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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1933

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL EEPORT
OF   THE
LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES
DEPAETMENT OF LANDS
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 ST, 1932
HON. N. S. LOUGHEED, MINISTER OF LANDS
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY 01? THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chahles P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1933.  Victoria, B.C., February 3rd, 1933.
To His Honour John William Pordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1932.
N. S. LOUGHEED,
Minister of Lands. Victoria, B.C., February 3rd, 1933.
The Honourable N. S. Lougheed,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches of
the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1932.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     7
Revenue .'     7
Sale of Town Lots      9
Pre-emption Records      9
Pre-emption Record Inspections   10
Summary     11
Letters inward and outward   12
Land-sales   12
Coal Licences, Leases, etc  12
Crown Grants issued   12  DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., February 1st, 1933.
H. Catheart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended December 31st, 1932.
From a comparison with the figures accompanying my last report, it will be seen that, with
few exceptions, all items of revenue-producing business show the continued downward trend to
be expected in sympathy with present conditions of private business.
The increase in correspondence, while showing an interest in our resources fully maintained,
would under normal conditions indicate a corresponding increase in general business, but the
heavier staff-work entailed evidently did not result in the usual percentage of completed sales,
etc.
For the fifth consecutive year, it will be noted that sales of reverted acreage are in excess of
those of similar nature under the " Land Act."
Closing of Peace River Land Recording District, including the Peace River Block, in May
last to pre-emption entry has, of course, had a diminishing effect on the total entries for the year,
and the improved control legislation of last session with regard to administration of coal,
petroleum, and natural gas has had a similar, but expected only temporary, effect on our records
covering these items.
The policy of examining and appraising lands reverted to the Crown for non-payment of
taxes was continued during the past year, and, according to the interim report, details of 633
parcels comprising 95,000 acres in Lillooet District will shortly be available, in addition to the
3,200 parcels within easy reach of Vancouver, and 150,000 acres in the vicinity of Prince George
and along the line of the Canadian Northern Railway previously appraised and now for sale on
favourable terms.
Measures inaugurated during the past year for grazing control and adjustment of lease
rentals have met with widespread approval, and while no increase in revenue to the Crown is
anticipated for the present, the settlement of long-outstanding matters pertaining to the business
of sheep and cattle raising will be of permanent benefit to the industry.
I have, etc.,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT OF REVENUE, YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31st, 1932.
Land-sales.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$605.70
34,001.21
623.15
4,153.25
$605.70
34,001.21
$7,740.09
29,739.56
328.68
1,345.82
8,363.24
33,892.81
328.68
1,345.82
Totals	
$39,383.31
$39,154.15
$78,537.46 V 8
REPORT OP MINISTER OP LANDS, 1932.
Revenue under " Land Act."
Victoria. Agencies.
Total.
Sundry lease rentals	
Grazing rentals	
Survey fees....	
Sundry fees	
Royalty	
Improvements	
Rent of property	
Mineral claims, April to December.
Totals	
$08,830.60
5,658.03
645.07
7,833.64
85.86
631.15
v
76.94
$83,761.29
$1,571.95
3,388.00
784.48
192.00
1,401.80
$7,338.23
$68,830.60
5,658.03
2,217.02
11,221.04
85.86
1,415.63
192.00
1,478.74
$91,099.52
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$13,700.00
10,085.10
2,302.96
1,600.00
$13,700.00
10,0,85.10
2,362.96
1,600.00
Totals                                            .     ..                        	
$27,748.06
$27,748.06
Sundry Receipts.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$5,964.67
325.28
3,505.85
11,633.84
$5,964.67
325.28
3,505.85
11,633.84
Totals	
$21,429.64
$21,429.64
Summary op Revenue.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$39,383.31
83,761.29
27,748.06
21,429.64
$39,154.15
7,338.23
$78,537.46
91,099.52
27,748.06
21,429.64
Totals	
$172,322.30
$46,492.38
$218,814.68
Summary op Cash received.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Revenue	
$218,814.68
7,047.13
686.87
51,600.00
37,375.07
1,932.05
$218,814.68
7,047.13
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Project	
Houses, South Vancouver	
686 87
" Better Housing Act "—
51,600.00
37,375.07
1,932.05
Interest	
Refunds to votes and advances	
Totals	
$317,455.80
$317,455.80 PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1932.
V 9
SALE OP TOWN LOTS DURING 1932.
Disposal of lots placed on the market at previous auction sales:—
7 lots at Prince George  $925.00
3 lots at Mabel Lake  600.00
2 lots at Powell River  240.00
5 lots at Vanderhoof  200.00
3 lots at Christina Lake :       150.00
' 2 lots at Fernie       150.00
5 lots at Walters Island       135.00
And 22 lots in various other townsites       790.00
Total $3,190.00
During the year auctions were held at Effgen, Penny, and Fraser Lake Townsites, disposing
of twelve lots for $292.25.
University Hill Subdivision in Lot l!fi, N.W.D. (Endowment Lands).—Two lots leased, value
$4,410;  two lots sold, value $3,455.
Southern Okanagan Project.—Six parcels were sold in 1932 comprising 320.20 acres, the
purchase price being $3,665.25.    Temporary leases have also been issued over six small lots at
the location of Osoyoos Townsite within the Project.
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1932.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Certificates*
of
Purchase.
Certificates
of Improvements.
2
54
8
60
105
8
67
2
5
2
46
7
619
9
113
23
22
27
16
7
16
1
52
4
8
16
52
1
33
2
5
37
121
12
45
24
34
5
4
3
92
6
681
Atlin	
13
2
9
2
12
1
1
4
3
14
11
I
Totals	
1,202
1,254
80 V 10
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1932..
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r- V 12 REPORT OF MINISTER OP LANDS, 1932.
STATEMENT OF LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1932.
Letters inward   26,620
Letters outward (including circulars, statements, etc.)    34,402
LAND-SALES, 1932.
" Land Act "— Acres.
Surveyed (first class)        478
Surveyed (second class)       7,154
7,632
Unsurveyed     3,408
Total  ;    11,040
" Taxation Act"—
Surveyed   13,102.60
GOAL LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 1932.
