Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1936

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0306420.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0306420.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0306420-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0306420-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0306420-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0306420-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0306420-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0306420-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0306420-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0306420.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL EEPOET
OF  THE
LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES
DEPAKTMENT OF LANDS
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1935
HON. A. WELLS GRAY, MINISTER OF LANDS
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1936.
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY
C,  Victoria, B.C., March 20th, 1936.
To His Honour John William Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and  Survey
Branches of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1935.
A. WELLS GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
Victoria, B.C., March 20th, 1936.
The Honourable A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1935.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of Superintendent of Lands..
Revenue	
Sale of Town Lots_.
Pre-emption Records..
Land-sales	
Sales of Reverted Lands.
Land Inspections	
Summary	
Letters inward and outward-
Coal Licences, Leases, etc.	
Crown Grants issued	
Total Acreage deeded	
Page.
___    5
B.C. Government Relief Land Settlement Plan_
10
10
10
11
11 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., February 25th, 1936.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended December
31st, 1935.
An additional feature to this year's report will be observed in respect of figures on the
sale of reverted lands by a deferred-payment system devised in 1933 as a partial relief
measure with the idea of encouraging those on relief to supplement their allowance by growing
foodstuffs. Principal payments without interest were deferred for two years, and during that
period the settler was only obligated to pay taxes and do improvements, including buildings,
fencing, or cultivation, in each of the two years of not less than 10 per cent, of the appraised
value of the land.
It will be of interest to note that 4.8 per cent, of the original entrants abandoned locations
after a short trial, and that 27% per cent, of those who have completed the first two years made
their first deposits of principal.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT OF REVENUE, YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st, 1935.
.   Land-sales.
Sundry Revenue.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Under " Taxation Act "—
Genera]    	
 _ $28,483.52
1,211.06
$29,694.58
72.15
8,577.08
$29,694.58
12,474.04
20,470.88
Under " Land Act "—
Townsites   	
$12,401.89
11,893.80
337.93
5,568.82
1,397.40
5,568.82
442.75
1,840.15
Totals	
$38,786.56
$31,599.84
$70,386.40
Under " Land Act "—
$70,593.24
5,204.80
106.50
10,624.00
204.93
249.10
103.50
43.51
$70,593.24
5,204.80
Survey fees—
Under  " Land  Act "   $1,547.09
$1,688.00
787.00
1,794.50
11,411.00
204.93
360.72
8.00
7,940.41
609.82
111.50
Under " Taxation Act "—
7,983.92
Totals	
$87,129.58
$10,784.13
$97,913.71 EE 6
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$4,100.00
15,096.04
3,475.00
200.00
$4,100.00
15,096.04
3,475.00
200.00
Totals             	
$22,871.04
$22,871.04
-
Sundry Receipts.
$7,779.86
244.42
7,831.34
8,757.36
$7,779.86
Miscellaneous _     	
	
244.42
7,831.34
$2,038.25
10,795.61
Totals   — 	
$24,612.98
$2,038.25
$26,651.23
Summary of Revenue.
$38,786.56
87,129.58
22,871.04
24,612.98
$31,599.84
10,784.13
$70,386.40
97,913.71
22,871.04
2,038.25
26,651.23
Totals _  	
$173,400.16
$44,422.22
$217,822.38
Summary of Cash received.
$173,400.16
6,797.81
579.02
45,190.00
42,339.64
9,559.51
32,316.70
603.84
$44,422.22
$217,822.38
6,797.81
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
South Okanagan Project 	
Houses, South Vancouver- _	
579.02
" Better Housing Act "—
45,190.00
42,339.64
Interest   	
Land Settlement Board—
Land-sales 	
9,559.51
32,316.70
Loans    _	
Refund of advances and refund to votes, etc	
603.84
Totals __	
$310,786.68
$44,422.22
$355,208.90
SALE OF TOWN LOTS DURING 1935.
Disposal of lots placed on the market at previous auction sales :-
5 lots at Barkerville 	
5 lots at Clinton	
18 lots at Oliver	
16 lots at Osoyoos 	
2 lots at Powell River
4 lots at Quesnel 	
1 lot at Bella Coola —
1 lot at Terrace	
  $350.00
  450.00
  3,025.00
  3,275.00
  300.00
  575.00
  100.00
  200.00
And 18 lots in various other townsites  584.00
$8,859.00
During the year auctions were held at Creston, Duncan, and Kimberley, disposing of
ninety-one lots for $14,160.
Southern Okanagan Project sold thirty-four parcels, comprising 120.92 acres, the purchase
price being $9,557.75. LAND-SALES, 1935.
EE 7
In the University Hill Subdivision in Lot 140, New Westminster District (Endowment
Lands), no new transaction during the year, but collections have been maintained slightly in
advance of previous year.
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1935.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Pre-emption
Records
cancelled.
Certificates
of
Purchase.
Certificates
of Improvements.
Alberni  __. _	
Atlin _	
28
7
37
32
12
25
1
2
13
8
103
2
46
7
9
8
2
1
28
2
37
54
7
31
1
1
20
5
429
22
58
12
7
1
18
5
1
5
2
31
59
7
3
27
4
13
1
76
147,
7
21
26
57
1
11
43
24
925
Cranbrook _   _ _	
1
10
9
Golden    	
Kamloops         	
Kaslo    	
2
1
Nelson   	
New Westminster   	
Penticton  	
1
6
6
Prince Rupert _    	
19
6
1
2
Totals  	
343
739
1,490
76
LAND-SALES, 1935.
" Land Act "  Acres.
Surveyed  (first class)      267
Surveyed  (second class)  3,619
3,886
Unsurveyed      993
Total   4,879
" Taxation Act "—
Cash and conditional sales  6,831
Deferred-payment settlement plan  8,312
SALE  OF  REVERTED  LANDS  UNDER  DEFERRED-PAYMENT   SETTLEMENT
PLAN TO DECEMBER 31st, 1935.
No.
Acreage.
Appraised
Value.
Deposits
due.
605
29
50,977.00
2,053.73
$204,006.00
11,508.00
$7,268.91
1,427.00
Totals                                        	
574
48,923.27
$192,498.00
$5,841.91
Deposits due, 178	
Deposits paid and partly paid, 49__.
Instalments in arrear	
$5,841.91
1,230.22
$4,611.69 EE 8
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
to
TO
O
t-H
H
O
H
Ph
w
I—I
p
«_
ml
IflMtMNWCOCONtflffit-COH
HT.COI>HririC.lf.NHMHN
CM    -* <M rH tO CO    rH
CO   IO        !    Cl    00
<m co co co cq
CD   (S       IMttNCOtOHMWCOaHMNN
co to oo m o_ io        c-        ioco
ID   ^   <N   IM
MC-Tf^HWISH
cq   CM   -^   (N
co   co  cq
CO        !   rH
p -
~ ° -°
,a ^ .5 cs
rH    HH   __ (_,
5 S)
S   ojhO   i:
3   cfl   a;   a;   JJ. ,g
SS  .H   C 5
>-^HJ3t-i(lJOOO<flwroQ'<l;C_.'0«Pa)H!l)raCl..« SUMMARY.
EE 9
P.
<
a
a
5)W0lNOMH_50.HX
co   eo   o   rH   i—i   —
e_l   fc.
00   CO   Tf
IO    Tf    L-
Cl    rH    O    CM
L-   O   fc-
Tfl    fc-
Q    H   T*    ■*    O    C
CO    t-    Cl
IO
CM
Ol
IO    CM    CO    rH    rH    rH    rH
co   °i   «
io   to  oq
IO
CO
Tf    CM    ^             CM
_i "=. ri
(M  cq  co
00
O    rH    rH
s
CO
CO     C-J     rH
Cl
rH
t>
fc-
CO
tr-
CO
CJ
GQ-
fl&
__]_-[_
•Hf  .-> in o cm co cq
tO    rH    tO
ootococoocooocqt-cic-
ci  io  cq  co  ci  oi
rH    Ol    CO
t-ooocq-oootocot-oirH
Tfl
CM
Ol
rH    rH    CO
©   "I °l
Tf    IO     O
Tf
CO
Cl
Tfl
°i -1 to     r!
T-H      T-H      Ol
td «?; ci
00   tO   CM
t-
Tf    rH    rH
IM
cm  cm  cq
1-1
cq
CM
1-1
to
CO
CO
CO
(M
e/3-
€«■
++
fc- co  ci Tfl  io io cq
-Ht    rH    CO
lOCOr-fOOCMCO-OOOtOO
O   N   CO   t-   t.    O.   O.
CO    CO    00
OOtOi-tlOCOcOCMt-COOCq
CO
cq
Ol
ffl    H    t-    O    5)
r-4    I-*.   OO"
oi   <*   »
Cl    Cl    T("
CO*
Tf
cq_ fc- t-_       cq
rH         oo"
CO*    ^.^
t-h io  cq
to
CM    rH    rH
Ol
IO
CM    CM    CM
to
Tfl
rH
o
CO
&9-
ae-
ci-tfioiootocqt-cot- t-
cqoT+imofc-Ttf-cocoocq
eo   io   c
M    IM    r
■t.     If}    H
O   CO   IO   c
fc- co  io  cq  to cq  o
cq
cq
Cl
C.   H   t>   N   Ol   N   H
H   H   (O
^   (O    IO
io  cJ to
cq"
cq
(M    t-   Tf    rH    rH
«H             OO"
Tf      »      "*
rH    tO    Tf
*~j
Tf    (M    rH
Cl
IO
CO   CN   CO
Ol
CO
CO
(M
09-
lOt-NQHO'ld
o rH cq
rH    CO    -^    fc-    C
CO    IO    tO    Ol    Tf    CO
Ol   rH   IO   Cl   to   to   O
to   IO   t-
Tf    rH    Tf    Cv
Tt
O    fc-
CO    O    IO
Cl
Tfl    CM    rH    tO    rH    rH    rH
rH             rH    rH    CO
^    Ol    CO
to oo  cq
rA
-*    rH    Tf    O    IT
CM"            rH    tH    a
Cq    rH
ci w. i
CO   to   Cl
to
CO    CN
cq
Ol
tc
CO    CSI    rH
i-H
to
00
Tl
CO
CO
69-
&9-
cc
tr
t-
T*
io  e»-
Di
Tfl     C
<M
Tt
Tf
C\
er
ec
IO  ffl   er
«
Tt
CV
CN
ee
CN
tO    fc-    r-
to   OC
CO    OJ
CO   r-
OJ
CO    Tf    CT
C
00
tr
cc
c
CC
er
„     ^
.-
^ 1-
CO   c<
0i
Ol    !-
Tj
c-
OC
CN   -
00    IO
b
cq
Cl
\c
Cl"
d
rH   i-
D
J5
to
c.
**_, K
Oi
tc
CN     rH
oo"
i-H
fc-
cq
tc
Tf
cc
&9-
6*3-
#     -f—
CN.
tc
t-
CC
"*   <N
rH   rH
io ir
CO
Tt
(N
00   CC
r-
o to c
M   H    ffl
Ol
iO   Cv
fc-   cr
Tf
fc-
c
OC
Tfl    i-H    IO
00    rH
cq"
Cq    Ci-
rH   K
fc-    C
to
O
00
ci
CM
Ol
cq t-
lO     T-
Tf      CT
Tf     tO
Tt
c
to o
Cl    IO    CO
io *; °°.
CO    CO    Tf
IO
Tfl    IT
c
T
cc
cqi
to
&9-
oo-
CV
c
<N
ea
«-
C\
CO    CC
rH    C
o
rH    0C
rH    fc-
IC
Tf  io ir
u-
o to
CM
fr
o-
CN
fc-    OC
IO    C
o
c:
CO    C
O    Cl    r-
cr
Tf      O
00
rH
Ol
CC
ee
IO
u
CO
cq  ir
IO
CO
CM
Cl
Tl
CN
C-     Tj
1-C
-1    »
cr
Ol    CN
cq"
T.
tc
Cl   fc-
to
CO   <N
rH
t-
1-1
Ol
CO
rH
CN
-O
cr
&9-
&9-
Ti
cc
__>
C"
tr
t- c
CM
CO   fc-
Tf
0C
N   O   N
If
CO   fc-
N
■*
t-
tc
fc- fc-
rH    OC
CO
Cf
r-
Tf      ffl
u
CO
Cl
OC
ic
fc-
rH
co   io
to
cq
Ol
T
N
OC
Tf
c
c
(N   io
00
"^1  *~
1-1
c>
1-1
Tf"
Ol
t-H
1-1
«
TT
&9-
&9-
fc-
IO
O"
t-
OJ
c
t£
IO   O"
cq
tc
c
tc
eq
CO    fc-    fc-
c
c
to
CO
<N
Tf
I_-
oo
OC
ee
SO   fc-
CO
T
IT
Tl
t-H     IO     r-
t;
c
fc-
to
Ol
Tf
fc-
OC
oc
CO   »
rH    CC
Tfl
00
to
c<i
Ol
Tf
cq
OC
c<
Tt
T]
t.
CC
t-    IO
c
CM    r-
0C
u.
•H
T-H
IO
1-1
T!
Tt
&*_■
69-
o.
K
•p
+S
F
F
a
CJ
£
a
a
£
fl
w
Hi
a
0
t
41
o
>
ti
C
>
c
p
X
t-
\
X
c
X
a
X
I
I.
X
a
cu
C
C
a
1
E
4
<
c
S
1
>
c
I
F
c
T3
p
a,
>
(-
c
c
a
■+-
i
T
\
•53 .£
t-
0
c
0
I 3
*ct
t>
e
c
l
a
c
I
u   a,
c
c
'J
+-
a
o
tf
3
i
a
1
a
CD
CC
o
tH      H
a
0
t
p
a
9
H
HH
a.
Cl
4
c
ft i
w
tl
a
cc
0
41
e
q
e
a
a
£
cc
«
F
«
p
>
jl
p   «
el   b
u
£
s
c
ea
ft  t-
P
F
41
t.
en
a
X
+
&
c
-
_
| |
Hi
HH
5
*c
■+
is
"rt
rn    X
,_
o
u
d
(-
c
■*«
R
0
> +-
HH
q
H
b.
0
HH
cfl   c
B
>
F-
1
£
(-
c
C
p
0
a)   a
V
rt
a
4
rt
C
O    __:
0
4J
q
QJ
P-
C
C
C
E-
c
a
0
P^
fl
h:
P-
C
c
u
E-
c
a
g
tf
3
J EE 10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
STATEMENT OF LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1935.
Letters inward  22,573
Letters outward  18,194
Included in the above total of letters inward are general inquiry letters for the months
of:—
January   200 August      154
February   202 September    108
March  229 October      101
April  197 November     143
May   111 December     147
June   110 	
July   153        , Total 1,855
MINING LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 1935.
