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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS HON N. S. LOUGHEED, Minister. H. CATHCART, Deputy Minister.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1933

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 .
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. N. S. LOUGHEED, Minister.
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister. P. Z. Caverhill, Chief Forester.
EEPOET
OF
THE FOEEST BEANCH
FOR   THE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1932
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chables F. BANFiELn, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1933.  Victoria, B.C., February 25th, 1933.
To His Eonour J. W. Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1932.
N. S. LOUGHEED,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. N. S. Lougheed,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1932.
P. Z. CAVERHILL,
Chief Forester.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
The reorganization of the personnel of the Forest Branch which began in 1930 was continued
and ten additional positions eliminated during the year, besides a greatly reduced temporary
staff. The permanent staff at December 31st was 204, as compared with 254 in 1931, and 287
positions on the taking-over of the Railway Belt in 1930. The particulars and distribution of
the staff are shown in the following table:—
Distribution of Force, 1932.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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Popular opinion associates forest activities largely with collections of forest revenue and
control of fires. This conception is far from correct. Many other activities go to make up the
schedule of the average forest officer—activities which require extensive field travel and time.
For example, every area of land applied for as a pre-emption must be examined to determine its
forest and economic value, and thereafter a yearly examination is made to ascertain if the
pre-emptor is fulfilling his duties as required by law. Every area for which application is made
to purchase or lease must likewise be examined and reported upon. Timber-sales must be
cruised and appraised, logging operations inspected, lines located and marked to prevent trespass
and to see that regulations are being carried out. Grazing areas must be examined and disputes
with regard to range-use settled. Service must be given in respect to land-clearing and slash-
disposal, the area visited, advice given on how and when to burn with greatest safety, and
permits issued. All these are largely non-revenue-producing services, and yet occupy the major
part of the time of the Forest staff. The volume of this work is shown by the fact that, during
1932, 11,470 reports involving field examinations were received and 11,247 slash-disposal permits
issued.
The present conditions have turned more attention to the land, and the volume of this work
has been increased rather than decreased by the slump. Moreover, heretofore we have had the
help during the summer of some seventy-five Assistant Rangers who were not available this year.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
No new Forests were created during the year, but the boundaries of the Yahk Forest (south
of Cranbrook) were revised following an examination made in order to determine the Yalue of
the land for forest purposes. The reserve over two Forests in the Railway Belt, the Long Lake
Forest and the northern half of the Nicola Forest, was cancelled as a result of the survey made
last year, by which it was found that they were of very low value for the production of com- T 6
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
mercial timber.    Cancellation was made in the interest of economy in forest-protection and
general administration.
Forest Surveys.
Financial conditions necessitated a reduced programme of surveys. The Arrowstone, Hat
Creek, Shuswap, Larch Hills, and Mount Ida Forests, some of the National Forests in ,the
Railway Belt transferred by the Dominion to the Province, were examined. The field-work has
been completed and a reduced staff is now making estimates and maps.
Forest surveys are continued, although on a reduced scale, since they provide an essential
foundation for informed forest administration and have an important place in the policy of
maintaining the productive capacity of forest lands to as great an extent as economic conditions
will allow. The information supplied as to the comparative value of different areas is also a
basis for effecting economies in forest administration, particularly in protection and fire-
suppression. The classification of land made prior to the setting-aside of forest land as a
Provincial Forest assists in settlement by providing information as to the agricultural value of
marginal lands in the vicinity of the Forest, and in many cases has saved intending settlers
years of unprofitable labour by directing them to more favourable locations.
Topographic and forest maps and reports were completed for the Niskonlith, Monte Hills,
Martin Mountain, and Fly Hill Forests (National Forests transferred by the Dominion).
The Niskonlith Forest, situated north of Kamloops and east of the North Thompson River,
covers 288,000 acres, classified as follows:—■
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.     Acres.