CoAL-PROSPECTING LICENCES.
Number of licences issued, 137;  area, 87,680 acres.
Coal Leases.
Number of leases issued, 23;  area, 13,763 acres.
Sundry Leases.
Number of leases issued, 154;  area, 14,421.70 acres.
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1932.
Pre-emptions   73
Dominion homesteads   224
Purchase  '.  133
Mineral    114
Town lots   25
Reverted lands (other than town lots)   95
Reverted town lots   82
Reverted mineral claims   32
" Dyking Assessment Act "   6
"Public Schools Act"  1
Miscellaneous   10
Total        795
Applications for Crown grants     853
Certified copies         7
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions   8,302.10
Dominion homesteads   32,241.67
Mineral claims (other than reverted)    4,558.18
Reverted mineral claims  1,307.46
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)   7,684.85
Purchase of reverted lands   4,376.04
Total   58,470.30 PART II.
SURVEY BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Surveyor-General  15
Survey Revenue  16
General Review of Field-work   16
Office-work   17
Survey Division  18
Table A—Summary of Office-work   19
Table B—Showing Averages of each Class of Surveys Gazetted each Year since 1900   19
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps  20
Table D—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps   22
Geographic Division   24
Table E—List of Lithographed Maps  26
Reports of Surveyors—
Photo-topographical Survey, Vancouver Island   27
Photo-topographical Survey, Vancouver Island   29  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., January 14th, 1933.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ended December 31 st, 1932 :—
The continued fall in Provincial revenues due to the world-wide economic situation was
reflected in the 1932 appropriation for surveys, which was the lowest in over twenty-five years.
On this account, work was restricted to the most urgent items, and projects of great economic
promise had to be postponed.
The field-work of the Survey Branch may be divided into three main classes: (1) Tri-
angulation, this being the best and cheapest means of determining the true positions of main
features; (2) topographical surveys, now mostly carried on with the aid of aerial photography,
with ground control supplied by minor triangulation and the surveying-camera; (3) cadastral
surveys, in preparation for settlement. Theoretically, surveys should be made in the above
order, but this is not always practicable; and, furthermore, democracies are notoriously shortsighted.
Twenty years of well-planned effort has brought the triangulation nets of the main scheme
so near to completion that a total of about $30,000 further expenditure, spread over three years,
would close the gaps, and little more would need to be done for many years.
Except in the Peace River Block, cadastral surveys are generally well in advance of preemptions, and there are no extensive areas where further surveys would induce early settlement.
The topographical surveys, on the other hand, should be steadily continued. -British
Columbia has wasted many millions of dollars on projects which, it is safe to say, would never
have been undertaken had there been complete advance knowledge of resources and traffic possibilities. For example, no major illusions are possible with respect to the country south of the
Railway Belt and west of the Arrow Lake Divide, so completely covered and mapped by our
photo-topographical survey; but many illusions, dangerous to the public treasury, do exist in the
minds of the public, and possibly in some official minds, respecting other parts of the Province.
If British Columbia is to develop on sane lines and is to avoid further costly errors like those
referred to, the first necessity would seem to be an inventory of Provincial resources. The owner
of a farm goes over his land before deciding where to concentrate his efforts, and the Province
should do the same; but, as the area is so great, the only practicable way to present the facts is
in the form of maps or in reports illustrated by maps.
Altitude and slopes place definite limits to our agricultural areas; geological formations
govern the occurrence of the various minerals; watershed areas and the drop therefrom limit
power; while the potentialities of our forests are closely bound up with latitude, altitude, slopes,
and drainage. Altitude and slope have a far more important bearing on economic development
here than in any other Province of Canada, and maps without contour-lines tell only half the
story.
In nineteen years of experience and experiment, British Columbia has built up a small group
of specialists in photo-topographical surveying, and now, with the co-operation of the Royal
Canadian Air Force and the Topographical Survey of Canada, can make the necessary ground
surveys and produce reliable topographical maps showing 100-foot contours, at a cost to the
Province under $20 per square mile. With such maps, and the aerial and ground photographs
on file, engineers of the Public Works Department could study alternative road and trail routes,
and, with the aid of the stereoscope, work out approximate costs without leaving their office.
Likewise, the accomplishments of the Geological Survey field men could be doubled and the work
of our own Forest and Water Branches greatly facilitated. There are many other advantages
both to the Government and to the people, and the cost is less than one-fifteenth of that of an
ordinary ground survey. V 16
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1932.
All projects recommended by the Survey Branch must pass the following tests: (1.) In the
case of triangulation surveys, " Is this work necessary to supply a stable base for our maps of
regions now under development, or with development imminent ?" (2.) In the case of topographical surveys, " Is this an area where complete information, with contours and photographs,
is likely to aid early development of mineral, agricultural, timber, or power resources to an
extent justifying this expenditure ? " (3.) In the case of cadastral surveys, " Is this land suited
in quality and location for successful settlement, and is it likely to be taken up in the very near
future ? " All such surveys have incidental scientific value, but it is recognized that British
Columbia, with its great area and small population, must make early and substantial economic
value the test of its projects for many years to come. The Cariboo placer area and Northerly
Vancouver Island topographical mapping, now halted or retarded, are projects which will meet
every test. This is shown by the recent Geological Survey remarks regarding gold prospects on
Zeballos River, west coast of Vancouver Island, which our mapping programme induced them to
examine, and also by recent developments in the Barkerville area. The Survey Branch has been
urging an appropriation for the completion of the contour-mapping of the Quesnel-Barkerville
area for three years, with the object of aiding in the search for ancient gold-bearing channels, etc.
In order that all the services above mentioned may do their important work to the very best
advantage, it is necessary that topographical mapping be at least one year ahead of them, and
this calls for continuity of policy. The remaining triangulation and all topographical mapping
of the quality advocated, if once done, would be done for ever, and British Columbia, being a
young and rapidly developing country, must crowd an undue part of such work into a few years.
Expenditure on this basic and permanent work could rightly be classed as capital expenditure
and financed out of loans, as is done in other countries, thus easing the unfair load on current
revenues.