Licences under the " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Original licences issued  28;  area, 16,726.20 acres.
Renewal licences issued  13; area,   8,334.00 acres.
Totals  41;  area, 25,060.20 acres.
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum Act."
New leases issued     9; area,   5,493.00 acres.
Renewal leases issued  28;  area, 16,082.20 acres.
Totals  37; area, 21,575.20 acres.
Sundry Leases under the " Land Act."
Number of leases issued  200;  area, 26,474.59 acres.
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1935.
Pre-emptions   108
Dominion homesteads  218
Purchases  (other than town lots)    109
Mineral claims   207
Town lots   49
Reverted lands (other than town lots)   105
Reverted town lots  158
Reverted mineral claims  236
Supplementary timber grants   8
" Dyking Assessment Act "   3
" Public Schools Act "  2
Miscellaneous   8
Total  1,211
Applications for Crown grants  1,214
Certified copies         2
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims given     329 B.C. GOVERNMENT RELIEF LAND SETTLEMENT PLAN. EE 11
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions   17,173.20
Dominion homesteads   32,522.15
Mineral claims (other than reverted)      7,696.85
Reverted mineral claims      8,374.32
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)     4,820.83
Purchase of reverted lands (other than town lots)      5,012.35
Supplementary timber grants      1,773.71
Total   77,373.41
B.C. GOVERNMENT RELIEF LAND SETTLEMENT PLAN, 1932.
Victoria, B.C., January 6th, 1936.
To the Deputy Minister of Lands,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my Third Annual Report on the operation of above plan,
as follows:—
No families were placed on the land during the year 1935 in addition to the fifty families
sent out in the spring of 1933.
At the close of the year thirty-six families were still in occupation of their locations,
twenty-four from the City of Vancouver and twelve from the City of New Westminster.
In addition to the ten families who gave up their locations in 1933 and 1934, three others
returned to the city of origin (Vancouver) in 1935, and one settler from New Westminster
moved his family to another part of the Province where he is said to have secured a steady job.
The remaining settlers, with one or two exceptions, have made good progress considering
the limited amount of capital with which they started out. Accident and ill-health have prevented two of the settlers from making as good a showing as they might otherwise have done.
The lack of a ready market for farm produce has proved a very severe handicap to the success
of this scheme.
The contract between the Dominion Government, Provincial Government, and the municipalities was extended in the spring of 1935 to provide for a third-year allowance of $100 per
family for subsistence only. It was found necessary to supplement this allowance by means
of direct relief as said amount proved insufficient for the needs of the majority of the settlers,
especially those with larger families and those who were located on raw undeveloped bush land.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
W. S. LATTA,
Secretary, B.C. Government Relief Land
Settlement Committee.  PAET II.
SURVEY BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Surveyor-General  15
General Review of Field-work  15
Office-work  16
Survey Branch  17
Table A—Summary of Office-work  17
Table B—List of Departmental Reference Maps  18
Table C—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps  19
Geographic Division  22
Table D—List of Lithographed Maps  23
Reports of Surveyors—■
Topographical Surveys, Cariboo District  24
Topographical Control Surveys  26
Topographical Survey, Vancouver Island  29
Topographical and Subdivision Surveys  31
Triangulation Survey, Cassiar  33
Headwaters of Finlay and Stikine Rivers  35  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., March 16th, 1936.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1935:—
The field-work of the Survey Branch may be divided into three main classes: (1) Triangu-
lation, this being the best and cheapest means of determining the true position of main features
and of placing a rigid foundation under all other surveys; (2) topographical surveys, now
mostly carried on with the aid of aerial photography, with ground control supplied by minor
triangulation and the surveying camera; (3) cadastral surveys, in preparation for settlement.
Theoretically, surveys should be made in the above order, but with appropriations dependent
on annual revenues, surveys for settlement must often be put first.
The appropriation made for surveys, though small in comparison with the average of the
past twenty years, took care of all urgent needs in connection with settlement, permitted a full
season for the staff on the very important aero-phototopographical work, and enabled us to
close the gap lying between Peace and Skeena River Stations in an 800-mile triangulation
circuit. The closing error proved notably small, with the result that all stations in this long
circuit can now be used, with confidence in their accuracy.
Some gaps remain in the main triangulation system that should be closed as soon as funds
can be provided, for-until this is done the full benefit of large past expenditures cannot be
reaped. Aerial photography has revolutionized topographical surveying and our survey staff
is keeping well abreast of the times in developing new methods to increase performance and
to reduce costs in our rugged country. The results being secured are interesting and well
worthy of study by those interested in the development of the Province on economically sound
lines.
Altitude and slopes place definite limits to our agricultural areas; geological formations
govern the occurrence of the various minerals; watershed areas and the drop therefrom limit
power; while the potentialities of our forests are closely bound up with latitude, altitude,
slopes, and drainage. Altitude and slope have a far more important bearing on economic
development here than in any other Province of Canada; hence the necessity for contour-lines.
With contour maps and a soil examination it can with full confidence be determined whether
an area should be reserved for forest, grazing, or other purposes, or whether there is a sufficient
area of suitable land to make a successful community possible, and to warrant the consequent
provision of roads, schools, etc.
So that there may be no duplication of effort, the closest co-operative contact is maintained with the various Dominion Government survey organizations operating in this Province.
These include the Topographical and Air Surveys Bureau, Geological Survey, Geodetic Survey,
Department of National Defence, and the Hydrographic Survey. In the belief that accurate
mapping, no matter by which Government carried out, is wholly beneficial, we give all possible
assistance in the way of information, land-ties, etc., to all, and in turn we have had much help
from the photographic units of the Royal Canadian Air Force and from the other Ottawa
departments. The year 1936 will probably see the publication by the Federal departments
of a dozen contoured map-sheets largely based on the work of the Provincial topographical
surveys and with forestry data supplied by our Forest Branch.
GENERAL REVIEW OF FIELD-WORK.
Four survey parties were engaged on aero-phototopographical control-work, two of these
parties mapping in the Cariboo District west of Quesnel and Horsefly Lakes, one near
Courtenay and Strathcona Park, and the fourth in the Quatsino Sound area, in all of which
districts we had the advantage of aerial photographs taken without cost to us by the Royal
Canadian Air Force. EE 16 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
One triangulation party closed the gap above referred to, west of the headwaters of
Peace River, while advantage was taken of the presence of a surveyor on private work in
the Two Brothers Lake region to have ties made thence along the Omineca batholith to our
triangulation net on the Ingenika River. The cost of this northern work was greatly reduced
by the use of air transport for men and supplies.
About forty lots suitable for settlement were laid out on logged-over lands near Campbell
River, and it is expected that these will all be occupied at an early date. Some inspection-
work was carried out on mineral-claim surveys in Bridge River where faulty work by one
surveyor was suspected and found much worse than expected.
A few additional minor items were attended to, but, speaking generally, land surveys
are well in advance of demand by settlers.
OFFICE-WORK.
The office staff is divided into two main sections—namely, the Survey Division and the
Geographic Division. Reports compiled by F. O. Morris and by G. G. Aitken, who are
respectively in charge of these Divisions, follow.
The tables show a very marked increase in office-work over the deep depression years.
Improvement in the mining industry has been mainly responsible for this. About 90 per
cent, of the land surveyors of the Province are in private practice, and these surveyors are
responsible for the surveys of mineral claims and other classes of Crown lands. The field
notes and plans of such surveys are filed in this office, and a considerable proportion of the
staff is engaged in checking and replotting these surveys.
During the year a new map of the Pre-emption series, covering the Chilcotin area, was
published and a preliminary edition of the new Quesnel sheet made. The final edition of the
latter, with contour-lines on about 2,500 square miles of its area, will appear about June, 1936.
A new issue of the Bulkley Pre-emptors' sheet and a degree sheet covering the Cranbrook
area are nearing the publication stage.
A concerted effort has been made by officials of the various departments of the Government to get some order into the boundaries of the various district subdivisions of the
Province. There are at least forty-three of these systems of subdivision in use by the
various departments and each department has, until the last few years, been accustomed to
drawing its own descriptions. It often happens that the boundaries in different systems,
such, for instance, as land recording and mining divisions, differ by only a mile or two where
obviously they should coincide. Again, boundaries follow unrun meridians and parallels of
latitude where perfectly good natural boundaries, recognizable by all, exist, and where, owing
to the cost, there is no justification for the survey of the meridians and parallels. The Survey
Branch, as the clearing-house for this effort, has prepared hundreds of maps and descriptions
in connection with it and confidently expects that the year 1936 will see the whole situation
simplified, with a great saving in maps and descriptions and in the cost of compiling statistics.
The Dominion census authorities are already compiling their statistics in conformity with the
Provincial scheme, as they previously expressed themselves as lost in our maze of conflicting-
boundaries.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
EE 17
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEY BRANCH.
This Branch deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to
land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying, checking
survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many
minor activities. In the average day's work it is found necessary to secure and consult 100
documents from the vault.    An efficient blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations
and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and mineral reference
maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are maintained by the Survey
Branch. There are now 185 reference maps and 66 mineral reference maps, making a total of
251 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—(1) by adding new survey information as it
becomes available, and (2) by renewing same when worn out with constant use and handling
in the blue-print machines—forms a considerable portion of the work of the Branch. During
the year eight new reference maps and four new mineral reference maps were prepared.
Tables B and C, attached hereto, give a list of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary op Office-work for the Year 1935, Survey Branch.
Number of
field-books received
lots surveyed 	
lots plotted 	
lots gazetted 	
lots cancelled 	
mineral-claim field-books prepared 	
reference maps compiled	
miles of right-of-way plans dealt with
applications for purchase cleared 	
applications for pre-emption cleared __
applications for lease cleared 	
coal licences cleared 	
water licences cleared 	
timber-sales cleared 	
free-use permits cleared 	
hand-loggers' licences cleared 	
Crown-grant applications cleared 	
reverted-Iand clearances 	
cancellations made 	
inquiries cleared 	
placer-mining leases plotted on maps ._
letters received 	
letters sent out 	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate
miscellaneous tracings made 	
Government Agents' tracings made 	
blue-prints made 	
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints from other departments
and publ ic 	
Value of blue-prints for Lands Department	
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault 	
735
740
949
401
27
736
12
18
102
439
376
67
199
1,690
360
45
1,214
1,338
1,566
2,464
851
5,694
4,378
1,016
102
401
26,258
,146.70
:,272.65
29,815 EE 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
_. 5° £ 3
Cu
T
g
w
p.
H
rt
ta
H
I?
«
! II
/  03
. 'a
:  «
:___•*.
fn
S 1
<H       >H   _,.
B J2 1".
°   C   '
M o
* s
hh rt
h oo
o
\* o
£__ m
.rH    a
<r4
r  H     '
m H V
°   !J     ■
iSS!
" _5   °  3
w
Fh
CiS
rt
Tj
P<
P.
o  o
Ph Ph
h-1
„
TJ
Fh
M
fl
01
0>
>
>
Ph Ph" ^
S3
rt
fl
rt
hJ
cu
0)
+J
TJ
TJ
fl
U
Ph
rt
rt
JhJEH
Pi
■o   .
fi   c_     ■
- m. is
u < __
tn       >   >,0
a. ti 2 '& ©
S   0) w 7.   tfl
« .fc   X   _.   o
cd    rt    PL, i-H i—j
W 5_ g -e1
.    «   H   fi P*
« „h a «
.fc °   -S »
D_J   r-   ___ ^*   «
> oa
i= zest.
fi a; rt  fi o
S   rt
■__   «
SS
I'm
c _.
rt  g
60'
rt
3 44
0'
V
CU
+J
pq
o
Pm
QJ
T3
C
rt
o
rfl
Ph
TJ
Q
^H
fl
o
fl
rt
a
>»
O
tH
«_>
s
rt
TJ
,-W
01
fl
<
>.
fl
cu
Fh
03
60
o
.i? o
PPPP
o
fl
«H
<H
+J
+-I
^
O
O
O
a)
r/i
r/.
hH
J-J
s
>
w
tH
Fh
pc;
U
rt
rt
'rt
60
W
CU
rt
* is
o
t>>
>-
Uh
rt
fl
o  C c  u  ii m:H
p.
fi
\& 5 rt
a     co
is1-1
m g
5 n_! rt
0 C _fi
■;   rt   60
It
•a
c
rt
OJ
>
H->   4J   r-.    CIS
h _S
. »w
^O -a
.5 •- «
■H  M  _U
p- qj rt
__. M co
1 O Ph
rt   11   60
£ g c
Ss fi
fi o
^1
_ao;
01
^ a)
OS
60 5
P5      O
■s
m
'I
2 gtf
"-•     _>,   w     h     h     *
•—'    ?E-h^    Oh
rt
a
OOOtOtO©©«itDOOO.©0.0010.^0NNNN
OOOOOOCOOOCOOOCOCOCOtDCDCOOi£iCDO.COWMKiCO
EHEHEH-HEHEH^HEH-HHHEH-H-nEH^.EHE-'HEHE-'EH
NCO'l'HCOOOlObfNO.NHNHH^WO-COHINai^
T-H(MCOrHT-.i-H(M rH
hu   —
3.S »'
"*   CU   Eg
rt
._ >> _.
>i CD   >
rt 3 fi
_.  c H
SB    ■
s ; «
• a 2
> rt J3
r       rt •
S fl M,
_. rt
o rt fl
■a ■__
w  rt  a,
ft CU «4H
Cj r—I QJ
fl   rQ     fH   -
^  rt  cu
a 13 rfl -
S rt ■**
S > to
cu a ."
.^ =! >^
aj   rf   oj
^     -    rH
lit
H    0)    Q)
r^3 rfl
OJ   rv h->
in  g*
CU   fl TJ
rfl     O     CJ
H  «  rt
0)     QJ
C ft
o >, fl
•7-    0J CD
-A S
H rt
ft +j
OTJ
t °
>■— a
H-a B
a ii g
U_S s
_d-o_o
(J   u   v
d__-*j
rt
o-a -g
3 o.S
"2.5-
-m < a
^O 1
o   rt
a
'C   :i
D. >
B     = u_§
rt      up
<h     a CO c
E
3
C
3
9
fi   N
a. O
ch _fi  y
*3  «
CJ
pq
D
s
s
s
6
Eh
•A
H
s
H
Ph
H
Q
B.
O
H
CO
hH
hH
PQ
rt
CQ
ft     CU
rt    C
S 'Eo
Qj      fi
g   W
0)
Fh      ••*
0)      <U
QJ        P
O        _J3    rW
jj ;3 S
S      60  Fh
«H    fi
< rt
3 fi
rt h->
EH-«j
3
. a
■ o > a> .
