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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA THIRTIETH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR 1935 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1936

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
THIRTIETH ANNUAL REPORT
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1935
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OP THE  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1936.
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY
R1A. B. O.'  To His Honour J. W. Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1935.
k. c macdonald,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1936.  OFFICERS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
Honourable Dr. K. C. MacDonald, Minister.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A., Deputy Minister.
ADMINISTRATION AND GENERAL SERVICES.
J. A. Grant, Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Thornborrow, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
C. P. L. Pearson, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
A. H. Shotbolt, Exhibition Specialist, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Senior Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., in Charge of Soil Survey, Kelowna, B.C.
PLANT INDUSTRY DIVISION.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. W. White, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
H. S. French, B.S.A., Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
C. B. Twigg, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Creston, B.C.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm, B.C.
John Tait, District Field Inspector, Summerland, B.C.
G. L. Foulkes, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
V. Tonks, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Vernon, B.C.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Foster, M.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Saanichton, V.I.
Max Ruhmann, B.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist, New Westminster, B.C.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Walter Sandall, Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
LIVE STOCK DIVISION.
W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Instructor, Kelowna, B.C.
F. Overland, Dairy Instructor, Vancouver, B.C.
G. H. Thornberry, Assistant (Milk Records), Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. M. Sparrow, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. J. D. Macdonald, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
Dr. D. H. McKay, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. H. Davey, Secretary and Inspector, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
George Pilmer, Brand Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
John Cahilty, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
George W. Challenger, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
R. G. Sutton, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
Don Sutherland, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
James Travis, District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C. Map of British Columbia, showing principal
watercourses and transportation lines serving
the various agricultural areas referred to
in the accompanying
report. REPORT of the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.
Honourable Dr. K. C. MacDonald,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Report of the Department of Agriculture
for the year ended December 31st, 1935.
NEW LEGISLATION.
At the second session of the Eighteenth Legislature amendments to three Statutes concerning agriculture were passed and four new measures were enacted. In addition, there
were incorporated in the " Pharmacy Act," chapter 56, provisions relative to the licensing for
sale of poisons used exclusively in agriculture or horticulture for the destruction of insects,
fungi, or bacteria, or as sheep-dips or weed-killers.
The Statutes relating to the agricultural industry enacted at the last session are as
follows:—
Chapter 8, " Stock Brands Act " (Amendment).    Authority for branding T.B. cattle.
Chapter 16, "Dairy Industry (British Columbia) Act"  (New).    Enabling legislation for Federal Act.
Chapter 27, "Fruit   (British  Columbia)   Act"   (New).    Enabling  legislation  for
Federal Act.
Chapter 29, "Goat-breeders' Protection Act" (Amendment).    Reduction in penalty
for infractions.
Chapter 57, " Plant Protection Act " (New).    Revision of Part II. of " Agricultural
Act."
Chapter 69, "Seed-growers' Protection Act" (New).    Authority for constitution of
seed-control areas.
Chapter 88, "Noxious   Weeds   Act"    (Amendments).    Standards   for   screenings
changed to conform with those of " Canada Grain Act."
STAFF CHANGES.
The changes in the staff of the Department during the past year include four resignations,
four transfers within the Department, and three new appointments, particulars of which are
as follows:—
Resignations.—Miss Joan Ridgeway, stenographer, Field Crops Branch, effective March
16th, 1935.
Miss E. E. Patmore, stenographer, General Office, Department of Agriculture, September
15th, 1935.
G. W. Challenger, District Agriculturist, Kamloops, November 30th, 1935.
Mrs. M. B. Terry, stenographer, Kamloops office, December 31st, 1935.
Transfers.—H. S. French, District Agriculturist, Prince George, transferred to office of
Field Inspector, Penticton, March 1st, 1935.
James Travis, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, transferred to office of District Agriculturist, Prince George, April 1st, 1935.
Miss E. M. Hudson, stenographer, Smithers, transferred to General Office, Department of
Agriculture, Victoria, September 1st, 1935.
Donald Sutherland, District Agriculturist, Smithers, transferred to office of District Agriculturist, Kamloops, December 31st, 1935. AA 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Appointments.—Miss Jean Yorston, stenographer, District office, Williams Lake, April
1st, 1935.
Miss D. M. Newman, stenographer, Minister's office, Victoria, May 15th, 1935.
It is with regret that the death is recorded of W. J. Shepherd, who for many years prior
to his retirement from office in 1931 was Provincial Apiarist for British Columbia, who passed
away on June 18th.
The death is also recorded of Dr. M. L. Bird, who prior to his retirement on superannuation in 1933 was an Inspector on the Provincial Plant Quarantine staff at Vancouver.
PROVINCIAL FEEDS STANDARDS BOARD.
The Feeds Standards Board, which was appointed with the approval of the Federal
Minister of Agriculture last year, includes D. W. Thompson, Dominion Seed Branch, Vancouver, Chairman; along with W. H. Hicks, Superintendent, Experimental Farm, Agassiz; H. M.
King, Professor of Animal Husbandry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver; P. H.
Moore, Manager of Colony Farm, Essondale; Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner,
Victoria;   and Henry Rive, Dairy Commissioner, Victoria.
As a result of the work of this Committee, which compiled information, prepared and
edited copy, there has been published by this Department, Bulletin No. 53, entitled " Feeding
of Farm Live Stock." This is the first publication issued by the Department upon the recommendation of the Feeds Standards Board.
The Feeds Standards Board acts in a voluntary capacity in an effort to standardize brands
and formula? of live-stock feeds sold and used in British Columbia.
LIME-TRANSPORTATION SUBSIDY.
A new policy aimed at giving financial assistance in the transporting of lime to be used
for agricultural purposes has this year been adopted. The Federal Department of Agriculture made available the initial financial contribution of $1,000, which, for the current year,
has been supplemented by an appropriation from the Provincial Department of Agriculture.
The fund thus made available is being used to rebate to the users of agricultural lime 50 cents
per ton to apply on their lime-transportation costs. Detailed information regarding the
transactions of lime and the rebate up to the end of the year will be found in the report of
R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist.
In order that the transactions in connection with the use of lime for agricultural purposes
might be given the necessary attention on behalf of both Federal and Provincial Departments,
a Lime Committee, consisting of D. W. Thompson, Seed Inspector, Vancouver, representing the
Federal Department; R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist, New Westminster, representing the
Provincial Department; and Dr. D. G. Laird, Associate Professor of Agronomy, University of
British Columbia, assisting in an advisory capacity, was named.
This Committee has satisfactorily discharged its duties during the year, and as a result
of the work of the Committee and the operation of the lime policy keen interest in this necessary soil amendment is being shown by farmers throughout the whole of the Lower Mainland
and on Vancouver Island.
POULTRY-FLOCK APPROVAL.
At the beginning of the year the Federal Department of Agriculture issued an Order in
Council aimed at preventing interprovincial shipments entering the Prairie Provinces, of day-
old chicks or hatching-eggs except from flocks of which all birds had been blood-tested and
found to be non-reactors to the test. The work was supervised by Federal officials and the
tests were made in a laboratory at the University of British Columbia under the immediate
supervision of an officer of the Federal Health of Animals Branch. The Provincial Department of Agriculture was asked to provide a financial contribution to the Federal Department
as assistance towards this work.
In addition to about 30,000 birds which were blood-tested under the Federal R.O.P.
scheme, there were approximately 55,000 birds in flocks supplying eggs to commercial hatcheries blood-tested. An average of approximately 10 per cent, of reactors was found in these
flocks. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 9
Early in the present season it was made known to the poultrymen of the Province that
all birds in breeding flocks from which eggs were to be supplied to hatcheries under Federal
hatchery approval, and all day-old chicks or hatching-eggs for interprovincial shipment, must
satisfactorily pass the blood test for pullorum disease; the test to be by the tube method and
carried out by an approved veterinarian.
After extended negotiations between Federal and Provincial Departments and the poultrymen, the Federal Minister of Agriculture approved of the recommendation of the British
Columbia poultrymen, which was that only the mature birds, which were mated, and in
properly segregated flocks maintained for breeding purposes, would be required to be blood-
tested in order that such flocks might qualify under the Approval Plan.
The owners of flocks entered under hatchery approval welcomed the ruling of the Federal
Minister and have expressed complete satisfaction with the method in which Poultry-flock
Approval has been carried out this year under the Provincial Poultry-breeding Plan. Details
regarding the work will be found in the report of the Poultry Commissioner.
PLANT INSPECTION SERVICE.
Although the inspection of imported and exported nursery stock and plant products has
for the past three years been under the supervision of Federal officials, this Department is
kept informed of activities connected with this work at the Port of Vancouver. Office accommodation for the Federal officials is provided by the Provincial Government in the Court-house
at Vancouver. Our Provincial Plant Pathologist and our District Field Inspector share the
offices with the Federal Inspectors and collaborate in matters requiring joint consideration.
During the year eighty-five deep-sea vessels discharged nursery stock at the Port of
Vancouver and 660 vessels brought plant products from different parts of the world. The
strike on the water-front somewhat disrupted water transportation for a considerable period.
There were inspected in Vancouver and district during the year 2,522,617 assorted trees,
plants, and bulbs in 3,407 containers and the value of the total was $60,937.71. The majority
of the items arrived from the United Kingdom, from Europe, and from the United States of
America. By far the largest importations in point of numbers were the 2,093,723 bulbs, a
small number of which came from the Orient. Other items included 88,836 fruit and ornamental seedlings, 87,492 small fruits, 79,877 assorted roots, 79,208 miscellaneous (scions, etc.),
39,316 fruit-trees, 26,462 ornamental trees and shrubs, 20,364 assorted plants, and 17,338 rosebushes and other horticultural stocks.
The outstanding interception reported was the finding of the eel-worm (Anguillulina
dipsaci), with which Dutch irises were infested. Quite a large number of such imported bulbs
were destroyed, and it is claimed that this parasite has caused considerable alarm amongst the
iris-growers on Vancouver Island.
In addition to the nursery stock imported into British Columbia from the Prairie Provinces and for which permits were issued by the Provincial Plant Pathologist, there were trees,
shrubs, seedlings, plants, and bulbs to the value of $1,275 imported from points east of Winnipeg. Outstanding among these importations inspected at Vancouver were 7,316 bulbs, 1,742
grape-vines, 1,315 assorted roots, 1,268 assorted plants, approximately 1,000 raspberry-canes,
and the balance made up of fruit and ornamental trees, shrubs, plants, and bushes.
Nursery stock exported from Vancouver to the Orient, Antipodes, Europe, British Isles,
Central America, and the United States of America was valued at approximately $18,450.
Outstanding among the items included in these shipments were 42,476 assorted bulbs, 31,100
spruce-cones, 11,129 lb. of conifer-seeds, and 12,500 rose-eyes.
Certificates issued at the Vancouver office on exported plant products covered the export
of 1,050,893 boxes of apples, 27,846 sacks of onions, and 1,132 sacks of potatoes. These shipments, which left the Ports of Vancouver and New Westminster, were additional to the large
quantities of plant products which were shipped from interior parts of the Province through
eastern ports.
The present arrangement whereby Federal officials supervise the inspection, quarantine,
and disposal of horticultural products is satisfactory to the Provincial Department of Agriculture and to those engaged in the agricultural industry within the Province. AA 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
There are at present 210 Farmers' Institutes in the Province, of which 190 have submitted their reports for the year 1935. There are twenty Farmers' Institutes which have not
yet filed their reports for membership returns. The membership in the Farmers' Institutes is
well in excess of 5,000.
At the annual meetings held in the ten Farmers' Institute districts, resolutions were
endorsed and forwarded to the Department, together with reports, which indicate that the
Farmers' Institute organization continues to serve a useful purpose in the agricultural
districts.
Although reports from all districts indicate activity on the part of the institutes, there
are some sections where the value of the organization is particularly in evidence. In District A, with twenty-four constitutent institutes, business conducted for members on a nonprofit basis shows receipt of $22,402.95. The bulk of business transacted related to the purchase and sale of seed, feed, fertilizers, and stumping-powder. Of all institutes in this district, Graham Island showed the largest business turnover.
In District B, in addition to the purely agricultural activities of the organization, the
Farmers' Institutes have been particularly interested in the securing for their members
railway-tie contracts. This form of winter work is of importance to settlers along the line
of the Canadian National Railway, and the making of railway-ties has enabled many settlers
to earn ready cash during the winter months. Tie contracts let to Farmers' Institutes in
District B increased from 65,000 in 1934 to a total of 105,000 in 1935.
In District C the operation of seed-cleaning equipment supplied under a Federal-
Provincial policy has been of considerable benefit. A seed-cleaning machine operated in the
Prince George District has cleaned approximately 150,000 lb. of seed, mainly clover and grass
seeds, during the year, while in District B it is estimated that upwards of 1,000,000 lb. of
timothy-seed has been put through cleaners operated by the Seed-growers' Associations and
Farmers' Institutes.
In the Cariboo, District H, the problems of the cattle-ranchers naturally receive first consideration. During the past year a number of the institutes in this district have made headway in the purchase of pure-bred sires and have also shown an advance in their attempt to
establish the hog-raising industry. There is close co-operation between the Farmers' Institutes and the Federal and Provincial Agricultural Departments, particularly with reference
to live-stock policies.
In the Peace River Block, District J, the Farmers' Institutes, in addition to carrying on
their usual community activities, have been successful in holding agricultural fairs on both
the north and the south sides of the Peace River. From reports received it appears that in the
Peace River Block the Farmers' Institutes are making definite progress in establishing
diversified farming.
In the East Kootenay, District I, the question of marketing of agricultural commodities
has been given serious consideration, and at the annual meeting discussion of marketing legislation and the commodity schemes in operation in British Columbia was a prominent feature
of the deliberations. Particular interest is being taken in the East Kootenay in the working
of the Field Crop Union.
West Kootenay, District F, holds the distinction of having the outstanding Farmers'
Institute of the Province as far as business transacted for its members is concerned. The
Creston Farmers' Institute, in selling the produce of its members and buying the commodities
required by them, has had a business turnover of more than $53,000 during the year.
Districts D and G, covering the North Okanagan, Revelstoke, Shuswap Lake, Kamloops,
and Nicola areas, held their annual meeting jointly at Kamloops and, as a result of the deliberations, changes in boundaries of these districts were mutually approved. By this change in
boundaries the Kamloops District handed nine well-established Farmers' Institutes, lying
between Revelstoke and Squilax, to the North Okanagan District Institute. While the loss of
these institutes was a matter of keen regret to District D, it was realized that the institutes
concerned would, by union with the Okanagan District G, receive the same benefits as in the
past, while the transfer would greatly strengthen the district which is to be designated
Shuswap-Okanagan District. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 11
In District E, as in a number of the other districts, both annual and semi-annual meetings
have been held, and during the present year have been exceptionally well attended. With a
total of thirty-seven individual institutes in good standing and a membership of approximately half the total Farmers' Institute membership of the Province, District E represents
the most imporant cross-section of rural life in British Columbia.
In this district and in several other institute districts arrangements have been made for
University speakers to address gatherings under the auspices of the Adult Education scheme
which is under a University of British Columbia committee.
The Department of Agriculture has this year contributed to the financial assistance of
all Farmers' Institutes in good standing in the Province by making available a flat grant of
$10 to each Farmers' Institute which had ten or more fully paid-up members and had complied
with the regulations of the Department. In addition, the Department has contributed a grant
of $25 to each District Farmers' Institute as assistance toward the defraying of expenses in
connection with the annual District Institute meetings.
The Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes was not called together during 1935, as it
was considered advisable that the various market schemes under the " Natural Products
Marketing Act " passed last year should be thoroughly tried out, and also that the other legislative measures which were adopted partly as a result of the recommendations of the District
Farmers' Institutes should be proved before the Advisory Board was called together to
further consider these matters.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
The Superintendent of Women's Institutes reports that the outstanding feature of most
of the reports received from the local institutes this year is that: " We have had a better year
financially and there is a slight increase in membership over 1934."
A number of the Women's Institutes have become interested in spinning and weaving and
in making of wool-filled comforters. This is particularly the case in the Peace River Block,
although in the Kootenays, Cariboo, and other districts this type of handicraft is receiving
considerably more attention than in former years.
The standing of the Women's Institutes may be tabulated as follows:—
Number of active Women's Institutes         165
Membership, approximately       4,000
Institutes organized or revived   9
Income reported by 121 institutes $32,252
The Women's Institutes continue to carry on their laudable undertakings aimed at improving the conditions of under-privileged and crippled children. The Othoa Scott Trust Fund
now amounts to $4,978. Other activities of the institutes include the organization and
instructing of sewing classes, garden competitions, poultry clubs, and other pursuits that tend
to develop the young people as useful citizens.
Fall fairs were held by seventeen Women's Institutes, which received from the Department
five books each to be presented as prize awards to competitors.
District conferences have been held in the Peace River Block, on Vancouver Island, on
the Lower Mainland, and in the Southern Interior of the Province during the year. Departmental grants were sent to all active institutes complying with the regulations on the same
basis as formerly.
DEPARTMENTAL PUBLICATIONS.
There were 40,500 bulletins and circulars distributed during the year in addition to more
than 47,000 circular letters sent out. Following is shown the titles of the publications printed
during year 1935:—
Cottage Cheese , Dairy Circ. 3
Farm Cheese Dairy Circ. 2
Fourth List of Dairy Sires Dairy Circ. 27
Milk and Butter-fat Records, 1934 Dairy Circ. 28
Imported Cabbage-worm Hort. Circ. 37 AA 12 .>.  BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Dust Sprays ____ , Hort. Circ. 71
Fruit Spray Calendar.
Peat and Muck Soils .__  Field Crop Circ. 5
Rotation of Farm Crops Field Crop Circ. 12
Planting Plans and Distances Hort. Circ. 62
Varieties of Fruit Recommended for Planting , Hort. Circ. 64
Feeding Farm Live Stock in B.C. __. Agr. Dept. Circ. 53
Fattening Young Ducks Poultry Circ. 32
Profitable Ducks Poultry Circ. 15
Hints on Egg Hatching Poultry Circ. 25
Poultry-keeping on a City Lot : Poultry Circ. 11
Care of Poultry Manure Poultry Circ. 34
Management of Turkeys Poultry Circ. 4
Natural and Artificial Incubation and Brooding Poultry Bull. 39
List of Publications.
Twenty-ninth Annual Report, Year 1934.
Climate of B.C., 1934.
Agricultural Statistics, 1934.
FALL FAIRS.
There were three Class A and three Class B exhibitions as well as forty-eight agricultural
fairs held this year, which is an increase of three over 1934. In line with the practice of
recent years, one or more members of the Department were assigned to officiate at these
events.    In all there were thirty departmental officials who acted as judges.
According to the report of the fifteenth annual meeting of the British Columbia Fairs
Association held in Vancouver in December, the receipts of the Agricultural Associations for
the year 1934 showed an upward trend, with a total for all Fair Exhibitions and Associations
being $233,770 for 1934, as against $207,917 for the previous year. Prize-moneys paid out
also show an encouraging increase, the grand total being approximately $55,000, as against
approximately $47,600 for the previous year.
FAIRBRIDGE FARM SCHOOL.
As a matter of record it is noted that the first Canadian unit of the British Fairbridge
Farm Schools was this year established on the Pemberlea Farm near the town of Duncan, in
the Cowichan District.
This school has been established under the plan of the Child Immigration Society of Great
Britain, which has sent out approximately fifty children under the age of 14 years to take up
residence at the school.
REPORT OF MARKETS COMMISSIONER.
J. A. Grant.
The year 1935 has been one of sudden changes both in respect to crop estimates and prices
prevailing. There has been a marked improvement in prices and in most cases the supply has
been ample to meet the demand, the exception being the scarcity of stone-fruits, especially
peaches and apricots, caused by early frosts during their flowering period.
Owing to the lateness of the season in British Columbia, there was only a short interval
between the maturity period of British Columbia grown produce and the maturing-time of
Prairie produce. This was most noticeable in vegetables of all kinds, including potatoes and
rhubarb. Many complaints were received from British Columbia growers that their vegetables
were not being sold at the usually high prices of other seasons and that the demand had fallen
off. Some of the growers blamed this condition on the policy of the Interior and Coast Vegetable Boards, a conclusion that was not justified in view of the evidence to the contrary. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 13
There was another record broken in shipping strawberries in the fresh state to Prairie
markets, and while the figures of cars shipped were the same for 1934 and 1935 (153 cars),
there were fourteen cars of main-crop strawberries shipped to Montreal and Toronto in 1934,
but the season of 1935 was too late to ship main-crop strawberries or raspberries to Eastern
points. Eastern Canada, however, took ten cars of Everbearing strawberries. Another
noticeable change was recorded, that no berry-cars moved by freight this year. This was no
doubt due to the excess moisture in berries during the 1935 shipping season making freight too
risky. In addition to this increase in production of strawberries for the fresh supply, 3,771
barrels of SO2 processed strawberries, or over 700 tons, were shipped to the British market,
as against 14 tons in 1934, and in all shipments the price to the grower shows a substantial
increase. On Vancouver Island the production per acre of strawberries took a serious drop,
due to dry weather prevailing during the maturing and shipping time. Prairie shipments
dropped from 21% cars in 1934 to two cars in 1935. The crop on the Lower Mainland was
considerably over average.
The advance in prices has been general in many agricultural products—namely, eggs,
poultry, butter, potatoes, vegetables generally, and live stock, some of which were marketed
under Commodity Boards and some not.
The general increase in price on nearly all farm commodities on the Prairies, including
wheat, together with a better demand especially in beef cattle for export to the United States,
greatly stimulated the buying-power of farmers, and this condition was reflected to the city
population.
As the picking and harvesting season was drawing to an end a sudden frost did considerable damage to such crops as apples, potatoes, celery, and other tender vegetables. The result
of this may change what was an ample supply into a scarcity before the end of the shipping
season.
FORCED AND FIELD RHUBARB.
The shipping season for forced rhubarb started as usual early in January, and as the deal
was split between two marketing agencies the exact figures of the output are not available.
It is estimated that the total crop sold was approximately 20,000 to 22,000 crates of 40 lb. each.
British Columbia and Prairie points divided the amount sold on a 50 by 50 basis.
Field-rhubarb shipping commenced on April 15th, or three weeks later than in 1934. This
late start cut down the demand at least twenty cars, as late seasons always reduce the volume.
There were ninety-three straight cars shipped, with a net return to growers' associations of
$37,694.34, which is slightly over 77% cents per case. The late cars shipped only netted
50 cents per crate and this low price is included in the average. Approximately ten cars more
were shipped in mixed cars to Vancouver market.
HOTHOUSE TOMATOES AND CUCUMBERS.
The marketing of hothouse tomatoes was done under the direction of the Hothouse Tomato
and Cucumber Marketing Board. A f alling-off in the British Columbia demand was noted, due
to resistance of some of the wholesale trade to the policy of the Board's agency. The return
to growers was generally better than for the 1934 first crop. As the marketing of the second
crop has not been completed we cannot give the result in this report. The first crop was
distributed as follows:—
Tomatoes. Cucumbers.
Crates. Crates.
British Columbia   70,284 16,232
Alberta   17,324 4,732
Saskatchewan    15,481 2,292
Manitoba  24,886 3,165
Ontario   14,400 	
Quebec      3,492 3,690
United States       100 	 AA 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STRAWBERRIES AND RASPBERRIES.
There were 153 straight cars of strawberries shipped this year, which netted the associations $193,009.85.    The berry shipments were as follows:—
Cars.
Crates.
Net F.O.B.
Returns.
Net per
Crate.
Main-crop strawberries    -	
Raspberries, etc	
153
47
44
123,780
29,692
3,316
4,023
2,280
$193,009.85
66,327.94
50,536.55
$1,559
Miscellaneous      ,	
39,311
1.6277
Late strawberries, etc	
2,556
25,744
6,597
6,090
Blackberries    	
40,987
The following table will show where British Columbia berries were consumed on the
Prairies:—
Crates. Crates.
Calgary   78,086 Edmonton   47,902
Saskatoon   22,922 Regina   45,981
Winnipeg   57,533
These figures include both car-lots and L.C.L. shipments.
PROCESSED STRAWBERRIES.
On account of a substantial increase in the United Kingdom tariff on strawberries coming
from Holland—aimed at increasing home production—a price from 2 to 3 cents a pound more
was offered by British manufacturers for British Columbia processed berries in SO2. The
4-cents-a-pound price offered in 1934 did not seem to attract the attention of growers and only
14 tons were shipped at that price. Growers on Vancouver Island preferred to process their
berries this year, at the offered price of from 6 to 7 cents a pound, rather than take chances
on the Prairie market. Owing to dry weather the Island crop was exceptionally light, while
just the opposite was the case on the Lower Mainland. There were 1,414,125 lb. processed
or over 700 tons of strawberries. The Lower Mainland shipped 2,873 barrels and Vancouver
Island 898 barrels.    The average weight of a barrel is 375 lb.
STONE-FRUITS.
The estimated cherry-crop of 1935, while much lower than that of 1934, received a
further set-back at shipping-time due to rain and cool weather. Prices were not as satisfactory
as those of 1934. About 210 tons of Royal Anne cherries were processed and put up for
Maraschino purposes and about 60 tons were canned.
Apricots and peaches were greatly affected by spring frosts, and, in view of the small
amount offering, growers' representatives consented not to apply fair market values on imports
from the United States. This gesture of good-will was favourably commented upon by
Prairie jobbers, who no doubt spoke for the consumers. The following is the estimated 1935
crop in comparison with 1934:—
Apricots
Plums  ___
Peaches .
1934.
1935.
Boxes.
Boxes.
217,384
111,086
96,741
73,834
274,882
126,969 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 15
APPLES.
The unusual sudden freeze on October 28th caused serious loss to British Columbia and
Washington producers, especially in late apples that were still unpicked and also the apples
that were picked and left in the orchards;   the latter were rushed into storage and defrosted.
Marketing defrosted apples is a very rare occurrence and opinion is about evenly divided
as to the advisability of placing them on sale or dumping them. The waste of an edible commodity, in view of the total loss of unpicked apples, seems to justify marketing the defrosted
fruit, especially in view of the fact that unsold stocks of apples at this time are little over
half of last year's holdings. Prices seem to be firming up and stocks at shipping-point of
some varieties are scarce, warranting the conclusion that firmer prices will prevail until the
end of the season. The first estimate of the apple-crop was lower than 1934, but later estimates brought it up fully equal to the crop of that year and sizes were more suitable for the
export trade. The following are the apple estimates for 1934 and 1935 to the end of the
year. 19g4 lggg
Boxes. Boxes.
Total estimated crop to ship   4,283,024 4,484,577
Disposed of as follows:—
Domestic   1,616,867 967,751
Export   1,672,585 1,937,151
Unsold      993,572 1,579,675
Less shrinkage and frosted apples      1,005,268
Unsold          574,407
Domestic Distribution of Defrosted Apples to End of Year.
Boxes.
British Columbia   17,319
Alberta   20,172
Saskatchewan    27,228
Manitoba   29,207
Ontario          970
Total    94,896
Distribution of Domestic Apples from B.C. to End of Year.
Boxes.
British Columbia   132,763
Alberta   461,831
Saskatchewan   430,323
Manitoba   294,446
Ontario      86,580
Quebec       89,620
Maritimes         7,576
Total  1,503,139
Distribution of Export Apples from B.C. to End of Year.
1934. 1935.
Boxes. Boxes.
Great Britain  1,511,165 2,058,745
Egypt          92,760 23,687
South Africa           19,395 28,729
South America         40,268 25,704
Scandinavia         16,181 8,316
France        13,572
Australia and New Zealand          4,020
Other countries         31,823 11,018
Totals   1,711,592 2,173,791
The total for 1934 does not include Wealthy. AA 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
INTERIOR VEGETABLE  SHIPMENTS TO DECEMBER 31st.
The following is the first list published on Interior vegetable shipments, and as 1935 was
a late year it will be interesting to note the difference from year to year, especially in late and
early seasons:—
Potatoes (tons)      6,257 Marrow (tons)   13
Celery (tons)         525 Pumpkin    (tons)      10%
Squash  (tons)    26 Carrots  (tons)          207
Parsnips  (tons)    3% Turnips (tons)         111
Beets (tons)   22% Canning-tomatoes (tons)   13,000
Cabbage (tons)         209% Eggplant (lb.)      8,610
Peppers (lb.)  137,091 Watermelon (lb.)   54,920
Silverskins  (lb.)    74,886 Peas (lb.)  43,045
Citron  (lb.)    17,223 Gherkins and pickling-cucum-
Beans (lb.)   35,829 bers (lb.)   14,179
Semis  (4-basket)   (crates)... 244,038 Semis (lugs)   (crates)   85,245
Green tomatoes  (crates)  18,580 Cantaloupes  (standards)
Cucumbers (crates)   105,250 (crates)     25,143
Lettuce  (standards) (crates)   13,483 Cantaloupes (flats)   (crates)        355
Lettuce (half-flats)   (crates)        983 Lettuce  (flats)   (crates)        888
Bunched vegetables (doz.)  14,179 Cauliflower (doz.)        435
Onions (tons)      6,333 Corn (doz.)      3,867
COAST VEGETABLE  SHIPMENTS.