I am convinced, by observation and by the results secured, that in our photo-topographical
staff we have an efficient working field force unsurpassed anywhere. They are giving us the
best maps we have ever had at much the lowest cost yet reached in this difficult country. It
costs about $36,000 per year to keep them and their survey crews working at full efficiency, but
for this, assuming the continuation of the present co-operation of the Royal Canadian Air Force,
we can add 2,000 square miles per annum to our contoured mapped areas and can do the work
wherever the need is most urgent. It would be true economy to expand this type of work rather
than to curtail it, even in the face of present financial difficulties.
SURVEY REVENUE.
From the very nature of the work there can be no direct revenue collections in connection
with triangulation and topographical surveys. In the case of cadastral surveys a survey fee is
collected on lands sold, but in very many cases this is merged with the land price and so does
not show in the Public Accounts. Under the " Land Act," surveys of their lands are donated to
pre-emptors. Since 1911 the revenue from survey fees, shown as such, has exceeded $237,000,
while in the same period surveys to the value of over $893,000 were given to pre-emptors. The
corresponding figures for 1932 are: Survey fees collected, $2,217; and cost of surveys donated to
the 1,202 new pre-emptors, approximately $96,000. Expenditure in 1932 on all types of surveys
was under $15,000.
GENERAL REVIEW OF FIELD-WORK.
No work was done on the triangulation nets.
At the " Green Timbers," near New Westminster, a subdivision of 800 acres of logged-off
lands into 5- and 10-acre lots was carried out by Walter Wilkie, B.C.L.S. Other than this,
Government land-survey activities were confined to a few scattered lots and land-ties and a few
minor subdivisions.
The photo-topographical staff were all on short time, and their field-work was confined to the
completion of some unfinished map-sheets on Northerly Vancouver Island. This field-work was
in charge of A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., with G. J. .Tackson, B.C.L.S., in charge of an assisting
party.    Their detailed reports follow, and in his, Mr. Campbell describes the methods followed. REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL. V 17
OFFICE-WORK.
The office staff is divided into two main sections—namely, the Survey Division and
the Geographic Division. Reports compiled by F. O. Morris and by G. G. Aitken, who are
respectively in charge of these Divisions, follow.
During the year, one member of the photo-topographical staff resigned when put on very
short time, one draughtsman was superannuated, while the two most recent appointees to the
draughting staff were dismissed, for reasons of economy only.    No new appointments were made.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. V 18
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1932.
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEY DIVISION.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, supplying survey information, the
preparation of instructions for surveying, examining field returns, and plotting official plans,
compiling departmental reference maps, clearing all applications, and other incidental work.
During the past year 232 field-books were received, containing notes for 338 lots, and including thirteen books containing notes of traverses and triangulation control surveys made for
the most part in 1931.
The number of lots plotted and gazetted numbers 609; tracings of the plans of these lots
were prepared and forwarded to the various Land Commissioners. Numerous surveys covering
portions of reverted lands held under application were dealt with by this Division, as well as
several subdivisions of Crown lands into small parcels.
Miscellaneous tracings made total 95, while 821 tracings were made in duplicate for leases
and Crown grants.
A schedule of the various kinds of surveys examined, plotted, and gazetted during 1932
follows:— Acres,
Purchase surveys     2,268
Mineral-claim surveys     2,520
Coal-licence surveys      1,288
Lease surveys        896
Government surveys   57,940
Total   64,912
Right-of-way Plans.—Plans of rights-of-way through Crown lands for railways, logging-
railways, and power-transmission lines are examined and dealt with by this Division in connection with the applications of the companies for Crown grants or leases as may be required.
Information supplied.—A charge to cover cost is made for the preparation of copies of
field-notes, blue-prints, etc., required by surveyors, officials of other departments, and the general
public.    The total number of prints made was 21,380, valued at $7,121.73.
Correspondence and Accounts.—During the year the Braneh received 5,807 letters and sent
out 5,070, not including form letters and interdepartmental memoranda.
Clearances.—During the year the Survey Division supplied to the Lands, Forest, and Water
Branches clearances of their various applications. A graphical record is kept of all these clearances on the maps of the Branch. In many instances it is necessary in the clearing of a single
application to connect numerous departmental records in order to ascertain that no other interests are affected. In addition, a check-up and revision of the list of the various Indian reserves
was carried out. There are some 1,221 of these reserves throughout the Province, not including
those in the former Dominion Railway Belt.
An indication of the work involved in dealing with various matters covered by the work of
this Branch is given by the number of plans and field-notes consulted. During the past year
there were received from the vault for reference, and returned for filing, 28,558 documents of
this description.
Tables A and B attached hereto give a summary of the office-work and acreage dealt with
by the Survey Division.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations and
inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and mineral reference maps
on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are maintained by the Survey Division. There are now 177 reference maps and 59 mineral reference maps, making a total of 236
maps. The work of keeping these up to date—(1) by adding new survey information as it
becomes available, and (2) by renewing same when worn out with constant use and handling in
the blue-print machines—forms a considerable portion of the work of the Branch. During the
year seven entirely new reference maps and five new mineral reference maps were prepared,
while eight existing maps were redrawn. Tables C and D, attached hereto, give a list of these
reference maps. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
V 19
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1932, Survey Division.
Number of field-books received   232
„ lots   gazetted   and   tracings   forwarded   to   Government
Agents   609
„          reference maps compiled   20
„         miles of right-of-way plans dealt with  127
applications for purchase cleared  172
applications for pre-emption cleared  1,304
„         applications for lease cleared   245
„         coal licences cleared   136
„         water licences cleared   77
,,          timber-sales cleared   1,126
„         free-use permits cleared   480
„         hand-loggers' licences cleared   85
„          Crown-grant applications cleared   717
,,         reverted-land clearances    1,308
„         cancellations made    1,417
„         inquiries cleared    1,898
„         letters received by Branch   5,807
„         Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate  821
„         miscellaneous tracings made   95
blue-prints made    21,380
Revenue from sale of blue-prints and survey information  $2,845.23
Approximate number of placer-mining leases plotted on maps  580
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault   28,558
Table B.—Showing Acreages op each Class of Surveys Gazetted each Year since 1900.
