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printed by
authority of the legislative assembly.
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1935.  To His Honour J. W. Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1934.
K. C. MacDonald,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 11th, 1935.  OFFICERS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
Honourable Dr. K. C. MacDonald, Minister.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A., Deputy Minister.
J. A. Grant, Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Thornborrow, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
C. P. L. Pearson, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
A. H. Shotbolt, Exhibition Specialist, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Senior Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., in Charge of Soil Survey, Kelowna, B.C.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. W. White, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E, C. Hunt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
C. B. Twigq, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Creston, B.C.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm, B.C.
John Tait, District Field Inspector, Summerland, B.C.
G. L. Foulkes, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
V. Tonks, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Vernon, B.C.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Foster, M.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Saanichton, V.I.
Max Ruhmann, B.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist, New Westminster, B.C.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Walter Sandall, Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Instructor, Kelowna, B.C.
F. Overland, Dairy Instructor, Vancouver, B.C.
G. H. Thornberry, Assistant (Milk Records), Victoria, B.C.
Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Dr. M. Sparrow, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. J. D. Macdonald, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
Dr. D. II. McKay, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. H. Davey, Secretary and Inspector, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
George Pilmer, Brand Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
John Cahilty, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
George W. Challenger, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
R. G. Sutton, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
H. S. French, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
G. 'A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
Don Sutherland, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
James Travis, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C. Map of British Columbia, showing principal
watercourses and transportation lines serving
the various agricultural areas referred to
in the accompanying
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.
Honourable Dr. K. C MacDonald,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Report of the Department of Agriculture
for the year ended December 31st, 1934.
At the first session of the Eighteenth Legislature minor amendments were introduced to
several Statutes concerning agriculture. The " Agricultural Act" was amended to bring its
provisions in line with the Federal " Destructive Insect and Pest Act" ; the " Stock-brands
Act" to provide that Provincial constables are ex officio Inspectors of Brands; and the " Horse-
breeders' Registration and Lien Act" to require annual registration of stallions used for breeding
The outstanding Statute of major importance to agriculture introduced at the last session
of the Legislature was the "Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act," designed as
enabling legislation to make effective in British Columbia any provisions of the Dominion
Statute then under discussion at Ottawa, but not yet enacted at the time of proroguing of the
Provincial Legislature.
Under the Dominion " Natural Products Marketing Act," assented to on July 3rd, 1934,
a Marketing Board consisting of Federal departmental officials was constituted by the Governor
in Council on August 11th, 1934, to pass upon the merits of schemes presented by the producers
of primary commodities from, farms, forests, seas, lakes, and rivers.
A Provincial Marketing Board consisting of Eric Pepler, of the Department of the Attorney-
General ; James A. Grant, Markets Commissioner, of the Department of Agriculture; and Wallace
R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, of the same Department, was constituted similarly in
British Columbia by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council on August 22nd, 1934. The Provincial
Marketing Board at December 31st had recommended that four Commodity Boards be set up
for the regulation of the marketing of Tree-fruits, Milk, Beef, and Sheep, respectively, produced
within prescribed areas of the Province. Similar action was taken by the Federal Marketing
Board to implement the powers conferred on Commodity Boards by the Provincial Board in so
far as such additional powers were beyond Provincial jurisdiction.
Owing to a shortage of seed-grain in the Central Interior and the Peace River District due
to weather conditions that prevailed in the fall of 1933, it was found necessary to co-operate
with the Relief Administration in making available a limited supply of seed for these areas.
The distribution of seed-grain was effected through the joint efforts of Government Agents.
Provincial Police, and District Agriculturists. Approximately twelve car-loads of seed oats and
barley were shipped into these areas and distributed, the maximum quantity available to any
applicant not exceeding 1 ton.
As security for the repayment of seed-grain advances promissory notes were taken, payable
on November 30th last. Due to the fact that many recipients of relief seed-grain had no title
to the properties they occupied, the distribution was not made under the " Seed-grain Act " of
1918. Collections of outstanding accounts are proceeding under the direction of the respective
Government Agents.
Reports from District Agriculturists in Central British Columbia indicate that weather
conditions following a satisfactory growing season have enabled settlers this year to harvest
ample seed-grain as well as adequate feed-supplies for live stock.
Referring to the seed-grain distribution in the Bulkley Valley, Donald Sutherland, District
Agriculturist at Smithers, states:—
" Had it not been for the action of the Provincial Department of Agriculture in purchasing
and distributing for cash and on note six cars of seed-oats along the line, the area would face
a serious feed shortage at this time.   The quality of the seed sent in was excellent, and since R S BRITISH COLUMBIA.
local supplies were wiped out, this new seed, of uniform grade and quality, confined to the two
leading varieties—Victory and Banner—has served to replenish the former mixed lots of oats
harvested by the average farmer, with a quantity of clean, pure seed greatly superior to the
old stock. While it is almost impossible to secure any accurate estimate of the total quantity
of oats harvested and threshed, one could possibly locate from five to seven or more cars of
good seed along the railway-line for sale elsewhere, without cutting into the quantity required
for local seeding operations next season."
Further in his report Mr. Sutherland deals with the satisfactory yield of timothy-seed as
" The outstanding feature in the season's operations lies in the large crop of timothy-seed
harvested in the Bulkley Valley and Lakes Districts. It is estimated that the total quantity of
seed produced will be in the neighbourhood of 350 tons, and sales to date are returning to the
growers about 16 cents a pound for No. 1 seed, with usual spreads for lower grades. Compared
with prices of 5% and 6 cents a pound for seed of the same quality the two previous seasons,
the crop this year has proved the salvation of those fortunate enough to have harvested any
Grain generally throughout the Nechako Valley yielded well this year according to H. S.
French, District Agriculturist, Prince George, who states that oats are exceptionally good,
although in some cases the grain was discoloured by heavy rainfalls during the harvest season.
In co-operation with the Field Crop Branch, varieties of oats new to the district were tried
out, and according to the District Agriculturist's report the Orloff, Gopher, and White Cross
varieties are several weeks earlier than the oats formerly grown. The yield also was satisfactory
and sufficient seed-grain of these early varieties of oats has been saved to permit of sowing
on a fairly large scale next season.
In the Peace River District, however, James Travis, District Agriculturist at Pouce Coupe,
reports that:—
" Incessant rains throughout the spring and summer months produced heavy rank growth,
which prevented ripening and harvesting of grain. Wind and rain flattened and twisted the
crops, rendering cutting difficult and in some cases impossible. Snow fell on September 12th and
was followed by rain, frost, and further snowfalls. Threshing was spasmodic and in December
machines were working in snow-covered fields threshing damp and frozen grain of low grades.
In spite of the difficulties encountered in harvesting the crop, the work is being continued during
the winter, and by the beginning of December approximately 400.000 bushels of grains of all
kinds had been delivered at railway points in the Peace River Block."
In the ten Farmers' Institute districts conventions were held, and at the call of the
Minister of Agriculture the Advisory Board met in Victoria at, the beginning of February.
Among the numerous resolutions presented for consideration, those referring to the necessity
of marketing legislation were considered of most immediate importance and recommendations
for marketing legislation were made to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture by the
Advisory Board.   Action on this matter has already been referred to in this report.
From several institute districts resolutions were received with reference to the necessity
to assist the institute members in their efforts to eradicate gophers, ground-squirrels, and
other rodents. Acting upon these recommendations, a sum of money for the purpose of subsidizing Farmers' Institutes in their purchases of poisons and other materials required for gopher
eradication was included in the estimates of the Department, and during the year a successful
campaign aimed at the eradication of rodents has been carried on by the institutes in a number
of districts of the Southern Interior.
Dealing with gopher eradication demonstrations in the Kootenay District, H. E. Waby,
District Agriculturist, reports that:—
" Where demonstrations were given for the use of Cyanogas applied with a special pump,
farmers recognized its value and proceeded to take advantage of it. Many demonstrations
were held in 1934, and farmers, who were of the opinion that Cyanogas must be applied early
in the season, have had this misapprehension corrected. It is admitted that the Cyanogas can be
most effectively used in early spring, but the experience of 1934 has shown that its use at any
season of the year may be recommended. It is effective at all times, as the gas, when properly
applied, penetrates to the deepest recesses of the burrows and tunnels." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 9
The East Kootenay, Salmon Arm, and Kamloops Districts report good results with the
gopher eradication, but in some districts, institutes which had urged upon the Government the
necessity for a policy such as has been put into effect have failed this year to take advantage
of its benefits.
In those districts where Farmers' Institutes and other local organizations have taken the
lead in reducing the rodent menace they have had full co-operation from corporations, including
the Canadian Pacific Railway, which is arranging to continue its assistance of rodent-control
along its right-of-way in 1935.
In the Cariboo District demonstrations have been carried on mainly with the object of
reducing the number of ground-hogs, which for a number of years have proved very annoying
to farmers and cattle-ranchers.
In dealing with this question of rodent-control, G. L. Landon, District Agriculturist
at Grand Forks, reports that:—
" The campaign for rodent-control begun in 1933 was continued during 1934 with gratifying
results. Owing to the policy adopted by the Department of Agriculture in rebating 50 per cent,
of the cost of poisons such as strychnine, and dust-powders such as Cyanogas, large quantities
were purchased by farmers in the Boundary districts. A knapsack duster for applying Cyanogas
dust to burrows has been used extensively in the district this season."
There were this year 217 active Farmers' Institutes in the Province and these succeeded
in maintaining their paid-up membership on the basis of recent years. The usual grant of $10
was sent to each institute submitting its membership list, financial statement and report, and
otherwise complying with the provisions of the " Agricultural Act." The District Institutes
also received the usual financial assistance.
It is gratifying to note that the price of stumping-powder to institute members for land-
clearing purposes has been further reduced. The present quotation is $8.75 per hundredweight
f.o.b. James Island. The $2 rebate still applies on powder used by institute members in the
actual clearing of land for agricultural production. This means that the present price of
stumping-powder is now lower than at any other time since the Department's present stumping-
powder policy was inaugurated fourteen years ago.
There are now 161 Women's Institutes with a total membership as at June 30th, 1934, of
3,873. This number stands at the same figure as last year, as there were three new institutes
organized and three were disbanded in 1934. The total income of the Women's Institutes was
approximately $35,775 and the individual institutes made cash expenditures of $11,495 on
community betterment and charitable work.
During the year the Superintendent of Women's Institutes visited ten of the twenty-one
institutes in the Peace River District, in addition to addressing the District Institute Conference
at Progress. She found the various locals were valuable assets to their communities, providing
libraries, organizing children's clubs, arranging for the improvement in the health of the
individuals, and otherwise contributing to the betterment of local conditions.
Following the visit to the Peace River District, the Superintendent attended Women's
Institute meetings throughout Central British Columbia and the Fraser River District. In
the northern sections as well as in the Southern Interior and on Vancouver Island the efforts of
the organized women have been directed toward providing comforts and necessities for the
sick and needy. Many of the institutes have featured home-crafts, using local wool as the
material for sweaters, socks, mitts, and other garments.
The AVomen's Institute District Conferences this year included Peace River, South Vancouver Island, and both North and South Fraser River Districts. Victoria and Vancouver
conferences were attended by Dame Janet Campbell, D.B.E., who was sent out by the Canadian
Council of Child and Family AVelfare.
Under the " Grasshopper-control Act," 1930, five grasshopper-control areas are operating
actively in British Columbia.  Of these, two were organized during the present year.
George AV. Challenger, District Agriculturist, as Secretary of the Nicola and Kamloops
Areas, reports that effective control has been secured in both of these areas, which are completely
organized and in a position to prevent the spread of the grasshoppers. R 10
G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist, AVilliams Lake, as Secretary of the South Riske Creek
and Clinton Grasshopper-control Areas, reports that satisfactory conditions prevail as a result
of prompt action taken last season as provided for by the Act.
R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, Penticton, as Secretary of the Oliver-Osoyoos
Grasshopper Control Area, states:—
" The campaign can confidently be stated to have been a success and represented maximum
results from a careful and economical outlay of the funds expended. Control on the open dry
areas was excellent."
Referring to the " Eggs Marks Act," chapter 74, R.S.B.C. 1924, and amendments thereto,
AA^alter Sandall, District Field Inspector, Court-house, Arancouver, reports that arrivals of all
eggs imported into the Province were inspected to see that they complied with the requirements
of the " Eggs Marks Act." The arrivals of imported eggs reported into the Province are as
Alctoria: 120 eggs for hatching purposes from the United States of America and 60 cases
at 200 per case of salted eggs from China. Arancouver: 165 eggs for hatching purposes from the
United States of America and 315 cases at 200 per case of salted eggs from China. The salted
eggs from China are duck-eggs preserved in mud and used solely by the Chinese residents in
Canada for flavouring and medicinal purposes. No imported egg products have been reported
as having been brought into British Columbia. No arrivals of imported eggs or egg products
have been reported from the boundary ports during the year, as the inspection service at these
ports has been withdrawn and the appointments of the Inspectors rescinded as from March
31st, 1934.
In compliance with the Canada Freight Association Tariff 145, feed-grain certificates to
the number of 866 have been issued from the office of the District Field Inspector at the Courthouse, Vancouver, for wheat, oats, barley, and screenings, said to be used solely for purposes of
feeding live stock and poultry. Milling companies and dealers in stock and poultry feeds are
the principal applicants for these certificates. All grain shipments covered by this special
Tariff 145 have originated at points in the Province of Alberta and have been transported over
Canadian Pacific and Canadian National Railways to British Columbia.
The changes in the staff of the Department of Agriculture include the reinstatement of
M. S. Middleton as District Horticulturist at Vernon and the reappointment of G. A. Luyat as
District Agriculturist at AVilliams Lake. The resignations of Miss E. V. Bickle as clerk-
stenographer in the Dairy Branch and of Miss L. L. Gold as stenographer in the Plant Pathology DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934.
R 11
Branch were accepted.  Other changes in the staff included alteration in titles in several cases
where officials already on the staff were transferred to other branches.
AVith regret it is recorded that several former members of the agricultural staff have passed
away during the year. Among these were the late AA7illiam E. Scott, formerly Deputy Minister
of Agriculture; W. W. Alton, formerly Provincial Veterinary Inspector; and W. Wallace
Duncan, formerly Director of Markets for British Columbia.
In addition to undertakings of District Agriculturists already mentioned and also referred
to in the reports of Branch heads, several items deserve particular attention.
Bull Sale and Fat-stock Shoiv.—The sixteenth annual Bull Sale and Fat-stock Show was
under the management of G. AV. Challenger and was held at Kamloops on March 21st and 22nd,
1934. There was a total of sixty-four pure-bred bulls and females of the beef breeds, forty-one
of which were supplied by Provincial breeders; the balance were Hereford bulls brought in from
In the breeding class James Turner, of Cadboro Bay, had the grand champion Shorthorn
bull, " Marshal's Star," which topped the sale, selling for $900 to J. Bulman & Sons, Westwold.
The grand champion Hereford bull, " Prince Domino, 58th," was sold to the Douglas Lake
Cattle Company for $825. The prices showed a decided improvement over 1933 as shown by
the following table :—
No.   of
1         1      $85.00
Entries for the Fat-stock Show were slightly heavier than for the 1933 show, with considerable improvement in quality, particularly in the car-load classes. Guichon Ranch, Quilchena,
won the grand champion car-load of steers for the sixth consecutive time. First and second
prize in groups of steers went to the Douglas Lake Cattle Company. Gordon Turner, of Kilgard,
had grand champion steer of the show, which animal was also awarded first prize in the
boys' and girls' competition.
Prices paid for fat stock created a record for this year in AA7estern Canada. The grand
champion car-load of steers went to Burns & Company at $7.75, also the second prize car-load
at $8. AAroodwards, Limited, Arancouver, bought the grand champion steer of the show at 30
cents a pound and the first prize group of five at $8.50. Prices paid were 1 to 3 cents above
market and one-third better than the 1933 average.
Range Reseeding Tests.—According to the District Agriculturist, no additional plots were
laid out this year, but the tests already under way in the Kamloops, Nicola, and Ashcroft areas
were studied closely from time to time. Grasses showing up particularly well in these plots
were crested wheat-grass and western rye, with crested wheat showing the most hardy, particularly under heavy pasturing. Even when grazed bare this grass will come along quickly
and produce seed. AA7estern rye is also a good grass and the seed is cheaper at the present time
than crested wheat-grass.
Some of the stockmen and farmers have become interested in reseeding through results
noticed from these plots. Several are growing crested wheat-grass under cultivation and saving
the seed, then broadcasting this seed over parts of their range from which the native bunch-
grass has disappeared. They are able to secure a. satisfactory catch by harrowing the seed
lightly in. Once a few of the grass-roots become established and seed produced, the balance of
the area becomes reseeded naturally and a good stand of nutritious grass is obtained.
Following observations on our range reseeding plots of the success of tall oat-grass under
protection, two farmers in the dry-farming areas of Rose Hill tested out this grass as a hay-
grass under dry-farming conditions.    From our range plots it would appear that this grass would R 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
be very satisfactory for a perennial hay under dry-farming conditions, particularly if it could
be protected in the early spring from the stock.
Progress of Feeder Policy.—In reporting on the progress of the feeder policy in the Fraser
A'alley, R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist at New AVestminster, states that this year only two
car-loads of feeder cattle were brought into the district under the above arrangement. One
went to Ladner and one to Langley. Owing to the rising tendency in the hay and grain market
and the failure of beef prices to make any appreciable advance, it is doubtful if these two lots
made any profits. This fall a few men have purchased feeder cattle privately, but no interest
has been shown in obtaining steers under the feeder contract.
The District Agriculturist for Kamloops adds that:—
" During the winter of 1933-34, three car-loads of cattle from the Kamloops District were
supplied to feeders in the Ladner, Fort Langley, and Armstrong Districts under a contract
agreement sponsored by the B.C. Beef Cattle Growers' Association. AVhile results were not very
remunerative, the cattlemen supplying the cattle secured from % to 1 cent above the market
for cattle supplied under this policy. The feeders obtained from $15 to $17 per head for finishing the cattle, which worked out on the ratio of grain and hay to give them in the neighbourhood of $16 a ton for grain and $10 a ton for hay on the farm.
'• This contract plan has been dropped this fall, due principally to the uncertain conditions
of the cattle market and the fact that there is an abundance of feed on the cattle-ranches.
AAThen the policy was organized it was hoped that it might be the means of developing a cattle-
finishing business in the Fraser Valley and relieve the Interior ranges of some of the feeder
cattle. It was unfortunate that when the policy was started the market was on the downward
Seed-promotion Work.—According to the report of G. L. Landon, District Agriculturist at
Grand Forks, " the vegetable-seed industry is the bright spot in the agricultural industry of
this district and is assuming greater importance each year. Approximately 25 acres of onion-
seed bulbs were planted during the year of the following varieties: Red Wethersfield, 4 acres;
Strassburg, 4 acres; Southport, 1 acre; Mountain Danvers, 2% acres; Danvers Yellow Globe,
8*4 acres; and Ebenezer, 5 acres. In addition, some carrot-seed of the Chantenay variety was
produced and about 500 lb. of radish-seed (Scarlet AVhite Tip). There will be two new varieties
added to the list of onion varieties in 1936—namely, White Globe and Brown English. Growers
are being urged to branch out into the production of carrot, radish, and other seeds, and to
get away from too many onion varieties owing to the danger of cross-pollination."
In the Fraser Valley the possibilities of seed-growing are now appreciated, and. according
to the New Westminster District Agriculturist's report, " the set of hand-screens and the small
Clipper cleaner belonging to the Department of Agriculture have been in almost constant use
from the last of August to the end of the year. Altogether, they have been loaned to upwards
of thirty farmers for use not only in preparing exhibits, but for cleaning small lots of special
seed for planting. Considerable progress might be noted in seed production. As well as the
well-established lines of ordinary field crops, an increasing quantity is being produced of seed
of roots, flax, peas, and some staple vegetable-crops such as cabbage, carrots, parsnips, beans, etc.
In the Seed Show held last February, out of a total of seventy-four exhibitors, eighteen were
from this district, winning awards ranging from first to fifth.
" This fall, extra effort has been made to have appropriate exhibits of seed shown at
Toronto Royal, at Chicago International, and at the 1934 Provincial Show at Vancouver. Five
exhibits of wheat, oats, and clover-seed were selected and forwarded to Toronto. Of these, one
exhibit of hard red spring wheat from Ladner gained first and championship: one of oats, third
prize, and one seventh prize. At the International at Chicago an exhibit of field peas from
Ladner won the championship."
Fall Fairs.—In addition to the Class A exhibitions held at A'ancouver and Victoria and
the Class B fall fairs held at Armstrong and Chilliwack, there were forty-five agricultural
fairs held in British Columbia in 1934.
Publications.—Bulletins and circulars distributed during the year totalled 41,846, in addition
to 69,613 copies of mimeographed stencils which were sent out from the offices at Victoria.
Additional to  the stencilled  information,  circulars  and bulletins  were  made  available  from DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934.
R 13
the  district  offices  throughout the -Province.   A  statement  of  the  departmental  publications
issued during the year appears in the following table:—
Care and Feeding of Dairy Cattle-.	
Tomato-growing in B.C.. -	
Third List of Dairy Sires	
Butter-making on the Farm	
Poultry Kations for Chicks and Layers	
Pruning   Fruit-trees	
Twenty-eighth Annual Report..	
Climate Report, 1933.	
Fruit Spray Calendar	
Top-working of Fruit-trees and Propagation..
Practical Poultry-raising	
Farmers'   Institute  By-laws .;..
Care ot Milk and Cream	
Root-seed Production	
Milk and Butter-fat Records, 1933...	
Strawberry  Culture	
Breeding  Stock Hints.	
Statistics Report,  1933	
Green Feed Deficiency Disease in Fowls	
Raspberry  Culture	
Preservation ot Food	
Field Crop and Garden Spray Calendar	
Bulletin    67	
Hort.  Circ.  65	
Dairy Circ. 65	
Bulletin    71	
Poultry  Circ.  19..
Hort.  Circ. 60	
Hort.  Circ. 42	
Poultry Bull. 26..
