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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA THIRTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1937

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
THIRTY-FIRST ANN DAL REPORT
OP  THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1936
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937.  To His Honour E. W. Hambee,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1936.
K. C. MacDONALD,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., March Slst, 1937.  OFFICERS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A., Deputy Minister.
ADMINISTRATION AND GENERAL SERVICES.
J. A. Grant, Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Thornborrow, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
C. P. L. Pearson, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Senior Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
A. H. Shotbolt, Exhibition Specialist, Victoria, B.C.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., in Charge of Soil Survey, Kelowna, B.C.
James Wells, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
PLANT INDUSTRY DIVISION.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. W. White, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
H. S. French, B.S.A., Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
C. B. Twigg, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Creston, B.C.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm, B.C.
John Tait, District Field Inspector, Summerland, B.C.
G. L. Foulkes, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
V. Tonks, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Vernon, B.C.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Foster, M.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Saanichton, B.C.
Max Ruhmann, B.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist, New Westminster, B.C.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Walter Sandall, Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
LIVE STOCK DIVISION.
W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F.  C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Instructor, Kelowna, B.C.
F. Overland, Dairy Instructor, Vancouver, B.C.
G. H. Thornberry, Assistant (Milk Records), Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. M. Sparrow, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. J. D. MacDonald, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. D. H. McKay, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. H. Davey, Secretary and Inspector, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
George Pilmer, Brand1 Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
R. Cahilty, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
Donald Sutherland, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
R. G. Sutton, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
Shirley G. Preston, M.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
James Travis, District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
T. S. Crack, Acting District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C.  REPORT of the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.
Honourable Dr. K. C MacDonald,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Report of the Department of Agriculture
for the year ended December 31st, 1936.
AGRICULTURAL ANNIVERSARIES.
This year marks the 150th anniversary of the first attempt at farming on Vancouver
Island. Although several sailing-vessels bound for the Pacific North-west Coast had carried
agricultural products, and live stock which included goats, prior to the early summer of
1786, there is no record of any of the animals having been disembarked or any seeds sown in
these northern latitudes until after the arrival of James Strange and his associates in 1786.
During the voyage from the Orient to Nootka the officers and men accompanying James
Strange on his fur-trading enterprise suffered from the ravages of scurvy. In order to
provide a change of occupation, surroundings, and diet, Mr. Strange had the suffering members
of the crew put on shore at Nootka and under the supervision of the ship's surgeon, John
McKay, they were given suitable treatment. As soon as they were strong enough to work
they were set to clearing land, tilling the soil, and sowing seeds.
When James Strange departed from Nootka, to return to the Orient, John McKay by his
own volition was permitted to remain at Nootka as the first British settler on the Pacific
North-west Coast of America. With him there were left suitable implements and a wide
variety of garden seeds and he was instructed to devote a part of his time and efforts to
agricultural pursuits. The seeds for Nootka were brought from Europe and Asia by way of
the Pacific route.
Among the very meagre records available in connection with this first settler is a statement to the effect that in addition to implements and seeds a number of goats were left in his
care. As far as is known, goats were the first domestic animals brought to Vancouver Island
and it is believed that they have been here continuously for 150 years. In the early days they
proved valuable as a source of milk-supply for settlers and sailors, and in recent years goats
have been a very important branch of animal industry in British Columbia.
The early attempts at gardening made by John McKay, who left Nootka in 1787 in
company with Captain and Mrs. Chas. W. Barkley aboard the sailing-vessel " Imperial Eagle,"
were followed up shortly after by the Spaniards who took possession and erected fortifications at Nootka. Later on, when the establishment was relinquished by Bodega Y. Quadra,
of Spain, to Captain George Vancouver, of Britain, there was a very fine garden in the
vicinity of the fortification. This garden was largely the work of Don Pedro Alberni, of the
Spanish command, under whose direction a creditable agricultural establishment had been
developed. Besides the garden produce, the Spanish had developed a representative foundation of live stock and domestic fowls. The following extract from a Spanish record of
1792 reads:—■
" The houses had all been repaired and the gardeners were busily employed in putting
the gardens in order. The poultry, consisting of fowls and turkies, was in excellent condition
and in abundance as were the black cattle and swine: of these Sen. Quadra said he should
take only a sufficient quantity for passage to the southward, leaving the rest, with a large
assortment of garden seeds, for Mr. Broughton. Senrs. Galiano and Valdez added all they
had in their power to spare, amongst which were three excellent goats: I had likewise both
hogs and goats to leave with him."
Nootka became the birthplace of agriculture on the North Pacific Coast a century and
a half ago and in the intervening years gardens have been flourishing continuously at various
places on Vancouver Island. Although Nootka has not become prominent agriculturally, it
has the credit of commemorating a century and a half as a centre in which the farmers of
this Province are very much interested. P 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
At Fort St. James.—The year 19S6 also marks the 125th anniversary of Daniel W.
Harmon's first farming efforts on the Canadian mainland west of the Rocky Mountains. It
was in the spring of 1811 that he cleared his first garden-site near Fort St. James at the foot of
Stuart Lake and sowed the first seeds of agricultural crops. He experienced many difficulties
and it was not until after five years had expired that his efforts, struggles, and disappointments
were rewarded in 1816, when he was able to report in his journal that success had at last
crowned his undertakings. His problems of 125 years ago included rabbits and other wild
animals, insect pests, and late spring frosts. The seeds and potatoes for the Fort St. James
garden were brought overland from Eastern Canada and from the "Old Establishment"
which Peter Pond had developed in the Plains Country.
From the initial success of Daniel W. Harmon other traders and factors engaged in the
fur-trading were encouraged to establish gardens around the trading-posts at Fort Fraser,
Fort George, and Fort Alexandria, and other posts throughout the interior of the Province.
Fort Alexandria became noted before the middle of the last century as a suitable centre for
the production of cereal grains, and the milling industry developed in that vicinity, where
a flour-mill with stones imported from Europe was finally established.
Kamloops, which next year intends to observe its 125th anniversary, also became an
agricultural centre at an early date, and some of the best horses used in the fur brigades
which carried bales of pelts from the northern and central interior down to Astoria before
the establishment of Fort Victoria or the opening of a transportation route to Fort Langley,
were,reared in that section of the interior. Kamloops District is still noted for the excellence
of its horses—both light and draught animals.
These early efforts at crop production preceded the farming ventures at Fort Langley
and Fort Victoria, where agriculture was an important branch of the Fur Company's activities
in the days when rental for the Alaskan lease was paid in farm products.
These remarks are not intended as a story of agricultural development in British
Columbia, but are mentioned for their historical significance in view of the anniversaries
being observed this year.
Victoria Exhibition.—Interest this year also centres around the fact that seventy-five
years ago the British Columbia Agricultural and Industrial Association held its first fall fair
in the City of Victoria. In this year's Victoria Exhibition the historical significance of the
event of seventy-five years ago was fittingly observed. Of particular interest was a historical
display, in which agricultural implements, farm equipment, and household effects used by the
settlers on Vancouver Island three-quarters of a century ago were displayed in a special
building under the supervision of a competent committee, which included representatives of
this Department.
While agriculture is not usually regarded as the first among our primary industries
in its annual cash returns to the people of the Province, it is readily admitted that it ranks
first in its fundamental importance, and during the years in which records have been kept
agricultural commodities to the total value of $1,855,720,000 have been produced in British
Columbia up to the end of the year 1936. Notable, too, is the fact that our lands are not
depleted by this immense production, especially where good farm practices have been adopted.
The current year's agricultural production is estimated at $47,300,000. The detailed report of
the Statistician will not be issued until market returns are received covering commodities
held for sale in the coming winter.
Among other agricultural events which have been marked by anniversaries this year, it
is well to recall the fact that twenty-five years ago the British Columbia Department of
Agriculture and the British Columbia Poultry Association, in co-operation with the Vancouver
Exhibition Association, organized the first egg-laying contest conducted on the American
Continent. That contest, which was carried on in its initial stages at Hastings Park,
Vancouver, and later at the Willows Park, Victoria, was discontinued when the Dominion
Department of Agriculture undertook egg-laying contests at Experimental Farms as a
Dominion-wide policy.
The British Columbia Poultry Association has been in existence for a quarter of a
century and the Provincial Poultry Show at Vancouver this fall indicates, by its increase
in entries and interest, that the organization is showing renewed vigour after several years of
comparative inactivity. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 9
NEW LEGISLATION.
At the first 1936 session of the Eighteenth Legislature amendments to a number of Acts
affecting agriculture were enacted, as follows:—
Chapter 5, " Canadian Farm Loan (British Columbia) Act Amendment Act, 1936."
This Statute, although not sponsored by the Department of Agriculture, is of
interest to farmers, inasmuch as it terminates any indirect association of the
Provincial Government with the organization and administration of the Canadian
Farm Loan Board. The amending Act provides for sale to the Dominion
Minister of Finance by the Minister of Finance for British Columbia of the
capital stock of the Dominion Board held by the Province under the original
terms of the Dominion Act.
Chapter 9, " Codling-moth Control Act Amendment Act, 1936." The amendments
define the term " fruit lands " as meaning lands planted to or having thereon
apple or pear trees whether for the raising of fruit commercially or otherwise,
and whether or not the trees have reached a bearing age or in fact bear fruit.
For repayment of the sums advanced provision is made for assessment of lands
within the control area either on the basis of acreage at a uniform rate per acre
or on the basis of a uniform rate per tree.
Chapter 21, " Fruit, Vegetables, and Honey (British Columbia) Act." At the
request of the Dominion Department of Agriculture this Statute was re-enacted
as enabling legislation to give the force of law, in British Columbia, to the
Federal Statute under similar title, so far as that legislation is within the
legislative competence of the Province and outside that of the Dominion.
Chapter 34, " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act Amendment
Act, 1936." The amendments enacted at the first session were so materially
revised by the legislation of the second session that the import of the legislation
is reviewed under the Statutes enacted at the second session. The enactments
of the first session, however, have particular significance because of the fact
that they Were precautionary, to be brought into operation by Proclamation.
This step was taken in view of the reference to the Supreme Court of Canada
as to whether the Dominion Statute was ultra vires of the Dominion. Pending
the opinion of the Court, the amendments of the first session were enacted, to
become law only in case the Dominion Act was found to- be invalid. An
adverse opinion was rendered on June 17th, 1936, and the following day,
June 18th, a Proclamation was published in The British Columbia Gazette.
Immediately following such Proclamation, Boards, solely under authority of
Provincial legislation, were set up for operation of the following Schemes:
British Columbia Tree Fruit; British Columbia Interior Vegetables; B.C.
Coast Vegetables; B.C. Hothouse Tomato and Cucumber; Milk Marketing
of the Lower Mainland of British Columbia.
• • Chapter 56, "Sheep Protection Act Amendment Act." A new section (17a) was
inserted in the Act to place upon any municipality, having a by-law in force
for collection of dog tax, liability for payment of losses sustained by owners
of sheep, goats, and poultry destroyed within the municipality by dogs of which
the owners are unknown, or for losses where the owners of the dogs are unable
to satisfy judgments awarded against them.
Chapter 18, " Dyking Assessment Adjustment Act Amendment Act."
Chapter 57, " Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development District Act Amendment
Act." Provision is made for deferring for a period of years beyond the date
set in the principal Act for payment of last instalment on dyking assessments.
Chapter 45, " Obsolete Statutes Repeal Act."    Under this legislation repeal of the
" Dairy Products Sales Adjustment Act, 1929," and " Produce Marketing Act,
1926-27," is effected as these Statutes were declared ultra vires by the Privy
Council.
At the second session of 1936, which was the fourth session of the Eighteenth Legislature,
further amendments of agricultural interest were enacted.    These were as follows:— P 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Chapter 17, " Game Act Amendment Act, 1936 (Second Session)." This legislation
indirectly affects farmers who may be the owners of dogs, inasmuch as no
person shall, between the 1st day of April and the 31st day of July, use or
allow any dog to hunt or run after any game bird.
Chapter 30, " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act Amendment
Act, 1936 (Second Session)." This legislation was enacted in two parts,
the first of which became operative upon assent, and provides for the control
and regulation in any or all respects of the transportation, packing, storage,
and marketing of natural products within the Province, including the prohibition
of such handling. The second part is to come into operation by Proclamation
of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council and when in force will take the place
of powers formerly intended to be vested in the Dominion Government under
the " Natural Products Marketing Act " of the Dominion Parliament.
Chapter 8, "Dewdney Dyking District Relief Act, 1929, Amendment Act, 1936
(Second Session)."
Chapter 9, " Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act Amendment Act, 1936
(Second Session)."
Chapter 50, " Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act Amendment Act, 1936
(Second Session)."
These Statutes provide for the revision of assessment rolls so that irregularities in same may be remedied.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
The Farmers' Institutes which have been organized in practically all of our agricultural
districts have continued to do useful work on behalf of their communities. The Department's
policy of paying a flat annual grant of $10 to each institute which complies with the departmental regulations and has ten or more members who have paid a subscription fee of at least
$1 a year appears to be satisfactory. Many communities have benefited by the departmental
policies concerned with stumping-powder rebates, pure-bred sire purchase, Cyanogas purchase
rebates, and seed-cleaning assistance. The Farmers' Institutes of the Central Interior
have negotiated directly with one of the railway companies for the securing of railway-tie
contracts on behalf of their members.
At the close of the year there were 210 Farmers' Institutes in good standing, three
new institutes were incorporated, and three ceased to function. The total membership of the
Farmers' Institutes is in excess of 5,000. General approval has been given to the change
in regulations which now permits of Farmers' Institutes holding their annual meetings any
time prior to March 31st. On account of road conditions many of the institutes in Central
and Interior sections found it difficult to hold their meetings during the early part of
January as had been required in former years.
District conferences were held in the ten Farmers' Institute districts and the Honourable
the Minister, accompanied by his deputy, attended all of those except the conference held in
the Peace River Block.
The number of agricultural subjects dealt with at the different conferences was varied
and the resolutions passed totalled 102. Outstanding among the matters discussed were
grazing problems in the East Kootenay, where it has been agreed that special assistance will
be given in the erecting of a fence approximately 2 miles long on the International Boundary
just west of Newgate. The local Farmers' Institute is to take the initiative in this fence-
construction. Assurance of the continuation of the sire-purchase policy also was given to
the delegates, who expressed appreciation for the assistance to the live-stock industry
rendered through the Farmers' Institute policy. In the West Kootenay District the problems
centred around fruit production and marketing of surplus farm products. The problem of
weed-control is serious here as in other districts. In the North Okanagan and Salmon Arm
Districts the high waters of the main rivers were reported to be causing serious damage
to newly sown crops and the problem of land reclamation and adequate drainage in the
spring were topics of chief interest. In several important areas crops had to be resown
when the high waters had subsided. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 11
In the Cariboo District general production and marketing problems related to the range
cattle and sheep industry were chief among the topics considered, while in Central British
Columbia the harvesting, cleaning, and marketing of timothy and clover seeds appeared
to be of paramount importance. The low prices obtained for last year's timothy-seed adversely
affected the farmers here. Prices obtained for the 1936 crop have been fair, and in general
it appears that cereal-crops suitable for seed have been harvested in the northern area where
early varieties of grains were distributed in spring.
Resolutions passed at all of these district conferences were assembled at Victoria and,
at the call of the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture, the Farmers' Institute Advisory
Board met in November and spent two days in dealing with the questions involved. The
Advisory Board had an opportunity of meeting with the Select Standing Committee on
Agriculture and laying before that Committee all questions requiring legislative consideration.
Further time was spent by the Board members in dealing directly with heads of the several
departments concerned with resolutions submitted by the District Institutes.
FLAG-DISTRIBUTION.
Many of the Farmers' Institutes of British Columbia have gone to the trouble and expense
of acquiring properties and erecting their own institute halls. The enterprise of these
institutes has been recognized by the Minister of Agriculture, who has instructed that in
every case where a Farmers' or Women's Institute has built its own hall it is to receive, upon
application, from the Department of Agriculture a regulation size Union Jack flag made in
Canada from British wool. During the year more than fifty of these flags, which
measure 4% by 9 feet, have been supplied to Farmers' Institutes which have made application
for them. The communities receiving these flags have expressed their appreciation of
this form of recognition for their local endeavours.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
In submitting the annual report of the Women's Institute Branch, the Superintendent,
Mrs. V. S. McLachlan, presents the following statistics:—■
Total number of Women's Institutes      164
Membership at June 30th, 1936  3,760
New institutes organized during year  3
Institutes in abeyance  2
The new institutes are Quick District, Woodpecker, and Main River. The two institutes
which have gone into abeyance are Langley Prairie and Okanagan Mission, where difficulty
has been experienced in finding new officers willing to carry on the institute-work.
The Provincial Board was called by the Honourable the Minister to meet in Victoria in
February, and at that meeting arrangements were approved for a Provincial Conference of
the Women's Institutes, to be held in Vancouver in August during the period of the Canadian
Pacific Exhibition. The Department of Agriculture provided a grant of $1,600 and the
Women's Institutes contributed $1,105.94 to make up a fund from which the transportation
accounts for ninety-nine official delegates were paid, also the room and board of the five
members of the Provincial Board and for a number of the delegates. The rent of the
Conference hall and other incidental expenditures were met from this fund, which still has
a balance of $590.85 in hand.
The two major transportation companies allowed special passenger rates for the
official delegates, and the officials of these railways took infinite pains to make arrangements
for the convenience of the delegates.
The Conference was a success; approximately 200 delegates and members were in
attendance at the sessions each day. Particularly valuable among the addresses were those
delivered by the Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister of Agriculture, dealing with
the " Marketing Act "; by Mr. H. B. King on the New Educational Curriculum; and Dr. Allon
Peebles on Health Insurance.
An excellent exhibit of handicrafts, including samples of rug-work, weaving, spinning,
lace-making, glove-making, pottery, etc., from various British Columbia centres was
arranged by Mrs. M. A. Barber, of Hope. P 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Handicrafts, particularly those using local products, including wool and leather, are
increasingly popular, and in many institutes demonstrations of carding, spinning, knitting,
rug-making, etc., have been conducted during the year. One institute claims to have made
100 wool comforters since they introduced this handicraft.
District conferences were held in the Peace River, North Vancouver Island, South
Vancouver Island, and in the Okanagan Valley. All of these except that in the Peace
River District were attended by the Superintendent. South Fraser Conference was cancelled
owing to serious illness of their President, and the North Fraser omitted holding their
Conference but turned over their Conference funds to the Provincial Conference fund.
Fourteen Women's Institutes held fairs and each of these applied for the five prize
books presented by the Department of Agriculture.
The Othoa Scott Trust Fund now has $5,000 in Dominion Government bonds, and
arrangements are under way to enable institutes to name one child to receive treatments
from the interest on these bonds.
At the request of the Provincial President, Mrs. Zella McGregor, a bulletin of news
and general information is stencilled in the office of the Superintendent of Women's Institutes
each month and is sent out to all Women's Institutes throughout the Province.
JUNIOR CLUB PROJECTS.
During the current year in which I have served as Director on the Canadian Council
of Boys' and Girls' Club Work, the secretarial duties connected therewith have been discharged
by Mr. S. S. Phillips, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, who in November accompanied
our nine British Columbia contestants to the Toronto Winter Fair.
The following list, prepared by Mr. S. S. Phillips, shows the number of junior clubs
organized in 1936 and their membership:—
Kind. No. of Clubs.        Membership.
Dairy calf  24 259
Beef calf -     6 62
Poultry  29 243
Swine   13 109
Potato   12 102
Totals  -- 84 775
A tabulated list giving the names of the clubs, names and addresses of club organizers
and secretaries, and number of members in each club is attached to report on file in Department
at Victoria.
The rules and regulations governing clubs appear to be generally satisfactory for all
clubs except potato and beef-calf clubs, and these, being new, are subject to revision.
Potato Clubs.—There is a feeling in some sections that all potato clubs should be organized
as certified seed-potato clubs. The advisability of this at present is debatable, as there are
possibly some sections of the Province that might be able to organize a potato club, but due
to isolation may be unable to secure certified seed and take advantage of the Dominion
inspection service. A temporary solution of this problem may be achieved by forming a
potato-club policy of encouraging the organization of certified-seed clubs wherever possible,
but still permit the organization of uncertified-seed clubs where conditions are such as to
preclude the organization of certified seed-potato clubs.
Beef Calf Clubs.—There are some beef-raising areas in the Province in which spring
organization of calf clubs is impossible. The beef-club policy should be widened to permit
the fall organization of calf clubs in those districts and the club calves used to carry on
winter-feeding projects. Club members in these clubs would be eligible to compete in the
Provincial eliminations the following fall. Also beef-club members should be supplied with a
book for keeping records and recording interesting events that may happen during the
club-project period. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 13
PROVINCIAL ELIMINATION CONTEST.
Prior to the final elimination contest held in Armstrong two preliminary contests were
held, one at Vancouver during the Exhibition and one at Fort Fraser. As there were no
potato teams eligible for Toronto in the Interior, the final for potatoes was held at the
Vancouver Exhibition.
It is apparent that more special judges will be needed at both the Vancouver preliminary
elimination and the final at Armstrong in order to stage these contests successfully. In the
past we have depended on regular judges and usually at the time the contests are being
staged they are engaged in judging regular classes. There has also been some criticism
of holding the final contest every year at Armstrong. The district of Chilliwack feels that
at least the final elimination in dairy cattle should be held in that district. This is a question
that must be settled by those concerned with the club organizations in the several districts.
After the final contest at Armstrong the following members were chosen to represent
the Province at Toronto:—
Project. Name and Address.
Dairy Calf Alan Nash and Noland Boss, Armstrong.
Beef Calf Jean Brown, Heffley Creek;  George McMorran, Kamloops.
Swine Ross McLeod and John Harrower, Langley Prairie.
Seed-potato T. Bull and John Clemens, Milner.
Public Speaking  Wilbert Brydon, Armstrong.
It was evident by the splendid standing of the British Columbia representatives at
Toronto that all of our contestants had been well coached and had worked hard in their
particular projects.
The seed-potato team took second place, dairy-calf team third place, beef-calf team fourth
place, and swine team fifth place.
The representatives in the public-speaking contest were not placed with the exception
of the first, which was won by the representative from Quebec. Wilbert Brydon, of Armstrong,
had his address well prepared and made a very fine impression on the judges.
This is the first year that a public-speaking contest has been held at Toronto and it is
generally felt that this should be made an annual event. It is equally important that the
boys and girls be able to express themselves on agricultural topics as it is to take special
training in any of the various projects.
LIME-TRANSPORTATION SUBSIDY.
The British Columbia Lime Committee, of which Mr. R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist
at New Westminster, is the Secretary, has held approximately twenty committee meetings
during the year and has dealt with 365 applications for transportation subsidy on lime.
Approximately 2,500 tons of agricultural lime have been transported in compliance with
the regulations in 1936 and the policy has been more widely utilized this year than in 1935.
Approximately 2,000 tons of the lime transported was applied on Fraser Valley farms and
about 200 tons were used on Vancouver Island. The balance was shipped to various Interior
and Central British Columbia points where, on account of soil-acidity, it is found advantageous
to apply lime, particularly on land on which leguminous crops are to be grown.
FARM-IMPLEMENT PRICE INQUIRY.
At the request of the Select Standing Committee on Immigration and Agriculture of
the Canadian House of Commons, a Farm-implement Price Inquiry was undertaken on
behalf of this Department in British Columbia by Dr. W. A. Carrothers, Chairman of the
Economic Council. Dr. Carrothers and Mr. Neil Perry attended Farmers' Institute
conferences in the Southern Interior, accompanied by the Minister and Deputy Minister of
Agriculture, and, in addition, they made independent inquiries at distributing centres in
British Columbia and in the State of Washington. The data which they assembled in this
way, and with the assistance of departmental officials, have been drawn up and forwarded
to Ottawa, where it has been given consideration by the Select Committee. P 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
IMPORTED TOMATOES.
British Columbia hothouse-tomato growers have been concerned over the pin-worm
infestation of Mexican tomatoes entering this Province, and the matter was discussed at
Ottawa in December when the Minister of Agriculture for British Columbia and his deputy
conferred with Federal authorities. We were informed that the new methyl-bromide gas
treatment which can be applied to the imported tomatoes in certain storage-chambers in
Vancouver would appear to afford an adequate safeguard against possible infestation in
this Province. There is the further possibility that authorities of the State of California
will demand methyl-bromide treatment of Mexican vegetables passing through that State,
and this preventive treatment, in addition to the fact that pin-worm will not survive outside
winter temperatures in Canada, may be sufficient safeguard against the possibility of a
general spread of this pest within our Province.
TOMATOES IMPORTED FROM JAPAN.
A further threat of Oriental competition in the hothouse-tomato industry was encountered
this year when 200 cases of greenhouse tomatoes grown in Japan were unloaded at Vancouver
in January. This is the first commercial shipment and the fruit was in excellent condition,
firm, and of good texture, but the flavour was not very pronounced. The value of these
tomatoes was approximately 4 cents a pound.
There have been no reports of further importations from this source during the year;
consequently, it is assumed that the transaction may not have proved advantageous either
to the importers or to the shippers.
IMPORTED EGGS.
In compliance with the " Eggs Marks Act," chapter 74, R.S.B.C. 1924, and amendments
thereto, all imported eggs and egg products into the Port of Vancouver during the year 1936
were inspected upon arrival to ascertain that the requirements of the " Eggs Marks Act " had
been complied with. Imported eggs arriving into the Port of Victoria were inspected and
reported to the office of the District Field Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver, B.C., through
the courtesy of Mr. John Noble, Federal District Inspector.
The arrivals reported during the year are as follows:—
Port of Victoria: 7 doz. eggs for hatching purposes from U.S.A. and 108 cases of salted
eggs from China.
Port of Vancouver: 4 doz. eggs for hatching purposes, 100 cases Grade B eggs, and
25 lb. dried egg-yolk from U.S.A. and 433 cases of salted eggs from China.
The salted eggs from China are used solely by Chinese residents in Canada for medicinal
and flavouring purposes.
FEED-GRAIN IMPORTATIONS.
Mr. Walter Sandall, Field Inspector on the Lower Mainland, has again dealt with
the importations of feed-grains, which, under Tariff 145 of the Canadian Freight Association,
are transported at special reduced freight rates. During the year, 970 feed-grain certificates
were issued. This represents a decrease of 216 certificates as compared with the 1,186
that were made out in 1935. The quantities of feed-grains brought to the Coast districts
from Alberta under this arrangement, which permits of the producers securing reduced
transportation on shipments of feed-grains that comply with the regulations, includes
28,843 tons of wheat, 5,593 tons of barley, 4,553 tons of oats, 288 tons of mixed grains, 82 tons
of rye, and 63 tons of screenings. Details of these feed movements will be found in Appendix
No. 6.
CHAMBER OF AGRICULTURE.
The British Columbia Chamber of Agriculture, which held its annual meeting in Vancouver
in January, is a subsidiary of the Canadian Chamber of Agriculture, which was organized at
Toronto in November, 1935. During the year the Canadian Chamber of Agriculture has
concerned itself with watching developments connected with the " Natural Products Marketing
Act"; conferring with Government officials regarding matters of general interest to agriculture;   establishing national contacts for the exchange of mutually helpful information; DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 15
investigating developments connected with the renewal of Empire agreements, as these affect
agriculture and exploring the advisability of promoting an Empire Producers' Conference in
connection therewith.
It is difficult, at this stage, to indicate any definite or constructive work that has been
accomplished by this comparatively young organization. The suggestion has been made to
the Chamber that it should deal only with resolutions or problems which have a broad aspect
or which refer to matters of general policy. There appears to be a general impression that
unless considerable discretion is exercised the Chamber of Agriculture may become involved
in matters which are already dealt with by Agricultural Departments, or through the direct
negotiation of representatives of existing agricultural organizations.
HONEY INDUSTRY.
The opinion of our Provincial Apiarist, Bee Inspectors, and the representatives of Honey
Producers' Associations has been expressed this year in favour of the annual registration
of apiaries. Unless annual returns are received from bee-keepers so that thir apiary
registration may be kept up to date, it seems impossible to economically provide satisfactory
inspection services. The present registration, which does not require the filing of annual
returns, appears deficient and consideration of the advisability of revision of the Provincial
requirements is recommended.
The bee-keeping industry has completed seventy-five years of continuous progress in
this Province. The first two colonies of bees were brought to Vancouver Island in the spring
of 1860, when bees were valued at $150 a colony and honey was retailed in Victoria at $1
a pound. Bees had been carried into the Okanagan Valley two years before they were
introduced into Vancouver Island. The priests maintained several colonies at the Okanagan
Mission after carrying them more than 300 miles from the United States of America in
1858. In those days flowers capable of adequate nectar-secretion were not available to the
bees in the Okanagan Valley, and until orchards and alfalfa and clover meadows were
established, bee-keeping was not a profitable undertaking. Production of surplus honey in
the Thompson and Okanagan Valleys dates back approximately forty years. At present,
however, this Province is producing approximately 1,500,000 ,1b. of surplus honey each year
and the industry is receiving more attention from the Department. In 1936, in addition to
our Provincial Apiarist, we have engaged the services of six local Bee Inspectors on temporary
bases.
