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PART C ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR THE YEAR ENDED… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1937]

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 PART C
ANNUAL EEPORT
MINISTEE OF MINES
OF   THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FOR  THE
Year Ended 31st December
1936
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chakles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937. BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Hon. George S. Pearson, Minister.
John F. Walker, Deputy Minister and Provincial Mineralogist.
James Dickson, Chief Inspector of Mines.
D. E. Whittaker, Provincial Assayer and Analyst.
P. B. Freeland, Chief Mining Engineer.
R. J. Steenson, Chief Gold Commissioner. .2 91
3 2
fa 3
■o  NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 3
PART C.
NORTH-EASTERN MINERAL SURVEY DISTRICT  (No. 2).
BY
Douglas Lay.
SUMMARY.
Activity during the year again centred largely on lode- and placer-gold deposits.
Lode-gold production suffered from the interruption to operations at the property of
Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Company, Limited, caused by the loss by fire of the power plant
in March. On completion of its new power plant this company increased its rate of milling
to 200 tons daily, and the combined daily tonnage milled by this company and Island Mountain
Mines Company, Limited, the two producing lode-gold properties in the Cariboo District, now
reaches about 325 tons.
An increase in lode-gold mining activity was general throughout the Cariboo District.
Mining activities were confined to individual and small-scale effort in the Omineca Mining
Division. The lode-gold possibilities of certain parts of this Mining Division, to which attention has been drawn in the publications of this Department, seem to warrant more active
investigation than is now taking place.
Great activity continued in placer-mining, and it is now estimated that the production
will be greater than for many years past. The chief contributors were Consolidated Gold
Alluvials of B.C., Limited, and Bullion Placers, Limited.
The growth of activity in the Manson section during the year was marked, and quite heavy
motor-truck traffic developed in the autumn on the route to this section from Fort St. James.
Examination during the year rendered evident that this section is responding well to development, and present activities seem likely to be maintained.
Noteworthy was the adaptation of the Diesel-powered " bulldozer" to placer-mining
operations by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, Limited, at its property on
Slate Creek. The many purposes to which this useful machine can be put seem likely to meet
with increasing recognition in placer operations of a certain kind.
A pilot-mill of 2 tons hourly capacity for the recovery of tungsten was erected at the
Hardscrabble mine near Wells by Columbia Tungstens, Limited. The management anticipated
that it would be possible to commence milling in the late autumn.
Much activity was manifested by prospectors generally. The initiative and energy shown
by individual placer-miners and the success they obtained was noteworthy. New discoveries
were made of occurrences of lode gold, placer, manganese, and magnetite, of which further
mention will be found in the body of this report.
Coal-mining was carried on by F. M. Dockrill at the Bulkley Valley Colliery, and by the
Northwest Anthracite Syndicate on Hudson Bay Mountain.
The writer desires to express his cordial thanks for the co-operation and kind hospitality
extended by prospectors and mine operators in the course of his duties.
Production from this district for the year is as follows: Ore, 95,419 tons; gold, lode,
36,772 oz.;  silver, 7,862 oz.;  lead, 763 lb.;  zinc, 954 1b.;  placer gold, 21,298 oz.
PLACER DEPOSITS.
Germansen River.
Introduction.
A period of ten days was occupied in an examination of placer deposits on this river.
Those now being worked are confined to the lower half of the river, but as a correct understanding of these cannot be obtained without consideration of the river as a whole, and
surrounding topographic and other features, a short time was spent in an examination of
the upper part of the river. C 4 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
Germansen Lake may be reached by aeroplane from Fort St. James within one hour.
Alternatively, the river or lake may be reached by the road now in the course of construction
between Fort St. James and the Manson section. In this section there is now quite an extensive wagon-road system connecting Lost Creek, Slate Creek, Germansen River, and Germansen
Lake. The road from Fort St. James was not, in the autumn, passable throughout for motor
traffic. The distance from Fort St. James to Slate Creek (camp of Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Company, Limited) is about 120 miles. Distances from this point to Germansen
Lake, and to the camp of Germansen.Mines, Limited, on Germansen River, are 9 miles and
8 miles respectively. From the property of Germansen Mines, Limited, the road follows the
high ground on the right bank of the river descending to river-level at Ah Hoo Creek. From
this point a foot-trail follows the river closely to a foot-bridge just above the old townsite of
Germansen, and thereafter follows the west side of the river to its mouth. The grade followed
as far as Ah Hoo Creek is easy, and this part of the road could with little difficulty be made
passable for motor traffic.
The Germansen River rises in Germansen Lake and flows south-easterly for the first
2 miles in a wide valley of mature relief. It then turns sharply north-east to enter a rock
canyon about three-quarters of a mile long, with walls rising some hundreds of feet above the
river. The South Fork, hardly less inferior in size, joins the main stream below the canyon
after flowing on the opposite side of the wide rock-walled valley for a distance of about half
a mile. Continuing for 4V2 miles, the river makes another sharp turn to flow north-westerly
to its confluence with the Omineca River. The upper part of the north-westerly-trending
stretch of the valley is wide and the relief mature, save that numerous gravel-covered rock
benches occur in this part. In the vicinity of Mill Creek the valley narrows and the river
below this point is confined in a canyon about 2% miles in length, from which it emerges to
enter the wide valley of the Omineca River. For the most part, the river-valley is incised to
a depth of about 250 feet, and the region adjacent to the river is in main well timbered save
in certain parts. The following topographic features are deemed likely to have an important
bearing on placer occurrence: (A.) The deep rock canyon, 2 miles below Germansen Lake.
(B.) The wide valley of mature relief, in which the South Fork is contained. The direction of
this valley coincides so closely with the north-eastward-trending part of the Germansen River
Valley that the narrow cleft forming the canyon by which the Germansen River enters it is
relatively inconspicuous. (C.) About 1 mile down-stream from the mouth of the South Fork
there is a gap in the rock walls of the valley and an extensive high bank of gravels occurs on
the left bank of the river. Immediately above an extensive upland plateau-like area, dotted
with many small lakes and muskegs, trends northward, west of the river. On the south side
of the river at this point sliding glacial banks cause much trouble to the ditch-line of Germansen
Mines, Limited. (D.) The local sharp bend of the river about 3,000 feet above the down-stream
end of the north-easterly-flowing part. (E.) The wide and shallow depression trending
parallel to the river occupied by the lower part of Mill Creek is approximately as indicated
on the accompanying map. (F.) Slate Creek Valley. (G.) McCorkell Valley, or "Little
Wolverine " Pass, as it was formerly named. (H.) The long canyon below Mill Creek. These
features are designated by letter to facilitate reference and are further discussed in subsequent
paragraphs.
Time was not available for a detailed examination of the rock formations exposed above
Horseshoe Creek. The purpose of the examination was primarily concerned with placer
deposits, and of the formations only in so far as they might affect the latter.
It was, however, noted that at the mouth of the South Fork andesitic volcanics are exposed,
which show little evidence of structure. Similar rocks are exposed instream on the road at
this point. In the canyon 2 miles below Germansen Lake the formation exposed consists of
schistose rocks.
From Horseshoe Creek down-stream the formation exposed by the Germansen River
consists of alternating bands, usually some hundreds of feet thick, of schistose sediments
and rocks believed to be mainly volcanics. These rocks strike about north 75 degrees west
and dip mainly south-west, occasionally northerly, at about 60 degrees, and are considered
to be of Palaeozoic age by the Geological Survey of Canada. The sediments are argillites and
limestones. The argillites pass into phyllites and are intruded by an acidic dyke in the 1933-34
hydraulic pit (on the left bank of the river) of Germansen Mines, Limited.    The rocks, believed NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2).
C 5 C 6 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
to be volcanics, weather to a rusty-red colour, show frequent evidence of intense hydrothermal
alteration, and, in places, large patches of green-coloured mineral, presumably chlorite.
Samples of the latter were analysed and contained an amount of nickel under 0.1 per cent.
Frequently these rocks contain numerous quartz gash-veins, some of quite large size. Some
of these are barren; some are mineralized with pyrite and a little galena; and others mainly
with freibergite. The volcanics in places are intrusive into the sedimentary rocks, and some
at least appear to be sills. Only a few quartz veins are known to occur in the sedimentary
rocks. One of large size, mineralized with pyrite and chalcopyrite, in argillite, is exposed by
the river below Plug Hat Creek. The only quartz veins in the Manson section known by the
writer to show commercial gold values are the gash-veins containing freibergite, exposed by
the river. There is therefore ample evidence that the formation eroded by this river was
capable of supplying gold for the formation of commercial deposits of placer on bed-rock in
Tertiary times, but it is, however, most important to note that no placer deposits of any
importance have been discovered either by early or present-day workers above Little Slate
Creek.
At Ah Hoo Creek a belt of serpentine quite well mineralized with pyrrhotite is cut by the
river. A sample assayed: Gold, trace; nickel, 0.18 per cent.* Below this point placer deposits
usually contain small amounts of platinum.
Placer occurrences on the Germansen and Manson Rivers are difficult to decipher, for the
region abounds in rare topographical features, which appear at unexpected places. Highly
detailed field-work is necessary to interpret the topographic features correctly. Certain
features appear to have a bearing on placer occurrences on both rivers—namely, McCorkell,
Big Wolverine, and Slate Creek Valleys. The position of McCorkell Valley is subsequently
explained in this report. Big Wolverine Valley is a large valley containing Big Wolverine
Creek and the Wolverine Lakes, trending north-west and south-east, and continuous between
the valleys of Manson and Omineca Rivers. It seems unlikely that the correct solution of
placer occurrence on either river will be found without consideration of these features and
their possible bearing on both.
The remarkable and similar great bends exemplified by the Germansen River, and its
near neighbour the Manson River, invite the suggestion that such are possibly due to stream-
piracy in Tertiary times, to which possibility attention is drawn in the Annual Report for
1933 on pages 108 to 110. Such a postulatory view may not be entirely correct, but as the
surface of Wolverine Lake is about 30 feet below the level of Manson River at the mouth of
Dry Gulch, and as Big Wolverine Creek flows north in this valley, it is evident that the waters
of Manson River about this point were very nearly captured by the Omineca River in Tertiary
times.
While the hypothesis of stream-piracy adds a certain amount of clarity to placer occurrence, it is rendered evident by examination that the Germansen River occupied more than one
channel in Pleistocene times, and much headway cannot be made with correlation of the various
channels occupied by this river until further investigation has been carried out.
To consider the chief topographic features of the Germansen River previously enumerated,
and their significance in relation to placer deposits:—
The deep canyon, topographic feature (A), is probably of post-Glacial age, although
cutting may have commenced in inter-Glacial times. The position of the river in late Tertiary
times is indicated as being immediately south of the canyon. Indications are that the South
Fork in Tertiary times occupied a channel just east of its present position near its mouth.
After receiving its tributary at this latter point the Germansen River then, it is assumed,
cut diagonally across the present position of its valley, occupying the buried channel indicated
as underlying topographic feature (C). The large bank of gravels cut by the river at this
point is a conspicuous feature and can be seen from a great distance. Time was inadequate
for detailed examination, which might or might not afford some information as to depth to
bed-rock. The subsequent down-stream course of this channel, apart from the fact that it
must lie deeply buried under the upland plateau in this region, is unknown. Whether it has
any connection with the channel indicated as lying within the depression occupied by Mill Creek
near the river, topographic feature (E), or with the channel uncovered by Messrs. Ward and
* Small percentages of nickel have been found in serpentine rocks from many places in British Columbia. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 7
Bauer above Plug Hat Creek, must remain a matter of conjecture until further investigation
has been carried out. The direction of flow of the South Fork, and the maturity of relief of
its valley, topographic feature (B), lends considerable colour to the view that this was the
stream which worked northward, in Tertiary times, from the Omineca River, robbing a postulated Manson River rising in Germansen Lake and flowing east by way of Slate Creek Valley,
topographic feature (F).
The McCorkell Valley, topographic feature (G), is a wide valley of mature relief extending
from the Manson to the Germansen River Valley. In the latter the floor of the McCorkell
Valley coincides with an extensive flat flanking the right bank of the river and 250 feet above it.
According to the stream-piracy hypothesis, this valley was occupied by a northward^flowing
stream, and investigation by Germansen Mines, Limited, to which company the matter is of
direct importance, points to the likelihood of a gold-bearing channel therein. The point of
emergence in the present Germansen River Valley may be indicated by the glacial clay-bank
on the right bank of the river about 2,000 feet below Ah Hoo Creek. Kerr* considers it likely
that the Manson River at one time flowed northwards through this valley. This view, it should
be noted, also postulates a definite channel in the valley.
A sharp local bend, topographic feature (D), occurs about 3,000 feet above the downstream end of the north-easterly-flowing part of the Germansen River. At this point a gap
in the rock wall on the north side of the valley is occupied by a gravel-bank, and the indications
are that a former deep channel trends instream. Its exact down-stream course is at present
quite indeterminate, but it may have some connection with another deep channel found at the
instream edge of the 1933-34 hydraulic pit of Germansen Mines, Limited, on the left bank of
the river, shown on the accompanying map, or possibly also with the deep ground apparently
discovered by early miners on the left bank of the river at the old townsite of Germansen.
This must remain a mere conjecture until further investigation is made.
Topographic feature (H) is essentially indicative of the existence of a buried channel
instream in the left bank of the river.
The low-lying rock benches and other benches, and part of the bed of the river, were
extensively worked by the earliest miners. Early workers also apparently sensed the significance of high benches near Plug Hat Creek. Following the exhaustion of the more obvious,
and doubtless rich, pay-gravels, the region was deserted apparently for the Cassiar District,
and lay idle for many years. The ditch-line now used by Germansen Mines, Limited, it is
stated, was originally constructed thirty-five years ago by W. Kenton, who also constructed
camp buildings close to the present camp of the company, installed a hydraulic plant, and carried
out a considerable amount of hydraulicking on the rock-bench ground, on the right bank of
the river, in this vicinity. More recently, Ah Lock installed, single-handed, a small hydraulic
plant just above the old townsite of Germansen, which has since been operated each year.
Operations on a larger scale were commenced in 1931, after investigation by R. C. and A. A.
McCorkell, by Germansen Placers, Limited, which company acquired the ground now under
operation by Germansen Mines, Limited. The activities of the latter, and the recent discovery
near Plug Hat Creek of a large high channel by Messrs. Ward and Bauer, have been the means
of directing attention to the potentialities of the placer deposits of this river.
Placer deposits on this river that are now being worked, or have engaged the attention
of earlier operators, are of the following types:—
(1.) Deposits on low-lying gravel or rock benches and in the bed of the river. Most, if not
all, of these are of post-Glacial age and form the type of deposit extensively worked by the
earliest miners.
(2.) Deposits on rock benches lying at an elevation of about 35 feet above the river and
overlain by much glacial debris.
(3.)  Placer deposits in deeply-buried channels lying entirely without, but above the river.
(4.)  Deposits in a channel system, deeply buried, below the level of the river.
As previously mentioned, all the most important placer deposits occur in the northwesterly-flowing part of the river. Inasmuch as gold occurrence on this river is indicated as
being of strictly local or closely-local origin, the previous fact mentioned quite possibly indicates
that in its upper reaches the river does not cut a terrain that is appreciably auriferous.
* Kerr, F. A., Geological Survey of Canada Summary Report, 1933, Part A (page 22a). C 8 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
It is quite possible that many low-lying benches and parts of the river-bed remain that
can be profitably worked. Greater importance, however, attaches to deposits of the types
(2) and (3), by reason of the indicated extent of these, their gold content, and the fact that
they can be so readily hydraulicked. Moreover, the abundant water-supply that can be made
available from this river, and its large tributary, the South Fork, under a good head, renders
it obvious that hydraulicking can advisedly be undertaken on a major scale, and therefore at
low cost, when sufficient yardage of requisite average value has been proven.
It is rendered evident by examination that the river occupies, almost throughout the length
in which placer has been discovered, a post-Glacial channel. Concentrations of placer in the
bed of the river and on adjacent low-lying benches, both gravel and rock benches, are apparently
due to the post-Glacial waters cutting across a former channel. Among deposits of this class
almost completely worked out by the earliest miners may be mentioned " Holloway's Bar " at
Ah Hoo Creek, and the very extensive low-lying rock benches which occur on the right bank
of the river between Mill Creek and the head of the lower canyon.
Rock benches at and above 20 feet above the river are overlain, usually quite heavily, with
glacial material. Immediately overlying bed-rock there is usually a more or less cemented
layer of pieces of shattered bed-rock, and fine gravel, overlain by imbricated gravels, some
very coarse, derived almost entirely, save for boulders of granodiorite, from local rocks.
Resting on the gravels is more or less silt, which is capped by up to 50 feet of boulder-clay,
on top of which there is the usual post-Glacial run of gravel. Appearances in one channel,
where both rims are exposed, on the lease of Messrs. Ward and Bauer are much the same
as those just mentioned. In both cases there are indications that a powerful stream of
water has flowed over the bed-rock for a relatively short time in the Pleistocene period. It does
not, however, necessarily follow that the rock channel was carved in Pleistocene time, for if the
channels were quickly carved in rock they would be gorge-like. High channels may, for
instance, have been carved in this part of the river by drainage heading in the McCorkell
Valley in pre-Glacial times; the deposits laid down therein being subsequently disturbed by
glaciation, and finally resorted in Pleistocene times.
The character of the gold recovered from hydraulicking rock benches at 35 feet above
the river on the property of Germansen Mines, Limited, may be described as coarse-flake gold,
with a comparatively large proportion of nuggety gold. One nugget weighing 24 oz. was found
in 1935. A nugget weighing 2% oz. was discovered this year in the channel recently exposed
on Messrs. Ward and Bauer's ground.
