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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1937

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. E. C. Manning, Chief Forester.
REPORT
OP
THE FOEEST BEANCH
FOR  THE
YEAH ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1936
Wm®m€.
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY  OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Ciiari.es F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.  Victoria, B.C., February 24th, 1937.
To His Honour E. W. HAMBER,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1936.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1936.
E. C. MANNING,
Chief Forester.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
REVIEW OF INDUSTRY.
Economic conditions throughout Canada were distinctly better in 1936 than they have
been during any year since the beginning of the depression. The year saw a large Dominion-
wide increase in export trade over that of 1935. Trade agreements with the United States
opened that market to some sixty Canadian commodities, and trade with the United Kingdom
and other Empire countries expanded considerably. The national income from the forest and
forest industries for the year 1936 is estimated to be about $260,000,000, as compared with a
little less than $200,000,000 in 1935. British Columbia, and more especially the local lumber
industry, contributed largely to this general improvement and shared in the improved
conditions.
The year opened with general confidence in the prospects for increased business in all
markets on the part of the industry in British Columbia. January and February, however,
were disappointing. There was a decrease in orders from the United Kingdom, due partly to
increased lumber prices. Rail trade to the Prairies and Eastern Canada was poor, largely
because of severe weather conditions. Orders from Japan were not up to expectations and that
country showed a preference for logs. Several weeks of bad weather in British Columbia with
snow slowed up production. Coupled with all this, the United States quota of 250,000 M. feet
of fir and hemlock from British Columbia promised to restrict the advantages gained from the
tariff reduction which became effective at the first of the year. However, by the end of the
first quarter conditions were on the mend, and the close of the year showed results rather better
than earlier expectations.
Loggers' strikes in the early spring caused slight curtailment of log-output, but the disturbance was localized and of short duration. The disastrous strike on the United States
water-fronts resulted in a disorganization of shipping and the loss of orders for west-coast
species on this as well as on the American side of the boundary. The shortage of cargo-space
in the latter part of the year materially curtailed overseas shipment of lumber.
The log-scale for the Province (reported in detail in pages following) amounted to more
than 3,020,000 M. feet. Log-scale is perhaps the best single measure of industrial activity in
forest products, and this scale is the third highest on record. It represents an increase of more
than 14 per cent, over the scale of 1935 and is less than 10' per cent, under the record scale
of 1929.
Most of the improvement in business is recorded in water-borne export of lumber. Canadian demand was disappointing and only 60 per cent, of the 250 million United States quota was
shipped. Water-borne export exceeded 1,200 million board-feet, creating a new record and
representing an increase of 41 per cent, over 1935. The most encouraging feature in this
regard was the increase in Empire trade, which was in no way attributable to any outstanding
event or unusual circumstances. Rather it was the result of the Empire trade agreements of
1932, consistent trade-extension promotion, and generally improved economic conditions.'
Apart from three very minor recessions, each month's export figures showed a consistent
increase over all preceding months, from 67 million in January to an all-time record of more
than 113 million in December. The monthly export for each of the months of September,
October, and December exceeded 100 millions.
Lumber and log prices advanced encouragingly during the year, and if present prospects
materialize the industry will be able to write off some of the losses of depression years. In this
connection the difficult financial situation which the forest industries have weathered during
the past few years is illustrated by a comparison of the total value of products during this
favourable 1936 with previous years. For example, in 1926, with the nearest comparable scale
and volume of business (log-scale 3 per cent, less), a year which might be characterized as
" pre-depression normal," the estimated value of products was about $85,000,000, or an average
of $29.06 per M. log-scale. The estimated value of production in 1936 is $72,010,000, or $23.84
per M. log-scale.    There is still a considerable differential to be recovered before we return to L 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
what may be described as normal, and there is some reasonable prospect that this may be
accomplished in 1937.
One of the high lights of the year, so far as the export trade is concerned, was the visit to
the Province of the British timber-trade representatives in August. These gentlemen represented the Timber Trade Federation of Great Britain, with the members of which the bulk of
the timber trade of the United Kingdom is transacted. It is hoped, and we believe, that their
visit laid the foundation for still further improvement in trade relationships.
During 1936 the pulp and paper industry enjoyed a remarkable recovery in volume of
business, which was shared throughout Canada. Dominion-wide production of newsprint was
about 16 per cent, greater than in 1935. In British Columbia a new record was established in
the production of newsprint which represents about 90 per cent, of paper-manufacture in the
Province. The end of the year saw all mills working at full capacity and unable to meet market
demands. Indications for 1937 are brighter than they have been for years past. While price-
improvement has lagged behind volume, there is now apparent a definite improvement in this
direction.
The door business has shown further expansion with a gain of over one-half million doors
in the export volume. Practically all material used in the manufacture of doors is now produced within the Province.
Other forest products have enjoyed a sustained market even if not to the same extent as
the lumber and paper trades. Shingle production was slightly in excess of 1935, but total
value shows a decline. Poles show an increase in production of more than 60 per cent, over
1935 scale. Corded materials and hewn ties are both down. These " minor products " are not
a large factor in the forest industry total, but they assume a local importance, especially in the
interior of the Province, out of all proportion to their relative scale. Much of the settlement
of the Province has been made possible by the part-time employment available to farmers in
the production of hewn ties, posts, and poles.
The new year 1937 opens with the brightest prospects of the past five or six years. In
mid-January lumber orders are taxing the capacity of the mills, the paper market continues
to be exceptional, and the camps are finding difficulty in supplying the demand for logs. There
is every indication that the overseas demand will be sustained and the domestic market should
improve considerably over last year.
The most disturbing factor is the unbalanced nature of our timber-cut in so far as species
are concerned. More than 55 per cent, of the log-scale was Douglas fir, which species comprises
approximately 25 per cent, of our visible supply. To bring about a more balanced cutting
there should be no delay in developing markets for cedar and hemlock.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
Forest Branch personnel was increased from time to time with increasing business from
154 permanent employees in 1913 to a maximum of 252 in 1931. The Ranger staff, on which
devolves practically all the field-work of administration, increased during the same period from
33 to 63. These, of course, are included in the total figures above. Acquisition of the 14,500,000
acres of former Dominion lands in the Railway Belt and Peace River Block in 1930 involved an
increase in staff of 9, included in the 252 previously noted. Depression years led to successive
reductions totalling 59, leaving a staff of 193 in 1935. There were 204 permanent employees
in 1936, of whom 52 constituted the Ranger staff. Log-scale, which is a good single measure
of business transacted, climbed back to more than 3,000 million in 1936 from a depression low
of 1,611 million in 1932, when the Ranger staff numbered 54 and the total staff 210. While
some increase has been provided for 1937, the Service is still understaffed on the basis of
current activity.
Apart from the overload of work devolving on the whole personnel during the past year,
one of the worst features of staff reduction and salary cuts of the past few years has been the
loss of a number of promising young technical men. Five Foresters have resigned during the
past few months, largely due to salary schedules quite out of keeping with their experience and
service. It will take some years to replace them with men of equivalent experience and
training. In the meantime, progress in forest research and other essential activities is
seriously retarded.
Distribution of staff is shown in the accompanying table. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 7
Distribution of Force, 1936.
Permanent.
Temporary.
Forest District.
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THE MULTIPLE USE OF FOREST AREAS.
It is becoming increasingly apparent that we must value our forests not only as a source
of our supplies of timber, but also for their many other uses—as food and shelter for our game
and fur-bearing animals, as regulators of the water-flow of the streams in which we fish, and
as attractions for the tourist and other recreationists who delight in the great outdoors. Our
forest areas must be developed and protected from fire in the interests of these " multiple uses."
Forest-management plans must recognize both the industrial and recreational uses of forest
areas. By far-sighted planning we must make these various interests harmonize as much
as possible, secure greater returns from our forest areas, and make them the greatest single
drawing-card for our rapidly increasing tourist trade.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
Two new State Forests were established during the year. The Nimpkish Forest, on the
northern part of Vancouver Island, covers 1,386 square miles with 10,891,500 M.B.M. standing
timber, and the Toba Forest, on the Mainland Coast between Powell River and Bute Inlet, comprises 1,194 square miles with 2,199,800 M.B.M. standing timber. Both these Forests have
been surveyed and mapped;  details were included in last year's Annual Report.
Following the survey of the Kettle Forest during 1934 and 1935, this Forest was reduced
considerably in size, from 2,426 square miles to 1,263 square miles, chiefly by eliminating large
areas of unproductive land or land which has been so badly burned over, and its productive
capacity so reduced, that it will remain indefinitely waste land for all practical forest purposes.
With these valueless lands, some comparatively small productive blocks have unavoidably been
eliminated because the fires have isolated them from the main body of the Kettle Forest. Later
these may be administered as individual Forests; in some cases they would be suitable for
community forests attached to various villages in the vicinity.
The Kettle Forest, within its new boundaries, could sustain an annual yield of 4,000,000
F.B.M. saw-timber from accessible areas. This could be increased to 11,700,000 F.B.M. and
50,000 cords of pulp-wood if and when the whole Forest becomes accessible. Present utilization
is only 430,000 F.B.M. per annum, but there has been an average annual fire loss of 2,200,000
F.B.M. timber and 3,900 acres of immature stands. About half of the fires are caused by
lightning. Financial considerations have made it impossible to carry out all the control
measures that would be necessary for satisfactory results.    The Kettle Forest contains:— L 8
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber—
Accessible	
Acres.
.....     34,600
Inaccessible ■     53,200
Immature timber—
1- 20 years old  90,400
21- 40 years old  41,800
41- 60 years old  114,700
61- 80 years old  38,500
81-100 years old  44,500
Over 100 years old  1,300
Selectively logged .