We have been unable to secure the tonnage of vegetables shipped or sold by the Coast
Vegetable Board.    The following will show the potato volume sold to December 31st:—
Early crop ended August 10th: Export (interprovincial), 27,891 sacks; price, $43,343.78;
local, 27,384 sacks; price, $39,689.76; average price to growers, $25.82 per ton.
Late crop sold to December 31st:   84,837 sacks.
It is anticipated that the estimated consumption should absorb the balance on hand. In
any event the margin will be small either way.
ANGORA RABBIT WOOL.
For some years the British market has been lifeless in demand for the above commodity.
This year our Acting Agent-General in London communicated an inquiry for Angora rabbit
wool and we immediately contacted interested wool-growers, who forwarded samples, etc.
We are pleased to record that a nice business is now being done and that the goods sent forward have received favourable comments on the part of the buyers.
TRANSPORTATION.
Few changes were registered in freight and express matters during 1935. The beneficial
effect of express reduction on car-lots made in 1934 is noted in the record shipments of berries
in 1935 to Prairie points.
MARKET BULLETINS.
During the year 1935 the Markets Branch issued one hundred (semi-weekly) Market
Bulletins. The greater part of the information contained in these reports was supplied by the
Federal Fruit Inspectors at Prairie points under F. H. Steele, Chief Fruit Inspector, Winnipeg. By this valuable co-operation we have been able to furnish market information to
British Columbia producers and their representatives at least five days earlier than it could
reach them from Ottawa.
During 1935 three visits were made to Prairie points and notes made on conditions there.
Two visits were made to Central British Columbia for the purpose of explaining the workings
of the " Marketing Act " and many meetings were addressed. Several visits were made to the
Okanagan Valley and information gained at Prairie points was discussed with the leaders in
the fruit industry, including members of the Marketing Board. Two visits were made to
Kootenay points, by request, and a visit to Revelstoke—all relative to giving growers a better DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 17
understanding of the " Marketing Act." Many visits were made to Vancouver and Mainland
points for the same purpose. In late December a visit was made to Ottawa to act in an
advisory capacity on marketing matters.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL HORTICULTURIST.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
From a climatic standpoint the year 1935 in British Columbia's fruit-growing areas was
one of extremes. Early in January very low temperatures, were registered. In Salmon Arm,
for instance, the thermometer dropped to —25" F., while at Penticton —12° F. was recorded.
Corresponding low temperatures were recorded at other Okanagan and Kootenay points.
Fortunately a heavy ground-covering of snow protected the tree-roots. In some districts,
however, a certain amount of trunk and bud injury resulted, from which certain varieties
have only partially recovered. In the Coast sections the cold period of January was followed
by a thaw and rain which did considerable damage to the fruit-trees, particularly by the
formation of ice on the trees and the resultant breaking of branches. This was especially
the situation in the Fraser Valley area. The spring, while perhaps no later than what
might be considered a normal season, was this year from two to three weeks later in all
districts than in 1934. Furthermore, on the Coast the spring, while particularly dry, recorded
more than usual sunshine. In the Interior conditions were similar to the Coast, but during
the summer heavy rains were experienced. June rains caused heavy damage by floods and
later on during the cherry-picking season a heavy loss in this crop both in the Okanagan
and Kootenays. Fall in all districts was excellent up until the beginning of the last week
in October, when low temperatures prevailed, in the Interior districts as low as —4° F. being
recorded in the East Kootenay around Creston. There was at this time a large quantity
of apples still to be picked or in boxes in the orchards. The result was a heavy loss of fruit,,
according to some estimates amounting to 500,000 boxes. Losses were also recorded in such
crops as potatoes, roots, lettuce, and celery. Following this cold snap, which lasted for
approximately a week, the weather has been very mild and seasonable.
HORTICULTURAL CROPS.
Tree-fruits.—Apples, which are the major tree-fruit crop in the Province, indicated at
the beginning of the season a smaller crop than might be expected, even when the fact was
considered that this was a short crop-year. While the season was late, the growing conditions
were on the whole good, with the result that a production over the estimated crop seemed
possible. The late fall frost, however, with its resultant loss, may possibly bring the actual
production figures below the original estimates. On the whole, the crop harvested was of
excellent colour and quality, with a tendency to run to small sizes particularly suited to the
export market. Pears were on the whole a light crop, as were also peaches and apricots,
the stone-fruit buds being injured by the winter freeze. Cherries gave promise of a satisfactory, even if light, crop in both the Okanagan and Kootenays. Rains at picking-time,
however, materially reduced this tonnage. While it is impossible at this time to give definite
figures on production, the following figures showing the estimated production in 1935 give
a fair idea of what may be expected from the standpoint of total tonnage:—
Estimated
Fruit. 1934 Production. 1935 Production.
Apples (boxes)   5,262,760 4,453,700
Crab-apples  (boxes)    145,928 141,975
Pears (boxes)   278,616 222,924
Plums and prunes (crates)   462,726 338,490
Peaches   (crates)     319,299 133,900
Apricots (crates)   302,314 134,750
Cherries (crates)    236,029 164,010
2 AA 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Small Fruits.—The continued dry weather previous to picking undoubtedly affected the
strawberry-crop on Vancouver Island. On the Lower Mainland, however, while the dry
weather curtailed the Dunlap crop, opportune rains saved the later varieties, with the result
that the total tonnage was about the heaviest recorded. An excellent crop of this fruit
was also harvested in the Kootenays. A feature of this year's production was the heavy
shipments of berries in SOo to the British market. These shipments sold at an excellent
price and in addition removed the surplus from the local and Prairie markets, where, due to
this situation, the price for fresh stock was well maintained. Everything taken into
consideration, this has been one of the best years which our strawberry-growers have had
since 1930. Raspberries were a good crop, but not as heavy as was anticipated considering
the acreage planted. The severe winter conditions which prevailed during January undoubtedly affected the canes through breakage and other injuries.
The loganberry-crop on Vancouver Island shows a slight increase over that of 1934.
On the Lower Mainland, however, it was somewhat below normal.
Blackberries and bush-fruits, such as currants and gooseberries, in practically all districts
were a normal crop. These crops are produced in excess of the demand and there is usually
a surplus which it is difficult to dispose of.
Rhubarb.—The total acreage in this crop in the Province amounts to approximately
570 acres, of which 533 acres are grown in the Lower Mainland District. Some indication
of the importance of this crop may be obtained from the following statement submitted by
G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist for the Lower Mainland:—
" The forcing of this crop continues to be an important item, and while the margin of
profit is narrow, the early movement of this product brings several thousand dollars to the
Province. The forced-rhubarb season extended over a longer season this year, as cars were
moving up until the field rhubarb commenced in April. In addition to supplying the local
market requirements, about eighteen cars were shipped out of the Province.
" On account of the acreage and heavy production of the field crop it has been necessary
during the past few years to ship on an acreage quota basis, and the orderly shipping and
marketing has had a very marked effect on the total number of cars moved annually.
" The rhubarb season depends for its length on the strawberry-crop, and this year the
movement continued into the first few days in June. On account of the backward spring
the first car was not loaded until April 13th, as compared with the very early movement on
March 21st in 1934; but in 1933 April 13th was the date for the first car of field rhubarb.
The shipments this year amount to approximately 100 cars, which compares very favourably
with the 1934 movement. The organized handling of this crop has also maintained a satisfactory price to the growers, and on account of the satisfactory returns it is a difficult matter
to restrain growers from planting in excess of the present market requirements.
" Following the shipping season there has been a limited demand for rhubarb for cannery
purposes."
Grapes.—As pointed out in a previous report, there would seem to be possibilities for
a further planting of this crop in certain favoured areas. At the present time the largest
acreage is to be found in the Kelowna District, where the returns from this crop over a period
of years have been very satisfactory. The Experimental Farm at Summerland is trying
out a number of new varieties in comparison with older varieties. Some of these new
varieties indicate possibilities. In the Southern Okanagan small acreages are being set out.
R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector for this territory, submits the following in his last
annual report:—■
" There is quite an interest being taken in grapes in the Oliver-Osoyoos District. Both
Labrusca and Vinifera varieties are being planted. This season a 5-acre planting of
2-year-old Black Hamburg, Muscat, and Trojour vines produced a small crop that ripened
satisfactorily.
" Work is being continued to try and find suitable grape varieties for these areas. The
following new varieties have been purchased by your official: Reisling Sylvana on two
different root-stocks—namely, Chasselas X Berlandierri 41B and Riparia X Rupestris 1616—
from Switzerland. Bulgarian varieties that are supposed to ripen before or with Concord
were planted this spring.    These are all on Rupestris stock. " The following varieties have been discarded as having no value here, being either too
small or too late ripening: Angulata, Palomina, Malvoise, Carignan, Divyaka, Coridere 10,
Oberlin 595, Castel 196378, and Black Prince.
" Pearl of Csaba still continues to be the most outstanding of the Vinifera sorts tried.
One disadvantage with this variety is that it is badly attacked by wasps and birds. Also
on account of its early ripening it comes on the market considerably ahead of the regular
grape season.
" Of the European Hybrids, Golden Muscat appears to be a variety suitable to this
district. It is very prolific, quite hardy, and of very good quality. Urbana also shows
considerable promise, but requires a fairly long season."
Vegetables.—The acreage in all vegetables showed an increase over 1934. The following
table showing the acreage in comparison with last year indicates the approximate plantings
in 1935 of some of the principal vegetable-crops:—
Tomatoes 	
1934.
Acres.
                                 2,486
1935.
Acres.
2,870
1,345
315
Onions	
                            1,181
Lettuce	
                         191
Celery	
_                                     240
227
Cucumbers 	
                         131
150
Cabbage   	
121
147
Cantaloupes 	
      193
263
Reports from practically all districts indicate unsatisfactory growing conditions and for
the most part only average crops. In the case of tomatoes, due to a cold late spring the
crop was late and the quality poor. An early frost in September also tended to shorten the
season. Onions on the whole were good, making excellent growth and having ideal conditions
for harvesting. Lettuce, although later than last year, brought fair returns where harvested.
In some cases, however, flooding of the fields resulted in heavy loss. The late crop gave
indications of being exceptionally good, but in the Interior districts a large proportion of the
crop was destroyed by the heavy late October frost. The early crop of celery yielded well,
but the late crop, particularly in the Interior, was so badly damaged by frost that the growers
lost hundreds of tons. Cool weather also affected the cantaloupe-crop, with the result that
neither the tonnage nor quality of the crop was as good as last year.
The greenhouse crops of both tomatoes and cucumbers were about the same as last year.
This year, however, they were marketed under the " Natural Products Marketing Act," and
according to reports the returns to the growers have been more satisfactory than for some
years.
OTHER CROPS.
In order to give continuity to statements submitted in previous reports, it is thought
advisable to again mention reports from various officials dealing with other crops previously
mentioned.    These reports cover this year's findings.
Broom-corn.—For four years the growing of broom-corn in the Kamloops District has
been tried out. Last year for the first time the results seemed promising. This year,
however, the results were anything but satisfactory. C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector,
Salmon Arm, who is in charge of this work, reports as follows:—
" Following up test-work carried out in 1931, 1932, 1933, and 1934, at Kamloops, a %-acre
plot of broom-corn was planted this spring on Stewart Wilson's farm. Equal seedings of
the two varieties ' Illinois Favorite ' and ' White Italian ' were made on the plot. Cultural
treatment such as would be given to a commercial acreage was used, with the chief object in
view of determining what yield could reasonably be expected from such acreage. Due, once
again, to adverse weather conditions, this object has not been attained. Soil conditions were
such as to preclude planting until late in May. Weather conditions during the growing season
were extremely unfavourable to normal development and maturity, and killing frosts occurred
on September 24th and 25th when the crop was within a week of maturity, with the result
that the ' brush ' which was just emerging from the ' boot' was severely frozen and the entire
crop lost.    While it was hoped that the cultivation of broom-corn might find a useful place in AA 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the agricultural programme of the Kamloops District, it is regrettable that the conclusion
which must be arrived at through the experience of the past five years in handling this crop
is that, although it has been demonstrated that ' brush ' of excellent commercial quality can
be grown, the risks over which the grower has no control involved in its production are such
as to render its commercial cultivation at the present time unduly hazardous."
A few other special crops which are for the most part produced only in the Fraser Valley
at the present time are well worth note and comment. These have been mentioned by G. E. W.
Clarke, District Horticulturist, and the following is quoted from his report:—
" Hops.—The growing and handling of this crop is of considerable importance to the
Lower Mainland. A large staff is required on the acreages at Agassiz, Sardis, and Sumas,
and this is further augmented during the picking season, which commences during the last
of August and continues well into September. The markets for the most of this crop are
to places outside the Province.
" The price was somewhat lower this year than has been enjoyed for the past two or three
years, but the yields were very good. Poor weather during part of the picking season lowered
the quality of a portion of the crop.
" Tobacco.—The growing of tobacco was practically negligible this year, as neither the
McKercher nor Spencer farms were operating any extensive plantings.
" The tobacco situation and the flooding of the Sumas Reclamation area were probable
deciding factors for the curtailing of plantings for 1935.
" Approximately 20 acres would be the extent of the tobacco plantings in the Fraser
Valley this year.
" Mushrooms.—This is a product for which there is a growing demand and each year the
production, is increasing. The fresh-mushroom trade in Vancouver is receiving special
attention, and there is also a limited amount of shipments made to other points in the Province.
" Attention is being given to the canning and shipping of this product to points outside
the Province, and at the present time Vancouver is one of three places in Canada packing this
crop.
" Peas.—The contracted acreage in canning-peas was approximately 1,850 acres, and
while the yields in some instances were not heavy, the pack on the whole was very satisfactory.
" The acreage of varieties as Victoria, Bluebell, Idabel, and Manchurian Wrinkled, grown
for the boiling-pea trade, was much lighter than has been the case for years. The crop of
approximately 1,000 acres was heavily infested with pea-moth, and the expense of sorting and
picking has been very heavy.
" The planting of garden peas for the fresh-pod market was noticeably heavy this year.
This past season it has been practically impossible to sell garden varieties, grown in the
Chilliwack and Sumas Districts, on the Vancouver market, on account of the presence of
pea-moth larva, in the pods."
DEMONSTRATION-WORK.
While it will be impossible in this report to go into detail with regard to each line of
demonstration-work that is being carried on by your horticultural officials in different sections
of the Province, it is proposed as a matter of reference to give the names of the most important
projects and their district location.    They are as follows:—■
District Location. Demonstration  Project.
Vancouver Island—_.Strawberry Plant Selection; Strawberry Variety Trials;
Raspberry Variety Trials; Corn Variety Trials; Sprays
for Anthracnose-control; Sprays for Strawberry-scorch.
Lower Mainland Raspberry-mulching   Work;   Lettuce   Variety   Trials;
Corn Variety Trials.
Okanagan Broom-corn   Trials;    Sweet-corn   Trials;    Strawberry
Variety Trials; Raspberry Variety Trials; Beet Variety
Trials for Canning Purposes; Tomato Variety Trials;
Lettuce Variety Trials; Trials with Various Tree-grafting Compounds; Apple-scab Control-work; Lettuce-dusting Work; Lettuce-fertilizer Work; Orchard-fertilizer
Work; Codling-moth Control-work; Orchard Cover-crop
Trials; Peach-mildew Sprays; Grape Variety Trials. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 21
Kootenay Mealy-bug Control; Apple-scab Control; Cherry Fruit-
fly   Control;   Orchard-fertilizer   Work;   Corn   Variety
Trials; Raspberry Variety Trials.
In addition to those listed, it would seem advisable to outline in detail several of these
projects, particularly as some of them as carried on this year are a continuation of the work
started in 1934.    With this in mind, the following is submitted as given in the reports of the
officials under whose supervision the work was carried out:—
Lettuce Strains Tests.—As in 1934, these tests were undertaken in the Mainland area
under G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, and in the Okanagan under H. H. Evans,
District Field Inspector at Vernon.    The following is quoted from Mr. Evans's report:—
" The spring plots of this series for 1935 were all ruined by floods in late June, and before
the plots were in condition for recording.
"Fall Series.—Field seeded, July 27th; plants per plot, 25; examinations made, September 24th, October 3rd and 16th.
" On the night of September 23rd the first killing frost of the season was recorded at
Armstrong, with 8° frost registered. Frequent frosts followed to October 5th, with a severe
freeze on the 28th.
"Seed-house No. 1.
"Plot 1, Imperial D No. U7250X.—September 24th: Growing fast, heads just forming;
slight frost-injury. October 3rd: Heads filling and firming very good. October 16th: Heads
firming well, 30 per cent, fit to cut; frost-injury slight. This was the last check as the frost
of October 28th completely ruined all plots.     (Good.)
Plot 2, Imperial C No. 26803X.—September 24th: Plants filling and firming slowly; frost-
injury light to medium. October 3rd: Heads filling fast, but slack. October 16th: Heads of
good size filling but not firming, not fit to cut;   frost-injury medium.     (Doubtful.)
"Plot 3, Imperial F No. 8708UX.—September 24th: Heads large and filling fast; frost-
injury medium. October 3rd: Heads filling, but very slack, none fit for market cut; frost-
damage heavy. October 16th: Heads large and firming very slowly, odd heads fit to cut;
frost-damage heavy to outer leaves.    (No good.)
" Plot .4, Imperial 6 No. 9322X.—September 24th: Heads filling very slowly; frost-injury
medium. October 3rd: Heads growing fast, not filling; frost-injury medium. October 16th:
Heads too loose and fluffy.     (No good.)
" Plot 5, Imperial 615 No. 67i58X.—September 24th: Heads growing fast, but very slack;
frost-injury light to medium. October 3rd and 16th: Heads large but very loose, none fit to
cut;   frost-injury medium.     (Doubtful.)
" Plot 6, Imperial 152 No. 67U33.—September 24th: Heads filling and firming fast; frost-
injury light. October 3rd: Heads well filled, firm, 40 per cent, fit to cut; frost-damage light.
October 16th:   90 per cent, fit to cut;   frost-injury light to medium.     (Very good.)
"Plot 7, Imperial 12 No. 9165X.—September 24th: Heads growing fast, but slow filling;
frost-injury medium. October 3rd and 16th: Heads large and filling, but very slack; frost-
injury medium.     (Doubtful.)
" Seed-house No. 2.
" Plot 8, Imperial F.—This plot comparable in all respects to Plot 3, with similar strain.
(No good.)
"Plot 9, Imperial D.—This plot comparable to Plot 1.     (Good.)
"Plot 10, Imperial 615.—This plot comparable to Plot 5.     (Doubtful.)
"Plot 11, Imperial 2-50.—September 24th:   Heads growing fast, but very slack;   frost-
injury medium.    October 3rd and 16th:   Heads large and loose;   frost-damage heavy.     (No
good.)
"Plot 12, Imperial 152.—This plot comparable to Plot 6.     (Very good.)
" Seed-house No. 3.
"In this series Plot 13, Imperial D; Plot lh, Imperial F; Plot 15, Imperial No. 6; Plot
16, Imperial 152; and Plot 17, Imperial 615, are all comparable in performance to the similar
strains in the previous series.
"Plot 18, T.B.R. Hybrid, Summerland Strain.—September 24th: Heads well grown and
filled, but slack;   frost-injury heavy.    October  3rd:    Heads  filled but slack;   frost-injury AA 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
severe. This strain may be of value for early fall cutting, but is worthless for late use through
the frost period.
" During the past four years of these experiments a large number of lettuce strains have
been tested under Interior conditions, for both spring and fall crops, and has definitely proven
the value of three strains.
" New York strain, Imperial No. 12, is at present outstanding for spring production of
high quality, long standing, and fair resistance to tip-burn.
" The No. 12 had not proven altogether satisfactory for fall-crop production and the work
continued in an effort to fill a need in this period. The strains No. 152 and D appear for the
present to fill this need, covering a long cutting period, developing and heading well under
late fall, cool weather conditions, and proving the most frost resistant of all the strains tested.
No. 152 is of fine texture and high quality. The D strain is of coarser texture but brittle,
of good quality but with a slightly bitter flavour.
" It would appear advisable to continue tests with strains D, No. 152, C, No. 615, T.B.R.
Hybrid, and any promising new strains that may become available and not yet used for trials
in this area."
Codling-moth Control.—Codling-moth control still continues to be and likely always will
be one of our most important orchard problems. Government supervision is still given in one
area—namely, the Vernon area. In all other areas it is a grower's problem. The best method
of control has been fairly well established, but it has been shown beyond doubt that only
satisfactory control can be secured where the sprays are thoroughly applied. For a number
of years B. Hoy, District Field Inspector at Kelowna, has been demonstrating this fact to the
growers.    His report on this year's work, together with appendix, is herewith submitted:—
" The winter of 1934-35 killed many of the over-wintering larva?, and as a study of the
attached table of moth captures for the season will show, the first brood was less than for
many years. The season was very late and spraying weather was bad. Most of the first-brood
sprays were applied in windy weather or showers came after spraying. This bad spraying
weather and the knowledge that many larva, were killed during the winter influenced the
coverage and control of first-brood worms, with the result that in many orchards the second
brood was as heavy as usual. Hot weather during the last week in August and early September
was ideal for codling-moth, and where spraying had not been thoroughly done infestation
was heavy.    Over the district generally there were fewer codling-moth than in 1934.
" Moth records were kept as usual by this office. An extension of this service was also
added by having reports phoned to this office from other districts. This should increase the
value of this work if properly done, and while helpful this year, it is hoped to improve this
service another year. The radio was used in broadcasting moth captures and spray dates.
The management of CKOV were very willing to co-operate at all times and always cheerfully
put announcements over without any charge, even at short notice.
" The spraying tests were made in R. M. Hart's orchard at East Kelowna on the same
plots that were used last year. Eight plots were used with twenty-eight trees in each plot,
but unfortunately, owing to the freeze-up in October, counts were secured from only four
plots; the balance not having been picked. As the frozen plots were duplicates of those
submitted, and observation throughout the season showed no differences, it can be assumed
that the figures given represent the results of the spraying.
" The reason that Mcintosh, Jonathan, and Stayman Winesap are not included is that
the crop was so light that it was difficult to get reliable comparisons between plots. The
Stayman Winesap were all frozen on the trees. Observations throughout the summer and at
picking-time showed these varieties to be just as free of worms as the Newtowns. This work
should be continued and a heavier-infested orchard secured for the work next year. For
details of this work see Appendix No. 1."
Anthracnose Sprays.—Anthracnose of apple-trees has always been one of the worst
troubles with which the tree-fruit growers in the Coast sections have had to contend. Control
can be obtained by the use of Bordeaux mixture. Its use, however, at certain times necessitates
the wiping of the fruit after picking. With a view to obviating this disadvantage, it was
decided to try a new English spray which was strongly recommended as a fungicide. A project
along this line was started in 1933 and continued in 1934 and 1935. The work was under the
supervision of E. W. White, District Horticulturist for Vancouver Island. His report covering
the work on this project follows:—- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 23
" This project, started in 1933 and extended in 1934, was carried on in 1935. The idea
of the spraying was to test out Bouisol at three different strengths in comparison with
Burgundy mixture and Bordeaux mixture.
" W. J. Jennings's Orchard, Duncan, B.C.—The same plots as sprayed in 1934 were again
sprayed in 1935, with the exception that Plot 4, which was sprayed with Burgundy mixture
in 1934, was sprayed with Bordeaux mixture in 1935. The spraying was done on August 5th,
compared with August 23rd in 1934, and the weather was fine. The plots, which numbered
ten trees each, were of Northern Spy, Ontario, and King varieties. It was planned to spray five
trees in each plot this fall with 4-4-40 Bordeaux mixture after the fruit was picked. When
conditions wore ready for spraying it was found impossible to get the sprayer going, and as
a result the late spray was not applied.
" In conjunction with W. R. Foster, Assistant Provincial Plant Pathologist, counts were
made in the Jennings orchard on April 24th. New infection was very severe and the results
of the different sprays were not very conclusive, but they did show that Bouisol at strengths
of 1V2 pints, 3 pints, and 4% pints per 100 gallons of water gave progressively better results
at the stronger strengths. Burgundy 1-1 Vz-^O did not appear to give any better results than
Bouisol at W2, pints per 100 gallons of water.
" It is proposed to carry on some pruning-work during the winter and make further counts
next spring, with another spraying in August.
" Tanner Bros.' Orchard, Keating, B.C.—The spraying conducted in 1934 was duplicated
in 1935. The spraying was done on August 8th, compared with August 17th in 1934, and
the weather was fine.
" In conjunction with W. R. Foster, counts were made in Tanner Bros.' orchard on April
26th and 29th. Due to the fact that the plots were more uniform in Tanner Bros.' orchard
than in the Jennings orchard, the results were more outstanding and made tabulation easier.
The following tables were submitted by Mr. Foster showing the result of the counts made:—
" Table 1.—Result of spraying King of Tompkins Apples with Bordeaux and Different
Strengths of Bouisol on the Number of Anthracnose Lesions.
No. op Anthracnose Lesions.*
Treatment.
Tree 1.
Tree 2.
Total.
50
57
41
25
16
57
51
' 31
14
14
107
108
72
39
* Lesions on fifty twigs were counted on each tree.
t Pints of Bouisol is per 100 gallons of water.
" Table.2.—Result of spraying Belle de Boskoop Apples with Bordeaux and Different
Strengths of Bouisol on the Number of Anthracnose Lesions.
Treatment.
No. of Anthracnose Lesions.*
Plot No. l.f       Plot No. 2. Average.
Check, no treatment.
Bouisol, 1.5 pints.	
Bouisol, 3 pints	
Bouisol, 4.5 pints.	
Bordeaux—	
210
138
87
71
50
252
141
92
72
49
231.0
139.5
89.5
71.5
49.5
* Lesions on 25 twigs on each tree were counted.
t A plot consists of five trees."
Apple-scab Sprays.—Work on the control of apple-scab and a continuation of the work
carried on in previous years was again undertaken in the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts. AA 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
With regard to the work in the Okanagan, the following is the report by H. H. Evans, District
Field Inspector at Vernon:—
" Working in conjunction with the Dominion Pathological Laboratory at Summerland, the
past season made the fifth consecutive period for scab-control in the Vernon District. Further
changes were made to the plan by the addition of plots treated with commercial colloidal
sulphurs, also basic copper sulphate.
" After the usual control sprays were applied a very wet period in early July was
responsible for a general spread of the disease, and,scab-infection was heavy, especially in
unsprayed orchards. This situation made control very difficult, but created excellent conditions to prove efficiency of the formulas applied. Standard liquid lime-sulphur is still, without
question, giving the most satisfactory control, but this was not very outstanding under the
1935 climatic conditions. Spray-injury to foliage was not as severe as in some seasons. The
table given as Appendix No. 2 covers details of the plots and results obtained."
The Kootenay work was under the supervision of E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist. His
report follows:—
" The control of this disease in the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes sections is a very important
matter to the fruit-growers in those sections. So far apple-scab is the worst orchard trouble
that the Kootenay fruit-growers have to deal with. The losses to the apple-crop from this
disease have been and are still quite heavy. Due to this a great deal of work in the way of
experiments, tests, and demonstrations have been carried out by your assistant in its control.
The work has extended over a number of years and many spray materials and combination
mixtures have been tested out. The work this past season was to follow up some test made
in other years and also to try out another spray mixture that had not been tested out in this
district so far, although it may have been under tests in other sections of the Province. The
following results cover in detail the tests made this past season in the control of apple-scab:—
Plot
No.
Spray
Periods.
Material and Proportion used.
No. Apples
counted.
Clean.
Scabby.
Pink _._
Calyx	
1st cover	
2nd cover	
Pink	
Calyx	
1st cover	
2nd cover.	
Pink	
Calyx	
1st cover	
2nd cover	
Pink	
Calyx	
1st cover	
2nd cover.	
Lime-sulphur 1-40
Lime-sulphur 1-40
Lime-sulphur 1-40
Lime-sulphur 1-40
Lime-sulphur 1—60 ;
Lime-sulphur 1-60 ;
Same as calyx	
Same as calyx	
Calc. Arsenate 4 lb.-lOO
Calc. Arsenate 3 lb.-lOO
5
(check)
Full strength of the Iron Sulphate Mixture
for all sprays (Iron-Sulph. 10 lb., L.S.
