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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON A. W. GRAY, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1935

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. A. W. GRAY, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. P. Z. Caverhill, Chief Forester.
EEPOET
OF
THE FOEEST BEANCH
FOR   THE
YEAH ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1934
PRINTED by
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1935. Victoria, B.C., February 20th, 1935.
To His Honour J. W. Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1934.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. A. W. Cray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1934.
P.  Z. CAVERHILL,
Chief Forester. REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
The year 1934 opened auspiciously for the lumber industry on the Coast. After a record-
breaking water-borne business in January, there was a slight reduction during the succeeding
months until midsummer. The third quarter showed an increase which held well through to
the end of the year to make an all-time high for lumber export shipments. The Coast domestic
rail trade was very slack during the first half-year, but showed considerable improvement during
the third quarter, slackening off again after the temporary freight-rate concessions were
removed in November.
The lumber industry in the Interior had a less encouraging year. Crop conditions prevented
an active demand for lumber on the Prairies. The industry received no freight concession on
shipments to Eastern Canada, similar to that given the Coast, and their former American market
was still practically closed to them by the tariff. The net result was little change from the
previous year in either price or volume.
Several of the larger logging camps on the Coast were closed by strikes for a period of about
six weeks during March and April. These strikes did not spread to the sawmills, which were
able to augment their depleted stocks in the latter part of the strike period from the smaller
camps, where production was increased to an unexpected extent.
Prices in general were slightly better than last year, but log-production costs were up.
A substantial improvement in lumber prices must take place before the industry can earn
reasonable profits. Encouraged by the progress made in 1934, by the prospect of renewed building activities on the Prairies and in Eastern Canada, and the possibility of a tariff adjustment
on lumber to the United States in the following summer, the lumber industry was feeling more
optimistic at the close of 1934 than the year before.
For the first nine months of the year the shingle industry was in an unsatisfactory condition.
The domestic market only absorbs a small proportion of the normal output of shingles from
this Province, and during 1934 has not taken as much as usual because of the conditions on
the Prairies. Due to the NRA Code quotas and the general economic situation, the demand
in the United States was weak and unstable. During the late summer final arrangements
were made with United States authorities for a definite allotment of 25 per cent, of the
United States quota to British Columbia and, at the same time, the shingle industry was brought
under the Dominion " Marketing Act," which permits the licensing of shippers under the
United States quota arrangement. There has been a considerable increase in demand during
the last quarter, and two additions to the United States quota have helped out the British
Columbia mills.
An increase in building on the Prairies and in Eastern Canada is a reasonable expectation.
Our timber-trade representatives in the United Kingdom are acquainting the public there with
the merits of the British Columbia shingle. An increase in house-construction in the United
States is expected.    All these point to a strengthening of the shingle market in 1935.
The pulp and paper mills of the Province report increased business in 1934, but no improvement in prices. However, owing to certain adjustments within the industry and agreements
reached between the various companies in Canada and the United States respecting prices,
a better year is anticipated in 1935.
A distinct improvement in the tie market occurred in 1934, and a further increase in cut
during 1935 is certain. The railways apparently cannot longer delay substantial replacements,
and thousands of settlers scattered throughout the Province who depend on this market for
winter employment will benefit.
A further reduction of pole yard stocks occurred during the year and the industry is now
in a good position to swing into active production when demand arises.    Extensive replacements
are required, both in Canada and in the United States, and a general improvement in conditions .
should bring these about.
Summarizing the progress of the forest industries during the past few years, we find that
the scale dropped from a peak of 3,300 million board-feet in 1929, with a total value of products
of $93,000,000, to a low in 1932 of 1,600 million board-feet, with products valued at $35,000,000.
This year the total scale is 2,215 million board-feet, and products are valued at $45,461,000.
A large part of the credit for the marked increase in the lumber production this year is due
to the active trade-extension work, to which reference will be made later in this report.
The forest industries are the largest employers of labour in the Province and over the years
have far exceeded other natural resources in value of production and revenues to the Government.    They should continue to be a main pillar in the financial structure of the Province. U 4
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The forests are a crop requiring management and protection if they are to be renewed.
The industry is centralized on the Lower Coast and Vancouver Island, from which 80 per cent,
of the annual cut is secured. It is the Douglas fir of this region that has given the Province
its present position in the lumber markets of the world. There is 40 billion feet of it standing.
Probably nearly half is inaccessible until there is a greater spread between logging cost and
selling-price than has existed hitherto. The cut of fir in this area was 1,100 million board-feet
in 1934, and may increase. It is hoped other species will eventually satisfactorily replace fir
in large quantities for many purposes. Information available is not yet complete, but indications are that half of the areas now being cut over are not restocking satisfactorily. This is a
very productive region, accessible for logging purposes, and irrespective of the large quantities
of other species available and the great forest wealth in other parts of the Province, the growing
of timber to the utmost capacity of the area is greatly to be desired.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
The permanent staff was further reduced by two during the year, including the Supervisor
of Scalers through superannuation..
The staff handled a record load of timber-sale work and, with added responsibilities in other
routine matters, has been hard pressed to keep up with its duties. Despite the load of work,
the year's record of service is highly commendable. Any further increase in work will require
additions to the staff, if loss in revenue and a decrease in efficiency of the organization are to
be avoided.    Distribution of staff for the year is shown below:—
Distribution of Force, 1934.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
Six additional areas on the Coast were reserved as Provincial Forests during the year.
The Powell Forest covers an area of 679 square miles in the vicinity of Powell River, including
the watershed of Powell Lake. The Loughborough Forest, 935 square miles between Knight
•and Bute Inlets. The Gilford, Broughton, and Harbledown Forests cover a group of small
islands between the Loughborough Forest and Vancouver Island, 351 square miles in all. These
Forests have been reported upon previously in detail. The Seechelt Forest, a description of
which is included in this report, covers 1,210 square miles from Howe Sound to Jervis Inlet,
including Seechelt Peninsula and Inlet. Agricultural and other settlement areas have been
excluded from these Forests, which have been reserved for the practice of forestry and the
production of commercial timber.
Three of the reserves previously administered by the Dominion Government in the Railway
Belt have been cancelled, having been found to be of little value for the production of commercial
timber; these were the Fraser Canyon, Hat Creek, and Arrowstone Forests, lying on the Fraser
River watershed from Hope to Ashcroft. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 5
FOREST SURVEYS.
Surveys of areas suitable for permanent timber production were continued. The urgency
of this work becomes apparent when it is realized that it is merely a preliminary to the management of the forests on definite working plans providing for sustained yield, and that such plans
take many years to become effective. Meanwhile, the present generation will probably see the
end of our virgin Douglas fir on the Coast. The Provincial Forests already reserved could
produce, on a sustained yield basis, only one-fifth of the average volume cut in the Province
under normal market conditions, and even in these Forests the cut has not yet been regulated
for a sustained yield.
The amount of field-work which could be undertaken was limited by reduced finances, but
two parties were organized, one in the Interior surveying part of the large Kettle River watershed, already under forest reserve, and a small party on the Coast making an examination of
the land adjacent to Toba Inlet, which is a forest area considered to be suitable for reserve.
Forest and topographic maps and estimates of these areas are being prepared. In addition, two
forest engineers made a reconnaissance of the Nimpkish and adjoining watersheds in the north
part of Vancouver Island. These men, with a canoe and two months' supplies, were taken in by
aeroplane, landing and making small caches on four headwaters lakes to facilitate their work
on foot and by canoe. The aeroplane in this case successfully accomplished in a few hours
work which would otherwise have required the services of a crew of packers and canoe-men for
two weeks or more. We are able to prepare a complete forest map of this heavily timbered area,
after comparatively little field-work, by plotting information from the vertical air photographs
of a recent photo-topographically controlled aerial survey.
Topographic and forest maps and estimates were completed for the Seechelt Forest, of
which a field examination was made last year. The total area, 774,400 acres, was found to
include the following:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.     Acres.
Mature timber   107,160
Immature timber—
1- 20 years old   10,260
21- 40 years old   21,770
41- 60 years old   13,720
01- 80 years old   12,130
81-100 years old         160
    58,040
Logged or burned, not reforested  12,960
Reforested with non-commercial cover  12,080
     25,040
Total sites of productive quality  190,240
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Barren, alpine, or scrub-covered   580,030
Swamp and water       4,150
Total non-productive sites   584,180
The timber is estimated, to a minimum 11-inch D.B.H., as follows:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Western red cedar.
Douglas fir	
Western hemlock..
Silver fir	
Yellow cypress	
White pine	
Sitka spruce	
Totals.....
M.B.M.
157,250
206.110
147,270
74,700
6,730
5,030
2,050
590,230
M.B.M.
1,005,420
789,440
552,040
300,760
41,630
12,830
13,600
2,715,720
M.B.M.
1,162,670
995,550
699,310
375,550
48,360
17,860
15,650
3;314,950 U 6
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
This Forest has supplied Vancouver mills since very early days, so that second growth on
the earlier logged areas is well advanced, which is one reason for the better distribution of
age-classes of immature timber. The Forest is producing an average cut of 29,000,000 board-
feet annually and there are two and a half billion feet of accessible timber still standing.
The annual yield could be increased to 41,000,000 board-feet without depleting the growing
stock and regulation would later increase the capacity for sustained yield to 52,000,000 F.B.M.