Alienated      25,500
On vacant Crown land     89,400
   114,900
Immature timber—
1- 20 years old   15,700
21- 40 years old   17,000
41- 60 years old  ,  61,500
61- 80 years old   4,900
81-100 years old   1,600
   100,700
Burned, not reforested   10,200
Non-commercial cover  45,100
     55,300
Total sites of productive quality   270,900
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—■
Barren and scrub-covered   10,000
Grass and meadows  4,500
Water and swamps  2,600
Total non-productive sites      17,100
The mature timber is estimated as follows to a minimum D.B.H. of 11 inches:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Engelmann spruce
Douglas fir 	
Silver fir (balsam)
Western red cedar
Lodgepole pine	
Yellow pine	
Western hemlock ..
White pine 	
Totals	
M.B.M.
345,200
226,900
81,900
8,800
26,100
22,100
1,500
100
M.B.M.
88,800
112,800
29,100
25,000
4,800
2,400
9,400
4,300
712,600
276,600
M.B.M.
434,000
339,700
111,000
33,800
30,900
24,500
10,900
4,400
989,200 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932. T 7
Of the above estimate, 427,000 M. is suitable for sawlogs only; about one-half of the area,
however, carries a stand which should be developed for pulp-wood cutting and would produce
1,496,000 cords, 67 per cent, spruce, down to a minimum diameter of 7 inches.
A large logging operation was carried on in the Bear Creek Valley for thirteen years prior
to 1926 for the Chase sawmill. In addition, small operators have taken out yellow pine saw-
timber, fir ties, and cedar poles. In its present condition the area could provide a sustained
annual yield of 8,400,000 P.B.M. saw-timber and 26,000 cords of pulp-wood without depleting the
growing stock.
The Monte Hills Forest lies south and west of Westwold, between Kamloops and Vernon,
and covers 222,900 acres, classified as follows:—■
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.     Acres.
Mature timber  !     56,500
Immature timber—•
1- 20 years old        3,950
21- 40 years old        5,450
41- 60 years old      89,300
61- 80 years old       8,050
81-100 years old       1,350
Logged selection        2,900
   111,000
Burned, not reforested      11,700
Non-commercial cover      13,000
 —    24,700
Total sites of productive quality  192,200
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine and scrub lands  27,200
Grass and wild meadows   850
Swamp and water   2,650
Total non-productive sites     30,700
The mature timber standing in the Forest, with a minimum diameter of 17 inches for yellow
pine and 11 inches for other species, is as follows: Douglas fir, 197,500 M.B.M.; spruce, 14,600
M.B.M.; yellow pine, 9,800 M.B.M.; lodgepole pine, 1,200 M.B.M.; total volume, 223,100 M.B.M.
In addition, there are 44,200 cords of fuel-wood, chiefly fir. With the exception of the spruce
and lodgepole pine, this timber is accessible; two sawmills near Westwold are now getting their
logs from the Forest and three other mills are in close proximity to it. The cut is 75 per cent,
yellow pine, mostly for fruit-boxes. The pine remaining will last for about ten years, when the
mills will have to find a market for the less desirable fir or transfer their activities to the spruce
of the Fly Hill, Niskonlith, and other Forests for box material. With a market for fir, the
Forest could produce a sustained annual yield of 2,500,000 F.B.M. The large area of noncommercial cover is accounted for by the effect of bark-beetles in the lodgepole pine. Most of
the mature lodgepole pine has been killed and the epidemic is now dying out.
The Martin Mountain Forest is a small forest south-west of Salmon Arm. Its revised
boundaries enclose 56,400 acres, classified as follows:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.      Acres.
Mature timber  ,     22,500
Immature timber—■
21-40 years old        6,900
41-60 years old      12,750
61-80 years old       1,000
Logged selection       2,150
     22,800
Recently burned          600
Beetle-killed and non-commercial      4,800
       5,400
Total sites of productive quality     50,700 T 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.
Alpine and scrub sites         5,550
Water, swamp, and grass   150
Total non-productive sites         5,700
There is an estimated volume of 79,900,000 F.B.M. saw-timber, 76 per cent, fir, 20 per cent,
yellow pine, and 19,000 cords of pulp-wood, 68 per cent, spruce. Two local sawmills get their
logs from this Forest, cutting yellow pine for fruit-boxes and fir for ties and low-grade lumber.