B 5    . O •-      rt
J B _fi        h  nm
M.SPS >,.>;.> a
a Q
• rH    Tj
J5  '^i    o
Fh    CU 4h
O    Fh    rH,
Ph Ph CQ
»,   <P  d
S W ID
. rt HH ±>
■     q.    -r-l   .rH
!  h  h   h
|    CD    11    11
! a a i
afto
M       (H
■a_a
-fi n
_H    J
rt ^J
-t.  &
4S fi
_H    fH
rt
H->
fi
.   3
C   o
3*
Sh h
O OJ
& P,
_-. &
T3 o
0J
■ofe
3
W    .
CU
oi  rt
S'h?
■g-§
0>
-\ 5 # d
hJ    2    CU  'qj
• ■So!
fi"
aw
rt  .-
O M
CD
t. a;
C h
SO
-fl
55
3 a
. S g .a a
•4 3  "  u a
S_o q-2 _."K
Cr-H
o
rt tu
°_5
""' .5   ft
B£(h£S B -
B a"
l     M  O
o-a
w     CH
HH   Hfi     S
3    h    C
Ch S
•h«hU
fi o .
fi  _ >>
S .-S 3 -o
a fi !» a C  3 6(
rt rt cu hj 3 M  fi
-£. 60 C   C -
O rt c   fi
e a __
• - ctMg
s°s §
R   rt
_3 a ^, c_
fi .i. cq ^ S
clOH  »B
i M
■aS
w s
6o fi
Fh "^
2 -° p « _:
fc -S
H   fe
mo.
to F
and;
lega
g   rt
rt    O    tfl    tfl
cc -r; g rt
CQ "
■_HK°
c
o a>
HH
rd n
o
OS T.
t- fi
U  OS _« ,
.g J3 s S S
H  c_ w       rt ,
O U   fl   _j,>h
_?S_«
Efl    fi
«  rt
EHfHOZcqCQMlIlWcQOpSWfH
2 Eh
fl ^ "S
a;   fl
a) rt  fn w a;
fH   fH _fi   o   i)
OOOKK
- rt  S
Bh   _
-'I
3 fi
o 3
CO CO
S £ fi rt O
g r", ° Ch
i        w
| a «
CD    >
is  rt
-C   cu
m pq
____ ___.»r_
rn   n S        hh
W   3 -43 a? 3
fl o rt rt co
« I-h M H xi
«^ &• c? S
rt rt
C fi
60
C4
c 6
^3      fH
P_H
rt  fl
o  o cu  o
OTPC-O-flJ^tfl.C-tCO-QO^O-ttl'fO.C-itOO.C.OOiO-O-^OOOCfl OCJDOOOOOOOO
OOOlCDCCOaOCOW^OOOC^COOoa.COCDQCOCOCT'OCOCCCDO-OOOOM oooocoooooooooo
NNN(NWNNOlNNNW(NNNNNNNiNNINMf.NNNINMC0W CNCMIMCOCMOJCOCOCOCO
l»lNcOT}(_oo^^wHffiou;Tt^l>NH«4-;-flHco^^woQcOMo.^o t-mcooowaiiOHCD
tHtHc^ THT-HrHrH T-lrH^HrH i-H rH  rH APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
EE 19
CD
Ph
<_
a
w
o
a
B.
H
fc
«
K
Ph
W
fi
fc
o
A
rt
hh   qj
a) —.
j   fi 3   o_
'   >,fc.2
Im    qj '
Ch £
«      f*
fH CU 0)
<D    fi    >
t. a th
-Q -a oj
O rt
73 o
fi 73 o
B   fi   fi
— a rt
S rt £
3 fi -K
6? c    •
ii o  rt
Ch tfl 73
d -Q    OJ
>    O    fH
Ph -0
H        -3
a cs
g'l
P    Cfl
<H Ph
fn   °   1
">    Ea,  '
>    r?  I
rt
>
73 4. .
fi    «
3'5a     s
rt
>
tfl   tfl
fc1 >>
OJ   CD
" & rt ;s «
a a fi
>§8
P- M
F 8
fa. o
0) 3 73
> O fi
g CO   rt
rt rt
Ph   g
rt<<
cfl +_
rt  to
;  fn  « ,
1—1    tfl
- a.
CO   J^  .
__.«•
"rtlH
fl  fi QJ
8      O      fH
" O'
HH   _-i
rt
O
cc
73
rt 'as \Oi
1}   t-H
_ U -
< Hi,
-   HH    S,   Cfl
_ E a to
a rt
__  cfl
73    > HH
fi •" "H
rt a "g
fH     fH CC
0)   CU
co w _r
rt   rt oj
f.   fn g
Eh.Fh 3
rl      fH f-3
a as
a a
a .fc o oj 73
©   w   o   0)   t>
si
n3
fliS
K a ? s 5 _S'
3   fc  cj ^ -h
o o fc o       __
___  r_H HI   —       _ j-h
-fl
o
S rt
_.   rt rt
a " £
H> -S CO
co
S 73   g
0J   fl   rt
a rt fl
IH fi
ShS
OTJTi
a> .
T3 TJ   0, T3   q?
fl   fl   3   fl ~
rt      rt   P*      Cfl   -rH
OS   P    ,.,    rt    Fh
c fi 8 r a
0J    0J    H     -J  H-i
0J    0J  .C-    -U    fH
C3J-r___-_H^r<0J-yri.     fH^-i     rt
PhP^;PP_ho_co(1iccp.
fH    HH      O
oj   fn _M
a o «
« ap a
fc P   ,"  0)
£73 »_?
S   6 •& mm   cu
few
> cs\ u
o fn o
fq Fh Ch
73 mn
C o
ffl O
fc 73
cs  rt
ft      fH
_^J    OJ
HT       K
l&B-Sl
3 a « s
Or,*   0J<! -5
n>   to       —
-r- g .- c
fi
■ 3
Pice
to oj
tfl __a
" fi
fi s
O   OJ  '
«P
S_?  c
rt <h   s
4J tO
Oj    0-   4.
O -M   fn
O rt o
-.-Hi*
OJ   ^<   ^H
73    OJ    OJ
;E c c
dn 1
ffl   HH
ga 3
M^   OJ
hh" S
a ^9
QJ    CJ H
'7> §
0 oj oj
_.   fc ^1   to
a0rt«
Hfi   u "   rt
fim'«?
I'SSI
0J    fi _q 73
a '3 s 5
CJ   -rH   fq      rt
rt
>
. 3 -*     .ti
HH     0J C.
3 rt  cfl      .£
H      __      fH O
1 a. .2 f. h-
H  tfl    X    OJ    S
3 HI    CD    >    jj
j • 153 -S. g
'■_    «    O    h
C   73   HH     0J    gl
_    O   fi >H   g
; o '3 73 -fi
-an.
« S
"2. .3
CU   f>,    - ^
M S .oj W
fn _ a j)
OJ g S 60 o
2 "?.     ' 73    O
rt 2
o 73:
rt
73   oj si   0J   OJ
fH      0)      f.      H"    O   HH      fH   '
c.«a
A [> P
a J"  "
rt>U
_S 53.9
rt >pq
P  D-      -
P
_S        rt
aa^n;
« fi-H
S ___
r-1    G r"H     M     pj
qj ^   0J    0) rfl    Fh    o
rt    i-j
SPH
d zj a cs tn 0 hh
rj jh eiJ' in u o ^3 ™
Q Pci t-1 Ph fe ^ cq
C 73
„ +3 >
O ^   O    0!
CJ    fn    O    O .
-   rt fi3   fi
-0 nfi   rt
rt
oj a fn
4.   rt   B
rt >fl1
1»1
fi^^
rt fi oj
o mo
ca    .-.M   .<jca    ..■<.«   .   . H M   .<ifflcflcic-q   . <: w o   .-.co    . <   .   .-.mo   .<cq   . •< n o   .   . H
C0t-t-_-0000M-)-J-JOHHHMMWWCMNC0rtrtn^^HlciO-_JCOl_-M?-t-_0t»030JOffiC_lOHH
riHHHHHHHHHMWWOlWMMOlMWWMWOlMWWNWOlCJNOlMNOlWOinwwcOcom
73       ra
o
a
« ^3
rt fi
e rt
0 i
•     fl QJ
-T"   rA JH
>» cu X3
HH
fi      fH
«     CO   o
c ^3
3 a
o
CC  HH
.   fl
>> cS
oj   3
a 01
^£
rt Eh
H^      .     CD
. mm #
ih. ta-   <«
ra     5.
>
tv. a
J3 *ih
.   S   c>
HH
fH    "rt
°   -Si
HH?
2 oj pq
fi &
rt  0
ta, H j
.    Hi   rt    1
1 oj 3  I
: C3 f^ '
1 _?"«J.
60 _2
"       ft
3
J3
H
I   53 73=3   fc
■   >> 3   2   OJ
re g 2 ■& -
S o fl
aog<
a -
h3 a
oj J3
_?- to
t>   OJ
fi-a
-,   CO
§73^>
" _. c
rt i-h ,
73 73
S c
rt rt
73 HH
fl cd
; 5 3
is
HH
rt
>
h<!       a
a
a
5_
"h   tfl
t-I   0J
r  . 73 -^
'73 c^
j   fl   rt IH .
a    3      -   0J
O    fH    >  I
3 xn oj rt ,
a >   4H  >
.SS2
wag
73a -
a       oj
*3'|-jS ' .
£ fi5
Jin
I 73
rt  c
3  1
\H    -f
73    c3
fi    fi
a si
rt
. fi
fl   as
c o
0J TJ
rt
o c
rt "3
S   3
8, s
60
rt     ^J
Oj     0J
„-_M  fc
o o
rirSHM
?r2fi o
6f3   §(§■
: p a o
HI    rt    ^
0J    0J
is i*
is   £
i^j  rt «h
PQO'O
Ai   OS   _
S 3 -a b-s
■rt    CD    fi    ffl    3
2o!.aiffl
rt t> O o
C JS  fl
o o  oj
S 3
EhM
a to to
o  fi S
OJ JS 3  id jr-  ctj  h
CC K CC K <c <q P
ffl   _T73
^   3   c
03  rt
oO
o
c .
h    fc   fi    >   OJ    tfl
■ ■ o cd a fi p
_       »
5 . -.fc
J3 °
3 jh > a
; 60 fn 5
'ra.fc|
i __ oj-5
& 3^
pIIp
,, cS rrf   cu
cu   j.        X
-i   ^    !h
H f» as
a rt s
^3   ffl    fl
ffl   CD    g
Sum
|>_8
fl    fc —1
rt  OJ CO
■3.fc   HH
°a s
01  „ ta-
-^
3   O TJ
_—1  rt
73   ffl ^
ficca
^   C31
fi   fi   to
rt  rt  fi
oj oj a
PPM
sr5
<fr
•1-1
w fl 5
TJ   2   °- '
c i*f aj
Ul  "     Cfl
tfi   3
7.    S    rtH
C .fi      -tn
o "« °
ra£g-
a oj f< p
fe1o'
73rc« U   rt
3 S_ J3" "
jj> ^   rt   <u
CU   —'   «     >
M    ffl    fi   CD
m   cn   rt jD
.fc § 2 a
amow
c
c
rt
o fi fi
-    o o •
"SS'
w   f    f
^aa
pgg
CD    CD
■Sa -c
fi   HH   hh
ffl   fc    3
O   o
:   ^^5 CO
ffl 73
3   fi
c rt
p^i>.
a .-3
—  >   to
O   fi   OJ
So
OS
Ph .2
hh 'hh
tO   fc
ffl -°
oj a
J5ra
S 7373
§ s s
1—   rt   rt
H    w'm
Ml
|22
rZ.       rH  rH rl MrtC.rtC.n^"3l^l-0l0-0-C3-0C0C0CCCO_-_-_-00CJOHH EE 20
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
a
ca
V
rt
a
60
'3
r
rt
si
cc
mm   U
O    <D
73 .fc
gPn
ffi a
—   ca
fl   fl   J
rt - s
f &.S
..rap
a 2 3
IH    fl    OJ
aj  rt  oj
°0 HH  ^
73    CD  O
"J "fi 73
a "   C
■H.S    "
O    >    CD
7_5   0)   rt
gHjP
fe *IH   HH
hi  o  a
Hfi   -rt    O
«  rt  °
§^a.
CO p p I
a 3
<S|a
en _____ ~
HH   r-i    rH
§ II  «
p- fi-C
"SSI
rt -_H
p^a
OJ .2 fc
ri.    O OJ
°n rt
rt rt
73   CJ     -
fi    fl >a
rt a rt
OJ DC
3 a    ■
rt hi (_,-
60 73 fn   ;
C   3 «   '
rt    rt 73  -
(3
CD   OJ
f> -sJ
V3 cu
Pip
CH     "_|
fi<!
UJ,H    OJ fi    Sh    .3
■5 S ffl     _t_«J
pq    pp
a
.; -afl fi
Sf rt
3  rt 73
HH   (V      fH
rt *H o
fe   rt Hj
"3 S 73
rt   g   fl
si-
'   ,    rt   fe
.fcra£
Pt3 3
.S"g«
o   flj   f
a .a °
•3 rt P
f3p -
hJ oj
■oh.-*
ssp
rt  3 h
o a c
M    - 2
fl) yX
rt  3  cj
N   fl   t_
OJ    fi    fe
rt  o  o
boo
- II
-2 .g.
fl -^§1
rH ^
II    '
rH    °
fe
o
4. P
II P
>   a.    —
"fi C
W P     ■- P
^HHi»73
i p -«
! W   ffl
i "H  P
O   HH
C   rt  rt
a oj ii
aap
aa
3   HH
1.3
o   a fn
K   • 'a ° '
t.c3 c oj
'3 PS M
a o fi o
CJ   "rt    Crt
5 or* tj
ft        "   rt
OJ 73     •   t_
a ffl rt>
.rtfiPa
CD
,-.
rt
<D   o
.fc  3
«.3
3  fc
Jo
rj   OJ  73
wa  fl
hj   rt   rt
as   .
rt oj
p a
rt  fi .
a P:
sp
rt  cd
K-H
>>-a 73
oj fi fi
a a
rt
p
03
3a"
.  rt  ci
. fi  _p
1 .fc  f.  oj
jps^-S
■   3   Sg
. 2 o ,
a ^ 73
a ^"s
_ & _a g
CO
73 S ,-£?
3i:
rt  rt rt
60 2
3.S
HK.
a -f c cfl
-a 2 a g
oj  h  co rt
r-l      O      QJ CD
MBEh P
«-rt a.
