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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1935

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES
OF   THE
DEPAETMENT OF LANDS
FOR   THE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1934
HON. A. WELLS GRAY, Minister op Lands
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY  OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1935.  Victoria. B.C., February 25th, 1935.
To His Honour John William Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1934.
A. WELLS GRAY,
Minister of Lands. Victoria, B.C., February 2oth, 1935.
The Honourable A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches of
the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1934.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H.  CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     7
Revenue        7
Sale of Town and Suburban Lots      8
Pre-emption Records      9
Land-sales      9
Land Inspections   10
Summary     11
Letters inward and outward   12
Coal Licences, Leases, etc  12
Crown Grants issued   12
Total Acreage deeded   12
B.C. Government Relief Land Settlement Plan  13  DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., January 28th, 1935.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended December 31st,
1934.
Reference at the close of our former year's business to a brighter and more hopeful tone
appears to have been warranted, as a study of the statements and comparative tables accompanying this year's report will disclose a satisfactory increase from most sources of revenue.
Government measures for facilitated land settlement on areas reverted to the Crown for
non-payment of taxes have met with increasing popularity, and as the two-year period of suspended principal payment merges into the instalment stage a marked increase in revenue may be
expected in the ordinary course of events.
Following repeal of the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act" and restoration of certain
measures in the " Coal and Petroleum Act," a beneficial effect on revenue from administration
of these commodities is observed.
During the year Crown reversionary quarter interests have been selected and acquired in
four new townsites, brought into being by mining activities in the Bridge River section of
Cariboo District, which interests total eighty-eight lots.
Collections, still difficult, show a slight improvement in volume and tone.
It is an encouraging sign of improvement to note that the increases referred to have been
gradual and consistent throughout the year.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STAT
?EMENT OF REVENUE. YE
EAR ENDED DECEMBER  31st, 1934.
Land-sales.
Victoria.
Under " Coal and Petroleum Act
Under " Taxation Act "	
Town lots	
Country lands	
Pre-empted lands	
Surface rights	
Totals	
$34,336.21
325.30
9,026.68
150.95
$43,839.14
Agencies.
$7,780.05
22,943.09
209.62
4,396.15
$35,328.91
Total.
$34,336.21
8,105.35
31.969.77
209.62
4,547.10
$79,108.05
Revenue under " Land Act.'
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Sundry lease rentals.
Grazing rentals	
Survey fees	
Sundry fees	
Royalty...	
Improvements	
Rent  of  property	
Mineral claims	
Totals	
$72,200.88
5,260.33
591.25
11,849.80
178.33
811.82
',898.41
$1,105.54
2,104.00
547.89
436.00
11,481.10
$15,674.53
$72.206.8S
5,260.33
1.696.79
13,953.80
178.33
1.359.71
436.00
11.481.10
6106.372.94 Y S
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Coal licences	
Coal rentals	
Sundry fees	
Lieu of work....
Totals.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$8,300.00
10,834.68
2,630.00
250.00
$8,300.00
10.834.68
2,630.00
250.00
$22,014.68
$22,014.68
Sundry Receipts.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$13,939.52
245.52
7,194.20
9,151.86
$13,939.52
245.52
7.194.20
9,151.80
$30,531.10
$30,531.10
Summary of Revenue.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$43,839.14
90,898.41
22,014.68
30,531.10
$35,32S.91
15,674.53
$79,168.05
106,572.94
22,014.68
	
30.531.10
	
Totals	
$187,283.33
$51,003.44
$238,286.77
Summary op Cash received.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$1S7,283.33
20,067.54
593.06
40,505.01
40,728.10
2,370.71
$51,003.44
$238.°86.77
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
20.667.54
593.06
" Better Housing Act "—
46 505 01
40,728.10
2 370 71
Totals	
$298,147.75
$51,003.44
$349,151.19
SALE OF TOWN AND SUBURBAN LOTS DURING 1934.
Disposal of lots placed on market at previous auction sales:—
2 lots at  Vancouver  $1,150.00
5 lots at Quesnel  825.00
And 22 lots in 13 other townsites  1.180.00
$3,155.00 LAND-SALES, 1934.
Y 9
During the year auctions were held at Oliver, Salmo, and Goldbridge, disposing of fifty-one
lots for $5,665.
Auctions were also held at Creston, Hope, and Duncan, resulting in the disposal of sixty-one
suburban lots for $5,751.
A suburban subdivision about 4 miles from New Westminster known as Green Timbers,
placed on the market and comprising ninety-four lots, was all disposed of during the year for
$6,157.40.
In the Southern Okanagan Project fifty-eight lots were sold, comprising 647.20 acres, the
purchase price being $32,695.80.
In the University Hill Subdivision in Lot 140, New Westminster District (Endowment
Lands), one lot was leased, valued at $4,220.
Under the " Titles Investigation Act " of 1934, status of 115 parcels in the old townsite of
Barkerville were dealt with. Private ownership was established in ninety instances, and of the
lots remaining adjudged to be the property of the Crown eight have been sold for $535.
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1934.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Pre-emption
Records
cancelled.
Certificates
of
Purchase.
Certificates
of Improvements.
39
3
1
19
46
14
43
3
4
35
6
149
3
59
18
9
24
3
12
40
10
52
64
4
27
1
1
19
19
212
7
53
5
14
23
2
4
15
3
58
15
2
2
45
7
30
3
129
199
8
32
28
62
3
3
1
73
17
1,168
1
Atlin	
15
1
9
17
1
1
2
3
5
5
8
4
1
6
n
Totals	
478
569
1,903
86
LAND-SALES, 1934.
" Land Act "— Acres.
Surveyed  (first class)  3,674
Surveyed   (second  class)  10,919
14,593
Unsurveyed          696
Total   15,289
" Taxation Act "—Surveyed      5,420 Y 10
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
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- Y 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
STATEMENT OF LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1934.
Letters inward   26,699
Letters outward   22,217
Included in the above total of letters inward are general inquiry letters for the months of :—
January     263 August      173
February      309 September     158
March        360 October       124
April     352 November      142
May       954 December       147
June      360 	
July       238 Total   , 3,580
MINING LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 1934.
Licences under the " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Original licences issued  72 ; area, 46,080 acres.
Renewal licences issued  11: area,   7,040 acres.
Totals  83; area, 53,120 acres.
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum Act."
New leases issued     4; area,   2,851 acrefe.
Renewal leases issued  28; area, 15,059 acres.
Totals  32 ; area, 17,910 acres.
Sundry Leases under the " Land Act."
Number of leases issued  168 ; area, 20.020.82 acres.
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED.
Pre-emptions     71
Dominion homesteads  :  205
Purchase   137
Mineral  194
Town lots   47
Reverted lands  (other than town lots)    96
Reverted town lots   123
Reverted mineral claims   238
" Dyking Assessment Act "   4
Miscellaneous   8
Total 1.123
Applications for Crown grants  1,203
Certified copies         2
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims given     681
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions     9.303.13
Dominion homesteads   29,065.83
Mineral claims (other than reverted)      6,490.97
Reverted mineral claims     9,164.60
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)     4.339.22
Purchase of reverted lands     2,932.75
Total  61,296.50 B.C. GOVERNMENT RELIEF LAND SETTLEMENT PLAN. Y 13
B.C. GOVEENMENT RELIEF LAND SETTLEMENT PLAN, 1932.
Victoria, B.C., January 14th, 1935.
To the Deputy Minister of Lands,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my Second Annual Report on the operation of above plan,
as follows:—
No families were placed on the land during the year 1934 in addition to the fifty families
sent out in the spring of 1933.
At the close of the year forty families were still in occupation of their locations, twenty-
seven from the City of Vancouver and thirteen from the City of New Westminster.
In addition to the four who gave up their locations in 1933, Ave others returned to the city
of origin (Vancouver) in 1934, and one family moved from their farm into a neighbouring town
about the end of the year.
The remaining settlers have made good progress, considering the limited amount of capital
at their disposal. All of the relief settlers, with one or two exceptions, located in the central
part of the Province had exhausted their $500 first-year fund before the seeding season of 1934
arrived. In order to assist the settler in preparing his land for crop and seeding same, an
amount equal to the cost of transportation from city to location was allocated to each settler
by the Administrator of Unemployment Relief from the Provincial " G " Non-contributory Fund.
At the end of the settler's first-year period the .$100 which was held back to provide for
subsistence and emergencies during the second year was made available. In the majority of
cases this was divided in twelve equal parts and a monthly supply of provisions thereby assured.
In the cases of the larger families, however, this has been found inadequate and a measure of
direct relief has had to be provided.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
W. S. LATTA,
Secretary, B.C. Government Relief
Land Settlement Committee.  PART II.
SURVEY BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Surveyor-General    17
General Review of Field-work  18
Office-work    18
Survey Division  19
Table A—Summary of Office-work _  19
Table B—List of Departmental Reference Maps   20
Table C—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps   21
Geographic  Division    24
Table D—List of Lithographed Maps ..     25
Reports of Surveyors—
Control Surveys   26
Photo-topographical Survey, Vancouver Island   28
Photo-topographical Control Surveys, Cariboo  .'.  30
Topographical Survey, Vancouver Island   33
Photo-topographical Control for Vertical Aerial Photographs as used by British Columbia
Topographical Surveys   35  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., February 20th, 1935.
//. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1934:—
The field-work of the Survey Branch may be divided into three main classes: (1) Triangu-
lation, this being the best and cheapest means of determining the true positions of main features
and of placing a rigid foundation under all other surveys; (2) topographical surveys, now mostly
carried on with the aid of aerial photography, with ground control supplied by minor triangu-
lation and the surveying camera ; (3) cadastral surveys, in preparation for settlement. Theoretically, surveys should be made in the above order, but as this Province has not adopted the policy
carried out in many other new countries of financing its permanent surveys out of Capital
Account, such long-view planning is not always possible.
The appropriation made by the Legislature for survey-work, though less than one-quarter
the average for the last twenty years, was larger than in the last two, and permitted the full
resumption of the vastly important aero-photo-topographical work. No extension of the triangu-
lation nets could be undertaken, but all urgent cadastral surveys were cared for.
