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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1933

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OF  THE
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st, 1931
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1932.  To His Honour John William Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Yotjb Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for the year
ended December 31st, 1931, with Appendices.
SAMUEL LYNESS HOWE,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia, December 31st, 1931. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FISHERIES COMMISSIONERS REPORT FOR 1931.
Page.
Value of Fisheries and Standing of Provinces     5
Persons engaged and Capital invested    5
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia     5
Salmon-pack in British Columbia in 1931     6
Salmon-pack by Districts in 1931     6
Halibut Production      7
Fish Oil and Meal Production     7
Contribution to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon     7
Pilchard and Herring Investigation  10
Halibut Investigation  11
The Fraser River Sockeye Treaty  12
APPENDICES.
Contribution to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.    (No. 17.)    By Drs. AV. A. and
Lucy S. Clemens  13
Spawning-beds of the Fraser River.    By John Pease Babcock  3S
Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet.    By A. AV. Stone  40
Spawning-beds of Smith Inlet.    By A. AAr. Stone  43
Spawning-beds of the Skeena River.    By Robert Gibson  45
Spawning-beds of the Nass River.    By C. P. Hickman  47
"The Food of the Pilchard."    By Dr. Jno. L. Hart and Herbert Wailes  49
Salmon-pack of 1931 in Detail  57
Salmon-pack of Province, by Districts and Species, 1916 to 1931, inclusive  58
Sockeye-salmon Pack of Entire Fraser River System, 1894 to 1931, inclusive  61
sockeye-salmon pack of province, by districts, 1916 to 1931, inclusive  61
Statement showing the Pilchard Industry of the Province, 1920 to 1931, inclusive 02
Production of Fish Oil and Meal (other than Pilchard), 1920 to 1931, inclusive  62 FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT
FOR 1931.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF PROVINCES, 1930.
The value of the fishery products of Canada for the year 1930 totalled $47,804,216. During
that year British Columbia produced fishery products of a value of $23,103,302, or 48 per cent,
of Canada's total.*
In 1930 British Columbia again led all the Provinces in the Dominion, as has been the case
annually for twenty years, in the value of her fishery products. Her output exceeded in value
that of Nova Scotia, the second in rank, by $12,692,100, and also exceeded that of all the other
Provinces combined by $8,813,590.
■ The market value of the fishery products of British Columbia in 1930 was $827,390 less than
in the previous year, 1929, due largely to a decline in the value of the salmon-pack, notwithstanding a pronounced increase in the size of the pack.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1930 was $37,661,577, or 58%
per cent, of the total capital employed in Canada. Of the $37,661,577 invested in the fisheries
of British Columbia in 1930, $13,318,488 was employed in catching and handling the catches and
$24,343,089 invested in canneries, fish-packing establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1930 was 19,347, or 24 per
cent, of Canada's total of 79,558. Of the 19,347 engaged in British Columbia, 12,000 were
employed in catching and handling the catches and 7,347 in packing, curing, and fish-reduction.
The total number engaged in the fisheries in 1930 was 1,088 less than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of the fishery products
of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1926 to 1930, inclusive:—
Province.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
$27,367,109
12,505,922
5,325,478
3,152,193
3,110,964
2,328,803
1,358,934
749,076
444,288
17,866
^$56^3607633"
$23,264,342
10,783,631
4,406,673
3,670,229
2,736,450
2,039,738
1,367,807
712,469
503,609
12,090
$49,497,038
$26,562,727
11,681,995
5,001,641
4,030,753
2,996,614
2,240,314
1,196,681
725,050
563,533
51,665
$55,050,973
$23,930,692
11,427,491
'. 5,935,635
3,919,144
2,933,339
2,745,205
1,297,125
732,214
572,871
24,805
$53,518,521
$23,103,302
10,411,202
4,853,575
3,294,629
2,502,998
1,811,962
Prince Edward Island	
1,141,279
421,258
Saskatchewan	
234,501
29,510
Totals	
$47,804,216
THE SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British Columbia for the
year ended December 31st 1930, is given in the following statement:—
Salmon  $16,610,834
Halibut     2,446,775
Herring, oil, meal, etc      1,222,303
Cod, ling, hake  :        338,172
Pilchard, oil, meal, etc     1,589,609
Clams          155,857
Carried forward $22,363,550
* As this report goes to press the Commissioner is in receipt of an advanced report of the value ot the
fisheries of the Province for the year 1931, issued by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics—R. H. Coats,
Statistician—from which the following data are taken: The value of the fishery products of British
Columbia for 1931 was $11,109,822; number of persons engaged, 13,267; and the capital employed,
$20,250,427. F 6 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
The Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Brought forward  $22,363,550
Black cod  120,583
Crabs     29,177
Soles  •.  46,217
Shrimps    20,426
Oysters ."  58,146
Abalone    3,500
Flounders, brill  20,268
Red cod, tomcod  24,667
Perch :  15,447
Smelts     18,416
Sturgeon     5,778
Octopus    2,569
Skate  4,241
Oolachans  4,214
Whiting, shad, etc  828
Trout  764
Whales  227,993
Fish-oils, grayfish, etc ,  44,227
Fish-fertilizer, etc  17,250
Fish-meals  61,272
Fur-seals    13,769
Total $23,103,302
The above statement shows that the salmon-fisheries of the Province in 1930 produced
$16,610,834, or 71 per cent, of her total fishery products.
The total halibut landings were marketed for $2,446,834, a decrease in production of
4,950,000 lb. and a decrease in value of $1,870,460 in comparison with 1929,
Herring-catches produced $1,222,303, a decrease in production of 93,705 cwt. and in value of
$264,352.
The foregoing data are derived from the " Fishery Statistics of Canada " for 1930.
THE SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE IN 1931.
The catches of salmon in the Province in 1931 produced a pack of 685,104 cases. It consisted of 291,464 cases of sockeye, 206,995 cases of pinks, 55,997 cases of chums, 76,879 cases
of cohoe, and 27,147 cases of springs. It was the smallest pack made in the Province since 1921.
There was a decrease in all districts. In all but the Fraser the decrease in the catches was due
entirely to lack of demand and was hot due to any lack of fish. The salmon runs in all districts, except the Fraser and the Nass, were exceptionally large. The spawning-bed reports from
all districts, save the Phaser and the Nass, show an increased seeding.
THE SALMON-PACK BY DISTRICTS.
The Fraser River System.—The catches of salmon in the Provincial waters of the Fraser
River system produced a total pack of but 73,067 cases. It was very much the smallest made
there since the industry was established. It consisted of 40,947 cases of sockeye, 13,307 cases of
pinks, 8,818 cases of cohoe, 9,740 cases of springs, and 251 cases of chum. Little effort was
made to catch other than sockeye.
In addition to the above, the canneries on the Fraser packed 8,563 cases of sockeye and
2,549 cases of pinks from fish which were caught in the Rivers Inlet District and transported to
the Fraser; also 7,618 cases of sockeye, 5,678 cases of pinks, 19,347 cases of cohoe, and 602
cases of springs, packed from fish caught in the Vancouver Island District. In the detailed pack
reports attached hereto these cases have been credited to the pack at Rivers Inlet and that of
Vancouver Island.
The catch of sockeye in Provincial waters of the Fraser River system, including the catches
of sockeye made by the traps on the southern end of Arancouver Island, produced a pack of
40,947 cases.    The catch of sockeye in the State of AATashington waters of the Fraser River BRITISH COLUMBIA. ■■ F 7
system produced a pack of 83,777 cases. Combined they give a total sockeye-pack for the entire
Fraser River system of 124,724 cases, of which 67 per cent, were packed in the State of
AVashington waters.
The Skeena River.—The catches of salmon made in the Skeena District produced a pack
of .162,986 cases, of which 93,028 cases consisted of sockeye, 44,807 cases of pinks, 10,637 cases
of cohoe, and 9,858 cases of springs. In addition to the above, the canneries on the Skeena
packed 7,783 cases of sockeye, 8,500 cases of cohoe, and 1,603 cases of pinks from fish caught in
the Nass River and transported to the Skeena. The Skeena River pack is also credited with
4,786 cases of pinks, which were transported to Outlying Districts canneries and tinned there.
Rivers Inlet.—The catches of salmon in the Rivers Inlet District produced a pack of 76,428
cases of sockeye, 5,089 cases of pinks, 6,571 cases of cohoe, and a few hundred cases of springs
and chums—a total pack of 88,874 cases. As already stated, 8,563 cases of sockeye and 2,549
cases of pinks packed on the Fraser consisted of fish caught in Rivers Inlet and are included
in the total accredited to the latter district.
The Nass River.—The catches of salmon in the Nass River District produced a total pack
of 32,881 cases, of which 16,929 consisted of sockeye. Of that total, 7,783 cases were packed in
canneries on the Skeena.
Vancouver Island District.—The salmon caught in the Vancouver Island District, with the
exception of the sockeye caught in the traps on' the southern end of the Island which are
credited to the catches on the Fraser proper, produced a total pack of 175,541 cases—consisting
of 22,199 cases of sockeye, 81,965 cases of pinks, 50,953 cases of cohoe and bluebacks, and 16,329
cases of chums. Of those totals, 7,618 cases of sockeye, 602 cases of springs, 19,347 cases of
cohoe and bluebacks, 5,678 cases of pinks, and 697 cases of chums were packed in canneries on
the Fraser.
Outlying Districts.—The catch of salmon in the outlying districts produced a total pack of
131,472 cases, of which 29,071 cases consisted of sockeye, 55,825 cases of pinks, and 34,570 cases
of chums; of the foregoing, 7,130 cases of sockeye and 1,009 cases of cohoe were canned on
the Skeena.
In the Appendix of this report will be found reports from the spawning-beds of the Fraser,
Skeena, and Nass Rivers, and Rivers and Smith Inlets.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
Halibut landings in Provincial ports for the year 1931 totalled 18,200,500 lb., as against
25,479,600 lb. in 1930. The total landings on the North-west Pacific Coast totalled 43,879,322 lb., as
against 50,471,632 lb. in 1930, a decrease of 13 per cent. In addition to the 13-per-cent. decrease
in the year's total catch, the value of the landings was much less owing to a sharp decline in
market value and disagreement as to prices during the first month or more of the fishing season.
Of the total catches in 1931, the American fleet is credited with 82.3 per cent, and the
Canadian fleet 17.7 per cent. The decrease in the total landings in Provincial ports is largely
due to relatively higher prices paid in Seattle for " chickens" and to the rate of exchange.
Less important, perhaps, was the resentment aroused in American fishermen by the agitation in
Prince Rupert during the season for the closure of that port to American vessel landings. The
landings in Prince Rupert in 1931 totalled 16,775,700 lb., as against 23,961,700 lb. in 1930.
FISH OIL AND MEAL PRODUCTION.
Due to economic conditions, the total production of fish-oil on the Pacific Coast totalled but
8,443,165 gallons, as against 13,591,870 gallons in 1930, a decrease of 37.8 per cent.
The fish-oil production in the Province in 1931 totalled 2,904,406 imperial gallons, as against
3,972,600 gallons in 1930. Of the 2,904,406 gallons of fish-oil produced in the Province in
1931, 2,551,914 gallons consisted of pilchard-oil. The balance consisted of oil extracted from
herring and fish-offal.   No whale-oil was produced.
Fish-meal production in the Province in 1931 totalled 19,847 tons, as against 18,123 tons in
1930.    Of the 19,847 tons produced, 14,200 tons consisted of pilchard-meal.
CONTRIBUTION TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
The seventeenth annual contribution to the series of papers on the life-history of the sockeye salmon, issued by this Department, which is contained in the Appendix of this report, is F 8 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
again contributed by Drs. W. A. and Lucy S. Clemens. These detailed continuous records give
the age-classes, sex, weight, and lengths of the sockeye in each of the runs to the principal
salmon-producing waters of the Province for the last eighteen years. They constitute one of
the longest detailed continuous records of any fishery. A digest of the present report is given
in the following paragraphs.
The size of the sockeye-salmon runs to the four main river systems was up to expectancy for
their respective cycles, and to that extent the situation may be said to be satisfactory. There
are, however, reasons to believe that for at least three of the areas the packs were somewhat
too large to provide for an adequate safety factor in conservation.
The reports on the spawning-beds of the Fraser show that the number of fish that reached
them was relatively small.    The prospect for 1935 is not bright.
The pack at Rivers Inlet was slightly above prediction and the report on the spawning-beds
indicates a good escapement. It appears that the situation in respect to this cycle is encouraging, with some prospect of restoration to its former level of abundance.
On the Skeena the pack was slightly larger than predicted, and probably a somewhat
smaller catch would have resulted in a nearer approach to what might be conceived as ideal
conditions.
A very unsatisfactory state exists with respect to the Nass River. The pack was slightly
above that of 1926, but the spawning-beds report states that the escapement was small, probably
even smaller than that of 1928. The solution of the problem of this river must await international co-operation.
The Fraser River Sockeye Run of 1931.—The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in the
season of 1931 amounted to 128,158 cases, of which 40,947 cases were packed in the Province of
British Columbia and 87,211 cases in the State of Washington. The percentages for the two
areas are 32 and 68 respectively. The reports from the spawning-beds indicate a small escapement and the most discouraging feature is the decrease in the run to the Birkenhead River.
Drs. Clemens draw attention to the history of this cycle, which is clearly shown in Table I.
of their paper. They state that in 1895 there was a pack of 461,127 cases put up almost entirely
in British Columbia. By 1897 fishing in AVashington waters became intensive, and in 1899 the
American equalled the Canadian catch and there was a total pack of 980,131 cases. There can
be no question but that this was an excessive capture. The pack in 1903 was only one-third
of that of 1899 and the packs in 1907, 1911, and 1915 approximately half that of 1903. The
downward trend continued until 1923, when only 79,057 cases were packed. In 1927 there was
a slightly larger run, but again the pack was too great, because in 1931 the escapement is poor
and the pack less than that of four years ago. The runs of this cycle are now produced in that
portion of the Fraser River below Hell's Gate Canyon. That they have not disappeared entirely
may be attributed to the restrictions placed upon fishing operations in the mouth of the river
and possibly in part to the operations of hatcheries in the three main spawning areas.
Drs. Clemens further state that in the light of our present knowledge of the life-history of
the sockeye and of the history of the fishery, the cause of depletion lies clearly in the lack of
adequate control of the fishing. " The need for international supervision is clearly demonstrated. Had there been an international convention whereby the pack of 1931 had been even
limited to 100,000 cases, 350,000 additional fish would have reached the spawning-beds and
approximately 700,000,000 more eggs would have been deposited. On the basis of returns determined in the Karluk River, Alaska, by the United States Bureau of Fisheries, approximately
1,000,000 fish might have been expected to return in 1935 from the additional escapement
permitted in 1931.
" The history of the sockeye-salmon fishery of the Fraser River is remarkable in its completeness. The causes of the decline are evident and the necessary remedial measures are
equally evident. In the face of the facts, the present condition of the fishery stands out as a
great tragedy in the exploitation of a natural resource.
" The run of 1932 will be derived largely from the spawning of 1928. In the latter year an
escapement of average extent was recorded for the lower Fraser area and a small one to the
upper area. There was no marked increase over that of 1924. In each of the years 1916, 1920,
1924, and 1928, the packs have been approximately 100,000 cases. There is no indication of an
increased run in 1932, and if this cycle is to be maintained a pack greater than 100,000 cases
should not be taken." The Rivers Inlet Sockeye Run of 1931.—In dealing with the sockeye run to Rivers Inlet in
1931, Drs. Clemens state that the pack was 76,428 cases, better by 10,000 cases than the packs of
the two brood-years, 1926 and 1927, which produced it, and according to the spawning-bed
reports the escapement showed a corresponding improvement. The only factor related to the
size of the run over which there is control is the extent of the fishing. AVhen the regulations
remain constant and the size of the run increases or decreases in successive years of the same
cycle, the explanation becomes an almost impossible task. AVhen runs increase no doubt
unusually favourable conditions existed, and when runs decrease adverse conditions must have
existed. By accepting the theory that a five-year cycle predominates the run to Rivers Inlet,
it is possible to arrange the packs and the relative proportion of the age-groups in fairly
orderly sequence. When the four-year-old fish are in the majority, the packs are small. AVhen
the five-year-old fish are greatly in excess, packs of at least 120,000 cases are produced. The
1931 run belongs to the series in which there is little uniformity and relative percentages of
four- and five-year-olds. In 1931 there were 54 per cent, of five-year-old fish and 46 per cent,
of fours, and the pack totalled 76,428 cases. Comparing the percentages of this year with those
of their immediate progenitors, there were 54 per cent, of fives and 46 per cent, of fours—against
40 and 83 per cent, respectively.
The run in Rivers Inlet in 1932, Drs. Clemens state, will be derived from seedings in 1927
and 1928, when the packs amounted to 64,461 and 60,044 cases respectively. The five-year-olds
in the catch in 1927 numbered only 17 per cent., and in the run of 1928 only 18 per cent.;
hence there is little ground for predicting anything above a fair return in 1932.
The Skeena River Sockeye Run in 1931.—The sockeye-pack on the Skeena in 1931 totalled
93,023 cases, and the reports from the spawning areas indicated a good seeding but that the
escapement was below expectancy. In their report of 1930 Drs. Clemens suggested that the
run in 1931 would produce a pack of 80,000 cases. It would appear that a pack of that size
would have been nearer to the ideal relation as between catch and escapement.
The run to the Skeena in 1932, Drs. Clemens state, will be derived from the seedings of
1927 and 1928. In the former year the pack was 83,996 cases, of which 31 per cent, consisted
of five-year-old fish. In the latter year the pack was 34,559 cases, the smallest on record, with
the four-year-old fish furnishing 57 per cent. The reports from the spawning-beds in both those
years state that the seeding in Babine Lake area was good, but that in the Lakelse area was
very poor. All the indications are that the run to the Skeena in 1932 will be a small one and,
in the interests of conservation, it is recommended that only a small catch be made.
The Sockeye Salmon Run to the Nass in 1931.—In dealing with the run of sockeye to the
Nass River in 1931, Drs. Clemens state that, of the four river systems under consideration, the
Nass is both the most interesting and at the same time the most unsatisfactory to study. It
affords greater interest for two reasons: First, because the racial characteristics are so well
defined; and, secondly, because there is a larger number of age-groups with considerable
variety in the combinations of years spent in fresh and in salt water. It is unsatisfactory to
study because there seems to be such a lack of correlation between the pack records and the
size of the corresponding runs in successive years of the same cycle. Mediocre brood-years have
resulted in excellent runs; and vice versa, splendid seedings have produced phenomenally poor
runs. These apparently contradictory results may be due to the exceptional conditions prevailing during either the fresh- or salt-water periods which cannot be determined. On the other
hand, these results may be explained by the fact that our knowledge of the runs is far from
complete. Like the fishery of the Fraser River, that of the Nass is also international, but,
unlike the Fraser, the American pack statistics of the Nass are not available and cannot be
combined with the Canadian one to give the total pack for each year.
In addition, our knowledge of the spawning-grounds is extremely limited. The inaccessibility of the river-basin has made complete exploration such a difficult and costly task that at
present the Meziadin Lake area is the only one of which we have reliable and adequate information. To what extent, if any, Bowser Lake serves as a spawning-ground is uncertain. Our
knowledge of that lake is altogether too meagre. That there are other spawning-grounds in the
river system is beyond doubt, but, until they are found and are inspected annually, information
as to escapement will remain incomplete.
So far as predictions can be made, the outlook for 1932 is not good.
As stated, the report of Drs. Clemens, together with its thirty-three tabulations, will be
found in the Appendix of this report.    It is a valuable addition to the series. F 10 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
PILCHARD AND HERRING INVESTIGATION.
The work of the joint Provincial and Dominion Governments' investigation of the pilchard
and herring fisheries was continued during 1931 and considerable progress has been made.
These investigations were conducted under the supervision of Dr. AA7. A. Clemens, of the Biological Board of Canada, and Mr. John Pease Babcock, Assistant to the Commissioner of
Fisheries for the Province, and under the direction of Dr. J. L. Hart, who is assisted by a
scientific and technical staff.