2^2 gals., Calc. Arsenate 4 and 5 lb. to
100 gals, water)
Iron Sulphate Mixture, modified strength "
for all sprays (Iron-Sulph. 6 lb., L.S.
|        1%  gals.,   Calc.  Arsenate 3  and  4 lb.
to 100 gals, water)
No spray    	
1,217
1,159
1,525
1,253
Per Cent.
97.0
98.4
Per Cent.
97.7
94.8
55.5
2.3
44.5
" The above experiments were carried on at Mr. Appleton's orchard at Sunshine Bay. The
variety used in the experiment was Mcintosh Red and all trees of full bearing age. The
spraying dates were as follows: Pink, May 22nd; calyx, June 4th; 1st cover, June 17th; and
2nd cover, July 3rd. The fruit was picked on October 1st and all the apples on one tree in each
spot was counted. A further test was made of the lime-sulphur and calcium-arsenate mixture
in comparison with lime-sulphur at the Blaylock's orchards at 4-Mile on the West Arm.
Variety Mcintosh Red, and all trees of full bearing age. Four sprays were applied as
follows: Pink, May 13th; calyx, May 31st; 1st cover, June 17th; and 2nd cover, July 3rd.
All the apples on one tree on each plot was counted, with the following results: Plot 1, lime-
sulphur 1-40 for all sprays, 14 trees in the plot. Number of apples counted, 1,665; per cent,
clean, 87.2; per cent, scabby, 12.8. Plot 2, lime-sulphur 1-60 plus 3 and 4 lb. of calcium
arsenate to 100 gallons of water for all sprays and 14 trees in the plot.    Number of apples DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 25
counted, 3,170; per cent, clean, 96.4; per cent, scabby, 3.6. No check-tree was left in this
orchard, but in other years the unsprayed tree usually ran about 100 per cent, scabby fruit.
However, it must be said that the season this year was not so favourable in the spread and
development of scab as last year. From the result listed on page 24 and general observation in
the orchards as to fruit and foliage injury, etc., and appearance of fruit at picking-time, the
lime-sulphur calcium-arsenate combination gave the best results. This material not only gave
the best control of apple-scab, but also gave excellent control of the injuries caused by the
leaf-roller and green fruit-worms. It is hoped to make further tests of this spray mixture
another year, as the one-year test indicates that it is a safe and effective spray to use in the
control of apple-scab under Kootenay conditions."
Mealy-bug Control.—The mealy bug, which is found principally in the fruit-growing sections of the Kootenay, is becoming of increasing importance. For the last two years E. C.
Hunt has been trying out certain control measures at Willow Point. This coming year it is
anticipated that the work will be continued and work along similar lines started in the Creston
District. It is understood that the Dominion Entomological Branch will also try out certain
sprays for mealy-bug control in the Boswell area. Mr. Hunt's report on this work is herewith
submitted:—
" This insect is still prevalent in many Kootenay orchards and has spread over quite a
large area. A few of the orchards are very badly infested and considerable damage to the
apple-crop has occurred from time to time in some sections. The mealy bug is very bad in the
Willow Point area and in two or three orchards at Boswell. The insect is also present in the
Creston area. Control methods have been under way for three years and a number of spray
materials and mixtures have been tested out. Most of them have given a certain degree of
control of the insect, but none a complete clean-up. This past season a dormant oil spray was
under test at Willow Point in J. J. Campbell's orchard. A 6-per-cent. solution of the all-over
dormant oil put out by the Oliver Chemical Company at Penticton was used in this test.
There were two plots in this experiment or control test. Plot 1 received the 6-per-cent. dormant
oil spray alone, while Plot 2 received the 6-per-cent. dormant oil spray plus lime-sulphur 1 to 9,
and put on as a combination spray. These sprays were applied when the. trees were in the
dormant stage on April 10th. The trees had been scraped before they were sprayed, and the
scraping of the loose bark off the trunks and main limbs of the trees is a very important factor
in the control of the mealy bugs. Following the spraying operations the trees were banded
with a 4-inch band of tanglefoot around the trunks. Little, if any, difference could be noticed
between the two plots in the control of this insect. Both gave quite satisfactory control, but
not a complete clean-up. At picking-time the apples from these plots did not have to be washed
and the general appearance of the trees and the fruit showed a decided improvement over the
unsprayed trees near by. Plot 1 was again sprayed on July 30th with Black Leaf 40 at the
rate of 1 pint to 100 gallons of water plus 5 lb. of soap. This also seemed effective against
the young mealy bugs just coming out at the time. Two or three growers in the Willow
Point area used this dormant oil spray this year, and where the spray was applied thoroughly
the results were quite satisfactory in the control of the mealy bugs. This was especially
noticeable in Mr. Greenwood's orchard. Last year Mr. Greenwood had to wipe all of his late
apples, due to the sooty fungus that developed on the honeydew produced by mealy-bug injury.
His whole orchard was sprayed this spring with a 6-per-cent. solution of dormant oil spray and
very satisfactory control obtained through the entire orchard."
Raspberry Variety Tests.—In the various districts of the Province trials with different
varieties are being conducted. Those at Salmon Arm are a good criterion of what is being
done. The trials at Salmon Arm are under the supervision of C. R. Barlow. The following
is quoted from his report:—
" Continuation of the test of six varieties of raspberries planted on Captain F. Cox's farm
at Salmon Arm was carried on this year. The canes were planted in the spring of 1933, and
although cane-growth has at no time been heavy, sufficient data have been collected to allow
of definite conclusions being drawn.
" Summarizing the results as presented in the table attached to this report, it will be
seen that the Newman 23 variety stands in the first place as regards performance and
suitability to local conditions, followed by Lloyd George and Latham in the order named, both
of which are possibly worth a trial on a small scale commercially. AA 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" The remaining three varieties—Count, Brighton, and Viking—may safely go into the
discard from the standpoint of commercial culture under local conditions.
" The Newman 23 variety, which is now quite generally grown in the district, leaves
much to be desired from the standpoint of quality, but it has (which is a very important
requirement in this section) the advantage of being reasonably hardy, and this, coupled with
its ability for production and its good shipping qualities, makes it the most suitable variety
which has yet been tested. If, however, a variety can be found which will embody the last
two attributes with equal hardiness and improved quality, as definite a step forward will
have been made as when growers in this district displaced Cuthbert in favour of Newman 23.
In view of this need it would appear advisable that further trials be conducted with varieties
not hitherto tested in this district."
Raspberry Variety Test, Salmon Arm.
Variety.
Crop.
Quality.
Vigour.
Maturity of Cane.
Winter-injury,
1934-35.
Count	
Brighton	
Latham	
Lloyd George.
Viking	
Newman 23—
Fair..
Light-
Fair-..-
Fairly good-
Fair _„-
Fairly good-
Poor, very soft, poor
flavour
Poor, very soft, poor
flavour
Fair, fairly firm, fair
flavour
Fairly good, fairly firm,
flavour good
Fairly good, medium
firm, flavour fair
Fair, firm, flavour fair
to poor
Weak—medium ._.
Weak—medium „.
Medium—strong-
Strong	
Weak -	
Medium .
Poor, many green tips _
Poor, many green tips _
Very good  	
Fair, some green tips .,
Good—	
Excellent-
Medium—heavy.
Heavy.
Slight.
Slight—medium.
Slight—medium.
None.
Yield Table, 1935.
Variety.
First
Picking.
Peak
Picking.
Final
Picking.
Yield in
Pints per
Plant.
Remarks.
Brighton	
Count. _	
July 3.	
July 3
July 5	
July 3	
July 12
July 3
June 30
July 3
July D.
July 29
July 29
July 31     ..
July 31
July 31
July 31
3.3     /
3.8     1
1.7
3.9
1.3
1.7
3.5
1.8
These  two varieties  similar  in  growth-habits,   size
July 9.
July 28
July 12
July 25
July 22
July 20
July 18
and quality of berry.    Too small for fresh-fruit
market after large berried varieties come in.
size.    Bad   attack   of   fruit-worm   affected   yield.
Not promising.
Difficult to handle.
Quality, colour, and size good. Firm and dry; inclined to crumble.    Very shy bearing.
Quality and size good. Colour poor. Sun-scald
affected nearly two-thirds of crop. Not promising.
Quality and size excellent. Colour good. Winter-
injury reduced crop by one-third.
Quality and colour excellent. Size very poor. Yield
cut very heavily by winter-injury.
Adams 87	
Cuthbert	
July 31
H. H. Evans, who is in charge of these trials at Vernon, makes the following report:—
" This series of raspberry variety tests which was commenced in 1932 is an effort to obtain,
if possible, a variety more promising in quality, yield, and hardiness than those at present
generally grown.
" The past winter provided conditions which proved the factor of hardiness to a large
extent in the varieties under test and under irrigated conditions of culture.
" In the Brighton, Count, Newman 23, Lloyd George, Latham, and Adams 87 varieties,
no winter-injury to buds or canes occurred; in Viking, 15 per cent, cane-kill in upper half,
bud-injury 30 per cent.; and in Cuthbert, cane-kill in upper half 40 per cent, and bud-injury
50 per cent. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 27
" Powdery mildew, a serious factor in 1934, was this year absent, with the exception of
very slight infection in the Latham.
"A check for mosaic showed as follows: Count, Brighton, Newman 23, Lloyd George,
Newburgh, Chief, almost mosaic-free; Adams 87, Latham, Jones Berry, mosaic general;
Newburgh, mosaic slight.
" Newburgh, Chief, and Jones Berry have been added to the plots this season. St. Regis
Everbearing has been discarded.
" All varieties have made excellent cane-growth during the season, with no apparent
injury from the October freeze."
HORTICULTURAL SURVEY-WORK.
Greenhouse Survey.—In co-operation with the Statistics Branch, the officials of this
Branch again undertook a survey of the greenhouse area in the Province. This was similar
to other surveys which have been carried out since 1923. A comparison showing the number
of growers and area under glass for 1935 with that of previous years is shown as Appendix
No. 3.
Bulb Survey.—Bulb production in British Columbia, while not large, is certainly worthy
of attention. With the climatic advantages which this Province enjoys, there is no reason
why the production of this crop should not be encouraged until it reaches the point where it
might supply a great deal larger proportion of the Canadian requirements than it does at
the present time. Some idea of the acreage-growth during the last six years may be obtained
from the table given in Appendix No. 4.
Orchard Survey.—An orchard survey in the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts is made
every five years. The year 1935 was the time for this survey; accordingly, the field-work
was started early in the year and was carried out throughout the year as time permitted.
This work is now practically completed in all sections and it is hoped that the compilation-
work will be finished by the end of January, 1936.
SEED PRODUCTION.
Flower-seed production shows little, if any, change from 1934. This section does not
seem to change much from year to year. This year one or two small contracts for flower-
seeds were placed by English firms with new growers. The results, judged by production,
were in some instances satisfactory, and it is hoped that it will result in continued and
increased orders.
The production of vegetable-seed shows continued progress. During the past year over
thirty growers were supplied with vegetable-seed of various kinds. This is in line with our
policy in past years, and the results are now showing in the quantity of seed available for the
market. This policy of conservative free distribution should be continued during the coming
year.
An important factor in seed production was the passage at the last meeting of the
Provincial Legislature of an Act intituled " Seed-growers' Protection Act." This gives the
growers an opportunity to protect their own, interests if they so desire.
PRUNING DEMONSTRATIONS.
As in the past years, pruning demonstrations were held as far as possible at all points
throughout the Province from which requests have been received. This work is, we believe,
much appreciated by the growers, and the attendance particularly at Coast and Kootenay
points is usually good. This year a number of these demonstrations were held at points on
the Skeena River under the supervision of E. W. White, District Horticulturist at Victoria,
who was sent to the Interior to hold these meetings. The total number of demonstrations
held was fifty, with an attendance of 858 people.
PEST-CONTROL AND NURSERY INSPECTION.
Fire-blight Control.—Fire-blight is found in both the Okanagan and Kootenay Horticultural Districts. In the Kootenay the disease is not serious, although of sufficient importance
to demand attention. In this area the growers are given instruction and assistance in the
treating of trees on which it makes its appearance.    In the Okanagan a careful survey is made AA 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
each year of each district and particular attention given to serious outbreaks,
table shows the 1935 results of the inspection-work in the Okanagan:—•
Okanagan Fire-blight Inspection, 1935.
The following
District.
Total Acres
inspected.
Total Acres
inspected and
passed.
Not passed.
268
6,008
4,600
3,013
1,780
244
5,580
4,600
2,968
1,750
24
Vernon       — _	
Kelowna  : 	
428
45
30
Totals  	
15,669
15,142
527
Potato-beetle Control.—This insect is found in British Columbia only in the East Kootenay.
While eradication would seem to be impossible, the money expended in keeping it in check
and confined to this area is good policy. The work has for a number of years been under the
supervision of F. A. Marsack. The introduction to his report, which follows, gives briefly
an excellent idea of the situation as it stands at the present time:—
" The control-work during the summer of 1935 has been carried out as in former years
by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, calcium arsenate and lime dust being
distributed free to all growers of potatoes in the areas of potato-beetle infestation.
" It is satisfactory to know that the potato-beetle has been kept in check and has not
spread in any direction from that of last year, no further spread being noticed in the north
up the Columbia Valley, or to the west on the main highway to Nelson. One infestation
the farthest north was found at Canal Flats, as was the case last year, six hills being affected
in a field of 6 acres. At Sirdar, the farthest west infestation last year, the beetles appeared
as anticipated this summer, but have been well looked after and at last inspection appeared
to be eliminated.
" The control in all sections has been well carried out and very much less dust has been
used in most districts. On St. Mary Prairie it is now hard to find potato-bugs, whereas a
few years ago growers thought they would have to give up growing potatoes because of the
damage done by the potato-beetle. Also from Bull River to Fort Steele, which a few years
ago was badly infested, to-day is almost free of the pest."
San Jose Scale.—At the present time there are three areas in which San Jose scale may
be found in the Province—namely, Spences Bridge, Kaslo, and Cawston. At Spences Bridge
Mr. Barlow reports that a few scale may still be found in the wild growth along the irrigation-
ditches, but none in the orchards in that area. Control measures as carried out in the past
will be continued in the future.
In the Kaslo area an application of 8 per cent, oil spray was applied during the dormant
season. This is the second season that control operations have been carried out. Apparently
the two-year spraying operations have effected a satisfactory clean-up, as summer inspections
failed to disclose the presence of any live scale. No sprays will be applied in 1936, but a close
inspection will be made several times during the coming season.
The Cawston outbreak is certainly the most serious in the Province. For the last three
years it has been known that San Jose scale has been present on the Chapaka Reserve south
of Cawston. This winter it was reported in and around the fruit-growing section of Cawston.
This area was surveyed to ascertain the exact location of the scale. In all orchards in which
scale was found the trees were scraped and an oil spray was applied. Certain quarantine
regulations were also put into effect in connection with the packing and movement of the fruit.
This area will require further attention during the coming season. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 29
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc.
BROWN-ROT OF SWEET CHERRIES.
During the past two seasons brown-rot (Sclerotinia cinerea) has caused a certain amount
of loss in commercial varieties, especially through the development of rot after shipping.
This has led to lowering of grade and disputes with consignees. Accordingly, a number of
growers sprayed with lime-sulphur 1-50, with or without a spreader, from two to three weeks
before picking-time.
The following observations were made from an orchard' so sprayed, but in which brown-rot
had never been very abundant. At time of picking considerable spray material adhered to
the fruit and many of the cherries had to be wiped. One four-basket crate was made up,
consisting of two baskets each of sprayed and unsprayed Bings graded and packed at the
packing-house according to regular standards. Picking was on July 26th and the crate was
held at ordinary room temperature (68° to 70° F. by day) for five days; then the first count
was made as follows:—■
Unsprayed.
Basket No.
Cherries.
Brown-rot
and Mould:
Hot.
1    	
2  	
293
309
66
29
Per Cent.
Totals _ _
602
95
15.8
Sprayed.
3
4
Totals     	
278
259
27
21
	
537
48
8.9
A further count was made two days later, the total amount of rotted and mouldy cherries
on the two counts being 32.4 per cent, for the unsprayed and 23.7 per cent, for the sprayed.
There was, therefore, a distinct benefit in keeping quality from spraying, over a short period
of time, but this diminished with longer keeping. Little or no brown-rot developed in these
cherries, rot being due to Botrytis, Rhizopus, and Penicillium.
An experiment was also conducted on a block of Lambert cherries at Longbeach, where
three plots were given one, two, and three sprayings respectively with lime-sulphur 1-50 with
a spreader. The spraying was done by E. C. Hunt, but a hand-pump was used. Spraying
was done May 21st (shucks falling), June 1st, and July 4th. Picking was done August 2nd,
or twenty-nine days after the last spray. There was little or no residue on the fruit when
picked. Brown-rot was prevalent in the orchard, early Tartarian being almost entirely rotted
and providing much inoculum.
After picking, the fruit was shipped by express to Vancouver on the morning of August
3rd and kept from delivery at Court-house on the morning of August 5th to morning of
August 8th at room temperature (65° F. to 68° F.), then opened and examined (first count).
This would be six days after picking.
Unsprayed (Four
Baskets from Several Trees).
Basket No.
Cherries.
Sound.
Brown-rot
and Mould.
Eot.
5 	
241
231
233
239
219
191
172
216
22
40
61
23
Per Cent.
9.1*
6                                       	
17.3
7                              __ 	
26.2
R                                _ 	
9.6
tals    	
To
944
798
146
15.4
* This basket was noticeably less mature, most of the fruit being still reddish in tint. AA 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Last Spray only.
Basket No.
Cherries.
Sound.
Brown-rot
and Mould.
Rot.
1 (top of tree A) —
2 (top of tree B)	
3 (lower of tree B) _
4 (lower of tree A)_
Totals	
239
246
252
240
977
221
214
200
210
18
32
52
30
Per Cent.
7.5
13.0
20.6*
12.5
13.3
♦This basket was invaded by Rhizopus (black mould or "whiskers"), a rapid-growing, soft-rot organism.
Omitting this basket, the average of 1, 2, and 4 would be: Cherries, 725 ; sound, 645 ; brown-rot and mould, 80 ;
rot, 11 per cent.
Three Sprays (Two Baskets only).
Basket No.
Cherries.
Sound.
Brown-rot
and Mould.
Rot.
9	
10                            	
213
219
195
183
18
36
Per Cent.
8.4*
16.4
Totals 	
432
378
54
12.5
* A very ripe basket.
Two Last Sprays (Two Baskets only).
Basket No.
Cherries.
Sound.
Brown-rot
and Mould.
Rot.
11 	
232
• 235
199
210
33
25
Per Cent.
14.2
12  - -        —
10.6
Totals  - —
467                         409
58
12.4
Although the second count was made only two days later on August 10th, rot had increased
very rapidly. Due, probably in part, to age of fruit, but also to opportunity for distribution
of spores in handling.    Rot and percentages are the sum of first and second counts.
Unsprayed.
Basket No.
Cherries.
Sound.
Brown-rot
and Mould.
Rot.
5                               _	
241
231
233
239
206
172
133
190
35
59
102
49
Per Cent.
14.5
6. 	
7 - —	
8                                  	
25.5
43.8
20.5
944
699
245
26.0
Last Spray only.
1	
239
246
252
240
194
177
140
183
45
69
112
57
18.8
2                              _ 	
28.0
3                             	
44.4*
4     — 	
23.8
Totals 	
977
694
283
28.9
* Rhizopus extensive;   omitting this, average of 1, 2,
and mould, 171;   rot, 23.5 per cent.
and 4 as follows:   Cherries, 725 ;   sound, 554 ;   brown-rot DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 31
Three Sprays.
Basket No.
Cherries.
Sound.
Brown-rot
and Mould.
Rot.
9                             _	
213
219
179
153
34
66
Per Cent.
16.0
10                                                            .   '	
30.1
Totals	
432
332
100
23.1
Two Last Sprays.
11.
12.
232
235
146
173
86
62
148
37.1
26.4
Without making cultures it was not possible in all cases to distinguish brown-rot from
that due to moulds, especially as it is probable that in some cases more than one organism
was involved. From the grower's point of view this is not an important matter, as the question
of whether spraying is worth while or not will be determined by whether or not the keeping
qualities of the fruit are improved irrespective of the particular organisms involved.
Undoubtedly the brown-rot fungus was the most important cause of rot in most cases;
next to this being Botrytis, especially in No. 1, and then Penicillium. Rhizopus was extensive
in No. 3, and increased especially in the interval of first and second count, not only producing
a soft-rot, but extending in an objectionable way over the surface of fruit still sound. The
figures in No. 5, 9.1 per cent, on first and 14.5 per cent, on second count, from an unsprayed
tree, are among the lowest in the series, and the second count the lowest, lower even than
three sprayings. This basket was noticeably less ripe than others, most of the fruits still
having a red colour at the time of the second count, although ripe enough to have a good
eating quality. It is not safe to draw conclusions from this single result, but the possibility
of cutting loss from rot by picking as soon as commercially possible deserves further
investigation. Basket No. 9 was a very ripe basket and had a low percentage of rot, but
this had three sprays.
It will be observed that while the general average of rot in the sprayed plots is slightly
less in the unsprayed, this is not consistent, individual baskets of unsprayed having less rot
than some of those with two or three sprays. The advantage altogether is so slight that the
results do not give much evidence of spraying being of economic value. In this connection
it should be noted that in this orchard there were certain trees of an early pollenizing variety
(Black Tartarian) which had not been picked and which were showing a very high percentage
of brown-rot in the spore-producing stage. Unfortunately the proximity of the trees from
which the counted baskets were picked to these infections was not recorded, but it may have
something to do with the varying amounts of brown-rot found. In a survey of the cherry-
orchards it was noticed in a number of additional instances that early-ripening, pollenizing
varieties—e.g., Governor Wood, Tartarian—whose fruit was not worth picking, were almost
100 per cent, infected with brown-rot. It seems certain that with such quantities of inoculum
around, the efficacy of spraying is much reduced, especially as this, in view of the experience
of some growers with spray residue, will not have to be done closer than three weeks to
picking-time. In any orchard spray programme for brown-rot it will not suffice to spray
only those trees whose crop is commercially valuable, but pollenizers will have to be suitably
treated or the fruit picked and buried or destroyed. The possibility of being able to control
brown-rot in certain orchards by picking trees carrying infection, instead of by spraying,
is a point to be investigated, as well as the possibility of finding protective sprays which can
be applied fairly close to picking-time without leaving noticeable residue.
The manager of the Nelson Packing House reports that on the whole the Kootenay
cherries arrived on the market in better condition than last year, but that it is difficult to
estimate how much of this improvement was due to spraying, as cold-storage and precooling
facilities have also been installed. AA 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
NEW DISEASES.
Cherry Mottle Leaf.—This disease was first noticed about 1932 in the City of Nelson.
It is characterized by a mottling of the leaf, often accompanied by distortion and ragged edges;
The leaves are also in severe cases reduced in size. Growth is reduced and the fruit is insipid
and in some cases bitter. The disease being obviously of a chlorotic nature, the effect of
applying 5 to 6 lb. of iron sulphate around the. tree was tried with negative results.
Dr. McLarty, of the Summerland Pathological Laboratory, has now shown conclusively that
the disease is of virus nature and can readily be transferred to healthy trees by budding or
graft-tig. Progress of the disease through the whole tree is rapid when so introduced. All
the three main commercial varieties—Bing, Lambert, and Royal Anne—have been found
affected. How the disease is spread naturally is not known, but that some agency of spread
exists is shown by the fact that mature trees have developed the disease. A few cases have
been found in commercial orchards in the Kootenay Lake area, but most of the affected trees
are in the City of Nelson.
So far as commercial growers are concerned, no objection is expected against the removal
of infected trees to protect the others against infection, but objection has been raised by some
city owners. However, owing to the location of the City of Nelson, these trees are sufficiently
remote from commercial orchards to offer comparatively little danger as sources of new
infections.
Rust of Beet and Mangels (Uromyces betse).—This was found on beets grown for seed
in the vicinity of Saanichton from seed imported from Europe. A survey of all crops of beet
or mangels being grown for seed in the Coast area was made, but no further cases found.
Later the fungus was found on root-crops at Chilliwack and Agassiz. This appears to be
the first record of the disease in Canada, though it is known in Oregon and California. So far
as known only beets and mangels are susceptible. In Europe, where it is widespread, it is
not usually considered a serious disease, but how it will behave here, especially on crops grown
for seed, is impossible to forecast.
Plenodomus meliloti Dear & San., which has been found causing a serious root-rot of
clover, alfalfa, and sweet clover in Alberta, was identified on alfalfa from the Okanagan.
(W. R. F.)
A quite serious disease of cultivated wallflowers (Chieranthus) was found to be due to a
species of Peronospora identified by the Division of Botany, Ottawa, as probably P. Cheiranthi
Gaumann, and apparently not previously recorded in North America.     (W. R. F.)
BLOSSOM-BLIGHT OF CHERRIES   (Sclerotinea cinerea).
An experiment conducted at Saanichton to determine the effect of different sprays at
certain stages on blossom-blight which is ascertained by percentage fruit set and percentage
marketable fruit as compared with number of blossoms.
Table 1.—Percentage of fruit set in the varieties Montmorency, Morello, and Olivet
cherries after being sprayed with different sprays at different stages.
Treatment.
Stage.
Montmorency
(Set).
Morello
(Set).
Olivet
(Set).
Average Set
of Three
Varieties.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
1
Check 	
25.1
31.4
33.4
27.3
6.4
15.1
21.9
2.
L.S. 1-40 Lead Ars	
Pink
Calyx.	
24.6
3.
Bouisol  	
Pink
Calyx 	
34.3
43.0
14.5
30.6
4.
Koppers Sulphur Dust	
Pink
Calyx	
21.6
34.3
14.0
23.3
5.
L.S. 1-40 _
Pink,
Fl., Calyx	
20.1
26.3
4.0
16.8
6.
L.S. 1-40 	
Pink,
E. Fl., Fl	
12.2
27.1
7.4
15.6
7.
L.S. 1-40 	
Pink,
E. Fl., FL, Calyx..
16.4
18.6
8.5
14.5 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 33
Table 2.—Percentage of blossoms giving marketable fruit in Montmorency, Morello, and
Olivet cherries after being sprayed with different sprays at different stages.
Treatment.
Stage.
Montmorency
(Marketable).
Morello
(Marketable).
Olivet
(Marketable).
Marketable
Average.
Check  	
Per Cent.
13.3
18.1
23.5
9.5
12.2
8.9
8.6
Per Cent.
15.2
15.9
20.3
20.4
16.0
11.6
17.8
Per Cent.
2.1
10.0
8.7
4.7
0.7
3.3
2.8
L.S. 1-40 Lead Ars	
14.7
Bouisol	
17.5
Koppers Sulphur Dust...	
11.5
L.S. 1-40  ._	
Pink, Fl., Calyx         	
9.6
L.S. 1-40	
Pink, E. Fl., Fl 	
Pink, E. Fl., FL, Calyx...
L.S. 1-40 _	
9.7
The low figures with lime-sulphur 1-40 are probably due to spray-injury, which was very
noticeable, many of the blossoms turning black following the application.
The number of blossoms on which these percentages are based were from 1,000 to 1,275.
PROVINCIAL QUARANTINE SERVICE.
Three hundred and nine permits were issued up to December 12th. These covered shipments from the three Prairie Provinces of nursery stock as follows:—
Fruit-trees (chiefly sand-cherries and hardy varieties)  1,251
Bush and cane fruits      986
Ornamentals and shelter trees and shrubs (especially caragana)  1,903
Herbaceous plants, excluding bulbs  2,542
In addition to the above, the following were shipped without permit from the Prairie
Provinces and inspected at Vancouver:—
Fruit-trees        36
Bush and cane fruits         33
Ornamental  and  shade trees   (this  includes  one  shipment of  2,000
caragana plants and several lots of 100 or more each)  3,244
Herbaceous plants       303
It is evident, therefore, that the permit system is being extensively taken advantage of.
A large proportion of the plants brought in under permit were followed up and inspected
during the spring and summer. No evidence was found of any disease or pest having been
brought in on these plants.
ASPARAGUS-BEETLE   (Crioceris asparagi).