FIELD OFFICIALS' REPORTS.
In this Annual Report the information supplied by the several field officials of the
Department will be found embodied in the reports of the various branches. Matters pertaining
to live stock have been incorporated in the report of the Live Stock Commissioner, those
referring to field crops have been included in the report of the Field Crops Commissioner,
while the Provincial Horticulturist has assembled in his report all data pertinent to fruit-
and vegetable-crop production which has been submitted by District Horticulturists and
Field Inspectors.
During the summer Mr. R. G. Sutton was absent from the Lower Mainland owing to
illness, and Mr. G. L. Landon is absent from the Grand Forks District during the fall.
Mr. Landon is supervising the inspecting and blood-testing of 75,000 birds in Lower Mainland
flocks, incidental to these flocks being approved as breeders.
PEACE RIVER BLOCK.
In view of the requests for seed-grain that have come to the Department each spring,
it is encouraging to note in the report of Mr. T. S. Crack that for the coming spring there will
be no shortage of seed-grain. In the spring of this year one car-load of seed-oats of an
early variety was sent into the Block for distribution to competent farmers, who exchanged
their own oats of later varieties suitable for green feed production, and which in turn were
issued by the Relief officials to settlers on relief.
Mr. Crack states that one. car-load of certified Legacy seed-oats was shipped through the
Department of Agriculture into the Peace River Block, and was distributed to fifty-eight
farmers for the purpose of providing them with better seed, also to enable the settlers to P 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
provide foundation seed for themselves. This was very satisfactory in every way. The oats
yielded very well, averaging approximately 80 bushels per acre of good quality when
threshed.
The report further indicates that up to the end of December forty-two out of the sixty-nine
threshermen operating in the Block had threshed approximately 500,000 bushels of wheat,
600,000 bushels of oats, and 100,000 bushels of barley, in addition to rye and grass seeds.
In the past the Provincial and Federal Departments of Agriculture have contributed
jointly to the cost of purchasing power-operated seed-cleaning plants to be placed with
organized farmers in different parts of the Province. In view of peculiar conditions in the
Peace River Block, where sparse settlement makes it difficult for farmers to bring their
seed together to particular centres for cleaning, both Departments have agreed to a policy
of making available to Farmers' Institutes hand-operated seed-cleaners and approval has
been given for the purchase of ten such cleaners or fanning-mills to be delivered in the Peace
River Block this winter.
NEW PUBLICATIONS.
The Department publications distributed during the year amounted to 48,544 copies,
being an increase of 7,981 copies over 1935. The following is a list of the publications
printed during the year:—
Fifth List of Dairy Sires  Dairy Circ. No. 29
The Improvement of Dairy Herds Dairy Circ. No. 30
Certified Milk and Butter-fat Records, 1935 Dairy Circ. No. 31
Anthracnose  Hort. Circ. No. 45
Cabbage-root Maggot Hort. Circ. No. 32
Making Lime-sulphur at Home Hort. Circ. No.'61
Soap Solutions for Spraying Hort. Circ. No. 40
Pests of Cultivated Plants  Hort. Circ. No. 72
Diseases of Cultivated Plants .  Hort. Circ. No. 73
Field Crop and Garden Spray Calendar.
Blackberry Culture  Hort. Circ. No. 57
Celery Culture Hort. Circ. No. 70
Currant and Gooseberry Culture Hort. Circ. No. 56
Orchard Cover-crops  Hort. Circ. No. 51
Selection of Orchard Sites and Soils . Hort. Circ. No. 53
Rhubarb Culture Hort. Circ. No. 67
Soiling and Annual Hay Crops Field Crop Circ. No. 13
Farm Drainage - Field Crop Circ. No. 14
Potato Diseases Field Crop Circ. No. 15
Goat-raising in B.C. Bulletin No. 64
Preservation of Food Bulletin No. 83
Management of Geese Poultry Circ. No. 12
Poultry-house Construction  Poultry Bull. No. 63
List of Publications.
Climate of B.C., 1935.
Annual Report of the Department, 1935.
Agricultural Statistics, 1935.
BARBERRY ERADICATION.
In the Lower Mainland sections of the Province it is generally believed that some definite
and drastic action must be taken for the eradication of the common barberry (Barberis
vulgaris). Losses to oat-crops through heavy infestations of black rust (Puccinia graminis)
have been reported through the Delta and adjacent districts, and in these districts the presence
has been reported of many large bushes of the common barberry, which is a notorious
host-plant for this disease. It appears that voluntary measures in connection with the
removal of the common barberry are inadequate and farmers are pressing for measures
that will make compulsory the eradication of the host-plant. The attention of our Plant
Pathologist has been directed to this problem and his recommendations are awaited. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 17
WHEAT PESTS.
On Vancouver Island those farmers who are endeavouring to produce enough wheat
for their own requirements have faced two serious insect problems this year. The wheat-
midge (Thecodiplosis mosellana) has been particularly prevalent in up-island sections. This
pest is most destructive to the immature grain in the spring-wheat varieties, but even in
some of the fall-sown wheats which mature late in the season the midge has been very
prevalent. In autumn of this year several 1-acre plots of fall-wheat varieties have been
sown on well-prepared and properly-fertilized soils. Records in connection with seeding
dates, etc., are being kept, and it is hoped that through the securing of reliable data our farmers
may be advised as to suitable varieties of wheat to grow and proper date for seeding of both
fall and spring varieties.
The other insect pest which has troubled the wheat-producers mainly on Saanich Peninsula
and in the Metchosin District is the Hessian fly (Cecidomyia, destructor). Some very
interesting and useful results have been achieved by Mr. W. R. Foster, Assistant Plant
Pathologist, who in collaboration with Mr. C. E. Jeffries, of the Experimental Farm at
Saanichton, has prepared a scientific paper entitled " Resistance of Winter Wheats to Hessian
Fly." In their investigations Messrs. Foster and Jeffries have found that two of our best-
known fall-wheat varieties, the Dawson Golden Chaff and the Red Rock, are practically immune
to the attacks of this pest. Other varieties in the experimental plots have been seriously
affected, while these two varieties remain practically 100 per cent resistant.
GOLDEN BAMBOO INFLORESCENCE.
Officials of this Department have taken a keen interest in the work that is being done by
Mr. J. B. Keys, of View Royal, near Victoria, in the growing and propagating of a number
of bamboos (Bambusa sp.). This year the golden bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea) showed
considerable inflorescence and produced a number of viable seeds, some of which have germinated during the late autumn and early winter. According to correspondence passing
between Mr. Keys and British and American authorities, the golden bamboo in other parts of
the world has also produced inflorescence this year and the interesting theory with respect
to the life of this species after it has bloomed is being kept in mind.
PROVINCIAL FEEDS STANDARD BOARD.
The Feeds Standard Board, which was appointed in 1934, and prepared its preliminary
report in October, 1935, did not add any supplementary information for publication during
1936. It has been suggested that this Board might well take the initiative in dealing with feed-
experiment recommendations for British Columbia, and also that the feasibility of recommending certain locally produced feedstuffs might be given definite consideration. These
are among the matters which are before the Board for further attention.
HIGH WATERS, 1936.
A sudden rise in temperatures toward the end of May caused rapid melting of snow in
the mountainous regions adjacent to a number of agricultural sections. As a result there
was high water in the several main rivers of the Province and many of their tributaries.
In the Skeena River Valley Indian villages and settlers' homesteads adjacent to the stream
at different points between Kispiox and Terrace were inundated, and after the floods had
subsided fields were left with a covering of silt, varying from a few inches to several feet in
depth; a number of homes were swept away and there was much soil-erosion of a spectacular
character.
In the vicinity of Prince George, at the confluence of the Nechako and Fraser Rivers,
water was unusually high in early June and some limited areas were inundated. Very little
damage was done in this section. In the Southern Interior the Columbia River overflowed
its banks between Revelstoke and Arrowhead, causing loss to many settlers occupying land
on the lower levels. Some losses also occurred at the' headwaters of the Thompson River.
Along the shores of the Shuswap Lake and on lands adjacent to Mara Lake and Spallumcheen
River, particularly between Grindrod and Enderby, the trouble here was aggravated by heavy
precipitation during the first week in June. p 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Nowhere in the Province was the damage to farm crops heavier than in the Hatzic-
Dewdney District, where pumping facilities were inadequate to cope with the run-off from
the mountains due to high temperatures and heavy rains and due to seepage through the
dykes. Practically all of the dykes in the larger reclaimed areas held, but seepage-water
rose and was responsible for damage in sections adjacent to Chilliwack, particularly on the
lower fields. On some of the smaller areas the dykes broke and also a number of private
dyking areas were inundated with resultant losses. The water receded rapidly from most of
the areas, but on account of the peculiar conditions existing in the Hatzic-Dewdney District
the water-levels remained sufficiently high through June and part of July as to render it
impossible for farmers to produce forage, grain, and root crops sufficient for the needs of
their live stock. Special assistance was rendered to settlers in this unorganized district, and
it is anticipated that the feed-supplies made available will be sufficient to carry the farm
animals through the winter and until pasture is available next spring.
Owing to the absence from the Fraser Valley of the District Agriculturist during the
summer months, assistance was rendered to the farmers by Messrs. G. A. Luyat, District
Agriculturist for the Cariboo, and Walter Sandall, District Field Inspector at Vancouver.
The latter supervised the distribution of hay, oats, and other commodities. Fortunately,
there was adequate hay and oats available on the reclaimed Sumas area to fill orders for
necessary forage and grain for live stock in the areas under private dykes on the north side
of the Fraser River.
" KNOW-MISSISSIPPI-BETTER PARTY."
In July a party of citizens from Mississippi and adjacent States visited British Columbia
in the course of a trip through the United States and Canada. On their arrival in Victoria
they were met by the Minister of Agriculture and other Government representatives, and
through their leader, the Honourable Dennis Murphree, all members of the party were
invited to visit points of interest on the Island during the brief stop-over of the ship upon
which they were travelling.
The party was accompanied to Vancouver by Mr. W. H. Currie, Assistant Director of
the Provincial Bureau of Information, and your Deputy Minister. Each member of the party
was presented with a souvenir envelope containing several booklets descriptive of British
Columbia. This gesture of welcome and good-will was very much appreciated by the 167
members of the party, many of whom have written to this Department expressing their
appreciation of the kindly treatment they received while they were in this Province.
BRITISH NATIONAL UNION.
In April the British National Union Party of primary producers, returning to Britain
from their New Zealand trip, arrived in Victoria and were shown about the city and
peninsula by officials of the Department of Agriculture. The party was headed by Major John
Duncan, distinguished military officer, who hopes to return to British Columbia next year in
company with another party of members and friends of the British National Union.
STAFF CHANGES.
The changes in the staff of the Department during the past year include the following
resignations, transfers, and new appointments:—
Resignation of Miss M. D. C. Doull as stenographer in the Dairy Branch, effective
December 9th, 1936.
Donald Sutherland, District Agriculturist at Smithers, transferred to Kamloops as
District Agriculturist to succeed G. W. Challenger, who resigned, January 1st, 1936.
H. S. French transferred from District Agriculturist at Prince George to District Field
Inspector at Penticton, April 1st, 1936.
Miss I. P. McMillan appointed stenographer at Kamloops office, December 27th, 1935.
S. G. Preston appointed District Agriculturist at Smithers, January 15th, 1936.
Miss D. Anderson appointed stenographer, Vancouver office, February 24th, 1936.
T. S. Crack appointed Acting District Agriculturist at Pouce Coupe, April 1st, 1936.
Miss M. Renyard appointed stenographer in the Dairy Branch, Victoria, September 24th,
1936. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936>. P 19
REPORT OF MARKETS COMMISSIONER.
J. A. Grant.
The year 1936 has seen business in general make a good start towards recovery.
Unemployment has been lessened and wheat and other food values increased. With this
increased purchasing-power in the producers' hands, trade has been the best since 1929. The
greatest increases were in the lines of necessity, which, in price and volume distributed, set
a new high since the depression set in. Some lines have benefited more than others as
organized, orderly marketing replaced selling under stress, thereby gradually increasing values
as the demand justified and measuring the supply on a year's need instead of forcing the
market at harvest-time. No doubt the unusual drought conditions, coupled with strike troubles,
stimulated the increased movement to a greater extent than normal circumstances would have
required in some lines, while other lines were diminished by the severe frost in November, 1935.
This frost particularly reduced the crop of all stone-fruits and outside importations got the
business that, under normal weather conditions, would have been produced at home. Beef
prices have advanced slightly, due to drought conditions on the Canadian and northern middle-
west States and partially to the trade treaty between Canada and the United States.
The production of field crops was heavy in British Columbia this year with ideal weather
during the growing and harvesting season. The early crops of forced and field rhubarb were
marred in their marketing by a divided deal which brought about internal competition and
resulted in disaster to the growers.
FORCED AND FIELD RHUBARB.
Shipments of forced rhubarb as usual started early in January. The deal was again
a split one; two factions, representing two groups of growers competing for volume outlet,
brought down prices under 1935. Approximately 20,000 crates of forced rhubarb were
produced and sold.
The marketing of field rhubarb was even more demoralized than the forced rhubarb, as
part of the deal was controlled centrally through an agency acting for a majority of the
growers, while the other part was handled by another agency acting for the minority, who
shipped direct to a chain of wholesale jobbers. The first five cars rolled by the old organization
netted growers $1.11 per box, but when competition got under way there was no bottom to the
deal. The old organization shipped forty-six cars which netted an average of 39% cents per
40-lb. case. Seventeen cars were shipped by the minority. Last year the old organization
shipped ninety-three cars averaging 77% cents per case. At least fifty cars were left on the
plants as prices dropped below handling charges—some cars netting less than handling costs.
This disaster was brought about by the want of harmony between growers and shippers, and
the lesson it taught will, we hope, help in correcting future shipments of this commodity.
HOTHOUSE TOMATOES AND CUCUMBERS.
Tomato prices were slightly lower than 1935 and cucumber prices slightly higher. The
following table gives the quantity sold and where they were marketed:—
First crop—
Vancouver jobbers 	
Victoria 	
Other points in British Columbia-
Alberta 	
Saskatchewan
Manitoba 	
Ontario 	
Quebec 	
United States
Tomatoes.
Cucumbers.
Crates.
Crates.
47,851
14,283
14,644
1,524
2,303
329
19,670
4,765
6,132
1,493
13,209
3,595
14,400
500
1,200
3,200
150 P 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Second crop—
Vancouver jobbers
Victoria  	
Other points in British Columbia.
Alberta 	
Saskatchewan 	
Manitoba 	
Ontario 	
United States 	
Tomatoes.
Crates.
16,884
1,846
457
4,403
5,440
1,935
Cucumbers.
Crates.
35
51
25
3
2
6,720
600
STRAWBERRIES.
The main strawberry-crop was sold under 90 per cent, voluntary control.    The crop was
not as heavy as in 1935.    Eighty-five cars were shipped to Prairie points by voluntary control
and seven by independent shippers.    In addition to car-lot shipments, 28,846 crates were
shipped L.C.L. to Alberta points.
Car-lot shipping commenced on June 10th, six days later than in 1935 and thirty days
later than 1934. Wynndel had a very small crop this season and shipped only twelve cars,
compared to twenty-nine cars in 1935. In all, ninety-two cars were shipped this year and
153 cars in 1935.
Average net returns $1.78 per crate, as against $1.55 last year.
77 cars were shipped by C.P. express.
11 cars were shipped by C.N. express.
3 cars were shipped by C.P. freight.
1 car by truck.
Approximate express and freight charges, $36,852.14.
RASPBERRIES.
The demand for raspberries is not as great as was the case a number of years ago, and
although satisfactory returns were made this season the fact remains, for the present at least,
that the prospect for increased production is not bright. Twenty-seven cars were shipped,
with an average net return per crate of $1.94, as against $1.62 last year. The twenty-seven
cars were shipped by C.P. express. Twelve cars of raspberries were also shipped to the
Prairies from Kelowna, B.C., making in all thirty-seven cars compared to forty-seven in 1935.
In addition to car-lot berries, 20,722 crates were shipped L.C.L. to Prairie points.
LATE-BERRY DEAL.
The late-berry deal is made up chiefly of Everbearing strawberries, with a quantity of
blackberries, some loganberries, and late raspberries.    Fifty-one cars were shipped this year,
as against forty-four last year.    Five cars were shipped to Eastern Canada—Toronto two
and Montreal three.    Average net returns:—
Strawberries, $1.76 per crate.
Blackberries, $1.16 per crate.
46 cars were shipped by C.P. express.
5 cars were shipped by C.N. express.
Processed S02 Berry Deal.
_,. ,        . Export. Domestic.
Strawberries— Lb. Lb.
Lower   Mainland     233,200 346,846
Vancouver Island   67,210 177,470
Okanagan Valley   16,650 3,700
Kootenay   .  5,232 33,150
Totals   322,292 561,166
Raspberries—
Lower Mainland      88,800 226,026
Vancouver Island       2,347
Totals      88,800 228,373
Approximate price, 6 cents per pound. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 21
CHERRIES.
The production of cherries in the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts is now sufficient in
volume to fully take care of all the local and Prairie demand. Prices in 1936 were unsatisfactory for British Columbia cherry-growers, due to unseasonable rains splitting a considerable
portion of the crop. The Bing and Lambert constitute the main shipping varieties. During
the season 121,421 cases were shipped to Prairie points. In addition to the fresh-cherry
shipments, the following were processed in SO2 and sold on the Canadian market:—
Lb.
Lower Mainland      247,774
Vancouver Island        29,038
Okanagan Valley „     810,250
Kootenay        14,250
Total  1,101,312
STONE-FRUITS.
Apricots.—The apricot-crop was almost a total failure, due to the late fall freeze and early
spring frosts.    The total shipments amounted to 2,530 suit-cases and 841 4-basket crates.
Plums and Prunes.—The demand for British Columbia Italian prunes has increased
gradually since the application of seasonal tariffs and prices realized have been satisfactory to
growers. Owing to adverse spring weather during blossom-time the crop has been insufficient
to take care of the Prairie demand and the balance of this demand was imported from Pacific
Coast points—namely, Oregon and Washington. Plums, on the other hand, are not popular
and the market has difficulty in absorbing the small volume now produced.
Cases.
Plums shipped     78,339
Prunes shipped   151,501
Peaches.—Early frosts in the spring, coupled with bud-injury through November, 1935,
freeze, accounted for another bad year in peach production. The volume dropped from
273,882 boxes in 1934 to 126,969 in 1935 and this year the total amounted to only 81,007
boxes. A greater importation than usual came from Washington this year, but the British
Columbia product held preference in colour and quality. The varieties mostly in favour
are Rochester, Vidette, Elberta, and J. H. Hale.
PEARS.
There was a fair crop of late pears. Bartletts had. rather an off-year. The demand
at Prairie points for pears is not great and the supply from the Interior is usually sufficient
to meet the demand. The total shipped to Prairie points this season was 185,781 boxes, with
prices slightly lower than last year.    Eight cars were shipped to the British market.
APPLES.
Prices have improved steadily since 1934 and each year there has been a successful
clean-up of all stocks on hand. This year the trade expressed satisfaction as to quality,
colour, and price and every Province in Canada has consumed more British Columbia apples
this year than last, as will be shown in the following tables. Few claims for breakdown have
been made this year and both export and domestic markets have shown steady improvement
in prices during the season which bids fair to continue until the end of the deal.
Boxes.
The 1935 apple-crop was estimated at  4,484,577
Less frozen fruit  1  1,005,407
Total    3,479,170
Apples unsold at December 24th      777,710
The 1936 crop was estimated at  4,196,492
Apples unsold at December 22nd      671,374 P 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Export at December 19th.
1936. 1935.
Boxes. Boxes.
Great Britain   1,550,417 1,977,350
Egypt        17,843 21,454
South Africa       46,195 28,729
South America        47,626 25,704
Scandinavia  .        8,316
France          6,616 12,040
New Zealand           3,620 4,020
United States        16,573 	
Other countries       16,959 11,018
Totals   1,705,849 2,088,631
Routed by Atlantic      953,114 	
Routed by Pacific      752,735 	
Domestic Shipments by Provinces to December 19th.
1936. 1935.
Boxes. Boxes.
British Columbia       118,364 142,622
Alberta  .     464,079 454,163
Saskatchewan      462,443 435,767
Manitoba        326,244 294,026
Ontario       141,761 81,621
Quebec       207,089 79,063
Maritime Provinces        15,971 6,820
Totals   1,735,951 1,494,082
COAST POTATO-SALES.
Potatoes held over from the 1935 crop by the Coast Vegetable Marketing Board were all
sold, and this condition left a keen demand for the new crop at Prairie and Western States
points.    From June 15th to August 21st:— Sacks.
Prairie Provinces took  .  32,566
Drought areas in United States  13,160
Seattle   10,918
Portland        3,321
Computed as cars, the Prairies took 102 cars and United States points seventy-one
cars. In 1935 potatoes sold by the Board amounted to 44 tons per day and in 1936 sales
averaged 47 tons per day.
It is estimated that the potato holdings in Coast areas are slightly less than in 1935
and the same condition exists- in the Interior. The prospective demand gives the Potato
Boards the assurance of a satisfactory clean-up of all stocks held at prices fully equal to
those at present ruling. Last year's sales amounted to 325,000 sacks, while this year they
will exceed 330,000 sacks.    Prices this year average considerably higher than last year.
INTERIOR VEGETABLES.
Owing to the unsettled state prevailing by reason of the Supreme Court of Canada
deciding that the Dominion " Produce Marketing Act" was ultra vires of the Dominion
Government powers, the interprovincial trade was disorganized, and as the volume of outside
shipments, made through the Interior Vegetable Marketing Board, are not compiled at time
of submitting this report, we are giving the shipments made within the Province only. For
comparison we give shipments made to Provincial points in 1935. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 23
1936. 1935.
Beans (lb.)   575 2,075
Cantaloupes  (crates)    10,189 13,856
Cantaloupes   (flats)     57 70
Tomatoes, green (boxes)      112 35
Tomatoes, semi-ripe (crates)   4,835 5,382
Tomatoes, semi-ripe (lugs)   40,291 49,115
Tomatoes, canning (tons)   16,222 12,837
Bunch vegetables  (dozen)    631 1,590
Corn (dozen)   1,023 1,759
Cauliflower (dozen)   279 388
Celery  (tons)    95 62
Cabbage (tons)   39 23
Carrots (tons)   96 116
Turnips (tons)   45 122
Potatoes (tons)   6,677 7,493
Onions (tons)   1,835 2,578
Silverskin onions (lb.)   5,019 31,385
Cucumbers (peach-boxes)   3,569 3,308
Lettuce (crates)   1,003 1,367
Lettuce (flat crates)   444                     	
MARKETING AND CONTROL MEASURES.
The shipping season of 1936 was exceptionally hampered by upsets in method of
distribution and regulation. As was expected, the Dominion Government submitted the
" Produce Marketing Act " passed in 1934 to the Supreme Court for review as to its legal
status. The Supreme Court ruled that this Act was ultra vires of Dominion powers, mainly
because it trespassed on Provincial rights. While this decision has been appealed and up to
the end of 1936 the Privy Council has not given a verdict, and because the submission was
a reference and not a set case, those having Dominion schemes were informed they could
carry on. The public and Provincial Courts acted on the assumption that any test of the
Act would result in the same verdict and immediately nearly all active marketing schemes
were attacked. The Provincial Legislature passed an Act at the spring session aimed at
orderly marketing and control within the Province, and proclaimed this Act immediately
after the decision of the Supreme Court was known. This gave the existing Boards sufficient status to carry on.
An injunction restraining the Coast Vegetable Marketing Board from inspecting trucks
on the highway was secured on the grounds that Provincial authority had no control over
interprovincial trade. There was no means of telling what was for export or for the home
market and the powers of the Board were jeopardized. At the fall session of the Legislative
Assembly additional powers were provided in a new Act controlling transportation, storing
and packing in addition to marketing, thereby re-establishing the power to search in transit
and control storage.
The Interior Vegetable Marketing Board was worse off than the Coast Board, inasmuch
as nearly all their produce had to be shipped interprovincially. The Tree Fruit Board was
similarly situated. The powers conferred by the 1936 Act (Second Session) of the Legislative
Assembly gives these Boards fresh hope that some control may be exercised over interprovincial
shipments while the products are still in the Province.
New schemes have been authorized to the Coast and Interior Vegetable Marketing
Boards and to the Mainland Milk Board, and applications have been made for new schemes
by the Tree Fruit Board and the Halibut Marketing Board. The rhubarb and small-fruit
growers have presented a scheme which, they hope, will be operative for the marketing of
their products in 1937.
As the year draws to a close farmer are encouraged in the belief that they have at last
secured control of the sale of their products within the Province, but the means to control
the distribution of products shipped to interprovincial markets is still without a satisfactory
solution. P 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Your Markets Commissioner found Prairie jobbers anxious to co-operate in controlling
irregular shipments in order to stabilize buying-prices, as stability in price is a great factor
in securing a maximum of distribution. Consumers buy readily at fair prices, but if prices
are irregular the tendency is to wait for a lower price, and whether they go lower or not
consumption is lessened.
This office sent out over 100 Market Bulletins during 1936. They were mailed out to
the press, to correspondents, and growers' organizations. We have on file many applications,
mostly from dealers to be placed on the mailing-list and many offered to pay for the
accommodation. However, we have been reluctantly compelled to refuse them. During
1937 there will be only one bulletin issued weekly on Tuesday of each week, except holidays.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL HORTICULTURIST.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Seasonal conditions from a horticultural standpoint have been most varied. January was
mild, but was followed by a cold period in February which did considerable damage in the
tree- and small-fruit sections of the Province. The spring was late in all areas, but favourable
weather in the later part of this period materially improved the crop outlook, particularly in
the small-fruit sections. Rains during the early part of the summer interfered with harvesting
of certain crops, particularly cherries. From the middle of July onward, however, conditions
were very dry, and this continued until the early winter, with the result that the situation gave
indications of being serious, especially in the Dry Belt areas. A heavy fall of snow in the
Interior and rain on the Coast in early December has improved the situation generally.
HORTICULTURAL CROPS.
Tree-fruits.—Some idea of the tree-fruit production in the Province for the past year may
be obtained from the figures given below:—
Estimated
Fruit. 1935 Production. 1936 Production.
Apples  (boxes)   5,144,700 4,448,100'
Crab-apples  (boxes)   139,500- 117,200-
Pears  (boxes)  -  269,200' 250,700'
Plums and prunes (crates)  435,400 299,800
Peaches  (crates)   133,700 114,600
Apricots (crates)  :  99,900 8,000
Cherries' (crates)   159,800 147,500
The extremely low temperatures of October, 1935, followed by a cold period in February
of the present year, did a great deal of damage in all of the principal tree-fruit areas. There
was a heavy loss of apple, cherry, and apricot trees, as well as severe bud-injury which helped
to materially shorten the crop. Where bud-injury only was caused the trees will make a
satisfactory recovery, but in many cases it will be necessary to replant certain varieties of
apples and apricots. Pears and peaches on the whole have made an excellent recovery and
under favourable conditions the 1937 crop should be well above the average.
The quality of the fruit produced this season has been excellent, and while the size, particularly in the case of apples, has been small, the colour has been good—a combination well
suited- to the export trade. During the cherry season rain interfered with picking, and while
the fresh-fruit market was poor, the growers were able this year to turn a fair percentage of
their crop into the plants which were putting up SO2 fruit. This as a future outlet for cherries
seems to have wonderful possibilities. A great deal, however, will depend on what tariff
arrangements can be made to encourage this industry.
Small Fruits.—Like the tree-fruits, the small fruits were a smaller crop than in 1935.
The following figures are an estimate of the 1936 production:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 25
Estimated
Fruit. 1935 Production. 1936 Production.
Strawberries  (crates)  . -      620,900 409,000
Raspberries (crates)       154,900 101,800'
Blackberries (crates)         39,444 43,560
Loganberries (lb.)   2,185,992 1,422,000
Gooseberries (lb.)       272,400 289,320
Red and black currants (lb.)'-      374,300 390,400
Grapes (lb.)   1,515,500 1,464,000
Winter-injury of small fruits was particularly severe in the Lower Mainland areas and
throughout the Interior of the Province. In the case of strawberries there was difficulty in
securing planting stock of certain varieties, with the result that the new plantings were heavier
to " everbearers " than in any previous year. Raspberry plantings were also severely injured,
as were loganberries with a resultant short crop. In the case of loganberries the price was
somewhat better than in 1935, as, while wineries took a comparatively small tonnage, there
was a demand- for this fruit on the part of the canneries.