There are some gaps in the main triangulation system that should be closed as soon as funds
can be provided, for until this is done the full benefit of large past expenditures cannot be
reaped. Aerial photography has revolutionized topographical surveying and our survey staff
is keeping well abreast of the times in developing new methods to increase performance and to
reduce costs in our rugged country. The results being secured are interesting and well worthy
of'study by those interested in the development of the Province on economically sound lines.
The paper written by A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., and appended to this report, details some of the
methods developed by our staff.
Altitude and slopes place definite limits to our agricultural areas: geological formations
govern the occurrence of the various minerals; watershed areas and the drop therefrom limit
power; while the potentialities of our forests are closely bound up with latitude, altitude, slopes,
and drainage. Altitude and slope have a far more important bearing on economic development
here than in any other Province of Canada; hence the necessity for contour-lines. With contour
maps and a soil examination it can with full confidence be determined whether an area should
be reserved for forest, grazing, or other purposes, or whether there is a sufficient area of suitable
land to make a successful community possible, and to warrant the consequent provision of roads,
schools, etc.
Under the terms of Confederation, the Dominion Government is charged with the duty of
carrying on the Geological Survey of this Province and good topographical maps facilitate that
work. The Dominion Government is also concerned with certain other surveys, such as the
Hydrographic Survey along the coast, the Geodetic Survey from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and
surveys connected with National Defence. The co-operation of our efficient survey organization
located right on the ground is important to them, and as a consequence it has been possible to
build up a more or less elastic and informal work-sharing arrangement, to the great advantage
of both sides. Under this arrangement the Royal Canadian Air Force does the photography,
the Provincial Survey Branch completes the ground control and the manuscript maps, while
Ottawa publishes the maps as part of the National Topographic series. Four map-sheets of
parts of Vancouver Island, on a 1-mile scale, are well advanced toward publication; five sheets
of the Parsnip River area compiled from the P.G.E. Resources Survey information have been
supplied Ottawa for publication on the 2-mile scale, and four sheets of the Barkerville vicinity
for publication on the 1-mile scale have the manuscripts well advanced, while other sheets are
in earlier stages of production. The cost to the Province of the mass of information of permanent value shown on these maps is less than 3 cents per acre, and establishes a new low for
this mountainous and timbered country.
2 Y 18 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
GENERAL REVIEW OF FIELD-WORK.
Four survey parties were engaged on the aero-photo-topographical control-work above
described, two of the parties working in the mining country south of Barkerville and west of
Quesnel Lake, while a third party was mapping the attractive tourist area of the Forbidden
Plateau, etc., east of Strathcona Park, and the fourth was in the mining area surrounding the
Coast Copper Company mine south-east of Quatsino Sound.
The squatter situation existing iii the Peace River Block due to Dominion regulations was
cleared up by the survey of the holdings of twenty-four settlers.
A subdivision into small holdings of 700 acres of Crown land within the irrigated area west
of Grand Forks was carried out, resulting in the subsequent sale of most of the land and some
changes were made in the West Quesnel Townsite.
Ties were made from various land surveys in the Bulkley Valley to the Geodetic Survey,
this work being in preparation for a new issue of the Bulkley Pre-emptors' Map.
To guard the public against the danger of faulty titles, some inspection surveys were made
with the result that one British Columbia land surveyor was suspended for three years by their
Board of Management. It is hoped that this action will cure the evil of falsified returns—an
evil happily confined to the work of but a very few surveyors; but it is the intention to keep
a close check and to stamp out any sign of it. The Board of the Corporation of British Columbia
Land Surveyors is strongly behind this policy.
OFFICE-WORK.
The office staff is divided into two main sections—namely, the Survey Division and the
Geographic Division. Reports compiled by F. O. Morris and by G. G. Aitken, who are respectively in charge of these Divisions, follow.
The tables following show a very marked increase in office-work over 1933. The revival in
mining has been largely responsible for this. About 90 per cent, of the land surveyors of the
Province are in private practice, and these surveyors are responsible for the surveys of mineral
claims and other classes of Crown lands. The field notes and plans of such surveys are filed
in this office, and a considerable proportion of the staff is engaged in checking and replotting
these surveys.
During the year the Highway and Travel Map was revised and reissued and the Chilcotin
Pre-emptors' Map was redrawn and is about to be published. Work is proceeding on a number
of other maps, the Quesnel Pre-emptors', now out of print, being the most urgent.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Y 19
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEY DIVISION.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to
land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying, checking survey
field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many minor
activities. In the average day's work it is found necessary to secure and consult 100 documents
from the vault.    An efficient blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations and
inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and mineral reference maps
on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are maintained by the -Survey
Division. There are now 184 reference maps and 62 mineral reference maps, making a total
of 246 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—(1) by adding new survey information as
it becomes available, and (2) by renewing same when worn out with constant use and handling
in the blue-print machines—forms a considerable portion of the work of the Branch. During
the year seven new reference maps and four new mineral reference maps were prepared. Tables
B and C, attached hereto, give a list of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1934, Survey Division.
Number of field-books received   1,253
lots surveyed   1,268
lots plotted   1,085
lots gazetted and tracings forwarded to Government Agents 776
mineral-claim field-books prepared   684
reference maps compiled  11
miles of right-of-way plans dealt with   15
applications for purchase cleared  .>.. 249
applications for pre-emption cleared  673
applications for lease cleared   281
coal licences cleared   99
water licences cleared   182
timber-sales cleared   1,716
free-use permits cleared   398
hand-loggers' licences cleared   57
Crown-grant applications cleared   1,203
reverfed-land clearances   1,796
cancellations made   1,334
inquiries cleared   1,516
placer-mining leases plotted on maps   525
letters received   6,807
letters sent out   4,569
Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate  1,017
miscellaneous tracings made  ,  82
blue-prints made   24,858
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints  $6,935.23
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault   32,891 ■
Y 20
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
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iHHHHHrlHHHrtrtWOlW Y 24
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Mineral Reference Map No. 7, Green-
3,000
5,000
6,500
June,   1934
June,   1934
Aug.,    1934
M-R.M. 7
lex
P.W.D.
1 m.  to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
20 m.  to 1 in.
750
Map of B.C., small, In two colours
Highway and Travel Map of B.C	
In Course of Printing.
Chilcotin    Pre-emptors'    Map,    with
descriptive and economic detail	
4,000
Jan.,    1935
3f
3 m. to  1 in.
9,000
In Course of Preparation.
3g
3d
4c
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m.  to 1 in.
2 m.  to 1 in.
9,000
9,000
3,100
Geographic Board of Canada, Naming and Recording.
Map-sheets, namings reviewed     19
Recommendations to Geographic Board  874
New names recorded  508
Geographical Work for other Departments.
44 items, receipts and credits   $1,649.36
Map-mounting.
Work done, items	
Cash receipts and credits..
1,515
,887.91
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps and Gazetteers issued to departments and public        17,164
Maps received into Geographic stock        15,192
Revenue from printed maps and gazetteers  $4,164.58
Credits, additional     2.382.90
Photostat.
Requisitions  563
Cash receipts and credits  $2,86,8.55
Letters.
Letters received and attended to  2,078
Standard Base Map.
Standard Base Map sheets (skeleton) produced  9
Quesnel Pre-emptors' Map, sheets compiled  4
Quesnel Pre-emptors' Map, contours, drawn and compiled, sheets  5
Department of National Defence sheets, Southerly Vancouver Island  8
School districts, plotted from description  553
Control nets supplied  28
Triangulation.
Main, by least-square adjustment, triangles adjusted     96
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations  244
Index cards, records  928 APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Y 25
Table D.—List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
1a
1a
IBM
10
In
1.ICA
Ijc
lJD
1.IE
lJGL
1,1 QC
IK
IL
2a
2b
2c
2D
2a
2f
3a
3b
3c
t3D
3b
3f
+ 3g
3h
3j
3k
3 m
3i-
3q
4a
+4b
t4c
4d
4k
4p '
4g
4h
4,1
4K
4L
4m
4N
4p
5a
5b
mrm1
mrm2
mrm3
mrm4
MRM5
MRM6
.mrm7
PWD
MD
9
5
2
Year of
Issue.
1930
1916
1933
1923
1923
1923
1928
1923
1923
1925
1929
1920
1914
1929
1923
1924
1927
1930
1926
1923
1935
1928
1934
1935
1931
1932
1932
1929
1924
1931
1913
1925
1913
1914
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1931
1916
1929
1929
1929
3 930
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1934
1930
1907
1898
Title of Map.
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
South   Western
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia. In four sheets. Roads, trails,
railways, etc.
Wall Map of British Columbia. In four sheets. Roads, trails,
railways, etc. Special edition showing Electoral DisLricts.
Redistribution, 1932
British Columbia. In one sheet. Showing Land Recording Divi
sions
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen.    Showing Mining Divisions
Cariboo and adjacent Districts. Showing Land Recording Divisions
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data	
British Columbia. In one sheet. Showing rivers, railways, main
roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
and precipitation	
ditto and Land Recording Divisions.
ditto and Mining Divisions	
ditto and Assessment Districts	
ditto and Land Registry Districts...
ditto and Counties	
Districts   of   B.C.,   Commercial   and   Visitors).
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
Central Districts of B.C., Commercial and Visitors	
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island    	
New Westminster and Yale Districts	
Northerly Vancouver Island   	
Powell Lake	
Bella Coola (preliminary)    	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary).  ...
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George   	
Nechako 	
Stuart Lake	
Bulkley Valley	
Peace River (reissue 1930)	
Chilcotin      	
Quesnel	
Tete Jaune   	
North Thompson	
Lillooet..'	