Dairy Circ. 6	
Field Crop  Circ.  7..
Dairy Circ. 26	
Hort.  Circ.  58	
Poultry Circ.  27......
Poultry Circ.  36..
Hort.  Circ.  35	
Bulletin    83..	
J. A. Grant.
The fruit-marketing season of 1934 surprised both shippers and dealers in the increased
volume that moved into consumption. By comparison with 1933 the volume showed a marked
increase in all commodities, especially so in forced and field rhubarb, and in all small fruits,
apricots, and peaches. Field-ripened cantaloupes made a new record and so did strawberries
in car-lots. Prices were slightly lower than the previous year, but the lower freight and express
rates with the increased volume helped to make returns to the grower about the same as in
1933. The sale of live stock and poultry was more satisfactory than in 1933. Prices in live
stock firmed during the year, especially in hogs.
AATeather conditions were favourable both to growing and harvesting the crops and the
season was fully three weeks ahead of normal. Shipping to Eastern points was resorted to,
but prices realized on the Eastern Canadian markets were not satisfactory, because " fair
market values " did not apply until the ordinary date of application and, for practical purposes,
this was three weeks too late. Producers in British Columbia were greatly disappointed over
this attitude on the part of Eastern interests, as it deprived them from commercializing their
climatic advantages. Forced and field rhubarb, strawberries, hothouse tomatoes, cherries, and
apples were the principal commodities that rolled to Eastern markets. Cherries shipped to New
York market netted fully as much as was obtained on the domestic market. The increased
volume of commodities was due largely to the early season that prevailed in British Columbia,
but was not shared in other Provinces, thereby giving this Province a much longer shipping
season than is customary. Owing to the dry weather at shipping-time, perishable fruits arrived
at destination in good condition and rebate claims for poor quality were very rare.
The purchasing-power in Manitoba and Alberta and certain points in Saskatchewan was
considerably better than in 1933. as farmers there got better prices for their grain and stock,
but in Central and Southern Saskatchewan prolonged dry weather was responsible for another
crop-failure. This time both grain and stock suffered more than in other years of crop-failures.
The farmers in AA'estern Canada, notwithstanding the increase in prices obtained for their
produce, fully realize that they are still producing under cost of production and are taking
steps to organize against the mass buying which they claim is responsible for low prices.  Their R 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
problem is different from the one facing our farmers, as their main crop is grain and has to be
sold on world markets, and does not lend itself to regulation in the same way as produce sold on
the domestic market.
During the last few years a system of greater diversification in commodities produced has
come into being in AATestern Canada. Great increases have been made in the production of beef
cattle, sheep, hogs, poultry, and butter, and surpluses created in all these commodities. The
nearest market for these surpluses is British Columbia, and as these commodities are not
organized effectively they are dumped on the Coast market at prices that do not produce
a living to Prairie farmers, and the low prices react against the British Columbia producers of
these commodities.
A'isits made to Prairie points created the impression that farmers were in earnest to have
their commodities organized for their own advantage, but owing to their weak financial condition this work will be slow. They are studying the remedies obtainable under provision of the
" Natural Products Marketing Act" that became effective last May.
Since the " Natural Products Marketing Act " passed at Ottawa in May, this office has had
many requests for information explaining the intent of the Act. We published excerpts from the
British Marketing Act and later sent out mimeographed copies of the Dominion Marketing
Act to those applying for same. The previous experience with marketing legislation, both in
the Okanagan Valley and the Fraser A'alley, gave the farmers in both districts an advantage
over other districts. The beef-cattle men and sheep-breeders, who had no previous knowledge
of orderly marketing, made requests to have the Act explained in relation to the control of their
products. Meetings for this purpose were held at Kamloops, AArilliams Lake, and Nicola. In
August your Commissioner was appointed to a seat on the Provincial Marketing Board, and
from that date has given attention to examining schemes submitted to the Board.
Board duties have taken considerable of the time devoted to the ordinary visits to markets
and shipping-points, but owing to having market news supplied by Federal officials at Prairie
points and Vancouver the usual marketing information was sent out without interruption.
Over 100 Market Bulletins 'were issued and sent out twice weekly to the press and farmers'
organizations. Extra reports were sent out weekly to public-market managers, etc., giving beef,
hay, grain, poultry, and egg prices.
Early in spring a visit was made to Central British Columbia, where meetings were held
at many points. The Board of Trade at Prince Rupert and Prince George expressed willingness
to co-operate with Central British Columbia farmers in purchasing their supplies from them,
provided that transportation rates were adjusted to give the local farmers an advantage on the
near-by markets and their pack made equal to competitors. Negotiations were started with the
Canadian National Railways and a substantial reduction was made on freight rates in farm
products. The farmers were willing to organize to grow what the local market needed and
pack in a commercial way, and a great improvement has been reported in marketing produce
from Central British Columbia.
The forced-rhubarb deal again showed an increase in volume over 1933, and while prices
were slightly reduced to the consumer the growers got about the same returns. This was
brought about through shipping more in car-lots and by the whole of the producers shipping-
through one sales agency.
Field rhubarb was shipped to the market fully three weeks earlier than the previous year.
Car-lots were moving by March 24th and continued until June 21st. In all, 120 cars were sold
at Prairie points, which is fully equal to last year's shipments. Prices realized averaged 70
cents per crate (40 lb.) to the shipper. The rhubarb was shipped through one distributing agent
to the Prairie agencies, except the first few cars, which met with disaster through divided
The hothouse-tomato production was similar to that of 1933. The Prairie demand was
considerably less than last year, but Ontario took almost double the supply of 1933. The local
markets have been demoralized, due to organized growers giving only partial support to their
selling agencies.  The average price netted was slightly less this year; 1933 f.o.b. shipping-point DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 15
price averaged $2.29 and 1934 $2.20% per crate.   Approximately 40,000 crates were shipped to
Prairie and Eastern points.
Strawberries were also shipped at an earlier date than in the previous year, and on
account of Eastern Canada having a late season about fourteen cars were shipped to that
market, but owing to the refusal of the Federal authorities to advance the application of
fair market values to match the early season these shipments met with competition from
Southern United States and poor returns were received. The shipping season was dry, which
enabled berries to arrive at destination in good shape. Owing to a divided distribution at
shipping-point, prices averaged very low and the market was kept in an oversupplied condition from start of shipping. A new high record in distribution was made, 153 car-lots being
shipped, as against a previous high of 132 cars in 1928. In addition to these, about 70,000 cases
were shipped to the Prairie markets in less than car-lots. The season closed very rapidly,
leaving several hundred tons of unfilled orders placed by British firms and a scarcity of berries
for local jam-manufacturers.
Shipments of raspberries were also up compared with last year. Fifty-seven car-lots were
shipped, as against twenty-three cars in 1933; 11,944 cases were also shipped L.C.L. A new
innovation was started this year in assembling mixed cars of Everbearing strawberries,
blackberries, loganberries, and late raspberries. 'In all, forty-seven mixed cars were shipped
and in addition about 10,000 cases L.C.L.
Loganberry shipments fared about the same as last year, but the crop netted a better
price. The winery demand was a little better and export shipments nearly doubled those of
last year.   Approximately 72,000 cases have been shipped to the British market this year.
A visit was made to 'Salem, Oregon, early in July to investigate the loganberry situation
there. This State furnishes practically all the British demand outside of what is supplied from
British Columbia. It was found that Oregon growers only realized 2% cents per pound for
their export logans and were greatly depressed over the low returns. They actually refused
to pick over one-third of the crop, as there is little or no demand for logans in the United
States and their export business does not return anything like the cost of production. The
packers rover there put up the logans on a cost-plus-commission basis, and when returns are
available deduct their charges and the growers get what is left. British Columbia loganberry-
growers netted about 4 cents per pound for their canned logans, and are not encouraged, as
that price is about 1 cent per pound less than is needed to continue in production. If the
" code" system could be successfully worked in Oregon it would raise the export price, and
British Columbia loganberry-growers would practically command the British market. The
impression left was that British Columbia loganberry-growers should stay organized and cater
for the British demand, as the future of that market seems encouraging.
The cherries of the Okanagan were of exceptionally good quality this year, but the reverse
was the case of the Kootenay cherries, due to brown-rot. The market was stabilized by processing the Royal Anns in sulphur solution, and while they only netted the grower from 3%
to 4 cents per pound, this channel of distribution has been a stabilizing factor in view of the
present economic condition, and has kept this variety off the market and prevented overcrowding of other merchantable varieties. About 20,000 15-lb. lugs were shipped from the
Okanagan Valley and 3,112 lugs from the Kootenay to New York. These netted as good
average prices as the Canadian markets. There were also 24,441 15-lb. lugs shipped from the
Okanagan and 5,006 lugs from Kootenay to Eastern Canadian markets. Final returns on
cherries were fairly satisfactory in the Okanagan, but rather unfavourable in the Kootenay—
largely on account of condition.
The apricot-crop was the heaviest to date. Eastern Canada took 4,903 cases and the
balance sold in Western  Canada,  Vancouver  taking  the largest quantity  of  any  individual R 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
market. Approximately 500 tons were sold to the cannery. Returns on apricots were considerably below last year, which was to be expected on account of the very heavy volume.
Average price to grower would be about $40 per ton.
Early peaches such as Triumph and Early St. .John collided on the Prairie markets with
the carry-over of imported varieties from California. Prairie jobbers were advised that
British Columbia supplies would be at least two weeks earlier than usual. However, when
imported peaches cleaned up, the /market remained steady until the end of the season. During
the peak about 50,000 boxes were sent to cold storage and ultimately cleaned up, but the storing-
was not quite as profitable as the regular season sales. The net result was satisfactory to
growers and a price equal to 1933 was averaged, or approximately $60 per ton.
The 1934 crop moved out at a little higher price than the 1933 crop realized. The crop on
the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island was very light. Prices varied according to variety.
The Bartlett variety was scarce and nearly all the cannery needs had to be imported from
The prune-crop opened at a price at the beginning of the season that was maintained until
the whole crop was cleaned up. Prices were approximately the same as 1933 and this deal
was satisfactory to the growers.
The British Columbia plums marketed on the Prairies met competition from Ontario
and only a few varieties are popular. The expensive British Columbia pack (4-basket crate)
does not move profitably, as the housewives prefer the jumble orchard pack. Experiments
should be made in orchard-packed 6-quart Ontario baskets, as this package is popular, and it
would eliminate the packing-house costs and cut down the selling costs. British Columbia
plums have not been sold at a remunerative price for some years and this experiment might
help matters.
The apples held from 1933 crop were sufficient to supply the market needs and fair prices
were realized until the crop was cleaned up. Any dumping that was necessary was due to
apples being overripe and in process of decay. The Interior Tree Fruit Marketing Board was
not empowered to function this season until after the AVealthy apples were marketed. The
Cartel system of pooling was again authorized and an orderly distribution made. The export
has fallen off slightly from last year, and this has been levelled up by a better demand at
Prairie points. The crop is fully as large as in 1933. At the end of 1934 over three-quarters
of the pooled crop has been sold. The balance left on hand is of better keeping varieties compared with last year, and the demand is likely to be increased due to a short crop in Ontario and
Quebec. The Okanagan, main line of the C.P.R., and the Kootenay has an estimated crop for
1934 of 4,544,035 boxes; the domestic market has accounted for 1,713,744 boxes and export
1.703,630 boxes. The percentage of Cartel Mcintosh sold on December 30th is 88.03, against
76.07 at same date last jrear.  The combined Cartels' figures are as follows:—
Per Cent.
Domestic shipments,  1,578,400 boxes  36.9
Export shipments, 1,652,160 boxes  38.6
Balance unsold, 1,027,441 boxes  24.1
The early season favoured the cantaloupe deal, and as the bulk of the crop was handled by
ajiool controlling about 85 per cent, of the production the result was a stabilized market. Great
care was taken in picking vine-ripened specimens and having the brand stamped thereon. The
vine-ripened cantaloupes were commented on favourably by the trade and returns to the
producers were satisfactory. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 17
In two years the asparagus acreage has increased ten times. The acreage planted in the
Okanagan is approximately 185; Fraser Valley, 120; and Vancouver Island, 50 acres. The
pack is reported as good and all Prairie shipments were made in pyramid crates.
Apart from shipments in mixed cars from the Interior, which would equal the 1933
volume, there were 376 cars shipped to the Prairies and Eastern points from the Coast. These
shipments included 50,452 sacks and 760 boxes of potatoes, 21,680 crates of lettuce, and 10,290
crates of cauliflower.
The marketing of potatoes, both new and mature, was again without stability, due to
internal competition. The dry weather prevailing during the main shipping season reduced the
crop in non-irrigated districts to about 60 per cent, of normal. In irrigated districts the yield
was about normal. The Prairies report about 40 to 60 per cent, of a normal crop, with a
prospective demand from Prairie cities before the season ends. Prices have ruled at from $6
to $8 per ton to growers in the Fraser Valley. These retailed in Vancouver as low as 59 cents
per 100 lb. This condition is likely to continue until some system of orderly marketing is
Several reductions in freight and express rates took place during 1934. In the early
spring the Canadian National Railways made substantial reductions on L.C.L. freight rates
from Smithers to Prince Rupert. These reductions greatly stimulated trade between farmers
in the hinterland and Prince Rupert. The same company attached a freight-car to their
passenger-trains, thereby giving a service of at least four times a week.
A reduction on express rates in car-lots of berries and cherries to Alberta was made
.effective on May 7th: From Creston to Calgary, $1.80 per 100 lb., against $2.40 previously
paid; to Edmonton, $2 against $2.40; Mainland points to Calgary and Edmonton, $2 against
$2.40; from A'ancouver Island to Edmonton and Calgary, $2.25 per 100 lb., reduced from $2.70.
Old blanket rates to other points remain unchanged. Notwithstanding these reductions in
express rates, more strawberries were shipped by freight in refrigerator-cars than ever; some
were shipped to Regina and arrived in good condition. Express rates to Eastern cities were
reduced considerably, but all shipments of small fruit to the East were unprofitable, due to
poor condition of arrival and United States competition.
For some years we have been stressing the need of growing more apricots and peaches as
well as head-lettuce and asparagus. The gap between supply and demand on the domestic
market in these commodities is rapidly closing. In a good crop season such as existed this
year in apricots there was abundant supply to meet all demands. Peaches have still a margin
of production to make up, especially in supplying the cannery needs. British Columbia head-
lettuce has made rapid advances on the Prairie market needs and asparagus is coming up
rapidly. The low buying-power prevailing has to he reckoned with, but given normal buying
conditions all the above-mentioned commodities can be increased.
The outlook for 1935 might be considered as encouraging if the markets are approached
in an orderly way. The fresh-fruit market for rhubarb and berries is now oversupplied. To
relieve this situation advantage should be taken of the export demand for processed berries in
S02 solution. Under present uncontrolled conditions shippers have no regulatory powers, and
the result is an overfed fresh-fruit market and a starved state of the export demands. Prices
can be stabilized by reducing fresh-fruit shipments to the normal demand and processing the
unwanted surpluses. In such commodities as are not produced in sufficient volume to meet the
demand, some system of preventing dumping from other Provinces would encourage home
production and act in the interest of the absentee producers, who at present are not receiving
sufficient for their export produce to make ends meet. Orderly marketing will not in itself
create a buying-power, but it is capable of systematizing production in keeping with the
demand to the advantage of producer and consumer and holding the middleman in his place.
The "■ Natural Products Marketing Act, 1934," was passed at Ottawa in May. As the Act
was still under consideration at Ottawa when the British Columbia Legislature adjourned in
April, an Act known as the "Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act" was passed,
authorizing the creating of a Provincial Marketing Board with supplementary powers to enable
the Federal Act to be operative in British Columbia.
The British Columbia Marketing Board was appointed in August by Order in Council, and
consisted of Colonel Eric Pepler, Chairman, James A. Grant, and Dr. AVallace R. Gunn, all of
whom were in the Provincial Civil Service. As marketing legislation was anticipated, your
AIarkets Commissioner spent some time in Central British Columbia explaining the intention
of the legislation to Board of Trade officials and Farmers' Institute members, and before being-
appointed to the Board visited AVilliams Lake twice and Nicola once to explain the possibilities
of the new legislation, and what it applied, to beef-cattle organizations—showing that without
a good majority of the commodity producers being in favour of a scheme it would not be
considered workable. After being appointed to the Marketing Board this work was discontinued.
From September to December considerable time was given to preparing of marketing
schemes. Up to December four commodity schemes have been approved by the British Columbia
Board; one originating at Ottawa and supplemented by a British Columbia scheme, giving the
Commodity Board, named in the Ottawa scheme, power to regulate the British Columbia
markets. Three schemes, that are mostly concerned with marketing within the Province, have
been recommended to the Minister of Agriculture and appeared in The British Columbia
Gazette after approval by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. Only one of these schemes has
been given supplementary powers at Ottawa—namely, the Milk Scheme.
Five schemes are under consideration—namely, hothouse tomatoes, coarse grain and hay.
etc., potatoes, grapes, and milk produced in South Vancouver Island. One scheme, a small-fruit
scheme, was submitted, but withdrawn as it was found to be one in which the bulk of the
produce was marketed outside of British Columbia and should originate at Ottawa.
All the Provincial schemes provide that Commodity Boards will submit a scheme to the
Dominion Board at Ottawa to secure such powers that are not within the authority of the
Provincial Board to grant.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
From a fruit and vegetable grower's standpoint the seasonal conditions for the past year
have been very satisfactory- The winter was extremely mild in all sections. In the Interior,
and particularly in those districts where irrigation is an important factor, the fall of snow was
sufficient to fill to capacity the irrigation reservoirs. Spring came early, with the result that
many of the spring crops were on the market from two to three weeks ahead of what they
would be in a normal year. The late spring and early summer was dry, which shortened the
strawberry and loganberry crops in the Coast sections. The lack of rainfall, however, was
particularly advantageous in the cherry districts of the Okanagan, which often suffer considerable loss of this crop during the picking season. Rains were experienced in the late summer and early fall, but did not materially interfere with the harvesting of the apple-crop, the
picking of which was practically finished by the end of October. Late fall and early winter
conditions have been mild, with a satisfactory rainfall and no snowfall on the lower levels.
Tree-fruits.—In the case of apples the winter and early spring conditions seemed to indicate a heavy crop of fruit. Due to the early blossoming of the trees, the extremely short
blossom period, and cold nights, the big crop anticipated did not materialize. On the whole,
the crop will probably, when finally harvested, be slightly heavier than in 1933. Pears were
lighter than in 1933,  and the same also may be said with regard to stone-fruits,  with the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 19
exception of apricots, of which there was an estimated crop of 252,520 crates.   Some idea of the
1934 production may be obtained from the following table:— "    .
Fruit. 1933 Production.      1934 Production.
Apples (boxes)  4,815,107 4,847,575
Crab-apples (boxes)       136,474 128,100
Pears (boxes)      271,167 214,100
Plums and prunes (crates)     304,308 330,805
Peaches  (crates)       220,540 251,750
Apricots  (crates)       102,327 252,520
Cherries (crates)       173,338 180,270
Small Fruits.—The strawberry-crop, due to hot, dry weather at picking-time, was shorter
than was expected at the beginning of the season. Many contracts were unfilled, due to
the shortage, and berries which had been carried over from the previous year were disposed of.
The market for the 1935 crop should be fairly good. Raspberries were a heavier crop than in
1933, and the patches give promise of a good yield next year. Loganberries were a light crop,
due to hot weather previous to and during the picking season. The wineries took a larger
part of the crop this year than has been the case for a number of years. This outlet, together
with the demand for canning-berries, resulted in the whole crop being disposed of at prices
somewhat better than those of the previous year. Other small fruits, such as blackberries,
gooseberries, currants, etc., were normal in yield.
AVith regard to grapes, more interest is being taken in this crop, although there has been
no material increase in acreage during the past two years. There is very little acreage on
Arancouver Island. On the Lower Mainland there is slightly over 100 acres, most of which is
in small plantings. The largest acreage is to be found in the Kelowna District of the
Okanagan Valley, where there are approximately 175 acres.
There would seem to be future possibilities in grape production in certain sections of the
Province, both from the standpoint of table use as well as for the wineries. Trials are being
made not only with new American varieties, but with European varieties as well. As to this
industry in the Kelowna District, B. Hoy, District Field Inspector, reports as follows:—
" The grape-crop was of excellent quality and the tonnage well up to expectations. Little
new planting was done, but more interest is being taken in European varieties. J. AV. Hughes,
who pioneered with commercial production of the American varieties here, is interesting himself in Vinifera varieties, hoping to get a better table-grape. Rittisch Bros, also are continuing their experimental work and have done much to create an interest in early-maturing
European varieties. Little attempt has been made to date to grow them without winter
" The variety Pearl of Csaba, which is very early ripening, seems to have possibilities so
far as hardiness is concerned. AA7. J. Palmer has one plant that has been growing without any
protection for some years. This had an excellent crop of grapes this year. They were ripe
in July and the bunches were well filled with good-size excellent-flavoured grapes. Other
varieties show possibilities, but much more work will have to be done before any of these
varieties can be recommended commercially. Yield, as well as hardiness, quality, etc., will
have to be considered.    Little is known of this at present.
" Of the American varieties, Campbell's Early is perhaps the most satisfactory for this
district, considering yield, hardiness, maturity, shipping qualities, etc. Portland, an early
green grape, is of excellent quality, a good yielder, but only a fair shipper. Owing to its high
sugar content it is very  satisfactory for wine-making.
" The yield of grapes this year will perhaps be from 450 to 500 tons.
"Mr. Hughes is still continuing to experiment with grape-juice. The Sheridan grape
makes excellent juice."
Some investigational work has also been done by R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector at
Penticton.    The following is an extract from his annual report:—
" For some time past the office has had numerous inquiries regarding the possibilities
of Vinifera grapes as a commercial undertaking. Information on this subject is limited and
the experience of those who have grown this class of grape was disappointing. This was due
largely to a poor selection of varieties and to a lesser extent lack of experience in growing this
crop.    Most of the varieties tried required too long a season to ripen, and only in very favour- R 20
able seasons were any grapes ripe enough to eat out of hand.    Even then the quality was
only fair.