The effort to determine the exact age composition of the pilchard-catch begun in 1930 was
continued in 1931. Although definite proof of the accuracy of the otolith or earstone method
of age determination is still lacking, it indicates that, as was the case last year, over 90 per
cent, of the pilchard-catch in 1931 was composed of fish in their fifth, sixth, and seventh years,
the sixth-year group being the largest. In regard to the age composition of the catch, the pilchards caught in the neighbourhood of Barkley Sound and delivered to Ecoole were found to
be essentially similar to those delivered to the Nootka plant in Nootka Sound. Otolith readings
indicated that female pilchards grow faster than males. Every effort is being made by
Mr. AV. R. Whittaker, who is in charge of the otolith investigation, to standardize the methods
and establish the accuracy of the determinations.
Sampling the pilchard population for length, weight, and sex is being continued to supplement the otolith studies. The general observations made on the pilchard population in 1929
and 1930 were repeated in 1931. Female pilchards were more numerous than males, constituting approximately 55 per cent, of the catch. They also averaged longer by about % inch
and were more heavily built, as female pilchards usually weighed more than males of the same
length. On the average, both male and female pilchards were shorter by about % inch in
1931 than they were in 1930.
The study of races in pilchards, designed to show whether or not the British Columbia
pilchard is identical with the California sardine, is being continued in connection with the
sampling programme. Unexpected results, difficult of interpretation, have been obtained, and
it has accordingly been considered advisable to postpone drawing conclusions on this point until
further data are collected.
The work done in 1930 on the possible effect of pilchard-plant effluent on marine life suggested that considerable quantities of valuable substances were being poured into the sea.
Accordingly, a study of a pilchard plant was undertaken to determine from a monetary point
of view the extent and nature of the losses taking place. This research, which was carried out
by Mr. Desmond Beall, showed that the losses were indeed very considerable and might in an
ordinary season's run amount to products valued at more than $8,000 for one plant. If adequate methods of eliminating this waste can be developed, a considerable saving might be
made and any last suspicion of possible pollution could be removed.
Satisfactory progress has been made with the herring-work. In accordance with the investigation's policy of concentrating its effort on a few of the most crucial phases of the life-
history of the species, special emphasis has been laid on the parts of the herring-work dealing
with the age composition of the catch and the local races of herring in British Columbia.
This part of the work has been undertaken by Mr. A. L. Tester.
The age composition for herring was determined from samples from Trincomali Channel,
Nanoose Bay, Barkley Sound, Nootka Sound, Kyuquot Sound, Sydney Inlet, Jap Inlet, and Pearl
Harbour. The catches in the first five named localities were chiefly made up of third-, fourth-,
and fifth-year herring in order of importance, with a few second- and sixth-year fish. In Sydney
Inlet fifth-year fish predominated, with most of the rest of the catch being comprised of fourth-
and third-year fish. In the two northern districts, Jap Inlet and Pearl Harbour, the age distribution was considerably wider, as fish in their ninth and tenth years are not uncommon.
Length composition of the catches in the various districts reflected the age composition,
although the relationship was complicated by differences in growth-rate in the different
localities.
As was the case in 1930-31, female herring in 1931 were found to be larger than males of
the same age. The evidence indicates that the growth-rate was slower for herring at Jap Inlet
and Pearl Harbour than for those from the more southern localities. Female herring were
more numerous than males in west-coast localities and less numerous on the east coast of
Vancouver Island. BRITISH COLUMBIA. F 11
A study of several racial characters of herring in the above-mentioned districts indicated
that the herring from the two northern districts are certainly distinct from all the others, and
further suggested very strongly that each of the districts investigated had its own herring
population with its special racial characteristics.
A study of the natural mortality in the herring has been undertaken with particular attention being paid to the early stages in its life-history. Considerable material has been collected
for this study and it is expected that this data may be reported upon soon.
A special chemical study was begun with the object of investigating the changes which take
place in the condition of herring with changes in season. Information on this subject is
applicable not only to the choice of curing methods, but also to fixing upon a general policy
of exploiting the species. Considerable data were collected for this investigation,, but it proved
impossible to get sufficient funds to complete the research satisfactorily.
There will be found in the Appendix of this report the text of a bulletin on the " Food of
the Pilchard," by Dr. J. L. Hart, Director of the Pilchard and Herring Investigation, and one
of his assistants, Mr. G. H. AVailes, which gives the result of a study of food material taken
from the digestive tract of fish taken on the west coast of Arancouver Island, B.C. The food
and food-supply of the pilchards in Provincial waters is a matter of importance, from the fact
that the pilchards fatten rapidly after their first appearance each season and the fact that they
are more easily caught where the food is abundant. Because pilchards cannot be kept under
observation or their food collected immediately after it is consumed, the latter must be taken
after the fish have been brought to port. By that time it is partly digested and the more
fragile forms of food not easily distinguished. While it cannot be assumed that the material
collected is accurately representative of that usually consumed, it may be assumed that it is
the food which so rapidly increases their oil content as the season advances.
The food of the pilchard, as shown by Dr. Hart's study, consists largely of plants and
animals—very simple organisms having all their organs in one cell or compartment; and more
complicated forms each divided into a large number of cells. For the most part the food consisted of the simple one-celled organisms—usually plants, termed " green food " by the fishermen.
The balance consisted of the many-celled forms—usually animals, which fishermen call " red
food."    Many of these forms are described in detail in the text of this report.
HALIBUT INArESTIGATION.
(Created by the Halibut Treaty- between Canada and the United States.)
The International Fisheries Commission was granted new and extensive powers by a new
treaty signed May 9th, 1930. Ratifications were exchanged May 9th, 1931. The text of this
treaty was published in the Report of the Commissioner for the year 1930. During 1931,*
new regulations and the proper machinery for administration were developed, while the investigations were continued. A Conference Board from the halibut fleet was appointed, consisting
of three members from Canada and three from the United States. After consultation with this
Conference Board, public hearings were held in November and new regulations adopted on
December 5th. These were approved in January as required by treaty and became law. These
regulations have been published. They in brief divide the halibut banks into areas, specify
the poundage to be taken from each such area, provide for the collection of proper statistics
to enforce such limitations, close two small spawning-grounds, and define the annual closed
season as from November 1st to January 15th.
The work at sea of the vessel chartered by the Commission from May to August, 1931, and
the completed examination of the numerous net-hauls indicates an almost complete lack of eggs
and larva? in the waters off the coasts of British Columbia. It has also been shown by extensive drift-bottle experiments that the currents are adverse to any drift of the floating young
southward from the Gulf of Alaska, where there are yet considerable numbers spawned.
Finally, these young have been found by the Commission to drift inshore and settle in shallow
water, those in the open sea vanishing from the net-hauls. These conclusions, when corroborated
by work in progress, will make necessary immediate steps to preserve the spawning-schools on
banks off the Canadian coast.
The Commission has continued to collect statistics as to the catches, showing the bank of
origin of each landing.    From these records it has proved that it is possible to rebuild the stock
* Pending passage on May 2nd, 1932, of the United States Enabling Act. F 12 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
on the banks, the response of this stock to a given reduction in gear having been definitely
measured. The Commission is therefore seemingly in a position to forecast the results of its
regulations and to intelligently regulate the banks where the biological investigations show such
regulation is necessary.
The biological investigations have been continued, including tagging experiments, determination of growth, races, and other phases necessary as a foundation for regulation.
THE FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE TREATY.
It is a matter of grave concern that the " Sockeye Salmon Fisheries Convention " between
Canada and the United States " for the protection and extension of the sockeye-salmon fisheries
of the Fraser River system "—signed in Washington May 26th, 1930; ratified by the Parliament
of Canada; and transmitted to the Senate of the United States by the President of the United
States with the request that it be approved—is still awaiting action by the Senate. This treaty,
like the two previous ones, was drawn in compliance with the unanimous recommendations of
no less than three international commissions appointed by Canada and the United States to
investigate the condition of the sockeye-salmon fishery of the Fraser River system and to make
recommendations to the two Governments of the measures necessary to support and maintain it.
The facts in this case are not questioned. Those commissions reported unanimously that:—
(1.)  The fishery is an international fishery:
(2.) The sockeye salmon which frequent the Fraser River system are the product of
the sockeye salmon that spawn in that river's basin in British Columbia; they
spend the first year or more of their life in its waters, then migrate to sea and
remain there until mature, when they seek to return to that river and basin to
spawn, and after spawning die:
(3.) On their return from the sea the sockeye pass through United States waters in the
State of Washington and Canadian waters in the Province of British Columbia,
and are there intercepted by United States and Canadian fishermen:
(4.)  In the last thirty years approximately 70 per cent, of the yearly catches have been
made by United States fishermen:
(5.)  The fishery has been so seriously depleted that it now produces but a fraction of
its former abundance;   and that it
(6.)  Can only be restored by joint and uniform action by treaty between Canada and
the United States.
Having fully established the above facts in this case, the two Governments have at various
times drawn and signed three treaties.    All three were ratified by the Parliament of Canada.
All three were transmitted to the United States Senate by the President with the request that
they be approved.    The first two were withdrawn at the Senate's request, and the third is still
in its hands awaiting action.
The failure of the Senate to ratify this treaty is a matter of grave concern in Canada.
For years she has sought to maintain the sockeye-salmon fishery of the Fraser system by
closely restricting the operations of her fishermen and by extensive hatchery operations. Notwithstanding her continuous efforts for the last thirty years, the fishery has steadily declined.
She has failed to maintain it because of lack of support and assistance on the part of the
United States. Her patience is close to exhaustion. Failing favourable action on the treaty
now before the Senate, it is seriously proposed that Canada abandon further efforts to maintain
the sockeye-salmon fisheries of the Fraser system and, in lieu thereof, collect all the sockeye-
eggs obtainable in the Fraser River basin, transfer them to her hatcheries on the Skeena and
Rivers Inlet, and liberate the resulting fry in these waters, over which she has complete control.
The suggestion is entirely practical, because it has been repeatedly demonstrated that adult
sockeye return to spawn in the fresh waters in which they spent the first year of their life. LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. F 13
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OP THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 17.)
By Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Director, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
and Lucy S. Clemens, Ph.D.
INTRODUCTION.
The runs of sockeye salmon to the four main river systems of British Columbia in 1931 were
up to expectancy for their respective cycles. To this extent the situation may be said to have
been satisfactory. However, for at least two of the areas the packs were too large to provide
for an adequate safety factor in escapements.
The report on the spawning-beds of the Fraser River states that the number of fish reaching
the spawning areas was relatively small. A smaller pack with a corresponding larger escapement would have meant an encouraging outlook for the future of "the cycle. As it is, the
prospect for 1935 is not bright.
The pack at Rivers Inlet was slightly above prediction and the report on the spawning-beds
indicates a good escapement. It would appear that the situation in respect to this cycle is
encouraging, with some prospect of restoration to its former level of abundance.
On the Skeena River, the escapement to the Lakelse area is reported as very good and to
the Babine area as good. The overseer is of the opinion that there should have been a larger
escapement, since considerably less gear was used in 1931 than in recent years. The pack was
slightly larger than predicted and probably a somewhat smaller catch would have resulted in a
nearer approach to what might be conceived as the ideal condition.
A very unsatisfactory state exists with respect to the Nass River. The pack was very
slightly above that of 1926, but the spawning-bed report states that the escapement was small,
probably even smaller than that of 1926. The solution of the problem of this river must await
international co-operation.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating the
age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the fish migrates from
fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers, one in large type, which
indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to the right and below, which
signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water. The age-groups which are met
most commonly in these river systems are:—
3*, 4j—" the sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature at the ages
of three and four respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and mature at the
age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four and
.five respectively. '   ■
53, 6?:—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five and six
respectively.
64. 74—Ash which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six and
seven respectively.
1. THE FRASER RIArER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1931.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The total pack of Fraser River sockeye in the season of 1931 amounted to 128,158 cases, of
which 40,947 cases were packed in the Province of British Columbia and 87,211 cases in the
State of AArashingfon (Table I.)'. The percentages for the two areas are 32 and 68 respectively.
The reports from' the spawning-beds indicate a small escapement and the most discouraging
feature is the decrease in the run to the Birkenhead River. F 14 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
The history of this cycle is clearly shown in Table I. In 1895 there was a pack of 461,127
cases put up almost entirely in British Columbia. By 1897 fishing in Washington waters became
intensive, and in 1899 the American equalled the Canadian catch and there was a total pack of
980,131 cases. There can be no question but that this was an excessive capture. The pack in
1903 was only one-third of that of 1899 and the packs in 1907, 1911, and 1915 approximately half
that of 1903. The downward trend continued until 1923, when only 79,057 cases were packed.
In 1927 there was a slightly larger run, but again the pack was too great, because in 1931 the
escapement is poor and the pack less than that of four years ago. The runs of this cycle are
now produced in that portion of the Fraser River below Hell's Gate Canyon. That they have
not disappeaered entirely may be attributed to the restrictions placed upon fishing operations
in the mouth of the river and possibly in part to the operations of hatcheries in the three main
spawning areas.
In the light of our present knowledge of the life-history of the sockeye and of the history
of the fishery, the cause of depletion lies clearly in the lack of adequate control of the fishing.
The need for international supervision is clearly demonstrated. Had there been an international
convention whereby the pack of 1931 had been even limited to 100,000 cases, 350,000 additional
fish would have reached the spawning-beds and approximately 700,000,000 more eggs would have
been deposited. On the basis of returns determined in the Karluk River, Alaska, by the United
States Bureau of Fisheries, approximately 1,000,000 fish might have been expected to return in
1935 from the additional escapement permitted in 1931.
The history of the sockeye-salmon fishery of the Fraser River is remarkable in its completeness. The causes of the decline are evident and the necessary remedial measures are
equally evident. In the face of the facts, the present condition of the fishery stands out as a
great tragedy in the exploitation of a natural resource.
The run of 1932 will be derived largely from the spawning of 1928. In the latter year an
escapement of average extent was recorded for the lower Fraser area and a small one to the
upper area. There was no marked increase over that of 1924. In each of the years 1916, 1920,
1924. and 1928, the packs have been approximately 100.000 cases. There is no indication of an
increased run in 1932, and if this cycle is to be maintained a pack greater than 100,000 cases
should not be taken.
(2.) Age-groups.
The material for this year's study consists of data and scales from 1,465 sockeye salmon
selected at random from April 30th to September 18th in fifty samplings. The 42 age-group is
represented by 1,158 individuals, or 79 per cent, of the total sample. The 52 age-group consists
of 192 individuals, or 13 per cent. These two groups together comprise 92 per cent, of the run.
The remaining age-groups constitute 8 per cent, and are represented as follows: 5V 19 individuals; 3j, 29 individuals; 4j, 29 individuals; 32, 37 individuals; and 49, 1 individual.
The 6, age-group is not represented in the samplings of the run of this year (Tables II., III.,
and IV.).
Up to the end of June only representatives of the 4, and 52 age-groups occur in the
samplings.    The others appear during the height of the run from mid-July to the end of August.
(3.) Lengths and AAIcights.
The average lengths of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 23.4 and 22.8 inches
respectively, which are slightly less than those of their progenitors and of the averages of the
past ten years. The average lengths of both sexes of the 5, age-group are 25.6 and 24.6 inches
respectively, which are practically identical with those of 1926 and of the averages of the past
five years (Table Y.).
The average weights in the 42 age-group are 5.8 and 5.2 lb. and in the 52 age-group 7.3 and
6.5 lb. respectively, and the statements made in regard to the lengths apply to the weights.
The average weights of the 31 age-groups (grilse) are exceptional, in that they are much
below the average of the past ten years and, in fact, the lowest on record. The average weights
of the males and females are 4.5 and 4.6 lb. respectively (Table VI.).
In the cases of both the 42 and 52 age-groups the smaller individuals appear earliest in the
run. For example, the males of the 42 group up to the end of June average 20.7 inches in
length and 3.7 lb. in weight, whereas during July and August they average approximately 24
inches in length and 6 lb. in weight. LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
F 15
(4.) Distribution op the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 704 and of females 761, percentages of 48 and
52 respectively.    As usual, the females slightly exceed the males in number in the 42 age-group,
but the males slightly outnumber the females in the 52 group.
Table I.—Fraser River Packs, 1895-1931, arranged in accordance with the Four-year Cycle.
B.C  1895— 395,984 1896— 356,984 1897— 860,459 1898— 256,101
Wash  65,143 72,979 312,048 252,000
Total  461,127 429,963 1,172,507 508,101
B.C  1899— 480,485 1900— 229,800 1901— 928,669 1902— 293,477
Wash  499,646 228,704 1,105,090 339,556
Total  980,131 458,504 2,033,765 633,033
B.C  1903— 204,809 1904—    72,688 1905— 837,489 1906— 183,007
Wash  167,211 123,419 837,122 182,241
Total  372,020 196,107 1,674,611 365,248
B.C :  1907—    59,815 1908—    74,574 1909— 585,435 1910— 150,432
AVash  96,974 170,951 1,097,904 248,014
Total  156,789 245,525 1,683,339 398,446
B.C  1911—    58,487 1912— 123,879 1913— 719,79e 1914— 198,183
Wash  127,761 184,680 1,673,099 335,230
Total  186,248 308,559 2,392,895 533,413
B.C  1915—    91,130 1916—    32,146 1917— 148,164 1918—    19,697
Wash  64,584 84,637 411,538 50,723
Total  155,714 116,783 559,702 70,420
B.C   1919—    38,854 1920—    48,399 1921—    39,031 1922—    51,832
Wash  64,346 62,654 102,967 48,566
Total  103,200 111,053 142,598 100,398
B.C  1923—    31,655 1924—    39,743 1925—    35,385 1926—    85,689
Wash  47,402 69,369 112,023 44,673
Total  79,057 109,112 147,408 130,362
B.C  1927—    61,393 1928—    29,299 1929—    61.569 1930— 103,692
Wash  97,594 61,044 111,898 352,194
Total  158,987 90,343 173,467 455,886
B.C  1931—    40,947
Wash  87,211
Total  128,158 F 16
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
Table II.—Fraser River Sockeyes, 1931, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped by Age, Sex, and
■Length, and by their Early History.
Ndmbek of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
42
.   5
2
53
h
41
1
M.      F.
3
M.
2
F.
43
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
16%
1
2
1
2
8
6
7
6
8
17
34
68
86
133
112
69
33
12
4
2
1
5
3
4
3
1
1
2
3
3
3
1
1
1
3
17         	
1
4
1
11
2
10
6
16
11
6
15
31
53
94
111
91
59
15
7
2
1
3
17%     	
5
38
10
18%
25
19
1
15
19 %
24
20
3
17
20%
2
1
3
6
3
1
6
7
5
11
13
17
17
9
5
2
1
 1
1
29
21
8
3
5
4
1
3
1
42
21%
2
1
1
2
47
22
6
3
1
5
4
14
13
18
10
5
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
3
2
1
100
22%
1
1
I
4
6
5
132
23                                           .  -
195
23%
221
199
24%
1
3
3
2
1
25
95
25%
51
26 	
1
1
35
26%
26
27 	
20
27 V,   	
9
28
28%  	
2
Totals	
547
611
108
84
8
11
9
20
11
18
21
16
1
1,465
Average lengths	
23.4
22.8
25.6
24.6
24.3
24.1
21.5
21.6
25.3
22.5
19.1
19.2
20.5
Table III.—Fraser River Sockeyes, 1931, Vancouver Island Traps, grouped bg Age, Sex,
and Weight, and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
NuaiBKR of Individuals.
M.
2 .....
2%   .
3 	
3%  -
4 	
4%  .
5 	
5%  -
0 	
6%   .
7 ......
7%  .
8 	
8%  .
9 .....
9%   .
10 ...
10%
11 ....
10
17
19
32
29
47
83
101
82
73
32
15
20
22
57
95
92
119
92
55
33
14
3
1
1
1
3
5
2
it.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total.
6
23
50
53
111
145
166
216
227
169
138
70
41
24
13
6
6
Totals	
Average   weights..