Generally speaking, it may be said that coarse gold features the placers of the Manson
section, and its individuality indicates its closely-local origin. By individuality is meant that,
as is so strikingly evident in the Cariboo District, each creek has its own particular gold which
differs in fineness and in other respects from that of a neighbouring creek. Further, the
indications are that the gold contents of pre-Glacial channels have been disturbed by glaciation
rather than eroded.    An exception is Big Wolverine Valley.
There is evidence at several places of deeply-buried channel-segments lying below the
Germansen River; near the up-stream end of the property of Germansen Mines, Limited, at
the point shown on the map, at the sharp local bend of the river, topographic feature (D) ;
at the 1933-34 hydraulic pit of this company on the left bank of the river; and at the old
townsite of Germansen. Some years ago at the last-mentioned point it is stated that a shaft
was sunk to a depth of 35 feet below the river, with encouraging results, but ingress of water
prevented further work.    Little is, however, known of these deep channels.
In the light of present developments, very little correlation is possible in connection with
the various channel-segments exposed.
It is evident that the constituents of the gravels overlying the cemented material on
bed-rock were derived largely from local rock formations. Foreign boulders are composed
almost entirely of granodiorite, indicating a south-eastward movement of the ice-sheet in this
region.
This company was incorporated in 1934, with registered office at 716 Hall
Germansen      Building, Vancouver, for the purpose of acquiring and operating placer-
Mines, Ltd.      mining leases on the Germansen River formerly held by Germansen Placers,
Limited.    It is understood that the property now comprises sixteen leases
covering the bed and benches of the river for practically the entire distance between Little
Slate and Mill Creeks, and that two additional leases on the latter creek are under application. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 9
The means of access, topographic features and their significance, and the formations
exposed are fully described in the introduction to this area, and will not be further discussed,
save for brief mention of topographic features designated by the letter assigned to the
reference cited.
The types of placer occurrence exemplified on this property are as follows:—
(1.)  Placer deposits on low-lying benches and in the bed of the river.
(2.) Placer deposits lying on the extensive system of rock benches situated at an elevation
of about 35 feet above the river, which are readily amenable to mining by hydraulicking and
are probably of greater importance than (1).
(3.)  Placer deposits in a deeply-buried channel system below river-level.
The rock benches mentioned are overlain by glacial deposits and represent former channels.
The placer deposits in the bed of the river and on low-lying benches, many of which were
extensively worked by the early miners, are presumably due to the concentration effected by
post-Glacial waters in cutting across former channels.
With regard to the deeply-buried channels below the level of the river: Definite evidence
of a channel below the bed of the river was afforded in the course of hydraulicking in the
1933-34 pit on the left bank, immediately instream from the pit. The up-stream continuation
of this channel quite possibly occurs instream from the rock-rim of the river as far as the sharp
bend above this point. Topographic feature (D) is presumably the up-stream end of this
channel. Topographic feature (E) clearly indicates an extensive channel-segment quite
possibly buried wholly instream from, although closely adjacent to, the river, but no evidence
of the depth to bed-rock is exposed. The assumed Tertiary channel mentioned in the introduction, and indicated on the map, may of course be found on this company's property, but present
data are inadequate to enable an intelligent opinion to be formed.
After investigation by R. C. and A. A. McCorkell prior to 1931, this ground was acquired
by Germansen Placers, Limited, a company incorporated in 1931. In that year the extensive
construction necessary for the installation of a hydraulic plant was commenced. Water was
brought in from the head of the canyon, 2 miles below Germansen Lake, and conveyed by
flume across the South Fork. The old ditch-line constructed many years ago was repaired and
utilized from this point onward. Hydraulic operations were commenced at the end of the
1932 season and continued the following year. In 1934 Germansen Mines, Limited, acquired
this property and has since continued operations. (Annual Reports of Minister of Mines,
1932, 1933, and 1935;  also Geological Survey of Canada, Summary Report,, 1933, Part A.)
At the time of examination in August the company was engaged in hydraulicking gravels
overlying a rock bench, situated 35 feet above the river on the right bank, at the point indicated
on the accompanying map. A pit had been opened up for a length of 675 feet fronting the
river, with an average width of 150 feet. The maximum height of the pit-face was somewhat
over 80 feet, and the following succession of strata was exposed from the top downwards:
Several feet of post-G^cial gravels; about 50 feet of blue and red boulder-clay; 2 feet of
indurated silt; about 25 feet of imbricated gravels; cemented large pieces of shattered bedrock and fine gravel immediately overlying a hummocky bed-rock of argillite. Gold is contained
in the gravels overlying the cemented material, more especially in the coarser gravels; in
the cemented material overlying bed-rock; . and in the cracks and crevices of the latter.
The gold is in the main coarse, both nuggety and somewhat flat in form. A nugget about
24 oz. in weight was recovered in the course of hydraulicking in 1934 on a similar bench
up-stream on the opposite side of the river. The pebbles and boulders in the gravels overlying the cemented material are almost entirely of local origin. Foreign boulders are almost
entirely of granodiorite.
An important feature in regard to the age of the gravels is exhibited in this pit and also
in the up-stream pit. Joints from 2 to 3 inches in width in the bed-rock extend upwards
through the gravels, but not through the boulder-clay. These joints are filled with fine silt,
proving that they were opened after deposition of the gravels. The joints are assumed to have
been opened by frost-action, evidence to the contrary being absent; therefore the gravels must
be pre-Glacial or early Glacial.
The up-stream continuation of this channel seems likely to be of considerable length, as
rock flanks the river for about 3,500 feet up-stream from this point, and where the rock rises
35 feet or more above the river the channel may lie instream.    Although the up-stream part C 10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
has been worked to some extent by earlier operators, there is much to suggest that this work
did not penetrate sufficiently far instream. The down-stream extent, likewise the width of the
channel, is as yet unknown. This channel is of particular interest because the extensive flat,
previously mentioned, flanks the bank of the river in this region at an elevation of about
350 feet. There is much to suggest that at one time McCorkell Valley was occupied by a
stream of water. About 750 feet instream from the pit, and 200 feet above its floor, a slough
is situated on the flat mentioned, and immediately behind the slough volcanic rocks forming
the valley-rim are exposed. There is therefore plenty of room for a channel of considerable
width at this point, which may be near the junction of two channels. Valuable information
can readily be obtained by piping in such a way as to cross-section the channel. A possible
point of emergence for a channel on this side of the river is indicated by the glacial clay-banks
on the right bank of the river about 2,000 feet below Ah Hoo Creek.
Another point of particular interest is the region on the left bank of the river about
1,200 feet below Ah Hoo Creek. A high-line has been set up at this point to mine a low-lying
bench, on which the values are stated to be good, which flanks the left bank of the river.
Behind the low-lying bench argillites and volcanic rocks rise sharply to a height of 40 feet,
and on these rest glacial gravels which slope steeply to an extensive flat 200 feet above the
river. The width of the flat is about 500 feet. It extends up-stream for a considerable distance
and down-stream merges in a wide depression parallel to the river, occupied by the lower part
of Mill Creek (this creek is incorrectly shown on existing maps, but its approximate position
is indicated on the accompanying map). There is every indication that a former channel of
the river lies buried instream at this point for a considerable distance. Save locally, its exact
course cannot be determined from present exposures, nor is it known at what depth bed-rock lies.
The company has installed a pipe-line and constructed a ditch-line for conveyance of water
from Mill Creek to supply wash-water for their high-line operations. On completion of the
latter it is their intention to commence hydraulic operations at this point.
The company derives its main water-supply from the Germansen River at the head of the
canyon above the South Fork. From the intake the water is conveyed by ditch and flume for
several miles to the point of use, where the head at present is about 200 feet. There are certain
points on the ditch-line where much trouble is experienced each year, especially in spring, owing
to sloughing of banks. While an excellent water-supply is available, only a part is utilized.
While the writer has not full information of the exact recoveries effected to date, judging from
the results secured last year, and in view of the potentialities apparent, there would seem to
be every justification for hydraulicking up to the maximum capacity of the existing ditch-line.
At the time of inspection only-one monitor with a 4-inch nozzle was in operation. More active
hydraulicking could readily proceed simultaneously with the high-line operations just started.
It is understood that the improvements in the ditch-line necessary to accomplish the objective
mentioned are under consideration by the management.
Two leases, held by Albin  Hagberg, are situated  at the old townsite of
Leases of        Germansen, and cover mainly the ground on the left bank of the river for
Albin Hagberg.  a distance of about 1 mile, as shown on the accompanying map.   The property
is reached by a foot^trail from the end of the road from Slate Creek to Ah Hoo
Creek, which follows closely the right bank of the river to a foot-bridge across the latter at
the upper end of the property.
The chief topographic feature of the up-stream lease is a long and narrow rock bench,
about 20 feet above river-level, flanking the left bank of the river in the long canyon in this
region. At the down-stream end there is an embayment; the rock bench merges in a gravel
bench at the same level; and the river swings sharply east, entering a narrow rock canyon
with vertical walls.
Instream, the flat is terminated, save at the embayment, by steep banks of glacial debris
which rise to the plateau-level. In the immediate vicinity of the embayment there is a steep
rock-outcrop continuous with the glacial banks. The right bank opposite the rock bench rises
steeply from the river's edge and is covered with timber. The remainder of the ground except
the rock bench is also well timbered, save locally.
The formations exposed consist of intercalated schistose sediments and metamorphosed
volcanics. The latter contain some quartz gash-veins exposed on the rock bench. The former
consist of cream-coloured limestone and argillite. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 11
The rock bench undoubtedly represents a segment of a former channel, but at the lower
end, where, as stated, the rock bench merges in a gravel bench at the same level, there is
apparently a still deeper channel closely adjacent. It is stated that a shaft was sunk at this
point by early miners to a depth of 35 feet, considerably below the river-bed, and that good
values were struck in gravels, although ingress of water prevented further work. The embayment and the existence of a rock-rim instream, and other topographic features also, indicate
that a channel lies buried instream on the west side of the canyon-wall in this region. The level
of this rock bench is considerably below that of the bed-rock of the channel about 80 feet above
the river recently uncovered south of this point on the lease of Ward and Bauer.
The lower part of the rock bench was overlain apparently by post-Glacial gravels which
were extensively worked by early miners. The upper part, however, is overlain by a great
thickness of glacial debris and boulder-clay.
The ground was acquired originally by Ah Lock, who in 1926 installed, single-handed,
a small hydraulic plant, water being derived from the creek named on the map Ahluk Creek.
Small-scale hydraulic operations have been -subsequently carried on for some years, both by
the original owner and by the present owner, who acquired the property in 1934. (Annual
Reports of the Minister of Mines for the years 1927, 1933, and 1935; also " Placer-mining in
British Columbia," Bulletin No. 1, 1931.)
At the up-stream end the bench has been piped off over a river-frontage of about 275 feet,
and to an average distance of about 75 feet from the river. At the up-stream extremity the
rising rock indicates the end of the channel-segment at this point. Topographic indications
do not suggest a great extent of profitable ground instream. The pay-gravels immediately
overlie bed-rock and are heavily overlain by glacial debris and boulder-clay.
The gold occurs chiefly in coarse flakes, although some coarse nuggety gold has been found.
It is understood that the ground has proved quite productive.
The lower part of the bench, so far as it is known, was worked off largely by early miners.
It is difficult to appraise the potentialities of the deep ground, which, as mentioned, lies buried
instream from the river, at the lower end of the rock bench on the lower lease.
This lease is situated immediately south of Plug Hat Creek on the left bank
Lease of of the river at the top of the wall of the canyon in which the river is confined.
A. L. Ward and It is reached by a foot-trail from the end of the wagon-road at Ah Hoo Creek.
J. Bauer. The chief topographic feature is the rolling plateau-like surface which
characterizes the top of the rim of the river-valley in this region. The
ground is covered with light timber. Here is a large channel, buried to a depth of about
135 feet, with bed-rock about 80 feet above the river-level. Both rock-rims of the channel are
clearly exposed and the width from rim to rim is about 475 feet. The east rim of the channel
is immediatetly adjacent to the canyon in which the river is confined. The down-stream
continuation of the channel is clearly exposed by Plug Hat Creek, which cuts across it, but
there is no obvious indication of its position up-stream. The rock formation exposed in the
pit is schistose argillite.
The potentialities of gravels overlying the rock instream from the canyon in this region
were apparently perceived by early miners, who brought in water from Plug Hat Creek by
ditch-line for the purpose of washing them. The extent of the old workings seems to indicate
that good values must have been found. In recent years verv little work was done until the
ground was acquired by the present owners in 1935, who installed a hydraulic plant that year,
conveying water from Plug Hat Creek by utilizing the old ditch-line. The continuation of
operations this year resulted in exposure of the channel. (Annual Reports of the Minister
of Mines for the years 1927 and 1935; also "Placer-mining in British Columbia," Bulletin
No. 1, 1931.)
Although bed-rock is not actually exposed, the slope of the rims indicate that it is not
likely to be more than a few feet below the floor of the pit. The width of the channel from
rim to rim is about 475 feet and the height of the pit from floor to top of face at the centre
is about 135 feet. In the more central part of the pit the section consists of: Shattered pieces
of bed-rock, more or less cemented together; about 15 feet of gravels bearing evidence of
strong water-action; about 6 feet of indurated silt; about 40 feet of silt and fine gravels;
about 60 feet of blue boulder-clay; and finally on top of the clay the customary post-Glacial
run about 10 feet in thickness.    The boulder-clay breaks up very easily for this kind of C 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
material and is readily disintegrated by the monitor. The section of unconsolidated materials
overlying bed-rock is in many respects similar to that exposed in the hydraulic pit of Germansen
Mines, Limited. A nugget weighing about 2% oz. was recovered this year from the gravels
on the east rim, but at the time of examination little or no further work had been done.
So far as can be determined from present exposures, the gravels overlying bed-rock are
glacial, but it does not therefore necessarily follow that the channel was carved in Pleistocene
times. It may have been cut in pre-Glacial times, and the gravels of that period subsequently
disturbed by ice-movement and later resorted by glacial streams. The proportions of the
channel, and the fact that it has been found to contain gold of the character mentioned,
amply justify its further close investigation. Added to this, its position high above the river
affords excellent dump facilities for hydraulicking. It is evident, however, that very little
headway can be made with the present inadequate water-supply from Plug Hat Creek, unless
this can be improved. Mill Creek is much larger, but is utilized in part at the present time,
and it is not known just what amount of water could be obtained from this source. Assuming
that investigation should afford justification for the expense involved, a large water-supply
could be obtained from the Germansen River. There appears to be no near topographic
indication of the exact up-stream course of this channel, which must remain largely a matter
of conjecture pending further investigation.
It is understood that subsequent to examination this year further leases were staked, and
also that the property was acquired by C. F. de Ganahl.
(Note.—All elevations given in the report on the Germansen River, and in reports of
individual properties thereon, are aneroid determinations.)
Lost Creek Area, Manson River.
One week was occupied in an examination of the Manson River in the vicinity of Lost
Creek, and the region adjacent to the latter.
The region may be readily reached by the road now in course of construction from Fort St.
James to the Manson section. The local wagon-road system of this section extends to the
mouth of Lost Creek. Further particulars of the means of access will be found under
" Germansen River " in an earlier part of this report. Alternatively, the region may be reached
from Fort St. James by aeroplane, landing being effected on either Lower Wolverine Lake
or Upper Manson Lake.    The latter is preferred by aviators.
In the vicinity of Lost and Skeleton Creeks the Manson River flows almost due east and
rock benches flank both its banks. The one on its right bank is quite extensive and some
hundreds of feet in width near Lost Creek, and the height above the river varies up to 50 feet.
This definite rock-bench area ends about opposite Dry Gulch, and down-stream from this point
the rock-rim of the river-valley rises at the back of extensive bars almost vertically to a
height of about 30 feet, and then flattens suddenly to ground sloping gently upwards, but
underlain by rock at shallow depth. This slope merges farther down-stream in extensive
gravel flats.
Conspicuous features are the two large valleys, M-cCoAe'1 and Big Wolverine, which
t'.cend through to the Manson River Valley respectively from the Germansen and Omineca
River Valleys. These cross-valleys are closely parallel, about 2 miles apart, and are separated
by the mountain known as Bert's Peak. The former is about 60 feet above the Manson River,
but the surface of Wolverine Lake, situated at the south-east end of the latter, is about 30 feet
below the Manson River at the mouth of Dry Gulch. These valleys and their possible significance are discussed under " Germansen River " in this report.
An extensive, wide depression in Skeleton Mountain, at an elevation of 335 feet above
and on the south side of the Manson River, trends more or less parallel to it. Lost Creek,
flowing northerly, emerges from a rocky gorge in the higher mountain-slopes, crosses this
depression, and enters a narrow deep rocky gorge on the north side of it. The creek is confined
in the latter gorge, which trends north-easterly, until it ends abruptly at the back of the
extensive rock bench, previously mentioned as flanking the right bank of the Manson River
in this region. Flanking the top of this last-mentioned gorge, on the east side, hummocky
morainal ground slopes gradually from the level of the large depression in Skeleton Mountain
to the bench paralleling the Manson River. The morainal ground, occupied by a small lake
in its northern part, passes diagonally across the lower part of the valley of Skeleton Creek, NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 13
which above this point is largely unfilled. This moraine is considered pertinent to placer
occurrence and its seeming significance will be discussed later. On the west side of the gorge
broken morainal ground extends to the flanks of the adjacent mountain, known locally as
Lost Creek Mountain. A depression trending parallel to the gorge was possibly formed by
post-Glacial streams.
The region is in main well timbered, save that rock benches have been partly cleared by
miners, and the lower slopes of Skeleton Mountain have been burnt over by bush fires.