" As no work was being attempted to obtain reliable information, your official purchased
the following Vinifera varieties: Thompson's Seedless, Chasselas Blanc, Black Prince,
Angulata, Blue Portuguese, Palomina, Malvoise, Carignan, Divyaka, Madeline Angevine,
Seibel 4629, Seibel 2838, Seibel 5279, Coridere 10, Oberlin 595, and Castel 19637. Also the following European hybrids originated at Geneva, N.Y.: Golden Muscat, Urbana, Seneca, Mills,
and Keuka.
" Several of these varieties have fruited this year, and although the district has
experienced a long ripening season, some failed to ripen satisfactorily, and these will be
" At present the following varieties show considerable promise for this district: Pearl of
Csaba, Seibel 2838, Madeline Angevine, Golden Muscat, Urbana, and Keuka. The latter two
varieties are reddish-coloured grapes, while the other varieties mentioned are all light or amber
coloured. From information received from the various marketing agencies on the Prairies
the demand is apparently for a dark-coloured grape. It is possible that varieties such as Blue
Portuguese, Angulata, Black Prince, Urbana, and Keuka will be satisfactory from a colour
standpoint, and it is hoped will be early enough to mature in any season in this district."
Vegetables.—There was little change in the vegetable situation in the Province over that
of former years. The production of greenhouse crops such as tomatoes and cucumbers was
about the same as last year and with very little, if any, improvement in price. In so far as
outdoor vegetables are concerned, there was very little change in total acreage over that of
1933, and although the quality was good the returns on the whole were unsatisfactory. In the
Oliver-Osoyoos District the cantaloupe acreage was approximately 193 acres. This is about
the usual acreage planted each year. The growers in that district have for the last two years
systematized their picking and packing, with the result that there is a demand for their
product on the markets of British Columbia and the Prairies. Returns for this crop have
been very good.
Asparagus plantings have been increasing for a number of years, with the result that at
the present time there are approximately 364 acres planted out to this crop. A survey was
made of British Columbia plantings this year, and the details of which are given in the following table:—
British Columbia Asparagus Plantings, 193^.
105 y2
Vancouver Island	
Fraser Valley	
Salmon  Arm	
North Okanagan	
Kootenay and Boundary.
_ 17/s_l
Broom-corn.—The growing of broom-corn in the Kamloops District has been tried out for
the last two years. This year it was again tried at Kamloops, as well as at several other
places in the Province. The results, with the exception of Kamloops, were unsatisfactory.
The possibilities at this point seem promising and may eventually lead to commercial production. C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector for that area, makes the following report with
regard to these plantings :—
" In continuation of test-work carried out in 1931 and 1932, six varieties of broom-corn
were planted experimentally on Captain Hilliard's farm at Kamloops in 1933. A small sample
of about 50 lb. of the ' brush' of these six varieties was, late last fall, submitted to the Canadian
National Institute for the Blind at Vancouver for manufacturing into brooms and for report
on same as to quality and suitability for manufacturing purposes. The report, which was
received in February this year, was of a sufficiently encouraging nature to warrant a further DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 21
acre of each
of the three varieties reported on most favourably by the institute—namely, Illinois Favourite,
AA7hite Italian, and Imperial Evergreen.
" It was unfortunate that after all arrangements had been completed and the time of
planting had arrived the grower with whom the arrangements had been made decided not to
plant the crop. This caused a very considerable delay in planting, as it was not until the
beginning of June that another suitable grower and location could be found. This was
eventually found on the farm of Stewart AVilson at North Kamloops, but it was, not until
June 8th that the crop could be planted, and even then land was only available for Va acre
of each variety instead of % acre as originally planned.
" The corn was planted on a light sandy loam, an alfalfa-sod being turned in two weeks
before planting. Notwithstanding the fact that the crop was planted nearly a month later
than it should have been, the plants grew and the ' brush' matured fairly satisfactorily.
" On September 21st the standing crop was inspected by Mr. Phitzmeyer, of the Canadian
National Institute for the Blind, and he expressed himself as being satisfied with the quality,
but also stated that it would have been even better had the crop been planted earlier, as it
would have matured before the cool nights of fall, which are deterimental to quality. Much
valuable information was obtained from Mr. Phitzmeyer with regard to the cutting, curing,
baling, cleaning, etc., of broom-corn. It was recommended by Mr. Phitzmeyer that after cutting
and curing the crop it should be shipped to the institute's factory in Vancouver for making up
into brooms and for a report thereon as to quality, etc. This recommendation has been followed out. The crop was cut on October 5th and 6th and after curing was shipped to the
factory in November. The report from the institute is not yet to hand, and it is therefore
impossible, at the time of writing this report, to state the actual cash value of the crop. Mr.
Phitzmeyer, however, estimated the crop at about 600 lb. per acre of cleaned brush, but also
pointed out that this tonnage could probably be considerably increased by planting earlier,
also by spacing the plants a little closer than was done this year. At the prices paid for
broom-corn in recent years these results are quite encouraging, especially if it is taken into
consideration that this year's crop was grown under distinctly adverse circumstances. Mr.
AArilson states he is sufficiently convinced of the feasibility of growing the crop, and that,
should the report from the institute's factory prove satisfactory on receipt, he will seriously
consider the purchase of the necessary equipment to handle a crop of 40 acres next year, thus
having sufficient tonnage to take advantage of car-load rates."
Certain other crops which should be mentioned are hops, tobacco, and peas. These crops
are principally produced in the Fraser Valley. The following remarks contained in the report
of G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, give some idea of the importance of these crops:—
" Hops.—There has been a revival in the requirement for this crop and growers are finding
a ready market for the entire production. In the past two years acreages which were not
being cropped previously have been brought into production and there has been an increase in
new plantings.    Approximately 80 acres were set out this spring in the Sardis District.
" The season was not favourable for heavy yields and the production has been about a
70-per-cent. crop.
" Tobacco.—This crop is grown principally in the Sumas Reclamation Area, but smaller
plantings are located at other points on the Lower Mainland. The acreage amounted to about
600 acres, a reduction of nearly 25 per cent, over 1933 plantings. Of this acreage, nearly 200
acres were damaged by severe winds in September.
" Peas.—The Fraser Valley is well adapted for the growing of peas and until the last few
years practically no difficulties were experienced.
" This is a crop that assists materially in the develox>ing of a balanced farm programme
and the yields and quality should be the highest in Canada.
" Approximately 1,800 acres were contracted by the canneries for the growing of canning
varieties. In addition to this, there were about 3,000 acres in varieties suitable for the
"boiling-pea" trade. There were also over 100 acres contracted for the growing of pea-seed of
the canning varieties.
" The above-mentioned acreages do not take into consideration the acreage growing garden
varieties for the fresh green-pea market.
" Aphis and pea-moth were serious factors in some sections and caused considerable reduction ih quality and yield." R 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Small-fruit Survey.—In order to have available accurate information as to the acreage
planted to small fruit in the Province a survey of the small-fruit plantings is made every two
years. This work is undertaken in co-operation with G. H. Stewart, of the Agricultural
Statistics Branch. For survey purposes the Province is divided into the following districts:
A'ancouver Island, Fraser Valley, Clearwater, Salmon Arm, North Okanagan, Kootenay and
Boundary District. The following figures will give some idea of the variation in acreage of
small fruit over the last fourteen years:—
Acres. Acres.
1920      3,414 1928      5,756
1922      6,202 1930      4,813
1924     6,310 1932     4,989
1920      5,201 1934      6,159
Details of the 1934 survey with regard to districts and acreages in different small fruits
are on file and available in the Horticultural Branch Office, Victoria, B.C.
Stone-fruit Survey.—For the past four years the Horticultural Branch has each year
made a survey of the new stone-fruit plantings in the Okanagan Horticultural District. The
details of this survey show the estimated plantings of stone-fruit each year. The figures for
1930 are taken as a basis and were secured from our orchard survey of 1930. The figures for
the four following years have been supplied by nurseries or secured from other sources. The
plantings during the last four years show the following increases: Peaches, 60 per cent.;
apricots, 30.8 per cent.; plums and prunes, 26.5 per cent.; and cherries, 23.5 per cent. The
details of this survey according to districts are also on file in Victoria and available on request.
In 1933 the three-day pruning demonstrations were  replaced by one-day demonstrations.
Those proved very popular with the growers.    This year these demonstrations were again held.
In all, eighty-three pruning demonstrations were given, with a total attendance of 1,313 people.
The past season has been a most satisfactory one for producers of both vegetable and
flower seed. Climatic conditions have been excellent. There was an early spring which
enabled the growers to plant early. The summer was not as wet as it has been during the
past two years, while the fall conditions were most satisfactory from the standpoint of
Seed production in the Province is gradually increasing, although slowly. In practically
all lines there has been no trouble in disposing of all that has been produced, and even growers
who were not fortunate enough to obtain contracts have disposed of their seed at satisfactory
Both Eastern and British buyers are showing an increased interest in seed-production
possibilities in the Province, as evidenced by their letters and inquiries as to where seed can
be obtained or contracts placed.
This Branch has helped in every way possible to bring growers and buyers together, and
also by supplying growers with satisfactory vegetable stock seed, either certified or commercial. Assistance has also been given by making available to growers such seed-cleaning
machinery as at present owned by the Department.
It is recommended that the present policy of assistance be continued during the
coming year.
As in the past, different lines of demonstration-work were undertaken in the different
districts of the Province. It is only possible to mention briefly some of the more important
work as carried out by the different officials.
Lettuce Strains Tests.—\A7ork with various lettuce strains was undertaken by G. E. AA7.
Clarke, District Horticulturist, in the Lower Mainland, and H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector,
Vernon. Mr. Evans submits the following report on the work undertaken in the Vernon-
Armstrong District during the past season:—
" This is a continuation of previous work endeavouring to find the most suitable strains
of lettuce adaptable to Okanagan growing conditions in their resistance to tip-burn, bolting, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 23
and frost-injury, with the object in view of extending the cutting period in both spring and
fall-grown crops. AVe were able this season to procure several new strains, a number of which
show excellent promise.
" There were eighteen plots carried in both spring and fall crops. AVith the spring crop
nine strains were planted on peat-muck soil on the property of W. C. Boss, a vegetable-grower
at Armstrong. The other nine strains, which arrived too late to be included with the above
series, were planted on a clay-loam soil at Vernon. For the fall crop the whole series was
seeded on the peat muck at Armstrong. It is only fair and also gives much pleasure to express
at this time appreciation for the deep interest and close co-operation afforded by Mr. Boss in
conducting these tests.
" Growing conditions for both spring and fall crops were excellent. The following details
present the observed performance of the various strains at cutting period. Each plot carried
25 plants.
"Records of the W. C. Boss Plots, Spring Crop.
" Cold-frame seeded March 23rd. Planted in plots April 15th. Examined and recorded,
June 13th and 28th.
" Seed-house No. 1 Strains.
"Plot 1, Imperial No. 6.—Heads slack, not filling. Quality very fair; texture good. Tip-
burn and slime, 100 per cent.    (This strain unsuitable for spring crop.)
"Plot 2, Imperial D.—Heads filled and firm; 80 per cent, fit to cut; texture coarse but
brittle. Quality very fair; inclined to be bitter. Mixed in type, ball and pointed heads. Tip-
burn and slime slight.    (Very promising;  should receive further testing.)
" Plot 3, Imperial No. 2-50.—Heads filling but slack; will not firm to cutting stage; getting mature.    Quality excellent.    Tip-burn and scald, 95 per cent.    (Unsuitable for spring crop.)
" Plot If, Imperial F.—Heads all filling and firm ; 65 per cent, fit to cut. Quality excellent;
ball-head type.    Tip-burn and scald, 40 per cent.    (Should receive further testing.)
" Seed-house No. 2 Strains.
" Plot 5, Imperial No. G.—Comparable in all essentials to Plot 1.
" Plot 6, Imperial D.—Comparable to Plot 2 and 85 per cent, of heads fit to cut.
" Plot 7, Imperial F.—Type mixed, ball and pointed ; 75 per cent, of heads fit to cut. Tip-
burn, 25 per cent.    Comparative to Plot 4 in other essentials.    (Should receive further testing.)
" Plot 8, Imperial No. 152.—Heads filling and firm; 60' per cent, fit to cut; texture and
quality excellent; good ball type. Almost 100 per cent, tip-burn and scald. (Should receive
further testing.)
"Plot 9, Imperial No. 615.—Heads filling more slowly than some of the other strains, but
firm when mature; 50 per cent, fit for cutting; texture and quality very good. Tip-burn showing about 30 per cent.    Pointed type of head.    (Promising and should receive further testing.)
" Records or the Vernon Plots.
" Spring planting; seeded in open ground April 3rd.
" Seed-house No. 3 Strains.
" Plot 1, Imperial No. 2, Stock No. 91.,9X.—Heads filled but slack; 15 per cent, had bolted;
texture and quality good; ball-head type; 100 per cent, tip-burn.    (Unsuitable for spring crop.)
" Plot 2, Imperial No. 3, Stock No. 1UflX.—Heads loose and not filling; 30 per cent, bolted ;
quality and texture very fair; 40 per cent, with tip-burn.    (Unsuitable for spring crop.)
" Plot 3, Imperial No. 6. Stock No. 9322X.—Heads slack and not filling; 60 per cent, bolted;
quality and texture very fair.    Tip-burn, 100 per cent.    (Unsuitable for spring crop.)
" Plot It, Imperial No. 12, Stock No. 9165X.—Heads well filled, fairly solid; no bolting;
compact ball type; 80 per cent, fit to cut; texture and quality very good ; no bolting. Tip-burn
and scald. 75 per cent.    (Standard spring crop.)
"Plot 5, Imperial No. 1,1, Stock No. 9159X.—Heads not filling; very slack and bolting
badly.    Tip-burn and scald, 15 per cent.    (Unsuitable for spring crop.)
" Plot 6, Imperial C, Stock No. 26803X.—Heads filling well, but uneven in firmness; texture
and quality good; starting to bolt. Tip-burn and scald slight, about 10 per cent. (Should
receive further testing.) R 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA,
" Plot 7, Imperial F, Stock No. 26S07X.—Heads well filled and solid ; 75 per cent, fit to cut;
heavy deep-green growth; texture coarse; quality good. Tip-burn and scald, 20 per cent.
(Should receive further testing.)
" Plot 8, Imperial D, Stock No. 47250X.—Heads well filled and solid ; 60 per cent, fit to cut;
bolting just started ; compact type; texture coarse but brittle. Quality very fair; inclined to
slight bitterness; type mixed ball and pointed heads. Tip-burn and scald, about 10 per cent.
(Should receive further testing.)
" Plot 9, New York Special, Stock No. 26795X.—Heads filling, but very slack; 25 per cent,
bolted; type badly mixed; quality and texture good. Tip-burn and scald, 10 per cent. (Unsuitable for spring crop.)
" (Nos. 6, D, F, 152, 615, 12, and C for further tests.)
" Records  of  the  AAr.   C.   Boss  Plots,   Fall   Crop.
" Field  seeded July 21st.    Each plot carried 25 plants.    Examinations  made,   September
19th, October 1st and 16th, November 2nd.
, " Seed-house No. 3 Strains.
" Plot 1, Imperial No. 3, Stock No. 711flX.—September 19th, growing fast but not filling.
October 1st, just starting to head ; frost-damage medium on outer leaves. October 16th, heads
filled but loose, quality good. November 2nd, heads still loose; frost-damage no worse. (Not
suitable for this period.)
"Plot 2, Imperial No. 2, Stock No. 911f9X.—This plot comparable at all stages to Plot 1.
Quality fair.    (Not suitable for this period.)
" Plot 3, Imperial No. 6, Stock No. 9322X.—September 19th, growing fast but not filling.
October 1st and 16th, some heads firming nicely and will cut: others loose and will not fill;
strain not uniform. Frost-damage heavy, penetrating the head ; quality fair. November 2nd,
few heads firm; others no good; frost-damage very heavy.    (Not suitable for this period.)
" Plot If, Imperial No. 12, Stock No. 91G5X.—September 19th, heads filling nicely. October
1st, heads filled but slack; not fit to cut; frost-damage medium. October 16th, heads well
filled but slack ; quality good ; frost-damage heavy, penetrating heads. November 2nd, heads
were firm but not good: frost has almost ruined the plot.    (Standard crop strain.)
" Plot 5, Imperial No. Ifl, Stock No. 9159X.—This plot comparable at all stages and in all
respects to Plot 4.    (Would not replace the No. 12.)
"Plot 6, Imperial No. C, Stock No. 2GS03X.—September 19th, heads filling nicely. October
1st, heads firming nicely but not uniform: frost-damage very slight. October 16th, heads filled
and firm, ready for a cut-over; quality good ; frost-damage slight. November 2nd, frost-damage
slight: 75 per cent, of heads solid; good type and frost-resistant. (Should receive further
"Plot 7, Imperial, No. F, Stock No. 26807X.—September 19th, heads just starting to fill.
October 1st and 16th, heads filling slowly, growing to large size; frost-damage medium on outer
leaves : quality very fair. November 2nd, heads large, filled but slack; no further frost-injury.
This strain apparently needs long growing period.     (Should receive further testing.)
" Plot 8, Imperial D, Stock, No. lt7250X.—September 19th, heads not filling. October 1st,
16th, and November 2nd, this plot comparable at all stages to Plot 6. At November 2nd 80 per
cent, of heads fit to cut.    (Should receive further testing.)
" Plot 9, New York Special, Stock No. 26795X.—September 19th, heads just turning.
October 1st and 16th, this strain comparable to the No. 12 and Plot 4. November 2nd, heads
filled but slack; frost-damage heavy; would not replace the No. 12.
" Seed-house No. I Strain.
"Plot 10, Imperial No. 6.—September 19th, October 1st and 16th, this plot comparable in
these periods to Plot 3. On No. 3 the plot was better filled and firmer. Frost-damage very
heavy.    (Not suitable for this period.)
" Plot 11, Imperial D.—This plot comparable at all stages to the similar strain in Plot 8.
(Should receive further testing.)
" Plot 12, Imperial F.—This plot is comparable at all stages to the similar strain in Plot 7.
(Should receive further testing.)
" Plot IS, Imperial No. 2-50.—September 19th, heads starting to fill. October 1st and 16th.
heads all filled but slack; quality good; frost-damage heavy; could be cut as No. 2 heads.
November 2nd, frost-injury severe.    This strain might prove suitable on a different soil type. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 25
" Seed-house No. 2 Strains.
" Plot lb Imperial F.—This strain compares with the similar strains in Plots 7 and 12.
One noticeable difference was observed, in that by October 16th the heads were much firmer
and could have been cut over.    In Plots 7 and 12 there were no heads fit to cut at this date.
" Plot 15, Imperial No. 152.—September 19th, heads filling rapidly. October 1st, heads
filled and solid; 75 per cent, fit to cut; quality good, but possessing slight bitterness:; no frost-
injury; low growing compact type. October 16th, all heads filled and solid; those fit to cut
on October 1st were still in excellent cutting condition; no frost-injury. November 2nd, heads
overmature but still solid; six heads only had burst. (This strain has great promise and
should be further tested.)
" Plot 16, Imperial No. 615.—September 19th, heads not filling. October 1st, heads filling
and firming; quality good; frost-injury slight. October 16th, heads filled and fairly firm; 50
per cent, fit to cut; frost-injury slight to medium. November 2nd, heads filled and firm but
not solid; no further frost-injury.     (Should receive further testing.)
" Plot 17, Imperial D.—Performance of this plot comparable in most essentials to similar
strains in Plots 8 and 11. The difference noticed was a less number of heads fit to cut on
even dates with Plots 8 and 11 and an apparent deeper green colour tone to the foliage.
(Should receive further testing.)
" Plot 18, Imperial No. 6.—This plot comparable in most essentials to the similar strains
in Plots 3 and 10. The one exception noted was less frost-injury than apparent on Plots 3
and 10 at even dates of examination.
" In summarizing spring and fall performance of the various strains under test, I would
mention that but one seeding was made for either spring or fall test, and it is just possible
that an earlier seeding at both periods may have shown better results with certain strains
which in the present records are considered unsuitable for the Armstrong-Vernon District.
The following strains, namely, C, D, F, 152, and 12 did, however, give definite indications
of value and adaptability for both periods and are undoubtedly worthy of more exhaustive
trials. It is noticeable with the spring plantings the great variations in percentage of tip-
burn and tendency to bolt between various strains and the performance of the same strains as
regards frost-resistance in the fall crop. At the present time Imperial No. 12 for the main
spring crop is an excellent strain ; its tendency to tip-burn towards the end of the cutting
season indicates the need of further effort, if possible, to locate another strain more resistant
to tip-burn which would prove supplemental to and adaptable in extending the spring cutting
season of the No. 12. In the fall crop season the No. 12 performs very well in average seasons
for the early crop. If, however, there is an extended period of cool, wet weather at the heading stage, the heads grow large but refuse to tighten sufficiently to give a good cut of No. 1
heads. Also a severe damage will occur with a 7° to 10° frost when the head is in this
succulent stage. Several of the strains previously mentioned as giving definite indications of
frost-resistance will, it is felt, with further testing, prove their value for the fall and possibly
the spring crops. In this connection the performance of the strain No. 152 in the past season's
test showed outstanding promise in quick development, solidity of head, ability to carry good
cutting condition over a long period, and excellent resistance to frost-damage. The Imperial D
strain is also proving its value in frost-resistance, good quality, and late keeping tendencies."
It is anticipated that work with lettuce strains will be continued in 1935.
Beet Strains Performance Tests.—AA7ork with various beet strains has been carried on
for a number of years by HI H. Evans. The object of this work is to secure a suitable beet
for canning purposes. AA7ork during the past season has progressed favourably and a full
report is on file in this office.