2,100
Not satisfactorily reforested-
B urned 	
Logged 	
Deciduous bush	
Unprofitable conifers 	
76,500
500
11,500
52,900
Acres.
87,800
333,300
141,400
Total sites of productive quality M   562,500
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Grass land—
Alpine range and wild hay     11,200
Lowland pastures       1,300
Waste land—
Barren or scrub-covered  229,100
Swamp and water       4,100
12,500
233,200
Total non-productive sites
245,700
Total area of Kettle Forest    808,200
The Forest contains the following standing timber (over 11 inches D.B.H.) :—
Accessible.
Total Stand.
Species.
Alienated.
Total.
Alienated.
Total.
M.B.M.
50
6,200
4,680
M.B.M.
11,650
68,540
3,430
53,120
4,400
8,220
3,220
670
890
M.B.M.
50
6,500
4,810
M.B.M.
97,140
86,590
80,720
68,860
16,410
720
720
8,330
6,990
1,830
1,270
11.650
154.140
12,080         |        368,140
1
In addition, there are 243,400 cords of timber (over 7 inches D.B.H.) in stands suitable
for pulp-wood only. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936. L 9
The survey of the watershed of the Upper Arrow Lake, made last year, was completed.
Forest and topographic maps were made on scales of 2 miles to the inch and % mile to the inch.
This area is recommended for reserve as a permanent Provincial Forest. The lake is surrounded by mountains of the Monashee and Selkirk Ranges up to nearly 11,000 feet in
elevation, so that the Forest will unavoidably contain within its boundaries a large proportion
of unproductive land but beautiful scenery. The productive areas themselves have an average
site quality of 80 (spruce) and 70 (fir), and reforestation is much more successful than might
be expected in an area which averages twenty-two forest fires, with 4,500 acres burned, a year.
Over 70 per cent, of the fires reported are due to lightning. Of the area burned over, 90 per
cent, has reforested satisfactorily;  so has over 60 per cent, of the logged areas.
The proposed Forest could sustain an annual yield of 28,600,000 F.B.M. from accessible
stands, and 39,000,000 if the whole Forest were to become accessible. The approximate average
utilization during the last ten years has been 9,000,000 F.B.M. per annum, but there has been
an additional average depletion by fire of 300 acres of immature and 340 acres of mature
timber annually. Several small mills, now dismantled, have operated on the shores of Arrow
Lake in the past. Two more permanent mills at Nakusp and two small portable mills at
Revelstoke now obtain timber from this Forest. As the town of Nakusp depends to a considerable extent upon the forest, it would be an advantage for its industry to be supported by
an accessible sustained yield from a regulated forest.
The Upper Arrow Forest contains:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.        Acres.
Accessible     98,400
Inaccessible      80,900
    179,300
Immature timber—
1- 20 years old  31,300
21- 40 years old  48,300'
41- 60 years old  40,000
61- 80 years old .  37,800
81-100 years old  12,500
Over 100 years old  400
170,300
Not satisfactorily reforested—
Burned  9,400
Logged   2,000
Deciduous bush  4,000
Unprofitable conifers  8,300
23,700
Total sites of productive quality .    373,300
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Barren, alpine, or scrub-covered     753,200
Swamp and water      66,900
Total non-productive sites    820,100
Total area of Forest 1,193,400 L 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The timber is estimated as follows (over 11 inches D.B.H.) :—
Species.
Accessible.
Inaccessible.
Total.
M.B.M.
388,930
306,890
119,910
185,740
34,190
137,770
75,410
M.B.M.
181,110
250,570
335,350
42,190
133,810
27,440
12,470
M.B.M.
570,040
Red cedar     —	
557,460
455,260
227,930
168,000
165,210
87,880
1,248,840
982,940
2,231,780
Of the accessible timber 840,540 M.B.M. is on vacant Crown land, and of the inaccessible
842,653 M.B.M. is on vacant Crown land.
In addition, there are 205,800 lineal feet of cedar pole timber (190,000 accessible) and over
33,000 railway-ties could be cut from lodgepole pine, all accessible.
Maps, estimates, and preliminary management plans were also completed for the Coast
area surveyed last year. This Coast Forest, from Knight Inlet to Wakeman Sound, is recommended for reserve as a permanent State Forest, taking the name of its chief inlet, Kingcome
Forest. This Forest is in the hemlock-cedar region and should be regarded as a permanent
source of supply for Coast pulp-mills first and lumber or shingles secondarily. It has an
accessible sustained annual yield capacity of 13,200,000 F.B.M. of timber of a quality acceptable
in existing markets, or 14,000,000 F.B.M. from the whole Forest if all the stands should become
accessible. The average annual cut has been 22,000,000 F.B.M., but restriction of the cut is
not recommended at present because it is reasonable to expect that smaller timber will be merchantable in future years. On a rotation of sixty years, the Forest could sustain an annual
yield of 24,000,000 F.B.M. from accessible stands.
The fire risk is small; average annual precipitation is 79 inches; only 570 acres have been
burned over during the last ten years. This was in a single fire, seven years ago. The chief
hindrance to reforestation is the heavy growth of salal and other weeds which occupy the cut-
over lands before conifer regeneration can succeed. This condition indicates that more thought
for reforestation is required when logging plans are being made and in disposal of slash.
The Kingcome Forest contains:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.
Accessible  .  59,500
Inaccessible  4,210
Immature timber—
1-20 years old .
3,800
21-401 years old       2,000
41-60 years old ...
Over 60 years old
Not satisfactorily reforested—
Logged 	
Burned 	
Deciduous bush	
400
800
Unprofitable conifers
3,300
100
8,100
200
Acres.
63,700
7,000
11,700
Total sites of productive quality ...
82,400 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936. L 11
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres
Barren, alpine, or scrub-covered   361,200
Swamp and water  11,000
Total non-productive sites    372,200'
Total area of Kingcome Forest L    454,600
During the year the survey of the Coast Forests was continued; one party, working from
the Surveys Division launch " B.C. Forester," examined the area surrounding Seymour, Belize,
and tributary inlets; another made a survey of the logged and burned lands of the Esquimalt
and Nanaimo Railway Land Grant on Vancouver Island. The latter survey was assisted by
the taking of some 900 vertical aerial photographs from an altitude of 12,000 feet, which are
being stereoscopically plotted. It is proposed to continue the survey of this Land Grant during
the coming year, so that a complete map may be made with information as to the present condition of the Forest, and the result of past logging, in this most valuable forest region. In the
Interior one party continued the survey of the Arrow Lakes, working on the watershed of the
lower lake. Topographic and forest maps and estimates of all three projects are in course of
preparation.
FOREST RESOURCES INVENTORY.
A complete report and account of the forest resources of the Province was completed and is
available in a separate publication, illustrated with maps, diagrams, and photographs.
The Forest Atlas and estimates of the Prince Rupert Forest District were revised and
brought up to date. Figures for this district were previously published in our Annual Report
for 1931. The revised estimates are given below. A revision of the maps and estimates for
the Vancouver District, including Vancouver Island, has been commenced. L 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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p) Tjj
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ft 2 a
ft 2 ft
p    o
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Eh Eh § FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 13
PROVINCIAL FOREST INVENTORY—Continued.
Total Merchantable Timber in Prince Rupert Forest District.
Drainage-basin.
Merchantable
Acreage.
Thousand Board-feet, B.C. Log Scale.
F.
C
H.
B.
PI.
Cy. Total.
Coast.
Smith Sound-Rivers Inlet
Owikeno Lake . 	
Burke and Dean Channels
Bella Coola	
Roscoe Inlet-Hunter
Island  -
Roderick Island-Graham
Reach 	
Princess Royal-Hawkes-
bury...	
Gardner Canal-Kitlope
River  .._•	
Grenville Channel-Banks
Island 	
Douglas Channel-Kitimat
Arm.. - 	
Lower Skeena River	
Work Channel-Khutzey-
mateen _	
Lower Nass-Observatory
Graham Island, Q.C.I. 	
Moresby Island, Q.C.I	
Total, Coast	
interior.
Upper Nass River ..—
Middle Skeena River ..
Upper Skeena River..
Bulkley River East	
Bulkley River West	
Francois Lake-Endako
River — _.	
Upper Nechako River ..
Total, Interior_
Vacant Crown lands  	
Timber licences and leases
Crown grants 	
Totals  	
194,400
44,600
198,000
65,900
137,000
134,800
20011,329,600
250,900] 182,900
422,000    604,500
354,200 228,700
582,700
295,700
158,700
75,9001
117,600
254,700
97,500
125,200
535,300
374,700
658,600
97,600
307,300
354,500
328,700
264,600
172,700
187,700
199,900
I
66,100
1
84,2001
407.100J
369,700]
MM3iM600|1,035,800]7,111,400(10,504,200
  I      3%      |    24%    I      35%
337,700
296,900
87,800
I
..]     25,800
.. |1,512,200
. 11,199,500
1,240,600
845,900
201,600
329,400
2,037,000
2,755,700
I
833,500
249,500]
4'74,20flij
I
529.100J
216,000
255,800[
286,900
2,800
44,800
111,6001 1,893,000
436,600] 1,196,100
 I 1,630,200
-I
17,6001  271,600
8,800  147,800
  j   16,400
3,800]   75,800
2,845,000
47,600 578,400 5,230,900
3%    28%
,,547,900] 658,400]4,951,600!10,836,100
598,900] 323,400|2,508,300| 4,509,700
129,800! 101,6001 229,900]  389,300
6,276,60011,083,40017,689,800115,735,100
—   ]  2%  |  16% I  32%
387,100
141,200
402,600
436,800
113,400
349,100
85,700]  25,800
213,700  229,200
177,100] 239,200
I
138,200] 153,600
!