> a 5
rt S ffl
__.   3 j
p a vc o g .a
g    O O H o
cfl   2              ^ cj
C   g 73   S a fi
f      b.    Cj   rt     H ^
3    Cfl    0J    CD    = f.
t>»
!"j
Hrt
^~|
R
a
r>
W
rfl
X,
o
u
22
Fh
+J
CU
cu
rt
hJ s*
&53
rt »
C   C   fc
53 .a
fi ^ o
2 73
fl   C   f^
>> rt  fl>
* _ £
©.fc   +H
a a ^
rt       w
PfH    fe
fi   OJ
B l^j
■H    >>   OJ
ra  -J .-_    -J —  "2   Cfl --
p<Pcccc<iJcoP
a fe
tfl a
CD _H
O
fi 73
OJ fl
ft a
xn ^
_.«H
3   P
° ra „-
_fl       oj
_H h-__
H « rt
-fi   > P
1.2 g
o rt
2  3   fe
■h o 5
rt    rt  hi
rt   fi CC
iB g'
5 S-3-rfJ
■ea S fi
S 3
a*       cri
HI      .    f,
fl) to 0J
CO    fe   >
f.      0J   "—•
o >a
ffi'a s
60 ch $
C   flJ 4-
32,
" 'fl 73
73 C 3
fl   cc!   rt
rt a   -
— mi
f.'ra.2
d -a -a
.fc GO
03   rt ._
- C
•h   ai   "
•2-5 a
s &•"
u -T OJ
_ rt  a)
fi G_ fi
_S    «    M
OSJ5
II >
c f.
fc    OJ  P
cs a --I
ft « .2
S S-H.&
S-fc'Sps
> a S oi .„
a a g |«|
7-   rt        G    .<D
ss £ oj 73 a H3
-2 3 a c g fe
°«fi^«l
£-H>-fl^
S S g 1
73 OJ flJ rt
ffl 0J D S
»Hia£
K ca cc S
fflP
+3     CL
.2 a
>P
 .oHoin  I
CD_-00-!OHNM^'-lC0_._3-JOrtW0:^'-:cDt--3C3)OHMrt'fl,-JCD_.00CjOOOO-J
tOCDtDCO_-_--*_-------_-_-_-XWXCOCOOOOOO.XOO-JOiaJC3)CJCJJCJj_J(3)_lrtHrHHrt
>
a .
w  to
p, flj
■a a
fl   cj
Sp
a m
CD   rfl
PcD
a
P  o
73 73
C C
CJP
O
f.   fi
S    Cfl
. -C
„PS't?
aj   O 73   ffl
a z * __,
cs   a ^
fc  ff «  *
IP      tH
hi °
7^
J3
a ffl
> § fe a    £
3P..2'
^   -P.
oj
fa>
H    g
a aj' >> -
a a * 6o
a ca g c
>flJ   .rl
+i   Jm
'"it'
o -fc a
apeo'ec
a s-*5
_-      fi      pj    HJ      fl
rt   rt   O   f,   0   o
OEhPPPZ
a    a
rt        „,
[>        to
.   tfl        'fH
ca  flJ       Ph
fH   H<S -,
s cs „ a
(3-rt 5 a
,-<- a HH
a g Bra
go; II a
3  rt
cs
^ 73
-1 a
a  3       rt
P<  3   >•  2
=s ~ a 5
JiO'.
a
P
rt
P
a
p!
g.2
_P
Ph
rt
TJ
H
CJ
AJ
o
•    ___!   i_.     so •
r-H   h   cu   <u Ph .
: ai
|      rl    [> P      w
« i* hP £ a
ft rt    CJ    r- O
P, CU    CU .S h
,a
a mi
a o
f- 73
rH 3
II   P
a cj
ffl _.
M
rt __i
a P
>>a
3 —.
CD  73
■"   3
■D a
Lh OJ  73 73
nOHC   f
"a:
■i S
3 a
tfl _fl
;HH
;-gP
(U    tfl
In g
."c.Sf 73
Pm<!
a
OJ      •
a | |
<»'&£
Ql    rC
_ °»;h
.fc & £ B 73
« a o ffl c
)=! *C   P Ph     .
O    ->H       O      . OJ
- a a hi -g 0
' rt > a § 1
r-   K-   rH T_J
S3       ° fn s
f-t h p_; cu »-H
o g       > W
1 =3 § &!
§ I g.-g S
c a 3 3 c.
rt  o  o —  aj
oopap
tfl
AS ^
m   w   >
5 gag
flJ '^a    3.  fc
.H   O.   ,H    H
S        3   to
S3 a rt M
a cl H>
is 3     «
fl -_fl en   0J
B    fi    O    "
ra 73
»  S? 3  rt
S       h      rt   .H
^      a      >>    fH
^   fl    fH  X!
AJ „    fH   -"J
cs fe ;__. <;
__?-S „- s
■j; h B a
^  3 'ft rt
-o a ft --
o.2 5 rt
safe-
HH     fi     J
"- mn  o
.2 o
RS
3  fi
«.2
S "3
H>
;_   ^    •  rt  >
> "3    fc JH .£
IPS oj'
^3 a  tn fl rt
ca,
OJ n.
SQ51
•2 o  3 rt
rt  HH    O    fl
rt to 33 0)
HH-!? S.fc
a f7 73 rt
■a S s -a
rt > s a
S5i
a      . a.
' ■ u «
. a>P
?pPS-2
•flij*
^3   -H
03   P   t|H
V H  73
S73  3    •
73  SP  5
5 sa.fc
"      Cfl    -t^>   Q>
.        ^     f-C  HH
SSS rt
#-fc
M  _   _
0J    CD   fi    fl
__3 o tfl a
-    rt   fc   tfl
^   OJ  rt v7        _   .
ccppSWp<;_-h
P   3 73
73 :g rt
w  T3 CU
Q>   c sU
rt oj a
CjhI „
hh   C 60
"Ea a
■■ cd
h. a fe; ^
a 5     S
-?   fe73  c
^"2 fi H
fi __ rt S
Sm fi°
> P aj
a M.fc o
to _. a _j
to .£ _, fi
rt  QH  73    D
,17"    OH
VH   _  o  rt
fi g fe fe
flJ   fl mn 73
ftpa   ci
ft rt  fi  oj
p co p a
" a "h
c   rt o
to  rt __.
fj^'
rt  a rt
T-J   cfl
CU T3
5g
0J   O
p sp
H Jl     »
P be "
• rH j-i      CCj
< . < a
co t- oo oo
co co oi co
. •<   .   .   . < « u   . <i pa o   . ■<	
C_O.OHNNWOq«COCOM^'^_OCDI>COCniOHWCO^lOcOt-000.0 APPENDIX TO REPORT OP SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
EE 21
fi"73 60
O flj fi
IH   t>a'5_
73   S.H-
•2 fi __.
a 3 a?
ft CO HH
ft   fi     C
rt  3 rt
CD QJ
fi 3
<D a
fe g
a "
H 73
— aj a
73  r  rt .
•h   fl   fl
tc  3   rt hj 73
2  m  rt
rfl      HJrH
tfl       M    "H
-So!
G    C5  r-J
rt
CU    oJ"  cfl
£  m e_
O   3    C
hH     **     O
CU   ,-.    .
fn nj te
>    M   S
gpa
rt
cj -
0  P
c o
s
CD  .
OJ  -
CD
a a
iJ "h cs
■fl "H o
Eh p 0
a mk o
.a >>-2
oj a fi
■* g fi
a a
73 60 _
3'S.2
cd   r, <—
si;
55 __. o
h_h _a
3    Eh
rf   Ph HJ
ff    «
&2
O    HH
cj
aj
rt c_
3 JH
60
§ § &
o
■Cfl
CU   "•   Sfv
rs aS
a a""
_  p   u
rt < >
_„ n a
00-
a ^1 hh
a c.g
0 bO
'«
S aj
^ a>
aj
_Q
c
3
C
fc  BhT>
* •» ° 9
rt-- S O
Hi u o
+a rt a
CtJ-c
CJ
S3
a
a
z
Z
t.
O
o
>
OS
D
en
O J.
o
fi
to ij
c
p
GO
s
p
fe
CU     rH
73 p
a  . o o ,g
fe >.^a
^73
_ fi
oj   rt
fl '
a 73
HI 3
.2 rt
S  fi;.
►..fci
Ct QH
fi "
flJ 03
HH -rt
73
cu rt
rt
h! fc>J
rt
fi C
ffl flJ
73-2
-_ « s
rt >   o
*;^
OJ     3   ch
a t» o
fH     fi   P
flj   rt
>    cj .fl
"rt      O    HH
a
co
. c
to   rt
Sa
V,     IH     fl)
<3     CU   r-H
1-1    r-1
> a
a.
p-
OJ _fi   fi
rt <J
l>     fH
oP.Cco._5
PpMgR
PM
fe
fcn  M
_7?g
fi    a -Q  rO
5333
rt    O    O    fH
.    C10)0.0.000.fl.0-O.NNNM
°       I       I       I       I       I      I      !      I       I       I       I       I       I      I
£    l0-0CDCDt-_>l>t-XX00H_>O
rHTHrHrHi-.r-.THiHTHi-.iHCNCMC^ EE 22
REPORT OP THE MINISTER OP LANDS, 1935.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Chilcotin   Pre-emptors'   Map,   with   descriptive
and economic detail — _ —	
Nechako Pre-emptors' Map   (reprint)—_. _	
Mineral Reference Map No. 8, Barkerville and
4,000
2,500
3,000
800
Jan.,   1935
Feb.,  1935
June, 1935
Dec,   1935
3p
3b
M.H.M. 8
3g
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
9,000
9,000
1,200
Quesnel Pre-emptors' Map, with descriptive and
economic detail  ("advance" edition)	
9,500
In Course of Printing.
Peace River Block Pre-emptors' Map..
3,200
March, 1936.
4 m. to 1 in.
In Course of Preparation.
Quesnel Pre-emptors'  Map, with standard con-
3G
3d
4c
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
9,500
11,000
3,100
Geographic Board op Canada, Naming and Recording.
Map-sheets, namings reviewed	
Recommendations to Geographic Board  194
New names recorded   100
Geographical Work for other Departments.
33 items, receipts and value of work	
Map-mounting.
Work done, items 	
Revenue from departments and public
"Value of map-mounting for Lands Department, etc. ....
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps and Gazetteers issued to departments and public
Maps received into Geographic stock	
Total value of printed maps and Gazetteers issued	
Revenue from printed maps and Gazetteers 	
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made  :	
Revenue from departments and public	
4,117.81
847
$546.55
3.72
       14,791
        15,724
  $3,967.60
  $2,802.22
  2,387
  $1,271.89
Value of photostats for Lands Department, etc. ...   $1,284.61
Letters.
Letters received and attended to
1,829
Standard Base Map.
Standard Base Map sheets  (skeleton)  produced   5
Bulkley Pre-emptors' Map, sheets compiled   2
Quesnel Pre-emptors' Map, contours, drawn and compiled, sheets  2
Department of the Interior sheets, Fraser Valley  11
School districts, plotted from description   341
Control nets supplied   40
Plan of Cadastral Surveys, vicinity of Courtenay and Comox Lake  1
Triangulation.
Main, by least-square adjustment, triangles adjusted  82
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations   454
Index cards, records   603 APPENDIX TO REPORT OP SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
EE 23
Table D.—List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
lA
lA
lex
1EM
1G
lH
1JCA
1JC
1JD
1JE
1JGL
1JGC
IK
lL
2a
2b
2c
2d
2e
2f
3A
3b
3C
t3D
3b
3f
3g
3h
3j
3k
3m
3p
4a
t4c
4d
4e
4f
4g
4h
4j
4k
4l
4m
4N
4p
5a
5b
mbmI
MRM2
MRM3
mrm4
mrm5
mrm6
mrm7
mrm8
PWD
MD
9
5
2
Year of
Issue.
1933
1933
1931
1930
1916
1933
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1925
1929
1920
1914
1929
1923
1924
1927
1930
1926
1923
1936
1928
1934
1935
1931
1932
1932
1929
1924
1931
1927
1936
1913
1925
1913
1914
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1931
1916
1929
1929
1929
1930
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
1934
1930
1907
1898
1896
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways, etc.
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways,   etc.    Special  edition   showing   Electoral  Districts,
Redistribution 1932, with 1934 Amendment
British   Columbia.    In   one   sheet.    Showing   Land   Recording
Divisions
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen. Showing Mining Divisions
Cariboo   and   adjacent   Districts.    Showing   Land   Recording
Divisions
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data	
British   Columbia.    In   one   sheet.    Showing   rivers,   railways
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
and   precipitation   _	
Ditto ditto and Land Recording Divisions
Ditto ditto and Mining Divisions  	
Ditto ditto and Assessment Districts 	
Ditto ditto and Land Registry Districts.....
Ditto ditto and   Counties     _ _
South   Western  Districts   of   B.C.,   Commercial   and   Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
Central Districts of B.C., Commercial and Visitors	
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island    _	
New Westminster and Yale Districts   _	
Northerly Vancouver Island _	
Powell Lake    ___ _	
Bella  Coola   (preliminary)
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography  (preliminary) _
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George    _ _._ _ _	
Nechako        — _
Stuart Lake
Bulkley Valley  _	
Peace River   (reissue  1930).
Chilcotin   _.._   -
Quesnel   	
Tete Jaune
North  Thompson
Lillooet     _
Prince Rupert
Grenville Channel   (preliminary)
Peace River Block _   _._.
Degree Series—
Rossland Sheet  (contoured)   	
Cranbrook Sheet  _ 	
Fernie  Sheet
Upper Elk River Sheet 	
Duncan River  Sheet  	
Windermere Sheet  	
Arrowhead  Sheet 	
Vernon  Sheet   (contoured)
Kettle Valley  (contoured)
East Lillooet, Economic Geography  (contoured)  	
Nicola Lake  (contoured)       	
Penticton   (contoured)     _ — __   _	
Lower Fraser Valley   (preliminary)   _ _	
Topographical Series—
Omineca and Finlay River Basins, Sketch-map of 	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special)
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), North sheet (special)
Stikine River   (contoured)      _..    	
GEOGRAPHICAL   GAZETTEER  OF   BRITISH  COLUMBIA	
Mineral Reference Maps-
Slocan and Ainsworth
Trout Lake  	
Lardeau River 	
Nelson-Ymir   	
Rossland-Ymir
-Printed.
Grand  Forks-Greenwood    	
Greenwood and Osoyoos    _ __
Barkerville and Lightning Creek 	
Miscellaneous—
Highway and Travel Map of B.C.  	
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts .
Northern Interior.     (A. G. Morice)  	
Kootenay District, East, Triangulation Survey of	
Kootenay District, West, Portion of  _.	