Strairberry-plant Selection-work.—This project is being carried on on Vancouver Island
and is under the supervision of E. AA7. AVhite, District Horticulturist, who reports as follows:—
" This project was started last year and some progress has been made this year. As
reported, the plan was to select and stake 100 of the best plants in first-year bearing plantations
of different growers and then to propagate as many plants as possible from these in the fall
after the plantations had been cleaned up. Six growers were selected and agreed to undertake the work, but only three were successful in securing a supply of plants. In Gordon Head
W. J. Houlihan propagated about 1,500 plants and these were set out in a plot by themselves.
In Keating AV. H. McNally was able to secure about 600 plants and these were planted out in
two rows in the centre of a large planting of British Sovereigns.    These are the only Magoons Ii 26
now being grown by Mr. McNally. Bickford & Sons were only able to secure about fifty plants
and these were planted in the outside row of a new planting of British Sovereign. On a piece
of land under his control the writer also selected about 200 plants which were set out as a part
row in a new planting of Magoons. About 200 British Sovereign were also selected by the
writer and planted out this spring.
"As growth developed during the summer considerable variation was noticeable in the
vigour of the plants set out. Runners have been set from the best plants and these will be
used for continuing the selection next year. The plants set out in the spring of 1934 will be
bearing in 1935 and it is proposed to carefully watch the crop. If certain plants show improved
qualities they will be staked, and an effort will be made to again propagate from these staked
plants in the fall after the crop is harvested and the plants cleaned up.
"At the present time where comparison is possible no great difference can be noticed
between the selected plants and those propagated in the ordinary way. However, it is hoped
that some difference will be noticed when the crop matures next summer."
Trials with Sixty-day Golden Corn.—This corn, while perhaps not of as high quality as
some other corns at present on the market, has the advantage of earliness, a great advantage
from a marketing standpoint. This variety was tested out last year and again this year in a
number of districts, and in all cases was from ten days to two weeks earlier than Golden
Bantam. As there is now sufficient seed in practically all sections that is available to the
growers wishing to secure it, further trials with this variety will be discontinued. New introductions, however, will be tried in the future with a view to securing earliness as well as quality.
Raspberry Variety Tests.—Raspberry variety tests are being conducted in a number of
districts with a view to securing a variety well suited to a particular district both from the
standpoint of shipping and canning. The results naturally vary and depend largely on
seasonal growing conditions. One set of trials were conducted at Salmon Arm under the
supervision of C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector. The following is taken from his report
on these trials :—
" The cane-growth on the test-plots of six varieties of raspberries—namely. Count, Brighton.
A7iking, Lloyd George, Latham, and Newman 23—planted last year on the farm of Captain F.
Cox at Salmon Arm is somewhat disappointing. This is attributable in the main to dry
conditions, which were probably aggravated by the fact that in an endeavour to improve soil-
texture a cover-crop of hairy vetch was seeded on the plots last fall which was allowed to
stand a little too long in the spring before being disked in. AAliile the quantity of fruit picked
from the plots this year cannot be taken as a fair criterion of the respective merits of the
different varieties as producers, or of the quality of the berries, reference to the table given
below will give a tentative idea of the behaviour of the different varieties. It will be seen
that the Lloyd George variety, although somewhat late in maturing cane-growth, is so far
the most promising of those under test, and that Count and Brighton rank lowest.
" Owing to the poor growth produced this year it is doubtful if anything more conclusive
regarding the respective merits of the fruits can be arrived at next season than has been
possible this year, but should a satisfactory cane-growth be produced in 1935 it will be possible
to arrive at more definite conclusions in 1936."
Raspberry Variety Test, Salmon Arm. .  •
in Order of
Maturity of Canes.
Lloyd George
Newman 23...
Soft,  poor flavour...
Soft, very poor
Fairly  firm,  flavour
Firm, flavour good,
large berries
Firm, fair flavour,
berries small
Firm, flavour poor
to fair
Fair,  some green
Poor,   many  green
Very good.
Fair,   some  green
Note.—Cane-growth on all varieties weak. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934.
R 27
Work with raspberry varieties was also conducted by H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector
at Vernon.    He reports as follows:—
" Plots in this test were planted in the spring of 1932 at AV. H. Baumbrough's, Vernon
District. The objects in view were to obtain, if possible, a variety promising better quality,
yields, and hardiness than those at present in general use.
'.' Through the generally mild weather conditions prevailing in the winter of 1933-34, there
was no inducement to winter-kill in any variety of raspberry. This susceptibility of the
varieties under test was fully recorded in 1933. Powdery mildew, which was severe on some
varieties in 1933, was practically absent during the past season, the varieties Latham and
Newman 23 showing only a mild infection. These two varieties appear susceptible to the
disease, with severity of infection influenced by seasonal conditions. The Adams 87 is
extremely shy in cane-bearing, all others being quite generous in this habit. The standard
varieties of Cuthbert and Viking are not included in the plots, but are in Mr. Baumbrough's
commercial plantings and are three and two years older than the test-plots. Comparative
yields of these two varieties will be taken in 1935, when size of all bearing plants will be more
uniform. The Viking variety is inclined to be a shy cane-bearer. All varieties made strong
individual cane-growth."
Yield Table, 1934.
First Ripe
Yield in
Pints per
June 15     ..
June 15
June 23. ,
June 18
July  1	
June 23
June 10
June 18	
June 23
18 days...
20 days...
28 days...
21 days....
23 days...
24 days-
More or
less continuous
35 days...
27 days-
Quality  good;   colour   good;   size  small;   large   per
centage only fit for jam.   Much fruit would not be
picked if in commercial  plantings.
Newman 23	
Lloyd George
Adams  87	
St. Regis
apply with this variety.
Quality fair ; colour fair ; size medium ; berry firm ;
fruit very uneven in size ; badly attacked with a
fruit-worm.   Not promising.
Quality excellent; colour good ; size large ; berry inclined to be soft.   Excellent for local market.
Quality good; colour good; size fair ; berry firm and
dry ; some mildew.   Crop shy for size of plants.
Quality good ; colour poor ; size large ; many berries
spoiled with sun-scald and wind.
Quality very good ; colour fair ; size small. Crop ran
lighter than expected.
Quality excellent; colour good ; size good ; yield
heavy ; proving very satisfactory ; may yet replace
Quality excellent ; colour good ; size medium; yield
Raspberry and strawberry tests have also been conducted in the Vancouver Island and
Kootenay Districts and will be continued during the coming year.
Fertilizer Trials.—For a number of years various fertilizer trials with both vegetables and
tree-fruits have been undertaken in both the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts. Some of the
results have already been published in departmental circulars. Work of this kind was again
carried out during the past year and some excellent reports received which undoubtedly can
be used in preparing future publications.
All phases of orchard-management applied to the plots by the owners have been uniform
and good throughout. Trees that were root-injured in 1932 appeared to have recovered.
Terminal growth of the trees was excellent and the foliage large and of good colour, indicating
tree-vigour.    Details of this year's fertilizer experiment are on file at Alctoria.
Apple-scab Sprays.—Sprays for the control of apple-scab were again undertaken in both,
the Kootenay and Okanagan Districts. The work in the Kootenay District was undertaken
by E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, in co-operation with J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant
Pathologist.    AVhile Mr. Eastham will undoubtedly report on  a part of this work,  it would R 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
seem advisable that the work as carried out by Mr. Hunt be incorporated in this report.    The
report in question follows:—
" The control of this disease in the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes sections is still a very
important matter to the fruit-growers. Apple-scab is no doubt the Worst orchard trouble that
the fruit-grower has to deal with in this district. Due to this, a great deal of experimental
and demonstration work has been carried out by your assistant in its control. The work has
extended over a number of years and many materials and combination mixtures have been
tested out. Lime-sulphur has been, and still is, the chief spray material used in the control of
apple-scab ; but while efficient in the control of the disease, it is liable to cause serious foliage-
injury under certain weather conditions. Due to this a number of other spray materials have
been under test here in the Kootenay. AVhile most of them have given a much better foliage
condition to the trees, they have not in all cases proven as satisfactory as lime-sulphur in the
control of apple-scab, particularly for the susceptible varieties under the exacting conditions of
the Kootenay District. However, during the seasons of 1933 and 1934 the iron sulphate-lime
sulphur-calcium arsenate combination was given a thorough test in a number of locations in
this district in the control of apple-scab. This mixture in 1933 gave excellent results in all
sections where it was tried and seemed to be the most effective material so far tested out. The
material that year was used at full strength; that is, 10 lb. of iron sulphate, 2y2 gallons of lime-
sulphur, and 4 to 5 lb. of calcium arsenate to 100 gallons of water. Unfortunately, this combination mixture ran the cost up to almost double that of the lime-sulphur sprays, so it was
decided to make further test with this material and this work was carried out in 1934. The
main object of the 1934 tests was to find out how weak a solution of the iron-sulphate combination spray would control apple-scab under Kootenay conditions, also if the time between
sprays could be extended or one or more sprays omitted. The test-plots for this work were
located at Mr. Appleton's orchard at Sunshine Bay and the variety was Mcintosh Red, trees in
full bearing. The actual spraying-work was carried out by your assistant, and the checking-up
of the results was left in the hands of J. AV. Eastham, who will cover the work in detail in his
annual report. In conclusion, however, it might be well to state that the results indicate that
' two weeks ' between sprays is about the limit, and on the average year four sprays is not enough
for satisfactory control, but five sprays will cover the period of infection much better. Also
that the iron-sulphate combination mixture should not go below in strength of 6 lb. of iron
sulphate, XYi gallons of lime-sulphur, and 3 to 4 lb. of calcium arsenate to the 100 gallons of
water. This is 60 per cent, of the standard or full-strength mixture. The weaker solutions
of this mixture did not give satisfactory control of scab in the test-plots this past season. AVhere
growers used the 60 per cent, of the standard mixture they had excellent control of apple-scab.
This makes quite a saving in the cost of the iron-sulphate mixture and brings it down to almost
the cost of the lime-sulphur sprays, and a much safer spray material to use under Kootenay
Report on similar work as conducted in the Okanagan Valley at A7ernon by H. H. Evans
" The 1934 season constituted the fourth consecutive period of experimental work on scab-
control of the A7ernon District with this office working in conjunction with the Dominion
Pathological Laboratory at Summerland. Some changes were made for the past season in
construction of the formulre applied, and in Plot 6 a new one added in the cupric oxide-
bentonite-lime calcium-arsenate mixture. Formulie containing no lime-sulphur and which
appear promising are being tested in an endeavour to obviate sulphur-burn and stunt. In the
Lavington District climatic conditions were such as to make scab-control a very difficult
problem during the past season, but proved excellent conditions to give a severe test as to the
efficiency of the various formula*.
"The objectives in this work are: (a) Fungicidal efficiency of the various compounds;
(6)  observable physical reactions of the various compounds on tree and fruit."
Observable Spray-injury.—Actual spray-burn is made note of in the accompanying table.
Plot 1. besides slight burning the foliage showed off-colour and stunted. In Plot 2 the foliage
was large and of excellent colour. In Plot 4 the foliage showed good colour, but appeared to
have received a check in sizing. All fruit-counts were made by G. E. Woolliams, of the
Summerland Experimental Station.
There was a general spread of scab in June after the three usual control-sprays had been
applied and it was considered advisable to apply a second cover-spray to half of the trees in DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934.
R 29
each plot as a further check in control. This was done on June 22nd, fhree weeks after the
first cover-spray. In making scab-counts on the crop Mr. AA7oolliams stated there was no discernible difference in the percentage of control obtained for the three or four applications in
any plot, and for this reason he made no differentiation in taking fruit-counts. From this it
would appear as though three efficiently applied, properly timed sprays are capable of giving
satisfactory commercial control of apple-scab in the Vernon District. (For details on this work
see Appendix No. 1.)
Codling-moth Control.—Codling-moth is now found in practically all of the important tree-
fruit districts of the Province and the areas in which it is found at the present time show an
increase. A\There it is, general control is being undertaken by spraying. In some cases such
spray-work is controlled either by municipal or Provincial Government spray-zones, and in
one case—namely, in the Vernon District—by direct Government spraying. No attempt is
made in any spraying undertaken, regardless of what supervision, to eradicate this pest. For
a number of years this Branch through its officials has attempted to show the growers that
sprays, if applied at the correct time and.with proper application, can effect satisfactory commercial control. Demonstration spraying-work has been conducted by B. Hoy, District Field
Inspector, and M. H. Ruhmann, Assistant Entomologist, the object of the work being to show
the growers the best methods to employ in codling-moth control. Mr. Hoy's report, which
covers the work in detail, is herewith submitted for your consideration:—
" The codling-moth can be considered our major insect pest. It does more damage than all
of the other apple-insects combined and is the most costly to fight. Spraying tests over a period
of years have demonstrated that excellent control is possible if sprays are applied on time and
the work done thoroughly.
" Daily records are taken of the moth-flight during the season, and instructions as to the
time to spray given out by radio, telephone, and newspapers. This work is having its effect
and is closely watched for by all growers. AVhen instructions to spray are issued practically
every machine in the district is in operation in a few hours' time.
" The improvement in spraying has been very noticeable and each year increases. Only a
couple of years ago the really efficient operators in the district could be counted on one hand,
but now there are scores.
" The spraying tests conducted by this Department have played a major part in this
improvement. They demonstrated the possibilities of thorough and timely spraying, and the
most sceptical grower could not deny facts that he could see with his own eyes.
"On the spray plots conducted by the writer and Mr. Ruhmann. the results of which are
given in detail in Appendix No. 2, a field demonstration was held this year. AA7hile the attendance was not large, it represented practically every district from Penticton to A7ernon. The '
owner of the orchard told of the excessive loss in 1933. which ran over 50 per cent., and the
results of this year's work was there for evidence. The equipment with which the spraying
was done was on hand and a few trees sprayed to show the method of spraying.
" Codling-moth control-work occupies the major portion of your official's time throughout
the summer months in this district, but when it is considered that the work clone here is used
as a basis for the spraying throughout the Okanagan, the results in improvement of spraying
and control justify many times the expenditure of money, time, and effort."
Fire-bliaht Control.—As pointed out in previous reports, the Okanagan Valley is the
principal area in which fire-blight is found. The horticultural official stationed in the district
makes a careful survey of all tree-fruit areas during the dormant period. At the time of this
inspection new growers are shown the best methods of removing cankered limbs and holdover cankers, and all orchards are inspected with a view to removing as far as possible any
possible source of infection that might cause an outbreak of the disease during the coming
yopr.    Tha following table shows tbe area inspected in each district:—
Salmon Arm....	
Total Acres
Not passed.
Potato-beetle Control.—Potato-beetle control-work was again undertaken in 1934 along
similar lines to that carried out in previous years, and was under the supervision of F. A.
Marsack. There is little to report regarding this work except that the boundaries of the area
in which this pest is found are not quite as extended as in the past. As this section of the
Kootenay District is the only part of the Province in which the potato-beetle is found, it would
seem good policy to continue the present methods of control.
Nursery Inspection.—The policy of inspecting all nurseries in the Province was again
carried out. Records taken at the time of inspection show 139,465 trees inspected, with 2,618
trees condemned. The condemned trees amount to 1.9 per cent, of the whole. Under the
" Agricultural Act " it is necessary for all nurserymen as well as nursery agents to take out a
licence before making sales of nursery stock in the Province. During the past year eighty-six
licences were issued.
San Jose Scale.—In last year's report two outbreaks of San Jose scale were recorded. The
Chapaka Reserve infestation was sprayed in the spring of 1933 and again in the spring of 1934.
The results were very satisfactory, although a complete clean-up was not effected. This was
largely due to the fact that the trees were old and neglected and in many cases covered with
loose bark. The Indian Department, which is co-operating with us in the work, have agreed
to have the necessary tree-scraping done. If this is carried out this winter, another spray will
be applied which should result in complete eradication of the scale.
In the Kaslo District an outbreak occurred in 1933 in the same area where the pest was
found in 1924. Spraying was undertaken last spring and other clean-up measures instituted,
with the result that only a few live scale were found during the summer. Another spray will
be applied this coming spring.
The San Jose scale situation at Spences Bridge remains about the same as in the past.
AA7ith the systematic application of sprays, as well as by cutting and burning bush areas where
it appears in this locality, the pest is being kept well in check.
J. AA7. Eastham, B:Sc.
The work this year on apple-scab control in AVest Kootenay included the routine developed
in preceding years of determining the first date when ascospores were mature in the old leaves,
and issuing spray notices by telephone and through the press.
The opportunity is here taken to thank the local press of Nelson for its continued cooperation, through the prompt insertion of spray notices and other information for the growers.
Owing to the early spring it was anticipated that ascospore-discharge would begin earlier
than usual. Ascospores were, in fact, mature in the Fraser Valley by March 5th. Leaves sent
in by E. C. Hunt from AA7illow Point as soon as the snow was off developed ripe spores by
April 9th when kept in a moist chamber in the laboratory. Owing, however, to the unusually
dry weather in the Kootenays, development under natural orchard conditions was very slow
and there was little, if any, discharge until the end of April.
AA7ith the exception of 0.21 inch on April 1st and 0.06 inch on April 9th, there was no
rain in April until the 26th, when rain fell every day for a nine-day period. The first spray
notice was issued through the local press of Nelson on April 23rd, just previous to the pink
stage in Macintosh. A few growers may have put on a pre-pink spray this season, but in the
majority of cases the pink was the first spray given. The season was a full two weeks ahead
of 1933. On the experimental spray plot at Sunshine Bay the pink spray was applied on
May 15th in 1933 and on May 1st in 1934.
In 1933 a fairly extensive test was made of the iron sulphate, lime sulphur, calcium
arsenate spray at the strength' of 10~2%-5 (4), with exceedingly encouraging results, the only
objection being the cost, which was approximately double that of lime-sulphur, a rather
important matter under present conditions. It was therefore planned to test a number of
weaker dilutions to see if satisfactory control of scab could be obtained without materially
exceeding the cost with lime-sulphur. This work was clone, as formerly, in conjunction with
R 31
The orchard selected for these tests is, one at Sunshine Bay, in which scab has always
been a serious problem. Three combinations of iron sulphate, lime-sulphur, and calcium
arsenate were tested—namely, 6 lb. iron sulphate, 1% gallons lime-sulphur, and 3 lb. calcium
arsenate (Plot A) ; the same with the last spray omitted (Plot B) ; 6 lb. iron sulphate, 1%
gallons lime-sulphur, 1 lb. calcium arsenate (Plot C) ; 4 lb. iron sulphate, 1 gallon lime-sulphur,
2 lb. calcium arsenate (Plot D). All per 100 gallons of mixed spray. In addition, one plot
was sprayed throughout with lime-sulphur alone, 1 in 40. Spraying dates were as follows:
May 1st (pink) ; May 18th (calyx) ; June 5th and 22nd. The fruit was picked September
18th, counts being made of one entire tree in each plot.
Variety, Macintosh.
C Grade.
Check unsprayed	
L.S.  1-40—	
A, 6-1V2-3	
B, 6-1 %-3, three sprays only
C, 6-1 y2-i	
D, 4-1-2	
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
The season was a bad one for scab, as may be seen from the fact that the fruit on the
unsprayed tree was 98.1 per cent, scabby (1933 unsprayed tree, 67.7 per cent, scabby), but the
figures do not show very satisfactory control. This is due mainly to the plots being selected
in an exposed portion of the orchard and high winds at the time of spraying making it impossible to do a satisfactory job. In this particular season (total rainfall: June, 1.49 inches;
July, 55 inches; August, 0.03 inch) no advantage accrued from the fourth spray. There was
obviously a distinct lowering of the efficiency of the spray when any of the ingredients were
reduced below the 6-1^^3 in 100 gallons formula. This would appear to be the minimum
strength that can be recommended. The results obtained elsewhere were much better than
those on the above plots. The general orchard in which they were situated was sprayed with
6~1%~3. A representative Macintosh tree (2,378 apples) showed 83.5 per cent, clean and 16.5
per cent, scabby, and this mostly slight. In an ordinary commercial orchard at Willow Point
where the same mixture was used (four sprays, dates approximately as above) a Macintosh
tree gave 82 per cent, clean and 17.8 per cent, scabby. This is excellent commercial control
and the results obtained by these growers was confirmed by others. It is probable that the
6-l%-3 forrhula will be generally used in the Kootenays next year.
Blackleg of crucifers (Phoma lingam) is a widely distributed and often serious disease.
It was first reported in America in 1911, is now present in most of the United States, and has
been reported from a number of the Eastern Provinces of Canada, although not as causing
serious general loss. It attacks practically all cultivated plants of the cabbage family as well
as some weeds of the same family (charlock, pepper-grass, and various mustards). This latter
fact makes it difficult to eradicate if it gets well established. The disease is, moreover, spread
by infected seed. All parts of the plant above ground may be attacked, and when the seed-pods
are affected the seeds within become invaded by the mycelium of the fungus. Such infected
seeds will give rise to diseased plants which in turn serve as centres of infection. Many
such plants die, the tissues at the ground-level turning black, whence the name blackleg. This
is usually the stage at which most loss occurs, but the killing of large areas of leaf-surface,
and cankers on the stems, may seriously injure plants grown for seed in the second year. The
disease has been reported from British Columbia on specimens sent to the Division of Botany,
Ottawa, in 1932, from the Prince George area, but how widely distributed or destructive it was,
cannot be- ascertained. No case has been reported to the District Agriculturist there in the
past two seasons.
In June, 1934, the Plant Pathologist was asked to investigate the condition of two cabbage-
fields being grown for seed at Dewdney.    These comprised over % acre of Golden Acre, the R 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
seed of which came from Holland, and 2 acres of Penn State Danish Baldhead, from seed
purchased from a New York firm. The plants in both plots had made good growth and showed
a heavy set of seed. Many of the leaves showed numerous large spots filled with pycnidia.
many stems were cankered or completely girdled, and, most important, almost every pod showed
lesions. It was evident, therefore, that if this seed should be distributed the disease would be
spread far and wide, and the results would be seriously inimical to the reputation of the
developing seed industry of this Province. On the other hand, in view of the wide distribution
of the disease elsewhere and the possibility of its being reintroduced at any time on seed, it
seemed desirable before taking any drastic action to be sure at least that the Province was
otherwise free from it. Apparently there had been little loss the first year from the blackleg
stage of the disease, the grower having noticed nothing suspicious. This indicated that the
disease had originally only been present in slight amount. A careful examination of cruciferous
weeds in the areas surrounding the affected fields did not show any evidence of the disease
having spread to these hosts. AVith the assistance of the Dominion Seed Branch, a list was
obtained of all cruciferous crops known to be for seed in the Province and a systematic
inspection made. In addition, many commercial plantings in different areas were examined.