Prince Rupert	
Grenville Channel (preliminary)	
Peace River Block	
Degree Series—
Rossland Sheet (contoured)	
Nelson Sheet (contoured)	
Cranbrook Sheet	
Fernie Sheet	
Upper Elk River Sheet	
Duncan River Sheet	
Windermere Sheet   ,	
. Arrowhead Sheet	
Vernon Sheet (contoured)	
Kettle Valley (contoured)	
East Lillooet, Economic Geography (contoured)   	
Nicola Lake (contoured)	
Penticton (contoured)	
Lower Fraser Valley (preliminary)	
Topographical Series—
Omineca and Finlaj' River Basins, Sketch-map of    	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special) ...
ii ii ti North sheet (special) ...
Stikine River (contoured)	
Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia	
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
Slocan and Ainsworth	
Trout Lake  . .	
Lardeau River	
Nelson -Ymir	
Rossland-Ymir	
Grand Forks-Greenwood	
Greenwood and Osoyoos	
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Miscellaneous—
Highway and Travel Map of B.C	
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts,
Northern Interior.   (A. G. Morice)	
Kootenay District, East, Triangulation Survey of...
Kootenay District, West, Portion'of	
1:1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
1:1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. tol in.
1:1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
31.56m. tol in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2m. tol in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in,
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
£ m. to 1 in.
| m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 rn. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 in. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
] ni. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
:>0 to. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
6,000ft. tol in.
1 m. to 1 in.
SI. 50
2.00
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.50
.50
.50
2.00
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.35
Free
.10
.10
.10
Per
Dozen.
$14.00
20.00
4.00
4.00
.50
4.00
.50
4.00
.50
4.00
.75
6.00
.75
6.00
.75
6.00
.50
4.00
.50
4.00
.60
4.00
.50
4.00
.50
4.00
.60
4.00
.50
4.00
.50
4.00
2.00
. Qi
2.00
v «
2.00
Is °
2.00
2.00
2.00
z*s
2.00
*si"S §
2.CO
S£ °
2.00
Or   to
2.00
S£
2.00
O ci
H
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
i.bo
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
18.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.50
On app.
.50
.60
.50
t In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map Number " of map desired.
We can supply information concerning maps of British Columbia printed and published at Ottawa by the Canadian Geological
Survey, or the Dominion Department of the Interior, etc., etc.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address:—
Chief Geographer, Department op Lands, Victoria, B.C. 1st January, 1935. Y 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
CONTROL SURVEYS.
By A. J. Campbell.
F. C. Green, Esq., Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1934.
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report upon the control surveys for mapping
from vertical aerial photographs carried out by me under your instructions during the past
season:—
This control was to be established by the photo-topographical method as developed and used
in this office for the last three years. Expressed briefly, this means that the horizontal control
for placing the aerial pictures in position on the map, and the vertical control for establishing
the position of the contours on the aerial pictures, is obtained from photographs taken from
selected points on the ground. The position of these points is found by triangulation and their
altitude is carried forward by vertical angle readings.
Tour instructions, dated .Tune 2nd, 1934, describe the area to be covered with such control
as the incompleted portion of Map Sheet 93 A/14 lying to the east of the Swamp River, the
incompleted portion of Map Sheet 93 A/11, and also such portions of Map Sheets 93 A/10 and
93 A/15 as are covered by aerial photographs. After completing this, any time that was left
was to be spent on Map Sheet 93 A/6. In other words, this area adjoins that completed last
year and extends northerly on the east side of the Swamp River to Connection Valley, and
thence easterly to Cameron Creek and southerly along the North Arm of Quesnel Lake, with
Map Sheet 93 A/6 lying just to the south of Quesnel Lake. It is my privilege to be able to
report that the above has been completed, and also some work was done on the part to the
south of the lake. It is estimated that sufficient information has been obtained to plot over
450 square miles. In the matter of the triangulation cover for this work, we co-operated with
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., who was working westerly from the Swamp River in connecting with
the triangulation net to the westward.
The party was organized at Williams Lake on June 27th and proceeded to Likely by car
and truck. Our first endeavour on reaching the field was to cover as far east as possible from
Cariboo Lake and the Swamp River. For transportation purposes a boat was rented on Cariboo
Lake, and with this, using the outboard engine supplied by the Department, we moved from
Keithley Creek up Cariboo Lake and for 17 miles up the Swamp River above the lake. Light
camps were packed back from the lake and river, two such moves being all that were necessary
to reach the eleven camera stations occupied in this section. From these stations views were
taken covering, to a large extent, the valley of the Little River with its many branches, the
valley of Kimball Creek, and northerly to the slopes beyond Connection Valley. There was much
wet weather during this period, which delayed the work considerably and made much of the
rest unpleasant, besides making the photographic part of the work difficult. On the completion
of this we moved on July 26th to Keithley Creek and by truck to Likely.
At Likely another boat was rented for use on Quesnel Lake and another man attached to the
party, making it six all told, and a move was made to and up the North Arm of Quesnel Lake.
From camps situated on the North Arm and Mitchell River, at the head of the arm, three trips
were made by man-power to reach desired stations. A rather extensive one of about 15 miles
up Cameron Creek, a branch of Mitchell River, was required to reach Mount Mathew. This
mountain had been chosen as a triangulation station before leaving Victoria, as it appeared,
from information at that time to hand, to be a point from which any future triangulation could
be produced to the east and north. This was found to be correct. Several other camera stations
were occupied from Cameron Creek, at which views were taken covering that valley and also
over the pass, between it and Connection Valley, to the north. From trips westerly from the
North Arm, stations were occupied covering the area lying between that mapped in 1933 and
the lake. These stations include the triangulation station on Mount Stevenson, and the station
called " Little " on the northerly peak of Three Sisters Mountain. This last station had to be
revisited to complete the necessary readings. Other stations were occupied to the east of the
lake, which were reached by longish climbs from the shore. From these stations information
covering the westerly slopes of the lake was obtained, and also considerable information to the
east and beyond the limits of the area covered by the aerial pictures, which will he available
when that area is mapped.    Two of the stations east of the area were used as triangulation CONTROL SURVEYS. Y 27
stations for the purpose of producing the network southerly across the main lake and had to
be reoccupied to complete the readings. Also, while we were on the North-Arm, four points of
the lake triangulation were tied to our stations. In all, some nineteen stations were required
to complete this section, and, as the weather was more favourable for this type of field-work,
not much time was lost on this account.
The above was completed on September 14th, and during the remainder of the season we
turned our attention to Map Sheet 93 A/6 south of Quesnel Lake, and in the two weeks spent
there six stations were occupied, including a triangulation station which we had established
there. This station had to be reoccupied and also one to the east of the North Arm to complete
the readings. In the area to the south of Quesnel Lake, in Map Sheet 93 A/6, the only possible
stations were low timbered hills, entirely different to country in which we had been all summer,
and considerable clearing was necessary on the summits to make them ready for occupation.
It is estimated that around 50 square miles can be plotted on this sheet. One tie was made
to a point of the lake triangulation and from it to a corner of the only lots in the area.
We then returned to Likely and part of the party was paid off. The remainder proceeded
to Keithley Creek and Cariboo Lake to reach the triangulation station established in 1933 on
Mount Borland. The reoccupation of this station was absolutely necessary to complete the
readings of the triangulation network on the new stations established to the east. This satisfactorily accomplished, we returned to Likely, and paying off our remaining man, my assistant,
Mr. Fraser, and I proceeded to Victoria, reaching there on October 6th.
With the exception of the part south of Quesnel Lake, the whole area may be classed as
mountainous. The only flat land is, as usual in mountain valleys, to be found along the bigger
valleys, such as the swampy lands along the Swamp River for several miles above Cariboo Lake
and a similar area along the Mitchell River at the head of the North Arm. A high plateau area
at the head of Long Creek and extending over to Little River and the edge of the Cameron
Creek Valley, with its comparatively flat areas, could hardly be classed as agricultural land.
Altitudes range from Quesnel Lake, which is 2,380 feet above sea-level, to the 8,506 feet of
Mount Mathew. This mountain is higher by over 1,000 feet than any other point in the area
to be mapped, but just beyond the limits of the area, to the north and east, appear mountains
of similar altitude, and farther to the east much higher mountains are to be seen. Along the
North Arm the slopes rise directly from the shore of the lake, in part quite steeply, broken only
by the deltas formed by the numerous streams entering from either side. These deltas, with
their small areas of flat land and their wonderful sand beaches, add the finishing touch to an
exceedingly attractive lake, make fine camping-grounds, and will, without doubt, in the future
be the site of many summer homes.
The country south of Quesnel Lake is entirely different. It is a low rolling section, broken
here and there by hills rising only about 1,500 feet above the lake and having several small lakes,
some up to 3 miles in length, scattered over it.
FOREST-COVER.
Large bush fires have destroyed the forest-cover over a big proportion of the area. The
valley of Little River, with its many tributaries, has apparently been burnt repeatedly until
there is not much left except fringes along the streams and patches of green timber here and
there. This fire covered the hills and ridges north of the main valley of the Little River,
extending to the edge of the slopes to Connection Valley and Cameron Creek, and also to the
east over the ridge north of the Three Sisters Mountain and down nearly to the shore of the
North Arm. On the easterly side of the arm, near its junction with the main lake, an extensive
fire has destroyed the timber from the shore to the tops of the hills. These fires are so recent
that very little reproduction has commenced. Elsewhere along the area and up the valleys
of Mitchell River and Cameron Creek the forest-cover is quite heavy and -very similar to Coast
timber. On the lower slopes, below 4.500 feet, cedar predominates. Hemlock, balsam, some
fir, and a few spruce are found. The Swamp River Valley is also heavily timbered, the same
types being noted. On the higher slopes, as is usual, balsam is the common type, being replaced
in a few parts by jack-pine.
South of Quesnel Lake the whole area covered by us has been burnt, with practically none
of the original growth left. This is an older burn and poplar has recovered it almost exclusively.
Small fir and some birch are also to be found, with thickets of small hemlock in low spots. Y 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
MINERALS.
No mining development has taken place in the area. Evidences of prospecting were seen
and rumours of placer gold being obtained were heard, but it is, apparently, the general opinion
of the prospecting fraternity that there is not much to be found east of the Swamp River.
GAME.