547
611
108
84
11
5.S
5.2
7.3
6.5
6.1
6.3
20
11      18
21
10
1,465
7.31    6.0
3.2
3.3
4.0 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
F 17
Table IV.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Percentages of the Year-classes from 1920 to 1931.
Year.
42
52
h
63
3i
41
32
43
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923	
69.6
78.1
70.5
67.1
68.2
67.9
66.1
84.6
71.4
77.3
75.7
79.0
21.2
14.6
9.3
10.8
18.7
24.9
20.3
7.5
18.8
11.9
19.6
13.1
6.2
4.1
4.5
3.9
9.2
3.4
5.2
3.0
5.3
7.8
2.8
1.3
0.2
0.7
2.0
1.2
0.5
0.2
1.6
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.5
1.9
0.5
6.3
6.7
0.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
2.0
0.1
0.2
2.0
0.9
2.0
5.6
9.9
2.0
0.0
2.5
2.2
0.7
0.1
0.7
2.0
0.9
0.4
0.8
0.6
2.1
1.0
2.5
0.5
2.6
0.9
0.0
1924	
0.1
1925	
1926	
0.8
0.2
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
0.3
0.1
1931	
Table V.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Average Lengths of Principal Classes from 1920 to 1931.
Year.
42
52
53
63
h
41
it
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1920	
24.1
23.7
24.0
24.3
23.8
23.5
22.6
24.1
23.4
23.7
24.4
23.2
23.0
23.0
23.3
22.8
22.9
22.3
23.1
23.0
22.9
23.6
25.7
25.9
25.8
25.8
24.9
25.8
24.6
26.1
25.5
25.5
26.2
24.6
24.6
24.1
24.8
23.9
24.6
24.0
24.6
24.7
24.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
24.2
23.7
24.0
23.2
21.7
24.2
24.8
24.4
23.2
22.7
22.9
22.7
22.0
22.4
22.0
23.4
23.7
23.5
25.7
25.4
26.3
24.3
25.5
25.3
27.1
26.2
26.7
24.3
24.9
23.7
24.6
26.0
24.S
26.0
24.9
23.3
23.0
23.3
21.9
22.5
23.4
23.4
19.1
22.5
22.5
21.5
21.8
22.6
22.7
20.4
21.7
22.5
22.2
18.7
23.0
20;7
21.6
21.6
25.5
25.5
25.2
25.2
25.4
25.1
19.8
25.0
24.7
24.0
25.3"
24.3
1921 	
1922	
24.2
1923 	
24.1
1924	
24 4
1925	
1926	
24.6
1927	
24.5
1928	
1929	
1930	
24.0
23.2
Average lengths	
23.8
23.4
23.0
22.8
25.6
25.0
24.4
24.6
23.8
22.8
25.8
24.2
1931 	
24.3
24.1
22 5
Table VI.—Fraser River Sockeyes, Average Weights of Principal Classes from 1922 to 1931.
Year.
4
2
52
5
3
6
3
3
1
41
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
'F.
1922    	
6.4
6.6
5.8
5.2
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.9
5.7
5.8
5.2
4.9
5.5
5.5
5.3
6.1
7.0
7.8
7.6
6.2
7.3
7.4
7.2
7.7
6.1
6.9
6.6
5.7
6.8
6.9
6.3
6.7
6.5
6.5"
6.1
6.0
6.1
5.4
4.5
6.5
6.7
6.6
6.0"
5.4
5.2
5.3
4.8
4.8
5.7
5.9
6.0
"5:4""
7.2
7.3
7.4
6.5
8.6
7.5
7.7
5.5
6.5
'5.7
5.5
8.0
6.5
6.0
5.9
6.2
5.3
6.1
5.9
6.4
5.5
5.9
"4.5
5.2
5.3
4.6
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.0
4.2
~5.0~
4.6~
7.9
7.3
7.3
7.2
8.0
6.5
6.3
7.2
~7.3
6.9
1923    	
6.5
1924	
1925    	
1926	
6.6
1927    	
6.8
1928    ...    	
6.6
1929    	
6.0
inso    ....   	
5.8
Average weights ....
6.1
5.8
5.5
5.2 ~
7.3
7.3
7.5
6.2
6.5
1931
6.1
6.3
6.0 F 18 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
2. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1931.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The pack of 1931 (76,428 cases) was better by 10,000 cases than the packs of the two brood-
years, 1926 and 1927, which produced it, and, according to Overseer Stone, " the escapement to
the spawning-beds showed a corresponding improvement." The only factor related to size of
runs over which there is control is the extent of fishing. AVhen the fishing regulations remain
constant and the size of a run increases or decreases in successive years of the same cycle, the
explanation becomes an almost impossible task. This is true because the other factors, such as
temperature of the water, height of the water at the time of migration, abundance of food,
reproductive capacity of the fish, and the like, upon which the success of a run depends, are
uncontrollable and so interrelated that they cannot be separated. When runs increase, no doubt
unusually favourable conditions existed, and when runs are impoverished, particularly adverse
conditions must have abounded. In the case of this increased pack and run of 1931 there is an
additional factor which should be mentioned. It is possible that the 20,000,000 eyed eggs and fry
which the hatcheries planted in both 1926 and 1927 contributed in part to the improvement in
1931.
By accepting the theory that a five-year cycle predominates in Rivers Inlet, it is possible
to arrange the packs and the relative proportions of the principal age-groups in fairly orderly
sequence.    In the two tables which follow, the data have been arranged in five-year series.
Table A.
Series 1. 1907, 87,874 cases ; 1912, 112,884 ; 1917, 61,195 ; 1922, 53,584; 1927, 64,461.
Series 2. 1908, 64,652 cases; 1913, 61,745; 1918, 53,401; 1923,107,174; 1928, 00,044.
Series 3. 1909, 89,027 cases; 1914, 89,890; 1919, 56,258; 1924, 94,891; 1929, 70,260.
Series 4. 1910, 126,921 cases; 1915,130,350; 1920,125,338; 1925,159,554; 1930,119,170.
Series 5. 1911, 88,763 cases; 1916, 44,936; 1921. 48,615; 1926, 65,581; 1931, 76,428.
Table B.
Series 1. 1912  (5 years)  79% 1917 67% 1922..
(4 years)  21% 33%
Series 2.  1913 20% 1918 43%
80% 57%
Series 3.  1914 65% 1919 54%
35% 46%
Series 4.  1915 87% 1920 95%
13%   ■ 5%
Series 5.  1916 76% 1921 51% 1926..
24% 49%
In one case (Table A) the pack statistics are used as the basis and in the other (Table B)
the percentages of the four- and five-year-old fish. Considering each series of both tables
separately, Nos. 2, 3, and 4 show fair correlation both in size of pack and in relative proportions
of the two age-groups. Considering Tables A and B together, three generalizations can be made:
"(1) AVhen the four-year-old fish are in the majority the packs are small, consisting of 50.000
to 65,000 cases (series 2) ; (2) when the five-year-old fish slightly exceed the fours, the packs
amount to 85,000 to 95,000 cases (series 3) ; and (3) when the five-year-olds are greatly in excess,
then a pack of at least 120,000 cases is produced (series 4)." The quotation is taken from the
report of 1928, where a full discussion of these tables can be found.
The year 1931 belongs to series 5, in which there is little uniformity and a lack of correspondence between size of packs and relative percentages of the 42's and 5,'s. This year there
are 54 per cent, of five-year-old fish and 46 per cent, of fours, and the pack amounts to 76.428
cases. The relation between the packs and age-groups most nearly approaches that of series 3
in which slight excess of five-year-olds is associated with mediocre packs.
Comparing the percentages of this year with those of their immediate progenitors, there are
found 54 per cent, of 52's and 46 per cent, of 42's, against 40 and 83 per cent, respectively. On
the one hand the five-year-olds are a little more abundant, and on the other hand the fours are
present in greatly reduced numbers.
 18%
1927...
....17%
82%
83%
 24%
1928....
....42%
76%
58%
 56%
1929....
....19%
44%
Sl%
 77%
1930....
....50%
23%
50%
 40%
1931...
....54%
60%
46% LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. F 19
The run of 1932 will be derived from the seedings of 1927 and 1928. In summing up the
inspections of these two seedings, Overseer Stone says, in 1927, that if freshets do not harm the
spawning-beds the sockeyes observed " should produce a return equal in extent to that recorded
this year "; and in- 1928 he states, " I am of the opinion that a moderate run only may be
expected from the results of the spawning this season." The packs of these brood-years
amounted to 64,461 and 60,044 cases. If the theory that five-year-old fish produce five-year-olds
is adopted, a large number of them cannot be expected in the run of 1932 because they comprised
only 17 per cent, of the run in 1927 and 18 per cent, in 1922. As mentioned above, in this river
system the runs in which five-year-old fish form a minor part are of fair size only and the packs
mediocre.    There seems to be no ground for predicting anything but a fair return in 1932.
(2.)  Age-groups.
The total number of samples, taken at regularly spaced intervals during the period between
June 30th and August 7th, was 1,699. The four age-groups characteristic of Rivers Inlet runs
are found in the following distribution: 42's, 901; 52's, 756; 5g's, 30; and 63's, 12. The two
latter classes are always present but never become an important element of the runs. In 1931
these two age-groups together comprise only 3 per cent, of the entire run. Table VII. shows
the extent of the fluctuation over a period of years in the relative abundance of the two
dominant groups, the 42's and 5,,'s.
(3.)  Lengths and Weights.
Tables VIII. and IX. furnish the detailed information concerning the length and weight
variations of the fish in this year's run, and Tables X. and XL give the size comparisons with
former years. The lengths and weights of both male and female 42's are the smallest on
record. The discrepancy between these measurements and those of earlier years is so great
that it would seem that the decrease should be interpreted as the result of some temporary
condition which was unfavourable for this particular age-group. The males and females of the
52 class show for both length and weight a closer agreement with the averages previously
recorded, although here too there is a slight reduction.
These 1931 measurements afford an example of a size relationship which is manifested only
in this river system. It is the very close correspondence which exists between the measurements of the two sexes of an age-group. Occasionally this condition results in a second
peculiarity—namely, that females are larger than males. The 42 age-group of this run of 1931
illustrates both points for both sexes and for both length and weight. The females are longer
and heavier than the males by 0.1 per cent.
(4.)   Distribution of Sexes.
In Table XII. it is shown that the sex distribution of 1931 is in accordance with former
experience in so far as the 42 group contains more males than females and the 50 class has
more females than males. Last year and the year before attention was drawn to the fact that
the relative abundance of the two sexes of the 42's was showing a marked tendency toward
equalization. The following figures bear this out: 1916-20, 75 per cent, males; 1921-25, 68 per
cent.; and 1926-30, 61 per cent. The percentage for 1931 is 59. AVhile this is greater than those
for 1930 and 1929, it is at the same time less than the average percentage for the last five-year
period just mentioned. As far as the 52 class is concerned, there is also a shifting of proportions. During the same five-year periods the percentages have changed as follows: 1916-20,
45 per cent, males; 1921-25, 35 per cent.; and 1926-30, 34 per cent. In 1931 the males comprise
33 per cent, of the group. In this class, then, the males have also become less abundant, but
the decrease has not been as great as that among the 42's. As the proportion of males drops, of
course that of the females rises. In 1930 we stated that only in the cycle of 1915-1920-1925-
1930 had the total number of females exceeded that of the males. However, the year 1931
must now be added to the years just mentioned. The relative abundance of the two sexes is
identical with that of 1930. The explanation of the fact that large packs are correlated with
runs in which the total number of the 52's are greatly in excess is to be found in this matter of
predominance of females in the 52 group. Runs in which the females outnumber the males are
the more favourable because the potentialities of future runs become greater. F 20
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
Table VII.—Percentages of 42 and 52 Age-groups, Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, in Runs of
Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
Percentage
Four and Five
Years old.
Brood-year from which
derived.
1912 (112,884 cases).
1913 (61,745 cases)...
1914 (89,890 cases)...
1915 (130,350 cases).
1916 (44,936 cases)....
1917 (61,195 cases)...
1918 (53,401 cases)...
1919 (56,258 cases)...
1920 (121,254 cases)..
1921 (46,300 cases)....
1922 (60,700 cases)....
1923 (107,174 cases).
1924 (94,891 cases)-.
1925   (159,554 cases).
1926   (65,581 cases).
1927   (64,461 cases).
1928   (60,044 cases).
1929  (70,260 cases).
1930   (119,170 cases).
1931   (76,428 cases).
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
79%
21%
20%
80%
65%
35%
87%
13%
76%
24%
67%
33%
43%
57%
54%
46%
95%
5%
51%
49%
18%
82%
24%
76%
56%
44%
77%
23%
40%
60%
17%
83%
42%
58%
19%
81%
50%
50%
54%
46%
1907 (87,874 cases).
1908 (64,652 cases).
1909 (89,027 cases).
1910 (126,921 cases).
1911 (88,763 cases).
I   1912  (112,884 cases).
I
1
J.   1913  (61,745 cases).
1914  (89,890 cases).
1915   (130,350 cases).
1
}■   1916 (44,936 cases).
]
}.   1917 (61,195 cases).
1918 (53,401 cases).
1919 (56,258 cases).
]
i-   1920 (121,254 cases).
I   1921 (46,300 cases).
I
I   1922 (60,700 cases).
I
j.   1923 (107,174 cases).
[   1924 (94,891 cases).
1925 (159,554 cases).
1926 (65,581 cases).
1927 (64,461 cases). LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
F 21
Table VIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1931, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
5
3
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19    	
1
2
8
35
83
112
131
60
49
24
11
11
2
2
531
21.9~
1
2
12
47
80
101
62
38
19
4
3
1
370
"22.0
2
1
13
25
39
23
27
24
32
16
23
15
5
1
1
~25i2
1
1
10
8
35
44
70
67
94
64
64
29
14
7
1
~509
~24.8
3
2
2
2
3
1
1
3
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
17
1
2
1
1
1
1
7
1
2
1
1
5
"26.1
1
19%.	
3
20	
10
20%	
47
21	
131
21% ,
22    	
197
247
22%     	
136
23      	
138
23%     	
115
24    	
131
24%   	
106
25    	
125
25%     	
93
26	
101
26% 	
47
27   	
39
27%                 	
22
28    .            	
7
28%     	
2
29           	
29%    	
1
Totals	
13
1,699
Ave. lengths....
23.0
23.4
26.8
Table IX.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Run of 1931, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
h
53
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3	
3%	
1
26
165
184
92
41
12
7
2
1
7
109
138
72
32
10
2
4
18
43
38
33
26
34
25
16
7
2
1
3
14
43
77
97
86
65
71
30
18
5
1
2
4
3
2
1
1
1
7
3
2
2
1
4
2
1
7
2
2
1
""5
7.5
I
33
4	
279
4%	
343
5	
236
5%	
199
6	
161
6%	
7	
71/.	
131
100
108
8	
55
8% :	
9	
9%	
10	
37
13
2
1
Totals	
531
370
247
509
13
17
1,699
Ave. weights...
4.5
4.6
6.7
6.4
5.2
5.4
7.7 F 22
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
Table X.—Average Length in Inches of Rivers Inlet Sockeyes for Twenty Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912	
23.2
22.9
23.0
22.9
22.9
22.5
22.3
22.4
22.9
22.5
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.8
22.1
22.3
22.6
22.7
22.8
23.0
22.8
22.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
22.3
22.6
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.2
22.9
22.4
22.8
22.2
22.6
25.8
25.9
25.9
26.0
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.8
26.0
25.2
24.6
24.6
24.9
25.5
25.1
24.6
26.1
25.2
26.0
24.6
1913	
25.2
1914	
25.2
1915	
25.1
1916	
25.0
1917	
24.4
1918	
24.5
1919	
24.4
1920	
25.0
1921	
24.2
1922	
24.2
1923 :	
24.1
1924	
24.3
1925	
24 8
1926	
24 6
1927	
24.2
1928	
25.2
1929	
25 3
1930	
25 2
22.6
22.6
25.3
24.7
1931	
21.9
22.0
25.2
24 8
Table XI.—Average Weight in Pounds of Riven
Inlet Sockeyes for Seventeen Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
5.4
5.3
5.5
5.0
4.9
4.9
5.2
6.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.0
4.9
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
5.1
4.8
4.9
5.9
4.8
4.8
4.4
5.2
5.8
5.0
4.8
4.8
7.3
7.3
7.6
6.6
6.7
6.3
6.9
7.4
6.5
6.6
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.5
6.6
7.5
6.8
6.6
1910                       	
6.7
1917                                	
6.2
1918                   	
6.7
1919                               	
5.9
1921                    	
6.0
7.0
1923                                               	
5.9
1924                       	
6.1
1925                    	
6.2
1926       	
6.3
1927         	
7.6
1928      	
6.7
1929                    	
6.7
1930      	
6.9
5.1
5.0
7.0
6.5
1931	
4.5
4.6
6.7
6.4 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
F 23
Table XII.—Relative Numbers of Males and Females, Rivers Inlet Sockeyes,
of the 42 and 52 Groups, 1915 to 1931.
Average Percentages.
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Total
Females.
1915  	
74
75
26
25
40
42
60
58
45
52
53
55
1916	
48
1917	
47
1918	
74
26
49
51
Go
34
1919   	
79
74
21
26
45
48
55
52
58
49
42
1920	
51
1921	
65
66
71
35
34
29
38
38
33
62
62
67
51
61
62
49
1922  	
39
1923	
38
1924	
74
26
31
69
50
50
1925	
66
34
34
66
41
59
1926	
63
37
32
68
51
49
1927   	
68
63
32
37
36
30
64
70
62
51
38
1928	
49
1929	
57
56
43
44
36
37
64
63
53
47
47
1930	
53
1931	
59
41
33
67
47
53
3. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1931.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The pack on the Skeena River amounted to 93,023 cases. The report on the spawning-beds
indicates a very good escapement to the Lakelse area and a good escapement to the Babine area.
In regard to the latter, the Inspector is of the opinion that, taking all factors into consideration,
there should have been a larger escapement. In the report of 1930 a pack of 80,000 cases was
suggested for 1931, and it would appear that a pack of that size would have been nearer to the
ideal relation as between pack and escapement.
The run of 1932 will be derived from the seedings of 1927 and 1928. In the former year the
pack was 83,996 cases, with the five-year-old fish constituting 31 per cent, of the run. In the
latter year the pack was 34,559 cases (the smallest on record), with the four-year-old fish
forming 57 per cent, of the run (Table XIII.). The reports on the spawning-beds in these years
state that the escapements to the Babine area were very good, but to the Lakelse area very poor.
All indications are that the run of 1932 will be a small one and, in the interest of conservation,
it is recommended that only a very small catch be made.
(2.)  Age-groups.
Scales and length, weight and sex data are available from 1,769 fish collected from June
23rd to August 13th in sixteen random samplings. The 42 age-group is the most abundant,
being represented by 715 individuals, or 40 per cent. The 52 age-group consists of 533 fish, or
30 per cent., and the 53 group of 491 fish, or 28 per cent. The number of 63 individuals is only
30, or 2 per cent. The outstanding feature of the run is the large number of fish of the 53 age-
group. The percentage of 28 is the highest on record. These fish were derived from the
spawning of year 1926 and had remained two years in the lake (Tables XIAr., XV., and XVI.).
The 53 age-group has never been considered in calculating the percentages of the four- and
five-year-old fish in Table XIII. because it has usually constituted a small part of the run. In
order to keep the record uniform it will be necessary to omit this group in the calculations of
this year also. F 24 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths and weights of the two sexes in the various age-groups show no exceptional features. In all cases they are approximately similar to the averages for the past sixteen
to twenty years. The average lengths and weights of the age-groups of importance are as
follows:—
42 males, 23.5 inches, 5.4 lb.;   females, 23.1 inches, 5.1 lb.
52 males, 25.7 inches, 6.8 lb.;  females, 24.8 inches, 6.3 lb.
53 males, 23.8 inches, 5.5 lb.;   females, 23.1 inches, 5.0 lb.
(See Tables XVIL, XVIIL, XIX., and XX.)
(4.) Proportions of the Sexes.
