A drift has been driven northward along this part of the Dunsmuir vein for 40 feet. Part of the Mac vein has been underhand stoped for a few feet along
a section that extends from a point outside the portal where the raise from the lower Mac adit
breaks through to the surface, to a point 25 feet in from the portal; and overhand-stoped to the
surface along a section extending from the portal to 120 feet in; an overhand stope between
here and 175 feet in had just been started before mining operations ceased. The vein in this
adit strikes north 42 degrees east and dips 40 degrees south-easterly.
The Mac vein has been explored by two adits, a lower at an elevation of 2,627 feet and an
upper at 2,715 feet. Where exposed in the lower adit the vein ranges from 3 to 18 inches in
width, averaging 6 inches. Beneath the raise to the upper adit the vein-shear splits m two,
one branch going south-eastward and consisting of frozen quartz and barren shear, alternating
along the strike, and the other going north-westward and consisting of 2-inch stringers of
quartz. The drift follows this latter shear, which converges towards the other as the face is
approached. With the exception of a 10-foot thickness of well-banded tuffs near the portal,
the rock in this adit is andesitic and has been strongly leached for an average of 6 inches on
each side of the vein-shear.
In the upper Mac adit the Mac vein-shear is continuous for 420 feet, averaging 5 inches
throughout most of this length, although ranging from a narrow vein-shear to sections of
banded quartz 12 inches in thickness. In and adjacent to this adit the rock formations include
a 10-foot band of tuff 15 feet south from the portal, amygdaloidal greenstone from the portal WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 27
to 140 feet in; then massive andesite to 200 feet in; then a zone of andesite in which layers of
well-banded tuff are common. This zone extends to within 70 feet of the face of the drift, the
rock in this latter section consisting of typical andesite. It may be noted that the orientation
of the ovoid amygdales indicate that these andesitic flows conform in attitude to the tuffs.
From the portal to the point where the tuffs commence the vein is tight and well defined and is
accompanied by marked bleaching of the wall-rock;, but throughout the greater part of the
zone of alternating tuffs and andesite the vein loses its typical banded appearance, becomes
very irregular, and frequently only the vein-slip is present. However, quartz comes in again
occurring as stringers over a 50-foot transition zone into tuff-free andesite; only to string out
again north-eastward into the shear and to disappear as the 40-foot north-south section of the
Dunsmuir vein is approached. Cross-faulting of the vein is uncommon; in one place it has
been moved a maximum of 10 feet transverse to its strike. It may be mentioned that the
numerous small normal faults cutting and displacing the tuffs do not appear to affect the
main vein-shear.
The lower Belcher adit has been driven north 13 degrees east for 55 feet and easterly for
200 feet; this crosscut intersecting the Belcher vein at 150 feet. From where intersected, the
Belcher vein, dipping 50 degrees north-easterly, has been followed by a sinuous drift in a
direction north 15 degrees east for 235 feet. At 135 feet along this drift from the crosscut a
raise has been driven in a direction north 65 degrees west to break through into the upper
Belcher adit at a point 40 feet in from its portal. At 200 feet along the lower Belcher drift
from the crosscut a short working has been driven south 57 degrees east for 75 feet to intersect
a small vein striking north and dipping 55 degrees easterly.
The upper Belcher adit has been driven in a direction north 27 degrees east for its full
length of 380 feet along the Belcher vein and vein-shear, which dips 50 degrees south-easterly.
A little underhand stoping has been done on the vein for 40 feet north-easterly along the drift
from the raise that comes from the lower Belcher adit; and from the inner end of this stope,
which is 80 feet in from the portal, to 180 feet in, an overhand stope has been commenced on
the vein.
Two adits have been driven on the Belcher vein, an upper at an elevation of 2,900 feet and
a lower at 2,781 feet. The full length of the upper adit, 380 feet, is a drift on the vein-shear.
The Belcher vein commonly ranges from 1 foot to 6 inches in width, although an occasional
lenticular thickening to 4 feet and a narrowing to a few 1-inch stringers are common. The
quartz, containing scattered bunches of pyrite, is quite frequently ribboned by jagged or sawtooth partings of crushed rock %2 inch or less in thickness. Towards the face the quartz
becomes less, but the shear continues. The shearing accompanying the Belcher is much wider
than that with the Mac vein. The Belcher shear varies from 1 to 4 feet in width and frequently
is accompanied by brecciated wall-rock that has been thoroughly leached and impregnated by
pyrite and narrow veinlets of watery quartz. Tuff is not abundant in this adit, occurring only
as thin beds at 200 and 300 feet from the portal.
The short adit above and 85 feet north 23 degrees west from the upper adit intersects
10 feet of tuff and shows, in the face, a lenticular 2-foot by 6-inch segment of ribboned quartz
contained in a fault-zone. Its discontinuity and association with strong shearing suggest that
the quartz is drag-ore from some larger vein.    It is locally known as the Intersection vein.
The lower Belcher adit begins as a short drift on a shear partly filled with quartz and
known as the Chicago vein. Cribbing prevented a good examination of this vein. The working
turns at 60 feet from the portal and crosscuts to the Belcher vein. In this lower adit the vein-
shear, though continuous, is tighter and the quartz much less continuous; the vein is also
narrower, varying from a maximum of 2 feet to mere stringers. In the face of the crosscut
nearest the end of the drift a 10-inch vein of ribboned quartz and pyrite has been intersected.
Brecciation and leaching of the wall-rock is still common. From the portal to the intersection
of the crosscut with the vein the rock is fine-grained andesite; in the westward continuation
of this crosscut, the drift and the accompanying workings northwards, the rock is amygdaloidal.
A zone of tuff occurs near the face of the drift.
The Dunsmuir adit has been driven as a crosscut south 84 degrees east to intersect the
vein 75 feet in, but because of vein faulting it has been continued another 25 feet; from here a
drift has been driven along the vein north 4 degrees east for 160 feet and south 4 degrees west F 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
for 25 feet more (ground was badly caved when examined). Owing to caving ground the
extent of stoping was hard to determine, but overhand stoping appears to have been done
between points 50 and 110 feet respectively from the crosscut.
The crosscut from the portal of the Dunsmuir adit intersects 1 foot of a well-defined vein
of ribbon-quartz, which has been indefinitely faulted approximately 15 feet eastward, the main
drift following the northerly continuation of this vein. At the intersection of the drift and the
crosscut the back displays a plexus of quartz veins in leached wall-rock over a width of 12 feet.
The vein in the main drift consists of ribbon-quartz varying in width from 10 inches to mere
stringers in the vein-shear near the face. The rock in this working is mostly tuff; from the
portal to 50 feet in tuffs predominate; from here to the east wall of the drift medium-grained
andesite is found; but from the back of the caved winze and striking along the drift the tuffs
occur, first only on the east wall, then partly in the back, until in the face they occur across
the full width of the drift. They strike approximately north 10 degrees west and dip 50
degrees westerly. Wall-rock brecciation and alteration, manifested in the development of
carbonate, kaolin, and pyrite, is common in the andesite, but practically lacking in the tuffs.
It may be noted that the old stope and the open-cut above are in the andesitic greenstone.
The shear-zone is a zone of tightly-sheared and carbonatized greenstone occurring on the
easterly side of the valley of Mineral Creek, a creek that flows southerly past all the workings.
Workings on the shear-zone comprise twelve strippings and two adits, a lower adit at an
elevation of 2,800 feet and an upper adit at an elevation of 2,932 feet, 285 feet north 10 degrees
east from the lower adit. All these workings have been driven eastward from near creek-level,
and in describing the position of the strippings directions will be given to the westerly or
creek end of each stripping.
No. 1 stripping is 35 feet south 30 degrees east from the portal of the lower adit.
No. 2 is 40 feet north 10 degrees east from the same portal.
No. 3 is 20 feet north 8 degrees west from No. 2.
No. 4 is 35 feet north 40 degrees east from No. 3.
No. 5 is 30 feet north 15 degrees east from No. 4.
No. 6 is 30 feet north 2 degrees west from No. 5.
No. 7 is 45 feet north 20 degrees east from No. 6.
No. 8 is 75 feet north 6 degrees east from No. 7.
No. 9 is 50 feet north 3 degrees west from No. 8.
No. 10 is 50 feet north 10 degrees east from No. 9.
No. 11 is 50 feet north 3 degrees east from No. 10 (elevation 2,960 feet).
No. 12 is 35 feet north 15 degrees east from No. 11.
The lower adit has been driven north 50 degrees east for 50 feet, then branched, a short
crosscut being driven easterly for 30 feet and a main drift driven along the general shearing
of the rocks north 10 degrees east for 130 feet to the face. Sixty degrees back from the face
of this drift a crosscut has been driven north 70 degrees west for 42 feet to a working-face.
The upper adit has been driven north 72 degrees east for 25 feet to the face.
The upper adit, at elevation of 2,932 feet, cuts across buff-coloured rock that has been
sheared in planes, 2 inches apart, striking north 20 degrees west and dipping 70 degrees
easterly. The rock contains disseminated pyrite and numerous veinlets of watery quartz.
That faulting attended by displacement occurs is exemplified by a fault in the adit 6 feet from
the face striking north 20 degrees east and1 dipping 45 degrees easterly, which has displaced
a 1-foot band of black mineralized quartz a minimum distance of 10 feet along the working.
An estimated minimum displacement of 25 feet must have occurred in the plane of the fault.
The lower adit on the shear-zone, at an elevation of 2,800 feet, is mostly within the buff-
coloured rock typical of the shear-zone, although blocky tuff occurs in the face of the drift
and in the crosscut to the east. Strike-faults containing a considerable amount of gouge are
common; the strongest fault, striking north 10 degrees west and dipping 70 degrees northeasterly and intersected at a point 65 feet from the portal, averages 4 feet in width and contains much crushed rock and black gouge.
The shear-zone was sampled extensively by chip-sampling, some seventy-nine samples
being taken. A tabulated description of these follows. Because of the presence of considerable spotty free gold in the main quartz veins these were not sampled. WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 29
Gold.
Length of Sample. Oz. per Ton.
Trench No. 1—
Three continuous 5-foot samples over 15 feet, average     0.007
Trench No. 2—
Five continuous 5-foot samples over 25 feet, average    0.026
Trench No. 3—
Six continuous 5-foot samples over 30 feet, average     0.025
Trench No. 4—
Seven intermittent 5-foot samples over 35 feet, average   (ground
oxidized and sloughed)    0.07
Trench No. 5—
Two 5-foot samples on vertical faces, average (trench badly sloughed)    0.04
Trench No. 6—
Too badly sloughed.
Trench No. 7—
Five feet in uppermost trench, average .....    0.02
Five feet in lowermost trench, average     0.06
Trench No. 8—
Four intermittent 5-foot samples, average     0.04
Trench No. 9—
Six continuous 5-foot samples, average    0.06
Trench No. 10—
Five continuous 5-foot samples     0.085
Recheck with four continuous 5-foot samples     0.065
Trench No. 11—
Badly sloughed—only one 5-foot sample     0.03
Trench No. 12—
Seven continuous 5-foot samples     0.03'
Average of above cuts representing a shear-zone length of 500' feet     0.05
Shear-zone, upper adit—
Five continuous 5-foot wall samples from face outwards, average     0.05
One 3-foot sample at portal     0.06
Four continuous 5-foot check samples from portal in, average     0.085
Shear-zone, lower adit—
(a.)  10-foot continuous samples from face of first crosscut south-
westwards to portal of adit—
Face to 10 feet     0.16
10 feet to 20 feet     0.08
20 feet to 30 feet, three samples, average     0.02
30 feet to 40 feet     0.06
40 feet to 50 feet     0.02
50 feet to portal     Trace
Average, 0.058.
(6.)  Samples from new crosscut on west side of main drift;  samples
listed from drift towards working-face of crosscut—
Drift to 5 feet  0.01
5 feet to 10 feet  0.02
10 feet to 15 feet  0.01
15 feet to 20 feet :  Trace
20 feet to 25 feet  Trace
25 feet to 30 feet  Nil
30 feet to 37 feet  Trace
37 feet to 42 feet '.  Trace
(c.) 3-foot westerly sample across face of main drift     0.04
2-foot easterly sample across face of main drift     0.02 F 30
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
Descriptions of this property, referred to in the older reports as the " Alberni Consolidated " and comprising the Alberni group of claims, may be found in the following Annual
Reports of the Minister of Mines:   1895, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1933, and 1934.
The original group of four Crown-granted claims, the Alberni, Chicago, Warspite, and
Victoria, were staked in 1895 and acquired by Dunsmuir interests; in 1897 an English company acquired the property and operated for two years, after which time there is no record
of activity until the spring of 1933, when R. W. Williams leased the reverted Crown grants and
later in the year optioned them to the Vancouver Island Gold Mines, Limited, which was organized in September, 1933. This company has increased its holdings to include the present
holdings stated of thirty-five claims and fractions.
The early work on the property consisted of sinking a shaft, driving a crosscut and drift
on the Dunsmuir vein, extracting small amounts of ore from it, and open-cutting and a small
amount of stoping on the Belcher vein.    It is recorded in the Minister of Mines' Report for
1897 that several lots of ore aggregating 30 tons had been shipped out to be tested, and in the
1898 Minister of Mines' Report that an 8-stamp mill was erected and two clean-ups were made.
In 1933 R. W. Williams sampled and dewatered the shaft, then turned the property over to the
present company, which, after further stripping and open-cutting, drove the upper and lower
Mac and Belcher adits, and in 1936 the two shear-zone adits. Early in the summer of 1936 a
35-ton pilot-mill was installed; but, consequent upon difficulties of operation, the mill was
closed early in the fall and operations were suspended on the property.
This company owns the Red Rose, White Rose, Pink Rose, Yellow Rose, and
Havilah Gold    Spike Nos. 1-4, inclusive, mineral claims.    Of these claims the White Rose
Mines, Ltd.      and Red Rose were staked in August, 1934, and the remainder in February,
1936, all by Walter Harris.    They are between elevations of 3,500 and 4,300
feet at the head of McQuillan Creek, the main southerly tributary of China Creek, a large creek
flowing westward into Alberni Canal.
The property is reached by following the abandoned railway-grade of the Alberni Pacific
Logging Company. This grade has been made suitable for the automobile traffic as far as the
junction of McQuillan and China Creeks at a point 11% miles eastward from the city limits
LEGEND
Open  cut
Quartj   lens
Shearing
Fault   showing  dip
Hybrid   diorite Ci-i-^
Quarts-feldspar porphyry dyke I * *„X|
Hornblende-feldspar dyke        L^j-11
Old greenstone
Scale
width  Oj.Gold 0;.Silver
30"       0.0 8        0.6
Nitinat      Wv'>
slope      v i/>1'
^^j. 'Ei. 4100 —
Width Oj.Gold   Og.Silver
0.6 ' c~
-\ 1
width   Oj.Gold    03.Silver
4" L02 3.6
3.66
5.2
SO"
Havilah Gold Mines, Ltd.    Sketch-plan of Workings. WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6).
F 31
of Port Alberni, or 3 miles beyond, the branch road to the Vancouver Island Gold Mine. At the
time of the author's examination a trail led from the junction of these creeks at an elevation
of 1,300 feet to the camp at an elevation of 3,550 feet; of the 4 miles of trail, 2 miles were on a
gentle grade and 2 on a very steep one. It is stated that a narrow-gauge road has been built
from the junction of the creeks for 3 miles to King Solomon Basin, a basin not entered by the
old trail. A pack-horse trail has been constructed from this basin to the camp and workings.
The total distance from Port Alberni is 11% miles by auto-road, 3 miles by narrow-gauge road,
and 1 mile by pack-horse trail.
The workings on the property will be described under two main headings—the lower
workings on the Gillespie vein and the upper workings on the Alberni and McQuillan veins.
The lower workings, at an altitude of 3,500 feet, are on the westerly side and near the
bottom of a north-south-trending cirque. The upper workings, between altitudes of 4,000 and
4,300 feet, are at the head of this same cirque, the uppermost being just below the divide
between McQuillan and Nitinat Creeks. The hillside in the vicinity of all these workings is
very steep, the lower slopes covered by scrub fir and snow-brush, and the upper by large talus
boulders. Suitable mine and domestic timbers are abundant on the hillsides immediately below
the lower workings and abundant water is furnished by McQuillan Creek.
The lower workings are on a tabular quartz vein, the Gillespie, that has been shown by five
cross-trenches to extend for 660 feet on a 35-degree slope, ranging in strike from north 10
degrees to north 65 degrees east, dipping 70 degrees east, and ranging in width from 2 feet to
3 inches. It is not markedly lenticular, but appears to narrow to the south, and to the north
is seen as three narrow, tight 2-inch stringers in andesite. The rock formation near by is
massive augite andesite, now a greenstone, that has been badly shattered close to the vein.
The metallic minerals in the vein include abundant pyrite, sphalerite, and galena, with smaller
amounts of chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite.
The main working on the Gillespie vein is a cut at an elevation of 3,500 feet closest to and
100 feet west from the cabin. Here a combined cut and stripping expose the main vein for a
strike-length of 20 feet. This vein is quite tabular over its explored length, strikes north
05 degrees east, dips 70 degrees easterly, ranges in width from 15 inches to 20 inches, and consists of quartz containing bands of abundant sulphides. Over a 5-foot width in the hanging-
wall of this vein the wall-rock is sheared and contains lenticular quartz-sulphide veins of
varying attitude, ranging from 1 to 4 inches in width. However, this zone does not continue
for more than 15 feet along the strike; the occurrence of numerous quartz-sulphide veinlets
at this point having been localized in the acute angle between the slight amount of shearing
accompanying the main vein and the shear accompanying a 4-inch quartz veinlet farther to
the east and striking north 10 degrees west; eastward beyond this shear the wall-rock is
unsheared and unmineralized. The sulphides include abundant pyrite, galena, and sphalerite
accompanied by minor amounts of chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite.
The results of sampling this cut are:—
Gold.
Silver.
Lead.
Zinc.
Description of Sample.
Oz. per Ton.
Oz. per Ton.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
0.20
2.2
0.4
0.23
Across 19 inches of banded vein-matter in the main
vein.
0.28
0.9
Ditto, but 10 feet farther south.
0.06
0.4
Trace
0.28
Across 63 inches of sheared andesite containing narrow quartz-sulphide veinlets.
0.26
1.0
Trace
0.30
Across 4 inches of rusty quartz in the extreme hanging-wall of the shear area.
0.02
Trace
Across 60 inches of slightly sheared andesite 10 feet
south from the 63-inch sample, indicating decrease
in mineralization and values northward away from
the junction of vein-shear with a branch shear.
The Gillesjne vein is exposed in two other trenches southward from this main trench and
cut. In a trench 48 feet south 18 degrees west and 16 feet higher, a tabular 3-inch quartz
vein occurs which may be correlated with the Gillesjiie. In another trench and stripping, 180
feet south 20 degrees west and 75 feet higher than the main cut, the vein has been exposed F 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
for a strike-length of 40 feet, showing an average width of 1 foot over that distance and
containing abundant sulphides. Three samples, all oxidized, taken across 12 inches at the
base of this exposure assayed: Gold, 7 oz., 1.9 oz., and 1.68 oz. per ton; silver, 3, 1.7, and 2.8
oz. per ton respectively; and a 12-inch sample taken across the vein at the top of the exposure
assayed:   Gold, 2.22 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.2 oz. per ton.
A third trench, 130 feet south 20 degrees west and 100 feet higher than the last, failed
to intersect the vein, although driven across its probable projection. It is possible that since
the last exposure—namely, 8 inches of tabular vein 80 feet north 20 degrees east from here—
the vein may have pinched, or it may be that the trench, which is only 20 feet long, was not
extended far enough either east or west to cross the vein. The rock in the trench is blocky
greenstone and indicates considerable shattering.
Northward from the main cut nearest the cabin two other trenches have been dug across
the extension of the Gillespie vein. The first, 370 feet in a direction north 12 degrees east
and 200 feet lower in elevation, is a 30-foot cut that has been dug across the face of the steep
hillside and exposes two 12-inch zones of shearing 10 feet apart, consisting of rusty, blocky
greenstone and narrow veinlets of quartz. Samples across each of these zones assayed: Gold,
0.08 and 0.12 oz. per ton respectively; and silver, 1 oz. per ton and a trace. A second
similar trench and a cut 12 feet long dug in a north-south direction, 45 feet in a direction
north 12 degrees east from the last and 30 feet lower in elevation, exposes an 8-inch oxidized
zone of decomposed rock, a 1-inch rib and several small fragments of mineralized quartz.
A sample of this material assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, trace. The rock in this
cut is sheared and decomposed over a width of 5 feet.
The probable continuation of the Gillespie vein northward is exposed in the bed of McQuillan Creek approximately 150 feet north 15 degrees east from the last trench, where it occurs as
three 1- to 2-inch tight quartz veinlets with the usual strike in hard massive andesite, all
evidence of shearing being absent.