There is an increasing number of summer homes, fishermen's; settlements, and other small
holdings in the vicinity, but there is no great extent of agricultural lands; areas suitable for
these purposes have been left outside the Forest boundaries.
FOREST RESOURCES INVENTORY.
Estimates of the forest resources and the forest atlas of the Fort George Forest District
were completed. Private cruises were obtained wherever possible, but in this Northern District
less of the timber has been cruised by private interests than in the other Forest Districts, in
which utilization of the forests is further advanced. A considerable amount of exploratory
work was done by the Forest Surveys Division during the summer in order to obtain information
about various scattered areas which are not at present commercially accessible, but of which
estimates were necessary to complete the District statistics. The most important area so covered
was the Willow River watershed from its headwaters to a point about 15 miles from the
Canadian National Railway; this area includes 374,000 acres of productive forest land, of
which 260,000 acres is mature timber and 53,900 acres young growth. There are 269,000 acres
of non-productive scrub lands.
The timber is approximately estimated, to a minimum 11-inch D.B.H., as follows :—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
M.B.M.
855,800
322,300
140,700
6,500
M.B.M.
165,800
18,100
10,700
300
2,900
M.B.M.
1,021,600
340,400
151,400
6,800
2 900
Totals	
1,325,300
197,800
1,523,100
The following schedules give the classification of land in the Fort George Forest District
and estimates of the standing timber, divided into the seventeen drainages shown on the
accompanying index map.
The proportion of productive forest land in this District (46 per cent.) is somewhat better
than in the two Southern Interior Districts (Kamloops, 43 per cent.; Nelson, 40 per cent.).
A very marked difference, however, is seen in the large proportion of the productive land which
is not forested with commercial species, over 35 per cent. (8,000,000 acres) as compared with
less than 16 per cent, in the Kamloops District and 24 per cent, in the Nelson District. This
poorly forested land is capable of producing commercial timber, although most of it is at present
covered with aspen, alder, willow, and birch. These species, when mature, have only a very
limited local value for fuel, small building-logs, and fence-posts. The condition of the remainder
of the unstocked area is due to comparatively recent fires.
Merchantable timber, totalling 33 billions of feet board measure, covers 18.6 per cent, of
the productive area and immature stands nearly 46 per cent.
The average annual cut in the Fort George District for the last ten years was 83,815 M.B.M.,
and the average reported loss by fires was 35,925 M.B.M. There was also an average annual
loss of 20,980 acres of valuable immature timber. The maximum loss occurred in 1932, when
136,710 M.B.M. timber and 54,670 acres of young growth were burned.
Without attempting to calculate the sustained yield capacity of this District, it is obvious
that the present cut is far below what the forests might provide if markets were available.
The present standing mature timber contains 275 times the volume of the average annual
depletion by logging and fires. Even the stands considered to be accessible under average
existing conditions would support this depletion for seventy years and there are over 10,000,000
acres of immature timber. The District may be considered a valuable reserve for future pulp
and paper industries;   over 64 per cent, of the timber is spruce.
The first phase of the Provincial Forest Inventory has now been completed and it will
shortly be possible to publish complete statistics covering the Province.    The forest-cover has FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 7
been mapped on a scale of 1 inch to the mile, and it is hoped to keep this valuable forest atlas
reasonably up-to-date by revising the maps of each District successively, to show the results of
fires, logging, and other changes which have taken place since the inventory was made. The
periodic general stock-taking thus provided will continue to be of great value in connection with
many problems of forest policy, protection, and management, until it is possible to replace it
with the more detailed maps and working-plans prepared for the Provincial Forests.
PROVINCIAL FOREST INVENTORY.
Key to drainage-basins of the Fort George Forest District.    Numbers refer to drainages in the accompanying
schedules. U 8
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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co t*. to co i^- FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 9
PROVINCIAL FOREST INVENTORY—Continued.
Accessible Merchantable Timber in" Fokt George Forest District.
a
as
a
£>rainage-basin.
Merchantable
Acreage.
Thousand Board-feet, B.C. Log Scale.
a
o
6
F.
C.
H.
S.
B.
PI.
Total.
1
Fraser River Headwaters....
216,900
132,960
121,200
70,610
167,350
13,790
80,260
18,340
29,730
37,800
49,700
2,900
29,800
333,600
29,800
77,400
13,900
75,700
426,600
7,900
55,900
14,100
1,247,000
1,236,300
1,101,900
386,600
719,800
54,600
195,500
60,900
68,600
234,900
180,600
424,300
59,400
67,500
6,100
2,000
1,100
49,400
220,500
22,200
140,400
21,500
48,900
2,008,300
1,490,600
a
1,530,200
4
525,200
5
Fraser River-Soda Creek
to Prince George	
West Road-Chilako Rivers..
1,341,400
6
106,600
7
1,300
4,800
15,400
414,600
R
101,100
9
208,600
10
11
1'
Murray River	
Finlay Forks-Hudson Hope.
If
14
15
16
Halfway-Beatton Head-
17
64,180
576,800
91,000
667,800
Totals	
915,320
650,600
434,500
70,000
5,648,000
98S,200
603,100
8,394,400
7.7%
5.2%
348,400
86,100
0.8%
67.3%
11.8%
7.2%
100.0%
809,210
59,760
46,350
568,200
45,000
37,400
31,800
38,200
5,023,200
407,000
217,800
875,500
82,100
30,600
560,000
16,600
26,500
7,407,100
675,000
Crown grants	
312,300
Abbreviations :   F=Douglas fir.
B^Silver fir (bal
C=--Red cedar. H=Western hemlock,
sam).        Pl=Lodgepole pine.
S=Bngelniann spruce. U 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
PROVINCIAL FOREST INVENTORY—Continued.
Total Merchantable Timber in Fort George Forest District.
Drainage-basin.
Merchantable
Acreage.
Thousand Board-feet, B.C. Log Scale.
a
o
6
F.
C.
H.
S.
B.
PI.
Total.
1
Fraser River Headwaters....
446,460
382,000
304,750
304,390
369,870
69,380
119,580
116,620
220,060
119,950
587,140
238,200
321,650
42,430
176,540
93,400
386,100
78,300
88,400
15,400
39,400
652,800
65,700
80,000
35,800
328,900
656,900
68,500
18,000
76,800
47,000
8,300
2,196,400
2,433,600
2,364,200
1,344,800
1,210,500
139,100
249,300
396,800
630,500
395,400
2,874,000
754,500
1,713,400
95,500
831,200
402,400
3,170,500
635,800
787,600
933,600
387,000
191,100
2,200
3,400
55,400
203,800
170,300
941,400
217,900
474,900
69,600
191,800
11,400
11,500
192,100
4,800
187,300
466,700
120,400
182,000
208,300
342,700
290,200
399,900
497,100
321,400
43,000
66,200
47,900
680,300
3,655,700
3,617,200
3
3,344,300
4
1,958,500
5
Fraser River-Soda Creek
2,521,100
6
West Road-Chilako Rivers..
327,400
7
514,700
8
696,300
9
1,505,900
10
855,900
11
108,200
4,323,500
r>
1,469,500
13
Finlay Forks-Hudson Hope.
Omineca River	
2,509,700
14
208,100
15
1,089,200
16
Halfway-Beatton Rivers
461,700
17
3,850,800
Totals	
4,299,420
1,492,900
743,400
132,100
21,202,100
5,277,200
4,061,800
32,909,500
4.6%
2.3%
0.4%
64.4 %
16.0%
12.3%
100.0%
4,141,030
105,810
52,580
1,383,700
69,900
39,300
587,900
155,500
83,200
48,900
20,243,800
710,700
247,600
5,072,700
168,100
36,400
4,002,100
26,900
32,800
31,373,400
1,180,000
356,100
Abbreviations :
=Douglas fir.        C=
^Silver fir (balsam).
Red cedar. H=Western hemlock.
Pl=Lodgepole pine.
S=Engelmann spruce.
Included in the above figures is the equivalent board-foot measure of 28,200,000 ties cruised in various
watersheds, but not scheduled as ties because other tie-timber In the district has been reported in board-feet
only. Similarly, 14,400,000 lineal feet of cedar pole-timber is included in the cedar column after conversion
at 3 board-feet to the lineal foot. The pole-timber is on areas tributary to the Canadian National Railway
east of Prince George. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 11
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
In conjunction with the forest survey made of the Seechelt Forest, lands adjoining the
boundary were examined and classified in order that areas suitable for agricultural development might not be included within the Forest. A total of 9,875 acres was examined, of which
1,485 acres were found to be suitable for cultivation. The good land in this vicinity is usually
in small bodies and the clearing is heavy. It can be developed best by subdivision into small
holdings of from 10 to 20 acres for fruit, vegetables, and dairy products. A jam-factory is
operating successfully and there is a local summer market in the numerous summer resorts
along the coast. For subdivision in this way vacant land totalling 3,125 acres was found in
the areas examined ; 1,095 acres of this is first-class land. There are other suitable areas
available in the vicinity of Gibsons Landing which were not examined. The proximity to
Vancouver gives special value to these lands ; all of them have been excluded from the Seechelt
Forest, together with other areas of poorer soil, but suitable for fishing settlements and summer
resorts.
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1934.
Forest District.
Vancouver ...
Prince Rupert
Fort George. .
Kamloops ....
Nelson	
Totals
Applications for
Crown Grants.
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
59
1
121
832
15,753
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
34
4
32
72
3
Acres.