No other case of the disease was found. An amicable arrangement was therefore made with
the owner of the infected crops that he should carefully pull up and burn the entire crop. The
crop was duly destroyed and the land placed under quarantine so far as the further growing
of cruciferous crops is concerned.
Since the disease is widely distributed abroad and is liable to be carried in the seed, since
such infected seed does not show any symptoms likely to be recognized by the growers, and since
our own crops are free from it, there would seem to be a strong ease here in favour of buying
British Columbia seed.
The alfalfa grown in the Lytton-Lillooet District consists largely of a strain of obscure
origin, but supposed to have been- brought in by one of the original settlers soon after the
gold-rush days. This strain, it is stated by the growers, has shown exceptionally good results
in resistance to winter-killing and has gradually, for this and other reasons, superseded other
varieties. As conditions in this district are favourable for seed production, growers are looking-
for a wider market than the local one, and with this in view have submitted seed for trial by
the Dominion authorities at their various experimental farms. Unfortunately, both on the
Prairies and in Ontario it has shown itself susceptible to downy mildew (Peronospora
aestivalis, Syd.). "Lytton was heavily infected and severely damaged by downy mildew at
Lacombe and Edmonton, while other varieties of alfalfa were free or bore only traces."
(Report,  Canadian  Plant  Disease   Survey,  Ottawa,  1933.)
At the request of the Division of Botany, Ottawa, an examination was made of about
70 acres of the Lytton strain grown for seed at Lytton and McGillivray in July and a report
made. On the whole, the fields were remarkably free from disease. A little of the common
leaf-spot (Pseudopeziza medicaginis) was found in moister places, a little yellow leaf-blotch
(Pseudopeziza Jonesii, Nannf.), (Pyrenopeziza medicaginis, Fuckel) in patches in some fields
only. No wilt (Sclerotinio) or bacterial blight (Pseudomonas medicaginis) was found.
However, along irrigation-ditches and in spots where there was excess moisture from seepage,
Peronospora mildew was quite severe. The conclusions drawn from the inspection were that
the Lytton variety was probably an excellent one for Dry Belt conditions, being very free
from disease and winter-injury in its original district, but that it showed undoubted susceptibility to downy mildew under moister conditions. It would be a mistake to recommend
it, therefore, in non-irrigated sections, except on a small scale and in an experimental way.
An appreciable amount of loss occurred in the Kootenays during the past season in sweet
cherries, especially in the Bing variety, due to brown-rot. This has not been of any consequence ; in fact, has not been noticed at all in most years; but the fact that some loss was
involved in both 1933 and 1934 raises the. possibility of its becoming a serious factor. The
casual organism of this rot is Sclerotinia einerea and the rot produced is usually slower in
developing than that from S. americana, which is often destructive in the Fraser Valley. The
loss resulting from this disease is not only from fruit destroyed on the tree, but the development of infection in fruit apparently sound, during transit, results in claims for rebate, litiga- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 33
tion, and general dissatisfaction. It is planned, therefore, to carry on some spraying tests to
find a spraying programme that will reduce the amount of infection in the fruit. Blossom-
blight so far has not been observed in the Kootenay.
Coryneum blight (Coryneum beijerinckii) was found on two apricot-trees at Longbeach,
Kootenay Lake, the fruit being so severely disfigured as to be unmarketable. Severely affected
apricot fruit was also sent in from Lillooet in 1932. Several cases have been observed on
peaches at the Coast. Although none of the cases so far found are in areas of commercial
peach and apricot production, the fact that the disease can be severe under certain conditions
in the Dry Belt at Lillooet and in the Kootenays makes it seem possible that the apparent
immunity of the Southern Okanagan to the disease may be due to accident and not to climatic
conditions preventing its development.
There has been a considerable importation of trees, plants, etc., from the Prairie Provinces,
chiefly of hardy varieties and strains for those portions of this Province where the winters are
severe. Altogether 268 permits were issued for outdoor plants, covering the following: Fruit-
trees, 550; small fruits, 1,179; ornamental shrubs, 13,315; roses, 945; fruit seedlings, 344;
ornamental seedlings, 37; herbaceous plants and roots, 1,205; bulbs, 248; and scions, 42.
Many of these plants were going into the remote parts of the Province such as the Peace
River Block, northern line of the Canadian National Railway, and points on the Canadian
Pacific main line in the Rocky Mountain region, and permits for such destinations were issued
without any provision for further inspection, as it was believed that the risks of any pest being
introduced to the detriment of the Province by such shipments was negligible. Shipments
going into orchard districts, or where a District Agriculturist is available, were inspected
either at a point in transit or subsequent to planting. There were 127 consignments so
inspected and no disease or pest reported.
In addition to the above imporations, a general permit was given to the Superintendent
<f the Dominion Experimental Station at Beaverlodge, Alberta, to cover shipments to 130
British Columbia residents in the Peace River and other northern districts. These included
hardy strains of gooseberries, currants, raspberries, rhubarb, and lilacs, and other ornamentals,
the quantities being unspecified.
From the records given above it would seem that the risk of bringing in disease or pests
on bona-fide Prairie-grown stock is very slight. On the other hand, if all restrictions were
removed and the permit system abolished, there would be clanger of Eastern-grown stock being
reshipped here. However, the risk of insect pests in particular surviving the climatic conditions in the isolated northern districts and becoming a menace to the rest of the Province
appeared to be so slight that it does not seem to be necessary to put the settlers in such areas
to the additional trouble of procuring permits. Accordingly, the following revision of the
regulations governing interprovincial shipments into British Columbia was submitted for consideration to the Minister :—
Regulations   governing   Interprovincial   Shipments   into   British   Columbia.
(Subject to Dominion Quarantine Regulations.)
1. Points in the Peace River Block of British Columbia and all points along the main line
of the Canadian National Railway from Lucerne to Prince Rupert, inclusive. All classes of
nursery stock (subject to Dominion Quarantine Regulations) originating anywhere in Canada
may be shipped direct to consignees at any of the above points without being held or rerouted
for inspection.    No permits or special tags are required.
2. To all other points in British Columbia, plants grown and propagated in the Prairie
Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba may be shipped direct to consignee, but only
if provided with a special shipping-tag, attached for the information of the transportation company. To secure these tags it is necessary for the intending purchaser to write to the
Provincial Quarantine Officer, Court-house, Vancouver, stating the name of the nursery from
which the plants are to be purchased and the kind and number of each. A " permit" and tag
or tags will then be furnished the applicant to be forwarded to the nursery. Permits and tags
are only made out to cover specific orders.
3 R 34
3. Plants originating east of Manitoba and destined for any point in British Columbia other
than those specified in clause 1 must come to Vancouver for inspection. Permits and shipping-
tags are not furnished for such shipments on account of the danger of introducing two serious
pests, the San Jose scale and the corn-borer. Shipments originating in the Prairie Provinces
and not provided with direct shipping-tags will also be routed via Vancouver.
Much work has been done by AV. R. Foster at the Sidney laboratory on the cause and
development of the loganbeiry " dry-berry " disease. Since infection with the fungus (Hapalos-
phwria deformans) takes place in the open blossom and blossoming extends over a considerable
time, spraying does not offer much promise as a control measure, and here also the finding of
resistant strains seems to offer the only feasible control. A start has been made to obtain an
assortment of seedling loganberry-plants for subsequent testing. In the case of the same
disease in the raspberry there is fortunately a resistant variety of first-rate commercial standing available in the Cuthbert.
YV. R. Foster, Assistant Plant Pathologist, has again given much of his time to the problem
of cereal diseases and pests. A portion only of this work is reported here, but it seems probable
that tbe finding and use of resistant varieties will be the ultimate solution of many of these
In Table 1 the yield and percentage of stinking-smut in different varieties of inoculated
winter wheat at Armstrong, B.C., indicates that AVhite Odessa, Hussar, Ridit, and Oro are
resistant to the physiological forms of smut of that district and also appear to be suitable in
regard ro yield. This is the second year that these wheats have been immune to smut inoculum
of the Okanagan Valley. The test is being continued at Armstrong. H. H. Evans, District
Agriculturist, co-operated in this work.
Ta.blf 1.—Yield and Percentage of Stinking Smut in Different Varieties of Inoculated
AVinter Wheat at  Armstrong,  B.C.
Yield in
Bus. per Acre.
Hybrid 128	
Per Cent.
11 20
13 92
42 16
41 92
35 84
20 24
In addition, fifty-seven varieties of fall wheat are being tested in 228 plots, under the
immediate supervision of Mr. Foster, at the Experimental Station, Sidney; the seed being
inoculated with stinking smut from the Okanagan.
Hessian fly, a destructive wheat pest, has been causing considerable damage on A7ancouver
Island. This year, 1934, the Hessian-fly damage was high, particularly on certain varieties.
Page 35 shows the average percentage attacked and injury of different varieties. Dawson's
Golden Chaff, Egyptian Amber, Canberra, Imperial Amber, O.A.C. 104, Red Rock, and Triplet
were very resistant and appear to offer a practical means of control. Dawson's Golden Chaff,
Imperial Amber, and Red Rock yield as well as or better than the commonly grown variety
Sun, which is very susceptible to Hessian fly. Albit, Golden Sun, Kharkov, Marshal Foch,
Martin, Ridit, Sun, Victor, V.I.S. 131, AVhite Odessa, Yeoman, and Yaroslav are very susceptible. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934.
R 35
Object: To determine the percentage attacked and injury by the Hessian fly to different
varieties of wheat. A plot consisted of three rows a rod long and each variety was replicated
five times.
Average Average
Variety. Per Cent. Per Cent.
Attacked. Injury.
Albit   97.1 88.4
Baldmin     37.3 27.9
Berkeley Rock   11.9 11.0
Canberra   2.6 2.5
Crail Fife   66.7 62.4
Dawson Golden Chaff   0.2 0.2
Dawson's Golden Chaff (O.A.C. 61)   0.2 0.1
Egyptian  Amber    Nil Nil
Fortyfold     46.6 42.9
Golden Sun   97.2 88.5
Hussar  53.1 46.9
Hybrid  128    78.8 69.8
Imperial Amber   0.2 0.2
Jenkins X Ridit   88.9 80.6
Kanred X Dawson's Golden Chaff   2.4 2.0
Kharkov X Dawson's Golden Chaff   3.8 3.2
Kharkov    97.7 91.2
Marshal Foch   98.9 89.6
Martin   98.7 94.8
O.A.C.  104    0.4 0.3
Oro   47.1 43.3
Ridit     90.5 77.9
Red Rock  0.4 0.2
Sun     100.0 93.7
Triplet    •  0.4 0.4
Victor     99.4 96.1
V.I.S  86.1 75.2
Blossom-blight of cherries has been a serious cause of loss in the Victoria and Saanich
Districts for some years. The causal fungus is a species of Monilia. Specimens submitted
to the Oregon Agricultural College pathologists were identified as being identical with Monilia
oregonensis described from that institution, but not considered identical with Sclerotinia
einerea. Unfortunately, however, the spraying recommendation given for control of blossom-
blight in most fruit districts of the Pacific States (Bordeaux mixture just before blossoming)
has not, by itself, materially reduced loss from blight, while the labour of pruning out all
blighted spars and twigs, and so reducing possible infection, seems prohibitive, especially under
present price conditions. It seemed, therefore, that a more intensive study of the disease was
The Experimental Farm and the Provincial Plant Pathology Branch co-operated in this
experiment. Owing to an inadequate number of trees of one variety of cherries or plums to
conduct a proper experiment we obtained our replications by using different varieties. A plot
consists of one tree sprayed and buffered on the north and south side with a tree not sprayed.
The average set of 29,128 flowers on the north side of the Montmorency, Early Richmond,
Morello, and Olivet cherries and Peach plum was 20 per cent, less than on the south side.
The percentage set iii the north side was 9.43 and on the south side was 11.8 for the Montmorency, Early Richmond, Morello, and Olivet. AVhen the Peach plum is also included the
percentage set is 7.91 and 9.88 respectively. The significance of the difference of these figures
is apparent as 59,222 flowers were counted. The average set of the Montmorency, Morello, and
Olivet cherries on the north side of trees is 10.1±0.389 and on the south side 13.3±0.389—a
significant difference, as shown in Table 3.
The percentage of healthy fruits was increased over the checks by 34.1 for bud-spray,
27.1 for bud and calyx, 26.8 for calyx-spray, 16.3 for flowering, and 28.7 for flowering and R 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
calyx. (See Table 2.) The effect of spraying with Bordeaux at different stages on the percentage set of Montmorency, Early Richmond, Morello, and Olivet cherries and the Peach plum
is shown in Table 1.
Table 1.—The effect of spraying with Bordeaux at different stages on the percentage set
of Montmorency, Early Richmond, Morello, and Olivet cherries and the Peach plum.
Average Per Cent.
Stage. Fruit Set.
Bud     11.6
Bud and calyx          10.3
Calyx     9.3
Check  8.0
Flowering   9.7
Flowering and calyx   10.6
Table 2.—Total number of healthy fruits of Montmorency, Early Richmond, Morello, and
Olivet cherries and Peach plum after spraying with Bordeaux at different stages.
Number of
Stage. Healthy Fruits.
Bud     869
Bud, calyx   775
Calyx     771
Check    572
Flowering   6S3
Flowering, calyx   802
Calyx, two weeks  592
Bud, flowering, calyx, two weeks   500
Table 3.—Average set of fruit on the north and south side of Montmorency, Morello, and
Olivet cherries sprayed at different stages with Bordeaux.
Average Set.
Stage. North  Side. South Side.
Bud     14.8 17.9
Bud, calyx   11.8 13.7
Calyx     8.7 13.1
Check    8.8 12.S
Flowering       9.4 14.2
Flowering, calyx  ,  11.9 15.5
Calyx, two weeks   6,9 11.0
Bud, flowering, calyx, two weeks   8.9 8.3
Average    :  10.1 13.3
Some years ago work was carried on in collaboration with the Horticultural Branch for
the control of apple-tree anthracnose and a spraying programme developed which has proved
reasonably satisfactory. Since that date many new fungicides have come on the market and
the possibility of some of them being superior to those in use has to be tested. At the present
time AA7. R. Foster and E. AV. AVhite are co-operating in testing Bouisol, a colloidal copper compound,  against the standard Bordeaux  and  Burgundy mixtures for  control  of anthracnose.
A considerable amount of Mr.. Foster's time has been devoted to the preparation and
giving of lectures on " Inheritance and Breeding." Seventeen lectures were given, as follows:
Dairy Convention, Chilliwack (2) ; Sidney, Duncan, Inspectors of Cow-testing Associations,
Vancouver (2) ; Ladner, Dewdney, New AVestminster (2) ; Cloverdale, Hammond, Summer-
land, Kelowna, Salmon Arm, and the Gyro Club, Victoria.
A noteworthy event was the visit of Mr. Harris, specialist on the diseases of strawberries
and raspberries at the Experimental Station at East Mailing, Kent, England, and for a year
exchange research-worker at the Dominion Pathological Laboratory, St. Catharines, Ontario.
Mr. Harris spent several clays on a survey of the diseases of strawberries and raspberries on
Vancouver Island and the Fraser Valley. As a specialist, his knowledge of the diseases of
these crops was of much value to the plant pathologists,  inspectors,  and  horticulturists in DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 37
connection with certain obscure troubles of these crops, particularly the failures of strawberries due to root-rot and the " running-out " of raspberries. Perhaps the most valuable aspect
of his visit was his report that the raspberries in British Columbia were on the whole more
free from virus diseases than those in Eastern Canada, and that, so far as concerns varieties
already in cultivation here, it would be better to build up from our own plantings rather than
to import foundation stock from the East.
Max H. Ruhmann, B.A.
Co-operation with the Kelowna office of the Horticultural Branch in the codling-moth
spray tests was possible, and assistance was given in all spray applications and the checking
of results. As in previous years, a large block of apple-trees was selected which had shown a
high infestation of worms during 1933. This block was divided into a number of plots, each
of which received a different series of sprays. As in previous years, the results were very
satisfactory.    The details of this work will appear in the Provincial Horticulturist's report.
Apart from the information acquired from these spray tests, the number of trees used
for these experiments places the project on a commercial basis and becomes an excellent
demonstration  of what may be accomplished by any fruit-grower in his commercial work.
Mealy Bug.—The most important problem coining to our attention this summer was the
increased infestation of a mealy bug in the Nelson District. This insect has been a matter of
concern to the growers in this district for some years, due to the apparent difficulty of control
with the commonly used sprays. The rapid increase of this pest in the last two years, in spite
of the growers' efforts to control it, has made it necessary to make a major project of the
study of this insect, so that satisfactory control may be obtained.
At the end of June J. J. Campbell, of AVillow Point, near Nelson, was in Vernon, when he
requested us to make an examination of the conditions and to suggest a more effective spray
programme. Mr. Campbell provided transportation to Nelson. A thorough examination was
made of the infestation, which was found to be widespread through the AVillow Point orchards,
attacking particularly apple and cherry trees. In Nelson this mealy bug had spread to many
deciduous, ornamental trees. At this time, the end of June, large masses of eggs were in
evidence. These were just commencing to hatch, and arrangements were made to apply some
test-sprays in early August, at which time it was anticipated that, a spray might be effectively
Early in August we proceeded to Nelson and on examination found that the mealy bugs
had reached an ideal stage for effective control. The young mealy bugs were scattered on the
under-side of the foliage and were as yet unprotected by wax filaments. An average of eleven
young mealy bugs per leaf was counted on the trees selected for the spray tests. Adult mealy
bugs were only found on the trunk and main limbs of the trees, in most instances beneath the
loose, scaly bark.
On August 6th the following sprays were applied: (1) 1 per cent, oil emulsion; (2) 1 per
cent, oil emulsion plus % pint Deraten to each 100 gallons; (3) 1 per cent, oil emulsion plus
% pint nicotine sulphate 40 per cent, to each 100 gallons.
One hundred gallons of each spray were used, each 100 gallons of spray being sufficient
to thoroughly spray from seven to nine trees, according to the size.
An examination of the results of these sprays was made on August 9th. It was found
that practically 100 per cent, of the young mealy bugs on the foliage had been killed, no
variation being found in the effectiveness of each spray used. These sprays had produced
little effect on the adult scales protected under loose, scaly bark on the trunks and main limbs
of the trees, indicating the necessity of the thorough scraping of the trunk and main limbs of
trees with loose, scaly bark, before sprays are applied.
At the end of September an apparent increase was reported in the intensity of the mealybug infestation in the infested Nelson area since August. This district was again visited, and
on examination made on October 8th infestation at this time had materially increased. In one
orchard which had not been sprayed young mealy bugs were found on the trunk and under- R 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
side of the main limbs in masses, measuring as much as 6 inches in length, 1% inches in
width, and % inch in thickness. Much of the fruit in this orchard had to be wiped to remove
the sooty mould developing in the excreta of the mealy bugs on the fruit. An examination of
the trees sprayed in August showed a reinfestation from adjoining unsprayed trees. In no
instance were mature mealy bugs found at this time on the trees. Later reports received at
Vernon indicate a severe infestation of mealy bugs at Boswell.
Arrangements have been made with growers at AATillow Point to apply experimental sprays
during 1935, we to provide the spray material and apply the same, the growers to provide the
spray-machine, team and a man to drive and operate the machine.
Black Widoiv Spider (Latrodectes mactans).—This is the only known poisonous spider in
North America. A specimen taken at Summerland in a tomato-field was submitted to this
office in August. On a short descriptive note of this spider being published in the Interior
papers, specimens were received from many Interior points, including Nelson, Trail, Nakusp,
and from Enderby south to the boundary, indicating its general distribution. The few specimens received from these points seem to indicate that they are not very numerous. This spider
does not readily bite human beings, and although its bite is very painful it very rarely has
fatal consequences even in the tropics, where the blood would be less resistant to the poison.
The spider is represented by other species of the same genus in Europe, North Africa, and
South America, all of which are similarly poisonous, yet records of fatal results from their
bites are very rare.
Fleas (Ctenocephalus felisf).—For several years outbreaks of fleas have been reported
in local coal-cellars. Two such reports were again received this: year. All infestations have
been exterminated by the use of crude naphthalene, a by-product which is both cheap and
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus pernicious).—The two areas under quarantine for this scale
were inspected.    Excellent progress has been made towards the eradication of this pest.
The Eye-spotted Bud-moth (Spilonota ocellana) is showing an increase in the last two
years.    Unusually large numbers were captured in the codling-moth bait-traps.
The Fruit-tree Leaf-roller (Cacwcia argyrospila), which has been at a low ebb for some
years, is showing a marked increase this year.
The Oblique-banded Leaf-roller (Cacwcia rosaceana) is showing a slight increase and was
responsible for considerable culling of apples.
The Alfalfa Semi-looper (Autographa californica) was quite abundant in the North
Okanagan, Kamloops, and other Interior districts, causing- damage to clovers and truck-crops.
All infestations were heavily parasitized.
The Lesser Apple-worm (Laspeyresia prunivora) was much in evidence in the Coldstream
section this year, particularly affecting AA'ealthy apples. This section is still entirely free of
the codling-moth and the orchards are consequently receiving comparatively few arsenical sprays.
The Corn Ear-worm (Heliothis obsoleta), although noted every year in the Interior, rarely
reaches sufficient numbers to attract the attention of growers. This year it was unusually
numerous in the Boundary section (Grand Forks), the Lower Okanagan, and on Vancouver
Island, and many inquiries were received fearing the appearance of the European corn-borer.
It is usual for this moth to appear in increased numbers after a very mild winter in the
Interior of the Province.
The Forest Tent-caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) is showing considerable increase,
particularly in the Kootenay, from where several reports have been received of abundance of
caterpillars. Flights of the Cabbage-worm (Pieris rapes) butterfly were below normal this
year. The Diamond-back moth (Plutella maculipennis), which has been at a very low ebb
for several years, is showing some increase.