Year.
Preemptions.
Purchase.
Mineral
Claims.
Timber
Limits.
Coal
licences.
Leases.
B.C. Govt.
Surveys.
Totals.
Acres.
Acres.
Acres.
Acres.
664
10,057
71,513
593
79,094
626
1,026
98,698
2,003
800
213,312
48.670
3,009
179
312,278
137,218
806
107
469,872
41,312
9,566
238,842
20,367
4,387
113,968
444,433
9,821
2,580
97,072
506,773
8,310
15,239
512,373
1,189,428
43,363
5,864
302,536
1,407,912
120,938
6,500
948,644
3,226,610
99,236
8,560
826,362
2,866,997
72,719
4,740
1,014,366
2,854,487
36,098
4,209
1,078,579
2,512,198
29,245
S41
705,170
1,320,520
10,983
5,145
124,953
474,767
2,843
2,960
111,256
414,417
953
2,342
60,311
309,090
160
1,495
77,121
262,996
22,143
3,227
63,505
463,348
4,423
11,884
127,797
409,360
2,520
3,094
98,841
154,486
4,480
2,790
147,927
221,805
7,561
1,437
33,860
100,374
320
2,273
23,402
36,192
10,437
2,641
29,393
52,718
5,411
8,477
37,996
f30,019
3,484
8,872
127,388
2,990
2,122
10,560
49,789
1,186
2,155
17,972
39,312
1,259
2,708
84,635
136,667
1,288
896
57,940
64,912
1900..
1901-
1902..
1903..
1904..
1905..
1906..
1907..
1908..
1909..
3910..
1911-
1912..
1913-
1914..
1915..
1916..
1917..
1918..
1919..
1920..
1921..
1922..
1923-
1924..
1925..
1926..
1927..
1928-
1929..
1930..
1931-
1932..
Acres.
22,873
26,493
35,297
37,615
48,124
42,660
33,573
50,400
66,788
71,316
79,273
89,485
99,461
55,202
45,551
22,746
14,335
12,632
10,835
8,514
. 8,172
' 3,078
1,268
991
1,180
Acres.
4,419
16,401
29,652
26,787
36,468
58,705
66,668
162,218
147,980
145,325
455,356
1,352,809
1,011,934
508,002
234,580
41,551
8,771
802
1,634
153
5,992
8,122
6,160
3,341
11,926
2,307
1,081
1,763
1,589
11,917
2,151
11,209
2,268
Acres.
33,441
33,400
31,057
18,115
20,549
15,535
9,894
10,017
14,607
10,744
12,499
21,325
16,645
18,043
7,546
8,339
7,677
8,386
9,247
10,264
12,580
6,290
4,637
9,175
11,382
4,750
9,166
15,695
16,253
20,210
14,630
5,630
2,520
Acres.
59
2,027
1,040
127,992
155,279
214,841
77,829
83,016
167,925
426,121
509,201
686,909
804,730
1,181,355
1,105,635
512,628
302,903
275,538
223,768
165,289
347,729
247,766
37,966
53,101
33,028
2,150
6,651
67,171
1,990
1,218
31,226
* Allotted to surveyed land.
t Includes 28,548 acres surveyed as phosphate licences. V 20
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1932.
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1- CD CD o O Central Index.
The registration of plans under a " quadrilateral" system which was inaugurated by this
Department a few years ago has proved beyond a doubt to be the ideal system for the indexing
of plans. Under this system all information relating to any part of the country can be located
(without the possibility of any important data being overlooked) in the shortest possible time.
Gazetteer.
During the year a great number of revisions to the place-names of British Columbia and
their locations were necessary through the receipt of new topographical and hydrographic
surveys.    In addition, about 950 new place-name cards were added to the card index.
Geographical Work done for other Departments.
Eleven orders (Provincial), with total cost, charged and received, .$383.19.
Twenty-five orders (Provincial), co-operative, not charged, value $3,717.42.
The establishing of permanent statistical publication areas in British Columbia for Dominion
and Provincial administration requirements was advanced materially during the year by our
work of preparing the necessary detailed descriptions of boundaries.
Map-mounting.
The following is a synopsis of the work accomplished in map-mounting for the year 1932:—
Loose-leaf map-books—mounted maps in rexine covers   151
White, blue, and ozalid prints, joined and mounted, etc  1,426
Maps joined, mounted, and cut to fold, pocket size  462
Photostat prints fitted, joined, and mounted, etc  195
Official maps and charts repaired, mounted, etc  389
Field-books and miscellaneous books repaired, bound, etc  16
Photos, pictures, sketches, and painting mounted  168
Maps reinforced to hang with sticks  65
Work done, Receipts and Credits.
Geographic and Survey Branches   $1,089.42
Lands Department   361.14
Other departments   228.95
Public  98.00
$1,777.51
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps issued to departments and public       16,558
Gazetteers issued to departments and public   20
Maps received into Geographic stock—
(1.)  Provincial Government maps   13,000
(2.)  Dominion Government and miscellaneous        878
       13,878
Cash receipts for printed maps and Gazetteers   $2,637.70
Credits (Lands Department) for printed maps and Gazetteers        651.90
Credits (Government Agents) for printed maps and Gazetteers       603.50
Value of printed maps and Gazetteers issued free to departments and
public      1,332.40
„      . ... Photostat, 1932.
Requisitions—
Departments     441
Public  67
Charges—
Departments  $1,079.45
Public        11J
Total  ?
/ V 24
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS, 1932.
Letters received
Year. . and attended to.
1928   1,796
1929   2,548
1930   1,787
1931  2,259
1932   2,407
Standard Base Map Staff.
Standard Base Map Sheets produced.
Type of Work.
No. of
Sheets.
Vicinity of.
Scale
Area in
Sq. Miles.
5
3
4
South Vancouver Island	
South Vancouver Island	
Quesnel	
20 ch. to 1 in.
20 ch. to 1 in.
40 ch. to 1 in.
440
260
1,440
Lillooet Pre-emptors' Map.
Chilcotin Pre-emptors' Map.
Wall Map of B.C.
Lower Fraser Valley.