A sustained annual yield of 1,000,000 F.B.M. saw-timber could be produced, but present utilization is about double this volume. The yellow pine will last about ten years at the present rate
of cutting. When the immature stands have developed there will be an additional annual yield
of 5,500 cords of pulp-wood available, chiefly lodgepole pine, <5r 15,500 ties if this product is
preferred. There are local epidemics of bark-beetles in the yellow pine and tussock-moth in the
fir;   affected areas should be logged as soon as possible.
The Fly Hill Forest, located immediately west of Salmon Arm, covers 162,900 acres, classified
as follows:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.     Acres.
Mature timber       52,850
Immature timber—
1-20 years old        3,100
21-40 years old      27,550
41-60 years old      32,350
61-80 years old       3,050
Logged selection       1,150
     67,200
Recently burned        2,150
Deciduous, non-commercial     19,500
     21,650
Total sites of productive quality   141,700
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine and scrub lands   19,400
Water, swamp, and grass  1,800
Total non-productive sites       21,200
The Forest contains 299,500 M.B.M. standing timber suitable for the sawmill, of which
201,000 M.B.M. is accessible. The species are: Spruce, 201,400 M.; Douglas fir, 49,250 M.;
silver fir (balsam), 29,250 M.; yellow pine, 12,500 M.; lodgepole pine, 4,700 M.; cedar, 2,400 M.
It could support a sustained annual yield of 4,360,000 F.B.M.; this will be available for the
markets now supplied by the neighbouring Monte Hills and Martin Mountain Forests when the
saw-timber of those areas has been cut.
In conjunction with the survey of the Monte Hills Forest, the territory between it and the
Okanagan Forest was examined and found to be suitable for timber production. It is topographically distinct from both the Forests named and is known as the Pennask Forest, surrounding Pennask Lake and south-east of the Douglas Lake and Quilchena Ranges. It is entirely
unsuitable for agricultural development and is classified as follows:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.     Acres.
Mature timber       77,800
Immature timber—
21-40 years old        8,000
41-60 years old      66,700
61-80 years old      71,800
Understocked selection      5,300
   151,800
Burned, not reforested       5,700
Beetle-killed and non-commercial      29,100   '
     34,800
Total sites of productive quality     264,400 ■
FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 9
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber— Acres.
Alpine and scrub lands  21,800
Grass and hay meadows   1,700
Water and swamp   7,400
Total non-productive sites      30,900
There are 106,300 M.B.M. fir and 2,300 M.B.M. yellow pine saw-timber and 893,000 cords of
pulp-wood, 35 per cent, spruce and 60 per cent, lodgepole pine. The area, with the adjoining
Forests, provides a source of supply for future pulp industry and is of present importance as an
irrigation watershed supplying the Nicola and Quilchena Rivers.
An examination was made of certain coast areas, in the Vancouver Forest District which are
believed to be suitable for permanent timber production, including Loughborough Inlet, Broughton and neighbouring islands, where much logging has been done. A map and report on the
timber and condition of the logged lands is being prepared.
PROVINCIAL FOREST INVENTORY.
The forest atlas and compilation of estimates for the Southern Interior (Nelson) Forest
District were completed. As in the case of the Vancouver and Prince Rupert Districts, previously reported, the information was obtained from all available public and private sources.
Reconnaissance was made to obtain necessary details of two important areas of which reliable
forest knowledge was not available, the drainage-basins of the Duncan and Lardeau Rivers, and
the Big Bend of the Columbia.
The classification of land and estimates of standing timber of the Southern Interior District
are given on pages 11, 12, and 13. The area has been divided into sixteen drainages shown
on the accompanying index map.
In contrast with forest conditions on the Coast, it will be seen that merchantable timber
occupies only 32 per cent, of the productive area in the Southern Interior as compared with 62
per cent, on the Southern Mainland Coast, but the total productive land is 40 per cent, of the
whole territory as compared with 23 per cent, on the Coast. Immature timber occupies 43% per
cent, of the productive area, while logged and burned forest-sites account for only 24 per cent.;
this means that 64 per cent, of the burned and logged forest land has reforested naturally, while
on the Coast the proportion is less than half. Also 58 per cent, of the young growth is over 25
feet in height and well advanced; selective logging is already taking place in some of the most
advanced for poles and railway-ties. In addition to being further advanced, there is a better
proportion of immature stands to mature than in the Coast forests.