The Ugly Nest Caterpillar (Archip cerasivorana) was very numerous for many years,
making the country roadsides unsightly with its nests on wild cherry. About seventeen years
ago it suddenly disappeared completely from the Interior. This year a nest was observed on
wild cherry near Armstrong. The Red-humped Caterpillar (Sehizura concinna) is again
becoming conspicuous in some orchards. The Yellow-necked Caterpillar (Datana ministra) is
showing considerable increase. The webs of the Fall Web-worm (Hyphantria cunea) were
conspicuous  in apple-orchards.    The Peach  Twig-borer  (Anarsia  lineatella)  was  reported to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 39
be increasing in the Southern Okanagan. Cutworms were present in unusually few numbers
in the Interior.
The Dock False-worm (Ametastegia glabrata) larvse were unusually abundant this year
and bored into many apples on the trees in some sections. It is reported that this worm has
appeared in an export shipment of Delicious apples sent to the Argentine, and this is causing
some trouble. This could only occur through careless grading, as the injury caused by this
worm is very conspicuous, somewhat resembling a stem-puncture.
The Cherry-slug (Caliroa cerasi) is usually conspicuous in some orchards. Considering the
ease with which this sawfly can be controlled, it is surprising that it is permitted to cause so
much foliage-injury. The Violet Sawfly (Emphytus canadensis) is becoming a serious pest in
gardens. Pansy and violet beds are frequently seen almost entirely defoliated by the larva?.
The Cabbage-maggot (Phorbia brassicw) damage was lighter than usual.
The Onion-maggot (Hylemyia antiqua) infestations were below normal in the onion-fields
of Vernon and Kelowna. The Corn-blotch Leaf-miner (Agromyza parvieomis) showed a severe
infestation in South Vernon, where a fodder corn-crop was seriously injured, 80 per cent, of
the leaves being infested with from two to seven maggots. Grasshoppers showed a considerable increase, particularly on the range lands of the Southern Okanagan.
The Rose Cnrculio (Rhynchotes bicolor) was unusually numerous, wild and cultivated
roses being severely affected. Flea-beetles were destructive in cold-frames ; little injury resulted
to seedlings in the field.    Wireicorm (Elaterid spy.) injury appeared to be lighter than usual.
Woolly Aphis (Schizoneura lanigera) did not exceed a normal infestation. The new
canker paint is proving very effective in checking development of perennial canker. The Rosy
Aphis (Annraphis roseus) caused much less injury than in 1933. Tarnished Plant-bug (Lygus
pratensis) injury was generally lighter than for some years.
The Box-elder Bug (Leptocoris trivittatus) was unusually numerous this year and was
the cause of many inquiries in the fall of the year. Oyster-shell Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi)
continues to be a serious pest in the older orchards and requires thorough and timely applications of spray to obtain reasonable control. Black Cherry-aphis (Myzus cerasi) infestations
range from normal infestations in the North Okanagan to fairly heavy in the South Okanagan.
A. AV. Finlay.
The exceptionally mild winter of 1933-34 allowed greater activity than usual in colonies
of bees that should normally have remained quiescent for several months. This condition
resulted in heavier honey-consumption in winter, with consequent losses in early spring, due to
depletion of stores. Early examinations of March and April showed losses of 20 per cent,
above normal from starvation. A very wide difference in colony strength was noticeable at
this time between hives well supplied with sufficient stores for continued brood-rearing and
those found to be short. The former were able to take advantage of the favourable weather
during dandelion-bloom and stored considerable surplus, while weak colonies merely built up
slowly, resulting in a marked difference at the end of the season in the final crop obtained.
Continued warm and dry weather during the summer months favoured nectar-secretion from
clover and other plants on low lands of the coastal districts, especially heavy crops being
secured in the Delta areas : but yields were light on thin soils and high lands, particularly in
fireweed locations. The fireweed honey-crop was further affected by unfavourable weather,
though of short duration, during the height of its blooming period.
In the Dry Belt the heavy precipitation of the previous winter provided abundant water-
storage for irrigation purposes and, followed by a warm summer of continued fine weather,
accounted for a steady honey-flow of long duration from alfalfa and sweet clover. The absence
of sudden changes in weather conditions made hive manipulations; easier and swarming-troubles
more easily controlled. Losses from spray poisoning were lighter than usual, due to quick
drying of cover-sprays in the fruit-growing areas and to the fact that many bee-keepers had
moved their apiaries out of the fruit districts after experiencing heavy losses from this cause
last season. In connection with arsenical poisoning due to sprays falling on cover-crops in
orchards, it is worthy of notice that alfalfa harvested from orchards where trees were sprayed R 40
has been blamed for death of rabbits to which such alfalfa was fed when shipped to Coast
districts this year.
Winter losses were made up by natural swarming or artificial increase and the importation
of package bees and queens. Custom statistics show that package bees to the value of $2,452
were imported into the Province in 1933. Statistics for this season are not yet available, but
are estimated to be considerably higher.
Apiary Inspectors for the various districts commenced their work early in April, their
first visits being to apiaries where disease had been found and treated the previous season,
for the purpose of checking any further developments. Systematic inspection of disease-
affected areas followed, and this work continued as far as the allotment of funds for the
particular district allowed. All colonies found badly affected were destroyed at once and
diseased material burned. Colonies slightly affected were treated by the shaking method and
the contents of the hives, excepting the bees, destroyed by fire, but this only in early summer
when there was sufficient time for such colonies to recover and where proper facilities were
available. Except in cases that required immediate attention, or where the bee-keeper could
not be depended on to properly carry out instructions, this work was done by the owners of
the affected apiaries, who were required to notify the Department of the completion of the
work within a stated time. From the results of our experience in previous seasons, this practice
appears to work to advantage and allows the Inspector to cover more territory.
The following is a summary of the field-work done in this manner:—
Lower Fraser	
W. J. Sheppard	
111 addition to supervision of the work of local District Inspectors, apiary inspection was
carried on by your Provincial Apiarist in other parts of the Province, assisted by the various
district representatives who co-operated as far as possible in this work. The Kamloops area
was found to be free from disease. A7ery little around Salmon Arm, and from Revelstoke to
Cranbrook only two cases discovered. An outbreak of disease was found in two apiaries in
the Creston District which, though promptly dealt with, will require an early check-up next
season to prevent further possible development. The Kootenay and Slocan Valleys were clean,
with the exception of some of the apiaries in the Doukhobor settlements.
The Okanagan Valley was visited in July and again in August. Considerable disease
appeared in the vicinity of Penticton and Vernon. A bee-keepers' meeting was called at
Vernon, where your Inspector recommended certain measures to be taken for the control of
disease in the district by co-operative efforts, which were adopted and put into operation. A
detailed report of this was forwarded to the Department and the results will be closely checked
next season.
On the petition of the Oliver Co-operative Growers' Association, the numerous small
apiaries in the Oliver and Osoyoos Districts were reinspected in August and a very few cases
of disease were found and destroyed. These cases had developed after the careful inspection
of the District Inspector much earlier in the season and indicated the necessity for the extension of district inspection to allow at least a later check-up on apiaries where disease has been
previously found, especially in districts where small apiaries are numerous, in close contact,
and  bees kept mainly for pollination  as in  the canteloupe-growing  districts around  Oliver.
The transfer of the Provincial Apiarist's office from Victoria to the district office in the
Court-house at New AVestminster, including the apiary registration ledgers and accompanying DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 41
correspondence, has materially increased the work of this office. Six hundred and seventy-
eight letters were received and 922 sent out, this being considerably more than double the
correspondence for the previous year; 260 applications for registration of apiaries were received
and five cancellations recorded, making a total number of 3,081 registered apiaries in the
Province. Miscroscopic examination of 142 smears and samples of diseased comb sent in for
bacterial diagnosis were made and reports sent out with instructions for treatment. Of these,
ninety-one proved to be affected with American foul-brood, thirty European foul-brood, and
twenty sac-brood or sterile.
Exhibits of honey and apiary products at some of the larger fall fairs showed a decided
decrease in the number of entries and attractive displays. At Vancouver only twenty-one entries
were received, including one in the display class. Inquiries among bee-keepers regarding the
poor showing indicated that the reduction of the awards in the prize-lists did not allow sufficient
compensation for the preparatory work and cost of transportation for large honey displays to
and from the fair.
At Victoria a very good honey exhibit of fifty-four entries was displayed. Competition
here was keen, though not quite as good as last year. The honey was of excellent quality.
These and several smaller fairs were attended in an official capacity.
At the Imperial Fruit and Honey Show held in Leicester, England, British Columbia honey
was awarded first place in the most important class, open to the Dominions, a market case of
honey. Only two exhibitors from British Columbia competed at the Empire Show this year,
securing one first and two third prizes against strong competition. The falling-off of British
Columbia entries to the Imperial Show was due to dissatisfaction over the disposal of last
year's honey exhibits, the returns from which have not been accounted for to date.
The total honey of the Province for 1934 is estimated at 1,512,075 lb., the. largest recorded
to date for British Columbia and an increase of more than 250,000 lb. over that of last season.
This record is partly due to favourable weather conditions this season and, to a less extent,
the steady increase in number of bee-keepers and expansion of apiaries. Owing to a short
crop in a large part of the honey-producing States and other Provinces, due to drought,
importations of honey into this Province are considerably less this season, while market prices
are firm, from 1 to 2 cents higher than for several previous years, a condition encouraging to
the British Columbia producers.
AVallace R. Gunn, V.S., B.S.A., B.V.Sc.
Live-stock production for the year was a good average. The winter of 1933-34 was quite
severe if judged by its effects upon range live stock. Beginning during the 1933 Christmas
week over a large area of the range country, severe virulent outbreaks of disease hit with
paralysing suddenness. Repeated calls for your Commissioner called for immediate consideration.    The  report  of  this  epidemic  with  recommendations  will appear  later  in  this  report.
Market conditions for the year for live stock and live-stock products continued poor, with
perhaps one exception—namely, swine. Prices for swine during 1933 were so very low and
so entirely out of line with even the low prices received for other classes of live stock that
production naturally dropped off slightly and of course consumption markedly increased. The
result was a strong advance in prices in early 1934. Prices fell back somewhat in midsummer, but still remained at the end of the year at a considerably higher level than that
obtaining at the end of 1933.
Generally, the feeling throughout the country amongst live-stock men showed more
optimism even though prices for beef and lamb were much the same. In many parts of the
country, however, deplorable conditions exist, with the producer being borne down with the
weight of good-time obligations and demands and continued high overhead, and being compelled to take prices far below the cost of production. Producers are showing evidence of
recovery from the first stunning blow of the depression.    During 1934 they have shown an R 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
inclination to take an inventory of the situation. Speaking generally, they have in part looked
hopefully towards relief through the marketing legislation passed during the 1934 Federal
and Provincial sessions. In their stock-taking they have come to see the necessity for intelligent
production methods. During years of high prices the producers are able to get by even with
poor practices, but that is impossible to-day, and as a result they are turning to this department for assistance in the solving of these problems and for general direction.
The year 1934 saw a sudden awakening of interest in horse-breeding. The support given
the draught-Stallion owners through the Federal-Provincial premium policy contributed greatly
to the interest taken. The instituting of this policy necessitated an inspection of all stallions
applying for premium. The work took considerable time and necessitated some travelling.
Every effort was made to eliminate horses carrying hereditary unsoundness and thus advance
the quality of our commercial horses. There were in all fourteen horses inspected, with seven
classing A, four of these for only one year. There were three given B classification and four
refused classification.    In all, ten Clydesdales were presented and four Percherons.
It might be explained that for the most part horses classing A for one year are young
horses and the Inspectors felt it advisable to require another inspection again in 1935. AVhile
your Commissioner was very well pleased with the stallions reviewed, he is sorry to report
that the good old breeding horse " Craigie Maxwell" was allowed to be sold to go to Alberta.
Your Commissioner tried persuading against this, knowing that British Columbia needed this
horse. Your Commissioner has been able to place several stallions where they will do a lot
of good and has at present an order for several more horses.
The annual meeting of the British Columbia Horse-breeders' Association held in Vancouver was the best meeting since the formation of the association. It was quite evident
from the nature of the discussion that all branches of agriculture are anxious to advance
the industry.
Prices continued very disappointing, with many cattlemen facing bankruptcy. Hope for
relief through the recent marketing legislation gave encouragement. British Columbia's
opportunity still continues to be in the production of early grass cattle. In this way they can
reach the only market at all bare of Prairie cattle. British Columbia range conditions
encourage this type of production, in that there is early grass and of course not sufficient
grain for winter finishing.
The 1933 report called attention to the great losses resulting from timber milk-vetch
(Astragalus campestris) poisoning. There was much less trouble this year, but this does not
at all indicate a permanent reduction in the danger. All that is needed for another bad season
is the proper combination of circumstances. Knock-heel cows, which are the partially recovered
cases, are a great problem to the rancher. If they do breed they invariably drop late calves,
which does not contribute towards early grass-cattle production. Again, late calves are the
best subjects for outbreaks of coccidiosis and hemorrhagic septicoemia. These calves also
winter poorly at best.
During the Christmas week, 1933, your Commissioner was called to the Cariboo range
country to deal with what ranchers all agree was the worst outbreak of disease in years. It
was found necessary, due to deep snow and very cold weather, to work between a few ranches
and keep in touch with others in trouble by telephone, passing on the results of the day's
findings. Many post-mortem and microscopic examinations showed the trouble to be largely
coccidiosis, with some hemorrhagic septicemia in herds not inoculated against this latter
disease. Treatments previously suggested required distinct modification. Additional treatments and control practices had also to be used.
The epidemic was finally controlled in herds where our suggestions were followed out.
During the summer Circular No. 27 was prepared dealing with Coccidiosis, and this was distributed, together with Circular No. 23 on Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Circular No. 26 on
Deficiency, and Circular No. 24 on Necrotic Stomatitis, to stockmen and ranchers all over the
susceptible area. AA7ith this information definite improvement should be expected. Reports
to date this year seem quite encouraging. Of course the dangerous season is just approaching,
and again there is the possibility that without treatment conditions this year might not. produce
an epidemic of any magnitude, but over a period of years we will be able to judge. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 43
Hemorrhagic septicemia, its treatment and control, seem to be fairly well understood
by at least the better rancher. Necrotic stomatitis has been making its appearance for the
last few years much more extensively, but from reports of last year's outbreaks, where handled
according to our suggestions in Circular No. 24, I think we need not worry about this disease.
Experience extending over several years and during all seasons seems to point very
strongly to the possibility of a malnutritional background to many of these problems. Although
more work will have to be done before we can make definite statements, it- would seem that
certain mineral deficiencies, such as lack of salt, iodine, phosphorus, and perhaps calcium, at
least contribute to the trouble. These elements have been lacking during the summer and of
course in some cases during the winter months also. Observations made this summer would
seem to point to this being responsible for certain summer losses. These different conditions
seem to be interdependent. With the assistance of G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist, AVilliams
Lake, who is co-operating fully in the carrying-out of the work, it is hoped that many of these
problems which are to-day contributing to the low calf-crops and high losses will be at least
greatly modified.
The general feeding methods and the condition of the ranges is very seriously modifying
the range live-stock situation. Observations made definitely point towards faulty nutrition
being a primary and contributory factor towards much of the range live-stock troubles. Faulty
nutrition is also responsible for the slow maturing qualities and the lack of scale shown by
live stock in certain sections. This problem is being attacked on the area plan and, with the
help of the Field Crops Commissioner and the district men, it is hoped to correct this situation.
Better field crops and greater variety in the crops grown, with consideration given to silage-
crops, is part of the programme. Another very serious situation obtains to-day throughout a
large part of the range-cattle country. Winter-killing of alfalfa on the irrigated land occurs
often two or even three years out of five years, and the extent of kill varies from 10 or 15
per cent, to as high as 50 or 60 per cent. AVhere a severe loss occurs over large areas two
years in succession the winter-feed situation becomes serious for the rancher. .Some very
encouraging results have been secured with new resistant, alfalfa varieties. Greater attention
is being given to late irrigating by many of the ranchers and the advisability of using snow
fences to keep the snow from drifting off the larger open spaces, and when the usual January
thaws hit the entire snow covering may not be removed, exposing the alfalfa-crowns to severe
freezing. A study of air-currents is also being made. Some general range-improvement work
is being done by introducing where possible crested wheat-grass for reseeding. Encouragement is being given where feasible to the idea of deferred and rotated grazing. Along with
this is being done work on the eradicating of certain diseases on the area plan. Better sires
are being used even although the price of cattle is very low.
At this time it is not possible to give a complete report for the calendar year, but George
Pilmer, Recorder of Brands, reports that:—
" As far as can be seen at present, shipments of cattle from the Cariboo District will be
practically the same as in 1933. Kamloops-Nicola may show an increase of perhaps 30 per
cent, over 1933. The other parts of the Province will be about the same as in 1933, except
the Peace River Block, which will be double the 1933 shippings. This area is of only minimum
importance in the cattle-shipping business as yet. To date this year some 800 head have
gone out of the area.
" Since all old stocks of hides went out last'year, with sudden improvement of prices, hide
shipments will again be about normal and of course lower than in 1933.
" There seems to be little criticism of the ' Stock-brands Act' by the stockmen. Range
riders may be objected to by certain people, but only by the use of experienced riders will we
ever get away from the cattle-stealing that is going on steadily. Cattlemen are helpless in
the hands of these outlaws, being afraid of their retaliating.
" Convictions were secured as follows: Slaughter on the range at Invermere, illegal branding at AA7illiams Lake, and one at Hanceville, and a case of cattle-stealing at Merritt. It was
not deemed necessary for the Brand Commissioners to meet during the year. Registrations
show an increase of more than 50 per cent, over last year. Renewals are coming in more freely
this year, about 30 per cent, having been received to date.    The usual annual supplement of R 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the Brand Book for 1933 was printed and distributed, as, well as the regular monthly lists of
brands issued."
The dairy industry, like most branches of agriculture, suffered from low prices for
milk and milk products. Adjacent to the larger centres there is of course a surplus of milk
being produced and the producers are endeavouring to force their product on the market. The
only way to correct much of this is for more of our farmers to turn to mixed farming with
hogs or poultry and perhaps a cash crop to balance the programme. Experience has taught
that on farms where there are a few good cattle, a few brood sows, and perhaps a few
hundred chickens, there seems to be a minimum of production losses, and invariably there is
some profit in at least one line of activity to carry the farmer through.
Replacement cattle to quite an extent resulting from breeding problems furnishes a very
serious problem. Since dairy-farmers have not taken due consideration of the problem of
disease, they are to-day paying a very heavy toll in animal replacements running from perhaps
8 per cent, to as high as 35 per cent. The producing lifetime of the average dairy cow to-day
has been so shortened that it very greatly adds to the cost of milk production. Most certainly
dairy-farmers should give consideration to the genetical side of this subject and try to build
up strong vigorous strains, with of course reasonable type and production. These replacement
cattle bring very little when marketed and without a doubt very seriously injure the beef
industry. This cull beef goes on the market to set the price for the better grades, and
unfortunately places Canada in the export field in beef, and this always means that a world
price applies.
The warble-fly programme of the Branch in the Deep Creek area was supervised by H. E.
Waby, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm. Our first year's work in 1933 showed nearly 1,000
warbles on some 400 cattle in the first examination in early February. On the February, 1934,
visit our Inspectors only found three warbles on the first 200 head of cattle examined, which
shows very conclusively the progress that we are making. Our March, 1933, count showed
1,850 warbles and the March, 1934, count but a very few warbles, which shows progress. The
Deep Creek area was extended for 1934 to take in a further territory including the town of
Salmon Arm. This added some 200 head more cattle to the area. The small herds within the
town did not have many warbles, since many of the owners had been expelling the warbles
and destroying them.
Under the supervision of G. AA7. Challenger, District Agriculturist, Kamloops, an area
containing some 500 head of cattle in the Upper Louis Creek Valley was treated. In this area
the February treatment was dispensed with and the March treatment showed some 3,500
warbles, averaging 7.4 warbles per animal. The April treatment saw the average of 3.7
warbles per animal. This area is going forward again during 1935 and may be extended
The farmers in all these areas are highly pleased with the results secured to date and
report cattle grazing much more quietly with little or no gadding.
Up to the present in the areas considered we very fortunately have not been troubled to
any great extent with the late warble-fly, which makes it unnecessary to treat more than three
times, and oftentimes only two treatments seem necessary. AVhen finally trying to get the
last warble it may be necessary to give a late treatment.
Experiments conducted with British Columbia prepared Derris powder in comparison with
the best of the imported product in our 1933-34 work showed that the local product could safely
be used at half the strength of the outside product and would secure a perfect kill. This is
going  to  reduce very  materially  the cost  of  the  work  and,  as well,  increase its  efficiency.
Sheep-ranchers do not seem to be supporting the annual sheep sale held in Kamloops in
the way they should. Good rams were passed in and out of the ring to later be purchased
by private treaty at fair prices. If the sale has to be discontinued, sheepmen will have to
do much of their buying by correspondence and of course will have to pay transportation. The
average of the 1934 sale was $23.65. Average for four Rambouillet was $23.12, for fifteen
Hampshires $23.35, for two Suffolks $71.25, for one Shropshire $20, for one Cheviot $15, for DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 45
three Ronmellet $18.66, and one Oxford $15.    The top price of the sale was $127.50, paid for
a Suffolk shearling ram.
Price of lamb was up somewhat from 1933. The average price for choice lamb for January
and February was from $6.25 to $6.75, March $7.25, and April $7.75. The peak for the year
of $10.50 was reached during middle May. June first saw prices $9.50, and by the end of
June $8.50, early July $7.75, and the end of July $6.50. The middle of August saw prices at
$5.75, with the low point of the year, $5.25, coming towards the end of September. October
and November averaged $5.50 and the end of December saw choice lambs selling for $6. The
prices for butcher ewes started off in January at $2.75, gradually rising to a peak of $5 by
the middle of May, and gradually going down by the end of December to the $2.75.
