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BC Sessional Papers

PART C. NORTH-EASTERN MINERAL SURVEY DISTRICT (No. 2). BY DOUGLAS LAY. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1936

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 .     NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). CI
PART G.
NORTH-EASTERN MINERAL SURVEY DISTRICT (No. 2).
BY
Douglas Lay.
INTRODUCTION.
In 1934, as in 1933, interest in mining was chiefly confined to gold properties, both lode and
placer, and real progress was made resulting in substantial increases in production in these
branches of the industry. This progress is reflected in the rapid growth of the new town of
Wells.    Interest in prospecting, revived in 1933, was also maintained throughout the year.
Stimulated by the rise in price of silver, work in excess of assessment requirements was
carried out at a few silver-lead-zinc properties and a car of ore was shipped from the Golden
Eagle group, Topley, by the owners.
For the first time in many years, interest was evinced in tungsten properties, at one of
which, the Hardscrabble mine near Barkerville, preliminary investigation was commenced.
Of considerable interest is the announcement by English interests, towards the end of the
year, of their intention to develop hydro-electric power on Swamp river.
Production from the district for the year is as follows: Ore, 32,912 tons; gold, lode, 12,400
oz.; silver, 5,861 oz.; lead, 5,556 lb.; zinc, 3,089 lb.; placer gold, 10,811 oz. Miscellaneous
metals, minerals, and structural materials produced had a value of $28,678. Coal production
for this district was 3,277 tons.
Lode-gold Mining.
Two interesting discoveries were made during the year—namely, the Patmore group near
Dorreen, in the Skeena section, and the Timber Line group near McKee lake, in the Horsefly
section.
In the Omineca Mining Division a number of small-scale operations were carried on by the
owners of properties situated near Usk, on Hudson Bay mountain near Smithers, on Dome
mountain near Telkwa, at Topley near Babine lake, and in the northern part of the Division.
In the Cariboo district, embracing the Cariboo and Quesnel Mining Divisions, steady expansion continued at the properties of Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Company, Limited, and Island
Mountain Mines Company, Limited.
The discovery of a highly auriferous pyrite replacement deposit in limestone on the property
of Island Mountain Mines Company, Limited, in 1933, and its development this year, has aroused
considerable interest not only at this property, but also at the Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining
Company, Limited, where similar though less extensive mineralization has been found.
It may be said in general of lode-gold mining in the Cariboo district that the position to-day
compared with that of two years ago shows real progress has been made by well-directed
development.
Placer-mining.
A general increase in placer-mining activities was a feature of the year and several new
discoveries were made. Various operators installed additional equipment, including several
drag-lines and two small dredges of a new type. Individual bar-workers on the Fraser and
other rivers made a recovery estimated to have been about $50,000. Activity was manifested
at all points in the Cariboo and Quesnel Mining Divisions and also in the Manson Creek,
McLeod River, and Two Brothers Lake areas in the Omineca Mining Division.
Operating control of two well-known mines in the Cariboo district was secured by different
English interests—the property of Consolidated Gold Alluvials of B.C., Limited (more generally
known as the Wingdam mine), on the one hand, and the Bullion mine on the other. C 2
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
OMINECA MINING DIVISION.
The Valhalla, Kleanza, and Tenderfoot groups, the property of Columario
Columario       Consolidated Gold Mines, Limited,  consist of the following Crown-granted
Consolidated     claims and thirty held on location:   Valhalla No. 2, Valhalla No. 3, Norman
Gold Mines, Ltd. Fraction, and L.C. Fraction.   The workings are on the steep and densely-
timbered slopes of Kleanza mountain at elevations of 1,400 to 1,860 feet above
the Usk-Terrace highway.    The mill is situated on the right bank of Noble Five creek on the
highway about 4% miles distant from Usk.    A go-devil road and aerial tramway connect mine
and mill.   The mine may be reached by a shorter trail leaving the highway at Kleanza creek.
Nine parallel quartz veins, with free walls, mainly from 1 to 3 feet wide and in one case
6 feet wide, average distance apart being about 150 feet, outcrop at various points on the steep
mountain-side between elevations of 1,700 and 2,100 feet. They strike north 20 to 30 degrees
west and dip north-east at angles of about 50 degrees. Sulphide mineralization is chiefly pyrite
with some chalcopyrite, and in the case of No. 5 vein, galena. The veins are named in order from
west to east, No. 1 being the most westerly and No. 9 the most easterly.   The rock formation is
t&"
4-*-t Drift*-i
Columario Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd.
altered andesite (greenstone) intruded by diorite stocks and lamprophyre dykes. Tongues of
aplite occur which antedate the veins, and in which the latter pinch. The point at which the
eastern flank of the Coast Range batholith plunges downward is not, it is believed, accurately
known, but indications point to this plunge taking place just east of Pitman, in which case this
property would be situated in a roof-pendant area.
In 1919 the Kleanza Company was organized for the purpose of developing this property,
and preliminary prospecting was carried on in that and the following year. In 1921 a syndicate
known as the " K. Partnership " acquired a lease on the Golden Crown from the Kleanza Company and erected a Ross mill on the property, but work was suspended shortly afterward.
During the next few years prospecting operations were carried  on under the supervision of NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 3
John Willman. A small amount of work was subsequently done annually, with results which
led to the incorporation of a company in 1927, the Columario Gold Mines, Limited. In that
year a portable compressor was installed and an active campaign of development was carried
out in the years 1928 and 1929. The work consisted of drifting, raising, and crosscutting on
and between Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7 veins. Development was continued during 1930 and a little
work was done in 1931 and 1932. Development was speeded up at the end of 1933 following
reorganization of Columario Gold Mines, Limited, as Columario Consolidated Gold Mines,
Limited. In 1934 a flotation plant of about 100 tons daily capacity was erected on the right
bank of Noble Five creek on the Usk-Terrace highway, a 12-bucket aerial tram was constructed
from the mine to the mill, and an Ingersoll-Rand air-compressor of 500 cubic feet of free air
per minute capacity, operated by a 112-114-horse-power Vickers-Petter Diesel engine, installed
at the mine. Difference in elevation of the two tram terminals is approximately 1,400 feet.
Milling operations were commenced on September 2nd and, simultaneously with construction,
underground development was carried on as actively as possible. (Refer also to Annual Reports
1919, 1920, 1921, 1925, 1927 to 1933, inclusive, and Bulletin No. 1, 1932.)
The workings have been driven to explore the downward continuation of the surface showings. Other exposures, it is reported, occur at higher elevations, and this fall a showing is
stated to have been discovered some distance above No. 4 upper adit, but these exposures have
not been examined by the writer.
Present operations are confined almost entirely to Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7 veins. Two adits
between 550 and 600 feet long have been driven on No. 4 vein at elevations of 2,015 and 2,108 feet.
They are known respectively as No. 4 lower and No. 4 upper adits. Two raises about 135 feet
apart connect these levels.
Adits have been driven on Nos. 5, 6, and 7 veins at elevations of 2,016, 2,058, and 2,133 feet
for distances of about 600, 300, and 150 feet respectively.
A crosscut has been driven from the upper adit on No. 4 vein to No. 5 vein, connecting with
a raise from the adit on the latter. The adits on Nos. 5 and 6 veins are connected by a crosscut
and short raise on No. 6 vein. This raise has been continued for a considerable distance above
the adit-level.
The main haulage-level is at an elevation of 1,843 feet, about 100 feet above the upper
terminal of the aerial tram. It is driven in a south-easterly direction for 155 feet, from which
point workings have been driven to intersect the downward continuation of Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7
veins. With the exception of what is presumably No. 7 vein, where a quartz stringer a few
inches wide is exposed, no marked evidence of the downward continuation of the veins had been
found at the time of the writer's examination on November 2nd.
A raise connects the main haulage-level with the lower level on No. 4 vein. In this raise
No. 4 vein has apparently been located 115 feet up, where, although narrow, it is said to be well
mineralized. Up to the time of the writer's examination all the ore milled had been extracted
from No. 4 vein. The necessary connections had not been made with the higher levels on the
other veins for passing ore to the main haulage-level.    No samples were taken.
Development to date has disclosed in No. 4 vein a fairly continuous ore-shoot between the
raises (135 feet apart) connecting the adits on this vein and showing evidence of strong continuation above No. 4 upper adit. This ore-shoot has now been heavily drawn upon to feed the
mill. In addition, there is another shorter lens of ore south-east of this shoot showing in the
back of No. 4 upper level. The width of ore varies from 12 to 30 inches. The last 200 or so
feet driven on both No. 4 upper and No. 4 lower adits did not disclose material amounts of
quartz.
The adit on No. 5 vein at 385 feet from the portal encountered an ore-shoot 100 feet long
averaging 15 inches in width, containing $9.60 per ton in gold (gold taken at $20.67), as stated
by W. G. Norrie-Lowenthal. In the raise from this adit to the crosscut from No. 4 upper adit,
the average of nine samples taken by the management gave $34.30 per ton in gold across 20%
inches (value of gold being taken at $35 per ounce).
The adit on No. 6 vein shows between 215 and 245 feet from the portal an ore-shoot averaging $14.60 across 21 inches, according to the sampling of W. G. Norrie-Lowenthal. The raise
on this vein was carried to a height of 129 feet above the level of the adit on No. 5 vein. The
average of fourteen samples taken by the management from this raise is given as $22.40 across
18 inches (gold valued at $35 per ounce).    The adit on No. 7 vein, elevation 2,133 feet, shows a C 4 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
shoot of ore 90 feet in length averaging $18.30 across a width of 21 inches, according to the
statement of W. G. Norrie-Lowenthal.
Milling operations were suspended after three months' duration before the end of the year.
The following statement has been made by the manager: " The mill was run experimentally
for three months at low capacity. The mine is not yet developed to operate the mill at capacity,
and it was decided to shut down for the winter, as it is undesirable to run one or two shifts only
through the cold weather, as costs are increased if the mill be run below capacity. We are
therefore confining our work to development for the next three months."
Data are not available covering the entire mill-run, but from start to finish 101.3 tons of
concentrates were produced, containing approximately 492.622 oz. gold and 1,401.23 oz. silver.
Primary crushing is done by an 8-inch Traylor gyratory crusher, belt-fed over a magnetic
pulley to eliminate tramp iron. Ore passing from the gyratory crusher is elevated to a 90-ton
feed-bin, whence it is delivered by jig-feeder to a 6- by 4-foot Hardinge-type ball-mill (4-ton
charge of 4-inch and 3-inch balls) operating in closed circuit with a Dorr-type duplex classifier
overflowing at 90 per cent, through 150-mesh to a 6-cell " gravity-flow " flotation-cone, the underflow passing to a 6-leaf American filter. Reagents used per ton are as follows: 0.1 lb. soda-ash;
0.25 lb. ethyl xanthate; 0.1 lb. G.N.S. No. 5 pine-oil. Xanthate and pine-oil are added to the
flotation circuit, half in the first cell and half in the third. Power is supplied by a full Diesel
168-brake-horse-power Petter engine.
This group, owned by L. E. Moody, of Usk, and R. Lowrie, consists of four
Lucky Luke,     claims—Lucky Luke, Hummer, Amigo, and Indian  (the last on an  Indian
reserve).    The property  is  on  the well-timbered  eastern  slope of  Kitsalas
mountain on the west side of the Skeena river, about 700 feet above and a few hundred yards
distant from the railway.   It is reached by road from Usk about 1% miles distant.
A quartz vein, 1 to 3 feet wide, strike about north 65 degrees west, dip about 57 degrees
north-east, carries bornite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and free gold. The walls of the vein are free.
The rock formations are schistose volcanics intruded in places by aplitic tongues.
This property was operated by the owners until 1923, when it was optioned to S. A. D.
Davis and partners, who during 1923 and 1934 carried on intermittent development-work with
two men. In the fall of 1924 a shipment of 25 tons of hand-sorted ore was made; this gave
returns of 18 oz. gold, 316 oz. silver, and 11,162 lb. copper. Thereafter but little work was done
until the present year, when it was optioned to R. W. Seelye. (Refer also to Annual Reports
1918, 1919. 1923, 1924, 1925, and 1928.)
So far as known, the vein is largely covered, except at the original discovery, by glacial
drift and dense vegetation, which makes it difficult to trace it on the surface.
The underground workings consist of an upper adit driven about 60 feet on the vein and
another about 55 feet lower in elevation. The lower level is driven as a crosscut for about 100
feet to the vein, which it then follows for approximately 100 feet to a point where the vein is terminated by a fault, strike north 45 degrees east and dip south-east. A working follows the fault
southwards for 21 feet, without disclosing definite evidence of the continuation of the faulted
portion of the vein. The apparent displacement is to the south-west. The two workings are
connected by a raise and stope, and in the latter an aplite tongue is exposed along the hanging-
wall side of the vein. During the year a small belt-driven air-compressor of 100 cubic feet per
minute capacity, operated by a Fordson tractor, was installed, and a winze sunk to a depth of
80 feet below the lower adit, immediately below the good ore found in the stope between the
levels. The ore continues in the winze to a depth of 40 feet and then pinches, but improves
again, and in the bottom a width of about 2% feet of quartz well mineralized with bornite and
chalcocite and showing some free gold is exposed. From the bottom of the winze a drift was
run for 15 feet following the vein north-westwards.
Operations were suspended in the summer.
This group is owned by T. M. Turner, of Terrace, and consists of several
Zymoetz.        claims situated on the right bank of the Zymoetz river, about 3 miles above
its mouth, and conveniently reached by a trail about half a mile in length
from the Usk-Terrace highway.    The property lies at a low elevation, comparatively close to
river-level.    A very brief examination of the property was made.
Surface showings consist of a number of quartz veins varying in width from a few inches
to somewhat over 3 feet, occupying well-defined fissures.    Some are mineralized with sphalerite, NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 5
galena, and pyrite; others with chalcopyrite and pyrite; and all show gold values which
warrant further investigation. At one point just above the river an adit 65 feet in length
passes through a vein 2 feet wide mineralized with galena and sphalerite showing values in gold.
Taking into consideration the geology and mineral-showings of the surrounding region, it is
believed that careful prospecting may lead to the discovery of gold-bearing veins of commercial
size. It is understood that recently further showings have been uncovered at this property
and also in the region to the north between the Zymoetz river and Kleanza creek.
This company,  incorporated in  the  State of Washington   (secretary,  H.  T.
Nicholson Creek Fitch, 916 Insurance Building, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.), holds sixty-nine claims
Mining situated in the region between Lowrie and Nicholson creeks.    Included in
Corporation,     these claims are the Diadem (fully described in the 1930 Annual Report) and
Phoenix (described in the 1928 Annual Report)  groups.    The claims cover a
large part of the entire area between the creeks mentioned up to a point about 3 miles west of
the Skeena river.    The property is reached by a road to a camp distant about 2 miles from
Usk, situated adjacent to the railway-track, a tractor-trail continuing for another 4% miles up
the right bank of Nicholson creek to the mine camp situated at an elevation of a little over
1,000 feet.
The surface showings which are at present engaging the attention of the company consist
of well-defined shear-zones in granodiorite. The shear-zones are quartz-filled and well mineralized with pyrite and in places show molybdenite. They are exposed in the gorge of
Molybdenum creek. The shear-zones vary in width from several inches to several feet. Four
samples of selected mineral assayed from a trace to 0.02 oz. per ton in gold. It is understood
that samples taken by the corporation show higher values, which would indicate the advisability
of thorough and systematic sampling in advance of underground development.
Preparatory work during the year comprised the construction of 3% miles of good tractor-
trail and erection of camp buildings.
This group is one of the new discoveries of the year and is situated on the
Patmore.        ridge between Knauss and Fiddler creeks.    It is reached by following the
Fiddler wagon-road to Knauss creek, from which point a good trail leads to
the property, which is distant about 7 miles from Dorreen.    It is owned by W. H. Patmore and
associates.
The deposit consists of quartz veins mineralized with small amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite,
sphalerite, and galena. The prevailing rock formations consist of argillite and quartz members
of the Hazelton series intruded at various points by tongues of granodiorite.
It is reported that a mineralized quartz vein in granodiorite carrying attractive gold values
was discovered subsequent to the writer's visit to the property. At the time of examination
several mineralized quartz veins, varying in width from a few inches to in one case between
2 and 3 feet, had been uncovered by open-cuts between elevations of 2,075 and 3,175 feet.
Selected mineral from one of these assayed 1 oz. gold per ton, indicating the advisability of
carefully prospecting this region. It is within a few hundred feet of this spot that the showing
reported was later discovered.    It is said to be the most important showing on the property.
Smithers Section.
It seems desirable to again direct attention to the gold potentialities indicated at several
points on Hudson Bay mountain, stressed in " Lode-gold Deposits of British Columbia." Furthermore, the presence of manganese minerals in the outcrops of certain veins, and the depth to
which extensive oxidation persists in the case of some, indicate possibilities of enrichment at
depth. In the case of the property of Duthie Mines, Limited, a very noticeable feature is the
increase in silver values at depth. These facts, coupled with the knowledge that, generally
speaking, mineralizing agencies were active in this region, justifies more energetic development
at several points than has actually taken place.