The rock formation is well exposed on the Manson River and in Lost Creek Gorges, and
is practically the same as that cut by the Germansen River below Horseshoe Creek (an
account of which will be found under " Germansen River " in this report). There is the same
repetition of alternating bands of schistose sediments and metamorphosed rocks considered
to be chiefly volcanics. The latter evince the same frequent development of quartz veins;
some mineralized with pyrite and galena, but similar quartz veins, mineralized with freibergite,
have not been seen in this area by the writer, although they may exist. On the south-western
slopes of Bert's Peak are frequent outcrops of gneissic quartz diorite, which also outcrops at
several points between the head of Elmore Gulch and Lost Creek on the south side of the
Manson River. Serpentine containing asbestos is exposed at the head of Elmore Gulch. It is
evident that the formations eroded in the region under description are not unfavourable as
a source of material for the formation of bed-rock placer deposits in Tertiary times.
Early mining operations in this region were concerned mainly with the quite extensive
deposits on Lost Creek, and on the rock benches flanking the Manson River. Judging from
their extent, the former appear to have proved very profitable and the latter also productive.
Later operations include the hydraulic operations of G. W. Otterson on the left bank of the
Manson River; those of McKinnon on the upper part of Lost Creek above the large depression
previously mentioned in Skeleton Mountain; and the driving of certain adits in the right bank
of the lower part of Lost Creek by W. B. Steele and J. Mullan. More recent still was the
installation of a drag-line on the Manson River at the mouth of Dry Gulch, its short-lived
operation in 1931, and the drag-line operations of Omineca Placers, Limited, at the southeast end of McCorkell Valley. Present operations engage the activities of two companies
and several individuals, with the result that attention has been again limited to the potentialities here apparent. (" Placer-mining in British Columbia," Bulletin No. 1, 1931; Annual
Reports of the Minister of Mines for 1933 and 1935; Geological Survey of Canada, Summary
Report, 1933, Part A.)
Recent examination suggests that two elear-cut major mining possibilities yet remain:
(a) The bed of the Manson River in this region and (6) the buried pre-Glacial channel of
Lost Creek. In addition to these are the unworked parts of rock benches on the Manson River
and deposits overlying the gently-sloping rock-rim on the south side of its valley. The coarseness of the gold recently found in the two last-mentioned deposits also invites and justifies
further investigation, although their importance cannot be quite as clearly perceived.
The rock bench on the right bank of the Manson River in the vicinity of Lost and Skeleton
Creeks is, near the river, overlain with shallow post-Glacial gravels, which were largely worked
by the early miners. Instream, however, it is evident that the post-Glacial waters did not cut
down to the rock as the superficial post-Glacial deposits rest on glacial material overlying
bed-rock. Recent investigation apparently shows, however, that values in coarse gold also
occur in the lowest stratum of the glacial deposits.
The rock benches clearly represent former channels of the river, and as it has been
demonstrated that these benches were overlain with auriferous material, it is a logical inference
that gold will be found in the bed of the river at the intersections with its former channel.
It is unlikely that the depth to bed-rock in the present river is great at any point in the part
under discussion, but the commercial aspects are dependent upon the extent of the values,
which can only be accurately determined by Keystone-drilling. It is understood, however,
that systematic drilling was carried out in the bed of the river prior to examination this year
by Yukon Border Placer Golds, Limited, between Dry Gulch and somewhat above Slate Creek.
The results are not known to the writer, but it is understood that a company, Northern Placers,
Limited, has recently been incorporated for the operation of this ground.
The exact significance of the extensive depression in Skeleton Mountain occupied by
Mosquito and other smaller lakes is not quite clear.    It was suggested in the Annual Report C 14 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
for 1933 that it might represent a Tertiary channel of the Manson River. Be that as it may,
the other topographic features surrounding Lost Creek, coupled with available information
as to adits formerly and recently driven in the right bank, strongly indicate that a pre-Glacial
channel of this creek lies buried in its right bank. The moraine of the glacier which at one
time occupied this channel can be perceived immediately east of the gorge the creek now
occupies, trending almost parallel to the latter, but extending across the valley of Skeleton
Creek, which is largely devoid of glacial debris in its lower part. The descent of the glacier
occupying the pre-Glacial channel of Lost Creek apparently dammed the waters of Skeleton
Creek, a morainal lake being formed temporarily. The former position of this lake is now
indicated by swampy ground, the drainage of which is sealed by the moraine of the glacier
mentioned. Skeleton Creek, its original outlet being blocked, succeeded in cutting completely
through the moraine at a point west of its former channel, and followed this course until
it was rediverted into its original channel by the placer-miner. The post-Glacial rejuvenation
of Lost Creek resulted in the creek incising a deep gorge almost paralleling and immediately
west of its former channel, but at one or two points it cut into the left rim, giving rise to the
post-Glacial deposits in the gorge, which were almost completely worked by early miners.
The latter apparently perceived the fact that the source of the interrupted run of gold was
lateral, if they did not grasp the full significance of the surrounding topographic features,
and various adits were run in the right bank of the creek in search of the lost channel. Hence,
doubtless, the apt name originally given to this creek. As determined by pacing, the length
of the gorge is 5,800 feet; it ends abruptly at the instream edge of the extensive rock bench
paralleling the Manson River, about 1,500 feet from the mouth of the creek. Adits were
driven at points 1,075 feet, 1,925 feet, and 4,045 feet respectively distant from the mouth of
the gorge. Another adit, at 4,495 feet from the point mentioned, was driven by R. Dunsmore
this year. Information is available only concerning the two last mentioned. That at 4,045
feet from the mouth of the gorge was driven by W. B. Steele and J. Mullan somewhat over
twenty years ago. Practically all the information available concerning it was kindly supplied
by W. B. Steele. He states that it was driven a distance of 550 feet before encountering
bed-rock. At this point pay-gravels were struck and a vertical raise (118 feet in length)
was put through to the surface for ventilation. The adit was then advanced a further distance
of 200 feet. Where pay-gravels were encountered the ground was drifted over a width of
about 40 feet, and gold to the value of several thousand dollars is stated to have been recovered.
The collar of the air-shaft is situated about 200 feet east of the gorge and about 80 feet
above Lost Creek. The upper part of the air-shaft is still intact, but the workings are caved
and inaccessible. This year R. Dunsmore drove an adit 30 feet long from the creek-level in
the gorge into the right bank of the latter at a point about 200 feet north-west of the air-shaft.
This adit was started in rock but ran into gravels. Accordingly, a shaft was sunk in the gorge
a few feet up-stream to a depth of 25 feet, and it is stated that a drive from this shaft, 22 feet
below the collar, in a distance of 10 feet broke into pay-gravels. This working could not be
fully examined as it was bulkheaded.
As determined by aneroid, the fall from the head to the mouth of this gorge is 290 feet;
the length is, as has been mentioned, 5,800 feet; that is, the fall is 5 per cent. Available facts
indicate that the bed-rock of the pre-Glacial channel is about 25 feet below the gorge. It seems
entirely reasonable to suppose that the gorge has cut sufficiently low to reach the auriferous
gravels in the pre-Glacial channel as far as the lowest adit (below which there was no " pay "
in the gorge), 1,075 feet above the mouth. Therefore, presumably, the bed-rock gradient will
be much the same as that of the gorge, and the outlet of the channel should be found, east of
Lost Creek Gorge, by Keystone-drilling, for example, at an elevation of about 25 feet above
the river, at the back of the rock bench instream from the latter.
The upper part of Lost Creek above the large depression in Skeleton Mountain is also
largely confined in a rocky bed for a considerable distance. The McKinnon hydraulic operations were carried on at one place where the right rim of the post-Glacial channel has been
entirely eroded, and where the pre-Glacial channel lies buried in the right bank of the creek.
Owing to extensive sloughing of the pit it was not possible to discern whether bed-rock of the
pre-Glacial channel had been reached, nor is it known what amount of gold was recovered as
a result of these operations. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 15
Considering this creek as a whole, irrespective of the fact that the ground is not vested in
one ownership, available information inclines the view that it may constitute a hydraulic
enterprise of some magnitude. The depth to bed-rock does not seem likely to prove excessive,
and from the upper part of the Manson River doubtless an adequate water-supply could be
secured. An all-important matter from the point of view of hydraulicking is that of dump
facilities; that is, the height of the lower end of the buried channel above the river. This can
best be determined by Keystone-drilling, although it is presumed to be considerably above the
present bed of the river. Once this point is established a few cross-sections at higher points
would afford the necessary additional preliminary information prior to hydraulic installation.
There is much to suggest that the values on bed-rock in this buried channel may prove
sufficient to enable the channel to be profitably mined by deep-lead methods. Inasmuch as the
ground covered is not vested in a common ownership, quite possibly this method will be followed
in part at any rate.
This is a private company, incorporated in 1936, with registered office at
Lost Creek 826 Vancouver Block, Vancouver. The president is Bert McDonald. The
Placer Gold, Ltd. property consists of placer-mining leases numbered 736, 737, 738, 739, 740,
741, and 818. Of these, five leases adjoin and cover the ground on the right
bank of the Manson River for a distance of about \V2 miles, in the vicinity of Lost Creek, and
also about the lower half-mile of the latter, including part of the probable position of its
pre-Glacial buried channel. Two leases, Nos. 739 and 740, are situated on the north side of the
Manson River and cover part of the extensive floor of Big Wolverine Valley adjacent to
the river.
The means of access and the topography of that part of this property on the south side
of the Manson River are described in detail in the general account of this area previously given.
The leases on the north side of the river cover Dry Gulch, a deep narrow cleft in the southeastern extremity of Bert's Peak. The head of this gulch is level with the floor of Big
Wolverine Valley. The latter, as determined by aneroid, is about 25 feet above the Manson
River at the mouth of the gulch. The floor of the valley slopes downward towards Wolverine
Lake, and the latter is considerably below the river-level at the mouth of the gulch. In spite
of this fact, the lake is drained by Wolverine Creek into the Manson River, because the latter,
about 1% miles down-stream, falls below the level of the lake. Near Manson River the floor
of Big Wolverine Valley is well timbered, but near the lake it is occupied by meadows.
The formation exposed on this property has been previously described. Three separate
types of placer occurrence are exemplified:—
(1.)  The lower part of the buried pre-Glacial channel of Lost Creek.
(2.) The unworked parts of the extensive rock bench flanking the right bank of the
Manson River.
(3.)   Post-Glacial concentration on the floor of Big Wolverine Valley.
The potentialities of (1) above have been discussed in an earlier section of this report.
The post-Glacial deposits on the rock bench flanking the right bank of the Manson River
— (2) above—were extensively worked by earlier miners. The latter evidently discovered that
at the instream part of the bench pay-gravels were underlain by glacial material and not by
rock, as was the case nearer the river, and did not apparently work below the superficial
pay-gravels. After preliminary investigation by Bert McDonald, the company installed a
caterpillar steam-shovel with bucket of % -cubic-yard capacity at the instream part of this
rock bench, on the right bank of Lost Creek. The power-shovel, together with a caterpillar
tractor and portable grizzly and sluice, constitutes a mobile digging and washing unit, which
serves well the purpose for which it is intended. Water for sluicing is conveyed from Lost
Creek by flume and pipe-line. At the time of examination, at the point mentioned, the face of
the pit, 20 feet in height, exposed a thickness of from 3 to 8 feet of post-Glacial gravels overlying a thickness of 12 to 17 feet of mixed boulder-clay and glacial materials, resting on
bed-rock. It was apparent that quite coarse gold was being recovered at this point, and that
values exist not only in the post-Glacial gravels, but in the underlying glacial material.
At relatively small cost, the equipment described will be employed to test the remaining
unworked parts of this rock bench. In the course of doing so it is possible that some useful
information may be gained as to the exact position of the pre-Glacial channel of Lost Creek. C 16 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
It is only by detailed testing that the potentialities of the floor of Big Wolverine Valley
— (3) above—can be accurately determined. It is known that on the left bank of the Manson
River below Dry Gulch an encouraging concentration occurs at various depths below the
surface, on successive layers of indurated glacial material. There have been evidently active
post-Glacial streams flowing throughout Big Wolverine Valley, and concentration due to
resorting may be found at points away from the Manson River. This valley was probably
subjected to " big valley " glaciation due to a south-eastward movement of the ice from the
high mountains on the north side of the Omineca River opposite the north-west end of the
valley. The bed-rock, the depth of which is not known, has therefore probably been scoured
by ice. Dry Gulch was evidently rapidly, incised. Cutting was possibly commenced in inter-
Glacial times and subsequently completed. Up-stream from Lost Creek, about opposite the old
Bumble Bee placer claim, an embayment in the left bank of the Manson River, coupled with
an apparent gap in the rock-rim at this point, suggests that a channel-segment of the river
possibly lies buried instream between this point and another in Big Wolverine Valley north
of the head of Dry Gulch. Time was not available for close investigation of this point, which
seems important.
It is understood that this property comprises three placer-mining leases and
Leases of        one placer claim on Lost Creek.   The property immediately adjoins up-stream
R. Dunsmore    that of Lost Creek Placer Gold, Limited, and covers part of the probable
and Associates,   position of the buried pre-Glacial channel of this creek.    The address of
the owners is Prince George.    The means of access, topography, type of
deposit, apparent potentialities, and underground workings are described in detail in the
general account of this area previously given.    At the time of examination, operations had
been temporarily suspended pending installation of a pump to render possible further investigation at the point at which discovery of pay-gravels was reported.    Investigation may also
disclose some remaining portions of post-Glacial deposits that escaped the attention of early
miners in the gorge.
Two placer-mining leases numbered 575 and 652, situated on the right bank
Leases of        of the Manson River down-stream from Skeleton Creek, adjoining the prop-
S. Rosetti and    erty of Lost Creek Placer Gold, Limited, are held by S. Rosetti and A. E.
A. E. Hayward. Hayward, of Fort St. James.    The property is reached by foot-trail from
the camp of the company named.    The property is situated at the bend of
the river where the direction of flow changes from due east to south-east.    Instream from bars
which flank the river at the bend, the rock-rim of the valley rises sharply to a height of about
30 feet above the river and then flattens to a gently-sloping rim, which merges down-stream
in an extensive gravel flat.    The ground is timbered.
Investigation has shown that this gently-sloping rim is underlain, at a depth of a few
feet, by rock sloping roughly parallel to the surface in its lower extremity, but exhibiting a
tendency to dip inwards at points more distant from the river, creating the idea of the existence
of a possible channel trending more or less parallel to the river.
The mode of placer occurrence exemplified is that of concentrations immediately overlying
rock, both in post-Glacial gravels and in gravels overlain by unsorted glacial material. The
character of the gold is generally quite coarse, and a nugget of about 2% oz. in weight was
recovered this year.
Utilizing water from Skeleton Creek conveyed by ditch-line, by ground-sluicing and hand-
mining, three pits have been opened up from the top of the sharply-rising rock-rim. These
cover a river-frontage of about 700 feet and extend back from the edge of the rock-rim to a
maximum distance of about 225 feet.    The general direction of these pits is southerly.
It is understood that the ground was drilled this year by Yukon Border Placer Golds,
Limited, but values encountered are not known to the writer. The large nugget was, it is
understood, discovered subsequently.
While a definite channel has not been revealed, it has been demonstrated that coarse gold
underlies glacial material, and further investigation is warranted. This can be accomplished
by continuing instream the lower pits, which is the present intention of the owners.
(Note.—All elevations given in the report on Lost Creek Area, Manson River, and also
in reports on individual properties therein, are aneroid determinations and are therefore
approximate.) NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 17
Cottonwood River.
Placer occurrences along the Cottonwood River between the Quesnel-Barkerville and
Prince George-Quesnel Road crossings, a distance of about 26 miles, were studied during the
1936 field season. The object of the field-work was not to examine every placer deposit along
this part of the river, but to obtain sufficient information to afford a clear insight into the
various types of placer occurrence and their mode of origin.
A traverse of the river from the bridge near Cottonwood to Mile 22 was made by the
Department of Lands in 1923. At that time mile-posts giving distances from the bridge near
Cottonwood down-stream were placed in position. The locations of these posts are shown on
the accompanying map and they are used as reference points in this report.
The area immediately adjacent to the river is inaccessible by road or trail for any great
distance, due to the very steep banks which flank the river and also to the numerous rock
canyons through which it flows. A road passable for motor-trucks leaves the Prince George-
Quesnel Highway at Cinema and extends for a distance of about 6V2 miles to the plateau on
the north side of the river. A horse-trail, known as " Coughlin's Trail," continues from the
road following the plateau at some distance from the river to Pre-emption Lot 9670, where
it descends to the river, and thence follows in places the river and in places the plateau to the
road crossing near Cottonwood. The trail is in disrepair from Mile 9 to Mile 4. Access to
the lower part of the river is by a foot-trail from " Cottonwood Hill " on the Prince George-
Quesnel Highway. This trail crosses a sparsely-timbered flat adjacent to the highway, and
then descends steeply to the left bank of the river, which it follows closely, terminating at the
eastern boundary of Pre-emption Lot 8594. The central part of the river is conveniently
reached by a branch road which leaves the Quesnel-Barkerville Road 7% miles from Quesnel
and, crossing the plateau in a north-easterly direction, ends at the rim of the river-valley.
From this point a. steep horse-trail leads to a ford across the river at the western boundary
of Pre-emption Lot 9670. Trails to individual properties are described in the following reports
on them.