110,600!  92,400
368,400] 893,700
446,900] 385,700
I
183,400[ 147,200
144,600
1,954,700]
2,201,100'
7,175,100 3,350,900
24%    11%
1,197,5.00 1,202,800
424,600] 505,300
1,145,100 1,566,100
22,800
7,900
3,800
158,800
13,200
2,000
18,600
21,200
2,847,800
1,076,300
2,461,600
799,900
1,347,100
1.114,300
47,900] 1,047,600
300
20,700
25,200
25,600
2,700
13,000
24,700
400
321,500
114,300
683,100
526,400
2,866,000
1,978,100
583,000
59,500
570,100
5,850,100
6,270,600
785,100 30,022,000
3%    100%
58,300
60,800
254,300
1,351,700
431,800
434,700]
270,900]
693,600(1,617,700
381,000] 751,700
60,800j
215,300]
184,200
111,700
4,463,200
2,623,400
4,595,700
3,955,000
1,721,100
740,900
677,500
5,256,300]4,624,900|3,038,700[
28%      |     25%    |     16%    |
[18,776,800
|     100%
9,112,10016,899,300l3
2,937,200!1,013,800
382,100|      62,700]
,063,900] 537,100!36,058,500
1,900| 231,300|11,525,600
32,400]    16,700|  1,214,700
12,431,400(7,975,800j3,098,200j 785,100]48,798,800
26%      I     16%    ]     6%     j     2%    j     100%
Abbreviations: F=Douglas fir; C:=Red cedar; H=: Western hemlock; S=Spruce; B = Silver fir (balsam);
Pl=Lodgepole pine;   Cyr= Yellow cedar.
Included in the above figures of Interior drainages is the equivalent board-foot measure of 65,800,000 lodgepole-pine
ties, after conversion at 32 board-feet to the tie. Also included are 34,600,000 lineal feet (Coast) and 10,90i0,000 lineal
feet (Interior) of cedar suitable for poles, after conversion at 3 board-feet to the lineal foot. Also included in the Coast
drainages is the equivalent board-foot measure of 8,000,000 lineal feet of hemlock suitable for piling, after conversion
at 5 board-feet to the lineal foot. These special products have been cruised in some of the watersheds, but in others
have been included in the board-foot cruises.
There is also roughly estimated to be 292,300 M.B.M. of black cottonwood, but estimates of this species are still
unreliable. Further investigation of the cottonwood stands is needed, especially in the Skeena, Nass, and Nechako
Valleys.    This estimate is low. L 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
PROVINCIAL FOREST INVENTORY—Continued.
Accessible Merchantable Timber in Prince Rupert Forest District.
p,
Drainage-basin.
Merchantable
Acreage.
Thousand Board-feet, B.C
. Log Scale.
Total.
0
d
z
F.
C.
H.
S.
B.
PL
Cy.
Coast.
118,600
200
927,300
103,500
346,300
268,400
282,300
81,300
1,905,800
9
25,000
132,200
239,500
100,700
77,200
10,100
663,200
3
Burke and Dean Channels
95,900
295,200
296,300
383,800
254,900
193,700
	
700
1,424,600
16,600
133,900
67,600
33,400
33,000
5,600
273,500
5
Roscoe Inlet-Hunter
71,800
329,500
193,600
133,300
110,400
10,300
777,100
6
Roderick Island-Graham
62,600
153,800
196,900
122,600
115,900
10,100
599,300
7
Princess Royal-Hawkes-
43,200
141,100
168,900
103,100
133,100
27,200
573,400
8
Gardner Canal-Kitlope
River
28,700
8,200
68,800
123,400
82,100
101,300
20,300
404,100
9
Grenville Channel-Banks
20,300
52,100
81,600
60,600
50,000
20,700
265,000
10
Douglas Channel-Kitimat
110,400
301,600
955,100
281,400
685,800
25,600
2,249,500
11
75,100
124,800
318,500
204,900
93,000
900
742,100
12
Work Channel-Khutzey-
35,700
20,800
151,600
151,400
117.600
5,100
446,500
13
Lower Nass-Observatory
26,800
15,000
113,400
59,600
4.600    ..
400
193,000
14
Graham Island, Q.C.I.	
266,700
974,400
1,538,700
1,449,800
145,100
4,108,000
15
252,200
972,200
2,249,200
1,835,200
89,700
5,146,300
1,249,600
569,700
4,548,800
7,093,900
5,141,000
1,970,500
447,500
19,771,400
3%
23%
36%
26%
10%
2%
100%
Interior.
17 ] Middle Skeena River. .•
88,300
245,200
538,500
224,400
168,700
13,800
1,190,600
!
19 j Bulkley River East	
128,700
4,500
4,300
302,600
151,900
194,800
658,100
20 | Bulkley River West
156,500
7,000
59,300
309,100
228,900
719,400
1,323,700
21 [ Francois Lake-Endako
156,200
44,800
12,300
323,700
43,000
123,800
547,600
22 j Upper Nechako River*
	
529,700
44,800
256,700
614,400
1,159,800
592,500
1,051,800
3,720,000
1%
7%
17%
31%
16%
28%
100%
Vacant Crown lands	
1,195,100
334,700
2,488,100
3,456,900
3,294,200
1
1,698,900]1,032,700
230,600
12,536,100
487,200
208,900
2,124,900
3,940,200
2,683,500
823,800]    | 200,200
9,981,500
97,000
70,900
192,500
311,200
323,100
40,300]     19,100|   16,700
973,800
Totals	
1,779,300
614,500
4,805,500
7,708,300
6,300 800
2,563,000
11%
1 051,800
447,500
23,491,400
100%
3%
20%
33%
27%
4%
2%
* Not accessible.
Abbreviations: F~Douglas fir; C=Red cedar; H=Western hemlock; S=Spruce; B=Silver fir (balsam);
PI=Lodgepole pine;   Cy=YeIIow cedar.
Included in the above figures of Interior drainages is the equivalent board-foot measure of 30,600,000 lodgepole-pine
ties, after conversion at 32 board-feet to the tie. Also included are 21,000,0-00 lineal feet (Coast) and 6,400,000 lineal
feet (Interior) of cedar suitable for poles, after conversion at 3 board-feet to the lineal foot. Also included in the
Coast drainages is the equivalent board-foot measure of 5,200,000 lineal feet of hemlock suitable for piling-, after conversion at 5 board-feet to the lineal foot. These special products have been cruised in some of the watersheds, but in
others have been included in the board-foot cruises.
There is also roughly estimated to be 246,300 M.B.M. of black cottonwood, but estimates of this species are still
unreliable. Further investigation of the cottonwood stands is needed, especially in the Skeena, Nass, and Nechako
Valleys.    This estimate is low. PRINCE RUPERT FOREST DISTRICT.
Showing drainage-basins and merchantable timber.    Solid green indicates over 20 M.B.M. per acre Coast, over 10 M.B.M. per acre Interior.    Stippled green indicates
merchantable timber averaging below these volumes per acre. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 15
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1936.
Forest District.
Applications foi
Crown Grants,
Applications for
Grazing and
Hay Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
No.
1
Acres.
160
No.
3
4
9
68
2
Acres.
1,514
516
1,241
11,734
306
No.
20
9
14
44
Acres.
1,664
1,066
1,848
5,662
No.
34
11
15
43
32
Acres.
4,671
965
1,687
4,162
3,425
No.
40
10
33
57
9
Acres.
4,879
648
1,977
Kamloops__	
6,538
2,716
Totals-   _
1
160
86
15,311
87
10,240
135     |     14,910
1
149
16.758
Classification of Areas examined in 1936.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimate of
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
12,728
3,195
6,913
28,096
6,447
Acres.
1,988
984
3,104
2,399
3,214
Acres.
10,740
2,211
3,809
25,697
3,233
Acres.
406
230
90
M.B.M.
9,298
7,769
945
Totals... ,	
57,379
11,689
45,690
726
18,012
FOREST RESEARCH.
In a previous report (1934) the role of research in forest administration was pointed out
and the organization for research in British Columbia was briefly reviewed. Following the
organization of the Research Division in 192*7, considerable progress was made up to 1932, when
the financial situation forced a halt. Since that date research activities have been directed
solely to maintaining routine studies on the more important projects already in hand. The
loss of junior members of the Research staff incident to retrenchment in 1932 has been previously commented on. Three additional experienced and valuable research Foresters have
resigned within the past few months.
The year's work has consisted in maintaining Coast silvicultural studies, regeneration
history-map studies, growth and yield studies, and the Green Timbers Nursery with a modest
planting programme. Changes in the establishment of permanent sample plots, on which most
of these studies are conducted, since last report on this work in 1934, are indicated below:—
Number op Plots.
Abandoned.*
Studies
completed.
Current.
1934.
1936.
Growth and yield	
Planting and seeding .
Silvicultural	
Regeneration history...
17
4
21
51
115
62
82
133
* Proved unsuitable, or flooded or burned or otherwise accidentally destroyed.
Improvements.—The Research Stations at Cowichan Lake and Aleza Lake and the Nursery
at Green Timbers profited again by improvement-work undertaken by the camps of the Young
Men's Forestry Training Plan.    At Cowichan Lake a part of the lake-shore was cleared of L 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
debris, the Station Road was improved and made safe against severe damage which had previously resulted from flooding at high water, the highway through the North Arm sector was
cleared of roadside brush, a light plant was installed, a cabin built, and the water system
improved. At Aleza Lake light and water systems were installed, foundations of buildings
were renewed, and much trail and road work done. At Green Timbers a well dug in 1935
which furnishes an ample water-supply was completed and a water-distribution system installed,
roads were improved, fire-guards cleared, and considerable work was done on the nursery area
and on the plantations.