This pest has been known for many years in Eastern Canada and is also extensively
present in Oregon and California. It was to be expected, therefore, that sooner or later it
would be introduced into British Columbia. Early in October specimens of the larva, were
brought in from the West Point Grey section of Vancouver and investigation showed an
abundance of both larva, and adults in two adjacent gardens. The source of introduction
was not determined. Two dustings of arsenate of lead were given, supplemented by hand-
picking by the owners. The pest appeared to be exterminated, but some adults may have
hibernated. Further inquiry showed that Professor Spencer had also had the pest reported
to him from Marpole this year, while Mr. Hopping, of the Dominion Entomological Branch
at Vernon, found it in Vancouver in 1934 and reported it to Ottawa. Next season these
locations will be examined again and measures taken to prevent spread of the pest. In the
meantime a circular has been prepared and distributed to the chief asparagus-growers and
to the Vancouver press. It is impossible to make an inspection of all backyard gardens in
the City of Vancouver, but with the assistance of the press much may be done to locate
outbreaks. While the pest is fairly easily controlled by arsenate dusts or sprays, several
applications are required through the season, thus adding to the cost of production. It is
therefore desirable to prevent or delay its spread into commercial  asparagus plantations. AA 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPLE-ANTHRACNOSE   (Neofabrsea malicorticis).
A series of experiments were conducted by W. R. Foster in co-operation with E. W. White
to test the efficacy of Bouisol as compared with the standard sprays of Bordeaux and Burgundy
mixtures.
Experiment 1—At Tanner Bros.' Orchard, Keating.    Variety, King.
Treatment.
No. of Anthracnose Lesions.*
Tree 1.
Total.
Check, no treatment.
Bouisol, 1.5 pints!	
Bouisol, 4.5 pints	
Bouisol, 3 pints..	
Bordeaux	
50
57
25
41
16
57
51
14
31
14
107
108
72
30
* Lesions on fifty twigs were counted on each tree.
t Pints of Bouisol is per 100 gallons of water.
Experiment 2—At Tanner Bros.' Orchard, Keating.    Variety, Belle de Boskoop.
No. of Anthracnose Lesions.*
Plot No. l.f
Plot No. 2.
Average.
210
138
87
71
50
252
141
92
72
49
231.0-f-3.7
139.5-1-2.2
89.5-1-1.4
Bouisol, 4.5 pints   	
71.5±1.1
49.5-+-0 8
* Lesions on twenty-five twigs on each tree were counted.
t A plot consists of five trees.
Probable error by deviation from the mean method.
The three following tests against the fruit-rot due to anthracnose were made at the
orchard of W. J. Jennings, Duncan:—
Experiment 3—Variety, Northern Spy.
Treatment.
Check, no treatment
Bouisol, 1.5 pints 	
Bouisol, 3 pints 	
Bouisol, 4.5 pints .___
Burgundy 	
Per Cent. Loss.
..__ 80.50
.__ 30.00
.___ 16.50
___ 15.00
....    31.50
Experiment It—Variety, Ontario.
Treatment.
Check, no treatment
Bouisol, 1.5 pints 	
Bouisol, 3 pints 	
Bouisol, 4.5 pints
Burgundy 	
Treatment.
Check, no treatment
Bouisol, 3 pints 	
Bouisol, 4.5 pints 	
Burgundy 	
Experiment 5—Variety, King.
Per Cent. Loss.
.__. 48.5
___ 25.5
___ 34.0
.___ 19.5
_._ 31.5
Per Cent. Loss.
.... 50.5
.... 52.5
._._ 31.5
___. 49.5
The results of one season's work indicate:—
(1.)  That Bordeaux is slightly more effective than Bouisol at the rate of 4.5 pints in 100
gallons of water. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 35
(2.) That Bouisol appears more effective than Burgundy and may be used instead, at the
heavier strengths, as a spray before the fruit is picked.
STINKING SMUT OF WHEAT   (Tilletia Imvis and T. triciti).
W. R. Foster, with the co-operation of H. H. Evans, of the Vernon office, and Dr.
McKechnie, of Armstrong, continued his investigation on the resistance of wheat varieties to
stinking smut.
Table 1.—Results from seed sown at Saanichton inoculated with smut collected in the
Okanagan are shown in the table below. The percentage of infected stalks is the average of
four plots each 1 rod long.
Per Cent.
Variety. infected.
American Banner  58.5
Burbank  67.0
China  63.0
Crail Fife   66.3
Dawson's Golden Chaff  69.9
Early Genesse Gean  68.2
Extra Squarehead  52.5
Foreign   87.9
Fortyfold   46.9
Fultz    76.4
Golden Coin  56.9
Gypsy   61.6
Harvest King  78.5
Harvest Queen Cl  72.3
Harvest Queen K  74.3
Imperial Amber  76.2
Jones Fife  71.5
Kanred   29.7
Kharkov    61.9
Leap    74.1
Mealey    64.5
Michigan Amber   71.8
Minhardi    39.9
O.A.C. 104  30.9
Pansar   _<_  50.3
Pool    80.1
Prohibition   65.1
Per Cent.
Variety.                                            infected.
Purple Straw  86.1
Red Rock 	
Red Wave 	
Red Winter	
Rocky Mountain ____.
Rudy 	
Standard Weibul	
Svea 	
Turkey Red Q	
Turkey Red W.	
  63.1
  65.3
     1.0
  76.1
  81.5
  56.8
  39.1
  52.8
     1.0
Zimmerman   80.9
Turkey X Minessa Leth.   29.5
Kanred X Bel. Buffum Leth.____ 38.5
Oro Leth.      2.3
Kharkov Leth. 1935  68.8
Karmant Leth.  73.9
Kharkov 22 M.C  35.1
Minturkey  66.5
Kanred X Minhardi   45.2
Ridit      0.3
Albit      1.0
Hybrid 128   67.4
Hybrid 143   73.3
Jenkins X Ridit     1.0
Hussar       1.0
White Odessa     1.0
Red Velvet Chaff  51.2
It will be seen from the above that Red Winter, Turkey Red W., Oro, Ridit, Albit, Jenkins
X Ridit, Hussar, and White Odessa are practically immune. Yaraslav is very resistant;
Kanred Minhardi, Svea, Turkey X Minessa, and Kanred X Bel. Buffum show some resistance.    The remainder of the varieties have greater than 40 per cent. smut.
Table 2.—The yield and percentage smut of different varieties of wheat grown at Armstrong in 1935.
Variety.
Treatment.
Smut.
Average Yield.*
Per Cent.
1.0
59.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.2
72.0
Inoculated    	
Inoculated 	
Inoculated _  	
Inoculated 	
Inoculated 	
Inoculated   _ -	
23.1
Ridit     _ __
62.6
48.0
Hussar  —	
Oro                                 	
66.4
69.5
Jenkins X Ridit  _ —	
59.0
59.1
* Yields estimated in bushels per acre.    Of comparative value only. AA 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The relation between temperature and stinking-smut infection and its bearing on seeding-
time in the Northern Okanagan.
Table 3.—Relation of temperature between seeding and seedling emergence to smut-
infection.    Compiled from various sources.
Temperature.
70-100	
Amount of Stinking Smut
 None.
55-70	
 Small.
50-55
            .        . Medium.
45 50
High.
40-45
Small to medium.
35-40	
_    None.
Table U-—The mean bi-monthly temperatures at Armstrong for August, September, and
October from 1926 to 1935.
Date.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
Mean.
Aug.   1-15  	
65
69
66
68
70
64
64
66
62
60
65.4
„    16-31  	
63
64
63
63
62
66
64
65
63
62
63.5
Sept.   1-15 _	
56
55
59
58
63
57
56
57
56
60
57.7
„    16-30 _  	
43
54
54
50
50
52
50
48
49
52
50.2
Oct.    1-15	
47
44
44
46
42
44
47
49
49
47
45.9
„    16-31	
45
46
39
42
42
43
40
41
41
41
42.0
Table 5.—The mean monthly temperatures at Armstrong for the months of August, September, and October from 1926 to 1935.
Month.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
Mean.
August   	
64
50
45
66
55
45
64
57
41
66
53
44
65
57
42
64
54
43
65
53
44
65
53
45
63
53
45
61
56
44
64.4
54.1
43.8
Table 6.—Precipitation at Armstrong for the months of August, September, and October
from 1926 to 1935.
Month.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
1933.
1934.
1935.
Mean.
1.23
1.33
1.67
1.30
1.46
1.70
1.24
1.40
1.67
2.67
1.78
1.66
0.47
0.37
1.95
0.44
1.82
1.91
1.70
0.91
1.60
0.31
2.26
4.07
0.41
2.75
1.24
1.04
0.73
1.92
1.08
1.48
1.94
Early and late seeding of wheat in the Northern Okanagan should reduce losses from
stinking smut considerably. Early seeding, particularly in August, when temperatures are not
favourable for smut (see Tables 3, 4, 5), should produce crops practically free from smut.
Unfortunately, in four out of ten years (Table 6) precipitation is not sufficient for seeding.
Nevertheless, as much seeding should be accomplished as early as possible when precipitation
does permit. Even seeding in the first two weeks of September (Table 4) should reduce smut
considerably. Often the temperatures during the last two weeks of September and first two
weeks of October are ideal for causing smut. Late seeding during the last two weeks of
October, particularly the last week, should produce a crop practically free, or with only a
small amount.    Occasionally, however, late-seeded wheat may be winter-killed.
WILT RESISTANCE IN CHINA ASTERS.
Wilt-disease of China asters, usually ascribed to the fungus Fusarium conglutinans,
variety callistephi, is a common disease throughout the coastal area of British Columbia, and
causes much annoyance and loss to both amateur and commercial flower-growers.    Strains of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 37
asters have been developed which it is claimed are resistant to wilt under the conditions where
they were developed. Three years' trial of one of these strains at Saanichton indicate that
this resistance does not persist here, possibly because a different species or strain of Fusarium
is concerned.    The following are the results of 1935 tests:—
Variety.
Total
Plants.
Died in Flats.
No. of Plants
in Beds.
Died in Beds.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
62
62
30.6
62
46.7
41
24.4
45
42.2
21
76.1
41
26.8
21
66.6
62
6.4
41
39.0
62
41
.    19.5
41
41
46.3
21
21
76.1
Deep Rose  .	
Early White Phlox
Pink   	
Deep Purple 	
Comet Lavender   	
American Branching Azure 	
American Branching Simple Pink-
American Branching White .	
An experiment to control antirrhinum-rust in snapdragons grown for seed, by weekly
sprayings and dustings with different fungicides, was rendered abortive by weather conditions,
no rust having developed up to blossoming-time, when spraying had to be discontinued for fear
of injuring the set of seed.
LEAF-MOULD OF TOMATOES  (Cladosporium fulvum).
The effects of vaporized sulphur in controlling this disease are shown by the following
observations in the greenhouses of one of the largest Victoria growers:—
Year.
Treatment.
Plants
affected.
Estimated
Injury.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
100
40
100
35
100
12
100
15
1
Negligible.
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
None . 	
None        	
Sulphur on steam-pipes 	
Sulphur   on   steam-pipes —	
Vaporized sulphur applied by  " nebulator '
Although there was not quite as much leaf-mould in 1935 as in 1934, the sulphur nebulator
used once a week appears to have been very effective. Another factor which may have had
some effect was winter-flooding, which was practised for the first time for the 1935 crop.
(W. R. F.)
TOMATO HYBRIDIZATION.    (W. R. F.)
An experiment was made to test the value of a first cross in tomatoes for increased vigour
and resistance to leaf-mould (Cladosporium fulvum). The result of the two crosses as compared with standard varieties is as follows:—
No. of
Plot.
Variety.
No. of
Plants.
Average Yield
per Plant.
Leaf-mould
Resistance.
Kondine —
Cornell F- X Kondine (Fj).
Best-of-all X Kondine (Fj).-
Pride of Wales  -
66
66
44
7.9
8.4
7.8
Susceptible.
Very resistant.
Susceptible.
Susceptible.
Each plot consisted of twenty-two plants.    The standard method of distribution was used.
In 1933 an Fs generation of a resistant tomato to leaf-mould was obtained from Cornell
University. This new variety proved to be resistant here, but was not a good enough yielder
compared with our standard varieties Kondine and Best-of-all. In 1934 this Cornell F5 variety
was crossed with Kondine. The Fi generation showed that resistance to leaf-mould was a
dominant characteristic. Selection will be made in F2 generation when segregation takes
place. :
AA 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Plant-disease exhibits were made for the Provincial Exhibition, Victoria, the Saanichton
Fair, and the Vancouver Grain and Seed Fair.
Mr. Foster continued his educational work on genetics and gave addresses on this subject
before the Victoria Poultry Association, Victoria Horticultural Society, Capital City Club,
Mount Douglas High School, and Saanich Jersey Breeders' Association.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST.
Max H. Ruhmann, B.A.
The Provincial Entomological staff during the year consisted of Max H. Ruhmann, Entomologist, and Catherine M. Bigland, Laboratory Assistant.
The winter of 1934-35 was quite severe in the Okanagan Valley, reaching a minimum
temperature of —25° at Vernon.
A high mortality was noted among the over-wintering larva, of the codling-moth; consequently the first brood of this insect was light this year. All the spray tests for the codling-
moth and the checking of results were conducted by Ben Hoy, District Field Inspector at
Kelowna, assisted by W. Baverstock, of Vernon.
Mealy Bug.—The spread of this insect is increasing in the Kootenays. It is now
recorded from Nelson to Boswell and Creston. Control experiments were continued this year
at Willow Point, Nelson. J. J. Campbell, of Willow Point, provided the spray-machine, team,
and one man for the experimental work, and Earl Hunt, District Horticulturist at Nelson,
applied the sprays.    The following sprays were used:—
Dormant Spray.—Plot 1, 4 per cent, all-over oil; Plot 2, 4 per cent, all-over oil plus
lime-sulphur 1-9.
Summer Spray.—Plot 1, 5 lb. soap, 1 pint nicotine sulphate 40 per cent., 80 gallons water;
Plot 2, same spray as Plot 1, repeated in ten days.
A new contact spray material named Polvo having been received for test, a third plot was
set aside and this spray was applied, using the formula as recommended by the manufacturers—
namely, 1 lb. Polvo, 4 lb. soap, 80 gallons water.
At Boswell, A. Mackie, having written for a recommendation for the control of the mealy
bug, was advised that we were applying a 4-per-cent. dormant oil spray in our experimental
work at Willow Point, but could not make any definite recommendations at that time.
We heard from Mr. Mackie in early May stating that the dormant oil spray had not been
successful with him. We made a trip to the Kootenays as soon as the roads were open to
examine the effects of the dormant sprays. Arriving at Nelson on May 21st, we proceeded to
Boswell on May 22nd and examined Mr. Mackie's orchard, and found a heavy infestation of
mealy bug which did not appear to have been materially reduced by the dormant spray.
Visiting the orchard of J. J. Campbell at Willow Point in company with Earl Hunt, we
found that very good control had been obtained with the dormant sprays on the experimental
plots and few live mealy bugs could be found on the sprayed plots. It was thought advisable
to apply a nicotine spray to further reduce the infestation on the experimental plots, and
Mr. Hunt was instructed to apply this as soon as possible, using the formula: 1 pint nicotine
sulphate 40 per cent., 3 lb. hydrated lime, and 100 gallons water. This spray was applied on
May 27th, but it was later found to have been applied too late as oviposition had commenced.
Material brought to Vernon for observation in August, 1934, survived temperatures as
low as —25°, unprotected in the insectary. This material was destroyed at the beginning of
March to avoid any possibility of local infestation. Adult material brought from Willow
Point to Vernon on May 24th, 1935, had commenced oviposition on reaching Vernon on May
27th. On June 1st fifty egg-sacs were transferred to sprouted potatoes in the laboratory for
observation and the balance of the material destroyed.
Eggs had commenced to hatch by July 2nd, but no young mealy bugs were observed to
leave the egg-sacs during July. The first migration observed was on August 3rd, after which
all the material was destroyed.
Mr. Hunt was notified of the progress of development at the end of July and instructed to
commence the application of the summer sprays as soon as full migration of the young mealy
bugs commenced. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 39
Due to ill-health at this time, it was impossible to assist in the application of these sprays
or visit the sprayed plots in time for satisfactory examination of the results. Mr. Hunt, however, later reported that of these sprays the Polvo spray was the least satisfactory. The soap-
nicotine sprays, although better, had not given satisfactory control.
In co-operation with the Dominion Entomological Branch more extended experiments will
be conducted during 1936, both at Willow Point and Boswell.
Alfalfa Semi-looper (Autographa californica Speyer).—This looper was more abundant
than in 1934, records being received from Interior points from the boundary north to the Fort
George District, causing considerable damage, particularly to the commercial lettuce-crops at
Armstrong.    Parasitism on this insect was very heavy.
Raspberry Fruit-worm (Byturus unicolor Say) was reported as destructive to raspberries at Grand Forks for the first time. This beetle is quite common in the Okanagan
Valley, and caused considerable injury to raspberry plantings in some years.
Bruce's Measuring Worm (Rachela bruciata Hulst.) has been quite prevalent in some of
the Okanagan fruit districts for the last two years.
Scarabid Beetle (Euphoria inda L.).—Several adult specimens of this beetle were received
from Grand Forks for identification. This species was determined by Ralph Hopping and is
a new record for British Columbia. The larva, live in rotting wood. The adults are known
to attack fruit and sometimes cause considerable damage. The five specimens received from
Grand Forks were found to be eating the crown of carrots.
The Pit-making Oak-scale (Asterolecanium variolorum) is a new record in the Interior.
Specimens were received from Trail and were found on a young oak-tree which was seriously
injured by this scale.
OTHER ECONOMIC INSECTS NOTED DURING THE YEAR.
The Tarnished Plant-bug (Lygus pratensis L.) caused damage in some orchards, but was
not a general pest this year.
The Strawberry-weevil (Anthonomus signatus Say) was reported as injurious to small
strawberry plantings at Lavington. This insect is generally distributed throughout the Okanagan. There are no large commercial plantings of strawberries and this insect is rarely
known to cause trouble here.
The Tent-caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubn.) has increased greatly in the Interior.
The Box-elder Bug (Leptocoris trivittatus Say) was not as much in evidence as usual.
The Onion-maggot (Hylemyia antiqua Meig.) showed some increase this year.
The Imported Cabbage-worm (Pieris rapes L.) was above normal and caused some losses.
The Cabbage Root-maggot (Phorbia brassicx) showed some increase on its various host-
plants.
The European Red-mite (Paratetranychus pilosus C. & h .) was abundant in the northern
Okanagan orchards.
The Lesser Apple-worm (Laspeyresia prunivora) was less in evidence than for some years.
Leaf-hoppers (Typhlocyba rosm and other Species) have been increasing in the orchards
and are causing concern to the growers.
Flea-beetles were quite abundant in the field and cold-frames. Young tomato-plants and
cruciferous plants were severely affected.
Aphids were more plentiful than for some years. Aphis rosm and Myzus cerasi were
particularly in evidence in the Lower Okanagan.
As Secretary of the Publications Committee of the Okanagan Agricultural Club, articles
and timely topics were collected and prepared for weekly distribution to the following Interior
newspapers: Kamloops Sentinel, Armstrong Advertiser, Country Life, Vernon News, Kelowna
Courier, Penticton Herald, Nelson Daily News, and also by request to The Daily Province of
Vancouver.    A total of fifty-four articles was released during the year.
One radio address was given over Station CKOV at Kelowna on February 6th, the title
being " The Role of Insects in the Control of Insects."
A considerable amount of material was received from various British Columbia points for
identification.
Seventeen smears from diseased hives were received for examination. Of these, sixteen
were found to be American foul-brood and one was negative. AA 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL APIARIST.
A. W. Finlay.
Bees wintered fairly well with no very low temperatures recorded in bee-keeping areas,
while consumption of stores was normal. Winter losses were at not more than 5 per cent.,
with the exception of certain districts in the Fraser Valley, where, owing to the heavy floods
immediately following the ice-storm of January, several apiaries in the Sumas reclaimed area
were completely drowned out and other losses of a similar nature reported where apiaries were
situated on low-lying ground. A short spell of fine weather during dandelion-bloom provided
sufficient nectar to replenish stores and saved many colonies on the verge of starvation at this
time.    This was followed by cool weather and a late spring.
Favourable weather during the latter part of May and most of June enabled colonies to
build up rapidly and strong stocks gathered considerable surplus, especially in the Interior
valleys, where, owing to a market clear of honey at this time, many bee-keepers extracted their
early honey to supply local orders. A wet week at the beginning of July checked the honey-
flow abruptly and the subsequent disorganization of apiaries through excessive swarming
destroyed the previous prospect of a record crop. Though the remainder of the summer was
fine and warm, nectar-secretion was very light, due, no doubt, to lack of humidity. In most of
the fireweed districts the plants grew tall and vigorous, but almost dried up at time of blooming,
so that little fireweed honey was secured.
A reversal of last season's conditions was noted on the delta lands at the Coast, where
less than 50 lb. per colony was secured, as against 125 lb. average of last year; while on the
higher lands north of the Fraser a better crop was obtained than last season. A considerable
loss of bees and colony-strength was reported from Okanagan districts from arsenical spray
poison during the month of July. This could be accounted for by the cool, wet weather at
the beginning of the month, when colonies were strongest in fielders and when, under such
weather conditions, the orchard sprays did not dry rapidly. In no case were any colonies
reported a complete loss from this cause, but the loss of field bees at this time seriously affected
the total honey-crop.
FIELD-WORK.
Apiary Inspectors commenced their work during the latter part of March, when, weather
permitting, they were able to check up on apiaries treated for disease the previous season.
This early work proved to be of especial value in the discovery and elimination of odd diseased
colonies that would have been robbed out and thus contaminated many others if left until found
during the time of systematic district inspection.
The number of apiaries examined during the season was slightly more than in 1934, while
the amount of disease discovered and attended to was a little less, showing some improvement
in the control of contagious bee-diseases. The usual methods of control were employed: All
colonies found affected with American foul-brood were either promptly destroyed by fire or,
in the absence of the owners, orders left for their destruction within seven days, except in the
case of light infections found during the early part of the season, when it was permissible to
save only the adult bees and destroy all affected material and combs by fire. The following
is a summary of the field-work done in this manner:—
Inspector.
District.
Examined.
A.F.B.
E.F.B.
Apiaries.             Colonies.
General ___ —
Okanagan. 	
185
255
220
383
47
1,287
1,780
1,167
1,976
348
97
105
25
180
22
32
J. F. Roberts     	
25
Lower Fraser 	
15
A. S. Homersham	
—
1,090
6,558
429
72
Complaints of bee-keepers moving their bees into new locations without previous inspection
were reported to the office of Provincial Apiarist and investigated. Several such cases were
found to be neglected  out-apiaries, not registered,  and  containing  diseased  colonies.    To DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 41
prevent a continuation of these cases prosecution of the worst offenders was proceeded with
in three districts in the Fraser Valley, and a conviction, with the usual fine and costs, for
violations of the " Apiaries Act " obtained in each case. The effect of the publication of these
cases was very noticeable in the immediate increase of applications for inspection of colonies
before moving them.
Apiary inspection was carried on by your Provincial Apiarist in several districts where
no resident Apiary Inspector was employed, and special calls from such districts attended to.
The various District Representatives of other branches of the Department co-operated as far
as possible in this work. Special mention in this respect is made of C. B. Twigg, District
Horticulturist, for his able assistance in the Creston area, where an outbreak of disease necessitated a thorough inspection of the district, and his help in handling a considerable number of
heavy colonies.
With the permission of the Honourable the Minister, a brief visit was made early in May
to the Province of Alberta for the purpose of co-operating with the Provincial Apiarist of that
Province and other bee-keeping authorities in investigating the cause of heavy losses in the
importation of package bees and queens from the South. A car-load of bees and queens was
met at Nelson and accompanied to Lethbridge, where other additional large shipments were
examined. Conditions on arrival and methods of introduction to hives at various commercial
apiaries were noted, and arrangements made for a final report on the checked shipments at
the end of the season. Much valuable experience was obtained and observations of various
methods of handling noted, which on final analysis may result in recommending changes that
will reduce the percentage of loss.
OFFICE-WORK.
The office of the Provincial Apiarist at the Court-house in New Westminster was attended
each Monday and Friday as regular office-days for visiting bee-keepers, etc., and as frequently,
in addition, as field-work permitted, for the purpose of handling correspondence, Inspectors'
reports, apiary registrations, and bacterial analysis of brood samples sent in for diagnosis.
The amount of correspondence handled at this office is constantly increasing; 813 letters were
received and 1,089 sent out. Microscopic examination of 150 smears and samples of diseased
brood-combs was made and reports sent out with instructions for treatment of these. Ninety-
one proved to be affected with American foul-brood, twenty-two with European foul-brood,
and thirty-five sac-brood or sterile, a detailed list of which is appended. Three hundred and
fifty-three applications for registration of apiaries were received during the year and thirteen
registrations cancelled, bringing the total number of registered apiaries to 3,421.
The compulsory registration of all apiary locations has been of considerable assistance
to the inspection staff, but the system of single registration is far from being satisfactory.
Most of the faults of the present system of registration would be eliminated by annual registration as established in other Provinces of the Dominion, and as this proposal is acceptable
and approved by the British Columbia Honey Producers' Association, particulars of the
proposed new system of annual registration of apiaries, with forms, etc., will be presented to
the Honourable the Minister for approval at an early date.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS.
The exhibit of honey and apiary products at the Vancouver Exhibition this year was
a remarkable improvement over that of last season and the largest and most attractive shown
for several years. Credit for this splendid display is due the exhibition management for their
generous increase in value of the awards, thus making it possible for exhibitors to stage large
displays that involve considerable labour and expense, and to the co-operative preparatory
work of the Vancouver Division, British Columbia Honey Producers' Association. There
were forty-five competitive entries this year, as compared with twenty-one entries in 1934.
Trade exhibits of bee-keeping equipment and supplies were an added feature and practical
demonstrations of handling live bees in a hive enclosed in a wire cage were a daily attraction.
The quality of the exhibits was excellent, but honey was not quite up to standards of previous
years in density.
A very fine honey display was exhibited at Victoria, where the quality was slightly better
than on the Mainland.    Vancouver Island honey from the vicinity of Cowichan Lake was of AA 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
premium quality and well displayed in an attractive staging around the band-stand. The
number of competitive entries was reduced, being forty-two, as compared to fifty-four of
last season. •
At the Imperial Fruit and Honey Show held in Cardiff, England, .on October 25th to
November 2nd, only two entries were forwarded from British Columbia. Of these, in Class 7,
the second prize was awarded to H. E. McCulloch, of Owl Creek, B.C., with 81 points, while
the first award went to the New Zealand Honey Control Board for 84 points. The lack of
entries to the Imperial Show from British Columbia was due to the lateness of the honey-crop
in ripening, and many intending entrants were unable to prepare their exhibits in time for
the overseas shipment that would reach England in time for the Fair.
THE HONEY-CROP.
The total honey-crop for the Province for 1935 is estimated at 1,291,242 lb., with an
average colony production of 56.9 lb. This is a decrease of 220,833 lb. from last season's
record crop. All other Provinces reported a decreased or less than normal crop this season,
with quality generally lower than normal. The local demand for British Columbia honey is
steadily increasing and prices are firm, with honey moving fairly rapidly, an encouraging
condition for British Columbia producers.
Bee-keepers' field meetings were attended in various parts of the Province; lantern
lectures and other addresses were given at Vancouver, Poplar, Chilliwack, Vernon, and New
Westminster.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK COMMISSIONER.
Wallace R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S.
The year 1935 saw weather conditions somewhat unusual in most parts of the Province.
In the Northern range country and Central British Columbia the temperature went quite low
during the early part of the year and the snowfall generally was heavy. The weather in
the Southern range country and the Okanagan and Boundary country was steady and quite
cold, with perhaps above the average snowfall. The coastal regions were proportionally
the same. The spring season all over the Province was quite late and cold, with but few spring
rains, and as a consequence early crops were poor; especially did this apply to the hay-crops
in the earlier sections of the Province about the Lower Mainland and Gulf Islands. Very
favourable summer conditions served to correct a great deal of this and few sections really
seemed to be suffering from a feed-shortage. The mild open autumn and early winter made
any possibility of a feed-shortage very unlikely. In the later sections of the Province such
as Northern British Columbia there were bumper hay and forage crops of course.
LIVE-STOCK CONDITIONS.
Calf, lamb, and swine crops were well up to normal in all parts of the Province. In the
range country the result of our educational programme is beginning to show, with a marked
reduction in loss of live stock, especially in late-weaned calves, from coccidiosis, hemorrhagic
septicemia, and necrotic stomatitis.
On the whole, stockmen seem to feel more optimistic, especially with the improvement
in prices in all classes of live stock, and prospects of even better prices.
HORSES.
The year 1935 saw the breeding of horses being considered by farmers in all parts of
the Province as a regular part of their farm activities. Naturally, the raising of horses
must always be confined to a particular type of farm or ranch where there is sufficient feed
to carry over colts and develop them to the age where they can go to market.