This group, consisting of several claims, is owned by S. F. Campbell, G. E.
Glacier Gulch.    Loveless,   and  Wesley  Banta,  of  Smithers.    It is  situated  at  the head  of
Glacier creek, the claims extending both north and south of the steep-walled
broad gulch immediately below Lake Kathlyn glacier, and is reached by a motor-road branching
from the highway, which serves both this property and the adjoining Lake Kathlyn coalfield.
The distance from Smithers is about 6 miles. C 6 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
There are two types of deposits on the property: (a) Fractures mineralized with sphalerite,
galena, freibergite, pyrite, and pyrrhotite, carrying good values in silver and some in gold;
and (6) irregular replacements of auriferous tetradymite (telluride of bismuth) in the
sedimentary measures of the Lake Kathlyn coalfield. Silver-lead-zinc mineralization has been
found on both sides of the gulch, but the bismuth mineralization has to date been found only
on the south side.
The property was prospected on the north side of the gulch by the owners until 1928, when
an option was secured by the late F. H. Taylor, who relinquished it the same year. Subsequently,
the owners continued prospecting, discovering the tetradymite mineralization in 1929, and in
1933 shipped 26 tons of ore containing 82 oz. gold and 15 oz. silver. In the spring of 1934
an option was secured by R. W. Wilson; cabins to accommodate a small crew were constructed,
small-scale development was carried out and a shipment of ore made. (Refer also to Annual
Reports 1926 to 1930, inclusive, and Bulletin No. 1, 1932.)
On the north side of Glacier creek at an elevation of about 3,000 feet mineralized replacement-fractures cut across the volcanic host-rocks. In places the contact-planes of the
volcanics are silicified and mineralized. Mineralization is on the whole somewhat irregular,
although precious-metal values warrant investigation. On the south side of Glacier creek
surface showings consist of a tetradymite mineralization in several acid tongues or replacements,
within a zone about 175 feet in width. The widths of individual tongues or replacements varies
greatly, from a few feet to a few inches within a short distance. The strike of the larger
tongues or replacements is about north 76 degrees west and the dip is about 50 degrees south.
There seems to be no reason why similar mineralization will not be found beyond the zone
mentioned. A persistent quartz vein mineralized with galena, pyrite, and sphalerite, which
can be traced along its dip for many hundreds of feet, occurs in close proximity to the
tetradymite mineralization.
On the north side of Glacier creek, at a point 480 feet in elevation above the creek,
a shaft has been sunk 23 feet following a replacement-fracture striking north 64 degrees west.
The greatest width of mineral exposed in the shaft is about 16 inches. In 1928 a sample across
a width of 1.5 feet at the collar of the shaft assayed: Gold, 0.04 oz. per ton; silver, 179 oz.
per ton; copper, 0.3 per cent.; lead, 12.6 per cent.; zinc, 16.8 per cent. In the bottom a width
of 9 inches of mineralization composed almost entirely of pyrrhotite is exposed. Some additional
work was done by the owners in this shaft in 1929, but the shaft has not been examined since
1928. During the year several adits were driven into the mountain following the tetradymite
replacements at elevations from 3,175 feet to 3,260 feet on the south side of Glacier creek.
In all cases mineralization appeared to become weaker as the workings were advanced.
A quartz vein containing sphalerite and galena was discovered at an elevation of 3,260 feet
somewhat to the north of the tetradymite mineralization. It was found to extend for several
hundred feet from this point down the steep wall of the gulch, averaging about 12 inches in
width. An adit was started at 3,000 feet elevation and on August 4th had been advanced
a distance of 30 feet in a direction of south 39 degrees east, at which point the vein showed
a tendency to widen. A sample of selected mineral from the face assayed : Gold, 0.04 oz. per
ton; silver, 13 oz. per ton: lead, 10.3 per cent.; zinc, 20.7 per cent. A car of ore was shipped
from the workings driven on the tetradymite mineralization.
This group, owned by the estate of the late L. S. McGill, and others, is now
Silver Lake. under option to W. R. Wilson & Sons. It consists of the following Crown-
granted claims: Silver Lake No. 1, Silver Lake No. 2, Silver Lake No. 3.
" A " Fraction, Key Fraction, Bee, Cee, and 2nd Glacier. The property is situated on an
elevated plateau between elevations 6,400 to 6,800 feet. A motor-road leads from Smithers
to Toboggan creek, a distance of about 6 miles, and a good pack-trail continues a further distance
of about 4 miles to the property.
Several veins occur on the property, three of which show possibilities of commercial
importance. Mineralization varies from essentially silver-bearing galena-sphalerite types to
arsenopyrite-sphalerite types carrying gold values. The rock formations consist of beds of
volcanics and limestone.
The property was discovered in 1926. In 1931 an option was secured by W. R. Wilson &
Sons, who also hold an option on the adjoining Trade Dollar group. (Refer to Annual Reports,
1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1933, and Bulletins Nos. 1 and 3, 1932.) NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2).
C 7
Evidence of the existence of nine veins in all on this group has been found to date and the
extensions of three of them are found on the Trade Dollar Fraction of the Trade Dollar group.
To date, prospecting has indicated the possible commercial importance of Nos. 3, 4, and 5 veins.
The outcrops have been investigated by an extensive system of pits and open-cuts. No. 4 vein
has been located at intervals over a length of 1,200 feet along the strike, and lenses of compact
mineralization varying in width from 1 to 30 inches, narrowing and again widening, are exposed
in the numerous workings. The mineralization changes in character from galena-sphalerite
(essentially silver-bearing) at the lower or western end to arsenopyrite-sphalerite-chalcopyrite
(gold-bearing) at the upper or eastern end. No. 5 vein exhibits a length of 750 feet, mineralization being somewhat similar to that of No. 4 vein. Vein No. 3 shows a length of 600 feet,
in which the galena-sphalerite mineralization is more prevalent than the higher-temperature
type. At one point this vein shows a width of 6 feet, containing bands of sphalerite, chalcopyrite,
and galena. These showings lie between elevations of 6,450 and 6,700 feet. This plateau is
above the upper limit of glaciation and no glacial drift overlies it. It consists merely of
shattered rock in place.
In view of the possibilities indicated in the showings described and the impossibility of
carrying on mining operations on the plateau except for a very short time each year, the management decided to explore the showings at depth by a crosscut adit. The latter is situated at
an elevation of 6,200 feet and on August 4th had been advanced a distance of 60 feet in
a direction of south 69 degrees east.
This group, owned by the estate of the late J. Aldrich, now under option to
Mamie. W. R. Wilson & Sons, consists of the Crown-granted claims Myrtle Fraction,
Iron King, Mamie, Evinrude, Florence, and Dome Extension. These do not
all adjoin, the two first mentioned being situated north of, and the last-mentioned south of, the
remaining three adjoining claims. The property is situated on the western slopes of Hudson
Bay mountain and adjoins the Coronado group on the east and the Henderson group (Duthie
Mines, Limited) on the north. It is reached by a branch road half a mile in length from the
camp of Duthie Mines, Limited, which is distant 15 miles by motor-road from Smithers. The
claims are all located on a gentle slope which steepens as the hillside is ascended. Mineralization consists of arsenopyrite, sphalerite, and some chalcopyrite, with values chiefly in gold along
an extensive shear-zone in volcanic rocks.
Scale
No. 1 Adit Samples
Oz.totheton
No.
Width
feet
Gold
Silver
M 19
I.Z
/.OS
f.S
MZO
1. 7
.54
z.z
8
1.3
1.30
5.9
7
.4
.14
no
9
/ .3
.66
4.30
IO
1.3
1 .OO
2 90
e,
a.3
Tr.
0.90
5
3.0
Tr.
1.10
4
4.0
0.90
IZ.IO
3
3.5
0.46
5.7
2
3.0
0.76
3.9
/
5.6
0.3Z
1.8
Surface Samples
Oz.totheJxm
%
No.
Width
Gold
Silver
Zinc
MI6
7-5
OZ7
20
3 9
MIS
1.7
ZZ5
8-8
M14
65
O.IB
ISO
17113
3-5
O.50
17-60
as
Ml a
3-0
0.24
1.3
MZ3
6-5
OE4
i.a
IVIZ4
IO
0.23
1.9
MZ6
65
OS7
2.40
9-5
Open-cut
C   EI.434S
-^3	
Samples numbered I to G
taken between points indicated.
•Remainder of Adit samples.
3
B. C. Department
> Open cut  El. 4-375'
4 "to 6 "wide
-   ... Gold 0-7oz.
of Mines Silver 1-8 oz
stripping   -"'"' * 'KdeeP "a ^
stripping     EI4SI0'    shear-ton,.
T3'de%D exposed further N.E by
-'■^ uccr numerous open-cuts
Mamie.    Plan and Sampling by Company.
The property was prospected by the owner until 1919, when it was bonded by J. F. Duthie,
who continued operations until 1923, when the Federal Mining and Smelting Company obtained
an option from J. F. Duthie, which after further development was relinquished in 1924.
The property remained idle until the present year, when W. R. Wilson & Sons obtained an
option and prospected the north-eastward continuation of the vein by open-cutting. (Refer
also to Annual Reports, 1919, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, and Bulletin No. 1, 1932.)
The main showing, examined in 1931, consists of a strong shear-zone from 6 to 8 feet wide,
strike north 70 degrees east,  dip steep south-east.    The lower  end of the outcrop is at an C 8 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
elevation of 4,425 feet and the shear-zone has been well stripped for about 300 feet. A sample
taken in 1931 across a width of 7 feet assayed: Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton; silver, 6.2 oz. per ton;
copper, 1 per cent.; zinc, 10.2 per cent. During the present year the optionees state that the
shear-zone was traced by open-cuts at intervals for many hundreds of feet beyond the outcrop
in a north-easterly direction, with every indication that it continues to the summit of the
mountain.
An adit, elevation 4,425 feet, has been driven at the lower end of the outcrop for a distance
of 165 feet, exposing a mineralized width of from 3 to 4 feet. The mineralization in this
working does not appear to be as strong as on the surface above. Two winzes, now full of
water, were sunk from this adit to depths of 33 feet and 42 feet respectively.
Approximately 130 feet below this adit, a lower one has been driven a length of about
650 feet on the general strike of the shear-zone to a point approximately below the first winze
in the upper workings. The mineralization exposed in this level is not pronounced, although
in places crosscuts show a fairly wide zone, especially near the face.
A crosscut has been driven from the Henderson Creek gorge for a distance of 200 feet from
a point approximately 450 feet in elevation below the upper adit, the original intention being to
crosscut the vein at this level at an estimated distance of 950 feet.
In Bulletin No. 1, 1932, detailed arguments were advanced for developing this shear-zone
on and above the horizon of the upper level, on the grounds that (1) surface exposures indicate
upward rather than downward strength, and (2) that geological conditions are such that gold
mineralization is more likely to be found above rather than below the horizon mentioned.
R. W. Wilson has reported recently that the shear-zone has been traced for 4,000 feet.
This group consists of eight Crown-granted claims—namely, Rio Grande,
Rio Grande. Spondulix, Rico Aspen, Little Joe, Iron Dollar, Last Hope, Jumbo, and Big
Hope Fraction—and six adjoining claims. The property is held by the Rio
Grande Syndicate, of Vancouver. The group is situated on the steep north-eastern slopes of
Hudson Bay mountain immediately north-east of the Schufer group, on the north side of
Toboggan creek. It is distant about 7 miles from Smithers and is reached by motor-road to
Toboggan Creek bridge; thence by pack-trail up Toboggan creek a further distance of 2 miles
to the camp.
There are two types of deposits—(a) auriferous and (6) argentiferous, the former consists
of a deeply oxidized shattered zone in places showing arsenopyrite apparently several feet in
width, strike north 75 degrees east, dip south-east. It is exposed at elevations of about 4,500
feet and upwards. The latter type consists of certain shear-zones mineralized with galena,
sphalerite, arsenopyrite, and freibergite, but not exhibiting pronounced gold values, outcropping
on the Rico Aspen and Spondulix claims, about 1,000 feet in elevation above the former type.
These showings have not been examined. The rock formations consist of volcanics and
sediments intruded by a stock of granodiorite.
The property was originally owned by J. Sheedy and J. Fisher, who many years ago drove
various prospect-workings at different points, and in 1913, it is reported, shipped 2 tons of ore
to the Granby smelter at Anyox. This ore is reported to have assayed: Silver, 84.5 oz. per ton;
copper, 7 per cent.; gold, $2.50 per ton. In 1917 an option on the property was secured by
A. C. Gard§, which subsequently lapsed, and the estates of the owners automatically reverted
to the Government. In 1933 the option was renewed by A. C. Gardfi and in 1934 the Rio Grande
Syndicate was formed for the purpose of operating the property. Under the direction of A. C.
Gardg, camp buildings were erected close to the main trail at an elevation of 4,490 feet, and
diamond-drilling was carried out under contract by Boyle Bros.
An old adit, elevation 4,595 feet, now caved, was driven in a deeply oxidized and shattered
zone several feet in width, strike about north 75 degrees east, dip steep south-east, which gives
evidence of continuation for a considerable distance along the steep, left bank of Toboggan
creek. In places arsenopyrite is exposed in the form of small seams. A piece of the arsenopyrite was assayed and contained good values in gold and silver. This zone occurs in sediments
of the Hazelton series and granodiorite outcrops a comparatively short distance above. The
zone lends itself to development by a crosscut adit as the strike closely parallels the direction
of Toboggan Creek valley.
Unusually deep surface oxidation is exhibited in the Rio Grande shatter-zone and also in
two veins on the property adjoining on the east—namely, that formerly owned by Mount Evelyn
_ NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 9
Mines, Limited, now held by Skeena Gold and Silver Mines, Limited. The short distances
required to reach the shatter-zone by crosscuts, determined by diamond-drilling, indicates the
advisability of doing some development by hand methods at an early date to obtain more positive
indications of values and widths than can be found on the surface.
This group consists of Henderson, Raven, Raven Fraction, White Swan, Galena
Henderson.      Queen, Dome, Humming Bird, and Canary Crown-granted claims, owned by
Duthie Mines, Limited.   The property is located on the western slopes of
Hudson Bay mountain and is reached by a motor-road, 15 miles in length, from Smithers.   The
slope of the ground is between 20 and 30 degrees.
There are two converging veins on this property, the Ashman and Henderson, striking northeasterly, the former dipping north-westerly and the latter steeply south-easterly. Within the
area developed the distance between the veins varies from 150 to 250 feet. The Henderson
vein is the more southerly and of predominant importance. The intersection appears to be
a point of interest. Other veins of lesser importance have been found underground. Mineralization consists of highly argentiferous galena, sphalerite, much freibergite, ruby, and some native •
silver, and appreciable values in gold. North-eastwards the mineralization on the surface
exhibits more pronounced values in gold and indications point to increasing gold values into
the mountain, particularly above the 4,200-foot horizon.
The Henderson, originally owned by J. K. Ashman, was bonded to J. F. Duthie in 1922,
who in that year started underground development in addition to much surface-stripping.
In July, 1923, Duthie Mines, Limited, was incorporated, and a 55-per-cent. interest optioned to
the Federal Mining and Smelting Company, which latter company, possessing directive control,
continued operations until August, 1924, when it relinquished its option. Operations were
resumed in 1925 by Duthie Mines, Limited, under the direction of J. R. Turner, with commencement of active development in the Henderson vein. The results obtained in this and the
following year led to the erection in 1927 of a 50-ton daily capacity flotation concentrator and
milling operations were commenced. An adit to serve the mill, known as the Mill adit, was
driven 255 feet in elevation below the compressor level, which up to this time had been the
main working-adit. In 1928 reorganization of Duthie Mines, Limited, was effected and the
management was taken over by Atlas Exploration Company, associated with Mining Issues
Corporation, of Toronto, with C. A. Banks as managing director. The scope of operations was
increased, a 600-horse-power steam-electric power plant erected, and a 3-compartment shaft
sunk from the Mill adit to the 600-foot level (100 feet below the latter) crosscut to the Ashman
vein. Improvements were made to the mill. Operations were suspended in March, 1930, owing
to depressed metal-market conditions, although during the year fine surface showings on the
north-east continuation of the Henderson vein were uncovered on the Canary claim.
Following is the total production of this property to date: 4,788 tons of hand-sorted ore
yielding gross smelter returns of $523,744.92, leaving net smelter returns of $411,705.72, after
deducting freight and treatment rates of $23.40 per ton; 31,956 tons of ore milled yielded
1,663 tons of lead concentrates and 1.834 tons of zinc concentrates. Values contained in the
tonnage milled were as follows: Gold, 776 oz.; silver, 739,055 oz.; lead, 1,920,487 lb.; zinc,
1,608,014 lb. The following may be taken to represent the average tenor of the various
products:—
Feed.—Silver, 37.2 oz. per ton:  lead, 4.8 per cent.;   zinc, 5.2 per cent.