Growth and Yield.—Growth and yield studies were continued, nine new plots being established and twenty-one re-examined after the lapse of the usual five-year period. Eight plots
previously established were found to have been destroyed by fire and careless logging. The
establishment of these plots is indicated in the following table. Accurate information with
regard to growth and yield is of basic importance. The minimum number of plots required to
secure this information for those few types in which studies have been started has been tentatively fixed, and no time should be lost in establishing this minimum number in these more
important types.
Permanent Plots—Growth and Yield Studies.
Minimum
required.
Total established up to
1935.                        1936.
South Coast types—
Alder    ....                             ..     .            	
10
100
50
15
25
25
40
15
6
71
1
6
7
4
27
6
69
Mid-Coast types—
1
Southern Interior tvpes—
3
8
6
Central Interior types—
30
10                             10
280
132
History Studies.—The regeneration of logged lands on Vancouver Island and the adjacent
Mainland constitutes the most urgent silvicultural problem facing the Province. The forests
in this region, consisting mainly of Douglas fir, hemlock, and western red cedar, furnish about
80 per cent, of the timber cut in British Columbia. Most of the cut-over lands are useful only
for forest purposes, and because of their accessibility and capacity for producing valuable
timber-crops on short rotations, they should be the first areas in the Province to be placed under
systematic forest-management.
In view of the foregoing, the Forest Service in 1928 undertook studies to determine the rate
of natural regeneration following logging and the changes (by fire or otherwise) occurring
after logging. Nine logged areas are under observation. These tracts comprise some 130,748
acres which, due to their diverse location, are typical of the conditions existing on most of the
land which has been logged in the Douglas-fir type during the past fifteen years. Each of the
areas consists of a patchwork of cuttings, burns, inaccessible and unmerchantable timber, and
in some cases stands of merchantable timber not yet logged.
A complete history of each area from the start of logging has been assembled and permanent sample plots have been established in each for the study of regeneration.
The results of these studies on areas logged eight to eighteen years ago, on which all the
usual conditions of logging, slash-burns, and subsequent burns are represented, indicate that
about one-third (35 per cent.) of our logged lands are reproducing satisfactorily, while two- FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1938.
L 17
thirds (65 per cent.) are understocked or barren.    These results agree closely with conditions
found by Forest Surveys throughout the south coastal areas.
While much investigative work remains to be done and much further data are needed on
which to base final detailed conclusions, present findings indicate at least half of our cut-over
areas in the Douglas-fir region are not restocking satisfactorily under the present system of
logging, slash-disposal, and fire-protection. Slash-burning is often necessary to reduce the
hazard and not as a silvicultural measure, but it kills whatever young growth is left standing
after logging. Present-day logging methods often push back the boundary of marginal timber
(which constitutes the source of seed-supply) too fast for wind-dissemination of seed over most
of the area. The sole remaining hope for satisfactory reproduction is seed stored in the duff.
" Douglas-fir seed not eaten by birds, insects, and rodents, either germinates or decays within a
year after it falls, both under virgin timber and on open logged-off land,"* and much of what
remains in the duff suffers the further hazard of being killed by the slash fires.
The areas of good reproduction that we find are generally the result of timber being left
sufficiently near to seed in or where logging occurred during or immediately following a good
seed-year; the slash fire preceded germination and was not too severe and subsequent fires
were kept out. Under other circumstances valuable forest lands develop into the familiar
barrens which cannot be restocked except by the expensive method of planting.
Reforestation.—The objective of 500,000 trees yearly from the Nursery at Green Timbers
proposed in 1933 should have been attained in the spring of 1936. By reason of extreme
weather conditions, however, and lack of water, a little less than 100,000 were available. With
the assistance of the Young Men's Forestry Training Plan, an ample water-supply has now
been provided at the Nursery and it is anticipated that no further heavy losses will be experienced on this score.    Areas and trees planted to date are reported below:—
Previously reported.
1936.
Total to Date.
Location.
Acres.
Trees.
Acres.
Trees.
Acres.
Trees.
279
545
166
36
331,250
234,500
191,050
15.4
1.2*
1.2f
107
14,750
1,100
297
545
166
107
36
347,100
234,500
191,050
71,950
71,950
22,850
22,850
1.026      t     779.650
125              87.800
1.151      1     867.450
* Oak transplants.
' Acorns.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
The forest industries in British Columbia, together with all they connote in private business, employment, and public revenue, are dependent in great degree on external trade. The
latest available statistics (1934) indicate a local consumption of about 210 million feet of
lumber per year derived within the Province. Export lumber shipments have averaged more
than 760 million per year for the past ten years and exceeded 1,200 million in 1936. The
development of foreign markets is one of the major problems facing forestry and the forest
and wood-using industries of the Province.
Water-borne export of lumber, which accounts for by far the greater part of our export
trade, reached a new record in 1936 and the prospects are that the volume of trade will be
maintained in 1937. This in itself is gratifying and at the same time is likely to develop a sense
of false security. Even a superficial analysis of export-trade records indicates the necessity
for assiduous cultivation of markets secured if they are to be retained.
Immediately below is a statement of trade with our six best customers over the past ten
years, showing in millions of feet the amounts taken by each.    This table shows annual ship-
* L. A. Isaac, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station:
Journal of Forestry, 1935.
2
1 Life of Douglas Fir Seed in the Forest Floor,' L 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
ments at intervals of five years only, but reflects the general year-to-year trend with remarkable accuracy.
1926.
1931.
1936.
400
177
41
37
18
208
138
81
51
13
160
33
United Kingdom.     	
Australia                                          ..   .
666
125
61
Foreign trade is governed by a multitude of factors, many of which are beyond our control.
This fact is merely an additional reason for exerting our best efforts along lines where our
influence can make itself felt, such as catering to the special requirements, even the prejudice,
of the customer and by personal contact. The visit last summer of representatives of the trade
in the United Kingdom was mutually valuable. It is to be hoped that tours of this description
can be repeated and extended to include other Empire and foreign trade connections.
The almost phenomenal increase in trade with the United Kingdom and South Africa has
been due to a number of factors, but outstanding among them is the excellent work done in
these fields by the Lumber Trade Commissioners jointly supported by a large section of the
industry and the Provincial Government. During the year a special Commissioner was also
appointed to Australia, where already results of his efforts are becoming evident. A preliminary survey of the West Indies market by Major L. R. Andrews in the latter part of the
year indicates a promising field for expansion there.
One phase of this trade-promotion work emphasized last year will bear repetition. We
must in future endeavour to familiarize importing countries with the excellent qualities of our
cedar and hemlock. The amount of hemlock lumber cut and shipped is small in comparison
with Douglas fir, and quite out of proportion with the ratio of these species in our timber
stands. Failure to balance utilization in these species must inevitably react to the disadvantage of the whole industry. The increase in total cut of these species on the Lower Coast from
1935 to 1936 was 9 per cent, for hemlock, 13 per cent, for cedar, and 19 per cent, for fir. This
is a most undesirable trend. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 19
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the Province.
Product.
1930.
1932.
1934.
1935.
Ten-year
Average,
1927-36.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper	
Shingles 	
Boxes.	
Doors	
Piles, poles, and mine-
props ...
Cordwood, fence-posts,
and lagging	
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the wood-using
industry 	
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported 	
Pulp-wood exported	
Totals	
$32,773,000
16,520,000
4,161,000
2,287,000
4,726,000
1,596,000
1,253,000
2,387,000
1,500,000
2,492,000
42,000
$16,738,000
13,508,000
' 2,721,000
1,315,000
2,453,000
1,405,000
1,044,000
1,350,000
1,500,000
2,370,000
43,000
$13,349,000
11,156,000
2,805,000
1,100,000
772,000
1,576,000
502,000
1,014,000
1,125,000
1,730,000
28,000
$69,737,000
$15,457,000
10,852,000
4,500,000
1,313,000
$20,377,000
12,373,000
4,375,000
1,632,000
$24,094,000
12,414,000
8,750,000
1,720,000
1,693,000
450,000]       487,000 810,000
1,850,000
250,000
1,335,000
485,000
1,200,000] 1,320,000
1,000,000[ 1,100,000
2,228,000[ 1,931,000
55,0001 46,000
1,453,000
764,000
1,300,000
1,100,000
2,820,000
23,000
$36,160,000i$29,792,100
14,950,000
7,800,000
1,629,000
2,718,000
1,434,000
1,489,000
623,000
14,143,300
6,021,200
1,764,100
441,100
2,534,600
1,547,600
1,035,000
1.350.000 1,632,100
1.200.0001 1,502,500
2,646,000] 2,848,200
11,000] 46,500
$44,447,000|$35,157,000 $39,155,000[$45,461,000|$56,941,000 $72,010,000,$63,308,300
I I ! I
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
■ 1934.
1935.
1936.
Ten-year
Average,
1927-36.
224,928
20,446
217,562
17,709
205,050
24,051
237,107
23,492
267,406
26,777
262,123
33,287
276,710
41,443
233,130
Other papers...  	