The South Vancouver Island sheets are being specially prepared in collaboration with the
Department of National Defence and the Dominion Topographical Surveys Branch, Ottawa.
The equivalent of one man's time for approximately three months was spent in writing and
checking descriptions for Dominion and Provincial Electoral Districts, Polling Divisions, etc.
Control nets were supplied as follows:—
Geographic Printed Maps. Departmental Reference Maps, etc.
North Thompson Pre-emptors' Map.   Surveys Branch Reference Maps Nos. 6, 6b, 21, 21a, 38c, 91,
92, 93, 94, 95, 96.
Mineral Reference Maps.
Forest Branch Departmental Maps.
Water Rights Branch Departmental Maps.
Hydrographic Survey of Canada.
Geological Survey of Canada.
Photo-topographical  Surveys of A. J.  Campbell and G.  J.
Jackson, B.C.L.S.
Triangulation Computation and Adjustment.
Least-square adjustments of the following triangulation control surveys were made during
the year:—
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., season 1932, vicinity of Victoria Peak, Vancouver Island.
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S., season 1932, vicinity of Victoria Peak, Vancouver Island.
R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., season 1928, vicinity of Upper Arrow Lake.
F. S. Clements, B.C.L.S., season 1929, vicinity of Upper Arrow Lake.
E. R. Foster, B.C.L.S., season 1931, vicinity of Upper Skeena River.
F. C. Swannell, B.C.L.S., season 1931, vicinity of Kitchener Lake.
N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., season 1931, vicinity of Hydraulic.
The above necessitated the adjustment of 242 triangles and 264 calculations for latitude,
longitude, distance, azimuth, and reverse azimuth.
In addition, the geographical positions of 80 secondary stations were computed.
A start has been made to compile an alphabetical card-index system for triangulation stations ; for each station, a card to be made out giving the following information: Name, quad,
index, locality, source, description, latitude and longitude, elevation, ties to cadastral surveys,
file number, field-book and plan references.
At the close of the year, 185 of these cards had been written, there being in all 2,039 triangulation stations entered in the registers.
\
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
eographic Division deals with the compilation and drawing of maps for lithographic
the preparation of standard base maps and the calculations incidental thereto,
adjustment, the distribution of maps, and all photostat and map-mounting work;
and records of the Province. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
V 25
The production for the year is outlined in the following schedules:—
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
a„„i„                   Area in
bcale'                 Sq. Miles.
Mineral Reference Map No. 6, Grand
3,000
4,000
4,000
2,000
April, 1932
May,    1932
June,   1932
Feb.,    1932
M.E.M. 6
3J
3k
lex
1 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
800
North Thompson Pre-emptors' Map.-..
9,000
11,700
Map of B.C., small, in one colour	
In Course of Preparation.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
Chilcotin Pre-emptors' Map	
3f
3d
4c
4b
1A
lH
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
1/1,000,000 or
15.78 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
9,000
11,000
3,100
3.100
New Wall Map of B.C., in four sheets.
Northern B.C	
4,000
4,000
June, 1933
May,    1933
372,630
160,000
The preparation of descriptions and maps pertaining to the Provincial Electoral Districts
Redistribution, for the Legislative Assembly of 1932, necessitated much urgent work.
Considerable staff time was employed to fulfil the requests of the " Economy Committee "
for tables, display records, graphs, political boundaries, maps, etc.
Subsequent to the 1932 Electoral Redistribution, considerable time was employed in preparing drafts of suggestions for a further Provincial Electoral Redistribution.
Geographical Naming.
The establishing of permanent geographical naming is an important part of the duties of the
Geographic Branch and necessitates a considerable amount of correspondence and close study of
old records, maps, charts, etc.
During the year 1932 the following new map publications of British Columbia, submitted by
Provincial Departments, and the Geological, Hydrographic, and Topographical Departments of
the Dominion Government, were edited for permanent naming:—
Name of Map. For whom prepared.
1. Salmo Map Area Dominion Government.
2. Shuswap Sheet Dominion Government.
3. Glacier Park Sheet Dominion Government.
4. Cranbrook Sheet Dominion Government.
5. Alice Arm Sheet Dominion Government.
6. Nimpkish Lake Sheet Dominion Government.
7. Woss Lake Sheet Dominion Government.
8. Barkley Sound Chart Dominion Government.
9. Toad and Musqua Rivers Map Dominion Government.
10. Garibaldi Park Map B.C. Government.
11. Lower Fraser River Map B.C. Government.
12. B.C. Wall Map B.C. Government.
13. Reference Maps (15) B.C. Government.
14. Mineral Reference Maps (5) B.C. Government. Map
No.
Year of
Issue.
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
lex
IBM
lo
tlH
1933
1931
1930
1916
1932
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1923
1925
1929
1920
1914
1929
1923
1924
1927
1930
1926
1923
1922
1928
1921
1927
1931
1932
1932
1929
1924
1931
1927
i913
1925
1913
1914
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1931
1916
1929
1929
1929
1930
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1930
1928
1907
-S98
q
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    In course of
printing1.   Roads, trails, railways, etc.
British Columbia.   In one sheet.    Showing Land Recording" Divisions
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen.    Showing- Mining- Divisions
Cariboo and adjacent Districts.    Showing- Land Recording Divisions
1:1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. tol in.
1:1,000,000
15.78 m. tol in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to lin.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 rn. to 1 in.
2 in, to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
\ m. to 1 in.
\ m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
in
o ri
<u> "-3 .
11°.
lav v
B'« <o
co to
11
°l
.50
.50
"25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.50
.50
.50
2.00
.50
.60
.50
.50
.50
.60
.85
Free
.10
.10
.10
J14.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
lJCA
British Columbia.   In one sheet.   Showing rivers, railways, main
roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
4.00
lJC
ditto                         ditto                  and Land Recording Divisions.
4.00
4.00
LIE
trail
J.TGC
IK
1L
ditto                         ditto                  and Assessment Districts	
ditto                         ditto                  and Land Registry Districts...