The Cottonwood River has incised a valley to a depth of from 300 to 350 feet in the rolling,
timbered Fraser Plateau. Between the Cottonwood Bridge and Pre-emption Lot 9670, the
river meanders in a wide mature valley, with the single exception that it is contained in a rock
canyon about 1 mile in length near the 10-Mile post. With this exception, rock-exposures near
the river are not numerous in this part of the valley. Immediately down-stream from Preemption Lot 9670, the river makes a sharp bend to the north, its valley narrows, and it enters
the first of a succession of steep-walled rock canyons. The last canyon is practically continuous for a length of nearly 4 miles extending from above the 20-Mile post to about a quarter
of a mile above the north-east corner-post of Pre-emption Lot 8593. From the last-mentioned
point to the western boundary of Pre-emption Lot 8594 the river has cut through a mass of
glacial debris hundreds of feet in thickness, forming a remarkable hairpin bend, described in
the body of this report. At the western boundary of Pre-emption Lot 8594 the river again
enters a short rock canyon, about 400 yards in length, terminating at the bridge on the Prince
George-Quesnel Highway.
Many of the canyons cannot be traversed throughout at any stage of the water owing to
the precipitous nature of the walls, but ample rock-exposures were examined to show that the
formations cut by the river consist of alternating bands of volcanic and sedimentary rocks.
The bands are usually several hundred feet in width. The sediments are chiefly thin-bedded
argillites. They are considerably folded, strike mainly north-westerly with south-westerly dip,
but both strike and dip vary. The volcanics are andesitic and contacts are very poorly defined.
The aforementioned rocks are intruded at a number of places by batholithic tongues, and by
stocks of considerable size at 10-Mile and 17-Mile Canyons. At the two latter points the
batholithic rocks exemplify magmatic differentiation. Coarse-grained diorite, pegmatitic in
places, exposed at the lower end of 10-Mile Canyon, passes into pyroxenite farther up the
canyon. Porphyritic pyroxenite with phenocrysts of augite is exposed at 17-Mile Canyon.
Pegmatitic diorite is also exposed on the left bank of the river at the 11-Mile post, and also
on the right bank of the river a quarter of a mile up-stream from the 12-Mile post. Although
the intruded rocks show considerable pyritization at different points, there is little evidence
of the existence of quartz veins in the formation exposed by the river. A large vein of calcite
is exposed in 10-Mile Canyon, and also a small seam of brecciated calcite mineralized with
2 C 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
Vi\ |3usan(5 pi
oj to^in ^s sco NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 19
pyrite. It is, however, evident that the presence of ultrabasic rocks affords a logical explanation for the occurrence of metals of the platinum group, and the large amount of black sand
and unusually coarse magnetite and hematite in placer gravels.
In considering placer occurrence, four chief features are evident:-—-
(1.) The indications are that that part of the valley where no rock is exposed, and almost
exactly delimited as lying within Pre-emption Lots 8593 and 8594, is crossed at right angles
by an ancient valley formerly occupied by a northward-flowing stream. It is believed that this
ancient valley is quite possibly the down-stream continuation of the buried Tertiary Horsefly
River Valley. (Refer to Annual Report for 1935, page C 27.) However interesting this
supposition may be when considered in conjunction with the fact that the direction of flow of
the Quesnel, Willow, and Bowron Rivers is in accord with a northerly- and not a southerly-
flowing master-stream, its further discussion is not germane to this report, save that the
pre-Glacial channel of the Cottonwood River mentioned later was probably a tributary of the
ancient master-channel.
(2.) Topographic evidence indicates that a lengthy pre-Glacial channel-segment of the
Cottonwood River lies buried immediately instream in the right bank, in the northward-flowing
part between Pre-emption Lot 9670 and the point at which the river makes a sharp turn,
thereafter flowing westerly, at the 20%-Mile point. An exposure about 500 feet long of what
are believed to be pre-Glacial gravels was found on the right bank of the river about a quarter
of a mile up-stream from the 19-Mile post. The creek, shown on the accompanying map, cuts
down through the overlying glacial gravels and into these gravels.    Bed-rock is not exposed.
In the absence of fossil evidence, the following criteria are considered as indicative of the
pre-Glacial age of river-gravels: (a.) The residual character, whereby they should contain
a large proportion of pebbles composed of a resistant mineral. (6.) Prolonged Tertiary erosion
must have been accomplished at the loss of gradient, and therefore preserved Tertiary river-
gravels are likely to be of uniform and medium size, (c.) The gravels are partly or wholly
cemented, but this fact per se is by no means indicative of pre-Glacial age. (d.) The gravels
underlie glacial gravels, which fact, considered in conjunction with the other features mentioned, is indicative of pre-Glacial age. The gravels in the aforementioned exposure are chiefly
composed of medium-sized quartz pebbles, partly cemented and overlain by glacial gravels,
and, therefore, according to the criteria given, are believed to be pre-Glacial.
(3.) The part of the river confined almost entirely in a long rock canyon between the
20%-Mile point and the eastern boundaries of Pre-emption Lots 8593 and 8594 is considered
as being largely post-Glacial in age, although cutting may have commenced in inter-Glacial
times. Placer occurrences in this part consist essentially of deposits occurring on rock benches
at various elevations above the river, representing successive channels occupied by the river
in cutting down to its present bed. The down-stream continuation of the pre-Glacial channel,
mentioned in (2) as lying buried instream in the right bank of this part of the river, is a matter
of conjecture. It is possible that the present river has followed an entirely different course
from that of its pre-Glacial channel down-stream from the 20%-Mile point. On the other
hand, further investigation may disclose the existence of the pre-Glacial channel in that part
of the valley under consideration.
(4.) It is evident that the river flows over indurated glacial deposits at many points in
that part of the valley up-stream from Pre-emption Lot 9670. These gravels are considered
to be inter-Glacial from the fact that they contain seams of well-carbonized lignite where
exposed on the left bank of the river somewhat above the mouth of Boyd Creek. Pre-Glacial
channel-segments are indicated as lying buried instream in the left bank of 10-Mile Canyon
and in the right bank in the vicinity of the 12-Mile and 13-Mile posts. The depth at which
bed-rock lies is quite unknown.
The placer deposits along the Cottonwood River were worked by the early miners, and still
engage the activities of a number of individuals and one company. Extensive old workings
are situated on the right bank of the river up-stream from Deep Creek, at the head of 10-Mile
Canyon, and at the lower end of this canyon. The last mentioned are the most extensive and
cover an area of many acres. Less extensive old workings occur at other places along the
river. C 20 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
The placer deposits worked to date are of several different types:—
(1.) River-bars occur throughout in the part of the river examined. In some cases
comparatively coarse gold is found on bars, probably due to a local source.
(2.) Bench deposits of gravel which are of quite widespread distribution and which were
worked extensively by the early miners. A noteworthy example of this type of deposit occurs
at the hairpin bend of the river on Pre-emption Lot 8594, where profitable deposits were found
on each of a succession of terraces on the steep-sided peninsula. In each case the " pay "
extends down to a layer of indurated glacial gravel.
(3.) Bench deposits of unusual type are exemplified on the lease held by F. Norn on
Pre-emption Lot 8594, and also on the lease held by J. D. Pearson and D. E. Ruttan. The
deeply-embayed remnants of the once-existent peninsula on the lease of the former, and the
position of the sloughs on the inner edges of both leases, indicate that the benches originate
from the formation of a hairpin bend, followed by the gradual washing-away of the steep-sided
" peninsula " of indurated glacial gravels. In addition to the usual superficial concentration
of gold, it is evident that in these particular cases there may exist a concentration along the
original course of the river on the benches on a false bed-rock of indurated glacial material.
Whether the concentration is commercial can only be ascertained by testing.
(4.) In the case of some benches it is evident that post-Glacial waters have cut down to
the older indurated glacial gravels, carving more or less definite channels therein. In such
cases the gravels may prove auriferous down to the false bed-rock, and the advisability of
adequate testing with that idea in mind is indicated.
(5.) Deposits on rock benches. Deposits of this type occur at various elevations above
and on both sides of the river at numerous places, but are most prevalent contiguous to the
long canyon, which commences at about the 19%-Mile point. Rock benches indicate former
channels occupied by the river in cutting down to its present position, and there may or may
not be commercial concentration down to the bed-rock from the surface. Where from the
topography it appears likely that the river has crossed a former channel there may be a good
concentration in the bed of the stream immediately below the point of crossing. This is possibly
the case at the 23%-Mile point, where there is a narrow channel on the north side and a wider
one on the south side of a small island in the river. The bed-rock of the narrow channel was
cleaned by wing-damming, but an attempt to work the wider channel was unfortunately
frustrated by the wing-dam being carried out.
Most of the deposits contain appreciable amounts of platinum, and in one case iridium
was found. In some instances a large amount of coarse magnetite and hematite is present.
When such is the case good values in gold are almost invariably found. A logical explanation
of the source of both metals of the platinum group and the iron minerals is afforded by the
ultrabasic batholithic rocks traversed by the river. As previously mentioned, these rocks
exhibit pronounced magmatic differentiation. The gold occurs chiefly in fine to coarse flakes,
but at some places small nuggets have been found.
It is noteworthy that bench deposits, whether on false or true bed-rock, are in the majority
of cases overlain by a practically barren deposit of sand up to several feet in thickness. The
depth of this overburden in many cases is the determining factor of the commercial possibilities.
The gold present in the types of deposits so far noted originates either from glacial
materials or from the reworking of glacial or older materials where the present river has
intersected older channels. The irregular distribution of placer-gold deposits so formed
should be borne in mind, and the advisability of adequate testing by pitting or drilling is
clearly indicated before expenditure of material capital outlay. For example, in a succession
of gravel terraces one may be very good, but for no apparent reason another immediately
above or below may be unprofitable. On the other hand, as, for example, at the hairpin bend
on Pre-emption Lot 8594, each terrace in a succession may prove profitable.
No attempt has been made to mine the pre-Glacial gravels exposed at the places mentioned.
Therefore the depth to bed-rock and possible values present thereon are unknown factors.
The possible occurrence of bed-rock values is at present a matter of pure inference and can
be gauged only by a knowledge of the formations eroded. The formations eroded consisted
largely of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and the presence of a large amount of quartz pebbles
in the pre-Glacial gravels suggests that quartz veins occurred in the eroded formations. There
is no proof that such veins, if they existed, were auriferous except for the presence of gold NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 21
in the younger gravels. The presence of ultrabasic rocks, however, does suggest that bed-rock
gravels may prove platiniferous. The tight and partly-cemented character of the pre-Glacial
gravels exposed is a feature favourable to mining. Only " deep-lead " methods could be applied,
so far as is now known, and therefore values would have to be correspondingly good to render
extraction profitable. It is also to be borne in mind that rivers, as distinct from creeks, were
not the agencies whereby bed-rock deposits of bonanza type were formed.
The position of this lease, held by J. D. Pearson, of Quesnel, is shown on the
Lease of accompanying map.    The part on the south side of the river is reached by
J. D. Pearson,    the trail from " Cottonwood Hill " on the Prince George-Quesnel Highway
described at the commencement of this report. The part north of the river
is reached by a steep foot-trail which leads from the highway-bridge to the top of the canyon-
wall, and after following this for a short distance descends to the river. Comparatively low-
lying terraced gravel benches extend down-stream for about 600 feet from the eastern boundary
of the lease on the north side of the river. The benches are crescent-shaped, covered with heavy
timber, and have a maximum width of about 375 feet. It is possible that a concentration may
occur on them, but they have not been investigated in any detail.
Immediately below the highway on the south side of the river, and 200 feet above it, is
a flat, sparsely timbered area several acres in extent. It is covered partly by this lease, but
fully by another under application, staked by associates of the owner. While a concentration
on this flat is possible, it has not been tested apparently to any extent, and its elevation above
the river renders wash-water a problem. About 35 feet above the river is a timbered flat
approximately 600 feet long by 150 feet wide underlain by rock, on which some testing has
been done by pumping water from the river. The writer does not know what values were
found.
The lease also covers a part of a large deeply-embayed flat, in part meadow, in part covered
with willow and poplar growth, situated about 15 feet above the river. The remaining part
of this flat is covered by D. E. Ruttan's lease. This unusual type of bench is illustrated on
the accompanying map and its indicated mode of origin and potentialities are given in the
preceding text of this report. This flat contains ground of potential promise, and more detailed
systematic testing seems warranted to ascertain average values in place.
This placer claim, owned by C. Mackenzie and associates, is situated at the
Big Boy.        entrance to the canyon above the highway-bridge, within the area covered
by the J. D. Pearson lease. It is reached by a branch trail from " Cottonwood Hill " on the Prince George-Quesnel Highway. It is reported that many years ago, at
a time of exceptionally low water, coarse gold was found in the bed of the river near the right
bank immediately opposite a small rock promontory on the left bank, around which the river
bends. To divert the river at low water and obtain access to bed-rock in the spot mentioned,
the owners commenced a 110-foot tunnel through the promontory. After driving the tunnel
70 feet, high water occurred, the portal was blocked with sand and gravel, and the project
temporarily  abandoned.
This lease is held by D. E. Ruttan, of Quesnel, and is reached by the same
Lease of        trail as the J. D. Pearson lease.    The ground covered comprises part of the
D. E. Ruttan.    deeply-embayed flat 15 feet above the river, described in the lease of J. D.
Pearson. The owner has done a certain amount of washing of superficial
gravels at a point some hundreds of feet instream in the central part of the flat, and states
that encouraging values were obtained.
This lease adjoins the Ruttan lease up-stream and is reached by the same
Lease of        trail.    The ground comprises a number of timbered gravel benches which
. J. W. Allison,    flank the left bank of the river to a maximum height of 175 feet.    Other
gravel benches flank the eastern side of the deeply-embayed low-lying bench
covered by the Pearson and Ruttan leases. This lease so far as is known has not been tested
in any detail.
This lease is held by F. Kruczek and associates, of Quesnel, and is reached
Lease of        by the trail previously described as leaving the Prince George-Quesnel High-
F. Kruczek.     way at " Cottonwood Hill."    The river is crossed by boat to the workings.
The ground comprises mainly the long, narrow, steep-sided promontory,
or " peninsula," within the hairpin bend of the river at this point.    The promontory is com- C 22 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
posed largely of indurated glacial gravels, which rise vertically from the river on the east
side and in benches on the west side to form a sharp ridge at the top. This promontory is
noteworthy for the number of successively profitable benches which have been found to occur
one above the other, from a few feet above water-level to an approximate height of 100 feet,
and possibly above this elevation. These benches occur on the south end of the promontory
and extend for a considerable distance on the west side but not so far on the east side, which
rises sheer from the river. Concentration is due to the resorting action of the post-Glacial
waters on successive strata of indurated material serving as false bed-rocks. Flanking the
west side of the promontory are three benches at successive elevations of about 10 feet, 35 feet,
and 45 feet above the river. The lowest bench is practically continuous on the west side and
extends around the south point of the promontory, where its length is about 500 feet and its
maximum width is about 300 feet. The middle bench is about 360 feet long by 120 feet wide
and the uppermost bench is about 575 feet long by 55 feet wide.
There are three benches on the point of the promontory, at elevations of 25 feet, 60 feet,
and 100 feet above the river, respectively. The approximate dimensions are 320 by 45 feet,
260 by 125 feet, and 600 by 100 feet, respectively. Several benches have been worked. The
lowest has been completely worked, and it is stated that values were very good. The gravels
were very coarse and there was little of the customary barren sand overburden. In the case
of the middle bench, the thickness of gravels overlying the false bed-rock was 4 to 6 feet and
sand overburden varied from a few inches to 5 feet. Work has been started recently on the
uppermost bench, where about 3% feet of sand overlies about 6 feet of pay-gravels.
The lease also includes a long, narrow bench on the opposite bank of the river facing the
west side of the promontory. This bench, situated at from 5 to 15 feet above the river, is
crescent-shaped, several hundred feet in length, and has a maximum width of about 225 feet.
Save for testing, the owner and his associates have confined their efforts mainly, but not
entirely, to the promontory benches, in the working of which much initiative and energy has
been displayed. Wash-water is pumped from the river by a centrifugal pump operated by
a 3%-horse-power gasoline-engine. The gravels are mined by hand and the values recovered
on an inclined blanket-table covered with expanded metal screen. Two pans taken of gravels
only, from the top bench, indicated values of $2.20 and $2.62 per cubic yard respectively
(gold valued at $35 per ounce). One sample contained a trace of platinum. Another pan
taken from the lowest bench on the east side of the promontory indicated values of 52 cents
per cubic yard. It is stated that a shaft sunk instream in this region yielded encouraging
values. It is to be borne in mind that these samples do not represent the average value of
the ground in place, and no account of the overburden is taken into consideration.
This lease, held by F. B. Dowling, is situated on the left bank of the river,
Lease of adjoining up-stream the lease of F. Kruczek, and is reached by the same trail.
F. B. Dowling. The ground comprises a low-lying, crescent-shaped, terraced area, fronting
the sharp bend of the river and rising to a maximum height of 25 feet
above it. The length is about 1,350 feet and the maximum width is about 700 feet. Behind
this terrace rise higher benches of considerable extent up to the plateau-level. Work has
hitherto been confined to the low-lying area. A pump-hydraulic pit was opened up at the
up-stream end, where there are favourable dump facilities. About 400 cubic yards were sluiced
at this point, from which it is stated that gold to the value of $400 was recovered. Other
testing carried out on this area indicates that there are more or less definite channels cut by
post-Glacial waters in the underlying indurated glacial gravels.
H. McN. Fraser obtained options during the year on the leases of F. Kruczek,
Operations of   F. B. Dowling, and J. W. Allison, staked additional leases on the north side
H. McN. Fraser. of the river, and carried out much systematic testing.    It is apparent that
the total yardage contained in the low-lying benches is very considerable,
and the object of the tests was to ascertain if the area constituted a commercial project for
a small dredge.    Testing consisted in sinking a number of shafts at various points and washing
the entire product, so that the value of the ground in place might be accurately determined.
The shafts sunk were 6 by 3 feet in the clear and were tightly lagged from the collar down.