23,640
In addition to the 303,400' tons of pulp manufactured into paper in the Province, 89,000
tons were shipped out of the Province during the year.     i FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 21
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
540
403
315
671
425
1
34
759
151
185
471
317
1,300
588
500
}, 142
742
3,376
2,080
1,082
2,636
1,964
Totals, 1936                                    	
2,354
35
1,883
4,272
11,138
Totals, 1935        	
2,074
59
1,660
3,793
10,081
Totals 1934                                        	
1,603
87
1,546
3,236
9,486
Totals, 1933           .               -	
1,237
67
1,425
2,729
8,121
Totals, 1932  	
1,124
37
1,316
2,477
7,273
Totals, 1931  	
1,562
92
1,675
3,329
8,969
Totals, 1930     '  	
1,932
100
1,862
3,894
8,859
Ten-year average, 1927-36 	
1,700
76
1,726
3,502
9,169
Trespasses.
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
Quantity
CUT.
No. of
Resulting
Seizures.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Amount.
Vancouver  	
36
17
28
48
24
94
54
58
197
98
565,870
304,895
150,846
678,855
366,664
25,481
10,440
2,668
28,573
8,110
483
298
299
383
169
4
1
5
3
$1,578.00
275
778
346
1,053
655.00
Kamloops 	
Nelson   	
1,675.00
1,004.00
Totals, 1936
153
501
2,067,130
75,272
1,632
2,452
13
$5,243.00
Totals, 1935
121
555
3,043,486
50,965
1,283
14,078
3
$6,077.58
Totals, 1934
101
720
3,270,608
30,555
1,385
4,825
6
$5,401.05
Totals, 1933
70
155
1,578,108
41,689
1,413
3,807
2
$2,727.81
Totals, 1932
95
368
767,896
35,484
2,140
9,265
14
$3,490.84
Totals, 1931
84
397
1,579,465
118,704
1,048
12,425
2
$5,633.68
Totals, 1930
96
1,000
969,351
165,729
1,457
9,612
4
$7,534.01
Ten-year average,
1927-36. -...     .
100
534
2,241,833
75,354
1,850
8,862
7
$6,842.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 25
Pre-emption Inspections, 1936.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert	
Fort George 	
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
342
142
646
870
117
Total  2,117
Areas cruised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-
timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-bolts
and         | Railway-ties
Cordwood    '       (No.).
(Cords).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
337
257
212
385
224
59,321
39,943
34,619
65,674
52.478
210,764
65,500
34,131
97,859
56,148
560,432
1,100,900
592,148
6,092,115
1,189,450
1
35.070                    fi.931
1,463
16,895
77,414
17,764
316,042
304,707
352,457
103,609
18,200
4,200
40,800
Totals, 1936 	
1,415             252,035
464,402
8,535,045
148,606
1,083,746
63,200
Totals, 1935	
1,319
238,952
398,884
5,674,908
114,753
1,164,454
74,700
Totals, 1934..	
1,331      |      223,391
356,264
2,856,619
80,101
1,235,766
73,766
Totals, 1933         	
942              169.831
186.418
1,620,112
95,233
549,976
174,861
1                          1
Totals, 1932
1
875               144.769             202.421
1,759,905
68,414
488,655
69,900
Totals, 1931	
818
145,214
297,825
2,629,054
62,680
664,413
142,400
Totals, 1930         	
1
943      |      197,065      j    526,261
10,345,822
26,431
731,640
620 100
Ten-year average,
1927-36             	
1                           1
1.066       ]       204.521        I     466.161
6,318,151
67,814
1,102,780
188,790
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1936.
Forest District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.).
No. of
Posts.
No. of
Cords.
No. of
Ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
358
229
175
428
253
57,506
41,413
29,195
69,455
55,055
196,868,000
46,952,000
12,830,000
43,825,000
58,329,000
730,345
1,145,900
233,042
3,974,030
2,249,225
6,600
24,800
22,100
134,150
47,950
34,301
8,659
5,726
56,364
17,929
5,805
196,399
233,042
306,671
81,264
$515,101.06
124,340.65
52,028.45
219,425.07
171,898.64
Prince Rupert	
Prince George ■	
Nelson 	
Totals, 1936	
1,443
252,624
358,804,000
8,332,542
235,600
122,979
823,181
$1,082,793.87
Totals, 1935 	
1,357
231,958
260,831,000
5,408,377
308,825
101,966
1,200,582
$762,427.04
Totals, 1934 	
1,324
219,969
250,629,000
2,721,540
316,910
67,902
894,970
$705,038.99
Totals, 1933	
948
190,794
145,696,000
2,490,244
295,905
76,777
432,513
$450,559.16
Totals, 1932	
836
134,868
181,470,000
1,746,616
161,600
54,154
423,676
$450,528.10
Totals, 1931	
842
148,523
217,474,000
2,272,082
173,300
41,032
606,160
$624,596.27
Totals, 1930
866
162,043
199,485,000
9,963,164
398,150
19,997
494,202
$689,481.29
Ten-year average,
1927-36
1,044
201,003
444,322,000
5,616,134
388,046
57,879
1
975,825
1
$1,068,447.70 L 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Average Sale Price by Species.
Sawn Timber.
Figures for 1936.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Figures for 1935.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Ten-year Average,
1927-36.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Douglas fir..
Cedar	
Spruce.—	
Hemlock	
Balsam-
White pine...	
Western soft pine.
Tamarac	
Other species	
Totals..
156,240,000
47,561,000
35,963,000
59,818,000
11,557,000
14,231,000
19,598,000
9,083,000
4,753,000
$1.16
1.02
1.21
.65
.69
1.57
1.42
.68
.75
92,369,000
29,644,000
37,566,000
46,318,000
12,083,000
8,705,000
15,166,000
2,355,000
16,625,000
358,804,000
$1.12
260,831,000
$0.96
.93
1.20
.70
.76
1.60
1.33
.77
.86
0.97
756,615.000
325,553,000
825,073,000
441,416,000
176,325,000
59,780,000
132,157,000
47,718,000
71,319,000
2,835,935,000
$1.32
1.34
1.41
.79
.78
2.04
1.43
1.02
.90
$1.24
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1936.
Districts.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
149,959,636
59,201,914
14,442,066
35,248,818
27,148,999
521,658
811,384
305,323
2,624,069
979,224
22,446.09
1,254.50
4,487.75
16,573.71
18,000.77
5,094
277,126
205,479
241,234
84,831
1,584
23,643
10,653
97,480
21,270
Totals, 19 3 6	
286,001,433
5,241,658
62,762.82
813,764
154,630
Totals, 1935 	
193,788,636
3,540,576
38,438.36
851,342
149,959
Totals, 1934	
199,895,549
1,694,470
36,209.24
503,266
84,312
Totals, 1933 -. 	
122,275,912
1,337,497
35,840.62
212,824
164,586
Totals, 1932  __	
165,666,929
1,583,955
30,646.62
258,284
79,885
Totals, 1931	
177,172,765
5,697,152
15,499.20
662,120
255,545
Totals, 1930	
227,019,617
11,960,055
17,176.17
1,341,426
388,749
Ten-year average, 1927-36	
205,525,604
5,306,214
31,313.44
927,251
207,207 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 27
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
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Vancouver  	
159
40
48
87
76
8,365
517
568
790
1,161
70
4
5
7
8,529
60
130
140
40
21
13
38
10
625
411
171
216
276
6
2
2
273
22
Kamloops 	
Nelson   	
20
Totals, 1936	
410
11,401
86
8,859
122
1,699
10
315
Totals, 1935   	
384
9,822
93
8,492
96
1,962
16
1,231
Totals, 1934 	
349
9,152
82
7,311
129
2,999
13
1,228
Totals, 1933 	
295
8,715
78
7,325
134
3,632
22
1,652
Totals, 1932 	
293
7,641
45
6,813
139
4,621
13
1,470
Totals, 1931	
334
10,167
46
7,470
158
4,109
19
1,871
Totals, 1930.  	
301
11,020
43
7,164
141
3,204
17
1,695
Ten-year average, 1927-36	
340
10,390
64
8,163
124
2,943
16
1,663
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.).
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir	
3,402,643
615,917
10,007
91,205,757
10,947,847
4,031,731
822,007
34,430,832
9,589,643
2,012,118
3,028,769
129,039,232
21,153,407
6,053,856
3,850,776
52,587,545
3,442,520
1,457,733
26,000
1,217,766
52,587,545
3,442,520
1,457,733
26,000
1,217,766
Totals, 1936 	
4,028,567
107,007,342
49,061,362
58,731,564
218,828,835
Totals, 1935  -	
8,766,098
129,029,692
56,979,194
40,516,782
235,291,766
Totals, 1934	
10,489,155
89,831,736
43,416,151
28,998,709
172,735,751
Totals, 1933              ..            	
16,941,207
119,089,573
59,215,094
13,694,960
208,940,834
Totals, 1932	
18,572,020
87,223,114
44,380,166
15,589,383
165,764,683
Totals, 1931            	
12,886,187
106,331,594
51,909,961
49,048,420
220,176,162
Totals, 1930. 	
11,571,481
86,502,990
40,147,841
34,696,715
172,919,027
Ten-year average, 1927-36	
15,337,908
111,004,035
50,469,183
35,707,088
212,518,214 L 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Forest District.
Quantity
Exported.
Vancouver—■
Poles and piling  lineal ft.
Pulp-wood  cords
Car-stakes  cords
Cordwood   cords
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling  lineal ft.
Fence-posts   No.
Railway-ties —- No.
Fort George—
Poles and piling  lineal ft.
Fence-posts  -.cords
Railway-ties   No.
Mine-props __ cords
Kamloops—
Poles and piling „ lineal ft.
Fence-posts -.cords
Railway-ties   No.
Mine-timbers   lineal ft.
Mine-props _..  cords
Nelson—
Poles and piling   lineal ft.
Fence-posts.  .: cords
Mine-props .  cords
Railway-ties —  No.