The females exceed the males in number in the total sampling, comprising 56 per cent. In
the 42 age-group they constitute 57 per cent, and in the 52 age-group 61 per cent. In the 5g and
63 age-groups the numbers of males and females are approximately equal (Table XXL). LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
F 25
Table XIII.—Percentages of 4% and $2 Age-groups, Skeena River Sockeyes, in Runs of
Successive Years.
Run of the Year.
Percentage
Four and Five
Years old.
Brood-year from which
derived.
1912 (92,498 cases).
1913 (59,927 cases).
1914 (130,106 cases).
1915 (116,553 cases).
1916 (60,923 cases)...
1917 (65,760 cases)...
1918 (123,322 cases).
1919 (184,945 eases).
1920 (90,869 cases)...
1921 (41,018 cases)...
1922 (96,277 cases).
1923 (131,731 cases).
1924 (144,747 cases).
1925 (81,146 cases)...
1926 (82,360 cases).
1927 (83,996 cases).
1928 (34,559 cases).
1929 (78,017 cases).
1930 (132,372 cases).
1931 (93,023 cases)
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
5 yrs.
4 yrs.
43%
57%
50%
50%
75%
25%
64%
36%
60%
40%
62%
38%
59%
41%
69%
31%
82%
18%
24%
76%
19%
81%
34%
66%
75%
25%
47%
53%
30%
70%
31%
69%
43%
57%
33%
67%
57%
43%
57%
43%
1907 (108,413 cases).
1908 (139,846 eases).
1909 (87,901 cases).
1910 (187,246 cases).
1911 (131,066 cases).
1912 (92,498 cases).
1913 (52,927 eases).
1914 (130,166 cases).
1915 (116,553 cases).
1916 (60,923 cases).
1917 (65,760 cases).
1918 (123,322 cases).
1919 (184,945 cases).
\   1920 (90,869 cases).
1921 (41,018 cases).
j. 1922 (96,277 cases).
{
I   1923 (131,731 cases).
I
1
1924 (144,747 eases).
1925 (77,784 cases).
1926 (82,360 cases).
1927 (83,996 cases). F 26
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
Table XIV.—Percentages of the Principal Year-classes, Skeena River Sockeyes,
from 1916 to 1931.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1916.    	
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
18
1917	
5
1918	
6
1919    	
4
1920	
8
1921               	
3
1922               .    	
2
1923     	
7
1924         	
1
1925	
1
1926	
3
1927	
1
1928	
3
1929               	
2
1930	
1
1931	
2
Table XV.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1931, grouped, by Age, Sex, and Length, and by
their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
M.
Total.
20	
20%	
21	
21%	
22	
22%	
23	
23%	
24	
24%	
25	
25%....	
26	
26%	
27	
27%	
28	
28%	
29	
Totals	
Ave. length
12
30
23
61
23
71
25
44
307
23.5
9
13
67
49
115
36
82
14
18
3
2
408
23.1
3
4
15
10
41
25
44
20
26
7
206
25.7
1
3
13
17
61
42
77
41
50
11
8
327
24.8
1
2
13
14
42
29
84
24
32
3
3
1
1
249
23.8
3
5
35
33
82
31
33
9
4
4
3
242
16
23.1
25.8
14
24.7
1
1
21
32
148
123
316
141
349
128
222
86
111
34
37
8
10
1
1,769 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
F 27
Table XVI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1931, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight, and bg
their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3%	
2
18
50
64
59
58
43
9
3
1
3
37
101
109
91
51
11
2
3
4
8
11
35
35
36
37
21
16
2
1
6
26
61
79
57
51
34
8
4
1
8
21
55
78
46
30
7
4
21
65
81
49
14
7
5
1
1
7
3
2
2
1
1
4
3
2
2
1
5
4	
84
4%	
248
5	
5%	
345
354
6..1	
286
6%	
192
115
7%	
82
8	
32
8%	
22
9           	
3
9%	
10	
1
Totals	
307
408
206
327
249
242
16
14
1,769
Ave. weights—
5.4
5.1
6.8
6.3
5.5
5.0
6.9
6.0
Table XVII.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes,
for Twenty Successive Years.
and 50 Age-groups,
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1912	
24.6
23.5
24.2
24.2
23.9
23.6
24.1
24.3
23.8
23.8
23.6
23.7
24.1
23.6
23.8
23.9
23.3
22.9
23.1
23.5
22.9
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.2
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.3
22.8
23.4
23.3
22.8
22.7
22.7
26.4
25.5
26.2
25.9
26.2
25.5
25.9
25.7
26.2
25.2
25.3
25.5
26.2
25.6
25.6
25.7
25.3
25.5
24.7
25.2
1913           	
24.7
1914             	
25.1
1915	
25.0
1916 	
25.0 ■
1917   .                  ... ;	
24.7
1918 :	
25.0
1919	
24.8
1920    	
25.3
1921                                            	
24.2
1922             	
24.4
1923                     	
24.5
1924                                             	
25.2
1925      ..     .            	
24.7
1926	
24.8
1927    	
24.8
1928 -	
24.7
1929                                             	
24.7
1930                               ...          	
23.9
23.8
23.2
25.7
24.8
1931     	
23.5
23.1
25.7
24.8 F 28
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
Table XVIII.—Average Lengths of Skeena River Sockeyes, 53 and 63 Age-groups,
for Sixteen Successive Years.
Year.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Six-year
Males.
Six-year
Females.
1916	
24.1
23.9
23.9
24.3
24.1
24.2
23.8
23.9
24.7
24.1
24.6
24.1
23.5
23.S
23.5
23.8
23.8
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.3
23.8
23.5
22.8
22.8
22.4
26.2
25.4
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.9
24.6
25.6
25.8
25.8
26.0
25.2
25.6
25.5
24.6
24.8
1917.      ..                       .            	
25.0
1918	
24.7
1919	
24.7
1920       ..                        .'.	
25.1
1921                      	
24.2
1922	
24.1
1923	
24.4
1924...    	
24.8
1925                                             	
24.8
1926	
25.0
1927	
24.9
1928	
24.7
1929                                              	
24.3
1930                                              	
23.2
Average lengths..
1931	
24.0
23.3
23.8
23.1
25.5
25.8
24.6
24.7
Table XIX.—Average Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes, ^}2 and $2 Age-groups,
for Eighteen Successive Years.
Year.
Four-year
Males.
Four-year
Females.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
1914      ... .          	
5.9
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.4
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.3
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.4
5.3
5.2
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.5
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.9
5.0
4.7
5.1
5.1
4.6
4.7
5.1
7.2
6.8
7.1
6.4
6.9
7.0
7.2
6.4
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.8
6.7
6.3
1915                                 	
6.2
1916                                               	
6.3
1917                 	
6.0
1918	
6.4
1919..      .                                     	
6.2
1920	
6.4
1921	
5.7
1922                    	
5.7
1923	
5.7
1924	
6.3
1925	
5.8
1926 ;	
5.8
1927	
59
1928	
5.8
1929 '.	
6 2
1930	
6 0
5.5
5.1
6.7
6.0
1931	
5.4
5.1
6.8
6 3 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
F 29
Table XX.—Average
Weights of Skeena River Sockeyes,
for Seventeen Successive Years.
)g and 63
ge-groups,
Year.
Five-year
Males.
Five-year
Females.
Six-year
Males.
Six-year
Females.
1915	
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.7
6.1
6.3
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.9
5.5
5.9
5.4
5.0
5.6
5.6
5.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.1
4.8
5.1
4.9
5.2
5.0
4.6
4.9
5.0
6.6
7.1
6.3
6.6
6.9
7.3
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.6
6.9
6.9
6.0
6.5
6.8
6.8
6.0
1916	
5.9
1917        	
5.8
1918	
6.1
1919	
6.3
1920           	
6.3
1921                	
5.6
1922	
5.7
1923                	
5.4
1924           	
5.8
1925	
5.4
1926	
6.2
1927      ...    	
5.8
1928	
5.8
1929	
5.7
1930               	
5.8
5.7
5.1
6.6
5 9
1931      	
5.5
5.0
6.9
6.0
Table XXI.—Percentages of Males and Females in each of the Different Year-groups,
Skeena River Sockeyes, in a Series of Years.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912   .    	
54
69
60
55
70
65
63
53
41
44
52
60
50
57
40
45
48
50
47
43
46
31
40
45
30
35
37
47
59
56
48
40
50
43
60
55
52
50
53
57
42
47
47
45
43
48
46
46
37
44
41
37
43
42
43
41
45
46
56
39
58
53
53
55
57
52
54
54
63
56
59
63
57
58
57
59
55
54
44
61
56
65
61
52
43
50
52
56
46
45
48
47
43
65
55
51
44
35
39
48
57
50
48
44
54
55
52
53
57
35
45
49
54
58
56
45
41
43
53
40
46
47
49
56
50
57
63
53
1913	
1914	
1915 	
1916 	
46
1917	
1918                	
42
44
1919              	
55
1920  ..    	
59
1921	
1922        	
57
47
1923  	
60
1924        	
54
1925	
53
1926             	
51
1927   .   '.	
44
1928
50
1929 	
43
1930       	
37
1931 	
47 F 30 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
4. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1931.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
Of the four river systems under consideration, the Nass is both the most interesting and
at the same time the most unsatisfactory to study. It affords greatest interest for two reasons:
First, because the racial characteristics are so well-defined; and, secondly, because there is a
larger number of age-groups with considerable variety in the combination of years spent in
fresh and salt water.
It is an unsatisfactory run to study because there seems to be such a lack of correlation
between pack records and the size of the corresponding runs in successive years of the same
cycle. Mediocre brood-years have resulted in excellent runs, and vice versa; splendid seedings
have produced phenomenally poor runs. These apparently contradictory results may be due to
exceptional conditions prevailing during either the fresh- or salt-water periods which cannot be
discerned. On the other hand, these results may be explained by the fact that our knowledge
of the runs is far from complete. Like the fishing of the Fraser River runs, that of the Nass
is also international, but, unlike the Fraser, the American pack statistics of the Nass are not
available and cannot be combined with the Canadian ones to give the total pack for each year.
In addition, knowledge of the spawning-grounds is extremely limited. The inaccessibility of
the river has made complete exploration of the headwaters such a difficult and costly task that
at the present time Meziadin Lake is the only area concerning which we have reasonably adequate information. To what extent, if any, Bowser Lake serves as a spawning-ground is
uncertain. Our knowledge of the lake is altogether too meagre to make a positive statement.
That there are other spawning-grounds in the river system is beyond doubt, but until they have
been found and are inspected annually, information of escapement will remain incomplete. In
view of the facts that the pack records do not represent the whole pack and that the seeding
of the spawning-grounds of Meziadin Lake does not show the entire escapement, it is to be
expected that discrepancies will arise between successive packs and escapements in the same
cycle.
AVhile the Nass River made a gratifying recovery in 1930, the pack for this year is again
mediocre, amounting to 16,929 cases. Moreover, Inspector Hickman reports the conditions of
the spawning-beds as " not at all favourable." However, using the available information as a
basis for judgment, this pack of 1931 is all which could be expected, because the commercial
yield of 1926, the principal brood-year, was only 15,929 cases and the seeding was unsatisfactory.
In so far as predictions can be made, the outlook for the year 1932 is not good. The pack
of 1927 was only 12,026 cases, and Inspector Hickman, in speaking of Meziadin Lake, says:
" I am of the opinion that the spawning-beds will not be amply seeded." In 192S, 30 per cent,
of the run consisted of four-year-old fish and their progeny will be returning in 1932. Had 1928
been a productive year this age-group might materially augment the pack of 1932, but the
yield was merely 5,540 cases, which is the smallest pack on record and cannot therefore form
an important component of the run.
In connection with this small pack of 1928. we wish to repeat a statement which was made
four years ago. It is this: that unless some very drastic measure is taken to allow a very
large proportion of this cycle of 1918-23-28-33 to reach the spawning-beds, nothing but complete
annihilation can be looked for in future years. As stated in the previous paragraph, the four-
year-old fish constituted 30 per cent, of the run of 1928 and their descendants will mature in
1932. If some precaution is not taken in this year to increase the spawning reserve, further
irreparable damage will be done to practically a third of a run which is already close to
extermination.
(2.)  Age-groups.
The great complexity of the Nass River run is one of its best marked racial peculiarities.
Each year a portion of the young fish seeks the sea as soon as the fish become free-swimming
and returns at maturity in the third or fourth year (31's and 41's). A second group, after
spending one year in the lake, passes down to the salt water, where it remains three or four
years, maturing at the ages of four and five (42's and 52's). A third group prolongs its freshwater residence to two years and remains at sea until five or six years of age (5g's and 63's).
Still another group lives three years in the lake and three or four years in the ocean, reaching
maturity in its sixth or seventh year (64's and 74's).    There are thus in the Nass run eight LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON. F 31
age-groups made up of individuals ranging between three and seven years of age.    These groups
are enumerated in Tables XXIV. and XXVI.
As these tables show, only seven of the usual age-classes are present. The missing group,
the 74's, has never been composed of many individuals and since the year 1927 it has not contained a single representative. In addition, this year finds the 64 class made up of only five
individuals. As stated in 1930, of late years these oldest fish are becoming more and more
scarce. Their numbers are now so reduced that they can hardly be considered a real component
of the runs. The recent scale-collections have been made as late in the season as in former
years, so that these 64's and 74's should be represented were they present, in the runs. Their
disappearance cannot be accounted for at the present time.
The 1931 study is based on 1,758 individuals taken in fifteen random samplings at regular
intervals during the period between June 29th and August 17th. In the Nass runs there are
occasionally found single individuals representing age-groups other than the usual eight. This
year, in addition to the 1,757 tabulated fish, there is to be recorded a male specimen with a
length of 19% inches and a weight of 3 lb. This sockeye spent two years in fresh water and
matured after one year of ocean life and would therefore be designated as a 43.
Table XXII. is a compilation of the percentages of the principal age-groups over a period
of years. In 1931 the following are found: 42's, 10 per cent.; 52's, 17 per cent.; 53's, 67 per
cent.; and 64's, 6 per cent. In comparing these figures with those of the preceding three years,
the most noticeable difference is a decrease of over 50 per cent, in the 42 group. At the same
time, there has been an increase of a lesser degree in the 5g's. Another five-year period has been
added to Table XXIII. When these four five-year periods are perused, three features seem worthy
of mention: (1) During the years 1922-26 the dominant age-group, the 53's, was considerably
in excess of what appears to be its normal percentage; (2) during the last five-year interval
the number of 4,'s has greatly increased ; and (3) there is what appears to be a definite decrease
in the numbers of the 52 class.
(3.)  Lengths and AVeights.
The statistics of length and weight for the various age-groups of 1931 are given in Tables
XXIV. and XXVI., and the average measurements of the principal classes, together with similar
averages for preceding years, are presented in Tables XXV. and XXVII. The 1931 fish are
exceptionally large and heavy, the previous highest records being both equalled and exceeded.
The 52 and 6a females set new high levels for length and weight and the 63 males for length
only. Also the length and weight of the 52 males and the weight of the 63 males is equivalent
to the greatest heretofore recorded.
The Nass River sockeyes have a specific racial characteristic correlated with size. In the
other three river systems this character of size appears to be associated with the number of
years spent in sea-feeding. Irregardless of the extent of fresh-water life, all fish which live
three years in the ocean reach approximately the same-size at maturity and likewise those
which remain four years attain a similar size. In the Nass River, on the other hand, size is
definitely linked with another factor—namely, ultimate age. In Tables XXA^III. and XXIX. the
age-groups have been arranged in ascending series according to lengths and weights. Reading
the sexes separately, it is seen that increase in age coincides with increase in size, the youngest
fish are the smallest and the oldest fish are the largest. AA7hile age is obviously the factor which
is most intimately allied with size, it is interesting to note the secondary influence which sea-
feeding plays in the Nass River. There are two age-groups, each for the four-, five-, and six-
year-old fish—namely, 42's and 4j's for the fours; 53's and 52's for the fives; and 64's and 6.,'s
for the sixes. The two groups of each pair differ by one year of ocean life. In each case the
group which had the additional year at sea has the greater length and weight.
(4.)  Seasonal Changes during the Run.
Still another racial characteristic of the Nass is the seasonal succession of the various age-
groups. The 5?'s, the dominant class, is present throughout the run, but with changing intensity. The 34's and 4t.'s are confined to the early weeks of the run and the 6,,'s and 7/s are
restricted to the later part. The 42's and 52's also occur during the entire run, but reach their
greatest numbers during the middle and latter part of July. AA7hile this feature of seasonal
succession has shown great constancy from year to year, occasionally there is a variation.    Such F 32
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
is the case in 1931.    The 52's appear with maximum strength at the beginning of the run and
maintain it through the month of July (Table XXX.).
(5.)  The Meziadin and Bowser Sockeye Colonies.
In discussing the general characteristics of this river system, mention was made of the
inaccessibility of the spawning-grounds for inspection and the limited knowledge concerning
them. Each year Inspector Hickman makes the difficult trip into the Meziadin watershed in
order to examine the spawning-beds and to gather additional data concerning the fish. As has
been his experience occasionally in the past, this year he was unsuccessful in trying to intercept
fish returning to the Upper Nass. Therefore the usual comparison between the Meziadin and
Bowser Lake colonies cannot be made. But the data concerning the former colony are recorded
in Tables XXXI. to XXXIII. In connection with these data there are two points to which
attention should be directed. First, the entire sample, numbering fifty-one, is composed of fish
which spent two years in the lake (Table XXXI.). Secondly, the average lengths of both males
and females are high (Table XXXII.). This, of course, is in keeping with the findings of the
general run to the Nass.
Table XXII.—Percentages of Principal, Age-groups present in the Nass River
Sockeye Run from 1912 to 1931.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals that spent
One Year In Lake.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Two Years in Lake.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912 (36,037 cases)
1913 (23,574 cases)
1914 (31,327 cases)
1915 (39,349 cases)
1916 (31,411 cases)
1917 (22,188 cases)
1918 (21,816 cases)
1919 (28,259 cases)
1920 (16,740 cases)
1921 (9,364 cases)..
1922 (31,277 cases)
1923 (17,821 cases)
1924 (33,590 cases)
1925 (18,945 cases)
1926 (15,929 cases)
1927 (12,020 cases)
1928 (5,540 eases)-
1920 (16,077 cases)
1930 (26,405 cases)
1931 (16,929 eases)
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
2
10
2
2
13
4
3
6
3
Table XXIII.—Percentage of Principal Age-groups in Nass River Sockeye Run
from 1912 to 1931 combined in Five-year Periods.
One Year in Lake.
Two Years in Lake.
Year.
Four Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Five Years
old.
Six Years
old.
1912 16                	
11
13
11
20
22
62
5
1917-21	
15                        65
7                        77
11            1           65
7
1922-26    	
5
1927-31           ..           	
4 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
F 33
Table XXIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1931, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length, and
by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
31
4
1
42
52
53
6
3
64
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
21V,	
1
2
5
13
25
17
10
10
2
2
1
22                    !
2
2
6
15
54
76
141
148
124
57
25
5
2
4
22%	
1
2
2
1
i
1
2
3
3
4
3
3
1
2
6
12
19
14
13
8
6
4
1
13
23	
1
3
2
9
21
22
29
40
12
9
4
3
1
1
10
12
25
22
25
21
17
3
3
3
2
12
27
43
81
105
91
78
33
13
3
1
34
23%	
61
24	
4
2
2
9
3
10
13
14
6
4
2
1
1
2
121
24%	
1
3
3
1
1
148
25	
250
25%	
2
292
26	
2
5
4
1
9
3
1
2
289
26%	
212
27 	
174
27% 	
57
28  1
46
28%.-	
1
24
29..	
19
29%	
6
30...  	
4
30% 	
2
Totals     .
9
1
9
19
85
87
155
140
492
657
69
29
3
2
1,757
23.7
22.5
25.4
23.9
24.5
23.8
26.5
25.7
26.1
25.3
28.2
27.1
27.2
25.5
Table XXV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths of Principal Classes
from 1912 to 1931.