It is not known to the writer what average values were obtained.    At the time of examination
fourteen of these shafts had been sunk to depths varying from 4% to 13% feet.    The average
depth of sand overburden encountered was about 2% feet. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 23
This lease is situated on the left bank of the river immediately below the
Lease of F. Norn, mouth of the long rock canyon and lies partly within Pre-emption Lot 8594.
It is reached by the trail from the " Cottonwood Hill " on the Prince George-
Quesnel Highway, previously mentioned; alternatively, a car with high clearance can be
driven from Quesnel over the old Pacific Great Eastern Railway grade to within about 1% miles
of the property.
Rich superficial gravels were discovered on this ground by F. Norn in 1934 and he and his
associates staked nine claims. In the same year C. W. Moore and his associates acquired an
option on the claims, installed a pump operated by gasoline-engine, and carried out a certain
amount of sluicing. For reasons unknown to the writer, operations were discontinued. The
same ground was restaked this year as a lease by F. Norn.     (Refer to Annual Report for 1935.)
The lease covers, for the most part, a deeply-embayed gravel bench, situated 25 feet above
the river. The form of the bench is shown in the accompanying map. The area is mainly a
large meadow devoid of timber, although the surrounding glacial banks on the south and west
sides are well timbered. On the east side towards the river the ground rises in a series of
benches to the plateau-level. On the east side, in the more immediate vicinity of the river, not
far from the mouth of the large rock canyon mentioned, volcanic rocks either outcrop or have
been uncovered at several places within an area about 450 by 150 feet. These rock-exposures
are believed to be part of the right rim of a large buried channel which, surrounding features
indicate, crosses the Cottonwood River at this point at right angles. Reference to this channel
will be found in the opening paragraphs of this report.
It is strongly indicated that this bench, like that covered by the lease of J. D. Pearson and
D. E. Ruttan, originated from a first-formed hairpin bend of the river.
On this bench two knolls of glacial gravels, one quite large, adjoining the river, and a
smaller one farther instream, represent the remnants of the original promontory, around
which the river once flowed. This view is further supported by the fact that the ground is
swampy at the instream extremity of the bench, on the east and south sides.
At the time of examination the owner was mining by hand the upper gravels in the
smaller glacial knoll, wash-water being supplied by means of a hand-pump from a pool in
the swampy region.    At this point shallow gravels overlie a false bed-rock of indurated glacial
material.    Two pan-samples taken by the writer merely corroborated the known fact that there
are remarkably rich spots on this lease.    It is stated that $1,000 in gold was recovered from
aoproximately 100 cubic yards at one place in 1934.    The gold is quite fine, although individual
pieces up to 25 cents in value are reported.    It is not suggested that the values mentioned are
by any means average values in place, but this ground clearly warrants systematic testing to
determine average values in place. —
This is a private company incorporated in 1936 for the purpose of acquiring
Cinema Gold    and operating four leases on the river held by F. Peterson, H. Ahlbeck,
Placers, Ltd.     A. Anderson, and G. Swanson.    Three of the leases are situated on the north.
side and one on the south side of the river, but operations have so far been
confined to G. Swanson's lease on the north side.    The property is situated between the 21-Mile
and 22-Mile points, and is reached by a road, passable for motor-vehicles, about 7 miles in
length from Cinema, on the Prince George-Quesnel Highway.    The road is in part the old
Pacific Great Eastern Railway tote-road and is in part newly constructed.    It leaves the
highway just south of the bridge over Ahbau Creek, ascends to the timbered, rolling plateau,
which is followed for some miles, and finally descends the steep glacial banks which flank the
immediate approach to the river to the company's camp on a flat.
The ground held is situated in the long canyon section of the river which extends from
the 19%-Mile point for a length of about 4 miles down-stream. At most places in the canyon
the rock walls rise steeply to heights up to 150 feet or more. In some places the walls are
capped with irregular masses of glacial debris which rise to the plateau-level. In other places
the walls rise to timbered gravel-covered benches, at various elevations above the river, behind
which steep glacial banks form the valley-rim. It is clear that these rock benches represent
segments of earlier channels of the river formed in the process of cutting down to its present
bed. Most of these benches are probably of post-Glacial age, although cutting of some may
have commenced in inter-Glacial times, and the possibility exists that some form the left C 24 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
rim of a pre-Glacial channel. The operations of the company at present are focused on
G. Swanson's lease.
The discovery of gold on the part now under operation was made by G. Swanson and
associates in 1935, and that year a certain amount of hand-mining was carried out, although
operations were greatly hampered by the absence of a gravity water-supply, and the necessity
of tramming gravels to the edge of the bench, dumping them into a chute, and washing them
at the river-bed.
The company this year, after constructing the road to the property, proceeded to install
a plant. At the time of examination in June, the plant had been hauled to the ground but had
not been erected, and it is not known to the writer what has since transpired. It is understood,
however, that a Fresno rotary scraper was to be used for mining and conveying gravels to a
screening and washing plant, and that gold-recovery of the minus %-inch material was to be
effected in a Trail oscillatory concentrator.
The essential feature of the G. Swanson lease, on which the present attention of the
company is concentrated, is a crescent-shaped flat about 600 feet long and 300 feet wide,
sparsely timbered and underlain by rock, situated at a height of between 85 and 100 feet
above the river. This flat is terminated at both ends and also instream by glacial banks,
which rise steeply to a height of 350 feet above the river. The discovery was made at the
down-stream end of the flat. Here the flat merges in somewhat broken ground sloping down
to a rock bench at 40 feet above the river. The rock underlying the flat is a thinly-bedded
ferruginous argillite, much oxidized and intruded in some places by small basic dykes.
Hand-mining operations carried out over a river-frontage of about 200 feet and a width
of about 75 feet disclosed a gradually-rising ragged bed-rock immediately overlain by a thickness of about 5 feet of gravels, in turn overlain by a thickness of 5 feet of glacial debris.
Good " pay " was found in the gravels, which are of medium size and composed of both local
and foreign rocks. Much black sand is present and also small pebbles of magnetite and
hematite. The gravels contain appreciable amounts of platinum and iridium. The character
of the gold is mainly coarse flake-gold. A sample of black sand weighing 175 grams was
assayed and contained values as follows: Gold, 16.88 cents; platinum, 89.16 cents; iridium,
2.7 cents (gold valued at $35 per ounce, platinum at $40 per ounce, and iridium at $80 per
ounce). It might be mentioned that in the case of placer deposits on this river the presence
of coarse magnetite and hematite is almost always an indication of good gold values. The
average of five pans, taken by the writer from the bed-rock gravels only, indicated values
per cubic yard of $8.36 in gold and 98 cents in platinum. Such values are not by any means
representative of average values of the ground in place and take no account of barren overburden.
The up-stream part of the flat is overlain with gravels that are of post-Glacial age,
whereas it will be noted that at the point of discovery the gravels are overlain by unsorted
glacial debris. Unless the capping of the latter is due to creep of glacial debris from the
somewhat closely adjacent banks, which is possible, the inference is that the underlying gravels
are, at any rate, of inter-Glacial age. The possibility also exists that the down-stream continuation of the buried pre-Glacial channel-segment of the river, described in an earlier part
of this report, lies deeply buried instream at this point. If such is the case the'rock underlying
this bench must be the left rim of that channel. The amount of investigation carried out to
date is quite insufficient to express any definite opinion on this point or concerning the length
and depth of the buried channel. It does not by any means follow that the limits of the flat,
for example, indicate the length of the buried channel-segment. There is at present nothing
incompatible with the suggestion that it might extend considerably beyond these limits, lying
deeply buried under the masses of glacial debris which terminate the flat. Much must remain
conjectural pending further investigation. Continuance of work at the point of original
discovery in the hope of finding either bed-rock or slope of rim-rock would seem logical.
About 1,500 feet down-stream from the point of discovery, mainly on the lease of F. Peterson and extending partly on that of H. Ahlbeck, occurs another flat about 1,000 feet in length
by 600 feet in width underlain by rock at 150 feet above the river. This flat is well timbered
and apparently overlain by post-Glacial gravels in which some indication of gold values has
been found. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 25
It might be added that Hush Lake, a small morainal lake on the plateau 690 feet above
the river, might constitute a useful water-supply for this property if investigation warranted
its development.
H. Bellos  and  associates,  of Prince George, hold four leases  adjoining
Leases of        up-stream the leases of Cinema Gold Placers, Limited, and a fifth situated
H. Bellos and    immediately down-stream from the latter.    Of the first four leases, two
Associates.       are located on the right bank of the river and two are on a small unnamed
creek flowing into the river near the 21-Mile point.    The property is reached
by branch trails leading both up-stream and down-stream from the camp of Cinema Gold
Placers, Limited.
On both sides of the creek mentioned are rock benches overlain by post-Glacial gravels
on which a certain amount of testing has been carried out by utilizing water from the creek
for wash-water. These benches lie at elevations of 50 and 70 feet respectively above the river
on the west side of the creek and 55 feet above the river on the east side of the creek. Another
flat of considerable extent flanks the creek instream from the rock benches mentioned, at a
height of 100 feet above the river. Farther up-stream, to the limit of the leases, the valley-
slope is steep and broken by gullies. The post-Glacial gravels on the rock bench, where
exposed, are between 2 and 5 feet thick and are overlain by from 3 to 4 feet of sand. The
average of two pan-samples, taken by the writer from gravels only, from rock benches on each
side of the creek indicated values per cubic yard of $2.83 in gold and 10 cents in platinum'
(gold valued at $35 per ounce and platinum at $40 per ounce). The samples do not represent
the value of the ground in place. Instream the benches are terminated by steep valley-banks of
glacial debris. It is possible that a channel lies buried instream from these rock benches, but
there is no present indication of the depth to bed-rock.
The remaining lease is situated on the right bank of the river, where the valley is narrow
and steep at about the 22-Mile point. The chief feature of interest is a timbered bench underlain by rock, overlain by post-Glacial gravels, and situated at a height of 150 feet above the
river. The bench is about 800 feet long and 140 feet wide. A small amount of superficial
gravels have been mined, but no systematic testing has yet been carried out.
This lease is situated on the right bank of the river up-stream from the
Lease of Magnus 20-Mile point.    It is reached by following a blazed course from a branch
Sundberg.       trail from Coughlin's trail to the river at about the 21-Mile point.    Benches
occur on this property of respective dimensions—475 by 50 feet, 800 by 105
feet, and 660 by 175 feet—at heights respectively of 15 feet, 45 feet, and 60 feet above the river.
These benches are timbered and overlain by post-Glacial gravels.    All are apparently underlain by rock.    Very little investigation has been done, but pan-samples indicate promise.
Pre-emption Lot 9670 is owned by R. J. Coughlin, who also holds a placer
Claim of        claim on this ground.    The property is reached by a branch road which leaves
R. J. Coughlin.   the   Quesnel-Barkerville  Road  7%   miles  from   Quesnel  and  runs  northeasterly across the plateau to the edge' of the Cottonwood River Valley.
From the end of the road a steep horse-trail leads to a ford at the western part of Pre-emption
Lot 9670.    The total distance from the main road is about 6% or 7 miles.
Pre-emption Lot 9670 is almost entirely a partly-cleared terraced flat lying at from 5 to
25 feet above the river. Behind this flat glacial banks rise sharply to a height of 250 feet
above the river, which practically bounds the east, west, and south sides of the lot. Argillites
are exposed on the right bank of the river. This fact, coupled with the surrounding topography,
indicates that the pre-Glacial channel of the river lies buried instream in the right bank of the
river in this region, but the depth to bed-rock is quite unknown. Good values are found on
several river-bars, but the owner confines his attention, mainly, to one near the eastern
boundary of Pre-emption Lot 9670. Believing that the deposit on this bar originated from
high water cutting into the bench at a point just above the bar, the owner conceived the novel
idea of making cuts in the bench so directed as to aid the cutting action of the river at high
water. He states that the results have been very satisfactory, the gold deposited on the bar
having shown a material increase.
The owner states that encouraging values have been found at several points on the large
bench-area constituting the major portion of this pre-emption lot. Average values can, however, only be determined by systematic testing.    The river in this region flows over indurated
3 glacial debris which is exposed at several points, and there might possibly be a concentration
on this material. A pan taken by the writer from the bar being worked by the owner indicated
values per cubic yard of 96 cents in gold and 6% cents in platinum (gold valued at $35 per
ounce and platinum at $40 per ounce).
This lease is situated on the right bank of the Cottonwood River more
Lease of        immediately down-stream from the mouth of Frye Creek (or 16-Mile Creek
Alex. Madison,   as it is locally known).    An adjoining lease on the east is under application
by G. R. Baker and the exact boundaries are not known to the writer.    The
property may be reached either from Cinema by " Coughlin's trail," or alternatively from the
Quesnel-Barkerville Road by the route above described to Pre-emption Lot 9670.    From the
latter a trail follows the right bank of the river to the lease.
The ground comprises a terraced gravel-bench area covered with vegetation and timber,
the benches being situated at various elevations from a few feet to 90 feet above the river.
Placer occurrence exemplified in this region is that of post-Glacial deposits laid down
on a false bed-rock, usually indurated glacial debris.
One bench 30 feet above the river was extensively worked by the very early miners, who
brought water to the ground by a ditch-line from Frye Creek and flumed it across the river
at the mouth of 10-Mile Canyon. An area covering many acres was mined, and these old
workings, the date of which is unknown, are the most extensive of those observed on the river.
The indicated reason for the rich concentration in this region is the fact that immediately
below 10-Mile Canyon the river cuts directly across its pre-Glacial channel, which probably
lies buried under this lease.
Much painstaking prospecting has been carried out by the holder of this lease in his search
for ground in the region, which either escaped the notice of the early miners or was unprofitable
at that time. He discovered one such region on a bench 5 feet above the river at the bend
opposite the mouth of Frye Creek. At this point the usual sand overburden has been washed
off by recent high water, and a depth of from 3 to 5 feet of profitable post-Glacial gravels were
found to overlie a false bed-rock of kaolinized material over an area 225 by 50 feet.
Two adjoining leases held by J. Johnston and G. R. Baker cover the ground
Leases of        on both sides of the river in the vicinity of the lower end of 10-Mile Canyon.
J. Johnston and The property is reached by a trail 5 to 6 miles in length which leaves the
G. R. Baker.     Quesnel-Barkerville Road at 16-Mile Lake, 16 miles from Quesnel, and,
crossing the plateau, follows Frye Creek closely to a camp situated on the
left bank of the river, 90 feet above it.    The plateau is somewhat broken by gullies and is
generally well timbered.    At most places, even in the wide parts, the ground falls away sharply
from the plateau at the rims of the valley and the latter part of the trail is steep.
That part of the property lying west of the river comprises a terraced gravel-bench area,
on which are extensive old workings. The benches are situated at various elevations, from
a few feet up to 90 feet above the river, and are covered with timber and vegetation. This
part adjoins the lease of Alex. Madison, of which the location of the eastern boundary is not
exactly known to the writer. Much of the descriptive matter relating to the Madison lease
applies also to that part of the property under description lying west of the river.
On the part of the property lying east of the river the banks of the river rise abruptly
in the canyon, and below the latter quite steeply to a broken roughly-terraced, well-timbered
area lying about 80 feet above the river. At a comparatively short distance from the river
the ground again rises sharply.
The mode of placer occurrence exhibited on this property at the point at which the
workings are situated, at the mouth of 10-Mile Canyon on the top of the canyon-wall, on the
east side of the river, is a post-Glacial concentration on the left wall of the canyon. It is
clearly indicated, however, that more immediately instream from the canyon a pre-Glacial
channel-segment of the river lies deeply buried in its left bank and extends beyond this
property. The total length of this buried channel-segment is about 1 mile, and the river,
both at the head and at the mouth of the canyon, cuts more or less directly across its ancient
channel. The down-stream continuation of the channel through this property probably lies
west of the river. Somewhat below the mouth of the canyon, about 50 feet above the river
on the left bank, partly-cemented gravels are exposed, which from their residual character NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 27
are quite possibly pre-Glacial.    These gravels are covered by glacial debris.    The depth to
bed-rock in quite unknown.
The formation exposed at the lower end of the canyon is coarse-grained diorite, pegmatitic
at some points, which contains local segregations of feldspar crystals up to 3 inches in length.
Farther up the canyon ultrabasic phases of batholithic rock are exposed.
A thickness of about 2% feet of gravels composed entirely of diorite pebbles immediately
overlies a rock bench, composed of diorite, 85 feet above the river. The gravels are overlain by
a thickness of from 10 to 12 feet of tight sand and silt and can readily be mined separately
owing to the indurated character of the overburden. At the time of examination gravels with
overburden were exposed over a length of 65 feet fronting the river. The method followed was
to mine the gravels separate from the sand and silt overburden and shovel them into a chute
to a bin at river-level, at which point they were washed in a sluice-flume. The extent of these
gravels had not been ascertained at the time of examination. The gold occurs mainly as coarse
flakes. Four pans taken by the writer of the gravels only, indicated values per cubic yard
of $10.86 in gold and 30 cents in platinum (gold valued at $35 per ounce and platinum at $40
per ounce). These values do not represent the average values of the ground in place. It is
understood that the owners are about to install a small pump operated by a gasoline-engine
to facilitate washing. It might be mentioned that a small lake, situated about 1% miles
distant and about 215 feet above this rock bench, might constitute a useful source of water,
if developments should justify the expense involved. This winter the driving of a tunnel
following the rock-bench gravels is contemplated. This will ascertain the point at which the
rock bench pitches instream to form the right rim of the buried pre-Glacial channel. It does
not, however, follow that, even if the rock should pitch sharply, values will also pitch downward.
It frequently happens in such cases that values continue at approximately their former level
on rock, if some suitable false bed-rock material exists at this horizon. There are other points
near the canyon where the advisability of testing is indicated.