The geology in the vicinity of the upper workings is complex. Old greenstones, some
definitely andesitic, and others appearing to be shattered tuffs, contain irregular and lenticular
feldspar dykes that are highly altered. These include light-coloured, hornblende-feldspar
dykes and a conspicuous, coarse-grained quartz-feldspar porphyry dyke, which has the same
attitude as the veins. All these rocks have apparently been intruded by a granitic rock now
lying to the east as a large body of coarse-grained hybrid diorite. Half a mile northward
across the basin in some high reddish-weathering bluffs, the porphyry dyke has been transected
and partly replaced by a large area of fresh, dense diabase, which is, however, cut by a strong,
tabular quartz vein. No acid intrusives that could be correlated in appearance with typical
Coast Range granodiorite were found; the veins probably being the only representatives.
In the upper workings two veins are exposed, the McQuillan in a short adit and the
Alberni in open-cuts above this adit. The adit, at an elevation of 4,100 feet, is 1,900 feet in
a direction south 4 degrees west from the main cut of the lower workings near the camp and
is 600 feet higher in elevation. This working has been driven 36 feet as an open-cut and 21
feet as an adit in a direction south 15 degrees west; from the face a short crosscut was driven
8 feet westward. Over a 16-foot width the face of the open-cut, above the back of the portal
"nd for 10 feet upwards, contains three shears, striking north 5 degrees east and dipping 70
degrees easterly. The most easterly is 20 inches wide and includes 3 inches of quartz and
sulphides on the foot-wall. The middle shear is much narrower and contains a sulphide-
quartz lens ranging from 1 to 8 inches in thickness. The most westerly shear constitutes a
3-foot layer of sheared andesite intervening between the quartz porphyry and the feldspar
porphyry lying westward therefrom. The shear—assaying alone only: Gold, 0.08 oz. per
ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton—contains a short lens of quartz of 8 inches maximum thickness
which assayed: Gold, 1 oz. per ton; silver 0.4 oz. per ton. Underground the easterly shear
tightens, being recognized in the back only as a tight slip and in the face as a 4-inch width of
silicified porphyry containing abundant pyrite. On each side of this slip the pyritiferous
material assayed:   Gold, 0.2 oz. per ton;   silver, trace.
The centre shear becomes an 8-inch sulphide-quartz lens that continues southward, but
northwards ends against a slip. The vein-matter assayed: Gold, 0.14 oz. per ton; silver,
trace.    A tight slip showing in the back of the drift and striking north 30 degrees east seems WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 33
to have moved both shears a few feet westwards. The central shear and contained quartz
has been called the McQuillan vein;  the other two are unnamed.
The Alberni vein is a zone of intensely-sheared greenstone, averaging 10 feet in width,
that contains from one to three lenticular veins of quartz and heavy sulphides, including
abundant pyrite, sphalerite, and galena, and smaller amounts of chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite.
These lenses vary in width from 4 to 24 inches, ranging in strike from north 20 degrees to 25
degrees east and in dip from 65 degrees to 70 degrees north-east.
The first cut above the adit exposes a 5-foot width of shear-zone occurring in the hanging-
wall of the quartz porphyry and containing a 4-inch quartz-lens that pinches southwards,
sulphides being abundant. Westward in the trench leading from this cut, several small
shears, averaging 4 inches in width, contain rusty fragments of rock and quartz vein-matter.
Sulphides are scarce. . >
The main showing on the Alberni vein is in the second cut and trench above the adit.
Here the zone of imperfectly-sheared rock is 15 feet wide and contains three ribs of quartz,
4 inches, 4 inches, and 24 inches in width, and a rib of silicified wall-rock. These ribs are
slightly lenticular, narrowing gradually either north or south along the strike. Assays of
vein-matter are shown on the accompanying plan. The foot-wall of the zone is sharply marked
by quartz porphyry, whereas the hangingjwall consists of blocky greenstone, bounded on the
east by a wall of hybrid diorite.
The third trench above the adit is long and narrow. Where it crosses the projected
position of the shear-zone the rock is badly shattered greenstone, showing a little rust but no
quartz veins. Forty-six feet above this trench there is a small untrenched showing of quartz
on the east wall of the quartz-porphyry dyke.
A strong quartz vein, striking north 25 degrees east and dipping 65 degrees north-east,
occurs in some high diabase bluffs on the eastern side of the basin, the bottom of the vein in
the base of the bluffs being at an elevation of 3,700 feet, approximately 400 feet above the
bottom of the basin, and a quarter of a mile in a direction north 20 degrees east from the
main Alberni showings. The intervening ground consists of the talus-strewn slopes and
bottom of the basin. The vein, ranging from 1 to 2 feet in width, is banded by occasional
sulphides, including pyrite and galena. An oxidized sample taken across 2 feet of the exposed
surface of the vein assayed: Gold, 0.16 oz. per ton; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton. The immediate
wall-rock is a dense diabase containing disseminated grains of pyrite; these are not related
to the sulphide mineralization. It is important to note that 10 feet westward the diabase
includes portions of a quartz-porphyry dyke, similar in attitude and appearance, and in the
projected position of that found in the Alberni and McQuillan workings. It is to be noted,
however, that tongues of diabase cut across this dyke, isolating large blocks of it, indicating
that the diabase is later. The vein, however, is quite uninterrupted by the diabase and is
therefore later. The diabase in these bluffs extends approximately 200 feet north and south
from the vein; on both sides bounded by altered and definitely older andesite, which northwards grades into the hybrid diorite forming the eastern wall of the cirque.
As early as 1895 it is reported than an open-cut had been made on a vein on the then
King Solomon claim, one of a group of four contiguous claims at the extreme head of McQuillan
Creek. It is inferred that the vein referred to is that now known as the McQuillan vein, and
the open-cut the same as that which leads into the old adit, known to have been driven by the
old-timers. No descriptions of the property can be found since then. Most of the work has
been done since the recent 1936 stakings. Mining operations were temporarily suspended in
December, 1936, owing to adverse weather conditions for surface work.
The only previous description of the ground is in the Minister of Mines' Annual Report
for 1895.
During the year 7 tons were shipped, yielding 15 oz. gold and 6 oz. silver.
Coquihalla River Area.
Situated in the Yale Mining Division, the property of this company consists
Home Gold Min- of eight claims held bv location.    The camp, at about 3,750 feet elevation, is
ing Co., Ltd.     at the head of the Middle Fork of Ladner Creek, 4% miles north-westerly
from Home Gold Siding, at 1,355 feet elevation, on the Kettle Valley Railway,
about 27 miles from Hope.    The mine-workings, between 3,830 and 4,300 feet elevation, reach F 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
from the steep, wooded side-hill above the camp to the flatter ground forming the divide between
the Middle Fork of Ladner Creek and the drainage area of Siwash Creek. Access to the
property from the siding is by a caterpillar-tractor road, 6 to 8 feet wide, which climbs
approximately 2,400 feet in a length of about 4% miles. This road contains long, excessively-
steep stretches as a uniform grade has not been sustained, height being lost by following
benches and adverse grades. The property was originally reached by branch trail from the
Aurum mine road. A favourable grade can be obtained by following the side-hill for about
2% miles northerly from the Aurum, passing several prospects en route.
The geology of the area has been described in the following publications of the Geological
Survey of Canada: Summary Report, 1920, Part A; Memoir 139, " Coquihalla River Area ";
and Summary Report, 1929, Part A. The last mentioned contains a report on the property
under Pipestem mine. It*is situated entirely within the Ladner Slate Belt, tentatively assigned
to the Jurassic, but not far from the contact with Late Palaeozoic rocks of the underlying
serpentine belt. The principal formation has been described as a rather massive, dark gray
to black, tuffaceous sandstone, or greywacke, varying from close-grained to finely conglomeratic. The stratified rocks, including slates and argillites, have a north-westerly strike with
variable, generally steep, south-westerly dips.    Adjoining an old cabin, about 426 feet south
16 degrees east from the No. 1 level portal, there are outcrops of a porphyritic, greenish-grey
dyke, 10 feet wide or more, striking north 35 degrees west, the dip not being exposed. Its
composition, indicated by microscopic examination of a thin section, is from andesite to dacite.
Associated with a series of fractures and fault-fissures, which generally coincide with
cleavage or bedding structures of the enclosing rocks, there are numerous silicified areas and
zones of quartz stringers or lenticular bands of quartz. Irregularly disseminated pyrite is
of widespread occurrence in such showings, gold values, according to the writer's samples,
being from nil to 0.08 oz. per ton over widths of from a few inches to 10 feet. The more
concentrated mineralization, as stoped, consists of pyrite and arsenopyrite occurring as
streaks, bands, or small masses associated with silicified zones or quartz. A polished section
examined microscopically was composed of relatively coarse, well-crystallized pyrite and
arsenopyrite in roughly equal amounts in a quartz gangue with some carbonate material.
In places the two sulphides were intimately associated. A green chlorite mineral is also
present in this ore, two specimens of which assayed respectively: Gold, 2.02 oz. per ton and
0.88 oz per ton. Oxidation is generally confined to a depth of a few feet below the surface.
The concentrations of better values, as at three points specified later, are associated with
separate fissures and occur at different horizons.
References to past work on the property are contained in the previously mentioned publications of the Geological Survey of Canada and in the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines
for 1922, 1927, 1928, 1932, and 1933. Prior to the incorporation of the Home Gold Mining
Company, Limited, in August, 1929, the property had been operated by the Pipe Stem Mining
Company, Limited. The mill, which has a nominal capacity of from 5 to 6 tons per 8-hour
shift, was operated intermittently during 1935 and 1936, small lots of concentrates and crude
ore being shipped at intervals. Latterly development has been chiefly on the No. 4 level,
where the principal work consisted of putting up a raise to the No. 3 adit.
The workings are shown on the accompanying plan. At the north-western end of the
developed area an 18-foot vertical shaft adjoins an outcrop, now poorly exposed, of iron-stained
rock containing quartz stringers. The sample across 2.8 feet, shown on the plan, was taken
at 8 feet below the collar, conditions below this point being obscured by lagging. The open-cut
south-easterly from the shaft exposed an outcrop of iron-stained, partly silicified rock containing irregular quartz stringers in a zone 2% feet wide, up to 35 feet long, and exposed for
17 feet on the dip, assays indicating a concentration of values in this location. This showing,
which dips 35 degrees south-westerly, could not be correlated with any similar structure in the
No. 2 level workings to the south-west, as discussed later. Just above and north-easterly from
the portal of the No. 1 adit there is a wide exposure of iron-stained schistose rock containing
scattered quartz-streaks over a length of 25 feet, this showing being associated with fracture-
planes striking north-westerly, with a 60-degree south-westerly dip. Conditions underground
are briefly summarized as follows: With the exception of the two small stoped areas on the
Nos. 3 and 4 levels, mineralization, associated with the fissures and fractures, is light and
indefinite, quartz in lenses and stringers being of widespread distribution.    The low gold WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6).
F 35
Wkith    O5.G0W
006
one section 4.7
Home Gold Mining Co., Ltd.    Plan of Workings.    After Company's Plan.
content of such occurrences is indicated on the plan. There are no sulphide concentrations in
the No. 1 and No. 2 adit-workings. The raise above the latter level is first vertical for 15.5
feet, then goes diagonally up the dip of a fracture for 53 feet on a 43-degree slope to the short
sub-level. The raise then continues up on a 75-degree slope to the surface, this last section
being inaccessible. Looking up this steep raise, there was no indication, such as might be
afforded by lateral work, that the 35-degree south-westerly-dipping mineralized surface showing had been encountered.
As indicated on the No. 3 level, stoping of irregular outline has been done up to a length
of 47 feet and over widths up to 14 feet. The larger stope here is reached from a vertical
24-foot raise at its south-easterly end. The irregular banded sulphide concentrations appear
to be localized at the convergence of a fissure striking north 45 degrees west, with dips from
vertical to 75 degrees to the north-east, and vertical fracture-planes striking north 25 degrees
west. The crooked inclined raise which comes up under the stope from the No. 4 level did not
encounter any valuable concentrations, no lateral work having been done from it.
The stope on the No. 4 level, reached from a 44-foot vertical raise, is 53 feet long, measured
north-westerly on a 40-degree slope, up to 20 feet high, and up to 14 feet wide. A flat branch
raise below the stope has been bulkheaded off. As in the case of the No. 3 level stope, the
irregular local sulphide concentrations occur at the convergence of acute angled intersecting
fractures.
The mill, of log construction, is situated in a gulch immediately below the No. 4 adit-portal,
from which a track extends out on a trestle for 170 feet to a chute connecting with a storage-
bin of about 70 tons capacity. The ore is fed through a 7- by 9-inch jaw-crusher to a fine-ore
bin. The product, crushed to about % inch in diameter, goes to a 3- by 4-foot Allis-Chalmers
ball-mill in closed circuit with a 14-inch Simplex Dorr classifier. The overflow is treated in
four Denver flotation-cells, the last two cells returning concentrates to the first two and the
overflow tailing to waste. The concentrates from the first two cells are partially dewatered in
three small wooden settling-tanks, and the concentrates finally dried over a specially-constructed stove-installation.    Power for mill machinery is supplied by a Pelton wheel, which is F 36 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
also coupled to a Gardner-Denver compressor delivering net, at this elevation, 115 cubic feet
of free air per minute.
Vidette Lake Area.*
The Vidette Lake Camp may be reached by 43 miles of automobile-road northward from
Savona, a small settlement at the west end of Kamloops Lake on the Cariboo Highway and on
both the Canadian Pacific and Canadian National Railways.
The active area comprises that at the north-west end of the lake and includes the property
of the Vidette Gold Mines, Limited, immediately adjacent to the lake; that of Savona Gold
Mines, Limited, the workings of which are in a direction north 20 degrees west from the head
of the lake; and that of the Hamilton Creek Gold Mines, Limited, whose workings are on the
Hamilton Creek scarp south-westerly across the valley from those of the Savona Gold Mines.
These companies have driven adits and inclines into the steep valley-walls bordering Hamilton
Creek and Vidette Lake, whose common valley has been sharply incised to depths ranging from
250 to 400 feet in the extensive Bonaparte-Tranquille Plateau.
The rock formations include greenstone, small granitic dykes, and bosses, and on the
plateau above and beyond the workings, basaltic lavas.
The greenstone is a variable augite andesite. The commonest type is porphyritic, but this
may grade imperceptibly into massive fine-grained, equigranular phases; in the main adit of
the Hamilton Creek property into amygdaloidal phases, containing calcite amygdales; and in
the vicinity of shear-zones into greenstone-schist in which its porphyritic nature is destroyed,
black, lustrous chlorite-planes of schistosity prevailing. Where massive and unsheared, the
common type of greenstone is a dark-green rock that contains conspicuous prismatic crystals of
augite averaging 1 mm. by 2 mm. in size, and brilliantly reflecting laths of feldspar averaging
V2 mm. by 3 mm. in size; all embedded in a dense chloritic matrix. Under the microscope the
rock is seen to possess a very definite porphyritic texture, wherein strongly-developed crystals
of andesine-plagioclase and augite, which has largely altered to amphibole, are seen in a very
fine-grained ground-mass.    The rock may be termed an augite andesite.
The granitic rocks found both on the surface and underground, at the Vidette and Savona
properties, may be descriptively called feldspar porphyries, although varying from granitic to
monzonitic in composition. They are characteristically greenish-grey in colour, containing
large feldspar phenocrysts, 5 mm. by 10 mm. in size, set in a medium-grained ground-mass.
Under the microscope the minerals are seen to be large cloudy feldspars, both orthoclase and
albite, smaller feldspars and subrounded quartz-grains, all surrounded by a fine-grained
aggregate of hornblende decomposition products, consisting chiefly of fine-grained quartz and
chlorite. It may be noted that the porphyry exposed in the Vidette main crosscut on No. 3
level lacks the quartz phenocrysts of the average type and is therefore more monzonitic in
composition. Narrow, fine-grained dykes consisting of a granular intergrowth of white and
pink feldspar occur underground at the Savona property. Microscopically these feldspar dykes
are seen to consist of a mosaic of slightly-altered orthoclase and well-twinned albite, with a
little interstitial quartz and a few aggregates of coarsely crystallized, obviously vein, calcite.
The veins are of the quartz-filled fissure type, and may or may not be accompanied by
extensive shearing of the wall-rock. Mineralization has resulted in the development of pyrite,
smaller amounts of chalcopyrite, and reported tellurides; gold frequently accompanies the
above minerals, local experience indicating that the values are best when chalcopyrite accompanies the pyrite. Replacement of the wall-rock, though undoubtedly present, is not important,
and leaching of the wall-rock is rare, the dark-green andesite being commonly in immediate
contact with the quartz veins.
Faulting of varying ages is prevalent. Pre-vein Assuring, intra-vein faulting both during
and after the mineralizing period and post-vein transverse faulting are all present.
This company owns the following Crown-granted mineral claims:   Searcher
Vidette Gold     No. 1, Pioneer, Searcher No. 3, Searcher No. 6, Searcher Fraction No. 1,
Mines, Ltd.      Searcher No. 5, Percy, Myrta, Amy, T.F. Fraction, E.B. Fraction, Valley
No. 1, CE. Fraction, Argenta No. 1, Valley No. 2, and New Hope;   and the
following mineral claims:  Searcher Fraction No. 2, Searcher No. 2, Searcher No. 4, Monarch,
Lakeshore, Lakeshore Extension, Monument, H.A. Fraction, Comstock, Searcher No. 7, and
Searcher No. 8.
* By J. S. Stevenson. WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6). F 37
The main workings are on the Searcher No. 1 claim and consist of three adits and three
shafts driven and sunk into the steep south-westerly-facing scarp of the Hamilton Creek-
Vidette Lake Valley. These workings are on the Tenford, Broken Ridge, and Bluff veins. On
the south-westerly side of Vidette Lake there are two short adits on the Dexheimer vein.
Inasmuch as the Dexheimer and early work on the Tenford veins have been concisely
described by W. E. Cockfield,* only the Broken Ridge and Bluff veins, on which most of the
subsequent work has been done, will be described in detail.
The rock formation consists of altered augite porphyry cut by feldspar porphyry.
Although feldspar-porphyry dykes are common on the adjacent property of the Savona Gold
Mines, Limited, only one intrusion, a dyke 30 feet thick in the third level main crosscut, was
seen in the Vidette workings.
The quartz veins, listed in chronological order of development, are known as the Dexheimer, Tenford, Broken Ridge, and Bluff veins. They are of the quartz-filled fissure type
and are characterized by a ribbon-structure which is manifested as paper-thin partings of both
country-rock and graphite; this has been caused by superposition of different portions of the
vein, effected by faulting in planes of similar strike and dip. To this feature, in part, may be
attributed the variation in widths from a knife-edge vein-shear to a vein 4 feet in width. The
general strike of the veins is north-westerly;  the average dip 45 degrees north-easterly.
In addition to the intra-vein faulting as described above, there are two other groups of
faults which displace the vein. The earlier of these consists of normal faults with strikes
closely similar to those of the veins, but which have opposed dips, averaging 70 degrees south-
westward, the veins dipping 45 degrees north-eastward. The information available has shown
that displacement along these faults has been rotational; the observed displacements ranging
from zero to 65 feet in the plane of the fault. These faults are not conspicuous, the width
ranging from a crushed zone 1 foot wide to a knife-edge joint in the country-rock. The later
group of faults is characterized by wide zones of intensely-crushed rock and gouge ranging
in width from 1 to 3 feet. These vary in strike from north 80 degrees west to east-west and
in dip from 45 degrees north to 80 degrees northerly. One measurement, indicating a horizontal movement of 220 feet in the plane of the fault, was the only displacement determinable
at the time of the examination.
The filling in the Vidette veins consists predominantly of quartz containing sulphide-
clusters which, in cross-sections of the veins, may range from 5 to 25 per cent, of the vein-
matter. Pyrite is the main sulphide, but small amounts of chalcopyrite are common, and
tellurides are reported to have been found in places. A study of polished specimens of the
ore under the microscope shows that the pyrite-grains have been so shattered that, in some
cases, 20 per cent, of the pyrite fragments average approximately 0.007 mm. and 40 per cent,
approximately 0.25 mm. in size, even the larger, unbroken grains averaging 2 mm., being cut
by numerous incipient fractures. Chalcopyrite commonly occurs as fracture-filling in the
shattered pyrite, the veinlets, bounded by typical jagged and irregular walls, ranging from
0.007 mm. to less in width. It is also found as large, irregular, and unshattered areas surrounded wholly or in part by quartz gangue. The fractures in the larger pyrite-grains and
the interstices of the pyrite fragments are filled by clear quartz, evidently later than the pyrite,
and chalcopyrite, definitely transecting veinlets of the latter and replacing larger areas,
leaving the chalcopyrite as cusp-shaped islands in a quartz-field. It is evident from the above
mineral relationships that intense vein-shearing occurred subsequent to the formation of the
pyrite, but previous to the formation of the chalcopyrite and present vein-quartz; it is
probable that the gold was part of the chalcopyrite-quartz mineralization.