Grape acreage remains about the same in all areas, with a possible tendency to increase
slightly in the Fraser Valley. There was considerable winter-injury to the vines, but on the
whole no permanent damage was done and indications are that the 1937 crop should be above
the average.
Gooseberries, red and black currants produced a normal crop, which this year was1 in
demand. There is, however, a comparatively small demand for these crops and no extensive
increase in planting is noted.
Rhubarb.—At the present time there are. approximately 685 acres devoted to this crop in
British Columbia. Of this total over 650 acres are grown in the Fraser Valley. In addition
to the quantity shipped to the fresh market in the spring, a large tonnage is also forced and
sold during the winter months. Mr. G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist for the Fraser
Valley, in his annual report makes the following statement regarding the growing of rhubarb
in that section:—
" The margin of profit is very small in connection with forcing and handling this crop, but
each year this crop represents a gross return of several thousand dollars. Growers of late
years have been inclined to have supplies of this product on the market too early, as during
December and January the public do not feel inclined to eat rhubarb.
" In addition to supplying local requirements, shipments amounting to over twenty-two
cars went to points outside the Province during the period from January 5th to April 2-lst.
While this is an increase over the previous year, the demand during the early part of the season
was comparatively small.
" As to field rhubarb, the backward, cold spring delayed the movement of this crop, and
it was not until April 21st that the first car was shipped, which was just a week later than the
previous year.
" The cold winds and low temperatures during the last of March and the early part of
April caused damage to the early ' pulling ' in particular.
" A situation was reported towards the close of the shipping season, to the effect that a
number of cars were showing a breakdown of the stalks. This situation was checked in a
number of fields and no indications of disease appeared to be present.
" On account of lack of information, it was impossible to go into this matter thoroughly,
any more than it appeared that the ' breakdown' of the stalks developed following removal
from the field. There is the possibility that severe freezing of the crowns, just as growth was
commencing in the early part of April, may have been the contributing factor.
" The high level of the Fraser River during June resulted in the flooding of a considerable
acreage of the rhubarb-crop, and in some instances this will probably affect the- yields of quite
an acreage for 1937."
Vegetables.—There has been little change in the vegetable industry during the past year.
The acreage was, if anything, smaller than in 1935, and in the case of certain crops such as
lettuce and celery there was a considerable loss in some areas due largely to lack of market
demand. Tomatoes were a light crop and the market for semi-ripes was poor. Canning-
tomatoes were in demand and at a slightly higher price than in 1935.    Onion acreage also P 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
showed a decrease and a general decrease in yield with an upward price tendency. Asparagus
acreage was somewhat higher than in the past and an increased yield is indicated. Greenhouse
crops of tomatoes and cucumbers show little or no change either in production or price returns.
The following figures show the estimated acreage of the principal vegetable^crops in comparison with the 1935 acreage:— 1935 1936
Acres. Acres.
Tomatoes   2,890 2,707
Onions   1,370 1,173
Lettuce .     315 386
Celery       227 198
Cucumbers   -      286 206
Cabbage     372 381
Cantaloupes      263 231
There are numerous other crops in addition to those mentioned which might be dealt with.
Amongst the most important are the following:—
Peas.—This crop has been dealt with in the reports of Mr. G. E. W. Clarke, District
Horticulturist, and Mr. C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector. The following statements are
from the reports in question:—
" The contracted acreage in the Fraser Valley of canning peas was about 1,900 acres, but
high water, due to flooding and seepage, caused considerable reduction in acreage. Over 200
acres were lost on Barnston Island. In spite of the loss of acreage, the size of the pack was a
little better than expected.
" The acreage in dried peas is now practically negligible on the Lower Mainland, due
primarily to the losses caused annually by ' pea-moth.'
" In the Salmon Arm, Tappen, and Grindrod sections approximately 200 acres of peas were
grown this year. These peas were grown under contract for processing as ' split peas,' ' soup-
mix,' etc., and for sale as dried peas. Contracts were signed by forty-eight growers and
acreages varied from 1 to 20 acres. The varieties grown were ' Large Yellow' (' Sterling'),
' Scotch Green,' ' British Lion,' ' Idabelle,' and ' Prussian Blue.' The ' Large Yellow' variety
was grown principally on the bench lands, while the crop on the moister bottom lands was
chiefly comprised of the other varieties. Before all arrangements were completed and the seed
on hand the season was well advanced and the crop was seeded late, in a few instances not
until the end of May. The majority of the growers were not familiar with the handling of a
pea-crop, and considerable loss occurred at harvesting-time from ' shelling-out,' due to the crop
having been allowed to become overmature. In spite of the late seeding, and in some cases the
mismanagement of the crop, most of the fields were ready for harvesting by August 15th, and
produced an average yield1 of approximately 1 ton to the acre, while yields of from 1% to 1%
tons- per acre were secured under good conditions, and some growers report a net profit of $30
per acre. The crop, so far as was observed during the growing season and after threshing,
was entirely free from insect pests or disease.
" The outcome of the project and the quality of the crop grown has been sufficiently
encouraging to induce the contracting firm to contract for a much larger acreage next year
and, provided that this is accomplished, to establish a processing plant in the North Okanagan.
The firm in question proposes to contract for approximately 1,000 acres of peas in the North
Okanagan, and of this acreage nearly 350 acres has already been contracted for in the Salmon
Arm District. Your Field Inspector has given all possible assistance to and has spent considerable time in the furthering of this project, as it was felt that the growing of peas would
provide a much-needed- cash crop in addition to filling a useful niche in the agricultural programme of the district."
Tobacco.—This crop, which gave promise at one time of extensive planting, appears at
the time of writing to be on the decline. In 1926, 50 acres were planted in the Okanagan and
in 1927 this was increased to approximately 300 acres. This was the largest planting in any
year in British Columbia. The following year the Okanagan acreage declined and plantings
were started in the Fraser Valley on the Sumas Reclamation Area. This acreage eventually
reached a maximum of 200 acres. Recent figures show a variable acreage, as in 1935 only
twenty were planted and that in Sumas District. The planting in 1936, which was all in that
district, amounted to 100 acres.    The future of this crop is questionable. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936.
P 27
Seeds and Bulbs.—There are many sections of the Province well adapted to the growing
of seed, and while the production of flower-seed shows little increase, there has been a marked
increase in vegetable-seed production. In support of the above statement the following
figures are interesting:—
1927. 1935.
Flower-seed (value)   $25,500.00 $28,673.00
Vegetable-seed (value)      15,800.00 62,315.00
Gradually the Canadian seed trade is realizing that satisfactory vegetable-seed may be
obtained in British Columbia, and while the demand at present is not large, each year shows
an increase which is promising.
Bulbs such as narcissi, tulips, iris, etc., are being grown in increasing quantities, particularly in the Coast areas. Excellent markets are being developed in Eastern Canada,
with the result that a number of growers are extending their plantings. The 1935 recorded
acreage of bulbs in the Province was 209 acres.
HORTICULTURAL SURVEYS.
Small-fruit Survey.—A survey of the small-fruit and rhubarb acreage was made this
year. The figures secured as a result of this survey show a remarkable increase in planting
of small fruit in the last four years. This is particularly true of the strawberry plantings,
which are the highest on record. Of the 3,300 acres planted to this crop, approximately
340 acres are " everbearers." A table showing the approximate plantings of each crop
since 1920 has been prepared and is submitted as Appendix No. 1.
Asparagus Survey.—In conjunction with the small-fruit survey, the acreage devoted to
asparagus was also secured.    The following figures show the present plantings:—
District.
1936.
1935.
Previous.
Total.
Acres.
2
11%
2%
3%
Acres.
834
m
1BV2
8%
34
Acres.
29%
144
10
134
226
9%
Acres.
35%
162%
25%
1%
236%
13%
Totals 	
19
35
420%
474%
Tree-fruit Survey.—In the report of this Branch for 1935 mention is made of this survey.
The field-work was completed last year and the compilation of the figures obtained was made
in 1936. The survey in question covers only the Okanagan and Kootenay Horticultural
Districts as they are the principal tree-fruit areas in the Province. A table showing a
comparison of the total number of fruit-trees in these two districts for the years 1920,
1925,1930, and 1935 is given below:—
Okanagan.
1925.
1935.
Apples..
Pears....
Plums—.
Prunes..
Cherries (sweet).
Cherries (sour)....
Apricots	
Peaches	
1,103,550
61,819
21,981
44,940
23,629
9,091
31,991
47,378
1,147,511
70,254
20.874
33,420
28,854
7,152
51,107
52,425
1,137,851
84,589
16,689
31,029
30,686
4,571
43,770
47,157
1,130,554
106,438
16,395
56,883
43,603
2,452
56,640
132,297 P 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Kootenay;
1920.
1925.
1930.
1935.
Apples ....	
Pears. 	
Plums   | 	
483,312
30,445
50,170
21,566
8,196
204
2,189
378,096
21,820
25,031
22,822
4,942
712
1,505
289,546
18,254
13,792
30,086
2,784
983
2,142
244,557
25,914
17,339
Prunes j
38,762
Cherries (sour)	
Apricots 	
2,123
2,613
6,143
Acreage may be computed on the basis of number of trees per acre as follows: Apples,
60;  cherries, 60;  pears, 70;  plums, prunes, peaches, and apricots, 100.
INSPECTION AND PEST-CONTROL WORK.
Potato-beetle Control.—This work was again under the supervision of Mr. F. A. Marsack.
The following statement from his report gives briefly the present situation in so far as this
pest is concerned:—
" The potato-beetle control-work for the three months of June, July, and August, 1936,
has again been carried out by the British Columbia Provincial Department of Agriculture,
and distributions of calcium-arsenate dust has been made free to all potato-growers in the
areas of potato-beetle infestation.
" While control has been good generally, there has been a tendency on the part of some
growers, who had only a few bugs and beetles to contend with, to neglect to use the proper
precautions at the proper time. It has not always been possible to locate these neglects until
too late, the larva? having already gone to ground to eventually become a menace next year.
There have been no cases of refusal to dust when the necessity has been pointed out.
" The area of infestation has been considerably reduced this year, although two small
infestations were found beyond last year's limit, one at Natal in the east and one a few miles
north of Kuskonook in the West. These two were well looked after at the start and are in
the hands of competent growers."
Fire-blight Control.—In many sections of the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts fire-
blight is reported to have been more prevalent than for a number of years. The usual spring
inspections were made and carried out as effectively as possible with the staff available. A
general summary of the situation in the Southern Okanagan is given by Mr. R. P. Murray,
District Field Inspector at Penticton:—
" All sections of the district, except Keremeos and Cawston, had more fire-blight this
year than for several years. The wet, cool spring was ideal for its development, and quite
a lot of damage resulted. Bosc and Bartlett pears were most seriously affected, while
Flemish Beauty, that are usually quite susceptible, were almost free of the disease. A
careful winter inspection should be made at Oliver, Kaleden, and Penticton to check any
further increase. ^ Should this be done, assistance will be necessary if a thorough clean-up
is to be accomplished.
" Zinc chloride 4-3 per cent, was used as a demonstration on a badly infested block of
Bosc, Bartlett, and Winter Nellis at Oliver, with very satisfactory results. This treatment is
new to most of the Oliver growers and a good deal of interest is being taken in the use of this
material by the pear-growers of this district."
It is hoped that this year it will be possible to give this work in all districts the attention
required.    The table given below shows the results of the 1936 inspection in the Okanagan:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936.
P 29
Fire-blight Inspection, 1936.
District.
Total Acres
inspected.
Total Acres
inspected and
passed.
Not passed.
338
3,640
5,000
3,298
45
333
3,103
4,533
3,118
45
5
537
467
180
Totals  	
12,321
11,132
1,189
San Jose Scale.—At the present time San Jose scale is found at several points in both
the Okanagan and Kootenay Horticultural Districts. The heaviest infestation is in the
Keremeos-Cawston District. The infested orchards here, as well as in other areas, have been
sprayed with either lime-sulphur 1-9 or a dormant oil spray. Necessary pruning has also
been done and quarantines covering the movement of fruit rigorously enforced. Further
sprays will be applied in all areas during the present winter and every attempt made to
eradicate this pest.
Codling-moth Control Areas.—Protection spraying zones, seven in number, located in
different sections of the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts, were again in operation this
year.    No new zones were constituted.
In the Vernon area codling-moth sprays were applied in both the city area and the
adjacent fruit-growing areas. In this adjacent territory the finding of further moth-infested
areas raised the acreage sprayed in 1936, of approximately 350 acres, to a possible 900 acres
which would have to be sprayed in 1937. As the cost of this work would materially raise
the assessment, the committee in charge decided to put the question to a vote of the growers.
Of the 188 ballots sent out, eighty-seven were returned, with fifty-three voting against the
Government continuing the work. As the matter stands the work in the commercial areas
will in the future be undertaken by the growers.
Nursery Inspection.—Under the " Plant Protection Act" it is required that all nurserymen, either principals or agents, shall take out a nursery licence before they are permitted to
sell nursery stock in the Province. For the present year there were eighty-seven licences
issued, sixty-five to nurseries and twenty-two to agents.
The inspection of nursery stock is also carried out by your officials, particular attention
being paid to the inspection of fruit stocks. The records for the present season show that
over thirty nurseries were inspected. Of a total of 92,169 trees inspected, 3,718, or 4.3 per cent.,
were destroyed.
PRUNING DEMONSTRATIONS.
Pruning demonstrations were held this year in different sections of the Province. In some
sections there are more applications than can be handled by the field officials. During the past
season fifty-six demonstrations were held, with a total attendance of 758. The attendance at
these demonstrations is most satisfactory and warrants a continuance of this work.
HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION-WORK.
In order to obtain first-hand information to supplement the recommendations made by
officials of this Branch, it is often necessary to undertake a certain amount of demonstration-
work. This will naturally vary according to the needs of the district. Some idea of the
varying nature of such work may be obtained from the following list of projects:—
District Location. Project.
Vancouver Island ... Strawberry Plant Selection; Strawberry Variety Trials;
Raspberry Variety Trials; Boysenberry Trials; Lettuce
Variety Trials; Sprays for Anthracnose-control; Sprays
for Strawberry-scorch.
Lower Mainland .—. Lettuce Variety Trials; Boysenberry Trials; Strawberry Plant Selection; Raspberry-mulching Work;
Sprays for Brown-rot. P 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
District Location. Project.
Okanagan Raspberry Variety Trials; Boysenberry Trials; Apple-
scab Control-work; Pea Variety Tests; Tomato Variety
Tests; Lettuce Variety Tests; Lettuce-fertilizer Tests;
Orchard-fertilizer Tests; Fruit-storage Records; Codling-moth Spray Trials; Cover-crop Work; European
Red-mite Sprays;   Apple Powdery-mildew Sprays.
Kootenay Orchard-fertilizer Work; Mealy-bug Control; Apple-
scab Control; Orchard-fertilizer Work; Corn Variety
Tests;  Raspberry Variety Tests.
While the above list gives a general indication of various lines of horticultural demonstration-work that are being carried out in different sections of the Province, it is thought
advisable to mention specifically a few of the major projects.
Anthracnose Sprays.—This project, which is under the supervision of Mr. E. W. White,
District Horticulturist, has been running since 1933 and was continued in 1936:—
" Three different strengths of Bouisol were tested in comparison with Bordeaux mixture.
" Tanner Bros.' Orchard, Keating, B.C.—The spraying done in 1934 and 1935 was continued in 1936. The sprays were applied on August 17th, compared with August 8th in 1935
and August 17th in 1934. The weather was fine and warm. Bouisol in strength of 1%, 3, and
4% pints to 100 gallons of water and 4-4-40 Bordeaux mixture were tested out in comparison
with a check.
" W. J. Jennings' Orchard, Duncan, B.C.—The same plots were used in 1936 as in 1935
and 1934. The spraying with Bouisol was done on July 30th, compared with August 5th in
1935 and August 23rd in 1934. Owing to trouble with the spray-machine it was necessary to
postpone the spraying with Bordeaux until a few days later. The weather was fine and very
warm. The same mixtures were used as in Tanner Bros.' orchard. On October 23rd half of
each plot was sprayed with 4-4-40 Bordeaux as an added preventive.
" In conjunction with Mr. W. R. Foster, Assistant Provincial Plant Pathologist, counts
were made in Tanner Bros.' orchard on May 11th and 12th and in W. J. Jennings' orchard on
May 14th. Mr. Foster has submitted the following tables showing the progressively good
results from the check or no spraying through the different strengths of Bouisol to the
Bordeaux mixture:—
" Table  1.—Result  of  spraying  King  of   Tompkins  Apples  with  Bordeaux  and  Different
Strengths of Bouisol on the Number of Anthracnose Lesions at Tanner Bros., Keating, 1936.
Treatment.
No. of Anthracnose Lesions.*
Tree 1.
Tree 2.
Total.
Check..
Bouisol, 1.5 pints...
Bouisol, 3.0 pints-
Bouisol, 4.5 pints.-
Bordeaux	
31
15
24
14
11
7
2
55
29
19
15
7
* Lesions on 25 twigs were counted on each tree. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936.
P 31
" Table 2.—Result of spraying Belle de Boskoop Apples with Bordeaux and Different Strengths
of Bouisol on the Number of Anthracnose Lesions at Tanner Bros., Keating.
Treatment.
No. op Anthracnose Lesions.*
Plot l.t
Plot 2.
Total.
Check 	
Bouisol, 1.5 pints..
Bouisol, 3.0 pints-
Bouisol, 4.5 pints-
Bordeaux	
37
31
9
122
21
12
244
181
75
52
21
* Lesions on 25 twigs on each tree were counted.
t A plot consists of five trees.
Table 3.—Result of spraying Northern Spy with Bordeaux and Different Strengths of Bouisol
at W. J. Jennings, Duncan.
Treatment.
No. or Anthracnose Lesions.*
Tree 1.
Tree 2.
Tree 3.
Average.
Check          ...	
90
25
33
126
91
48
100
108.0
72.0
40.5
5                      16
10.5
Bordeaux     	
7
18
12.5
* Lesions on 25 twigs on each tree were counted.
" Table U.—Result of spraying Ontario with Bordeaux and Different Strengths of Bouisol at
W. J. Jennings, Duncan.
Treatment.
No.
of Anthracnose Lesions.*
Tree 1.
Tree 2.
Tree 3.
Total.
183
164
118
48
19
223
160
74
62
12
173
87
110
45
20
579
407
Bouisol, 4.5 pints. — - -
155
51
* Lesions on 25 twigs on each tree were counted."
Raspberry Variety Tests.—For a number of years this Branch, through its district offices,
has been trying out various varieties of raspberries in order to ascertain the variety best suited
to any particular district. While it is impossible to deal with all the reports submitted, the
following will give a fair outline of the work in hand. Mr. C. R. Barlow, District Field
Inspector for Salmon Arm, submits the following:—
" Following up the variety tests conducted at Salmon Arm during the past three years,
when six varieties were under trial nine more have been placed under test this year in the
hope of improving upon the' Newman 23 ' variety, which, though lacking in quality, was found
to be the most valuable, under local conditions, of the varieties already tried. This spring the
following varieties were planted on the farm of Mr. W. J. Honey at Salmon Arm: ' Ohta,'
Newman 20, Adams 87, Preussen, Antwerp, June, Chief, Ontario, and Newburgh. Twenty-five
canes of each variety were planted, this being all that the Dominion Experimental Station at
Agassiz, from whom the plants were obtained, could supply at that time. This number, though
small, should give some indication of their respective varietal merits. The canes arrived rather
early and it was necessary to keep them ' heeled in ' for more than two weeks, until the ground P 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
was,- fit for planting. However, while they have not made strong growth, the majority have
lived, and should make fair growth next year, but not until the 1938 season can a crop sufficient
to base comparisons upon be expected.
" It may here be noted that a few plants of Boysenberry were also planted this spring on
the same farm. These plants have made good growth and should produce a few berries next
year."
Dealing with this same subject, Mr. H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector for Vernon,
outlines the work as carried on in that area:—
" This series is a continuation of tests begun in 1932 in an effort to obtain varieties carrying improvement in qualities over our present commercial varieties.
" The past winter, with the severe October freeze and the long sub-zero spell of February,
provided ideal conditions for proving the factor of hardiness in all varieties of raspberries,
especially those under irrigated conditions of culture. The following observations were made
on April 28th:—
"Count.—Wintered well;   slight tip-injury;   canes breaking well.
" Brighton.—Practically same conditions as Count.
" Latham.—Best of all plots;  no injury;  buds breaking well to the tips.
" Newman 23.—Not quite as good as Latham;   more weak buds and slight tip-kill.
" Lloyd George.—Upper 3 feet of cane severely killed;  lower 4 feet very good.
" Newburgh.—Slight bud-kill;  canes came through very well.
" Adams 87.—Very good condition;   odd canes showing injury.
" Chief.—Excellent condition;  buds breaking well to the tip.
" Jones Berry.—Upper half of canes severely killed;  lower half coming good.
" Viking.—Upper one-third of canes severely hurt;   considerable bud-injury.
" Cuthbert.—About 75 per cent, complete cane-kill; hardest hit of all varieties. Patch
destroyed.
'' Powdery mildew was almost absent from the plots.   Latham only showed slight infection.
" All varieties made excellent cane-growth during the season.
" Newman 23 was again severely attacked by the raspberry fruit-worm.
" The following varieties have been discarded this fall as not measuring up to requirements:   Jones Berry, Newman 23, Count, Brighton, and Adams 87.
" Following is the table of yields for 1936. Chief, Newburgh, and Jones Berry are two
years younger than the balance of varieties.    Plots contain twenty-five plants each.
"Raspberry Yields, 1936.
variety.            pf^g.
Peak
Picking.
Final
Picking.
Yield in
Pints per
Plant.
Remarks.
Count	
Brighton	
Latham	
June 25 ....
June 25    .
July 3
July 9	
June 30	
June 30 ....
July 15
July 20
July 8
July 16
July 8
July 4.	
July 5
July 18
July 16
July 16
July 24	
July 25
July 22
July 22
July 22
July 16
July 14
July 28
2.7     "j
2.7      /
1.2
0.8
2.8
0.5
0.9
0.3
0.2
2.8
These  two  varieties very similar in  all  respects;
good quality, but berry too small.
Shy  bearing.     Quality,   colour,   and  size  of  berry
good, inclined to crumble.
Yield very poor.   Wormy fruit caused loss.    Quality
and colour fair.
Good yield.    Quality and colour good.    Too soft for
distant markets.
Plants young.    Yield promising.    Quality, size, and
colour good.
Quality   and   size   good.    Colour* poor.    Sun-scald
very bad.
Plants young.    Quality, size, and colour only fair.
Hard to rate at present.
Plants young.   Quality fair ;  colour poor ;  size fair.
Quality, size, and colour very good.    Winter-injury
reduced crop heavily.
Lloyd George	
Newburgh	
Adams 87 	
Chief  	
Jones Berry	
Viking	
June 27	
July 6
June 27
June 29
June 29 ....
June 24
" Cuthbert all winter-killed.    Winter-injury and hot, dry summer reduced yields of all
plots." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936.
P 33
Apple-scab Control.—This work has been carried on at various points throughout the
Province. In the Kootenay District the spraying necessary was carried out by Mr. E. C. Hunt,
District Horticulturist.    His report follows:—
" Apple-scab control has been one of the major lines of work carried on in the Kootenay
Horticultural District by your District Horticulturist for a number of years. Many different
kinds of spray materials and combination mixtures have been under test for the control of
this disease. Some of these materials were dropped after a one-year test, while others that
gave promise of a successful spray either alone or in combination have been given several
years' test. At the present time reliable information can be obtained by growers on the control
of this disease in their orchards.
" The following results cover in detail the tests made this season in the control of apple-
scab:—
Plot
No.
Spray
Periods.
Material and Proportion used.
No. of Apples
counted.
Clean.
Scabbed.
Pink	
Calyx	
1st cover...
2nd cover..
Pink	
Calyx..
1st cover...
2nd cover..
Pink	
Calyx	
1st cover ..
Sunshine Bay District.
Lime-sulphur 1-40 ]
Lime-sulphur 1-40 |
Lime-sulphur 1-40 f	
Lime-sulphur 1-40
Lime-sulphur 1-60, plus 4 lb. Calcium Arsen- ]
ate to 100
Lime-sulphur 1-60, plus 3 lb. Calcium Arsenate to 100
Same as calyx	
Same as calyx  	
1,905
2,420
Per Cent.
96.6
Per Cent.
1.5
Pink.
Calyx	
1st cover ..
2nd cover..
Pink	
Calyx..
1st cover ..
I 2nd cover..
6      | Check	
Iron Sulphate Mixture, modified strength "j
for all sprays (Iron Sulphate 6 lb., L.S. 1
]       l^j gals., Calcium Arsenate 3 and 4 lb. [
to 100 gals, of water)
Willow Point District.
Lime-sulphur 1-40 ]
Lime-sulphur 1-40 [
Lime-sulphur 1-40 f	
Lime-sulphur 1-40 I
Lime-sulphur 1-60, plus 4 lb. Calcium Arsen-1
ate to 100
Lime-sulphur 1-60, plus 3 lb. Calcium Arsenate to 100
Same as calyx  	
Same as calyx —   _. _.
1,318
924
95.1
Unsprayed  (Sunshine Bay District) .
947
80.8
" The variety used in the above experiment was Mcintosh Red and all trees of full bearing
age. The spraying dates were as follows: Pink, May 11th and 15th; calyx, June 1st and 2nd;
1st cover, June 15th and 16th; 2nd cover, July 2nd. All the apples on one tree in each plot
were picked and counted and carefully examined for scab-infection. Picking dates were
September 22nd and 23rd this year, as compared with October 1st, 1935. The season on the
whole was not so favourable for the spread and development of apple-scab as in some other
years, but it must be said that without control sprays being used the apple-crop would have
been very scabby even under this year's favourable weather conditions, as may be seen from
the check-plot in the above experiment. From the results listed above and general observations in the orchards as to fruit and foliage injuries, etc., and general appearance of the fruit
at picking-time, the lime-sulphur and calcium-arsenate combination gave the best results when
all points are considered. This combination spray not only gave the best control of apple-scab,
but also gave excellent control of a number of insects injurious to both the fruit and foliage."
In the Vernon District Mr. H. H. Evans was in charge of this work. The following is
an extract from his report:—
" In co-operation with the Dominion Pathological Laboratory at Summerland, the past
season's work constitutes the sixth consecutive year on apple-scab control in the Vernon
District. P 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" The disease was very general, though not as severe as in 1935. For the past season
the lapse of time between applications was shortened. This may have had beneficial results
in reducing infection, as there is not the variation of results on the check-plot for the two
seasons as is noticeable in the records of the sprayed plots.
" Standard lime-sulphur, either alone or in combination, still stands out as the most satisfactory base for scab-control. Foliage-injury from spray-burn was not serious in 1936.
Details of the work are covered in the table submitted as Appendix No. 2."
Codling-moth Control.—Codling-moth is now so wide-spread that it is necessary to ascertain the most effective means of control. Points to be considered are the kind of spray to use,
as well as the time and thoroughness of application. All of the demonstration spraying-work
for the control of codling-moth has been centred in Kelowna and under the supervision of
Mr. B. Hoy, District Field Inspector. While it is not possible in this report to publish in detail
the results which he obtained in this year's work, a general statement from his report is worth
noting and is herewith submitted:—
" Again the winter destroyed many of the over-wintering worms and assisted considerably
in the control of codling-moth. The kill was not as complete as in the winter of 1934 and 1935,
but the first brood emergence was much below normal. As was the case last year, bad weather
prevailed during the time first brood sprays were being applied in 1936. Bad weather, coupled
with a shortage of equipment, makes efficient spraying impossible. In spite of these handicaps,
only in a few instances were losses heavy in the Kelowna District.
" Moth-emergence records were taken as usual by this office for the Kelowna District and
reports were received from other districts in the valley. Radio announcements were made
on Wednesday and Saturday of each week over station CKOV to keep the growers informed
as to the movements of moths and spray dates. This service is very satisfactory and the
station is to be commended for their co-operation. Seventeen announcements were made
during the summer. More extensive spray tests were conducted than ever before. Records
were taken from three varieties sprayed throughout the season and sprayed on the first brood
only.    The materials used were:—
" Arsenate of lead, 8 lb. to 240 gallons of water, plus % lb. of Fluxit.
" Arsenate of lead, 8 lb. to 240 gallons of water, plus 5 quarts summer oil emulsion.