2,711
573
4,295
9,000
312
16,891
Applications to
Purchase.
55
11
17
39
51
Acres.
6,379
1,504
2,081
4,555
4,381
18,900
Miscellaneous.
30
12
19
54
357
871
8,286
Classification of Areas examined in 1934.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimate of
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
9,447
3.069
9,091
32,541
5,682
Acres.
2,061
786
4,023
3,763
1,942
Acres.
7,386
2,283
5,068
28,778
3,740
47,255
Acres.
489
382
M.B.M.
5,445
2,686
59,830
12,575
871
8,131
FOREST RESEARCH.
Forestry may be defined as the business of growing forests. It is a complicated business and
requires an understanding of many complex factors concerning tree-growth. The fact that we
are dealing with a crop that takes a long time to mature increases our difficulties.
A great many problems await solution. AVhere are our best growing areas and why are
they superior to adjacent lands? Why do some logged or burned areas produce fine stands of young
growth almost at once while others develop into barrens? Can we plant denuded areas profitably or
will planting prove to be a costly experiment? How fast do our forests grow and how much
can we afford to cut without depleting our capital stock? How much will adequate forest-
protection cost and how much can we afford to spend on protection and forest-management?
The first attempt at studying these problems in British Columbia took the form of spasmodic
investigations by the various Forest Districts, but pressure of routine duties and lack of
direction mitigated against any very tangible results. In 1920 a qualified forester attached to
the Victoria office made some growth-studies and investigative and experimental work has
continued since that date. In 1927 the staff employed and work in hand warranted the organization of a small Research Division. Two Experimental Stations have been established, one
at Aleza Lake in the spruce-balsam type of the North-central Interior and one at Cowichan Lake U 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
on Vancouver Island. A forest-tree nursery has been established near New Westminster. Four
other areas are reserved for experiment and demonstration purposes at Green Timbers near
New Westminster, at Campbell River, East, Thurlow Island, and on Discovery Passage.
A trained research staff has been developed and work bearing on various problems has been
actively carried out both in the Interior and on the Coast.
For the past two years funds have been limited to barely sufficient to maintain field-work
on projects in hand and no new work has been undertaken. The development of a competent
staff, each individual of which must be carefully selected and specially trained, is of basic
importance in any Research programme. One of the most unfortunate phases of the necessary
economies practised during the past two years was the loss of promising junior members of
the Research staff.
Activities for the year 1934 are briefly reviewed below.
Most of the studies being pursued are carried out under natural forest conditions on sample
plot areas varying in size from %oo acre to many acres on lands reserved for the purpose. These
studies and the field plots involved may be grouped roughly as follows:—
No. of Plots.
1933. 1934.
Growth and yield      105 115
Experimental plantations         00 62
Varied silvicultural studies        82 82
Regeneration history studies           9 9
Involving separate plots  2,896 3,028
Ten new plots were established in connection with growth and yield studies, thirty-seven
plots in connection with various studies were re-examined, and seven of the nine history map
studies involving 1,570 sub-plots were re-examined.
Growth and Yield Studies.—This basically important investigation was one of the earliest
to be undertaken by the Forest Branch. It involves the periodic measurement of tree-growth
on selected plots, usually at intervals of five years, for long periods of years. Plots established
and estimated minimum requirements in the various forest regions are:—
No. of Plots.
Established.     Required.
South Coast types   61 125
Mid-Coast types    1 25
Southern Interior  17 75
Central Interior  34 55
Totals   115 280
Ten plots were established this year. In this work we are approaching the condition where
re-examination will occupy the full time of the one forester employed on this study and where
further expansion toward the desired minimum will have to await additional staff.
Silviculture.—The various studies under way on the Coast and in the Central Interior,
centred at Cowichan Lake and Aleza Lake Experiment Stations, were maintained by re-examination of thirty-one established plots. These involve seed production, seed dissemination,
seedling establishment on various types of land such as logged off and burned, the effect of
ground-cover, etc.
Forest Nursery.—At the Green Timbers Nursery 100 seed-beds were put in in the early
spring which have developed well. These beds will produce about 400,000 seedlings which will
be ready for planting in the spring of 1936.
The Nursery provided 84,000 trees for experimental plantings in the early part of the year,
and an additional 19,000 in sixty-seven shipments to various public bodies and individuals.
An accumulation of oversized stock, the result of experimentation, has been disposed of,
releasing land to seedling production, for which it will be reserved in future.
The present stock consists of the 1-year-old seed-beds previously mentioned and about
40,000 trees available for planting. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 13
Plantations.—In the spring of 1934 some 83 acres were planted at the Green Timbers
Forestry Station and the Campbell River Experimental Forest. Planting records referred to
in the 1933 report were completed for all plantations to date. These completed records disclose
some errors in the areas reported planted, and the correct number of trees and acres planted
are as shown in the following table:—
Previously
reported.
1934.
Total to Date.
Acres.
Trees.
Acres.
Trees.
Acres.
Trees.
248
545
93
30
275,600
234,500
116,750
22,850
11
73
9,850
259
545
166
36
285,450
234,500
74,300
191,050
22,850
Totals	
922
649,700
84
84,150
1,006
733,850
All planting to date has been on a purely experimental basis on small reserved areas.
Planting must continue in the experimental stage for some years to come, but we are now in
. a position, from the standpoints of both nursery capacity and experience, to undertake a
bigger programme than has been attempted to date whenever this may prove desirable. With
this possibility in view, office records have been examined for possible favourable planting-sites
and 34,000 acres of logged Crown land have been selected for examination. It is proposed to
select about 10,000 acres of this by field examination, for which a complete planting-plan will
be prepared in readiness for any planting programme outside our reserved experimental areas.
Publications.—Two publications have been issued during the year: "A Pocket Guide to
the Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia," by B. G. Griffith, M.A., M.F. ; and " Growing
Coniferous Trees in British Columbia," by F. S. McKinnon, B.Sc.F., M.F.
The first mentioned provides in handy pocket form a simple key for the identification of
British Columbia trees and shrubs for use of students, woodsmen, and interested persons, not
previously available. An edition of 200 mimeographed copies was distributed to a selected list
for use and criticism.    It will be revised and printed for general distribution in due course.
" Growing Coniferous Trees in British Columbia " was prompted by a number of inquiries
received for information on this subject. It describes clearly the methods that can best be used
in the collection of seed, growing seedlings, and establishing plantations. It is intended
primarily for the farmer who wants to grow a few thousand trees for Christmas-tree plantations, reforesting waste land, shelter-belts, or like purpose. This bulletin is available for general
distribution.
Co-operation.—During the summer the Research Division co-operated with the B.C. Pulp &
Paper Co. in establishing certain pruning and thinning experiments on lands logged by the
company on Quatsino Sound and which are now reproducing to heavy stands of young hemlock.
This is a long-term experiment in a phase of intensive forest-management which offers possibilities of profitable returns in increased growth and a more valuable product.
We continue to receive from the U.S. Forest Service, and particularly from their Experiment
Stations, copies of their current publications, which are invaluable in keeping informed regarding
recent developments. Certain mensuration studies are being conducted simultaneously in the
Pacific North-west States and in British Columbia in connection with which data are being
exchanged. One Research officer was enabled to spend three months of the winter 1933-34 in
the Office of Silviculture at Washington, D.C, through the courtesy of the U.S. Forest Service.
A project for a joint programme in forest research with the Dominion Forest Service has
been under review during the year without much progress being made.
The Division has co-operated in minor matters with a number of other Provincial, Dominion,
and foreign agencies. Basic forest problems are of international interest. Funds and trained
personnel are lacking. Close co-operation between various research organizations is of the
utmost importance to forestry throughout North America. U 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
Special reference should be made to the splendid results of the water-borne trade-extension
work carried on by the combined efforts of the lumbermen and the Provincial Government
during the past five years.
Previous Annual Reports trace the history of these efforts, commencing in 1930 in Australia,
extending to China, and concentrating on the United Kingdom for the last two years. The
general effects of the depression on the lumber business were serious enough, but the loss to
the Province of its best customer, the United States, in the summer of 1932 by way of the tariff
made the situation much worse. The following record constitutes a tribute to the foresight
and energy of those who realized the possibilities of increased water-borne trade, especially
where assisted by Empire trade preferences:—
British Columbia's share of the total export of lumber from the Pacific Coast to the Australian market has risen from 16 per cent, in 1929 to 92 per cent, in 1934; to the United Kingdom
from 20 per cent, to 83 per cent.; to China from 11 per cent, to 24 per cent.; and the total over
the same period of all overseas markets has risen from 20 per cent, to 54 per cent. British
Columbia has thus reached the premier position in timber exports from the Pacific Coast.
Our water-borne trade in 1934 reached an all-time record of 859 million board-feet. The
maximum quantity shipped in any one year by water prior to the depression was 801 million,
which, however, included 351 million feet to the United States, and, in addition, that country
took by rail 300 million feet. The increase in overseas shipments does not compensate for the
loss of this American market, but has been a notable achievement. The sale of 456 million
board-feet of lumber to the United Kingdom in 1934 was mainly responsible for this new record,
and is an increase of 68 per cent, over that of the previous year and 550 per cent, over the shipments to the United Kingdom in 1929. A large share of the improvement may be credited to
the increased trade-promotion work and publicity given to our timber products in the United
Kingdom. Since our sales to the United Kingdom in 1934 were only about 10 per cent, of their
lumber purchases, there is room for further increases, and it is hoped our quality of product
and methods of doing business will bring us a larger share of the trade in 1935.