South   Western   Districts   of   B.C.,   Commercial   and   Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
2a
2b
Land Series—
4.00
4.00
2c
4.00
2d
4.00
2e
4.00
2f
3a
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary)	
Pre-emptors' Series—
4.00
2.00
3b
2.00
3c
2.00
3d
Bulkley Valley	
2.00
3e
3f
2.00
2.00
3g
2.00
SH
2.00
3j
3k
2.00
2.00
3m
2.00
3p
2.00
3q
4a
Degree Series—
2.00
4.00
t4B
4.00
t4c
4d
2.00
2.00
4f
4g
2.00
2.00
4h
2.00
4j
4.00
4k
4.00
4l
4.00
4m
4.00
4.00
4p
5a
5b
5c
Lower Fraser Valley (preliminarj')	
Topographical Series—
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special) ...
H                         n                    ir            North sheet (special) ...
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
] m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
6,000 ft. to 1 in.
lm. tol in.
4.00
MR.M2
4.00
4.00
MUM 4
4.00
4.00
4.00
PWD
Miscellaneous—
2.50
On app.
.50
.50
.50
"rnpilation.
lisunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map Number" of map desired,
i of maps of British Columbia printed and published at Ottawa, by the Canadian Geological Survey, also
b of the Interior, etc., etc.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address:—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands, Victoria, B.C. PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND. V 27
PHOTO TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By Alan J. Campbell.
Victoria, B.C., January 9th, 1933.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report upon the photo-topographical surveys
carried out by me, under your instructions, during the past season:—
Your instructions, dated June 20th, 1932, described the area to be surveyed as Map-sheet
No. 92 L/l, 92 L/2, and 92 L/8, Carte du monde au millionieme. This area includes the Adams
River basin and the headwaters of the Nimpkish and AVhite Rivers on Vancouver Island. Also,
to complete Sheet 92 L/2, which had been partially covered in 1931, the Tasis and Zeballos
Valleys were included. Our main object was to secure sufficient information to complete these
sheets.
We were to continue the method, developed last year, of combining our triangulation and
photo-topographical work with the aerial views covering the area. A brief synopsis of the
method follows. The main stations are plotted by triangulation and are tied with the geodetic
net along the coast. The camera stations are plotted by calculation or by resection. Altitudes
of all stations are obtained by calculation from vertical angles and, as has been the general
procedure in photo-topographical mapping, the traces of all the ground views are plotted. Now
comes the first variation from the usual procedure, and one of the principal reasons for getting
the ground pictures as an aid to the plotting of vertical aerial views. It is necessary to have
considerable ground control to plot the aerial pictures accurately in position on the map, and
this control is obtained by plotting points from the ground views. These points are very carefully identified on both aerial and ground pictures, and only those chosen which can be located
on two or more ground views and which give good intersections. Also triangulation stations
and cameral stations, where possible, are identified on the aerial views and used as control.
Once having the strips or flights of the aerial pictures plotted on the map, we are ready to proceed with the building of the contours and other physical features. An unlimited number of
points can now be plotted from the aerial strips, but the requirements are for only a sufficient
number to establish vertical control on each aerial picture. Also the points so chosen must be
identifiable on the ground views, so as to obtain their altitude and hence give the vertical control.
Having sufficient vertical control, it is possible, under the stereoscope, to draw contours directly
on the aerial views; these can then be taken off, each contour with its proper reduction, and
placed on the map. It will be conceded that the shore of a lake can be reduced directly from a
vertical aerial picture and that the amount of such reduction is directly dependent on the altitude of the lake.    A contour, if correctly drawn, on such picture can be treated in the same way.
Due to the difficulties of transportation in the country we were instructed to cover, and to
its somewhat widespread area, it was decided that better progx'ess would be made if, instead of
one party of eight or nine men with two sets of instruments, two small parties of four or five
men were sent out. Accordingly a party of four men, with G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S., in charge,
was organized; its particular areas being the incompleted portions of Map-sheet 92 L/2
and the northern part of Sheet 92 L/8. These are fairly close-to the west and east coasts of the
island, so the problem of transportation was solved by the use of boats. This left Map-sheet
92 L/l and the southern part of Sheet 92 L/8 for the other party which was organized at the
same time, with the writer in charge. As this area lies well in the centre of the island, and no
means of transport other than man-power possible, it was decided, in the interests of economy
and efficiency, to place the party and the season's supplies on Shoen Lake by aeroplane. This
lake lies in a very central position, and, by having a full season's supplies there, the man-packing
necessary to reach all parts was reduced to a minimum. As a further aid, a load of supplies
was deposited by the aeroplane on Vernon Lake, located in the south-west corner of the area.
We were thus enabled to take advantage of the good weather, and when it is considered that
the work is entirely triangulation and photographic, this is a vital point. During the past
season it was particularly necessary, as, out of 120 days in the field, seventy-five were not fit for
photographic work. Of the remaining forty-five, very few were not utilized to the full. Unfortunately, it is not possible to always be in position to occupy stations on the available clays of V 28
REPORT OP MINISTER OP LANDS, 1932.
good weather. Some thirty-three camera stations were occupied during the season and twenty-
eight dozen views were exposed, also several ties to land-survey posts were made. On the whole,
there was very little time lost owing to the bad weather, as there was much trail-cutting and
considerable man-packing necessary to keep the party supplied when away from Shoen Lake.
A feature of the mountainous sections of Vancouver Island is that there are few continuous
ranges such as are found in the interior of British Columbia. The most pretentious range in
our district is the one running south from Shoen Lake. It has one or two peaks of more than
6,000 feet altitude and several over the 5,000-foot mark. It is continuous, with no low breaks,
beyond the southerly limits of the area, where it trails off to low timbered hills towards Muchalat
Lake. North of Shoen Lake a rough and jagged rocky range reaches to the Eve River Valley,
some of the peaks reaching nearly to 6,000 feet. Beyond Eve River to the north we have the
Palmerston Range to the shores of Johnstone Strait. West of this range and south of Eve River,
long rolling timbered slopes fall to the valleys of the Tsitika River on the north and to the
Nimpkish River farther south, the latter broken by the valley of Davie Creek draining Shoen
Lake into the Nimpkish. Easterly from this range, smaller ranges of hills of diminishing altitude run out between the different valleys or branches of Adams River. A similar range lies
between Adams River and White River Valleys, with bare rocky summits at southerly end tapering off to low rolling timber-covered hills, and then rising to slightly higher hills adjoining
Johnstone Strait. Victoria Peak, which is believed to be the highest mountain on Vancouver
Island, and has an altitude of 7,095 feet above sea-level, is the culminating point of a mountain-
mass lying in the south-easterly corner of the area. Passes between the low valleys of the
White River and its branches to the north of the mountain, and the Gold River to the south,
entirely separate it from the surrounding hills.