" Arsenate of lead, 8 lb. to 240 gallons of water, plus 1% pints Lethatate Wetting Fluid.
" Arsenate of lead, 8 lb. to 240 gallons of water, plus 5 pints Colloidal Lead Arsenate.
" Arsenate of lead, 8 lb. to 240 gallons of water, plus 1 pint herring-oil with 5 per cent.
Oleic acid added.
" Kaylo, 10 lb. to 240 gallons of water, plus 2% quarts summer oil emulsion.
" Each material was used on Jonathan, Stayman, and Mcintosh in two, three, and four
cover-sprays, and in the instance of arsenate of lead and Fluxit, a calyx-spray was also used
on one plot. All sprays with lead and Fluxit were duplicated so as to avoid error as much
as possible.    Lack of space prevented duplication of all plots.
" The results of these tests show that there is little to choose in the control from any of
the above combinations and that excellent control was obtained from first brood sprays only.
The worms usually outnumber stings where only the first brood was applied.
" An effort is being made to get away from late sprays and cut down arsenical residue
without sacrificing control. Results this year indicate that this can be done providing the
work is done thoroughly and on time. Next year, if the equipment and assistance is available,
we hope to take on part of another heavily infested orchard and see what can be accomplished
with a minimum number of sprays.
" The orchard referred to is situated at Okanagan Mission and counts revealed the
infestation to be as follows:—
Tree.
Apples.
Clean.
Wormy.
No. 1      .   .             	
385
810
704
100
440
264
No. 2                       	
No.  3                           .	
Totals
1,899
804
1,096 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 36
" From the above figures it -will be seen that there was about 57 per cent, worm-damage
in this orchard. When making the counts, trees were selected from different parts of the
orchard, so that a reliable average could be obtained."
Mealy-bug Control.—This insect is found only in certain sections of the Kootenay District.
As the major portion of the experimental control-work has been under the supervision of
Mr. E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, the following statement from his report gives briefly
the findings of the work as undertaken:—
" This is a very troublesome insect pest of the Kootenay fruit-growing sections which has
become very widely distributed, causing considerable damage to the fruit-crops, but chiefly
to the apple-crop. Hardily found in any other fruit-growing area of the Province, the control-
work has been carried on in the Willow Point area of the Kootenay District for about four
years. Last year the work was extended to the Boswell and Creston sections. Satisfactory
control can now be secured by the use of an oil spray applied in the early spring when the
trees are dormant. At Boswell several different strengths of the oil spray was tested out,
ranging from a 3-per-cent. to a 6-per-cent. oil content. This work was under the supervision
of Mr. A. Dennys, of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, and his work in the Boswell
area demonstrated (one-year test) that the mealy bug could be quite satisfactorily controlled
with a 6-per-cent. oil spray. Good results were even obtained with a 4-per-cent. oil spray,
but it is not thought advisable to recommend this weaker dilution at the present time. At
Creston and in the Willow Point sections only a 6-per-cent. oil or stronger mixture was used.
Growers spraying on a commercial scale and using the 6-per-cent. oil secured excellent
control. Lime-sulphur 1-9 gave only fair control and is not recommended. Summer sprays
with Black Leaf 40, using 1 pint to 100 gallons of water and applied when all the young are
hatched out and are feeding on the leaves (usually the middle of July), gave fair control of
this pest. This spray is only recommended when growers have not been able to apply a
dormant oil spray. A short circular has now been prepared on the control of the mealy bug,
based on the work carried out in the Kootenay District, and is ready for distribution."
European Red-mite.—While this insect is found in many parts of the various fruit-growing
districts, it was in the Penticton District that the work referred to in Mr. R. P. Murray's
report was undertaken.    The following is quoted from the report in question:—
" Some work was done on the control of this insect with lime-sulphur, dormant-oil combination, with a follow-up of lime-sulphur. Work that had already been done with European
red-mite had been confined to dormant spraying, with later sprays during the summer when
the insect had again become numerous. Your Inspector felt that if controls could be obtained
in the early part of the season, the damage caused by this pest could be practically eliminated.
From observations, dormant spraying at the best would only control 85 or 90- per cent.,
with the result that a heavy infestation was built up again in early summer. It was also
observed that after the mites emerged from the winter eggs a period of several days elapsed
before any fresh eggs were laid, and if these mites were controlled before egg-laying commenced, better control measures would result.
" A small block of Flemish Beauty pears that were badly infested was selected. These
were sprayed with dormant oil 4 per cent., lime-sulphur 1-12%, in the late dormant stage,
but well before any green colour was showing. This spray was followed by a lime-sulphur
1-40 in the cluster-bud stage. Results were very encouraging. The first examination was
made on May 24th, the second on June 6th. No live mites were found on either occasion,
and the trees remained free for the rest of the season, although the season has been favourable
for their development. Whether other factors unaccounted for were responsible for some
measure of control is hard to say, but from the results obtained it is hoped to continue this
work during the next season on a larger scale."
Lettuce Variety Tests.—As the yearly production of lettuce in British Columbia has a
value of approximately $100,000, it is important that the type of lettuce best suited to each
locality be ascertained in so far as possible. With this in mind, the Horticultural Branch
officials in the Fraser Valley and Ihe Okanagan have for a number of years been trying out
different lettuce varieties and strains. The work is by no means finished, but certain conclusions have been arrived at which have been a benefit to producers of this crop. Mr. H. H.
Evans, District Field Inspector in charge of the Okanagan trials, reports as follows:— P 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" This project is a continuation of previous season's work in variety-testing for improvement of commercial production of spring and fall crops of lettuce.
" Spring plots are run for performance on resistance to tip-burn, bolting, quality, earliness
of maturity, and suitability for distance shipments. Fall plots are run for hardiness in frost-
resistance, earliness of maturity, and keeping qualities.
" Sixteen plots were run in each period for 1936.
" Our sincere appreciation for the interest and close co-operation in conducting the trials
is extended to Mr. W. C. Boss, Armstrong, B.C., on whose property the trials were conducted.
" Spring Series.—Field planted from beds, April 20th; plants per plot, 35; examinations
made, May 13th, June 6th, and June 26th.
" Varieties and Strains under Test.—Imperial No. 847, Iceberg Type No. 1, New York
Type No. 515; Imperial No. 615, Iceberg Type No. 2, New York Type T.B.R.; Imperial No.
152, White Boston Type No. 43; Imperial No. D, Stock No. 5213 Cornell; Imperial No. C,
White Boston Type No. 2088.
" New York No. 12 in the commercial planting was used as a check.
" Examination of May 13th showed all plots making rapid growth, but no information
for recording.
" Seed-house No. 1.
"Plot 1, Imperial No. 847.—June 6th: All heads filling, 14 per cent, fit to cut; stand
uneven in growth. June 26th: Plot uneven; heads filled were solid and 70 per cent, cutting-
heads, medium size; quality good, inclined to be slightly bitter; 75 per cent, showing tip-burn;
slime-rot quite severe.    (Promising.)
"Plot 2, Iceberg Type No. 1.—June 6th: All heads filling, 11 per cent, fit to cut; heads
medium firm; leaf-edges pink-tinted. June 26th: Cutting-heads 15 per cent.; heads filled but
very slack; quality good; heads too loose and soft-textured to make good No. 1 shipping
stock;  tip-burn 100 per cent, and slime-rot slight.
"Plot 3, Iceberg Type No. 2.—June 6th: Heads filling and firming faster than Plot 2;
34 per cent, fit to cut. June 26th: 60 per cent, heads fit to cut; 95 per cent, tip-burn; other
remarks as for Plot 2.
"Plot 4, Imperial No. 615.—June 6th: All heads filling and firming fast, none fit to cut;
large plant, heavy green foliage. June 26th: Cutting-heads 95 per cent.; heads large, good
type, solid, coarse-textured, quality good;   tip-burn slight;   no slime-rot.    (Very promising.)
" Plot 5, Imperial D.—Not planted;   no germination in seed-bed.
" Seed-house No. 2.
" Plot 10, Imperial No. 615.—June 6th: Performance similar to Plots 4 and 7. June 26th:
Cutting-heads 98 per cent.;  no tip-burn or slime-rot;  other remarks as for Plots 4 and 7.
" Plot 11, Imperial No. D.—June 6th: Remarks as for Plot 9. June 26th: Cutting-heads
98 per cent.;   tip-burn 50 per cent.; slime-rot slight;  other remarks similar to Plot 9.
"Plot 12, Imperial No. 152.—June 6th: Heads filling and firming unevenly, 14 per cent,
fit to cut; large plant, good type. June 26th: Cutting-heads 80 per cent.; heads medium to
large, excellent type, quality and texture very good;   tip-burn 75 per cent.;   slime-rot slight.
"Plot 13, White Boston No. 2088.—June 6th: Heads filling, small and compact; 14 per
cent, fit to cut; very soft texture. June 26th: Cutting-heads 70 per cent., small size, compact,
medium firm, good texture, quality fair, bitter; tip-burn 20 per cent.; no slime-rot; excellent
for home use;   too soft-textured for long shipping.
" Plot H, White Boston-Cornell No. U3.—June 6th: Heads not as compact or filling as fast
as Plot 13; none fit to cut. June 26th: Cutting-heads 15 per cent., heads do not firm up;
type does not compare with Plot 13;   tip-burn 75 per cent.;   no slime-rot.
" Plot 15, New York No. 515.—June >6th: Heads filling fast, medium size, compact; 20 per
cent, fit to cut; good: type. June 26th: Cutting-heads 80 per cent., medium size, good type,
compact;  texture and quality very good;   no tip-burn or slime-rot.    (Excellent.)
" Seed-house No. 3.
"Plot 6, Imperial No. 847.—June 6th: Heads filling and firming fast; cutting-heads 31
per cent.; medium to large, compact, and good type.    June 26th:  Cutting-heads 100 per cent.; DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 37
heads large, solid, compact, and good type; quality good, inclined to be slightly bitter;
tip-burn 75 per cent.;   slime-rot slight to medium.    (Very promising.)
"Plot 7, Imperial No. 615.—June 6th: Performance duplicates Plot 4. June 26th:
Cutting-heads 90 per cent.;  all other remarks as for Plot 4.
"Plot 8, Imperial No. C.—June 6th: Heads filling fast; 26 per cent, fit to cut; large
heads, heavy growth. June 26th: Cutting-heads 40 per cent., balance filled but very slack;
not good No. 1 heads, coarse-textured, quality poor, quite bitter; tip-burn 85 per cent.;
slime-rot slight.
"Plot 9, Imperial No. D.—June 6th: Heads filling well but firming slowly; heavy deep-
green growth. June 26th: Cutting-heads 90 per cent.; size medium to large, very firm, good
type, coarse texture, quality fair, bitter flavour;  tip-burn 25 per cent.;  slime-rot medium.
" Summerland Stock.
"Plot 16, New York T.B.R.—June 6th: Heads filling fast, but maturing slower than
Plot 15; medium to large size; 9 per cent, fit to cut. June 26th: Cutting-heads 90 per cent.;
size medium to large, good type, texture and quality very good; similar in type to New York
No. 12, but coarser growth;   tip-burn 30 per cent.;  no slime-rot.
" Check, New York No. 12, Commercial Crop.—June 6th: Heads filling and firming fast;
20 per cent, fit to cut. June 26th: Cutting-heads 89 per cent.; size medium, good type, good
quality and texture;   tip-burn 30 per cent.;   slime-rot slight.     (General crop variety.)
" For the spring crop the following varieties are worthy of further testing: Imperial Nos.
847, 615, and 515, and New York T.B.R. The New York No. 12 is still the main commercial
crop variety for spring use.
"Fall Series.—Duplication of the spring plots. Field seeded, July 28th; plants per plot,
35;   examinations made, September 28th and October 24th.
" The first killing frost period of the season occurred October 17th to 19th, inclusive,
with 18° of frost registered on the 18th at Armstrong.
" Seeding of the varieties was made over one week later than the commercial crop, the
object being to ensure the plots being subjected to a frost period prior to overmaturity, in
order to test frost-resistance.
"Seed-house No. 1.
" Plot 1, Imperial No. 847.—September 28th: Heads making rapid growth and filling fast.
October 24th: Cutting-heads 95 per cent.; size medium to large, good type; quality good but
slightly bitter, texture good, solid; frost-damage slight, all on cover-leaves.   (Very promising.)
"Plot 2, Iceberg Type No. 1.—September 28th: Remarks as for Plot 1. October 24th:
Cutting-heads 20 per cent.; heads well formed but very loose; size medium, type poor, quality
good;   frost-damage heavy with deep penetration.
"Plot 3, Iceberg Type No. 2.—-September 28th: Remarks as for Plot 2. October 24th:
Cutting-heads 20 per cent.;   other remarks as for Plot 2.
" Plot 4, Imperial No. 615.—September 28th: Heads large and growing rapidly but filling
very slowly. October 24th: Cutting-heads 15 per cent.; heads large, well formed, but very
slack, quality good;  frost-damage medium;  penetration not severe.
" Plot 5, Imperial D.—Heads large, growing rapidly but filling slowly. October 24th:
Cutting-heads 25 per cent.; size medium to large, heads well formed, but firming slowly,
quality good, texture coarse;  frost-damage medium;   penetration not severe.
" Seed-house No. 2.
"Plot 6, Imperial No. 847.—.September 28th: Remarks as for Plot 1. October 24th:
Cutting-heads 85 per cent.;  size medium to large;  other remarks as for Plot 1.
"Plot 7, Imperial No. 615.—September 28th, October 24th: Performance of plot and
remarks is a duplicate of Plot 4.
" Plot 8, Imperial C—September 28th: Heads growing rapidly but filling slowly. October
24th: No cutting-heads; size large, well formed, but very loose, quality fair, texture coarse;
frost-damage light to medium, mostly on cover-leaves.
"Plot 9, Imperial D.—September 28th, October 24th: Performance of plot and remarks
for both periods are a duplicate of Plot 5. P 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Seed-house No. 3.
"Plot 10, Imperial No. 615.—September 28th: Remarks as for Plots 4 and 7. October
24th: Cutting-heads none; size large, very loose; frost-damage medium to heavy. The
difference in performance at this date from Plots 4 and 7 is unexplainable.
"Plot 11, Imperial D.—-September 28th, October 24th: Performance of plot and remarks
for both periods are a duplicate of Plots 5 and 9.    This variety consistent in performance.
"Plot 12, Imperial No. 152.—September 28th: Heads growing and filling rapidly.
October 24th: Cutting-heads 90 per cent.; size medium to large, good type and solid; quality
very good;  frost-damage light, mostly on cover-leaves.
"Plot 13, White Boston No. 2088.—September 28th: Heads small, filled, and- compact;
25 per cent, ready to cut; quality good, texture fine but soft. October 24th: Heads filled and
solid, bursting from overmaturity;   frost-damage very heavy.
" Plot 14, White Boston-Cornell No. 43.—-September 28th, October 24th: Heads not quite
as solid as Plot 13;  other remarks similar.
"Plot 15, New York No. 515.—September 28th: Heads growing fast and filling good.
October 24th: Cutting-heads 55 per cent.; size medium, solid, type good; quality fair to
good, slight bitter flavour;  frost-damage medium to heavy;   fairly deep penetration.
"Plot 16, New York T.B.R.—-September 28th: Heads growing fast and filling fairly well.
October 24th: Cutting-heads 70 per cent.; size medium to large, type good, texture and quality
good; frost-damage heavy; fairly deep penetration. This strain appears very promising
for early fall crop, but too subject to frost-damage for very late cutting.
" For further testing of the present strains, Imperial Nos. 847 and 615, New York No.
515 and T.B.R. are worthy of further work with a view to different dates of seeding.
" The White Boston types, especially No. 2088, on account of their early developing habit
and fine texture, are worthy of consideration for the home-garden and local market. The fine,
soft texture of the head makes it doubtful for standing the rough handling incidental to
distant-market shipping.
" As the main object of the fall tests is for resistance to frost, seeding the plots much
later than the commercial plants is intentional. On this account the heading performance
of several of the strains cannot be censured offhand. Once the frost-resistance characteristics
have been established, varying dates of seeding should: be carried on with a view to establishing
other development factors.
" These tests are much appreciated by the lettuce-producers who are in touch with the
work, and are proving of considerable value in establishing quality of the crop and extension
of cutting season."
In the Fraser Valley the lettuce-testing work was in charge of Mr. G. E. W. Clarke.
A report by him on the work as undertaken is herewith submitted:—
" The following trials were conducted on Mr. J. Kennedy's farm at Cloverdale.
" These tests were made under field conditions similar to the treatment given the commercial acreage plantings. The soil is a black mulch soil. An application of about 10 tons
of manure to the acre was well worked into the soil, and an additional application of a 3-10-8
fertilizer at the rate of 800 lb. was given.
" A seeding was made on May 31st and the following report was made on July 31st:—
" Duplicate rows were seeded and the plants thinned to a distance of 16 inches.
" The plantings made at this time on this area showed satisfactory development and
tip-burn and slime-rot did not occur.
"Seed-house No. 1.
"Imperial No. 615.—Inclined to loose leafy heads and very soft.
" Imperial D, U.S.D.A.—Good growth, medium to large heads, uniformly firm.
" Imperial No. 847, U.S.D.A. 12/9/35.—Medium to large, flat type, light green, very attractive. This variety heads uniformly about a week earlier than Imperial D. The heads are firm
to very firm.
" Green Iceberg Special No. 2.—This variety is inclined to be a soft leafy head. The
reddish-tip leaf is not desirable. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 39
" Seed-house No. 2.
"Imperial D, Lot No. 4098.—Good growth and heading uniformly;   very firm to hard.
" Imperial No. 615, Lot No. 4141-—Good growth but not heading uniformly; no firm heads;
inclined to be soft and leafy.
" New York No. 515, Lot No. 5205.—Large soft, leafy head.
" Imperial No. 152, Lot No. 3200.—Small- to medium-sized heads, maturing about three
days earlier than Imperial D;  heads are fairly firm to firm.
" White Boston-Cornell No. 43, Lot No. 5213.—This variety heads well and forms a firm
head, but this type is not desirable in this market.
" White Boston, Lot No. 2068.—This variety is similar type; the heads are a little smaller,
but not quite so firm as Cornell No. 43.
" Remarks.—According to the trials this season, Imperial D is the leading variety for
mid-season and late plantings. Imperial No. 152 is an attractive, medium-sized head-lettuce
and is worthy of further trial. Imperial No. 847, U.S.D.A. 12/9/35, grown for the first time
this season, seems to foe a very desirable variety."
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc
A change was made during the year in the regulations for direct shipment, to meet the
convenience of nurserymen. Instead of each individual purchaser being required to obtain
a permit and shipping-tag, batches of printed tags serially numbered are supplied to responsible
nurserymen. For each tag a return is made, including consignee's name and address and the
nature and quantity of plants shipped under it.
The following are the figures for shipments into British Columbia from the three Prairie
Provinces for the eleven months ended December 1st, 1936:—
Ornamental trees and shrubs     3,146
Fruit and nut trees      1,0-16
Cane and bush fruits      1,332
Roses       176
Herbaceous plants     1,718
Asparagus-plants         858
Strawberry-plants    1,190
Bulbs  10,110
(This last does not include certain large shipments of forced narcissus bulbs brought in
by a grower on Vancouver Island under special arrangement, including treatment for nematodes before planting.)
The Dominion Inspection Service inspected during the twelve months from April 1st, 1935,
to March 31st, 1936, 164 shipments originating east of Manitoba.    These included:—
Fruit-trees   275
Small fruits  3,416
Rose-bushes     389
Other ornamentals   377
Fruit seedlings  561
Miscellaneous plants  3,623
Bulbs  8,317
ASPARAGUS-BEETLE  (Crioceris asparagi).
In the spring, with the assistance of the Vancouver press, attention was drawn to the
finding of this pest in Vancouver and a request made that any suspected insect should be
brought to this office. The first report was made on May 11th, at which date egg-laying was
in active progress. Altogether about thirty premises were reported infested. These were
widely scattered through the area of Greater Vancouver—namely, University Area, West P 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Point Grey, Kerrisdale, South Vancouver, Marpole, and Burnaby. A number of the largest
commercial plantings in the Delta District and Lower Fraser Valley, however, were inspected
and no sign of the pest found. Most of the reported cases were in response to the press
notices and it is probable that only a certain proportion were so reported. Also, inquiry
elicited the information that the pest had been present for three years in one case. These
facts seemed to indicate that the insect was established beyond hope of eradication and all
that could be done would be to delay its spread to commercial areas. All reported infestations
were visited and full instructions given on control measures, special attention being paid to
the Burnaby infestations as these are nearest to commercial plantings.
CHERRY-DISEASES.
Last year definite proof was obtained by Dr. McLarty that a chlorotic disease of sweet
cherries in the Kootenays was of virus nature. A number of affected trees were taken out
on the advice of the departmental officers. It was noticeable, however, that diagnosis of
the disease might be rendered unsatisfactory or impossible in the summer-time through the
presence of powdery mildew, which may produce somewhat similar symptoms. Spring or
early summer would seem to be the best time for making an inspection for this disease. The
situation is further complicated by the presence of another trouble in cherries, in which there
is comparatively little chlorosis, but much deformation of the leaves, which become deeply
indented or laciniate and in some cases narrowed to a mere ribbon. The symptoms suggest
a virus disease and investigation will be undertaken by Dr. Newton. There is another condition found in Lambert cherries, chiefly in the Willow Point District, which has caused much
loss. Affected trees show no appreciable foliage or growth symptoms. They set a heavy
crop of fruit, but this does not mature normally. No matter how long it is left on the tree,
it remains small, changes to a peculiar brick-red colour, and has no flavour. The condition
suggests malnutrition rather than disease, but irrigation and ordinary fertilizers applied
have not been of much help. This fall, soil applications of boric acid, copper sulphate, and
magnesium sulphate were made to selected trees in a badly affected Lambert block at Willow
Point, and in the spring other trees in the block will be sprayed, with a zinc-sulphate combination spray. An arrangement has been made through Dr. Gussow, the Dominion Botanist,
for a comprehensive survey of cherry-diseases, in which the Saanichton Laboratory will
conduct investigations on suspected virus diseases and the Summerland Laboratory on those
suspected of being nutritional in character.
IRIS-DISEASES UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS.
In conjunction with Mr. Olds, of the Dominion Inspection Service, a survey was made in
December and January of irises being forced for bloom. It was observed that a small
percentage of eelsorm infestation (up to 5 per cent.) in the planted bulbs did not appreciably
reduce the crop of bloom if the temperature was not allowed to go above 55° F. In one case
bulbs known to be 25 per cent, infested gave a 90-per-cent. cut of bloom. This house, however,
was held at little above outside temperatures. A noticeable feature was the high percentage
of what appears to be mosaic in the Wedgewood variety. Few plantings showed less than
60 per cent., while in others it ran as high as 90 per cent. While there may be no marked
stunting of growth, there is a reduction in vigour and bloom. Some growers state that it is
often necessary to release the bloom from the enveloping spathe by hand, otherwise it would
be too weak to emerge.
BLACK RUST OF OATS.
Black rust (Puccinia graminis) was unusually severe on oats this season in the Delta
and adjacent districts and caused- serious reduction in yield. In one section, where losses
were severe last year as well, inquiry showed the presence of large bushes of common barberry
(Barberis vulgaris) on an abandoned railway-track immediately adjacent to the affected
fields. These bushes were heavily infected with the secial stage of the fungus. At present
the Province has no legislation in force for compulsory eradication of barberries. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 41
NEW DISEASES.
A number of pathogens new to the Province were recorded, chiefly on ornamentals.
Glceosporium Mezerei Cke.—A severe defoliation of Daphne Mezereum in a Vancouver
nursery in June was found to 'be due to this fungus. Further investigation showed it to be
present elsewhere in Vancouver and in at least one nursery in Victoria. Daphne Cneorum
in close proximity to affected Daphne Mezereum showed no signs of infection. This fungus
does not appear to have been previously recorded in North America. Its introduction is
unfortunate, as Daphne Mezereum has been a valuable ornamental shrub, very free from
pests or diseases.
Coleosporium Campanula (Pers.) Lev.—This was found at two places in Vancouver on
Campanula persicifolia. Although this fungus is recorded from a large number of species of
Campanula and related genera, in this case only the peach-leaved Campanula was attacked.
In one garden where affected plants were found, a considerable number of other species of
Campanula were present but none were found infected.
Septoria Chrysanthemi Allesh. was found causing a severe leaf-blight on certain new
strains of Shasta daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum). It has previously been recorded in
greenhouse chrysanthemums in British Columbia.
Cytospora Chrysosperma (Pers.) Fr.—Portions of young Lombardy poplar trees, 6 to 8
years old, which had died were sent in from Trail. These showed numerous fruiting-bodies
of the fungus.
Pseudomonas Delphinii (E. F. S.) Stapp.—Tar-spot or delphinium-blight was quite generally present in one Vancouver nursery, but the amount of injury appeared to be slight. This
has been previously recorded from British Columbia, but does not as yet seem as prevalent
as in Eastern Canada.
RESEARCH PROJECTS.
The report of Mr. W. R. Foster, Assistant Plant Pathologist, located at the Dominion
Pathological Laboratory, Saanichton, follows.
(1.) Stinking Smut or Bunt Problem.—Table 1 shows the resistance of a number of new
varieties of winter wheat obtained from Dr. E. F. Gaines, Cerealist, Washington Agricultural
College, Pullman, Washington.
Table 2 shows the effect of different seed-treatments on the percentage of seedling
emergence and of bunt from soil-borne infection at Saanichton, 1936. Ceresan % oz. and 4 oz.
per bushel and methyl mercury oleate 4 grams per bushel were about equal in value in increasing seedling emergence. Ceresan 4 oz. per bushel of wheat treated on the same day as seeded
reduced soil-borne infection of bunt from 37.4 per cent, in the check to 13.7 per cent.
The organic mercurials, ethyl mercury phosphate (Ceresan), methyl mercury phosphate
(Leytosan), and methyl mercury oleate, protected the wheat in damp cold soil much better
than copper carbonate, copper resinate, and copper sulphate.
Table 1.—The Resistance of Different Varieties of Winter Wheat to Okanogan
Bunt Inoculum at Saanichton, 1936.
Average Percentage
Variety. of Bunt.
Jones Fife   81.0
Albit x Hohenheimer   4.0
White Odessa x Hohenheimer   1.0
Hohenheimer x White Odessa (130)   0.0
White Odessa x Heilz Dickkopf  0.5
Hybrid 128 x Hard Federation (M-l)   0.0
Triplet x White Odessa  0.0
Reo   1.0
Relief   83.5
Ridit x Utah Kanred   5.5
Rex   0.0
Hymer   0.0
Hohenheimer x White Odessa (135)   0.0 P 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table 2.—The Effect of Different Seed-treatments on the Percentage of Seedling
Emergence and of Bunt from Soil-borne Infection at Saanichton, 1936.
Seedling
Treatment. Emergence. Bunt.
Per Cent. Per Cent.
Check—no treatment     59.7 37.4
Ceresan % oz. per bu.     73.5 26.5
*Ceresan 4 oz. per bu.      72.0 13.7
Copper carbonate 2 oz. per bu.      55.7 25.1
Copper resinate 2 oz. per bu.      49.7 17.7
Copper sulphate .002 Molar      50.0 21.9
Creosol .0125 Molar      59.0 21.3
Flotation sulphur 4 oz. per bu.      44.0 17.0
Leytosan 1 oz. per bu.      73.7 31.2
Malachite Green 0.25 per cent.      19.2 13.9
Mercury Copper 2 oz. per bu.      56.5 18.9
Mercury Copper 4 oz. per bu.      66.7 19.3
Methyl mercury oleate 4 gms. per bu     74.2 24.2
Methyl Violet 0.25 per cent ,     48.0 26.3
* Ceresan 4 oz. applied on day of seeding.
The wheat was soaked in the solutions of copper sulphate, cresol, malachite green, and
methyl violet for twenty-four hours. It was then dried at room temperature for twenty-four
hours and seeded.
(2.) Snapdragon-rust Control for Seed-growers.—Table 3 shows the effect of different
sprays on the control of snapdragon-rust. Our results substantiate those of D. E. Green,
Wisley, England (Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 61: 64-76, 1936), in that copper
sprays are more effective than sulphur sprays. We found further that Bordeaux was much
more effective with a good spreader than without. The results were so definite that I hardly
think that it will be necessary to conduct this project next year.
Number and time of applications of the spray depends upon weather conditions and the
growth of the plants.    Cool damp weather appears to favour the disease.    When the weather
is at all favourable for infection, and leaf-growth is taking place, it is probably advisable to
spray every ten to fourteen days.    Very little leaf-growth took place after seed-pods began .
to form.