The publicity being given to the suitability of our hemlock and cedar for many purposes
is building a valuable trade in these two species, and incidentally helps bring about a desirable
balance between the supply and cut of our three main Lower Coast species.
A strong delegation of lumbermen, accompanied by the Chief Forester, spent the last two
months of 1934 in South Africa, familiarizing the trade there with our lumber products, and
their report is awaited with anticipation.
Wateb-bobne Lumber Trade  (in F.B.M.).
Destination.
Australia	
New Zealand	
South America	
China	
Japan	
United Kingdom and Continent.
South Africa 	
India and Straits Settlements ....
United States and Atlantic Coast,
Philippine and Hawaiian Islands..
West Indies and Cuba	
South Sea Islands	
Mexico and Central America .....
Egypt	
•Belgium    	
•Denmark	
*Franee   	
•Germany	
♦Holland	
•Italy	
•Norway and Sweden	
Spain   	
Foreign, unclassified	
Totals.
29,843,132
8,531,322
10,304,032
16,902,137
219,361,557
67,076,872
13,625,781
411,577
384,107,908
56,681
8,356,571
5,496,319
333,060
1,149,573
41,493,476
8,559,208
2,449,494
43,323,398
192,411,505
69,903,655
15,889,002
243,807
351,526,590
14,347,317
5,508,978
623,766
4,744,180
50,494,046
£01,518,422
33,076,587
6,416,105
1,774,697
55,221,104
160,869,880
98,037,621
17,685,896
241,129
259,093,570
122,744
12,781,209
3,230,759
550,018
73,195,238
712,299,557
50,803,023
2,578,740
1,354,028
53,854,005
138,861,607
81,356,058
13,120,035
369,689
207,586,216
7,520,512
2,527,526
478,794
4,196,326
336,428
62,129
241,865
154,135
419,373
301,561
18,200
566,129,250
125,551,388
979,148
140,945
53,341,172
60,031,785
108,314,682
5,664,646
544,271
79,682,896
8,239,698
2,009,102
1,746,278
7M74
148^901
120,519
144,018
128,678
15,955
6,087
446,889,643
123,732,822
1,300,332
3,641,569
130,596,268
60,657,328
271,073,1193
18,213,254
916,536
29,628,026
11,830,467
2,476,670
1,669,075
6,140,501
' 1(X066
126,846
301,818
350,966
3,993
662,599,920
128,141,120
2,957,036
1,619,672
108,127,921
80,278,627
455,696,397
25,275.805
430,736
28,735,159
13,466,861
4,475,125
2,410,162
4,347,844
2,997,165
5,021
48,245
104,924
9,136
329,554
5,165
4,039
859,464,714
•Previously included with United Kingdom. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 15
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
The following tables give a review of the general conditions compared for several years
and show the increase in production:—
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the Province.
Product.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper	
Shingles	
Boxes     ....
Piles, poles, and mine-props	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the
wood-using industry   	
Laths and other miscellaneous prod
ucts	
Logs exported	
Pulp-wood exported	
Totals	
848,346,000
16,755,000
10,000,000
2,501,000
4,684,000
1,633,000
1,873,000
2,200,000
2,100,000
3,580,000
115,000
3,787,000
$50,140,000
14,400,000
8,300,000
2,437,000
5,500,000
1,734,000
2,116,000
2,100,000
2,400,000
4,124,000
50,000
93,301,000
$32,773,000
16,520,000
4,161,000
2,287,000
4,726,000
1,596,000
1,253,000
2,387,000
1,500,000
2,492,000
42,000
$16,738,000
13,608,000
2,721,000
1,315,000
2,453,000
1,405,000
1,014,000
1,350,000
1,500,000
2,370,000
43,000
$13,349,000
11,156,000
2,805,000
1,100,000
772,000
1,576,000
502,000
1,014,000
1,125,000
1,730,000
28,000
.,157,000
$15,457,000
10,852,000
4,500,000
1,313,000
450,000
1,850,000
250,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
2,228,000
55,000
$39,155,000
$20,377,000
12,373,000
4,375,000
1,632,000
487,000
1,335,000
485,000
1,320,000
1,100,000
1,931,000
46,000
$45,461,000
Pulp (in Tons).
Pulp.
Sulphite	
Sulphate
Ground wood
1928.
120,413
15,050
170,005
1929.
112,925
15,647
151,066
130,462
13,056
172,539
124,521
11,744
170,432
85,419
10,889
161,502
1933.
122,265
15,715
185,451
130,176
16,630
209,359
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
Newsprint.   .
Other papers
225,477
15,960
201,009
19,492
224,928
20,446
217,562
17,709
205,060
24,061
237,107
23,492
267,406
26,777 U 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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U 19
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
402
362
212
391
236
1
86
635
174
202
372
163
1,038
622
414
763
399
2,965
Kamloops	
1,960
758
1,748
2,055
Totals, 1934	
1,603
87
1,646
3,236
9,486
Totals, 1933	
1,237
67
1,425
2,729
8,121
Totals, 1932	
1,124
37
1,316
2,477
7,273
Totals, 1931   	
1,562
92
100
1,675
3,329
8,969
Totals, 1930	
1,932
1,862
3,894
8,859 -
Totals, 1920	
1,907
99
2,002
4,008
9,512
Totals, 1928   	
1,623
50
2,023
3,696
9,596
Trespasses.
Forest District.
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
Quantity
CUT.
1 I
rt   |
d bo
fc.S
Amount.
Feet B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
23
4
20
40
8
140
10
76
476
18
2,256,635
13,366
99,932
752,760
147,925
3,270,608
8,685
12,482
7,452
1,936
205
20
583
163
414
1,414
3,194
217
i
2
1
$3,065 28
188 64
Fort George   	
344 37
1,480 34
322 42
Totals, 1934	
101
70
95
84
720
30,555
1,385
4,825
6
$5,401 05
Totals, 1933	
155
368
1,578,108
41,689,
1,413
3,807
9,265
2
$2,727 81
767,896
35,484
2,140
14
$3,490 84
Totals, 1931    	
397
1,579,466
118,704
165,729
1,048
1,457
12,425
2
$5,633 68
Totals, 1930	
96
99
1,000
969,351
9,612
4
$7,534 01
Totals, 1929	
370
984,309
88,997
98,279
569
5,906
9
$5,431 07
Totals, 1928	
105
878
5,867,052
4,713
16,699
12
$17,787 10
Pke-emption Inspections, 1934.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Fort George  713
Kamloops : .  1,110
Prince Rupert ,U  243
"Vancouver ..-. ...........  397
Nelson : ,. '.,..; ...,....' : :  129
Total  2,592 U 20
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
Areas ceuised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Car
Stakes &
Posts
(No.).
311
304
213
315
188
45,306
47,189
35,610
51,948
45,338
151,781
104,074
18,170
57,908
24,331
356,264
251,045
1,533,500
127,280
723,964
220,840
2,856,619
1,620,112
16,532
2,346
9,172
42,546
10,414
80,101
6,500
456,390
283,596
427,379
61,901
1,235,766
5,266
4,500
64,000
1,331
223,391
73,766
Totals, 1833   	
942
169,831
1S6.418
202,421
95,233
549,976
174,861
Totals, 1932	
876
818
144,769
145,214
1,759,905
68,414
62,680
488,655
69,900
Totals, 1931	
297,825
2,629,054
664,413
142,400
943
1,061
197,065
214,874
526,261
10,345,822
13,043,603
26,431
17,629
731,640
1,305,110
2,056,604
020,100
500,420
185,740
1,111
233,889
754,095
9,623,599
43,266
447,630
Timber Sales awarded by Districts, 1934.
Forest District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
No. of Cords.
No. of Ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
295
265
208
338
218
46,955
43,951
34,299
51,994
42,770
122,368,000
69,567,000
12,008,000
42,605,000
14,081,000
477,104
1,109,900
125,475
795,811
213,250
1,500
11,000
30,400
171,800
102,710
28,228
2,622
6,941
23,563
6,548
67,902
5,760
305,935
243,358
263,141
76,776
894,970
432,613
423,676
606,160
494,202
$326,971 79
164,509 45
44,894 98
137,055 82
41,606 95
Totals, 1934...
1,324
948
836
219,969
190,794
134,868
148,523
250,629,000
2,721,540
316,910
$705,038 99
Totals, 1933...
145,696,000
181,470,000
2,490,244
295,905
161,600
173,300
76,777
$450,559 16
Totals, 1932...
1,746,616
2,272,082
64,154
41,032
$450,528 10
Totals, 1931.
842
866
974
1,033
217,474,000
199,485,000
$624,596 27
Totals, 1930...
162,043
9,963,164
398,150
374,065
880,000
19,997
$689,481 29
Totals, 1929...
216,222
194,929
691,973,000
9,356,837
23,197
1,505,951
$1,908,100 70
Totals, 1928...
525,250,760
6,537,002
48,728
1,996,457
$1,344,273 93
Average Sale Price by Species.
Saw-timber.
Douglas fir	
Cedar	
Spruce 	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine.
Tamarack	
Other species	
Total» ..
Figures for 1934.
Board-feet.
94,784,000
22,136,000
37,293,000
45,472,000
13,846,000
2,973,000
26,927,000
3,419,000
3,779,000
250,629,000
Price
per M.