Moose are to be found all over the district, particularly in the low flat valleys of the Swamp
and Mitchell Rivers, and their tracks are seen everywhere. There are several hunting-lodges
located on the North Arm and the place has long been a mecca for big-game hunters, probably
for too long, as, with the exception of the moose, game is rather scarce. Three caribou only
were seen in a country where, according to report, they were plentiful. No deer were seen
except in the poplar south of Quesnel Lake, and there they are numerous. Plenty of fish are
to be found in the lake;   trout over 2 lb. in weight were caught.
The area covered, in sufficient detail to permit of the plotting of a map on a 1-mile scale
with contours at 100-foot intervals, is about 450 square miles.
I have, etc.,
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
PHOTO TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By G. J. Jackson.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1934.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the photo-topographical survey
made by me during the past summer:—
The area covered is on Vancouver Island and is a continuation westward of the work done
by A. J. Campbell during the summer of 1931. It is the westerly portion of Map Sheet
50-127 S.E. and includes the watersheds of Marble and Benson Rivers, also an area draining
into Neroutsos Arm.
The area has all been covered by vertical aerial views taken by the Royal Canadian Air
Force. My instructions were to occupy and take horizontal views from sufficient stations to
furnish ground control for the vertical viewTg and to obtain elevations sufficient to make a
topographical map combining the two systems of views.
The party of seven was organized in Victoria and left on the C.P.R. S.S. " Maquinna " on
June 21st, arriving at Jeune Landing on June 25th. That afternoon we moved by truck and
launch to the camp of the Coast Copper Mine on Elk Lake, where we made our headquarters
for some time. We were greatly indebted to the company for transportation between Jeune
Landing and Elk Lake when moving in and out, and for supplies and mail while there, also
for the use of their bunk-house and cook-house; this was greatly appreciated during the wet
weather.
From Elk Lake we were able to reach several stations and made a short trip north about
7 miles to reach several others. Then we moved up the Elk River to the head, occupying
stations on both sides and some distance south of the pass. On August 17th we moved back to
Jeune Landing and around to the south end of Victoria Lake by way of Port Alice. From here
we occupied stations around the lake and south to the head of Marble River. On August 31st
we moved back through Port Alice to the head of Neurotsos Arm, where we occupied stations
south to the head of the valley and along the arm as far north as Quatsino. On September 25th
we boarded the S.S. " Norah " at Port Alice and arrived in Victoria on September 28th, where
the party was disbanded.
The weather was very unfavourable for the work. There was a great deal of rain, but
the chief drawback was fog, which covered the hills for weeks at a time until the middle of PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 29
August.    The latter half of August was fine and clear, while during September we had some
very good days between rains.
During the season twenty-eight dozen plates were exposed and thirty-seven photographic
stations and five triangulation stations occupied.
The area covered in sufficient detail to permit of the plotting of a map on a 1-mile scale
with contours at 100-foot intervals is about 300 square miles.
There are three main valleys in the area, all lying north and south, one formed by Neroutsos
Arm and river running into it from the south. East of this are Alice and Victoria Lakes,
8 and 10 miles long respectively, joined by about a mile of river. Marble River flows into
Victoria Lake from the south and out of the north end of Alice Lake and into the salt water
at Marble Bay. About 0 miles farther east Raging River flows from the south and Maynard
Creek from the north into Maynard Lake, which is about 1 mile long and drains westerly into
Elk Lake, about 1% miles long. Here the Elk River flows in from the south. This all runs
westerly into Alice Lake by way of Kathleen Lake, 2% miles long, and the Benson River.
The valleys are for the most part narrow with steep slopes, well timbered, and with considerable
underbrush.
The whole area is well timbered to over 3,000 feet elevation. Hemlock and balsam are the
predominating species, with some cedar, fir, and spruce on the lower levels. All the good timber
is taken up by timber limits. There is very little land suitable for agriculture, and what there
is would be expensive clearing.
The district is promising from a mining point of view, the chief ore being copper. A number
of claims have been staked, particularly in the vicinity of Elk Lake and up the Elk River. The
most prominent property is the Coast Copper on Elk Lake, where a lot of work has been done
and a considerable body of ore proven up. A very comfortable camp has been established here,
with power-house, electric light, sawmill, office, and bunk-houses, recreation-hall, and several
dwelling-houses. They are connected by telephone to the Government service at Quatsino and
Port Alice. Elk Lake is about 15 miles from Jeune Landing on Neroutsos Arm and is connected
by road, with the exception of a couple of miles around Alice Lake, where construction is not
yet completed. The company has a launch on the lake and trucks on both sections of the road.
Due to present economic conditions the mine is not operating, hut two men are looking after the
plant and road.
There is a good trail up the Elk River for about 2 miles to the cabins of the Quatsino Gold
and Copper Company, and from there an indifferent trail to the pass, about 8 miles farther, also
branch trails to several prospects. There is also a trail northward from Maynard Lake, but this
is in poor condition.
From Port Alice there is a skid-road about 1% miles long to Victoria Lake, where there is
a pumping-station. from which the town and mill get their water. A trail joins Alice and
Victoria Lakes, but there is no trail up the Marble River from Victoria Lake. From the south
end of Neroutsos Arm there is an old trail to Kashutl Arm.
At Port Alice, about 3 miles from the south end of Neroutsos Arm, the B.C. Pulp & Paper
Company have a pulp-mill and town. The mill was working full time, quite a number of men
being employed.    There is a hospital here, also a good store, post-office, and school.
At Jeune Landing, about 4 miles north of Port Alice, there is a good wharf, hut nobody
lives there at present.
At Quatsino, about 12 miles north of Port Alice, there is quite a settlement, with two stores,
school, post-office, and gas-station.
The district is reached directly by the west-coast boats, Port Alice being the end of their
run, also by the east-coast boats to Port Hardy, by car across the island to Coal Harbour, and
then by launch.
Contrary to general belief, there is very little game in this district. A few years ago there
were plenty of deer, but owing to migration, disease, or the depredations of cougar, they have
practically disappeared. We saw several,elk up the Elk River and south of Neroutsos Arm.
Judging from their tracks, there were quite a number of them, but apparently no young ones
Black bear were seen throughout the area, but fur-bearing animals are said to be scarce. Cougar
have been very troublesome for some time, scarcity of deer having driven them into the settlements in search of food. Y 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
There are a few willow and blue grouse and ptarmigan, but no great numbers of any of
them.    Ducks and geese are in the inlets during the fall and winter.
Trout-fishing is very good in all the lakes, and in the surrounding inlets there is good
fishing for salmon and other salt-wTater fish.
The work on the maps is now in progress and the usual plans are being prepared.
I have, etc.,
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL CONTROL SURVEYS, CARIBOO.
By R. D. McCaw.
December 31st, 1934.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith beg to report upon photo-topographical control surveys carried on by me in
the Cariboo District during the season of 1934. Your instructions to me, under date of June
22nd, 1934, embraced, for control surveys, the area south of Lightning Creek and north of the
areas controlled by photo-topographical surveys in the years 1931 and 1933. The map sheets
to be completed, if possible, were 93 A/14 (west of Swamp River), 93 A/13 not covered in 1933,
and a strip along the south boundary of Map Sheet 93 A/12 not done in 1931. I would now say
that control surveys were completed for these sheets as required, and in addition were extended
to include the following: Easterly edge of Map Sheet 93 B/16 and southerly portion of Map
Sheets 93 H/4 and 93 H/3 (west of Swamp River). Within a portion of the above sheets comes
the sheet of the Geological Survey known as the Barkerville area. Considerable overlap was
made with this by our surveys so that it might be incorporated in our sheets.
I left Victoria on June 23rd and drove the light truck, loaded with equipment, to Williams
Lake, designated as the point of organization of party. We left there for Keithley Creek on the
27th. A day was spent in getting equipment and supplies in order while awaiting the arrival of
pack-horses from Williams Lake. On the 29th we moved via Keithley Creek Trail and Yanks
Peak Trail to the plateau north of Yanks Peak. From June 30th to July 7th we were engaged
on work in this vicinity. Round Top, a station of the main triangulation net, was occupied in
a preliminary manner and connection was made to a group of mineral claims to the south. We
next moved down Little Snowshoe Creek to the main Keithley Trail. The main object at the
time was to reach Cariboo Mountain for the purpose of establishing a triangulation station. A
trail good enough for a light trip was brushed out for about 4 miles westerly, and from a fly-
camp at the end of this Cariboo Mountain was reached and a cairn built on the summit. One
other photographic station was done on the east end of the main ridge.
On July 16th main camp was moved northerly over the old Keithley Trail to the end of the
road at Antler Creek. This route, at one time a splendid pack-trail, is now in a rather poor
state for horse-travel. There is much fallen timber in parts, and drainage is very bad, so that
with the heavy rain at the time much of the trail was very soft. Burdette Mountain and
near-by ridges were now occupied as photographic stations, while a connection was made to
some mineral claims on Burdette. From the camp at Antler Creek I went back to Keithley
Creek and drove the truck around through Quesnel and Barkerville to Cunningham Pass. While
I was away camp was moved to this point. A spell of heavy rain delayed matters a great deal
at this time. When this broke, photographic stations w-ere done on Palmer (a geological survey
station) and other mountains to the north of Cunningham Creek.
We next moved by truck to Stanley and located a camp there on July 27th. The Quesnel-
Barkerville Road was the base for reaching stations here. Sovereign Mountain was first visited
and the existing triangulation signal repaired. Two other triangulation stations of the
Geological Survey were occupied, both for angles and views—namely, Mount Agnes and
Anderson Mountain. Several other points were selected for photographic work north of the
road near Wingdam. A land survey tie was made at Beaver Pass and the Geological benchmark near Wingdam was located for a control-point. PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL CONTROL SURVEYS, CARIBOO. Y 31
The next route of travel after leaving Stanley was southerly along the old Stanley Trail.