The average annual loss by fire of timber and young growth reported during the last fourteen
years has been 71,300 acres, 1.2 per cent, of the productive forest area. Though the fire risk in
the Interior is much greater than on the Coast, it is becoming less of a risk to forests than on
non-productive lands; most of the burned areas which are so marked a feature of the Southern
Interior are of no interest for timber production, though some of them were once good sites
brought to this condition by fire. These burns cover part of the 8,600,000 acres of waste land
which comprises 58 per cent, of the territory. In defining and isolating the areas on which the
risk of fire is sufficiently low for the successful practice of forestry, fire itself has been and is a
major factor.
Private or Government cruises were available for estimates of 25 per cent, of the standing
timber, and Forest Service reconnaissance estimates for the remainder. The total volume is
13,665 million feet, compared with the Commission of Conservation's estimate of 21,000 million
in 1917. Since that time there has been a reported cut of about 3,500 million feet, and reported
loss by fire of 1,130 million feet. The average annual depletion by these two factors has been
327,000 M.B.M. The rate of growth of immature stands varies in the many different forest types
found in the Southern Interior, and has been ascertained only for the areas on which forest
surveys have been made, about 20 per cent, of the productive total. In these forests the mean
annual increment varies from 50 to over 100 F.B.M. per acre. Assuming a general average of
75 F.B.M. per acre per annum for the district, the 2,600,000 acres of immature timber may be
expected to produce an annual increment of 195,000 M.B.M. and the district a sustained annual
yield of 300,000 M.B.M. The present depletion, therefore, is approximately equal to the district's
increment irrespective of accessibility. The possibility of increased production depends chiefly
upon improved protection from fire. T 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
In conjunction with the forest surveys, certain areas of land were examined for the purpose
of denning permanent boundaries for the Shuswap, Fly Hill, and Monte Hills Forests.
With the exception of two lots of 160 acres each, the land capable of agricultural development adjacent to the Shuswap Forest has been alienated. Settlements along the north shore of
Shuswap Lake form the southern boundary of the Forest. Two thousand six hundred and ten
acres in all were examined, 2,290 being found to be suitable for growing timber, but too dry or
too stony for farming.
Areas totalling 9,600 acres adjacent to the Fly Hill Forest were examined; 6,920 acres were
found to have soil unsuitable for farming or needing irrigation, for which water is not available;
they will grow timber, however, and are recommended for inclusion in the Forest. One thousand
two hundred and forty acres of good land, although alienated, are not now occupied, and 1,440
additional acres of vacant agricultural land are available in the Chase Creek and Charcoal
Creek Valleys.
In an examination of boundary lands for the Monte Hills Forest 7,040 acres were examined,
but no vacant land suitable for farming was found. The boundaries of this Forest, where they
do not touch land already settled, are on high rolling uplands without water for irrigation and
usually too steep for the plough. Practically all the farm land in this vicinity lies in the Salmon
River Valley, which has long been settled.
Areas examined foe Miscellaneous Purposes op " Land Act," 1932.
Forest District.
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert. .
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Totals...
Applications for
Crown Grants.
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
No.
7
81
Acres.
963
14,008
481
80
15,532
Applications for
Pre-emption
Eecords.
49
72
11
1
44
7,235
9,609
1,550
38
3,371
21,803
Applications to
Purchase.
48
20
43
Acres.
5,672
6,931
2,759
5,219
5,414
25,995
Miscellaneous.
32
101
29
8
34
204
Acres.
4,274
10,381
4,030
1,020
2,429
22,134
Classification of Areas examined in 1932.
Forest District.
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert.. ..
Southern Interior
Vancouver	
Totals..  .
Total Area.
Acres.
18,144
40,929
8,339
6,787
11,313
85,512
Agricultural
Land.
Acres.
10,302
4,084
1,827
927
2,061
19,201
Non-agricultural Land.
Acres.
7,842
36,845
6,512
5,860
9,252
66,311
Merchantable
Timber Land.
757
502
235
160
2,315
Estimate of
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
M.B.M.
7,134
3,065
2.775
960
7,349
21,283
FOREST RESEARCH.
The research programme for 1932 was reduced to what might be termed a maintenance basis.