$1 26
95
1 34
73
74
1 66
1 29
76
80
$1 11
FIGURES FOR 1933.
Board-feet.
51,374,000
20,361,000
20,747,000
22,695,000
7,742,000
4,816,000
11,450,000
2,127,000
4,384,000
145,696,000
Price
per M.
$1 16
1 17
I 15
73
73
1  94
1 19
68
69
$1 08
Figures for 1932.
Board-feet.
44,105,000
28,217,000
31,151,000
41,552,000
12,498,000
2,565,000
9,807,000
2,081,000
9,494,000
181,470,000
Price
Per M.
$1 19
1 15
1 63
76
77
1 43
1 25
84
94
$1 12
Figures for 1931.
Board-feet.
48,265,000
17,509,000
63,409,000
41,083,000
16.038,000
4,006,000
11,457,000
5,638,000
7,839,000
215,144,000
Price
PerM.
$1 39
1 50
1 24
84
89
1 78
1 47
1 68
1 00
$1 22
Note.—2,330,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1931 total FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 21
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1934.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
Vancouver	
101,290,587
53,160,990
9,412,331
24,784,434
11,247,207
177,086
821,887
160,585
406,660
128,252
1,694,470
22,453.89
1,030.26
1,434.50
5,952.98
5,337.61
5,227
220,839
133,336
86,692
57,273
5,040
Prince George	
26,259
63.013
Totals, 1934	
199,895,549
122,275,912
36,209.24
35,840.62
503,266
84,312
Totals, 1933	
1,337,497
1,583,955
212,824
258,284
662,120
164,586
Totals, 1932	
165,666,929
30,646.62
79,885
Totals, 1931	
177,172,765
227,019,61;
5,697,152
15,499.20
17,176.17
24,663.46
255,545
Totals, 1930	
11,960.055
1,341,426
388,749
Totals, 1929	
266,016,942
203,20S,331
7,966,223
1,554,870
1,714,709
332,038
Totals, 1928	
7,672,294
24,389.35
376,253
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province.
Operating.
Shut
Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
d
fc
144
37
31
76
61
hi
'3
fi $
a p^«
'|='a
6,306
476
440
887
1,043
9,152
8,715
7,641
d
fc
69
5
2
6
82
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
Shingles, M.
d
fc
'o
r)J a.
£ a
s >/*]
•-g5j«
scs
1,629
410
309
241
610
2,999
3,632
4,621
4,109
3,204
2,200
2,459
d
fc
7
2
i
3
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
Shingles, M.
7,011
60
ioo
140
39
20
16
42
12
768
210
"so
200
Totals, 1934	
349
7,311
129
13
1,228
Totals, 1933	
295
78
7,325
134
22
1,652
Totals, 1932	
293
45
6,813
139
13
1,470
Totals, 1931	
334
10,167
11,020
46
7,470
158
19
1,871
Totals, 1930	
301
43
7,164
141
17
1,695
Totals, 1929	
354
11,896
11,919
53
56
7,881
8,280
95
15
1,726
Totals, 1928	
314
120
15
2,710
Export of Logs.    (In E.B.M.)
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir	
6,241,867
5,208,059
39,229
72,597,360
15,238,289
1,048,188
947,899
28,250,329
12,988,593
436,365
1,740,864
106,089,556
33,434,941
Spruce	
1,523,782
2,688,763
23,363,093
2,467,045
442,382
1,651,662
1,074,527
23,363,093
2,467,045
442,382   '
1,651,662
1.074,527
Totals, 1934   	
10,489,155
16,941,207
89,831,736
43,416,151
59,215,094
28,998,709
172,735,751
119,089,673
13,694,960
208,940,834
Totals, 1932   	
18,572,020
87,223,114
44,380,166
15,589,383
165,764,683
Totals, 1931	
12,886,187
11,571,481
106,331,594
51,909,961
49,048,420
220,176,162
Totals, 1930	
86,502,990
40,147,841
60,002,711
47,994,423
31,696,715
172,919,027
Totals, 1929	
13,015,146
20,563,249
133,997,595
29,978,125
236,993,577
Totals, 1928   	
106,084,161
37,305,398
211,947,231 U 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where .marketed.
Forest District.
United States.
Canada.
Orient.
Vancouver—
Poles and piling. lineal ft
Cordwood ... cords
Pulp-wood cords
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling lineal ft.
Fence-posts No.
Fort George—
1,950,892
12
10,154
893,406
13.316
246,208
97,220
32
100
150,201
386,485
4S
1U
75,000
1,152,200
3,084
5,342
19 >,78l
$156,071
48
45,694
64,103
1,065
103,933
7,777
256
,600
66,062
46,378
528
969
32,250
115,220
24,672
42,736
99,890
1,479,736
10,154
674,745
26,485
346,630
990,570
858
38,826
218,661
13,316
246,208
70,735
32
100
150,201
39,855
48
114
75,000
161,630
3,084
4,484
160,955
471,156
12
Mine-props cords
Railwaj'-ties No.
Kamloops—
Mine-props cords
Ne'son—
Fence-posts  . cords
Railway-ties No.
Total value, 1934 	
$808,252
                   $696,393
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Tears 1932, 1933, and 1934.
1932. 1933.
Old Crown grants     303 227
Crown grants;, 1887-1906  ,       66 92
Crown grants, 1906-1914        62 76
Section 53a, " Forest Act "     163 206
Stumpage reservations        40 55
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act "      18 9
Dominion lands         1 1
Permit berths         7 2
Timber berths       26 15
Indian reserves       11 5
Timber-sales        836 946
Hand-loggers        14 26
Special marks   1
Rights-of-way    1
Pulp leases   	
Pulp licences          2 4
Totals    1,549 1,666
Transfers and changes of marks      183 139
Hand-logger Licences.
Number issued       81 83
1934.
238
74
96
303
61
9
1
18
13
1,324
13
1
3
2,154
204
52 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 23
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
Month.
Number of Tracings made.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Blue-prints
from
Reference
Maps.
January	
February	
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September	
October	
November	
December	
Totals
37
32
17
14
17
13
12
12
27
31
24
21
80
89
103
91
77
70
47
84
39
51
93
86
22
25
29
20
32
21
23
33
25
24
13
20
17
17
24
40
34
24
23
29
7
21
46
46
257
919
287
328
156
163
173
165
160
137
105
158
98
127
176
173
1,791
4
4
19
3
51
Crown-granted Timber Lands.
Area of Private Average
Timber Lands Value
(Acres). per Acre.
1919  ,  883,491 9.48
1920   867,921 11.62
1921    845,111 10.33
1922    887,980 11.99
1923   883,344 11.62
1924   654,668 15.22
1925    654,016 40.61
1926   688,372 39.77
1927   690,438 39.01
1928    671,131 38.62
1929    644,011 38.41
1930   629,156 44.74
1931    602,086 43.77
1934  557,481 37.25
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table :—■
Asssessment District.
Acreage,
1934.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1931.
Average
Value
per Acre.
Change in
Value
per Acre
since 1931.
76,644
105,719
65,768
34,375
328
27,190
9,239
75,796
6,271
12,166
19,731
37,345
58,944
1,492
26,473
— 9,836
— 14,389
— 3,550
— 2,235
*
— 6,178
— 434
— 3,442
— 1,178
— 1,294
— 110
+      144
— 1,501
— 389
— 213
63.59
42.56
66.25
9.41
14.99
7.91
5.84
49.95
8.05
19.80
17.93
14.03
8.34
102.74
36.52
—  4.14
— 11.27
— 11.77
Fort Steele         	
—  0.61
*
-  1.65
-   1.62
—  7.27
—   1.44
4-  0.16
-  4.03
-  1.21
—  2.48
+  7.52
—   5.88
Totals    	
557,481
— 44,605
37.25
-   6.52
* No change. IJ 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST FINANCE.
The increase in forest revenue over that of the previous year amounted to nearly half
a million dollars. The reinstatement of licences due to the expiry of the moratorium was
responsible for nearly half of this increase. At the same time, the number reinstated was
below expectations. There were approximately 3,100 timber licences in good standing at the
end of 1934, as compared with about 2,400 a year previous. It may be presumed that some
licence-holders expected further relief in the matter of payments; others either were unable
to pay or had become dissatisfied with their investment. The elimination of the 25-per-cent.
reduction in rentals' on April 1st, 1934, effective for the preceding year, was also partly
responsible for this improvement in rental payments.
The table below shows a decided improvement in royalty and stumpage payments. The
elimination of the 15-per-cent. reduction in royalty on April 1st, 1934, and the 17-per-cent.
increase in timber scaled during the year were the two factors responsible for this improvement.
FOREST REVENUE.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Timber-lease penalty fees	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)..
Trespass penalties	
Scalers' examination fees.	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Timber-berth rentals and bonus 	
Interest on timber-berth rentals and
bonus    	
Transfer fees	
Royalty interest	
Grazing fees and interest	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1934.
$548,816 73
1,645 00
69,302 21
1,300 00
63,212 79
1,565 97
21,231 83
289,709 62
5,706 12
771 30
1,155,862 37
334 71
116 05
5,924 39
25 00
123 80
260 50
2,745 57
31,631 46
1,065 42
199 40
45 06
$2,201,645 30
11,411 56
308,283 15
2,521,340 01
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1933.