Camps were struck at various intervals and subsidiary fly-camps extended from them as
occasion required. It might here be said that the first 12 miles of this old trail formed part
of the route to Cariboo Mountain, over which supplies had been packed the year before to the
mining property at the summit of that feature. This, coupled with the fact that portions of the
trail were naturally soft, and heavy rains having fallen in July, left these first 12 miles a
veritable mire and most difficult under foot. That portion of the trail through the burn in the
vicinity of Swift River, between Lot 1235 and Porter Creek, was obliterated, so we recut it
sufficiently to get our pack-horses through. Fly-camps were extended to Sovereign Creek,
Sundberg's ranch (for the purpose, of renewing the Sundberg triangulation signal), to Cariboo
Mountain, and up Porter Creek. The Sovereign Mountain Triangulation Station was occupied
for final readings, as also was the Cariboo Mountain Station. Many photographic stations were
occupied and several connections made to land surveys—namely, Lot 1235 and mineral claims
on Cariboo Mountain near the triangulation station. I also at this time made a trip back to
Anderson Mountain and Round Top for final triangulation readings.
Our camp at Porter Creek was on the old road which extends south-westerly to the Quesnel
River near the mouth of Birrel (20-Mile) Creek. This so-called road was built in connection
with a hydraulic scheme years ago, but has not been used as a road in a long time; however,
it makes a very good pack-trail. We moved from the Porter Creek camp on August 31st, and
for the balance of the season were engaged most of the time on the watershed tributary to
Victoria Creek. A fly-camp was extended up Victoria Creek towards the Kangaroo Mountain
Triangulation Station. This was occupied as well as several photographic stations near.
The nature of the country in vicinity of Victoria Creek and the Lower Swift River is more
rolling in character and at times becomes quite flat. This necessitated the adoption of
traverse and triangulated points in addition to photographic work for aerial control. AVith
this in view a traverse was run along the old road from Lot 1230 and connected with the
traverse of N. C. Stewart run a few years ago. At the same time photographic stations were
occupied where possible, but in many cases a great deal of clearing was necessary in order to
obtain views. The Sundberg Triangulation Station was occupied for final readings on October
3rd, and the next day we moved down the Victoria Creek Trail to Cottonwood.
On October 6th camp was moved by truck from Cottonwood to Gavin Creek on the Likely-
Keithley Road, and for the ensuing few days photographic stations were done in the vicinity of
Gavin Lake for the purpose of" obtaining information to complete that portion of Map Sheet
93 A/12 left undone in 1931.
We moved to Williams Lake on October 11th and the party was paid off. The day following
I started back to Victoria with the light truck loaded with equipment, arriving there on the 14th.
GENERAL.
The controlling triangulation net for the area was expanded from the system used by
N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., in previous work, and was connected with the net of the Geological
Survey in the Barkerville area.
I also co-operated with A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., w7ho was east of the Swamp River, so that
a complete main triangulation covers both his area and mine. This same co-operation applies
to photographic stations overlooking the Swamp River. Main triangulation stations are marked
by brass bolts set in rock, while photographic stations are usually marked by square %-inch
galvanized-iron bars 18 inches long. The positions of these have all been calculated and are
represented by rectangular co-ordinates referred to lat. 52° 00' and long. 121° 00'.
For the photographic work Ilford panchromatic plates were used and for comparison of
results a few dozen infra-red plates were exposed. In this latter connection I may say that,
during last winter and spring, experiments were done in Victoria wdth the endeavour of finding
out just what we could expect with infra-red plates in the photography. We had been informed
that the Geological Survey of Canada had used this type of plate with success in country where
ground-haze was much in evidence. Our own experiments strengthened our existing opinion
that these plates would be very helpful in obtaining clear, sharp pictures where panchromatic
plates would not give us the necessary contrast; so it was decided to try a few dozen of these
plates in the field. Six dozen were exposed during the summer under various conditions. The
results generally obtained were superior to those by the panchromatic plates, so that in all Y 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
probability these infra-red plates will be strongly considered for extensive use in future. A
memorandum on the results obtained by the infra-red plates will be made later.
In this particular type of control survey the necessary photographic stations are much less
numerous than in straight photo-topographical work. In a country such as I have just covered
it means a great deal of moving around. The pack-horses alone made moving trips in all
amounting to nearly 400 miles. About thirty-three days were spent in moving camp, where
possible some field-work being done on the moving-days.
Atmospheric conditions were fair during the season, although not as good as the previous
year. Smoke was present at times, but practically no time was lost through this source. July
was very wet and much time was lost through rain. In August there was practically no wet
weather and no time was lost, and in September heavy rains started on the 9th, and from that
date until September 20th the heaviest rains of the season were experienced, causing considerable
loss of time. This was followed by a few days of very cold weather. From September 25th to
October 12th rain was intermittent and the latter few days in camp were very warm, with
heavy gales.
The area done is a mining one, the greater activity being in the Barkerville area. While
this activity did not seem to be as great as in the previous year, nevertheless a great deal of
work was being done. The mining industry extends in magnitude from the workings of the
lone placer-miner, of which there are many, to the plants of the large companies. Regarding
operations during the summer, considerable development-work was going on at the Cariboo Gold
Quartz, the Consolidated Gold Alluvials at Wingdam, the Island Mountain, and Cariboo Coronado
Gold Mines. In the case of the Cariboo Gold Quartz, the endeavour is being made to increase
the production in order to put the property on a dividend-paying basis. There are quite a few
smaller plants and nearly all were in operation on some scale. The larger placer-workings were
going full blast as long as there was water for hydraulic operations.
All supplies for the area come through Quesnel and are trucked to various points along the
Quesnel-Barkerville Road. This highway was in good condition and is a much-used road.
Motor-cars and trucks are up and down it almost continuously. From Barkerville a road
extends to Cunningham Pass, with a branch road running part way up Antler Creek. The old
Barkerville Road branches at Stanley and follows Lightning Creek and finally down Williams
Creek to Barkerville. This is passable for motor-cars for some distance from each end. Pack-
trails leading off these roads are numerous and only the more important are mentioned here.
The trail up Victoria Creek branches at Cottonwood and gives access from that point to the
area between the Lower Swift and Quesnel Rivers. A trail going south from "Wingdam gives
access to Sovereign Creek. Leading south from Stanley is the old trail mentioned previously.
By means of this, Cariboo Mountain, the Upper Swift River, and Little Swift River may be
reached, and with the old road from Porter Creek to the mouth of Birrel (20-Mile) Creek forms
a continuous route from Stanley to the Quesnel River. From the road at Cunningham Pass a
new trail extends easterly to the falls on the Swamp River. Mention has already been made
of the old Keithley Creek Trail from the end of the road at Antler Creek to the mouth of
Keithley Creek at Cariboo Lake.
The timber of the area varies in species and can only be dealt with in a general way here.
The usual spruce and balsam is found above 4,500 feet. Some of this between 4,500 and 5.500
feet is of good diameter and height. This was especially noticed along the Barkerville Road
and in the country extending southerly from Barkerville. In the lower and rolling areas in
the vicinity of the Swift River and Victoria Creek and tributaries there are large stands of
tall lodgepole pine covering an ancient burn. The westerly edge of the area shows much poplar.
In the vicinity of Victoria Creek there is some fir which in parts reaches fair diameter. There
are several sawmills in the district adjacent to the main road and there seemed to be considerable output from these.
Large game in the district consists of moose, caribou, deer, and black bear. Moose are very
plentiful in the south-western part. There are quite a few deer in this area also. Caribou
seem to keep to the high open country in the east, especially around Burdette Mountain. Black
bear are in evidence throughout. Grouse are quite plentiful, as also are rabbits. In the lower
stretches south of Swift River and Cariboo Mountain coyotes are very thick. Again in this
same territory beaver are quite numerous. Most of the streams which are clear of hydraulicking
operations have trout in plenty. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND. Y 33
The area covered in sufficient detail to permit of the plotting of a map on a 1-mile scale,
with contours at 100-foot vertical intervals, is approximately 550 square miles, and is now being-
plotted on the map sheets as laid out in the National Topographic series on a scale of 40 chains
to an inch.
I have, etc.,
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By N. C. Stewart.
December 31st, 1934.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical survey carried
out under your instructions of June 15th, 1934:—
The area covered lies north of lat. 49° 30' and between the topographical survey of Strathcona Park and a geological survey along the east coast of Vancouver Island, and includes the
Forbidden Plateau country, Comox Lake and Comox Glacier regions.
The organization of the party, consisting of W. J. Moffatt, B.C.L.S., assistant, and five men,
was completed at Courtenay on June 20th. Signals were erected at Cape Lazo and Mitlenatch
Island over geodetic monuments, and all positions of the survey were based on these two points.
The first climb of the season was made to Mount Beecher, from which point we were able
to get a general view of most of the area to be mapped. On June 27th we moved from Courtenay
up the Dove Creek Trail to Paradise Meadows in the Forbidden Plateau. From this camp
stations were taken on Mount Washington; then we moved on to Circle Lake, where a base
camp was established. From the Circle Lake camp fly-camps were made to cover the main
range of mountains which lies in a north-westerly and south-easterly direction from its highest
point, Mount Albert Edward. The most northerly station • along this range was Mount Alexandra, and a peak about 2 miles north of the Comox Glacier was the most southerly that we
reached from the Circle Lake base camp.
The westerly boundary of the E. & N. Land Grant, which was surveyed in 1892, was found
and ties made to marks left by the original survey. We found the work in this section extremely
arduous, for, in addition to the ordinary difficulties in travelling with our equipment through
such rugged country, we experienced very wet weather, each rainy spell being followed by
several days of fog.
On August 16th a move was made to Mount Beecher, where several camera stations were
occupied. We then moved into Courtenay and on to the upper end of the Lower Trout Lake,
where another camp was established. From this camp as a base, fly-camps were made to the
Comox Glacier and to the headwaters of the Puntledge River. On the completion of work in
this section we again moved into Courtenay. Mr. Moffatt made an exploratory trip up the
Tsable River to the top of the Beaufort Range, but found the route very difficult, so returned
to the head of Comox Lake and climbed these mountains from the old Alberni Trail. In the
meantime I connected several of the geodetic bench-marks along the Island Highway with our
triangulation net, and again occupied Cape Lazo, Mount Washington, and Mitlenatch Island,
thus completing the triangulation. Poor weather conditions delayed us ; hence we were not able
to complete our work and disband until October 10th.