Numerous unbroken veinlets of calcite, averaging 0.007 mm. in thickness, transect all
the minerals in the quartz veins. Thin films of crystallized gypsum (selenite) occasionally
occur in joint-planes in the quartz. The gypsum is probably of secondary origin, having been
precipitated from ground-water that, becoming acid by the oxidation of pyrite, dissolved
calcium carbonate from either the walls or veins, and precipitated it in the form of calcium
sulphate. The black, jagged fractures which aid in giving the veins a sheeted appearance
contain films of black lustrous graphite, formed during the various intra-vein movements.
* Cockfield, W. E.:   Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 179, 1935, pp. 30-3 F 38
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
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►a WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 39
The Broken Ridge vein is exposed in the following levels: No. 3, 361 and 371 sub-levels;
No. 2, 261 sub-level; and Nos. 1 and 2, Broken Ridge; also in raises and associated stopes from
these and in a winze from No. 3.
On No. 3 level the vein-shear, striking north 55 degrees west and dipping from 65 to 40
degrees north-easterly, extends from the south-easterly end, where it is cut by a major fault,
north-westward, stringing out against a vertical fault 70 feet north-westward from the main
crosscut. The fault, striking north 25 degrees west, contains 2 feet of crushed rock and gouge;
wall-flutings at 60 degrees from the vertical indicate that the most recent movement has been
more nearly vertical than horizontal. On the south-east side of the fault and north-westwards
towards the face there are narrow, quartz-pyrite stringers which may represent the continuation of the main vein. The strong fault on the south-easterly end of the drift, hereinafter
referred to as No. 1 fault, is a zone of gouge and crushed rock ranging from 2 to 3 feet in
thickness, striking north 80 degrees west and dipping 55 degrees northerly. This fault is
recognizable in all the drifts above No. 3 level.
The character of the vein on this drift (No. 3 level) is variable; centrally between the ends
of the drift it appears as a strong tabular vein between good walls, ranging from 1 to 3 V2 feet
in width, the quartz containing abundant pyrite and chalcopyrite. However, towards each end
it becomes broken, the quartz stringing out as narrow stringers or more commonly as disconnected lenses along the vein-shear. The vein continues as a tabular body down the winze for
60 feet to where it is cut by a small fault striking east-west and dipping 30 degrees northerly;
the winze could not be examined beyond this point. It may be noted that thin films of crystallized gypsum (selenite) were found filling fractures in the quartz of the vein in the winze.
A normal fault intervenes between the ore on Nos. 3 and 361 sub-levels. This fault,
striking north-west and dipping 70 degrees south-west, drops the south-easterly portion of the
vein approximately 20 feet, but where it crosses No. 3 level effects no displacement; this habit
•indicates the rotational nature of the movement. In 361 sub-level the vein is for the most part
tabular and strong. In one place, however, it narrows to a stringer, but shortly widens to a
wedge SVz feet thick, indicating a repetition of the true vein-width. To the north-east the
vein is cut by No. 1 fault; at the intersection it was noted that the vein was bent and dragged
eastward down the dip of the fault indicating that the continuation of the vein south-eastward
may be found eastward along the fault.
The vein continues uninterruptedly from 361 to 261 sub-levels, occurring as a tabular
portion ranging from 8 inches to 1 foot in width. However, a few feet above 261 sub-level a
normal fault, striking north-westerly and dipping 70 degrees south-west, has dropped the vein
approximately 60 feet down the dip of the fault-plane, the upper, down-faulted portion of the
vein occurring in the 261 crosscut and in 361 sub-level, No. 2. In the latter level, the vein is
cut to the south-east by No. 1 fault. The most southerly portion of the 261 sub-level has been
driven 10O feet along No. 1 fault, which here has been joined by a second, referred to as No. 2
fault. The latter, striking north 80 degrees west and dipping 45 degrees northerly, is similar
in kind to No. 1.
Little is known of the continuation of the main part of the vein from the 261 level to No. 1
level. However, a triangularly-shaped block of ore, its apex at the 261 level and its base at
the surface extending south from the Broken Ridge shaft, lay between Nos. 1 and 2 faults.
The outline of the stope indicates traces of the intersections of this block with the faults,
Nos. 1 and 2.
The only probable connecting-link between the Tenford and Broken Ridge veins is on
No. 1 level, where a tight shear crosses the main shaft, carrying lenses of quartz in the hanging-
wall. This shear continues south-eastward for 50 feet to intersect a strong fault correlated
with No. 1. Sigmoid lenses of quartz, averaging 4 feet by 4 inches in cross-section, lie in the
hanging-wall of this fault, indicating a displacement of the vein towards the east, a displacement similar in direction to that indicated at the intersection of this fault and the vein in No. 3
level.
The Bluff vein has been opened by a shaft, crosscut, two drifts, and connecting raises and
stopes; the lower workings were flooded at the time of examination. As seen in these workings, the Bluff vein strikes north-west and dips 37 degrees north-easterly.
The tabular portions of the vein range from 6 inches to 2 feet in width, the latter thickness
being due, however, to a threefold superposition of the vein, thin films of gouge separating the F 40 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
layers of quartz. This feature is well displayed in the north-westerly winze from the upper
drift. For the main part, the vein consists of quartz irregularly laminated by abundant sulphides. In the south-east end of the upper drift the vein is cut by two major faults—an older
one, striking north 80 degrees east and dipping 55 degrees northerly, and a younger one,
striking north 20 degrees easterly and nearly vertical. Although twisted lenses of ore,
averaging 3 feet by 8 inches, occur in the re-entrant angle between these faults, the continuation of the vein beyond has not been followed. On No. 1 level the vein recurs 220 feet along
the drift and on the south side of No. 1 fault. This portion of the vein, striking north 20
degrees west and dipping 38 degrees north-easterly, extends for 75 feet along the drift
and then is cut by No. 2 fault; this is part of the triangularly-shaped vein-segment
referred to previously. Work beyond No. 2 fault has encountered another strong fault, No. 3,
which strikes east-west and dips 80 degrees northerly. It has been drifted on for 190 feet, but
the continuation of the vein on the south side of the fault had not been found at the time of the
present examination. However, the face showed, at that time, sigmoid lenses of quartz, 2 feet
by 3 inches in size, containing abundant sulphides. No. 2 fault does not appear to cross No. 3,
indicating that either No. 2 is a branch from No. 3 or that No. 3 has displaced a portion of
No. 2 fault from some unknown position. Towards the north-west end of the drift the vein
pinches and disappears in a strong fault 8 inches in width and of the same attitude as the vein.
At a point in the main crosscut of No. 3 level, 920 feet north-eastward from the back of
the main shaft and in approximately the projected position of the Bluff vein downward, nearly
horizontal lenses of vein-quartz and pyrite, averaging 12 inches in thickness, have been intersected and drifted on for 33 feet south-eastward. The amount of intensely-crushed rock accompanying this material indicates that it has been faulted into its present position probably
from the extension of the Bluff vein downwards from the upper Bluff workings, some 345 feet
higher in elevation.
The country-rock in the upper Bluff workings is the typical greenstone, augite porphyry.
The Tenford vein is exposed in those workings that lie north-west from the main shaft.
W. E. Cockfield, in the Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 179, has described the Tenford
vein as exposed, at the time of his examination, in the Tunnel, No. 1, and No. 2 levels, and in
the connecting winzes and raises. Briefly, in recapitulation, the vein strikes about north
35 degrees west and dips 50 degrees north-easterly. It is narrow, the best portions ranging
between 1 and 1% feet in width. Towards the north-west end of the drifts the vein loses its
tabular nature and splits into a few small stringers; but the vein-shear, though tight and
recognizable in places only by a stringer or two of quartz, persists to and probably beyond the
north-westerly limit of the workings. Towards the south-east and in the vicinity of the main
shaft on the Tunnel and No. 1 levels the vein is cut by the same major east-west fault which
cuts the Broken Ridge vein, and which has been referred to in the description of the latter as
the No. 1 fault. One normal and one reverse fault occur down the dip of the vein below
No. 1 level.
Below No. 2 level, in 270 drift and in a raise from No. 3 level, a faulted and rotated portion
of the vein has been found. This portion, however, strikes approximately north-south and is
quite flat, the dips ranging from 15 to 25 degrees east. It is not wide, the common width of
the tabular portions ranging from 10 to 2 inches, although those lengths, which include unre-
placed greenstone-partings, may be 1 foot in width. In 270 drift the vein has been cross-faulted
by the only reverse fault so far recognized; the strike of this fault is north 75 degrees east,
dip 70 degrees southerly, and the resultant horizontal displacement of the vein in the crosscut
is 55 feet north-westward from 341.
Quartz veinlets, averaging 2 inches in thickness and containing small amounts of sulphides,
occur, with very little accompanying shearing, in No. 3 level, north-westward from 341 crosscut.
This may or may not be a downward continuation of the Tenford vein.
The Dexheimer vein has been opened by two short adits on the opposite side of the lake
from the main workings. In the lower adit the vein occupies a shear either as a strong tabular
body of quartz ranging from 2 to 6 inches in width, or as splitting stringers; all striking north
40 degrees west and dipping from 35 to 40' degrees north-easterly. The quartz contains some
pyrite and chalcopyrite.    The country-rock is typical augite porphyry.
History.—Most of the Vidette claims were located in 1931 and 1932 and were first optioned
to D. B. Sterrett, present general manager, who carried out the first important operations on WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 41
the property and erected a small treatment plant. In October, 1932, a private company known
as the Vidette Mines, Limited, was formed; this company carried on active development and
enlarged the mill capacity to 25 tons per day. In May, 1933, the present company, Vidette
Gold Mines, Limited (N.P.L.), was formed, and has carried on production, increasing the mill
capacity to 45 to 50 tons daily, since that time.
Descriptions of the property may be found in Memoir 179 of the Canadian Geological
Survey and in the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines for the years 1931 to 1934, inclusive.
During the year 12,202 tons were mined and 12,352 tons milled. This yielded 8,269 oz. gold,
13,037 oz. silver, and 27,672 lb. copper.
This company owns the Last Chance-Sylvanite group of claims staked in
Savona Gold     1931 and 1932 and acquired from the Sylvanite Mining and Development
Mines, Ltd.      Company in 1934.    Previous descriptions of the property may be found in
Memoir 179 of the Geological Survey of Canada and in the Annual Reports
of the Minister of Mines for 1933 and 1934.    The main workings are on the Last Chance
claim, and include two adits, the Exploration at an elevation of 3,095 feet, the 226 adit at 3,030
feet, and several open-cuts on vein-exposures, most of which have been intersected by the
underground workings.    The workings are all on the steep scarp which forms the eastern
wall of Hamilton Creek Valley.
The rock formations include greenstone and intrusions of quartz-feldspar porphyry. The
greenstone is traversed by numerous fissures and shear-zones, which strike north-westward
and dip north-eastward. Numerous cross-faults cut and shears displace the vein-shears.
These vein-shears contain bands and discontinuous lenses of quartz. A banding of the vein-
quartz caused by films of mixed chlorite and fine-grained pyrite is common. Sulphides are
not abundant; they include finely-disseminated pyrite in both the schistose greenstone of the
vein-shears and in the chloritic ribbons of the quartz-bands, and small amounts of tetrahedrite,
sphalerite, and galena, which were seen only in the surface showing of the Argentite vein.
Besides quartz, the gangue consists of both white and pink calcite, the latter containing a
small amount of manganese, and a deep-green chlorite which occurs as irregular areas within
the quartz.    No pyrite is associated with this hydrothermal chlorite.
The Exploration adit has two portals at 3,095 feet elevation, 330 feet apart, the one in a
direction south 70 degrees east from the other. From the south-westerly portal a crosscut
has been driven north 72 degrees east to the face at 326 feet. At a point 65 feet from this
portal the crosscut intersects the Argentite vein, along which a drift has been driven south
45 degrees east for 40 feet; at 180 feet it intersects No. 3 vein; at 202 feet the Sylvanite vein.
Here a main winze has been sunk at 66 degrees in a direction north 72 degrees east at the
intersection of the crosscut and the drift from the south-easterly portal. At 255 feet the
main crosscut intersects the Yarvi vein.
From the south-easterly portal a drift has been driven along a shear-zone north 40 degrees
west for 70 feet; then, turning north-east for 6 feet, it continues, partly along the Sylvanite
vein, north 30 degrees west for 145 feet to the winze at its intersection with the main crosscut.
The Argentite vein varies in strike from north 40 degrees west to north 47 degrees west
and in dip from 80 degrees to 85 degrees north-eastward. The vein consists of quartz-lenses
in a crushed zone. The lenses average 6 inches in length and vary from 2 to 4 inches in
thickness. The crush-zone averages 18 inches in width. The sigmoid shape of some of the
quartz-lenses indicates movement within the shear subsequent to the deposition of the quartz.
Sulphides are scarce. A sample taken across the shear-zone and containing quartz assayed:
Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.2 oz. per ton.
No. 3 vein consists, in part, of ribboned quartz ranging from 8 to 14 inches in width, and,
in part, of quartz-lenses contained in a tight shear 18 inches wide. Calcite occurs with the
quartz, and patches of heavy sulphides, pyrite, and chalcopyrite occur in the foot-wall.
A sample across 14 inches of ribboned quartz containing calcite and a little pyrite assayed:
Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton. A bulk sample of the heavy sulphides in the
foot-wall assayed: Gold, nil; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton. In the crosscut No. 3 vein strikes north
60 degrees west and dips 50 degrees north-east. Where intersected by the crosscut and the
winze, the Sylvanite vein is a shear-zone which strikes north 25 degrees west and dips 75
degrees north-east. It varies from 2 to 2V2 feet in width and consists of sheared greenstone
containing lenses of quartz which range from 1 to 8 inches in width, the amount of quartz F 42 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
varying from 5 to 16 per cent, of the contents of the shear. Pyrite, the only sulphide, is not
abundant. A 34-inch sample taken across the shear-zone and including three small lenses
of quartz assayed:  Gold, 0.62 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.4 oz. per ton.
To the south-eastward the nature of the Sylvanite vein changes; it becomes stronger and
well defined as a continuous band of ribbon-quartz striking north 25 degrees west and dipping
75 degrees north-easterly. It varies from 4 to 8 inches in width and contains some pyrite and
pink carbonate. A sample across 8 inches of this material assayed only traces- in gold and
silver. This portion of the vein has been followed south-easterly for 80 feet from the winze to
a point where it is cut by a fault striking north 70 degrees west and dipping 40 degrees
northerly. This fault shows a clean hanging-wall, but the foot-wall, 2 feet away, is indefinite. The fault-zone consists of sheared greenstone and occasional fragments of drag-quartz.
A 2-inch band of ribbon-quartz in this zone appears to postdate both the Sylvanite vein and
the faulting.
From a point in the drift 150 feet south-eastward from the crosscut a shear-zone striking
north 44 degrees west and dipping 55 degrees north-east continues to the portal. This zone
is 2 feet wide and contains a band of ribbon-quartz 6 inches wide, which frequently splits into
two or three narrower bands. It may be noted that a region of intensely-crushed rock intervenes between this shear-zone and the one accompanying the Sylvanite vein.
The Yarvi vein has been intersected by the crosscut at a point 50 feet north-eastward
from the drift. It is a shear-zone striking north 45 degrees west and dipping 60 degrees northeast, which varies from 12 to 18 inches in width and consists of one 3-inch band and several
small lenses of quartz, in a sheared greenstone matrix. Sulphides are scarce. A sample
taken across 14 inches of this material assayed nil in gold and silver.
The portal of the 226 adit is 65 feet lower, and 135 feet south 55 degrees east from the
south-easterly portal of the Exploration adit. It has been driven north 25 degrees west for
200 feet and south 74 degrees west for 40 feet, through badly-crushed ground which has
required considerable timbering, to reach faulted portions of vein-matter. From here the
working has been continued as more or less of a drift in a direction north 52 degrees west
for 70 feet and north 20 degrees west for 55 feet to the winze down from the Exploration
level. From here the drift has been driven north 35 degrees west for 80 feet to a fault, then
south 72 degrees west for 10 feet along the fault, then north 32 degrees west for 30 feet, and
north 65 degrees west for 20 feet to the face. A short crosscut was driven north 55 degrees
east for 20 feet at a point 20 feet from the face. It is understood that sinking is in progress
below the 325 level, cut from the winze 101 feet below the 220 level since the author's
examination.
The 226 adit is mostly in badly-disturbed ground and only portions of it explore the
probable downward extension of the Sylvanite and No. 3 veins. The winze connecting the
Exploration with the 226 adit was timbered and could not be examined by the writer. On the
226 level the winze is apparently at the junction of two shear-zones, the south-eastward striking
north 20 degrees west and dipping 50 degrees north-east, the north-westward striking north
45 degrees west and dipping 65 degrees north-east. Both of these contain broken lenses and
stringers of quartz.
South-eastward from the winze the shear, at first ranging from 10 to 18 inches in width
and containing two or three 2-inch bands of quartz, becomes tighter and disappears into the
south-westerly wall of the adit at a point 70 feet from the winze. Fifteen feet south-eastward
from that point the drift intersects a 10-inch shear striking north 70 degrees east and dipping
20 degrees south. This contains two 3-inch bands of quartz and sparse sulphides. Forty feet
south-easterly from here, where a short branch has been driven westerly for 10 feet, a disconnected segment of banded quartz lies in a 2-foot shear-zone. The hanging-wall is the more
conspicuous wall. It strikes north 55 degrees west and dips 35 degrees north-east. It is to
be noted that both the quartz and sheared rock of this occurrence have been definitely cut on
the north-west by a strong fault which strikes north 40 degrees east and dips 70 degrees
north-west. The flutings in the plane of the fault plunge north-eastward at 70 degrees to the
horizontal, indicating that the most recent displacement along the fault-plane has been steeply
in this direction. North-westward from the winze the shear, striking north 40 degrees west
and dipping 65 degrees north-east, continues as a 2-foot zone of crushed rock containing broken
lenses of quartz.    A sample across 2 feet of this material assayed:   Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 43
silver, trace. Eighty feet from the winze the shear is cut by a wide fault, striking north 70
degrees east and dipping 75 degrees north, which displaces the north-westerly continuation
of the vein-shear approximately 10 feet south-eastward. This portion of the vein-shear is
10 inches wide and contains small bands of quartz. It continues with minor interruptions in
attitude to within 10 feet of the face, where a feldspar-porphyry dyke of unknown width is
encountered and into which it disappears as a tight break containing a little quartz.
The surface cut on the Argentite vein exposes a tight shear 1 foot wide striking from
north 60 degrees to 70 degrees west dipping steeply northward, and containing 1-inch bands of
quartz with disseminated sulphides.
Two open-cuts, a north-westerly one 170 feet east and a south-easterly one 240 feet south
70 degrees east from the south-westerly portal of the Exploration crosscut, have been made
on the Sylvanite vein. The vein-shear, striking north 25 degrees west and dipping 60 degrees
north-eastward, varying from 2V2 to 3 feet in width, contains lenses of quartz which average
2 feet by 10 inches in size. Sulphides are scarce and carbonate not abundant. A partly-caved
trench approximately 300 feet northward across the gully adjacent to the south-westerly
portal of the Exploration crosscut exposes the probable continuation of the Sylvanite vein-
shear. Here it is 2 feet wide, contains 2-inch lenses of quartz and some ankeritic carbonate,
strikes north 40 degrees west, and dips 70 degrees north-easterly.
The Yarvi vein-shear is exposed on the surface in a cut 200 feet north-westward from the
portal of the Exploration crosscut. The shear ranges from 2 to 2V2 feet in width and contains
small narrow lenses of quartz.
SILVER-GOLD-ANTIMONY DEPOSITS.
Truax Creek Area.
In the Lillooet Mining Division, this prospect, consisting of fourteen claims
Gray Rock. held by location and owned by A. Bergenham and F. J. Burroughs, has been
taken over by the Gray Rock Mining Syndicate, composed of G. R. Bancroft,
E. H. Lovitt, and associates. The property is located at the head of Truax Creek, the original
camp-site being situated at the foot of Mount Truax, south 30 degrees east from its summit.
The prospected area, ranging in elevation from 6,000 to 8,000 feet, lies to the south and
south-east of Truax Creek, on the steep to precipitous rocky ground above timber-line, in the
edge of which the temporary camp is at 6,100 feet elevation. Between this point and the
Bridge River Crossing at 2,126 feet elevation (assumed datum for aneroid readings) the
Truax Creek Valley is generally well wooded.