$331,948 95
480 00
16,004 43
1,975 00
57,859 54
1,265 18
14,061 93
244,225 17
3,650 69
661 25
963,511 71
225 73
28 80
3,399 67
20 00
350 47
1,299 13
3,051 42
30,281 53
576 41
28 37
49 90
$1,674,855 28
11,759 13
320,150 96
$2,006,765 37
12 Months to
Dec.31st,1932.
$478,458 93
930 00
11,687 62
2,000 00
70,025 38
848 88
12,009 29
279,034 76
3,359 20
569 30
1,046,070 65
374 42
20 30
2,535 16
40 00
305 02
1,057 39
4,265 74
33,601 49
597 54
270 00
489 34
$1,948,550 41
13,409 37
368,699 00
$2,330,658 78
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1931.
$721,931 98
1,330 00
20,632 72
950 00
78,202 93
944 24
11,675 17
454,391 36
5,722 83
771 55
1,218,363 02
911 07
24 94
3,686 89
175 00
171 23
1,367 72
4,495 07
33,295 42
688 97
63 84
1,136 04
$2,560,931 99
16,411 46
397,523 73
$2,973,867 18
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1930.
$854,660 87
2,180 00
27.861 53
1,675 00
72,117 52
607 44
35,036 94
518,309 48
7,665 12
1,256 69
1,456,330 42
1,204 07
150 01
5,825 68
105 00
591 70
1,406 61
4,137 56
$2,990,820 67
12,261 88
422,274 04
$3,425,346 59
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1929.
$931,545 72
1,775 00
23,245 73
1,300 00
79,873 89
901 43
30,162 64
634,048 95
12,844 92
1,951 28
1,688,803 67
1,407 92
191 74
9,161 16
320 00
1,711 29
3,152 88
2,754 36
$3,425,152 58
10,918 49
375,923 32
$3,811,994 39
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1934.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Penalty.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest
District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver ....
Prince Rupert.
F'ort George ...
Kamloops	
Nelson	
$983,917 09
110,115 87
34,982 20
51,494 27
57,459 27
$1,237,963 70
$2,514 09
202 14
350 82
2,562 64
1,762 69
$7,382 38
$141 00
12 00
46 10
24 60
28 00
$i51  70
$36 85
3 00
56 96
10 55
$106 36
$112 94
$154 72
28 42
75
$17,015 62
420 95
$91,959 95
7,603 71
$131,463 45
105,834 93
26,782 04
42,283 88
18,756 12
$1,227,202 77
224,218 02
61,164 16
96,421 35
78,003 38
Totals
$183 89
$17,436 57
$13,670 34
$99,563 66
$324,116 42
$219,497 38
$1,687,009 68
Totals, 1933
$918,663 03
$2,866 76
$197 93
$368 73
$200 66
$225 73
$82,212 92
$1,237,321  96
Totals, 1932
$1,046,588 92
$3,983 03
$4,950 55
$6,799 66
$56 66
$13,368 44
$16,444 18
$21,644 46
$22,127 43
$71,596 21 | $307,371 82
$82,078 03 j $425,978 06
$1,143,559 54
Totals, 1931
$1,140,282 78
$994 87
$42 20
$1,092 07
$1,672,862 74
Totals, 1930
$1,460,367 16
$1,601 76
$140 57
$175 83
$1,266 33
$1,215 22
$106,553 34
$118,481 18
$123,169 81
$638,023 79
$2,236,396 07
Totals, 1929
$1,851,536 62
$1,794,819 93
$4,191 84
$1,555 56
$711,213 82
$2,710,496 50
Totals, 1928
$20,867 17
$2,103 57
$156 68
$1,194 89
$20,277 64
$635,292 44
$2,597,882 03 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 25
FOREST EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1933-34.
Forest District.
Vancouver
Prince Rupert.
Fort George ...
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Victoria	
Totals.
Salaries.
$68,123 13
24,371 40
21,682 26
46,027 32
39,599 26
76,704 25
$276,507 61
Temporary
Assistance.
$187 20
$187 20
Expenses.
$29,811 25
9,657 70
6,625 02
12,714 53
11,628 39
8,174 08
S78,910 97
$97,934 38
31,029 10
28,307 27
58,741 85
51,414 85
85,178 33
Lumber-trade extension ......
Canadian Forestry Association .
Incidentals and contingencies.
Grazing range improvements...
$355,605 78
19,000 00
2,000 00
558 16
5,004 43
Grand total       $382,168 37
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1933 (deficit)     $46,634.23
Expenditure, fiscal year 1933-34       92,428.15
$139,062.38
Charges, fiscal year 1933-34      105,682.61
Balance, March 31st, 1934 (deficit)     $33,379.77
Balance, April 1st, 1934 (deficit)     $33,379.77
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1934       75,778.53
$109,158.30
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1934       97,118.37
Balance, December 31st, 1934 (deficit)     $12,039.93
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1933	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1933 (under subsection
(2), section 30a)  	
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30a 	
Expenditure, fiscal year 1933-34 	
Balance (credit), March 31st, 1934
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1934 	
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1934 (under subsection
(2), section 30a) * -	
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30a	
$31,448.66
38,142.50
118.14'
$69,709.30
25,755.28
$43,954.02
$43,954.02
Expenditure, 9 months to December 31st, 1934 .
Balance (credit), December 31st, 1934	
$43,954.02
28,656.75
$15,297.27 U 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as at December
31st, 1934:—
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1933   $345,813.82
Expenditure, fiscal year 1933-34          Nil
$345,813.82
Collections, fiscal year 1933-34       $5,594.98
Less refunded   75.48
$5,519.50
Special levy   718.53
Refunds of expenditure          2,579.60
 8,817.63
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1934   $336,996.19
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1934  $336,996.19
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1934   $269,986.72
Less refunded          6,005.63
    263,981.09
$600,977.28
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1934  :.    $87,805.25
Less refunded   69.18
$87,796.07
Special levy   815.27
Government contribution      225,000.00
    313,611.34
Balance (deficit), December 31st, 1934   $287,365.94
Estimated and Known Costs of Forest Protection to other Agencies, 1934.
Expenditures foe.
Forest District.
Tools and
Equipment.
Improvements.
Patrol.
Fire-fighting.
Total.
$24,609.00
1,040.00
$37,074.00
813.00
$18,212.00
381.00
136.00
5,028.00
40,280.00
$78,895.00
2,234.00
136.00
2,525.00
1,400.00
700.00
625.00
8,253.00
>   $255.00
42,560.00
Totals	
$29,574.00
$255.00
$39,212.00
$64,037.00
$133,078.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 27
" BRITISH COLUMBIA LOAN ACT, 1932."
(Section 6a—Unemployment Relief.)    Expenditure for Fire-fighting,
Fiscal Year 1933-34.
Forest District.
Patrols
and Fire
Prevention.
$0,872.06
3,151.44
3,570.40
8,245.52
8,947.97
122.84
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert..
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Victoria	
Totals...
$1,305.69
10.82
137.90
55.85
242.15
$30,910.23
$1,752.41
$8,276.48
103.00
3,648.09
5,322.07
21,902.77
$432.27
13.48
130.41
96.89
$16,886.50
3,278.74
7,486.80
13,720.53
31,092.89
122.84
$39,252.41
$673.05
$72,588.10
Patrols, etc  $30,910.23
Tools and equipment   1,752.41
Fires   39,252.41
Improvements   673.05
Total   $72,588.10
FINAL STATEMENT.
" British Columbia Loan Act, 1932."
(Section 6a—Unemployment Relief.)
Amount allotted to Forest Branch   $100,000.00
Expenditure, 1932      $17,028.73
Expenditure, 1933        72,588.10
Expenditure, 1934        10,383.08
Credit balance
$99,999.91
.09
$100,000.00 $100,000.00
FOREST PROTECTION.
Since the organization of the Forest Branch in 1912 the cost of forest protection in British
Columbia has been defrayed from the Forest Protection Fund, which is made up in part by the
proceeds of a Forest Protection Tax on certain privately controlled timber lands and in part
by a contribution from the Government. When a deficit has developed, the overexpenditure
has been taken care of by a special levy on both timber-holders and the Government.
The rates at which the payments to the Fund have been made are outlined in the following
table :—
TJ*Per Government
Tear- gggfa Contribution.
1912  1 Equal sum
1913-19  1% Equal sum
1920  2 Equal sum
1921-29  2% $300,000
1922 * * S.L. 3y2 S-L. 338,000
1925  S.L. 2% S.L. 300,000
1926  S.L. 2i/i S.L. 275,000
1929...  S.L. 3 S.L. 360,000
1930  4 480,000
1932  Nil 100,000
1933...-.  Nil Nil
1934  2% $300,000
* Special levy. U 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
A large portion of the timber land in British Columbia has been alienated under a form of
licence to cut. These areas revert to the Crown after being cut or burned. Many others have
reverted, either through the inability of the licensees to pay the annual carrying charges or
through their dissatisfaction with their investment. The Forest Protection Tax is consequently
a declining source of income, as is shown below.
No. of Timber Acres of other
Year. Licences in Land paying Forest
Good Standing. Protection Tax.
1913  14,202 Record not available.
1926  8,242 Record not available.
1927  7,924 Record not available.
1928  7,749 Record not available.
1929  7,144 Record not available.
1930  6,277 Record not available.
1931  4,897                         1,748,591
1932  3,616                   No tax levied.
1933 :  2,413                   No tax levied.