4
2
p
2
5
3
e
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 (inches)	
24.6
24.1
24.6
24.0
24.5
23.4
25.0
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
23.3
23.5
22.7
23.5
23.3
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
26.5
25.6
26.1
25.9
26.4
25.5
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
' 26.2
25.9
26.1
25.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
25.1
24.8
25.1
25.2
25.0
2*4.7
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25 2
25.1
25.2
25.4
26.2
26.0
26.3
26.5
26.5
25.3
25.9
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
25.4
25.2
25.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.0
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
27.0
26.0
26.9
26.6
27.9 .
26.5
27 2
27.9
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
27.9
27.6
28.1
27.2
27.9
25.0
1913   „	
20.0
1914   ,,  	
25.6
1915   „	
25.3
1916   ,,  	
25.7
1917    „   	
25.5
1918   „  	
25.2
1919   „  	
26.7
1920    „   	
25.9
1021   „  	
26.2
1922   „  	
25.9
1923   „  	
26.5
1924   „  	
25.4
1925   „  	
25.4
1926           	
27.0
1927   „  	
26.5
1928   „  	
26.2
1929   „  	
26.2
1930   „  	
26.8
24.4
23.6
26.0
25.0
26.1
25.3
27.4
26.0
1931 (inches)    	
24.5
23.8
26.5
25.7
26.1
25.3
28.2
27.1 F 34
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
Table XXVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1931, grouped by Age, Sex, Weight, and
by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
h
41
42
52
53
63
64
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.      F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
4	
1
4
28
129
222
166
80
18
9
|
1
4%	
1
2
2
3
1
1
4
5
3
6
12
18
25
17
8
3
2
7
21
30
22
7
13
1
1
1
8
15
31
48
34
13
3
1
2
5
25
31
40
25
9
1
2
6
29
75
106
131
104
34
4
3
77
5%	
1
4
1
9
15
19
2
1
2
5
10
1
1
222
6  	
6%	
1
5
1
2
387
360
7	
2
299
7%	
219
8	
5
108
8%	
40
9	
1RI       1
99
9%	
*l	
1
9
~85
87
Totals	
9
1
9
19
155
140
492
657|     69|     29
3
0
1,757
5.5
5.0
6.7
5.7
6.0
5.5 1   7.4
6.8
6.8
6.2
8.3
7.4
7.8
5.7
Table XXVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights of Principal Classes
from 1914 to 1931.
Year.
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914   (pou
1915
6.2
5.6
6.0
5.3
6.3
6.0
5.6
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.2
5.6
5.7
5.9
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.4
5.4
5.8
5.0
5.2
5.2
7.4
6.9
7.2
6.8
7.2
6.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
6.7
7.2
6.8
6.9
7.1
7.0
7.1
7.3
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.2
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.2
6.6
6.5
7.2
7.0
7.2
6.3
7.2
6.7
7.4
0.9
6.8
6.6
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.9
6.2
6.7
7.1
6.5
6.6
6.2
5.8
6.4
6.1
6.7
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.0
6.0
6.2
5.5
5.9
6.1
7.9
7.2
8.1
7.3
8.3
7.8
7.9
7.7
8.1
7.2
8.0
7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
7.6
8.2
6 8
6 5
1916
6 4
1917
6 4
1918
6 7
1919
6 7
1920
7 0
1921
6 6
1922
6 6
1923
6 8
1924
6 5
1925
6 3
1926
7 1
1927
7 0
1928
6 6
1929
6 8
1930
Ave. weights	
5.9
5.3
7.0             6.3
6.8
6.2
7.8
6.7
1931   (poi
0.0
5.5
7.4       1       fi.S
6.8
6.2
8.3
7.4 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
F 35
Table XXVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1919-31, grouped by Age, Sex, and Average
Lengths of Principal Age-groups.
Average Lengths in Inches in Groups.
Three
Years old.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Seven
Years old.
h
42
41
h
52
64
63
7
4
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1919	
24.9
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.3
24.7
24.4
24.9
24.9
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.1
23.4
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.8
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
23.5
23.7
26.1
24.2
24.5
25.5
24.5
25.6
25.1
25.8
25.1
23.6
23.5
24.3
24.0
24.1
23.6
24.3
26.5
26.7
26.2
25.7
26.2
26.3
25.9
26.1
26.3
25.5
25.9
26.4
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.0
25.5
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.9
24.6
24.9
25.3
26.2
26.3
25.5
25.6
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.1
26.3
26.0
26.1
26.5
25.2
25.0
24.3
24.6
25.3
24.9
24.7
25.3
25.2
25.1
25.2
25.4
28.2
26.6
26.9
26.2
26.1
27.1
26.3
26.7
26.8
25.5
26.5 27.9
26.7
25.9
26.2
25.9
26.5
25.4
25.4
27.0
26.5
26.2
26.2
26.8
27.2
28.0
1920      1	
26.7
26.5
25.4
25.5
26.4
25.3
27.4
27.9
28.0
27.2
28.0
26.9
1921     123.1
22.4
1922..              1	
1923..	
1924	
1925...              	
1926   	
1927 	
1928...                     	
23.7
23.4
23.7
22.3
23.5
22.4
25.8:27.9
27.0 27.6
24.6 28.1
.28.2
29.0
27.0
1929.                       	
27.2
27.9
1930..                      -   ..
1
24.5
23.7
25.2
24.1
26.1
25.4
26.0
25.0
26.6J 26.0,27.6
26.2
1
1931	
23.7
22.5
24.5J 23.S
25.4
23.9
26.1
25.3
26.5
25.7
27.2
25.5 28.2
27.1
Table XXIX.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1919-31, grouped by Age, Sex, and Average
Weights of Principal Age-groups.
Average Weights n
• Pounds of Groups.
Three
Years old.
Four Years old.
Five Years old.
Six Years old.
Seven
Years old.
Year.
31
4
2
41
53
52
64
6
3
74
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.   1   F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1919	
6.0
5.0
5.5
5.2
6.4
5.7
6.7
7.4
6.1
6.7
6.6
7.4
5.9
6.3
7.7
7.6
7.0
6.9
7.8
7.9
6.7
7.0
7.1
7.5
1920 .....
1921	
5.0
4.6
6.0
5.4
5.9
5.5
6.9
6.3
6.9
6.1
7.0
6.5
7.7
6.6
1922	
5.9
5.4
6.1
5.5
6.8
6.3
6.8
6.2
7.5
6.3
8.1
6.6
1923..                 	
5.8
5.9
5.2
5.4
7.0
5.5
6.6
6.8
6.0
6.1
6.7
7.2
6.1
6.1
6.7
7.3
6.3
6.5
7.2
8.0
6.8
6.5
1924	
1925  	
5.9
5.4
6.7
0.0
6.8
6.1
6.8
6.0
7.4
6.3
1926   	
5.5
4.5
6.0
5.4
5.9
5.7
6.7
6.0
6.9
6.2
6.8
0.2
7.8
7.1
7.7
7.3
1927	
5.3
6.2
5.8
6.8
5.6
6.9
6.2
7.1
6.3
7.0
7.2
7.8
7.0
9.0
1928	
5.4
4.7
5.6
5.7
5.0
5.2
6.9
5.5
6.2
6.7
5.5
5.9
7.0
7.1
6.2
6.6
6.3
5.4
8.1
7.6
6.6
6.8
1929  	
1930	
5.9
5.2
6.8
5.8
7.1
6.1
7.3
~67sT
6.5
8.2
7.2
Ave. weights	
5.9
5.3
6.5
5.6
6.8
6.1
6.2
7.1
6.4
7.8
6.8
1931    	
5.5
5.0
6.0
5.5
6.7
5.7
6.8
0.2
7.4
6.8
7.8
5.7
8.3
7.4 F 36
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
Table XXX.—Number of Individuals of each Class of Nass River Sockeyes running at
Different Dates in 1931.
Date.
42
52
h
63
h
41
64
43
Number of
Individuals
examined.
June 29 	
July  2.	
„  6	
5
5
0
2
3
15
16
25
18
29
14
10
8
13
3
28
16
31
28
32
29
31
29
20
18
16
10
3
3
1
75
82
80
86
86
78
75
63
67
70
78
82
93
88
46
3
1
2
2
1
3
5
16
6
13
10
10
11
9
3
6
1
......
9
12
4
O
	
	
......
......
	
......
1
1
1
123
122
124
9	
„  13 	
„  17	
121
122
123
.,  20	
„  23	
.,  27
125
122
122
..  31	
Aug.  3.  	
6—	
123
121
113
,,  10—	
.....
120
,,  14.
1
2
116
.,  17	
61
Individuals	
172
295
1,149
98
10
28
5
1
1,758
Table XXXI.—Percentages of Meziadin and Bowser Lake Runs, showing Different
Number of Years in Fresh Water.
Years in Lake.
One Year. Two Years.      Three Years
No. of
Specimens.
Meziadin, 1922	
Meziadin, 1923	
Meziadin, 1924	
Meziadin, 1925 (no collection}
Meziadin, 1926	
Meziadin, 1927	
Meziadin, 1928 (no collection)
Meziadin, 1929	
Meziadin, 1930 	
Meziadin, 1931	
Bowser, 1922	
Bowser, 1923	
Bowser, 1924'. 	
Bowser, 1925	
Bowser, 1926	
Bowser, 1927	
Bowser, 1928 (no collection)...
Bowser, 1929 (no collection)...
Bowser, 1930	
Bowser, 1931 (no collection)...
13
10
0
40
33
18
16
27
22
44
80
84
76
93
94
89
94
100
60
64
79
80
55
78
56
20
3
24
3
3
4
18
10
63
160
43
S5
74
113
51
15
41
34
45
11
9
34 LIFE-HISTORY OF SOCKEYE SALMON.
F 37
Table XXXII.—Average Lengths of the Meziadin and Bowser Lake Sockeyes
for the Years 1924-31.
Year.
Meziadin Lake.
Bowser Lake.
M.                        F.
M.
F.
1924	
26.8
28.1
27.1
27.0
27.2
27.9
25.7
26.3
25.8
25.3
25.7
26.3
25.5
23.8
25.9
24.7
24.9
23.6
1925    	
23.3
1926    	
24.8
1927                     	
23.7
1928    	
1929           	
1930	
22.9
1931                  ..    ..           	
Table XXXIII.—The Lengths of Individuals comprising the Meziadin Run in 1931.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
M.
25...  	
25%-	
26 .".:.	
26% ......
27 	
27%	
28	
28%	
29     	
29%	
30....	
Totals	
Average lengths
31
~27lT
20
20.3 F 38
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE FRASER RIVER.
Hon. S. L. Howe,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report of my twenty-ninth yearly inspection
of the sockeye-salmon fishery and the spawning areas of the Fraser River system in 1931.
The total catches of sockeye made in the Fraser River system in 1931 produced a combined
pack of 128,158 cases, of which 40,947 cases were made from fish caught in Provincial waters
and 87,211 cases from State of Washington waters in that system. The combined catches
produced 30,829 cases less than in 1927—the brood-year of the 1931 run. The catches in Provincial waters produced a pack of 40,947 cases, or 31.9 per cent, of the combined pack. It was
20,446 cases less than in 1927. Catches in State of Washington waters produced a pack of
87,211 cases, or 68.10 per cent, of the total packed in 1931.    It was 10,383 cases less than in 1927.
The following table shows the Fraser system sockeye-packs, by months, in Provincial and
State of Washington waters for the season 1931:—
British Columbia.
State of
Washington.
Total.
Mav	
Cases.
2,140
17,609
21,098
100
Cases.
36
92
12,396
63,719
9,844
j        1,124
Cases.
36
92
Julv	
14,536
81,328
30,942
1,224
October	
November	
Totals	
40,947
87,211
128,158
The above shows that the bulk of the catches were made in the months of August and
September. The catches from September 21st to October 17th in British Columbia waters
produced a pack of 13,544 cases, largely due to small late runs. It exceeded the July pack by
11,404 cases and was but 4,065 cases less than August. In this connection it is again to be
noted that previous to depletion the greater proportion of the catch made in both Provincial and
State waters of the system was made in July and early August. It is also to be noted that in
1927, the brood-year of the 1931 run, the catch made in Provincial waters in July produced
14,272 cases, as against 2,140 cases in 1931; and that the catches in October of 1927 produced
a pack of 8,726 cases, as against 100 cases in 1931. In other words, the early and late runs in
1931 were far below those in 1927.
THE SPAWNING AREAS OF THE FRASER RIVER BASIN.
My personal inspection of the sockeye-spawning areas of the Fraser River was limited, due
to the fact that the early runs which reached the river were so very small as to permit of but a
very small escapement, and the reports that reached the Department through Major Motherwell,
Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Dominion, showed that very few sockeye had reached any
of the headwaters of the Fraser or its tributaries. In consequence I did not visit the Stuart,
Quesnel, or Chilko Lakes section. Personal inspection was confined to Seton, Anderson, Lillooet,
Harrison, and the Shuswap areas.
I am again greatly indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell for furnishing me with copies and
excerpts from the detailed spawning-bed reports made him by his many assistants stationed
throughout the Fraser River basin, many of whom have for years studied conditions in the
principal lake areas. I am also indebted to many white and Indian residents in the Fraser
basin for information of value.
As already shown, the run of sockeye to the Fraser system this year was so small that it is
not surprising to note that the escapement was also small—so small in every section that little
return can be expected four years hence.
Reliable reports from all sections, and my own observations, show that the total number of
sockeye that spawned in the entire river-basin this year was one of the smallest ever recorded. SPAWNING-BEDS OF FRASER RIVER.
F 39
Only a few hundred sockeye were observed in any of the lakes tributary to the Nechako, the
Quesnel, or the Chilcotin Rivers. Only a few hundred entered Seton-Anderson lakes. For the
first time in many years there was a very noticeable decrease in the number of sockeye that
reached the Birkenhead River, the main spawning area of the Harrison-Lillooet Lakes section.
Egg-collections for the hatchery on the Birkenhead River totalled but 20,425,000, as against an
average of 32,300,000 for the last ten years, notwithstanding that three-fifths of all the sockeye
that reached there this season were caught and their spawn expressed—while in recent years
the numbers which spawned naturally nearly equalled those taken for the hatchery. In only
one other year since the hatchery was established has there been such a notable decrease in the
annual run. The Birkenhead has for twenty-odd years been the only bright spawning prospect
in the entire Fraser basin. There was no early run this year and the late run was most
disappointing.
The number of sockeye that reached the Shuswap Lake area this year was also small.
Experienced observers and myself, who have inspected the spawning areas of this section for
many years, believe that the number which spawned there this year did not exceed the hundred
thousand we estimated as spawning there in 1927—the brood-year of this year's run. Sockeye
did not reach there until October. November arrivals were comparatively small. Other than
in Adams River, sockeye in noticeable numbers were not seen in any other tributary of Shuswap
Lake.
Water conditions throughout the season in the Fraser basin were favourable for the spawning. The flow at Hell's Gate and in the canyon above the mouth of Bridge River was above
normal throughout the season.    At neither point were the ascending fish delayed.
As already stated, the total number of sockeye that spawned in the entire Fraser River
basin this year was the smallest in many years—so small that an increased run four years hence
should not be anticipated.
I am indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell for the following statement giving the number of
salmon-eggs collected from the Fraser and other waters this year and placed in the hatcheries:—
SALMON-EGG COLLECTIONS, BRITISH COLUMBIA HATCHERIES, 1931.
Hatchery.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Cohoe.
Pinks.
Total.
6,249,000
7,800,000
8,320,000
9,000
6,258,000
7,800,000
8,320,000
1,305,800
401,600
1,707,400
39,307,310
5,184,610
20,425,000
2,700,000
20,288,600
39,307,310
99,505
5,284.115
20,425,000
Pitt Lake    -                            .     ~
2.700,000
485,250
356,100
20,773,850
356,100
Tlell, Q.C.I..	
1,200,142
1.200,142
Totals    	
110,274,520
2,156,150
501,105
1,200,142
114,131,917
Respectfully submitted.
Victoria, B.C., December, 1931.
John Pease Babcock,
Assistant to the Commissioner. F 40 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF RIVERS INLET.
Hon. S. L. Howe,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my nineteenth annual report upon the inspection of the
spawning-beds at Rivers Inlet for the year 1931.
The run of sockeye salmon to the Rivers Inlet watershed, in the extent of the pack,
amounting to approximately 79,000 cases, and the escapement to the spawning-beds, measured
up fully to what was anticipated from the very satisfactory seeding in the brood-years 1926-27.
Figures kindly furnished me by Mr. Frank Tingley, Superintendent of the Dominion Hatchery,
show that, following the collection of eggs made by them during the spawning in 1926, no less
than 10,500,000 eyed eggs were planted the following spring, added to which 8,739,000 young fry
were turned loose into the various tributaries. In 1927, following the collection of eggs made in that
year, 12,025,000 eyed eggs were planted and 8,043,000 young fry turned loose. Notwithstanding
the natural spawning was exceptionally good in the brood-years, we have to take into consideration climatic conditions which under abnormal rainfall have such a devastating effect
upon the spawning-beds. In 1927 " freshets " occurred frequently during the spawning season,
scouring out the gravel-bars and uncovering quantities of eggs already deposited by the salmon.
To counteract the loss of eggs sustained in this manner, the assistance which the hatchery gives
to the natural spawning by the employment of the above methods is manifest in a gratifying
degree. Not only was the pack in excess of the returns both in 1926 and 1927, but the escapement to the spawning-beds showed a corresponding improvement.
Leaving Rivers Inlet Cannery for the Owikeno Lake on September 6th. I proceeded direct
to the tributaries at the head of the lake, consisting of the Indian, Cheo, and Washwash Rivers.
It is here where the early-running salmon return to spawn at least three weeks to a month
earlier than the main run. Examining the Indian River first, comprising a spawning area of
about half a mile in extent, it was satisfactory to note that the run of sockeye did not fall below
that expected from the exceptional seeding in 1926 and 1927. The spawning-beds from the
entrance to the falls contained their full quota of spawning salmon, many in the last stages of
exhaustion ; males and females appeared to be about equally represented. In size five-year fish
were slightly in excess of the four-year cycle. Erosion of the right bank of the river a little
way up from the entrance and close to the log-jam has had the effect of undermining several
trees, which have been thrown across the stream since last year, adding to the size of the
existing log-jam. The salmon have now to pass underneath in order to reach the spawning-beds
above. This obstruction should be removed or it will in the course of time have the effect of
curtailing the extent of the spawning area.
The Cheo River, having a spawning area of about 3% miles in extent, contained a very fair
run of sockeye, as was evidenced in the numbers spawning on all the gravel-bars up to the
log-jam situated just below the falls. Between the log-jam and the falls the greatest showing
of fish was in evidence, the spawning-beds being covered, many in an advanced stage of spawning.
Four- and five-year fish were about, equally divided, males outnumbering the females two to one.
It was at the Washwash River, lying over on the extreme right of the lake, that the greatest
showing of salmon was observed. From the entrance up to the falls, a distance of about 2 miles,
sockeyes in very large numbers covered the spawning-beds. Carcasses of dead fish littered the
bars in all directions, testifying to the extensive run that had arrived prior to my visit. In size
four- and five-year sockeye were about equally represented, males outnumbering the females two
to one. Small grilse were in evidence, comprising about 2 per cent, of the entire run. Hatchery-
men were busy collecting spring-salmon eggs some distance up and they experienced difficulty in
obtaining them, since it meant hooking them out of the river and collecting the eggs in that way.
The total number taken did not reach last year's collection by about 50 per cent., the run of this
species of salmon having fallen off to that extent. The fine run of sockeye, however, measured
fully up to what was expected from the very satisfactory seeding in 1926-27. The log-jam mentioned in my report last year as menacing the main flow of the river to a channel emptying into
the Cheo has now been removed by the Dominion authorities, and, in addition to this, dams have
been thrown across the head of this channel to divert the stream into the main river at high
water. Due note must now be taken of a log-jam in the forming situated just below, consisting
of a tree lying directly across the main river with a large tree-root jammed in the middle. SPAWNING-BEDS OF RIVERS INLET. F 41
Although this tree is well above normal precipitation, at high water it may be a menace in the
event of drift-logs being carried down to it. A stick of dynamite would clear this obstruction in
a few minutes.