Again this year your Commissioner took care of stallion inspections for the Provincial
Department of Agriculture, and William McKirdy acted for the Federal Department under
the Federal-Provincial premium policy for stallions. This policy is doing a very great deal
to encourage stallion-men to keep a better class of horse, and the inspection of stallions is DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 43
doing much to impress upon the horsemen of the country the advantages of using good sound
stallions. During the year we lost the services of some good stallions to go outside the
Province, but I am pleased to report the importation by F. H. Wilmot, Vernon, of a choice
young stallion got by that good breeding horse " Forest Favourite " and two fillies sired by
that grand old sire " Riccarton Landmark." These horses were purchased in Manitoba and
should do a great service to the industry in the Okanagan, since they carry the very best
Clydesdale blood to be found in America or Scotland.
There have been inspected during the last two years in all twenty stallions under the
Federal-Provincial premium policy—thirteen Clydesdales, five Percherons, and two Belgians.
Of the thirteen Clydesdales, eight were given A classification, two given B, and three rejected.
Of the five Percherons, three were given Class B and two rejected. Of the two Belgians
presented, one was given a B classification and one rejected. The Class A horses are good
specimens of the breed and were found sound at the time of inspection. The Class B horses
are also sound individuals but lack perhaps somewhat in character or in size, but should leave
good average colts. All young horses that qualify in the A classification are required to
be inspected again at the end of a year as a further protection to the public.
The annual meeting of the British Columbia Horse-breeders' Association was held during
the week of the Vancouver Winter Fair. It proved to be a very well-attended meeting.
Many important subjects affecting the horse industry were discussed and definite action was
taken in many cases.    A move was made to include the light-horse men in the association.
Your Commissioner gave assistance to many horsemen during the year in such ways as
securing breeding stock and assisting to select commercial stock such as remounts, etc.
BEEF CATTLE.
Early-grass cattle has always been the market sought by our cattlemen, since these cattle
usually reach the market before the Prairie cattle and as a result hit the peak summer price.
Again, grain is not produced in commercial quantities within easy reach of our cattlemen,
which makes it more advisable for them to cater to this early-grass market. This year,
with the spring season being cold and late, prospects did not look good for our cattlemen, but
conditions were much the same on the Prairie, and British Columbia cattlemen consequently-
got their usual share of the early market.
There was quite a considerable loss in cattle in the spring, due to the weather warming
for a few days and the grass starting. Cattle were turned out, and then the weather turned
cold and raw and the grass did not come at all. Ranchers tried to feed their cattle again,
but with a taste of grass they refused to eat hay and quite a number died. The sudden change
in our Canadian export market from Great Britain to the United States is further proof of
my frequent contentions that immediately the market in the United States opens up no more
thought will be given to the British market, and much of the good effort expended on trying
to develop this latter market will be lost.
Prices improved definitely for almost all classes of cattle. Choice steers sold in Vancouver
during the week of July 6th, 1934, for $4.87 per hundredweight, and during the same week
in 1935 for $6.75 per hundredweight. During the week of September 7th, 1934, prices for
choice steers was $3.50 per hundredweight, and at the same date in 1935 these cattle were
quoted at $4.25 per hundredweight.
The production of beef cattle in many sections of the range country is changing to some
considerable extent as a result of our educational work. With a series of dry years up until
two years ago, malnutrition became a serious problem and laid the foundation for the development of many diseases. These problems coming at a period of low prices forced ranchers
to give more attention to improved production methods, and we were able to get many advanced
ideas applied to general ranch practice. Generally speaking, the range-cattle industry is
sound, but requires a good deal of direction in order to avoid costly mistakes, particularly in
the field of disease and nutrition. Your Commissioner has worked closely with the Field Crops
Commissioner in trying to improve feed and crop conditions in the ranch country. As a result
of some three years' work on winter-killing of alfalfa and the use of crested wheat-grass on
the range, we have secured some very encouraging results. A dependable feed-supply for
all seasons of the year is a primary requisite to success in the range-cattle and sheep industry. AA 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Good bulls for range-cattle improvement are essential, but there must be good general
ranch-management, with close attention to the health and nutrition of the herd, which of
course includes good range and winter feed.
BRANDS.
George Pilmer, Recorder of Brands, reports a substantial increase over the previous year
in the number of stock and hides shipped in 1935.    The particulars are as follows:—
Recorded.
Renewed.
Reissued.
Transferred.
Total.
Cattle-brands 	
183
76
302
182
94
51
19
9
598
318
Totals   	
259
484
145
28
916
Number  of licences  issued:    Hide-dealers,  36;    slaughter-house,  58;    beef-peddlers,  9.
A summary according to districts will be found in Appendix No. 9.
Inspection Service.—At Armstrong, Salmon Arm, and West Summerland the Provincial
Police took over the work formerly being done by Municipal Constables. Otherwise the
organization was the same as last year.
Prosecutions.—Convictions were secured as follows:—Illegal branding: Three, at Tatla
Lake, Kamloops, and Princeton. Unlawful killing: Two, at Vernon. Moving cattle without
inspection:   One, at Vernon.
Brand Commissioners.—No meetings were held.
Registrations and Renewals.—Registrations of new brands will probably be slightly down
this year. Renewals are coming in fairly well, the proportion of over 30 per cent, to date
being higher than last year.
Publications.—The usual annual supplement of the brand-book for 1934 was printed and
distributed, as well as the regular monthly lists of brands issued.
DAIRY CATTLE.
The dairy industry has suffered along with other branches of the live-stock industry.
With a milk scheme under the " Natural Products Marketing Act " operating in the Fraser
Valley, the Commodity Board reports considerably more money returned to the producer.
Along with improvement in marketing conditions must come improved production methods
if the industry is going to succeed. Intensive programmes dealing with a single phase of the
industry are always questionable. Improvements must include all known factors, otherwise
Nature steps in to take a toll in the way of disease losses. The prevalence of breeding-
diseases is perhaps our best indicator that too much consideration is being given to some
phases of production with not enough to the fundamental underlying principles. Breed
organizations should give long and careful consideration to the subject before insisting upon
sweeping legislation which must permanently affect the very foundations of the industry.
Great numbers of replacement dairy cattle still continue to go for slaughter each year,
many of them because they were rendered useless or unprofitable as dairy cattle on account
of breeding-diseases. These animals compete with the regular beef animal in the market at
no profit to the dairymen and of course to the detriment of the beef-cattle men.
During the year a few shipments left the Province mainly for shipment to the Orient.
This trade would seem to be a good and reasonably permanent one if handled properly.
Generally speaking, they ask for cattle of reasonable quality and production, but above all
they must be sound and disease-free. If the trade is to be developed to the fullest, more
attention also must be given to shipping accommodation; in fact, it may be found necessary
to ship in larger consignments and have a veterinarian accompany each shipment.
WARBLE-FLY CONTROL-WORK.
This work is making very satisfactory progress. In the Kamloops District, under the
supervision of George W. Challenger, several small areas were put under control for the first
time and three areas already under control were continued. These areas did not all receive
the usual number of applications.    The average number of warbles per animal in the new DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 45
areas was 6.38. The Upper Louis Creek area showed a decrease from 7.4 warbles in 1934 to
2.43 warbles in 1935. The dairy herds in the Tranquille area showed 0.3 warbles in 1934
after a three-years' work and this year showed entirely free. The beef section of the
Tranquille area was brought down to 0.9 in 1934, but these cattle unfortunately were thrown
into contact with a herd of heavily infested untreated cattle and as a result the count went
up to 3.4.
A new area was instituted in the Bulkley Valley, including some 350 head of cattle. The
infestation was approximately 0.8, which is quite low. This low infestation may be accounted
for by the fact that the primary infestation was of recent origin, likely coming in with a few
shipments of cattle from the outside. We feel that it is most advisable to clean up these
scattered areas before the fly gets well established. This area was under the supervision of
Donald Sutherland and James E. Manning.
Our first area was in the Deep Creek Valley and included some 400 head of cattle. After
two years of control-work this area is now down to a very low average and will no doubt show
entirely clean this year. The co-operation received from the cattle-owners has been excellent.
The area was supervised by H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm. Last year
another large area adjacent to the Deep Creek area was established, including the town of
Salmon Arm. The final detailed report of this work has not yet been received from the
supervisor, but it is believed that very good results were secured.
A new area has been organized in the Hatzic District, which will be our first area in the
Fraser Valley.    Work in this area will go forward early in 1936.
SHEEP.
Prices for wool averaged around 6 cents per pound in 1933; in 1934 the average was 9.6
cents per pound, and in 1935 the average was 13% cents. The marketing of lamb was placed
under a scheme constituted under the " Natural Products Marketing Act." The Sheep Board
directing this work did not get into operation until the season was well started, and marketing
on Vancouver and the Gulf Islands was abandoned by the Board. The Board, however,
operated at the large markets on the Mainland and reports good returns to the producer.
Quotations for lamb made independently from the Market Board showed prices in June at
the Vancouver market from 50 to 75 cents per hundredweight less than in 1934, with $8.75
being offered in early June and $7.75 at the end of the month. In July prices ranged about
25 cents per hundredweight less than last year during the early part of the month at $7.50,
but by the end of the month the price was still $7, which was about 75 cents over last year's
quotation. It was about this time that the Sheep Marketing Board took charge of lamb-
marketing more actively. In September last year prices ranged from $5.75 during the early
part of the month to $5.25 at the end, while this year open quotations were made at $6.50 in
early September and $6.12 at the end of the month.
The sheep-area work done on the Gulf Islands, chiefly centring around Saltspring Island,
is showing definite results in a greatly improved quality in the lamb being marketed. The
Salt Spring Island Sheep-breeders' show at Ganges this year was a strictly quality show and
certainly one of the feature sheep events of the year in the Province. The progeny of the
rams sent into this area last year did a great deal in strengthening the exhibit.
As far as sheep-raising in much of the range country is concerned, its future depends
upon whether or not some definite action is to be taken in the control of predatory animals,
particularly the coyote and the bear. Coyotes are so numerous in some sections that they
threaten to wipe out entire flocks, and even with the closest attention they reduce the breeding
flock and the lamb-crop to the place that even at a fair market price the rancher cannot remain
in business.
Sheep-killing by dogs still continues to be a problem, especially adjacent to Indian reserves
and towns, and particularly towns that collect their own tax. During the year up to the end
of December compensation was paid on 202 sheep, while last year the loss was 199 sheep.
Compensation was paid on 193 chickens, 6 turkeys, and 2 goats. Last year compensation was
allowed on 122 chickens and 159 turkeys. The total compensation for 1934 amounted to
$1,315.15, while this year it amounted to $1,096.15.
The Williams Lake Fair Association has launched out on a much wider basis than
former years.    They established themselves at their new permanent location adjacent to the AA 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
stockyards, and while the buildings were not all completed at the time of the exhibition the
accommodation was very much improved. They should have when completed equipment and
accommodation to be rightly proud of. This year's show was a distinct success. Plans,
however, are under way by the executive to take care of little details of organization designed
to make next year's show one of the best live-stock and agricultural events of the year.
Range-sheep diseases are beginning to be a problem. Your Commissioner some three
years ago, with the co-operation of the Department of Lands, organized a programme to
eradicate foot-rot on the range. Good progress was made, but if the disease is to be held in
check some changes will have to be made in the method of attack. Nutritional diseases,
certain so-called diseases such as " twin-lamb pregnancy disease," etc., require attention.
SWINE.
There has been a general awakening of interest in swine-raising in British Columbia,
coming largely out of the better price being paid for pork for the last year or so. But British
Columbia still continues to be an importer of swine, chiefly from the Prairies. The increased
interest in swine made itself generally evident during the spring of 1935, and it reached its
peak for the year during December, as shown by the prices being paid for breeding stock.
If farmers follow the usual practice they will most likely be well stocked and producing
heavily about the time that pork prices are ready for a sharp drop, which of course will mean
that they will once more sacrifice their stock, including their good foundation blood lines.
I suppose no practice does more to destroy the quality, type, and uniformity of our hogs than
this shortsighted practice.
It has been the policy of this Branch to so organize the industry as to get away from this
as far as possible. Rushing into the hog business and rushing out again will always of
necessity apply on farms or ranches where they are not properly equipped to carry on the
business of swine-raising. In other words, such farms can only produce swine at a profit
during years of good to peak prices. These are not the places where we wish to encourage
swine-raising, but rather on farms where they can with intelligent management make even
a small profit at bottom prices. It is only such farms that can hope to compete against the
cheap pork from the Prairies. We hope to get a sow or two placed on all such farms, and we
are trying to prepare these farmers, while prices are still high, for that period of low prices
and encourage them to retain their good breeding stock at least as a working foundation.
This can only be done providing they follow the most economical methods of management
and production. This includes a low investment in buildings and equipment, consistent of
course with good practice, good feeding methods, which must include of course as much cheap
feed as possible, such as home-grown grains, pasture or green forage, surplus dairy products,
and any other feeds that may be available at a price in keeping with the price of the finished
prodhct. And of course one of the most important requirements is good vigorous disease-
resistant stock that is capable of making rapid economical gains.
We still have evidence of much swine-disease being present on the Prairies. It is quite
evident that it offers British Columbia swinemen the opportunity to compete, providing they
do not use this imported stock for foundation breeding purposes. In spite of repeated warnings
from this office, swine-breeders continue to buy this stuff. This still unnamed disease can
easily put our swinemen out of business as it is putting many Prairie men out of the business.
It presents itself as a chronic pneumonia, with the germ of hemorrhagic septicemia being
present in nearly every instance. This germ along with some others are only secondary
invaders and the real cause has to be sought otherwise. Your Commissioner has some very
definite ideas of the possible primary cause, but until some further observations can be made
it is not advisable to comment. It is encouraging to find that where our general programme
of breeding and management has been followed out there has been a marked improvement.
This Branch, working in co-operation with the British Columbia Swine-breeders' Association, was able to place some 100 gilts on farms in the Fraser Valley as well as quite a number
in the Okanagan Valley, the Kamloops District, and the Cariboo and Interior of the Province.
In the Fraser Valley the British Columbia Swine-breeders' Association contributed the services
of a fieldman to assist this Branch in locating breeding stock and in contacting farmers in
a position to take such stock. Your Commissioner, working with the fieldman for the Swine-
breeders' Association, checked over the gilts  and the available boars  and  endeavoured  in DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 47
every way possible to assist farmers who purchased these sows. In as far as possible, these
gilts were located in areas so that boar service would be readily available. This Branch is
planning to follow up this initial endeavour with further direction, so as to, in as far as
possible, ensure success to the breeders. We hope to make every one of these men permanent
swine-raisers.
Our junior swine-improvement work established some few years ago has proved a very
profitable endeavour for these young men. We have car-load shipments coming from these
centres where before scarcely any hogs were raised. The Salmon Arm, Enderby, and Chilliwack Districts have profited considerably from this work.
JUNIOR LIVE STOCK CLUBS.
There were in the Province the following junior clubs:—
Swine—                                                                                                1934. 1935.
Number of clubs        9 10
Total membership     88 84
Number of pigs exhibited  176 168
Calf-
Number of clubs      21 24
Total membership  197 218
Number of calves shown  197 218
Poultry—
Number of clubs      31 25
Total membership  216 203
Prize-money for Swine Clubs amounted to $178.08, with the Provincial and Dominion
Departments of Agriculture and the local organization contributing equally.
Prize-money for the Calf Clubs amounted to $661, with the Provincial Department of
Agriculture contributing one-half of the prize-money and the local organization contributing
the other half.
Poultry Club prize-money amounted to $150, contributed entirely by the Provincial
Department of Agriculture.
The Department gave support to the Sheep Club sponsored by the Kiwanis Club of New
Westminster. >
Gradual improvement in organization of junior clubs can be reported, with certain
modifications to be instituted for the coming year. When your Commissioner took over this
work little or no attention was being given to anything except the final placing of the entries.
As a result of our work we have but very few juniors to-day who are not taking really active
interest in their particular project and their entry.
The future of club-work might be considered hard to anticipate; but it is safe to say
that there is a danger of it getting beyond its proper place in the scheme of agriculture.
Your Commissioner has had experience with this work in Western Canada for well on to
twenty-five years and has found that there are very definite dangers to be avoided.
British Columbia was again represented at Toronto by a dairy-cattle team, a swine team,
and a poultry team. The British Columbia dairy team, Leonard Zink and Leslie Coulter, of
the Chilliwack Calf Club, placed second in very keen competition, which is a most excellent
placing. The swine team representing British Columbia was Ronald Carman and Ray Annis,
of the Chilliwack Swine Club, and they placed sixth in extremely keen competition. The
Province was represented in the poultry'project by Donald Young and Frank P. Hawkins,
of the Armstrong Poultry Club.    This team placed second in keen competition.
A preliminary elimination contest was held in the Fraser Valley and the winners met
the winners from the other parts of the Province at the final contest held at Armstrong during
the week of the Interior Exhibition.
GENERAL.
Your Commissioner has been called upon to do considerable field-work in different parts
of the Province in connection with general live-stock improvement-work and general live-stock
disease-work.    A trip was made into the Okanagan and Boundary country and another trip AA 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
into Central British Columbia. Both these trips were most profitable and a good amount of
foundation-work was done which it is hoped can be followed up next year.
The special live-stock circulars prepared by your Commissioner have had a very wide
distribution and have greatly extended the services of this Branch. Several more of these
publications are under preparation dealing with timely and urgent subjects. The work of
preparing this material is considerable, since to be of value to the farmer it must contain the
best possible information, the latest findings of science, and the whole must be presented in
popular form easily understandable.
Your Commissioner, as a member of the British Columbia Feed Standards Board, spent
considerable time with other members of the Board in the gathering of material and finally
publishing Circular No. 53, " Feeding of Farm Live Stock in British Columbia."
Also, as a member of the Provincial Marketing Board, your Commissioner has had a
considerable amount of additional work, but all this work has been most satisfactory and the
different activities have worked well in together to the betterment of the whole programme.
REPORT OF DAIRY COMMISSIONER.
Henry Rive, B.S.A.
The season has been fairly favourable to dairy production, but with extreme climatic
variations. Yields of dairy products generally will approach closely to those of the previous
season; in some minor respects slightly higher. While pasture, fodder, crop, and grain
returns differed considerably according to district, in general a fair supply of dairy feedstuffs
is on hand for the winter months. Field roots, generally, suffered greatly as a result of the
unprecedented cold weather at the end of October, and a shortage of mangels is to be expected.
Prices for mill-feeds have remained fairly constant. Prices for dairy products have strengthened little from the season preceding, though tending upwards.
DAIRY-FACTORIES.
During the year twenty-eight butter-factories, three cheese-factories, two condenseries,
one milk-powder plant, and one casein plant have operated in British Columbia. All have been
called on at regular intervals during the year and grading and testing practices in respect to
milk and cream purchased duly checked and scrutinized. The factories and milk plants of
the Southern Interior were attended to by F. C. Wasson, located at Kelowna; those of the
Lower Mainland by F. Overland, who resides in Vancouver. The plants of the Islands and
those of the Central Interior were also called on intermittently.
CREAMERIES.
The total of creamery butter manufactured during the year is quite close to that of 1934,
with a somewhat less favourable season. This represents with the farm dairy butter about
half of what is required in this Province for consumption annually. Increase in manufacture,
though gradual, is steady. Following are totals of creamery butter for the fifteen-year period
since the war:—
Lb. Lb.
1920   2,050,844 1928   3,691,468
1921   2,818,552 1929  3,677,335
1922   2,917,665 1930   4,142,551
1923   2,961,164 1931   5,438,305
1924   3,670,670 1932   5,183,495
1925   3,481,702 1933   5,025,539
1926  3,849,276 1934   5,962,883
1927  4,183,553
Creamery butter may be regarded as an index to the dairy industry. Its total production
varies in any season largely according to the winds of the spring, the midsummer temperatures,
and the annual precipitation. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 49
CHEESE.
A good increase in cheese made has taken place during the year, principally of Canadian
or Cheddar. Roman, Kingston, and Monterey continue to be made in small quantities. Farm
dairies, of which there are now several making cheese steadily, turn out Stilton, Cheshire,
Swiss Brick, several Italian varieties, as well as Cheddar and Camosun.
CONDENSED MILK.
The two condenseries on the Lower Mainland continue the manufacture of evaporated
milk largely for home consumption, but also for some foreign export. Prices are very slowly
recovering. Milk-powder largely from skim-milk is turned out in one factory, which intermittently also produces casein. No great fluctuations in quantities or prices of these articles
has occurred:
ICE-CREAM.
Due partly to weather, but also undoubtedly to better conditions, a fair ice-cream season
has been experienced. Several small new plants manufacturing for their own trade have
appeared in Vancouver.
HERD IMPROVEMENT.
This work, which is in the charge of G. H. Thornbery, continues with renewed vigour
since the low year of 1932-33. Totals of cows under test and of completed lactation periods
are steadily increasing. Average yields of butter-fat remain lower by several pounds, due to
a general lowering of feeding practice, with far smaller purchases of grain and mill feeds than
heretofore.
There are in operation twelve Cow-testing Associations, with fourteen routes employing
fourteen supervisors. The recording system in use to-day affords a great fund of information
which can be of the utmost service to members. The associations are in good condition-
financially and otherwise.
Questions of rates of payment and methods of collecting fees and of responsibility for
transportation of supervisors may necessitate calling a conference of cow-testing directors
that uniformity in all respects may be preserved among associations.
The compilations of dairy sires of the Province, which take considerable time of this
staff, have met an excellent reception. There will soon be ready for the press the " Fifth List
of Dairy Sires."    The modified Mount Hope Index will again be used.
With the advent of better times, the extension of these associations to the point where
a greater percentage of the cows of the country is under test is hoped for.
(For the list of associations, secretaries, supervisors, and subsidies see Appendix No. 5.)
CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCE COURSE.
The course for 1935 was held February 4th to 20th at the premises of the Associated
Dairies, 1170 Hornby Street, Vancouver. Eighteen registered, four for testing only. Ten
cream-graders' licences were issued. One is withheld until factory experience is secured.
The course for 1936 opens on March 2nd.
LICENCES ISSUED.
During the year fifteen applicants for testers' licences were examined. Seventy-two
licences were issued. Forty-six licences to cream-graders were issued. Three were single
licences; forty-three were combined cream-graders' and milk-testers' licences. To fifty-six
persons, firms, companies, or associations buying milk or cream on the basis of the butter-fat
content, licences were issued. All particulars relative to licences issued are on file in the
office of the Dairy Branch at Victoria, B.C.
VERIFICATION TEST.
One application for a verification test was received during the year. This was from
farmers (brothers in partnership) living at Dewdney, supplying milk to the condensery at
Delair.    The test was carried out by F. Overland, of this Branch. AA 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
MEETINGS.
Meetings at Creston, Lister, Kelowna, Salmon Arm, Armstrong, Chilliwack (2), New
Westminster, Marigold, Milner, Ladner, Cowichan Station, and Kersley were attended by
members of the staff.    Several radio talks were delivered on dairy topics.
PUBLICATIONS.
Dairy Circular No. 27, " The Fourth List of Dairy Sires," and Dairy Circular No. 28,
" Annual List of Certified Milk and Butter-fat Records," represent the publications of the
year.
FARM DEMONSTRATIONS.
At the request of the Creston Farmers' Institute, demonstrations of farm butter and
cheese making were held in Creston and at Lister, conducted by F. C. Wasson, Dairy Instructor,
and the writer. Attendance was not large (average about twenty-eight), but great interest
was shown. Dates were as follows: June 3rd, Creston, butter; June 4th, Lister, butter;
June 5th, Creston, cheese.
There may to-day, in this Province, be found a number of farm cheese-makers turning out,
although in limited quantities, various types of cheese of excellent quality. This phase of
dairying is worthy of encouragement.
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR.
Anson Knight, V.S.
No outbreak of disease amongst cattle has occurred to cause any serious alarm. A number
of infectious or contagious diseases have been reported from time to time, but these have been
promptly dealt with either directly through your staff or by advice given to stock-owners
towards the control of such diseases. The use of vaccines and serums has made it practical
for stock-owners to deal with a number of infectious diseases such as blackleg, hemorrhagic
septicemia, and such kindred diseases that may cause considerable loss if allowed to run.
Through advice of your staff such diseases have been kept in check by means of proper isolation, control, and vaccination.    A number of diseases dealt with are listed in this report.
BLACKLEG.
Reports have been received from police officers and stock-owners from time to time of the
outbreak of this disease. Advice has been promptly given, usually by wire, in the proper
methods of vaccinating against this trouble. Immunization against blackleg has proven
highly effective.
HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA.
This has been reported from the Lower Fraser Valley, points on Vancouver Island, and
also from the Interior. The use of serum as a preventive has proven very satisfactory, and
most stockmen adopt this method when once the disease is diagnosed as being prevalent in the
district.    The loss from this disease has not been serious during the past year.
INFLUENZA.
A minor outbreak of this disease occurred in the North Thompson and the use of anti-
influenza serum is effective in checking the spread of this disease.
PERIODIC OPHTHALMIA.
During the month of May it was reported that a number of cattle in the Pitt. Meadows
District were suffering from sore eyes and that the disease was spreading amongst the live
stock in that vicinity. A tentative examination was made of the animals and some 155 were
found to be affected with specific ophthalmia and keratitis. A number of the animals had
gone completely blind.    This disease is not listed under the " Contagious Diseases  (Animals) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 51
Act," but every instruction was given to the owners of the affected animals regarding the
treatment necessary. A system of isolation was put into practice and the disease was eventually cleaned up.
ACTINOMYCOSIS.
This disease is listed under the " Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act," but it is not
considered one of the active diseases. Some eleven cases were found in the Lower Fraser
Valley and a few cases throughout the Interior. In the earlier stages this disease can be
treated quite successfully either by surgical operation or the administration of iodine. In the
early stage of this disease the meat of the affected animal is considered quite suitable for
human consumption provided the head is destroyed, and such advice has been given the stockmen from time to time where this disease is found. In the advance stages, or when the animal
becomes emaciated through the progress of the disease, the owner is obliged to keep such
animals quarantined or have them slaughtered and buried. Owing to the small number of
cases discovered this disease has not caused any serious concern.
VAGINITIS OF CATTLE.
This disease has been known in the Province for some eighteen to twenty years. Like
abortion, it has caused farmers considerable trouble in breeding operations of their cattle.
Last year a number of herds were found affected in Central British Columbia and this year
a number of herds in the vicinity of Telkwa and Smithers were found affected. This disease
apparently runs a course and eventually will clear up and the animals become consistent
breeders. With respect to the herds that were reported last year advice was given as to the
treatment and handling, and to date we have not received any adverse reports from this
district. This disease was also quite prevalent throughout the Okanagan some eighteen or
twenty years ago and the advice given at that time has usually been followed as to treatment
of such cattle, and after a few months the animals resume normal condition and continue to
be useful breeders.
LUKEMIA.
This is a disease affecting the lymphatic glands of the animal body, the cause unknown.
One case was discovered in the Francois Lake area amongst a flock of sheep. I am rather
inclined to think that this particular case was somewhat due to dietary deficiency and not
liable to spread from animal to animal. Climatic conditions throughout the year may also
be a factor in affecting the mineral ingredients of the feed or pasture and so tend to produce
the condition mentioned.
MINERAL DEFICIENCIES.
All classes of domestic animals in some localities throughout the Province have a tendency
of late years to show that there are ingredients lacking in the feed or pasture. This is probably
more noticeable in the vicinity of the Peace River Block and-what is known as the Lake area
throughout Central British Columbia. It is quite a common sight throughout the Peace River
Block to note pigs suffering from lack of mineral in their feed and the tendency for dairy cattle
or other stock to chew bones, rags, rotten wood, etc. With pigs, enlargement of joints and a
paralytic condition was quite noticeable in a number of cases. The general advice given in
the Peace River Block and throughout the Lake area was to the effect that they should produce
more alfalfa or legume hays, at the same time making available lime, salt, and small amounts
of iron sulphate, and in some cases where soft-wood ashes are available to incorporate these
in the mixture. When this plan is adopted and the animals obtain the mixture at will, there
is a general improvement in their condition without entailing any heavy expense on the part
of the owner.
A trip was made into the Lake area at the request of a sheep-owner who reported considerable losses amongst his sheep, especially in the spring of the year. At the time of my
visit (September) no noticeable disease existed amongst the flock. I am strongly of the
opinion that after a long winter feeding on straight timothy-hay in this district the animals
die of toxic poisoning. In this case the owner was advised to endeavour to provide a mixture
of hays consisting largely of legumes, oat-hay, and roots, but I doubt very much whether this
advice will be carried out as the man has become somewhat discouraged and is inclined to let
the sheep drift. AA 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FOOT-ROT.