This lease is situated at the head of 10-Mile Canyon and is reached by a
Lease of branch trail leading from the Johnston and Baker leases. The ground
H. Conrad. includes a low-lying bench-area on the left bank of the river at the head of
the canyon, at the upper end of the pre-Glacial segment of the channel
which is indicated as lying buried instream from the canyon in the left bank. Close investigation at this point seems warranted not only in view of the position of the ground, but also
because at some points promising pan-samples have been obtained Opposite this point gravels
overlying a rock bench on the right bank of the river were extensively worked by early miners,
who brought in water from Deep Creek by ditch-line for the purpose. The concentration at
this point was presumably due to the river cutting across its former channel. At the time of
examination the owner was working on a productive bar on the right bank of the river to
acquire funds for further prospecting.
Two leases held by E. McMillan and Mrs. McMillan cover both sides of the
Leases of        river down-stream from a point about opposite the mouth of Boyd Creek.
E. McMillan and The property is reached by a trail about 4 miles in length from the top of
Mrs. McMillan.  20-Mile Hill on the Quesnel-Barkerville Road, distant 20 miles from Quesnel.
From the highway the trail ascends gradually for 1 mile to the well-timbered
plateau and then descends gradually for 2 miles to the rock-rim of the valley, then more sharply
for the remaining distance of 1 mile to a cabin by the river in the central part of the lease.
In addition to river-bars, the property covers, in part, an extensive low-lying, well-timbered
bench on the left bank of the river. At the lower end of the property the main rock-rim of the
valley, which is composed of andesite, rises gradually from the river and, trending instream,
rises more sharply south-easterly to leave between it and the river the large bench mentioned.
Productive bars of considerable extent are situated on both sides of the river on the lower
part of the ground. The average of three pans taken by the writer from bars indicated values
per cubic yard of $4.69 in gold and 7.8 cents in platinum (gold valued at $35 per ounce and
platinum at $40 per ounce).
In the central part of the ground the large low-lying bench mentioned proved productive
near the river, where a varying depth of sand up to 7 feet overlies a depth of 6 feet of pay-
gravels resting on a false bed-rock of slum.    Two pans taken by the writer from gravels only, C 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
indicated values per cubic yard of 97 cents in gold (gold valued at $35 per ounce).    Values are
stated to be best on this false bed-rock.
In this region the river apparently flows over indurated deposits, believed to be of inter-
Glacial age, because where exposed immediately above the large flat mentioned they contain
well-carbonized seams of lignite, one of which is 10 inches in thickness. Argillites are exposed
in the bank of the river at the up-stream end of the large, well-timbered flat. It is apparent
that the post-Glacial waters formerly swept instream over the ground now occupied by the
low-lying bench or flat, which is presumably underlain by indurated glacial deposits. If so, it
is quite possible that profitable gravels may extend down to the false bed-rock formed by this
indurated material, and it is suggested that testing is warranted to determine average values
in place.    It is to be borne in mind that there will probably be a barren sand overburden.
Wingdam Area.
Although placer deposits of post-Glacial age occur in this area, it is the buried deposits
that are of major importance. The area includes the contact between the Precambrian and
Mesozoic rocks. The rocks bordering this contact, between Wingdam and Spanish Mountain,
are of much interest because important placer deposits, now deeply buried, have been laid down
on the rocks of both ages. The two chief contributions to the present year's output were
derived from operations on these border-rocks—namely, those of Consolidated Gold Alluvials
of B.C., Limited, on the Precambrian rocks, and those of Bullion Placers, Limited, on the
Mesozoic rocks.
This company was incorporated in the State of Washington, U.S.A., in 1932,
Slade-Cariboo with registered office at 1410 Hoge Building, Seattle. The purpose was to
Gold Placers, Ltd. acquire and operate certain placer-mining leases formerly owned by W. C.
Slade and associates on Mostique Creek (formerly named Mosquito Creek).
Additional leases were subsequently staked and the company now holds Placer-mining Leases
Nos. 2233, 2334, 2383, 2516, 2530, 2563, 2531, and 2679, covering the creek from its junction
with Lightning Creek to a point about 2% miles up-stream, just beyond the divide between
the valleys of Lightning and Sovereign Creeks.
The property is situated on the south side of Lightning Creek. The camp on the north
side of Lightning Creek is reached by a short branch road half a mile in length, passable for
motor traffic, which leaves the Quesnel-Barkerville Road at a point about 3 miles west of
Wingdam. A bridge across Lightning Creek just below the camp gives ready access to the
company's hydraulic pit on the south bank of the creek.
Mostique Creek rises north of the company's property, flows south-westerly in its upper
reaches, then makes a sharp turn to flow north-west after entering a succession of meadows
and muskegs contained in a wide valley of mature relief, which slopes gradually in both
directions at the divide between Lightning and Sovereign Creeks. From the summit of the
divide Mostique Creek flows on a gentle gradient for about 1 % miles to the point at which the
company's dam is situated, the fall in this distance being determined by aneroid as 135 feet.
The fall in the next three-quarters of a mile is 180 feet, and then rapidly increases in the gorge
through which it flows to enter Lightning Creek at a point about 3 miles below Wingdam.
The wide valley mentioned at the divide between Lightning and Sovereign Creeks is also
occupied by a small unnamed creek flowing south-easterly into Sovereign Creek. Near the
latter the valley narrows rapidly and the creek cascades down a rocky gorge immediately before
entering its master-valley. It is therefore evident that the wide valley mentioned is a hanging-
valley with respect to both Lightning and Sovereign Creeks. The region is well timbered, save
where the floor of the valley is occupied by meadows and muskegs. Lightning Creek is confined
in a canyon in the vicinity of Mostique and Angus Creeks. On the south side the steep
rock wall rises to a height of 70 feet or more above the creek. This rock bench is overlain
by a considerable thickness of glacial material, save where the latter has been resorted by post-
Glacial waters, with the formation of placer deposits upon the rock bench above the canyon.
The most important type of placer deposit exemplified on this property is that of a buried
channel. Topographic features and other facts clearly indicate that an earlier channel-
segment of Mostique Creek lies buried in its left bank near the mouth of the creek, but the
exact down-stream course of this channel, likewise the point at which it enters Lightning Creek,
have not yet been clearly revealed by the work undertaken. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2).
C 29
The property is noted for the coarse nuggets found, but fine gold is also present, originating mainly from the post-Glacial gravels overlying the deposit.
The area is underlain by Mesozoic rocks and is situated close to the contact between the
Mesozoic and Precambrian. Where exposed on this property, the formation consists of
argillites, which in the floor of the hydraulic pit are intruded by a tongue of hornblende diorite
and small acidic tongues of batholithic rock. The strike of the argillites in the pit varies
from north 28 degrees west to north 53 degrees west and the dip is north-easterly at about
65 degrees. In the vicinity of the intrusives mentioned, small irregular quartz veins up to
2% feet in width occur in the acid intrusives and also in the argillites. Other quartz veins
are exposed in Lightning Creek Canyon. The formation eroded is likely to have afforded a
source for the formation of bed-rock placer deposits in Tertiary times.
Slade-Cariboo Gold Placers, Ltd.    Plan showing Workings and Location of Property.
From Survey by H. Pattinson, B.C.L.S.
Gold was first found on Mostique Creek just above the gorge, and the post-Glacial deposits
laid down on the bed of the creek were worked by early miners. It was evidently apparent to
the latter that a buried channel lay instream in the left bank, because at that time at the upper
end of the gorge an adit was driven in the left bank of the creek, which passed through the
right rim of the buried channel above bed-rock. In later years a man named McPhail commenced hydraulicking at the top of the left wall of Lightning Creek Canyon about 200 feet
down-stream from Mostique Creek. In 1926 the property was acquired by Caribou Mining
Company, which confined its efforts to a small amount of prospecting. The following year
W. C. Slade and associates became owners, and for some years thereafter W. C. Slade worked
single-handed constructing a dam on Mostique Creek and bringing in a small supply of water
for hydraulicking. Single-handed he continued hydraulicking, at the point where McPhail
started, as long as the water-supply lasted each year, until 1932, when the ground was acquired
by the present company. In 1932 the water-supply was greatly improved by construction of
a storage-dam 20 feet high on Mostique Creek; a ditch-line for conveying water to the penstock; and a pipe-line from the latter to the pit under a head of about 200 feet. The size of
nozzle used varies from 4 to 6 inches, depending on the water available. (Refer to Annual
Reports of the Minister of Mines for the years 1926, 1930, 1931, 1932, and 1933.) 	
C 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
In 1933, on completion of the hydraulic installation, operations were continued at the
point of commencement by earlier operators. At this point, bed-rock at the outlet of the
sluice-flume is 70 feet above Lightning Creek; consequently dump facilities are very good.
The pit has now been advanced for about 700 feet in a south-easterly direction. Operations
have disclosed that the bed-rock gradually rises towards Mostique Creek and is somewhat
higher on the north side of the pit than in the centre. There is no marked rise of bed-rock
on the south side of the pit, but as the rock more immediately down-stream is somewhat higher
than at the mouth of the pit, the suggestion is that a wide channel lies instream in the left bank
of Mostique Creek. Gravels from 6 to 10 feet in thickness generally overlie bed-rock and are
in turn overlain by much blue and yellow boulder-clay, on the top of which has been deposited
6 to 8 feet of post-Glacial gravels. The coarse gold is contained in cracks and crevices of
bed-rock and in the gravels. During the entire season of 1935 the pit-face disclosed only
boulder-clay resting on bed-rock and the gold-recovery was poor. At the time of examination
in July of this year the face of the pit showed a total thickness of 75 feet of material overlying
bed-rock. Pay-gravels from 6 to 8 feet in thickness had again appeared on bed-rock, overlain
by 60 feet of boulder-clay. The management reports that subsequently the pay-gravels
thickened to 10 feet, and in spite of the damage sustained by the bursting of the dam at the
time of the disastrous high water in June, encouraging results were obtained. The gravels,
which are locally somewhat cemented, contain many pebbles composed of rocks foreign to the
vicinity. Many quartz pebbles are present, but few unduly large boulders. The pay-gravels
rest on more or less comminuted and cemented pieces of bed-rock immediately overlying
bed-rock.
The old adit mentioned as having been driven by early miners in the left bank of Mostique
Creek is now caved, but was examined by the writer some years ago. It is 120 feet long and
for the first few feet passes through rim-rock, but subsequently encounters gravels only.
Bed-rock at the time of examination was not exposed, but it is stated that subsequently a small
winze was sunk, which revealed rock at a shallow depth. If that is the case, this rock is
approximately at the same elevation as that in the face of the pit.
Hydraulicking to date has failed to disclose any evidence incompatible with the indication
that there is exposed a channel about 70 feet above Lightning Creek, the down-stream part of
which has been entirely eroded were it not for certain features on adjoining property.
Topographic features and workings immediately down-stream suggest, however, the possibility that somewhat deeper ground may exist immediately instream from the hydraulic pit.
Moreover, general considerations incline the view that a pre-Glacial channel of Mostique
Creek must have been a tributary of the pre-Glacial channel of Lightning Creek. The bed-rock
of the latter is known both from the Big Bonanza mine-workings in this vicinity, and from
others at Wingdam, to be about 165 feet below Lightning Creek. Even allowing for the fact
that the pre-Glacial channel of Lightning Creek lies considerably north of the present position
of this creek, the bed-rock of the company's hydraulic pit seems too high to admit of a junction
on normal grade with its master-channel.
Immediately down-stream from the company's hydraulic pit the rock-rim of Lightning
Creek Canyon rises to about 16 feet above the western end of the pit-floor, and continues
at that level to and beyond Angus Creek. Near Lightning Creek on this rock bench were
originally post-Glacial placer deposits, extensively worked by the early miners, who made
persistent attempts to follow the gravels instream, only to find that in this direction the rock
dipped sharply away from Lightning Creek. In recent years, W. C. Mading opened up an
hydraulic pit, 325 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 40 feet deep, 575 feet down-stream from the
company's pit, starting at the instream edge of the rock mentioned. The rock at this point
was found to dip sharply instream. Angus Creek, about 500 feet farther down-stream, flows
through a rocky gorge incised in the rock-ledge bordering Lightning Creek Canyon. Above
this gorge bed-rock is not exposed on Angus Creek for about 1,000 feet. At the site of the
old dam of the Big Bonanza mine, Lightning Creek emerges from its canyon and a draw enters
the valley of this creek from the south. Immediately below this point, on the left bank of
Lightning Creek, placer deposits on low-lying post-Glacial rock benches were extensively
worked by the early miners. These facts suggest the possibility that the pre-Glacial channel
of Mostique Creek may lie immediately instream from the company's hydraulic pit, and that
its down-stream course may be more or less parallel to Lightning Creek, emerging in the valley NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2).                                    C 31
 » ,
of the latter at the site of the old dam. The foregoing considerations merely imply that the
pre-Glacial channel of Mostique Creek may be somewhat wider and deeper than originally
contemplated. Much light will, however, very shortly be thrown on this matter by the continuation of present hydraulic operations. The buried channel seems likely to prove of
considerable extent.
McLeod River Area.
Placer occurrence on the McLeod and McDougall Rivers consists of concentrations on
river-bars, gravel benches, and low-lying rock benches. The last-mentioned type of deposit
is of frequent occurrence on the McLeod River. Metals of the platinum group usually accompany the gold to some extent.
Numerous quartz veins, some large, but of lenticular character, in main sparsely mineralized, occur in the region lying immediately north of the McLeod River and east of the southeasterly-flowing part of the McDougall River. These veins occur in schistose argillites, and
also as gash-veins, mainly, in metamorphic rocks. Pyroxenite and also acid types of batholithic rocks occur on the right bank of the McLeod River about 1% miles down-stream from
the mouth of McDougall River. Pyritized acidic batholithic apophyses occur close to the
Fort McLeod-Philip Creek Trail, 7% miles west of Fort McLeod. This fact, coupled with
the known trend of the Cassiar-Omineca batholith, which outcrops for many miles from Mount
Milligan north-west, -suggests that the batholith underlies the region under description, but
has not been greatly unroofed therein. The quartz veins mentioned probably originate from
the batholith and are likely to follow its indicated course. As there is but little evidence of
any veins being cut by the McLeod River, it seems probable that they will be found to trend
north-west rather than south-east of this river. Further, it seems likely that the McDougall
River marks about the western limit of their distribution. Appreciable gold values were not
found in any of the veins examined, but as they are somewhat widely distributed it is possible
that gold-bearing veins may occur. The presence of pyroxenite suggests the local origin of
the metals of the platinum group. The gold is indicated as being of closely-local origin,
although certainly derived in part from glacial materials. That on some of the rock benches,
especially those on the McLeod River, may be of strictly local origin.
There is marked evidence that the ice-sheet moved south-east across this area. The glacial
debris adjacent to the rivers contains a large proportion of material derived from the garnet-
iferous and mica-bearing rocks of Precambrian age cut by the rivers in their upper reaches,
and the placer gravels contain numerous garnets.
As to the evidence of pre-Glacial channel-segments: In the right bank of the McLeod
River, 1% miles down-stream from the mouth of the McDougall River, topographic features
suggest the existence of a buried segment of a former channel of the river, instream from a
low-lying rock bench at this point. The pre-Glacial age of this channel is indicated by deeply-
decayed rock immediately overlain by gravels containing many pebbles of pyroxenite, which
outcrops at the end of the bench. It is also indicated by topographic features that an extensive
pre-Glacial channel-segment of the McDougall River lies deeply buried instream in the left
bank of that river below Reed Creek.
From what is known, however, of the distribution of the quartz veins, the pre-Glacial
channel-segments mentioned do not seem to have eroded the most favourable terrain in the
region for the formation of rich bed-rock placer deposits.
This company was incorporated in 1934, with registered office at 1405 Douglas
Northern Reef Street, Victoria. The placer leases held are numbered 690, 691, and 692,
Gold Mines, Ltd. and their location is shown on the accompanying map. The property covers
part of a large terraced gravel flat situated on the left bank of the river
immediately below Reed Creek, where the river makes several sharp turns, forming a large
bend. This flat rises gradually instream in low terraces to a maximum height of about 25 feet
above the river. In places the flat is lightly timbered. It is roughly semicircular in shape,
and the maximum length is about 3,000 feet and the maximum width about 1,500 feet. At the
instream extremity of this flat, high, terraced, glacial banks rise sharply to the plateau-level,
200 feet above the river. Timber is chiefly second growth, save for local stands, as the region
is in a burnt area. Farther instream the plateau rises gradually to about another 100 feet
above the river. Prominent features of the large flat are, at the down-stream end, two rock
knolls, about 40 feet high, of elliptic shape, lying parallel to one another, the larger of which C 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
rises abruptly from the river of which it forms the left bank at this point. Rock also outcrops
at the point where Trent Creek enters the flat. Immediately below the flat the river enters a
steep-sided rock-walled valley.
After preliminary investigation, the company proceeded to install a hydraulic plant.
The project involved bringing in a water-supply from Green Timber Lake; the construction
of three dams near this lake, and about 8,500 running feet of ditch-line to a penstock situated
at the top of a glacial bank 200 feet above the river; and the laying of a 24-inch main pipe-line,
with two 16-inch branch lines from penstock to point of hydraulicking on the large flat previously mentioned. A sawmill of 10,000 feet board-measure daily capacity was also installed,
camp buildings erected, and an Allis-Chalmers caterpillar tractor and Kirk-Hillman placer-drill
hauled to the property. This installation was completed in 1935, and that year, after carrying
out some drilling and hydraulicking, operations were suspended. (Refer to Annual Reports
of the Minister of Mines for the years 1932 to 1935, inclusive.)
At the down-stream end of the flat as shown on the accompanying map two hydraulic pits
and one long cut were opened up from the river-level. It is not known to the writer what
amount of gold was recovered from these operations.