The area covered in sufficient detail to permit of the plotting of a map on a 1-mile scale,
with contours at 100-foot vertical intervals, was about 350 square miles.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The area covered extends from the settlements in the vicinity of Cumberland, Courtenay,
and Merville to the westerly slopes of the mountain range which lies in a north-westerly
direction between the headwaters of the Puntledge and Oyster Rivers, a distance of approximately 25 miles. This range attains its highest point in Mount Albert Edward, 6,86S feet
above sea-level. A lower range comprising the Beaufort Range, Mount Beecher, and Mount
Washington fronts on the flat lands of the Comox Valley. Between this lower range and the
3 Y 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
main range are the valleys of Comox Lake and the Cruikshank River  and the  Forbidden
Plateau country.
The valleys are narrow, rising rapidly to the mountain-crests, the lower slopes being heavily
timbered. Above 3,000 feet altitude more open alpine country is found, such as the Forbidden
Plateau, which lies between 3,500 and 4,500 feet. Above the 4,500 feet only limited and stunted
vegetation is found. Many glaciers, including the beautiful Comox Glacier and several others
unnamed, of equal or possibly greater extent, are located along the main range. It is surprising
the amount of snow and ice in this district. Its picturesqueness is enhanced by the numerous
small lakes which are seen apparently hanging on the mountain-sides. From the Comox
Glacier several lakes are seen, each with a different colour, green, indigo, cream, etc. From
Mount Albert Edward, which is very easy to climb, there is a wonderful view of the Forbidden
Plateau and a large part of Strathcona Park.    Here also several lakes are in view.
FORESTS.
Below the 3,000-foot altitude there is a heavy stand of merchantable timber, consisting
chiefly of Douglas fir and red cedar, other varieties being hemlock and balsam. Above the
3,000-foot altitude the forest-growth has little commercial value; here yellow cedar and white
pine are found in addition to the other varieties. In the area covered, logging operations have
been carried on around the shores of Comox Lake, between Comox and Trout Lake, and on the
easterly slopes of Mount Beecher, but the great volume of timber still stands.
MINERAL^.
The area surveyed adjoins the Cumberland coal-measures. Little indication of minerals of
economic value was noted, except the presence of oxidation at Mount Arthur, the head of the
Cruikshank, and a small vein near the Comox Glacier. One prospector was working his claims
on Mount Arthur and two or three others were prospecting in the vicinity of Mount Alexandra.
GAME.
There is considerable game, chief of which is the Coast deer and blue grouse. Other
varieties seen were bear, cougar, beaver, wolverine, ptarmigan, ducks, and geese. There is good
trout-fishing in Comox Lake and its tributary streams. Several lakes in the Forbidden Plateau
have been stocked and now provide good sport. The area appears very suitable for mountain-
goat, and the writer believes that these animals should be introduced, for they provide a
valuable attraction for tourists and hunters.
CLIMATE.
Precipitation is very heavy in this district; a very plentiful snowfall in winter and rainfall
in the early summer. We experienced twenty-seven days' rain, fifteen days' fog, and nine days'
smoke during the field season. There were no extremely hot days during the summer. The
logging companies took advantage of a fine spell of weather in September to burn slashings:
hence the nine days of smoke. The climate is cooler and wetter than that found at the south
end of Vancouver Island.
ACCESSIBILITY.
There are two routes to the Forbidden Plateau; one, known as the Dove Creek Trail, begins
near the mouth of Dove Creek, traverses the southerly slopes of Mount Washington, crossing
Paradise Creek, and on to Mount Elma and Croteau's camp, and then to Circle Lake at the
base of Mount Albert Edward. The other route is known as the Mount Beecher Trail, which
originally started at Bevan Post-office, but now begins at a point on the slopes of Mount Beecher,
which may be reached over an abandoned logging-railroad grade made passable for autos by
private interests. From this point, which is about 2.000 feet above the sea, the trail climbs
almost to the summit of Mount Beecher and then drops to the Forbidden Plateau; passing
several beautiful lakes, for which the Forbidden Plateau country is famous, it connects with
the Dove Creek Trail near Croteau's camp.
Through the courtesy of the Comox Logging Company we were able to reach Trout Lake
without trouble; for this company transported our outfit on their logging-railroad from Comox
Lake to Trout Lake. Rowboats can be taken from the Lower Trout Lake to the upper one, a
distance of approximately 3 miles. PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL CONTROL, VERTICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS.    Y 35
The Alberni Trail from Comox Lake for the first few miles at least is now almost impassable.
There are few other trails in the district, except a few hunters' trails. A blazed route to Comox
Glacier starts near the east end of the Upper Trout Lake.
RESOURCES.
The visible resources of the country consist chiefly of the commercial timber in the valleys,
the extent of which at this time of writing cannot be estimated. But the value of the district as
a playground, and as an attraction for tourists and those who like the outdoor life, probably far
exceeds the value of the timber and other possible resources combined. The Forbidden Plateau,
which is now well known and visited each summer by hundreds of tourists, is easily accessible
over the existing trails, and for those who do not wish to hike, saddle and pack horses are
available. A tourist camp has been established near the centre of the plateau, from which
foot-trails lead out to the numerous lakes and vantage-points. For the mountain-climber the
hills on the plateau would harden him up for the more difficult climbs to be had in the range to
the west, which looks down in places on Buttle Lake.
The Comox Glacier and adjacent ice-fields are not so accessible at present. Here the experienced mountaineer may find all the hazards of climbing and exploring glaciers which are continually breaking off, and would be rewarded for his efforts by mountain views unsurpassed.
I have, etc.,
N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL CONTROL FOR VERTICAL AERIAL
PHOTOGRAPHS AS USED BY BRITISH COLUMBIA
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS.
(Paper read at Annual Meeting of Corporation of British Columbia Land Surveyors,
January, 1935.)
Mr. President—Gentlemen :
At annual meetings in the past two members of our office have appeared before you—one
discussing the photo-topographical method ; the other the use of aerial photographs. And now,
after several more years of experience, mostly in the combined use of ground and aerial views,
another member has summoned sufficient courage to come here to tell you something of our
present methods.
In this paper we are dealing particularly with the use of ground photographs to obtain
horizontal and vertical control for aerial views, and also with the methods used for drawing the
contours on the aerial views, then reducing them to the scale of the map.
Before going further, I would like to impress upon you that the main idea behind the
development of the methods in use was not to obtain minute accuracy, but to be able to produce
a map of sufficient accuracy for the purposes required, due regard being given to the scale of
the finished product. At the same time, it was desirable that the area covered in a field season
should be completed on paper in the office by the surveyor and assistant, with some additional
help, before the ensuing field season should arrive. The first requirement has been fully met
to the satisfaction of our expectations, but the increased office-work makes the second requirement difficult of accomplishment. However, a greater accuracy of detail is possible than heretofore, and there are no " blind spots," so the new method is very much worth while. It must
follow, though, that any attempt towards the finer points in handling the aerial views, such as
finding and correcting for tilt, is impossible. Should these finer corrections be introduced, one
would indeed be fortunate in mapping 100 square miles, instead of 400, in a season. As regards
tilt, we believe, with good reason, while it is difficult to prove, that errors arising from it are
to some extent eliminated in the procedure followed.
In his paper on photo-topographical surveying read before the annual meeting in 1928,
R. D. McCaw gave a complete description of that method. Again, N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., at
the 1930 meeting, presented a very comprehensive paper on the methods of mapping from aerial
photographs as used on the P.G.E. Resources Survey. It is therefore unnecessary to go into
details here regarding the methods of each system. It is sufficient to point out that, by the
photo-topographical method, points can be plotted with great accuracy, and altitudes for the
same found from the ground photographs.    Again, in the case of the aerial views, since they are Y 36 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
taken in a line or flight-strip with 60 per cent, overlap between the photographs, it is possible
to plot the centre or principal point of one photograph with reference to its neighbour, and so on
along the whole flight-strip. This is called the " principal point traverse." There have been
many books and papers published on the use of aerial pictures, but. one that can be safely
recommended to any one interested is entitled " A Simple Method of Surveying from Aerial
Photographs," by Lieutenant J. S. A. Salt, R.E.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION.
Before proceeding with any detailed description, it might be well to give a general idea
of the modus operandi; then any part of the method which is selected for such detailed
description later may be better understood in its relation to other parts.
In the application of photo-topographical methods for the control of aerial pictures, the
field-work is practically the same as in the old method, and yet there are somewhat different
requirements. It is not necessary to cover an area as intensively with ground pictures. Again,
it is not necessary to run traverses, etc., to augment the information obtainable from the
ground views. All such information is taken from the aerial views. Of course it must be
borne in mind that sometimes the nature of the country requires some traverse and triangulated
points for the purpose of aerial control, but this only in the more rolling areas. Also, the
position of survey corners, which formerly could be fixed by triangulation only, can often, if
such triangulation is difficult or impossible, be fixed by identifying them on the aerial views, or
identifying some near feature to which they can be connected. The combined method can be
extended into areas which were not suitable for photo-topographical methods, as long as there
are some points of sufficient altitude from which commanding horizontal views may be taken.
It goes without saying that there are few spots in British Columbia which will not satisfy this
requirement.
The preliminary office-work in this combined method is greatly increased over that in
the former photo-topographical. In addition to the triangulation calculations, plotting of all
stations, computing altitudes, making photographic enlargements of the ground pictures, and
plotting their traces, all of which was described by Mr. McCaw, it is also necessary to handle
the aerial views covering the area, the number of which may run into hundreds. On these it
is necessary to mark the flight-bases, select and mark the minor control-points; then, for each
flight-strip, plot the principal point traverse, all of which was described in detail by Mr. Stewart.
All of this done, we are ready to commence the second phase, which this paper is attempting
to describe—namely, the choosing and plotting of horizontal control-points, selecting more points
for vertical control, drawing the contours on the aerial photographs, and, finally, reducing them
to the scale of the map, and placing these reductions, also all other topographical information,
on the work sheet.