This disease is causing the sheepmen of the Interior considerable concern. Dr. McKay
reports that some 16,000 head have been inspected for foot-rot and that there were a number
of sheep affected with the disease. The virus that causes this disease will probably remain
dormant around the yards and the deeper-seated tissue of the feet of the sheep until the spring;
then, with the onset of movement of the sheep and the warmer weather, favoured conditions
are provided for the active spread of the disease. It is advisable, when the sheep-owners have
their flocks on the home farm during the winter, to change the bedding or corrals to new
ground, thoroughly treating the sheep before putting them into new quarters, and making a
thorough examination before the sheep are allowed out on the road or range early in the
spring, and if any affected sheep are found these should be- isolated and treated before allowing
them to be moved. Severe winter weather in most countries is a check on the spread of this
disease, but it is just possible that the ground contaminated on the range by diseased sheep, if
covered early with a heavy fall of snow before freezing, may act as a protection for the virus
and preserve its life during the winter months until the warm weather makes it effective to
sheep passing over such areas.
Animals affected with foot-rot are depreciated in value to a great extent and the financial
loss to the owner is rather heavy. Sheep become so very lame that they refuse to feed or
travel on the pasture, and often they become emaciated and eventually die. If such cases
are taken in the early stages and thoroughly treated, it is possible to effect a cure and fatten
such animals for the market, but with the disease running rampant, with no effective means
of treating them on the range, the financial loss can be rather severe.
FUNGI-POISONING.
No losses were reported from the Hixon Creek area. The advice given in the past year
that the owners keep their cattle confined during August and early September, when mushrooms are at their most growthy stage, appears to have been effective. The loss from
mushroom-poisoning in past years has not been heavy, and the trouble was confined to three
or four farms situated in a valley in the vicinity of Hixon. All the losses appeared to occur
when the mushrooms were in their most active course of development.
PLANT-POISONING.
Only one reported case of losses from plant-poisoning occurred at Canal Flats, in the
East Kootenay, the plant responsible being Astragalus campestris. During my visit throughout the Lake area of Central British Columbia, where the majority of losses have occurred
from larkspur and water-hemlock poisoning, no cases were found or reported this year. The
owners, recognizing the danger of these plants, are taking precautions accordingly to keep
their cattle off such areas.
T.B. INSPECTION.
Your Inspectors have been active throughout the past year in attending to their duties
in the way of T.B.-testing and inspection of the dairy premises. There are constant requests
from stock-owners for T.B.-testing of their cattle. Health authorities of the cities are also
interested in having cattle T.B.-tested so as to safeguard the milk-supply to the cities. Owing
to these requests your Inspectors are obliged to cover a wide field. During the year, 1,052
premises were visited and 10,228 cattle tested, with 50 reactors (0.48 per cent.). It is gratifying to note that the percentage of reactors has taken a decided drop during this past year.
Summary of Cat
tie T.B.-tested.
District.
No. of Premises.
No. of Cattle.
Reactors.
Per Cent.
Reactors.
505
59
488
5,621
244
4,363
19
Nil
31
Total T.B.-tested
1,052
10,228
50
0.48
Details of tests will be found in Appendix No. 7. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 53
DAIRY INSPECTION.
In January of this year your Veterinary staff was moved to the Fraser Valley area to
carry out the grading of the dairy premises. Some three months were devoted to this work.
Between the time of the first and second visits considerable improvement was made in the
sanitary condition of the dairies and stables. Many that were listed as Grade C on our first
trip over the district were revisited and owing to improvement given a higher grading.
The dairies throughout the Province from which the cities draw their milk have shown
some improvement and we find that there has been an increase in the number of Grade A
dairies, as will be seen by the following summary:—
Summary of Premises graded.
No. of
Premises.
No. of
Cattle.
Grade.
District.
A.
B.
C.
Ungraded.
3,865
338
490
60
46,580
4,172
5,562
252
145
42
216
3
2,663
161
115
21
968
28
12
36
89
107
147
Totals.	
4,753
56,566
406
2,960
1,044
343
In Appendix No. 6 there will be found the list of districts visited, premises inspected, and
grades secured by dairy-farmers.
REPORT OF FIELD CROPS COMMISSIONER.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A.
The year 1935 has, on the whole, been a favourable one for field-crop production. The
only exception to this has been on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland, where it was
extremely dry during the earlier part of the season. In sections of the Interior where crops
frequently suffer due to insufficient moisture the crops were very good on account of ample
moisture-supply.
Hay-crops yielded abundantly, except on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland, but
much hay was spoiled due to wet weather, and this has reduced the percentage of marketable
hay considerably.
Grain-crops also turned out well. In sections of the Interior a large amount of smut in
fall wheat was reported. In the Fraser Valley oats generally yielded well. The pea-crop was
a disappointment and the yield was low. Root and potato crops suffered severely from the
heavy frosts at the end of October.
A large acreage of timothy was saved for seed in the Bulkley Valley and the Lakes
District in Central British Columbia, but the price has taken a big drop since last year, due
to the large crop in other parts of Canada and the United States.
A good crop of alsike-seed was threshed by farmers in the Prince George District and the
quality is of a high standard.    Alfalfa-seed production in the Lytton area was below normal.
B.C. FIELD CROP UNION.
The year 1935 was a satisfactory one for this organization. There were 166 paid-up
members, or an increase of 36 over the previous year. Thirty experiments covering various
kinds of crops were made available to the members during the year. In addition to this, a
number of tests were drawn up to meet the needs of some particular locality. Altogether 174
official experiments were actually conducted by the members. In addition to this, a number
of tests started in 1934 with certain perennial plants were continued.
The second annual meeting of the association was held at the time of the British Columbia
Winter Fair in Vancouver, December 10th. AA 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SEED-DISTRIBUTION IN PEACE RIVER DISTRICT.
In order to encourage the production of forage-crops and the growing of earlier maturing
varieties of grains, a limited amount of seed was distributed in the Peace River District
through the medium of the Farmers' Institutes. Half the cash price was charged for this
seed.    The kinds and quantities distributed were as follows:—
Lb. Lb.
Brome-grass      96 Red clover      60
Western rye-grass      60 Alfalfa    168
Bu.
Timothy       12 O.A.C. 21 barley      22%
Sweet clover      96 Legacy oats      16%
WEED-CONTROL WORK
Two Weed Inspectors—namely, Messrs. Cushway and Hingley—were reappointed temporarily for weed-inspection work in the Peace River Block. The work which these Inspectors
are doing is having a marked effect in preventing the spread of bad weeds in this area. In
the remainder of the Province weed-work was carried on through the co-operation of the
Provincial Police and District Agriculturists as in past years.
SOIL ANALYTICAL WORK.
A large number of soil samples have been submitted to the Provincial Analyst for
examination, and the results have been interpreted by Paul C. Black, who has been handling
this phase of the work. In addition to this, a number of soil analyses were made by S. S.
Phillips, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, by means of the Spurway(.method.
These reports, which have been carefully recorded, are all on file in the Field Crops Office.
CROP COMPETITIONS.
Three combined field-crop and cleaned-seed competitions were held during the year as
follows: Pemberton Farmers' Institute (potatoes); Langley Farmers' Institute (potatoes);
Delta Farmers' Institute (oats). A forage-crop competition with green oats was conducted
by the Stewart Flats Farmers' Institute.
ANNUAL SEED FAIR.
The annual Seed Fair was held in conjunction with the Winter Fair at Hastings Park,
Vancouver, December 9th to 11th. Classes were added for field roots and sheaves, but on
account of the severe frost in October the root entries were very small. This year's Seed
Fair, taking everything into consideration, excelled that of previous years. There were nearly
100 more entries than in 1934. Practically every section of the Province was represented.
The new section for bin-run samples of cleaned seed proved popular.
Moving pictures of various agricultural topics, which were shown during the fair by A.
Hourston, were greatly appreciated by all present. The Vancouver Exhibition Association
and the Dominion Seed Branch co-operated in staging this annual event.
DISTRICT SEED FAIRS.
Two district seed fairs were held, the one in conjunction with the Interior Exhibition at
Armstrong and the other at Vanderhoof. These fairs are of value, in that they act as feeders
for the Provincial Seed Fair held later on.
FIELD-CROP SEED PRODUCTION.
This office in co-operation with the Dominion Seed Branch has continued to render all
possible assistance to the production of field-crop seeds during the year. The chief kinds of
field-crop seeds being produced are timothy, alsike clover, red clover, and alfalfa. Timothy-
seed is largely produced in the Bulkley Valley and the Lakes District of Central British
Columbia; alsike-seed in the Prince George and Woodpecker areas; red-clover seed in the
Fraser Valley;   alfalfa-seed in the Lytton-Lillooet area and in the Okanagan.
Considerable assistance has been given in the purchase of suitable seed-cleaning machinery
for the Peace River District and other parts of the Province.    During the year three hand- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 55
cleaners were purchased for use in the Peace River District. The power clipper cleaner at
Francois Lake was replaced with a larger-sized Monitor. The former machine has been
turned over to the Houston Farmers' Institute. Assistance was also given to the Delta
Farmers' Institute in the purchase of a seed-cleaner for use at Ladner.
Figures showing the amount of seed produced during 1935 are not complete. For this
reason the 1934 statement appears below.
Lb.
Mangel       9,030
Turnip, swede       1,349
Alfalfa     40,000
Clover, alsike     12,000
Clover, red   260,000
Timothy    750,808
THRESHERS' RETURNS.
In accordance with the " Noxious Weeds Act," threshermen are required to submit reports
of the amount of grain and other seeds threshed during the year. Appendix No. 8, which
has been prepared, from threshermen's reports received in the Department of Agriculture,
by the Provincial Field Crops Branch in co-operation with the District Agriculturists and
Provincial Police, shows the amount of grain, legume, and grass seed threshed in British
Columbia in 1934.
It must not be concluded, however, that the figures as given are complete, as many
threshermen in several districts have failed to submit reports.
CHICAGO INTERNATIONAL AND TORONTO ROYAL.
Several exhibitors from this Province participated in the above exhibitions again this
year. At the Toronto Royal, both E. J. Down, of Woodpecker, and B. Young, of Koksilah,
were prize-winners. The former captured first prize with alsike-clover seed, while the latter
took first prize with both wheat and peas, and second prize with oats. Several British
Columbia growers were prize-winners in the certified seed-potato classes.
At the Chicago International, C. W. Stirling, of Sidney, captured first prize with large
yellow field peas and was named " reserve champion " in all the pea classes. W. G. Gibson,
of Ladner, carried off second prize in the hard red spring wheat class and Wm. Rogers, of
Tappen, was placed first in the Durum wheat class. Mr. Rogers was also selected for the
reserve championship in wheat. A number of other prizes were taken by British Columbia
exhibitors.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS.
During the year four Boys' and Girls' Potato Clubs were conducted in co-operation with
the District Agriculturists and local representatives. The clubs covered the following districts:
North Saanich, Langley, Tappen, and Grindrod. Considerable interest has been aroused
amongst the young people through the medium of these clubs and they are proving to be of
much value.
ALFALFA DEMONSTRATION PLOTS.
Alfalfa demonstration plots were established in the following three districts in co-operation
with local Farmers' Institutes: Rock Creek, Vanderhoof, and Nanaimo-Cedar. The tests in
the Rock Creek and Vanderhoof areas are under the supervision of the District Agriculturist,
whilst those in the Nanaimo-Cedar area are under the direct supervision of this office. The
plots are 1 acre in size. In the Rock Creek District ten farmers are conducting demonstration
plots. In the Nanaimo-Cedar District there are thirteen plots and in the Vanderhoof District
eleven plots.
With respect to the Nanaimo-Cedar test-plots, S. S. Phillips, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, reports as follows:—
" Each member conducting a test was visited during the season and, where necessary,
soil tests were made. A quantity of lime was purchased by the Farmers' Institute in the
fall and applied to the various plots. In some cases the seed was sown broadcast, whilst in
other cases the seed was drilled in.    Considering the very dry season, some very fair stands AA 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
were obtained. The best stands were secured when the seed had been sown early, the April
seeding being generally better than May. Some growers were very particular about their
plots, keeping down weeds and making careful observations. Unfortunately, a few were not
as careful as they should have been, due to lack of interest or lack of time. Some of the
growers are using these demonstrations to obtain certain information, such as determining the
value of inoculation, sowing with a nurse-crop, early seeding, and a comparison of seeding
broadcast with the drill method.
" Generally speaking, the project has been very successful and should do much to encourage
the production of alfalfa in this district."
Detailed reports concerning this demonstration are on file in this office.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
Your Commissioner wishes to express his appreciation to officials of the Federal Department of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, District Agriculturists, and the Provincial
Analyst for their co-operation during the year.
FEED-GRAIN CERTIFICATES.
Walter Sandall, District Field Inspector of this Branch located at Vancouver, has reported
that, in compliance with Tariff No. 145 of the Canadian Freight Association, 1,186 feed-grain
certificates covering various kinds of grain have been issued during the year. This shows
an increase of 320 over 1934. These certificates, which are available to consumers of specified
grades of grain, permit of the purchasers securing reduced transportation on their shipments.
The quantities of feed-grain brought to the Coast under this arrangement includes 31,612
tons of wheat, 7,070 tons of barley, 6,104 tons of oats, and 575 tons of mixed grain. The
importations have been fairly constant throughout the year, with the heaviest shipments
during the early summer months.
GRAIN SCREENINGS.
The District Field Inspector at Vancouver further reports that eighteen permits have
been issued to five different firms of feed merchants for the removal of grain screenings, and
that under these permits 367 car-loads of screenings were consumed. During the same period
seventeen feeder permits were issued to ten applicants, who removed approximately ten carloads of screenings. The total quantity of this type of material removed from British
Columbia grain-elevators during the year include approximately 11,000 tons of elevator-run
and more than 1,500 tons of Nos. 1 and 2 feed screenings for use in the Province. In addition,
there were approximately 5,500 tons of screenings exported to the United States.
REPORT ON SOIL-SURVEYS.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A.
The annual appropriation for soil-surveys in British Columbia available from the Dominion Government made satisfactory provision during 1935 for continued technical assistance.
During the early part of the year, when your Surveyor in Charge was incapacitated by serious
illness, the work was ably carried on by R. H. Spilsbury, Surveyor-Draughtsman.
APPLICATION OF SOILS AND PLANT ASSOCIATIONS TO LAND-USE.
An important feature of the work during 1935 was the use of past field experience in
the arrangement of data designed to show the relationship between soils, climates, and
different types of native vegetation, and the direct application of these factors to the best
use of Provincial lands. Hence the field-work accomplished in the Okanagan Valley during
the past four years forms a scientific base upon which a new land-use system for British
Columbia may have eventual development.
Soil, native vegetation, and climatic distinctions have been carefully studied within the
boundaries of soil-surveyed areas, which now extend from Salmon Arm to Kelowna, and
distinctions found have been compared with the effect of increasing elevation on the sides of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 57
Okanagan Valley. It has been observed that climatic distinctions have the form of broad
bands running east and west, and extending from south to north within certain mean-temperature limits at the same elevation, whereas identical climatic bands are met with in narrow
succession with increasing elevation, within similar temperature limits, on the valley-walls.
These findings compare favourably with similar researches and conditions in other parts of
the world.
These observations show that each climate carries its own soil-type and its own native
vegetation with sufficient distinction for the establishment of encompassing boundaries and
their location on suitable maps.
British Columbia is a country of mountain ranges, high plateaux, and deeply entrenched
river-valleys. Lands suitable for cultivation are restricted mainly to small areas around
lakes, in river-valleys, and on river flood-plains. In contrast to this there are great areas
on high plateaux, with soil, climate, and vegetation suitable only for range, and still greater
areas whose best or only use is forest. As a result of this varied topography and an important
glacial history, there is a wide range of soil, climate, and vegetation. By using these key
factors it is possible to create a natural land-use pattern for British Columbia based on sound
scientific principles, because each soil and vegetation type has its own economic value.
With the objective of providing an outline of what is involved by these findings, a
scientific paper entitled " Soil Survey and its Need in British Columbia " was prepared in
collaboration with Dr. D. G. Laird, Associate Professor of Agronomy, University of British
Columbia, and submitted for your consideration.
THE UNDERDRAINAGE OF IRRIGATED LAND.
In the course of general soil-survey a workable explanation of the geological origin of
Okanagan Valley soils has been achieved. It has been ascertained that the soils of this region
are transported and of glacial, stream, and lacustrine origin. The influence of a great lake,
which once filled the valley to a high elevation, is evident in the stratification or horizontal
layering of undisturbed parent materials, which often slope in the general direction of the
present lake-basin. Above this stratified parent material is the solum or area of plant-roots,
which ranges from 1 to 6 feet in thickness.
Seepage-water originating from main canal or ditch leakage, overirrigation at higher
elevations, natural sources, etc., has been found to move within the horizontal stratification
referred to above, or on top of the same when it is tight or impervious. Where an outlet is
denied there is an upward movement,into the region of plant-roots, with disastrous results in
areas where orchards are thus affected. With due regard for these facts, underdrainage
systems should theoretically be placed within or on top of this horizontal stratification, as the
case may be, and situated so as to intercept invading seepage-water.
In order to prove the workability of this explanation, two underdrainage problems were
undertaken during 1935 in co-operation with Dr. H. R. McLarty, Pathologist in Charge,
Experimental Farm, Summerland, who supplied additional help.
Satisfactory results were secured in each case, and the growers involved are establishing
new works in accordance with the findings.
A notable feature of these investigations was the uncovering of four previous but
ineffective drainage systems in one orchard and two in the other, which gives indication that
many growers are unable to solve their own drainage problems.
A simple but workable theory for the underdrainage of irrigated land in the Okanagan
Valley was therefore devised and proved during 1935 field operations. The project was undertaken for its educational values, and not with the object of making farm underdrainage a
regular part of soil-survey field practice.
SOIL INVESTIGATIONS.
Investigations with Glenmore clay, conducted by R. H. Spilsbury during the preparation
of a thesis in 1934, showed that the breakdown of soil-structure, creating a condition in which
plants cannot grow, is caused by the presence of certain sodium salts intimately associated
with the soil complex. Following this investigation gypsum was recommended as a soil
amendment for such conditions to the Extension Service. M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist, reports favourable first-year results from plot experiments at Vernon. AA 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
During 1935 adverse conditions were observed in lighter-textured soils, and arrangements
have been made with the Extension Service for trial plots in several cases where the penetration of irrigation-water is abnormally slow. Should these experiments prove successful,
gypsum may become a useful amendment for certain soil conditions in the Okanagan Valley.
Investigations with sulphur and sulphuric acid conducted in greenhouse soils at Kelowna
with the object of overcoming certain disorders in tomatoes indicate that these amendments
decrease alkalinity and give moderate increase in yield. Present opinion is that underdrainage
may produce similar results, and this will be tested in 1936. Boron has been used with success
by the Dominion Plant Pathology Branch for treatment of apple-trees; hence there is possible
boron deficiency in Okanagan soils. Preliminary tests will be made next year with greenhouse
tomatoes suffering from root-trouble.
FIELD-WORK.
During 1935 an attempt was made to complete the soil-survey of irrigated lands in the
North Okanagan Valley. Field-work commenced in May at Oyama and Woods Lake. Black
Mountain Irrigation District was next, followed by Ellison, Scotty Creek, East Kelowna, and
South-east Kelowna Irrigation Districts. Total acreage surveyed was 29,390 and scale of
mapping 400 feet to an inch.
A new record was made for acreage covered in one year with this scale of mapping, but
the whole objective was not achieved by December 1st, when short days and uncertain weather
made further field-work impracticable. In order to complete the survey of the North Okanagan, 4,000 acres remain to be surveyed at Benvoulin, near Kelowna. Detailed description of
the area surveyed during 1935 will be given in a preliminary soil-survey report, together with
suitable maps, which are now in preparation. The following figures tabulate work done in
the North Okanagan Valley:—
Acres.
Vernon Irrigation District  32,347
Mission Hill Area      4,164
Woods Lake and Oyama Area     2,790
Okanagan Centre and Winfield Area      9,596
Glenmore Area     7,868
Ellison and Scotty Creek Area      5,600
Black Mountain Area      8,960
East and South-east Kelowna Area  12,040
Total  83,365
In addition to the above, areas at Salmon Arm, Peachland, and Wynndel have been surveyed. Work done with scale of mapping at 400 feet to an inch totals 97,792 acres. Such
work has been confined to irrigation districts or prospective irrigation districts.
OFFICE-WORK.
Each year about four radio broadcasts on soils and soil-surveys are prepared and added
to the programme of weekly agricultural talks given over Station CKOV, Kelowna. Two
short articles are prepared for publication in local papers each month, and several times a
year major articles on soils are prepared for farm-paper publication. By this means the
public is kept in touch with modern developments in the field of soil science and the present-
day trend in land utilization. An effort is made to produce at least one scientific paper each
year, arising from some discovery or application gained from field experience.
A scientific paper on " A Chemical Examination of Degraded Glenmore Clays " was submitted by R. H. Spilsbury to the 1935 C.S.T.A. Convention, Soils Group, held at Edmonton.
By means of press articles, articles for farm papers, radio addresses, and public lectures,
an effort is made to educate the public to regard the soil wealth and soil deficiencies of British
Columbia in their proper perspective. Subject-matter pertaining to climate, natural vegetation, soil origin, texture, and fertility is used so that this objective may be ultimately achieved. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 59
REPORT OF POULTRY COMMISSIONER.
J. R. Terry.
Outside the disastrous weather conditions which obtained during the last week in January,
and which were experienced throughout the Province, the winter was mild and favourable to
egg production. The cold spell of January brought havoc to practically all breeders for at
least the month of February. In the Fraser Valley particularly, the heavy fall of snow,
strong winds, low temperatures, followed by excessive rainfall, did tremendous property
damage to all. In some instances hen-houses were completely demolished and such fowls as
escaped alive were forced to seek shelter wherever it might be found.
This condition completely disorganized the early spring hatching operations. Many
hatcheries were delayed six weeks before the work could be again efficiently organized.
Spring was later than usual by about a month, and this had the effect of increasing egg
production for about the same period, allowing incubation-work to be speeded up. Grain
prices held firm, and in the case of wheat and by-products increases were recorded.
COMPARATIVE EGG PRICES.
The prices below are those paid to the producer and are averaged for the whole of the
ince.
Cents.
Cents.
1917 	
 41
1927 	
  29
1918 	
  50
1928 	
  29
1919
60%
1929 	
  30
1920 	
  571/2
1930 	
  24%
1921 	
  39V2
1931 	
  20
1922 	
  32%
1932 	
  15
1923
28
1933 	
  15
1924
32
1934
  15
1925 	
  32
1935 	
  16
1926 	
  30
BREEDING OPERATIONS.
The enforced rest from egg production brought on by the January cold wave had the
apparent effect of conserving vigour of stock during February and early March, with the
result that hatching averages were generally good throughout. There is no reason to doubt
that these could be improved if more rigorous culling was observed.
Incubation was continued later in the season than usual, but total production did not
exceed last year's output. The inability of egg prices to rise in proportion to rise in price of
feedstuffs, coupled with the bad weather, were the principal reasons.
Chick-sexing recorded continued increase, with the hatcherymen the principal operators.
The major portion of the work was again conducted by Oriental experts. A few white
" sexers " were also operating. The determination of the Japanese authorities in selecting
only a score or so of experts from thousands training for the work has undoubtedly led to the
belief that only Oriental workers are capable of tip-top accuracy in speed and correct " sexing."
It should be noted that in Great Britain classes for " sexers " are held and licences given only
to real experts by the governing body—National Poultry Institute, an official Government
agency. This action was forced on the authorities because of the fact that breeders were
being victimized by itinerant " sexers " without experience.
MARKET DEMANDS.
The consumer's preference during the greater part of the year was again for medium- to
small-size fowls—from 2% to 3% lb. in weight. Part of the demand for this class of fowl
was met by the increasing supply of " sexed " cockerels of the Leghorn breed and by the production of cockerels from the crossing of two pure breeds. These cockerels from breeds
adaptable to sex-linkage (a cross between White Wyandottes and Rhode Island Reds produces
day-old chicks in which sex can be determined by different colours of pullets and cockerels; AA 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
/
a black male crossed with Barred Plymouth Rocks also produces sex-linkage traits) make
excellent growth and are available as broilers at eight to ten weeks and as roasters from twelve
weeks onwards.
Quite a number of breeders in the Province utilize the mating of Game males with heavyweight fowls, principally for the holiday trade—Thanksgiving and Christmastide. Cornish
Game cockerels are used principally, but in some instances Old English Game, or Pit Games,
are used. The Cornish, whilst giving the heavier carcass, will not give such fertility results as
the other Games mentioned. The mating of a Game cockerel of about 5% lb. weight to large
well-bodied White Leghorns produces broilers, with excellent breasts from seven weeks on.
Three- and 4-lb. table-fowls from this cross, if well raised, will always find a ready market.
It should be realized, however, the matter of profitably producing table-fowls calls for skill
of a different character to that required for egg-production activities. Hatching operations
for table production has to be extended to a longer period than ordinarily obtains. European
experts hatch every month in the year, except possibly October.
Several times during the fall and early winter season large importations of live fowls
from the Prairies results in demoralized prices. Owing to unrestricted trade nothing much
can be done about the matter. Breeders, however, should always recognize the danger of low
prices from this source. Whenever local prices rise above a certain level, cheaply raised
Prairie fowls will certainly be imported. It has been recorded that stock from this source has
been " dumped " here regardless of prices received.
DISEASE PROBLEMS.
Despite assertions by some authorities that pullorum trouble among chicks constitutes
the principal cause of loss, the majority of complaints received and attended to were from
breeders with flocks suffering from some form of paralysis, or diseases other than those which
attack day-olds.
Again this past year visits were made to ranches where paralysis was present, and only
affected pullets were exhibited. The cockerels had been sold or disposed of immediately the
trouble appeared. It is still unfortunately true that in most cases the advice and remedy given
would be better appreciated if breeders were recommended to use drugs to effect a cure.
It cannot be too frequently stated that flocks showing more than a few fowls with paralytic trouble should not be used for breeding. The flock's resistance to disease must be built
up by the following methods: Elimination by continual culling of all abnormal or weak specimens; non-breeding of pullets, except in rare instances; by feeding regularly of sufficient
greenstuffs; cutting out entirely the feeding of drugs and forcing condiments; provision of
sufficient clean range for breeders and growing stock; and the recognition of other qualities
than mere egg production.
Coccidiosis outbreaks were reported throughout the summer and fall. The coincidence of
outbreaks of this disease with unseasonable rainy weather, especially where stock is kept on
old ground, is again noted. If it is true, as hunters and naturalists report, that with wild
life—animals and birds—where a greater concentration of stock occurs on too small an area
epidemics always ensue with great slaughter, then breeders should realize that less intensive
and more sanitary methods must be adopted.
TURKEYS.
Owing to the prices during the previous year being so ruinously low, the production of
turkeys was the lowest for many years. The cold and late spring took more than the usual
toll of young stock. From Empire and European advices it appears that the production of
this fowl was also reduced in these countries. The holiday demands for turkeys still point to
the fact that small-sized carcasses are still favoured.
The experiments of the Poultry Branch of Manitoba Agricultural College in its efforts
to produce a new turkey variety of medium size—10 to 12 lb.—is watched with interest. It
would appear that such a variety will shortly be on the market.
The majority of successful breeders still use the sun-porch method of raising young poults
for at least the first ten or twelve weeks. This method, providing proper arrangements are
made for shading the stock on excessive hot days, has proved successful in evading many of
the usual turkey-diseases. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 61
RABBITS.
An increase in wool-producing stock is reported. This has been caused by a stronger
demand, with resultant higher prices for the wool from English importers. During the past
year less complaints have been received from beginners, most of whom were expecting to get
rich quickly from wool production. The various associations and clubs throughout the Province
have held the usual shows and demonstrations. One or two organizations, formed for the purpose of marketing Angora wool, report increase in membership and better markets overseas
for products.
The Department again co-operated with the Vancouver Rabbit-breeders' Association in
publishing a breeders' directory, copies of which were distributed throughout the Province by
the District Agriculturists and our own office.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS.
A total of twenty-eight clubs were organized during the year, with practically all located
in the southern portion of the Province. Rhode Island Reds were the favourite breed again
this year, with Barred Rocks and White Leghorns following. Hatches were again uniformly
good and healthy pullets and male birds the result.
Several Poultry Associations and Farmers' Institutes fostered clubs and secured free
settings for club members. At fall fairs and the large exhibitions club members exhibited in
special classes provided. At Vancouver, Victoria, and Armstrong special judging competitions
were held, the Armstrong fixture being held as elimination trial for the national competition
annually held at the Royal Show, Toronto. The Armstrong team, which journeyed to Toronto,
succeeded in winning second place in a class of four. The team was coached by local breeders
and fanciers.
WATER-FOWL.