No sockeye had arrived at the spawning-beds at Sunday Creek, a small stream situated 5
miles from the head of the lake, nor was there any evidence of a run of fish to the spawning-
beds at the Narrows. I therefore returned down the lake and had a look at Asklum River,
which last year turned out such a failure. The fine showing of sockeye already spawning, and
the exceptional numbers schooled up in the deep water near the entrance, presaged a run of
unusual proportions, so I decided to thoroughly inspect this tributary on my return from the
inspection of the spawning-beds at Smith Inlet.
On my return for the final inspection of the rivers on October 15th, I proceeded direct to
the Sheemahant River and made camp. This fine spawning area, consisting of a series of rapids
flowing down from the canyon 18 miles distant and miles upon miles of spawning-grounds,
affords every facility to the spawning salmon. That they were making full use of them was
evidenced in the exceptional numbers seen as I made my way up. The improvement in the run
overcame in a marked degree the moderate return in 1926 and the failure recorded in 1927, the
brood-years. Carcasses of dead fish covered the bars all the way up, testifying to a very big
run of sockeye having arrived earlier. In size five-year fish dominated the run, males outnumbering the females two to one. Since the brood-years did not indicate that the return this
year would be so satisfactory, we must attribute it to the assistance rendered by the hatchery,
who have for some years replenished the streams, particularly the Sheemahant River, with
millions of eggs and distribution of young fry.
The spawning-beds covering the large area of the lake, from the Indian smoke-house to the
Second Narrows, contained a run of sockeye excelling in numbers any that I had seen before, and
is a positive example of the effect extensive seeding and distribution of young fry has upon
depleted spawning-beds. In size the greater proportion belonged to the five-year cycle, males
outnumbering the females two to one. A few sockeye had reached the spawning-beds at Sunday
Creek, but the numbers were so small that the run may be considered a failure.
Arriving at Genesee Creek, the overflow to Walkus Lake, no abatement was shown in the
remarkable runs that have returned so consistently year by year. From the entrance up to the
fence thousands upon thousands lined the beds, and as they reached the pens were quickly
spawned out by the hatchery crew. In this way no less than 8,159,000 eggs were collected,
excelling even the record of last year. Mr. McPhail, in charge of the camp, stated that no
trouble would have been experienced in collecting as many as 10.000,000 eggs had they so desired.
Evidence to this effect was very plainly seen in the black masses representing thousands of fish
that lay schooled up outside near the entrance, waiting until they were in a sufficiently ripe
stage to go on the spawning-beds later. Four- and five-year sockeye were about equally divided,
males being slightly in excess of the females. Above the fence a few small grilse were seen
intermingled with the other salmon, comprising about 1 per cent, of the run.
A fair run of sockeye had taken possession of the spawning-beds at the Machmell River, one
of the largest tributaries of Owikeno Lake, but on account of its thick muddy condition it is
difficult to arrive at an accurate estimate of the run. There was, however, not lacking evidence
to show that the spawning-beds were well seeded, as indicated by the numbers spawning in the
side-streams near the entrance. Farther up the gravel-bars all showed evidence of spawning
fish, many in the last stages of exhaustion, while numerous carcasses of dead fish littered the
bars. The run of sockeye to the Nechants River (or " Nookins," as it is generally termed) did
not look so promising. This tributary empties into the Machmell River about half a mile from
the entrance, and has generally been regarded as one of the most successful spawning-streams on
the lake, but for some reason the run of sockeye did not measure up to the excellent showing
noted on all the other rivers. A very fair number were seen spawning on the gravel-bars below
Marble Creek, also in the main river up to the rough water, but Marble Creek, which usually
takes care of the greater portion, was practically bare. In size the four- and five-year sockeye
were about equally represented, males outnumbering the females two to one. No obstructions
interfere with the ascent of the salmon up-stream.
Returning once more to examine Asklum River, which on my previous visit had shown such
a promising outlook, conditions had greatly improved. The dense masses of sockeye that lay
dormant near the entrance had come to life and were all busy spawning, covering every available
foot of the river-bed up to the falls 5 miles distant.    The improvement shown over the com- parative failure of last year was most marked. Four- and five-year fish were about equally
distributed, males outnumbering the females two to one. Small grilse comprised about 2 per
cent, of the entire run. In comparing the return this year with the very excellent showing-
recorded in the brood-years 1926 and 1927, I have no hesitation in stating that it measures up
fully to the high standard attained, if not excels the returns at that time.
For the first time in many years the hatchery crew at Quap River had completed the entire
collection of eggs two weeks earlier than usual, due to the steady run of sockeye up the river
to the fence, where they were quickly spawned out. That the run has not fallen behind in what
was anticipated from the very exceptional seeding in 1926 and 1927 was amply demonstrated by
the dense masses schooled up at the entrance and the thousands that lay dormant outside In the
lake. From the entrance the spawning-beds up to the fence were literally covered with a living
mass of fish all busy spawning, while schooled up at the side of the river in the deep water other
thousands waited. The fence had been lifted to permit the salmon access to the spawning-beds
above, and on examining this portion of the river up to the head, a distance of 5 miles, the same
conditions prevailed, thousands lining every foot of the gravel-bars. Small grilse were observed
intermingled with the main run and comprised about 1 per cent, of the run. In making a comparison of the return this year with the numbers that came back in the brood-years, I find that
it measures up if not excels the excellent showing at that time. Five-year sockeye predominated
the run, males outnumbering the females two to one.
Inspection of the Dalley River, situated directly opposite Quap, showed that the run of
sockeye to this tributary came fully up to expectations and compared very favourably with the
exceptional returns reported in the brood-years 1926 and 1927. Following the stream up to the
falls 4% miles distant, thousands of fish lined the spawning-beds, all busy spawning; carcasses
of dead fish were scattered all over the bars; and upheaval of the spawning-beds testified to the
enormous proportions of the run prior to my visit. It is a recurrence of scenes typical of this
very fine spawning area. Four- and five-year fish were about equally divided, males outnumbering the females two to one.
I was disappointed with the run of sockeye to the Hatchery Creek. Beyond a few that had
taken possession of the spawning-beds near the entrance, and a small school lying dormant in the
deep water, there was entirely lacking in numbers the very fine run which returned last year.
Sockeye of the five-year cycle comprised a greater proportion of the run, males being slightly
in excess of the females.
The spawning-beds surrounding the Indian rancherie and those that lie along the upper
portion of the Owikeno River contained a run of sockeye measuring up to the high standard
attained in the brood-years. Indians who were smoking salmon at this point stated that they
had no difficulty in obtaining all they required and had nearly completed filling the racks in their
smoke-houses. Spring and chum salmon could be seen breaking water in all directions as we
made our way down the river to the cannery.
In summing up the results of the inspection of the spawning-beds at Rivers Inlet for the
year 1931, I am of the opinion that the very fine showing of sockeye that had possession of the
tributaries of Lake Owikeno. with the exception of perhaps one or two, will result in a deposit
of eggs equal if not in excess of the number deposited in the brood-years 1926 and 1927, and
coupled with the assistance which the hatchery has given to the spawning-beds in planting
millions of eggs and restocking the streams with young fry. I have every reason to believe that
the return four and five years hence will be reflected in a run measuring up if not exceeding the
magnificent proportions attained this year.
In conclusion, I wish to express my thanks and appreciation to Mr. Frank Tingley, Superintendent of the Dominion Hatchery, and the men at the various spawning camps for courtesies.
Respectfully submitted.
Arthur W. Stone.
Provincial Fishery Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., November 16th. 1931. SPAWNING-BEDS OF SMITH INLET. F 43
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF SMITH INLET.
Hon. S. L. Howe,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my eighteenth annual report upon the inspection of the
spawning-beds at Smith Inlet for the year 1931.
Taking into consideration the very moderate pack put up by the canneries at Smith Inlet
for this year, amounting to approximately 12,000 cases, and comparing it with the packs of
20,000 and 25,000 cases put up in the brood-years 1926 and 1927 respectively, the outlook did not
seem very promising for a big return when it came to examining the spawning-beds later. Conditions, however, far from being unsatisfactory, were exceptionally good, and measured up fully
to what was anticipated from the eggs deposited in the brood-years. The limited spawning-beds
contained a run of sockeye of even greater proportions, as the result of the inspection will show.
It may be of interest to recall that in 1926-27, over 550 gill-nets were distributed over the
fishing-grounds, or about 40 per cent, more than were being fished this year, and this decrease
in numbers, coupled with the general desire on the part of the fishermen to transfer their
activities to Rivers Inlet before the fishing season was half over, may be the reason why so
many fish reached the spawning-grounds.
Leaving for the spawning-beds at Long Lake on September 23rd, camp was made at the foot
of the lake, and the Docee River (the overflow to the lake) was examined for spring salmon.
The run of this species of fish did not reach the high standard reported on previous occasions,
but fair numbers were seen spawning in the river, while a large school had reached the mouth
of the lake.    Others were noted breaking water along the shore-line at this point.
Proceeding up to Quay Creek, situated about 7 miles from the mouth of the lake, I am able
to report that the run of sockeye to the limited spawning-beds compared in a very favourable
light with the returns in 1926 and 1927. They could be seen spawning in fair numbers near the
entrance, while numbers schooled up had reached the swift water near the log-jam situated at
the foot of the falls. Four- and five-year sockeye were about equally distributed, males outnumbering the females two to one.
On arriving at the Geluch River (or " Smoke-house Creek," as it is generally known by) a
preliminary survey of the lower portion of this river was taken that day. Sockeye salmon in
very satisfactory numbers were coming in from the lake and others were seen spawning on the
gravel-bars at each of the small mountain streams, all in an advanced stage of spawning. Carcasses of dead fish littered the bars in all directions, testifying to the large numbers that had
arrived prior to my visit. Outside in the clear waters of the lake, black masses representing
thousands of sockeye waited, presaging a run of unusual proportions to the spawning-beds later.
Fearing a " freshet" following the heavy downfall of rain at this time, I decided to examine
the Delabah River, lying over on the east side of the lake about 2 miles from the head. This
stream quickly responds to conditions of this kind and in a very short time becomes a raging
torrent, when it is impossible to arrive at an accurate estimate of the run. I was fortunate to
arrive before the full effect of the abnormal rainfall had asserted itself. The river was low and
provided an uninterrupted view of the spawning-beds up to the falls. Wishing to determine
whether at this stage of the water sockeye could surmount the falls, I followed the banks of the
river and could clearly note many hugging the large boulders making desperate efforts to
negotiate them, only to be thrown back beaten and helpless. That a great number were successful was evidenced in the numbers swimming around in the eddies below each fall for quite a
distance up, but as there are no spawning-beds in this portion of the river it is evident they
would drop back to the beds lower down. Under normal water conditions or at high water the
ascent of the falls would be impossible. The erosion of the right-hand bank, the result of continual freshets, is responsible for the undermining of huge trees which have been thrown across
the river, adding to the size of the existing log-jam. Since last year three of them have fallen
in this way. The salmon pass underneath and reach the spawning-beds above, but the spawning
area has become so restricted that where prior to 1924 thousands upon thousands of sockeye
spawned, young alder-trees are now growing. Outside along the shore-line of the lake near the
entrance, black masses representing thousands of fish were schooled up lying dormant, equalling
in numbers the very fine return in the brood-years, and will, with the addition of the exceptional
numbers already on the spawning-beds, provide a run four and five years hence equally as F 44 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
prolific as this year.    In size four- and five-year sockeye were about equally divided—males outnumbering the females two to one.
Unavoidable circumstances called me off the spawning-beds at this time, and it was not until
October 10th that conditions covering the entire spawning area of Smith Inlet could be determined. By this time the large schools of fish that had been schooled up at the head of the lake
had passed through on to the spawning-beds of the Geluch River, and were busy spawning right
up to the falls, a distance of 4% miles. Every available foot of spawning-ground had been
called upon to take care of the exceptional seeding following the enormous run. Such a condition warrants the opinion that the return will be equal if not in excess of the runs that reached
the spawning-beds in 1926 and 1927. Four- and five-year fish were equally represented, males
outnumbering the females two to one.
Returning down the lake, cohoe salmon in large numbers could be seen breaking water in all
directions. Arriving at the Docee River, I again examined this stream, but the number of
spring salmon had not increased.
In summing up the result of the inspection of the spawning-beds at Smith Inlet for the year
1931, I am of the opinion that, provided the freshet which occurred during the spawning and
after the spawning did not occasion any great damage to the eggs deposited by the exceptional
run of sockeye that reached the spawning-beds, a very satisfactory return may be confidently
looked for four and five years hence.
In conclusion, I wish to express my thanks and appreciation to Mr. Frank Nason, manager
of the B.C. Packers' plant at Smith Inlet, for courtesies.
Respectfully submitted.
Arthur. W. Stone,
Provincial Fishery Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., November 16th, 1931. SPAWNING-BEDS OF SKEENA RIVER. F 45
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE SKEENA RIVER.
Hon. S. L. Howe,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In obedience to your instructions, I beg to submit the following report on the spawning-
beds of the Skeena River for the year 1931.
Leaving Prince Rupert on September 1st, I arrived at Lakelse Lake the following day.
Lakelse Lake is the first important spawning area of the Skeena River and is approximately 12
miles from Terrace. A modern salmon-hatchery is situated about 2 miles from the lake. On
my arrival at the hatchery I met Mr. C. T. Hearne, the Superintendent, to whom I am indebted
for the following information: Artificial spawning commenced on August 3rd, and by August
17th the full complement of sockeye-eggs, approximately 8,000,000, were collected for the
hatchery. Almost 6,000,000 were taken from Williams Creek and the remainder from Schulla-
buchan Creek. Granite, Hot Springs, Salmon, and Eliza are the other sockeye-ereeks running
into Lakelse Lake, but these were not interfered with in any way by the hatchery crew. There
was a greater volume of water than usual in all the creeks at spawning-time, which would,
barring freshets or an extra dry spell, have more beneficial results with the natural propagation.
The sockeye, on the whole, were of a fair average in size, and there was scarcely a net-scarred
fish to be seen. The males would be slightly in excess of the females in number. On inspecting
the creeks I found a splendid showing of sockeye, particularly in regard to Williams and
Schullabuehan Creeks, the two main sockeye-ereeks on Lakelse. The run to Lakelse this year
did not seem to be either earlier or later than usual. Lakelse River, at the outlet of the lake,
was again teeming with pinks, although not so numerous as in 1929 and 1930.
In summing up the Lakelse spawning area, I would say that this area will be well seeded
this year and will equal that of 1930, when conditions on the spawning-grounds were the best
on record.
Leaving Lakelse, and after outfitting, etc., at Topley, I arrived at Topley Landing on Babine
Lake on September 10th. The first creek visited was 15-Mile Creek, towards the head of the
lake. This is a consistently good spawning-creek and is the best all-round spawning-creek for
its size on Babine Lake. This year was no exception to the rule, and although there were not
as many sockeye on the spawning-grounds as usual, there were, however, sufficient to amply
seed this creek. In past years this creek has been overstocked, a situation which undoubtedly
caused a bigger percentage of loss through wastage, etc. The showing of sockeye this year was
more natural, and I venture to say that the percentage of loss will be almost negligible in comparison with other years. This creek has about half a mile of ideal spawning-grounds on the
lower stretch, but beyond that the creek is a series of falls, and in addition the bed of the creek
is rocky, with practically no gravel. A number of sockeye were seen above the lower spawning-
area, but their successful propagation is very problematical. The sockeye on the lower spawning
area were of a medium size, with a preponderance of males. The " runts " would average about
5 per cent. Several Stuart Lake Indian families who had been fishing in the lake near the mouth
of the creek had caught 600 sockeye between August 31st and September 3rd. A big school of
sockeye were seen in the lake at the mouth of the creek, which indicated that the sockeye were
still running to 15-Mile Creek.
At the mouth of Beaver River, at the head of the lake, from seven to twelve Indian families
had caught 1.000 sockeye with their nets. The sockeye do not spawn in Beaver Creek, but go
up through to Grizzly Creek, which flows into Beaver about 5 miles from the lake. Grizzly
Creek has about 1 mile of fair spawning-grounds and is the earliest spawning-creek on Babine.
The first sockeye caught by the Indians at the mouth of Beaver was on July 23rd. I did not go
up Grizzly Creek, but was informed by the Fishery Guardian that there had been a good run of
sockeye on Grizzly Creek.    The sockeye were big in size and were evenly balanced.
Pierre Creek showed a decided falling-off in the sockeye run compared with other years.
The run was by no means a failure, though, as there was a fair showing of sockeye all up the
creek. This is an early spawning-creek and a number of dead and decaying fish were seen in the
deep pools and on the bars. The sockeye were of a good average in size, the males and females
being evenly proportioned.
Twin Creek and Tachek Creek were similar to Pierre Creek as regards conditions, there
being fewer fish seen than usual in both creeks. Last year both these creeks were very much
overstocked, the majority having died without spawning. As both creeks are small, better results
will ensue this year with fewer sockeye on the spawning-beds. F 46 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
I next visited Babine village, which is located at the outlet of the lake and is approximately
115 miles from the head of the lake. The outlet of the lake for the first 10 miles is where the
Babine Indians, approximately seventy families, catch their yearly supply of sockeye. I was
informed by the Fishery Guardian stationed at this point that the first sockeye seen here was on
July 23rd. As the first sockeye was caught at the head of the lake on this date, it is quite
evident that the sockeye arrived at Babine earlier than. this. The Indians commenced fishing on
August 1st, and by August 20th all the Indians were fishing, using 130 nets. The average catch
of sockeye per family would be slightly over 500 and this would be exclusive of springs and
pinks. It is estimated that 35,000 sockeye were caught by the Indians on this stretch alone.
There would, in addition, be about 300 springs and numerous pinks on the drying-racks. The
Indians claim that the pinks are too dry and thin for curing purposes and are practically useless
for human food, although all right for dog-feed. I visited the swift water below this 10-mile
stretch and found there was a splendid showing of pinks, with a scattering of springs and
sockeye spawning here and there. On the return to Babine village a large number of sockeye
were seen darting away on the approach of the boat. The sockeye were very numerous just
immediately below the lake and had the appearance of being a fresh run. These sockeye were
big in size, some fine big females being noted. The " runts " seen here would average about 10
per cent.    This stretch will be well seeded and will easily compare with any previous good year.
Leaving Babine village, I then visited the Dominion Government Hatchery and met Mr.
A. P. Hills, Superintendent, and Mr. Reid, his assistant. Hatchery Creek, about 2Vi miles in
length, flows from Morrison Lake and has considerable spawning area in Salmon Creek, at the
head of Morrison Lake. The hatchery itself is ideally situated at the head of Hatchery Creek
and at the outlet of Morrison Lake. At the time of my visit there was a good showing of
sockeye in the creek. The fish were big in size, with a few " runts " seen here and there. The
males appeared to be slightly in excess of the females and there were few net-marked fish seen.
Mr. Hills informed me that the first sockeye was seen in the creek on August 5th, which is about
one week later than usual. Although the showing of sockeye was good, it would appear to be
around 25 per cent, less than previous good years.
Leaving the hatchery, I then inspected Fulton River, the largest river running into Babine
Lake. Several Indian families were fishing in the lake at this point. Their smoke-houses were
well stocked with sockeye and they appeared to be satisfied with their catch. Fulton River is
practically the latest spawning-river on Babine, and in proof of this many sockeye were seen
jumping in the lake and in the slough approach to the creek. Sockeye spawn right up the creek
to the falls for a distance of about 5 miles, but the falls, with a 40-foot drop, is an effective
barrier to further progress. There was more volume of water than usual in Fulton River, which
made it difficult at times to properly estimate the run. By the number seen, though, I would
consider the run in the creek this year very good and equal to any previous good year. Ten per
cent, appeared to be " runts," but the remainder were of a medium average in size.
This being the last point of interest on Babine, I returned to Topley and thence to
Hazelton.