Lead Concentrates.—Gold, 0.27 oz. per ton; silver, 430.8 oz. per ton; lead, 48.6 per cent.;
zinc, 10.9 per cent.
Zinc Goncen*rates.—Gold, 0.093 oz. per ton; silver, 36 oz. per ton; lead, under 1.4 per cent.;
zinc, 47.2 per cent. Savings effected, 95 per cent, of silver contents, 95 per cent, of lead contents,
and 80 per cent, of zinc contents.
(Refer also to Annual Reports, 1922 to 1930, inclusive.)
As the result of mining operations a marked increase in silver values in depth was found
both in the case of the Henderson and Ashman veins, but the silver content in the latter from
the surface downwards is markedly lower than in the former. This fact considered in conjunction with the presence of manganese in the form of rhodochrosite in the constituent vein-
minerals suggests that the increase in silver values may be due to secondary enrichment.
The importance of the surface exposures on the Canary claim should be considered in
connection with any future operations.    Gold values are an important feature, samples running C 10
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
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i NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 11
as high as 0.54 oz. per ton, and it has been reasonably demonstrated by operations at various
other properties that gold values tend to increase as the core of this mountain is approached.
(Refer to Bulletin No. 1, 1932, published by this Department.) The accompanying longitudinal
section representing conditions as at October 6th, 1929 (practically unchanged), renders evident
that this property still contains a large amount of promising virgin territory, which can be
developed to a depth of 1,075 feet, to the present Mill level. The present face of the Mill level
is between 1,600 and 1,700 feet horizontally from a point beneath the centre of the surface
showings described.
Telkwa Section.
This group, consisting of a number of claims owned by Alex. Chisholm, of
Free Gold. Smithers, is operated under option by Babine Gold Mines, Limited. The
property is located on the eastern flanks of Dome mountain, distant about
26 miles from Telkwa, from where it is reached by following a branch road from the highway
and sleigh-road. The well-timbered ground slopes gently and the elevation is about 4,300 feet.
A number of quartz veins varying in width from a few inches up to a maximum of 5 feet
occur in a belt of country about 450 feet in width. The formation is andesite intruded in the
near vicinity by a tongue of granitic rock. The metalliferous mineralization is mainly pyrite
and sphalerite, with a small amount of galena. Good gold values are present, in some cases
up to several ounces per ton.
The property was optioned by W. R. Wilson & Sons in 1932, and Babine Gold Mines, Limited,
a private company, was incorporated to develop it. (Refer to Bulletin No. 3, 1932, and 1933
Annual Report.) After preliminary surface prospecting in the form of trenching and pit-
sinking, a crosscut adit was started in 1933, and up to the date of the writer's examination in
May, 1934, about 600 feet of underground work had been carried out.
Eleven veins, varying in width from a few inches to a maximum of 5 feet, have been exposed
in a crosscut trench about 500 feet in length. These veins strike about north 75 degrees west
and dip steeply north-east, with the exception of one which has a low dip. Various other pits
and open-cuts have shown that three veins at least hold out promise of minable widths and
continuity being found.
No. 11 working, elevation 4,180 feet (aneroid determination), has been driven as a crosscut
for a distance of approximately 325 feet south-westerly to a point, about 100 feet below surface
showings, and thereafter follows a zigzag course below the outcrops, intercepting several small
veins and three of commercial proportions. The last 50 feet of this working, the total length
of which is about 600 feet, exposes two veins which were sampled with the following results:
Sample across vein 28 inches wide at face of working assayed: Gold, 1.40 oz. per ton. Sample
across another vein 24 inches wide, 50 feet distant from first vein, assayed: Gold, 0.20 oz. per
ton. It is understood that the vein showing in the face is to be followed by a raise to connect
with a shallow shaft sunk from the surface above this point.
This group of four claims is owned by W. A. Skelhorne, G. Timmermeister,
Pioneer. and   associates,   of   Telkwa.    Situated   on   the   south   side   of   McKendrick
mountain, the property is distant about 4 miles in a direct line north-west
from Dome mountain, and is reached by a trail 3 miles in length leading off the Cronin road
at a point 18 miles from Telkwa, the total distance from the latter place being 21 miles.    The
gently sloping hillside becomes steeper towards the apex of the vein.
A quartz vein varying in width from 15 inches to 3.5 feet, showing high-temperature
mineralization of arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, with some sphalerite and galena, occurs in
an acid dyke, cutting volcanics. Granodiorite also outcrops on the property. Both dyke and
vein are persistent along the strike.
The property is a relocation of one on which considerable work had been done in former
years.    It is not mentioned in previous Annual Reports of this Department.
A quartz vein from 15 inches to 3.5 feet in width, strike north 79 degrees east, dip steep
north-east, mineralized as above mentioned, is exposed at various points on the south slope of
McKendrick mountain by pits for a distance of upwards of 2,000 feet between elevations 4,990
and 5,540 feet (near summit of mountain). There are two adits on the property, each about
75 feet in length, at elevations of 5,090 and 5,265 feet respectively. These workings are driven
on the vein and in each case an average width of about 1.5 feet of mineralized quartz is exposed.
The following samples indicate the values contained in the mineralization and are of selected
7 C 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
portions only :—Sample of selected mineral from lower adit: Gold, 0.32 oz. per ton; silver, 10 oz.
per ton; copper, nil; lead, 1.2 per cent. Sample of selected mineral from an open-cut at 5,540
feet elevation:  Gold, 0.10 oz. per ton;  silver, 14 oz. per ton;  copper, 0.2 per cent.
There is said to be evidence of another parallel vein west of the foregoing and close to the
trail at 4,340 feet elevation.
Topley Section.
This group, owned by C. Matheson and D. Heenan, of Topley, consists of Ave
Golden Eagle, claims held on location. The property is reached by a branch road from the
Topley-Babine Lake road, the distance from Topley being about 7 miles. It
is situated about 1% miles south-east of the property formerly owned by the Topley-Richfield
Mining Company, Limited. The ground is comparatively flat, sloping gently downwards to the
north-west and lying in a pass between Huckleberry and Black mountains at an elevation of
just under 4,000 feet.
Two more or less parallel quartz veins and other intersecting veins mineralized with
sphalerite, galena, freibergite, and pyrite, carrying high silver values and appreciable gold values,
occur in andesite breccia.
The property was discovered by the present owners in 1927 and optioned in 1928 by Topley
Silver, Limited, when the existence of only one vein was known. This company immediately
commenced small-scale operations, installed a small air-compressor, and sank a shaft to a depth
of 140 feet. In 1929 some diamond-drilling was done which proved disappointing and the option
was relinquished. The owners continued surface prospecting and very shortly discovered
another and more promising vein south-west of the one which had been previously investigated.
Early in 1932 an option was taken on the property by T. D. Pickard, and payments due under
the option were made, although no actual work was carried out by the optionee, who subsequently relinquished the option. Prospecting was continued by the owners and in 1934 a
shipment of 16.51 dry tons was made, assaying as per smelter returns: Gold, 0.135 oz. per ton;
silver, 199.2 oz. per ton; lead (wet), 17.7 per cent.; zinc, 11 per cent. (Refer also to Annual
Reports, 1927 to 1932, inclusive.) The map on page 175, 1928 Annual Report, shows location
of Topley properties.
The surface showings consist essentially of two parallel quartz veins about 70 feet apart,
strike about west, dip north. The northerly vein has a dip of 30 to 45 degrees, whereas the
southerly vein dips more steeply. At various points there is evidence of other veins crossing
them. The more important vein is the southerly one, which has been well exposed by strippings
and pits at various intervals over a length of 355 feet. In all of these workings high-grade
mineralization consisting of galena, sphalerite, tetrahedrite, and pyrite, varying in width from
a few inches up to 18 inches, occurring mainly on the foot-wall of the vein, is exposed. The
northerly vein contains similar mineralization, although not quite as strong, and the maximum
width of the quartz is about iy2 feet. Some very beautiful specimens of transparent green-
coloured sphalerite were obtained from this vein.
The northerly vein is developed by two shafts about 100 feet apart. One, 30 feet deep
and filled with water shortly after completion, has not been examined. It is reported that the
other shaft has been sunk to a depth of 140 feet, but it was not examined after a depth of
75 feet had been reached. At this point the quartz vein is 1 foot wide and well mineralized
with galena, sphalerite, freibergite, and pyrite. In 1929 Topley Silver, Limited, put down a
number of diamond-drill holes from the north side of this vein to intercept its downward continuation. The results apparently were not considered by this company sufficiently good to
continue its option. These holes were not, however, drilled deep enough to intersect the downward continuation of the southerly vein subsequently discovered by the owners. On the southerly vein a shaft has now been sunk to a depth of 40 feet, according to report, but it has not
been examined below a depth of 21 feet. At this point the total vein-width is 5.2 feet, of which
6 inches on the foot-wall is high-grade mineralization, the remainder consisting of quartz and
sheared country-rock. A sample of the 6-inch seam on the foot-wall assayed : Gold, 0.30 oz. per
ton ; silver, 820 oz. per ton ; copper, 7.5 per cent.; lead, 14 per cent.; zinc, 16 per cent. A sample
at this point across the remainder of the vein assayed: Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, 4 oz. per
ton; lead, nil; zinc, 3.6 per cent. The dip of the vein at this point is 70 degrees north-east.
It is reported that the major portion of the shipment mentioned above made this year was
derived from this shaft. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 13
This property merits development because of the high values encountered and the possibility
of finding other veins, having regard to the fact that on the adjoining Box group other more or
less parallel veins occur.
This group is a restaking of the claims formerly comprising the Cup group
Gold. and described in the Annual Reports for the years 1924, 1927, 1928, and 1930.
The owners are L. H. Kenney, F. L. Simonds, and Alex. Chisholm, who did a
considerable amount of work during the year and opened up some promising mineral-showings.
The work consisted of driving an adit on the flat-dipping, 4-foot vein discovered in 1930 at 3,665
feet elevation on the left bank of Richfield (Findlay) creek, about 500 feet up-stream from the
original workings. (See Annual Report for 1930, page 144, under Cup.) On September 13th an
open-cut had been made in the vein and preparations were being made to drift on it. A total
vein-width of 6 feet is exposed in which are two well-mineralized seams, each 1.5 feet wide,
consisting of sphalerite, galena, and pyrite. A sample of selected mineral assayed : Gold, 0.04
oz. per ton; silver, 4 oz. per ton; copper, 1.5 per cent.; lead, 7 per cent.; zinc, 17.5 per cent.
It is stated that a material improvement is shown in the adit driven subsequent to the writer's
examination.
Endako.
This group consists of four claims—Stella 1, Stella 2, Stella 3, and Stella If—
Stella. owned by A. Langley, C. H. Foote, J. Braithwaite, and W. Foote.    (Adjoining
claims on the south are the Marjory and Gladys and on the north the Snowbird, the ownership of which is not known, and on which no showings of molybdenite were
pointed out to the writer.) The property is situated on the Nechako plateau, about 5 miles in a
direct line south-west of Endako and about 3 miles north of Francois lake. A car can be driven
during reasonably dry weather to a point about 6% miles from Endako; a trail leads a further
iVi miles to a cabin constructed on the Snoivbird mineral claim, which is within easy access of the
most easterly showings. Molybdenite occurs in fine scales, remarkably free from other sulphides,
in quartz veins up to 2 feet wide in granodiorite and also as disseminations in the latter adjacent
to the veins. The property is situated on the eastern fringe of the Central batholith, and it is
likely, judging from exposures, that much of the region is underlain by batholithic rocks.
Numerous open-cuts have been made at various points, exposing the 2-foot vein and also
other quartz-seams of considerably smaller size.
The extent of the area over which pieces of float-quartz showing molybdenite are found
suggests that other showings may be discovered.
In the vicinity of the 2-foot vein the topography is such that a vertical depth of between
50 and 60 feet could be gained by an adit.
Subsequent to the writer's examination, he was informed by A. Langley that such an adit
had been started and mineralized rock assaying 0.10 oz. in gold per ton had been encountered.
(Refer also to 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931, and 1933 Annual Reports.)
MoLeod River Area.
A map of the area will be found in the 1933 Annual Report, page 101.
The oldest rocks in the region are garnetiferous mica-schists which occur in the western
portion of the area and are presumably of Precambrian age. Adjoining these on the east are
schistose carbonaceous argillites and intercalated volcanics and argillites. The region lies
directly over what is deemed to be the path of the Cassiar-Omineca-Cariboo batholith, which
trends north-west and south-east, and the western margin of which may be approximately
marked by the south-easterly-flowing portion of the McDougall river. Outcrops of this batholith
are infrequent.    The area appears to be only thinly covered by glacial drift.
Evidence to date indicates the existence of a belt some miles in width of quartz veins
extending east of the McDougall river. While it is quite possible that this belt follows the path
of the batholith north-westerly, its south-eastward limit appears to be about 3 miles north of the
McLeod river, for in the valley of the latter where the formations are well exposed there is
little evidence of quartz veins beyond a few mineralized stringers. Some of the quartz veins
are of large size; one observed about 1 mile above Reed creek, on the left bank of the McDougall
river, is about 100 feet in width. None of the veins are exposed along their strike for any
distance and very little work has been done on any of them.    Some appear to conform in dip C 14
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
and strike with the enclosing formation, while others cut across the bedding. Samples taken
from the best-mineralized parts of several different veins did not disclose appreciable gold
values. From the foregoing description of bed-rock geology it is possible that placer deposits of
local origin may exist, but there is no evidence indicating that even if uneroded pre-Glacial
channels are found they will be of bonanza type. Some placer gold occurs and it is undoubtedly
post-Glacial in age. It occurs in bar concentrations, for example, at the large bend of the
McDougall river below Reed creek on the property of Northern Reef Gold Mines, Limited. Just
instream from the river at the same point both rock-rims of a former channel of this river are
plainly exposed. It is also evident that the " big flat" on the left bank of the river at the
bend above mentioned may be underlain at shallow depth by rock benches on which a placer
concentration of strictly local origin may be found apart from any superficial values resulting
from post-Glacial waters. Placer-gold occurrences on rock benches in this area are numerous.
The only evidence observed of a channel of pre-Glacial age is the deeply-decayed, gravel-covered
rock bench on the McLeod river on C. Nelson's claim described in the 1932 and 1933 Annual
Reports. Ultrabasic rocks cut by the McLeod river suggest that the probable local origin of the
occurrences of platinum and iridium in the placer deposits of that river.
A review of all the ascertained facts concerning the area indicates that most or all of the
placer is of local origin.
Unfortunately the main watercourses have not cut through the heart of the quartz-vein belt.
The McDougall river in its upper reaches flows easterly and north-easterly, and after cutting
into the western edge of the quartz-vein belt near Reed creek turns away from it, flowing southeasterly. The part of McLeod river flowing at right angles to the vein-belt is apparently just
south of the latter.
The distribution of glacial drift in the region indicates a marked south-east movement of
the ice.    (Refer also to 1932 and 1933 Annual Reports.)
This company was incorporated during 1934 with head office at 1405
Northern Reef Douglas Street, Victoria. The property consists of the six mineral claims
Gold Mines, Ltd. named Pearl, Ruby, Flossie, Myrtle, Jason, and Midas, and placer leases
numbered 690, 691, and 692; the placer leases are described under " Placer-
mining." The location of the property is shown on the map on page 101 of the 1933 Annual
Report. Situated on the McDougall river, it is distant about 16% miles from Fort McLeod,
from which it is reached by good tractor-trail constructed by the company during 1934. Fort
McLeod is reached by water route 66 miles in length from Summit lake, 32 miles north of
Prince George. Low-lying benches flank the east side of the river, rising to cut-banks above
which is the rolling broken-up country of the Nechako plateau. The country west of the river
is much the same, save that the rise from the river is more abrupt.
At several points slightly mineralized quartz veins are exposed on which no great amount
of work has yet been done. The rock formations consist of argillites and volcanics, the former
schistose at some points. The quartz veins conform with the enclosing rock formations in dip
and strike and also in places cut the bedding. They vary greatly in size from stringers up to
100 feet. A vein not less than 100 feet in width outcrops strongly on the left bank of the
McDougall river, where it has been cut by the river at a point about 1 mile above Reed creek.