The snapdragons at George Robinson's place were sprayed on July 7th and 17th. All the
leaves sprayed with Bordeaux and a spreader either on the 7th or 17th were practically free
from rust.
Table 3.—The Results of Different Sprays on the Control of Snapdragon-rust
(Puccinia Antirrhini).
(Sprays applied July 7th and 17th.)
Plants Amount
Treatment. infected. of Rust.*
Per Cent. Per Cent.
Check—no treatment     100.0 62.5
K.S. Resin      100.0 49.6
Lime-sulphur and penetrol      100.0 45.7
Lime-sulphur and lethalate      100.0 65.0
Bordeaux       67.0 13.4
Bordeaux and penetrol          7.0 00.7
Bordeaux and lethalate . :         8.5 00.8
Bouisol and penetrol        59.0 23.4
• Estimated percentage of the area of the leaves covered with rust.
Penetrol applied at rate of 2 quarts per 100 gallons ;   lethalate applied at rate of 1 pint per 100 gallons. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936.
P 43
(3.) Cracking of Cherries.—During the sweet-cherry season of 1936 on Vancouver Island,
ideal conditions for cracking and brown-rot of cherries prevailed. With brown-rot increasing
at an alarming rate, we advised our largest grower to spray with Bordeaux 2^3^40 on June
8th, about five to six weeks before picking. On July 9th over 90 per cent, of the Bing cherries
had cracked on the Experimental Station, Saanichton, while the grower who had sprayed had
less than 4 per cent. With wet weather continuing until July 14th, cracking increased on
the Experimental Station from 90 to 99 per cent, and from 4 to less than 25 per cent, in the
orchard sprayed with Bordeaux. All the other growers visited by Mr. E. W. White, District
Horticulturist, or myself from Victoria to Nanaimo had more than 90 per cent, of their Bings
cracked.
Results shown in Tables 4 and 5 indicate that Bordeaux 2-3-40 tends to reduce the percentage of cracking in sweet cherries. The results are so significant that further investigations are considered worth while.
Bordeaux 2-3-40 has a decided disadvantage, in that it left far too heavy a deposit on
the fruit even five weeks after spraying.
Table 4-—The Estimated Percentage of Cracking of Bing Cherries on
Vancouver Island in 1936.
Date.
Name.
Address.
Treatment.
Cracking.
July 9	
H. Thompson 	
Experimental Farm	
Growers 	
H. Thompson 	
Experimental Farm	
Growers 	
Bordeaux 2-3-40, June 8	
Per Cent.
4 0
July 9.	
Saanichton..    	
90.0
July 9 _	
80 0
July 14    -
Bordeaux 2-3-40, June 8.
July 14	
Saanichton  	
Vancouver Island to Nanaimo
99.0
July 15
No treatment	
90.0
Table 5.—The Percentage of Cracking of Lambert Cherries sprayed with Bordeaux
2-3-40 and then immersed in Water for Various Periods of Time.
Treatment.
Sample.
Average.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5
6.
60.0
19.2
93.9
64.5
50.0
12.1
80.0
28.5
84.4
65.2
79.5
55.3
74.6
Bordeaux 2-3-40	
40.8
(4.)  Experimental Work on Control of Pear-scab (Venturia pirina).
Table 6.—The Resistance of Different Varieties of Pears at Saanichton, 1936.
Variety.
Scab-free.
Scabbed.
Slight.
Severe.
Total.
Per Cent.
33.5
93.1
74.9
96.6
78.6
96.2
Per Cent.
32.7
5.1
24.3
1.8
19.4
2.4
Per Cent.
33.8
1.8
1.8
1.6
2.0
1.4
Per Cent.
66.5
Bartlett                                         	
6.9
25.1
3.4
21.4
3.8 P 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table 7.—The Efficiency of Different Sprays upon the Control of Scab in Anjou Pears
at Saanichton, 1936.
Scab-free.
Scabbed.
Slight.
Severe.
Total.
Check 	
Bouisol    	
Per Cent.
33.5
87.4
56.4
55.3
Per Cent.
32.7
9.6
25.9
30.2
Per Cent.
33.8
3.6
17.7
14.5
Per Cent.
66.5
12.6
43.6
44.7
Table 8.—Percentage Scab in Varieties.
Bartlett.
Bosc.
Boussock.
Clairgeau.
Dr. Guyot.
Slight.
Severe.
Slight.
Severe.
Slight.
Severe.
Slight.
Severe.
Slight.
Severe.
Check	
Per Cent.
5.1
0.2
1.5
1.4
Per Cent.
1.8
0.0
0.0
0.6
Per Cent.
24.3
4.9
8.2
11.7
Per Cent.
1.8
0.0
0.3
0.6
Per Cent.
"    1.8
2.1
2.9
3.4
Per Cent.
1.6
0.0
0.8
0.2
Per Cent.
19.4
1.5
7.1
4.6
Per Cent.
1.4
0.0
0.5
0.5
Per Cent.
2.4
0.5
1.1
0.3
Per Cent.
1.4
0.0
Lime-sulphur	
Colloidal sulphur...
0.0
0.0
In all the above tests three sprays were given—namely, April 28rd (pink), May 8th
calyx, and May 23rd.
Table 9.—Average Percentage of Scab on Check-trees in Table 8.
Slight. Severe. Total Scab.
Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent.
10.6 1.7 11.7
1.8 0.0 1.8
4.1 0.3 4.4
4.3 0.4 4.7
(5.) Apple-anthracnose (Neofabrxa malicorticis).—The following experiments on anthracnose of apples were conducted in co-operation with Mr. E. W. White to test the efficiency of
Bouisol as compared with Bordeaux, the standard spray. Spraying was done during the first
week of August.
The results, Tables 10, 11, 12, and 13, substantiate last season's work, in that:—
(a.)  Bordeaux is slightly more effective than Bouisol at the rate of 4.5 pints in 100
gallons of water.
(6.)   Bordeaux should be used as heretofore as the main spray in commercial apple-
orchards,
(c.)   Bouisol, 4.5 pints, could be recommended to owners of a few trees.
Table  10.—Result  of spraying  King  of  Tompkins  Apples  with  Bordeaux   and  Different
Strengths of Bouisol on the Number of Anthracnose Lesions at Tanner Bros., Keating, 1936.
Treatment.
No. op Anthracnose Lesions.'
Tree 1.
Tree 2.
Tree 3.
Check  	
Bouisol. 1.5 pints..
Bouisol, 3.0 pints ..
Bouisol, 4.5 pints .
Bordeaux 	
31
15
24
14
11
7
2
55
29
19
15
7
* Lesions on 25 twigs were counted on each tree. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936.
P 45
Table 11.—Result of spraying Belle de Boskoop Apples with Bordeaux and Different Strengths
of Bouisol on the Number of Anthracnose Lesions at Tanner Bros., Keating.
Treatment.
No. of Anthracnose Lesions.*
Plot l.t
Plot 2.
Plot 3.
Check * 	
Bouisol, 1.5 pints..
Bouisol, 3.0 pints .
Bouisol, 4.5 pints .
122
37
9
122
93
12
244
181
75
21
* Lesions on 25 twigs on each tree were counted.
t A plot consists of five trees.
Table  12.—The  Result  of  spraying  Northern Spy  Apples  with  Bordeaux   and  Different
Strengths of Bouisol at W. J. Jennings, Duncan.
Treatment.
No. op Anthracnose Lesions.*
Tree 1.
Tree 2.
Average.
Check                                  ,                    '   -	
90
25
33
5
7
126
91
48
16
18
108.0
58.0
40.5
10.5
12.5
* Lesions on 25 twigs on each tree were counted.
Table 13.—The Result of spraying Ontario Apples with Bordeaux and Different Strengths of
Bouisol at W. J. Jennings, Duncan.
Treatment.
No. op Anthracnose Lesions.*
Tree 1.
Tree 2.
Tree 3.
Total.
Check   »               ..       	
183
164
118
48
19
223
160
74
62
12
173
87
110
45
20
579
407
302
155
51
* Lesions on 25 twigs on each tree were counted.
OTHER WORK.
The following popular articles were published during 1936:—
" Diseases of Greatest Economic Importance to Berry, Tree, and Vegetable Growers
of  Coast  Districts."
" Control of Bunt in Northern Okanagan."
The following scientific papers have been prepared and are ready for the press:—
" Resistance of Winter Wheats to Hessian Fly," by W. R. Foster and C. E. Jeffries.
" Progress Report on Bunt in British Columbia."
" Overwintering of Certain Cereal Pathogens."
Attention was again given to educational work in genetics and two addresses were given,
as follows:—
" Heredity in Plants, Animals, and Humans."    Round Table, Victoria, March, 1936.
" Heredity and Environment."    Kinsmen's Club, Empress Hotel, October 14th, 1936.
There has been the usual miscellaneous work of identifying grasses, weeds, and wild
plants for correspondents and others. P 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST.
Max H. Ruhmann, B.A.
We regret to report that the codling-moth (Carpocapsa pomonella) has made its appearance in the Coldstream section of the Okanagan Valley.
The infestation appears to be light, and, although only a small acreage is known to be
infested, the fact that this is scattered through the length of the district and not in a small
section makes it impossible to isolate the infestation for intensive treatment with a view to
eradication. The fact that the growers of the Coldstream District, by a majority vote, have
refused the offer of the Department of Agriculture to undertake the control-work in the
infested area on a small per acre tax basis has relieved the Department of Agriculture of a
great responsibility.
Control of the codling-moth in the older-infested areas of the Okanagan Valley is being
effectively conducted by a majority of the growers in these districts. It took a number of years
of heavy losses and demonstration spraying by the Department of Agriculture to impress upon
them the necessity of timeliness and thoroughness of the application of sprays to obtain satisfactory control.
Lesser Apple-worm (Laspeyresia prunivora).—The lesser apple-worm was unusually
severe in the Coldstream District, and the fact that so many specimens were submitted for
identification was the means by which the presence of the codling-moth was eventually revealed.
The Pear-thrips (Tseniothrips inconsequens).—This insect was first recorded in America
at San Jose, California, in the year 1902. From there it appears to have drifted east and
north, being recorded in the State of New York in 19201 and appeared at Victoria, B.C., in the
year 1912.
In the Interior of the Province it has been occasionally seen in orchards for at least ten
years. This year it occurred in outbreak form at Kelowna, where a pear-orchard of approximately 10 acres was attacked, with an estimated loss of at least 1,000 boxes of pears. Lighter
infestation was noted in surrounding orchards.
The important host-plants of this insect are the pear, prune, cherry, and plum. Other
plants on which they are known to occur are peach, apple, grape, and the English walnut.
Particular attention will be given to the control and distribution of this insect in the
Interior in the spring of 1937.
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus).—The outbreak of this scale in the Keremeos,
Cawston, and Osoyoos Districts has been practically cleaned up. A thorough inspection of
these districts was made during September, when in no instances were live San Jose scales
found in these districts. This speaks highly of the thoroughness with which the growers
carried out the control measures recommended.
The infestation in the Chapaka Indian Reserve still persists and will be difficult to clean up
unless more effective co-operation of the Indian Department is obtained. This area will remain
a source of reinfestation for the Cawston-Keremeos Districts until the infestation is cleaned up.
Mealy Bug (Pseudococcus sp.)—The mealy-bug infestation which has been a serious
problem in the Kootenays for some years has been checked.
Early in 1935 a 6-per-cent. dormant oil emulsion spray was used (actual oil content 4%
per cent.). This was applied by Mr. Earl Hunt, District Horticulturist of Nelson. At
Boswell, where a severe outbreak had appeared, the Mackie orchard was sprayed at the same
time with the same formula. This spray was applied by Mr. Mackie, the owner of the orchard.
The result of the application at Boswell was not satisfactory. At Willow Point, however, the
control obtained was excellent and indicated that a stronger spray might give perfect control.
In the 1936 spray programme at Willow Point an 8-per-cent. dormant oil emulsion spray
was applied (this equals a 6-per cent, actual oil spray) by Mr. Hunt. At Boswell, through the
co-operation of the Dominion Entomological Branch, dormant oil sprays ranging from 4
per cent, to 6 per cent, actual oil were applied by Mr. A. A. Dennys, of the Dominion Entomological staff. At Creston, where a slight outbreak occurred in 1935, a 5%-per-cent. actual oil
spray was applied by Mr. O. B. Twigg, the local District Field Inspector of the Department.
An examination of the sprayed plot at Willow Point in May showed that excellent results
had been obtained and a control of approximately 100 per cent, obtained. No oil-injury was
evident either on cherry or apple.    Plots sprayed in this district in 1935 with a dormant oil DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 47
spray were still almost entirely free of mealy bug. These plots were again examined in
August. At this time the Boswell and Creston plots were also examined. All plots which had
received a spray of 5 per cent, or over of actual oil showed excellent control with no reinfes-
tation.
As a result of these tests we can confidently recommend the use of a 6-per-cent. actual oil
spray as a dormant application.    The essentials for the success of this spray are:—
(1.) Scrape all loose and scaly bark from the trunk and main limbs of the trees before
applying the spray.
(2.) Apply the spray before the buds break. Make a thorough application and use a
pressure of not less than 350 lb.
(3.)   Use an actual 6 per cent, of oil in your dormant spray.
(4.)   Summer sprays are not satisfactory.
Apple-leaf Roller (Caccscia argyrospila).—This insect, which first made its appearance in
the Okanagan Valley in 1922 and at that time promised to be a serious pest, but was practically
eradicated by 1924 through the use of dormant oil sprays, is again coming into evidence and
may shortly need serious attention from the fruit-growers.
Grasshoppers (Locustidss).—All present evidence indicates that grasshoppers will occur
in epidemic numbers during 1937 and1 will be fairly general in the Interior.
Wheat-midge (Thecodiplosis mosellana).—This midge severely injured a wheat-field in the
Lumby District. This is the first occasion that we have recorded this insect in an Okanagan
District. In some of the Coast districts and on Vancouver Island the damage caused by wheat-
midge has been very severe. Not in fifteen years has this insect appeared as abundant as it
was in 1936 in many of our wheat-fields.
Tarnished Plant-bug (Lygus pratensis).—The tarnished plant-bug was particularly
destructive in the early summer in the Interior orchards.
Dipterous Larva.—A dipterous larva has been observed for several years destroying
columbines in local gardens by attacking the roots. The identity of this fly has not yet been
determined-
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL APIARIST.
A. W. Finlay.
The severe winter of 1935-36, followed by a very late spring, resulted in death from starvation of about 40 per cent, of all bees in the Province. This was the heaviest winter loss on
record and was most severely felt in the Interior districts, especially in the East Kootenays,
where many apiaries were completely winter-killed. The normal winter losses of from 15 to 20
per cent, are usually balanced by natural increase from swarming, or, in commercial apiaries,
by the importation of package bees, but the winter losses were so severe in some districts that
the owners were unable to completely restock, which resulted in a corresponding decrease in
the number of colonies that were in good condition for the honey-flow this season.
On the Coast and Lower Mainland winter mortality of bees was not much greater than
usual, and a fine warm, spell during dandelion and maple bloom helped the bees to build up
rapidly and store considerable surplus honey from these sources by the middle of May. Cool
and wet weather for the last half of the month made swarming conditions general and filled
many empty hives with new colonies. Unfortunately, this cool, unfavourable weather continued with very little opportunity for the bees to work in the fields until as late as mid-July,
by which time all previously gathered stores were used up. Brood-rearing had almost ceased
and older field bees were about worn out, so that with the advent of more favourable weather
later, most colonies were not in the best condition to take advantage of the honey-flow from
clover and fireweed, which was very light and slow. The honey-crop in the Fraser Valley and
Vancouver Island was, therefore, very light, with the exception of a few of the best locations
in these districts.
In the Interior, although the honey-flow did not start until very late in the season, about
July 7th, it was intense, rapid, and prolonged, resulting in an average surplus per colony in the
Okanagan greatly in excess of that of many previous years.
The total honey-crop for the Province was estimated at 1,129,725 lb., a decrease of 161,517
lb. from that of 1935. P 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FIELD-WORK.
District Inspectors commenced work in March, when, weather permitting, the policy of
checking over apiaries and districts where disease had appeared the previous season was continued. This early work again proved of special value in eliminating potential sources of
infection by destroying odd diseased colonies that had died during winter. The addition of two
seasonal Inspectors to the staff greatly facilitated the work, and their services were appreciated
in the districts that had previously been inadequately serviced.
The number of apiaries examined during the season was correspondingly greater, by this
addition to the staff, than in 1935, and although the summary of the field-work also shows a
proportionate increase in the number of colonies destroyed on account of disease, this does not
indicate an increase in the percentage of disease in the Province, as a considerable number of
apiaries were cleaned up in areas that had not received proper attention for some years. Yet
the percentage of disease was slightly less in proportion to the total number of colonies examined.    The following is a summary of the field work done:—
District.
Examined.
A.F.B.
E.F.B.
Apiaries.
Colonies.
A. W. Finlay. 	
J. F. Roberts '	
H. L. Johnson  	
General	
Okanagan. 	
Chilliwack  	
157
297
227
385
153
.     57
139
40
1,094
2,602
1,010
2,008
512
207
727
350
21
169
27
159
28
9
49
20
31
35
15
W. J. H. Dicks	
2
Victoria	
Vancouver Island	
Kootenays 	
10
J. A. Smith  	
A. S. Homersham—	
12
Totals, 1936	
1,455
1,090
8,410'
6,658
482
429
105
Totals, 1935--	
72
A greater number of field-days and other meetings were held by the various bee-keepers'
organizations this season than usual, and the Apiary Inspectors were instructed to attend the
meetings in their respective districts, where they had the opportunity to demonstrate hive
manipulation, disease diagnosis, and to address the bee-keepers on the necessity for co-operation with them in their work. This proved generally beneficial, and the fact that no prosecutions
for violations of the " Apiaries Act " were recorded this season was an indication of the value
of this policy.
The annual visit of your Provincial Apiarist to districts where no resident Field Inspector
was employed was carried out in co-operation with District Agriculturist H. E. Waby in East
Kootenay and District Inspector C. B. Twigg in the Creston area. Very little disease was
found, but addresses given at various Farmers' Institutes were appreciated by local beekeepers, especially in the Fernie District, where instruction was given in the prevention of the
heavy winter losses that had occurred in that area.
OFFICE-WORK.
The office of the Provincial Apiarist at the Court-house, New Westminster, was attended
each Monday and Friday as regular office-days for visiting bee-keepers, and as frequently, in
addition, as field-work permitted, for the purpose of handling correspondence, Inspectors'
reports, and bacterial analysis of brood samples sent in for diagnosis.
Microscopic examination of 126 smears and samples of diseased brood-combs were made
and reports sent out with instructions for treatment where necessary. Applications for
registration of apiaries totalling 294 were received and twenty-four were cancelled. Annual
statistics of apiaries, hives, and honey-crop are based largely on reports received from registered bee-keepers and observations of Inspectors in the field.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS.
Again we have to report a remarkable improvement in the exhibits of honey and apiary
products displayed this season at the Vancouver Exhibition. The total number of competitive
entries, 110, compared with forty-five last year, was an increase of sixty-five, and the necessary DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 49
crowding of the many commercial displays owing to lack of space detracted somewhat from the
artistic arrangement of these. The quality was generally excellent but varied greatly in
density. Trade exhibits of bee-keeping equipment were absent through lack of space.
The total weight of honey and containers on display was estimated to exceed 5 tons.
Daily demonstrations of handling live bees in a screen-wire cage at Vancouver by Bee-
master John W. Wood was an attraction to thousands of visitors, and when continued by
Mr. Wood at the Victoria Fair was equally as effective in drawing the attention of the public
to the fine honey display there also. The number of entries in honey and apiary products at
Victoria was less than last "season, due, no doubt, to the unfavourable season on Vancouver
Island.    Most of the honey was from the Cowichan Lake District and was of excellent quality.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK COMMISSIONER.
Wallace R. Gunn, V.S., B.S.A., B.V.Sc.
The year 1936 again saw somewhat unusual weather conditions throughout most parts
of the Province. During January the weather was mild, but was followed in February by
over three weeks of severe weather with temperatures ranging down to below 40° in the
Dry Belt. For the most part the snowfall was heavier than usual. The severe weather
in February, when calving and lambing was beginning, contributed to a somewhat lower
calf and lamb crop. A spell of mild weather came along during the latter part of March
and early April, but was followed by a cold, late spring which prevented the grass from
starting up on the ranges, and cattle as a result got a poor start in the spring, seriously
affecting the run of early grass beef. The alternative freezing and thawing in many parts
of the country during the early part of the year was responsible for considerable winter-killing
of alfalfa and clover.
The months of May, June, and early July saw more than the usual amount of rainfall,
which made haying difficult and in some sections seeding was delayed. The Fraser Valley
experienced one of the most severe floods in years due to a sudden warm spell. A very dry
period hit the country in midsummer, resulting in very poor range. The early part of the
season being somewhat cold, it prevented the grass getting the usual start, and the subsequent dry, hot season gave poor grazing conditions, and this situation was further aggravated
by an unusually severe attack of grasshoppers throughout the range country. In many
instances the hoppers were found in unusual numbers, even into the timber country adjacent
to the range lands.
On the whole, the autumn was open and ranges quite good, which helped to bring cattle
back somewhat, but a very heavy fall of snow coming during the first week of December made
grazing impossible and worried many ranchers who were somewhat short on feed. Weather
conditions on the whole up to the first of the year have not been hard on cattle.
LIVE-STOCK CONDITIONS.
British Columbia cattle-producers as well as Canadian cattlemen are coming into very
keen competition from other countries and must of necessity get cheap production in order
to stay in the business. The heavy overhead charges against beef leaves but a small margin
to carry on business. The tendency on the whole has been for cattlemen to cut their expenses
in every way possible, and they have been carrying over a lot of breeding stock through the
period of low prices in the hopes that there would be an advance in price, with the result
that we have in the range country of British Columbia from ten to twelve thousand head
more cattle than were being carried on this range four or five years ago. In addition,
sheepmen have added to the load on the range by holding back some additional stock in the
hope of hitting a better market.
As mentioned above, calf and lamb crops were somewhat reduced this year on account
of the abnormal weather conditions which occurred during the calving and lambing season.
Mr. Donald Sutherland, District Agriculturist, Kamloops, reports that in his district lamb-
crops dropped from around 130 per cent, for 1935 to 109 per cent. He also reports further
4 P 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
that cattle in the district, on account of the poor range, went into the winter quarters in lower
fit than usual. He reports that with feed, especially grain, scarcer, fewer cattle will be put
into the feed-lot. Mr. G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, reports that the
bull situation in the Cariboo is acute. With low prices of beef obtaining for the last few
years, ranchers have been unable to purchase bulls and are now compelled to use grade
bulls and to retain their old sires.    He also reports a lowered percentage calf-crop.
Mr. R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist, New Westminster, reports that the early
lamb-crop dropped prior to the severe cold spell was quite good, but lambs dropped during
the month of February and early March were considerably reduced. Mr. Sutton further
reports a high mortality in young pigs during the early spring. The pigs seemed to lack
vigour and thrift and shortly after weaning began to die off. Litters arriving late in the
spring during March and April came through normally. Mr. Sutton also reports increased
interest in horse-breeding throughout his district.
Mr. S. G. Preston, District Agriculturist, Smithers, reports that the severe weather in
February and March caused all cattle to fail considerably. He also reports that, with
pasture and range good, cattle were going into the winter in fair condition.
Mr. James Travis, District Agriculturist, Prince George, reports that owing to one of
the severest winters on record for his district stock received a set-back, with lower calf and
lamb crops, and was further aggravated by a late spring with poor pastures, but that an
open fall with good feed in their district put stock into the winter in quite good condition.
RANGE AND FEED CONDITIONS.
Generally speaking, throughout the entire Province there was a late spring which contributed to late seeding, poor pasture and hay-crops. The hay-crops in the Prince George,
McBride, and Strathnaver Districts were greatly reduced, requiring many cattlemen to
reduce their herds. Hay-crops on Vancouver and the Gulf Islands were somewhat short
also. Grain-crops in the range country were somewhat short and cattle in the range country
had a difficult season. There will be fewer cattle go into the feed-lots this year as a whole,
although reports coming through from Mr. Luyat, Williams Lake, would indicate that some
ranchers were buying feeders to put into the feed-lot.
Large areas of the range country, particularly in the Cariboo, are now in very bad
condition. We have passed through a series of dry years up until two or three years ago
which played havoc with the range, and now with the additional cattle being carried the
range is getting even worse, although the last two or three years helped considerably with
better rainfall. This is a problem that cannot be faced by any single cattleman, but is one
for all the cattlemen running on a particular range to deal with as a body. There must be a
reduction in the number of animals running on the range and there must be proper rotating
of the range.
In sections of the Cariboo some stockmen insist on keeping their cattle on the lower
ranges instead of making use of the higher ranges, and as a consequence the grass is kept
down and there is no natural reseeding possible, and the carrying capacity of this range
is now down to the danger-point. Very fortunately, in some of the ranges in the Nicola,
Douglas Lake, and Merritt country, we had quite good co-operation amongst the cattlemen
and a real endeavour to improve the range. It is true that rotated and deferred grazing
would be of material assistance in correcting many of these range troubles, but if this has to
be carried out by fencing it will be, generally speaking, impossible for cattlemen. The
consequence is that, with range conditions as they are, an abundance of good bulls cannot
possibly produce top cattle. Cattlemen cannot possibly produce the desirable type of animal
on this class of range. Many are trying to help the situation by the purchase of better bulls,
but since nutrition is one of the most important factors there can be little hope of an
improvement in the situation until more consideration is given to the improvement of the
range and a better nutrition.
The alsike-crop was hit quite badly in and around the Prince George country. The late
spring somewhat reduced the hay-crop on the Lower Mainland and more particularly the
Gulf Islands. In the irrigated areas of the range country where alfalfa is grown winterkilling continues to be a problem and ranchers have to carry over large hay reserves, and
since a good feed-supply is so necessary to the success of the live-stock industry your DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 51
Commissioner has been working with a number of ranchers and co-operating with the Field
Crops Commissioner and the Field Crop Union in trying to solve this problem. Since very
encouraging results have been secured with new varieties, it is hoped that additional work
can be commenced this year on the use of water, fertilizers, and rare mineral fertilizers.
In the farming districts of this Province, where dairying, swine-raising, and farm flocks
of sheep form the basis, improvement in crop production is necessary. Pastures are lacking
in quality, quantity, and feeding value. The use of commercial fertilizers, stimulants,
and lime is evident. Here again prices of agricultural products have made it impossible
for the farmers to purchase these materials.
HORSES.
The year 1936 saw continued interest in horse-breeding. Farmers all over the
Province bred more mares again this year. The lack of sufficient stallions to give service to
all communities still applies, and of course there is not a sufficient number of outstanding
Class A horses in the Province.
Your Commissioner again took care of the inspections for the Provincial Department
of Agriculture and Mr. Wm. McKirdy acted for the Federal Department of Agriculture
under the Federal-Provincial premium policy of assistance to stallion-owners. This policy
is very much appreciated by the stallion-owners and is doing a great deal towards the
development of the industry. In this Province the above policy gives support to two classes
of horses, " A " and " B." In some Provinces only one class is supported—namely, " A "
class—and as a result no encouragement is given to the owner of a stallion which falls
just below the Grade " A" classification. With Class " B " horses getting proportional
support, some very good horses, lacking perhaps in scale or in breed type or character,
are included. These horses of course are required to be sound, since your Inspector
feels hereditary diseases are most dangerous conditions to get established in the horse
population.
During the year fourteen stallions were inspected under the above policy and in all
there are seventeen stallions supported under the policy. Not all horses are required to be
inspected each year. There are nine Clydesdale stallions, five Percheron stallions, and
three Belgian stallions. There are eight Class " A " and nine Class " B " horses supported
under the policy. The Provincial Department of Agriculture paid $500 in premiums for
the year and the Dominion Department of Agriculture paid a like amount.
Mr. James Travis, District Agriculturist, Prince George, reports a shortage of farm
teams weighing around 2,400 lb. a team, with prices being offered of $200 a team.
Mr. R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist, New Westminster, reports that there has been
a good market throughout the year for young draughters of quality. There has been
some publicity given to the idea of encouraging the breeding of a smaller horse for use
on the land. Your Commissioner thinks that this is not a policy that should be supported
by this Department, since it is very easy to get too many of the small horses, and by
continuing to aim at breeding a big horse there will be sufficient of the smaller ones
produced to take care of the needs of any farmers wanting this smaller type of horse. So long
as there are light range-bred mares there will be an abundance of horses in the 1,300-, 1,400-,
and 1,500-lb. class being produced even from good-sized draught stallions. Many of these are
sufficiently clean of limb and upstanding to take care of the needs of the city trade for
light delivery-work.