Summary.—I found conditions on the spawning-grounds this year somewhat peculiar, in
that the escapement of sockeye to the spawning-grounds was not in proportion to the large pack
put up on the Skeena River. Considering that the canneries with 800 gill-net boats, approximately 300 less than usual, made a sockeye-pack of about 107,000 cases, it is hard to conceive
how the escapement became less in proportion. The forty-eight hours of a weekly close season
and fishing conditions in general were much similar to other years; yet it seems there should
have been a larger escapement, particularly in regard to Babine. I am not making this comparison with a view of impressing that the spawning-beds were poorly seeded, but rather that
there should have been more of an escapement according to the pack. Conditions on the spawning-beds at Lakelse I would consider and classify as very good and for Babine, good.
On my arrival at Hazelton I was reliably informed that the sockeye run both up the Bu'kley
and Skeena had been very good.    There had also been a good run of pinks up the Kispiox River.
As this was the last point of interest, I left Hazelton and arrived at Prince Rupert on
September 24th, 1931.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation for the courtesies rendered by the Fishery
Guardians and Hatchery. Superintendents. t have etc.,
Robert Gibson,
Prince Rupert, B.C.. October 30th, 1931. Fishery Overseer. THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE NASS RIVER.
Hon. S. L. Howe,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit a report on my twenty-fourth annual inspection of the
salmon-spawning areas of the Meziadin watershed of the Nass River.
The commercial pack of sockeye taken in the estuaries of the Nass River in 1931—namely,
16,876 cases—while not large, was about on a par with the brood-year of 1926, when 15,929 cases
were packed. Reports on the spawning areas for that year were not encouraging and only a
moderate return could have been expected.
Meziadin Lake.—On the trip in we had continual rain-storms which raised the lakes and
rivers to a very high level. From the head of the lake we examined all the areas on the northerly and southerly shore-lines for a distance of 4 miles. Sockeye that run to the Meziadin
watershed are all lake spawners, and the principal spawning-grounds are to be found on gravelly
bottom in the shallow water along the shore-line at the head of the lake. We made a thorough
examination of these areas and found a great scarcity of sockeye. Where we saw hundreds of
fish last season there were only a few odd pair. They were fish in full spawning livery and of
an early run.    Conditions were not as favourable as in 1926, which was also a poor season.
On our journey down the lake we inspected Hanna River and McLeod Creek. The Hanna
empties into Meziadin Lake from the north about 7 miles from its head, and McLeod Creek about
half a mile farther down. Salmon do not enter these streams to spawn. A few sockeye were
disporting themselves in the clear water where these streams enter the lake. Very few salmon
were to be seen leaping in the lake.
McBride Rapids.—At the foot of McBride Rapids, about half a mile down the Meziadin
River from the outlet of the lake, a considerable number of spawning spring salmon were in
evidence. They were spawning in all suitable places, surrounded by hundreds of trout, which
were taking their toll of the eggs. Spring salmon spawn in deeper water than sockeye where
there is a strong flow of water passing over their beds. Below McBride Rapids the flow of
current slows up, the river widens, resembling a small lake more than a river. These conditions
hold for about 3 miles to another rapid. The water between the two rapids creates a splendid
retaining area for young salmon. In this area in the late afternoon and evening myriads of
salmon-fry are to be seen breaking water like a spray. The bottom is mostly mud and fine
sediment with a large extent of vegetation which protects the fry from their enemies and
furnishes them food. Authorities state that sockeye returning to this watershed are five and
six years of age and that their young remain in their home waters for one, two, and even three
years before making their seaward migration.
Meziadin Falls and Fishicay.—Continuing down the river to the falls and the fishway on
September 12th, we found very few sockeye. Only a few hundred were collected below the falls
and very few were passing through the fishway. The largest numbers were congregated below
the upper fall on the far side, leaping at an impossible barrier. They gradually worked their
way over to the fishway side before our departure. Many of them were very fine fresh-run
sockeye, some of the females measuring 2S1/., inches and males 30% inches in length. During
our stay until the 21st no appreciable arrival of fresh-run sockeye occurred. The stage of water
was good, there being a large volume passing over the fall and through the fishway. Conditions
were practically identical with those reported on for the year 1926, with the exception that the
run of late sockeye was not as large. There were very few left to pass through the fishway at
the time of our departure. Only a small number of cohoe were in evidence. It is probable that
the run of this species improved later in the season, as they are taken quite late at the mouth
of the Nass.    The showing at the falls, however, was much below the average.
Conditions at the fishway were satisfactory; the cement-work in the walls and its basins is
still in a splendid state of preservation. The cracks in the overhanging rock do not appear to be
any worse than reported last year. After clearing away all growth from the crib we were able
to give it a thorough examination. I have to advise that there is considerable dry-rot in the
timbers. The crib is constructed of peeled jack-pine poles, which have now been in place for
eight years. Many of the crib ties drop off with a slight blow of an axe. This is the result of
rot taking place in the ties where they were notched to fit. The timbers were tested, many of
them giving a hollow sound when struck, as though they were rotting from the centre.    From F 48 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
outward appearance they look to be sound. I am of the opinion that unpeeled logs would have
a longer life than those with the bark stripped off. There is no sign that the weight of dirt
behind is forcing out the crib timbers. It may hold in its present condition for a number of
years; then, again, a wet season may have a tendency to start a movement in the dirt which
the weakened timbers could not hold against. I have to recommend that the retaining-wall of
the fishway be inspected in the near future by an engineer. Photographs of the structure were
taken which are herewith submitted.
Scale Collections.—During our stay at Meziadin an effort was again made to obtain specimens of salmon which might be travelling farther up the Nass, by fishing a gill-net in the river
above the mouth of the Meziadin. The net was fished night and day for a period of eight days
without success. During this time we only caught one sockeye and three cohoe. Other seasons
several sockeye and cohoe were usually taken, together with a few steelhead. We had an
exceptionally fine set with the net this year and could not have failed to have taken more specimens had salmon been passing up in any numbers. Sockeye scales and measurements were
taken from specimens below the falls in the Meziadin River.
After completing our work at the fishway we started on our return journey, arriving back
in Stewart on September 25th. There was no improvement to be seen on the spawning-beds of
the lake at the time of our return.
Summarizing the inspection of the Meziadin watershed, conditions were not at all favourable. In comparison with its brood-year, 1926, also a poor season, the early run of sockeye on
the beds at the head of the lake was not as large. The number of sockeye collected below the
falls in the Meziadin River was about on a par with 1926. At the time of our inspection little
evidence of salmon migrating to waters above the junction of the Meziadin and Nass Rivers was
obtained. It is probable that sockeye migrating to Bowser Lake are of an earlier run. The
Meziadin sockeye-spawning beds were not well enough seeded to ensure a good return in five
years' time. There was evidence to show that the run of spring salmon had been good, but the
run of cohoe at the time of the inspection was not up to the average.
The fishway will soon need renovation in the crib-work. The slate rock in place at the side
of the fishway is in about the same condition reported last year. The cement walls and basins
are still in perfect condition. Water conditions were good, there being a larger flow than is
usual at this time of the year.
Respectfully submitted.
C. P. Hickman.
Inspector of Fisheries. FOOD OF THE PILCHARD. F 49
THE FOOD OF THE PILCHARD, Sardinops cwrulea (GIRARD), OFF THE
COAST OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.*
By John Lawson Hart, Pacific Biological Station and Fisheries Department of
the Province of British Columbia, and George Herbert Wailes.
INTRODUCTION.
In 1929 the Biological Board of Canada and the Fisheries Department of the Province of
British Columbia undertook as a combined effort the investigation of factors influencing the
abundance of pilchards. Understanding the causes of fluctuation in abundance of any species
involves the consideration of a number of factors, such as fecundity, mortality at different
stages, food, the influence of fisheries, etc. The present paper records the results of a preliminary investigation of the food of pilchards off British Columbia—an investigation the necessity of which is attested by the complete absence of literature on the subject.
MATERIALS AND METHODS.
Some two hundred and fifty food samples were obtained from pilchards of the commercial
catch in the four summers 1927 to 1930. The collections of 1927 and 1928 were made at various
places off the coast of Vancouver Island by Dr. H. Chas. Williamson. In these two years the
digestive tracts were removed from the fish and preserved in formalin. The collections of 1929
and 1930 were made at Nootka, B.C. In these years the contents of the median cseca and cardiac
stomachs were pressed into labelled vials and there preserved in weak formalin. The volume of
the food collected in this way was between 3 and 15 cubic centimetres from each fish. More
than 15 cubic centimetres of food was rarely found in any one caecum and samples containing
less than about 3 cubic centimetres were avoided wherever possible.
Microscopic analyses were made of the caeeal contents obtained by either of these means.
The various organisms were identified and the proportion each formed of the total csecal contents estimated by eye.    This part of the work was done entirely by G. H. Wailes.
The results of a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the food of any species of fish
made by the present method may be criticized for selectivity of several sorts. The possibility
of errors due to selectivity should be considered in examining the results, as, indeed, it was in
compiling the data.
In the first place, consideration should be given to the fact that the fish whose digestive
tracts are examined are selected by the fishery on the basis of the depth at which they are
swimming. That is to say, fish swimming at a depth of more than 2 or 3 metres are not seen
by the fishermen and, accordingly, are not captured. For that reason the food analyses are
likely to show a greater preponderance of surface forms than the real importance of such forms
in the food would warrant. In consequence, there is the probability that more diatoms and
fewer copepods are recorded than would be the case if the samples had been obtained from a
true cross-section of the pilchard population.
Differential digestive rates result in another kind of distortion of the recorded data. Food
organisms having heavy calcareous, siliceous, or chitinous parts are not digested beyond recognition as rapidly as more delicate species. Thus, it is to be expected that diatoms and those
crustaceans having heavier carapaces will be recorded more frequently in proportion to the
actual number of occurrences than more fragile species and groups.
The chance selection of times for taking the samples may lead to some slight distortion of
the results.
RESULTS.
The results of the analyses are summarized in the accompanying table. In the first column
of the table is a list of all the organisms found in any of the four seasons. For each of the
seasons is given the number of stomachs sampled, the number of stomachs in which each organism occurred, and its average percentage in all the stomachs for that year. The absence of an
organism in any season is indicated by a dash; percentages under 0.1 by x. Each of the
important groups of food organisms has the average percentage for the group calculated and
shown for each season. In marshalling related organisms no attempt is made to keep the groups
of equal taxonomic significance.    Convenience is the chief consideration.
* Reprinted with slight alterations from Contributions to Canadian Biology and Fisheries, Vol. VII.,
No 19 (Series A, General, No. 16), pp. 247-254, 1932. The illustrations are reprinted from Progress
Reports of Pacific Biological Station and Fisheries Experimental Station, No. 11, pp. 24-28, 1931.
4 F 50
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
It is usual to find that pilchards captured in the same haul have esecal contents of very
similar composition. Accordingly, to avoid unduly weighting the results in cases where a
number of samples are available from fish of the same school, the average percentage of each
food organism for all the fish of that day is calculated and the new values are regarded as
representing the csecal analysis of one fish in computing the food percentages for the year.
copepod  OAmros fiumarchicps   (215)
01AD0CEBA    P0D0N P0lTPHEH0IflE8    (216)
COPEPOD    C5HTH0PA0E3 HCMP3RICM     (215)
S0HIZ0P0D    EHPHAUSIA   P.'.CIFICA     (13
CRAB 1AEVA     (23)
GHW.i!., tl*!. /f.,1 FOOD OF THE PILCHARD.
F 51
DIATOM     (XE60)
CHAET0CER03 DEBILI3
DIATOM     (2260)
coscmopiscpa e2cektricps
DIATOM  (2260)
THAIAS3I03IRA HOHDEKSKIOELDI
DIATOM  (2260)
3TBPHAB0PYSI3 PALMSRIAKA
^^#*
DIHOFIAOELLATE     (2250)   SHELL OBLY
PEBIDIHIDM EXCEMTRICDM
DIKOFLAGELLATE     (2260 mB™,.m.TTi«i     ,.„.„,
DIHOPHYSIS ACUTA DIKOFLAGELLATE     (2260
DUIoraisia ACUTA PERIDIHIDM DI7ERSEH3
DIKOFLAGELLATE   (2250)
CBRATIUM MACROCK803
SILICOFLAGELLATE     (2250)
DI3TEPHAHP3 SPECULUM
TINTIHHID     (2260)     SHELL. OHLY
FAVELIA  FRAHCISCAHA F 52
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
PILCHARD FOOD.
SEASON..
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
NUMBER  OF  STOMACHS EXAMINED..
51.
10.
141.
83.
Food Organisms.
DIATOMACEJ3.
Actinoptyeus undulatus	
Asterionella japonica	
Asteromphalus heptactis	
Bacteriastrum, delicatulum	
Biddulphia arctica	
Biddulphia Iwvis	
Biddulphia longicruris	
Cerataulina bcrgoni	
Chwtoceros approwimatus	
Chwtoceros compressus	
Chwtoceros concavicornis	
Chwtoceros debilis	
Chwtoceros decipiens	
Chwtoceros didymus	
Chwtoceros laciniosus	
Chwtoceros lorenzianus	
Chwtoceros vanheurcki	
Chwtoceros spp	
Corethron hystrix	
Coscinodiscus angsti	
Coscinodiscus centralis var. pacific*
Coscinodiscus curvatulus	
Coscindoiscus excentricus	
Coscinodiscus grani	
Coscinodiscus radiatus	
Coscinodiscus stellaris	
Coscinodiscus wailesi	
Dactyliosolen mediterraneus	
Ditylum brightwelli .'	
Eucampia zodiacus 	
Melosira jucrgensi	
Nitzschia closterium	
Nitzschia closterium var. recta	
Nitzschia dclicatissima	
Nitzschia seriata	
Paralia sulcata	
Rhizosolcnia alata	
Rhizosolcnia habetata	
Rhizosolcnia semispina	
Rhizosolcnia stolterfothi	
Rhizosolcnia styliformis	
Skcletonema costatum	
Stephanopywis palmeriana	
Thalassiosira wstilvalis	
Thalassiosira condensata	
Thalassiosira decipiens	
Thalassiosira nordenskiceldi	
Thalassiosira pacifica	
Thalassiosira rotula	
Thalassiosira spp	
Thalassiothrix nitzschioides	
Thalassiothrix longissima	
Leptocylindricus danicus	
Percentage of Diatomaeeae	
2
1
2
6
3
2
4
10
21
7
2
3
5
5
12
1
7
12
8
16
2
26
18
4
11
8
4
3
4
7
13
2
9
4
9
27
13
2
4
4
4
30
26
12
0.2
0.6
1.0
0.8
0.1
0.6
0.3
3.0
x
0.5
0.3
0.5
1.0
1.0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
2.0
0.3
x
0.3
0.5
1.2
1.7
1.1
0.3
1
x
1
X
1
X
1
X
3
0.2
2
0.3
2
0.2
1
X
1.1
0.6
1.3
19
11
1
4
5
2
6
45
3
6
11
123
13
11
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
x
0.2
x
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.4
5.4
0.3
0.3
132
5
4
8.0
0.3
0.1
5.2
0.3
0.9
0.1
0.1
0.6
0.1
1.6
1.9
2
1
79
29
89
138
137
0.6
0.4
x
0.1
31.0
13.0
0.1
0.1
2.3
1.4
x
0.4
2.9
4.9
5
0.1
4
0.1
97
3.0
14
0.1
8
0.1
1
29
1
1
18
7
7
2
6
5
24
25
2
3
13
6
27
2
27
35
1
23
30
1
1
52
IS
0.7
0.2
x
1.3
2.5
0.4
0.1
0.4
x
0.4
0.8
0.2
1.0
0.2
14
0.1
27
0.4
20
0.3
37
1.0
10
0.3
3
X
10
0.1
2
X
34
1.5
17
2.0
36
4.6
15
0.4
20.2
32.9
68.9
29.5 FOOD OF THE PILCHARD.
F 53
PILCHARD FOOD—Continued.
SEASON	
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
NUMBER OF STOMACHS EXAMINED
51.
10.
141.
83.
h!
a;
a;
&
v
cj
tc
0
tJD
CJ
tt
cj
M
C3
a
a
a
a
cj
rt
oi
Food Organisms.
u
c
a)
c
Zi
a
t-i
s
h
3
o
3
a
a
o
CJ
to
t-i
CJ
t-
a
0)
«
cj
cj
a
Ph
o
Oh
o
Ph
D
ft
Other ALG.E.
2
5
X
X
—
—
—
—
2
Filamentous alga?	
FORAMINIFERA.
Orbulina universa	
RADIOLARIA.
Dicthyophimus histricosus..
Lithomcllissa setosa.....	
DINOFLAGELLATA.
Prorocentrum gracilc	
Gymnodinium, sp	
Noctiluca scintillans	
Phalacroma rotundata	
Dinophysis acuminata	
Dinophysis acuta	
Dinophysis cllipsoidcs	
Dinophysis hastata	
Dinophysis lenticulata	
Dinophysis norvegica	
Dinophysis sphwrica	
G-lenodinium danicum	
Protoceratium rcticulatum	
Gonyaulax digitale	
Gonyaulax spinifera	
Peridiniopsis asymmctrica	
Peridiniopsis rotunda	
Diplopcltopsis minor	
Peridinium thorianum	
Peridinium monospinum	
Peridinium minutum	
Peridinium discoides	
Peridinium excentricum	
Peridinium conicoides	
Peridinium conicum	
Peridinium leonis	
Peridinium pentagonum	
Peridinium subinerme	
Peridinium, trochoideum	
Peridinium depressum	
Peridinium oblongum	
Peridinium claudicans	
Peridinium punctulatum	
Peridinium subpunctulatum	
Peridinium grani	
Peridinium ova turn	
Peridinium crassipes	
Peridinium divergent*	
29
1
12
27
6
12
11
3
8
15
2
3
1
30
12
2
6
13
1
1
3
2
2
11
7
3
61
9
18
1
67
63
17
4
1
54
18
14
12
5
49
4
12
3
4
2
12
6
3
14
12
7
1
1
38
15
2
4
4
15 F 54
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
PILCHARD FOOD—Continued.
SEASON..
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
NUMBER  OF STOMACHS EXAMINED..
51.
10.
141.
83.
Food Organisms.
DINOFLAGELLATA—Continued
Peridinium obtusum	
Peridinium cerasus	
Peridinium micrapium	
Peridinium monocanthus	
Peridinium asperum	
Peridinium pallidum	
Peridinium pellucidum	
Pyrophacus horologicum	
Oxytoxum diploconus var. fusiformis	
Ceriatum fusus	
Ceratium furca	
Ceratium lineatum	
Ceratium tripos var. atlantica	
Ceratium macroceros	
Ceratium azoricum	
Ceratium pentagonum	
Ceratium divaricatum	
Percentage of Dinoflagellata	
SILICO FLAGELLATA.
Dictyocha fibula	
Distephanus speculum	
Distephanus speculum var. octanarius...
Distephanus sp	
Ebria tripartita	
TINTINNOINEA.
Tintinnopsis wailesi	
Stcnosemella nivalis	
Stenosemella ventricosa	
Helicostomella subulata	
Favella franciscana	
Parafavella gigantea	
Parafavella parumdentata	
Ptychocylis urnula	
Percentage of Tintinnoinea	
POLYCHJDTA.
Larva?	
ROTIFERA.
Synchwta baltica	
Trichocera marina	
2
22
13
2
4
4
1
17
8
4
2 x
1 x
1 x
1 X
128
30
24
1
2
3
2
1.0
2.2
7
2
20
10
3
13
32
18
3
24
24
5
5
2
1.7
3
10
5
20
4
2
1
2
5
15
0.5
0.6
0.4
1
1
6
133
23
2.5
0.5
3.0
2
2
7
19
2
1
0.2 FOOD OF THE PILCHARD.
F 55
PILCHARD FOOD—Continued.
SEASON	
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
NUMBER OF STOMACHS EXAMINED
51.
10.
141.
83.
Food Organisms.
as
O)
CJ
0)
to
tH
CJ
CJ
O
CJ
be
rt
V
CJ
to
01
Ph
w
o>
CJ
a
a
o
CJ
O
6
rt
fl
CJ
u
a>
Ph
Vi
0)
CJ
OJ
t-l
tH
=1
a
CJ
O
a!
rt
+->
fl
OJ
CJ
tH
0)
Ph
w
GJ
CJ
fl
a)
tH
tH
S3
CJ
CJ
O
U>
rt
+j
fl
ai
o
tH
CJ
Ph
OVA HISPIDA.