Total value, 1936	
Total value, 1935 	
2,575,468
2,374
21
1,170,724
50,774
183,985
215,865
95
189,507
144
4,877,314
832
187,978
11,849
12
2,193,562
4,689
5,910
242,114
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
$257,546
11,280
280
30
87,780
4,485
86,670
17,270
570
87,974
1,152
585,277
7,072
83,590
548
132
218,079
37,512
47,280
121,057
|    $1,655,584
$1,156,249
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
2,509,598
2,374
21
723,932
67,955
4,303,990
1,935.194
2,259
1,118
446,792
50,774
183,985
147,910
95
189,507
144
573,324
832
187,978
11,849
12
258,368
4,003
5,910
239,855
Orient.
64,752
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Years 1934, 1935, and 1936.
Old Crown grants	
Crown grants, 1887-1906 .
Crown grants 1906-1914 .
Section 53a, " Forest Act'
Stumpage reservations _._
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act"
T imber berths	
Indian reserves	
Timber-sales	
Hand-loggers 	
Special marks	
Pulp leases 	
Pulp licences 	
Totals  .	
Transfers and changes of marks .
1934.
1935.
1936.
238
217
267
74
72
85
96
82
102
303
286
285
61
82
73
9
6
5
18
14
17
13
16
13
1,324
1,348
1,443
13
8
11
1
3
5
1
2
3
7
2
2,154
2,141
2,310
204
221
264 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 29
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
Month.
Number of Tracings made.
Timber-
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Blue-prints
from
Reference
Maps.
Janxxary	
February.....
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September-
October	
November-
December—
Totals-
11
22
27
18
19
12
25
17
21
20
17
24
11*
118
109
119
96
-117
88
55
57
66
54
27
28
37
25
34
30
18
24
15
25
20
24
307
53
24
14
58
32
38
31
19
23
39
14
32
377
206
192
187
220
181
197
162
115
116
150
105
166
1,997
15
4
15
1
8
2
3
15
3
10
13
Crown-granted Timber Lands.
1920.
1921
1922.
1923
1924-
1925..
1926
1927-
1928..
1929.
1930..
1931-
1934-
1935..
1936..
Area of Private
Timber Lands
(Acres).
.. 867,921
.. 845,111
.. 887,980
.. -883,344
,. 654,668
._ 654,016
.. 688,372
._ 690,438
- 671,131
.. 644,011
.. 629,156
._ 602,086
_ 557,481
.. 535,918
.. 515,924
Average
Value
per Acre.
11.62
10.33
11.99
11.62
15.22
40.61
39.77
39.01
38.62
38.41
44.74
43.77
37.25
37.13
36.61 L 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1936.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1935.
Average
Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value
per Acre
since 1935.
Alberni  	
71,805
93,927
58,585
31,674
328
14,354
9,019
74,241
4,179
12,351
22,841
37,345
58,944
1,210
25,121
— 4,500
— 7,466
— 3,010
— 1,947
*
— 429
— 220
— 953
*
*
— 80
*
*
— 200
— 1,189
60.85
42.82
63.22
9.28
14.99
6.32
5.84
46.99
6.14
18.85
17.79
14.03
7.31
58.55
35.38
— 1.26
+ 1.16
— 1.70
— 0.22
— 0.01
— 2.87
*
Cowichan	
Fort Steele     	
Galiano Island .	
Golden    	
Kettle River    ..                                   	
Nanaimo : -	
Nelson     	
— 2.54
+ 0.01
*
Revelstoke..  	
*
*
Vancouver.      	
—33.32
0 68
Totals.....  -   	
515,924
—19,994
36.06
— 1.07
* No change.
FOREST FINANCE.
Gross forest revenue reached a peak at a little more than $4,000,000 in 1927. From that
year there was a steady fall to a little less than half that sum at just over $2,000,00© in 1933.
Since 1933 there has been a steady improvement to a total of $3,435,503 for the year 1936. This
figure represents an increase of $535,000 over last year, practically all of which is attributable
to stumpage and royalty. Over the same period administration costs were reduced from more
than $500,000 (does not include protection) to $343,000 in the fiscal year 1934-35, which was
increased only $10,000, less than 2 per cent, of increase in revenue, in the fiscal year 1935-36.
The Scaling Fund, under the influence of improved business conditions, has made a remarkable recovery from insolvency, chronic over a period of ten years, to a credit balance which has
warranted a small decrease in scaling fees. The statement herewith is the most satisfactory
the Scaling Fund has been able to publish since 1923.
By exercising the most rigid economy, coupled with fortunate weather conditions, the
Forest Protection Fund deficit has been reduced from a high of $651,962 in April, 1931, to
$111,565 at December 31st, 1936. With reduced income, this was accomplished only at the
expense of protection measures. Forest protection depends to so great an extent on weather
conditions that we can only note the improved state of the fund without attempting to forecast
what it may be a year hence. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 31
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L 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1936.
(Amounts charged.)
Penalty.
Govt. Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stxxmp-
age.
* orest                 Koyaity ana
District.                     Tax.
Expenses.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver _	
Prince Rupert	
j
$1,562,520.46J$1,054.38
128,079.571     720.78
44.227.96j     460.76
88.033.22j  1,952.26
87,607.57]        17.55
$847.50]   $45.67
5.00|     17.50
16.291   	
$275.76
61.27
I
$25,116.81l$131,200.58
346.50        8,505.72
I
$176,638.23l$l,897,699.39
101,391.40]      239,127.74
36.245.97          8(1 95(1 98
41.20
38.47
5.20
12.50
87 514 10
44.396 19
-  i
Totals 	
i
$1.910,468.78l$4.205.73
$948.46
$80.87
$337.03
1
$25,463.31'$139.706.30lS446.185.89'$2.527.S94.37
i                 i
llll
Totals, 1935	
$1,605,321.91 $5,940.50]   $213.94
I                 1
$58.76
1   ...,{•.         1
$231.87j$21,314.46|$124,425.21|$337,359.58l$2,094,866.23
llll
Totals, 1934 ...
\
$l,237,968.70i$7,382.38|    $251.70
1
$106.36
I'll
$183.89'$17,436.57    $99,563.66l$324,116.42 $1,687 009 68
1                     1                       '                       1
Totals, 1933	
$918,663.03]$2,866.76]    $197.93
$112.94
1                         I                            !                            1
$200.66]$13,570.34]   $82,212.92J$219,497.38[$1,237,321.96
Totals, 1932	
$1,046,588.92 j $3,983.03!   $368.73
$56.66
$225.73|$13,368.44] $71,596.211$307,371.82]$1,443,559.54
1                    1                      i
Totals, 1931	
$l,140,282.78i$4,950.55     $994.87
$42.20
$1,092.07]$16,444.18|  $82,078.03!$425,978.06 $1,672,862.74
1                     1                       i
Totals, 1930	
$1,460,367.16'$6,799.66 $1,601.76] $140.57
i
1                       1
$1,265.33]$21,644.46 $106,553.34]$638,023.79$2,236,396.07
Ten-year average,
1927-36. 	
1
1
$1,473,373.00'$6,853.00
1
i
$902.00
$110.00
I'l
llll
$798.00]$18,8S1.00j$106,277.00'$467,699.00l$2,074,993.00
1                     1                        i                        1
FOREST DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS.
Independent of the Young Men's Forestry Training Plan, which was designed to take care
of young men between the ages of 18 and 25 with at least five years' residence in the Province,
Forest Development Projects were undertaken early in December to provide work for single,
homeless men registered for relief, many of whom were transients within the Province.
Accommodation has been provided in twenty-one camps on the Lower Mainland and
Vancouver Island for approximately 1,400 men.
THE YOUNG MEN'S FORESTRY TRAINING PLAN.
The Young Men's Forestry Training Plan, inaugurated as an experiment during the
summer of 1935, again proved itself a real factor in the development and protection of our
forest resources during the summer of 1936.
In addition to the work accomplished, the programme proved itself a valuable training-
ground for many young British Columbians. During this second year of the programme it
was possible to incorporate more forestry lectures and recreational features into each camp.
First-aid courses were given in two of the experiment-station camps by competent instructors
in co-operation with the St. John Ambulance Association. Forty men secured their first-aid
certificates, of whom nineteen qualified for industrial certificates. Moving pictures were taken
of a number of the projects and the varying types of work being undertaken is well portrayed
by them.
There are prospects that this plan for youth-training in forest-work will be adopted
throughout Canada, patterned on lines developed here in British Columbia.
Approximately 100 Ranger Assistants were again employed, and as most of them had had
previous experience they proved a real asset to the general organization of the Forest Service.
Crews of approximately fifty men each were employed at the three Forest Experiment Stations
of Green Timbers, Cowichan Lake, and Aleza Lake. Very necessary development-work was
again accomplished at these stations. Twenty forest development and protection crews were
employed throughout the Province, each crew comprising from ten to sixteen men. These
crews accomplished varied types of work, including the construction and maintenance of many FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 33
miles of pack-horse trail and telephone-lines; construction of several cabins, lookouts, and
bridges; the reduction and elimination of slash-hazard from strategic points; truck-trail or
road construction to areas at present accessible only by pack-horse; and a new feature of the
programme—the improvement and development of Elk Falls Park. The favourable comment
directed towards recreational development-work warrants consideration of an increased
programme in this respect.
Of the 500 men employed, approximately 25 per cent, of them secured employment in
various industries during the season, either through their own efforts or through those of
Forest Service officers. A number have successfully passed their Assistant Ranger examinations. A few have been influenced by their experience on these projects to continue their
education with a view to securing a university degree in forestry.