With a reduced staff, efforts were made to maintain projects already under way, but no new
work could be undertaken.
Experiment Stations.
Cowichan Lake.—The value of this Station for scientific work in forestry is becoming more
evident each year. Excellent opportunities exist at the Station and on adjacent areas for
experiments in such intensive forest-management as seeding, planting, pruning and thinning,
and for the observation of important factors such as growth, seed-production, and insect and
fungus damage.   As the work develops it will be possible to expand our sample plots at FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932. T 15
Cowichan Lake into practical demonstrations of the various measures which are necessary to
maintain Douglas fir forests in a productive condition.
Six plots at this Station were re-examined for germination and growth during the year.
The trees under observation for seed-production were given their annual examination. One new
plot was laid out, dealing with the survival of young seedlings. A small amount of improvement-work1 was done on the road and trails of the Station.
Aleza Lake.—Routine measurements were made on twenty-four permanent plots. Eight
test strips in logged-off areas were examined in order to improve our data concerning general
conditions for natural reforestation on this type of land. Minor investigations included soil
studies, measurements of tree-growth, and seasonal weather records. Necessary maintenance-
work was done on the Station road and buildings.
Reproduction and Silviculture.
Weather during the 1932 season was favourable for tree-growth, and it was observed that
established seedlings showed exceptional development. The number of new seedlings was disappointing, particularly in view of the fact that the previous year's seed-crop was better than
usual. Dry weather during June probably was responsible for heavy mortality among the
current year's seedlings.
Twenty-three plots were re-examined during the summer, this work occupying most of the
time given to reproduction studies. The field-work for the 1932 season in the Block " W " area
near Haney was undertaken by the Dominion Forest Service, and examination of three plots and
a considerable number of history-map strips was assumed by the Dominion foresters. This work
was a beginning of co-operation between the two Services which we hope will develop and go a
long way toward the solution of some of our silvicultural problems.
Forest Mensuration.
In mensuration our efforts were confined to the upkeep of the permanent records in projects
already under way. The summer field-work consisted almost entirely of the remeasurement of
permanent sample plots established some years ago in the Douglas fir and western hemlock types
of the Coast.
A preliminary set of normal yield tables for western hemlock, based on data from fifty-one
temporary sample plots established in the Johnstone Strait region, was compiled during the year.
The tables are presented herewith, giving the dimensions of average trees and the yields per
acre which are found in fully stocked stands on various site qualities at different ages.
Natural growth over large areas is commonly irregular and understocked, and therefore in
forecasting the yield of such stands It is necessary to reduce the tabular values to some extent.
The usual method of applying the tables to actual stands is as follows:—
(1.)  Determine the age of the stand and the average height of the trees of mean diameter.
(2.) Determine the site index table applicable to the stand by comparing the age-height
combination of the stand with that of the tables. The table showing an average height nearest
to the average height of the stand at the same age is the one most applicable.
(3.) By tallies of cruise strips, determine the average basal area per acre and then calculate
the ratio of the basal area of the stand in question to the basal area given in the table for the
same age and site.
(4.)  The yield at any age may then be found by modifying the tabulated yield by this ratio.
Site Index Yield Tables for AVestern Hemlock.
The classification of site or location quality is based on the average height attained by the
trees of mean diameter at 100 years of age. The values given in columns 1 to 4 are based on all
trees of the stand 1 inch and over, while those of columns 5 and 6, stating merchantable yields,
are based on trees 7 inches and over and 10 inches and over respectively. T 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Site Index 80.
B.H.*
Mean
D.B.H.
(1.)
Mean
Height.
(2.)
No. of Trees
per Acre,
1" + .
(3.)
Basal Area
per Acre,
1" + .
(4.)
Merchantable Volume.
Age.
Cu. Ft., 7" + .
(5.)
B.M., 10" + .
(6.)
20
1.8
3.8
5.2
6.6
7.8
8.7
9.5
9.7
23
44
59
71
80
87
93
97
2,000
1,200
800
580
490
420
410
122
155
175
190
202
212
218
223
40
1,260
3,360
5,120
6,380
7,350
8,400
9,000
60	
7,000
80	
100	
15,700
23,800
120	
29,400
140	
34,400
160	
37,700
Site Index 100.