A slight increase in these birds is recorded. The principal increase was amongst the
geese, and the favourite variety, Toulouse, showed the greatest ratio. Many sections in Central
British Columbia took up geese-raising, and inquiries for breeding stock were persistent
through early spring and summer months.
The popular varieties of ducks—Khaki-Campbells, Runners, and Pekins—all showed gains
in numbers. Many egg retailers now specialize in duck-eggs for eating and cooking purposes.
Generally these eggs fetch from 3 to 5 cents more per dozen. At this price buyers get real
bargains, because ordinary-sized duck-eggs average 30 oz. to the dozen, which means that in
comparison buyers get an equivalent of fifteen hen's eggs per dozen. Duck-eggs also excel
for culinary purposes.
BLOOD-TESTING.
Complying with Federal requirements, the Department inaugurated the operation of a
Flock Plan whereby breeders were enabled to get their fowls blood-tested for pullorum disease, so as to permit day-old chicks to be exported to Eastern Provinces. By an arrangement
with the U.B.C. and Federal authorities the laboratory-work was done by a Federal official at
the University Laboratory, Point Grey.
The inspection and culling work was accomplished by Department officials, Messrs.
Landon and Waby having been assigned to this work, additional to the services of the writer
and Messrs. Allen and Sandall. The breeders' birds tested numbered slightly over 41,000.
Many of these are small breeders supplying public hatcheries with eggs. With the exception
of one breeder, all the flocks were located in the Fraser Valley.
The Inspectors were favoured with seasonable weather, with the exception of very heavy
fogs, which handicEfpped transportation-work. The principal breeds tested were Single Comb
White Leghorns, Rhode Island Reds, White Wyandottes, Barred Rocks, and few flocks of other
breeds.
Many breeders spoke appreciatively of the benefits of the culling, which was the first
time this work has been done in a systematic manner. In most instances the birds were culled
for lack of size, vigour, and deformities. The principal diseases met were cankered vent,
active bumble-foot trouble, vent-gleet, and diphtheritic roup and colds. In testing some sections of 100 fowls there were no reactors, whilst others showed from two or three to fifty
reactors per hundred. AA 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
To Messrs. Waby and Landon (particularly the latter, upon whom the major part of the
work fell), Sandall, and Allen credit is due for the dispatch with which the work was so
conscientiously carried out.
DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS' ACTIVITIES.
In the following pages will be found abridged reports concerning the farming industry as
received from the several District Agriculturists.
In the Grand Forks District the growing of vegetable-seeds, particularly onion-seed, has
been an outstanding agricultural development, according to G. L. Landon, District Agriculturist. The activities of the District Agriculturist for Grand Forks have been curtailed
in that section of the boundary country owing to the fact that his services have been made
available in the Fraser Valley on poultry-flock approval-work during the closing months of
the year.
LOWER MAINLAND.
R. G. Sutton, B.S.A.
The season of 1935 will long be remembered because of unusual weather conditions.
The middle of January brought very cold weather with heavy snowfalls. This was followed
suddenly with heavy rain and ice storms, resulting in a complete demoralization of transportation and communications and severe frost and flood damage. This damage was most acute
in the Sumas area, but parts of Surrey, Ladner, Pitt Meadows, and Hatzic Districts also
experienced heavy losses.
In the Sumas District 143 head of live stock were drowned and large quantities of hay,
grain, seed, roots, and potatoes were ruined. In the other areas the loss of live stock was
practically nil, but hay and grain, roots and vegetables suffered. Through the district
generally there was a serious drop in milk production, due to flooded stables, interrupted
feeding schedules, and outbreaks of garget and other diseases, due to exposure.
Following the storm, conditions became normal, but the spring was late and seeding
retarded by two to three weeks. The early pai-t of the summer was very dry; then came
a period of rain, followed again by a prolonged dry spell lasting well into the fall. About the
end of October the weather again ran to extremes, bringing a week of heavy frost. This frost
caught and damaged all the fruit and root crops which had not been brought in. From the
middle of November the weather has remained normal.
Crop Conditions.—Crop conditions have been fair this year. There was some winterkilling of legume-crops during the cold weather, but not as much as was anticipated as the
heavy snowfall gave protection in some places. The late spring has reduced the growing
period for some crops and the dry summer has reduced yields of hay and roots.
Grain-crops seemed to suffer least, probably due to showers about midsummer during the
critical period in their growth. From reports at hand it appears that hay-crops yielded
average, or a little less, with grain-crops a little better than average. Potato-crops generally
showed effects of dry weather and are definitely below average. The silage-corn crop was
a little slow in starting, but with continued fine weather turned out very well. Root-crops
showed results of the dry weather, and then the early frosts caught them and 50 to 60 per cent,
of the mangel-crop is a total loss. Frost-damage to potatoes and other root-crops was not
as severe as in the case of mangels, but may interfere with the storage qualities.
Swine-producers have been encouraged this season by the upward 'trend of the market.
Their organization has done some extension-work in the district this year by way of placing
over 100 bred sows with farmers, in the hope of further developing the industry. As mentioned
in previous reports, however, it is believed that milk-marketing conditions will have a direct
bearing on this. Should the price of butter-fat show a tendency to increase, it is not likely
that hog production will increase; but if a strict quota system is enforced on dairymen, no
doubt a number will consider pigs as an outlet for surplus milk.
A number of litters farrowed during the cold winter suffered heavy losses, but with that
exception farrowing has been good, perhaps a little above normal. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 63
The lamb-crop is about up to average. Some of the very early lambs arriving during the
cold weather had a hard time, but those coming later on have done very well. The 1936 crop
has already started. Reports from Langley show some lambs arriving on December 8th.
This is about the earliest on record here.
Horse-breeding conditions continue at about the same level. In previous reports it has
been mentioned that there was some increase in the number of mares bred. This year that
increase has been maintained or slightly bettered.
Seed-promotion Work.—There has been considerable progress in seed production during
the year and an increasing number of men are becoming interested in this work. This refers
not only to the ordinary run of seed such as wheat, oats, and barley, but also to the more
specialized crops like vegetable-seeds. In the Sumas area the pea-crop has been seriously
menaced by the pea-moth. It is difficult to know just what can be done to control this pest,
but the matter is being investigated by the Dominion Entomological Branch. Red-clover seed
continues to be a main crop in the Sumas and Matsqui areas and some is being produced in
the Delta.
Flood Relief Work.—Following the disastrous flood in January, this office was called on
to co-operate with the Flood Relief Officer in making a survey of the districts affected, in
tabulating the amount of damage done, and in providing for the feeding and emergency
housing of the live stock. As the work in the Sumas area was completed, it was necessary
to visit points in Matsqui, Hatzic, Haney, and Surrey, where damage and losses were also
reported.
Junior Club Work.—Interest in this project appears well sustained as compared with last
year. The total number of clubs organized in the district last year was seventeen, while
this year they increased to twenty-four, with an average membership of nine. Of these
twenty-four, fourteen were dairy calf clubs; three were swine clubs; two were sheep clubs,
sponsored by the New Westminster Kiwanis Club. There were three poultry clubs, organized
through the efforts of some of the poultrymen of Langley District; and also two certified
seed-potato clubs, one at Langley and one at Chilliwack.
Of the calf clubs, some were pure-bred and some were grade. In all but two cases, the
number of animals shown was well over the minimum and came out in excellent condition.
The certified seed-potato clubs were organized in response to an appeal to include in the
club programme some of these who cannot keep live stock at home. On some of the small
holdings in the district live stock does not enter into the picture, but field crops do. The
response to this effort was very encouraging. The club at Langley worked with the Green
Mountain variety and that at Chilliwack with the Early Epicure. The majority of the
members have had their plots pass the field inspection, and if their crop passes inspection in
the spring they will receive certification. They already have orders on hand for the sale of
the crop if it receives certification.
Apart from being a success in this regard, the project has had the effect of making some
twenty young fellows in the district much better acquainted with the essentials of potato-
growing, with the requirements of certified seed, and with recognition and control of common
diseases.
In almost every case the results of these clubs were judged at the local fair, and where
that was not possible a club show was arranged at some central point.
Stock-judging Classes and Competitions.—In connection with these clubs a definite effort
is made to carry on judging classes. The classes are not restricted to club membership, but
the majority who attend are club members.
The size of the district and the number of clubs precludes the possibility of one man
carrying on all this work, so it is largely left to volunteer effort on the part of interested and
competent individuals in each community. Where such can be found, judging classes are
organized, a programme mapped out, and the greater part of the instruction is left to the local
leader. As the season advances, certain field-days are arranged at such points as Colony Farm
and the Agassiz Farm. To these all classes from the district are invited and extensive programmes of practice-judging are carried on.
In this manner classes were organized in Chilliwack, where the dairy-judging instruction
was almost entirely in the hands of Reg Unsworth, with Stuart Dixon assisting in swine-work.
In the Langley District Bob Blair and Miss McLure, of the Langley High School, carried on
the work. AA 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Interest in these projects was maintained by the possibilities offered at the judging contests which were held at Vancouver, Chilliwack, and Langley. In the competition at Vancouver there were six teams of three each entered as well as thirty individuals. The first place
was won by Langley, the second by Chilliwack, and the third by Point Grey. It was one of the
best competitions held at Vancouver in recent years, and was made all the more interesting by
supplementary contests in showmanship and halter-making. The contests were all well
attended and keenly contested.
In the junior exhibit section at Vancouver prizes were offered in the various classes of club
live stock, and in the majority of cases these were well filled and well contested. The Langley
Swine Club in particular made heavy entries and captured a large proportion of the prize-
money in the swine classes.
A feature of the junior section at Chilliwack this year was the club champion classes.
In these the best four animals from each club in the district were invited to attend and compete
for championship. In the majority of classes they made an excellent showing and competition
was keen.
At Chilliwack also the district elimination contest in swine and dairy projects was held.
Teams from Langley, Pitt Meadows, and Chilliwack were entered. When the results were
cast up, the dairy contest was won by two boys from the Chilliwack Calf Club and the swine
contest by two boys from the Chilliwack Swine Club. Some additional coaching was given
these four; then they were taken to Armstrong to contest the Provincial elimination contest,
where they were again successful.
On the conclusion of fall-fair work a programme of additional coaching and instruction
was outlined for these two teams. Again Reg Unsworth devoted a great deal of work to the
dairy team, while the coaching for the swine team was carried on by this office. The press
of other work and the scarcity of hogs, however, provided a serious handicap. These boys
entrained for Toronto on November 14th, and in the Dominion contest the dairy team won
second place with a total score of 78.6 per cent., and the swine team were placed sixth with a
score of 79 per cent.
These classes and competitions call for a good deal of work at the time, but they also
demand a great deal of preparation and clerical work both before and after. The complete
programme must be planned to the last detail in order that there may be no interruption.
Correspondence Course.—Believing that this Dominion contest offers wonderful advantages, no effort is spared in giving the young people every opportunity to prepare for it. One-
half of the possible points in the contest are awarded for the oral examination, and to
prepare the contestants for this examination a correspondence course was instituted. One hundred questions covering the field of dairying and the same number covering swine-raising were
prepared. Each of these hundred was divided into ten sets of ten each; then beginning about
May 1st one set of each was printed simultaneously by the local papers at Langley and Chilliwack and another set was released every two weeks. Those interested had only to look at
their local paper to get the questions of the course; then prepare answers and send them in to
this office for correction. The plan worked very well and a number of young people took
advantage of it.
B.C. Lime Committee.—Another major project carried on through this office this year
has been the work of the British Columbia Lime Committee. This Committee was set up
last March and consisted of a representative of the Dominion Seed Branch, the University of
British Columbia, and your Agriculturist, representing the Provincial Department. The
purpose of this Committee was to administer certain funds appropriated for the purpose of
giving a subsidy, or rebate, on transportation costs to farmers buying ground limestone for
application to the land. For some time it has been recognized that the soils of the Lower
Mainland were seriously deficient in lime, and it was hoped this subsidy would encourage the
wider use of lime on the land.
Rules and regulations governing the application of the subsidy were drawn up; also a
routine was set up in the office whereby applications were received, filed, then approved, and
cheques made out and forwarded. This has had the very satisfactory result of materially
increasing the use of lime throughout the district. The majority of the applications have
come from the Lower Mainland, where lime was most needed, but a number of applications
came from Vancouver Island. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 65
Up to date over 200 farmers have received the rebate, having purchased amounts of ground
limestone varying from 1 to 100 tons, and letters have been received expressing appreciation
of the reduction in price thus obtained. The total amount of subsidy paid out up to date
amounts to $788, representing 1,576 tons. The average tonnage per man works out at about
8 tons.
KAMLOOPS.
G. W. Challenger, B.S.A.
We had a very late cold spring in the Kamloops District this year. Heavy frosts
occurred during the months of April and early May and there was very little growth until
well on into the middle of the latter month. The weather warmed up in June and July and
frequent rains improved crop conditions, but made difficult the harvesting of the first crop
of alfalfa. August, September, and October were ideal for growth and harvesting. The first
winter conditions occurred the last week in October with snow and heavy frosts.
In spite of the backward spring the hay-crop was heavy in all parts of the district.
Harvesting conditions, however, were very unsatisfactory and very little No. 1 hay is available for sale. The majority of the hay will be satisfactory for stock-feeding and there is more
than sufficient hay in the district for this purpose.
Prices for No. 1 alfalfa were the same as last year, being $7 to $8 per ton in the stack
to the rancher or $11 to $12 per ton on the car.
Due to the frequent rains during the months of June and July, one of the heaviest grain-
crops on record was obtained on the dry-farming areas this year. Fall grains yielded from
1 to 1% tons per acre and spring grains from % to 1 ton. Fall wheat came through the
winter approximately 90 per cent, and there was hardly a failure in the spring grain. One
rancher in the Rose Hill area threshed 21 tons of blue-stem wheat from 14 acres.
There has been an improved demand for the local wheats and fairly heavy shipments of
this year's crop have gone out of the district, with prices ranging from $20 to $25 per ton
to the grower.
The local flour-mill is handling 400 to 500 tons of the 1935 crop at satisfactory prices.
Grain-crops under irrigation were satisfactory and' yielded on a par with the grain grown
under dry-farming conditions.
The potato-crop was approximately 75 per cent, normal, most of the yields being much
below average. Prices for early potatoes were more satisfactory than in 1934, but there has
been very little movement of the late crop to date. Some losses occurred due to heavy frosts
the later part of October.
Because of the late spring there was a very poor growth of grass on the open ranges.
The grass was short, but stock seemed to make satisfactory growth and finish in spite of this.
Summer ranges were better and stock cattle did exceptionally well in the timber this year.
Water conditions on the ranges were satisfactory. Most of the fall pastures are in good condition following a rainy summer.
Permanent pastures under irrigation proved very satisfactory, due to the very heavy
carrying capacity on these pastures when properly handled.
With the late spring and the shortage of grass, the beef did not finish up as early this
year as usual. While it is customary for ranchers in the Nicola-Kamloops-Ashcroft Districts
to begin shipping grass steers early in June, they were unable to do that this year and the
first shipments of grass beef did not move out until the first of July. Once the cattle were
ready the market was able to absorb them very rapidly and packers were able to handle the
cattle very much more satisfactorily this year than for the past several years. Heavy shipments took place during the summer and fall months and practically all of the available
market cattle have now been shipped.
Prices held very steady during the shipping season, starting out at 4% to 4% cents for
the first shipments and continuing throughout the season around the 4-cent figure. This is
fully a cent better than the ranchers were securing in 1934.
Due to the demand for export cattle early in the spring, those farmers and ranchers in
the district who grain-finished cattle during the winter were able to sell at a very satisfactory
figure, averaging 6% to 7 cents per pound on No. 1 steers.    Good profits were made by those
5 AA 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
men who grain-finished cattle, due to the large spread in price from the commencement of the
feeding period. The Western Canadian Ranching Company fed 100 steers at the Harper
Ranch and after figuring all costs, such as feed, labour, interest on investments, etc., were able
to show a profit of $38.64 per head. Wm. Wright & Son, Knutsford, purchased sixty head of
feeder steers in November. They averaged 900 lb. and cost them 2 cents per pound. They
grain-finished these cattle and sold them in March and April, averaging 1,200 lb. in weight and
brought 6y2 cents per pound. They estimate after feed and labour were deducted that they
had a profit of $30 per head. This district is ideally suited for winter-finishing and every
effort has been made to encourage the farmers and ranchers along this line.
Calf-crop percentages are reported up to normal and there was no serious disease outbreaks amongst the cattle in this district during the season. The ranchers in this district
are now well educated to the value of good bulls, strict culling, and improved feeding methods.
During 1935 there was a keen demand for agricultural horses. Several of the horse-
breeders in this district shipped horses to points in the Fraser Valley and Okanagan. Three
cars were also consigned to the Annual Horse Sale at Lacombe, Alta. Prices are in the
neighbourhood of $75 to $80 per head for sound, well-broken agricultural horses.
The farmers and ranchers generally are taking more interest in raising horses and registered heavy stallions have been purchased by individual farmers and horse clubs. In addition,
two Clydesdale stallions, owned in Salmon Arm, travelled in the Kamloops area during the
season.    There was also a Percheron stallion travelling in the North Thompson section.
It is quite evident, in visiting the different farms and ranches throughout the area and
seeing the number of colts being raised, that in three or four years' time we will have a considerable number of first-class agricultural horses available.
Added interest is also being taken in the raising of high-class saddle stock.
No additional range reseeding plots were laid out this year, but the plots laid out in 1932
and 1933 were studied closely at regular intervals.
Crested wheat-grass and Western rye continue to show great possibilities under interior
range conditions. Both of these grasses continue to make satisfactory growth under heavy
pasturing, produce seed, and have a tendency to spread to other parts of the range.
The value of range reseeding is clearly demonstrated in a 1-acre plot which was laid out
in 1932, under the supervision of this office, 5 miles south and west of Kamloops. This plot
was seeded in the latter part of April to a mixture of crested wheat and Western rye in the
centre of a very badly overgrazed area of some 200 to 300 acres. There was absolutely no
grass other than cheat-grass (Bromus tectorum). The field was infested with Russian thistle
and tumbling mustard. The soil was of a very gravelly nature with a tendency to alkalinity.
The preparation of the plot was as follows: The plot was harrowed once with a spike-toothed
harrow, seeded broadcast by hand, and it received one harrowing following the seeding.
A satisfactory stand was noticed early in the spring of 1933, which continued to improve in
1934, and this year there is a very excellent stand showing of crested wheat and Western rye
in thick bunches all over the plot. It is interesting to note that the weeds above mentioned
have entirely disappeared from the reseeded plot. I would mention also that this plot has been
grazed heavily each spring.
Taking the small cost into consideration of seeding this plot in labour and seed, and the
fact that the seed used, particularly crested wheat-grass, can be grown cheaply by the ranchers
themselves, I would have no hesitation in saying that it would be practical and economical to
reseed many portions of the overgrazed ranges of this district and secure very satisfactory
results.
Several of our farmers in the dry-farming areas are growing crested wheat-grass for seed.
A yield of 500 lb. of cleaned seed from 1 acre was reported from the Beresford District. This
plot was seeded in 1934 in rows and cultivated.
The Seventeenth Annual Bull Sale and Fat-stock Show was held at the Exhibition
Grounds, Kamloops, March 25th and 26th, 1935. There was a total of fifty-five pure-bred bulls
of the beef breeds entered at the show. All of the Shorthorn and Aberdeen-Angus were
supplied by British Columbia breeders.    The Hereford bulls were entered by Alberta breeders.
Champion Shorthorn bull was " Downsview Captain," No. 210,471, which topped the sale
of Shorthorns at $330. The champion Hereford bull was " Prince Domino 83rd," No. 87988.
This bull was the highest-priced bull of the sale, going to Quilchena for $380.    Prices for DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 67
Shorthorns and Angus showed an improvement over 1934, with Herefords averaging slightly
lower.    The following table gives details of the sale:—
Breed.
No. of Head.
High.
Average.
1934 Average.
1
29
25
$140.00
380.00
330.00'
$140.00
212.41
148.60
$85.00
224.83
104.56
With one of the largest entries on record, the Fat-stock Show held in conjunction with the
Bull Sale continued to receive the support of the producers and beef-buyers and again created
a record for Western Canada in the prices secured.
Grand champion car-load went at $9.80. The first-prize group of five brought $9. The
champion steer of the show was sold at 29 cents a pound. The following chart gives prices
and averages:—
Class.
No. of Entries.
No. of Head.
High.
Average.
1934 Average.
10
21
82
22
159
97
82
22
$9.80
9.00
29.00
14.00
$6.90
6.90
6.81 )
6.82 j
$6.20
5.88
7.01
Grasshoppers were considerably on the increase in the Kamloops Grasshopper-control
Area during the season 1935. The Control Committee met early in the season and laid plans
for the season's work. Poisoning operations commenced on June 6th and continued until
August 31st. As last year, the mixing-station was established in the City of Kamloops, being
the central point, and the various sections where grasshoppers were hatching out were
treated. One truck was used during the month of June, but it was found that this would not
cope with the work, so an additional truck was taken on during July.
The heaviest infestation occurred in the Lac Du Bois area as in 1934, with the Palmer
Range and the Harper Ranch being also heavily infested.
Work in the Nicola Grasshopper-control Area continued along the efficient lines of the
last five years. A heavy outbreak occurred in the Lumbden Commonage area, which was successfully treated, and trouble from this section should not be considerable next year. Towards
the close of the season it was found that there was a heavy late hatching in the Douglas Lake
area which will require treating in 1936.     Expenditures in the area were $2,113.13.
The Upper Louis Creek Warble Area, established in 1934, was treated again this year.
The following are the figures on the first treatment for this area:—
Area.
No. of Cattle
treated.
No. of Warbles
found.
Average.
Upper Louis Creek.
Upper Louis Creek.
467
321
1934
1935
3,475
779
7.40
2.43
These figures show a very marked reduction in infestation after one year's treatment.
A warble-zone was organized immediately adjacent to the City of Kamloops in the spring
of this year, and the following table gives the number of cattle treated and the average
infestation:—
Area.
No. of Cattle
treated.
Year.
No. of Warbles
found.
Average.
300
1935
1,915
6.38
We were able to secure approximately 100 per cent, co-operation from the farmers and
ranchers in the above district and they are very much interested in the treatment and results AA 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
obtained. It would appear that effective control of warbles can be readily secured in a given
area where the majority of the cattle are treated and reasonable care and attention is given
to the treatments.
CARIBOO.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A.
The water-supply both for irrigation and stock in the Cariboo District was plentiful in
1935 and reservoirs were a little higher than they have been for some years. The outlook
for the stockmen was somewhat more favourable and a much better feeling exists.
A few stockmen who fed cattle during the winter were able to cash in on the early spring
market at from $6 to $6.50 f.o.b. Cariboo points. It might be pointed out that grain within
the Cariboo always commands a good price, and it is just a little difficult to encourage more
winter-finishing, particularly as the feeding of live stock has been a losing proposition for
a number of years.
The bulk of the cattle did not begin to move until late September this year owing to the
backward season and grass having not matured sufficiently to put on that hard finish. Prices
offered were $3.75 for top steers, $3 for heifers, and $2 for cows. These figures show a
stiffening in the market of exactly $1 per hundredweight over the prices as paid last year.
On the whole, the demand for cattle was brisk and the market fairly active. The buyers
seemed to be anxious and keen to buy all the cattle they possibly could at the price. The
number of cattle marketed will exceed the figures of 1934. No doubt many took advantage
of the higher prices and have started to square themselves with their creditors. In general,
it may be reported that the feeling throughout the Cariboo has improved.
At this particular time a few cattle are being held on second-crop alfalfa, expecting
another lift in the prices shortly after the new year. This move is considered a fairly good
one, considering the decrease in the tariffs and in view of the fact that all the coolers are filled
at the present time.
A total of twenty registered beef bulls were brought into the district from the Kamloops
Bull Sale in the spring of 1935. A number of the cattlemen have purchased bulls privately
from Alberta and other parts of the Province. It would be safe to say that about seventy-five
registered bulls have been introduced during the year. This figure, however, is far short
of the number required. As a result of this new blood, cattle coming into the stockyards are
showing an improvement. The great demand has been for Hereford bulls. There exists,
however, a demand for some Shorthorn and some Aberdeen-Angus.
Four Shorthorn bulls under the Dominion Loaning Policy have been placed in the vicinity
of Quesnel. This office was instrumental in having these sires placed in the communities
where formerly only scrub bulls were kept. While the bulls are not strictly of dual-purpose
breeding, this six-year breeding programme will have its effect on the type of cattle, both in
beef and milk.
There was a slight decrease in the percentage of calf-crop for the whole district. This,
no doubt, was the result of the shortage of feed and late spring growth of grass. These
conditions also will no doubt have a marked difference on the percentage of the increase for
1936, and will also have a tendency to produce a late crop of calves.
There was a shortage of hay on a good many ranches during the early spring of 1935
and losses were sustained, both in calves and cows. It might be said that the herds were
turned out on the summer ranges in a thin condition. Very little hay was left over unfed.
For a period heavy snows covered the winter ranges and made feeding necessary and caused
a heavier drain on the hay-supply than formerly. The grass on the ranges suffered to some
extent with no rain coming until July 1st. To date very little feeding to the herds, except
to calves, has taken place. An open winter is anticipated. Some measures have been taken
to preserve the summer ranges by giving the weakened range a chance to recuperate. On the
Riske Creek range last summer cattle were held back in the timber to graze on peavine and
vetch.    This procedure has resulted in a marked improvement on this particular range.
The sheep population of the Cariboo and Lillooet Districts has dwindled. The large
band owned by Lord Martin Cecil, of the 100-Mile House, has been dispersed. Payne Bros,
and the Mound Ranch, in the Lillooet District, still maintain fairly large bands. It is safe
to say that this year the population of sheep within the two districts has fallen to about 4,000 •
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 69
head. Four car-loads of breeding ewes moved from the district this year. A large number
of farm flocks have been dispersed. The reason for all of this has been largely due to the
heavy killings from coyotes and bears, particularly the former. This pest has greatly
increased in the last two or three years and, along with poor prices for sheep, many have
pulled out from the business. There has been very little demand for pure-bred rams,
particularly in areas where coyotes are plentiful.
Pure-bred flocks are maintained by Yorston Bros., Australian, in Oxfords; R. Kinvig,
Williams Lake, in Suffolk; and F. Engman, Clinton, in Suffolk. The grade farm flocks are
made up pretty well of Oxford and Suffolk breeds, with a trace of Hampshire here and there.
Under the Marketing Board, lambs sold at 6% to 7 cents f.o.b. Vancouver. It would be
safe to predict that the lamb market will strengthen next year, probably to a point where
lamb will be a delicacy in many homes.
Poor prices for dairying products has caused a lack of interest in this particular business.
The average price paid by the Farmers' Cariboo Creamery Association, Quesnel, has been
about 21 cents per pound butter-fat. The demand for butter has increased tremendously
from the mining areas and this organization has had to meet this market by bringing in
butter from Alberta. The price of Alberta butter brought in from Edmonton via Prince
George has set the price of butter-fat. There are a number of farmers, however, who milk
a string of cows and who find the business not unprofitable even with the low prices.
Hog prices have soared to a point where quite a little interest is being taken the last
year in the industry. The mines during the last year have made a better market than will
be found at any time at the Coast, so much so that a number have been able to market old
sows at prices ranging from $25 to $35 each. The keen demand for pork from the mining
centres could not be taken care of by the Cariboo District alone, and during the year a
considerable amount of fresh pork has been brought in from Edmonton via Prince George.
The outlook is that there will be a substantial increase in the number of swine kept in the
mixed-farming communities. It might be well to note that the mining developments in the
Barkerville area have become permanent and stable.
There has been a marked increase in the value of horses in the Cariboo District, good
young farm-horses now commanding a value of around $125. Good saddle-horses are hard
to get. A good Percheron stallion was purchased from Alberta by the 150-Mile Ranch.
Several other Percherons were introduced. Several car-loads of horses for draught purposes
moved from the Cariboo in November. A splendid type of thoroughbred horse was brought
into the Chilcotin country to stand for a year. This horse, known as " Terrifier," has a
splendid pedigree, with several Derby winners behind him. This horse, no doubt, should
leave much fine blood in the country.
The poultry industry, while only a side-line, has received quite a boost "with the new
market for eggs and poultry products in general. Egg prices have been good locally all year
and a number of those engaged in the business have increased their flocks. Young fattened
cockerels sold at a premium. There was a slight decline in the number of turkeys raised
this year. Coyotes proved very destructive to them and prices are not very satisfactory.
A number of flocks of turkeys were affected by blackhead during the last summer. Some
field-work has been done in trying to encourage separate runs for chickens and turkeys.