There is a general feeling amongst horsemen that something should be done to prevent
the use of the inferior and especially the unsound stallion. Horses carrying hereditary
diseases such as side-bone, string-halt, and laryngeal hemiplegia (roaring) should be
prevented from standing at public service. While it is definitely a short-sighted practice
on the part of any horseman to use an inferior stallion when a good one is available, since
a matter of $5 or even $10 in service fee is a small item in comparison to the increased
value of the foal produced by the better horse, nevertheless it would be much better to even
use a grade sire that is sound rather than a pure-bred carrying hereditary diseases. P 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
BEEF CATTLE.
British Columbia continues to be an importer of beef, with some 40,000 head being
brought in from the Prairie Provinces, largely from Alberta. Cattlemen in the Province
are compelled to adjust their production and time of marketing to fit the changing picture
of Prairie production. Crop production on the Prairies has been so uncertain that it has
greatly affected the type and class of cattle coming on to our market. The market for
British Columbia beef has been for early grassers in June and early July, but this market
is being invaded to a limited extent. Until control of the situation is gained, buyers will
continue to play the Prairie producer against the British Columbia cattleman, to the
detriment of both. Without a doubt there are too many inferior cattle in Western Canada
and the British Columbia markets get, of course, all the local product and a good lot of
the plain and inferior stuff from the Prairies. With our packing-houses widely distributed
over Greater Vancouver and beyond, a centralized stockyard is not immediately possible and
can only become possible by definite agreement or intervention. With this situation, organized
yards with the regular stockyard representative in charge are impossible, and as a result
our Coast market offers a fine dumping-ground for organized Prairie markets to slough
off in their periodic clean-ups stock that is not moving.
Mr. G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, reports for his district as
follows:—
" Beef prices on the whole have been very disappointing for the year, but some cattle
moved out during August and September at fair prices ranging from $4 to $4.50 per
hundredweight. The majority of these cattle went to the United States. Well over 2,000
head were bought by American packers."
Mr. Luyat reports the spring market for grain cattle poor, which I might say was
a general experience over the Province. Prices were quite low until the American buyer
came into the picture. Mr. Luyat reports that prices at Williams Lake continued to go
down, with steers selling in the autumn at $3 and cows at $1.50, but December prices at
Williams Lake strengthened to $3.50 and tops at $4. Mr. Luyat reports some demand for
feeder-cattle, which no doubt is to supply local demands in Barkerville and other mining
districts.
He reports the auction sale in connection with the fall fair at Williams Lake saw 290 head
of grass cattle sold. The champion car-load of fifteen head from the Chilco Ranch sold for
$5.95. The reserve champion car entered by Wynn-Johnson brought $4.90. The champion
steer entered by Ray Pigeon sold for $7.25. The average for the sale was about $4.30.
Buyers from Vancouver and Seattle were present.
Prices in Vancouver for choice steers during the week of July 6th, 1935, was $6.75 and
during the same week, 1936, was $5.37%. During the week of September 7th, 1935, choice
steers brought $4.25, and at the same date in 1936 these cattle were quoted at $5.12% per
hundredweight.
Mr. H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, reports a tendency on the part
of beef-cattle men in his district to unload, feeling that prices for beef does not warrant
the carrying-over of cattle for any great period with the improved prices for hay and
grain.
Mr. S. G. Preston, District Agriculturist, Smithers, reports that the poorer beef cattle
are being replaced by good dual-purpose or beef cattle. He reports better bulls being used.
The winter-feed situation is at present the limiting factor to the extension of further
development of the live-stock industry. Mr. Preston reports twenty-seven cars of cattle
and sheep shipped to Vancouver during the year from his district, with eight cars from
Telkwa, twelve from Burns Lake, two from Endako, and five from Vanderhoof. He also
reports twenty-five cars going to Prince Rupert, Telkwa shipping six cars, Houston three
oars, Barrett, Topley, and Endako each shipping one car, Burns Lake five cars, Fort Fraser
two cars, and Vanderhoof six cars.
Mr. James Travis, District Agriculturist, Prince George, reports additional shipments
of stock, with thirteen cars going to Vancouver from the territory east of Endako. He
reports also a ready market at Edmonton or Vancouver for good-quality stock, with
Vancouver paying better prices. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936.
P 53
Mr. T. S. Crack, Assistant District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, reports 1,475 cattle
being shipped out of the Block.
BRANDS.
Mr. George Pilmer, Recorder of Brands, reports as follows:—
Shipments.—Last year's total shipments of over 28,000 head (which was exceptional)
were almost duplicated, decrease being only 560. Williams Lake dropped only 207 to
6,983. Nicola dropped 1,004, from 6,179 to 5,175. Kamloops was down about 600 and
Ashcroft nearly the same.
Shipments of hides show a slight increase. There was considerable activity shown
by hide-buyers, but there was little surplus stock to be picked up. Licensed hide-buyers
increased from thirty-six to fifty-six.
Inspection Service.—The organization remained the same, the only changes being
resignation of Mr. J. Bishop, Clinton, and appointment of Mr. T. Pollard in his place.
Mr. W. F. Pinchbeck, Williams Lake, was put on a salary basis all the year round. Mr.
Wilfred Pinchbeck, Williams Lake, was appointed Deputy Inspector to assist when
necessary.
Prosecutions.—Convictions were secured as follows:—Illegal branding: Two, at Keremeos
and Clinton. Unlawful killing: One, at Keremeos. Moving stock and hides illegally:
Two, at Oliver and Vernon.    Not keeping hides three weeks:   One, at Keremeos.
Brand Commissioners.—No meetings were held.
Registrations, etc.—The number of brands recorded, renewed, etc., during 1936 was
as follows:—
Recorded.
Renewed.
Reissued.
Transferred.
Total.
182
101
272
114
57
29
13
4
524
248
Totals 	
283
386
86
17
772
The number of licences issued was: Hide-dealers, 56; slaughter-house, 50; beef-
peddlers, 5.
DAIRY CATTLE.
It can scarcely be said that the dairy industry has come back on to a fully profitable
basis, yet decided improvement is recorded. The report of the B.C. Lower Mainland Dairy
Products Board would indicate that considerably more money had been paid to farmers in
that area during the year 1936.
During the year several very good shipments of dairy cattle have left the Province for the
Orient, and it would seem as though the work being done by the field organization of the
different breeds is getting results. The officers of these associations are aiming to supply
the buyers with exactly the kind of cattle they wish. Where quality is asked for, they are
trying to supply good-type cattle with good records and free from disease. These officers
deserve a great deal of credit for the sound basis on which they are trying to establish
the outside markets for British Columbia cattle. The United States took a good number of
pure-bred cattle again this year and American buyers report that they are entirely satisfied
with their purchases.
Mr. Donald Sutherland, District Agriculturist, Kamloops, reports butter-fat bringing
about 2 cents a pound more in his district than last year.
Mr. S. G. Preston, District Agriculturist, Smithers, reports a slow but steady increase
in dairying in his district, a few more herds being established and more attention to cow-
testing work through the activities of the local Cow-testing Association.
SHEEP.
Speaking generally, lamb prices have been above last year. The Vancouver prices for
good lambs from early January to the end of April remained steady at $7.75, increasing to
$8.12% during the week of April 17th, the last week of April and the first week of May $8.50.
The weeks of May 8th, 15th, and 22nd saw the price jump to $9.50 and spring lamb during P 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the week of May 29th averaged about $11.50, dropping down during the week of June 19th,
when the influx of the earliest range lambs began, to 10 cents. The week of June 26th saw
$9.75 and the week of July 3rd $9.25; the weeks of July 9th and 17th, $8.50; the week of
July 23rd, $8.25; and the week of July 30th down to $7.50. The week of August 7th, $7.00;
August 14th, 21st, and 28th, $6.50; the week of September 4th prices had firmed somewhat,
with $6.75 being quoted. The weeks of September 11th, 18th, and 25th and October 16th
prices held at $6.85, dropping down to $6.25 for the weeks of October 2nd, 16th, 23rd, and
30th. For the week of November 6th prices went up to $6.52; November 13th, $6 to $7;
November 20th, $6.50 to $7.50; December 4th, $7.50 to $8, which price continued towards
the end of December.
Mr. G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, quotes that the local feeling
was that there was an upward swing in the market as it applied locally, lambs netting
$6 locally, coming off the range at probably the lowest point in the market. Some lambs
from the district brought 8 to 9 cents in Vancouver. Mr. Luyat quotes that the sheep
population is decreasing in his district, many small flocks being dispersed and others to be
broken up. Mr. Luyat points out that coyotes are still doing their full share of damage
and are responsible for many flock-owners selling out, with bear doing a certain amount of
damage. This situation applies to practically every part of the range country. Mr. Luyat
reports that the annual auction sale at the Williams Lake Fair 391 head of lambs saw an
average of about $5.50 being paid locally. Some rather plain lambs were entered, he reports,
which tends to bring the price down.
Another thing that is seriously handicapping the situation in the Cariboo is the
fact that small breeders have too few lambs to make car-load shipments, and since there are
no other establishments close by cannot make up a co-operative car. The annual auction is
about their only opportunity to get rid of their stuff, and the sheepmen generally feel the
Fat Lamb Show in connection with the Williams Lake Fair to be of great assistance to them.
Mr. Luyat reports further that Oxford still continues to be the dominant breed in the
country, with some Hampshire, Suffolk, and Shropshire rams being used. He reports that
there is a keener demand for pure-bred rams each year.
Your Commissioner would like to point out that, despite the fact that there is a lowering
of the sheep population, the work being done by the Williams Lake Fair in the development
of the industry is educating the sheepmen to the necessity for using better rams. They see
year after year coming to the top in all the classes and selling for the most money those
flocks that are headed by good-quality pure-bred rams.
The year 1936 has been one of the worst on record for sheep being killed by dogs. The
trouble has centred as usual around Indian reserves and smaller towns, where dogs are not
being kept under control. During the year compensation was paid on 356 sheep, while last
year the loss was 202 sheep. Compensation was paid this year on 434 chickens and last year
on 193 chickens; this year on forty-nine turkeys and last year on six; this year on four goats
and last year on two. The total compensation for 1934 amounted to $1,315.15; for 1935,
$1,096.15; and for 1936, $2,692.05. The increased cost of this policy, as can be seen, is due
to an increased number of killings, but in addition sheep prices have advanced considerably
and of course a higher valuation had to be paid.
Mr. T. S. Crack, Acting District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, reports a number of pure-bred
rams coming into the Block to head small flocks.
SWINE.
The first nine months1 of 1936 we saw conditions in the swine industry reasonably normal.
Starting off in January killing hogs' ungraded at Vancouver at $7.75 to $7.87%. Through
February until March 20th prices stayed even at $8, going up at the end of March to the
middle of April to $8.25, dropping down for the last week of April and the first week of May
to $8.37%, and then dropped down to the end of May to $8.12% and for the week of June 19th
were quoted at $8.25. From then until the middle of August prices stayed even at $8.50. The
peak of the season was reached during the last two weeks of August at a price of $8.87%.
The week of September 4th saw prices down to $8.12%, with a temporary rise to $8.37% for
the weeks of September 11th and 18th, to drop to $7 for the weeks of October 2nd and 16th, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 55
with an uprise in prices for the last two weeks in October of $7.26 and the first two weeks of
November $7.87. For the week of November 27th the price was down again to $7.25 and for
the weeks of December 10th and 17th $7 to $7.75.
The cause of the present lowering in prices is twofold. There has been a decided increase
in production all over the Dominion, and with the feed-supply short, generally speaking, and
some districts decidedly short of feed, pigs are being rushed to the market in numbers too large
for the needs of the trade. This of course resulted in a lowering of price, since the packers
were not in a position to take care of this sudden increase; in fact, over twice the number of
pigs were placed on the market during some weeks this fall over a similar period of the year
previous. Well on to 100,000 head were being put on the market in a single week throughout
the Dominion. Increased production on the Prairies naturally means more hogs of the type
only suited to the fresh-pork trade, resulting in a flood of our British Columbia markets.
While prices are not so attractive and may continue somewhat lower for some time, and
while feed is higher and scarcer, it remains to be seen whether our swine-breeders will follow
their usual practice of reducing their herds to the point of sacrificing their breeding stock, or
whether they will profit by previous experiences in the difficulty of securing good breeding
stock and decide to retain a good sound foundation of choice breeding stock on which to go
forward when market forecasts indicate possible profit. The policy of this Branch has been
to advise against a short-sighted policy of sacrificing breeding stock. One of the greatest
obstacles in the way of the development of the swine industry in this Province has been the lack
of good breeding stock, and the result has been that for years British Columbia has imported
well on to 150,000 hogs yearly, which definitely means large amounts of money going out of the
Province.
Generally speaking, the policy of swine-development carried on by this Branch has been
to more or less establish breeding and production centres throughout the Province, with the
idea of making it possible for car-load lot shipments being sent out of the particular district.
To quote a specific case in the Salmon Arm District some three years ago, this Branch placed
a small group of sows in the district under the attention of Mr. H. E. Waby. This group of
sows was placed with young men who felt that they wished to identify themselves with practical
farming. Mr. Waby reports this year that coming from that foundation some twelve car-loads
of market-hogs were shipped out of the district, which brought back in the way of revenue well
on to $18,000. Many of these hogs were produced on farms where the feed that they consumed
cost comparatively little, and at best it would have had but very little value on any other
market—material such as cull potatoes, cheap grain, cull peas, etc., being utilized.
Mr. Waby has been most successful in his work in this particular field. His supervision
and his advice has been of material value in the establishing of these centres. Several other
centres have since been started and it is hoped to extend this work considerably in the future.
The advantages of placing breeding stock in units is that it takes care of the weakness in the
local marketing of agricultural products. With these units car-load shipping is possible, and
it is the belief of your Commissioner that if many farmers who now find it impossible to carry
on and take care of their obligations were to include one or two breeding sows in their farm
programme they could become self-supporting. To the regular excuse made by some that they
are not in a position to finish hogs for market, not having sufficient grain, the answer is this:
The market for feeder hogs in and around Vancouver and on Vancouver Island is equally as
attractive as the best market for finished hogs. There are swine-feeders adjacent to the larger
centres of Victoria, Vancouver, and New Westminster who find it impossible to get sufficient
feeder hogs for their needs and they are ready to pay a premium for British Columbia raised
feeders. There are but very few farmers who are not in a position to produce at least feeder
hogs, since but a minimum of grain along with some milk and good pasture will develop really
good feeder hogs.
The B.C. Swine-breeders' Association is co-operating very closely with this Branch in
extension of the work in hand. Their policy is at all times in line with the policy of this
Department.
Mr. G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, reports that prices were not quite
so good in his district during 1936, but that the demand is still good in the mining areas.
He also reports there is a slight increase in the number of pigs being kept. He reports that
the Bridge River District is taking quite a volume of pork from the farming sections of the P 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cariboo. He reports that, since many farmers wish to put their hogs out to pasture, they
rather favour coloured hogs such as Tamworths or Berkshires, since they do not blister so
easily as the white hogs.
(Note.—I might suggest that if sufficient shade is provided for hogs, and if there are no
mud-holes or water-holes available for the pigs to wallow in, there will be but a minimum of
sun-scald.)
Mr. Donald Sutherland, District Agriculturist, Kamloops, reports that the market for hogs
has been on the whole satisfactory, but with the shortage of grain and the higher price of feed
in general farmers are beginning to unload.
Mr. T. S. Crack, Assistant District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, reports 6,900 hogs being
shipped out of the Block and a number of pure-bred boars and a few gilts going into the area.
NUTRITION AND ANIMAL HEALTH.
Some five years ago your Commissioner in making a general survey of the Province was
struck by the complexity of disease and disease-like conditions affecting the live-stock industry
in general. To follow the usual line and suggest definite disease-treatment, particularly from
a medicinal or biological nature, seemed scarcely to include a complete programme. In searching around for one or more definite reasons for this state of affairs, it was forced upon me that
some observations should be made in the field of nutrition as a possible place to begin correcting
and preventing these diseases. After some four years^ work I am definitely convinced that,
if it were possible to properly nourish the live stock of this Province at all times of the year,
our losses from disease and disease-like conditions would be very materially reduced.
My first work was carried on in the range country, with the very able assistance of Mr.
G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake. The data that Mr. Luyat secured and the
trials and tests that he made for this Branch were all of very great value. The first work dealt
more specifically with minerals and more particularly with the place played by calcium and
phosphorus. A circular was prepared on " Mineral and Vitamin Deficiency " and hundreds
of copies distributed throughout the Province. No circular that has gone out from this office
has met with the response that this circular on malnutrition in live stock has received. It is now
ready for a revision coming out of additional work done by your Commissioner. Definite field
observations at different seasons of the year have enabled me to lay foundation for the control
and elimination of certain conditions which have become almost established on the range to
the place where ranchers thought they could not be controlled. It is my opinion that as a result
of this work calf- and lamb-crop percentages will be materially increased and that annual losses
of breeding stock will be decidedly reduced. Your Commissioner has under way work in closely
associated fields of nutrition that should do a very great deal to still further reduce these
annual losses. In trying to apply these pieces of scientific findings, one great difficulty is to
have them sufficiently practical for application under field conditions.
One rancher reporting on the results obtained stated that, unlike previous years, he had
not a single bit of trouble with heifers dropping their first calves, that all calves came normal,
with no monstrosities or weaklings, not a single abortion or any of the troubles with placentas,
etc., that, usually follow these mishaps. In addition, his late calves, unlike previous years, grew
along well and stood up to winter conditions as well as calves born earlier, and the older and
weaker breeding cows came through in good condition and did not become pot-bellied during
spells of cold weather.
In this particular field of work it is hoped that very definite information will be available
for next year's report or in the form of a circular during the coming summer. Control of
summer-range problems such as plant-poisoning and its sequelae are receiving definite consideration, and it is hoped that the experiments now under way in the control of this condition
will be of practical value to the cattlemen.
Very excellent co-operation is being received from particular ranchers at all times in the
way of making field observations and taking on experimental programmes suggested by your
Commissioner. Very good assistance is also being received from Mr. G. A. Luyat, D.A.,
Williams Lake; Mr. Shirley Preston, D.A., Smithers; and Mr. James Travis, D.A., Prince
George. It is hoped that work will shortly be under way in several of the other districts,
including the Okanagan and Boundary country, as well as the Fraser Valley. Some observations done in the field of sheep-diseases are getting very good results.    Special attention should DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 57
be drawn to a condition known as twin-lamb pregnancy disease which occurs in ewes in all the
sheep-raising districts throughout the Province. Field observations made by your Commissioner on the Islands during the last few years, as well as observations in the range country
personally made for the last several years, have resulted in the diagnosis of the trouble and
practical suggestions on control. Newspaper publicity has been given to the control of this
trouble and most favourable comments received from the sheepmen on the work done. It is
hoped that a circular can be made available immediately for use of sheepmen. If not, further
newspaper publicity will be given to this so as to be of assistance to the sheepmen before this
spring-lambing season. The losses from this condition have been quite extensive in certain
sections.
In the field of swine-disease your Commissioner has been working consistently for several
years in trying to find a practical control for some of the swine problems. No class of animal
seems to require closer attention to general management and nutrition, and with losses
occurring almost up to 100 per cent, in litters at certain seasons of the year, it looked as though
many swinemen would be driven out of the business, or that fall litters would be next thing to
impossible to raise. It is hoped that during the coming season definite advice will be available
to all swinemen on how to control these complex diseases and disease-like conditions that have
been making such heavy inroads into the swine industry.
Your Commissioner particularly appreciates the co-operation received from swinemen and
from the B.C. Swine-breeders' Association in the matter of experimental work. In swine herds
where disease was running rampant for the last several years almost complete control has been
secured this year, and it is hoped that these practices applied in other herds will get similar
results. Hogs of unknown origin being shipped into the Province still continue to be an active
source of disease-spread, and of course it is impossible to reach every individual swineman to
warn him against the folly of buying hogs of unknown source; consequently all that can be
expected is to educate those who wish to be educated and place them in a position to so manage
their business that they will not have these losses.
In the field of breeding-diseases of cattle almost the same thing applies. Extensive observations have been made throughout the Province amongst cattlemen, and while extensive
sweeping programmes are being advocated all over the continent dealing with particular diseases such as Bang's disease, your Commissioner is convinced that, although the agglutination
test for Bang's disease plays a very prominent and important part in the eradication and
control of this disease, consideration must be given to other very definitely modifying factors,
and that before any definite Province-wide or Dominion-wide programme be put into effect all
these factors should be carefully reviewed. Any such programme must intimately interest the
man on the land and his welfare must be given every consideration.
WARBLE-FLY AND TICK CONTROL-WORK.
I have to again report satisfactory progress in the warble-control work being done under
the area plan by this Branch under the direct supervision of different district officers.
Mr. Donald Sutherland, District Agriculturist, Kamloops, reports the Upper Louis Creek
area, established in 1934, being treated again this last year. The area was established in
1934 with 467 head of cattle and the average number of warbles was 7.4. The area has been
somewhat reduced this year and includes some 206 head of cattle, the number of warbles having
been reduced to 1.4.    This, I might say, includes but a single treatment yearly.
Work still continues around the Kamloops District but has never been definitely organized,
but rather has been used for purely experimental purposes and no detailed reports have been
received. It is hoped that this year a move can be made to organize this area as a definite
control area.
In the Pine View-Prince George area, under the direction of Mr. James Travis, District
Agriculturist, Prince George, excellent results have been secured and Mr. Travis reports a
100-per-cent. co-operation from all those within the controlled area and most excellent support
from the committee appointed by the Farmers' Institute to carry out this work. The first
treatment applied on April 6th gives 360 head of cattle, with an average of 1.7 warbles per
head. The second application on May 1st to the same cattle showed an average of 1.92
warbles per head. The third application on June 1st to 249 head of cattle in the area showed
0.164 warbles per animal. The total cost per animal for the three treatments was approximately 1 cent per head. P 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Mr. R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist, New Westminster, started off this year with two
new areas, one in the Hatzic District including 603 head of cattle and an area on Barnston
Island which included some 360 head of cattle. At the first application on April 8th in the
Hatzic area there were 603 head treated, with an average of 2.2 warbles per animal. A second
application to the Hatzic District showed again an average of 2.2 warbles per animal. The
first treatment on the Barnston Island area on March 23rd showed 360 animals treated, with
an average of 3.2 warbles per animal. The second treatment in the Barnston Island District
on April 17th showed an average of 1.5 warbles per animal. Mr. Sutton is to be commended
for the attention he gave to this work in endeavouring to ascertain just when the first treatment
should be applied in these areas, and with the information coming out of his observations we
will be in a position to begin treatments at exactly the right time in future.
Mr. H. E. Waby, who pioneered in this work by having the first areas in the Province,
reports that our first area, which was established in the Deep Creek District, is found to be
free from warbles again this year. He reports that the area around Salmon Arm is about
cleaned up and that little will require to be done in that district excepting to check the odd
herd where warbles were found last year.
In the Grindrod-Enderby-Mara Districts the report of the Inspectors shows an average of
576 warbles in 1,594 head of cattle for the one treatment that was applied in the district,
which was an average of 0.36 warble per animal. This is the second year that these districts
have been under control and definite progress can be reported.
Another area that was organized by Mr. Waby in the Windermere District, supported by
the local Farmers' Institute, came through with very nice reports. This was handled in two
sections and supervised by the secretary of the institute, Mr. T. W. Turner. One application
was made on March 5th. in which 220 cattle were treated in the two sections and 1,280 warbles
reported, which would be an average of about 5.9 warbles per animal.
Under the direction of Major A. D. Macdonald, who took complete charge of the work,
an area was established on the north end of the Saanich Peninsula. One application was
made on March 8th, when 785 warbles were reported in 143 head of cattle, or an average of
5.48 per animal.
It is expected that additional new areas will be started this year, and after some further
extension it is expected that a drive will be made to make a clean-up of entire valleys and
eventually take in the major part of the Province. It is expected that a beginning will be
made this year in one of the ranching districts and an endeavour will be made to treat cattle
by the use of dust-guns and putting them through chutes. This work will likely aim to treat
both for warbles and ticks   (Dermacentor andersoni).
The two ticks, known as the wood-tick (Dermacentor andersoni) and the winter tick
(Dermacentor albapictus) have been causing a great deal of trouble in certain sections of the
Province. From observations made by your Commissioner it has been established that the
winter tick until recently was confined to quite small sections of the Province, but it is
gradually extending out from these areas and will shortly be found probably over a large
part of the range country. This tick seems to be particularly hard on horses, and while it
does not seem to produce any paralysis as does the wood-tick, yet it depletes the strength of
the animal to the place where no amount of feeding will bring them back before midsummer.
Your Commissioner has felt that there should be some treatment that would control and
possibly eradicate this tick and with the co-operation of a number of ranchers began some
work some three years ago. The results of these experiments have led me to believe that a
very good measure of control can be secured by the use of a standardized Derris root applied
in the form of dust, either with a dust-gun or by hand; and, furthermore, best results have
been obtained when this dust treatment could be put on sufficiently early before the females
become mature. One hundred per cent, kills have been secured, however, in many cases even
when the ticks had attained some considerable size.
Some work is going forward this year in the treatment of groups of. animals for the
control of the wood-tick. Some small experiments tried over the last few years have given
very encouraging results on the use of standardized Derris in the control of the Dermacentor
andersoni, and it is expected that this year a sufficiently large experiment can be carried out
to put us in a position to speak more definitely. As stated previously, it is hoped to do this
work at a time when both warbles and ticks can be treated for.    It is the opinion of your DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 59
Commissioner that by the proper use of Derris a protection can be given to animals for
sufficient length of time to carry them over the period of danger from paralysis.
GENERAL.
Your Commissioner again this year did a large amount of field-work in different parts
of the Province in connection with the improvement of live stock and general live-stock-disease
work. A good deal of investigational work was carried on by personal observation on Vancouver and the Gulf Islands. Material has been secured for the publication of further circulars
and for the revision of bulletins and circulars now up for revision.
As a member of the B.C. Feeds Standards Board, some work is being done on the revision
of Circular 53, " Feeding of Farm Live Stock in British Columbia." As a member of the
Provincial Marketing Board, your Commissioner was called upon to do some additional work.
Very good support has been received from the officers in the field, especially in the way
of investigational work and observations on experiments being conducted. I want to also
thank the office staff and' those attached to this Branch who made it possible for us to carry
on the work in hand.    My work in this Branch has been heavy, but at all times a pleasure.
REPORT OF DAIRY COMMISSIONER.
Henry Rive, B.S.A.
The season has not been particularly favourable for dairy production and the total yield
will not exceed that of 1935. Much inclement weather was experienced early in the year, with
intense heat in the late spring. Later, drought was general. Of dairy crops, silo mixtures,
corn and field roots gave fair returns only. Hay, throughout, yielded well. Prices for mill-
feeds remained high enough, with, latterly, an upward trend. Prices paid for butter-fat have
improved slightly with the rises in price of butter and other dairy products.
DAIRY-FACTORIES.
Twenty-eight .butter-factories, three cheese-factories, two condenseries, one milk-powder
plant, and one casein plant have been in operation during the year. All dairy-factories have
been called on regularly. Storage, sanitation, grading, and testing of milk and cream supplies
and methods employed in general are inspected and checked. In addition, many milk plants
and several separate ice-cream establishments are subject to periodical scrutiny.
CREAMERIES.
The average quantity of butter manufactured per factory may be calculated to be 216,406
lb., but in actual size of operations extreme differences are to be found. The creameries of
the Interior increase slowly in total of butter manufactured. Those of the Islands are dropping
since the war. On the Lower Mainland a large increase has been experienced, in a small
part due to reaching out further beyond the district for cream. A slight improvement in
average price of wholesale butter is gradually occurring, but since the drop from 41 cents
per pound in 1929 to 35 cents in 1930 very low prices have been the rule—1931, 27% cents;
1932, 22 cents; 1933, 23 cents; 1934, 22% cents; 1935, 24% cents. About 6,000,000 lb. of
creamery butter will be the final total of manufacture during 1936, rather less than half the
butter consumed annually in British Columbia. The average amount of butter available
annually in British Columbia from all sources for the past ten years is 16,610,044 lb. Roughly,
the proportion contributed by imports, foreign and from other Provinces, is 46 per cent.; of
local production, creamery and dairy, 54 per cent.
CHEESE.
The amount of cheese manufactured fluctuates greatly with the market for other dairy
products. Less has been made in 1936 than during the previous year. One large factory
exists making Cheddar, two small ones making, respectively, Roman and Italian varieties and
Kingston and Monterey.    Several farm dairies are steadily making and marketing Stilton, P 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cheshire, Swiss Brick, and modifications of Cheddar. It is to be regretted that, during this
period of low butter prices favourable to cheese still being experienced, no expansion of cheese-
making has taken place. There is room on the British Columbia market for a quick-curing
cheese of Cheddar type, i
CONDENSED MILK.