7
1
4
4
X
X
X
X
—
—
2
1
1
X
X
X
12
1
1
OVA (unidentified).
0.3—0.5 mm. diameter	
0.1—0.3 mm. diameter	
Under 0.1 mm. diameter	
13
9
CLADOCERA
Podon sp	
Podon polyphemoides	
Evadne nordmanni	
Evadne turgestina	
Percentage of Cladocera	
4.6
42
11
12
1
4.0
50
15
15
3
0.3
COPEPODA.
Calanus finmarchicus	
Pseudocalanus elonyatus	
Paracalanus parvus	
Microcalanus pusillus	
Scolccithricella minor	
Centropages mcmurrichi	
Paralabidocera amphitrites....
Acartia longiremis	
Oithona helgolandica	
Microsetella rosea	
Corycwus afflnis	
Nauplii spp	
Juveniles spp	
Unidentifiable remains	
Percentage of Copepoda	
CIRRIPEDIA
Nauplii spp	
Cypris sp	
Percentage of Cirripedia	
10
3
32
22
44
31.5
13.5
10
12
1
1
14
4
2
1
1
90
38
127
14.6
11
6
4
2
30
1
9
1
1
21
14
53
36.3
18
3.4
3.4
3.0
3.0
15
0.8
0.8 F 56
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
PILCHARD FOOD—Continued.
SEASON	
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
NUMBER  OF  STOMACHS  EXAMINED
51.
10.
141.
83.
Food Organisms.
Occurrences.
Percentage.
Cj
CJ
fl
0)
tH
tH
CJ
CJ
O
a
+j
fl
OJ
CJ
p
OJ
Ph
xh
fl
CJ
tH
to
fl
CJ
CJ
O
tc
rt
fl
o>
CJ
(H
a
Ph
<3J
CJ
fl
a>
tH
CJ
CJ
O
0)
rt
fl
o
CJ
Pu
MYSIDACEA and EUPHAUSIDACEA.
6            x
2            x
1            x
4.3
—
—
1
X
1.0
9
8
1
9
Percentage of Mysidacea and Euphausidacea..
20.2
DECAPODA.
2 x
3 x
2.0
—
—
—
—
4
1
1.5
PELECYPODA.
10            x
—
—
1
X
1
APPENDICULARIIDJE.
Oikopleura spp	
7            x
—
—
9
X
7
X
PISCES.
Ammodytes personatus ? 	
3
X
27.7
46.1
2.8
5.0
DISCUSSION.
Among the Diatomacese the differentiation of species in some groups depends on the characters and disposition of the chromatophores; in a semi-digested state these distinctions are apt
to be lost; hence, for example, some species of the genus Chwtoceros may pass unrecognized or
he recorded less frequently than they should in the list of food organisms. In other cases the
breaking-up of chains of individuals into single units increases the difficulties of identification;
in the genus Thalassiosira single cells may require special preparation and high powers of the
microscope for their recognition. These have been grouped together in the list as Thalassiosira
spp.    This difficulty also has been experienced in the genus Chwtoceros.
Since the character of the appendages is largely relied upon as a means of identification in
the Crustacea, it is always difficult and often impossible to determine the relative numbers of
such species as may be recognizable in the comminuted state in which they usually occur in a
pilchard caecum;  smaller and more fragile species are especially liable to escape observation.
Mysis rayi var. represents a form of this genus as yet undescribed. The proportion of unidentified material is high in the two years 1927 and 1928. This may
be due to the method used in preserving the material in these two years, and would indicate
the use of the other method in subsequent food studies.
There are two dominant types of food. These are Diatomacese and Crustacea, respectively
referred to as " green feed " and " red feed " by the fishermen.
The number of years for which there are data and the degree of representativeness of the
sampling make definite conclusions inadvisable. It is suggestive, however, that the year 1929
is notable both for the low oil production per ton of pilchards and, according to the present
study, for the relatively high proportions of Diatomacere in the food. There is the possibility
at least that the nature of the food taken by pilchards may be of economic importance and that
the " red feed," which makes the process of reduction to oil and meal difficult, in the end leads
to a higher production of oil.
AUTHORITIES FOLLOWED.
Campbell, Mildred H. Some free swimming copepods of the Vancouver Island region. Trans.
Roy. Soc. Can., ser. 3, 23 (5) 303-331. 1929.
Gran, H. H., and E. C. Angst. Plankton diatoms of Puget Sound. Pub. Puget Sd. Mar. Biol.
Sta. 7, 417-519. 1931.
Kofoid, Charles A., and Arthur S. Campbell. A conspectus of the marine and fresh-water
Ciliata belonging to the suborder Tintinnoinea, with descriptions of new species principally from the Agassiz expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, 1904-1905. Univ. Calif.
Pub. Zool. 34, 1-103. 1929.
Lewis, R. C. The food habits of the California sardine in relation to the seasonal distribution
of microplankton.    Bull. Scripps Inst. Ocean. Tech. Ser. 2, 155-180. 1929.
Wailes, G. H.    Dinoflagellates from British Columbia, with descriptions of new species.    Part
I. Vane. Mus. Art Notes 3 (1) 20-31. 1928.
Wailes, G. H.    Dinoflagellates from British Columbia, with descriptions of new species.    Part
II. Vane. Mus. Art Notes 3 (2) 27-35. 1928.
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1931.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steel-
heads.
Cohoe.
Pinks.
Chums.
Grand
Total
(Cases).
Fraser River*	
Skeena Riverf	
Rivers Inlet	
Smitli Inlet	
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
9,740
9,858
325
122
1,439
854
4,055
754
4
768
32
36
8,818
10,637
6,571
112
8,943
5,335
50,953
10,806
13,307
44,807
5,089
824
5,178
251
3,893
429
133
392
73,067
162,986
88,874
14,094
32,881
6,189
22,199
29,071
40
446
81,965
55,825
16,329
34,570
175,541
131,472
Totals	
291,464
27,147
1,326
102,175
206,995
55,997
685.104
• 2,440 cases of sockeye packed at Esquimalt are credited to the Fraser; 8,563 cases of sockeye and
2,549 cases of pinks caught at and credited to Rivers Inlet were packed on the Fraser; 7,618 cases of sockeye, 602 cases of springs, 19,347 cases of cohoe, 5,678 eases of pinks, and 697 cases of chums caught at and
credited to Vancouver Island were packed on the Fraser.
t 7,783 cases of sockeye, 8,500 cases of cohoe, and 1,603 cases of pinks caught at and credited to the
Nass were packed on the Skeena ; 7,130 cases of sockeye and 1,009 cases of cohoe caught in and credited to
Outlying Districts were packed on the Skeena.
t 4,786 cases of pinks caught at and credited to the Skeena were packed at Outlying Districts. F 58
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, PROM 1916 TO 1931, INCLUSIVE.
Fraser River.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Bluebacks and Steelheads.
Totals	
40,947
9,740
251
13,307
8,165
657
103,692
11,366
9,761
68,946
30,754
25,585
27,879
61,569
3,305
6,699
144,159
158,208
40,520
12,013
29,299
1,173
3,909
193,106
2,881
27,061
795
73,067
277,983
426,473
258,224
61,393
7,925
10,528
67,259
102,536
24,079
10,658
85,689
12,783
20,169
88,495
32,256
21,783
i3,776
35,385
7,989
25,701
66,111
99,800
36,717
5,152
284,378
274,951
276,855
39,743
2,982
4,648
109,495
31,968
21,401
1,822
212,059
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
Sockeyes	
Springs, Red	
Springs, White	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Bluebacks and Steelheads
Totals	
31,655
3,854
4,279
103,248
63,645
20,173
15
51,832
10,561
6,300
17,895
29,578
23,587
817
226,869
140,570
39,631
11,360
5,949
11,233
8,178
29,978
1,331
1077650"
48,399
10,691
4,432
23,884
12,839
22,934
4,522
136,661
38,854
14,519
4,296
15,718
39,363
39,253
15,941
19,697
15,192
24,853
86,215
18,388
40,111
4,395
148,164
10,197
18,916
59,973
134,442
25,895
4,951
167,944
208,857
402,538
32,146
17,673
11,430
30,934
840
31,330
3,129
127,472
Skeena River.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
93,023
9,857
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
58
78,017
4,324
4,908
95,305
37,678
13
34,559
6,420
17,716
209,579
30,194
241
83,996
19,038
19,006
38,768
26,326
582
82,360
30,594
63,527
210,081
30,208
754
81,146
23,445
74,308
130,079
39,168
713
144,747
12,028
25,588
181,313
26,968
214
Totals 	
162,986
450,377
220,245
298,709
187,716
407,524
348,859
390,858
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
131,731
12,247
16,527
145,973
31,967
418
96,277
14,176
39,758
301,655
24,699
1,050
41,018
21,766
1.993
124,457
45,033
498
89,364
37,403
3,834
177,679
18,068
1.218
184,945
25,941
31,457
117,303
36,559
2,672
123,322
22,931
22,573
161,727
38.759
4,994
65,760
16,285
21,516
148,319
38,456
1,883
60,293
20,933
17,121
73,029
47,409
3,743
Steelhead Trout	
Totals	
338,863
477,915
234,765
332,887
398,877
374,306
292,219
223,158 STATEMENT SHOWING SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
F 59
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1916 TO 1931, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Rivers Inlet.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
76,428
325
429
5,089
6,571
32
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
342
989
2,386
1,120
29
60,044
468
3,594
16,546
868
7
65,269
608
1,122
671
2,094
9
65.5S1
685
11,727
12,815
7,286
11
192,323*
496
11,510
8,625
4,946
94,891
545
4,924
15,105
1,980
Totals 	
88,874
138,980
75,126
81,527
69,773
98,105
217,900
117,445
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
116,850
599
3,242
10,057
1,526
53,584
323
311
24,292
1,120
82
48,615
364
173
5,303
4,718
97
125,742
1,793
1,226
25,647
2,908
56,258
1,442
7,089
6,538
9,038
53,401
1,409
6,729
29,542
12,074
61,195
817
16,101
8,065
9,124
44,936
1,422
20,144
3 567
15,314
Totals 	
132,274
79,712
59,272
133,248
80,367
103,155
95,302
85,383
?MITH iNLET.f
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
12,867
122
32,057
268
22
1,460
16,615 "
1,660
103
9,683
18
60
275
853
113
12
33,442
108
178
230
167
19
6
22,682
270
79
2,990
732
2,605
8
17,921
73
39
164
689
31
33,764
33
22
44
134
1
11,435
47
112
824
133
36
21
273
Totals  	
14,094
52,185
11,014
34,150
29,366
18,917
33,998
11 776
Nass River.
1931.
1930.
1929.
I
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout
Totals	
16,929
1,439
392
5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,126
84
16,077
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
5,540
1,846
3,538
83,183
10,734
36
32,881
113,460
29,185
104,877
12,026
3,824
3,307
16,609
3,966
96
15,929
5,964
15,392
50,S15
4,274
375
18,945
3,757
22,504
35,530
8,027
245
33,590
2,725
26,612
72,496
6,481
1,035
39,828   |     92,749   |
 I L
89,008   |   142,939
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelhead Trout
Totals	
17,S21
3,314
25,791
44.165
7,894
595
1«L580~
31,277
2,062
11,277
75,687
3,533
235
9,364
2,088
2,176
29,488
8,236
413
16,740
4,857
12,145
43,151
3,700
560
28,259
3,574
24,041
29,949
10,900
789
21.816
4,152
40,368
59,206
17,061
1,305
22,188
4,496
24,938
44,568
22,180
1,125
31,411
3,845
11,200
59,593
19,139
1,498
124,071   |     51,765
I
81,153
97,512 | 143,908 | 119,495
I I
126,686
* Including 40,000 cases caught in Smith Inlet and 20,813 cases packed at Namu.
t Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other Districts. F GO
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
STATEMENT   SHOWING   THE   SALMON-PACK   OF   THE   PROVINCE,   BY
DISTRICTS AND SPECIES, FROM 1916 TO 1931, INCLUSIVE—Continued.
Vancouver Island District.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
Sockeyes	
22,199
4,055
16,329
81,965
26,310
24,638
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1,645
102,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
14,248
2,269
303,474
41,885
23,345
5,249
24,835
6,769
220,270
52,561
58,834
10,194
25,070
5,222
174,383
86,113
51,551
5,383
10,895
5,664
127,520
51,384
59,747
4,832
15,618
283
165,161
Pinks	
63,102
30,593
Steelheads and Bluebacks.
2,510
175,541
340,395
294,854
390,470
373,463
347,722
260,042
277,267
Queen Ciiaui
OTTE  AND
other Districts.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
Sockeyes	
29,071
1,608
34,570
55,825
16,141
446
39,198
1,852
143,781
600,986
61,418
1,204
35,331
1,020
111,263
136,758
56,938
575
59,852
2,806
341,802
438,298
58,455
609
60,533
7,826
252,230
36,481
47,433
973
62,383*
3,650
348,082
380,243
47,183
973
49,902
5,002
305,256
120,747
40,269
1,520
40,926
4,245
Chums	
Pinks	
195,357
141,878
26,031
497
Steelheads and Bluebacks.
137,661
848,439
341,873
901,822
405,476
844,114
522.756
408,934
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
Sockeyes	
24,584
2,711
148,727
146,943
29,142
732
47,107
4,988
80,485
113,824
31,331
409
18,350
4,995
21,412
14,818
18,203
2,790
64,473
15,633
30,946
247,149
33,807
3,721
54,677
14,766
165,717
110,300
35,011
702
51,980
8,582
90,464
201,847
42,331
1,009
32,902
6,056
112,364
112,209
30,201
865
45,373
11,423
160,812
143,615
70,431
712
Chums	
Pinks    	
Steelheads and Bluebacks.
Totals	
352,S39
278,144
80,568
395,728
381,163
404,793
294,597
432,366
Total Packed by
District
s IN 1916
TO  1931,  INCLUSIVE.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
73,067
162,986
88,874
14,094
32,881
173,541
137,661
277,983
450,377
138,980
52,185
113,460
340,395
848,439
426,473
220,245
75,126
11,014
29,185
294,854
341,873
258,224
298,709
81,527
34,150
104,877
390,470
901,822
284,378
187,716
69,773
29,366
39,828
373,463
405,476
274,951
407,524
98,105
18,917
92,749
347,722
844,139*
276,855
348,859
217,900
33,998
89,008
263,904
522,756
212,059
390,858
Smith Inlet	
11,776
142,939
277,267
604,745
Vancouver Island-
Other Districts
Grand totals..
685,104
2,221,819
1,398,770
2,035,629
1,360,634
2,065,190
1,719,282
1,745,313
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
191S.
1917.
1916.
Fraser	
226,869
338,863
132,274
11,979
99,580
191,252
352,839
1,34L677~
140,570
477,915
79,712
5,862
124,071
185,524
278,144
172 8 579 4 6~
107,650
234,765
59,272
136.661
332.787
157,522
167,944
398,877
80,367
210,851
374,216
103,155
402,538
292,219
95,302
127,472
223,158
Smith Inlet	
Nass River	
Vancouver Island...
51,765
69,528
80,568
~~603^548^
81,153
84,170
395,223
l7l87,616~
97,512
267,293
381,163
143,908
389,815
404,793
119,495
325,723
294,597
126,686
Other Districts    ..
432,366
Grand totals.
1,393,156
1,626,738
1,557,485
995,065
* Including 17,921 cases of sockeye packed at Smith Inlet. STATEMENT SHOWING SALMON-PACK OF THE PROVINCE.
F 61
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE ENTIRE FRASER
RIVER SYSTEM FROM 1894 TO 1931, INCLUSIVE.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1S97.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
303,967
41,781
395,984
65,143
356,984
72,979
860,459
312,048
256,101
252,000
480,485
499,646
229,800
228,704
928,669
1,105,096
State of Washington	
Totals 	
405,748
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
508,101
980,131
458,504
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.
1908.
1909.
Fraser River, B.C	
293,477
339,556
204,809
107,211
72,688
123,419
~196,107"
837,489
837,122
1,674,011
183,007
182,241
59,815
96,974
74,574
170,951
~~245,525
_
1,097,904
Totals	
633,033
372,020
305,248
156,789
1,683,339
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
150,432
248,014
58,487
127,761
123,879
184,680
719,796
1,673,099
198,183
335,230
91,130
64,584
32,146
84,637
148,164
411,538
State of Washington	
Totals	
398,446
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
155,714
116,783
559,702
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
19,697
50,723
38,854
64,364
48,399
62,654
39,631
102,967
51,832
48,506
31,655
47,402
39,743
69,369
35,385
State of Washington	
112,023
Totals	
70,420
103,200
111,053
142,598
100,398
79,057
109,112
147,408
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
S5,689
44,673
61,393
97,594
29,299
61,044
61,569
111,898
103,692
352,194
40,947
87,211
Totals	
130,362
158,987
90,343
173,464
455,886
128,158
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE PACK OF THE PROVINCE,
BY DISTRICTS, 1916 TO 1931, INCLUSIVE.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
61,569
78,017
70,260
9,683
16,077
10,340
35,331
29,299
34,559
60,044
33,442
5,540
14,248
26,410
61,393
83,996
65,269
22,682
12,026
24,835
37,851
85,689
82,360
65,581
17,921
15,929
25,070
44,462
35,385
81,146
192,323
33,764
18,945
14,757
16,198
39,743
144.747
94,891
Smith Inlet 	
11,435
33.590
15 618
20.579
Totals 	
291,464
477,678
281,277
203,542
308,052
337,012
392,518
369,603
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
31,655
131,731
116,850
11,864
17,821
12,006
12,720
51,832
96,277
53,584
39,631
41,018
48,615
48,399
89,064
125,742
38,854
184,945
50,258
19,697
123,322
53,401
148,164
65,760
61,195
32,146
60,923
Rivers Inlet	
Smith Inlet    	
44,936
	
31,277
15,147
47,107
9,364
6,936
18,350
16,740
6,987
64,473
28,259
6,452
54,677
21,816
6,243
51,980
22,188
9,639
32,902
31,411
9.223
36,150
Totals 	
334,647
295,224
163,914
351,405
369,445
276.459
339.848
214,789 F 62
REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES, 1931.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PILCHARD INDUSTRY OF THE PROVINCE,
1920 TO 1931, INCLUSIVE.
Year.
Total Catch.
Canned.
Used in
Reduction.
Oil.
Meal.
Bait.
1920	
Cwt.
88,050
10,737
20,342
19,492
27,485
318,973
969,958
1,368,582
1,610,252
1,726,851
1,501,404
1,472,085
Cases.
91,929
16,091
19,186
17,195
14,898
37,182
26,731
58,501
65,097
98,821
55,166
17,336
Cwt.
Gals.
Tons.
Bbls.
9,937
4,232
1921...	
1922	
3,125
3,625
923
1923	
1924	
1925	
220,000
940,000
1,310,000
1,560,000
1,654,575
1,468,840
495,653
1,898,721
2,610,120
3,997,656
2,856,579
3,204,058
2,551,914
2,083
8,481
12,145
14,502
15,826
13,934
14,200
4,045
2,950
1,737
2,149
1,538
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929    	
1930     	
1931	
1 552
PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL AND MEAL, 1920 TO 1931 (OTHER THAN
FROM PILCHARD).
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Year.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1920                        	
Tons.
503
326
485
292
347
340
345
376
417
273
Tons.
1,035
230
910
926
835
666
651
754
780
581
Gals.
604,070
Tons.
466
489
911
823
1,709
2,468
1,752
1,948
3,205
3,626
3,335
5,647
Gals.
55,669
44,700
75,461
180,318
241,376
354,853
217,150
250,811
387,276
459,575
243 009
1921                                      	
1922                                    	
283,314
706,514
645,657
556,939
468,206
437,967
571,914
712,597
525,533
1923                               	
1924                                 	
1925    	
1926	
1927                                   	
1928 	
1929	
1930             	
1931	
352,492
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1932.
1,825-732-193  

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