Just below the mouth of the latter another quartz vein is exposed on the left bank of the
McDougall river. On the Jason claim on right bank of the river a cut 30 feet in length exposes
volcanic rocks in contact, with argillites. The latter are sheared and the shear-planes are
slightly pyritized. The volcanics show disseminated pyrrhotite. A sample of mineralized
argillites assayed a trace of gold. The workings are mainly on a large quartz-showing between
20 and 30 feet wide which outcrops prominently close to the left bank of the river near the
boundary-line between the Pearl and Ruby claims. This showing, which is somewhat oxidized,
shows a little pyrite and galena. One or two cuts have been made on its outcrop, but exposures
are few, and its exact strike and form cannot be determined. It may be a lens-like body. The
outcrop strikes south 39 degrees west and the enclosing schistose argillites strike north 69
degrees west. A short distance east volcanics are in contact with argillites. The former are
hydrothermally altered where intruded by acid dykes and a green micaceous-like mineral is in
evidence. About 50 feet north-west of this exposure an adit has been driven 10 feet above the
river for a distance of 52 feet, from the end of which a winze had been sunk 28 feet at the time
of examination.    It was the intention of the management to continue this winze to a depth of NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 15
about 50 feet and then crosscut to the vein to determine its appearance at this depth.    It is
understood that underground development is to be continued during the winter.
The immediately surrounding region merits close prospecting as there seems to be a large
number of veins. In addition to those mentioned above, quartz-outcrops can be seen from a
distance on the mountain between Reed creek and McDougall river.
Placer-mining.
Sauchi Creek.
Sauchi creek flows easterly in its upper portion, and finally about 5 miles above its mouth
bends north-easterly, flowing into the south end of Stuart lake. It is a large creek with several
tributaries; the position of its most easterly tributary is shown on the Pre-emptor's map, about
2% miles east of its true position.
In dry weather a car can be driven from the Vanderhoof-Fort St. James road over a branch
road about 6 miles in length.    The lower 8 miles of this creek were examined.
The occurrence of placer gold on this creek has apparently been known locally for some
years, but it was not until the fall of last year that the occurrence was reported to the writer.
For the lower 5 miles the creek occupies a deep valley cut in glacial debris. About 6 miles
above its mouth, slightly pyritized quartzites of presumably Carboniferous age are exposed on
the left bank of the creek. Just above this point the valley widens, and large low-lying benches
flank both sides of the creek for about half a mile, when the valley narrows, cutting through a
large stock of granodiorite, above which it again widens to the point at which it is joined by a
north-flowing tributary about 8 miles above its mouth. The fall of the creek in the lower
5 miles is about 73 feet per mile and above this the gradient is somewhat less.
Placer gold in coarse flakes occurs on a false bed-rock concentration of post-Glacial type on
the low-lying benches mentioned above. Panning at several points disclosed quite good values,
and at one point a pan indicating a value of $8.10 per cubic yard (gold valued at $32 per ounce)
was obtained. Unfortunately these benches are overlain with many very large boulders, which
are so frequently present in this type of deposit and which are a great handicap to development.
However, careful testing of this ground is fully warranted.
This region lies within the eastern contact-zone of the Central batholith, of which the
granite stock cut by this creek about 6% miles above its mouth is a satellite. This stock and
the pyritized quartzite also mentioned above were the only rock-exposures noted, the bed-rock
generally being obscured by the thick mantle of glacial debris. Sauchi creek has cut down
through this debris and in doing so has effected the post-Glacial concentrations of placer mentioned. Whether gold will be found on bed-rock or not is largely dependent on a local source,
such as quartz veins. There is every reason to suppose that the placer gold is of local origin,
and, generally speaking, the up-stream region of this creek and its tributaries merits prospecting
for the occurrence of lode-minerals.
McLeod River Area.
A general description of placer occurrences in this area will be found on a previous page of
this report, and a map on page 101 of the 1933 Annual Report.
This company holds placer leases 690, 691, and 692, and has applied for three
Northern Reef additional placer leases north of the foregoing. (This company's mineral
Gold Mines, Ltd. holdings are described on previous pages of this report.) The property covers
that portion of the McDougall river immediately below the junction of Reed
creek, where the river, after flowing easterly, turns sharply south-westerly, then south-easterly,
forming a large bend. On the left bank of the river a large gently-sloping, gravel-covered
terraced flat is situated at this point. The shape is roughly that of a crescent. The length
of this large flat is about 1,000 yards and the average width about 350 yards. At the downstream end rock is exposed, and also the two rims of a former channel of the river. Instream
from this flat the ground rises sharply in the form of gravel cut-banks (rock is exposed at one
point) to a height of about 270 feet above the river, the average plateau-level of the region (as
determined by aeroid this is about 3,100 to, 3,200 feet above sea-level). This ground covers in
whole or in part the area tested last year by Cariboo Northern Development Company, Limited
(see 1933 Annual Report).
Placer gold occurs in this region in proximity to the river, where good values are found on
both banks as bar concentrations derived from glacial debris of local origin.    It is quite possible C 16 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
that bed-rock underlies the large flat on the left side of the river at comparatively shallow depth,
and in view of the surrounding bed-rock geology and the existence of numerous quartz veins the
occurrence of placer of local origin on rock benches or former channels of the river is possible.
Pans taken at four different points immediately adjacent to the river at the time of the
writer's visit indicated an average value of $1.87 per cubic yard for the material tested. Much
test-pitting has already been carried out during this and last season by the company's staff,
and results are stated to be satisfactory. To obtain an accurate idea of the average values and
yardage of the " big flat" a great deal of testing is required. The gold is fairly coarse; the
largest piece observed by the company's staff is stated to have a value of 17 cents.
It is the intention of the company to start hydraulicking just below the big flat, at which
point rock is exposed. Water for this purpose is to be obtained by impounding Green Timber
lake, situated on the plateau, and construction of a ditch-line 8,500 feet in length to a lower
dam situated just above the point at which piping is to be commenced. The head at the
monitor will be 90 feet. Considerable progress was made during the year on this project, and
it is anticipated that it will be possible to commence hydraulicking early next season, when it
will be possible to carry out more extensive testing.
During the year the company has been actively engaged in testing the ground, in ditch and
dam construction, and in tractor-trail construction from Fort McLeod, a distance of about
16 miles. A " K.O." Allis-Chalmers (48-horse-power) caterpillar tractor, taken into the property
during the year, has proved extremely useful in many ways.
Camp accommodation for a crew of twenty-four men has also been erected, together with
an assay office, and a sawmill has also been installed. (Refer also to Annual Report for year
1933.)
Tico Brothers Lake Area.
This company has  staked  and  applied  for  a  large  number  of  leases  on
Two Brothers    McLaren,  Moosehorn, and Thudegade creeks.    The latter,  frequently called
Valley Two Brothers river,  is more correctly named Thudegade river.    Rising in
Gold Mines, Ltd. the low Stikine-Finlay divide, this river meanders in a wide flat valley, which
mainly trends almost due east and west, but trends more northerly from the
confluence of McLaren creek down-stream.    Two Brothers lake (barometric elevation 3,695 feet)
is about 4% miles below the mouth of McLaren creek.    From Two Brothers lake the river flows
north-easterly into the Finlay river.    McLaren creek is a misnomer for McLair creek, Chas.
McLair having been the original discoverer of placer gold on this creek.    McLair is reported
to have taken several thousand dollars' worth of gold from the creek, but he finally disappeared
some years ago and presumably lost his life in this region.   Very little evidence of his workings
now remains, but his well-constructed cabin is situated on the north shore of Two Brothers
lake.     The direction   of  flow  of  McLaren   creek  is  south-easterly.     Moosehorn   creek  flows
southerly.    Both  are  large  creeks,  the  flow  being of the  order  of  thousands  of cubic feet
per minute.
The region lies in the western contact-zone of the Cassiar-Omineca-Cariboo or Eastern
batholith. The batholith evidently swings to a northerly direction from McConnell creek, and
exposures on McLaren creek are mainly of igneous rock. The rock is chiefly syenite and is
well pyritized in the region, more especially the exposures along McLaren creek. Samples of
well-mineralized batholithic rock taken at three different points failed to disclose any gold
values. The intruded rocks, so far as observed, are volcanics and outcrop in small exposures
along McLaren creek and extensively in the canyon of Moosehorn creek to the west. The geology
of the district is not unfavourable to the discovery of mineral deposits and, therefore, prospecting
is warranted.
The valley of Two Brothers river has been over-deepened, and all tributaries of this river
cut deep canyons and gorges adjacent to the main river-valley. Of these canyons, that of
McLaren creek is the oldest and bench deposits (low-lying) are laid down within it. This
canyon is quite possibly of inter-Glacial age. On either side of Two Brothers River valley, at
or about 300 feet in elevation above the present river, is what may be described as a master
rock bench, but thinly covered with glacial drift. This would seem to be the level of a pre-
Glacial channel system in this region. The glaciated pre-Glacial channel of McLaren creek
is remarkably well exposed at several points.    Just below the junction of Belle creek the width
J NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT   (No. 2). C 17
of this channel is about 400 yards, and it is situated on the left bank of the present creek, which
occupies a channel about 35 feet in elevation below it. Down-stream in the vicinity of the
gorge near the mouth the pre-Glacial channel exists in the form of a wide rock bench on the
west side. At some points the old channel has been swept bare of even gravel deposits by the
large streams arising from the melting ice during its retreat. At others it is covered with
terraces and benches of glacial drift.
It is apparent that the likelihood of finding any true bed-rock placer deposits of local
origin in such a region is remote. On the other hand, there is no reason why post-Glacial
concentrations of commercial proportions may not, be found, but it is important to bear in mind
that such concentrations are likely to show erratic distribution of values. A very large area
in this region is occupied by benches and terraces, which may be considered as of potential
promise and which merit testing. Particularly impressive in this connection is the wide valley
of Thudegade creek, or Two Brothers river as it is frequently called, wherein low-lying and
high-lying benches extend for many miles. The question of dredging possibilities therein
naturally arises. This can only be determined by very thorough and systematic testing of the
surface, followed by Keystone-drilling. It is self-evident that the adequate testing of such an
extensive area must occupy considerable time.
Good values may possibly be found on some of the bench deposits within the gorge of
McLaren creek.
A particularly important point commercially in connection with the benches in this region
is the absence of large boulders. In some eases the size of the gravels renders them readily
workable by drag-line or shovel, in so far as can be determined by superficial observation only.
It is clear that the placer gold originates from the glacial drift, but this, for the most part,
is of local origin, and boulders consist mainly of batholithic and volcanic rocks. Probably a
diagnostic erratic is a conglomerate. Boulders of the latter, although not very numerous, are
of widespread distribution throughout the area. The ice-sheet flowed south-east in this region,
and its scar on the mountains is plainly discernible from the aeroplane, in the region at the
north end of Thutade lake. Iron oxide resulting from the oxidation of the pyritized batholithic
rocks has resulted in cementation of some of the older gravels and in coating the placer gold,
rendering the latter somewhat difficult to amalgamate, although simple means only are necessary
to overcome this. A noteworthy feature is the presence of a large quantity of magnetite and
to a lesser extent of specularite. Some of this is quite coarse—of the size of walnuts. While
these minerals were not observed in such coarse form in place, nevertheless, in view of the
geology described, it will be evident that their occurrence in such coarse form is possible, and
they are probably of strictly local origin.
Probably a point of minor importance is the fact that field evidence supports the view that,
drainage has probably been reversed in Belle creek (East fork of McLair creek), and this creek
formerly flowed in the opposite direction.
Values in gravels tested to date are stated to range up to several dollars per cubic yard.
A test of a cubic yard of gravel at the time of the writer's visit showed a content of $1 with
gold at $34.50 per ounce.
It is evident that in such a remote region adequate testing of such a large potentially
promising area of gravels must involve considerable expense.
The Two Brothers Company is served entirely by aeroplanes. Three aeroplanes, each capable
of carrying a load of about 600 lb., are based at Takla lake, to which point freight is conveyed by
boat from Fort St. James. A radio-station at Two Brothers lake and another at the aeroplane
base contribute to safe flying conditions and keep the mine manager in touch with the outside.
Preliminary operations consisted in conveying to the ground a small sawmill, a 30-horse-power
caterpillar tractor, and a "Denver pan" (for testing gravels in 1-cubic-yard lots). A crew
of thirty men is employed. Suitable camp buildings for the accommodation of this force have
been erected. The camp (barometric elevation 3,750 feet) is situated in Two Brothers River
valley close to McLaren creek, at a point between 4% and 5 miles from Two Brothers lake.
A motor-boat plies on the lake and river, bringing supplies from the aeroplane-landing on the
lake to a point on the river about three-quarters of a mile below the camp.
The company, it is understood, has during the latter part of the year been carrying out
testing and drilling under the direction of S. Hancock, and intends to continue drilling during
the winter. C 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
The flying-time from Takla lake to Two Brothers lake is about two hours. In the long run
this is probably the cheapest way of reaching this area. Of the alternative routes, by trail
from Takla lake, by boat and trail via Finlay river (starting by boat from Summit lake), and
by trail from Telegraph Creek, the last mentioned would seem to be the best.
Other points in the Omineca Mining Division at which activities were manifested are Lome
and Hankin (Philip) creeks in the Skeena section and Bob creek near Houston.
CARIBOO MINING DIVISION.
Lode-mining.
Prince George Section.
These groups, consisting of a number of claims, are owned by A. St. Louis,
Black Cat and   T. Corless, and Chas. Wisenden, of Prince George.    The property is situated
Wild Cat.        on Corless creek (tributary of Skaret creek), about 1% miles above the mouth.
A car can be driven in dry weather to Tabor creek; thence a good sleigh-road
follows up Skaret creek, and a foot-trail up the right bank of Corless creek to the property.
The total distance from Prince George is about 9 miles.    The valley-sides of Corless creek are
steep and thickly wooded.
Mineralization consists of a number of more or less parallel quartz stringers' mineralized
with pyrite in andesitic volcanic rocks. In the latter a small amount of molybdenite occurs in
places in disseminated form.
Several of the quartz stringers mentioned are exposed by shallow open-cuts and trenches.
The widest stringer is about 8 inches. The stringers strike north-east and dip steeply north-west.
Samples of selected mineral were taken at four different points, but yielded upon assay only
traces of gold in each case.
This group consists of a number of claims owned by A. McLarty and G. B.
Dome. Williams, of Prince George.    The property is situated on the East fork of
Evans creek, tributary of Dome creek, a large creek flowing into the Eraser
river at Dome Creek Station on the Canadian National Railway.    From this station a pack-trail
about 14% miles in length leads to the property, which lies at elevations of between 4,575 and
5,750 feet.    The hillside on which the property is located is steep and wooded.
The deposit is of quite unusual size and is apparently a large mineralized acid sill about
600 feet in width, which can be traced on the surface for a great distance.
The rock on the foot-wall is a limy argillite and on the hanging-wall a grey quartzite.
Along the foot-wall is a body of quartz about 50 feet in width, the outcrop of which can be
traced for a great distance up the mountain-side over the divide between Evans and Dome creek,
a height of 1,175 feet in elevation above the exposed mineralization in the bed of the creek.
The sill is cut diagonally by the East fork of Evans creek, and the surface has been exposed
by blasting in places for a length of about 200 feet in the bed of the creek. The mineralization
is on the whole sparse, although good in spots, and consists mainly of pyrite and chalcopyrite
with a subordinate amount of galena. The sill has been altered to carbonates, apparently
ankerite, weathers to a rusty-brown, and is traversed with a network of small quartz veins.
After injection the sill has apparently been fractured and mineralized. Fragments of the
country-rock are in places cemented with quartz and carbonate material, and a network of
small quartz veins traverses the whole. Mineralization exhibits a tendency to replace the
brecciated parts.
The strike of the sill and enclosing country-rock is north 84 degrees west and dip about
60 degrees south. The prevailing rock formations in the region up to the head of this creek
are apparently entirely sedimentary. Three samples were taken of the more heavily mineralized
parts : (a) Near the foot-wall, where low gold values were reported ; (ft) at the point of heaviest
mineralization ; and (c) at a point where a little galena was in evidence. All samples disclosed
upon assay only traces of gold and silver. Sample (a) assayed 0.2 per cent, copper; sample
(6) assayed 3.2 per cent, copper;  and sample (c) assayed 2.5 per cent. lead.
This group, consisting of several claims, is owned by T. Rush and associates,
Tabor. of Prince George.    The property, which is a relocation of earlier staking, is
I situated on the open, gentle slopes of Six-mile mountain, which lies about NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2).
C 19
9 miles in a direct line north 80 degrees east of Prince George.    A motor-car can be driven to
the base of the mountain.
A number of parallel quartz veins occur in sedimentary rocks (argillites and quartzites)
intruded in places by granodiorite stocks. They occur within a belt about 1,500 feet wide.
Mineralization is sparse and consists of chalcopyrite and pyrite.
Most of these veins are several feet in width, reaching 11 feet in one case, strike north to
north 31 degrees east, dip east to south-east at varying angles.
The underground workings consist of several short adit-drifts, one crosscut, and shallow
winzes. So far noteworthy precious-metal values' have not been disclosed. (Refer to 1929
Annual Report.)
This company is a reorganization of an old company of the same name
Qnesnelle Quartz incorporated in the seventies. The authorized capital is $600,000, divided
Mining Co., Ltd. into 2,400,000 shares of a par value of 25 cents each. The registered office
is 1000 Hall Building, Vancouver, and the president is Newton J. Ker. The
property consists of six Crown-granted claims—Morrison Location, Stewart Location, Washburn
Location, Washburn Lateral, and also Lot 55g and Lot 56g.