1: 1,000,000
15.7,8 m. to 1 in.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
31.53 m. to 1
31.53 m. to 1
31.5 3 m. to 1
31.53 m. to 1
31.5 3 m. to 1
31.5 3 m. to 1
7.89 m. to 1
15.78 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
5 m. to 1
*/_ m. to 1
% m. to 1
5 m. to 1
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 rfl. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
1,000 ft. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
2.00
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
i_j
§1
HH    H
43.2
til si  SI
■-S! °
J- cm
O cs
w
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.50
.50
.50
2.00
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.35
Free
.10
.10
.10
Per
Dozen.
$14.00
20.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.01
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
18.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4 00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.50
i On ap
| .50
I .50
I        .50
t In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding,  applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map Number " of map
desired.
We can  supply information  concerning  maps  of  British  Columbia  printed  and  published  at  Ottawa by the
Canadian Geological Survey, or the Dominion Department of the Interior, etc., etc.
Inquiries for printed cmaps—Address :—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands, Victoria, B.C. 1st January, 1936. EE 24 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, CARIBOO DISTRICT.
By R. D. McCaw.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1935.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report upon the topographical surveys carried on by me during the past
season in the Cariboo District. In your letter of instructions bearing date of July 12th, I was
directed to work in an area embraced in Map-sheets 93 A/5 and 93 A/6 in the above district,
with the specification that I should work in the western part of the area, A. J. Campbell,
B.C.L.S., doing the eastern portion, with the dividing line to be decided between ourselves.
The area had been covered by vertical aerial photographs and the object was to obtain sufficient
information for the ultimate preparation of a topographical map on a scale of 1 mile to 1 inch,
with contours at 100-foot vertical intervals. I may say that Mr. Campbell and I worked in
co-operation to such an extent that each will do a single map-sheet, mine being 93 A/5. The
boundaries of this sheet might here be stated as being latitude 52° 15' and 52° 30' atnd
longitude 121° 30' and 122" 00', and embracing such features as Beaver Creek (in part),
Peavine Ridge, Big Lake, Antoine Lake, part of the Likely Road, and part of the Horsefly
Road.    Miocene Post-office and Beaver Lake Post-office are located within the area.
I left Victoria on July 13th with the light Ford truck used by me in previous seasons and
arrived in Williams Lake the day following. We were under canvas at Big Lake along the
Likely Road on the 16th. Owing to the system of roads in the locality we were able to reach
practically all of our work by motor-car, and for this reason it was unnecessary to move camp
more than a few times.
The greater part of the western portion of the sheet was covered from the Big Lake Camp.
The nature of the country required different methods of control for the aerial views. The
horizontal control is dependent upon ground photographs, instrumental traverse, triangulated
points, and, to some extent, upon the land surveys. Vertical control or elevation is dependent
upon ground photographs, vertical angles, and barometric differences, all being based upon
the elevations of main and other triangulation stations as derived from prior work and checked
by a line of levels extending from Williams Lake into the area. Early in the work two former
main triangulation stations were visited, the signals reconditioned, and further clearing done.
These were the Mclnnes and Polley Mountain Stations used by N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., some
years ago. Four new main triangulation stations were selected at this time, as follows: Big
Lake Station, elevation 3,960 feet, on a timbered ridge about 3 miles south-west of Big Lake;
Baldy Mountain Station, elevation 3,775 feet, on a timbered ridge about 3 miles north of
Miocene Post-office; Gavin A, elevation 4,109 feet, on a burnt ridge (northerly end) south of
Gavin Lake; Gavin B, elevation 4,106 feet, on the same ridge (southerly end) south of Gavin
Lake.
The Gavin Station, established by Mr. Stewart previously, was between these latter
stations and was not used. Other new photographic and secondary triangulation stations were
occupied where possible. These are located on Guy Mountain, Limestone Mountain, on the
ridges north and south of Beaver Creek, and on ridges east and west of the Likely Road south
of Big Lake. A transit and chain traverse was run along that portion of the Likely Road
within the sheet and connections made to triangulation stations where possible, as well as to
several land-survey corners. A similar traverse was extended along a road westerly to
Marguerite Lake. A stadia traverse was run westerly down Deep Creek to the west edge of
the sheet. A great deal of barometric vertical control was done over the area, with the
exception of the south-west corner, which was left to be completed later. Land-survey corners
were also connected to triangulation stations where convenient.
Camp was moved to Gravel Creek, on the Horsefly Road, August 19th, and from this point
operations were extended over the eastern portion of the sheet and sufficient work done to
connect with Mr. Campbell's surveys in Sheet 93 A/6. This eastern portion flattens out very
materially and photo-topographical control was very limited, the other methods being used
extensively. One other main triangulation station was selected to the south-east of Ochiltree
Post-office.    This is on a timbered ridge known as Spokin Mountain.    There is a possibility of TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, CARIBOO DISTRICT. EE 25
this station being used in the net of the Geodetic Survey of Canada. Mr. Campbell also
established a triangulation station within my area and close to the eastern boundary. A
transit and chain traverse was done along the Horsefly Road from Rose Lake easterly to
Beaver Creek, and then down the Beaver Creek Road about 6 miles. Connections were made
to triangulation stations. South of the Horsefly Road the area within the sheet is very flat
and the control is dependent on traverse and aneroid readings. Several farm-roads were a
basis for control traverse. Land-survey corners were tied in throughout the eastern portion
where convenient. Before leaving the Gravel Creek Camp a fly-trip was made to the Polley
Mountain Station for main triangulation readings. The main triangulation stations Baldy,
Spokin, and Gavin B were also occupied for final readings.
From the Deep Creek Camp, established off the Likely Road on September 24th, the
remaining control in the western area was done. This included much barometer-work west
of the Likely Road and south of Big Lake Creek, and the final occupation of the main triangulation stations Big Lake, Mclnnes, and Gavin A. A line of levels with bench-marks about
every half-mile was also commenced, connecting with the triangulation system and extending
southerly along the Likely Road. Camp was broken on October 4th and my assistant and I,
with one man, completed the levels to the water-level of Williams Lake, which was connected
with bench-mark 673-J of the Geodetic Survey. The season's surveys completed, I left
Williams Lake October 9th for Victoria.
GENERAL.
The triangulation system has been arranged to fit with Mr. Campbell's and the whole is
an expansion southerly from the Polley-Brew side of the net done previously. Main triangulation stations are marked by brass bolts set in rock, except in two cases where conditions did not
warrant. In these, galvanized-iron bars 18 inches long and % inch square were used, driven
flush with the ground. Photographic and secondary triangulation stations are marked by the
iron bars also, and the position of all calculated and represented by rectangular co-ordinates
with origin at latitude 52° 00' and longitude 121° 00'.
For photography, Ilford panchromatic plates were used generally and supplemented by
infra-red under certain light and atmospheric conditions. The results with the infra-red were
not as good as in the previous year. The triangulation stations were read with a new Zeiss
instrument with micrometer attachment reading approximately to 2" for horizontal angles
and fifths of a minute for vertical angles.
While considerable rain fell during the season, there was practically no time lost from this.
Atmospheric conditions were generally hazy, but there was little smoke in evidence at any time.
A most beautiful spell of weather occurred between September 24th and the time we concluded
the survey. Exceedingly bright sunshiny days with frosty nights upheld the traditional
weather for that time of year in the Cariboo.
The chief industry in the area is ranching, cattle and sheep being the export. There are
a few mineral prospects, but they seem to be at a standstill. Antoine Creek, a tributary of
Beaver Creek from the north-east, has been the scene of rather vigorous prospecting-work
recently for placer gold, and this brings in some rather interesting geological information
which may some day give rise to very extensive development in the eastern portion of the area
covered by our work. From investigations by the geologists of the Pacific Great Eastern
Resources Survey and investigations by officials of our Department of Mines, the probable
course of the buried ancient Horsefly River, geologically called the Tertiary Horsefly River,
has been traced. This follows more or less the general course of the present Horsefly River,
but instead of continuing into Quesnel Lake turns westerly to Antoine Lake and down Antoine
Creek to Beaver Creek. The conjectural outlet may be on the Fraser River some miles below
Quesnel. Again, the deeply buried Tertiary Moffat Creek, instead of following the lower
reaches of the present Moffat Creek, probably cut north-westerly to the present Gravel Creek
in the area under our survey, and continued down the course of this stream to Beaver Creek.
I am not going further into this matter in the present report, but would refer to the geological
reports by the Pacific Great Eastern Resources Survey and the reports of the Minister of
Mines over the past five or six years, which will indicate the possibility of placer occurrence
within this area.
The whole area is made easily accessible from the system of roads. The Likely Road
leaves the main Cariboo Highway at Mountain House and passes northerly through the west
3 EE 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
portion of the sheet. During the past few years this road has been much improved and last
season was in very good shape. The Horsefly Road branches from the main highway a little
north of the 153-Mile House and enters the area being mapped at Rose Lake. It then continues
easterly within the area and beyond to Horsefly Post-office on the Horsefly River. Owing to
clay surface in parts this road is rather heavy in extremely wet weather, but it is being
improved continually and will no doubt have a good surface very soon. These two roads are
the means of reaching the sources of transportation to the vast areas tributary to Quesnel
Lake, Horsefly Lake, Horsefly River, Cariboo Lake, etc., and are valued by prospector, miner,
hunter, fisherman, lumberman, etc., to an extent not realized by the outsider. Of course it
must not be forgotten to mention their value to the settler adjacent, who depends on them for
all of his freighting. The Beaver Valley Road follows Beaver Creek from the Horsefly Road
near Horsefly Post-office to the Likely Road at Beaver Creek Post-office. The old Alexandria-
Beaver Creek Road is practically in disuse and in very bad shape. The Peavine Road extends
along Peavine Ridge from the Likely Road north-westerly and gives access to a rather compactly settled farming area. The course of the old Polley Lake Road from Polley Lake-
Horsefly River cuts across the north-east corner of the area, but has not been used in years
and at present is no better than a trail for back-packing. Numerous farm-roads exist in
different parts.
The surface is generally timbered or scrub-covered, with some small open areas in parts.
Jack-pine, fir, and poplar are the main species, but from an economic standpoint is of little use,
although in some areas there may be some merchantable value. North of Beaver Creek fire
has destroyed much of the growth. The north-east portion has been covered with large cedar
and occasional fir, all of Coast size, but fire has killed most of it and there are extensive areas
of standing and fallen dead trees.
The large game of the district consists of moose, deer, and black bear. Moose may be seen
almost anywhere. While no bears were seen, they are pretty well distributed. Game birds
seem to be getting scarce, due, no doubt, to the easy accessibility of the area for the hunter.
Most of the larger streams have trout and Big Lake is well known for its fishing.
The area of the map-sheet is approximately 365 square miles and the information secured
is now being plotted on a scale of 40 chains to 1 inch. The detail will be sufficient for a
mile-to-the-inch reproduction.
I have, etc.,
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL CONTROL SURVEYS.
By A. J. Campbell.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1935.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report upon the topographical control
surveys carried out by me during the past season:—
Your instructions, dated July 5th, 1935, describe the area to be surveyed as Map-sheets
93 A/5 and 93 A/6 in the Cariboo District, and that in covering this we were to work in
co-operation with R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., particularly in respect to the production of the
main triangulation system. Mr. McCaw was to work in the westerly portion of the area,
leaving to us the easterly portion, with the dividing line somewhat indefinite, depending on
the nature of the country. It has developed that each was able to cover one of the map-sheets,
ours being 93 A/6, which includes the area between latitudes 52° 15' and 52° 30' and longitudes
121° 00' and 121° 30'. This will be known as the Horsefly sheet. The village of Horsefly
is the hub from which all parts may be reached. The Horsefly River enters the area at the
south-easterly corner and travels westerly and then northerly to empty into Horsefly Bay on
Quesnel Lake. The greater portion of Horsefly Lake lies in the area and extends several
miles beyond the easterly limits. TOPOGRAPHICAL CONTROL SURVEYS. EE 27
We had vertical aerial pictures covering the area and the main object of the survey was
to provide such horizontal and vertical control for them as to permit the preparation of a
topographical map on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, with contours at 100-foot vertical intervals.
In the easterly portion of the area it was possible to provide such control by photo-topographical
methods, but in the westerly portion, which is much less hilly, the ground photographs were
supplemented with traverses and considerable barometric vertical control.
The main triangulation system was projected southerly, using the formerly established
triangulation stations, Polley and Brew, as a base. Four main stations were established,
descriptions of which will be filed later. These stations are competely tied with those
established by Mr. McCaw and are so chosen as to readily permit the extension of the system
in any required direction. The main stations are marked with brass bolts cemented in rock.
Other triangulation points are marked with the galvanized B.C.L.S. bars, also with bearing
trees, where considered advisable. A series of ties, mostly by triangulation, were made to
surveyed lot corners. These ties are well scattered over the area and will give good connection
with the surveys there.
The party was organized at Williams Lake on July 9th and proceeded to Horsefly, where
a camp was established. From Horsefly roads run out in several directions, and with our light
trucks we were able to reach the greater part of the area from this camp. Only two moves
of the main camp were made during the season, over to Horsefly Bay on Quesnel Lake to
reach stations in the vicinity of that lake and one to Horsefly Lake. While on Horsefly Lake,
through the co-operation of the Forest Branch, we had the use of their boat. This was very
much appreciated, as, while there are several boats on the lake, none of the others would
have been as suitable for our purpose. Besides these two main moves, only three others of
light camps were found necessary to reach all the required points.
Photographically, from a weather standpoint, it was an exceptionally good year, considerably better than 1934, when we were working in an adjoining area. Comparatively little
time was lost on account of bad weather, due partly, of course, to the fact that we were able
to do other work during periods not suitable for photography. At times throughout the season
there was considerable haze in the atmosphere, but it was only during the last few days in
the field that there was sufficient smoke to make photography impossible. Panchromatic
plates were used generally, with infra-red being used when conditions warranted.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The Horsefly River and Lake form the main water system in the district. Among other
features, we have Moffat Creek, in the south-west, running northerly to join the Horsefly
River near the village of Horsefly, and the headwaters of Beaver Valley along the west
boundary. Besides these, there are numerous small lakes, probably as many as fifty, dotted
over the area and many small creeks.