A small hydraulic pit, No. 1, follows the bed-rock of Trent Creek to near its face, where
bed-rock disappears below the pit-floor. Overlying the bed-rock are post-Glacial gravels about
5 feet in depth.
No. 2 hydraulic pit, maximum width 80 feet and maximum depth at face 24 feet, exposes
bed-rock in the floor. The face of this pit had sloughed considerably at the time of examination,
but at the top were exposed 2 to 3 feet of sand overlying from 4 to 6 feet of gravels. Underlying
the latter was a stratum of silt resting on clay and glacial debris containing many large
boulders. The disposal of the latter evidently proved difficult. It is apparent from an examination of this pit that the post-Glacial waters have not at this point swept down to the
"underlying rock, and that values are therefore likely to be confined to gravels overlying the
glacial deposit.
Somewhat down-stream from No. 2 hydraulic pit a long open-cut, 10 feet deep, was made
up from the river-level apparently to test the ground between the two knolls. This cut exposed
argillite at the point shown on the map. It is likely that the post-Glacial waters swept between
these knolls, but from No. 2 hydraulic pit it is evident that they did not cut to any great depth.
At the points shown on the accompanying map, eight holes were drilled on the flat, and
four holes on a bench 90 to 100 feet above the river. The depth of these holes and values
encountered are not known to the writer.
There is much in the surrounding topographic features to suggest that a pre-Glacial
channel-segment of the McDougall River lies buried instream from the large flat described,
under the high glacial banks. Its suggested course lies between a point on the McDougall
River somewhat down-stream from the mouth of Reed Creek and the south end of Snowshoe
Lake. From this point its course was probably about due east to its junction with the McLeod
River. Much further detailed field-work, however, would be necessary to form an accurate
opinion on this matter. Owing to deep burial, testing by means of Keystone-drilling will prove
expensive, and although bed-rock values quite possibly exist, their commercial recovery involves
serious consideration.
It is apparent that the obvious placer concentrations on this property are certain bars in
the river, of limited extent, and post-Glacial concentrations on the large flat described. The
latter type are likely to exemplify that spotty distribution of values characteristic of deposits
of this type. Values will be superficial, except that if rock not now exposed underlies any
part of this bench at shallow depth, concentration may extend down to it, provided post-Glacial
waters have cut to that level, but not otherwise. To obtain an accurate opinion as to average
values in place of the gravels on the large flat would necessitate detailed investigation.
Any concentration on the high glacial banks, where the latter do not overlie the pre-Glacial
channel-segment mentioned, must be purely superficial, and whether such are commercial is
problematical.
Apart from the pre-Glacial channel-segment mentioned, it is evident that the attitude of all
obvious concentrations of placer on this property is more or less horizontal. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2).
C 33 C 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
Philip Creek Area.
An examination was made of Philip Creek and the Nation River in the vicinity of the
mouth of the former for the purpose of determining placer potentialities.
Philip Creek, or Robinson Creek as it is locally known, rises in a series of lakes situated
on the Nechako Plateau just north of the Arctic-Pacific Divide, and for the first few miles
flows south-easterly, then making a sharp turn flows almost due north into the Nation River.
The total length of the creek is upwards of 40 miles, but time permitted only an examination
of the lower 20 miles. The width of the major part of the valley of this creek is at least a mile.
This wide valley contains many lakes, and through it the large creek meanders, low-lying
benches of great extent and many meadows flanking both its banks. Large masses of terraced
and other glacial debris remain in the valley here and there, and extensive gravel benches have
been formed, up to 100 feet above the creek, but the post-Glacial waters have to a large extent
cleared the wide valley of pre-existent glacial debris down to the present level of the creek.
The region is one of extremely-matured relief, and the valley-rims slope away from the creek
very gradually. Rock-exposures are infrequent, save in the canyon in which the creek is
confined immediately above its confluence with the Nation River. In this canyon, composed
of limestone-beds, are rock benches overlain with gravels representing the successive channels
occupied by the water in cutting down to its present bed. Near the creek the valley-slopes,
the benches, and some parts of the floor of the valley are well timbered.
Philip Creek is reached either by pack-trail from Fort McLeod (a route which is reported
as now being obstructed by fallen timber at several points) or by a pack-trail (constructed by
H. M. Witter and sons) from Pre-emption Lot 9615 on " Scovil Flats " on the Parsnip River,
about 25 miles below Fort McLeod. The former route offers the advantage that horses may
be obtained at Fort McLeod, whereas if the alternative route is selected and pack-horses are
desired, arrangements must be made in advance with H. M. Witter, who keeps the only horses
available on Philip Creek. The latter route was followed by the writer. The pack-trail leaves
the river, at elevation 2,070 feet, at the mouth of an unnamed creek, known locally as Scovil
Creek, which flows into the Parsnip River close to the south boundary of Pre-emption Lot 9615.
The left bank of Scovil Creek is followed for about 8 miles up to the forks, and thereafter the
North Fork of the creek to its headwaters in a pass, at elevation 4,330 feet, in the range of
mountains immediately west of the Rocky Mountain Trench. The distance to this pass from
the river is about 12 miles and the difference in elevation is 2,260 feet. The trail follows
through the pass, and in descending the western slope of the range an unnamed creek, known
locally as Cache Creek, is followed for about 3 miles. This creek is then crossed and the gentle
western slope of the range followed to a point on Philip Creek just below the junction of Wheel
Creek, at elevation 2,555 feet. The grade of this trail is good, there are but few soft spots,
and save in the immediate vicinity of Philip Creek and the Parsnip River timber is light.
On the summit and higher parts of both slopes rock-exposures are numerous, and an excellent
cross-section is afforded of the formations of which the range is composed.
Evidence of the earliest placer-mining in Philip Creek Valley is afforded by certain old
workings on Wheel Creek, at which point a water-wheel, parts of which still remain, was
erected thirty or forty years ago for the purpose, apparently, of supplying power for pumping
in a shaft sunk on the right bank of the creek. These old workings and others on the same
creek in the vicinity are not extensive. At the head of the canyon on Philip Creek, gravels
overlying rock benches were worked to a considerable extent many years ago, and at other
places along the canyon similar deposits were found. It is, however, quite evident that no
really extensive placer deposits were found in this valley. At the present time, mining is
almost entirely confined to numerous bars on the Nation River in the vicinity of the mouth of
Philip Creek and at other places on the river.
Philip Creek has cut a short gorge through andesite in recent times at a point 6 miles
below Wheel Creek. This gorge is west of a pre-Glacial channel-segment which lies buried
instream in the right bank.
One mile above the canyon aforementioned, limestone-beds are exposed on the right bank
of the creek, and the canyon, the length of which, as found by pacing, was 8,387 feet, is cut
entirely in dark-coloured or black limestone-beds, argillaceous at some points. The height of
the walls of the canyon varies from 10 to 150 feet.    The strike of the limestone-beds varies NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 35
from north 70 degrees east to north 80 degrees west and the dip is southerly, varying from
45 to 80 degrees.
The route followed by the trail affords an excellent cross-section of the formations exposed
in the higher slopes of the valley. At 740 feet above the creek schistose green-coloured quartzites are exposed, striking north 45 degrees west and dipping at from 60 to 75 degrees north-east.
Intercalated apparently with these and exposed almost continuously on the higher slopes to
the summit, and also over the latter on the Upper Parsnip River slopes, are gneissic diorite
and less basic gneisses. On the Parsnip River slope at 625 feet above the river are extensive
outcrops of coarsely-crystalline gneissic rocks composed of quartz, feldspar, and muscovite,
which closely resemble a narrow belt of rocks known to outcrop at intervals for hundreds of
miles immediately west of the Rocky Mountain Trench.
Very little evidence of mineralization was observed in the rocks exposed. In the bed
of Philip Creek just above the canyon a quartz vein was seen, and the schistose quartzites
mentioned on the higher valley-slopes contain a few quartz stringers. It is strikingly evident
that in Tertiary times a remarkable amount of prolonged and largely uninterrupted erosion
was accomplished by this creek. In this respect conditions were ideal for the formation of
pre-Glacial bed-rock placer deposits, but there is no evidence to indicate that the terrain eroded
was definitely auriferous. From what is known, this creek lies east of what may be a mineralized area. No definite evidence was found to indicate that commercial placer deposits will be
found on bed-rock where its present course coincides with its pre-Glacial course, or in any
buried pre-Glacial segments.
Within the part examined, the creek flows over boulder-clay, in part resorted, in its upper
reaches. Boulder-clay also underlies, at shallow depth at places near the creek, post-Glacial
gravels, in which fair prospects of placer may be obtained at some points. On Wheel Creek
it is apparent that the placer deposits investigated by early miners overlie indurated slum or
other glacial material. In the canyon, rock-bench deposits of post-Glacial age occur at various
elevations above the creek, and at the head of the canyon the lower-lying benches were worked
to a considerable extent in early days, and apparently proved productive.
It seems reasonable, however, to infer that the glacial debris, which is apparently the
source of all occurrences of placer on this creek, was not markedly auriferous, or by this time
more evidence of productive post-Glacial deposits would have been found. While, however,
this creek cannot be specifically recommended for prospecting per se, prospectors who have
occasion to traverse it for any reason might be well advised to pan the gravels overlying the
widely-distributed clay false bed-rock at various points in the hope of finding some deposit
which has hitherto escaped notice.
Pan-samples taken by the writer from gravels overlying clay at two points on the right
bank of the creek, about 6 miles above Wheel Creek, indicated values of 25 cents and 6 cents
per cubic yard respectively. A few pans were taken at a point about 6 miles below Wheel
Creek from gravels overlying a rock bench 60 feet above the creek, but only a few colours
were obtained (gold valued at $35 per ounce).
Wheel Creek.—This creek is of considerable size and flows north-westerly into Philip Creek.
About a quarter of a mile above its mouth a tributary comes in from its north side. This
tributary is incorrectly shown as Wheel Creek on maps, and the position of the main creek
on which the old placer-workings exist is not shown. About 1% miles above the mouth of
Wheel Creek (main creek) are several old workings within a distance of about half a mile on
the right bank of the creek, and on the left bank stands an old cabin. In this region the creek
flows over either indurated slum or glacial clay, and on the false bed-rock formed by this
material the auriferous post-Glacial deposits are found that were the subject of investigation
by early miners. The deposits occurred as low-lying gravel benches immediately adjacent to
the creek. None of the old workings are extensive. At one point a caved shaft, and the ruins
of an overshot water-wheel, 10 feet in diameter, and dam and flume for supplying water for
operating the wheel, seem to indicate an attempt to sink on the right bank of the creek, the
purpose of the wheel being presumably to operate a Cornish pump. For unknown reasons the
project was abandoned before much work was accomplished. Pan-samples taken from the
creek-gravels opposite the shaft showed colours of gold. It was noted that the bed of the
creek in which these old workings are situated contained glacial boulders of larger size than at other places.    No outcrops of bed-rock were observed in the part of the creek examined,
but at several places indurated glacial debris is exposed.
Nation River.—This river was examined from the mouth of Philip Creek down-stream
for about 4 miles to the head of a canyon. In this region low-lying gravel benches of very
great extent, covered with timber, flank both banks of the river, and behind them gravel
terraces rise to a height of about 100 feet above the river, the highest extending into Philip
Creek Valley above the canyon.
The best and safest means of access to this part of the river is afforded by either of the
routes mentioned in the opening paragraphs of this report. A horse-trail follows the right
bank of Philip Creek throughout the greater part of its length to the upper end of the canyon,
and at this point leads over the steep ridge between Philip Creek and Nation River Valleys.
It is possible to navigate the Nation River by motor-boat from its mouth up to Philip Creek,
with various portages, but recent regrettable fatalities prove that it is a hazardous undertaking
and should not be attempted even by experienced rivermen.
The placer occurrences on this river which engage the present attention of prospectors are
the numerous bars which flank the very extensive low-lying benches to which reference has
already been made. At the time of examination several parties well equipped with motor-boats
and small pumps operated by gasoline-engines were working at different places on the river.
The bars were reported to be productive by those queried.
No systematic attempt has been made to ascertain average values in the very extensive
low-lying benches. Values therein are, in the absence of investigation, largely a matter of
inference from topographic features studied in the light of known facts regarding placer
occurrence. At the lower end of the extensive flats the river enters the first of several rock
canyons. Canyons also occur on the river above Philip Creek. It seems evident that these
low-lying benches overlie pre-Glacial channel-segments of the river, but the depth to bed-rock
is a matter of conjecture. The region lies east of known gold-bearing areas, which presumably
furnished the gold found on the river-bars. Unless, therefore, detailed local examination of
the formations in this region inclines a contrary view, there seems to be no very definite reason
for inferring that commercial bed-rock values are likely to underlie these benches. It is
possible, of course, that post-Glacial concentrations on indurated glacial material, lying above
bed-rock, may have been affected, apart from any purely superficial concentration, which will
doubtless be found at some places instream on these benches. To date, prospectors have worked
these benches only for a few feet instream, obviously because the outstream parts and bars are
more productive. Several pan-samples were taken by the writer at one point about 3 miles
below Philip Creek. Here, just instream from the river, the bench is composed of from 2% to
4 feet of barren sand overlying about 1 foot of gravel just above water-level. Three pans taken
at this point, of gravel only, indicated values of respectively 22 cents, $1.15, and 57 cents
per cubic yard of gravel. Another pan taken from the same place at the instream edge of
the river-bar which flanks the bench indicated values of $1.34 per cubic yard. Another taken
at a point on the bench about 30 feet instream from the river indicated a value of 67 cents
per cubic yard of gravel. Pans taken about 100 yards instream from this point and somewhat
up-stream showed fine colours only. Another pan taken 130 yards down-stream from this
point and 34 yards instream indicated values of 3 cents per cubic yard of gravel. It is to be
noted that values given, except in the case of the samples from the river-bar, do not take account
of the barren sand overburden, and are all based on a gold price of $35 per ounce. Owing
to the great size of the gravel benches a certain amount of systematic preliminary testing seems
warranted. There are also several rock benches in Philip Creek Canyon which have not
apparently been investigated, doubtless because of the difficulty of getting wash-water at this
elevation without pumping.
Special Reports.
A limited number of mimeographed copies are available to those who specially request
reports on the following properties:—■
Richfield Cariboo Gold Mines, Limited.
McLeod River Area (Lode Gold), Northern Reef Gold Mines, Limited.
Ahbau Lake Area—Moosehorn. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 37
The properties described in these reports are not considered to have reached a stage of
development to be of sufficient interest as yet to warrant the inclusion of lengthy descriptions
in the Annual Report.
PROGRESS NOTES.
LODE OPERATIONS.
BY
Charles Graham.
Copper River District.
Dardenelles Group.—Omineca Gold Quartz Company, Limited;   Fred Wells, president.
Very little has been done on this group during the year, due probably to the washing-out of the
Copper River Bridge in October, 1935, and which was again damaged in the big flood of the
Skeena River in May this year.    The bridge has been rebuilt and the trail to the property has
been completed. , _,
Usk District.
Columario Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd.—This property did not operate during the year.
Nicholson Creek Mining Corporation.—B. Shannon, manager.    Some drifting was done
during the early part of the year.    Operations have been suspended for the present.
Hazelton District.
The American Boy mine has been acquired by new interests and it is expected that development will be commenced shortly. . ,
Smithers District.
A small shipment of ore was made from the Silver Pick claims in the Babine Mountain
area.    Only assessment-work was done at any of the other properties.
Houston District.
Bob Creek.—Houston Gold Mines; G. W. Smith, manager. Seven men were employed for
a few months during the summer doing some development-work and prospecting in the large
dyke. There is a small mill on the property consisting of a crusher and table. The ore mined
was put through the mill.    Operations were suspended at the end of September.
There was no activity in lode-mining in any of the other districts in the Omineca Mining
Division.
BY
Thomas R. Jackson.
Cariboo Area.
Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Co., Ltd.—R. R. Rose, general manager; R. E. Vear, mine
manager. Situated near the town of Wells. Underground work was continuous throughout
the year and the mill operated, except for a period from March 23rd, when the power plant
was burned down, until June 16th, when a new power plant was put into operation.
The new power-installation consists of three Rushton Diesels with a total of 1,300-horse-
power at 4,000 feet elevation, which drive three Sullivan compressors that have a total of 3,000
cubic feet, free air, capacity; the above Diesels also drive the electric generators supplying
electrical power and light.
The main haulage-adit, known as the 1,500 level, has reached 4,950 feet in length, and
from this Nos. 1, 2, and 3 shafts have been sunk. No. 1 shaft has been sunk to the 1,700 level
and is now being equipped with an electric hoist.
The levels above the 1,500 level are connected by raises to surface, which provide good
natural ventilation and exits;   the ventilation in long drifts being provided by fans.
During the year employees were provided with Edison electric safety-lamps. C 38 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
On July 16th the mill capacity was increased from 150 tons to 200 tons per day and ran at
this rate for the remainder of the year. Underground haulage is by storage-battery locomotives.
Development during the year consisted of 4,136 feet of drifting, 4,219 feet of crosscutting,
649 feet of raising, 103 feet of sinking, and 4,810 feet of diamond-drilling; 51,634 tons were
mined, and this yielded 18,464 oz. of gold and 1,700 oz. of silver.
Island Mountain Mines, Ltd.—M. C. Banghart, general manager; C. Johnson, mill
manager. The mine is situated close to Wells and operated continuously throughout the year
with 120 men employed.
During the year a 3-compartment shaft was sunk to a depth of 528 feet from the main
adit-level and levels started from this shaft. The electrical hoist installed at the new shaft is
of modern design. The workings above the main level are connected to the surface by raises
and this materially assists in providing natural ventilation of the workings.