The showings contained within an area roughly 6,000 feet long, measured easterly-
westerly, by 1,000 feet wide, are located on rock bluffs and rock-strewn slopes, the exposed
ground being separated by rock-slides or ice spurs descending northerly towards the creek
from glaciers filling depressions in the irregularly serrated summits, which, rising to 8,000
feet elevation or more, form the background. Access is by trail 9 miles in length, roughly
estimated, from an old cable crossing over Bridge River, this stream also being crossed by boat.
A farm road about 1 mile in length, traversing the flats to the north of the river, connects the
crossing with the main highway at the Williams Ranch about 28 miles from Bridge River
Station on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. From the river the trail follows the steep
side-hill along the eastern side of Truax Creek for the first 2 miles, then crosses the creek and
follows its western side to the camp-site, the upper 4- or 5-mile section being chiefly located
on benches affording easy construction. There are two small lakes at the eastern and western
end of the claims, the eastern one being about 2,000 feet long and 600 feet wide. From this
lake a creek falls abruptly through a height of 600 feet to Truax Creek below.
The deposits occur in a system of roughly parallel fissure-veins cutting a complex assemblage of metamorphosed rocks of the Bridge River series, and included dykes from the adjoining
batholith. The stratified formation, striking westerly with steep southerly dips, includes grey
quartzites, a hard, competent rock in this location, frequently sericitized; siliceous sericitic
schist; dark pyritized schist; silicified metamorphosed limestone lenses; and intercalated
altered volcanic flows, silicified in part. Dyke-types cut by the fissures include granite, quartz
diorite, and quartz latite. The rocks of the Bridge River series form a wide band lying
between two roughly parallel-trending areas of quartz diorite of the Bendor batholith, the F 44 REPORT OF THE  MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
major exposure of which lies some 1,500 or 2,000 feet southerly and equidistant from the vein
system, which strikes north 70 degrees east, with south-easterly dips of from 50 to 65 degrees.
Across the valley the batholithic rocks are again exposed on the southern and south-eastern
slopes of Mount Truax. The vein-fissures are very persistent, cutting all rocks and included
dykes encountered by them in the area of Bridge River series, with little perceptible difference
in the strength of Assuring in specific rock-types.' Mineralization in the quartz gangue consists
of stibnite, which is widely distributed in disseminations, streaks, and masses, with smaller
amounts of pyrite, grey copper (chiefly tennantite?), sphalerite, galena, and arsenopyrite.
Two polished sections, examined under the microscope, gave the following information:
(1.) Composed of disseminated irregular masses of stibnite in a quartzose gangue. Minor
amounts of sphalerite, pyrite, and arsenopyrite were noted, both alone and in intimate asocia-
tion with stibnite. (2.) Composed of small irregularly disseminated masses of tennantite (?),
commonly in close association with minor amounts of sphalerite, arsenopyrite, and pyrite.
In places covellite veins the tennantite (?). Only a few grains of stibnite were noted in this
section. Realgar is comparatively well developed in places. High silver values are associated
with the grey copper, which is fairly abundant in some areas. Gold values, in the writer's
channel samples, vary from a trace to 0.06 oz. per ton and from 0.01 to 0.12 oz. per ton in
selected material. Massive stibnite occurrences, lacking other sulphides, contain no appreciable gold or silver. Vein-widths vary from a few inches to 7 feet or more, average widths
of from 3 to 4 feet being indicated in several sections. Mineralization is extensive, and stibnite,
nearly always present, forms a considerable proportion of the vein-filling in some localities.
Oxidation is shallow or local, the unaltered sulphides being generally exposed.
The claims were staked by Andy Bergenham in 1981, the property being acquired by the
Gray Rock Mining Syndicate in the autumn of 1936. Subsequently new camp accommodation
was provided and preparations were made for development.
Workings are limited to comparatively few shallow cuts and trenches, but the outcrops
of the six (or more) veins are naturally exposed at many points on precipitous bare ground.
Some long sections stand out prominently in bluffs, dangerous of access without proper equipment. The No. 1 vein is the best exposed, its continuity being traceable over a length of
between 5,000 and 6,000 feet. The following description of surface conditions is largely based
on pace and compass-work and the writer is indebted for part of these data to E. H. Lovitt,
measurements supplied being corroborated and extended. The number of samples taken by
the writer was necessarily restricted and in order to define the zones of concentrated mineralization, or shoots, a large sampling operation preceded by much trenching and stripping would
be necessary.
Twelve of the fourteen claims are staked in a block, four claims long by three claims
wide, with the principal or No. 1 vein striking north 70 degrees east lengthwise through the
middle of the block—namely, from east to west, along the centre line of the Eastman, Gray
Rock No. 1, Gray Rock No. 5, and Gray Rock No. 8 claims. Surface showings examined
include those on the Nos. 1—5 veins and the Westman vein. The zero, or point A, adopted for
descriptive purposes is on the western edge of a rock-slide at 6,570 feet elevation at the
theoretical intersection (covered) of the No. 1 vein with the boundary between the Eastman
and Gray Rock No. 1 claims. Measuring easterly from point A, this vein was traced up the
bluffs and diagonally along the steep ground by natural exposures and occasional shallow
cuts from the eastern side of the rock-slide at chainage 100 feet, elevation 6,600 feet, to chainage
700 feet, at elevation 6,880 feet, where it cuts a large granite dyke. The same vein is reported
to be traceable for a further 1,000 feet easterly beyond the dyke to an elevation of about 7,700
feet. Reverting to the 600-foot length examined, the vein is generally split into two sections
which are from 12 to 6 feet apart. The following three samples were taken along the northern
vein split, which is the more easily followed of the two: A sample across 1 foot, at 6,600 feet
elevation, assayed: Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, 6.2 oz. per ton. At 6,650 feet elevation a
sample across 6 inches, on the foot-wall side of the 2-foot total width, assayed: Gold, 0.06 oz.
per ton; silver, 21.8 oz. per ton; lead, 18 per cent. At 6,880 feet elevation, where the vein
cuts the dyke, a sample across 9 inches assayed: Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, 1 oz. per ton.
There were streaks of stibnite at the last two points, these samples not being assayed for
antimony. The southern vein-split is narrow where exposed at rare intervals, mineralization
being similar.    Going westerly from point A, this No. 1 vein is covered by talus to chainage WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6).
F 45
150 feet, from which point it is well exposed by closely-spaced trenches, along the general
contour of the slope at about 6,800 feet elevation, to chainage 280 feet, where it is deeply
covered by another rock-slide. Samples taken in this 130-foot length, which averages 4 feet
in width, gave the following results:—■
Chainage in Feet.
Width in Feet.
Gold.
Silver.
Antimony.
150                                              	
1.5
2.5
3.3
4.0
5.0
3.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
6.0
3.0
Oz. per Ton.
Trace
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
Trace
0.01
0.04
Trace
0.01
0.01
Oz. per Ton.
0.6
26.2
5.2
10.2
1.6
0.6
15.2
76.8
3.6
4.0
0.4
Per Cent.
Nil
168                ....
0.5
187 -  	
1.0
193          - - 	
202                                                    ..           -.          	
2.9
4 9
218                         	
1.0
227                                       	
0.9
232                                     	
5.0
236     -	
259                    - -   —	
9.0
1.0
280                                 ' -    	
Nil
Continuing westerly, the vein is covered by the rock-slide between chainages 280 and 403
feet. Where it reappears at the latter point the vein is offset about 20 feet to the north,
presumably by a fault between the points specified. A well-mineralized section, exposed by
trenching between chainages 403 and 445, averages 3.8 feet in width and was sampled as
follows:—■
Chainage in Feet.
Width in Feet.
Gold.
Silver.
Antimony.
Lead.
Zinc.
403                     ■
4.0
4.5
5.5
3.8*
2.6t
2.4
Oz. per Ton.
Trace
0.06
0.02
0.02
0.05
0.01
Oz. per Ton.
2.0
82.8
60.4
4.2
42.0
30.0
Per Cent.
14.1
9.0
12.0
2.5
6.6
2.4
Per Cent.
6.0
Per Cent.
423                             	
8.0
429                     --
436    - 	
436                     -.
445                   	
* Foot-wall.
t Hanging-wall.
The sample at chainage 428 feet was also assayed for copper, the content being 0.5 per
cent. Where blanks occur in the lead and zinc columns no assay was made for these metals,
which may be present in minor amounts.
Continuing up the steeply-ascending ground westerly from chainage 445 feet, the vein
is generally well exposed by trenches and natural outcrops to chainage 620 feet, throughout
which length the quartz, averaging about 4 feet in width, is lightly mineralized with sulphide-
streaks, stibnite predominating. From the latter point westerly up the edge of the bluffs to
chainage 706 the vein, apparently narrow, is poorly exposed. Between chainages 706 and 720
feet there is a 14-foot length, of an average width of 4 feet, in which a sample across 4.6 feet,
at chainage 715 feet, assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton; antimony, 5 per
cent. This section was made up of widths of 1.8 feet of quartz with sulphide-streaks against
the hanging-wall, 2.6 feet of rusty quartz and oxidized siliceous gangue in the central part,
and oxidized decomposed material with sulphide-streaks 0.2 feet wide next to the foot-wall.
The 720-foot point, at 6,950 feet elevation, is on the eastern edge of a precipitous canyon. West
of this point conditions are dangerous without proper equipment. Selected samples from the
vein imperfectly exposed but apparently quite wide locally, were taken on a ledge at chainages
770 and 790 feet. These assayed respectively: Gold, trace; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton; antimony,
6 per cent.; and: Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, trace; antimony, 3 per cent. Realgar specimens were also obtained from this vicinity. West of chainage 790 feet the outcrop stands out
boldly, climbing along the precipitous bluffs to an ultimate elevation approximating 8,000 feet.
Beyond the dangerous ground between chainages 770 and 1,156 feet the outcrop can be followed
easterly down from the summit. Between the latter point and chainage 1,358 feet accessible
vein-exposures, containing light sulphide mineralization, are from 2.5 to 7 feet wide, and F 46 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
westerly to chainage 1,471 feet the vein, more continuously exposed, averages about 2.5 feet in
width, the generally similar mineralization, in which stibnite predominates, including occasional streaks of grey copper. The above showings, west of initial point A, are on the Gray
Rock No. 1 claim. Continuing westerly, the ground falls steeply to the Gray Rock No. 5 claim,
through which the vein-continuity is traced or indicated by outcrops, sometimes widely
separated owing to rock-slides or ice ridges, over the irregular ground on to a ridge at the
western end of the property on the Gray Rock No. 8 claim, possibly 1 mile from point A.
Measurements are not available west of those previously specified, two samples being taken
for information, at 7,260 feet elevation and on the Gray Rock No. 5 claim, just west of an
extensive rock-slide, east of which the vein-outcrop stands out prominently where it climbs the
bluffs to the summit on the Gray Rock No. 1 claim. The vein here, split into two sections
6 feet apart, is exposed for a 20-foot length. A sample across the northern section, 1 foot
wide, assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 2.6 oz. per ton; copper, nil; lead, 2.7 per cent.;
and a sample across the southern section, 8 inches wide, assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver,
36.4 oz. per ton; copper, 0.3 per cent.; antimony, 0.5 per cent. Immediately west of this
showing the ground falls steeply to a rock-slide at 7,000 feet elevation, then the vein-fractures
reappear where they cut through a rocky hump in a glacier at about 800 feet west of the
showing sampled. Vein-outcrops are again exposed on a ridge 2,000 feet, roughly estimated,
farther west.
Of the other veins, No. 2, which generally has a comparatively heavy stibnite content, is
the best exposed. Point B, adopted for description, is the theoretical intersection of the No. 2
vein with the boundary between the Eastman and Gray Rock No. 1 claims, or about 100 feet
southerly from point A. About 600 feet easterly from point B this vein is partially exposed
by a shallow cut, at about 6,930 feet elevation, where there is a showing of quartz and oxidized
material 2.5 feet wide, including a 5-inch streak on the foot-wall side, which assayed: Gold,
0.01 oz. per ton; silver, trace; antimony, 16 per cent.; arsenic, nil. At this point the Nos. 1
and 2 veins are about 60 feet apart, having converged in this section. Measuring westerly
from point B, the No. 2 vein, at 6,850 feet elevation, is exposed from chainages 189 to 280 feet
between two rock-slides. From chainage 189 to 244 feet partial outcrops indicate the continuity of this vein. Between the latter point and chainage 280 feet three samples were taken.
The first, across 2 feet at chainage 244 feet, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace. Light stibnite
mineralization is present in the quartz here. The next sample, across 2.3 feet at chainage 264
feet, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace; antimony, 15 per cent. The third, across 2.5 feet at
chainage 276 feet, assayed: Gold, trace; silver, trace; antimony, 17 per cent. Beyond the
western rock-slide the outcrop is almost continuously exposed up the bare, steep slope between
chainages 405 and 720 feet, the latter point, on the eastern edge of the precipice at elevation
7,040 feet, being the western limit reached by the writer. Good specimens of realgar were
obtained at some risk by Andy Bergenham just west of chainage 720 feet. Throughout the
section examined, the vein, well mineralized with stibnite, is locally oxidized at the highest
point specified, where a selected sample assayed: Gold, 0.12 oz. per ton; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton.
On the bluff, 8 feet above this imperfectly-exposed oxidized showing, there is a parallel vein
or split, 3 to 9 inches wide, containing streaks of realgar and stibnite. Twelve feet easterly,
at elevation 7,015 feet, a partial exposure, 15 inches wide, assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;
silver, 8.6 oz. per ton; antimony, 17 per cent.; arsenic, nil. Oxidized material on the foot-
wall side indicates greater width than the section sampled.
The No. 3 vein, approximately 2 feet wide, is partially exposed between chainage-points
300 and 450 feet west of point C, which is about 200 feet southerly from point B and on the
same claim boundary-line at a higher elevation. A selected sample assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz.
per ton; silver, trace; antimony, 35 per cent.; arsenic, 0.1 per cent. At a still higher elevation the No. 5 vein, apparently from 8 inches to 2 feet wide, is exposed by outcrops at intervals
for a length of about 400 feet between chainage-points 50 feet east and 350 feet west of point D,
which is approximately 100 feet southerly from point C and on the same claim boundary.
Selected samples were taken at (a) 200 feet west and (6) 350 feet west of point D. These
assayed respectively: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 53.4 oz. per ton; antimony, 1.1 per cent.;
and:  Gold, 0.03 oz. per ton; silver, 23.2 oz. per ton;  antimony, 14 per cent.;  arsenic, nil.
At 7,080 feet elevation, crossing a ridge between rock-slides near the north-east corner of
Gray Rock No. 5 claim, the No. 4 vein can be traced by outcrops for a length of 150 feet, where WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 47
it is mostly from 6 to 8 inches wide but swells at the western end to 2.5 feet. A selected sample
assayed: Gold, 0.03 oz. per ton; silver, 0.4 oz. per ton; antimony, 10.9 per cent. This No. 4
vein is 300 feet, roughly estimated, to the north of the No. 1 vein. The Westman vein, exposed
on the Gray Rock No. 6 claim, which adjoins the Gray Rock No. 1 to the north, is the lowest and
farthest north of the series. It is exposed by outcrops and three open-cuts for a length of
400 feet or more along the 6,640-foot contour of the precipitous ground overlooking Truax Creek
from the south. The showings consist of iron-stained quartz and oxidized siliceous gangue
containing light sulphide mineralization without any appreciable amount of stibnite. A
sample across 1 foot in the western cut assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 4 oz. per ton;
and a sample across 10 inches in a cut 150 feet to the east assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;
silver, 0.4 oz. per ton. In the third cut, 60 feet farther east, there are quartz stringers along
well-marked fracturing in sheared, silicified, iron-stained rock. Two hundred feet farther
east the vein, traced by outcrops throughout the interval, consists of a zone of quartz bands
and stringers 8 feet wide.
Summarizing conditions, the veins occupy well-defined fissures and are remarkably persistent in lateral extent, appreciable continuity in depth being already indicated by the unequal
erosion. The antimony content is of interest if, at a more advanced stage of development, it
can be shown that a clean stibnite concentrate can be made. Grey-copper mineralization is
sufficiently continuous in places to warrant the assumption that good average silver values
exist in some vein areas. Gold values, not important in present exposures, may become of
accessory value. No evidence is yet available of a possible change in the character of the
mineralization at depth, the same minerals being exposed in deeply-eroded sections as at the
higher elevations. The presence of arsenopyrite, as detected in the thin sections, is of considerable interest, this mineral usually being auriferous in the Bridge River District. The
general tendency, in connection with deposits containing stibnite and arsenopyrite, is for
decreasing amounts of the former mineral as depth is attained, with an increase in the proportion of the latter.
SILVER-LEAD-ZINC DEPOSITS.
Nahwitti Lake Area.
The nucleus of the H.P.H. property consists of six claims known as the
H.P.H., North   H.P.H. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, and Idas, held by location and owned by S. S. Pugh
Shore, South     and M. Hepler, the original discoverers, both of Port Hardy.    In June, 1936,
Shore. these claims were under option to W. G. Dickinson, who, with associates of
Victoria, had acquired, by staking, eighteen additional contiguous claims.
The South Shore group consists of ten claims held by location, three of which, owned by
M. Hepler and F. Hicklenton, were included in the option, the other seven claims having been
staked by the Victoria interests, who had also staked five claims known as the North Shore
group. The H.P.H. camp and main workings, 14.25 miles westerly from Port Hardy, are
situated about 6,000 feet easterly from the east end of Nahwitti Lake (see B.C. Lands Department Map No. 2c, entitled " Northerly Portion of Vancouver Island "). The North Shore and
South Shore groups are located along the northern and southern sides respectively of Nahwitti
Lake adjacent to its western end.    All three prospects are in the Quatsino Mining Division.
The principal showings on the H.P.H. property are on the steep north slope of the ridge
which forms the southern side of the Upper Nahwitti River Valley. This small stream flows
westerly into Nahwitti Lake through swampy flats the elevation of which, at a point opposite
the camp and main workings, is about 600 feet. Elevations in the prospected area to the south
of the valley are up to 1,050 feet, this elevation representing the highest point on the summit
of the ridge, which continues for some miles to the east and west. Showings on the North
Shore and South Shore groups, at elevations up to 1,040 feet, are on the steep slopes to
Nahwitti Lake, which is at about 575 feet elevation. The whole area is well timbered with
hemlock, cedar, and balsam, trees being up to 6 feet in diameter, hemlock predominating. The
area comprising the H.P.H. property contains small creeks flowing steeply to the main stream,
such as Idas (Canyon) Creek, which affords possibilities for the development of a small water-
power. There are also small creeks flowing into the lake on the South Shore ground. The
North Shore prospect is just east of Nahwitti River where it flows out of the lake.
Access is from Port Hardy on the east coast of Vancouver Island, first for 1 mile along
the road towards Coal Harbour, on Quatsino Sound, then westerly by trail 9 miles in length to F 48 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
the eastern end of Kains Lake. A rowboat is then used for 2.5 miles to reach the western end
of this lake. From this point the trail continues westerly for a length of 5 miles to the H.P.H.
camp, the total distance from Port Hardy being about 17.5 miles. The trail, starting just
above sea-level at the road west of Port Hardy, climbs to an elevation of 1,000 feet at Kains
Lake, and the remaining section, after reaching a maximum elevation of 1,100' feet west of
this lake, descends to the H.P.H. camp at 620 feet elevation. The trail sections traverse a
densely wooded or timbered district in which swampy areas abound. The going is rough and
pack-horses could not be used without extensive trail improvements, including construction of
long stretches of corduroy. When development was in progress in the autumn of 1930 and
following winter months, supplies and equipment were largely brought in by plane to Kains
Lake, from which point men packed them to the property. Nahwitti Lake, which is much
nearer, also affords good landing facilities for a plane.
A much shorter trail-location, possibly about 8 miles in length, could be located southeasterly and southerly from the H.P.H. camp over a low pass at 850' feet elevation to a point
on the West Arm of Quatsino Sound some 6 or 7 miles west of Coal Harbour. Nahwitti Lake
is about 4,000 feet wide and 2.2 miles in length and the H.P.H. property is connected with it by
trail, the North Shore and South Shore prospects being reached by rowboat.