The altitudes on the sheet range from 2,380 feet above sea-level at Quesnel Lake to
around 5,600 feet on the Black Creek Mountain Ridge, which lies between the Horsefly Lake
and the Horsefly River Valley close to the east boundary. North of Horsefly Lake and over
to Quesnel Lake and extending west to the Horsefly River are found a series of small rocky
hills with many small lakes lying between them. Of these hills, Observation Mountain, with
an altitude of 4,352 feet, is much the highest; the remainder average around 3,300 feet in
height. Not much flat land is to be found in this part, nor are meadows, such as occur in
other parts of the area, to be seen. South of Horsefly Lake, slopes rise directly to the Black
Creek Mountain Ridge, which drops rapidly to a series of low rocky hills near the westerly
end of the lake; southerly of these hills and towards the Horsefly River is a considerable
area of bench land with a few meadows and small lakes here and there. This area is
included in the surveyed lots. The Horsefly River Valley above Woodjam Creek is a very
attractive wide valley, with much meadow land along the river-bottom. To the north gentle
slopes rise from 2 or 3 miles to the steeper slopes of Black Creek Mountain Ridge. To the
south it is quite flat in part, back to the steep slopes of Woodjam Ridge, rising to over 5,000
feet altitude. Below Woodjam Creek the river-valley narrows into a canyon, opening out
once again in the vicinity of the village. On the right bank, along this canyon, the slopes
rise to the bench land mentioned above, while to the left they rise to a series of small hills.
Beyond these hills, to the south, is found a considerable area of meadow-dotted and lake- EE 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
spotted, comparatively flat land, which reaches to Moffat Creek and southerly beyond the
limits of the sheet. A few miles below Horsefly Village the river again enters a narrow
valley, which extends to its mouth on Quesnel Lake.
As mentioned before, there are several roads radiating out from Horsefly Village. The
main road, from the outside, enters the area not far south from the middle of the west boundary.
This leaves the main Cariboo Road about 1 mile north of the 153-Mile House at a distance of
33 miles from Horsefly. An old road, built to transport machinery to Hobson's Horsefly
Mine and connecting with the main road near Lac la Hache, is still passable for cars beyond
the limits of our sheet, but is not used as a through road. Hobson's Horsefly Mine is located
7 miles down-stream from the village, and this road continued to it and was pushed northerly
to Antoine Lake, across country to Polley Lake, and on to the Bullion Mine. Most of this,
beyond the river, has been abandoned. A branch was also built down to Quesnel Lake. This
part has been changed considerably and a new road built closer to the river, reaching Horsefly
Bay, 13 miles from the village. The road to Horsefly Lake crosses the river at the village
and follows it down-stream for a mile or two, then swings easterly towards the lake. A branch
road about half a mile from the lake gives access to it in separate bays at a distance of 7
miles from Horsefly. Two minor roads branch off the lake road. One, about 4 miles from
Horsefly, turns off to the north to a bridge over the Little Horsefly River and continues
down-stream for 2 miles or more. It is not recommended for cars beyond the bridge. The
other turns off to the south about 5 miles from Horsefly and follows the route of the old
Black Creek Road for about 3 miles. The rest of this road over to Horsefly River has been
abandoned. The Black Creek Road now branches from Horsefly Lake Road less than a mile
out of Horsefly and follows the river, more or less closely, for 18 miles to the Black Creek
Mine. To complete the list of main roads, or roads possible for motor-cars, the Beaver Valley
Road, which leaves the main road to Horsefly about 2% miles out, should be included. This
road follows down the Beaver Valley, beyond the limits of our sheet, to join with the Likely
Road between 25 and 30 miles from Horsefly. There are some other roads, more or less
passable, used only as winter or haying roads. The Woodjam Road south of the Horsefly
River is one of these. Settlers now reach the Woodjam by the river road to Black Creek and
cross the river on scow-ferry located there. The only pack-trails noted lead- from the end of
the Black Creek Road, up the Horsefly River and beyond, and up McKinley Creek to McKinley
Lake and on into the mountains.
Settlement is confined to the vicinity of Horsefly River for some miles above and below
the village and along the upper part from the Woodjam to Black Creek; also from the village
easterly to the lake; also a few settlers are located along Moffat Creek near the south-west
corner of the area. Hay- is by far the most important crop, and considerable wild hay on
many of the outlying meadows is also cut, stacked, and the cattle driven to and fed from these
stacks throughout the six months necessary to winter-feed. Vegetables are successfully grown,
but not much more than sufficient for local needs. The agricultural possibilities of this area
are given in the Pacific Great Eastern Natural Resources Survey, so further comment is
unnecessary.
FOREST-COVER.
Except for two patches, the whole country has been burnt over; most of it old burns,
with reproduction well on its way. The area between Horsefly and Quesnel Lakes has been
more completely burnt, with reproduction generally poplar and some jack-pine. This holds
for the burnt area south of Horsefly Lake over to the river. In other sections reproduction
of predominately pack-pine is further advanced. The area of small hills around Horsefly
Bay, on Quesnel Lake, in part has escaped the fire, and some fair fir, cedar, and hemlock is to
be found. A small sawmill is located here, which operates when there is any demand for
lumber in the district. The larger unburnt area is located on the slopes from Horsefly Lake
up to Black Creek Mountain. Some good cedar, fir, and hemlock is to be found here. Considerable scattered fir was noted, principally on the small hills and ridges and in favoured places.
This year little mining activity was being carried on. Miners were working on a lay at
the old Hobson Horsefly Mine and apparently successful. A drag-line was in operation for
part of the summer on the Horsefly River a short distance down-stream, but apparently was
not very successful. This area is among the oldest placers in the Cariboo and for many years
there has been considerable interest in this connection, and considerable prospecting has been TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND. . EE 29
done to trace out the ancient channel of the Horsefly River. Mention has been made of this
in several of the annual reports of the Minister of Mines, and particularly in the reports of
1931 and 1932, in which this ancient river-channel is described, and also in the report of the
Pacific Great Eastern Natural Resources Survey. The assertion is made that discoveries of
considerable importance are very probable.
Moose, deer, and bear are quite plentiful. Grouse are to be found everywhere. Trout
are caught in the streams and lakes, with special mention of Horsefly Lake, where rainbow
trout and char of large size are numerous. The kickaninnies come up the streams in the fall.
Altogether it is a good game country and just on the edge of a mountainous region where
hunting-parties go every spring for -bear and in the fall for moose, caribou, deer, and
mountain-goat. Trapping is carried on during the winter and the whole area is taken up
with registered trap-lines.
I have, etc.,
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By N. C. Stewart.
December 31st, 1935.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Siirvey or-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical survey carried
out under your instructions of July 2nd, 1935:—
The area controlled lies between the easterly boundary of Strathcona Park and the Strait
of Georgia and extends southerly from the 50th parallel to latitude 49° 45', and contains
approximately 400 square miles.
The party, consisting of W. J. Moffatt, B.C.L.S., assistant; A. G. Slocomb, instrument-
man ;   and four men, including a cook, was organized at Courtenay on July 3rd and 4th.
The area to be mapped was photographed by the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1931. We
were instructed to obtain sufficient ground control to map the area at a 1-mile scale, with
contours at 100-foot intervals. We found the area to consist of two main divisions: First, a
coastal plain 8 to 20 miles wide along the Strait of Georgia; and, second, a hilly and mountainous area from the coastal plain to and beyond the westerly boundary of the area to be
mapped.
For control in the coastal plain w-e ran traverses, these being controlled at frequent
intervals by triangulated points.
In the mountainous section control was obtained by ground photography from triangulated
vantage-points. In both sections aneroid readings were used to supplement triangulation and
photography for obtaining altitudes.
Our first work consisted of locating and erecting signals at points to control the traverses
and to renew the signal on Mount Washington, this triangulation station being visible from
most of the area. We established another pivot station on a hill north of the 50th parallel
and not far from Forbes Landing. This station, which we called " Forbes," is visible for many
miles in every direction. Logging operations cleared off the south end of the hill, making it
admirably suited for our purpose. Considerable work will be required, should this station be
used for an extension of the triangulation northward.
We also used the Forestry Lookout at Upper Campbell Lake as a triangulation station;
from it we saw the cairns on Mount McBride and Elk, established by Leroy S. Cokely, B.C.L.S.,
and cairns of unknown origin on Mount Elkhorn and Mount Crown.
After completion of the preliminary work near the coast we moved from camp at Shelter
Point to Upper Campbell Lake, where control by photo-topographical methods was commenced.
From this place two points on the 50th parallel were tied to the triangulation net—one near the
16-mile post and the other near the north-east corner of Strathcona Park. Moving to Buttle
Lake, Mr. Moffatt occupied McBride and Elk Stations and established another station south
of the mouth of Phillips Creek, while Mr. Slocomb and I established a number of stations on the
mountains extending from Upper Quinsam Lake to vicinity of Mount Alexandra, returning EE 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
via the headwaters of Iron Creek to Upper Quinsam Lake, where we were joined by Mr.
Moffatt. After a few days' work at Upper Quinsam Lake we moved to the Campbell River
Road and thence to a camp near the mouth of the Oyster River, from which camp all the work
on the flat area was completed, and " fly-camp " trips were made to Mount Washington,
Quinsam Lake, and Loon Lake. We also established control on the south end of Quadra
Island, a small portion of which comes in the map-sheet.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The mapped area contains the drainage system of the Tsolum, Oyster, Quinsam, and part
of the Campbell River. As already mentioned, two distinct types of country are found—the
coastal plain, very uniform in appearance, but actually broken by minor ridges and depressions,
and the hilly and mountainous section to the south and west. The mountains attain an altitude
up to 7,000 feet; the higher ones are not entirely free of snow during the summer, and on many
there are glaciers. An outstanding feature of this area is the magnificent lakes, including
Upper Campbell, Upper and Lower Quinsam, Wolf, and that gem of lakes, Buttle Lake.
FORESTS.
Logging operations have been carried on for many years in a big way, so that now most
of the coastal plain is denuded of its forest wealth. The logged area covers approximately
150 square miles. Large stands of excellent merchantable timber, privately owned, still
remain south and west of the logged area. Two companies are cutting this; the Elk River
Timber Company is working in the vicinity of Gooseneck Lake, Campbell River, and Quinsam
Lake, with headquarters at Echo Lake, and the Comox Lake Logging Company is operating
in the vicinity of Cariboo Creek and towards Loon Lake, with offices at Headquarters, B.C.
MINERALS.
There was no prospecting in this area during the summer, but evidence of a mining
activity of many years ago was seen in various places. Two claims on the north side of Upper
Campbell Lake show mineralization, chiefly of copper, and indications of the same mineral
were noted on Greenstone Creek, about 3 miles north of Upper Campbell Lake. On the southeast side of Upper Quinsam Lake we saw Iron Hill, estimated to contain 1,700,000 tons of iron
ore. Dr. H. C. Gunning, in his report (see Summary Report, 1930, Part A, Geological Survey),
suggests that the strip of country 3 to 4 miles wide extending from Upper Campbell Lake
through Upper Quinsam Lake and south-easterly to vicinity of Mount Albert Edward is worth
prospecting.    He also mentions an arsenic deposit near Wolf Lake.
CLIMATE.
Very fine weather for our work was experienced during the field season. With the
exception of about a week of rainy weather near the end of July, the short rains and storms
interfered very little with the progress of our work. Although there were many hot days, no
forest fires took place in the area and little smoke drifted in from outside. From experience
of the previous field season, and from other sources of information, this part of the Island
seems to have a very temperate climate; however, the average precipitation is considerably
greater and the mean temperature lower than that found on the south end of Vancouver Island.
GAME.
Game is plentiful, especially deer and blue grouse, the season being exceptionally good for
the latter, for berries grew and ripened in profusion. Other varieties encountered were bear,
cougar, beaver, ptarmigan, ducks, and geese. Marmots were seen on Mount Washington. A
few wolves have been reported in this area. However, this district is chiefly noted for game-
fishing; along the coast the salmon-fishing is world-famous and excellent catches of cut-throat
trout were made at the mouth of the Oyster River. Large numbers of spawning salmon were
seen in rivers, especially the Tsolum and Oyster. Dolly Varden, rainbow, and cut-throat trout
are plentiful in Buttle, Upper Campbell, and Upper Quinsam Lakes. We noticed that the
Kamloops trout, with which the Forbidden Plateau Lakes were stocked, are finding their way
down-stream, some being seen in the tributaries of the Oyster River. TOPOGRAPHICAL AND SUBDIVISION SURVEYS. EE 31
ACCESSIBILITY.
The Island Highway extends through this map-sheet. It follows the shore-line closely
from the Oyster River north to Campbell River. During the fall this highway from Merville
to Shelter Point was surfaced. From Campbell River there is a good road to Echo Lake, but
from Echo Lake to Upper Campbell Lake the road is not good, though passable. Connecting-
Upper Campbell Lake and Buttle Lake, there is a good horse-trail. A trail connects Upper
Quinsam Lake with the Campbell River Road near Gooseneck Lake. We reblazed an old trail
from the Buttle Lake Trail to Upper Quinsam Lake. There is a trail from Headquarters to
Wolf Lake. The logged portion of the coastal plain is interlaced with logging-railway grades,
mostly abandoned, except for the main lines of the operating companies. Some of the old
grades are now used as roads. At Shelter Point old grades have been connected", so that one
may drive inland about 8 miles.
DEVELOPMENT AND RESOURCES.
The chief development is in the Merville Settlement and in the numerous farms along the
coast. There is a general store and post-office at Merville, hotel and post-office at Oyster
River, auto camps at Oyster River, Shelter Point, Forbes Landing, and at Upper Campbell
Lake.
Although most of the easily accessible timber has been logged off, there still remains a
great forest wealth, and this will be the chief resource of the district for many years to come.
Agriculture is next to forestry in value, and an extension in this may be expected. During the
past two years Mennonites have located in the logged-off lands in the vicinity of Black Creek
and the Island Highway. We noticed small areas of good soil in the depressions, and also a
considerable area of wet meadow lands, which may possibly be drained and thus afford additional farm lands. The expense of putting these lands in production will be great. The
logged-off lands provide good pasture for cattle and sheep; therefore mixed farming is best
for this district.
This portion of Vancouver Island has many features which are attractive and entertaining
to sportsmen and other tourists, as already mentioned. The scenic attractions are great, but
as yet not made sufficiently accessible. Along the coast there is a wonderful view of the
straits and islands and the snow-capped Coast Range. Elk Falls on the Campbell River are
just outside the area. From the Forestry Lookout at Upper Campbell Lake you get a varied
and wonderful view of the coastal plain, the Coast Mountains, including Mount Waddington,
and behind you see the mountains of the Island from Mount Washington to Mount Victoria.
Buttle Lake and vicinity will make one of the finest natural playgrounds on Vancouver Island
when made accessible, for it has fine beaches and camp-sites, clear water ideal for boating and
swimming, very good fishing, and scenery unsurpassed. Already there is a fine lodge at Upper
Campbell Lake, and another on Buttle Lake, both owned by citizens of the United States.