Your Commissioner can report some very encouraging improvement in the area sheep plan
mentioned in previous reports. This area-work for the present has been largely confined to
the islands. The foundation-work beginning with cleaning-up of the flocks and premises has
been now largely taken care of and definite advancement has been made in the way of improvement in type and quality. Some twenty choice rams were placed in this area under
the Farmers' Institute sire policy of the Provincial Department of Agriculture. The next
piece of work to be undertaken for the improvement of this area has to do with better crops
and especially better pastures. The plan is to have certain slashing done and as soon as it is
burned off seed down in time to catch the early rains. This plan, it is felt, will ensure tame
pasture and yet not reduce the often limited acreage being used for the growing of cultivated
crops and grain.
The active executive and members of the Saltspring Island Sheep-breeders' Association
staged their second annual sheep field-day on June 4th, 1934. This event brought out perhaps
1,200 people from all parts of the adjacent, islands and the Lower Mainland. In addition to
it being one of the largest and best sheep shows, it was a real outing for every one, with
amateur and professional sheep-shearing contests, sheep-dog trials, and sports events. There
was also a particularly fine display of wool and woollen handicrafts.
Predatory animals still continue to take a toll from the sheepmen. Sheep losses from
dogs is still one of the great problems. In 1933 there were 229 sheep killed, for which $842.10
was paid in compensation, 111 chickens valued at $40.65, two geese valued at $4, eighteen
turkeys valued at $60, and one goat valued at $9. Up until December 31st this year there
have been 199 sheep killed, valued at $1,077.40, 122 chickens valued at $155.15, and 159 turkeys
valued at $82.50. In all, for 1933 some 361 animals were killed, valued at $955.75, and in 1934
480 animals were killed, valued at $1,315.15. Some of this increase in cost may be attributed
to a small increase in value of live stock, but is largely due to the fact that many of the sheep
destroyed were registered animals.
Department assistance was again given in support of Lamb Week in early September.
The AA7illiams Lake Annual Fair and Sheep Show and Sale was an outstanding success, with
a decided improvement in quality and numbers even over last year's standard. This event is
to-day receiving the support of the stockmen of the entire surrounding territory.
The Canadian Legation in Japan put us in contact with certain Japanese groups interested
in Shropshire sheep. The Japanese firm purchasing required departmental supervision and
selection in the purchase. The order was divided between five of our better breeders of purebred Shropshires. Judging from letters received through the Canadian Legation, the purchasers are entirely' satisfied and highly pleased with the selection. They furnished us with
photographs of the shipment on pasture in Japan and reported them in good health and
British Columbia continues to be an importer of over 150,000 head of hogs yearly from the
Prairie Provinces, especially Alberta. AVith a good market for this product, it is to be
expected that Prairie breeders will continue to produce this class of stuff. This type of hog
frequently carries considerable disease and is undoubtedly responsible for much of our
At the present time certain insidious disease-like conditions are making severe ravages in
many of the larger' herds. This is further evidence of the results of extreme specialization.
This still unnamed condition seems to hit pigs shortly after weaning, and with winter litters
commonly results in 100 per cent, losses. R 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Pneumonia is the prominent symptom, and while some cases seem to live through the
attack there are some more or less chronic cases which take eight to ten months to make the
marketable weight of 200 lb. AA7hile infection of a low type is present, together with the germ
of hemorrhagic septicemia, there is a primary contributing factor which enables these secondary
invaders to gain a foothold. Where this disease hits a large herd it is advisable for the swine-
man to farm out his sows and take back the weanlings at, say, a month after weaning. Where
sows are to farrow on the home ranch, only summer litters should be raised and these produced in individual colony houses on alfalfa or clover pasture. All colony houses should be
thoroughly cleaned up and sows well scrubbed before being placed in these houses. Young
pigs should not be allowed access to the sow's trough under any circumstances, and should
not be weaned before 5 or, better, 6 weeks of age, and then alfalfa pasture should form a
good part of the ration.
There were in the Province the following junior clubs:—
Swine— 1933. 1934.
Number of clubs      12 9
Total membership       94 88
Number of pigs exhibited   188 176
Number of clubs      25 21
Total membership    208 197
Number of calves shown   208 197
Number of clubs  .-     29 31
Total membership    239 216
Prize-money for Swine Clubs amounted to $294, with the Provincial and Dominion Departments of Agriculture and the local organization contributing equally. Prize-money for the
Calf Clubs amounted to $672, with the Provincial Department of Agriculture contributing one-
half the prize-money and the local organization contributing the other half. Poultry Club
prize-money amounted to $183, contributed entirely by the Provincial Department of Agriculture.
British Columbia again competed in Toronto in the interprovincial competition staged under
the direction of the Canadian Council on Boys' and Girls' Club Work, with a dairy-cattle team,
a swine team, and a poultry team. Our dairy-cattle team, made up of George Lockhart and
Sam McCallum, of Armstrong, competed against teams from six other Provinces and placed
fourth. George Lockhart came forward with a score of 87 points in the Jersey division to
tie with the best man in the winning team from Ontario. George made a perfect placing in
the judging of Jerseys, three points above the nearest competitor, the only perfect score made.
Sam McCallum made very excellent scores in both Ayrshires and Holsteins.
In the swine competition British Columbia was represented by Charles Frolek and Wm.
Belcham, of Kamloops, placing seventh in a very stubbornly contested competition with eight
Provinces competing. In the poultry competition British Columbia was represented by Cyril
Joyce and Glen Jordan, of Salmon Arm, placing fourth with four teams competing.
Henry Rive, B.S.A.
Production of milk has been uniformly high throughout British  Columbia.   Dairy  crops
and fodders have yielded well, and food stocks at the end of the year are good.  Mild weather
has appreciably lengthened the season, but while volume is greater than usual, prices for all
dairy products remain low.   Mill-feeds are considerably higher in price.
Milk  plants,  creameries,  cheese-factories,   and  other  manufacturing  establishments  have
been visited regularly during the year.   The grading and testing of milk and cream, sanitation,
methods, and general conditions at each of these were duly inquired into and corrective advice
offered where necessary.   The factories of the Lower Mainland were attended to by F. Over- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 47
land; those of the Southern Interior by F. C. AVasson, with calls made intermittently on the
plants of the Islands and of the Central Interior.
Checking of grading and testing practices has been regularly carried out, with numerous
calls on producers. Improvement of methods and of product may be claimed for the creameries
of the Province, which still produce far less butter than is required for local consumption. Sale
of butter in the retail package labelled according to grade is eagerly awaited by all concerned.
AA7ith the necessary amendment to the "Dairy Industry Act" (Federal) in effect, similar
provision when made by the Provincial Legislature should shortly result in fully established
control. It is felt that many grievances may be removed by the enforcement of this measure,
which should assist greatly in maintaining prices.
A relatively considerable increase in cheese-manufacture has occurred during the year,
again due largely to milk-supplies being diverted from other channels. The increase is largely
of Cheddar cheese, which naturally preponderates. Demand increases slowly for Roman,
Kingston, and Monterey. Farm dairies make small quantities of Cheshire, Swiss Brick, and
Camosun. The demand for local products is fair and could be further built up. Much cheese
is brought in from outside points.
A six-day demonstration of farm cheese-making was held at Wistaria, Ootsa Lake. A
simple type of cheese suited to the purpose, ripening sufficiently for consumption in six weeks
or thereabouts, was dealt with. Twelve women of the district took part, some attending
regularly throughout the course.
Evaporated milk, in common with other dairy products, has remained unfavourably low
in price. Less has been made than usual. The condensery at South Sumas (Borden's, Ltd.)
and that at Delair (F.V.M.P.A.) have operated much as usual. The former during the season,
the latter more continuously. The manufacture of powdered milk and casein has not met much
financial encouragement. These products give this Province the right to the name of exporter
of dairy produce, evaporated milk and powdered milk being shipped to Britain, to the Orient, or
elsewhere, as opportunity affords. The total exported is not great, but provides a much-needed
outlet. Of powdered milk, much more is imported than is locally manufactured; of evaporated
milk, our production more nearly equals consumption, but competition from other Provinces
It is necessary to bring condensed sweetened milk into British Columbia, none being made
within the Province.
Due mainly to a longer and warmer season, more ice-cream has been made than for several
seasons. Late in the year registration of several new firms of Vancouver as ice-cream manufacturers has taken place.
Operating in British Columbia there are twenty-six manufacturing creameries, three cheese-
factories, two condenseries, fourteen wholesale ice-cream factories, with many small ice-cream
plants, and one plant each for milk-powder, casein, and semi-liquid buttermilk.
There continue twelve Cow-testing Associations with fifteen routes. Membership in these
associations, which decreased in numbers in 1931 and 1932, increased, however, during the
year following and has gained substantially in 1934. A 10-per-cent. rise in the number of herds
on test with over 400 additional cows is reported. Subsidies to all associations have gone on
as heretofore.   Extension of the work may be expected as times improve.
The Fourth List of Dairy Sires is now in the press. For the first time, in addition to
chronicling simply the performance of daughters and their dams, index figures for each sire
are given (Modified Mount Hope System), affording valuable information as to the transmitting R 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
qualities of the dairy bulls of the Province. These calculations take much time, but the end in
view, that of controlled, progressive, profitable breeding operations, is worthy of all possible
effort.  The work of herd improvement continues under the supervision of G. H. Thornbery.
The course for 1934 was held January 22nd to February 8th at the premises of the Associated Dairies, 1170 Hornby Street, Vancouver. Concurrently, on account of testing facilities,
the course for intending supervisors was held. Fifteen in all lines attended. Eight passed the
tester's licence examination successfully, three of these in the supervisors' course. Six have
been issued cream-graders' licences. One is withheld until factory experience is secured. The
course for 1935 is to be held in the same premises, commencing February 4th.
During the year seventeen applicants were examined. Sixty-four licences were issued.
Forty-five combined cream-graders' and milk-testers' licences were issued. To fifty-six persons,
firms, companies, or associations, buying milk or cream on the basis of the butter-fat content,
licences were issued.
Details covering licences issued in 1934 are on file in the office of the Dairy Commissioner.
A7ictoria, B.C., and particulars are available upon request.
A. Knight, A7.S.
Owing to the limited number of Inspectors the year has been an arduous one. Sections of
the Province not previously covered by your Inspectors have called upon us to investigate
various diseases and carry out tuberculin testing. This has entailed considerable time over
and above the work that has been carried out in previous years. As new sections are opened up
and new settlers take up the land they call upon the Veterinary staff for certain information
relative to stock-raising. Also outbreaks of diseases have occurred which have taken up considerable of the time of your Inspectors, but no extensive outbreaks have occurred to cause any
general serious loss. A number of isolated settlers have suffered from the loss of a few head
of cattle, but it has not assumed serious proportions. I beg to submit a list of the diseases
under their various headings which have been investigated throughout the year.
Small losses have occurred, especially among young stock, through the onset of this disease.
In the Ootsa Lake area one settler lost six calves out of seven. Other losses have occurred, hut
I am not satisfied that these are due to hemorrhagic septicemia, and I am of the opinion that
they were due to some form of plant-fungus which may have caused the disease known as
botulism. Owing to climatic conditions some years this trouble has been found to occur, as
temperature and moisture are factors in producing this disease, especially on some classes of
fodder or forage plants. When prophylactic measures are adopted, such as the treatment for
hemorrhagic septicemia, this disease can be kept in check, and the settlers, where they have
had trouble, have been so advised.
During the year Dr. McKay has inspected some 19.000 head of sheep. The disease appears
to be more prevalent in sections of the Okanagan and the chief trouble has occurred on certain
range areas. This disease is amenable to treatment, but to thoroughly disinfect and cleanse
the bedding-grounds of sheep is rather a difficult matter. I am satisfied that the continued
source of infection occurs from infected bedding-grounds or corrals, and treatment includes
thoroughly cleansing such pens of manure and removing same, together with the top soil, before
the disease can be checked.  Usually we find on the open range under severe winter temperatures DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 49
that such ranges are considered safe the following year. Where the bedding-grounds have not
been thoroughly cleansed there may still remain sufficient of the virus that it only awaits the
coming of warm weather or suitable temperatures before we have another outbreak.
It is the practice to inspect all sheep on their home ground before they are allowed to move
along a public highway or open range, and your Inspectors are endeavouring to carry this
out in the most effective manner. In past years minor outbreaks of this disease have occurred
amongst cattle, but at no time has it assumed any serious proportions. Purchasers anticipating
stocking up with sheep could protect themselves to a great extent by looking into the general
health of the flocks before they purchase. If any number of sheep are lame it would not be
advisable to purchase from such flocks until they had been thoroughly inspected.
Only isolated cases of this disease have been found by your Inspectors this year. AA7here
such cases are found, especially in milk herds, the milk from such cows is prohibited from sale
and the animal is quarantined so as to prevent contact with outside cattle. In the early stages
treatment is advised which can be carried out fairly successfully, but in the advanced stages
there is no successful remedy.
This trouble is continually with us and is somewhat prevalent throughout the Province,
but not any more noticeable this year than in former years. Your Inspectors have always
advised farmers as to sanitary measures to adopt so as to control the spread of this disease as
much as possible. A number of the practising veterinarians throughout the Province are
equipped to make blood tests for this disease, and if instructions are carried out thoroughly the
losses can be kept down to a minimum. The advice rendered by your Inspectors has been of
considerable help to the farmers and dairymen in the control of this disease.
The above disease is somewhat new to this Province and only one outbreak has been
brought to our attention during the past year. This disease is incurable and is spread to
healthy cattle when they are on contaminated ground or in surroundings where a previous case
of the disease has existed. It may also be introduced by purchasing cattle from diseased herds.
The Abian form of tuberculin can be used as a diagnostic agent; also injecting Johnin into
the blood-stream, following the injection with the taking of temperatures, has proved successful
as a means of diagnosis. A thorough cleansing of the yards and premises and quarantining
against admission of healthy cattle for a prescribed period is also essential to the control of
this trouble.
Since this is a new disease to this Province I would recommend that active measures be
taken towards its control.
One party in the Francois Lake area suffered the loss of twelve head of sheep, and although
the post-morten results were somewhat obscure the lesions would indicate that the animal
examined was suffering from the above disease. The symptoms exhibited were anemia and
enlargement of the lymphatic glands throughout the system. The cause of this disease is
unknown. There is a depreciation of the red corpuscles of the blood and an increase of the
leucocytes, probably caused by deficiencies in the food-supply. The cause being unknown, it is
rather difficult to prescribe treatment.
Some loss has been occasioned both in cattle and sheep by poisonous plants. This is more
pronounced in the area south of Burns Lake. This area lends itself to the growth of water-
hemlock and larkspur, and it is these two plants which have caused the greater losses.
The loss through larkspur-poisoning has been more severe this year than for some years
past. On some farms, especially where sheep are grazed, the natural forage-plants are eaten
very close to the ground, leaving only the larkspur-growth. Where animals have to travel some
little distance to obtain water-supply there is a tendency for them to harbour around the
watering-place during the night, and in the morning, being hungry, they eat the herbage that
is easily available, and where larkspur-plants are numerous severe losses often occur. This
could be avoided by the settlers to a great extent if they opened up a wider range of water-
supply so that the animals would not be in a congested area." When sufficient of this plant is
eaten there is little hope for a cure unless the owner is on the ground in the early stages of the
poisoning, which is not often the case.
Fungi-poisoning also occurred in the vicinity of Hixon Creek. Owing to climatic conditions
the growth of certain fungus-plants was very pronounced. On an area some 1% miles long by
% mile wide, set in between hills partially cleared, there was an excessive growth of mushrooms. Certain of these mushrooms are quite poisonous and, when eaten in sufficient quantities
by cattle, poisoning occurs. The settlers were advised to endeavour to keep their cattle off such
areas during the latter part of July and August, as the losses in the past have occurred within
these dates.
Symptoms of mineral deficiency were quite pronounced throughout the Peace River area
and in the Francois and Ootsa Lake Districts, also to a lesser extent along the Bulkley Valley
as far west as Smithers. There is a tendency in the settlers to provide a very limited range of
feed for all classes of live stock. To make a success in the raising of live stock, whether beef
or dairy cattle, it is essential that more variety in feeding be provided, especially legumes for
feeding during the winter months. Although mineral deficiency can be to a great extent
corrected by feeding mineral compounds, this is expensive when spread over several months,
and I am satisfied that if leguminous feeds were provided this deficiency would be prevented.
Throughout the Peace River area especially, cattle and horses are kept on a one-sided diet
such as oat-sheaves from the month of November until the grass opens up in the spring.
Mineral deficiency was also quite noticeable amongst swine throughout the Peace area, especially
during the winter months, when, the ground being frozen, the pigs cannot obtain sufficient
mineral from the soil by rooting. Alfalfa or clover hay appear to supply the mineral essential
for the correcting of this trouble. Lime, bone-meal, and a little sulphur are also beneficial and
could be provided at a reasonable cost.
The reported cases in regard to parasitic diseases have been much less this year than in
former years. In past years your Inspectors have been active in advising the farmers as to the
control of parasites in sheep and swine. No doubt the few reports that have come in have
proven that the advice given by your Inspectors has been beneficial to the stockholders in
giving them information as to the control of internal parasites, and therefore very few reports
have come into the office during the past year.
Considerable time has been spent in the Peace River Block. Outside of the testing of 104
herds, some little time was spent in advising farmers as to feeding methods, etc. The one-way
diet of feeding sheaf oats does not tend to the improvement of animal health conditions throughout the Peace area, and we find considerable trouble amongst cattle and swine owing to the lack
of minerals. There is a general interest being taken in the improvement of cattle throughout
the district. The Dominion Government has put in a number of good Shorthorn bulls. The
majority of these bulls were exhibited at the North Pine Fall Fair and made a very creditable
The horse trade has been stimulated by enhanced values, buyers from the East having
visited the Block on a number of occasions for the purpose of purchasing heavy draught
horses. The stallions in use at the present time, however, are rather underweight, and so. far
as my knowledge is concerned only two registered stallions are standing for service throughout
the district and one of these is aged. The general trend is towards Percheron or Belgian,
although one registered stallion, somewhat underweight, was in service during this past season.
There are quite a number of heavy draught mares in the area that could be used for foundation
stock if stallions of sufficient quality and weight were provided. The district lends itself to the
production of horses and other domestic live stock.
The sheep flocks that I visited were in good condition and well grown, but an inferior
grade of rams was being used, which does not tend to maintain quality.  I understand, however, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934.
R 51
that the Dominion Government this fall has been active in supplying the district with a number
of Hampshire Down rams on easy terms of payment.
Your Inspectors have devoted considerable time to the testing of cattle for tuberculosis,
especially those herds supplying the towns with milk. Practically every town throughout the
Province is now demanding a Grade A certificate from the producers of milk, which means
that the herds supplying such towns are required to have their cattle T.B.-tested before a
Grade A certificate can be allotted.
During the year 1,154 premises have been visited, 10,736 cattle tested, with the uncovering
of 139 reactors.   Of these, seventy-four reactors came from five herds.
To eradicate tuberculosis from these herds it is necessary that they be retested as early
as possible, although in two or three herds very few cattle remain from these infected premises.
It should be a comparatively easy matter to eradicate or clean up these five infected herds.
Of the total, forty-four herds were found to contain tuberculosis, which leaves 1,110 herds free
of tuberculosis.
There is a general improvement in the standard of the dairy premises throughout the
Province, and it has been a matter of general improvement spread over a period of time, avoiding any particular hardship on the individual. Your Inspectors have endeavoured to make the
inspection of dairies and the health of the herds an educational matter rather than coercive,
and we are gratified to state that this system has proven satisfactory to the Medical Health
Officers, Inspectors, consumers, and producers of milk.
The following table shows the number of premises inspected for grade and cattle kept
on same:—
Number of
No. of
Vancouver Island	
Fraser Valley	
Okanagan Valley	
Interior  points	
Coast points	
Gulf Islands	
East Kootenay	
West Kootenay	
Central British Columbia
Peace River  Block	
The  table  given  below  shows  the  total  number  of  premises  visited,   cattle  tested,  and
reactors uncovered:—
No. of Premises.
No. of Cattle.
Central British Columbia
Coast points	
East Kootenay	
West Kootenay	
Interior points	
Okanagan Valley	
Peace River	
A'ancouver Island	
139 R 52
J. R. Tekry.
Owing to exceptionally mild weather throughout the Province egg production was unusually
heavy during the late winter and early spring. In many sections of the Interior and northern
part of the Province winter-egg production approximated ordinary spring totals. The price
of eggs at this period was depressed somewhat, but many ranchers were satisfied as the yields
were unexpected.
Price of grains and other feeds showed a further rise, starting early in the year and
continuing throughout. This undoubtedly checked increase in young stock, as many breeders
held over mature stock another year instead of replenishing with young birds.
It is safe to say that there has been very little increase in young stock this year. Last
year there was a decrease of about 15 per cent., but the total poultry population just about
held its own during the past season. The export of eggs was again curtailed and early in the
season imports of Prairie eggs were recorded. The prophecy of the Dominion Markets Commissioner made to the writer in 1920 has indeed come true. He stated then that in about
fifteen years we would need to be concerned about cheap eggs from the Prairies.
The prices below are those paid to the producer and are averaged for the whole of the
1915   3:
31 %
. 39%
. 32%
. 28
. 32
. 32
. 30
. 29
. 29
. 30
• 24%
. 20
. 15
. 15
. 15
Despite the heavy yield made during the winter by the fowls used later on for breeding
purposes the hatching results were possibly a little above the average. No doubt some credit
is due the breeders because of the stricter culling of stock which always accompanies times of
stress and depression.
An alarming situation arose in the spring in connection with the export of chicks to the
Prairies, where efforts were made to place an embargo on chicks from any source where an
official blood-testing policy was not in force. It is only fair to state that the complaints
regarding chicks supplied some of the Prairie breeders were from Eastern sources, but as a
result our own shippers had to suffer. The matter was taken up with Dominion authorities by
executive officers of our Department and a stay of the embargo for a season was secured.
Arising out of this matter and from the determination of Federal authorities to launch
new poultry policies, a committee was formed composed of delegates from the British Columbia
Registered Breeders' Association, the R.O.P. Association, and the British Columbia Poultry
Association. Later on representatives of the hatcherymen were added and frequent meetings
with the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture and officials of the Department were held.