The general geology surrounding the H.P.H. deposits is described by H. C. Gunning in
Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report, Part A, 1931, page 37-A. Extending this to
include neighbouring prospects, silver-lead-zinc replacements have been found at intervals over
a total length of 4.6 miles in an east-west direction (including the Dorlon group, described
separately). The showings occur in bands of grey to black fine-grained limestone, frequently
silicified. Limestone areas in the H.P.H. section have been prospected over a length of 4,500
feet and a width up to 1,700 feet. The principal limestone-band, to which the foregoing report
applies, has been estimated to be at least 500 feet thick. It strikes a little north of west and
dips to the south at from 35 degrees or less to 65 degrees. The base of this limestone is not
exposed, but according to Gunning it probably contacts with the underlying volcanic flows and
fragmentals in the drift-covered flats immediately north of the ridge. Near and south of the
top of the ridge the limestone is interbedded with and overlain by siliceous grey tuffs, felsite,
hornblende andesite, and hornblende andesite porphyry. Farther south, or at points from
one-half to three-quarters of a mile south of the flats, the aforementioned rocks are intruded
by a large body of granodiorite or diorite. A specimen representing a local phase of this
intrusive is a fine-grained, light-coloured phanerocrystalline rock, determined microscopically
as hornblende granodiorite, the approximate mineral composition being: Orthoclase, 20 per
cent.; combined albite and oligoclase, 20 per cent.; quartz, 50 per cent.; with some accessory
iron ore, chlorite, and epidote present. There are a few sills, dykes, and irregular bodies of
aplite, felsite, and altered rhyolite or trachyte in the limestone, also occasional dykes of augite
andesite and augite andesite porphyry. The above conditions apply to the H.P.H. section.
On the ground comprising the North Shore and South Shore groups the limestone-bands, interbedded with acid and basic volcanics, shales, and tuffs, are comparatively narrow and outcrop
over a smaller areal extent. Basic volcanics, which interrupt the continuity of the North Shore
limestone, include hornblende latite and similar rocks are exposed along the southern side of the
lake between the South Shore limestone and the water. To the south, and on the steep slope
about 400 feet above the lake, this limestone is overlain by shales, tuffs, and felsites. Included
in the series an extrusive type noted has been completely altered to yellowish-brown carbonate.
Cutting shale near one showing there is a small dyke of grey fine-grained rock containing
numerous specks of pyrite. Granodiorite, probably connected with the large intrusive body
observed to the south of the H.P.H. group, outcrops at numerous points roughly parallel to the
north and south sides of Nahwitti Lake at from 2,000 to 3,500 feet away, these main branches
connecting at points half a mile or less west of the western end of the lake. At the western end
of the South Shore property the limestone is directly underlain by granodiorite. In the vicinity
of the showings on the same group the limestone is cut by a dyke, 50 feet wide or more, of
hornblende diorite, a fine- to medium-grained greenish rock, a specimen of which was composed of andesine 50 per cent, and hornblende 40 per cent., with accessory iron ore, rutile,
apatite, and quartz.
The prevailing type of mineralization, occurring as irregular replacements lacking definite
structural boundaries, consists of galena and sphalerite in a gangue of black, fine-grained, WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6). F 49
silicified limestone, or of dark-grey limestone. In some phases a crustified or cellular quartz
gangue has been developed and in others the limestone is leached. The sulphides are generally
exposed at or near the surface, oxidation', where present, being local or shallow. Some oxidized
cappings containing sulphide remnants have only been partially exposed by stripping. The
presence of small amounts of pyrite, pyrrhotite, and chalcopyrite has been reported in some
specimens of silver-lead-zinc ore from the H.P.H. The mineralization varies from material,
generally siliceous, through which the lead and zinc sulphides occur as disseminations or
streaks, to nearly clean galena or galena and sphalerite masses. The silver values fluctuate
considerably. Twelve samples from the H.P.H. group show a silver ratio of from V2 to 3 % oz.
to the unit of lead, the average being 1.4 oz. Sphalerite predominates at the North Shore and
South Shore prospects and silver values are low. Gold values in all samples varied from a
trace to 0.04 oz. to the ton, the average content being negligible. Several undeveloped exposures of magnetite have been reported to occur on the H.P.H. group, but these were not
visited. Gunning refers to a showing at the south-west corner of the original group, about
1 mile from the cabins, as an extensive development of garnet and epidote, with some magnetite,
minor pyrrhotite, pyrite, and occasional arsenopyrite, lying against granodiorite, no work
having been done at that point.
The original claims constituting the H.P.H. property were staked in 1930. Subsequently
an option was acquired on the group by the American Smelting and Refining Company, with the
result that a limited amount of exploratory work was done in the winter of 1930-31. The
company ceased work in the spring of 1931 and relinquished its option. The property then lay
idle until early in 1936, when an option was taken by the Victoria interest previously mentioned
and small-scale development continued.
The claims constituting the North Shore and South Shore groups are recent stakings.
Specific conditions on the three prospects are separately described as follows:—■
H.P.H.—Locally the limestone is considerably jointed, most of the joints being at about
right angles to the strike of the formation. In the vicinity of the principal workings there
are numerous irregular and discontinuous fractures. Evidence of definite structural control
is at present lacking, the mineralization occurring in irregular patches or lenticular zones.
The largest showing is exposed or indicated by stripping and trenching for a length of 125
feet or more and a width of from a few inches to about 12 feet.
Exclusive of this comparatively large body, around which most of the development-work
has been done, silver-lead'-zinc mineralization has been exposed at fifteen separate points on
five claims, the H.P.H. Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 6, and Pendic No. 18, which form a block in the centre
of the staked area. The principal showings, first referred to, are on the steep, " bluffy "
ground forming the toe of the ridge just south of the flats at 600 feet elevation. Surface
workings here consist of stripping and trenching. Those exposing mineralization are enclosed
within an area 260' feet long measured easterly-westerly and about 42 feet wide between the
620- and 660-foot contours. The general trend of the mineralization is westerly, but this
turns a little south of west towards the western end of the exposures. Chaining in feet from
east to west conditions are as follows: From zero to 32, two parallel narrow zones of iron-
stained capping containing sulphide-streaks and seams of decomposed oxidized material; from
32 to 70, limestone covered in part with moss and soil; from 70 to 92, strong lead-zine mineralization from a few inches to 3 feet in width; 92 to 97, covered; 97 to 164, continuous irregularly-
shaped meandering exposure of massive sulphides from 1 to 12 feet in width, plus adjoining
small lenses to the north separated from the main body by unreplaced limestone; 164 to 188,
iron-stained silicified limestone irregularly mineralized over a width up to 8 feet with scattered
.streaks and bunches of sulphides; from 188 to 208, covered; 208 to 214, trench exposing a
width of 18 feet of oxidized capping and soil; 214 to 256, covered; and from 266 to 260, trench
exposing width of 6 feet of oxidized capping and soil. Just west of here, at chainage 271 feet,
a long trench is in soil, some mineralized float being found in it. Reverting to the area of the
massive and continuous mineralization between chainage-points 97 and 164, the collar of the
east shaft is at chainage 109 and 660 feet elevation. This shaft, 12.5 feet deep to the water-
level, is first sunk 8 feet as a steep incline to the south and then vertical. A short crosscut said
to be 8 feet long extends to the west from the shaft-bottom, but this was inaccessible. On the
east side of the shaft massive sulphides are exposed over a thickness, measured down from the
collar, of 6 feet, and a sample across this width assayed:  Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton;  silver, 35.2 oz. F 50 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
per ton; lead, 41 per cent.; zinc, 25.7 per cent. Selected galena from the same place assayed:
Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, 106.4 oz. per ton; lead, 78.5 per cent.; and selected sphalerite
assayed: Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, 12.4 oz. per ton; zinc, 49.9 per cent. Massive sulphides, but containing less galena, are exposed down the west side of the shaft for 8 feet below
the collar. It was not practicable to inspect the shaft below these workings due to the rotten
condition of the ladder, and water. It is reported on good authority that mineralization persisted to some extent to the bottom of the shaft where the ore-width was reduced to 6 inches.
The west shaft, at chainage 165 feet and about 648 feet elevation, is distant 56 feet on a
bearing of north 62 degrees west from the collar of the east shaft. It was sunk vertically for
the first 12 feet, but the lower part of this section has filled in so that for practical purposes
the west shaft is now an incline sunk to south 32 degrees west for 28.5 feet on a 57-degree
slope, attaining a depth of 24 feet below the collar. At this point it was driven into a cave in
the limestone which extends south 60 degrees west for 30 feet to Station A, thence south 36
degrees west for 6 feet to Station B, and finally for 22 feet due west through a low gallery,
difficult of access, to a pot-hole containing deep water at Station C. The cave descends gently
to a level about 6 feet below the bottom of the shaft or 30 feet below the collar. From Station
B a branch gallery 4 feet long leads south-westerly to another and larger water-filled hole.
The cave has been formed along irregular fractures with variable strikes and dips. The shaft
is first sunk in a zone, up to 8 feet wide on the surface, of light mineralization consisting of
irregular streaks and disseminations of sulphides in iron-stained silicified limestone. Similar
conditions are apparent for 12 feet down the shaft. From this point the sulphide mineralization continues chiefly along the western side of the shaft and north-western and western side
of the cave, as stringers and scattered pockets, or patches lining the cave-walls. The most
continuous mineralization of the last-mentioned type is exposed on the western wall of the cave
opposite Stations A and B. This showing, 10 feet long and 10 feet high, is associated with a
vertical fracture striking south 30 degrees west. Galena predominates here and a selected
sample assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 81.8 oz. per ton; lead, 55.5 per cent.; zinc, 15.7
per cent. Selected material from the farthest-west point reached in the cave assayed: Gold,
0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 17.4 oz. per ton; lead, 11.9 per cent.; zinc, 20.6 per cent. Similar
mineralization, occurring as scattered streaks at numerous points along the northern wall of
the cave between Stations B and C, is associated with a fracture striking due west with variable
dips to the north. The restricted dimensions of the latter passage prevented thorough inspection of conditions, but it would appear that the cave generally follows along the southern
margin of the mineralized zone traced on the surface, gaining depth on it going south-west.
From a point 60 feet north 7 degrees east from the collar of the east shaft and 50 feet
below it, at 610 feet elevation, the Lee adit has been driven 111 feet along a bearing of south
17 degrees west, so that it passes under the ground between the two shafts. Chaining in feet
from the portal, solid rock was reached at 26; from 26 to 45 the adit cuts altered grey to green
siliceous rock containing garnet, epidote, scattered specks of pyrrhotite, pyrite, and rarely
chalcopyrite; at 45 feet this rock contacts irregularly with grey limestone dipping from 30 to
46 degrees to the south; from 45 feet to the face the adit is all in limestone. At 98 feet in
from the portal a branch working 10 feet long has been driven north 60 degrees west at a
point where some galena and sphalerite mineralization, associated with local silicification, is
exposed in the back of the main adit. This stringer, up to 14 inches wide, pitches westerly at
about 30 degrees into the floor of the branch working. Fifteen other scattered silver-lead-zinc
showings were examined, but it is not practicable to describe them all separately in this report.
Only a small amount of work, consisting of stripping and shallow cuts, had been done on them,
so that little evidence is afforded of the continuity, form, or extent of the mineralization. The
sulphides, irregularly distributed through the limestone, generally where it is silicified, occur
in some cases as remnants in oxidized cappings. All the showings trend westerly or southwesterly, dips where indicated being generally to the south or south-east into the hill. In two
cases, however, dips to the north were noted. No definite structure was observed, discoveries
having been made at various horizons in the limestone. These can be roughly segregated- into
two broad zones/most of the prospecting having been done on the northern one, which includes
the previously described Lee adit area. This zone, traversing the H.P.H. Nos. 2, 1, and 3
claims from east to west along the steep, northerly slope to the flats, lies north of and roughly
parallel to a dyke or sill of augite andesite, up to 20 feet wide or more, which passes 438 feet
south of the Lee adit-portal.    In this belt there are four showings, numbered for convenience WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6). F 51
1 to 4, on the H.P.H. No. 2 claim at points 480, 650, 800, and 850 feet east of the adit. Selected
samples from Nos. 1, 2, and 3 locations assayed respectively: (1.) Gold, trace; silver, 1.8 oz. per
ton; lead, 2.6 per cent.; zinc, 8.3 per cent. (2.) Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, 14.6 oz. per ton;
lead, 20.8 per cent.; zinc, 15.4 per cent. (3.) Gold, trace; silver, 11.8 oz. per ton; lead, 29.1 per
cent; zinc, 9.2 per cent. The other showings, number 5 to 11, are at the following points
described with reference to the Lee adit-portal: No. 5, elevation 710 feet, south 72 degrees west,
231 feet; No. 6, elevation 780 feet, south 53 degrees west, 250 feet; No. 7, elevation 766 to 785
feet, south 66 degrees 30 minutes west, 324 feet; No. 8, elevation 860 feet, south 77 degrees west,
427 feet; No. 9 elevation 890 feet, south 73 degrees west, 1,400 feet; No. 10, elevation 750 feet,
south 72 degrees west, 2,060 feet; No. 11, elevation 750 feet, south 73 degrees west, 2,160 feet.
Of these the No. 5 showing, where stripping was proceeding, consisted of iron-stained capping
irregularly mineralized with sphalerite, occasional galena, and decomposed streaks, being
exposed for a width of 3.5 feet along its westerly strike and for 10 feet on its dip of from
40 to 45 degrees to the north. Apparently part of a more extensive capping, the mineralization
seemed to follow the foot-wall of a dyke of altered rhyolite or trachyte, a dense greyish silicified
rock containing much pyrite. A selected sample here assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 1 oz. per
ton; lead, nil; zinc, 19 per cent. Selected samples from Nos. 6 and 7 locations assayed respectively: Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, 32.8 oz. per ton; lead, 22.2 per cent.; zinc, 7.6 per cent.;
and:  Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton;  silver, 3.8 oz. per ton;  lead, 1.1 per cent.;  zinc, 14.5 per cent.
The southern zone, in which mineralization is naturally exposed or has been found at
widely separated points on the H.P.H. No. 6 and Pendic No. 18 claims, lies on the undulating
ground draining to Idas (Canyon) Creek south-west of the Lee adit and south of the main
ridge. These showings, numbered 12 to 15, are described with reference to the Lee adit-portal
as follows: No. 12, elevation 725 feet, south 54 degrees west, 1,500 feet; No. 13, elevation 770
feet, south 55 degrees west, 2,130 feet; No. 14, elevation, 1,000 feet, south 67 degrees 30 minutes
west, 3,150 feet; No. 15, elevation 726 feet, south 72 degrees 30 minutes west, 3,000 feet. Of
these the showing at No. 13 location is an exposure 4 by 5 feet, covered around the edges, being
part of a strong oxidized capping containing streaks and bunches of sphalerite, with some
molybdic oxide as a yellow incrustation. A selected sample assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton;
silver, 12.2 oz. per ton; zinc, 7.2 per cent. A selected sample from No. 14 location assayed:
Gold, trace; silver, 29.8 oz. per ton; lead, 7.9 per cent.; zinc, 20.3 per cent. No. 15 showing,
apparently part of an extensive capping, consists of several widely-separated patches of
oxidized, silicified limestone containing streaks of sulphides and seams of decomposed material.
A selected sample assayed: Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, 17.4 oz. per ton; lead, 26.4 per cent.;
zinc, 7.9 per cent.
Summarizing conditions on the H.P.H. property, the various partial and incomplete
exposures include promising objectives for development.
Evidence of definite structural control of mineralization is lacking at the present stage of
exploration. In regard to the major objective, or the largest body exposed in and adjacent to
the two shafts, there is evidence that, though irregular in outline, cross-section, and intensity
of mineralization, it has an approximately tabular or pipe-shaped form pitching somewhat
flatly to the west or south-west. This is indicated by the mineralization along the western or
north-western wall of the cave, which was penetrated farther than had been done before. The
adit and adjacent workings have disproved continuity in other respects. In this connection
an interesting discussion regarding the origin and form of the H.P.H. deposits is contained in
Gunning's report previously mentioned. Taking into consideration the present lack of transportation facilities and the economics of silver-lead-zinc production, conditions call for larger
tonnage of better-grade and more regular ore than if the property was more cheaply accessible.
North Shore.—A limited amount of prospecting on this group of claims has disclosed
irregularly-silicified limestone containing scattered streaks and patches of sphalerite mineralization, with minor amounts of galena, at several widely-separated points along the steep,
densely-wooded slope to Nahwitti Lake at 575 feet elevation.
Two indefinite showings, at elevations of 625 and 775 feet, were examined in cuts near the
western boundary of the claims east of Nahwitti River and just east of an area of hornblende
latite. A selected sample from the upper point assayed: Gold, trace; silver, 6 oz. per ton;
lead, 1.3 per cent.; zinc, 13.6 per cent. Another cut in this vicinity, at 725 feet elevation,
exposes contact-metamorphic mineralization, consisting of magnetite and cupriferous pyrite, F 52 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
trending south-westerly along the limestone-volcanic contact. Little work has been done on
this showing, from which a selected sample assayed: Gold, O.02 oz. per ton; silver, 1.2 oz. per
ton; copper, 3.3 per cent. Another cut at 587 feet elevation, or just above the lake-level, and
about 4,000' feet easterly from the previously-mentioned locations, exposes a stringer of
sphalerite-galena mineralization, up to 14 inches wide, in silicified limestone just west of
another area of hornblende latite. Here, as at the other points specified, conditions are
indefinite.
South Shore.—Superficial prospecting on these claims has disclosed some indefinite mineralization, consisting chiefly of disseminations and streaks of sphalerite, with occasional
galena, in a narrow belt of limestone bounded to the north along the lake by hornblende latite
and to the south by shales, tuffs, and felsite. The showings examined are across the lake from
and approximately opposite and south of the last-mentioned showing on the North Shore group.
Located on the wooded, steep, north slope to the lake, between the lower limestone-volcanic
contact at 800 feet elevation and the upper contact at 970 feet elevation, there are four small
exposures of erratic low-grade mineralization at elevations of 810, 910, 935, and 955 feet respectively. They appear to be part of an extensive zone of altered limestone, silicified and iron-
stained in part, irregularly mineralized with fine streaks and disseminations of the sulphides.
Selected samples assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton; lead, 13.3 per cent.;
zinc, 9.8 per cent.; and: Gold, trace; silver, 0.6 oz. per ton; lead, 0.5 per cent.; zinc, 6 per
cent. Silver-lead-zinc mineralization is reported to have been found at other widely-separated
points, but these were not examined.
This group, in the Nanaimo Mining Division, consists of four claims held by
Dorlon. location and owned by S. S. Pugh, of Port Hardy, and associates.    It is
situated to the south of the Upper Nahwitti River Valley about 7,100 feet
easterly from the H.P.H. camp. Slopes adjoining the workings, at elevations varying from
910 to 1,020 feet, are northerly towards the valley at 675 feet elevation, the character of the
timbered ground being irregular with occasional benches. The property is reached by a short
branch from the main trail leading to the H.P.H. group about 16.16 miles from Port Hardy.
General transportation conditions have been described in the foregoing H.P.H. report.
Limestone extends up the slope from the valley to an elevation of 1,020 feet over a distance
of 2,000 feet or more measured from north to south. Towards the south-western corner of
the claims there is a large area of dense siliceous volcanic rock. In the vicinity of the main
showings, toward the centre of the square block of claims, the limestone is cut by a dyke of
silicified and altered aplite, or felsite, 5 feet wide, which strikes north 20 degrees west and has
a vertical dip. The mineralization consists chiefly of black sphalerite occurring in massive
stringers or as scattered streaks replacing the locally dark to black, generally silicified limestone. Rare specks of galena are associated with the zinc sulphides at one point. Two
samples of sphalerite mineralization contained from 0.54 to 0.94 oz. gold per ton and from 0.8
to 2.0 oz. silver per ton. The gold values are apparently associated with pyrite occurring in
" hair-line " seams in the sphalerite.
The Dorlon claims, known formerly as the Yucan group, were staked in 1930, since when
work has been confined to shallow cuts and stripping at a few points.
The most definite showing seen, 6 feet long and up to 28 inches wide, is situated on a local
bench at 910 feet elevation and adjoins the previously-mentioned dyke to the east.
Structural conditions could not be ascertained due to the limited amount of work done.
A channel sample across 28 inches of sphalerite-streaks with intervening oxidized seams
assayed: Gold, 0.54 oz. per ton; silver, 0.8 oz. per ton; zinc, 33.6 per cent.; and a selected
fresh sample of sphalerite, containing pyrite in cleavage planes, assayed: Gold, 0.94 oz. per
ton; silver, 2.0 oz. per ton; zinc, 35.6 per cent. At points from 8 to 12 feet west of the dyke,
dark limestone, containing scattered sphalerite streaks, is only slightly exposed. The above
showings are near the south-west corner of the Dorlon No. 1, which is the north-eastern of the
four claims in the block. To the south-west about 300 yards, roughly estimated, and on the
Dorlon No. 4 claim, at 1,020 feet elevation, a small patch had been lightly stripped showing
silicified iron-stained limestone containing scattered streaks of the black sphalerite accompanied by occasional specks of galena. The gold values associated with the mineralization at
the point sampled warrant systematic prospecting, the showings adjoining the dyke presenting
an interesting objective for exploration. Gold values may be present at other points where
similar sphalerite mineralization is in evidence but where little or no work has been done. WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 53
GOLD-SILVER-LEAD-ZINC DEPOSITS.
Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
Brandywine Creek Area.
These groups, comprising thirteen mineral claims held by location, are in
Astra and       the Vancouver Mining Division, being owned by Frank Price, of New West-
Cambria,        minster.    The area adjoins or lies to the south and south-west of Dority
Creek, an easterly-flowing tributary of Callaghan Creek, which, in turn,
empties into the Cheakamus River just north of McGuire Siding on the Pacific Great Eastern
Railway, 30 miles north of Squamish.    The cabin is 2.5 miles north-west of McGuire, or about
100 yards east of the north-west corner of S.T.L. No. 43727, shown on B.C. Department of
Lands Reference Map No. 62.    Elevations on the claims range from 2,000 to 5,500 feet, as
compared with 1,632 feet at McGuire.    The workings examined vary in elevation from 2,440
to 3,475 feet, the main showings being situated on a bench, at 3,260 feet elevation, which
interrupts the.irregular but generally steep slope to Dority Creek.    The ground is heavily
wooded with hemlock, yellow cedar, and balsam, the useful trees being up to 3 feet in diameter.
Neighbouring peaks of the Coast Range, lying west or north-west of the prospected area, are
Metal Dome at 6,590 feet elevation and Mount Cayley at 7,852 feet elevation.    Present means
of access is by trail, about 3.5 miles in length, extending westerly from McGuire Siding as a
good pack-trail for 2.5 miles to the Blue Jack prospect on Brandywine Creek, thence for 1
mile on a very steep grade extending northerly along Swede   (Snow)   Creek to its head.
A better route for the Astra and Cambria, of about the same length from McGuire, could be
located along Callaghan and Dority Greeks, which streams afford potentialities for water-
power development.    The B.C. Electric Railway Company power-line right-of-way from Bridge
River crosses the flats below the property, presenting a possibility of commercial power being
available at some future time when an adequate market is available for electrical energy.
The geology of the area has not been mapped, the nearest work of this nature being the
" Reconnaissance along the Pacific Great Eastern Railway between Squamish and Lillooet,"
contained in Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report, Part B, 1917. The deposits are
found in greenstone or its schistose derivatives, being part of a comparatively large area of
Mesozoic, mainly Triassic, roof-pendant rocks within the Coast Range batholith of Jurassic
age. The stratified rocks are represented locally by argillites, bands of limestone, conglomerate, and tuffs, interbedded with greenstones, chlorite, and talc schists. This series, which
strikes north-westerly, with steep dips to the south-west, is intruded by several large dykes, up
to 106 feet wide, of felsite and felsitic porphyry, which, extending for long distances in a north-
south direction, are a marked geological feature of the area including the Blue Jack and
Brandywine prospects, these being described separately. Stocks of diorite outcrop at points
to the south of the prospected ground or at about 1,800 feet south of Dority Creek. The
diorite, which is from green to nearly black in colour and varies in texture from coarse to fine
grained, or porphyritic, is believed to represent an altered basic phase of the batholithic rocks.
Mineralization, of replacement-type, is exposed at numerous points in greenstone, where
it is more or less silicified, and in chloritic schists, within an area about 1,500 feet long
measured north-west and south-east and up to 1,300 feet wide from north-east to south-west.
As shown on the accompanying sketch-map, two parallel felsitic porphyry dykes cut the
greenstone towards the western margin of the area examined 'by the writer. These dykes,
where intersected by Dority Creek, are 78 and 106 feet wide respectively, being separated by
102 feet of locally coarse-grained greenstone. Extending north-westerly across Dority Creek,
the greenstone is bounded to the east by tuffs. In the same direction, 2,000 feet from the two
big dykes, the formation is cut by a similarly wide north-south-trending felsite dyke, in the
vicinity of stock-like outcrops of dark green, coarse-grained, altered diorite. About 2,600 feet
south of Dority Creek there are north-westerly-striking argillites and slates which separate
the Astra-Cambria greenstone area from the schistose greenstone and chloritic schist of the
Blue Jack property. At the present stage of superficial exploration no evidence is afforded
of definite structural boundaries to the widespread mineralization found in the greenstone in
which shearing planes generally strike north 35 degrees west and dip 65 degrees to the southwest. The mineralized host-rock is in most places lightly capped with rusty, light-coloured,
dense chloritic schist, silicified in places, in which pyrite is abundant and frequently accom- F 54
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
panied by low-grade irregular disseminations of sphalerite and galena, manganese dioxide
coating the rock at many points. In the underlying greenstone, where penetrated, there is
an apparent improvement in the grade and continuity of the prevailing low-grade mineralization,  and  chalcopyrite,  of  sparse  occurrence  elsewhere,  is more   noticeable.    In   present
LEGEND
|c~3|    Stripping
Hgg    Limestone
[erg]    Open Cuts
Tuffs
grg]    Felsitic porphyry  dykes
Exposed formation  is qreenstone
or chloritic schist  except   where
differentiated
(cm   «sn     n inn ^r\n
Scale
WAstr
J   El 3
7CV       I*.'
ra Cut
34-75'
Feet
N°_t,    '
"Ms
''Adit   El. 3200'
*N°I.A.
\
4.
-"J.C.CU+,;       \    ^Vrv \\N°2.B.
EI.3 300:/pQnd'-.v^* ^
i  i"N        sj>R2(NV"2'A
\Area'.
vs-o
w*
■25',
A<?>
"Footwalf Cuts  65*X,.
El. Z96o'    B *"
/Astra
X «>\
c/\
£/-£pX
\       Q.        w
/          X.
\                ,P
! a
\            *
i $   A
\         °
«?•£,
4   '
C™nero,',^
"'stone
Approximate"   section   showinq
structure  along   line   X-Y
• Adit El. 3ZOO'
Astra and Cambria.    Sketch-plan of Workings. WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6).
F 55
exposures, many of which have not reached the more favourable underlying rock, sphalerite,
nearly always present to some extent, is frequently accompanied by galena in small percentages. All assays show some silver ranging from less than an ounce to 5 oz. per ton in channel
samples and up to 8.9 oz. per ton in sorted material, the average content being small. Gold
values, of interest because of the extensive distribution of mineralization, are generally very
low, but appear to improve where chalcopyrite is present or in the more massive mixed
sulphide occurrences. The best gold assays in the writer's channel samples were 0.07 and
0.08 oz. per ton and up to 0.12 oz. per ton in selected material. Seepages of secondary manganese are abundant in the vicinity of local fractures.
The property was staked by Frank Price and Bert Falconer in 1925, since when annual
asses'sment-work has been performed. Among references to the Astra and Cambria contained
in past Annual Reports, that for 1934, page F 14, contains assay returns of interest.
The area in which the most intensive prospecting has been done is about 500 feet long
and 300 feet wide. This includes the open-cuts developing what is known as the " No. 6 lead,"
which is the most extensive of the mineralized zones indicated by the surface workings. The
mineralization, only partially exposed in most cases, consists of light disseminations of pyrite,
sphalerite, galena, and occasional chalcopyrite, with lenses or streaks of more concentrated
mixed sulphide material. {Large exposures are available for sampling, though these are not
always at right angles to the north-35-degree-west trend of the sheared zone and widths must
be reduced accordingly. Referring to the accompanying sketch, sampling results are appended
below. Where blanks are shown in the copper, lead, or zinc columns, assays were not made
for these metals, which, if present, were not in important amounts.
Sample No.
Location.
Width in
Feet.
Bearing of
Exposure
sampled.
Gold.
Silver.
Copper.
Lead.
Zinc.
6253-B	
J.C. Cut 	
J.C. Cut	
No. 1 Cut	
6
Sorted
Selected
22.5
5
4.75
5
2
Specimen
7
6
Grab
6
5.5
Selected
9
Selected
24.25
Grab
Selected
Selected
5
Selected
2
N.35° E.
Oz. per
Ton.
0.07
0.12
0.04
0.01
0.04
0.01
0.04
0.01
0.05
Trace
0.02
0.03
Trace
0.03
0.04
0.02
0.11
0.01
0.02
0.08
0.04
0.08
0.04
0.22
Oz. Per
Ton.
5.0
8.9
2.0
0.5
1.6
0.5
1.2
0.4
5.2
Trace
0.6
2.2
0.5
0.6
3.0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.8
2.8
0.8
0.4
5.4
0.6
Per Cent.
2.0
4.2
0.5
2.0
0.1
0.5
Per Cent.
8.5
21.0
6.0
0.7
2.5
0.5
5.0
Trace
11.5
0.2
0.5
3.0
1.0
1.2
5.3
Trace
0.7
1.1
1.4
14.0
25.5
Per Cent.
4 0
6254-B	
6255-B             	
6248-B to 6251-B
No. 1 Cut    	
South
South
South
South
N.55° E.
N.57° E.
N. 57° E.
N.55° E.
N.55° E.
6246-B
No. 1 Cut     	
6245-B	
No. 1 Cut.	
3 0
6244-B 	
No. 1 Cut	
3 0
6252-B
No. 1-A Cut	
6238-B      . .  	
Adit	
Adit 	
Adit.	
Adit	
6243-B	
2 0
6240-B... 	
4.0
No. 2 Cut     	
No. 2-A Cut    ..
6265-B             	
No. 2-B Cut.-	
3.8
6261-B.	
No. 3 Cut	
No. 3 Cut      	
N. 55° E.
2.5
No. 4 Cut      	
N. 70° E.
No. 4 Cut      	
6.0
6266-B
Foot-wall Cut A...
Foot-wall Cut B.__
Foot-wall Cut C
12.1
6268-B              	
N.55°E.
0.5
21 0
6269-B              	
Quartz Vein at
"D"
Normal to dip
3.4
Of the above samples, Nos. 6263-B to 6268-B, taken in succession as listed, represent the
same general type of mineralization, consisting of pyrite, sphalerite, and galena, with occasional chalcopyrite, disseminated through a gangue of silicified greenstone, sometimes sheared
and schistose, or of rusty cappings, generally more sparingly mineralized. The J.C. cut reveals
the best mineralization seen and the 6-foot section sampled, No. 6253-B, appears to be part of
an extensive zone partially exposed, but not sufficiently for sampling, for a further 15 feet
along the same north-35-degree-east bearing, the showings being covered around the edges.
Sample 6254-B from this cut was from a 2-ton pile of sorted material. F 56 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
Samples 6248-B to 6251-B, No. 1 cut, are continuous sections for a total length of 37.25
feet along the south bearing of the exposure, the first four of which, representing 22.5 feet of
uniformly low-grade mineralization, were averaged. The adit samples, Nos. 6243-B and
6240LB, represent sections between 49 and 56 feet, and between 56 and 62 feet in from the portal
respectively. No. 6266-B, from No. 2-B cut, is selected material from outcrops over a length
of 54 feet, this partial exposure being along the strike: No. 6247-B, Astra cut, represents
selected material from irregular galena-sphalerite-pyrite streaks in rusty calcareous gangue,
the mineralization being associated with a fracture in silicified dolomitic limestone west of the
most western felsitic porphyry dyke. Sample No. 6269-B is from a quartz vein or zone which,
striking north 15 degrees west and dipping 63 degrees to the south-west, has been exposed by
open-cuts over a length of 175 feet adjoining Dority Creek. The quartz, from 8 to 24 inches
wide, is irregularly mineralized with pyrite, sphalerite, occasional galena and chalcopyrite,
the enclosing rock being- chloritic schist.
Adjoining Dority Creek at four widely-separated points between the quartz vein at D,
2,860 feet elevation, and 1,000 feet easterly, at 2,440 feet elevation, open-cuts and stripping, not
shown on the sketch, expose scattered sphalerite^pyrite mineralization, with occasional galena,
in rusty silicified zones in schistose greenstone or chloritic schist. The planes of schistosity
have variable strikes and dips, some noted striking north 20 degrees east and dipping steeply
to the north-west, while others strike north 45 degrees west with vertical dips.
Summarizing conditions at the present stage of shallow, imperfect exposures, mineralization of the main type specified, generally very low grade, is remarkable for its extensive
distribution. The J.C. showings, which may be part of a large body, contain interesting gold
and silver values associated with appreciable percentages of the base metals, notably lead and
copper. This indicates an interesting possibility for the development of valuable sulphide
concentrations within the adjacent area, in which mineralization in some degree is practically
always encountered in excavations, especially when the capping is penetrated. Apart from
the better-grade section of the J.C. cut, there are lenses and stringers of material carrying a
higher percentage of lead than appear in the channel samples. If the general type of mineralization is found to persist at depth, such material could be readily sorted on a large scale for
a mill product.
Low but appreciable gold values, which are found in places as at the Foot-wall, No. 3, and
J.C. cuts in the greenstone area, appear to improve with the presence of appreciable percentages
of copper or in the more massive sulphide aggregates which include copper. Accessory gold
may therefore be of value if large sulphide bodies are found, and in this event silver values
might also be expected to improve. There are other types of mineralization such as the veinlike auriferous-quartz occurrence at " D " and the mineralized dolomitic limestone in the Astra
cut, samples from both of these places being listed.
A great deal of prospecting has been done on the claims by the owner and his partner and
not all the showings were seen by the writer. Of those examined, however, the No. 6 zone and
adjoining J.C. cut appear to constitute a first objective for future exploration, and in this connection the adit, if extended along its course of south 57 degrees west for about 265 feet, will
reach the ground on the 65-degree dip below the J.C. cut at approximately 100 feet lower
elevation.    Conditions are well adapted for preliminary testing by diamond-drilling.
This group, adjoining the Astra and Cambria property to the south, consists
Blue Jack.      of eight claims held by location and owned by the Blue Jack Mines, Limited.
Referring to the B.C. Department of Lands Reference Map No. 62, the
property, in the Vancouver Mining Division, adjoins Brandywine Creek to the north at a point
about 2.1 miles north-westerly from McGuire Siding on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
The workings, along the banks of Snow (Swede) Creek, a small tributary flowing southerly
into the larger stream, are at relative elevations of from 2,100 to 2,700 feet, being situated on
a steep well-timbered slope. The trees include fir, white pine, and cedar, some of the large
firs being up to 5 feet in diameter. The rocks are covered with overburden, which is deep
towards the southern end. Brandywine Creek is a boulder-strewn, torrential stream with a
steep gradient towards Brew (Brandywine Falls), where, adjoining the railway, it has a
direct fall of 185 feet. The property is conveniently reached by pack-trail 2V2 miles in length
from McGuire Siding, elevation 1,632 feet. For the first mile from the railway the trail
follows an old logging railway-grade, then climbs the side-hill on a fair grade to the camp at
at about 2,200 feet elevation. WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 57
The general geology of the neighbouring area has been indicated in the foregoing Astra
and Cambria report. The schistose greenstone and chloritic schists enclosing the Blue Jack
deposits are members of the same northwesterly-striking Mesozoic formations, being separated
from the Astra-Cambria greenstone by an area of slates and argillites. A wide, northerly-
striking felsite dyke, probably the extension of one of the two westerly dykes on the Astra and
Cambria property, is partly exposed in crosscuts on the lowest adit-level. The Blue Jack
deposits are associated with shearing which is marked at underground points by well-defined
fracturing, sometimes accompanied by gouge, strikes being northerly, with a westerly dip from
60 to 70 degrees. The wide shear-zone contains scattered lenses, disseminations, and streaks
of pyrite, sphalerite, and galena, at widely separated points on the surface and underground,
no continuity of specific showings being apparent. The mineralization is associated in places
with minor amounts of quartz accompanied occasionally by calcite, but the prevailing gangue
is rock showing little or no apparent silicification. In the lowest adit, felsite-dyke exposures,
more or less decomposed, are mineralized in places with sphalerite and pyrite in disseminations
and fine streaks or as films in cleavage-planes. The average gold content is low, the better
values being present in the mixed sulphide material. Appreciable silver values are occasionally
associated with sphalerite showing no lead content.
The assay and analysis of twenty-nine sacks of selected material shipped to the Tacoma
smelter in 1934 was as follows: Gold, 0.36 oz. per ton; silver, 3.16 oz. per ton; lead, 4 per cent.;
zinc, 4.1 per cent.; iron, 4.6 per cent.; silica, 56.6 per cent.; alumina, 4.5 per cent.; lime, 8.2
per cent.;  sulphur, 5.4 per cent.
The claims constituting the property were staked in 1923 and the Blue Jack Mines,
Limited, a private company incorporated in 1932, was converted into a public company in 1936.
The property, mentioned at intervals in the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines since the
year 1924, was briefly described in this publication for 1934, page F 14, since when the lowest
adit has been driven.
The surface workings are distributed over a length of 1,030 feet through a vertical range
of 575 feet. At elevation 2,675 feet open-cuts and stripping on both sides of the little creek
partially expose the zone for a width of 53 feet. At the eastern end, next to the bank, there
are scattered sulphide streaks and disseminations over a width of 7.5 feet. This mineralization
could not be traced for any appreciable length due in part to overburden. Forty-one feet west
of this a sample across 15 inches, where sulphides are concentrated, assayed: Gold, 1.42 oz.
per ton; silver, 6 oz. per ton; lead, trace; zinc, 5.8 per cent. The latter appears to be a
lenticular occurrence as it is 7 inches wide 2 feet to the north, where it goes under overburden
and is not in evidence in the rock exposed 10 feet to the south. Between and adjoining the two
points there is some very sparse, indefinite sulphide mineralization. Trenches have been dug
on both sides of the portal of the upper adit at 2.,660 feet elevation. In the eastern showing
there is scattered, light, sulphide mineralization between points 23 and 38 feet from the portal.
A picked sample of the best material assayed: Gold, 0.70 oz. per ton; silver, 2 oz. per ton;
lead, 1.8 per cent.; zinc, 12 per cent. Just west of the adit-portal there is a stringer of
similar character.
At 2,450 feet elevation, below the point where the creek forks, a cut exposes a width of
2 feet of galena-sphalerite-pyrite mineralization associated with calcite, continuity along the
strike not being apparent. At 2,100 feet elevation, on the edge of Brandywine Creek, 50 feet
westerly from the mouth of Snow (Swede) Creek, a small cut exposes an indefinite 12-inch
patch well mineralized with sulphides, from which a picked sample assayed: Gold 3.2 oz. per
ton; silver, trace; lead, trace; zinc, 2.8 per cent. The upper adit, at elevation 2,650 feet, is
driven 85.6 feet along a bearing of north 37 degrees east, to where crosscuts extend 15 feet to
north 58 degrees west and 47 feet to south 63 degrees east. These branches are approximately
below the surface showings at 2,675 feet elevation. In the central part of the westerly crosscut there is width of 51 inches of sulphide mineralization in the floor against the southern wall.
A sample across this width assayed: Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton; silver, 2.2 oz. per ton; lead, trace;
zinc, 5 per cent. This does not show in the northern wall. In the easterly crosscut there is a
43-inch width of light sulphide mineralization in the southern wall at a point 21 feet from the
main adit. In this case also the mineralization does not continue into the northern wall. The
portal of the next adit is at 2,600 feet elevation, 115 feet south 22 degrees west from the upper
adit-Dortal.    This comprises 132 lineal feet of work, being driven north-east for 56 feet, then F 58 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
northerly for 27 feet, then-north-westerly for 31 feet, and finally northerly again for 18 feet
to the face. At 25.5 feet in from the portal a shear is cut which strikes northerly, with westerly
dip of 70 degrees. Adjoining this, there are streaks of sulphides associated with silicified
rock. A well-defined fracture-plane of similar attitude, with gouge, is cut in the northwesterly course 36 feet back from the face. In the last 18-foot section there are sparsely-
disseminated sulphides, over a width of from 1 to 2 feet, in the floor and roof along the western
wall, and also, in places, streaks of sulphides on the eastern side of the drift. At a point 680
feet south 34 degrees 30 minutes west from the portal of the last-described working and at
2,200 feet elevation, the lowest adit comprises about 682 lineal feet of workings driven in 1935
and 1936.
Measuring from the portal, this main adit extends as follows: North 42 degrees east to
315.5 feet; north 14 degrees east for 23.75 feet to chainage 339.25; north 47 degrees east for
24 feet to chainage 363.25; north 30 degrees east for 76.5 feet to chainage 439.75; and finally
north 35 degrees east for 130 feet to the face at 569.75 feet. Crosscuts have been driven as
follows: (1) 36 feet to south 57 degrees east at chainage 136 feet; (2) 19 feet to south 68
degrees east at chainage 198 feet; (3) 14 feet to north 60 degrees west and (4) 6 feet to south
60 degrees east, both at chainage 285 feet; (5) 38 feet to north 60 degrees west at chainage
375 feet. The outer part of the main adit is largely in chloritic schist which grades imperceptibly into massive greenstone towards the inner extremity. In the No. 1 crosscut the
chloritic schist is sheared along two fractures, one of which, adjoining the adit, strikes north
20 degrees east with 65-degree dip north-westerly, and the other, 25 feet easterly, strikes north
with 60-degree dip to the west.