Avian tuberculosis in the farm flocks is on the decrease. Better housing accommodations
are being given to poultry.
Coyotes are increasing everywhere in the district. In many cases in the small farm
flocks of sheep total losses of lambs were reported. Considerable damage has been done to
turkeys by these animals. Occasional raids by bear into flocks have been reported during
the year. The seriousness of this animal cannot be compared with that of the coyote, for
they can be shot more easily and only the odd one becomes a killer of live stock.
Live-stock Health.—During the winter of 1934-35 conditions were very favourable to
good health for cattle. For a number of years coccidiosis amongst calves on the feed lot has
given trouble. There is no doubt the heavy winter snows had a preventive effect. The fresh
snowfalls from time to time created new feeding-grounds. Considerable field-work was done
in encouraging the feeding of iron sulphate and potassium iodide as a preventive necessary
to this disease. In the early spring nercrotic stomatitis broke out, with some losses. This
office assisted in the treatments of the various herds where this disease was found. A number
6 AA 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of experiments were attempted in the feeding of a mineral supplement to range cattle. The
material used was the ordinary finely ground bone-meal. It was found that about 90 per
cent, of the herds suffered from a deficiency of phosphorus. Very few cases of poisoning
from poisonous weeds occurred last year.    The timber milk-vetch gave very little trouble.
Marketing of Live-stock Sales.—A very successful auction sale of cattle and sheep was
held during the fair, September 4th, 5th, and 6th. Three hundred and twenty-two cattle were
sold from the auction ring to about six buyers representing firms in Vancouver, and 315 sheep
shown at the fair were marketed through the Marketing Board for 7 cents f.o.b. Vancouver.
The average price paid for cattle at the fair was $4 per hundredweight. The total sales for the
cattle amounted to $12,485.68. Much more interest was taken in the fair this year. A number
of new contributors made their first entries. In the breeding classes of cattle and horses
the entries were very light. The breeding classes of sheep were well filled and very strong
classes were shown in most sections. The horticultural and agricultural display was rather
weak in numbers exhibiting. A decided improvement was noted in the swine exhibits, boars
of good type and brood sows being shown. The new site, being near the stockyards, was quite
an improvement over the old one.
A number of plots were put out with crested wheat-grass as an experiment for growing
hay on dry land, reseeding grazed-out areas, and as an attempt to grow seed of this type of
grass. A general field-crop plot was laid out at the 156-Mile House. This plot was sown to
two varieties of alfalfa, one to sweet clover, crested wheat-grass, and field peas. The field
peas unfortunately were not sown early enough and were frozen down before matured. The
growth was exceptionally good and a good uniform stand resulted. The legumes and the
crested wheat-grass showed promise of an exceptionally good catch. Nothing can be said
at the present time about their capabilities for producing forage-crops.
The grasshopper-infestation was somewhat more severe during the year and more widespread.    New outbreaks occurred in the vicinity of the 105- and 100-Mile House.
BULKLEY VALLEY.
Donald Sutherland, B.S.A.
A review of the agricultural industry in the Interior during the past year suffers, and
perhaps unduly so, when compared with events during the preceding year. It is due to the
contracting timothy-seed situation. Growers in the Bulkley Valley and Lakes area were
able, in view of crop-failures in other timothy-seed areas on the continent, to market their
large 1934 crop of seed at phenomenally high prices. This year, as an aftermath of the high
values of seed and a generally favourable season, the crop of seed harvested on the continent
is enormous. The market is sluggish, prices are down to 4 cents a pound, and there is faint
prospect of the sale of 1935 timothy-seed crop distributing the amount of cash (well over
$100,000) that it did following the sale of the preceding crop. In time the quantity of seed
annually harvested will be adjusted to meet normal requirements. Nevertheless, following
on a year of high prices and an eager market, the present outlook for the growers cannot be
other than dismal.
Aside from the timothy-seed situation, the growing season this year has not proven
favourable. Extensive frost-damage was done to fruit, vegetable, grain, and root crops all
over the area and particularly in the Nechako Valley. Seed-grain and seed-potatoes will be
scarce in the coming spring. There was also some fear of a feed-shortage. This, however,
is not regarded as being serious at the present time, following extensive outward shipments
of live stock this fall and a very mild month of December.
Despite the decidedly unfavourable outlook, considerable valuable extension-work was
undertaken during the year by visiting heads of various of your Branches. Results of these
efforts will not be immediate, but will prove of cumulative value as the truths and information
put forth become more generally recognized and accepted.
Following preliminary distribution of ten sacks of White Cross and Gopher oats, five
lots were returned for distribution this year, the balance being lost through frost or the
necessity of cutting for feed. The quantity returned was again distributed. Reports this
fall from three prominent farmers indicate that they were highly impressed with their results
and intend to seed the early variety, in this case White Cross, entirely. Adjoining seedings
of Banner and Victory oats failed to mature.    The demonstration attracted much interest, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 71
and it is only a matter of time until early varieties will be generally adopted in those areas
subjected to frost.
A pound of registered Ditmar's turnip-seed, also forwarded by your Field Crops Commissioner, was distributed amongst four prominent farmers. Reports from three of these
expressed their approval of that strain, stressing the evident breeding behind the selection
and particularly the flavour and cooking qualities. The fourth, who was a dairyman, was
interested only in yield and could see slight difference between this variety and the commonly
grown purple-top.    This test also aroused wide interest.
As the result of efforts put forth by Provincial and Federal officials, interest in the seeding
of legume-crops, and particularly in alfalfa, has become general, especially in the Nechako
Valley. It has been estimated that in the Vanderhoof area there are now 400 acres in alfalfa
and prospects of extensive seedings next year. The soil in that district is of a silty nature not
suited for seeding down to grass or hay crops. From results secured already it is becoming
generally accepted that alfalfa will do much to improve the texture and restore the fertility
of the soils there and remedy present difficulties encountered in providing live stock with
a more rounded feed ration.
Through departmental co-operation 110 lb. of Grimm alfalfa was divided amongst eleven
approved applicants. Requirements centred on proper cultivation of a seed-bed, stressing
firmness and shallow seeding, without a nurse-crop. Reports from these indicate that good
catches were secured by all, with one exception, where the seed was put on low-lying and
poorly drained ground.
A trial of commercial fertilizers, using ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulphate,
was conducted on timothy stands on the farm of C. Barrett, Barrett Lake. Results were very
striking and much interest taken by farmers over the district. The ammonium phosphate,
according to Mr. Barrett, almost tripled the yield of seed. As might be expected, the
ammonium sulphate promoted leaf and stem growth. The material was furnished by a
Vancouver firm, which each year purchases large quantities of seeds from farmers in the
Central Interior and is keenly concerned with the success of the growers.
Frost did extensive damage to fruit and vegetable crops. At Terrace the harvest of tree-
fruits was limited to one grower, J. K. Gordon, whose main orchard on the hill escaped frost.
He was able to successfully harvest and market about 1,200 boxes of apples, about 3 tons of
plums, and a quantity of sweet and sour cherries. Credit must be given him, however, for the
fact that his orchards receive infinitely greater care in the way of fertilizing, spraying, and
cultivation than do any of the others in the district.
Valuable work was contributed in the Skeena District by E. W. White, Assistant Provincial
Horticulturist, who spent a week at Terrace and adjacent points. Pruning demonstrations
were given and personal calls made on as many of the fruitmen as time permitted. Addresses
were given to local institutes at three centres on various phases of horticulture.
Although the live-stock industry has encountered numerous difficulties during the year,
the general rise in prices for live stock and products has resulted in releasing a greater sum
of money within the area than through the sale of any other group of farm products.
The season was marked by extensive outward shipments of stock, chiefly cattle, to the
markets of Vancouver and Prince Rupert. Shipments for the year up to December 1st,
according to returns supplied through the courtesy of various station agents, totalled over
1,200 head of cattle, 700 sheep, and a car-load of sixty-five hogs. Shipments of cattle were
about equally divided between the two markets. The majority of sheep were shipped to Prince
Rupert and the hogs to Vancouver. Shipments were necessary owing to financial stress and
to the fact that mature animals could not be held over longer without sacrificing quality of
meat-market requirements. In view of these extensive shipments it is not expected that the
year following will see as many head go to market. Should the price of cattle rise appreciably,
returns for smaller shipments will, however, yield much greater profits to the producer, owing
to the generally younger class of stock sold and correspondingly less labour and feed represented in shipments.
Extensive damage was caused to young stock and poultry through the depredations of
coyotes. The crop of turkeys was almost totally killed off. Numerous of the outlying ranchers
were entirely forced out of sheep-raising and a big loss reported in the calf-crop. In the
Ootsa Lake area considerable destruction to stock was reported as caused by wolves.    Owing AA 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to the periodic dying-off of rabbits and other natural sources of sustenance, the depredations
of the two pests have come to constitute a problem of economic magnitude to Interior stockmen.
Some definite action must certainly be taken in the near future to control any further increase
in these destructive animals and, if possible, to reduce their number.
Two problems peculiar to stock in the Interior are being stressed. These are centring on
the long winter with insufficient sunlight of the proper degree.of intensity. Right feeding
to supply the necessary vitamins and mineral requirements is emphasized as the solution to
many of the present difficulties facing stockmen.
A campaign was instituted in the Bulkley Valley amongst prominent dairymen to eliminats
warble-flies. The use of Deraten was introduced and results were highly gratifying. The
undertaking was carried on under the supervision of J. Manning, Cow-testing Supervisor,
now at Chilliwack.
The poultry and swine industry continues to lag behind. There is prospects of a revival
of interest, however, in these.
Effort was extended with the co-operation of club organizers in the area to maintain
club-work up to standard, despite the handicaps of scattered settlement and financial stress
amongst the farmers. The Terrace Swine Club, Bulkley Valley and Nechako Calf Clubs, and
a Poultry Club at Palling were continued. The Holstein Breeders' Association again contributed prize-money for the pure-bred Holstein stock and progeny donated to the Bulkley
Valley in 1933.
There are three factors that must first be met in the Interior before there is to be any
hope of a return to prosperous conditions in the industry. It is assumed that mixed farming-
is the generally accepted and recommended form of farming adapted to meet our local
conditions.    The factors referred to are:—
(1.)   A higher level of prices for agricultural products.
(2.)  Increased settlement in the Interior districts.
(3.)   Development of local markets.
The general tenor of the report in line with the seasonal conditions is not glowing. . It
should be pointed out, however, that farmers are developing an increasing interest in the
seeding of legumes, the use of fertilizers, and the production of hogs and poultry, all of which
indicate the adoption of more efficient farming practices. In addition, the people are not
discouraged and there is always the certainty of more favourable seasons to come.
SALMON ARM.
H. E. Waby.
Considerable headway is to be recorded in the use of Cyanogas through Farmers'
Institutes, and appreciation of assistance by way of departmental rebate on purchase of the
material is frequently heard. Whilst in 1934 it would seem that enough interest was not
taken in this work, 1935 showed a marked improvement, and if this work is continued benefit
will accrue to the farmers. Numerous districts show a marked decrease in gophers since the
use of Cyanogas. The Canadian Pacific Railway are now using Cyanogas for rodent-control
on parts of the right-of-way. An increased number of requests for gopher-killing demonstrations by the use of Cyanogas was received.
Economic Entomological Information.—For the past three years warble-fly control has
been carried on in the Deep Creek District and splendid success was obtained. In the spring
of 1935 the farmers agreed to take care of the situation themselves and practically a complete
clean-up has been made in the above district. A considerable number of cattle were added to
this work last spring; some 3,000 head in all were treated. The district treated extends from
Salmon Arm to Mara and back to Enderby from Grindrod. This work is being carried on
largely through Farmers' Institutes.
General Live-stock Information.—Dairy herds are being maintained at about normal, as
farmers realize that, although butter-fat prices have been low, it is good farm practice to feed
as much as possible of the surplus forage-crops, which in recent years have been in poor
demand. By carrying a fair-sized dairy herd a fair price may be realized for hay and grain
crops.
Sheep in some districts have been reduced considerably through the ravages of coyotes,
although prices for lamb and mutton were somewhat higher than for the year 1934.    Several DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 73
breeders in the Enderby, Salmon Arm, and Columbia Districts have had to cease operations
entirely owing to ravages by coyotes. The Columbia Valley, following their first car-lot
shipment of sheep and lambs last year, shipped another car-lot in June, 1935, and received
much better prices owing, largely, to acting on advice given on better selection and finish and
on shipping, if possible, to the earlier market.
Swine have proved one of the best side-lines for the mixed farmer for the past season
and fair prices were obtained. In Salmon Arm, Tappen, Carlin, Enderby, and Grindrod
Districts considerable improvement is shown both in quality and numbers and car-lot shipments
are steadily going out where none were shipped for several years previously. There is a
considerable increase in good-quality brood sows being retained in the above districts.
Horses.—There is apparently a decided shortage of farm-horses; many of the horses
now too old are about ready for replacement and small range horses, which up till recently
appeared to be of little value, are finding a ready sale in some districts.
Poultry.—Egg prices have kept up well owing, no doubt, to a decrease in production stock.
Farmers, however, are still showing a decided interest in care and management of better
flocks, realizing that where they are growing grain a good price may be returned by feeding
poultry. Considerable demand is now in evidence for sexed chicks, and it would seem
that should this demand continue country points will not be carrying large surpluses of
cockerels and prices for dressed poultry should improve. Turkeys are in good demand and
prices the best for several years. Owing to the turkey-shortage, all poultry prices show
a decided improvement, geese, ducks, and fowl being in fair demand at fair prices. Heavy
losses in turkeys, however, have been reported for the year 1935, no doubt owing largely to
the wet season.
PEACE RIVER AND PRINCE GEORGE.
Although the office of the District Agriculturist for the Peace River Block was transferred
to Prince George early in the year, the District Agriculturist retained his connection with
the agricultural activities in both districts throughout the year.
For the Peace River Block, James Travis, District Agriculturist, reports in part as
follows:—
" Abnormally heavy rains were experienced in the Peace River District during the year.
The precipitation record from April to November totalled over 15 inches, the month of July
being heaviest with 3.84 inches.    November snow was recorded at 18.08 inches.
" Harvest season was protracted by intermittent rains and damp spells of weather.
Much grain was cut very immature in August and early September. In consequence, average
yield is down and grades poor. Much tough and damp grain was threshed. Considerable
acreage was snowed under and is still in stook.
" There were several light frosts during September, especially in the western area. First
killing frost in the Pouce Coupe section on September 25th.
" Gardens generally very good. Some poor potato-crops were reported, probably on
account of virus-disease.
" Present indications (November) are that good seed-oats will be very scarce throughout
much of the Alberta section of the district, and even in the Peace River Block. Exhibition
grain is practically unobtainable. Owing to recent changes in the grading of Garnet wheat,
this variety is becoming very popular with the farmers of the Peace River District on account
of its consistent yields and superior grade compared with other standard varieties in low-grade
years.
" The abnormal flooding of rivers and creeks caused some alarm and many bridges were
destroyed. Anxiety for the safety of the local creamery, situated on the banks of the Pouce
Coupe River, called for the removal of machinery and equipment from buildings. The icehouse building was washed away.
" A series of swine meetings was arranged for the districts south of the river. These
were held during the early part of June. Co-operation of the Beaverlodge Experimental
Station staff was enlisted, also the Dominion Live Stock Branch, Edmonton. A projector
machine was used to illustrate swine husbandry in British Columbia. Messrs. Albright and
Godfrey, of the Experimental Station, gave the results of a feeding experiment recently
completed at the station.    Mr. Syrotuck, Dominion Live Stock Branch, dealt with the subject AA 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
' Selecting Breeding Sows.' Live hogs were assembled at each meeting-point and used for
demonstration.    Meetings were well attended and much interest was shown.
" Prior to returning to Prince George on June 18th, important dates covering fall fairs,
field-days, and District J Farmers' Institute Convention were arranged.
" Early in August a second visit was made to the Peace River District in company with
Dr. Knight, Chief Veterinarian. Cattle-testing was conducted as prearranged in the Sunrise
Valley District, with services extended to other districts on application. A week of agricultural
activities on the north side of the Peace River included attendance at Farmers' Institute Convention, field-day at Baldonnel, and fall-fair judging at North Pine and Fort St. John. The
last week of August was occupied with judging fall fairs at Progress and Groundbirch,
interspersed with cattle-testing, judging field-crop competition at Stewart Flats, and attending
field-days at the Wilde and Cowley farms, Willow Valley.   ■
" Satisfaction has been expressed by shippers of live stock with the results of business
transacted during the past year. The Dawson Creek Co-operative Shipping Association
reports shipment for 1935 as follows: 4,227 hogs, weight 875,790 lb., net value at Dawson
Creek, $57,469.51; 399 cattle, weight 381,650 lb., net value at Dawson Creek, $11,264.09; 97
sheep and lambs, weight 8,030 lb., net value at Dawson Creek, $208.69; making a total of
1,265,470 lb. for 1935, against 854,210 lb. for 1934, and net receipts to Dawson Creek of
$68,942.29 for 1935 and $43,585.48 for 1934.
" Net returns show an increase of about 58 per cent, over 1934 and tonnage about 48 per
cent, over 1934.
" Additions to shed-room affords accommodation for five car-loads of stock, with an
investment of over $1,100.
" It is estimated that above figures would be about 75 per cent, of the total volume
shipped from the British Columbia Peace River Block in 1935."
For the Interior section of British Columbia centring around Prince George, Mr. Travis
reports:—
" There is a feeling of optimism amongst the producers of the different branches of live
stock, despite the depressed prices which have prevailed during the past year.
" The movement of stock to Coast markets was slow on account of low prices prevailing,
especially for cattle. During April and early May local markets returned from 8% to 9 cents
for beef cattle. During the summer months prices dropped to as low as 3% cents live weight
for 3-year-old fat steers and only a limited quantity taken.
" As a general rule stock came through the winter of 1934-35 in good shape, but were at
least two weeks later in getting on to the range on account of heavy carry-over of snow and
late spring. This year cold weather and mid-October snow sent the stock into winter quarters
several weeks earlier than last year, but in good condition, thanks to lots of feed.
" Breeding stock is holding its own in numbers, with some small carry-over of aged cows
and ewes in anticipation of better prices during the coming year. Farmers are showing a
keen interest in negotiating for the purchase of good sires.
" There is a dearth of horses throughout this area. Customers are looking for teams and
singles weighing around 1,200 lb. A few sales of lighter animals have been made at from
$60 to $65 per head.    Good stallions are scarce.
" Potatoes are scarce and of poor quality. Heavy hay-crops were the general rule,
harvested and stacked without too much weathering. Due to early frosts, very little good
grain was threshed and there is a shortage of seed-oats and seed-wheat. Alsike clover,
threshed for seed, proved a profitable crop and two ear-loads went to Coast buyers.
" Returns from the seed shipments up to December 31st were $18,140.29, covering quantities as follows:—
Lb.
" Alsike clover   _89,349
Red clover   1,385
Timothy   15,100
Timothy and alsike mixed   27,619
Total   133,453 : DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935. AA 75
Junior-club activities in the Prince George District were revived during the year and a
District Seed Fair was held at Vanderhoof. In spite of the fact that the season proved
disastrous to grain-crops throughout many sections of the Central Interior, a fair number of
samples of threshed grain, grass, roots, and clover seeds, as well as seed-potatoes, were
exhibited in their respective classes.
CHAMBER OF AGRICULTURE.
With the object of co-ordinating agricultural efforts in this Province with those in the
other Provinces the British Columbia Chamber of Agriculture was formed during the year.
The original meeting for organization purposes was held in Vancouver in January, at which
time representatives of the several major agricultural associations in the Province met
together with a view to hearing discussions and reporting back to their respective associations
with recommendations. The provisional officers elected included E. D. Barrow, M.L.A.,
Chilliwack, as President, and C. A. Hayden, Vernon, B.C., as Secretary.
Later in the spring delegates from the British Columbia Chamber of Agriculture met
at Ottawa with members of the Canadian Horticultural Council then in session and with
delegates representing other bodies concerned with agricultural effort throughout  Canada.
After several months of preliminary negotiations a Dominion-wide conference of farm
leaders was convened in Toronto during the time of the Royal Winter Fair in November and
at this meeting a Canadian Chamber of Agriculture was formed. Major E. E. Hutton, of
Summerland, was appointed as a director representing the British Columbia organization.
AGRICULTURAL COURSES INSTITUTED.
For the purpose of providing an opportunity for farmers, and particularly the younger
residents in rural sections, to secure agricultural information during seasons when actual
farm-work is not pressing, short courses in agriculture were established in the Central Interior
of British Columbia this year. The first course was held at Telkwa, where the efforts of
District Agriculturists Don Sutherland and James Travis were well received by reasonably
large number of farmers and young people. The second course was put on in April in the
Prince George District, where the work featured soil studies and management. The general
interest, particularly with young people in this section, was also encouraging. The effort, if
properly followed up, should constitute a regular and valuable feature of extension service.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. B. MUNRO,
Deputy Minister. AA 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 3.
Greenhouse Survey.
Year.
1923 	
No. of
Growers
  120
Area.
Sq. Ft.
1,905,180
2,327,356
2,764,762
3,385,681
3,948,402
4,152,664
4,612,787
1925 	
._    162
1927 	
._    214
1929 	
  260
1931 	
  303
1933 	
  341
1935 	
  515
APPENDIX No. 4
Bulb Survey.
Bulbs.
1929.
1931.
1933.
1935.
Acres.
661/s
5
201/_
26%
5%2
3%o
13%
Acres.
84%
71/5
22%
3%
43
3%
2%
16%
Acres.
841/2
3Vl2
24%
2%
381/16
6%
47s
25%
Acres.
92%
4%
25y8
2%
Gladioli             ...    .
36
Iris (bearded)   — _	
Iris (other) _ _	
Other bulbs                             .     .
41/2
iy2
27-^16
Total bulb acreage:   1929, 159% acres;   1931, 200 acres;   1933, 2031/. acres;   1935, 209%  acres.
APPENDIX No. 5.
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia, 1935.
Name.
Secretary.
Supervisor.
Departmental
Grant.
Bulkley Valley	
Chilliwack, Route 1..
Chilliwack, Route 2..
Chilliwack, Route 3.
Comox Valley	
Dewdney-Deroche	
Langley	
North Okanagan.
Okanagan 	
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge.
Richmond-Ladney, Route 1
Richmond-Ladner, Route 2
Sumas-Matsqui. ____	
Surrey  _.
Vancouver Island  (South).
Oct., 1926
March, 1913
Nov., 1928
April, 1927
April,
Oct.,
June,
July,
April,
Nov.,
March,
March,
Nov.,
Nov.,
April,
1914
1930
1914
1929
1920
1925
1919
1930
1923
1924
1929
W. Billeter, Smithers..
W. S. Annis, R.R. 1, Chilliwack..
W. S. Annis, R.R. 1, Chilliwack.
W. S. Annis, R.R. 1, Chilliwack...
W. E. Mantle, Sandwick	
Mrs. S. M. Strachan, Dewdney	
B. J. A. Campbell, Murrayville	
B. H. Morris, Enderby  	
J. Spall, Kelowna _ 	
S. T. Rippington, Pitt Meadows 	
B. J. Smith, R.R. 1, New Westminster....
B. J. Smith, R.R. 1, New Westminster....
B. Stewart, R.R. 2, Abbotsford	
F. McKinnon, Box 11, Cloverdale	
R. Rendle, 1118 Johnson Street, Victoria..
A. H. R. Howell..
J. E. Manning.	
J. J. Andrews	
J. E. Manning.	
A. H. R. Howell..
J.  E. Wingrove...
A. S. Dixon	
T. G. M. Clarke....
H. C. Clark	
Wm. Rose :	
A. Johnson.	
Wm. Hooson	
W. E. Hawthorne
G. H. Medd	
D. S. Heelas	
R. A. Wilson	
G. Jess 	
G. G. Grimes	
$900.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
450.00
600.00
600.00
600.00
600.00 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 79
APPENDIX No. 6.
Dairy Premises graded, December 1st, 1934, to November 30th, 1935.
No. of
Premises
No. of
Cattle.
Class.
District.
A.
B.
C.
Ungraded.
Fraser Valley.
Agassiz  _ —        -- 	
159
292
3
1,098
139
19
61
55
9
11
73
12
163
11
177
13
6
268
249
532
15
6
22
31
385
24
32
2,246
2,688
55
10,305
1,089
254
1,163
926
198
87
929
135
2,116
133
2,810
217
49
4,441
4,315
5,223
330
49
158
515
5,242
595
312
1
4
50
1
1
5
4
32
6
6
8
3
1
7
4
12
90
118
733
32
18
41
47
7
6
50
3
136
5
99
8
1
224
229
417
2
1
18
26
319
20
13
42
150
1
352
57
1
18
8
1
2
21
7
27
6
54
5
12
14
109
5
5
1
4
59
7
26
24
Cheam View  	
Chilliwack  	
2
9
1
1
3
1
2
19
1
Ladner   	
Langley —
Totals  	
3,865
46,580
145
2,663
968
89
Interior Points.
51
38
27
18
26
36
64
49
29
475
313
89
142
114
979
1,080
540
440
7
3
11
19
2
14
5
3
22
43
47
27
8
5
9
2
1
2
1
22
25
27
9
21
2
1
Totals                        	
338
4,172
42
161
28
107
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.
30
52
69
5
12
15
64
2
218
5
18
279
598
648
19
91
76
906
24
2,768
9
144
9
9
14
4
44
1
121
14
4
16
23
2
2
5
2
59
2
4
6
1
1
13
27
32
3
6
4
18
1
37
Tofino             	
1
Totals	
490
5,562
216
115
12
147
Coast Points.
37
22
1
86
158
8
3
3
18
34
1
1
Totals	
60
252
3
21
36 AA 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 7.
Dairy Cattle T.B.-tested, December 1st, 1934, to November 30th, 1935.
District.
No. of Premises.
No. of Cattle.
Reactors.
Vancouver Island.
Comox and Campbell River..
Cowichan  .	
Ladysmith _	
Metchosin and distriet.
Nanaimo  	
Parksville 	
Qualicum 	
Saanich.	
Sooke  _
Victoria	
West Coast, Vancouver Island.
Totals	
Mainland Coast Points.
Buccaneer Bay	
Gibson's Landing..
Powell River.	
Central B.C. and Interior.
Central B.C..
Cariboo	
Peace River Block	
Pemberton Meadows..
Squamish _.
East Kootenay 	
West Kootenay 	
Kamloops and Similkameen-
Okanagan	
22
'    44
69
12
31
65
8
2
218
11
18
5
505
1
36
22
51
36
27
18
26
47
135
29
119
~488~
196
465
648
91
234
908
83
24
2,768
51
144
9
5,621
78
158
475
285
89
142
114
1,022
1,168
349
719
4,363~
Nil
1
1
1
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
11
Nil
5
Nil
19
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
19
2
Nil
Nil
Nil
1
5
2
2
~31~ DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 81
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APPENDIX No. 9.
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1935.
Cariboo.
Cattle. Hides.
Williams Lake    7,190 575
Lac la Hache, Soda Creek, and Quesnel        904 591
Clinton, Lone Butte, 100-Mile House, and Lillooet    3,246 547
Totals  11,340 1,713
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.
Kamloops and Chase      3,886 2,309
Nicola     6,179 994
Ashcroft and Lytton  ■ 1,810 499
Salmon Arm -       104 1,099
Totals  11,979 4,901
Okanagan.
Vernon and Lumby       343 2,747
Armstrong and Enderby        247 668
Kelowna       252 2,173
Penticton         104 594
Totals  946 6,182
Similkameen.
Princeton  424 445
Coalmont   70 208
Keremeos and Hedley         494
Oliver   782 524
Totals  1,276 1,671
South-east British Columbia.
Grand Forks and Greenwood  306 953
Nelson, Creston, etc.        2,428
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc.   82 1,637
Invermere, Golden, etc.   105 1,350
Totals       493 6,368
Central British Columbia.
Prince George, Vanderhoof, etc. 	
Smithers, Telkwa, etc.	
Burns Lake 	
681
495
457
350
490
Totals     1,628 845
Peace River.
Pouce Coupe, Fort St. John, Dawson Creek, and Rolla       877 213 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1935.
AA 83
APPENDIX No. 9—Continued.
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1935—Continued.
Totals compared.
•
1933.
1934.
1935.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
Cattle.
Hides.
10,614
7,460
1,319
172
929
1,926
4,472
7,841
7,585
2,259
10,103
9,781
1,628
273
1,838
1,806
4,250
6,068
4,214
715
11,340
11,979
2,222
493
2,505
1,713
4,901
7,853
6,368
1,058
Totals _.  	
20,494
24,083
23,623
17,053
28,539
21,893
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1B36.
1,075-136-7237 

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