The horizontal control-points are of the utmost importance, and must be chosen very carefully, as the accuracy of the finished map is entirely dependent on them. The procedure is
somewhat as follows: A pair of aerial views is selected, also a number of ground pictures,
taken from widely separated stations looking into the area. The man who has been in the field
is the only one who can do this satisfactorily. All these views are carefully examined, the
aerial under the stereoscope, and points selected that can be definitely identified on the aerial
photographs, and at least two of the ground pictures that give a good intersection in plotting.
The points may then be plotted on the map sheet by using the ground views. However, it is
much better to choose points that can be identified on ground photographs from three or more
stations, as a positive position is then assured and possibilities of error eliminated. Also, as
the aerial pictures have a 60-per-cent. overlap, it follows that any point on one can be located on
one adjoining view and often on two, and hence the points can be plotted on the principal
point traverse by radial intersection. By selecting a series of such points along the flight-strip
and plotting them as described, it is apparent that the principal point traverse can be reduced
to fit these points as plotted on the map sheet. The methods of reducing the principal point
traverse will be dealt with later.
The points that have been chosen for horizontal control will also provide some vertical
control, as their altitudes can be found from the ground pictures on which they have been
marked. But these will not be nearly enough ; so many more are required. These are obtained
by choosing further points that can be identified on both aerial and ground views.    In this case PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL CONTROL, VERTICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS.    Y 37
the points are plotted from the aerial photographs and their altitudes taken from the ground
views. Many more points can be selected in this way than for horizontal control. The number
of points necessary for satisfactory vertical control depends on the character of the country,
whether the aerial views are tilted or not, and to some extent on the skill of the operator in
using the stereoscope. It should be apparent to all that an area broken up with small hills and
valleys would require more vertical control than one with larger hills and wider valleys.
Again, since tilt in an aerial view makes it more difficult to place a contour in its proper position
when viewed under the stereoscope, then, where it is known that there is a large tilt, more points
are needed.
The stereoscope has been mentioned but casually so far, but it is in continual use when
dealing with the aerial photographs and is an absolute necessity when the contouring is being
done. Using this instrument, with sufficient vertical control, it is a comparatively simple matter
to draw in the contouring on the aerial views. At the same time such other information as may
be needed can be marked or outlined. The bed of a small stream hidden by the bush becomes
quite evident under the stereoscope, while without this instrument it is hardly noticeable. The
shore of a lake on the bare view may be indistinct, but examined under the stereoscope it may
be readily followed. This and similar information is marked on the photograph ready for
reduction, which is our next operation.
If scales larger than the scale of the photograph were used, it would be necessary to enlarge
when taking off the contours and other information. However, the scales commonly used in
topographical mapping require such to be reduced, so this is all that need be considered. It is
obvious that the same rate of reduction cannot be applied to all contours on a view. The
5,000-foot contour on the ground is 3,000 feet closer to the camera than the 2,000-foot, so when
drawn on the photograph it will appear larger than it should in comparison, and requires a
greater reduction to bring it to the proper scale. It follows that every altitude has its rate of
reduction, and, while the variation is not great enough to apply a different rate for every 100
feet, we attempt to come as close to it as practical.
The theoretic reduction for any point is dependent on the height of the plane, the altitude
of the point, the scale of the map, and the focal length of the camera, as will be seen later.
Now the focal lengths of the cameras are expressed in inches, but it is simpler to consider the
question with the focal length expressed in feet, on the scale of the map. A focal length of
8 inches on our scale 40 chains to 1 inch, or 2,640 feet to 1 inch, gives 21,120 feet. Then we
can consider the plane of the photograph as being 21,120 feet below the camera, and, if the plane
is flying at 15,000 feet, sea-level would be that much below, and a point 2,000 feet in altitude
would be 13,000 feet below.
Fig. 1 is made up to fit the above requirements, with :—
/=the focal length expressed in feet.
H=the height of the plane.
A=any point at sea-level.
B=any point at height ft above sea-level.
C=the camera.
TT'=plane of photograph.
The point A, at sea-level, will appear on the photograph at a and from the similar triangles.
CAD and C a P we have AD/aP=H/f.    If the point were at A' it would appear on the photograph at a', and the same relationship holds.    Hence the ratio Wf gives the proper reduction
for all points at sea-level.
For the point B and B' at height h we have BE/6P=B'E/6'P=H-A,//, and this holds for
all points at altitude h. Hence it is an easy matter to construct a table giving the reductions
for all required altitudes.   A table calculated from the above data gives the ratios of reduction :—
For  sea-level  as .71
2,000 feet as .62
3,000 feet as .57
4.000 feet as .52
and so on.   This table is correct for an 8-inch focal length and a 40-chain-to-l-inch scale only.
In the office we have tables for all the cameras that have been used in British Columbia.    These
tables have been calculated for the plane flying at 15,000 feet, and may be altered for a plane
at different altitudes by simply changing the position of sea-level on the table.    We use this Y 38
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
principle in making our reductions, or, rather, we find the ratio of reduction for some point or
points on the photograph, and, using this as a base, we obtain from the tables the proper reduction for any altitude on that particular view.
In making the reductions we use a very simple but effective method, but hope that we may
have an instrument constructed that will further simplify, with a great saving of time, the
somewhat laborious and monotonous process now used. At present our apparatus consists of
a glass plate large enough to cover a photograph. The glass is coated with a transparent
varnish, upon which are marked squares % inch to a side. The rest of the outfit consists of a
series of small sheets of heavy drawing-paper with a block of squares drawn on each, there
being the same number as on the glass, but in sizes that will give a .62 reduction, a .61 reduction, and so on. Altogether, we have some twenty-five or thirty of these sheets. The reductions
are made by taking the principal points of a flight-strip off the plan on a long piece of tracing-
paper about 6 inches wide.    The aerial photograph is placed in position on the light-table.    The
glass plate is fitted over it, with the centre over the principal point, and the line from the
centre fitted over one of the flight-bases on the photograph. The paper reduction square for
the lowest altitude on the view is selected and the aforesaid strip of tracing-paper is fitted over
it to correspond with the position of the glass plate on the photograph. Then all detail requiring
this reduction is taken off, that adjacent to the contour, as well as the contour itself. Then
the next reduction square is placed under the tracing-paper. It may be for the next 500-foot
contour or an intermediate, depending on what contours have been drawn on the view. The
process is repeated until all contours and detail have been reduced from the air view. This is
continued along the length of the flight-strip, and the result is a long narrow strip made up
of pieces of contouring, portions of creeks, parts of lake-shores, etc., which can readily he
transferred to the plan. You may ask if contours from strip to strip join up all right. They
usually do, and if there is any discrepancy it is not great enough to make any material difference.
This completes the procedure and we now deal with a few features in somewhat greater
detail. PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL CONTROL, VERTICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS.    Y 39
HORIZONTAL CONTROL.
At the present time no standard requirements for horizontal control have been developed.
Of course the ideal condition would be to have sufficient control so as to be able to plot the
centre of each and every aerial photograph in position separately from identified control-points
on the view itself. But this is not practical, taking into account the accuracy required for the
map and the intensive field-work that would be needed to meet that end. It must always be
kept in mind that the object is not precise accuracy, but a practical accuracy, sufficient for the
requirements of the map being done. Hence the method of plotting the positions of the photographs with the information obtained therefrom is done with this in view. It is not too much
to say in this connection that the results obtained have exceeded all expectations.
Two methods of establishing the position of the principal points on the plan are in use in
the office, and these are combined and varied to attain the desired ends.
One method requires a series of control-points along the flight-strip. These points are
identified on both aerial and, as mentioned before, on ground photographs. Each point .is
identified on ground views from at least two different stations, so that the rays for plotting give
a good angular intersection. These points are plotted on the principal point traverse of the
flight-strip and also on the plan, and their altitudes found photo-topographically from the ground
photographs.
17 la C9        20        2I 22        "        24.
FIG.2.
FIG.3.
Fig. 2 shows a portion of the principal point traverse of a flight-strip with horizontal
control-points A, D, and G plotted on it at A', D', and G'. Again a, d, and g represent the same
points as plotted on the plan. The positions of the centres 17, 18, 19, and 20 are plotted on the
plan, using a pantograph reduction from the flight-strip in the ratio A' D' : a d, while in the
case of the centres 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 the ratio used is D' G' to d g. It is possible that the
proportion along the strip may vary considerably on account, of unavoidable changes in scale
in the plotting of the principal point traverse, due principally to tilted views in the flight-strip,
and it is quite likely there would be two positions for the principal point of view No. 20.
Generally there is not a great deal of difference and the mean of the two positions is accepted.
Again, what may be considered an improvement to the above is to plot on the plan, where there
is sufficient control, centres of views here and there along the flight and reduce the principal Y 40 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
point traverse proportionally between the centres. When there are three or more (better more,
if possible) control-points on a view, the principal point can be plotted in position on the plan,
and this position will be correct providing there is no tilt to the view. At all events, unless the
tilt is excessive, the position will be so close that any difference due to this cause would be
extremely small.    This process is illustrated as follows in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3 represents our view No. 20, with three control-points, D, E, and F, showm on it, and
also the plotted position of the three at d, e, and /, as they appear on the plan.
A sheet of transparent tracing-paper is laid over the photograph and rays drawn from the
centre to the points D, E, and F. The air-bases 20-19 and 20-21 are also drawn. The tracing-
paper is then transferred to the plan and placed so that these rays pass through d, e, and /, and
a position for the principal point of view 20 is found. For future reference the directions 20-19
and 20-21 are marked on the plan. The principal points of 17 and 24 (Fig. 2) are found in the
same way, and then the principal points of the other views by pantograph reduction in the
correct proportion between the three so plotted.