As an outcome of these meetings a representative of the Federal Department of Agriculture
was sent out from Ottawa and a series of meetings was held. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 53
Following these meetings, at which it was clearly indicated that the poultrymen of this
Province desired that Proclamation of the proposed poultry policies be deferred until next
year, a resolution stating the attitude of the poultry interests of British Columbia was sent
to Ottawa. The Provincial Department of Agriculture maintained its position and recommended
to the Federal Department the present inadvisability of bringing the proposed regulations into
force here.
The 1934 season proved satisfactory for growing stock, but it is unfortunate that the rise
in the price of feedstuff's caused a slight decrease in hatching.
The holiday trade again called for the medium to large carcasses, but during the rest
of the year fowls between the weights of 3% and 4% lb. were in great demand. Many inquiries
re cross-breeding for table purposes were received during the year.
The chick-sexing operations were carried out on a large scale this year, mostly by Japanese
experts, and both hatcherymen and buyers appear to be satisfied with the new order of things.
In Eastern Canada and the United States, however, there appears to be a division of opinion
regarding the value of the work. In some States laws have been passed against the selling of
pure-bred day-old chicks separately. A few residents of this Province have taken courses in
chick-sexing work.
A total of forty-two Poultry Clubs was organized this year, about the same total as last
year.  Most of the clubs were in southern sections of the Province.
The results of the hatchings were uniformly good, and in most of the clubs the chicks
obtained by each member were the most numerous on record. Rhode Island Reds were the
favourite breed, followed closely by Barred Rocks, AVyandottes, and White Leghorns.
In many sections the competitors entered fowls in local fairs, and in all cases, particularly
at Invermere in East Kootenay, very creditable displays were brought out. Many of the
children report sales of surplus male birds to local farmers at good prices.
At most of the principal fairs—Victoria, Vancouver, Mission. Ladysmith, and Armstrong—
besides exhibiting, the children entered the judging competitions. At A7ancouver the children,
all under 16, were again coached by Fraser Valley breeders of experience, and their work at
judging and selection of utility stock was very commendable.
At Armstrong, as usual, the elimination trials for the Dominion poultry-judging competition were again held, and the Salmon Arm team, coached by Mr. Waby and local breeders,
were successful in earning a trip to the Toronto Fair. There they succeeded in winning fourth
prize against other Provincial contestants.
Owing to the very favourable weather many turkeys were hatched out earlier than usual,
and with the resultant weather conditions again proving "propitious, some fine stock has been
produced and marketed.
The hatching season did riot bring forth so many complaints concerning the usual scourge,
" blackhead," and evidently this disease is gradually being overcome. This is partly due to
the improved methods of sanitation, feeding, and holding back of the best-developed stock
instead of marketing as in the past. Possibly the fact that a lighter-finished turkey is now-
more popular has also helped.
Many Provincial breeders have heeded the advice to market a percentage of the stock at
Thanksgiving, so as to obviate so much competition later on from Prairie-raised turkeys.
The prices obtained have been fractionally higher, but this advantage has been offset by
the higher cost of feedstuffs.
Most of the successful raisers now use the sun-porch during the first eight or ten weeks
of the poults' lives. The porch is either wire or board bottomed and is attached to the south
side of the house. It is generally about 8 or 10 feet deep, and in length according to the size
of the brood and house.
Turkey poults were again sold as day-olds in fairly large numbers. This method of sale
introduced, by a Cowichan breeder is proving popular. R 54 ' BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Department again urges breeders to endeavour to change their place of rearing as
often as possible and also to prevent overcrowding of such land.
The  water-fowl  population  has   slightly  increased   during  the  year,   the   increase  being
. principally among the small, active varieties of ducks, which are noted for high egg production.    Khaki Campbell and Indian Runner clucks excel in egg production, and the former breed
also has a medium carcass for disposal.    The Peking are again the most numerous breed, being
good egg-producers and also excellent for table purposes.
Geese, mostly Toulouse and Embden, have again held their own. The Toulouse, particularly
in the Okanagan, is the favourite breed. African and the wild Canada geese are also kept in
fairly large numbers. It is not generally known that in every instance a permit has to be
secured to keep either Canada geese or any variety of wild duck.
Prices for market-geese average 22 cents per pound, with hatching-eggs averaging 10 to
15 cents each.
The interest taken in wool-producing rabbits abated somewhat during the year owing to
a slump in wool prices, particularly in Great Britain, but many inquiries were received during
the year from both beginners and old hands. Again purchasers of stock are warned that they
should endeavour to get a veterinarian's certificate from the seller when high prices are asked.
It is very necessary that beginners investigate and reflect as to their own fitness as successful
breeders before risking large sums. Farm-magazine write-ups generally cause a demand so
great that oftentimes poor-grade stock may be sold at advanced prices to inexperienced persons.
There are several clubs and associations, all having more or less supervision of their
members, and directories of names and breeds kept by members are published by this Department for the benefit of new breeders.
The twenty-fourth annual meeting of the British Columbia Poultry Association was held
at the same time and place as the Provincial Poultry Show, Vancouver Fat Stock Show,
December 10th, 11th, and 12th.
The show itself was a little below last year's number of entries, but it was the consensus
of opinion that the quality was never as high as at this show.
The utility and general-purpose breeds—Rhode Island Reds, Barred Rocks, AVyandottes,
Sussex, Barnevelders, and Jersey Giants—were quite up to the best seen here. Game fowls,
especially useful for crossing for table-chickens, were also numerously shown. The children's
classes of popular fowls and bantams were well patronized.
The Registered Breeders' Association of British Columbia, with H. E. Upton as Secretary,
again supported the show with some excellent exhibits. Many birds with high records were
sold at remunerative prices. Breeders from the Interior and the Pacific sections of the United
States also exhibited.
Local affiliated  shows were ield at  South Vancouver,  Nelson,  and Ladysmith.
The annual meeting of the general membership of the association was again held without
the benefit of a grant, and despite this delegates were present from Ladysmith, Cobble Hill,
Chilliwack, Kamloops, Enderby, Penticton, Revelstoke, Port Kells, and South Vancouver. The
meeting was the largest assemblage of members for the past three years, and much interest
was shown, especially in all matters dealing with the proposed new poultry policies.
The usual outbreaks of breeding-stock troubles were experienced during the year-
ovarian, tumour, and paralysis. It is satisfactory to note that, owing possibly to the heavy
mortality in recent years and partly due to more severe culling, the number of reported cases
was less this past season. During the fall, however, fairly heavy mortality was experienced
amongst laying pullets, due to sarcometosis. The tumours in some cases were external and
others principally showed the spleen and liver as the seat of infection. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 55
Paralysis appeared in several flocks of Leghorn pullets in one section reported, and, as
usual, the cockerels affected were immediately killed ; but the pullets;—nearly all hopeless cases—
were kept and advice sought as to drugs needed for cure. Many so-called breeders have yet
to learn that it is not good or profitable practice to doctor sick fowls, especially when healthy
specimens of the same breed have to be sold for as low as 25 or 30 cents each for market. In
one instance the writer was asked for advice regarding a breeding cockerel found sick right
in the midst of the breeding season. The inquirer supposed that he could be again used for
breeding purposes. The unfortunate part is that so many breeders are unable to detect disease
amongst their flocks. The advice, " It is cheaper to build an incinerator than a hospital on a
poultry-farm," is still worth considering.
Many specimens of dead fowls were sent to the Department for diagnosis, and in some
doubtful cases the fowls were passed on to the Dominion Pathologist (Dr. E. A. Bruce) at the
laboratory. Experimental Farm, Saanichton, for post-mortem examination. The writer desires
to testify regarding the real co-operative way in which Dr. Bruce has assisted in this work
during the year.
It is encouraging to note, in regard to prevalent poultry-diseases, that in the Provincial
periodical devoted to the industry many articles and letters have been published recently.
Most of these have been very frank warnings from practical men regarding the state of health
of many flocks in the Province.
During the year many visits have been made to breeders regarding problems of breeding,
rearing, and disease. It is still very difficult to persuade breeders to cull or market unthrifty
stock and particularly to provide a regular daily feed of greenstuffs to fowls.
Meetings were addressed during the winter at Mission, Langley, Hazelmere, Ladysmith,
Victoria, and at each place the Branch's poultry films were exhibited. The films are undoubtedly the means whereby larger attendances are secured.
Killing and plucking demonstrations were given at Metchosin, Saturna Island, Saltspring
Island, and Comox. Judging engagements were fulfilled at Courtenay, Cobble Hill, Armstrong,
and Kamloops.
Many callers at the office were met, and several bulletins—" Poultry Manure," " Poultry
Feathers "—and rabbit circulars were published.
During the year James Allen, located in the Fraser Valley on part time, has again
rendered very efficient service to the Branch. His experience on his own ranch with fowls,
ducks, and rabbits is of great assistance.
The writer desires to acklowledge also the real co-operation of the various District Agriculturists, particularly Messrs. Waby, Landon, and Sandall, and also Mr. Hourston, mechanician.
C. Tice, B.S.A.
As a result of the winter of 1933-34 being the mildest for several years, clovers and other
crops came through well and spring seeding was earlier than usual. The hay-crop was one
of the heaviest produced during recent years and many districts reported a surplus. Pastures
in several parts of the Province suffered as a result of dry weather.
Grain-crops gave an average yield, but peas turned out very poorly in some sections,
particularly in the Fraser Valley. AVeather conditions at time of harvest in the Peace River
District were again unfavourable. Potatoes were attacked by late blight in the Fraser
Valley. Root and silage crops generally produced good yields. The acreage of timothy and
red clover saved for seed was much larger than usual. In the case of alsike clover, however,
the acreage saved for seed was smaller, due to winter-killing in Central British  Columbia. II 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Projects undertaken by this Branch in connection with range-improvement activities; will be
reported upon by the Live Stock Commissioner.
The Field Crop Union, which was organized in British Columbia in May, 1933, had a
membership of 130 for the year 1934. Your Commissioner has carried on the secretarial work
of the association since its inception. Thirty-seven tests were drawn up and each member of
the Union was given the opportunity of conducting one test. At the time of preparing this
statement a report on the tests conducted has been received from the majority of the members.
The first annual meeting of the association was held at the time of the Vancouver Winter
Fair, December 10th to 12th.
The Union has received the fullest co-operation from the Federal Department of Agriculture, particularly of Dr. L. E. Kirk, Dominion Agrostologist, and L. H. Newman, Dominion
Cerealist, also from Dr. G. G. Moe, of the Agronomy Department of the University of British
Columbia, since it was organized.
Two Weed Inspectors—namely, Messrs. Cushway and Hingley—were appointed temporarily
for weed-inspection work in the Peace River Block. In the remainder of the Province the work
was carried on through the co-operation of the Provincial Police and District Agriculturists.
The assistance rendered by both of these groups of officials is very much appreciated.
Your Commissioner was assigned the duty of purchasing relief seed-grain for Central
British Columbia and the Peace River District. This work entailed much additional correspondence and record-keeping. Several cars of oats and barley purchased from the Peace
River Co-operative Association at Grand Prairie were sent into the Peace River Block, and
several cars of oats purchased through the Alberta Seed Growers' Association at Edmonton
were sent into Central British Columbia. The seed purchased was the best obtainable, outside
of registered or certified seed.
Arrangements have been made by this office for the conducting of alfalfa demonstration
plots in the Nanaimo-Cedar District on Vancouver Island. This project is being carried on
in conjunction with the local Farmers' Institute. Your Commissioner attended a meeting
called to discuss the matter and an official of the Branch personally visited the farmers who
had expressed a desire to take part in the undertaking. S. S. Phillips in his report states that
he tested the soils for acidity and gave advice regarding the proper liming of the soil.
This office has continued to give assistance in the promotion of field-crop seed-growing in
the Province. In this connection there has been close co-operation with the Dominion Seed
Branch officials. The year 1934 has been a very satisfactory one for the production of timothy,
red clover, and alfalfa seed. Due to drought and other factors in the United States and in
parts of Eastern Canada, the total volume of seed available of these crops is much smaller
than usual. As a result the prices to our growers will be higher than they have been for some
time. This statement applies particularly to timothy-seed. Every effort is being made to
increase the production of alsike-clover seed in Central British Columbia. The following table
shows the amount of field-crop seeds produced in British Columbia in 1933:—
Mangel       10,155
Turnip, swede   480
Alfalfa    46,000
Clover, alsike   20,000
Clover, red  48,000
Meadow-fescue   2,000
Timothy   494,415
The figures for 1934 are not yet complete. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 57
The various seed-cleaning machines purchased by the combined Provincial and Federal
Departments of Agriculture and located at points throughout the Province continue to render
most useful service.
Two combined field-crop and cleaned-seed competitions were held during the year, the one
with potatoes at Pemberton and the other with oats in the Delta. Standing crop competitions
were conducted by the Kamloops Farmers' Institute and by the Stewart Flats Farmers' Institute
in the Peace River District. The former competition was with corn and the latter with
green oats.
Two Provincial seed fairs were held during the year. The 1933 fair was held in the
Crystal Garden, Victoria, from February 28th to March 3rd, 1934, whilst the 1934 seed fair
was held in conjunction with the AA7inter Fair, Vancouver, December 10th to 12th, 1934.
Exhibits were received from all parts of the Province for both of these fairs. The quality
was of a very high standard and the number of entries quite satisfactory. An enthusiastic
meeting of those interested in improving the seed-fair prize-list was held during the fair and
many valuable suggestions were received.
Two district seed fairs were successfully held, the one in conjunction with the Interior
Exhibition at Armstrong; the other, which covered Central British Columbia, was held at
Prince George.
Alpha Sweet Clover.—Tests with Alpha sweet clover, the new type of sweet clover introduced by Dr. L. E. Kirk, Dominion Agrostologist, have continued during the year. This plant
appears to be much superior to the common biennial sweet clover.
Ladak Alfalfa.—This alfalfa was tested for the first time this year, but it is too soon to
give definite information regarding its suitability. Ladak alfalfa was introduced into the
United States from the desert plateaus of India and from there it was brought into Canada.
It is claimed that this is the longest-lived, the most drought-resistant, the leafiest, the hardiest,
and the highest yielding alfalfa for all the high-elevation, short-water regions of the'United
In compliance with the Provincial " Noxious Weeds Act" and regulations pertaining
thereto, grain screenings which contain more than 3 per cent, by weight of weed-seeds other
than wild oats are not allowed to be moved to any place within the Province except by special
permit issued at the office of the District Field Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Permits consist of two specific forms ; i.e., one permitting removal of grain screenings by a
dealer or grain merchant, and one to stock-feeders conditional to prescribed regulations. Before
granting a permit the premises of the applicant are inspected and the facilities for handling
the screenings to comply with the regulations are examined. The premises of the holders of
screenings permits are subject to occasional inspections for the purpose of checking up.
Permits are refused to applicants whose premises are so situated that the use of screenings
would, in the opinion of the Inspector, cause a weed menace.
Dealing with the matter of grain-screenings disposal, AValter Sandall, District Field Inspector at Vancouver, states:—
" During the year screenings permits were issued for various quantities from 1 ton to 200
car-loads. These permits are valid during the year of issue and expire on December 31st of
that year, providing the quantity covered by such permit is not sooner exhausted. A permit
entitles the holder to purchase screenings from only one dealer or grain-elevator as stated
on  permit.    A car-load of grain  screenings equals approximately 30  tons.
" Twenty-nine permits to remove screenings were issued to five different firms of feed
merchants, granting the movement of a total of 567 car-loads; of this amount, approximately
425 car-loads were actually consumed.    Twenty-two feeders' permits, including one cancelled, R 58
were issued to nine applicants for the equivalent of 50 car-loads and 7 tons, of which 13%
car-loads were for fuel purposes, the actual consumption being 21 car-loads, used for the
following purposes: 16% car-loads for stock-feed and 4% car-loads for fuel."
Complying with regulations governing the movement of grain screenings, monthly reports
were received at the office of the District Field Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver,. B.C., from
managers of all grain-elevators and the principal grain-dealers within the Province. Each
report contained name and address of consignee, date of delivery, quantity, grade, number
of permit (if any), and whether for home use or export.
The following table will show the quantity of screenings removed from grain-elevators
each month, as compiled by Mr. Sandall from the managers' reports:—■
Table showing Amount of Grain Screenings Removed from B.C. Elevators. 1934.
For Use  in British Columbia.
or Grade A.
or Grade B.
or Grade B.
per Month.
" 800
1,464    1,460
12,757     1,810*
18,363        120
* Of the 12,757 tons 1,810 lb., an additional 3,639 tons 1,160 lb. was exported to the United States
by Vancouver merchants.
A large number of samples of soil have been submitted to the Provincial Analyst for
examination, and the results have been interpreted by Paul C. Black, who has been handling
this phase of the work. In addition to this, a number of soil analyses were made, using the
Spurway method. This is a simple analysis which shows the proportion of soluble elements
in a sample of soil. These latter analyses have been made by S. S. Phillips, Assistant Field
Crops Commissioner. The correspondence in regard to soils has been dealt with by P. C.
Black, who has advised the farmers on how to build up the soil by cultural methods and
Exhibitors from this Province participated in both the Chicago International Hay and
Grain Show and the Toronto Royal AVinter Fair and carried off several championships. W. G.
Gibson, of Ladner, distinguished himself by capturing the hard red spring-wheat prize at
Toronto with an exhibit of the Reward variety. This winning caused much surprise, more
particularly because Mr. Gibson was competing against the leading hard red spring-wheat
growers in Canada. Others who won championships at Toronto were E. Ronayne, of Pemberton, with field peas of the Stirling variety, and William Rogers, of Tappen, with Durum wheat
of the Mindum variety.
At the Chicago International AV. G. Gibson captured the championship in the field-pea
section with the Stirling variety, and AVilliam Rogers again repeated his Toronto success with
Mindum wheat. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1934. R 59
Owing to his recent serious illness, C. C. Kelley, in charge of the soil-survey work, has
been unable to prepare the usual annual report covering the activities of his Branch; however,
his progress reports, periodically submitted to the office of the Deputy Minister, contain detailed
information from which the particulars in the following paragraphs are taken.
The report to accompany the soil map of the Glenmore District has been completed. It is
more extensive than previous ones, as space has been given to the geological sequence of the
events responsible for the deposition of the soils of the Okanagan Valley. The geology of the
Okanagan Valley is somewhat complicated, but satisfactory progress is being made in collecting data on this subject, and that part of the Glenmore report dealing with the geology
of the area provides useful information respecting the origin  of  the  soils  in  that district.
Another innovation to our soil reports is the introduction to soil series added to the
Glenmore report. The naming and defining of soil series is a problem that requires close
familiarity with all of the soils of the Interior and with the related geology, and it was
believed that by provisionally describing some of the series a better understanding of soil-
survey work would be gained.
The Okanagan Centre-Winfield soil maps, together with reports to accompany these maps,
have been completed.
Following the soil survey of the Coldstream-Lavington area completed two years ago, it
has been found advisable to finish the survey of 18,000 acres in the Vernon Irrigation District,
and accordingly this has now been accomplished. The previous experience in the district
materially assisted in speeding up the work. The map dealing with this area occupies five
sheets: (1) Coldstream-Lavington; (2) B.X. Area; (3) Swan Lake (North) ; (4) Swan Lake
(AVest) ;   (5)   Okanagan Landing.
The tracings of these maps have been completed and reports are in course of preparation.
Upon request of the Provincial Department of Lands;, the Forestry Branch was assisted
in the examination of areas within the Elk Forest Reserve of the East Kootenay. Nineteen
properties were inspected and reported upon with recommendations which the Department of
Lands has seen fit to act upon. AVhile in the East Kootenay District a superficial inspection
of Crown lands was made outside of the Elk Forest Reserve; notably at Baynes Lake and
Buckskin Flats. This examination indicated the advisability of undertaking soil survey and
classification before any settlement of the areas was permitted. By this means settlement of
sub-marginal lands could be prevented.
A preliminary examination of a proposed irrigation project was made at Okanagan Falls,
where the soils appear to be light texture and of low drought resistance, making a reliable
and adequate irrigation system essential for normal crop production. It was suggested that a
survey of the soil and water resources should be made before further development is undertaken.
A number of soil problems have been studied in addition to the regular field and laboratory
work of the Soil Survey Branch. One of these is a greenhouse problem apparently brought
about by an alkaline soil condition. A series of tests undertaken have produced positive results
during this first year, and it seems advisable to continue these tests to confirm the results
already obtained.
The second, a seepage problem in an irrigated orchard near Vernon, where the examination
of soils by means of pits and auger-holes reveals water-bearing silt layers lying horizontally
in a heavy clay profile. The water in these strata was under pressure which, when tapped
by tree-roots, was sufficient to permit of the upper soils being saturated to such an extent
that root-injury resulted. Levels were taken on the property and a drainage scheme laid
out to enable the owner to relieve the sub-surface water-pressure. In this case there is
evidence of the advantage of being familiar with this clay profile, for it was the knowledge
of the presence of the silt layers that immediately gave a clue upon which to base the
remedial measure.
While alkali problems are not widespread in the Okanagan Valley, they are occasionally
encountered, and one of the most serious problems is the degradation of the heavy clay profile,
such as was dealt with in the Glenmore District. In co-operation with the District Field Inspector at Kelowna, reclamation experiments on affected lands have been designed with a
view to proving the efficacy of gypsum to correct the condition. R 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
After a lapse of one year the Federal Department of Agriculture, through the Experimental
Farriis Branch, again contributed to the support of soil-survey work in British Columbia.
This made possible the employment as assistant of R. H. Spilsbury, who during the year was
successful in securing the advanced degree of M.S.A. from the University of British Columbia.
A paper entitled " Soil Survey: A Basis for Land Utilization in British Columbia " was
prepared jointly by Dr. D. G. Laird, of the Provincial University, and C. C. Kelley. This paper
was presented to the Soils Group of the Canadian Society of Technical Agriculturists at a
meeting in Winnipeg. It deals with a systematic classification of lands with the object of
segregating them according to their best uses.
All  of which  is  respectfully  submitted.
J. B. Munro,
It 61
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