There are many small lakes scattered throughout the district. The three largest, Vernon,
Shoen, and Klaklakama Lakes, are considerably bigger than any of the others. Vernon Lake,
altitude 675 feet, is a fine lake about 41/, miles in length, surrounded by timbered hills, fairly
steep slopes on the west rising eventually to rocky summits. A low timbered ridge, not more
than 2,000 feet above the lake, separates it from the Nimpkish Valley to the east. Shoen Lake has
an altitude of 1,320 feet and is about 3% miles long. It is almost entirely surrounded by very
steep and rocky slopes rising to high rocky mountains. Its waters drain by the Davie River
into the Nimpkish. Klaklakama Lake is on a tributary of the Davie River, about 8 miles below
Shoen Lake. Its altitude is 960 feet and it is entirely surrounded by low timbered hills; those
on the east running back to the high rocky range, but on the west rising not more than 1,500
feet above the lake to a timbered ridge separating it from the Nimpkish. An unusual feature of
this lake is that at certain stages of water there is a wide shore or beach all the way around.
The whole country, where altitude permits, is heavily timbered. Hemlock is the predominant species and found everywhere. Fir is found in several parts, particularly in the
Davie, Nimpkish, and White River Valleys. Fine stands of fir and cedar were noted on the
slopes to the east of Klaklakama Lakes and Vernon Lake. Much red cedar is also found and,
scattered over the whole area, considerable yellow cedar was noted. It is unquestionably a
well-timbered area.
Evidences of mineral were found in many parts, particularly to the east of the central range,
south from Shoen Lake. Some samples of ore were brought out by a member of the party and
assayed, giving results to 12 per cent, of copper, a little silver, and a trace of gold. These
samples were taken from rock cut by a small stream, with surface indications of a considerable
body of the ore. Similar indications were noted at other points. It is reported that some claims
were staked in this vicinity later in the year, and it seems probable that, with further exploration, discoveries of considerable value may be made. At a prospect about 20 miles up the Adams
River diamond-drill tests were made five or six years ago, but no further development has taken
place.
Very little land suitable for agriculture was noted. It could be described as land of practically no agricultural possibilities, though certain small parcels along the stream-bottoms, once
the timber is removed, undoubtedly could be cultivated. The largest of such pieces lie along the
Nimpkish Valley and along the Davie Valley up to Klaklakama Lake. Some meadow land was
encountered near the headwaters of two branches of the Adams River. The largest of these is
covered by the Lots 1336 to 1340. ' ■-    .'■■ ' ■■;■'■'"■
PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Some elk, deer, and bear were seen, but are not numerous. From signs noted it would
appear that elk are fairly plentiful at some periods. The deer seem to congregate closer to
settled parts and logged areas. Some grouse were seen and ptarmigan found on the higher
slopes.
Trout are quite plentiful in the lakes and streams, particularly in Vernon and Shoen Lakes.
Hundreds of small trout, 3 and 4 inches in length, are to be seen at the outlet of Shoen Lake.
Salmon come up the Nimpkish to spawn in the lakes.    Many were seen on Vernon Lake.
During the season, in different directions from Shoen Lake, some 40 miles of trail were cut.
In a south-easterly direction, and passing over two low divides in its course, a trail of 13 miles
was located to reach the White River and Victoria Peak. From the west end of Shoen Lake an
almost obliterated trail was cut out down the Davie to Klaklakama Lake and a trail located
over a low part of the ridge from that lake to the Nimpkish Valley. A comparatively new trail
was found along the Nimpkish River up to its junction with the Maquilla. Another trail was
cut from the east end of Shoen Lake to and down the Adams River for 13 miles to the mine
prospect mentioned before. From here a well-cut-out and graded trail connects with the Salmon
River Road at the bridge over the White River. Other trails, principally trappers', are found
on the White River, the Adams River, and also up the Tsitika River.
Sufficient information was gathered to map the whole area. It is admitted that the northeast part of Sheet 92 L/8 is not covered very satisfactorily, but with the aid of other information it can be mapped. Undoubtedly, if the season had been more favourable for the work, the
whole area of, roughly, 900 square miles could have been covered very satisfactorily with less
time in the field.
I have, etc.,
Alan J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
PHOTO TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By G. J. Jackson.
Victoria, B.C., January 10th, 1933.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the photo-topographic survey made
by me during the past summer:—
The area covered is on Vancouver Island and is a continuation of the work done by A. J.
Campbell and me during the summer of 1931. During the first part of the season the work was
continued southward to the west coast and included the watersheds of the Espinosa, Zeballos,
and Tasis Rivers. During the latter part of the summer we were on the east coast of the island
and continued the work eastward to include the Tsitika and Adams Rivers.
The area has all been covered by vertical aerial views taken by the Royal Canadian Air
Force. Our instructions were to occupy, and to take horizontal views from sufficient stations
to furnish ground control for the vertical views, and to obtain elevations sufficient to make a
topographical map, combining the two systems of views.
The party of four was organized in Victoria and left on the C.P.R. " S.S. Princess Norah "
on June 21st, arriving at Ceepeecee on the 24th. Here arrangements were made for getting
supplies and mail while on the west coast. On the 24th we went by launch to the head of
Espinosa Arm, where work was commenced. We occupied four stations on the Espinosa River—
two near the mouth and two near the head. On July 7th we moved by launch to the head of the
Zeballos Arm. Along this river eleven stations were occupied. On August 16th we moved to
the head of Tasis Arm and occupied five stations along the Tasis River, thus completing the work
on the west coast.