I wish to convey the thanks of our survey party to the Comox Lake Logging Company, the
Elk River Timber Company, and to our own Forestry Service at Campbell River for information, advice, and assistance in transportation, etc.
During these past two seasons' work it was found that an unnamed peak near the headwaters of Wolf Creek, in Strathcona Park, has an altitude greater than any other so far
recorded on Vancouver Island.
I have, etc.,
  N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL AND SUBDIVISION SURVEYS.
By L. A. Austen-Leigh.
Victoria, B.C., October 28th, 1935.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the above surveys carried out
under your instructions to me of July 11th:— EE 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
The topographic area is near the north end of Vancouver Island. It is a rectangle
bounded on the south by Quatsino Sound; on the north by the parallel passing through the
junction of Dickbooth Creek and the Quatse River, near Hardy Bay; on the east by the
meridian through Quatsino Narrows; and on the west by the meridian through Winter
Harbour.
Aero-photographs taken by the Royal Canadian Air Force were supplied to me, and also
a 14-foot boat with outboard engine.
The party of five left Victoria on July 11th and made camp at Quatsino on the 15th.
Our work was based on the existing main triangulation net. The information on file
about the stations was a great help. The old trails leading to them, though much overgrown,
were found and cleared out. That to Harris Station starts 50 yards north of the Dickbooth
Bridge on the Coal Harbour-Port Hardy Road. A new and shorter trail to Holberg Station
was cut. It starts at a grassy point a quarter of a mile east of the outlet of a creek into
Winter Harbour, just north of the west end of Wedel Island.
Your instructions were to obtain sufficient information to make a topographic map on the
scale of 1 inch to the mile, with contours at 100-foot intervals.
On this work seventy-two days were spent in the field and the area covered is about 290
square miles.
Nineteen dozen photographic plates were used, 5 triangulation stations, 26 additional
camera stations, 9 minor triangulation stations, and 7 miles of traverse.
There are also available minor triangulations of the sound and its arms made by the
Hydrographic Survey and by the Department, which will be of great use.
A few barometer elevations were obtained. The very dense nature of the bush prevented
greater use being made of this method.
The peninsula, which is bounded by Winter Harbour, Quatsino Sound, and Holberg Inlet,
is densely timbered and covered by timber limits. It ranges in height up to 2,500 feet, with
little variation in the timber, which is hemlock and occasional cedar.
A considei'able logging operation is in progress about 4 miles up the Hathaway Creek and
another one near its mouth.
A narrow strip on both sides of the Holberg Inlet has already been logged and is reproducing.
The country to the north is similar, but the timber not quite so large. There is a motor-
road from Coal Harbour to Port Hardy and a road or trail from Holberg to San Josef, but
except for these the area is practically trackless. The convenient waterways and the exceptionally fine summer were compensating features.
In covering the above area it was possible to obtain photographs of all adjoining country.
Except for cougar and bear, there appears to be no game.
The main industry is salmon-fishing. A few fishermen are settled at Holberg, more at
Quatsino, and a small but growing number at Winter Harbour. The fish are mostly shipped in
fish-packers which call at Winter Harbour, and partly by truck over the Coal Harbour Road
to Port Hardy.
The latter part of the season was spent on subdivision-work at Winter Harbour.
As long ago as 1891, Lot 3 on the west side of the harbour was subdivided and put on the
market as the townsite of Queenstown. Undoubtedly a good harbour, the place was believed
to be a coming naval station, and every lot was sold.
Forty-four years have passed, the naval station did not materialize, and the subdivision
might be said to. have sunk without a trace. The lots were never occupied, their pegs have
disappeared, and all but a very few have reverted.
In the meantime the fishing business at the mouth of the sound has developed. Fishermen
found Winter Harbour to be a convenient place to settle, as well as a safe haven.
They started buying reverted lots along the water-front. Not only were they unable to
find any pegs to show the limits of their purchases, but the situation was complicated by an
Indian reserve having been superimposed on a portion of the townsite without any connection
having been made to it.    The relative positions of the two were not known.
It was to remedy this situation that you instructed me to re-establish the five water-front
blocks and whatever appeared necessary back from there. TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR. EE 33
Although no trace, beyond a few blazes, of the original subdivision could be found, it
was possible to locate the corners of the original Lot 3 and of the Indian reserve.
Both parcels were traversed and a tie made between them. From this work and the
subdivision plan four water-front blocks were re-established, as much of the fifth as was
outside the Indian reserve, and the two back blocks nearest to the settlement.
There are now at Winter Harbour a store, a post-office, an oil-station, and a fish-packer's
float, in addition to several houses built and some under construction.
The work here required twenty-one days in the field, and on the next the party boarded
S.S. " Maquinna " to reach Victoria on October 19th.
I have, etc.,
L. A. Austen-Leigh, B.C.L.S.
TRIANGULATION SURVEY, CASSIAR.
By Frank Swann__ll.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report on the survey made by me during the season of 1935,
which was primarily the closing of a gap in the 800-mile circuit of triangulation control
embodying the work of some half-dozen surveyors over a decade. As a matter of secondary
importance, I was to map, as well as time and transportation facilities permitted, the quite
unknown country to be traversed.
The first object was achieved, in that the tie was made, although adverse weather prevented
four stations being read, which would have made the triangulation rigid. The closure error
of the chain from Prince George north-westerly by the Parsnip, Finlay, and Ingenika Valleys,
across to and down the Skeena headwaters to the most northerly stations of Mr. Foster, in the
chain carried by him from Hazelton, is as follows:—
Foster (preliminary) value A " Skeena " to A " Slowmaldo "
S. 84° 12' 46" W. distance 839.80 chs.
Swannell value S. 84° 12' 15" W. distance 839.98 chs.
Error (in bearing) 31"      (in distance) .18 chs.
The coincidence is better than was anticipated, as there are several weak links in the
hundreds of miles of triangulation involved. The secondary object of the season's operations
has resulted in information, now being worked up into a map, being obtained over about 250
miles of heretofore unknown country.
Owing to the remoteness of this region access by pack-train would have meant a late
start, an early return, and the loss of some six weeks' valuable time on the trail, leaving far
too short a season for actual survey operations. You, accordingly, to save both time and
expense, arranged to have the party brought in and out by aeroplane. On July 1st my two
assistants, myself, and 1,600 lb. of provisions and outfit were flown from Takla Landing to
Kitchener Lake by planes of the United Air Transport. On October 6th we were picked up
at the same spot and flown back to civilization. In the intervening three months we had not
encountered another human being, either white or Indian. Too much cannot be said in praise
of the efficiency of our pilots and their courtesy in dropping mail for us during the summer.
From our base at Kitchener Lake we were busily and very arduously employed for some
time in back-packing our supplies across the mountains to Duti River. There was no trail,
but we found a pass (christened Kubicek Pass after one of our pilots). The summit, just east
of an ice-bound lake, was at altitude 5,300 feet, and 5 miles north-west of Kitchener Lake.
From here we dropped rapidly into the valley of Duti River, reaching the river at 11 miles
from Kitchener Lake. Camp 3, on a pleasant pine-flat on the river, was at altitude 3,670 feet,
being 580 feet lower than Kitchener Lake. EE 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
DUTI RIVER VALLEY.
This valley runs south-east from where we entered it for 25 miles to the junction with the
Skeena from the west, and continues as the main Skeena Valley into the blue distance. At
Camp 3 the valley-bottom was a mile wide, largely swampy meadow. The flood-bed of the
river here is 250 yards wide; the main channel at low water 40 yards wide and knee-deep—
one of the few places the river can be forded even at extreme low water. The water is heavy
with glacial silt, and a few miles above camp the river splits into several branches, each heading
in high glacier-bearing mountains. No definite trail could be found down the Duti, the Indians,
on their very infrequent visits, using game trails. The only sign of white men having been
in the upper valley was an old camp at the ford and traces of a horse-trail cut twenty-five
years ago up out of the valley and across through alpine plateau to the Stalk Lake.
Our progress down-river was painfully slow, we having to cut through heavy, windfall-
encumbered mountain-balsam and lower down much spruce-swamp. Owing to deep transverse
valleys it was quite impracticable to follow along the mountain-slopes above timber-line.
We each of us back-packed in three months an average pack of 58 lb. a total distance of 240
miles.
Four miles down from Camp 3 (or " Mile 15 " of our trail) the river runs into wild rapids
for half a mile. At Mile 17 the mountain-spurs block the valley and the river is in canyon
to Mile 21, where the valley widens and a large stream comes in from the east through burnt
country.
We cut trail to Mile 25; for the last couple of miles the river was swift, deep, and smooth-
flowing and 40 yards wide. At Mile 25 it cuts through a conglomerate ridge in a deep gorge,
dropping 60 feet in 150 yards in a series of cascades. It is just below here that Black Creek
comes in.
As the valley ahead was becoming more and more V-shaped, the river apparently much
in canyon and the " going " through a terrible mess of spruce, balsam, windfall, and brush,
we decided that, in the time at our disposal, we should never succeed in cutting trail through
to the Skeena. Later the appearance of this lower valley from the mountains to the west
proved our decision to have been wise.
TZAHNY LAKE AND THE GROUNDHOG COUNTRY.
At Mile 24 we had crosscut an old horse-trail used many years ago, leading up the valley
of Black Creek. After 2 miles of extremely heavy cutting we reached beautiful grassy flats
bordering the creek, and at Mile SO1/.! reached Tzahny Lake. We rafted this lake and struck
across on an old horse-trail to Upper Kluatantan Lake. From here we moved camp on to the
mountain summits. A description of this area is needless, as it is within the limits of the
Groundhog township surveys, as well as having been reported on by the Geological Survey.
Our return journey to Kitchener Lake was much easier, as we had our cut trail to follow,
with a minimum of relaying as we worked from cache to cache.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DUTI VALLEY.
The Duti River is really the main branch of the Upper Skeena and should, strictly speaking, be called the Skeena River. It is the longest, its flow is steadier, being glacier-fed, and at
low water we estimated two-thirds the volume of the Skeena came in through the Duti. Even
25 miles up it is hard to find a ford or a place narrow enough to throw a tree across, whereas
the Skeena above the entry of the Kluatantan appears to carry very little water.
The lower part of Duti Valley is heavily timbered with spruce running to 2 feet in
diameter. Farther up, owing to altitude, balsam is the predominant type. On the old burn
at the confluence of the large creek at Mile 21 poplar has largely replaced the original spruce
stand. The only pine was for a few miles down from Camp 3 where moraine ridges and gravel-
wash cover much of the valley-floor.
Game was plentiful, as many as thirty head of caribou being counted in one herd. Goat
were frequently seen, although only once as many as fifteen together. Moose were seldom
seen, although they have made many deeply rutted trails. There were a few bear, both black
and grizzly. Above timber-line, especially in Kubicek Pass, marmots or " whistlers " were
very numerous.    Only three wolves were seen.    There appeared to be no fish whatever in Duti HEADWATERS OF FINLAY AND  STIKINE RIVERS. EE 35
River, probably owing to the ice-cold sediment-laden water, and for the same reason trout in
Tzahny Lake were both small and few.
CLIMATE.
The summer was very wet and cold and reference to reports of the Groundhog surveys
shows that this condition is general for the whole surrounding region. During July rain fell
on sixteen days; the mean maximum temperature for the month was 62° F.; the hottest days
being the 20th and 21st, when the thermometer touched 77°. Several mornings the temperature
was down to 42°; the mean temperature at 6.30 p.m. 55°. For August the mean maximum
was 59°, the warmest day being on the 29th, with the thermometer 75° at noon. Mean temperature at 6.30 p.m. 51°. On the 6th we had a violent snow-squall and on the 13th a heavy
snow-storm in the mountains, which reached to within a few hundred feet of river-level. It
rained on seventeen days.
For most of the first fortnight of September the weather was glorious. On the 14th it
broke; the 17th was " first snow " at valley-bottom; on the 22nd and 23rd a violent snowstorm. It rained or snowed on fourteen days during the month. Mean maximum for the
month was 54°; warmest day 75° on the 3rd; mean temperature at 8 a.m. 42°. On the 25th
was the heaviest frost, 10°—with the thermometer at 29° at 7 that evening.
The winter snowfall in this valley is probably very heavy, 8 feet of packed snow having
been reported near by on the Skeena.
ACCESSIBILITY.
Access may be had from Hazelton up the Telegraph Trail to Blackwater 115 miles; thence
up the Groundhog Trail and eastward to the Kluatantan Lakes—the latter part of the trail
is impassable with windfall. Horses could be brought across from either Kitchener or Stalk
Lakes, but our own trail down the Duti Valley being only a back-pack one, would have to be
widened and rerouted around swampy places before horses could be taken over it. Tzahny
Lake could be used as a possible aeroplane-landing, but in the valley proper there are no lakes.
ALASKAN HIGHWAY.
This valley forms part of a promising route for an Alaskan highway by way of Takla
Lake, Driftwood River, Bear Lake and River, and down the Sustut River to its junction with
the Skeena; thence up the Skeena and Duti. From what we could see of the headwaters of
the Duti, it seems likely a pass to the Upper Stikine can be found at well under 5,000 feet.
As an alternative there is a summit of under 4,600 feet between our Camp 3 and Stalk Lake,
with a broad shallow valley heading therefrom to the Upper Stikine River.
I have, etc.,
Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S.
HEADWATERS OF FINLAY AND STIKINE RIVERS.
By Philip M. Monckton.
Royal Oak, B.C., December 11th, 1935.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In connection with surveys carried out by me under your instructions of June 14th,
1935,1 beg to report as follows :•—
During the past summer I was employed partly on the survey of placer leases for the Two
Brothers Valley Gold Mining Company and partly on a triangulation and topographical survey
for your Department, the two programmes being in the same area—namely, in the vicinity of
the headwaters of the Finlay and Stikine Rivers, in the Omineca and Stikine Mining Divisions.
The object of the trigonometrical work was the closing of the gap between the nets of Fred
Nash, B.C.L.S., who had worked from Telegraph Creek in 1930, and that of F. C. Swannell
from the Ingenika in 1931. A very satisfactory closure was made here and the triangulation
extended eastwards about 30 miles to map the unknown area lying there.    From this system EE 36 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
various exploratory surveys were made of the most likely looking country as an aid to future
prospectors, and permanent monuments were established to assist in the locating of claims.
Rough geological notes were kept along the route of the work, which will be shown on the
final plans.
Through the pioneer work being done by the Two Brothers Company quite a lot of attention has been paid the district, and so a description of their property would be of interest.
Their holdings are located on three streams—McClair Creek, Moosehorn Creek, and Toodog-
gone River.