1934  3,117*                        2,364,148
* Includes licences being reinstated under the funding arrangement, but on which payments have not
yet been completed.
The increase in licences in 1934 is the result of relief legislation permitting the reinstatement of expired licences up to June 30th, 1934, and the increase under " other lands " is the
result of the inclusion for the first time of tax lands in the Railway Belt. These increases are
a temporary check on the downward tendency.
The average annual income of the Protection Fund for the ten years 1922 to 1931, inclusive,
to the nearest thousand dollars was:—
From Tax   $260,000
From Government      475,000
Total  $735,000
During 1932 and 1933 the Fund was suspended and $100,000 of relief funds was made
available for protection purposes.
The years 1932 and 1933 were, fortunately, the most favourable from a protection standpoint
that have been experienced since the organization of the Forest Service in 1912, but the losses
were out of proportion, due to lack of control measures. This was discussed briefly in the
Annual Report of 1933.
Success in forest protection depends to a material extent on adequate organization, stocks
of tools and equipment, and on improvements.
In 1931 the temporary staff had been developed to a high standard of efficiency, and privately
controlled protection resources, such as equipment, transportation, and man-power, had been
effectively organized to supplement the Forest Service. Much of the efficiency of the temporary
staff has been lost through reduction of and turnover in personnel, and we have largely lost
the extra-Forest-Service organization. This efficiency and co-operation can be regained only by
a slow process of rebuilding. At the same time tools, equipment, and improvements have
deteriorated badly. .
In 1934 the Protection Fund was renewed.    The sums accruing to the Fund were:—
From the Tax about  $100,000
From the Government  ,     300,000
Approximate total   $400,000
This sum did not permit any programme of renewing improvements except to open about
half the lookouts. The summer staff numbered 154, as against 259 in 1931. A limited sum was
spent on tools and equipment, renewing the most urgently required items. Rigid economy was
practised in fire-fighting. Total costs for the season, including purchases of equipment which
were postponed until after the fire season and paid for from savings, were confined to a sum
less than the total income for the year. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 29
The season started hot and dry but without any unusual fire occurrence. Really dangerous
conditions developed only in the Nelson District, where the situation was acute from late July
to September 10th. The Kamloops District experienced moderately severe conditions from late
August to September 7th. The season was more than usually favourable on the Coast and in
the Central and Northern Interior. As a whole, it was perhaps twice as bad as in 1932 and
1933, and half as severe as 1931.
The notable features of the protecti'on-year were the renewal of the Protection Fund and
the policy of strict economy in fire-fighting, and the factor of protection of private property,
which comes more and more to the fore as available funds shrink.
The history of the Fund has been outlined briefly. For adequate protection its present
proportions must be largely increased. How the money is to be raised, and from what sources
and in what proportions, are questions of immediately pressing importance.
Our policy of extreme economy in fire-fighting was dictated by circumstances and was the
cause of much criticism. The public got the impression that fieldmen were not permitted to
attack any fire without permission from a senior officer, which was not correct. The essence
of good fire-fighting is quick action when a fire is small, and all fieldmen were required to attack
all fires at once if found when small, without referring to any other officer, and were subject to
reprimand if they did not do so. Larger fires involving heavy expense to fight were considered
carefully before expenditures were made. Most of these could be fought only at strategic points
to protect specific values. Losses for the year were consequently high and, in common with the
past two years, though to a lesser extent, out of proportion with the severity of the season.
It has always been necessary to spend considerable sums for the protection of private
property. The equity of doing so from a fund established specifically for forest protection and
contributed in part by the timber-owners is questionable. Such expenditures become a more
important consideration as the Fund shrinks. There is a real protection service rendered to all
kinds of property, part of it a direct service where no forest values are involved. The time has
come when some provision should be made for the cost incurred on this score.
There is a widespread impression that fires of incendiary origin are a large factor in the
forest-protection problem and that the payment of wages for fire-fighting accomplishes little more
than to incite additional incendiarism. This opinion is not borne out by the facts as disclosed
by records over a period of years. Incendiary fires do occur, but not in sufficient numbers to
make them of serious importance or to greatly affect general fire-fighting policy. Over a period
of ten years ending 1934, 7 per cent, of our fires have been ascribed to incendiarism. Many of
these definitely were not incendiary. Recently the class of fires tabulated under this heading
has been more exactly defined, and the percentage will be less and more accurately indicate
the menace of incendiarism. There were more incendiary fires in 1932 and 1933, when there
was practically no fire-fighting done, than in 1934 when fires were again actively fought. The
comparative figures are:—
Year.
Total Fire
Occurrence.
No. of
Incendiary
Fires.
Per Cent,
of Total.
1932             .          	
1,266
1.082
1,590
127
65
65
10
1933           	
6
1934                        	
4
The usual detailed statistics of the fire season are given in the tables on the following
pages. U 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1934.
Forest District.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
September.
October.
Total.
14
23
11
22
25
14
14
10
22
46
72
16
7
57
85
«3
44
12
125
193
106
28
18
204
187
52
14
7
46
40
i3
321
139
65
476
589
Totals	
95
106
6.67
237
437
543
169
13
1,590
5.08
14.90
27.48
34.15
10.00
0.S2
100.00
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1934.
Forest District.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert..
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals..,
Per cent
a
. o
cS
^
gj
rj
!§
.5 ik
o
s
32
5
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ri
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a
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o
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r
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10
125
2
37
27
30
321
4ft
35
2
18
31
3
4
1
139
7
28
1
2
19
1
4
3
65
91
81
36
106
28
4
1
12
113
4
476
170
HI
64
164
24
3
22
41
589
320
312
103
415
117
10
41
65
188
19
1,690
20.13
19.62
6.48
26.10
7.36
0.62
2.58
4.09
11.83
1.19
100 00
20.19
8.74
4.09
29.94
37.04
100.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 31
CO
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P'rA U 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fires, 1934, classified by Size asd Damage.
Forest District.
Vancouver   	
Prince Rupert	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals	
Per cent....
Totals, 1933
Per cent....
Totals, 1932
Percent....
Total Fires.
321
139
66
476
1,590
100.0
1,082
100.0
1,266
100.0
c a
20.19
8.74
4.08
29.94
37.06
100.00
Under \ Acre.
148
66
29
119
665
41.82
606
39.97
g c
46.10
47.48
44.61
26.00
51.44
22.26
9.92
4.36
17.90
45.56
100.00
J Acre to 10 Acres.
116
51
22
202
174
565
36.54
414
38.26
436
34.44
o »
c a
P a,
it
36.14
36.69
33.85
42.44
29.54
lO
<u.0
20.53
9.03
3.89
35.75
30.80
100.00
100.00
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
d
•A
ii
g C
Dm
67
22
14
166
112
17.76
15.83
21.54
32.56
19.02
360
22.64
258
23.85
324
25.59
So
0   0
QJ —
rhrh
15.84
6.11
3.88
43.06
31.11
100.00
100.00
Damage.
303
133
62
414
530
1,442
957
88.46
1,123
88.70
77
7.11
91
7.19
11
1
16
32
48
4.43
62
4.11
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1934.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent.
of
Total.
$34,529
20
162
3,443
$2,435
1,400
100
46
19,700
$28,700
' 5J250
$490
798
3,703
4,102
$66,154
2,218
100
3,910
32,495
63.08
2.11
0.09
3.73
30.99
$38,164
$23,680
$33,950
$9,093
$104,877
100.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 33
H
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ft
o a oi o
» 9 & 1
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Oj < J ©
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P a
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Per
Cent.
1.30
0.21
0.00
9.66
88.83
o
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
8
10,979
1,882
641
85,860
789,245
o
CO
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JO
308,964
100.00
514,664
100.00
s
Per
Cent.
0.21
0.03
0.03
14.52
85.21
p
Q
O
O
o
o
o
o
cs
o
o
M. Feet
B.M.
1,700
301
280
118,644
096,200
817,125
100.00
123,815
100.00
269,317
100.00
H
Per
Cent.
1.74
0.99
0.66
21.62
74.99
O
O
©
©
o
o
o
o
o
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8
Acres.
11,065
6,348
4,217
138,097
478,963
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5,376
3,516
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1,700
301
280
118,644
696,200
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O 9J
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O  OJ U 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1934.
Lightning 	
Campers	
Railways operating	
Smokers   	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)...
Road, power, telephone, and telegraph
Industrial operations	
Incendiarism 	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals	
320
312
103
415
117
10
41
65
188
19
1,590
Per Cent.
20.13
19.62
6.48
26.10
7 38
0.62
2.58
4.09
11.83
1.19
851,049
26,706
3,021
28,033
1,968
9
1,673
9,011
21,620
1,669
$144,659
Per Cent.
35.29
18.46
2.09
19.38
1.36
1.09
6.23
14.95
1.16
100.00
Damage.
$429,444
234,992
10,678
150,428
7,274
367
48,300
64,765
41,356
5,981
$993,484
43.23
23.66
1.07
15.14
0.74
4
86
6
53
4
16
0
61
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for Last Ten Tears.
Causes.
Lightning-	
Campers	
Railways operating	
Railways under construction	
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)...
Road, power, telephone, and telegraph.
Industrial operations	
Incendiarism	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals..