The property is situated on Hixon creek, about 4y2 miles distant from the Prince George-
Quesnel highway, and can now be reached by motor-car. The slopes of Hixon Creek valley are
timbered and the rock formations are largely covered by gravel terraces at elevations much above
the creek. The creek has cut down to a depth of about 200 feet below the plateau-level and,
at or about creek-level, country-rock and quartz veins are exposed.
B.C.Department of Mines
Quesnelle Quartz Mining Co.
The country-rock consists of bands of a highly altered kaolinized formation interstratified
with schistose sediments and phyllites. Within the first mentioned are numerous quartz veins,
mineralized with pyrite, varying in size from an inch or less to several feet in width. Quartz
veins also follow the contact of the highly altered rock with the sediments. Underground
workings show that the deeply oxidized and kaolinized rock gradually passes at depth into
greenstone ; the zone of oxidation extending to about 100 feet below the creek-level. It is
evident that the rock formations were deeply weathered in Tertiary times and that secondary
enrichment took place in the quartz veins. Commercial gold values only occur in some of the
quartz veins. It is stated that a large volume of the altered greenstone contains low gold values
up to $2.04 per ton (gold valued at $30 per ounce). The greenstone is a highly altered rock,
possibly diorite, originally intruded in the form of sills. About 2 miles down-stream a stock
of augite syenite outcrops at the falls on the creek, and granodiorite outcrops 2 miles up-stream
in the creek-valley.
After incorporation in the seventies the original company carried out the greater portion
of the existing underground work and erected a stamp-mill. Old records show apparently that
239 tons of ore was milled, averaging $20.91, with gold valued at $20.67 per ounce. Operations
were suspended in the late eighties, shaft-workings allowed to fill with water, and for nearly
fifty years until last year they remained in that condition. C 20 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
An option on the property was secured in 1918 by .Chas. F. Law and later in 1929 by Cariboo
Lode Mines, Limited, but on each occasion little was done other than clearing out adits. Interest
was revived in 1932 following the discovery by B. Briscoe of some rich quartz stringers, and
the property was optioned by R. W. Alward, M.L.A., and J. H. Johnson. Pits' were sunk on the
quartz stringers to where the ore pinched and 8 tons was shipped, yielding 7 oz. gold and 3 oz.
silver. The option was allowed to lapse. In 1933 the present company was organized, plant
was installed, comprising a 50-horse-power Diesel-engine-operated air-compressor, 18-horse-power
gasoline-engine, hoist and pump, and the main shaft was unwatered and development commenced.
The main shaft is sunk close to the creek on the left bank to a depth of 207 feet. From
this shaft the following workings have been driven : A working 25 feet west at a depth of
50 feet; at 97% feet, a total of 232 feet of workings west, north, and south; at 145% feet
depth, a total of 81.5 feet of workings east and west; and at 196 feet, a total of 240 feet of
workings east and north. The shaft shows that the decomposed rock at the surface gradually
becomes less oxidized in depth and at 100 feet merges into greenstone, which continues to
the bottom.
An adit was started last year on the right bank or opposite side of the creek, its objective
being to explore the ground under the rock bench on which the rich stringers were discovered
in 1932. This adit is about 170 feet in length and enters the region in which pits were originally
sunk from the surface. At the top of the raise a quartz vein 4 feet wide was intersected which
showed free gold. It is stated that 548 lb. of ore from this region yielded gold to the value of
$5.25, representing a value of $19.16 per ton  (gold valued at $30 per ounce).
On the right bank of the creek, in the near vicinity of the above adit, another shaft, known
as the Koch shaft, was sunk many years ago to a depth of 70 feet and a working run south-west
therefrom. This working was cleaned out during the year. Close to the collar of this shaft
an adit was run also many years ago north-westerly. At a distance of about-114 feet from the
portal branch workings were run south-west 108 feet and north-east 35 feet, the former branch
cutting a number of quartz veins. This working was extended somewhat during the year by
the present company. In close proximity to the Koch shaft, another known as the Mason shaft
was sunk originally to a stated depth of 51 feet and certain workings were run from the bottom.
This working has not been examined by the writer.
It is the opinion of the management that the most promising region for quartz veins with
commercial values is in the greenstone bordering the contact, with the schistose sediments, and
it has therefore been decided to drive south-west from the bottom of the main shaft in the
greenstone to the contact, and then drive north-west, following it under the workings; on the
opposite side of the creek. At the time of the writer's examination in September a new head-
frame had been erected over the main shaft, and this work had been commenced. Camp
buildings were improved during the year and a 12-14-horse-power Petter Diesel engine and
electric generator were installed for the purpose of lighting the camp.
It is understood that the Crown grants of this property convey placer rights as well as
lode-mineral. The possible existence of a segment of a buried channel on the rock bench on
the right bank of the creek in the vicinity of the present workings is indicated. Further investigation seems well justified. (Refer also to Annual Reports for 1918, 1929, 1930, and 1933. and
Bulletins Nos. 1 and 3, 1932.)
Barkerville Section.
This company has an authorized capitalization of 2.000,000 shares of a par
Cariboo value of $1 each.   Registered office, 615 Bower Building, Vancouver.   President,
Gold Quartz     Dr. W. B. Burnett;   managing director, Fred M. Wells;   general superinten-
Mining Co., Ltd. dent,   R.   R.   Rose.    The  property  owned  by  this  company  consists of  the
Rainbow, Pinkerton, and adjoining claims, in all over sixty in number, located
for the most part on Cow mountain, extending north-westwards; across Jack of Clubs' lake to
Island mountain.    The hillsides are timbered and the rock formations largely obscured.
Numerous quartz veins mineralized with pyrite strike north-easterly or easterly. Black
fibrous minerals occur locally, with which free gold is almost invariably associated. These
minerals have been identified by H. V. Warren as galenobismutite and cosalite, sulphides of lead
and bismuth, copper being also present in the latter. Milling has proved that particles of free
gold occur in the veins up to % oz. in size. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 21
The Pinkerton claim was apparently worked to a limited extent in the very early days and
later, in 1902, by C. J. Seymour Baker. Surface showings first received serious attention by the
late A. W. Sanders, a prospector who staked the Rainboio group about 1921, and during the next
few years exposed rich surface showings, to which attention was drawn and the development of
which was recommenced in the 1925 Annual Report. In 1927 the Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining
Company, Limited, was formed and small-scale operations commenced under the management
of F. M. Wells. The initial operations consisted of a crosscut adit and branch workings driven
from the left bank of Lowhee creek, 380 feet in elevation above the present main working-adit.
One objective of this work was to explore the ground below the Rainbow group outcrops. In
view of the encouraging results secured in this working, it was decided in 1930 to start a permanent main crosscut adit just above Jack of Clubs lake. New camp buildings were erected at
this site. The results gained in driving this adit were such that a decision to erect a mill was
reached in 1932, and a cyanide plant of about 65 tons daily capacity was completed by the end
of that year and milling operations commenced on January 2nd, 1933. Material additions to
air-compressor capacity and Diesel-engine power plant were made in 1933 to meet the demands
of the extensive programme of underground developments being carried out.
Still further additions in this respect were made in 1934; Diesel-engine power has now
reached a total of about 1,000 horse-power and air-compressor capacity about 3,000 cubic feet
of free air per minute. Three electric locomotives and one mechanical mucker are employed
in the main haulage-adit. The capacity of the mill was stepped up to 100 tons daily during the
latter part of the year, the present treatment scale.
The surface showings are mainly on the Rainbow, Cariboo No. 1, and Pinkerton claims.
The Rainbow surface showings consist of a number of small veins of the " B " type showing
free gold in their outcrops. The original owner, the late A. W. Sanders, used to make several
hundred dollars each year by roughly crushing and rocking ore extracted from these outcrops.
On the Cariboo No. 1 claim the chief showing is a large " A " vein, between 40 and 50 feet in
width, showing free gold in its outcrop, yielding good assays across several feet. The indicated
strike is north-west and the downward continuation is being sought by a crosscut now being
driven from a point close to the end of the main haulage-adit. The distance is now less than
1,200 feet. The host-rocks are schistose sediments of the Richfield formation of Precambrian
age.
The underground workings have now reached a total length of about 5 miles. The old
upper workings total several hundred feet in length and comprise one main adit and two
branches therefrom. Several quartz veins from a few inches to 2 feet in width were intersected and one large vein 9 feet in width crossing the formation, which shows good gold values.
This vein was followed for about 150 feet along its strike and has been stoped to some extent.
The main adit, known as the 1,500 level, is at elevation 4,000 feet above sea-level (about
100 feet above Jack of Clubs lake). For the first 450 feet its direction is southerly; thereafter
it continues on a bearing south 47 degrees east to the face, and about 3,700 feet from the portal.
Approximately 350 feet in elevation above this level another adit, known as the 1,200 level, has
been run south-easterly and connected by a raise with the old workings. Intermediate between
the above two adits are the 1,400 and 1,300 sub-levels, which do not connect with the surface.
About 115 feet below the 1,500 level a limited amount of driving has been carried out on the
1,600 level. The 1,500 level has cut in all nine veins in addition to numerous veinlets, the
existence of which were not previously known. In addition to the foregoing, the members
of the Rainbow or Sanders system were intersected. On the 1,500 level development has disclosed to date three productive regions represented by three separate groups of veins—namely,
the No. 2 vein area, the Nos. 5, 6, and 7 vein areas, and the Rainbow or Sanders vein area.
Extensive development has taken place in these at the various horizons between the 1,200
and 1,500 levels, and the persistence of these groups of veins and the presence of commercial
gold values at different horizons has been proved. Particular interest attaches to the Rainbow
system, because originally it was chiefly the surface exposures of this system which led to the
initiation of this mining enterprise. It is also interesting to note that it is in association with
this vein system that auriferous pyrite replacements in limestone occur, similar in type although
not so extensive as that found at the adjoining property of the Island Mountain Mines Company,
Limited. (Refer to Annual Reports for years 1922 to 1933, inclusive; also Bulletins Nos. 1
and 3, 1932, and to Geological Survey Summary Report, 1933, Part A.) This group, owned by C. J. Seymour Baker, consists of Aurum, Aurum N.E.,
Aurum. Aurum West, Aurum South, and  Union Quartz claims.    The Aurum group
and eight adjoining claims are now controlled by the Island Mountain Mines
Company, Limited, a subsidiary of Newmont Mining Corporation. The manager is M. D.
Banghart. The property is situated on the steep, timbered slopes of Island mountain adjacent
to the town of Wells, and the concentrator is beside the Quesnel-Barkerville road. It adjoins
the property of the Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Company, Limited, on the north-west.
There are two distinct types of deposits: (a) Quartz veins mineralized with pyrite and
arsenopyrite, and with rare occurrences of cosalite or galenobismutite, carrying gold values,
striking in main easterly and north-easterly, dip steep southerly; (6) a pronouncedly auriferous
pyrite replacement deposit in limestone. The property is situated within an area of schistose
sediments of the Richfield formation of Precambrian age. One intrusive tongue of diorite has
been cut in the workings.
The property was first operated, according to early records, by the Enterprise Company in
1878, and later by the Island Mountain Mining Company, which company is reported to have
employed from forty to sixty men in one year. The latter company purchased a Lane and Kurtz
mill and graded a site for it during the years 1886-87. A 10-stamp mill was erected by the latter
company at Jack of Clubs lake (on the site of which an up-to-date cyanide plant was constructed
this year), but early records differ as to the date of erection; the late W. Fleet Robertson in
the 1902 Annual Report giving the date as 1878, whereas the Gold Commissioner at Barkerville
in 1890 states that the mill was completed in 1890. However, although many hundreds of feet
of development were undoubtedly carried out on this property in the early days, mainly by this
company, milling operations were of very short-lived duration ("about one month" according
to the 1902 Annual Report), the metallurgical treatment of the ore, coupled with other difficulties,
offering a problem which the operators could not at that time solve. In 1903 C. J. Seymour
Baker and associates carried out " a great deal of work on Island mountain clearing out old
adits," but subsequently, until 1925, interest in the property lapsed. In 1925 C. J. Seymour Baker
acquired from the Government much of the property now known as the Aurum group, and each
year until 1932 employed a small force of men in clearing out old workings—no inconsiderable
task in view of the fact that many of the trails approaching them were completely blocked with
a fifty-year-old timber-growth. In 1932 the Aurum group was optioned by C. J. Seymour Baker
to Reward Mining Company, Limited. The latter staked eight adjoining claims on the west
and the same year bonded the whole property to Cariboo Consolidated Gold Mines, Limited,
which company in turn optioned these holdings to Newmont Mining Corporation, of New York.
This corporation commenced active development in 1933, operations being carried on under the
name of P. Kraft, the resident manager. Subsequently Island Mountain Mines Company,
Limited, was incorporated to operate the property. In 1934 the scope of operations was greatly
increased, the Diesel power plant increased to 389 horse-power, and a 50-60-ton daily capacity
counter-current cyanide plant constructed, which went into operation on November 1st. (Refer
also to Annual Reports for 1902, 1925 to 1928, inclusive, 1930 and 1933; also Bulletins Nos. 1
and 3, 1932, and Geological Survey Memoir No. 149 and Geological Summary Report, 1933,
Part A.)
A large number of quartz veins are exposed on the eastern portion of the property, on the
Aurum and Aurum West claims, the outcrops of some of which are said to have been rocked
for their gold contents by early individual workers. On the claims adjoining the Aurum group
on the west large quartz veins outcrop also. The old surface cuts are now sloughed in and
largely obscured.
The underground workings are almost entirely confined to the Aurum claim, and consist
of the following adits: Main adit, elevation 4,000 feet; Middle Lake adit, elevation 4,236 feet;
Upper Lake adit, elevation 4,347 feet; Upper John's adit, elevation 4,573 feet; and Lower
John's adit, elevation 4,540 feet. There are also some short adits known as the Walker and
Wright adits, somewhat north and west of the John's adits. On October 20th the extent of
these workings was approximately as follows: Main adit, 85 feet above Jack of Clubs lake,
was in 1,850 feet from the portal, with south-westerly and westerly workings 275 and 900 feet
long respectively at 160 feet from the portal. The Middle Lake adit follows a generally westerly
bearing for 350 feet. At about 75 feet from the portal a branch which has subsequently become
the main working is run almost at right angles to the former course for 450 feet north, then NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2).
C 23
north-westerly a further 500 feet, at which point it connects with a raise from the Main adit
following the pyrite replacement deposit. The Upper Lake adit is about 60 feet long and the
John's adits  (very old workings)  are each about 200 feet long.
While it is a matter of uncertainty in this area to attempt the identification of veins exposed
in workings as widely separated as these, evidence to date indicates the existence of about
seven principal veins, on all of which some drifting has been carried on. In addition, there
are a large number of veinlets. Of the principal veins mentioned, four were encountered in the
Main level, and the most northerly of these, intersected about 1,000 feet from the portal, may
possibly be the downward continuation of the vein on which the John's adits are driven. The
width of the veins varies up to about 5 feet and the mineralization has already been described.
The pyrite replacement deposit was first penetrated in the Main adit in the region directly
below the John's workings. The width of this mineralization varies, reaching at one point
a maximum of 7 feet of almost solid pyrite with high gold values. It has been drifted on,
following the limestone, for about 300 feet at the horizon of this working. This deposit is
followed upwards by raises at two points, one of which is connected with the Middle Lake level.
B.C.Department of Mines.
Aurum Property of Island Mountain Mines Co., Ltd. C 24
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
At the end of October active preparations were being made to explore its downward continuation
by diamond-drilling below the Main level.
This company, incorporated during the year with an authorized capitalization
Proserpine of 3,000,000 shares of a par value of $1 per share, holds options on the
Gold Mines, Ltd. Independence, Hard Cash, General Currie, Tipperary, Blighty, and Warspite,
Crown-granted, and ten adjoining claims held by location. Owners and
optionors concerned are E. E. Armstrong, F. B. Armstrong, F. J. Tregillus, T. A. Blair, Clinton
S. Harley, W. T. Hoover, and Proserpine Syndicate. The registered office of the company is
502 Pacific Building, Vancouver. The property is situated on Proserpine mountain, distant by
pack-trail about 4 miles from Barkerville. It is located on a timbered, flat-topped mountain
summit which falls away sharply in the south-eastern portion of the property to Grouse creek.
Several quartz veins of " A " type striking north-westerly are intersected by a large number
of north-easterly-striking " B " veins, mineralized with pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, and sphalerite ;  the galena content being more pronounced in the veins at the south-east end of the property.
Some of the claims were staked by E. E. Armstrong in 1909, and he and the owners of
adjoining claims carried out superficial prospecting exposing various veins by trenching and
open-cutting. In 1919 and 1920 this property was operated under option by the Mining Corporation of Canada, which company relinquished its bond in the latter year. This work was carried
out prior to the field-work of the late W. L. Uglow, who, in his report, Memoir No. 149, Geological
Survey of Canada, has done so much to solve the problems of mineralization in the district.