The two condenseries of the Lower Mainland, Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association
at Delair and Borden's at South Sumas, continued to turn out evaporated milk. Prices are
recovering slowly. Milk-powder from skim-milk is produced in one establishment, which also
produces casein.
ICE-CREAM.
A very fair season for ice-cream has been experienced. Competition on the part of
wholesalers has increased greatly of late.
HERD IMPROVEMENT.
Totals of cows on test continue to increase steadily if somewhat slowly. The reasonable
necessity of recording cows of unproved production, when, the means for such is within reach
'f all cow-owners, is not patent to the majority. The lack of a national policy in this regard
assisting, by reiterated statement and widespread propaganda, is largely the cause of this
apathy towards milk recording.
There continue in operation twelve Cow-testing Associations with fourteen supervisors.
All of these are in very fair shape in point of members and finances. Three hundred and
twenty herds have been on test, with approximately 5,500 cows.
The annual list of dairy sires published each winter grows in popularity. The opportunity
afforded to weigh the breeding capabilities of a sire through the performance of progeny is
now of interest to many.    The sixth list will appear early next year.
CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCE COURSE.
The course for 1936 was held March 2nd to 19th, inclusive, at Almond's Block, Pender
Street East, Vancouver. Seventeen applicants registered, two for testing only. The course
in 1937 will be held in the fall (November-December), not in the spring as usual.
LICENCES ISSUED.
During the year sixteen applicants for testers' licences were examined. Sixty-seven
licences were issued. Fifty licences to cream-graders were issued. One was a single licence;
forty-nine were combined cream-graders' and milk-testers' licences. To fifty-four persons,
firms, companies, or associations buying milk or cream on the basis of the butter-fat content,
licences were issued.
VERIFICATION TEST.
No applications for verification tests were received during the year.
MEETINGS.
Meetings at New Westminster, Edgewoodi, Quesnel, Kelowna, Roe Lake, North Saanich
(2), Saanichton, Victoria, Cloverdale, Chilliwack, Vancouver, Saltair, Harewood, Notch Hill,
Deep Creek, Mount Ida, Grindrod, and Lumby were attended by members of the staff.
Two radio talks on dairy subjects were delivered over the Kelowna station.
DEMONSTRATIONS.
Demonstrations in the manufacture of a simple type of farm cheese were given at Edge-
wood (2), Crofton (2), Southbank, Winfield, and Silver Creek. Butter-making demonstrations were given at Edgewood (2).
BRITISH COLUMBIA DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION.
Through lack of funds, activities remain curtailed. The annual meeting was held in
New Westminster in February. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 61
PUBLICATIONS.
Dairy Circulars No. 29, " The Fifth List of Dairy Sires "; No. 30, " The Improvement
of Dairy Herds"; and No. 31, "Annual List of Milk and Butter-fat Records," were the
publications of the year.
LEGISLATION.
Nothing directly demanding Provincial administration in relation to dairying was enacted
in 1936.
GENERAL.
Co-operation with the Dominion Bureau of Statistics in making available month by month
the dairy-manufacturing returns of the Province has added materially to the clerical work
of the Branch.
The work of factory and dairy-plant inspection was carried out as in the past several
years by Messrs. F. C. Wasson and F. Overland, Dairy Inspectors and Instructors.
Supervision of Cow-testing Associations with responsibility for dairy-sire compilations
and indexing has remained with Mr. G. H. Thornbery, Assistant in Charge, Herd-improvement
Work in British Columbia.
A large volume of inquiries, applications, reports, etc., in relation to general dairy-work,
cream-grading, testing, licences, Cow-testing Associations, and herd sires continues to be
received.
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR.
Anson Knight, V.S.
Although the main activities of your Veterinary Branch have been devoted to the T.B.
testing of cattle and the inspection and grading of dairy-farms, considerable time has been
devoted to the control and suppression of the more serious live-stock diseases. In the outlying districts advice to stock-owners as to the treatment of non-contagious diseases has been
given when requested by the stock-owners. Meetings called by various Farmers' Institutes
and Fair Boards have been addressed by members of your staff on the subject of live-stock
diseases and their treatment.
It is very pleasing to note the small number of reactors to the tuberculin test. Out of
9,686 cattle tested, only twenty-nine reactors were found. The general condition of live stock
throughout the Province may be classed as good. Crops for feeding purposes are quite up
to the average and every indication points to plenty of feed for the coming winter.
Throughout Central British Columbia and Peace River there is a tendency to increase
the live-stock population, more especially along beef lines. Owing to the large number of
work-horses employed on the farms throughout the Peace River, it offers an excellent opportunity to increase the horse population, especially if good sires were provided. A number of
buyers have been in the area in the past two years purchasing heavy horses, and probably
it is to be regretted that a number of the best heavy mares have been shipped out of the
district. However, there still remains quite a number of good foundation mares, and these,
with the use of good stallions, will no doubt bring an added revenue to the farmers of the
district.
Indications are that the number of swine have also increased, and I believe the general
percentage of selects would be on a par with the general average throughout Canada. If
present prices are maintained for swine, no doubt it will be a stimulus to increase the swine
population, and as there is a premium paid for selects it is to be hoped that the farmers of
the district will secure good sires.
The sheep population does not show the same tendency to increase, although the numbers
are maintained, there being about 500 breeding ewes in the Peace River Block. The Dominion
Government has seen fit to give cheap rates on Hampshire rams and a number of this breed
are now being used. The Dominion Government has also put into the district a number of
beef bulls, chiefly of the Shorthorn breed. P 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Your Inspectors in visiting the farms have from time to time given considerable information and instruction as to the control of parasites amongst sheep and swine, and as the farmers
become conversant with the control of these parasites there is less call on the Veterinary staff.
Indications are that there is a slight increase in the number of cows in the Fraser Valley
and prices have advanced from 15 to 20 per cent. A number of American buyers have been
in the area and have taken out some 200 head of good cows. The Dominion Government
veterinarians have been covering the Lower Fraser T.B. Restricted Area and the work is
about complete. We have no definite figures at the present time as to the percentage of
reactors, but I understand this will be very low.
The various diseases dealt with by your staff are listed below.
BLACKLEG.
Small sporadic outbreaks of this disease have been reported from various localities, more
especially south of the C.P.R. line. A number of our cattlemen make a practice of vaccinating
their young stock, which has resulted in the suppression of this disease on those farms. The
outbreaks this year have been confined to a number of small ranches. There were twenty-
three head died of this disease. The remaining young stock on these farms were vaccinated
with blackleg aggressin, which proves highly efficacious in controlling the disease. Carcasses
of animals that died were either buried or burned.
HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA.
Outbreaks of this disease have occurred from time to time, involving a few deaths in each
case, but the disease has nowhere assumed serious proportions. As a prophylactic measure
a number of farmers make use of some of the anti-haemorrhagie products which have proved
useful in the prevention of this disease.
An outbreak of lung-disease was reported from the Upper Heffley Creek and on examination this was found to be a bovine pulmonary disease. This was also treated with the bovine
pulmonary mixed bacterin.
COOCIDIOSIS.
Two outbreaks of this trouble occurred, one at Chinook Cove and the other at Barnhart
Vale.    Instructions were left by your Inspector as to the care and treatment of affected stock.
KERATITIS   (PINKEYE).
This disease as affecting cattle occurred in two localized areas, one in the Interior
and the other at Pitt Meadows. This disease occurring at Pitt Meadows last year was of
rather a serious nature, covering a considerable number of cattle, but was of a mild or
localized type this year. Although the fatalities in this disease are practically nil, it affects
the general condition of the animal and therefore proves to be somewhat of an economic
loss. We find that treating with keratitis bacterin has proved very helpful when used in the
control of this disease.
The disease amongst horses reported from Monte Creek was investigated and diagnosed
as swamp-fever, for which there is no permanent cure.
JOHNE'S DISEASE.
None reported.
RED-WATER.
Red-water is very prevalent in certain areas, especially through the Langley Municipality, Mount Lehman, and a few cases are to be found in Haney and Hammond. This
disease has been known in these localities for many years. Many treatments have been
advised, but apparently no permanent cure has been established. The Dominion Government
has a farm now under lease for the investigation of this disease, but to date no information
as to the exact cause or treatment has been forthcoming.
Minor diseases such as ringworm, mammitis, garget, etc., have been brought to the
attention of your staff in the general round of their inspection-work. Advice as to the care
and treatment of these diseases has been readily given and, I believe, with satisfactory DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 63
results. This is more especially true in the outlying areas where there are no veterinary
practitioners. In those areas where practising veterinarians are located the owner is
advised to refer such diseases to his local man.
FOOT-ROT.
This disease has been practically under the control or supervision of Dr. D. H. McKay,
who is stationed at Kamloops, and the disease has confined itself very largely to the Okanagan
and surrounding districts. Dr. McKay has examined some 38,540 sheep. The disease
apparently is centred on two ranges—Malakwa and Hunter's Range. Hunter's Range was
closed for two years and about 1,500 head of sheep have been allowed to graze on this
area, whereas in former years some 4,000 head were taken up during the summer months.
Foot-rot when once established is very difficult to eradicate as the soil becomes contaminated through diseased sheep. Other sheep travelling over such areas pick up the
infection. Heavy frost tends to keep the disease in check, but where the ground is covered
with a heavy coating of snow previous to a freeze-up the contagious matter is not affected,
and therefore the trouble may exist on certain grounds year after year. It is a matter of
attempting to keep healthy sheep off of contaminated ground.
The deaths occurring from this disease are practically negligible, but owing to the
severity of the disease when once established it has a tendency to pull the animals down in
condition and therefore affects the selling-price. In practically every country where we
have sheep this disease exists. Purchasers of sheep are well advised to examine all sheep
before purchase to see that they are in a healthy condition. This disease was introduced
into British Columbia owing to the active purchase of sheep in the stockyards of the Prairie
Provinces. At that time the disease was not listed under the " Contageous Diseases (Animals)
Act " and therefore no check was made on animals affected with this disease, until at the
present time we are having more or less trouble in attempting to eradicate the infection.
However, progress has been made, and it is to be hoped that in time we will be able to have
this disease to a large extent under control. It is a matter of attempting to keep the healthy
sheep from becoming infected by preventing them access to contaminated ground, and if
new trails could be opened up so that the sheep can have access to the ranges without
travelling over the old trails, I believe it would be a step in the right direction. This is
a matter, I believe, for arrangement between your Department and the Department of Lands.
SWINE-PLAGUE.
A reported case of swine-plague was sent in from the South Thompson, but on investigation the trouble was found to be due to faulty feeding and not of a contagious or
infectious nature.
INSPECTION AND GRADING OF DAIRY-FARMS.
From the attached summary (see Appendix No. 5) you will note that your Inspectors
have covered practically all the settled areas throughout the Province, and those herds from
which the milk supplied to the various towns and cities is drawn have been inspected. There
has been a marked improvement in the sanitary conditions of the stables and dairies and
also better facilities for the care of the milk after it is produced. Practically all our
centres of population now demand a grade certificate before a licence is issued for the
purpose of selling milk, and the inspection of the dairies in the various localities is entailing
more work for your staff each year.
During the past year your staff has inspected 4,182 premises and 59,693 cattle, of which
37,995 were milking cows. We have in the Province 476 Grade A premises, 3,115 Grade B,
212 Grade C, and 385 ungraded. I may point out that those in the ungraded class are made
up largely of parties keeping a cow for family use. Where milk from such premises is sold
it goes into the manufactured class. We have found it necessary from time to time to check
up on a number of dairymen where we find the bacteria runs somewhat over the limit as
set out by the " Milk Act." This is a decided check on such dairymen to keep them up to
the standard of their classification, the Cities of Vancouver and Victoria co-operating with
your staff in this respect. P 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF FIELD CROPS COMMISSIONER.
Cecil  Tice,  B.S.A.
The year 1936 was on the whole a favourable one for field-crop production. There was a
good supply of moisture early in the season and this, coupled with warm weather, resulted in
crops getting off to a good start in most districts.
Hay was generally a heavy crop, although on the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver
Island the crop was lighter, due to the fact that considerable winter-killing took place in the
clover. Some difficulty was experienced in curing the first crop of alfalfa in the Interior, whilst
difficulty was experienced in curing the second crop of alfalfa in the Cariboo.
Pastures in the Fraser Valley, in particular, suffered severely through winter-killing of
grasses and clover, which necessitated many of them being ploughed up and reseeded.
Grain-crops were generally good and better prices prevailed. The absence of smut in the
wheat-crop of the Interior raised the quality considerably. In the drier sections of the Province grain-crops yielded below average.
Roots and silage crops were only fair, due to insufficient moisture during the latter part
of the season.
Potato yields varied considerably in different parts of the Province. According to Mr.
G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist at Abbotsford, the early plantings were small, due to
the backward weather during the period of early planting and also on account of the early-
sprouted tubers being frozen in the racks. However, the yield in a number of instances was
as high as 10 to 12 tons per acre, which is considerably above the average. It is worthy of
mention that the new potato-crop was handled in small lug-boxes, weighing about 50 lb. This
type of new package and the general appearance of the potatoes was very acceptable to the
trade.    However, some slight changes may be made in the type of package for next season.
Mr. R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist at New Westminster, makes the following statement regarding the potato crop: " Through most of July the weather remained warm and
moist, bringing on one of the worst outbreaks of late blight in potatoes that has been experienced. In practically every potato-growing area in the district the disease appeared.
Growers have reported a loss of from 25 to 60 per cent., due to growth being retarded because
the tops were killed down about mid-season. Examination of the tubers on several farms
showed 5 per cent, affected and later investigations indicate this figure will be increased."
Weather conditions also brought on a rather severe outbreak of stem-rust in oats in the
Fraser Valley and yields were accordingly reduced in varying degrees. It should be stated
here that rust in grain-crops was quite prevalent in many sections of the Province during
the year.
Seed-crops varied considerably. A heavy crop of timothy-seed was harvested in Central
British Columbia, whilst the production of red- and alsike-clover seed was below normal, due to
winter-killing. Conditions for the successful harvesting and threshing of the seed-crops were
not very satisfactory in many sections. Present prospects are that there will be a much larger
alsike-seed crop during 1937, as increased acreage was sown in 1936 and climatic conditions
have been satisfactory so far.
According to Mr. S. G. Preston, District Agriculturist at Smithers, it is estimated that
there is over 700 tons of timothy-seed in the Bulkley Valley and Lakes District with a carryover of more than 200 tons from last year. Indications are that prices will be better than for
the 1935 crop, which netted slightly over 3 cents a pound to the growers. This price was only
possible through a reduction in freight rates to Eastern Canada from $1.87% to $1 per hundred.    The rate to Eastern Canada for the 1936 crop has been set at $1.25 per hundred.
In his report, Mr. Thomas Crack, Acting District Agriculturist at Pouce Coupe, states:
" There will be plenty of seed wheat, oats, and barley in the Peace River Block for the coming
spring. Feed has been plentiful this winter and stock are wintering in good shape; the
weather so far being ideal. A lot of summer fallowing and fall ploughing was done as the
land did not freeze up until late in November."
Mr. James Travis, District Agriculturist, Prince George, states that there will be about
15 tons of alsike-seed in the Prince George area and about 5 tons at Vanderhoof.
Crop production in the Fraser Valley was severely curtailed, due to the floods in the late
spring.    Practically all the dykes in the larger reclaimed areas held, but seepage-water rose DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 65
and was responsible for damage on the lower fields. On some of the smaller areas the dykes
broke and also a number of private dyking areas were inundated, with resultant losses. With
the coming of summer the weather improved and a wet spring emerged into hot, dry weather
later on. Good weather continued throughout the fall, permitting of harvesting under excellent
conditions and enabling fall ploughing to be carried on into December.
With regard to ranges, Mr. D. Sutherland, District Agriculturist at Kamloops, makes the
following observations in commenting on low ranges: " The fruitful promise of the early
season was checked by the prolonged period of heat and drought in midsummer which dried up
most of the vegetation. Rains in September brought on good fall growth of most grasses.
In general, fodder production on the lower ranges was a little below that of 1935."
In respect to timber ranges, Mr. Sutherland makes the following statement: " Growth
started fairly late, but development was rapid in May and June. The midsummer dry spell
resulted in rather early curing of most plants. Second growth followed the fall rains, but this
was of little importance for grazing. As one would expect, fodder production was lower than
in the previous year. In the Kamloops District the fall rains brought the ranges into fairly
good condition, but in the Nicola-Merritt area the rains did not occur and there was little fall
growth."
Mr. G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist for the Cariboo, refers to ranges as follows: " The
grazing season on the open range particularly was a dry one, drier than has been seen for a
number of years.    This condition was ideal for grasshopper outbreaks."
CROP PRODUCTION.
It is both interesting and encouraging to report that crop production in its various
phases is steadily on the increase. Farmers are realizing more and more that live-stock and
field-crop production go hand in hand and that it is not in accordance with the best methods
of farming to overstock and purchase feed. From the type of letters received and questions
asked at meetings, it is becoming increasingly evident that farmers are giving more study
and thought to their farming operations than ever before. Greater interest is being shown
in such matters as soil-fertility, improvement of pastures, the growing of legumes, and the
use of good seed. It is such factors as those mentioned which are having an effect on crop
production, but there are also other factors responsible for the increased production of
field crops. In this connection reference should be made to the new fertile areas being
brought under cultivation, the most noticeable of which are the British Columbia section
of the Peace River District and the Creston Flats.
Mr. 0. B. Twigg, District Field Inspector at Creston, makes the following statement:
" This year there were 9,800 acres in wheat (largely spring wheat) in the reclaimed area.
The crop averaged 24 bushels to the acre. In addition, there were 200 acres in oats and
a small amount of barley. The quality of the 'wheat that was combined and delivered before
the September break in the weather came was excellent, grading No. 1 Hard, which is
remarkable for a mountain climate."
On account of pea-moth and other pests the dried-pea industry of the Fraser Valley
has been severely curtailed and interest in this industry has been transferred to Vancouver
Island and to the Salmon Arm-Grindrod District of the Interior. Approximately 260 acres
of peas for the dried-pea trade were grown in this latter district this year. The results seem
to have been so satisfactory that an effort is being made to secure 1,000 acres for 1937.
Special attachments for threshing peas have been secured by several threshermen in the
Interior in order to avoid splitting the peas.
B.C. FIELD CROP UNION.
The work of the B.C. Field Crop Union continues to show progress and some very
interesting and useful information is being obtained as a result of the various tests conducted
by its members. Your Commissioner is secretary-treasurer of the union. There were, 135
paid-up members during the year 1936. The following statement gives an idea of the
location of the members:—
Northern British Columbia      1
Central British Columbia  ___„ 30 •
Interior    27
5 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Vancouver Island   21
Lower Mainland   19
Boundary     4
Cariboo    19
East Kootenay     6
West Kootenay     2
Peace River     6
The same number of experiments were available to members of the union this year as
last—namely, thirty. In addition to this, there were several miscellaneous tests conducted
with such plants as English Wild White Clover, Regal Barley (a smooth-awned type), Early
Blue Peas, Ladak Alfalfa, and Crested Wheat Grass. A large proportion of the samples
required for the tests were made available by Dr. L. E. Kirk, Dominion Agrostologist, and Dr.
L. H. Newman, Dominion Cerealist. The co-operation of these two Federal officials is greatly
appreciated.
Altogether 186 district tests were conducted. In addition to this, a number of tests
started in 1935 with perennial plants were continued. The number of tests of the various
classes of crops was as follows: Forage and pasture, 110 tests; cereal, 56 tests; and
potatoes, 20 tests.
The third annual meeting of the association was held at the time of the British Columbia
Winter Fair in Vancouver, December 8th.
The first field-day to be held by the union took place during the late spring at the Dominion
Experimental Farm, Agassiz. In spite of the inclement weather, there was a good turnout
of farmers and the gathering was very successful.
WEEDS.
Increased interest is being shown in the weed problem throughout the entire Province.
One of the chief difficulties in connection with the matter is the lack of sufficient funds for the
enforcement of the Act, together with the fact that there is a great deal of wild or semi-wild
land in the Province. There appears to be a real desire on the part of certain land-owners
to control weeds, whilst others show no interest whatever. Weeds have become a decided
menace in certain areas, the seeds having been brought in through feed-grain, screenings, etc.
The Department again devoted special attention to the Peace River District by reappointing Messrs. Cushway and Hingley as Weed Inspectors and much good work was accomplished
by these officials.
District Agriculturists and Provincial Police have co-operated in handling the various
weed problems from time to time.
Considerable attention has been given by Department officials to the use of weed chemicals,
and various demonstrations have been conducted with such chemicals as atlacide and sodium
chlorate. Limited quantities of both of these chemicals have been purchased by the Department for demonstration-work, the larger part of which has been used in the Interior under
the supervision of District Agriculturists Waby, Middleton, Evans, and Sutherland.
Mr. H. E. Waby in his report makes the following statement: " Tests with sodium chlorate
were made in the fall of 1935, and whilst no one experiment can be considered conclusive, the
success of these tests was such that further investigation has been^ considered fully justified.
" Numerous experiments were therefore again instituted in 1936 and the weeds treated
were couch-grass, morning-glory, sow-thistle, and hoary pepper-grass. This latter weed,
which is a very pernicious one, has become well established around Armstrong and the tests
in that area are being carried on in conjunction with H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector,
Vernon.
" Several orchard plots have also been established, in co-operation with C. R. Barlow,
District Field Inspector, in the Salmon Arm District, to determine the effect of sodium chlorate
on fruit-trees and berries."
In the majority of cases the chemical is being applied in the dry form in the fall of the
year and the quantity varies from 75 to 180 lb. per acre. In a few instances atlacide is being
tested out alongside of sodium chlorate to ascertain if there is any difference between these
two chemicals as far as weed eradication is concerned. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 67
Next spring all plots will be ploughed under and farmers have agreed to grow various
crops on them, including roots, corn, grain, peas, and other legumes.
Another weed chemical has recently been brought to our attention—namely, activated
carbon bisulphide—and it is hoped to carry on some definite tests with this chemical during
the year 1937.
RANGE AND PASTURE IMPROVEMENT.
Considerable interest has been shown during recent years in the matter of reseeding
ranges. The plots which were set out on Guichon's ranch at Quilchenna in 1933 are furnishing
much useful information as to what are the best grasses to use in reseeding ranges. Crested
wheat is the most outstanding so far. Mr. Donald Sutherland reports that the Nicola Livestock Breeders' Association are showing considerable interest in range reseeding.
Seed of crested-wheat grass and other dry-land grasses has been distributed by both the
Field Crops Branch and the B.C. Field Crop Union working together in various areas.
Encouragement has also been given by both of these organizations to the improvement of
pastures. Articles have been written drawing attention to the importance of this subject
and demonstration plots have been laid out with two kinds of mixtures. For soils containing
a fair amount of moisture the following mixtures have been used: English wild white clover,
creeping red fescue, orchard-grass, timothy, and perennial rye. For the drier soils a mixture
of alfalfa and brome is being tested. In addition to this, the " Elliot Mixture " as used in
some parts of England is being tried out.
CROP-TESTING.
The lack of information with respect to the suitability of varieties for various sections
of the Province has been evident for some years. In a Province such as this, with such a wide
variety of soils and climatic conditions, it is difficult to obtain definite information other than
by local tests. Realizing the importance of this, the Dominion Cerealist kindly consented to
co-operate in having such tests conducted. As a result samples of seed of various varieties
were supplied by the Dominion Cerealist for test purposes in the following districts: Agassiz,
Ladner, Telkwa, and Vanderhoof, oats;   Woodpecker, barley.
In addition to the samples supplied by the Dominion Cerealist, samples of local oats
(both commercial and registered seed) were included in the test-plots in all of the districts.
Two methods of testing were followed—namely, randomized test-plots and single rod row plots
(three rows 16% feet long to the plot).
Some difficulty was experienced in connection with these tests, as practically all those
who supplied the land had had no previous experience with work of this nature and the
facilities for conducting the tests were not always the best. The grain from the various
plots was threshed at the Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz, and those who had supervision of the plots were: James Travis, District Agriculturist, Prince George; S. G. Preston,
District Agriculturist, Smithers; and W. Sandall, Field Inspector, Vancouver. The farmers
who co-operated were: C. Prout, Vanderhoof; Kolling and Pauli, Woodpecker; M. Davie,
Ladner; and A. Howell, Telkwa. The co-operation of all these people is greatly appreciated.
The results of these tests are all on file in the Field Crops Office.
FIELD-CROP SEED PRODUCTION.
Encouragement continues to be given to the production of various field-crop seeds in those
districts considered suitable for the production of such seeds. Figures showing the production
of field-crop seeds for the year 1936 are not yet available. The following statement shows
the amount of seed produced in 193-5:—
Mangel   5,075
Sugar-beet   2,180
Swede turnip   3,200
Carrot (field)  :  500
Alfalfa   56,000
Clover, alsike  100,000
Clover, red   150,000
Timothy  1,200,000
Timothy and alsike (mixed)   40,000'
Meadow-fescue   8,000 P 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In view of the fact that crested wheat appears to have a definite place in the agriculture
of certain districts, some attention is being given to the production of seed. During the
past year small quantities of seed have been produced by several farmers.
Increased interest is being shown in swede-turnip seed production. In 1935 two varieties
of swede turnips were sent into the .Smithers District—namely, Ditmars Bronze Top and
U.B.C. Cylindrical—for trial purposes. These turned out very satisfactorily and the Department was asked to send in a further supply of seed in 1936 to enable those who had tried them
to produce their own seed. Mr. S. G. Preston, District Agriculturist at Smithers, reports
that the second year's trial met with equally as good results and it is hoped to establish a
uniform crop for market.
Efforts are also being made in the Kersley District to grow U.B.C. Cylindrical turnip-
seed. Mr. G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist ait Williams Lake, reports that in the fall
of 1-935 roots were selected from a number of different fields for the purpose of seed
production. About 40 lb. of seed were grown and this amount will more than supply the
district.    Seed-roots were again selected last fall and the project will be continued.
In the Okanagan, through the co-operation of Messrs. Middleton and Evans, a limited
quantity of Ladak alfalfa-seed has been produced.
DISTRICT SEED FAIRS.
Three district seed fairs were held, one in conjunction with the Interior Exhibition at
Armstrong and the others at Prince George and Dawson Creek. Considerable interest is
shown in these fairs and they are proving of value not only in encouraging the production
of seed in local areas, but also in raising the standard of the seed used for sowing. The best
exhibits are forwarded to the annual Provincial Seed Fair.
SOIL ANALYTICAL WORK.
A large number of soil examples have been submitted to the Provincial Analyst for
examination, and the results have been interpreted by Mr. Paul C. Black, who has been
handling this phase of the work. In addition to this, thirty-four samples of soil were analysed
by Mr. S. S. Phillips, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, by means of the Spurway method.
These reports, which have been carefully recorded, are all on file in the Field Crops Office.
SEED-CLEANING MACHINERY.
The Provincial and Federal Departments' policy in giving assistance in the purchase
of seed-cleaning machinery is still in operation. A number of small hand-machines were
supplied to isolated districts in the Peace River Block, where conditions 'are such that power-
machines are not advisable at the present time.
A new Monitor power-cleaner was installed at Francois Lake to replace the Clipper
power-machine which has been located there for several years. This latter machine was
transferred to Houston. Also, a new and larger power-machine was installed at Telkwa
and the Clipper machine which was located there for several yeans was transferred to the
Woodpecker District, where considerable enthusiasm is being displayed in the production of
alsike-seed.
CHICAGO INTERNATIONAL AND TORONTO ROYAL.
British Columbia exhibitors participated in the grain and seed sections of the Chicago
International and Toronto Royal Shows again this year and made creditable showing. Mr.
C. W. Stirling, of Sidney, capturedi first prize in the large-pea class at Toronto and was
named " Grand Champion" for all the ipea classes. At Chicago Mr. Stirling was again
first in the large-pea class and was named " Reserve Grand Champion." The variety was
" Stirling." It is interesting to note that this variety has taken high honours at the Chicago
for a number of years.
Mr. Stirling also exhibited at Chicago another new pea originated by himself which
captured first place in the " Any other colour " field-pea class. Attached to this report is a
complete list of British Columbia winnings at Toronto and Chicago. ANNUAL SEED FAIR.
The annual 'Seed Fair was held in conjunction with the Winter Fair at Hastings Park,
Vancouver, December 7th to 9th. The number of entries was below those of 1936, but the
general quality of the exhibits was high. Officials of the Dominion Seed Branch and of the
Vancouver Exhibition Association co-operated with this Department in the staging of the
Fair.