The No. 2 crosscut has caved in part since the time of the writer's first examination in
1935. In the face there was then observed a smooth well-defined wall marked with gouge,
striking northerly and dipping westerly at 65 degrees. Between this shear and the main adit
the rock is grey, soft, decomposed material, apparently a local patch of felsite dyke being along
the general trend of the dyke cut in Nos. 3 and 5 crosscuts. In the No. 2 crosscut the crumbly
gangue is comparatively well mineralized with disseminated fine streaks of sphalerite, and a
sample taken by the writer in 1935 across 15.5 feet adjoining the adit assayed: Gold, 0.03 oz.
per ton; silver, 20.6 oz. per ton; lead, trace; zinc, 2.2 per cent. The westerly 11-foot and
9-foot sections of the No. 3 and No. 5 crosscuts respectively cut the felsite dyke, the irregular
eastern wall of which strikes from north to north 23 degrees east, the dip averaging 50 degrees
westerly. In the more decomposed portions of both dyke-exposures in these crosscuts there
are some very scattered streaks of pyrite and sphalerite. In the lowest adit-level no
appreciable mineralization was observed in the greenstone or schist.
Surface prospecting, comparatively little of which has been done, might disclose more
continuous showings, and in this connection the greenstone-schist area underlying the argillites to the north of the workings seems worthy of attention. Work had been suspended at
the property when visited in October, 1936.
CINNABAR DEPOSITS.
Mud Creek Area.
This company's Mud Creek cinnabar property, in the Lillooet Mining Divi-
Manitou Mining sion, consists of fifty-nine mineral claims held by location, including the
Co., Ltd.        original Rose group of five claims acquired under option.    The precise location of the property cannot be described in terms of existing maps, which
are inaccurate in regard to the position and course of Mud Creek, which is a southerly-flowing
tributary of Tyaughton Creek.    According to the new topographical map in preparation by
R. C. McDonald, of the Bureau of Geology and Topography, Ottawa, the Manitou Camp is
located at 51 degrees 03 minutes 26 seconds latitude and 122 degrees 46 minutes longitude.    It
is situated on a bench at 3,820 feet elevation just east of Mud Creek (3,700 feet elevation), and
half a mile up-stream from its junction with Tyaughton Creek at about 3,590 feet elevation.
All elevations given are relative only, being based on aneroid readings.    The workings, at
elevations of from 3,710 to 4,111 feet, are on medium- to steeply-sloping ground which is lightly
wooded.    The property, formerly reached by pack-trail, is now accessible by the recently-
constructed tractor-road, over which a truck has been driven.    This road, about 8.5 miles in
length, connects with the Goldside road at Cinnabar Creek, making a total distance of 17 miles WESTERN DISTRICT   (No. 6). ' F 59
by branch road from the highway at a point 32.5 miles from Bridge River Station on the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway.
The geology of the area has not yet been mapped. The prospected area is largely underlain by sediments of the Bridge River series and included greenstones and volcanic flows. The
sediments consist chiefly of cherty quartzites with some argillites and shales. There is
generally much overburden on the slopes, but a general section of the rocks, which locally
strike north-westerly, is visible along Mud Creek where it flows south-westerly. The above
formation is exposed along the creek for a length of 1.75 miles from' its mouth, in which distance, marking the limits of the writer's investigation, it flows through two narrow canyons.
Numerous dykes, some of which are very wide, have a general northerly to north-westerly
strike, types noted being composed of hornblende andesite, andesite porphyry, basalt, and
quartz diorite. The last-mentioned dyke is at a point three-quarters of a mile up-stream from
the nearest known cinnabar occurrence. Mineralization is found in greenstones, and to a lesser
extent in quartzites adjoining the contact with greenstone. In the partially-explored area,
roughly 2,600 feet measured from north-west to south-east and 600 feet from north-east to
south-west, the greenstones have been found to occur in irregular small blocks or patches due,
it is thought, to dislocation caused by faulting, folding, or both. The general structure has not
yet been determined, the limited amount of development having been done at widely separated
points.
Cinnabar, which is the only metallic mineral noted, is found in sheared greenstone or in
massive, amygdaloidal greenstone, the latter phase being traversed by numerous stringers and
streaks of calcite. In the first case the cinnabar occurs in the shear-planes and in the second
case it is distributed through the calcite and in amygdales. The texture of the mineral varies
from the brilliant vermillion-red crystalline variety to brownish-red incrustations. Minute
globules of native quicksilver are reported to have been observed in some specimens. The
deposits are difficult to sample owing to the erratic distribution of the mineralization and the
irregular boundaries and attitudes of the greenstone bodies. The writer's samples, taken
where mineralization appeared to be comparatively concentrated indicate a low average
mercury content. Similar material, if developed in quantity, would require sorting before
treatment or selective mining would be necessary.
The nucleus of the property, known as the Rose group, was held by Ben Cromer for some
years before 1936, when an option was acquired by the Manitou Mining Company, Limited.
Control of this company was recently taken over by Eastern interests, financial arrangements
having been made to continue development. R. H. Stewart has been appointed as their
consulting engineer.
The workings develop separate showings, no correlation of conditions being possible at the
present stage of exploration. Their position is approximately described by measurements and
bearings from the camp. Workings in " No. 3 area " are on the locally steep westerly slope
towards Tyaughton Creek. The principal showings here, north 55 degrees west, 1,370 feet
from the camp, are in a trench, 73 feet in length, extending south 15 degrees east along the
4,015-foot contour, above which the ground gradually flattens to a high bench at 4,125 feet
elevation. The formation has a local strike of from north 70 degrees east to north 75 degrees
east, dips being northerly at steep angles, or vertical. From the northern end, going southerly,
the following section is exposed: 11 feet of sheared quartzite; 1.5 feet of greenstone with
calcite-streaks but no apparent mineralization; (sample section A) 2.5 feet of similar material
but well mineralized as per sample, which contained 0.45 per cent, mercury; 3.2 feet of greenstone with quartzite inclusions, the complex containing rare spots of cinnabar; (sample section
B) 3.5 feet of greenstone with calcite-seams, well mineralized with cinnabar, which contained
0.4 per cent, mercury; 8.2 feet of sheared complex of shale, quartzite, and greenstone; 5-foot
andesite dyke striking north 60 degrees east; 23 feet of (chiefly) greenstone with calcite-seams,
containing very sparsely-distributed incrustations of cinnabar; 16 feet of quartzite including
rare stringers of calcite, these being lightly mineralized with fine seams of cinnabar. Just east
of sample section B and at 4,021 feet elevation an adit has been driven easterly for 28 feet.
It is largely lagged to support the shattered sheared rock, the face being in quartzite. The
first part of this working apparently followed a " tongue " of greenstone, from which a pile of
about 10 tons at the portal was derived. A grab sample from this pile contained 0.2 per cent,
mercury.    At 3,977 feet elevation and 160 feet south 62 degrees 30 minutes west of this point F 60 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
an adit was in 10 feet along a course of north 20 degrees east, the face being in crushed
quartzite.
" No. 2 area " workings are on the steep southerly slope to Mud Creek, No. 1 cut, at 4,111
feet elevation, just below the summit of the hill, being 1,015 feet north 36 degrees west from
the camp and across the creek from it. Here the formation strikes north 20 degrees west to
north 25 degrees west, dips being from 85 degrees westerly to vertical. Going westerly along
the contour, the following section is exposed: 4 feet of quartzite which apparently extend
easterly for 130 feet or more; 4.3 feet of sheared greenstone containing sparsely-distributed
cinnabar, a sample of which gave a nil return; 3 feet of similar material containing apparent
mineralization in a central streak 8 to 10 inches wide, from which a sample across 3 feet gave
a nil return; 4- to 6-foot dyke of hard massive basalt striking north 501 degrees west, with a
south-westerly dip of 70 degrees, including along its south-western border a 12-inch width of
sparingly-mineralized calcite, a sample of which contained a trace of mercury; and finally
6 feet of brown shales. At 4,075 feet elevation No. 2 cut is 40 feet south 36 degrees east from
No. 1 cut. At this lower point the quartzite-greenstone contact strikes north 7 degrees west,
with an easterly dip of 75 degrees, quartzite also lying to the east of the greenstone. A sample
across the 6-foot exposure of weathered greenstone and included calcite-seams, containing
apparent sparse mineralization, assayed a trace of mercury. This No. 2 cut had only just
entered solid rock after penetrating 9 feet of overburden.
At 3,921 feet elevation, and 215 feet south 13 degrees east from the No. 2 cut, an adit had
been driven for 70 feet (August 11th, 1936) along a bearing of north 12 degrees 30 minutes
west. At 40 feet in from the portal a 24-foot branch extended north 28 degrees east. Chaining
along the main course from the portal, conditions are as follows: From zero .to 30 feet, soil
and boulders; 80 to 39 feet, sediments; 39 to 47 feet, greenstone; 47 feet to face, chiefly sediments, with mineralized greenstone coming in along the eastern wall towards the face. The
north-easterly branch is mostly in greenstone, with some included sediments which also show
in the face. A sample, weighing about 60 lb., from an irregular block of mineralized greenstone, about 8 by 10 feet, at the intersection of the main adit and branch, returned a trace of
mercury. A sample in the main adit, between chainages 39 and 43 feet from the portal, gave
the same result, and a sample between chainages 43 and 47 feet gave a nil return.
The " No. 1 area " workings, comprising surface-stripping and two closely-spaced short
adits, are easterly from the adit of " No. 2 area," the upper adit-portal being 225 feet north
73 degrees east from the previously described adit and at 3,920 feet elevation. In this vicinity
there are two small cuts distant 21.5 and 10.5 feet respectively along a bearing of north 25
degrees west from the upper adit-portal and at elevations of 3,945 and 3,936 feet. These cuts
are located along the vertical contact of the greenstone and sediments, the latter rocks lying
to the east. In the westerly side of the upper cut there are scattered incrustations of cinnabar,
over a narrow width, in sheared greenstone. In the lower cut sheared greenstone, with no
apparent mineralization, is exposed. Immediately above the adit-portal there is a width of
8 feet of greenstone, amygdaloidal in part. Along the contour of the side-hill, 18 feet southwesterly from the adit-portal, beyond a section of quartzite 3 feet wide, there is a 7-foot width
of sheared greenstone irregularly mineralized with spots of cinnabar. This local showing
could not be traced uphill in stripping over a length of 16 feet. The upper adit follows a
curving north-westerly course for 25 feet, and 13 feet in from the portal has a westerly branch
12 feet in length. The main part of the working is in sheared to massive greenstone, including
quartzite lenses, its branch being all in quartzite. In the floor of the adit, at the forks, there
is a lenticular streak of scattered cinnabar mineralization along the approximately vertical
contact which strikes north 40 degrees west. A grab sample from two piles of mineralized
greenstone, aggregating about 20 tons, at the portal contained 0.2 per cent, mercury. Sixty
feet north-easterly from the adit there is a large body of hornblende andesite striking north
20 degrees west. The lower adit-portal is 60 feet south 20 degrees 30 minutes east from the
upper adit and at 3,886 feet elevation. Driven west for 35 feet, it passes through a few feet of
greenstone at the portal, beyond which it is all in sediments.
Near the toe of the slope just above the creek-level, and at 3,710 and 3,715 feet elevation,
there are two adits, 15 and 10 feet long respectively, which are 55 feet apart along the contour
of the slope. The easterly of the two adits is situated 475 feet north 47 degrees 30 minutes
west from the camp.    Between the portal and the creek there is an open-cut extending south- WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 61
easterly for 20 feet and largely filled with debris. The cut was apparently all in greenstone,
which, adjacent to the creek, is 18 feet wide. There are sediments to the east of the greenstone, tuffs to the west, and quartzites in the adit to the north-west. A grab sample from a
few tons of mineralized greenstone in the cut returned a trace in mercury. The westerly
lOVfoot adit is all in purple tuffs.
" No. 4 area " workings are on the steep north-westerly slope to the creek. These include
a 10-foot adit, at 3,822 feet elevation, driven south-easterly. Adjoining the adit-portal a
trench, crosscutting the north-westerly strike of the rocks, exposes the following section going
south-westerly along the contour of the slope: 8 feet of quartzite; 2 feet of impure greenstone
containing spots of cinnabar (opposite adit); 18 inches of quartzite; 2 feet of greenstone
sparingly mineralized with cinnabar specks and incrustations; 20 feet of quartzite; 4 feet of
mixed purple tuff and quartzite; 3 feet of greenstone containing sparse cinnabar-stain; 10 feet
of shales; hornblende-andesite dyke, of which a width of 10 feet is exposed.
Summarizing the above notes, no substantial body of valuable material had been opened
up at the time of the writer's examination in August, 198'6, the work done being scattered
over a comparatively large area. The widespread distribution of the low-grade mineralization,
almost always present to some extent where greenstone is uncovered, indicates possibilities
that, by sorting or selective mining, an appreciable aggregate tonnage of treatment grade may
be derived from the known widely-separated greenstone bodies or from others which may be
uncovered.
SPECIAL REPORTS.
A limited number of mimeographed copies of reports are available to those who specially
request information on the following properties:—
Lode-gold Deposits.
Bridge River Area.—Lucky Jem;   Kelvin;   B.R. Mountain Golds, Ltd.
P.G.E. Area North of Squamish.—Brandywine;   Nani.
Coquihalla Area.—Brett Gold Mines, Ltd.
Vidette Lake Area.—Hamilton Mines, Ltd.;  Telluric;  Moon Group;  Bull Moose.
Vancouver Island.—Regina Group.
Coast and Islands Area.—Blue Bells Gold Mining Syndicate;  Enid-Julie;   Douglas Pine.
Placer Deposits.
Wreck Bay, West Coast of Vancouver Island.
Some of these properties, described in former Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines,
have had little development-work done on them in recent years, and others are not considered
to have reached a stage of development or to be of sufficient interest to warrant inclusion of
lengthy descriptions in the Annual Report.
PROGRESS NOTES.
LODE-GOLD DEPOSITS.
BY
Thos. R. Jackson.
Bridge River Camp.
Pioneer Gold Mines of B.C., Ltd.—H. T. James, general manager; E. F. Emmons, mine
manager; Paul Schultz, mill superintendent. This mine is situated at Pioneer and is a shaft
operation, with Nos. 1, 2, and 3 shafts in use; No. 1 shaft is down to the ninth level, No. 2
shaft to the twenty-sixth level, and No. 3 shaft to the twenty-sixth level. Electric hoists are in
use at each shaft.
During the year the deepening of No. 2 shaft from the fourteenth level to the twenty-sixth
was completed and crosscuts driven from the shaft to the vein at the seventeenth, twentieth, F 62 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
twenty-third, and twenty-sixth levels, and at the end of the year ventilation raise connections
had been completed from the twentieth level upwards.
Development during the year consisted of 9,921 feet of drifting, 3,359 feet of crosscutting,
2,746 feet of raising, and 321 feet of diamond-drilling. One hundred and fifty-four thousand
eight hundred and eighty-one tons of ore was mined and this yielded' 69,407 oz. gold and 12,845
oz. silver.
There were 301 men employed.
Bralorne Gold Mines, Ltd.—Richard Bosustow, general manager; Fred Grey, general
superintendent; E. J. Chenoweth, mine superintendent. During the year a total of 21,466
feet of exploration and development work was done in the Bralorne mine, including 1,145 feet
of raises and 765 feet of shaft. The King No. 2 shaft was sunk to the 1,400 level and crosscuts
driven on that level to the King and " C " veins, with several hundred feet of drifting on each.
The Empire level, connecting the Bralorne mines with the Empire mine (formerly called
Bradian), was completed, thus allowing the transportation of the Empire ore underground to
the Bralorne portal. Some bad curves were straightened out and a manually-operated block-
light system installed. The Empire shaft was sunk to the 1,000 level, thus connecting up all
the underground workings. Subsequent to this connection the Coronation shaft had only been
used for ventilation. Motor-haulage was installed on the 600 level in the Empire mine and on
the 1,000 level Empire mine.
Quite a number of stopes in the Empire and Blackbird mines have been changed from
shrinkage to cut-and-fill on account of bad walls. A new underground powder-magazine was
made, as was a new underground fuse-house. A raise was driven from the 800 level on the
Blackbird vein to the 600 level; this permits transfer of Blackbird ore to the main haulage-
level, as well as providing means for transportation of men and supplies from the main
haulage-level to the 60O level of the Blackbird mine. The connection of the various working-
places by the aforementioned drifts, shafts, and raises, as well as several other raises, has
greatly helped the mine ventilation.
The tonnage mined during the year was 167,264 and this yielded 63,829 oz. gold and
20,478 oz. silver.
Wayside Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd.—P. E. Ritchie, managing director; G. R. Bancroft,
manager; E. H. Lovitt, mine manager. This mine is situated on the Bridge River Highway
near Gold Bridge; there are seven adit-levels and four lower levels driven from a winze sunk
from the lowest adit. The different levels are ventilated by natural means and ventilation
in the lower levels is provided by a 10-horse-power electric-driven fan of 5,000 cubic feet
capacity.
The mill, of 100-ton capacity, operated throughout the year and treated 37,535 tons of ore.
The total development during the year consisted of 820 feet of raising, 415 feet of sinking,
and 2,225 feet of drifting and crosscutting.
Pacific Eastern Gold Mines, Ltd.—Major Jas. R. Lower, president and general manager;
R. H. Stewart, consulting engineer; Chas. R. Cox, mine superintendent. This property is
situated in the Bridge River area adjoining the Pioneer gold mine to the east. The operation
consists of a 600-foot adit driven on the north bank of Cadwallader Creek and a shaft 550 feet
deep at the end of the adit. From the bottom of the shaft the main crosscut extends for a
distance of 3,100 feet to the south and exploratory drifting to the extent of 2,543 feet has
been done east of this crosscut. A winze was sunk to a depth of 230 feet, from which work
is being done on the 690 level.
All power is electric, provided by the Bridge River Power Company, Limited, and all
underground workings are electrically lighted. The mechanical plant consists of a 720-cubic-
foot Gardner-Denver compressor driven by a 110-horse-power synchronous motor; the blacksmith-shop is equipped with an Ingersoll-Rand " C " sharpener, small electric grindstone, and
other customary equipment. Hoisting is done by a double-drum Mead-Morrison hoist operating
two 1-ton automatic dump-skips. Water is removed from the 72,000-gallon collecting-sump
on the 370 level by a 500-gallon-per-minute Pomona pump.
Development during the year consisted of 2,543 feet of drifting, 2,244 feet of crosscutting,
230 feet of sinking, and 1,412 feet of diamond-drilling.
B.R.X. (1935) Consolidated Mines, Ltd.—E. R. Shepherd, general manager; Jack Wallace,
mine manager.    This mine has worked continuously with an average daily number of twenty- WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 63
five employees. On the main level the north vein was prospected by a 6- by 9-foot winze,
sunk 140 feet; at the 100-foot point in the winze a small station was made and lateral drifts
extended north and south for a total distance of 47 feet. Before suspending this operation
654 feet of diamond-drilling was done to locate veins at this level. The B south drift was
advanced a total distance of 2,466 feet, with a total of 581 feet of crosscutting. With the
object of gaining a shaft-site in the hanging-wall, a crosscut at approximate right angles to
the main vein was driven in an easterly direction for a distance of 416 feet.
A rope raise, ore-pocket, shaft-station, and hoist-station were completed at the end of
the year for sinking a 2%-compartment vertical shaft to an initial depth of 500 feet; this
being the company's immediate programme for the early months of 1937.
Pilot Gold Mines, Ltd.—Bert Wing, general manager; Fred Bradley, mine superintendent.
This operation was active most of the year, development consisting of sinking a 2-compartment
shaft down to a depth of 300 feet. One hundred feet from the shaft-collar an exploratory
drift was projected a distance of 75 feet to strike the shear-zone. At 300 feet another drift
will be projected to intersect the shear.
A small hydro plant provides the power necessary to generate compressed air and
electricity.
During the year an average daily crew of twelve men were employed.
The following properties in the Bridge River area operated during part of the year with
crews varying from four to eight men: Kelvin Gold Mines, Limited; Reliance Gold Mines,
Limited; Reward Gold Mines, Limited; Federal Gold Mines, Limited; Congress Gold-Mines,
Limited; Tuscorara Gold Mines, Limited; Canadian Rand Gold Mines, Limited; Monte
Christo Gold Mines, Limited; and Moha Gold Mines, Limited. These are all in the development stage.
Ashcroft Area.
Martel Gold Mines, Ltd.—This property was worked part of the year with a crew of six
men;  the total drifting in this mine is now 1,000 feet approximately.
In the Ashcroft area the Hamilton Creek Gold Mines, Limited, worked for the greater
part of the year with a crew of six men and did 850 feet of drifting and crosscutting; at the
Telluric Gold Mines, Limited, a small amount of drifting was done.