Prospecting was subsequently carried on by the owners until 1933, when options were secured
by the Proserpine Syndicate, which carried out much stripping and open-cutting under the
direction of C. M. Campbell. Options were assigned to Proserpine Gold Mines, Limited, in 1934,
following incorporation of the latter.
The surface showings are situated at an elevation of about 5,600 feet on the flat summit
of the mountain and extend for about 1 mile practically throughout the entire length of the
property. They consist of various " A " veins crossed by a very large number, said to be forty,
of " B " veins. These have been exposed by several thousand feet in all of surface-trenching
and open-cutting. The veins occur in schistose sediments of the Richfield formation intruded by
Proserpine dykes and sills.
The underground workings are situated at each end of the property, mainly about 100 feet
below the summit of the mountain; the two points at which development is taking place being
about 1 mile apart. At the northern end on the Warspite claim an adit 150 feet in length is
driven at elevation of 5,500 feet in a north-easterly direction to intersect the possible north-west
continuation of the " A " vein, in which a shaft is sunk 450 feet to the south-east. The shaft
(now full of water) is said to be 30 feet deep. From this adit a branch working is being run
in a south-easterly direction to reach the region under the shaft. The vein in the shaft is
reported to be several feet in width, carrying encouraging gold values. This working on October
17th was within 175 feet' of its objective. The collar of the shaft is 80 feet in elevation above
this working, which cuts argillite and quartzite beds diagonally. The quartzite-beds passed
through in this working are intensely silicified, and at one point are cut by numerous small,
closely spaced, well-mineralized quartz veins. A sample of pyrite taken therefrom assayed
0.12 oz. gold per ton, which would seem to justify some investigation at this point.
At the southern end of the property two adits, the Bell and Newberry, 450 and 525 feet
long respectively and about 1,050 feet apart, are driven to crosscut various veins exposed on the
surface by open-cuts and shallow shafts. The former is at about the same elevation as the
Warspite adit and the latter 90 feet lower. At 200 feet below and about 675 feet east of the
Newberry adit, another crosscut adit has been advanced a distance of 85 feet on a bearing
south 19 degrees west.
In the Newberry adit a large vein was encountered under No. 1 shaft, and in this region
a width of 30 feet is said to yield encouraging values. Another large vein was passed through
below No. 2 shaft. In the Bell adit, below No. 4 shaft, a vein 12 feet wide was passed through,
and farther in three additional veins were cut varying in width from 4 to 6 feet. The formation
at the southern end of the property consists of sheared black graphitic schists and quartzites.
The buff-coloured schistose rock cut by the outer sections of the Newberry and Bell adits is
considered by the company's geologist to be a sheared Proserpine sill. Generally speaking, the
formations at this end of the property are much shattered and the veins appear to be irregular NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 25
and somewhat difficult to follow;   conditions change markedly in this respect in a northerly
direction.
This company, with a capitalization of 2,500,000 shares of a par value of $1
Cariboo each and incorporated under the company laws of Ontario, is registered as
Coronada        an   extra-provincial   company   in   this   Province.    The   property   consists   of
Gold Mines, Ltd. twenty-one mineral claims and five fractional claims situated on the timbered
slopes of Cornish mountain.    The superintendent is E. Hanson.    The property
is reached by a branch road about 1 mile in length from Wells.
In 1933 work was commenced by the Cariboo Coronada Mining Syndicate, consisting of
road-construction and erection of camp buildings adjacent to the main adit. This year operation
was taken over by Cariboo Coronada Gold Mines, Limited. A 50-horse-power Diesel engine and
air-compressor were installed at the portal of the main adit. Operations were suspended
towards the close of the year.    (Refer to 1933 Annual Report.)
Quartz veins striking from north 3 degrees west to north 27 degrees east, sparsely mineralized
with pyrite, occur in the Barkerville formation, consisting of schistose argillite and quartzite,
strike north 42 degrees east, dip steep north-east. At and about an elevation of 4,800 feet on
Cornish mountain several veins have been exposed by open-cuts and strippings. One of these
is close to 9 feet in width. A main crosscut adit, elevation 4,000 feet (just above Williams
Creek meadows), is driven in a northerly direction for 1,354 feet (October 21st) to explore the
ground at a depth of 731 feet below the surface showings. The working is almost entirely in
schistose limestone, which is slightly pyritized at the face. From 641 to 660 feet the formation
(striking north-westerly and dipping north-east) is intruded by diorite apparently in the form
of a sill. At 200 feet from the portal two quartz veins about 2 feet wide and close together
were intersected. It seems likely they will unite immediately to the east of the working.
In the near vicinity are other small veins.    These veins are mineralized with pyrite.
The property consists of a large number of claims situated on the northern
Coronada        part of Cornish mountain in the vicinity of Martin creek.    It is reached by
Extension Gold  a trail above the right bank of the Willow river from the camp of Cariboo
Mines, Ltd.      Coronada Gold Mines, Limited.    Several large quartz veins outcrop at about
4,700 feet elevation.    Float showing galena and pyrite occurs in the vicinity.
An adit has been driven by hand on a bearing north 36 degrees west on the right bank of
Martin creek a distance of 400 feet in schistose limestone with the object of exploring the
ground below the surface showing.    At 70 and 105 feet from the portal, veins 6 and 8 feet in
width respectively were intersected, and at 150 feet from the portal a number of closely spaced
veins occur within a width of about 60 feet.    Pyrite is present in these veins and a sample of
the more heavily mineralized portions of one vein showed upon assay gold values of 0.06 oz.
per ton.    It is stated by E. Hanson, in charge of operations, that a shaft 28 feet deep was sunk
in the surface showings subsequent to examination by the writer.
This company, incorporated in 1933 with a capitalization of 3,000,000 shares
Richfield Cariboo of no par value, was organized to acquire from A. G. Henderson Syndicate,
Gold Mines, Ltd. Limited, the Williams group of twenty-one mineral claims.    A large number of
adjoining claims comprising the El Dorado and Murray group are also among
the company's holdings.    The registered office of the company is 716 Hall Building, Vancouver.
The property is situated on Bald mountain and extends across Williams creek to Proserpine
mountain. The ground is timbered and steep in places. The mine camp is situated at the head
of Mink gulch on the old road from Barkerville to Stanley, and is distant about 2% miles from
the former place.
Quartz veins containing pyrite and occasionally pyrrhotite occur in schistose sediments of
the Richfield formation.    The veins are highly oxidized on the surface.
The company started operations in 1933, erecting camp buildings and installing a portable
Sullivan air-compressor. Work was stopped temporarily, at any rate, in the spring of 1934.
(Refer to 1933 Annual Report.)
The surface showings examined consist of one " A " vein several feet in width, and a cluster
of veins striking in an easterly and westerly direction, situated at elevations of between 5,850
and 6,000 feet on Bald mountain above Mink gulch. The showings are situated about 2,400
feet south of the main working-level. Other surface showings on the slopes of Proserpine
mountain have not been examined. C 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
The main working-level, situated at the divide between Mink gulch and the East fork of
Jack of Clubs creek at an elevation of 5,200 feet, had on May 27th (by which date operations
had been suspended) been driven a total length of approximately 1,535 feet. For the first 600
feet the adit follows a bearing south 51 degrees east and thereafter a due-south course. At 275
feet from the portal some well-mineralized quartz is exposed on the west side of the working
and at 317 feet a vein with a maximum width of 3 feet. Just south of the bend in the working
a large vein slightly mineralized crossing the formation was intersected. Between 920 and
1,020 feet the working passes through a siliceous sill intruding the formation.
Sugar Creek Section.
These groups consist of a number of claims owned by T. Riley and associates,
Moonlight and   of Wells.    The groups are situated on what is locally known as Mustang
Comstock. mountain, which lies immediately north of Little Mustang creek. The latter
flows into Sugar creek close to Walker's House, which is reached by sleigh-
road from Wells, about 12 miles distant. From Walker's House a good pack-trail about 1%
miles in length leads to the property. The property lies on a timbered, flat-topped summit, cut
by creek-valleys. Quartz veins, both " A " and " B " types, occur in schistose sediments of the
Cariboo series, sparsely mineralized with pyrite and galena with some sphalerite.
At one point a prominent vein, upwards of 30 feet in width, striking with the sediments,
very sparsely mineralized with pyrite and galena, is exposed by an open-cut on the left bank
of a small creek. A sample of selected mineral assayed a trace of gold. The creek mentioned
flows north-westerly, and various veins are exposed at different points on its banks up-stream
from the vein described. Some of these appear to be typical " B " veins, while others strike
more or less with the formation but cut it on the dip.
At one point on the right bank of the creek an adit 50 feet long follows a flat-dipping vein
exposed on the south side only in faulted ground. The face of the working is almost wholly
in oxidized quartz, in which occurs a compact seam of galena and sphalerite a few inches wide.
A sample of this upon assay yielded: Gold, trace; silver, 10.2 oz. per ton; lead, 25.1 per cent.
Above this working are exposed on the surface several closely spaced veins, somewhat oxidized
and sparsely mineralized. About 250 feet up-stream from the working a shaft full of water,
said to be 18 feet deep, is sunk on a quartz vein of the " A " type. On the foot-wall of this vein
is a narrow seam of pyrite.   A sample of the latter showed upon assay a trace of gold.
This group, consisting of several claims owned by P. Johnson, E. Johnson,
Cosalite. and J. T. McCay, of Wells, is situated immediately north of Mustang lake,
at the head of the divide between Little Mustang creek and Mustang creek.
It is reached by following the Sugar Creek trail from Wells to Walker's House; thence a pack-
trail 3 miles in length leads up Little Mustang Creek valley to the lake at the base of the
property. Quartz veins of " A " and " B " types sparingly mineralized with pyrite and galena
occur in sheared sediments of the Cariboo series.
A quartz vein apparently of " A " type conforming with the quartzite formation in strike
and dip is exposed 750 feet above Mustang lake, at the edge of the valley-rim. It is much
oxidized but shows a little galena. Gold values are stated to be low. Somewhat east and 50
feet above this vein is another, 9 inches wide, mineralized with pyrite exposed in an open-cut.
A sample of selected portions of this vein showed upon assay a trace of gold. On the steep
valley-slope 75 feet below this exposure a typical " B " vein, 18 to 20 inches wide and mineralized
with pyrite, is exposed in an open-cut. A sample taken across 20 inches at the face of the
exposure yielded upon assay a trace of gold. About ,200 feet below the last exposure a typical
" A " vein from 3 to 4 feet wide is exposed for a length of a hundred or more feet on the steep
valley-slope.
This  group,  consisting of several claims owned by V.  Hulbert and Karl
K.V. Anderson, of Prince George, is situated along a small creek on the south side
of Little Mustang Creek valley on the slope of Tom mountain.     It is reached
by following the Sugar Creek trail to Walker's House;   thence by pack-trail for about a mile
up Little Mustang creek; thence by blazed line up the valley-slope.
On the left bank of a small creek a quartz vein several feet in width is exposed striking
with the argillites. The underground working consists of a short adit 30 feet long about 50 feet
below the surface showing and a short distance north-east of it.    Several small quartz veinlets NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 27
mineralized with pyrite crossing the formation are cut by the working.    A sample of selected
pyrite assayed a trace of gold.
Stanley Section.
This company was incorporated in 1933 for the purpose of acquiring and
Foster Ledge    working twenty-three claims comprising the old Foster mine and contiguous
Gold Mines, Ltd. territory, owned by C. Fuller, D. Haws, and N. Hansen, on Chisholm creek.
The company's camp buildings are within a hundred yards or so of the main
road, about half a mile from Stanley.    The ground is steep in places and timbered.
Quartz veins of the " B " type, mainly under 2 feet in width, occur in the Richfield formation
of the Cariboo series. Mineralization consists essentially of galena, pyrite, and sphalerite, and
in places free gold is visible in the outcrops.
According to old records, the property was apparently worked in the seventies, and an old
shaft now full of water is sunk on the left bank of Chisholm creek. According to the Geological
Survey Summary Report, 1933, Part A, it " is reported to be 56 feet deep and to have been sunk
on two 5-foot veins 4 feet apart." The property remained idle until last year, when Foster
Ledge Gold Mines, Limited, commenced operations.    (Refer to 1933 Annual Report.)
Three northerly-striking mineralized quartz veinlets of " B " type within a width of a few
feet outcrop on the right bank of Chisholm creek immediately opposite the old Foster shaft.
About 1,200 feet east of the creek on the mountain-slope two intersecting veins striking respectively north 13 degrees west and north 22 degrees east, both dipping north-west, are exposed by
some very old and by some recent surface-trenching. One shows free gold in places. The veins
are about 14 inches wide. There may be other surface showings, but only those mentioned have
been examined.
About 400 feet down-stream from the Foster shaft on the left bank of the creek, a rock
working commenced years ago by placer-miners has been advanced a distance of about 250 feet
northerly, and from the end a branch working has been driven about 40 feet west, cutting the
three veinlets mentioned. A drift follows these three well-mineralized quartz seams, each of
which is about 6 inches wide, and all of which are included in the working for a distance of
about 30 feet northerly. The portal of this working is 80 feet below the collar of the Foster
shaft.    These small veins show encouraging gold values.
About 1,500 feet down-stream from the above working in the left bank of the creek and
190 feet below the above-described working, an adit starting on a bearing north 2 degrees east
and finishing on a bearing north 67 degrees east is in a distance of about 220 feet, intersecting
12 feet from the face a well-mineralized quartz vein 6 inches wide, strike north 23 degrees west,
dip west.    A sample of selected mineral from this vein assayed:  Gold, 0.24 oz. per ton.
The presence of gold values in the three small veins would appear to justify the unwatering
of the Foster shaft so that an examination of the large veins reported to have been exposed in
it may be made.
This property, owned by D. D. Eraser and Jas. McHardie, of Quesnel, is situ-
Tertiary,        ated at the foot of the Cottonwood canyon on the east side of the Fraser
river, about 18 miles above Quesnel.   It is reached by a branch road from
Cinema, on the Prince George-Quesnel highway.
The property is situated at a point where the Fraser river has cut obliquely through an
old channel, the gravels of which are exposed on both sides of the present river. On the east
side the bed-rock of the old channel is considerably above the river-level. The length of the
oblique exposure on the east side is about 1,100 feet, but the true width is probably about 900
feet. The gutter where mining has been carried on is on the left rim; values being too scattered
on the right rim to admit of profitable extraction. The channel has been followed up-stream or
northerly for a distance of 1,500 feet by workings on bed-rock. The gradient is about 3% per
cent. For the last 400 feet the pay-streak has averaged about 12 feet in width, prior to which
it was about 50 feet. The values are concentrated on bed-rock, although the gravels for a few
feet up contain small values. In the area mined the unconsolidated materials are about 120
feet deep, but are thicker farther ahead. The gravel is tightly cemented, almost a conglomerate,
and does not show any sign of oxidation. Carbonized driftwood is of frequent occurrence. The
gold is coarse (some pieces have adhering particles of quartz), indicating a somewhat local
source. The property was originally owned by Mr. Killam, being worked by him for many
years prior to 1917, when it was known as the " Killam gravel-mine."    During this period the C 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
gravel mined was exposed to weathering for six months to effect partial disintegration before
being washed. In 1917 the property was acquired by the Tertiary Gravel Company, which
installed a compressed-air plant for mining with machine-drills and erected a mill to treat the
' cemented gravel. The mill consisted of jaw-crusher, ball-mill, and Pearce amalgamators, but
apparently operations were not an economic success and were suspended in 1922. The property
was acquired by the present owners in 1923 and mining was continued in a small way until
1926, when operations were suspended because the cemented gravels hitherto encountered gave
place to those less firmly cemented, rendering mining difficult. Work done this year on the
surface seems to indicate more favourable mining conditions ahead.
The gravel mined stands up well, without timber for some distance, provided no surface
water percolates through. There is a seam of sand and silt about 7 feet above bed-rock, and
when even a little surface water percolates through, trouble is manifested at once. As the value
of the gravel does not exceed between $1.50 and $2 a ton, it is considered cheaper to turn the
drive into bed-rock when wet ground is encountered, until conditions improve, rather than go
to the expense of the heavy timbering required to continue in the gravel. For about the last
100 feet surface waters have given some trouble and the working is in bed-rock for this distance.
By using 60 l>er cent, explosive the gravels are disintegrated sufficiently to free the gold,
which is recovered by sluicing in the ordinary way. The sluice-boxes are installed at the portal
of the working, and also a small boiler for the operation of a steam-driven air-compressor.
Originally the company operating this property installed a crushing and milling plant, but the
necessity for this was entirely eliminated by the simple expedient of using 60 per cent, explosive
as above described, and the plant has been discarded long since.