On September 14th we boarded the " S.S. Norah" at Ceepeecee and went north to Coal
Harbour. From here we crossed the island by car to Port Hardy. From this point we moved
south by launch to our work on the east coast of the island near Adams River, arriving on
September 16th. Here we occupied ten stations between Tsitika and Adams River and hoped
to do stations up the Adams and to the east of it. The weather was unfavourable, and though
we waited until October 22nd we were unable to complete these stations. The weather was very poor for our work—the wettest season for many years. During the
120 days in the field there were seventy-five days of rain and fog, during which stations could
not be occupied.
During the season twenty-three dozen plates were exposed and thirty-two photographic
stations and one triangulation station were occupied.
The valleys of the Espinosa, Zeballos, and Tasis Rivers lie north and south, all rivers flowing
south into the inlets on the west coast. They are surrounded by mountains reaching above
timber-line. On the west side of each valley the hills are much steeper and closer to the rivers
than on the east side, where large creeks extend back into the hills for several miles.
The Espinosa River is small and only 4 or 5 miles in length. Most of the water comes from
a large creek that enters about 1 mile from the mouth. The main river-bed is usually dry above
this creek. The valley is narrow, with no land suitable for agriculture. It is thickly timbered,
mostly with hemlock and balsam, but there is some cedar, fir, and spruce. The underbrush is
dense. There is nobody living in this valley and we found no trail up it, so cut one out for
about 3 miles.
The Zeballos River is quite large and drains a considerable area. About 6 miles up it
divides into the North and East Forks, both about 10 miles long. The river has a grade of less
than 1 per cent, up to the forks, but is steeper above there. There is a small canyon in the river
about half a mile from the mouth. The valley is well timbered, and from the mouth to the
forks, and for some distance up the East Fork, is taken up by timber limits. The timber is
hemlock, balsam, cedar, and fir to the forks, with no fir above there. There are a number of
small flats of fairly good land along the river. There is a good pack-trail up the west side of
the river to the forks and a rough trail for some distance up each fork. Two prospectors live on
this river and have cabins at the mouth and at the forks. There is another cabin, about 2 miles
up from the mouth, at a prospect.
The Tasis River drains quite a large area. This river also divides about 6 miles up. The
North Fork is less than 3 miles long, while the East Fork drains a big basin to the east. The
mountains around the headwaters are particularly rugged. On the west a fine range 6 or 7
miles long, and reaching an elevation of over 6,000 feet, with some snow-fields on the north side,
extends westward. This is known as Rugged Mountain. There is also some very rough country
and there are several high peaks up the East Fork. The grade of this river up to the forks is
about 1 per cent., but it is steeper above. There is a fair trail up to the forks and up the North
Fork through the pass to Woss Lake. The pass is about 2,000 feet elevation. One prospector
lives on this river and has a cabin at the beach and another about 4 miles up the river. The
valley is narrow, with no agricultural land, but is well timbered with hemlock, balsam, cedar,
and fir.
Ceepeecee is the most central place to disembark from the steamer to reach these valleys.
This is a fish-reduction plant, where oil and fish-meal are manufactured. There is a store, post-
office, gas-station, and wireless at this place. A C.P.R. boat calls here every ten days, and for
a while during the summer there was one every five days. From here it is 20 miles by boat to
the head of Espinosa Arm, 12 miles to the Zeballos, and 6 miles to the Tasis. The trip up the
west coast by boat is deservedly very popular in the tourist season. In good weather it is a very .
pleasant six-day voyage, the schedule being arranged so that all points of interest and the
choicest scenery are passed in daylight.
The area is very promising from a mining point of view, particularly in the Zeballos, and a
number of claims have been staked here, also on the Little Zeballos and on the Tasis. On the
Zeballos, about 2 miles from the mouth, a crew of men was opening up a prospect during the
summer and packed picked ore to the beach for shipment. This ore ran high in gold values, and
it is announced in the papers that work is continuing there this winter. Several men were prospecting along the valley during the summer. Rough gold has been found in the river, but not
in any appreciable quantity.
Dr. Gunning, of the Geological Survey of Canada, examined this area during the summer
and, by reports, was very favourably impressed with it. His official report will be out soon and
will no doubt contain valuable information for any prospectors intending to go into this country.
Game was very scarce. A few elk and tracks of others were seen. At one time they were
very plentiful in this area, but, although protected by law, they seem to be getting scarcer each
year.    Up to three or four years ago there were large numbers of deer, but now they seem to PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VANCOUVER ISLAND. V 31
have almost disappeared; none were seen and very few tracks were in evidence. A few black
bear were seen in the valleys and along the inlets. Grouse were scarce, although there were a
few willow-grouse in the valleys and ptarmigan on the higher peaks. Ducks and geese are in the
inlets in the fall and winter. There are quite a few cougar and an occasional wolf. These
probably account for the scarcity of elk and deer. The chief fur-bearing animals are marten,
mink, racoon, and beaver, but these are not. numerous.
There is fair trout-fishing in the Zeballos River, but none in the Espinosa or the Tasis.
Salmon run up all the streams in season.
EAST COAST.
To the east of the Tsitika River and between it and Adams River there are several small
mountain streams flowing north into Johnstone Strait. There is also a high range of mountains;
the highest peak is Palmerston Mountain, 5,783 feet high, on which is situated the triangulation
station of the same name. These creek-valleys are very narrow, but well wooded. The good
timber is taken up by timber limits.
Adams River is large and drains a big area. About 2 miles from the mouth it is joined
from the west by Eve River. The valley is narrow to the west of these rivers, soon rising to
high mountain ranges. The east side is wide and is a series of rolling hills right through to the
Salmon River Valley, with the exception of a high range near the salt water, to the west of the
Salmon River. The valley is well timbered with hemlock, balsam, cedar, and fir, and some
spruce. This is all taken up by timber limits. There is, I was told, a good trail up this river.
There is no settlement on the river, the nearest being at Cracroft, on Cracroft Island, and at
Port Neville, on the Mainland. Kelsey Bay, at the mouth of the Salmon River, is about 20 miles
to the east, on Vancouver Island.
The work on the maps is now in progress and the usual plans are being prepared.
I have, etc.,
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1933.
800-233-2305 

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