Developments during the year consisted of 3,132 feet of drifting, 4,319 feet of crosscutting,
1,264 feet of raising, 528 feet of sinking, and 16,786 feet of diamond-drilling.
The tonnage mined was 43,649 tons, and this yielded 18,032 oz. of gold and 2,921 oz. of
silver.
Quesnelle Quartz Mining Co., Ltd., Hixon, B.C.—Newton J. Ker, president, Russell Ross,
manager. This mine is situated 6 miles east of Hixon and operated continuously from April
with a crew of twelve men. The main shaft is 200 feet deep, and during the year a 2-compart-
ment winze on a 75-degree slope was sunk from the lower level to a depth of 165 feet, and some
drifting was done from it.
Natural ventilation so far has been adequate, but further developments will necessitate
fan ventilation.
Development during the year consisted of 107 feet of drifting, 27 feet of raising, and
135 feet of sinking.
Some work was done during the year at the properties of Burns Mountain Gold Quartz
Mines, Limited, and Cariboo Ledge Mines Company, Limited.
Likely Area.
Mariner*—At this property, situated on Spanish Mountain, owned by T. Bayley and
F. Dickson, of Likely, a number of additional quartz veins were discovered. The veins occur
mainly in alaskite, but also in schistose sediments.    (Refer to Annual Report for 1933.)
Fox.*—This group, owned by T. McGee and Alex. Dick, of Likely, is situated on the left
bank of the Quesnel River, 2% miles down-stream from Quesnel Forks.
Magnetite Deposits.
Likely Area.
Likely Gold Mining Syndicate*—At the property owned by this syndicate, on the left bank
of the South Fork of the Quesnel River, half a mile from Likely, surface-stripping and a short
crosscut adit have exposed, in part, a lens of magnetite containing a certain amount of chalcopyrite and pyrite.
Manganese Deposits.*
The discovery of manganese in the vicinity of the Nechako River east of Fort Fraser is
reported by A. Goodwin and others, of Fort Fraser. It is understood that manganese was
discovered at two different points, and that an examination was made by an officer of the
Geological Survey.
Tungsten Deposits.
Columbia Tungstens Co., Ltd.—Donald F. Fraser, manager. This mine is situated at
Hardscrabble, about 6 miles from Wells, and consists of a 70-foot 2-compartment shaft in
gravel, from which there is a 350-foot drift at the end of which a winze is down and drifting
is carried on from this winze.
Prospecting for sheelite has been the chief work during the year.
* By Douglas Lay. PLACER OPERATIONS.
BY
Charles Graham.
There has been very marked activity in placer-mining during the past year, particularly
by the DeGanahl interests of New York, who are operating on Germansen, Vital, and Harrison
Creeks.
About 175 men were employed in these areas during the summer, working for wages, in
addition to about thirty prospectors working on other creeks not visited.
Germansen River.
Germansen Creek Ventures.—H. McN. Fraser, superintendent. This company, owned by
the DeGanahl interests, has acquired twelve leases on the lower end of the creek, near its junction with the Omineca River. It was late in the season before operations were started. A
camp was rushed up at Germansen Landing and considerable preparatory work done. This
is a hydraulic operation, but it was proposed to do some drifting during the winter to define
the rims.    Thirty-eight men were employed.
Slate Creek.
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co.—W. M. Ogilvie, manager. A large drag-line
scraper plant is installed, using a 2-yard bucket. A 60-horse-power " cat" bulldozer is used
to break up the ground and push the gravel into the pit through which the drag-line operates,
considerably increasing the yardage that the scraper can handle. Thirty-five men are employed and camp conditions are good. A radio set at the plant provides communications with
Fort St. James, Anyox, and Trail.
Manson Creek.
Only individual miners were operating on Manson Creek.
Takla Lake District—Vital Creek.
Northern Ventures, Ltd.—J. J. Warren, manager. This property, originally worked as an
underground operation by Chinese, was operated in 1934 by Juneau, Alaska, interests and in
1935 was acquired by the DeGanahl interests.
A second shaft was necessary if underground operations were to be continued, so the new
owners decided to abandon underground mining and use hydraulic methods. Starting late in
June, 1935, preparations were begun for hydraulic operations and considerable money was
spent in ditches, flumes, and sluice-boxes for tailings-disposal. Hydraulic operations started
in the late spring of 1936, but were abandoned during the summer as dumping facilities were
insufficient to handle the great thickness of overburden. The equipment was moved to
Harrison Creek, where the conditions for hydraulic operation are much more favourable.
A shaft was started to reach bed-rock just ahead of the old tunnel, which will serve for
drainage and ventilation, but the outlet has been so damaged by hydraulicking that it will not
be suitable or safe as a second exit.    A steam-boiler and hoist have been installed.
Harrison Creek.
Harrison Creek.—This property, operated by Harrison Creek Ventures (E. Gibbons,
manager), has also been acquired by the DeGanahl interests. During the summer preparations
have been made for commencing hydraulic operations, and a fine camp has been constructed.
A base camp has been erected at Takla Lake and considerable work done on road-construction
from the lake to Harrison and Vital Creeks.
Prospecting is being carried on at Tom Creek, Quartz Creek, and other small creeks in
the area. BY
Thomas R. Jackson.
Wingdam Area.
Consolidated Gold Alluvials of B.C., Ltd.—This company operates at Wingdam, with D.
Campbell-Mackenzie as general manager; Leroy S. Cokely, assistant manager; John Knowles, C 40 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1936.
mine manager. The workings are known as the Sanderson, Melvin, and No. 1 shafts respectively;  the No. 1 shaft was inactive during the year.
The Sanderson shaft and workings are in gravel and require careful and close timbering.
The system of work is by the pillar-and-stall method, and during the year 47,777 cubic yards
of ground was taken out; this yielding $210,482 in gold.
Ventilation is provided by a 6,000-cubic-foot-capacity fan. During the year a second exit
was made by means of a slope driven 498 feet to the surface. Haulage is by means of a storage-
battery locomotive and the workings throughout are provided with electric lights.
The Melvin shaft, sunk in rim-rock to a depth of 280 feet, or 60 feet below the bottom of
the original channel of Lightning Creek, now has 1,921 feet of workings, including the main
reef-drive under the old channel.    Short offsets are made at 75-foot intervals from the main
reef-drive, and from the offsets 4-inch diameter holes are drilled vertically up to the gravel
above;   these drill-holes are equipped with valves permitting control of the flow so that the
drainage can be concentrated to one area and also limit the flow of water to the capacity of the
pumps.    When the pressure-gauges show that the water has been drained from the area above
raises will be put up into the gravel and gold-recovery started.    At the time of writing the
first raise has been put up a distance of 62 feet and a short level driven into the gravel which
had been previously dewatered.
Hydraulic Area.
Bullion Placers, Ltd.*—The following data are kindly supplied by the management:
Yardage piped during the year from Bullion pit, 960,000 cubic yards in 2,144 hours; a 10-inch
nozzle under a head of 400 feet was employed on bed-rock and a 6-inch nozzle under a head of
100 feet on the upper gravels. Bank-blasting to promote safety was carried out, 4-inch holes
being drilled to a depth of about 70 feet with an Airplane drill and blasted with 40 per cent.
Polar Forcite. The extensive developments carried out included laying a new pipe-line to
supply two 10-inch monitors in the South Fork pit. It is anticipated that not less than
1,250,000 cubic yards will be piped off next season.     (Refer to Annual Report for 1935.)
Likely Area.
Quesnel Mining Co., Ltd.*—This newly-incorporated private company has acquired twenty
leases and one dredging lease on the North Fork of the Quesnel River, Spanish and Black Bear
Creeks.    A force of forty men was employed during the year in installation of hydraulic plant.
Leases of A. L. Youngren and A. G. Youngren*—These are situated on the right bank of
the South Fork of the Quesnel River, distant half a mile from Likely. A. L. Youngren discovered coarse nuggety gold in gravels overlying rock consisting of interstratified argillite
and conglomerate at 100 feet above the river.
Quesnel Area.
B.C. Development Co., Ltd.*—This company is operating the property known as the
Tertiary mine (described in the Annual Report for 1934). Messrs. Fraser and Peers, consulting engineers, report that a drift in the right rim of the channel was advanced up-stream
a distance of 600 feet, and that a total footage of 475 feet of Keystone-drilling was accomplished.
Horsefly Area*
Two new discoveries, both situated close to the main road, are reported.    These are:—
(a.) That of A. N. Walker and Associates.—The old " Soda Creek" shaft, sunk in the
earliest days of mining to a depth of 65 feet, close to Horsefly, about 700 feet instream from the
left bank of the Horsefly River, was unwatered.
(b.) That of R. N. Campbell.—The discovery of a buried river-channel is reported at a
point about 1% miles west of Horsefly and distant about 400 yards south of the main road.
In both the above cases it is stated that a considerable amount of work was done subsequent
to discovery. (Refer to Annual Report for 1931, containing a general account of the area,
with map.)
* By Douglas Lay.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937.
4,725-237-4740 INDEX.
C 41
INDEX.
Page.
Aeroplane prospecting  C 4
Ahbau Lake, reference to report on C 36
Ahlbeck, H C 23
Ah Hoo Creek (Omineca) C 4, 6, 11
Ah Lock (Omineca), Chinese placer C 7, 11
Ahluk Creek (Omineca) C 11
Allison, J. W. (Cariboo) C 21
American Boy (Omineca) C 37
Anderson, A. (Cariboo) C 23
Angus Creek (Cariboo) C 28
Baker, G. R.
Baughart, M. C.
_C26
-C38
Bauer, J. (Omineca) —
Bayley, T. (Quesnel)._.
Bellos, H. (Cariboo)-
Bert Peak (Omineca).
 C 6, 7, 11
 C 38
 C 25
 C 12
Big Bonanza (Cariboo), placer C 30
Big Boy (Cariboo), placer C 21
Big Wolverine Valley  C 6
Beach Bear Creek C 40
Bob Creek C 37
Boyd Creek (Cariboo) C 27
B.C. Development Co., Ltd C 40
Bullion Placers, Ltd C 40
Bumble Bee (Omineca), placer C 16
Burns Mountain Gold Quartz Mines, Ltd. C 38
Campbell, R. N. (Quesnel)	
Campbell-Mackenzie, D. (Cariboo)_
Cariboo, platinum
_C 40
_C 39
_C 20
Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Co., Ltd C 37
Cariboo Ledge Mines Co., Ltd C 38
Caribou Mining Co., Ltd C 29
Cinema (town)  C 17
Cinema Gold Placers, Ltd C 23
Cokely, Leroy S C 39
Columario Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd...C 37
Columbia Tungstens, Ltd C 38
Conrad, H. (Cariboo) C 27
Consolidated Gold Alluvials of B.C., Ltd.._C 39
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. of
Canada, Ltd., at Slate Creek C 39
Cottonwood River (Cariboo),topography-C 17
Iron  C20
Peninsulas in  C 22
Coughlin, R. J C 25
Coughlin Trail C 17
Dardanelles (Omineca)
C37
Deep Creek, Cottonwood River C 19
Dick, Alex. (Quesnel) C 38
Dickson, F. (Quesnel) C 38
Dowling, F. B C 22
Drag-line operations (Omineca) C 13
Dunsmore, R. (Omineca) C 14, 16
Elmore Gulch (Omineca).
Fort St. James, aeroplane base-
Fox (Quesnel) 	
Fraser, Mr. (Quesnel).
..C13
- C4
C38
.C40
Fraser, Donald F. (Cariboo) C 38
Fraser, H. McN. (Cariboo) C 22, 39
Frye Creek (Cariboo) C 26
Page.
Ganahl, C. F. de C 12, 39
Germansen (old town) C 10
Germansen Creek Ventures (Omineca) C 39
Germansen Lake   C 4
Germansen Mines, Ltd C 4, 7, 8, 9
Germansen Placers, Ltd C 8, 9
Germansen River, gold, placer C 3, 39
Gibbons, E C 39
Gold, placer, Germansen River  C 3
Takla Lake C 39
Gold, lode  C 37
Goodwin, A., Nechako River C 38
Graham, Charles, report as Inspector..C 37, 39
Hagberg, Albin (Omineca) C 10
Hardscrabble Creek, tungsten C 38
Harrison Creek  (Omineca) C 39
Harrison Creek Ventures C 39
Hayward, A. E. (Omineca) C 16
Hixon Creek C 38
Holloway Bar (Omineca)  C8
Horsefly River C 40
Horseshoe Creek, Germansen River  C 4
Houston C37
Houston Gold Mines C 37
Hush Lake C 25
Island Mountain Mines, Ltd...
_C38
Jackson, Thomas R., report as Inspeetor-
—C 37 39
Johnson, C. (Cariboo) C 38
Johnston, J.  (Cariboo) C 26
Kenton, W. (Omineca)  C7
Ker, Newton J C 38
Kerr, F. A., reference to report on Man-
son area  C 7
Knowles, John  C 39
Kruczek, F. (Cariboo) C 21
Lay, Douglas, report as Resident Mining
Engineer  .  C 3
Lightning Creek (Cariboo).
Likely
 C28, 40
 C 28, 40
Likely Gold Mining Syndicate C 38
Little Wolverine Pass   (Omineca).    See
McCorkell Pass.
Lost Creek, Manson River C 12
Lost Creek Mountain (Omineca) C 13
Lost Creek Placer Gold, Ltd C 15
Mading, W. C C 30
Madison, Alex. (Cariboo) C 26
Magnetite, Cottonwood River, indicator of
gold values  C 24
At Likely C 38
Manganese, Nechako River  C 8
Manson Creek C 39
Manson, Upper, Lake, aeroplane base C 12
Manson River, drag-line operations C 13
Manson sections, quartz veins  C 6
Geology of  C 6
Marriner (Quesnel)   C 38
Mill, Houston Gold Mines, Ltd C 37 C 42
INDEX.
Page.
Mill Creek, Germansen River C 4, 6, 12
Moore, C. W. (Cariboo) C 23
Mosquito Creek (Cariboo).   See Mostique
Creek.
Mosquito Lake (Omineca) C 13
Mostique   Creek   (formerly   Mosquito
Creek)   C 28
Mullan, J.     _   _ _C 13
McCorkell Valley  (formerly Little Wolverine Valley), drag-line operations-
 C 4, 7, 13
McCorkell, A. A  _._ C 7
McCorkell, R. C       _ C 7
McDonald, Bert (Omineca) C 15
McDougall River  __C 31
McGee, T.  C 38
Mackenzie, C. (Cariboo) C 21
McKinnon, Mr. (Omineca), placer C 13
McKinnon placer C 14
McLeod River area =.        _C 31
McMullan, E. (Cariboo) C 27
Nation River (Omineca) C 34, 36
Nechako River, manganese on C 38
Nicholson Creek Mining Corporation C 37
Nickel (Omineca)  ;_  C6
Norn, F. C 20, 23
North-eastern  Mineral   Survey  District
(No. 2), report by Douglas Lay  C3
Northern Placers, Ltd  . _.C 13
Northern Reef Gold Mines, Ltd C 31, 36
Northern Ventures, Ltd C 39
Ogilvie, W. M. (Omineca) C 39
Omineca Gold Quartz Co., Ltd C 37
Omineca Mining Division, nickel  C 6
Omineca Placers, Ltd C 13
Omineca River, topography         C 4, 6
Otterson, G. W C 13
Pearson, J. D.  (Cariboo) C 20, 21
Peterson, F.  (Cariboo) C 23
Philip Creek area C 34
Platinium, Cottonwood River C 20
Plug Hat Creek C 6, 7, 11
Quartz Creek  (Omineca) C 39
Quesnel Mining Co., Ltd C 40
Quesnelle Quartz Mining Co., Ltd . C 38
Quesnel River, magnetite, reference.—CI 38, 40
Page.
Radio, use by mining company at Man-
son   C39
Reed Creek (Omineca) C 32
Richfield Cariboo Gold Mines, Ltd C 36
Rose, R. R. (Cariboo) C 37
Rosetti, S. (Omineca) C 16
Ross, Russell C 38
Ruttan, D. E. (Cariboo) C 20, 21
Scheelite  C 38
jSee also Tungsten.
Scovil Creek, Parsnip River C 34
Shannon, B. (Omineca) C 37
Silver Pick (Omineca) C 37
Skeleton Creek (Omineca) C 12
Skeleton Mountain (Omineca) C 16
Slade, W. C C 28
Slade-Cariboo Gold Placers, Ltd C 28
Slate Creek  (Omineca) C 4, 39
Smith, G. W C 37
Sovereign Creek C 28
Spanish Creek (Quesnel) C 40
Spanish Mountain C 38
Steele, W. B. (Omineca) C 13
Sundberg, Magnus C 25
Swanson, G. (Cariboo) C 23
Tertiary, placer C 40
Tom Creek (Omineca) C 39
Trent Creek (Omineca) C 32
Tungsten . C 38
jSee also Scheelite.
Usk _-_ C37
Vear, R. E. (Cariboo)    C 37
Vital Creek C 39
Walker, A. N C 40
Ward, A. J.;  Bauer, J C 6, 11
Warren, J. J.  (Omineca) C 39
Wells, Fred (Omineca),- at Dardenelles C 37
Wheel Creek (Omineca) C 34
Tributary to Philip Creek C 35
Wingdam      C 28, 39
Witter, H. M. (Omineca) C 34
Wolverine Lakes   C 6
Youngren, Mr.  C 40
Youngren, A. L          C 40
Yukon Border Placer Golds, Ltd C 13, 16
Zymoetz River  1 C 37
ILLUSTRATIONS.
Cottonwood River—Plan showing Properties	
Germansen Mines, Ltd.—Plan	
Northern Reef Gold Mines, Ltd	
Slade-Cariboo Gold Placers, Ltd	
-C18
.. C5
.C33
.0 29

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