The cost of driving in the gravel is given by D. D. Fraser as $34.50 for 5 feet of advance,
which yields about 25 tons of gravel; that is to say, the cost per ton of gravel is about $1.25.
The maximum yield of gold is $1.50 to $2 per ton; therefore no wide margin is left for any
contingencies such as bad ground.
Careful records have been kept by D. D. Fraser, and he finds that, whenever the grade of
the bed-rock steepens, the pay-streak gets narrower and poorer, widening and improving when
the grade flattens. The grade varies from 1.1 to about 7 per cent., the rise being in a northerly
direction.
James McHardie with one man has been working at the property throughout the past
season, and the owners report that a shaft has been sunk at a point about 300 feet ahead of the
underground workings to a depth of 40 feet, showing a thickness of some 20 feet of cemented
gravels. This would seem to indicate more favourable conditions for mining ahead of the
present underground workings.
Should this channel continue in a northerly direction where lode-gold occurrences are more
pronounced, it seems a justifiable anticipation that bed-rock gold values will improve, but more
tangible proof of conditions in the channel ahead of the present workings must be obtained, by
Keystone-drilling for example, before the possibilities of this property can be clearly delimited.
This is a private company incorporated for the purpose of operating fourteen
Sovereign Creek leases on Gagen creek and vicinity.    Of these, eleven leases have been granted
Gold Mines, Ltd. and three are under application.    The leases cover the area of G. S. Gagen's
discovery  made  in 1932.    The property  is  reached  by  a  trail  leaving  the
Quesnel-Barkerville road 5%  miles from  Cottonwood  House at the foot  of  Mexican  hill.
Lightning creek is crossed on a foot-bridge.   The total distance from the highway is between
1 and 1% miles.
Gagen creek flows almost due north in its upper reaches, then turns sharply at right angles
near Lightning Creek valley just below a small lake, continuing south-westerly in the region of
the discovery, and finally entering " Lost valley," to flow north-westerly to its junction with
Lightning creek.
The discovery was made on the right bank of the creek at a point where rock frequently
outcrops and seems to be everywhere close to the surface. The rock is chiefly basalt, but at
one point a highly oxidized and altered rock, which could not be identified in the field, occurs.
The material overlying bed-rock consists of glacial gravels and shattered rock. Well-worn and
fairly coarse gold up to a $3 piece occurs in the cracks and crevices of bed-rock and in
the gravels; $2 pans were obtained from the discovery pit, which yielded 37 oz. of gold
from between 250 and 300 cubic yards.   The bench on which the discovery was made is only a NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 29
few feet above creek-level, and it continues for about half a mile, with a width of about 200 feet,
offering considerable possibilities. Two channels trend across the direction of Lightning creek
in this region, about three-quarters of a mile apart, one being the valley in which the upper
portion of Gagen creek is contained and the other " Lost valley." The latter does not now
contain any definite watercourse, but is very clearly defined and is upwards of 600 yards in
width near Lightning creek.
The source of the gold is probably from a former stream-channel, coming from the south,
flowing into Lightning creek on this ground which has been cut by the lower portion of
Gagen creek. Somewhat similar occurrences of placer gold, extensively worked by early
operators, occurred on the same side of Lightning creek about 2 miles above this point on the
high rock bench down-stream from Mosquito creek.
During the year camp buildings were erected, and water was brought from Sovereign creek
by ditch and flume a distance of 4% miles for hydraulicking. The ditch-line was constructed
under contract and is 6% by 3 by 2% feet deep, the grade being 0.15 per cent. There is a total
length of 4,400 feet of flume. Flume-lumber was sawn on the ground by a sawmill installed for
that purpose. Piping operations with one 3-inch and one 4-inch monitor were commenced on
October 23rd close to the scene of the original discovery. The maximum piping-head available
is about 145 feet. A considerable amount of testing was carried out prior to installation of
plant this year under direction of the manager, who reports satisfactory results. (Refer to
1932 and 1933 Annual Reports.)
QUESNEL MINING DIVISION.
Lode-mining.
Quesnel Section.
This group, consisting of seven claims, is owned by A. S. Vaughan, of Quesnel.
Cousin Jack.    It is situated on Dragon mountain and is reached by following the Quesnel
River road from Quesnel for about 9 miles, at which point a trail leads up
the eastern slopes of the mountain.   The total distance from Quesnel is about 10% miles.
The rock formations in the region are intercalated sedimentaries and volcanics. A sheared
and oxidized zone about 20 feet wide strikes north 68 degrees east for about 500 feet. Small
quartz stringers occur at intervals which are in places well mineralized chiefly with pyrite and
galena. The zone is well defined by a depression on the surface, and the existence of some
similar parallel depressions suggests the possible presence of similar sheared zones which might
be disclosed by prospecting.
One or two shallow pits and open-cuts at intervals in the sheared zone disclose in places
well-mineralized stringers about 6 inches in width. A sample of one such assayed: Gold, 0.04
oz. per ton; silver, 4.2 oz. per ton; lead, 9 per cent. The showings lie at elevation 3,440 feet or
about 855 feet above the point on the road at which the trail starts.
Keithley Section.
In the region of Yanks peak, on the French Snowshoe plateau, and in " Nigger basin,"
another plateau-like region situated due south-east of Yanks peak, south of French Snowshoe
creek, there are a large number of quartz veins, many of which are of considerable size. In
these regions there is not by any means the same clear distinction between Uglow's " A " and
" B " type veins as found in the Barkerville area, and to a lesser extent in the Stanely area,
either structurally or as to gold values. In the Yanks Peak area some veins striking northwesterly frequently carry gold values, while others cutting across the bedding-planes of the
host-rocks do not. Mineralization is markedly less heavy than in the Barkerville area. Intru-
sives similar to the Proserpine sills occur in this region, but are less numerous. It would seem
that the region in which these intrusives occur is likely to prove that of greatest promise from
the point of view of values.
This group and a number of other claims is under operation by Saddle Mines,
Midas. Limited, incorporated by Britannia Mining and Smelting Company, Limited.
The property is situated on the rolling plateau-like divide between French
Snowshoe and Little Snowshoe creeks. It is reached by pack-trail from Keithley, the distance
being about 13 miles.   The property is on a sparsely timbered, rolling mountain-summit at an C 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
elevation of about 5,700 feet, falling away north-westerly to Little Snowshoe basin and easterly
to French Snowshoe Creek valley.
Numerous quartz veins varying in strike from north-west to approximately east and west,
and varying in width from several inches to several feet, occur in schistose sediments of the
Cariboo series.
The property was operated for some years by the owners, O. J. Pickering, J. Glover, H. G.
Heisterman, and E. L. Tait, and a large amount of painstaking prospecting, including several
hundred feet of underground work, was carried out by the two first mentioned, who were
resident at the property summer and winter for several years. In 1933 the property was taken
under option by Britannia Mining and Smelting Company, Limited, who carried out a great
deal of surface-stripping of the various veins and sunk a shaft on the most important exposure,
establishing connection with the adit previously driven by the owners. Saddle Mines, Limited,
was incorporated during the year, and it is understood that a certain amount of drifting was
carried out on one vein.    (Refer to Annual Reports, 1929 and 1933;  also Bulletin No. 1, 1932.)
The most important surface showings are as follows: The vein of chief importance is o£
about 4 feet average width and is stripped on the surface at elevation 5,730 feet for a distance
of about 90 feet. It strikes about north 10 degrees west and dips steeply north-east. It is
mineralized mainly with pyrite and samples taken from its outcrop averaged about 1 oz. gold
per ton. The vein lies between carbonaceous schist on the foot-wall and buff-coloured quartz-
schist on the hanging-wall. Distant about 900 feet to the east and north is another prominent
approximately parallel vein striking about north 30 degrees west, which shows free gold at
some points where it is exposed by open-cuts. A short distance farther east, within a strip of
country about 240 feet wide, are exposed by extensive trenches five more or less parallel veins
striking about east and west. These also are mineralized with pyrite, and free gold can be seen
in places in their outcrops. These showings are situated on the plateau-like region more immediately adjacent to the basin at the head of Little Snowshoe creek, which basin affords a means of
penetrating the region below by means of adit-workings.
An adit is driven from Little Snowshoe Creek basin, at elevation 5,600 feet, to explore the
downward continuation of the chief vein above described, at a depth of approximately 130 feet
below its outcrop. It is run on a steep grade in a south-easterly direction, with some turns,
and connection at the time of examination on June 15th had been established with a shaft sunk
on the vein. The distance from the portal to the shaft is about 500 feet. In the shaft at 30
feet below the collar there is a showing of quartz well mineralized with pyrite. A sample taken
across a width of 3 feet at this point assayed: Gold, 3.4 oz. per ton. On the date of examination, only surface prospecting by two men was taking place, but it is understood that subsequently some drifting was carried out following the vein south-east from the bottom of
the shaft.
This group was originally owned by H. Talbut and J. Larson and consists of
Yanks Peak,     five mineral claims.    It is now under  operation by Cariboo Yankee Belle
Mining Company, Limited, incorporated in 1932.    The property is situated on
the eastern slopes of Yanks peak, facing French Snowshoe creek, and is reached by pack-trail
about 12 miles in length from Keithley.   The property is situated on a gently sloping, timbered
mountain-slope.
Numerous quartz veins carrying pyrite, varying in width from a few inches to several feet,
occurring in schistose sediments, show high but spotty gold values, while others show no
appreciable values.
This property was originally prospected by the owners, who uncovered the showings carrying
good gold values. In 1929 the property was optioned to a syndicate and a small 25-ton mill
was (quite prematurely) erected.
Yanks Peak Mining Company was incorporated at the end of that year to continue operations. This company became defunct subsequently, and in 1932 Cariboo Yankee Belle Mining
Company, Limited, was incorporated for the purpose of acquiring the property from John W.
Willoughby. This company, under the management of J. W. Willoughby, installed in the fall
of 1933 a portable compressor and commenced driving a crosscut adit, continuing the same
during 1934. (Refer to Annual Reports for years 1925, 1929, and 1933; also Bulletin No. 1,
1932.) NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 31
The chief surface showings, so far as known, consist of possibly five parallel oxidized quartz
veins in a region about 100 feet wide. The quartz veins vary in width from 1% to 3% feet,
strike about north 7 degrees east, dip steeply east, and cut the north-westerly-striking schistose
sediments of the Cariboo series. The showings lie at elevations of between 5,555 and 5,665 feet
(barometric) on a mountain-slope of about 20 degrees. Samples vary greatly, showing at some
points high gold values and at other points no values.
Distant about 1,500 feet in a north-westerly direction from the above are numerous exposures of other quartz veins, all somewhat oxidized. Samples from two of these showed in
one case a trace of gold and silver and in the other case no values. About 2,000 feet south-east
of the first-described showings numerous other quartz veins are exposed.
Underground workings consist of various adits and one shallow shaft driven on the showings first described. On the most westerly vein of the group mentioned an adit is driven, at
elevation 5,665 feet, a distance of about 84 feet, the vein being apparently interrupted by a
fault at 69 feet from the portal. A sample taken at 69 feet from the portal across 1.6 feet
assayed: Gold, 4.24 oz. per ton; silver, 0.72 oz. per ton. A sample taken across 3% feet,
51 feet from portal, showed no values in gold or silver. About 155 feet in a south-westerly
direction and 40 feet below this adit, a shaft is sunk to a depth of about 12 feet, from which a
sample taken in 1925 showed good gold values. About 25 feet below the shaft and 120 feet from
it, a small adit is driven 105 feet, but does not disclose anything of importance, being apparently
run off a vein. A sample taken from an open-cut across 2% feet of a well-defined vein about
30 feet east of this working showed no values. On the most easterly of the veins an adit,
elevation 5,555 feet, is driven 95 feet to intersect the vein, which is then followed for 36 feet.
The vein is 1% feet wide as exposed in the face. A sample across the face showed no gold or
silver values. A sample taken from the same vein, across 2 feet where it is exposed by an
open-cut somewhat below the uppermost adit described, assayed: Gold, 0.24 oz. per ton; silver,
0.06 oz. per ton. A sample taken from an open-cut on another vein just east of the uppermost
adit showed no gold or silver values.
Some of the above-described workings were last year intentionally blocked by the manager
for reasons unknown. The foregoing description represents the position in 1929, since when
no great amount of work has been done. It is apparent that gold values, although high in
places, are spotty and irregular.
At a point about 1,600 feet distant in a direction almost due south at elevation 5,265 feet
(barometric) an adit is being driven to explore the ground below the workings above described.
As viewed on June 15th, this adit had been driven north 42 degrees west for 313 feet and
then north 60 degrees west for 537 feet. The working was being deflected farther west at 790
feet from the portal, heavy faulted ground having been encountered at the face. So far as
could be determined, one large quartz vein (or a number of closely spaced veins) was cut in
the faulted ground. Up to this point twenty-two veins were intersected by the working. The
width of these veins varies from stringers up to in one case a maximum of 6 feet. It is evident
that these veins should be sampled individually and in detail. They are in some cases heavily
oxidized. The first 80 feet of this adit is closely lagged and could not be examined. Samples
taken from veins exposed at points respectively about 80, 210, and 760 feet from the portal did
not contain material gold values. A portable air-compressor is installed at this property. The
mill was being dismantled at the time of examination.
This group, owned by B. E. Taylor and associates, is situated on the North
Hebson. fork of Little Snowshoe creek.    It is reached by a branch trail which leaves
the main Little Snowshoe Creek trail from Keithley at the Haywood cabins.
The total distance from Keithley is about 12 miles.    The ground in the lower portions is a
steep well-timbered slope becoming flatter in the upper part and finally merging into the rolling
plateau summit which lies at an elevation of about 6,100 feet in this region.
A large quartz vein, strike north 63 degrees west, dip steeply south-west, occurs in schistose
sediments. The exposed width at one point is 14 feet. The vein shows considerable signs of
oxidation and a little pyrite.   It was originally prospected many years ago.
The vein outcrops and is also exposed by open-cuts on the plateau at an elevation of 6,100
feet. It can be traced for a considerable distance down the steep mountain-slope west of the
North fork of Little Snowshoe creek.    At elevation 5,750 feet a sample taken across 14 feet C 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
exposed by an open-cut assayed 0.01 oz. gold per ton.    It is stated that free gold has been
found at certain points in this vein.
An adit, elevation 5,890 feet, follows the vein for 75 feet. The vein is 8 feet wide in the
face. A sample across the face where the vein contains a little pyrite and is somewhat oxidized
showed a trace of gold upon assay.
A short adit somewhat lower in elevation was started with the intention apparently of
crosscutting the vein, but was not continued.
It is possible that certain sections of the vein may be more promising than others, and this
can be determined in more detailed sampling of the great length of outcrop.
This group, owned by E. Levasseur and associates, of Keithley, is situated
Sylvain. at an elevation of about 2,000 feet above Cariboo lake, about 1 mile east of
Nigger  (Pine)  creek.    The property may be reached by following a branch
trail leaving the Keithley-Harvey Creek trail about 1 mile east of Nigger creek, close to the
lake-shore, or this branch trail may be reached by boat from Keithley.    The distance from
Keithley is about 8 miles.
Quartz veins occur in schistose sediments.
The chief showing is at elevation of 4,450 feet and consists of a large quartz vein from
15 to 20 feet wide, well exposed by surface-trenching for a length of about 150 feet along its
strike. The vein and enclosing schistose quartzites strike north 67 degrees east and dip northerly
at about 30 degrees. The vein is leached at the surface, but at a depth of a few feet shows
considerable oxidation and a small amount of pyrite. Samples taken of oxidized portions of
the vein and of the sulphides assayed in both cases a trace of gold. About 500 feet south of this
exposure a number of quartz veins cut across the bedding of the sediments. Some distance northwest of the showing first described a short crosscut in argillites exposes a somewhat oxidized
quartz vein 4 feet wide, a sample of which showed a trace of gold.
Horsefly Section.
A discovery was made in 1934 on this property, originally owned by J. Rowley,
Timber Line,    of Horsefly, and the property has now been acquired, it Is understood, by the
Gold Coin Syndicate, of Vancouver.    It is situated just south of McKee lake,
between Elbow and Crooked lakes, and is reached from the end of the motor-road at Black creek
(19 miles from Horsefly)  by a horse-trail about 23 miles in length.
This discovery was apparently made by Gusto Hoehne and Chas. Goetjen, and staked by
them in ignorance of the fact that, the ground was already located. The ground is broken, hilly,
and well timbered.
Quartz veins occur in andesitic volcanics, in a zone of shearing trending north 63 degrees
west. The chief exposure is a large vein showing free gold, small amounts of chalcopyrite,
pyrite, and much sericite, and is considerably oxidized. This vein shows a tendency to widen
at depth. Outcrops of diorite occur close to the discovery. A pit 10 feet deep shows at the
bottom a vein somewhat over 11 feet wide. A sample taken across 11 feet 9 inches assayed:
Gold, 0.30 oz. per ton.