Vancouver Island.
Georgina Gold Claim.*—J. T. Williams and Associates, operators. This property is
situated on Nanoose Creek about 18 miles from the City of Nanaimo, in a northerly direction.
A short drift was driven from the shaft-bottom under the creek and some surface-trenching
was done.    There was no production from this prospect.
Gem Gold Mine, Texada Island*—Worked only part of the year.
Squamish Area.
Ashloo Gold Syndicate.^—This property is situated about 28 miles by road and trail from
Squamish, on the Ashloo River. During 1936 a small Hadsell mill was constructed and the
concentrates from the mill are shipped out by pack-horses to the Squamish River and from
there by truck to Squamish.
COPPER-ZINC-GOLD DEPOSITS.
Vancouver Island.
Tyee Consolidated Mining Co., Ltd., Mount Sicker*—P. E. Peterson, superintendent.
This property is situated on Mount Sicker, near Duncan, and comprises a number of mineral
claims in that area and includes the old Tyee and Lenora mines. Very little work was done
on the property during 1936, but at the end of the year preparations were under way for a
resumption of operations, which included installation of a power unit; a few men were already
on the ground for this purpose.    There was no production from this property during the year.
* By George O'Brien. t By James Strang. F 64 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
COPPER DEPOSITS.
Howe Sound Area.
Britannia Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd.*—C. P. Browning, general manager; C. V.
Brennan, assistant general manager; Chris G. Dobson, superintendent. Due to the rise in
the price of copper, which stood at 8.375 cents per pound in January, 1936, and rose to 11.525
cents by December, the tonnage of the mines was steadily increased, the monthly tonnage in
December being practically double that of January. The present monthly tonnage is around
170,000 tons, with all sections of the mine producing except the Jane and Empress mines.
During the year 1,311,835 tons were mined and milled, producing 19,320,625 lb. copper;
624,198 lb. zinc;  13,033 oz. gold, and 89,700 oz. silver.    The pyrite production was 62,872 tons.
The total number of men employed in and around the mines and mill and surface at the
end of the year was around 9O0, compared with around 460 at the end of 1935.
Without any request by the men, this company has steadily increased wages as the price
of copper advanced. The wages have been increased by 75 cents per day since copper was at
its lowest price, and another 25 cents per day bonus is to be given when copper reaches 11%
cents.    No increase has been made in either board or house rents.
The Fairview section of the mine was reopened in May and produced over 25 per cent, of
the total output. The East Bluff section produced about 37 per cent. Both the West Bluff and
Victoria tonnages have been greatly increased, producing 29.9 per cent, and 7.27 per cent,
respectively of the output. The method of mining in the East Bluff, West Bluff, and Fairview
mines is by means of the Britannia method of powder-blast mining and modifications thereof.
In the West Bluff section the 200-foot lifts are being split into two, with a sub-level midway.
This makes for better and safer mining.
Mining methods at the high-grade Victoria unit are similar to those of the past—namely,
square set and rill stopes. All ground removed is closely filled with waste material from the
two old glory-holes. The Victoria shaft has now been sunk to 3,500 level; this will be
developed in 1937.
The precipitation plant on the surface continues to yield its quota of copper, which is
recovered from the mine-waters.
The 4,100 adit has been continued throughout the year. This adit is 12 by 10 feet and
is now in about 11,000 feet.    Some parts of this working require close and heavy timbering.
Development has totalled about 14,750 feet, as follows: Drifts, 7,520 feet; crosscuts, 2,741
feet; raises, 3,589 feet; powder-blast developments, 2,509 feet; sinking, 62 feet; and 7,178
feet of diamond-drilling was done during the year.
NICKED DEPOSITS.
B.C. Nickel Mines, Ltd.*—The property of this company is situated near Choate and is
under the supervision of C. B. North. No. 1 tunnel, which is about 4,700 feet long, extends
through the mountain. The entrance is on the Texas Creek side and the exit on the Emory
Creek side. There are four crosscuts off this tunnel on the north side and two on the south
side. Six raises have been put up from these crosscuts, averaging from 150 to 350 feet.
Extensive diamond-drilling has also been carried out.
During 1936 approximately 2,000 tons of ore has been shipped to Japan, all of this being
stoped from the 1,600 crosscut.
QUARRIES, SHALE, AND CLAY DEPOSITS.
BY
James Strang.
Burrard Inlet.
Coast Quarries, Ltd.—The stone from the Granite Falls quarry is used for general construction-work. Employment has been very irregular throughout the year, the number of
men being about ten when fully employed.
* By James Strang. WESTERN DISTRICT  (No. 6). F 65
North Vancouver Area.
Deeks Sand and Gravel Pit.—T. 0. Burgess, superintendent. This is a hydraulic operation. Electrical power is used for the operation of the plant. Condition of machinery,
fencing, and other equipment was found to be generally in fair condition.
Cascade Sand and Gravel Quarry.—A. Ellis, superintendent. Work has been irregular
throughout the year.    Conditions at the plant were fairly good.
Fraser River Delta Area.
Clayburn Co., Ltd.—The company's plant is situated at Kilgard, about 50 miles east of
Vancouver. Fireclay, firebrick,- and various refractory forms, as well as common brick and
sewer-pipe, are produced.
The fireclay is obtained from near-by deposits, underground mining methods being used.
A shale-quarry is also operated in conjunction with the fireclay mines.
A total of sixty-nine men were employed during 1936, ten in the mines and quarry and
fifty-nine in the plant.
Gilley Bros.' Quarry.—Situated at Silver Valley, Pitt River. About twenty men are
employed here, although work has not been regular.    The plant is kept in good condition.
Maryhill Sand and Gravel Co.—Operated by Gilley Bros., Limited, situated on the banks
of the Fraser River. The plant is operated electrically, and a power-shovel and conveyor-belt
used in the gravel-pit.    The entire plant is kept in good condition.
Texada Island.
Pacific Lime Co.—A large limestone-quarry is owned and operated by this company at
Blubber Bay, quicklime, hydrated lime, and various limestone products being produced. The
quarry and plant, descriptions of which have appeared in previous reports, were operated
throughout the year, an average of thirty men being employed in the former and thirty-five
in the latter.
B.C. Cement Co., Ltd.—This company's quarry is situated on the opposite shore of Blubber
Bay from the Pacific Lime Company. The limestone is shipped by scow to the cement plant
at Bamberton. The number of men averages around seven. This plant is kept in good
condition.
Van Anda Quarry.—A limestone-quarry operated by F. J. Beale, supplying limestone to.
the various pulp-mills and crushed limestone to the coal mines on Vancouver Island. Around
twenty men are employed.
Saanich Inlet, Vancouver Island.
B.C. Cement Co.—Operating two quarries and a cement plant at Bamberton. Work was
irregular in the earlier part of the year.    Around twenty men are employed at the quarry.
Gabriola Island, Vicinity of Nanaimo City, Vancouver Island.
Gabriola Shale Products, Ltd., Gabriola Island.*—Charles T. deLong, manager. This
quarry is situated on Gabriola Island, in the Strait of Georgia. There is also a brick-making
plant on the same property and a good grade of brick is made. The shale in the quarry if of
good quality and is mined on the bench system. Blasting is under the supervision of a certificated blaster. All blasting is done electrically by battery and cable. This plant had been
closed down for a couple of years and was in operation only three months in 1936.
Comox Area, Vancouver Island.
Public Works Gravel Pit, Courtenay*—This gravel-pit is situated about midway between
the Cities of Cumberland and Courtenay on the Cumberland^Courtenay Road.    The material
is used for road-making in the district.    The face of this pit is about 75 feet high.
Fitzhugh Sound, Mainland Coast.
Koeye River Quarry.f—P. Christensen, operator.    This quarry is situated on Koeye River,
about a half mile from its mouth, and is about 7 miles south of Namu.    Five men were employed and 10,570 tons of limestone was produced and shipped to the Pacific Mills, Limited,
Ocean Falls.
* By George O'Brien. t By Charles Graham. F 66
INDEX.
INDEX.
Alberni (Alberni)	
Allan, C. H., Bridge River..
Alpha (Lillooet)_
Page.
-F 30
„.F 12
._ F3
Antimony, Gray Rock Mining Syndicate F 47
Truax Creek F 43, 47
Ashloo Gold Syndicate F 63
Astra (Vancouver) F 53, 55
Bamberton, lime,...
Bancroft, G. R...
 F65
 F 43, 62
Banker No. 5 (Lillooet)  F8
Beale, F. J F 65
Bergenham, A. (Lillooet) F 43
Blue Bells Gold Mining Syndicate F 61
Blue Jack F 53, 56
Blue Jack Mines, Ltd F 56
Bosustow, Richard F 62
Bradley,  Fred F 63
Bralorne Gold Mines, Ltd  F 62
Brandywine Creek F 53
Brennan, C, V F 64
Brett Gold Mines, Ltd F 61
Bridge River, lode gold  F 3
Reference   F 61
Bridge River Power Co., Ltd F 62
Bridge River series F 13
Britannia Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd. F 64
B.C. Cement Co., Ltd., lime from Texada-F 65
B.C. Nickel Mines, Ltd F 64
B.R. Mountain Golds, Ltd F 61
Browning, C. P F 64
B.R.X.  (1935)  Consolidated Mines, Ltd-F 62
Bull Moose  (Ashcroft) F 61
Burgess, T. 0 F 65
Burrard Inlet, quarry F 64
Burroughs,  F.  J F 43
Burton, R. W., Hope, Thurlow Island F 21
Callaghan Creek.,
Cambria   (Vancouver).
F53
F53, 55
Camp Creek, tributary to Bridge River  F 8
Canadian Rand Gold Mines, Ltd F 63
Cascade Sand and Gravel Co F 65
Cayley Mountain  (Vancouver) F 53
Cheakamus River F 53
Chenoweth, E. J F 62
Chicago (Alberni) F 27, 30
China Creek, Alberni Canal F 25
Christensen, P., Koeye River F 66
Cinnabar, at Congress (Lillooet) F 10
Mud Creek  (Lillooet) F 58
Tyaughton Creek (Lillooet) F 58
Cinnabar Creek, Bridge River F 13, 58
Clayburn Co., Ltd F 65
Coast Quarries, Ltd F 64
Coast Range batholith F 17
Cobalt-bloom (Lillooet) F 16
Cockfield, W. E., reference to report on
Vidette Lake area F 37
Comox area F 65
Concentrator, Ashloo Gold Syndicate F 63
Home Gold Mining Co F 35
Minto  Gold  Mines, Ltd  F3
Thurlow Island Gold Mines, Ltd F 21
Congress (formerly Stibnite)  (Lillooet) F 10
Congress  Gold  Mines, Ltd.,  at  Bridge
River F 10, 63
Page.
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Ltd., at Minto  F 3
Coquihalla River F 33
Courtenay  F 65
Cox, Charles R F 62
Cromer, Ben (Lillooet) F 59
Crowe-Swords, R F 22
Dauntless   (formerly  Peerless  No.   2)
(Lillooet)     F 6
Davidson, W. A.  (Lillooet)  F3
Dawn (later Hope)  (Vancouver) F 21
See also Thurlow Gold Mines, Ltd.
Deeks Sand and Gravel Co F 65
Dewhurst, H. W., Thurlow Island F 21
Dexheimer   (Ashcroft) F 37
Dickinson, W. G F 47
Dobson, Chris G._ F 64
Doratha Morton (Vancouver) F 22
Dority Creek F 53
Dorlon (formerly Yucan)   (Nanaimo) F 52
Douglas Pine F 61
Ellis A., North Vancouver F 65
Emmons, E. F F 61
Emory  Creek   (Yale) F 64
Enid-Julie  '. F 61
Falconer, Bert (Vancouver) F 55
Fanny Bay, Phillips Arm F 23
Federal Gold Mines, Ltd F 63
At Dauntless   (Lillooet)  F6
Hope, Thurlow Island F 21
Fitzhugh   Sound	
Fraser River delta, quarries..
Gabriola Island	
 F 65
 F 65
 F 65
Gabriola Shale Products, Ltd F 65
Gem   (Lillooet) F 16
Texada . F 63
Georgina (Nanaimo) F 63
Gilley Bros.' Quarry, F 65
Glasair Mining Co F 23
Gold, lode, in No. 6 District  F 3
Golden Gate (latterly Loughborough) F 18
Goldside Mines, Ltd F 13
Gordon, Loughborough Inlet F 20
Graham, Charles, report as Inspector F 65
Granite Falls Quarry F 64
Gravel-pits  F 65
Gray Creek, Loughborough Inlet F 17
Gray Rock (Lillooet) F 43
Gray Rock Mining Syndicate (Lillooet) ,.F 43
Grey, Fred (Lillooet)     F 62
Gun  Creek F 16
Gunning, H. C, reference to report on
Nahwitti  Lake  area F 48
Hamilton Creek Gold Mines, Ltd. F 36, 61, 63
Harris, Walter (Alberni)           F 30
Havilah Gold Mines, Ltd F 30
Haylmore,   W F 16
Hepler, M., Nahwitti F 47
Hercules   Consolidated   Mining,   Smelting, and Power Co         F 22
Hickleton,  F F 47
Home Gold Mining Co F 33
See also Pipestem. INDEX.
F 67
Page.
Homestake No. 3 (Lillooet) F 16
Hope (formerly Dawn)   (Vancouver) F 21
See also Thurlow Gold Mines, Ltd.
Howe Sound F 64
H.P.H.   (Nanaimo) F 47, 49
Idas Creek..
F47
Jackson, Thos. R., report as Inspector_.„F 61
James, H. T F 61
Kains Lake( Nanaimo) aeroplane landing   F48
Kelvin   (Lillooet) F 61
Kelvin Gold Mines, Ltd F 63
Kermesite  F 10
King Solomon Basin (Alberni) F 31
Koeye River Quarry, lime F 65
Ladner Creek..
Ladner slates..
F33
_F34
Ladysmith   Smelting   Corporation,   at
Hope (Vancouver) F 21
Last Chance, Savona Gold Mines, Ltd.
(Ashcroft)    F 41
Lenora   (Victoria) F 63
Leora, Loughborough Inlet F 20
Lillooet Mining  Division,  Mud Creek,
cinnabar   F 58
Lime,   Bamberton F 65
Blubber   Bay F 65
Koeye River F 65
Pacific Lime Co F 65
Texada Island F 65
de Long, Charles T F 65
Loughborough  (formerly Golden Gate)
(Vancouver)  F 17
Loughborough Gold Mines, Ltd., public
company;   also Loughborough Gold
Mines, Ltd., private company F 17, 18
Loughborough Inlet F 17
Lovitt, E. H F 43, 62
Lower, Major Jas. R F 62
Lucky Jem  (Lillooet)_..T F 61
Lucky Strike, Taylor Basin  (Lillooet) ... F 13
Lucky Strike Gold Mining Co. (Lillooet) F 16
Manitou Mining Co., Ltd. (Lillooet) F 58
Martel Gold Mines, Ltd F 63
Maryhill Sand and Gravel Co F 65
Metal Dome Mountain  (Vancouver) F 53
Mineral Creek, Alberni Canal F 25
Minto, Consolidated Mining and Smelting at  F 3
Mill at  F 5
Minto  City .  F 3
Minto Gold Mines, Ltd  F 3
Moha Gold Mines, Ltd F 63
Monte Christo Gold Mines, Ltd F 63
Moon   (Ashcroft) F 61
Mowson Lake .  F 6
Mud Creek (Lillooet), cinnabar F 5'8
McGuire Siding    F 53
McPhail, Jack   (Lillooet) F 14
McQuillan Creek F 30
Nahwitti   Lake F 47
Namu, limestone F 65
Nani (Vancouver) F 61
Nanoose   Creek F 63
Nickel, B.C. Nickel Mines, Ltd. (Yale) „_.F 64
Nitinat River F 31
Page.
Nodales Channel F 20
North, C. B F 64
North Shore  (Nanaimo) F 47, 51
Northern Light (Lillooet) F 13
Northern Mining and Milling Co F 20
See also Thurlow Gold Mines, Ltd.
O'Brien,   George	
O'Grady, B. T., report as Resident Mining Engineer	
Omega  (Lillooet),
..F65
, F3
.. F3
Ophir  (Lillooet)  F8
Pacific  Copper Mines, at Hope,  Thurlow Island F 21
Pacific Eastern Gold Mines, Ltd F 62
Pacific Great Eastern Railway, mining
properties along. F 53
Pacific Lime Co F 65
Pacific Mills, Ltd., limestone to F 65
Peerless No. 2  (later Dauntless)   (Lillooet)   F 6
Peterson, P. E F 63
Phillips  Arm F 22
Pilot Gold Mines, Ltd F 63
Pioneer Gold Mines of B.C., Ltd F 61
Pipestem (Yale) F 34
Pipe Stem Mining Co., Ltd F 34
See also Home Gold Mining Co., Ltd.
Price, Frank (Vancouver) F 53, 55
Pritchard, A. (Vancouver) F 21
Pugh, S. S., Nahwitti F 47
Quarries, report by Inspector F 64
Regina, Vancouver Island F 61
Reliance (Lillooet)  F 8
Reliance Gold Mines, Ltd F 8, 63
At Dauntless  (Lillooet)  F6
Ritchie, P. E F 62
.Rose group  (Alberni) F 30
(Lillooet), cinnabar F 58
Roxey Creek F 16
Roy settlement F 17
Saanich Inlet, lime,.
Salkeld, C. D	
 F 65
 F16
Santiago Mines, Ltd., at Doratha Morton F 23
Savona Gold Mines, Ltd  .... F 36, 41
See also Sylvanite Mining and Development  Co., Ltd.
Schultz, Paul F 61
Searcher group   (Ashcroft) F 36
Shepherd, E. R F 62
Shoal Bay, Thurlow Island F 20
Shulaps volcanics F 13
Shuster, J F 12
Sicker Mountain F 63
Silver  Valley   (New  Westminster),
quarry „„      ___, F 66
South Shore (New Westminster) F 47, 52
Squamish   _    ..      -   F 63
Sterrett, D. B. (Ashcroft)   F 40
Stevenson, J.  S., report on Vancouver
Island _     F 25
Report on Vidette Lake area   _   F 36
Stewart, R. H F 59, 62
Stibnite (later Congress)   (Lillooet) F 12
Stibnite, at Congress  (Lillooet) F 10
Reliance (Lillooet)   ._    F8
Strang, James, report as Inspector .. F 63, 64
Stuart, Loughborough Inlet F 20 F 68
INDEX.
Page.
Swede Creek (Vancouver), snow F 53
Sylvanite    (Ashcroft) F 41
Sylvanite Mining and Development Co.....F 41
See also Savona Gold Mines, Ltd.
Tacoma smelter, ore from Thurlow Island   F21
Ore from Doratha Morton F 21
Taylor, E. J., Bridge River F 12
Taylor Basin, Bridge River F 13
Taylor Creek, tributary to Tyaughton
Creek  F 13
Telluric  (Ashcroft) F 61
Telluric Gold Mines, Ltd F 63
Texada Island, quarries F 65
Lime      F 65
Texas Creek (Yale) F 64
Thurlow Gold Mines, Ltd F 20
See also Northern Mining and Milling
Co. and Dawn.
Thurlow Island F 20
Thurlow Island, east F 20
Truax Mountain F 43
Turner, T., Bridge River F 12
Tuscarora Gold Mines, Ltd F 63
Tyaughton Creek, cinnabar F 58
Tyaughton Lake Creek F 13
Page.
Tyee Consolidated Mining Co., Ltd F 63
Tyee   (Victoria) F 63
Van Anda Quarry F 65
Vancouver Island, report by J. S. Stevenson  F 25
Reference  F 63
Vancouver Island Gold Mines, Ltd F 25
See also Alberni Consolidated.
Victoria (Alberni) F 30
Vidette Gold Mines, Ltd F 36
Vidette Lake area, report by J. S. Stevenson  F 36
Wallace,   Jack F 62
Warspite  (Alberni) F 30
Wayside Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd...F 62
Western Mineral Survey District No. 6,
report   by   Resident   Mining   Engineer  i  F 3
Williams, J. T.  (Nanaimo) F 63
Williams, R. W. (Alberni) F 30
Willis, W.   (Vancouver) F 18
Wing, Bert F 63
Wreck Bay F 61
Yucan (later Dorlon)   (Nanaimo) F 52
ILLUSTRATIONS.
Astra and Cambria—Plan of Workings	
Congress Gold Mines, Ltd.—Plan of Workings..
Havilah Gold Mines, Ltd.—Plan of Workings	
Home Gold Mining Co., Ltd.—Plan of Workings-
Minto Gold Mines, Ltd.—Section of Workings....
Vidette Gold Mines, Ltd.—Plan of Workings	
F54
,F11
..F30
F35
. F4
.F38
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937.
4.725-2374740

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