Another method which is employed when there are plenty of well-scattered control-points
on both sides of the flight-line is to plot a few centres along the flight-strip by the three or more
control-points as in Fig. 3, and then build up the others directly on the plan, using the principal
point traverse as little as possible. In plotting the principal point of 20 in Fig. 3 we laid down
on the plan the direction to the principal point of 19. Also the control-points D and E will
probably be on view 19 as well as the centre of 20. With this information the centre of 19 can
be fitted into place, in a similar manner to the way 20 was plotted, and at the same time the
direction to 18 is laid down. In plotting 19 there are four points to consider and they may not
all fit.    In that case the best balanced position is found.
n
f
">        FIG.4-.
Fig. 4 represents a portion of the plot of a flight-strip in which the views 15 and 20 have
been plotted from the control-points a, b, and c, and d, e, and /, respectively, and with 16 and
19 plotted as indicated above. In considering view 17 we find no control-points appearing, but
rays to the established points a, c, d, and e may be taken off the principal point traverse and 17
fitted on to the plan as shown on the figure. Similarly, 18 may be fitted in position. Then,
if the directions of 17 to 18 and of 18 to 17 do not coincide as they should, the work is gone
over until a balance is reached. This way of plotting can be carried farther than shown on the
figure, but it is not advisable to do so without further control. It is still better to have one
control-point appearing on each view as shown on the figure by the points m and n. With
control such as this a rigid plot can be made. It must be borne in mind that the tilted view
is always with us, which makes the several rays, as they are taken off the views, to be not
quite true, and it is necessary to strike a balance with the positive information you have.
In practice it is necessary to use a combination of all these methods of plotting the
principal points, depending on the amount and position of the horizontal control found. In
some areas, naturally, the required control can be obtained more readily than in others. But
it can be truly said that so long as there are positions of sufficient altitude from which photographs may be taken overlooking the surrounding country, this method of obtaining horizontal
control for the aerial views will work out satisfactorily.
VERTICAL CONTROL.
It is evident that, having the centres of a flight-strip plotted in position on the plan, an
unlimited number of points can be selected on the aerial pictures and plotted, by radial inter- PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL CONTROL, VERTICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS.    Y 41
section, on the plan. This gives the position only, and to obtain the altitude it is necessary
to identify the points on at least one ground photograph. As a check on the altitude it is better
to locate each point on two ground pictures, and this, as there is no necessity that the two are
from widely separated stations, is generally possible. This, naturally, limits the number of
points, but many more can be located in this way than for horizontal control. Also it is
apparent that if an area has been covered sufficiently with ground views to obtain all the
horizontal control necessary, there is no need to worry about the vertical control. Right here
we have one of the great advantages in having the ground photographs as an aid in mapping
from the aerial views. On them the landscape is brought into the office and control-points can
be chosen when and where wanted. These control-points may be located in positions to give
the best possible help in drawing in the contours, or located at any place on the mountain-
slopes, no matter what the altitude or inaccessibility, where it would be very difficult or impossible to obtain such information by any other method.
It would be too much to say that every corner is covered by the ground photographs, and
there will always be a few places where altitudes are required that are not visible on them.
In such cases an altitude can be obtained directly from the aerial views by using what is called
the difference in parallax. This method, which is somewhat briefly given below, is copied
almost verbatim from the book to which reference has been made.
f
ffi
Rz
\- -f,"B---
. -i
\        i
(X'J
Pf \a,b,   i
bJ/a*
Pk
«—/?-■
.-->\
H
FIG. 5.
a
Jl
Fig. 5 shows two photographs, without tilt, taken from two air stations, Rj and Ro, distant
B apart and at the same height H above mean sea-level. A point A will appear on plate 1
at O, but it is more convenient to deal with the positive images, so A will appear at dy.    A will Y 42
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
appear on the positive of plate 2 at d2- The point B gives rise to the images 6i and 62. A and
B are chosen so that a\ and 6i appear at the same point on the positive to make the explanation
more clear. Draw Ria'2 parallel to R2ffl2- The distance aia'2 or " p " is known as the absolute
parallax. The similar triangles Ri, ai, a'2, and A, Ri, R2 give the formula p/f=B/ (H-h). This
is true, no matter where A may appear on the photograph, provided that p is measured parallel
to the air-base. Hence we have a formula for obtaining the height of a point directly from
the aerial photographs. But it can be readily imagined this would be an exceedingly laborious
way of obtaining the altitudes, and, as tilted views render it inaccurate, therefore it would not
be satisfactory. Again, from Fig. 5 we obtained the absolute parallax for the point A as the
sum of aiPi and aoP2- Similarly, the parallax of the point B will be sum of 61P1 (which=
aiPi) and &2P2- Hence the difference in parallax of the two points is «2&2, and this difference
is directly due to the difference in altitude of the points, as can be seen from the figure. By
this, having the altitude of the point B, a fairly accurate altitude can be determined for A,
providing the points are close together, eliminating the effect of tilt to some extent. Again, as
illustrated in Fig. 6, if we have two points of known altitude, as A and B, and desire the
altitude of a third point C somewhere close to the line between A and B. This is a condition
wThich we are likely to have. The points A and B will appear on the ground photographs, and
hence their altitude is readily obtainable while the point C will be invisible on them.
FIG.6.
is:
.24-
*   3SE0
VST*
25 .23
SOIS -f82£
FIG.7.
3733-2/
6,9   a
degree or two of the horizontal.    Using the difference in parallax method, we obtain the difference in altitude between A and C as s t, and between B and Ql as q t.    These give two altitudes PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL CONTROL,  VERTICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS.    Y 43
for C, but the difference, if broken up in the proportion of the horizontal distances "A C and
B C, as is evident from the similar triangles Ar* and Bpq, and added in one case and subtracted
in the other, will give the altitude of C.
This is" not intended as a complete description of the parallax method, but is included to
show the possibilities and as a matter of some general interest. We much prefer to obtain our
altitudes from the ground photographs and use this or a similar method only when absolutely
necessary, and, if the country has been well covered with ground photographs, such occasions
are rare.
CONTOURING.
We have stated earlier that, with sufficient and properly placed vertical control, it is a
comparatively simple matter to draw the contours on the photographs. Fig. 7 illustrates how
this is done, also it will give some idea as to the method of numbering the points to avoid
confusion, and, since these run into the thousands, it will be understood that some system is
necessary to keep them in order.
Fig. 7 represents an aerial photograph and shows the principal point marked by a small
black cross, the air-bases to the centre of the views on either side a few points from 3 series,
the watercourses as they appear on the photograph, and a partially constructed system of
contours. The AA lines across the photograph represent approximately the middle of the
lateral overlaps, and the letters BB indicate, also approximately, the middle of the fore and
aft overlaps. The former are marked on the photographs, but the position of the latter is
apparent under the stereoscope.
To explain all this, let us first consider the points. They are marked either with a needle-
hole or dot of ink, using a different colour for each series. On the photograph we have three
points numbered liix, 16.z?, and 17a?. The letter x indicates that these are horizontal control-
points, and. while they may be in black ink on this strip, the next will have some contrasting
colour but still keeping the letter x as the distinguishing mark. The vertical control-points are
also numbered one colour to a strip, with contrasting colours on those to either side. The
points 1 to 6 are vertical control-points that have been plotted from this photograph and its
neighbours on the strip, while 23, 24, and 25 are vertical control-points plotted on the next strip
and transferred to avoid duplication. The altitudes of the different points are recorded, so as to
be readily available, and not marked on the photographs as has been done here.
In drawing the contouring on the photographs it is better to keep as near to the central
part as possible, as there is always distortion near the edge, and by keeping to the portion
enclosed by the letters AA and BB on Fig. 7 we hold to this condition for all the photographs
in the best possible manner.
The positions of the contours with respect to the control-points are found under the
stereoscope by estimation. As an example, take the points 1 and 2 on Fig. 7. Point 1 has an
altitude of 2,950 feet and 2, 4,240 feet. Then, studying the slope between the points, a position
is selected for the 3,000-foot contour and also for the 4.200-foot. By spacing between these
(keep in mind this is done under the stereoscope with everything showing in relief), positions
are found for the intervening contours. In a similar manner the other control-points are dealt
with. and. by joining the parts of the same contours together as indicated on Fig. 7. with due
regard to the shape of the country as seen under the stereoscope, the system is gradually built
up. Then, placing the next photograph in the stereoscope, the contouring is carried forward,
and so on, along the length of the strip. On Fig. 7 the contours appearing above the upper
AA line have been transferred from the strip to the north, which has been contoured previously,
and show how the system is carried from strip to strip.
RATIO OF REDUCTION.
Before commencing reduction one more operation is necessary, and that is to find the ratio
of reduction for each photograph. The reduction table has been described, and it has been
shown that, having the ratio for one point and using the table, you have the ratio for all altitudes on that photograph. But this is entirely dependent on that one point, and while it will
be correct for the direction of that point if the view is tilted, will not he correct for other
directions. Hence, by finding the ratios for other points, say 2 or 3 more, in different directions
from the centre and reducing all these ratios to a common plane, easily done with the table,
then taking a mean, we arrive at the best ratio to use for this view.    Now, to find the ratio for Y 44
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1934.
any altitude, it is necessary to have two points on the view at that altitude, so as to be able
to compare the distance between them with that between the two points as plotted on the plan.
By studying Fig. 1 it will be seen that the principal point of a photograph can be taken as
a point of any altitude and so used with any other point to obtain a ratio.
To illustrate, on Fig. 7 take point 2 and measure the distance from it to the principal point,
also measure the distance between the plotted positions of point 2 and the principal point. By
dividing the former into the latter we get a ratio for point 2 and, theoretically, a ratio for all
points at the same altitude. By finding on the table the difference in ratio for 4,240 feet, the
altitude of 2, and adding it to the above ratio, we get a sea-level ratio. Treat points 5 and 6
in the same way and we have three sea-level ratios which may or may not correspond. The
differences are not likely to be large, so by taking a mean we have a satisfactory ratio for this
photoghaph. Ratios are found in this manner for all the photographs and recorded on the
border as indicated by " 69 " in Fig. 7.
The methods and apparatus used in reducing have been 'described earlier in this paper and
any further description as to the way the map sheets are finished would be superfluous at this
meeting.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Baxfiei.d, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1035.
800-235-2916    

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