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
320
285
336
475
892
638
322
512
557
312
234
230
470
344
358
274
182
351
103
77
156
295
149
267
9
387
282
186
376
415
197
197
436
294 ■
294
1.63
'238
117
77
108
243
171
167
149
78
157
10
7
18
44
29
22
13
7
14
41
32
17
67
39
65
80
50
104
65
65
127
365
262
139
103
36
68
188
90
64
96
68
100
84
52
126
19
18
13
48
2,518
23
36
41
19
156
1,690
1,082
1,266
2,271
2,188
1,642
1,284
2,147
1925.
632
426
337
202
14
137
103
150
234
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in the Last Ten Years.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
Total number of fires	
Area burned (acres)	
Standing timber destroyed
or damaged (M. ft. B.M.).
Amount salvable
(M. ft.B.M.)	
Damage to forests	
Damage to other forms of
1,590
638,690
817,125
179,358
$888,607
$104,877
1,082
301,486
123,815
21,926
8308,964
$146,768
1,266
421,297
269,317
16,057
$514,664
$57,030
2,518
994,979
210,173
41,808
$1,477,181
$326,305
2,271
602,676
390,978
25,216
$1,408,18?
$337,909
2,188
909,620
272,024
107,049
$941,738
$226,919
1,642
106,977
24,069
9,060
$103,001
$95,534
1,284
101,944
86,176
44,834
$141,102
$74,606
2,147
659,871
398,694
109,385
$930,373
$749,891
2,521
1,023,789
1,024,508
350,770
$2,121,672
$625,518
Total damage	
$993,484
$455,722
$571,694
$1,803,486
$1,746,092
$1,168,657
$198,635
$215,708
$1,680,264
$2,747,190
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1934.
G
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Forest District.
No.
Amount.
a
,3
%
ta
03
ri
2
Ua-.
1
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1
ax
Uh
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GO'S
S75 00
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Fort George	
4
1
3
56 66
i
i
15
8
i
5
i
4
180 00
2
4
5
21
10
2
3
5
i
8
$305 00
3
4
6
Totals, 1933	
3
2
1
1
$25 00
1
1 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934.
U 35
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Acres.
2,541
21
45
64
31
2,702
10.40
1,218
4.59
■panssi s^iuuaj
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Oi IM
o as U 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
Vancouver.
Equipment—
Two Chevrolet cars   $1,779.00
Two Dodge cars   1,940.00
Three Ford cars   2,540.00
One marine engine   1,673.00
One dinghy  75.00
Miscellaneous tools   44.00
$8,051.00
Improvement Maintenance—   *
Campbell River Ranger Station   $558.00
Nanaimo Ranger Station   172.00
Squamish Ranger Station   185.00
Nodales Ranger Station   61.00
Little Mountain Lookout   285.00
Pocahontas Lookout   38.00
Mount Benson Lookout  94.00
Mount Bruce Lookout  44.00
Campbell Lake Lookout   54.00
Cowichan Lake Lookout  49.00
Comox Lookout  22.00
Bainbridge Lookout  78.00
Miscellaneous     36.00
$1,676.00
Prince Rupert.
Equipment—
Miscellaneous tools, etc  $96.00
Improvement Maintenance—
Babine Telephone-line   $26.00
Thornhill Mountain Lookout   92.00
Miscellaneous     8.00
$126.00
Fort George.
Equipment—
One Ford car   $785.00
One Chevrolet car   761.00
Miscellaneous tools   12.00
$1,558.00
Improvements—
Churchill Lookout       $591.00
Improvement Maintenance—
Fort St. James Ranger Station, etc  $265.00
Red Mountain Ranger Station   35.00
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout  31.00
Fort Fraser Garage, etc  22.00
Fort Fraser Lookout Telephone-line   39.00
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   146.00
Pilot Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   183.00
Carried foncard  $721.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934. U 37
Fort George—Continued.
Brought forward   $721.00
Improvement Maintenance—Continued.
Longworth Mountain Lookout Telephone-line   41.00
Fort Fraser Ranger Station   66.00
Bowron Lake Boat-house  64.00
Miscellaneous     78.00
$970.00
Equipment- Kamloops.
Five Chevrolet cars   $3,252.00
One Ford car   732.00
One Plymouth car   848.00
Miscellaneous tools, etc  280.00
$5,112.00
Improvement Maintenance—
B.X. Mountain Telephone-line  $159.00
Little White Mountain Telephone-line   69.00
Sugar Mountain Lookout   25.00
Sugar Mountain Trails .:.  339.00
Snow Mountain Telephone-line  20.00
Sugar Mountain Telephone-line   326.00
Williams Lake House   26.00
Alexis Creek Ranger Station   122.00
Miscellaneous    !  134.00
$1,220.00
„    . , Nelson.
Equipment—
One Plymouth car   $944.00
Seven Ford cars  ..l  5,632.00
One boat   155.00
Fire-fighting hose, etc  527.00
Miscellaneous tools, etc  217.00
$7,475.00
Improvement Maintenance—
Miscellaneous Trails   $389.00
Swansea Mountain Telephone-line  38.00
Swansea Mountain Lookout   25.00
Casey Mountain Telephone-line  42.00
Gold Creek Telephone-line   44.00
Elk Valley Telephone-line   137.00
Flathead Telephone-line   103.00
Moyie Mountain Telephone-line   30.00
Duncan River Telephone-line   237.00
Duncan River Cable Crossing   62.00
Johnson's Landing-Lardeau Telephone-line    73.00
Beaver Mountain Telephone-line   97.00
Elise Mountain Telephone-line   72.00
Saddle Mountain Telephone-line  87.00
Whatshan Lake Telephone-line   30.00
Miscellaneous     41.00
$1,508.00 U 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
GRAZING.
An improvement was noted this year both in the condition of the range lands and in the
prices obtained by the rancher for his beef, lambs, and wool. The grades of cattle shipped for
slaughter likewise improved.
During the year a notable step has been taken toward a proper organization of research-
work. As a result of a meeting held in Kamloops in 1933, the Dominion Range Experiment
Station at Manyberries, Alberta, undertook certain research projects on the range near Kamloops,
which it is hoped will lead to a permanent research station in this locality. Forage-plants
collected by departmental officers in 1933 and forwarded to Ottawa through the Dominion Range
Experiment Station were analysed and results of same received. A further determination of
forage values will be made by analysis; these, in conjunction with other studies, will help
promote proper range-management.
The occurrence of foot-rot in many bands of sheep has made it necessary to adopt control
methods. In all cases the co-operation of the Veterinary Inspector of the Department of
Agriculture has been secured. On his advice permits have been refused until the disease was
cleaned up and, in the case of the Hunter's Range, actual closure for two years has been in
force.
The work of examining and reporting on the extent and condition of Crown ranges in the
various parts of the Interior was continued and, although the heavy fire season and shortage
of staff interrupted the programme as originally planned, 157,000 acres were mapped.
Problems constantly arise requiring a close knowledge of range-types, capacities, conditions,
and control of live stock, and it is the intention of the Department to continue the reconnaissance
programme until all important range areas are covered. Many ranchers have not yet sufficient
knowledge of the above-mentioned subjects.
A forward step in the development of wild-hay lands into grain-bearing areas is now being
undertaken by a private company in the reclamation of the Creston Flats. During the last
fifteen years the Government sold approximately 20,000 tons of wild hay from this area.
Range and Market Conditions.
Early snow that ran into the ground before freeze-up and plentiful rain in the fall of 1933,
coupled with well-distributed rains during'the early part of 1934, resulted in excellent conditions
on all the lower ranges. The growth of forage was early and good, while water-holes on all
parts of the range were filled. Conditions in the Kootenays were an exception to the foregoing
on account of the lack of rainfall in the last half of the grazing season and the resultant drying-
out of the ranges. On many of the high sheep-ranges conditions were not satisfactory. The
spring opened very early and was followed by late heavy frosts and cold weather. On the high,
open alpine meadows the vegetation was frozen back and growth seriously retarded. This
condition held through the season and resulted in shortage of summer sheep-range.
The improvement in the price received for all products by the stockmen, combined with a
pick-up in general business conditions, warrants a more cheerful outlook on the future by the
industry.
Early in the season the top prices for beef were around 4% cents per pound, and, while as
customary the prices received in the autumn were lower, the average for the season, compared
with 1933, was probably % cent per pound higher. Lamb prices ranged from an average of
possibly dy2 cents early in the season to 4% cents in the autumn. Wool prices; ranged from
over 16 cents to 6 or 7 cents per pound. The trend of prices indicated the advantage to the
stockman of getting his products on the market early in the season.
Meetings were again held by departmental officials with stockmen throughout the Province
to discuss various range problems with them and to promote co-operation with the Department.
Live Stock on Crown Ranges.
The number of live stock grazing under permit on Crown range in 1934, as compared with
1933, was as follows:—■ _ ..,      . _.
Cattle and Horses. Sheep.
1933     58,770 34,329
1934     69,960 36,569 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1934. U 39
Range Improvement and Wild Horses.
Expenditures from the Range Improvement Fund during the present fiscal year to the end
of December, 1934, amounted to $1,017.27. Further disbursements will be made as inspection
reports are received for work already done. The construction and maintenance of these improvements this year cover seven mud-holes, six stock-trails, nine drift-fences, five water-developments,
two holding-grounds, and five bridges.
The work of clearing the ranges of wild horses is being continued with beneficial results.
Shooting is now taking place on the northern areas, and different live-stock associations in the
Southern Interior are freeing their range units of scattered, small bands of wild horses by
" round-up."
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles P. Banfield; Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1935.
1,525-135-2438 

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