A second year's experience in this type of work serves to confirm earlier impressions
regarding the value of this programme. The great social value in the rehabilitation of the
men is particularly apparent. The splendid co-operation received from the officials of the
Labour Department did much to promote the success of the plan.
FOREST EXPENDITURE, FISCAL YEAR, 1935-36.
Forest District.
Salaries.
Temporary
Assistance.
Expenses.
Total.
$46,794.32
20,036.84
17,184.12
28,948.76
26,625.47
63,823.05
$30,605.50
12,338.39
4,130.89
12,605.90
12,662.73
13,906.94
$77,399.82
32,375.23
21,315.01
41,554.66
39,288.20
77,729.99
Totals
$203,412.56
$86,250.35
$289,662.91
50,000.00
2,000.00
8,389.78
3,818.10
300,000.00
 i
43,927.21
 ,
$697,798.00
* Amounts granted by Government to special funds detailed elsewhere.
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1935 (deficit)      $17,092.67
Expenditure, fiscal year 1935-36      120,307.65
$137,400.32
Charges, fiscal year 1935-36      152,586.30
Balance, March 31st, 1936 (credit)      $15,185.98
Balance, April 1st, 1936 (credit)      $15,185.98
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1936      103,188.56
$88,002.58
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1936      138,142.55
Balance, being excess of charges over expenditure     $50,139.97 —,	
L 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1935   $8,924.28
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1935 (under subsection (2), section 30a)   43,927.21
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30a  	
$52,851.49
Expenditure, fiscal year 1935-36       43,167.93
Balance (credit), March 31st, 1936   $9,683.56
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1936 (under subsection (2), section 30a)   62,298.16
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30a  	
$71,981.72
Expenditure, 9 months to December 31st, 1936      44,555.74
Balance (credit), December 31st, 1936      $27,425.98
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as at December
31st, 1936:—
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1935   $272,738.09
Expenditure   $326,444.95
Less refunds         5,118.31
 •   321,326.64
$594,064.73
Collections   $105,739.50
Special levy  62.51
Government contribution    300,000.00
 ■     405,802.01
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1936  $188,262.72
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1936  $188,262.72
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1936  $239,608.29
Less refunds        4,188.06
    235,420.23
$423,682.95
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1936     $87,117.33
Government contribution     225,000.00
    312,117.33
Balance (deficit), December 31st, 1936  $111,565.62 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 35
Estimated and Known Costs of Forest Protection to other Agencies, 1936.
Expenditures fob
Tools and
Equipment.
Improvements.
Patrol.
Fire-
fighting.
Total.
$36,689.00
1,406.00
$51,861.00               $12,420.00
$100,970 00
$125.00
717.00
3,326.00
1,006.00
3,492.00
14.407.00
5,574.00
1,006 00
66.00
7,905.00
3,558 00
2.203.00
24,515 00
Totals —	
$46,036.00
$125.00
$54,781.00              $34,651.00
$135,623.00
Totals, 1935     	
$35,560.00
$2,533.00
$73,042.00
$48,909.00
$160,044.00
Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1936.
Districts.
Patrols
and Fire
Prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$79,398.96
15,373.75
15,515.52
48,125.19
54,301.97
21,537.98
$17,079.53
4,354.23
7,465.79
11,737.10
17,987.94
424.13
$18,831.80
375.08
516.23
1,578.92
3,606.21
$2,441.39
740.79
1,440.58
2,548.64
1,063.22
$117,751.68
20,843.85
24,938.12
63,989.85
76,959.34
21,962 11
Kamloops    .—	
$234,253.37
$59,048.72
$24,908.24
$8,234.62
$326,444.95
Patrols and fire prevention
Tools and equipment 	
Fire	
Improvements	
Total-
$234,253.37
59,048.72
24,908.24
8,234.62
$326,444.95
FOREST PROTECTION.
After four fire seasons of less than average fire occurrence and damage, the southern part
of the Interior of the Province was once more the scene of high hazard. From Kamloops to
Fernie, the months of July and August were deficient in rainfall, humidity was very low,
lightning-storms frequent, and winds high. These factors in combination make up a " bad "
fire season and their occurrence seems to be periodic. Past records and the study of tree-
growth over many decades show that weather cycles are fairly regular and we may expect
recurrence of series of bad fire-years.
The high hazard did not reach the central and northern part of the Province nor to the
Coast. In these regions rainfall was generally plentiful and well distributed through the
summer season. The table on fire occurrence by months illustrates clearly the seasonal nature
and effect of the rainfall.
Having experienced four very favourable years, it was reasonable to anticipate that the
turn of the cycle would soon result in high hazard and we may now look forward to an increase
for some years.
For this reason it is highly important that the Forest Protection staff be" brought back to
the state of efficiency it had attained prior to the depression. Forest improvements and equipment, sadly neglected during the depression years, must be reinstated and built up to the needs
of a bad fire-year; permanent, temporary, and ex-officio personnel must be increased, organized,
and carefully trained.
Since reinstatement of the Forest Protection Fund in 1934, considerable savings have been
made because of the favourable seasons and by practising economy to the point of danger.
These savings were used in 1936 to replenish in part depleted stocks of tools and equipment.
Further purchases are necessary to place the field staff in position to handle the inevitable
bad years. L 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The second year of the Young Men's Forestry Training Plan has proved highly valuable
to forest protection by opening up more trails and roads. The continuance of this plan is
highly desirable from this standpoint alone because of the deplorable state of the forest-
protection improvements.
Under the same plan, assistants were assigned to Forest Rangers. Some of these young
men were employed for the second year and their previous experience was most valuable to the
Rangers. As a result of that experience a few passed the examinations for Assistant Ranger
and will, undoubtedly, develop into efficient forest officers.
In a forest province such as British Columbia, a large force of trained men will always be
required to administer and protect this great asset. There is no better time to acquire the
basic experience and training than in youth. The Province will be well repaid for the training
given these young men in having available a ready supply of efficient personnel.
The crucial period in any forest fire is at the start. Many of our largest fires are the
result of improper action in the early stages through lack of training and experience on the
part of foremen and fire-fighters. There is great need for small, well-trained crews of firefighters ready, like city brigades, for instant dispatch and action on small fires. Prompt
suppression of one fire that otherwise would become large would amply repay the cost of
maintaining several such crews, regardless of work they might do on improvements.
The use of crews under the Young Men's Forestry Training Plan for initial fire action
would accomplish the purposes of training, useful occupation, great reduction in damage by
fire, and development of numbers of expert fire-fighters in the community.
Communication is of utmost importance in forest protection. Prompt reports of incipient
fires must be received and the fighting of fires is greatly facilitated by good communication
with the base of supply.
AVithin recent years, great advances in the use of radio have been made in the United
States. Their success in the forests has led to experiments in British Columbia that show
great promise. Further work will be done with the confident expectation that cheap systems of
communication can be developed. Already, lookout stations have been operated successfully
by radio. If reliable sets can be developed, the economy is apparent, for the cost of one or two
miles of telephone-line will buy a complete two-way radio unit.
The results of reductions in staff and neglect of improvements subsequent to 1931 have
been very apparent in 1936. In the Nelson District, 73 per cent, of the area burned over and
88 per cent, of the total damage was attributable to only four fires that occurred in areas
formerly covered by the organization. It is safe to say that had there been available the
organization and improvements in force prior to 1932, a large part of this heavy damage might
have been averted.
Throughout the Kamloops District large areas of lodgepole-pine forests have been killed
by bark-beetles. The dead trees have become tinder-dry and ultimately blow down, forming
impenetrable jungles of highly inflammable material. Unfortunately, the areas so affected
comprise, in large part, the summer grazing range for cattle. This dead timber has become
so great a deterrent to stock grazing that many fires are deliberately set in order to open up
the range. Actual timber values at stake are low, but the problem of protection of private
property, such as hay-fields and stacks, buildings, fences, and cattle, becomes of prime importance.
This problem will be with us for many years to come and innocent parties will undoubtedly
suffer.    Some degree of protection must be furnished the threatened ranchers.
This again raises the point that the Forest Protection Fund, which is not designed to
furnish protection to property other than forests, is called upon for expenditures for the protection of other forms of private property. Such expenditures reduce, by the exact amount
involved, the funds available for protection of the forest resources of the Province.
Fire-control, involving the three divisions of prevention, detection, and suppression, is one
of the most complicated and difficult branches of the foresters' science. For economic reasons
it has not been possible heretofore to develop research facilities and personnel, but a start was
made in 1936. One graduate Forester was assigned to fire-control research, the results of whose
studies into the causes, behaviour, influencing factors, and means of suppression of fires will
undoubtedly be of great benefit. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 37
The tabulations of fire causes continue to show the general public, especially those using
the forests for recreation, to be the starting agency for most of the fires. In 1936, campers,
travellers, and smokers caused 37 per cent, of the outbreaks, while the ten-year average for
the same causes is 36 per cent.
These fires are, of course, preventable. During the year, emphasis was placed on the
detailed analysis of particular human agencies, localities, and possible means of teaching care
with fire. The greater the localization of public relations effort the better the effect will be,
and so newspaper articles and public addresses of local appeal were prepared, motion pictures
shown, and personal contact made by the fieldmen. A start was made in preparation of motion
pictures with local as well as general application, showing the disastrous effects of fires by
definite causes. Such methods of visual education for particular localities with causes common
to those localities should have valuable results in fire-prevention.
Expenditures in 1936 from the Forest Protection Fund were kept within our income, but
at the cost of heavy damage to forest property. The increase in the fund voted by the Legislature for 1937 will help materially to increase efficiency, although the total available will still
be less than adequate.