By way of preliminary investigation, the Gold Coin Syndicate decided to sink a shaft to a
depth of 50 feet on this vein, and it is understood that this work was commenced in October.
Several other groups have been staked in the adjoining region, including the Home, Noranda,
and Long Chance.
This property, owned by W. J. Boswell and associates, is situated on Lemon
Black Bear.     creek and is reached by car and trail from Horsefly, from which it is' distant
about 11 miles.   The property is situated  on  a timbered  rolling plateau.
A  shear-zone  occurs  in  volcanics,   which  are  intruded  in  the  near  vicinity  by  pyroxenite.
Mineralization consists essentially of pyrite with some copper-stain.
A shear-zone, strike north 22 degrees east, dip 60 degrees north-west, with a maximum width
of 4 feet is exposed by open-cuts and pits on the right bank of Lemon creek. The shear-zone is
highly oxidized and shows copper-stain. Seams of solid pyrite occur within it. A seam 18
inches wide on the foot-wall and another seam 1 foot wide on the hanging-wall contain much
solid pyrite.    A sample of selected pyrite assayed:  Gold, 0.14 oz. per ton;  silver, 0.2 oz. per ton. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 33
Placer-mining.
Baker Creek.
This consists of one discovery claim situated on Lot 8651, just below the
Property of     canyon about 3% miles above the mouth of Baker creek.   The property is
R. Blair. distant about 4 miles from Quesnel and a car can be taken 3 miles of the
distance. The property is a new discovery made this year by the owner and
is presumably an old channel of the Fraser river. Immediately below the mouth of the canyon,
Baker creek cuts diagonally across the old channel, in which the direction of flow was approximately due south. On the right bank or south side of Baker creek the old channel is covered
with a high bank of gravels, but the eastern rim is plainly exposed. On the north side of Baker
creek the latter has largely removed the overlying gravels, and the remaining cover is left in
the form of an extensive low-lying bench flanking the left bank of the creek. Immediately
instream the eastern or left rim of the old channel is plainly exposed for some distance on the
left bank of Baker creek, and it is, at this point that the discovery was made in shallow gravels
immediately overlying the rim.
Unfortunately the slope of the rim-rock, coupled with the level of Baker creek, renders it
impossible to make much progress with hand-mining methods. The gold occurs in* coarse flakes
and small nuggets. Although the gold is coarse, unfortunately the ground is not very good at
the only point at which it is possible to mine by hand methods.
The old channel is cut in carbonaceous argillites which outcrop both up-stream and downstream from this point. The argillites are ferruginous and contain veinlets mineralized with
pyrite. Among the gravels immediately overlying the rim-rock of the old channel are small
boulders of solid pyrite. While there is every indication that bed-rock placer of local origin
is a justifiable anticipation in this old channel, there is no evidence to date suggesting very
rich bed-rock gravels. Investigation of this property is, however, well merited. It seems possible
that the channel may be again cut by the Fraser river down-stream in the vicinity of Dragon
Siding, and that this might account for the placer deposits of " Rich bar " extensively worked
years ago at that point.
Quesnel River.
This syndicate, under direction of H. S. Coulter, acquired during the year,
Cariboo by staking and by optioning, certain properties covering a long stretch of
Syndicate. the Quesnel river down-stream from Beavermouth, including the large flats
known as French flats, over which the Quesnel-Hydraulic road passes. The
distance is about 23 miles to the lower end of the flats from Quesnel. Early attempts to mine
the bed of the river in this region are exemplified by the old Hall dredge installed at the lower
end of the flats, and a unique and interesting device known as the French Flats bells; this
latter being a form of drag-line, the buckets being cylindrical, with heavy lips somewhat
resembling large bells. With this device it was proposed to drag the bed of the Quesnel river
opposite about the centre of the flats. Both these attempts were of short-lived duration
apparently, because of an imperfect understanding of the nature of the problem presented.
The superficial concentrations due to post-Glacial waters on French flats have been quite
extensively worked at various points in the past and still engage the attention of operators
apart from the Cariboo Syndicate at the present time—namely, that of the King Mining and
Development Company at the upper end of the flats and A. E. McGregor and associates somewhat down-stream from the former (the ground of the latter is under option to Cariboo
Syndicate).
There are several modes of placer occurrence exemplified on the flats. At the upper end
of these flats (at which point the King Mining and Development Company is now working),
which are situated on the left bank of the river, the river has cut a gorge-like channel to the
east, and it is apparent that underlying these flats at an unknown depth is a former channel of
this river. The various bars on the river opposite French flats are stated to be quite good, and
" it is alleged that values extend downwards into the bed of the river.
About three-eighths of a mile down-stream from Beavermouth an extensive bench, 120 feet
above the left bank of the river, overlies a former river-channel, which lies buried immediately
adjacent to the left bank of the river, from which it is separated by the right rim of the former.
Some years ago an hydraulic enterprise, utilizing water from Beaver creek, was started at this C 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
point and three pits were opened up. In the highest pit up-stream, when the channel-rim was
encountered, further hydraulic advance was temporarily arrested. A tunnel 15 feet above the
river was then run through the rim for a distance of about 300 feet, the sluice-flume placed in
this tunnel and piping resumed. Presumably, although this fact is now obscured by sloughing
of the face of the pit, this tunnel was above the bed-rock of the channel, and it was therefore
impossible to continue hydraulic operations to advantage. The country-rock passed through by
this tunnel is carbonaceous argillite intruded by granitic tongues. It is stated that before this
hydraulic plant was installed a shaft was sunk from the top of the large flat mentioned to a
depth of 90 feet, at which point it encountered bed-rock, on which encouraging values are stated
to have been obtained.
Down-stream from this upper hydraulic pit a distance of about 1,200 feet, two other
hydraulic pits immediately adjacent were opened up, but these show no evidence of rim or
bed-rock. The total yardage piped from these three pits amounts to several hundred thousand
cubic yards.   The pits disclose no large boulders.
At low water on March 2nd, 1931, Beaver creek had a flow of 15 cubic feet per second.
A certain amount of testing was carried out during the year on French flats.
These leases, situated about 1% miles above the Hall dredge, are under option
Leases of        to the Cariboo Syndicate, prior to which the owners had installed a 1%-horse-
A. E. McGregor power gasoline-engine, and small centrifugal pump   (1%-inch discharge)  at
and Associates,   the river, to pump water to the low-lying flat.    The owners shovelled about
900 cubic yards of material, washing about half this amount, as it was found
that the " pay " was in a stratum about 3 feet thick overlain by an equal thickness of barren
material immediately below the surface.    From the yardage washed gold to the value of $750
was recovered.
This company holds two leases at the upper end of French flats in the vicinity
King Mining and of Pre-emption Lot 9887. A road leads to the property from Quesnel, the
Development Co. distance being 26 miles. This company is operating a %-cubic-yard bucket
drag-line, run by a McCormick-Deering winch, on the gravels of the flat, which
is about 25 feet above the river at this point. This ground was also worked by earlier operators.
An 8-inch centrifugal pump operated by a car-engine is set up at the river for the purpose of
pumping water for washing the gravels. The sluice-flume is 19 by 20 inches in cross-sectional
dimensions with an undercurrent. In the undercurrent box expanded metal riffles are laid
over burlap.    Material passing to the undercurrent is minus ?jo inch.
F. W. Kiesel is trustee for a private California syndicate, for which he is
Operations of    carrying on operations.    The syndicate holds four leases on the Qesnel river
F. W. Kiesel     between Morehead and Birrel creeks.    The camp erected on the left bank of
and Associates,   the Qnesnel river is distant 4 miles west of the mouth of Morehead creek,
or 11% miles from Hydraulic, along the Quesnel-Hydraulic road.    A high-
line plant has been set up with a 1%-cubic-yard-capacity bucket on a low-lying flat on the left
bank of the river.    Power is supplied by a 125-horse-power boiler burning Diesel oil.    A 6-inch
centrifugal pump is set up at the river to supply sluice-water.    The sluice is 210 feet long by
16 by 12 inches, with an undercurrent 60 feet long, at the end of which there are four blanket-
tables 3 feet wide by 15 feet long.
The gravels being mined are post-Glacial concentrations.
There is much in the surrounding topography to suggest that immediately down-stream
from the plant a channel crosses the river in this region. Rock outcrops on the valley-rim
immediately behind the plant, and is exposed on this side of the river for some considerable
distance down-stream, sloping gradually downward in a down-stream direction. What may be
both rims of this channel are well exposed on the other side of the river. This channel would
seem to warrant close investigation, as, if existent, its point of crossing by the Quesnel river
will be a region in which a reconcentration effected by the latter is to be expected.
Cedar Creek.
These comprise those originally operated by the Cedar Creek Mining Company,
Leases of       Limited—namely,  the  Stevens, Sheridan,  and  four  adjoining leases.    The
A. W. Alliott.    property is situated some 900 feet above Quesnel lake, on rolling plateau-like
ground which was originally covered with dense timber on the south side of
Cedar creek.    The property is distant about 4 miles from Likely by motor-road. NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT  (No. 2). C 35
This deposit, the richest placer discovery since the very early days, is unique in many
respects. It is the only known placer occurrence within the district resulting from erosion of
Mesozoic rocks, comparable in richness with the bonanza placers of the Cariboo yielded by
erosion of Precambrian rocks. There is no running water near the deposit except Cedar creek,
which is contained in a deep gorge many hundreds of feet below it.
Several times rich " pay " has again been found after virtual abandonment and the discovery
this year was made in ground which had actually been closely drilled. Many features of the
deposit are undeniably unusual and difficult of explanation, but other modes of occurrence of
placer in the near vicinity—e.g., on Spanish mountain, on Lukin creek, and on Fisher creek—are
perhaps not less uncommon.
The deposit is situated on a gently sloping plateau-like upland surface flanking the left
bank of Cedar Creek gorge. The volcanic bed-rock, which slopes upwards south-east on a
gradient of about 3 per cent., is overlain by a covering varying in thickness from a few feet
up to a maximum of about 25 feet. Originally the surface was covered with thick timber which
has now been cleared off. The placer gold occurs in several different ways: (a) In a thickness
of about 3 feet of gravels resting on bed-rock, with very little gold in the cracks in the bed-rock;
(6) both in the gravels mentioned and in cracks in the underlying bed-rock; in both these
instances the gravels are overlain by a thickness of from several feet to 20 feet of tight glacial
debris mainly boulder-clay; (c) within a stratum of gravels wrapped up in boulder-clay;
(d) almost wholly in shattered bed-rock immediately overlying solid rock, the rock detritus
being overlain by a few feet of top soil and glacial debris.
The deposit varies greatly in richness at different points in a zone 1,500 feet long and from
50 to 200 feet wide, trending north-west and south-east. Rich " pay " apparently terminates
abruptly at the north-west end. The south-east end is less rich and termination of " pay " was
less abrupt. While the underlying rock-surface rises on an even grade of 3 per cent, south-
eastwards, there is little or no evidence of any rims to the deposit as a whole.
The character of the gold is coarse, closely resembling in general aspects rich channel-gold.
The coarsest nugget found was 17 oz. in weight, and at this time, in 1926, three pans taken from
the " Second Nugget Patch," the most northerly rich " pay " found, yielded respectively 49, 35,
and 28 oz. gold. It should be clearly understood that the gold is far from resembling " residual "
gold as ordinarily understood.
Many opinions have been advanced to account for the origin. Those of officers of the
Geological Survey are given on page 79 of Geological Survey Summary Report, 1922, Part A
(W. A. Johnston) ; also on page 136 of Geological Survey Summary Report, 1932, A 1 (W. E.
Coekfield).
The following facts are cited as having a close bearing on the question of the origin of this
deposit:—
(a.) The very richness of the deposit stamps it as of strictly local origin, apart altogether
from the fact that it occurs in some spots in local rock detritus.
(6.) There is abundant evidence of a possible local source for a rich placer. For example,
shear-zones on the Treadwell group in the Cedar Creek canyon carry close upon 1 oz. gold per
ton, but gold values are spotty. Again, the valley-rim of Cedar Creek meadows shows replacement-seams of arsenopyrite carrying quite good values in gold. Finally, the number of small
quartz veinlets in the bed-rock underlying the deposit would seem to suggest a possible strictly
local source, as bed-rock values are frequently more pronounced where quartz veinlets are most
numerous.
(c.) Probably the greatest insight into the question of the origin of this deposit is afforded
by the deposit on Lukin creek, a small creek running into Poquette creek a short distance north
of the south end of this pass. This is a small gorge cut down in Mesozoic volcanics (very
similar to the bed-rock of the Cedar Creek deposit), much oxidized and hydrothermally altered,
in which are numerous small quartz veins. Glacial debris is entirely absent, and the unconsolidated material in this little valley appears to consist almost entirely of local rock detritus.
From this creek there was recovered in the early days, by ordinary placer-mining methods,
residual gold, a method still followed by the present owners of this deposit. Although this
gold is largely residual in character, some is rounded, and it follows that (as can also be
demonstrated from the placer occurrence on Hixon creek), if the supply of water is very small,
it is possible, although admittedly very unusual, to find a detrital deposit of gold in which the C 36 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1934.
edges of the gold pieces are rounded, but the containing unconsolidated material is comparatively
unrounded.
It is possible that the neighbouring Cedar Creek deposit is in part to be accounted for by
some such reason as the foregoing, the resulting deposits being partly contained in gravels and
partly in detritus. It is clearly indicated that while there was no ice erosion they were merely
disturbed by glaciation.
The discovery was made in 1921 by A. E. Piatt and John Lyne. The following year the
Cedar Creek Mining Company, Limited, was incorporated and acquired six leases covering the
richest known ground in the region. The company went into liquidation the following year,
and was operated in 1923 and 1924 by the receiver appointed by the Court, with G. C. Bagley
in charge. During this time the ground was drifted in part where cover was sufficient. In the
late summer of 1924, B. Boe installed a " pump-hydraulic " plant and commenced operations
on a royalty basis under contract, continuing in 1925, with some drift-mining. In 1926 he
discovered the " Second Nugget Patch " north of the previous rich ground, one nugget weighing
17 oz. being discovered. From a small area at the north-west end of the run of " pay " it is
stated that 4,700 oz. gold was recovered in nine months. In 1927 K. C. Laylander obtained
an option on this property and adjoining leases, which he subsequently assigned to the Revenue
Mining Company, Limited. Very extensive Keystone-drilling was carried out in 1927, and
pump-hydraulic operations were continued the following year by Revenue Mining Company,
Limited, but were subsequently suspended. Again B. Boe secured an option on this ground in
1930, continued pump-hydraulic operations in 1931, and once again struck rich ground on the
Sheridan lease. In 1932 operations were continued south-eastward to about 500 feet from the
north-west corner post of the lease mentioned above, and the ground was deemed to be practically
exhausted. In 1933 the property was practically idle. In 1934 rich ground was again struck
about 75 feet east of the rich ground in the vicinity of the " Nugget Patch " in ground drilled
in 1927. Options on the ground were secured by A. \V. Alliott during the year, who at once
commenced the operations described below.
(Refer to Annual Reports for 1921 to 1932, inclusive; Geological Survey Summary Reports,
1922, Part A, and 1932, Part A 1.)
The rich ground discovered in 1934 lies east of and distant only about 75 feet from the
first " Nugget Patch " discovered in 1923 and in ground drilled in 1927. The depth to bed-rock
is about 7 feet. Immediately overlying bed-rock is 2 feet of shattered bed-rock in which the
"pay" is contained; overlying this is about 3 feet of boulder-clay underlying about 2 feet of
top soil. Nuggets up to 1% oz. in weight were obtained. A %-yard high-line plant was installed,
operated by a Fordson engine and double-drum hoist, the ground being loosened by hand-picking
first and subsequently conveyed by drag-line to a bin over the sluice-flume. Water is pumped
from the settling-pond for washing. After removal of the majority of the material mechanically,
bed-rock is cleaned by hand. The present plant is only a temporary expedient. The proposal
of the optionee is to bring in a supply of wash-water from Boswell lake, and to re-treat the
tailings on this property in addition to any virgin ground. It is estimated by the optionee that
Boswell lake will yield 250 miners' inches for twenty-four hours per day for two months in
the year, and for the remainder of the season will yield this supply for sixteen hours daily.
A sluice-flume will be constructed of sufficient length to carry tailings into Cedar Creek
gorge from the point of commencement at the extreme north-west end of the ground, and only
one monitor pump will be necessary. This scheme would seem to be well conceived, and the
only way, judging from past events, to avoid missing good ground.
Reference to the map published in the 1928 Annual Report will facilitate study of the text. Looking  down   Siinilkameen   River  Valley.     Keremeos   in   Foreground.
~-Jfc%: <■■
„.,,
-
Twin Lakes—looking North-easterly  across Sparsely "Wooded Country  Typieal  of the District  South-west
of Penticton, jfflummmmgmmmm
Morning  Star Mine,   Fairview.
Pre Cambrian Cold Mines—60-foot Level.     Ewings Landing, Okanagan Lake.

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