THRESHING-MACHINES.
In accordance with the requirements of the " Noxious Weeds Act," threshermen are
required to submit statements of the amount of grain and 'seed threshed annually by them.
As all reports have not yet been received, it is impossible to submit a complete statement
of the number of threshing-machines in operation and the amount of grain and seed threshed
in the various areas.
PEACE  RIVER  CO-OPERATIVE   SEED-GROWERS'  ASSOCIATION.
At a meeting held in Dawson Creek on November 7th the farmers in the Peace River
Block decided to link up with the Peace River Co-operative Seed-growers' Association, with
headquarters at Grande Prairie.
Mr. Thomas Crack, Acting District Agriculturist at Pouce Coupe, makes the following
statement in his report in reference to this matter: " The directors of the association were
present at the meeting and agreed that if twenty new shareholders could be obtained from
the Block at $25 per share they would send in an up-to-date power cleaning-machine, with a
man to operate it." It has since been learned that the required number of shareholders
have been secured and that the association will be sending in the cleaning-machine
early in February.
HAY AND GRASS DRYING.
Some correspondence has been received during the year regarding hay and grass driers
and the practicability of farmers installing such machines on their farms. The loss which
occurs in some districts with the first crop of alfalfa, clover, etc., is the reason no doubt
for inquiries being made on this subject. Furthermore, considerable publicity has been given
in the press to the system of drying grass as practised in some European countries.
Your Commissioner has made some investigations in this respect, and finds that hay-
driers range in price from $5,000 to $50,000, although a machine designed by Professor Wm.
Aitkenhead, of Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, is quoted at $1,200. A satisfactory
grass-drier can be purchased for $2,500.
It is interesting to note that about 6,000 tons of dried grass were produced in England
in 1936. Already the output could have been sold many times over. Experimental work in
England suggests that grass cut between 11 a.m. and 4 p.m. contained less moisture than
when cut at other times. The cost per ton of producing dried grass varied from £3 13s. 4d.
to £5 7s. lid.
At the Rowett Institute it was found that 10' lb. of dried grass was more effective for
sustaining milk yield than was 15 lb. swede turnips, 4 lb. straw, and 4 lb. concentrates. The
naked eye was sufficient for one to see that milk from cows getting dried grass was of a
better colour than was that from those not receiving such grass.
WHEAT-MIDGE.
Several bad infestations of wheat-midge, particularly in spring wheat, were reported
during the year. In this connection the co-operation of Mr. W. Downes, Dominion
Entomologist, was sought and a meeting of farmers in the Cedar District, Nanaimo, was
held. This district was subject to one of the worst infestations of wheat-midge. As a
result of this meeting a demonstration plot was established in the district under the
supervision of Mr. S. S. Phillips, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner. Two varieties of
fall wheat—namely, Sun and Dawson's Golden Chaff—were sown last fall on a 4-acre plot.
The reason fall varieties were selected is because, from observations made elsewhere, fall
varieties are less susceptible to attacks from this pest. At the present time very little fall
wheat is grown in the Nanaimo-Cedar District, probably due to the fact that drainage
conditions on many farms are not satisfactory.
6 P 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SOY-BEANS.
The production of soy-beans has been receiving some attention in various parts of the
Province during recent years, and more particularly in the Chilliwack District during the
past year. This has been due, in part, to the work of the B.C. Field Crop Union and a feed
company of Chilliwack. About 100 acres were planted to soy-beans in the Chilliwack District.
It would appear from results obtained so far that early-maturing varieties can be successfully
ripened on most of the soils in the Fraser Valley; whilst the later varieties show some promise
as hay or fodder plants.
The Chilliwack company has in mind putting on the market soy-bean hay meal. The
soy-bean is a very valuable plant which has many uses. Large acreages are grown in
various parts of the United States.    At the present time our soy-bean supplies are imported.
OLLI BARLEY.
Experiments conducted at the Federal Experimental Station at Beaverlodge, Alberta,
during recent years have shown Olli barley to be an early-maturing high-yield variety.
The original seed was obtained by the Dominion Cerealist from Finland.
Your Commissioner contacted the Dominion Cerealist, and as a result was successful
in obtaining a small quantity of seed for distribution in Central British Columbia. The
seed was duly planted by several farmers, but at the time of preparing this report the
results are not available. It is felt, however, that this barley may have a definite place in
Central British Columbia agriculture.
A quantity of seed of this same variety of barley was also distributed in the Peace
River Block through the medium of the Federal Experimental Station at Beaverlodge. That
grown by Mr. Norman Dow, of Pouce Coupe, yielded 65 bushels to the acre; that by Mr.
Corry, of Sunset Prairie, yielded 77 bushels per acre; and that by Mr. J. W. Abbott, of
Baldonnel, yielded 74 bushels per acre.
GRAIN SCREENINGS.
The District Field Inspector at Vancouver, Mr. Walter Sandall, reports that twenty-seven
permits for the removal of grain screenings—that is, elevator and refuse screenings—have
been issued to feed merchants or dealers, and that under these permits approximately
265 car-loads of screenings were consumed in the Province. During the same period seventeen
feeders' permits were issued to seven applicants.
The total quantity of screenings removed from British Columbia grain-elevators during
the year for use in the Province was approximately as follows: No. 1 and No. 2 feed
screenings, 1,191 tons; elevator and refuse screenings, 7,960 tons. In addition, there were
approximately 8,072 tons of screenings exported to the United States.
SOCIETY OF AGRONOMISTS.
During the year the B.C. Society of Agronomists was reorganized. This organization
was started several years ago and accomplished much useful work. For various reasons
it has been inactive during recent years. The society is made up of representatives of the
University of British Columbia and Federal and Provincial Departments of Agriculture.
Two meetings of the executive were held during the year and your Commissioner attended
both meetings.
NATIONAL BARLEY COMMITTEE.
The National Barley Committee held a meeting in March in Toronto. Your Commissioner was in attendance and gave a report on the barley situation in this Province. A
report of this meeting has already been filed in the Department.
CROP COMPETITIONS.
Three standing-crop competitions were held during the year, but no combined field-crop
and cleaned-seed competitions. The districts in which the standing-crop competitions took
place were as follows: Stewart Flats and Progress, in the Peace River Block, and Armstrong.
The two referred to first were green oats and the latter field corn. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 71
B.C. WINNINGS AT INTERNATIONAL HAY AND GRAIN SHOW, CHICAGO, 1936.
Field Peas, Large Yellow.—1, C. W. Stirling, Sidney;   2, J. Decker, Pemberton.
Field Peas, Small Yellow.—5, B. Young, Koksilah.
Field Peas, Any Other Colour.—1, C. W. Stirling, Sidney.
Reserve Champion, Field Peas.—C. W. Stirling, Sidney.
Red-clover Seed.—20, E. J. Down, Woodpecker.
Hard Red Spring Wheat.—2, W. G. Gibson, Ladner;   12, Mrs. A. Kelsey, Erickson;
13, William Rogers, Tappen.
White Winter Wheat.—7, B. Young, Koksilah.
B.C. WINNINGS AT TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR, 1936.
A. Grain in Sacks.
(a.)  Winter Wheat.—6, B. Young, Koksilah.
(6) Spring Wheat.—4, William Rogers, Tappen;   6, G. K. Landon, Armstrong,
(c.)  Six-rowed Barley.—10, B. Young, Koksilah.
(d.) Field Peas.—1, C. W. Stirling, Sidney;   2, John Decker, Pemberton;   3, B. Young,
Koksilah.
(e.)  Flint Corn (Any Yellow Variety).—6, Mrs. A. Kelsey, Erickson.
(/.) Sweet Corn (8-rowed).—2, Mattock Bros., Rayleigh Mount.
B. Registered or Certified Seed.
(a.)  Oats (Medium or Late).—3, B. Young, Koksilah.
C. Potatoes.
(a.)  Green Mountain Group (Extra No. 1).—5', J. Decker, Pemberton.
(6.) Irish Cobbler Group (Extra No. 1).—1, J. Decker, Pemberton.
(c.) Any Other Variety (Extra No. 1).—-6, J. H. Avent, Courtenay;   7, J. Decker,
Pemberton.
Field-pea Championship.—C. W. Stirling, Sidney.
D. Boys' and Girls' Classes.
(a.)  Green Mountain Potatoes.—7, Gordon Davis, Milner;   11, E. L. Bull, Milner.
(b.) Any Other Variety of Potatoes.—14, A. Schindler, Grindrod.
REPORT ON SOIL-SURVEYS.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A.
Accurate figures for the total area mapped by the soil-survey in 1936 are not yet available.
Approximately, the area surveyed covers over 500,000 acres. The total is made up from
surveys in three areas, the largest being the Lower Fraser Valley, which was mapped from
the Chilliwack-Agassiz District to the Coast.
The next largest area mapped was the Kootenay Flats, near Creston, where about
30,000 acres of the Kootenay River Delta Flats were examined between the International
Boundary and Kootenay Landing.
Finally, about 4,000 acres were mapped on a large scale in the Okanagan Valley at
Kelowna.
Field-work for the year commenced on April 20th and was continuous until November
25th. The time between December 1st and March 31st will be devoted to the preparation
of maps and reports on areas surveyed, a short enough period considering the great mass
of material still in the rough form of field-notes.
LOWER FRASER VALLEY.
Problems related to soil-fertility and plant-growth in the Lower Fraser Valley have for
years taxed the ingenuity of Government and University investigators to a point where a
more systematic method of approach was deemed necessary.   The final decision came in p 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the form of a request from the Raspberry Committee that soils in the areas in which
raspberries are grown be mapped and classified into types. This proposal was then enlarged
to include the whole region.
The objective of this soil-survey was to define and map the main soil divisions of the
Lower Fraser Valley, so that the soils and agriculture of these various divisions might stand
out for comparison with one another. With this work accomplished, it would then be possible
to study the weaknesses and strength of each different type of soil as a separate problem,
in this way systematizing soils research.
In the Lower Fraser Valley the climate is humid. Precipitation is greater than
evaporation. Therefore the movement of water is a downward percolation, dissolving
plant-food elements, and washing them out into the streams and rivers and finally into the
sea. Soil-leaching leads to deficiency of compounds necessary for the normal growth of
plants, which in turn affects the nutrition of both man and animals. While the climate has
a blanket effect over all types of soil, it must be emphasized that each kind of soil influences
crop production in one way or another, and hence the need of defining all important distinctions
so that research can be carried on under favourable conditions.
The Lower Fraser Valley is the most important agricultural region in British Columbia.
It still contains comparatively large areas suitable for agricultural development. It also
contains smaller areas where the clearing and cultivating of land should certainly be
discouraged. The use of soil-survey data is therefore of real importance from the standpoint
of scientific land-use in the region as a whole.
Twelve soil divisions were mapped and described. The soils of the Lower Fraser Valley
were related to the soils of Washington State by the use of maps and data from the
Reconnaissance Survey of the Eastern Part of the Puget Sound Basin, undertaken in 190'9.
This relationship will make possible a comparison of Washington and Fraser Valley agriculture on the same soil types, and will also make available any research results achieved
by the University of Washington on the soil types crossing the International Boundary.
The product of this survey will be a soil map of the Lower Fraser Valley and a descriptive
report, which will be prepared in due course for publication in bulletin form.
SOIL SURVEY OF KOOTENAY RIVER FLATS.
For three weeks in the latter part of July and early August, field-work in the Lower
Fraser Valley was stopped in order to undertake a reconnaissance soil-survey of the
Kootenay River Delta, known as the Kootenay River Flats, which extend from Kootenay
Landing up-stream to the International Boundary and into Idaho for a distance of about
20 miles to Bonners Ferry.
On the Idaho side Dyking District No. 1, at Bonners Ferry, was organized in 1920.
It has been cropped since 1921. Since that time a total of thirteen separate areas have
been dyked between Bonners Ferry and the International Boundary. For the past fifteen
years these dyked areas have been used for grain-growing, with small acreages of other
crops. Notable yields of wheat have been obtained. It is natural, therefore, that some
development should take place on the Canadian side.
In British Columbia certain dykes were constructed near the Border on the area known
as Kootenay Reclamation Farm as far back as 1892. In 1932 application was made for
permission to repair these works and drain some 7,700 acres for cultivation.
In 1927 application was made for permission to dyke an area defined as Creston Reclamation Project, Unit No. 1, covering about 7,300 acres. In both areas the total of about
15,000 acres is now dyked and cultivated for wheat. This is roughly about half of the
land available for reclamation.
As yet this land has produced only from one to several crops and the growers are naturally
interested in its relationship to the Idaho side, where there is a fifteen-year period of cropping
experience, and also in the possibilities for crops other than wheat.
The soil type was examined on both sides of the International Border. Field data for
a suitaible map and report have been secured, which will be prepared and submitted in
due course. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 73
SOIL-SURVEY OF BENVOULIN FLATS, KELOWNA.
After completion of the Fraser Valley field-work a soil-survey of the Benvoulin Flats
at Kelowna was undertaken in November in order to complete the Okanagan field-work of
1935. About 4,000 acres were mapped in detail and alkali and water-table conditions were
examined.
In this area annual precipitation is 11.32 inches and evaporation is greater than precipitation. There is an upward movement of water causing the deposition of lime and
alkali salts near the .surface. The tendency in the southern part of the Okanagan Valley
is for soils to accumulate lime and other salts, especially where drainage is poor, and the
reaction is alkaline.
In contrast to this, the annual precipitation in the Lower Fraser Valley is 40 to 60
inches, and salts including lime are leached from the soil. The result is an acid reaction,
in some cases injurious to plant-life. Because of this climatic effect lime must be added
to the soil to neutralize acid, and crops may not have the same nutritional value as those
grown in the semi-arid Okanagan Valley, unless fertilization is very complete.
OTHER WORK.
In the Fraser Valley seventeen test-plots were laid out with trace elements at Hatzic,
B.C., to determine whether or not certain root-diseases affecting Cuthbert raspberries are
related to soil deficiencies.    Any results from these plots will be noted next year.
A detailed soil-survey was made of test-plots under Cuthbert raspberries at Hatzic, which
are supervised by the Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz.
A detailed soil-survey was made of the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz, from
which a special map and report will be prepared.
Following successful experiments with underdrainage in the Okanagan Valley in 1935,
consulting-work has been done in connection with seepage and drainage problems in
the Okanagan fruit areas.
REPORT OF POULTRY COMMISSIONER.
J. R. Terry.
The past year has been, on the whole, a little more profitable for breeders and those
engaged in the industry than for a few years past. A late winter and spring weather
conditions were inimical to the best results, both in hatching and production records, but, as
is generally the case, later hatching results were appreciably benefited by the enforced rest
occasioned the birds. Spring was abnormally late, with the result that egg prices did not
sag so quickly as in normal weather. The annual forced sale of hens and pullets by breeders
hard pressed financially was again in evidence. It has been repeatedly pointed out by this
Branch that those breeders who gamble each year by hatching too many pullets are taking
too many risks. By selling some of the pullets in late fall, when there is generally a
demand, they are enabled to buy feed for the birds kept. As it is, the first cold snap which
may affect the egg yield, accompanied by a demand from the feed merchant for payments for
feed long overdue, forces the breeder to dump the pullets on the market at a time when
they should shortly begin to repay for their raising.
Egg prices for the past ten years were :—
1926
1)927
1928
1929
1930
1931
Cents.
  30
1932 	
1933 	
1934 	
Cents.
  15
   29
29
  15
  15
  30
1935 	
1936 	
  16
  24%
  21
  20 P 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
MARKET DEMANDS.
With the exception of the months from November to January, during which time the
demand is for heavy fowls, the rest of the year only medium-sized birds are in demand. From
3 to 4% lb. seem to be the popular fancy. To supply this requirement, more and more
breeders who cater principally to this class of trade are utilizing game male birds for
crossing purposes. A word of warning is again uttered for the benefit of those thinking
of trying out this work. Unless one is what may be termed a natural feeder, it will most
likely prove unprofitable. Chicks hatched for this purpose have to be fed entirely different
to those hatched for laying. A system whereby 90 per cent, of the feeds used should be
fed in the form of a wet or moist mash is necessary. The danger of unrestricted importation
of live fowls from the East should always be reckoned with before launching out heavily.
The winter holiday season is the period when importations may be expected.
BREEDING OPERATIONS.
Breeding results were very similar to those of the preceding year. The very late
spring and severe cold snaps held up full production for a period well on to the end of
March. The production of very early chicks was not so heavy as usual, but later on
hatcheries and breeders got into full swing, with the result that past totals were possibly
topped for the past three or four years.
Unfortunately, feed prices raced away from egg prices and this would naturally deter
some from expanding as desired.
The demand for sexed chicks or day-old pullets was again strong, and the work of
selection was practically all done by Orientals specially permitted to enter the country for
this purpose. As mentioned in last report, many breeders also took advantage of the
sex-linked method of crossing two breeds the progeny of which show by colour of plumage
or down the nature of the sexes at birth.
In the past few years quite a number of breeding fowls has been imported from this
Province by Great Britain. Further restrictions have now been placed on all fowls entering
the British Isles. Clean bills of health must be provided with all birds forwarded. Certificates will only be accepted if signed by Dominion Live Stock Health officials.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS.
A slight increase in clubs has to be recorded, thirty being formed. The Central British
Columbia portion has dropped out of the picture as far as clubs are concerned. One club
only, that at Giscome, was organized in the North this year.
Rhode Island Reds were again the favourite breed, with Barred Rocks, Wyandottes, and
Leghorns following. Possibly this has been the best year recorded for uniformly good
hatching results. One or two clubs decided to purchase day-old chicks. This procedure in
the immediate past has been out of the question for the majority of clubs, as where chicks
are purchased it is difficult to get broody hens to take the chicks, and this would necessitate
the laborious work of utilizing hot-water bottles or tireless brooders. Again, many might
have to buy small brooders.
The Okanagan, Kootenay, Boundary, and Vancouver Island Districts were the locations
for the majority of the clubs. Many of the officials of the local Poultry Associations were
very energetic in organizing clubs. Farmers' and Women's Institutes were also active in the
good work.
Poultry-judging classes were again held at Vancouver, Victoria, and Armstrong. At the
last-mentioned point elimination trials were held for contestants to the " Royal " Dominion
Judging Competitions at Toronto. At Vancouver the judging classes are open to all comers,
but owing to expense there were no club members from Vancouver Island or Interior.
POULTRY-DISEASES.
Breeders are slowly beginning to realize the importance of continuous culling the year
round if they wish to avoid the heavy mortality which seems to be becoming general. There
have been losses of nearly 30 per cent, reported to the Department this year amongst flocks
which were not culled or selected in any way. Too many beginners and a few experienced
breeders seem to be devoid of sufficient courage or far-sightedness to cull out any females DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936. P 75
from flocks under their care that are not up to par. Not much difficulty has ever been
experienced in getting them to throw out males not fit for breeding.
There have been fewer reports of outbreaks this past year, and losses through these outbreaks appear to have been lighter also.
Coccidiosis and paralysis made up a majority of the complaints received. Infectious
bronchitis was reported several times. More and more rearers are making use of the raised
platform or sun-porch for young stock from hatching until 8 or 10 weeks of age. Where chicks
are kept off the soil for this length of time many outbreaks of disease are avoided, especially
where the soil has been heavily stocked for years. Too much caution cannot be exercised in
selecting the site for rearing young stock if the chicks are to be put out on the soil. The run
of an orchard or a cornfield is amongst the best sites for complete success with rearing. The
more range the better, as it also reduces the cost of feed per chick, gets the birds matured
quicker, and also makes a great difference in the mortality.
TURKEYS.
An average crop was grown this year, and it is pleasing to note that better prices were
the rule. This is as it should be, as the feed costs have been much higher than last year.
Interior breeders have an advantage over coastal raisers, inasmuch as the lessened rainfall
and added sunlight period makes the rearing-work much cheaper and easier.
Far too many breeders, however, on general mixed farms allow their turkey flocks to
mingle with their ordinary fowls on the range. This should not be allowed, especially in the
case of young stock. The spread of " blackhead " is greatly facilitated by this means.
Overstocking also takes its toll.
The demand by consumers for a medium-sized turkey is causing breeders to veer from
the larger heavy type of birds. Females about 12 lb. and males up to about 16 lb. are now
in general demand as breeders.
Complaints were again heard re depredations of wild animals among the flocks. This
trouble is confined principally to points east of Hope.
Several breeders again exported valuable breeding stock to United States and Eastern
Canadian points at lucrative prices.
WATER-FOWL.
An average crop is to be recorded, principally in general-purpose ducks kept for egg
production, and in geese, Toulouse particularly. Khaki-Campbell ducks and Indian Runners
are kept for excellent egg production. At many points now duck-eggs are regularly offered
for sale at prices equal or higher than Grade A large fowl-eggs. Many flocks average well
over 16 dozen yearly. Pekins, a white-plumaged, medium- to large-sized duck, are still the
most popular general-purpose water-fowl. Many breeders, however, fail to receive the profits
possibly obtainable, by faulty methods in feeding and dilatoriness in marketing. Table-
ducklings should be disposed of before they are twelve weeks, preferably at nine to ten weeks,
by which time properly fed ducks should have attained a weight of from 5% to 6% lb. The
feeding of a moist mash three times daily, with plenty of grit and greenstuffs, is advised.
In the case of geese, these may be grass-fed or mash-fed for market purposes. If grass-
fed, a much longer period is necessary, and also an addition of grain or mash fed for the last
month or three weeks. Where a mash of moistened ground grains are fed about twice daily,
the young goslings will be much larger and growth attained in much less time, especially if
access can be had to greenstuffs daily. Whilst there isn't much call for " green " geese or
goslings, yet a sufficient demand for them may be stimulated amongst the Hebrew race if the
supply is available.
BLOOD-TESTING.
This (the second year) work was again undertaken by the Department working by
arrangement with the U.B.C, which supplied laboratory and equipment; the Dominion
Department, which provided laboratory officials under the supervision of Dr. E. A. Bruce, of
the Pathological Branch; and the culling, banding, assembling, material, and inspection work
delegated to our Department officials, with Mr. G. L. Landon assisted by Mr. John Smith.
Both Inspectors far surpassed last year's efforts.    The above handled well over 70,000 birds, P 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
being nearly twice as many as last year. Three flocks on the Island were handled by the
writer. The weather was similar to that experienced last year—fog, rain, and frost—which
somewhat handicapped our Department staff.
The test this year reveals a much lower quota of reactors, and it is very encouraging to
note that the Inspectors met far less cases of disease of various forms than last year. Breeders
have again shown appreciation of the rigid culling-work of our Inspectors. In some of the
flocks last year quite a percentage of the fowls were found suffering with roup, catarrhal colds,
and allied ailments. This year the same breeders' flocks have but a tithe of this trouble.
Many breeders admit that they have practised more systematic culling than ever before. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936.
P 77
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 3.
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia, 1936.
Name.
Instituted.
Secretary.
Supervisor.
Departmental
Grant.
Bulkley Valley	
Chilliwack, Route 1~
Chilliwack, Route 2_
Chilliwack, Route 3..
Comox Valley	
Dewdney-Deroche..
Langley 	
North Okanagan-
Okasnagan	
Oct.,
March,
Nov.,
April,
1926
1913
1928
1927
April,     1914
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge..
Richmond-Ladner	
Sumas>-Matsqui	
Surrey.	
Oct.,
June,
July,
April,
Nov.,
March,
Nov.,
Nov.,
1930
1914
1929
1920
1925
1919
H923
1924
Vancouver Island (South).
April,     1929
W. Billeter, Smithers..
W. S. Annis, R.R. 1, Chilliwack-
W. S. Annis, R.R. 1, Chilliwack..
W. S. Annis, R.R. 1, Chilliwack..
W. E. Mantle, Sandwick	
Father A. M. D. Gillen, Mission	
B. J. A. Campbell, Murrayville	
B. H. Morris, Enderby	
J. Spall, Kelowna 	
S. T. Rippington, Pitt Meadows.—
S. H. Gilmore, Steveston	
B. Stewart, Abbotsford .	
F. McKinnon, Box 11, Cloverdale..
R. Rendle, 1118 Johnson Street, Victoria
■*{
A. H. R. Howell...
J. J. Andrews	
J. E. Manning	
J. E. Wingrove.—
T. G. M. Clarke.-.
Leslie McKinnon..
H. C. Clark	
Wm. Rose—	
Alf. Johnson	
Wm. Hooson	
W. E. Hawthorne
D. S. Heelas	
R. A. Wilson	
Geddes Jess	
G. G. Grimes	
T. G. M. Clarke	
$900.00
620.00
620.00
545.00
- 600.00
620.00
620.00
620.00
620.00
620.00
620.00
620.00
620.00
- 620.00
APPENDIX No. 4.
Live-stock Survey in British Columbia, June, 1936.
1935.
Total horses   59,537
Cattle-
Bulls, 1 year old and over  7,200
Cows and heifers, 2 years and over—
(a.)  For  milk  purposes   1  106,100
(6.)   For beef purposes   58,100
Yearling heifers—
(a.)  For milk purposes   25,200'
(6.)  For beef purposes   21,200
Heifer  calves   33,700
Bull calves   17,800
Steers, 2 years old and over  16,300
Yearling  steers    18,400
Steer calves   8,700
Total cattle 	
Swine over 6 months old „.
Swine under 6 months old
312,700
14,900
33,600
Total swine   48,500
Sheep and lambs—
Over 1 year—
(a.)  Ewes  !  86,100
(b.)  Rams     2,800
Under 1 year—■
(a.)  Ewes    47,400
(6.)  Wethers     34,900
(c.)  Rams   4,200
Total sheep
175,400
1936.
58,470
7,700
117,800
57,100
28,200
21,900
33,000
14,500
20,400
19,500
8,200
328,300
15,000
36,000
51,000
87,500
2,900
48,000
36,000
3,500
177,900 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1936.
P 81
APPENDIX No. 5.
Summary of Premises inspected and graded.
No. of
Premises
No. of
Cattle.
No. of
Cows.
Class.
District.
A.
B.
C.
Ungraded.
418
3,265
146
76
41
43
39
155
5,293
48,951
1,903
1,069
492
790
159
1,0(36
4,240
28,899
1,503
1,069
492
790
130
872
234
177
43
3
2
4
13
95
2,857
44
54
17
30
5
13
8
187
2
4
11
81
44
58
Interior.—	
25
20
9
30
118
4,182
59,693
37,995
476
3,115
212
385
Summary of Premises visited and Cattle T.B.-tested.
District.
No. of Premises.        No. of Cattle. No. of Cows
No. of Reactors.
Central B.C. and Interior Districts .
Vancouver Island 	
East Kootenay 	
Interior 	
West Kootenay-
Okanagan	
192
378
145
84
49
50
Totals..
1,195
4,659
1,903
1,008
492
429
9,686
1,002
3,702
1,503
1,008
492
429
8,136
9
12
7
1
29 P 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1936.
P 83
APPENDIX No. 7.
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1936.
Cariboo.
Williams Lake 	
Lac la Haehe, Soda Creek, and Quesnel	
Clinton, Lone Butte, and 100-Mile House, Lillooet.
Totals 	
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.
Kamloops and Chase
Nicola 	
Ashcroft and Lytton
Salmon Arm 	
Totals
Okanagan.
Vernon and Lumby 	
Armstrong and Enderby
Kelowna   	
Penticton  	
Totals
Similkameen.
Princeton 	
Coalmont  	
Keremeos and Hedley
Oliver  	
Totals
South-east British Columbia.
Grand Forks and Greenwood
Nelson, Creston, etc. 	
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc.	
Invermere, Golden, etc. 	
Totals
Central British Columbia.
Prince George, Vanderhoof, etc.
Smithers, Telkwa, etc. _—	
Burns Lake 	
Totals
Peace River.
Pouce Coupe, Fort St. John, Dawson Creek, and Rolla.
Cattle.
6,983
1,253
3,366
11,592
3,291
5,175
1,246
87
9,799
589
180
256
200
1,226
285
859
1,144
378
1
115
158
652
417
511
676
1,604
1,963
Hides.
634
1,159
964
2,757
2,497
1,228
470
1,425
5,620
3,078
763
2,039
764
6,644
438
179
519
854
1,990
975
1,956
2,045
1,485
6,461
602
176
107
885
564 P 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No.-7—Continued.
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1936—Continued.
Totals compared.
193«.
1935.
1934.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
11,592
9,799
2,369
652
3,567
2,757
5,620
8,634
6,461
1,449
11,340
11,979
2,222
493
2,505
1,713
4,901
7,853
6,368
1,058
10,103
9,781
1,628
273
1,838
1,806
Kamloops and Nicola
4,250
6,068
4,214
715
Totals—  	
27,979
24,921
28,539
21,893
23,623
17,053
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937.
1,075-537-6364

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