Detailed statistics of the fire season are given in the following pages.
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1936.
Forest District.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
13
4
2
7
8
48
25
19
65
131
20
4
47
71
78
41
4
22
152
190
163
5
9
142
162
27
1
4
13
44
1
3
22
312
43
104
Kamloops    	
453
635
Totals	
34
288
220
409
481
89
26
1,547
Ten-year average, 1927-36	
73
203
195
436
562
163
14
	
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1936.
Forest District.
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31
52
28
103
17
22
37
18
4
312
20.17
6
10
1
3
18
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1
2
1
43
2.78
44
14
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9
18
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2
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8
104
6.72
162
85
16
70
9
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9
87
10
453
29.28
Nelson  	
281
95
34
136
16
2
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25
42
3
635
41.05
Totals	
524
256
81
321
78
6
29
74
152
26
1,547
33.88
16.55
5.24
20.75
5.05
0.38
1.87
4.78
9.82
1.68
100.00
Ten-year average,
1927-36.	
447
287
165
298
132
16
45
129
99
25 L 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1936.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
Vancouver.. 	
$2,096.00
$300.00
15,130.00
460.00
260.00
1,255.00
$4,487.00
25,000.00
$242.00
43.00
2,260.00
1,994.00
1,885.00
$7,125.00
40,173.00
2,738.00
2,501.00
13,652.00
10.76
60.69
18.00
247.00
5,012.00
4.14
3.78
6,500.00
20.63
Totals —-	
$7,373.00
$17,405.00
$34,987.00
$6,424.00
$66,189.00
100.00
Ten-year average, 1927-36
$61,271.00    |    $35,253.00
$56,718.00
$12,483.00
$135,727.00
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
Total.
Lightning  	
Campers  	
524
256
81
321
78
6
29
74
152
26
173
217
65
289
127
11
45
72
97
15
320
312
103
415
117
10
41
65
188
19
285
234
77
197
77
7
32
65
18
336
230
156
197
108
18
17
127
64
13
475
470
295
435
243
44
57
355
96
48
892
344
149
294
171
29
39
262
68
23
638
358
267
9
387
167
22
65
139
100
36
322
274
282
294
149
13
80
103
84
41
512
182
185
163
78
7
50
36
52
19
4,477
2,877
1,660
Railways under construction
Smokers 	
Brush-burning    (not   railway-
clearing)  	
Road   and   power-   and   tele-
9
2,992
1,315
167
455
Incendiarism  	
Miscellaneous (known causes)
Unknown causes	
1,298
991
258
Totals	
1,547
1,111
1,590
1,082
1,266
2,518
2,271
2,188
1,642
1,284
16,499 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 39
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1936.
Total Fires.
Under % Acre.
Yi to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
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312
20.17
159
50.96
20.20
119
38.14
25.32
34
10.90
11.73
300
10
2
Prince Rupert	
43
2.78
16
37.21
2.03
13
30.23
2.77
14
32.56
4.83
38
4
1
Fort George 	
104
6.72
49
47.12
6.22
29
27.88
6.17
26
25.00
8.96
94
5
5
Kamloops _ —
453
29.28
174
38.41
22.12
145
32.01
30.85
134
29.58
46.20
402
37
14
Nelson ' 	
635
41.05
389
61.26
49.43
164
25.83
34.89
82
12.91
28.28
592
25
18
Totals  -	
1,547
100.00
100.00
787
50.87
100.00
470
30.38
100.00
290
18.75
100.00
1,426
92.18
81
5.24
40
2.58
1,649
721
565
362
1,493
108
58
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1936.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
524
256
81
321
78
6
29
74
152
26
33.88
16.55
5.24
20.75
5.05
0.38
1.87
4.78
9.82
1.68
$64,164.04
27,514.24
477.97
21,678.70
874.32
2.61
2,611.39
7,561.23
3,795.35
1,611.55
49.25
21.12
0.36
16.64
0.67
$1,046,017.91
44,615.91
1,323.12
14,330.44
10,531.75
120.25
8,965.59
27,273.38
20,911.63
1,572.60
88.98
3.80
0.12
Smokers     	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)...
1.22
0.89
Industrial operations 	
2.00
5.80
2.92
1.24
0.76
2.32
1.78
Unknown causes  	
0.13
Totals	
1,547
100.00
$130,291.40
100.00
$1,175,662.48
100.00
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1936.
|
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1
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50.00
50.00
Totals           ._
18
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$250.00
4
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Teh-year average,
1927-36 _	
23
—
14
$395.00
8
3
2 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1936.
L 41
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CJ GRAZING.
Range conditions varied somewhat with location during 1936. In the southern part of the
Kamloops District the spring was late and cold, while in the Cariboo and the Nelson District
warm weather with plenty of rain gave the forage a good start. However, the whole range
stock country suffered from midsummer drought and lack of late fall rains. The summer
timber range was in better condition than the open spring range.
As a result of hard winter conditions in 1935-36, the cattle went on the range in rather
poor shape, resulting in a low calf-crop. Sheep bands suffered from the midsummer drought,
which was so severe that even the high mountain ranges dried up.
The pioneer period is over. The development of the range cattle and sheep industry has
reached a point where practically all the best available range is in full use. Further development will be dependent upon better range-management and the use of the few remaining areas
of poorer quality or accessibility. Cattle and sheep men must look to more scientific live-stock
and range management for profits rather than to greater numbers under old-fashioned range
practices.
This range situation has been apparent for some time. It was plain that management
must soon be instituted on Crown ranges, and so, in 1932, a definite programme of range reconnaissance was commenced. Since then a total area of over 1% million acres has been examined,
its condition and capacity determined, and management and improvement plans outlined. As
a result, definite plans of range-management over large areas are being followed in several
instances, with resultant improvement of range and stock conditions.
In 1936 a total area of 244,000 acres was examined. This work will be continued until all
the available range has been covered. Periodic re-examinations will be necessary as a check
on the management and to appraise changing conditions.
Range-management plans can be carried out only through the co-operation of the stockmen.
Stock Associations recognized under the " Grazing Act " are given much power in self-government on the range and the results are generally beneficial. Meetings are held regularly with
all associations and range problems settled promptly. There are now twenty-two associations
co-operating actively in range-management.
Research was continued on the Tranquille area by the Dominion Range Experiment
Station. It will be some years before results will be finally available, but our officers are
keeping in close touch with the work and will derive benefit as it proceeds.
The question of Indians grazing their stock on Crown range without permit has been
given some attention. It has been found very difficult to have them conform to the " Grazing
Act," largely because of their nomadic habits and irresponsible nature. Under encouragement
by the Department of Indian Affairs, the Indians are developing large herds of cattle that
encroach on Crown range. This important question must soon be settled in the interests of
all parties concerned.
The campaign against foot-rot in sheep was continued in co-operation with the Department
of Agriculture. The disease is becoming widespread and causing heavy losses. Efforts will
be continued to control it.
Market Conditions.
Beef prices were no better in 1936 than in 1935 and in many cases were worse, top steers
selling at 3 % to 4 cents per pound at best. The improvement that had been expected because
of the reduction in the United States tariff did not materialize. The average return to the
rancher is still not sufficient to meet expenses and ranch upkeep.
Lamb and wool prices were somewhat better than in 1935, spring lambs selling from $6.75
to $7.25 and the best grades of wool from 17 to 17 % cents per pound. This is about 5 cents
better to the grower than in 1935. Stocks are low in the larger consuming markets and still
higher wool prices are forecast for 1937. L 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Live Stock on Crown Ranges.
The number of live stock permitted on Crown ranges during the past four years was as
follows:— Cattle and Horses. Sheep.
1933  58,770 34,329
1934  69,960 36,569
1935  60,864 36,902
1936 :  77,137 46,084
Collection of grazing fees during the calendar year 1936 amounted to $11,043.75.
Range Improvements.
The closer utilization of the available range incident to increasing herds requires more
improvements in the way of drift-fences and water development. This need will continue until
all the available range is completely improved. The falling of insect-killed timber over vast
areas of the Interior is reducing the available range and making other large areas inaccessible.
This requires the clearing of many miles of trails and driveways to make the range accessible.
Once a big factor in range-improvement plans, the fencing of mud-holes is now in little
demand. This is due to the series of wet years experienced recently. Water-holes and ponds
have been filled up and swamps have become lakes again, so that cattle can get to drinking-
water without being caught in the bogs.
The large bands of wild horses that once roamed and destroyed the ranges have been
broken up and largely eliminated. There are always a few small bunches in existence to form
a nucleus for larger destructive bands and constant attention will have to be devoted to this
problem.    In 1936 the wild-horse problem was handled through round-up rather than shooting.
During 1936 a larger programme of improvements was undertaken than in the previous
year. In all, $4,455 was expended on range improvements, covering 85 miles of trails, 13 miles
of drift-fences, 3 bridges, 8 holding-grounds, 5 water developments, 3 breeding-pastures,
1 cattle-guard, and 6 mud-holes.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY.
Victoria Office.
E. C. Manning Chief Forester.
C. D. Orchard Assistant Chief Forester.
E. B. Prowd Forester^—Management.
G. P. Melrose Forester—Protection.
F. D. Mulholland... Forester—Surveys.
CD. Orchard Forester (Acting)—Research.
N. F. Pite Chief Accountant.
S. W. Barclay Royalty Inspector.
District Foresters.
R. C. St. Clair Vancouver.
A. E. Parlow Prince Rupert.
E. E. Gregg Prince George.
C. J. Haddon Kamloops.
R. E. Allen Nelson.
Supervisor of Scalers.
William Byers Vancouver.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937.
1,325-237-4771

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