McClair Creek takes its name from a prospector called Charles McClair, who came from
Hazelton about 1912 and spent several seasons trapping and searching for placer gold. He
first found gold in this creek and located a line of claims there, and is reputed to have taken
out $35,000 worth. However, in the spring of 1922 he and his partner Saunders left the valley
with the object of going to Fort Grahame and were never heard of again. Indians followed
their trail as far as Thutade Lake, and that is the last definite vestige of them. Later several
parties did some perfunctory prospecting on the creek, but it was not until 1932 that serious
attention was again paid to it. In that year a syndicate from Edmonton located several
leases, and in 1933 their mining engineer, R. H. Watson, reported favourably on the ground.
After this many more leases were added, including those on the other two creeks mentioned
above. In 1934 the Two Brothers Valley Company was formed, a large crew of men shipped
in, and a quantity of machinery. To date some $150,000 has been expended in testing the
ground, almost entirely on the lower end of McClair Creek and the benches contiguous to it.
These benches have been drilled with two small Keystone drills, about sixty holes having been
put down an average depth of 40 feet to bed-rock. Also the creek-bed and low benches in the
canyon have been thoroughly explored by sluicing. McClair Creek enters Toodoggone River
4 miles above the lake of the same name, which is locally known as Two Brothers Lake. Its
average summer flow is around 500 c.f.s., its grade 2 per cent., and its length about 15 miles.
Near its lower end for 2 miles it is in a canyon, cut through igneous rock, chiefly syenite, and
the canyon-walls are very extensively pyritized. Above the canyon the creek is paralleled by
a series of benches, with a valley nearly a mile wide.
Owing to the cost of airplane transportation, mining expenses run very high at Two
Brothers. Freight charges run about 25 cents a pound from the Canadian National Railway
at Vanderhoof, so that, for instance, gasoline is worth $2.80 a gallon delivered, and other things
in proportion. A very fine camp has been erected near the mouth of McClair Creek and is
equipped with electric light and a wireless station. A certain amount of supplies are kept on
hand for any passers-by, but prices seem high with so much freight charges to be added.
The airplane base is located at Takla Landing, some 165 miles to the south-east, and the
flight is made in one hour and forty-five minutes. A minimum rate of $140 is charged for the
trip in one of the three Fokker Universals, carrying up to 700 lb. as a load. These planes are
owned and operated by the United Air Transport, of Edmonton. Owing to the higher elevation
of Toodoggone Lake, 3,700 feet, no more than 550 lb. can be taken out.
All the area covered this year is situated between the western edge of the Cassiar-Omineca
batholith and the sedimentaries of the Groundhog coalfields. This contact is more of a broad
zone than a sharply defined line, and detached areas of the batholithic rocks are found many
miles to the westward of where one would expect to find them. This zone would be, perhaps,
20 miles wide, trending generally north-west and south-east. Toodoggone Lake is on the
eastern edge and the district to the north-east of the lake seems to be all granite and diorite,
much oxidized, so that, generally speaking, the prevailing colour of the rocks is of a reddish
tinge. The area has been heavily glaciated and the topography in the harder rock formations
is rugged in the extreme. The greatest relief is not large, not over 5,000 feet, yet owing to the
low timber-line the mountains appear higher than they are, and the scenery is very grand.
Evidence of metamorphosis is often to be seen, as, for instance, near the head of McClair
Creek, where beds of conglomerate have been fused into a hard solid mass, which on being
broken still shows the pebbles of which it was originally formed. In places a great deal of
fracturing has taken place and on many of the mountains dykes can be seen criss-crossing the
faces of the bluffs. At several points mineral-bearing veins were found; one on Mount
Gordonia running $35 a ton in gold in a bornite ore; another on Dedeeya Creek nearly $100
in gold and silver.    Others in pyrite veins went about $10 in gold content.    At the head of HEADWATERS OF FINLAY AND STIKINE RIVERS. EE 37
Dedeeya Creek, in the pass, are some enormous blocks of magnetite that have rolled down off
one of the peaks.
This same contact-zone extends very many miles. A fair amount of prospecting has been
done on it to the south-east by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, and it is known
to cross Dease River near McDame Creek. But between the latter point and McClair Creek is
virgin territory for the prospector and, being unmapped and far away from any base, it is not
easy to enter if short of funds. Moreover, the season is short, not over four and a half months.
Nevertheless, it is an easy country once one is in there. Very little of it is covered by timber,
and the valley-floors are fairly level and quite practicable for horses. Lakes here and there
make good landings for planes. A feasible trip would be from the Two Brothers Camp,
following the contact to the Dease River. Taking a few horses along, it could easily be made
in a season, and should prove geologically very interesting. Standing on a peak near McKay
Creek and looking north-west, one can see large valleys penetrating the mountains and great
areas stained a blood-red colour, showing heavy oxidization. For further information on this
subject see Bulletin No. 1, 1932, " Lode-gold Deposits of British Columbia," pages 24-25, and
the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1934, pages C 16-18.
During the past season I was able to map about 600 square miles of this belt, plans of
which are now in course of preparation. The following creeks were followed and mapped, of
which more detailed descriptions are now given:—
Belle Creek.—This stream enters McClair Creek about 7 miles up from the mouth. It
comes in from the north at the point where McClair swings in from the west. It is about 5
miles long and comes from a chain of lakes. Its flow would be about the same as that of
McClair at their junction, say 250 c.f.s. Its grade is rather flat, but there is a picturesque
waterfall near its mouth with a vertical drop of 55 feet. Its banks are either swampy or low
benches, which have all been staked. At its head one crosses the continental divide at an
elevation of 4,640 feet to the head of Midas Creek.
Midas Creek.—The trail to Chukachida Lake, which has ascended the left banks of McClair
and Belle Creeks, follows Midas Creek down, crossing in more than one place. The creek
heads in a lake half a mile long, and from there falls 600 feet in 8 miles to the Chukachida
River. Its volume is much the same as that of Belle Creek, and its banks, too, are swampy or
consist of gravel benches. These are all staked and in 1935 were under option to some parties
from Chicago, who, however, pulled out in August, not very well satisfied.
Chukachida River.—This name is not used locally, where it goes by the name of Black-
water. This is a large river, probably as big as the Stikine at their junction. Heading in
glaciers not far from the Finlay, its course is westerly to Chukachida Lake. This beautiful
sheet of water, lying 4,105 feet above the level of the sea, is about 3 miles in length and width
and has arms to the north-east and south-east. It is hemmed in on the north, east, and south
sides by rugged granite mountains, rising to 8,000 feet or more; but the west end is a low
gravel flat, and it has some splendid sandy beaches. It is also fed by other large creeks,
notably Cushing Creek and Junkers Creek. Near the outlet there are some small islets. A
surveyor in British Columbia is apt to become somewhat callous to mountain scenery, but I
would not hesitate to nominate Chukachida Lake as queen of them all from a pictorial standpoint. Not only that, but it is stocked with very large fish and is the haunt of plenty of moose
and other game. Chukachida leaves the lake at its north-west corner, a wide crystal-clear
stream. For the first 10 miles it falls very swiftly and its course is about N. 30° W. It hugs
the north side of its valley, and to the south are gravelly flats with hundreds of acres of bunch-
grass, with patches of jack-pine interspersed. Beyond 10 miles its current becomes less
impetuous, and for the last 10 miles before joining the Stikine it is sluggish and tortuous. In
July, when I was there, the willow-swamps at the lower end were full of moose. The distance
from the lake to the Stikine is about 35 miles, following the windings of the river. Several
large creeks enter, mainly from the north, of which Moon Creek forms a fair pass to the
Turnagain.
Moosehorn Creek.—A large creek entering Toodoggone River 7 miles above McClair
Creek. Its head forms a pass to the Chukachida River and it is about 20 miles long. It flows
800 c.f.s. The grade is 2 per cent, for the lower 6 miles and above that much less. The altitude at its mouth is 3,875 feet and the lake near its head is 4,934 feet. The lower 2 miles is
through a canyon through volcanic rocks, above which the valley opens up to a width of 1 to EE 38 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1935.
2 miles, mostly open and swampy and consisting of old lake-beds. Large trout were caught
all along its course and its valley is a favourite for big game, there being many salt-licks. The
lake at the head is nearly a mile long and, having low banks at its head and foot, should be
practicable for planes, in spite of its elevation. The West Fork, called by the Indians Dedeeya
(Groundhog) Creek, has a wide grassy valley, not nearly so wet as the main valley, and is the
home of innumerable ground-hogs and ptarmigan, and not a few caribou, grizzlies, and wolves;
all of which were observed. At high water part of Dedeeya Creek spills through an old
channel into Abesti Creek, and so to the Stikine, forming the only instance I have seen of the
same creek sending its waters both to the Arctic and Pacific. West of Dedeeya Creek the
granite is left behind and the country is a rolling plateau about 10 miles wide and 5,500 feet
altitude. It consists of flows of a red volcanic which has been weathered down into coarse
sand, covered with grass, and this forms a fine site for wolves, coyotes, and foxes to dig
their dens.
Toodoggone River, also known erroneously as Two Brothers River, is shown on the older
maps as Thudegade River. But Toodoggone is the correct Indian pronunciation, with the
accent on the first syllable. The meaning of the word is eagle's nest in the Tahltan tongue.
The river heads in the sedimentaries just north of Ptarmigan Station. It first runs east for
2 miles, then north-east 5 miles, falling 2,000 feet in this distance. Here it enters the east and
west trough in a flat, swampy pass and elects to run to the east on an imperceptible gradient.
A few yards distant another creek meanders to the west, and so to Metsantan Lake, the Stikine,
and the Pacific. This pass is 4,175 feet high and the easiest and lowest in Northern British
Columbia. It is reported to have been the route of a Mr. Black, of the Hudson's Bay Company,
more than a hundred years ago. The Indians have a legend of a party of strange white men
wintering at the mouth of Chukachida in the dim past and it may bear reference to the same
party. Three miles east of this summit and a mile above Moosehorn Creek a large wide valley
comes in from the south. This is Lawyer's Creek, and following it a trail leads to Bear Lake
and to Hazelton. The summit is 4,450 feet elevation and is named Lawyer's Pass for Stuart
Henderson, who came this way with the famous Indian, Simon Gunnanoot, seeking traces of
McClair in 1924. Toodoggone River is serpentine and slow all the way to Toodoggone Lake,
falling less than 200 feet in 25 miles. Below the lake it is a different story, being one long
series of rapids, strewn with boulders, for 25 miles down to the Finlay. It carries about
2,000 c.f.s. and drops nearly 1,000 feet. The lower valley is wide, gravelly, and timbered with
jack-pine and Canada spruce. It receives two large affluents, Lee Creek from the north and
Jock Creek from the south.    An Indian trail follows its left bank for its whole length.
Metsantan Lake and Creek.—The lake is 4,100 feet about sea-level, a mile long, and has
low swampy banks. It has long been the site of an Indian encampment. Its name means
" full belly," a tribute to its complement of fish and the good hunting around it. Just south of
it Edozadelly Mountain is famed among the natives for its herds of caribou, while many a
moose can be seen grazing on the roots of lily-pads in the shallow water in summer. And so it
is reckoned a delectable place to live. A stock of ancient obsidian arrow and spear heads
found in a hole near the lake testifies to the length of time that its shores have been tenanted.
The creek, which enters the Stikine at Caribou Hide, is small.
Stikine River flows northwards about 7 miles west of Metsantan Lake, which drains into
it at the abandoned village of Caribou Hide. In 1930, after several severe epidemics, the
Indians left Caribou Hide, deciding it was unhealthy or had a hoodoo on it. They moved, lock,
stock, and barrel, to Metsantan Lake, taking even the name with them, so that now Caribou
Hide no longer means.the old site at the Stikine, but the new one. The Stikine at the above-
mentioned point is about 300 feet wide, clear green water, and slow-flowing. It is lined by
stretches of bunch-grass meadows or pine-clad gravel banks. The elevation here is 3,790
feet. The Indian name for it is the Hootlaslui, rising in a large lake of that name, which has
been whittled down to its two last syllables on the official maps. Crossing the Stikine to the
west, the sandstone and conglomerate formation is immediately entered and this forms the
left bank for many miles. The river is alive with trout and other fish, while in the meadows
that border it, as on the Chukachida, moose are fond of browsing. The flat-topped mountains
on both sides are the home of immense herds of caribou, which graze on the grass and lichens
that clothe their summits.    Grouse seem to have totally disappeared and not one was seen HEADWATERS OF FINLAY AND STIKINE RIVERS. EE 39
all summer.    This state of affairs is blamed on the increasing number of wolves and coyotes,
which eat the eggs and catch the chicks.
TIMBER.
Below the 4,000-foot contour there is a fair quantity of Canada spruce, some growing as
large as 3 feet diameter and 100 feet high, but very knotty. Jack-pine flourishes up to 4,500
feet and grows more than a foot thick. The last tree to weather the blasts of the higher
altitudes is the alpine balsam, which grows in clumps to about 5,300 feet, but of no size or
value at any height. It is rare below 4,000 feet. There are also a few aspen, cottonwood, and
birch.    Feed is abundant at all heights and horses can winter in the open at Caribou Hide.
CLIMATE.
Owing to a combination of northerly latitude and excessive elevation the weather is not
very good, though there is the odd fine day. In summer there is much cold, wet weather and
snow falls at any time. Day after day low hanging clouds obscure the mountains and obstruct
the operations of the airplanes. However, the rainfall is not very heavy, nor is the snow very
deep in the winter. In all likelihood there is in the neighbourhood of 20 inches of precipitation,
all told. This year Toodoggone Lake cleared of ice on June 6th and was frozen again by the
latter end of October. The hottest day we experienced was on July 23rd—88°. But two days
later it stood at 20° in the early morning. On September 27th it had fallen to zero and all the
ponds and sloughs were iced over. Yet on October 4th it was 70° above. October 10th showed
5° below zero.
From the company's records the coldest reading last winter was on January 18th, 59°
below zero. But all through April readings of —15° to —30° are noted, which holds back the
break-up until very late.
ACCESSIBILITY.
Aside from the plane service above noted, the district can be reached by some other routes.
All the trails are mere Indian tracks, not very definite or easy to follow. From Hazelton
there are two ways:—via the Groundhog Trail, or via the left bank of the Skeena, and the
Sustut; thence over South Pass, Tatlatui and Lawyer's Pass. These trails are about 200
miles. Or one can come from Takla Lake via Bear Lake and Lawyer's Pass. This is a little
shorter. Another way is via the Finlay River to Whitewater and thence across the Bower
Creek Trail, 62 miles.    The longest and best trail is from Telegraph Creek, 220 miles.
I have, etc.,
Philip M. Monckton, B.C.L.S.
victoria, B.C. :
rrinted by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1936.
800-336-7946 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0306420/manifest

Comment

Related Items