20
2.7
5.5
7.7
9.8
11.5
12.7
13.6
14.0
29
55
75
89
100
109
116
121
3,300
1,100
600
400
315
270
245
235
143
180
202
220
235
247
255
258
40	
3,300
5,820
8,000
10,100
11,300
12,250
13,100
7,700
00	
80	
100	
20,400
32,800
42,500
120	
51,600
140	
160	
58,800
63,500
Site Index 120.
20
3.5
7.2
10.1
12.5
14.7
16.2
17.5
17.7
35
65
90
107
120
131
139
145
2,200
680
380
280
220
190
170
163
153
195
224
245
262
276
287
-293
40	
4,900
8,170
10,900
13,200
15,000
16,700
17,600
14,900
60	
33,800
80	
100	
120	
140  	
160	
49,000
63,800
76,000
85,000
91,200
Site Index HO.
20
4.1
8.3
11.5
14.1
17.0
18.7
20.0
20.7
41
76
105
125
140
152
163
171
1,250
540
315
235
175
153
139
130
160
205
237
261
280
295
307
313
40	
6,480
10,400
13,900
16,400
18,400
20,100
20,800
22,700
60	
44,800
80	
100	
66,000
84,000
120	
140	
100,000
114,000
160	
122,000
Site Index 160.
20
•  4.3
8.8
12.2
15.3
18.1
20.0
21.2
21.8
46
87
120
142
160
174
186
195
1,600
480
290
205
160
139
128
122
165
210
245
270
290
305
317
325
1,920
7,450
12,500
15,800
19,200
21,500
23,700
25,700
40    . .
29,200
60	
57,200
80	
81,000
100
104,000
120	
123,700
140	
160	
141,000
146,700
* For total age add 10 years, which is the approxmate length of time required to grow to B.H. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 17
REFORESTATION.
Seed Collections.—With the exception of western red cedar, the 1932 seed-crop of all coniferous species was poor, and the few cones produced were badly infested with insects. The
production of Douglas fir and grand fir (Abies grandis) was particularly poor on Vancouver
Island. Small collections were made of cedar, maple, and birch, and an effort was made to
assist the Dominion Forest Service in collecting grand fir (Abies grandis) seed for export orders.
Forest Nurseries.—One hundred beds were sown at the experimental nursery near Victoria.
As the main nursery at Green Timbers now is developed to a point where it can provide all the
seedlings required for reforestation in the coastal region, the stock from these beds will be the
last to be grown at the Victoria nursery.
The most important feature of the nursery-work at Green Timbers during 1932 was the
production of 540,700 seedlings, mostly 2-year-olds, for the various planting projects of the year.
Approximately 100,000 trees are now available in the nursery. Forty-four new seed-beds were
sown at this nursery, making with those at Victoria 144.
Various experimental studies were conducted in connection with the main work of growing
seedlings, and other investigations dealt with reforestation by seeding, control of spruce-gall
aphis, damage by rodents, etc. Tests of seed-bed preparation, transplanting, and planting, in
the fall of the year, indicated that these operations are likely to be unsuccessful in comparison
with similar work done in the spring, with the possible exception of fall seed-bed sowing. Fall
sowing may give satisfactory results if'done late enough in the year to prevent the development
of fall germination, seedlings from which will not survive winter conditions.
No extensive development-work was possible at the Green Timbers Nursery, but numerous
small jobs were completed which improved the appearance and usefulness of the Station.
Several minor areas were cleared and graded, the fencing was extended, and ground was cleaned
up for windbreak plantations. Roadside trees and shrubbery were set out and the nursery roads
were improved. An earth and crib-work dam was built to test the possibilities of water-storage
on the small stream at the nursery.
Gifts and exchanges of nursery stock to various organizations and individuals included
thirty-seven lots of seedlings, comprising 7,000 trees, and twenty-one lots of seed.
Considerable work was done on the organization and completion of office records, particularly for the purpose of enabling plantation records and cost data to be kept on a long-term
basis and in an efficient manner.
Plantations.—The planting projects undertaken during the year were as follows:—
Number
of Trees planted.
Location of Planting.
Douglas
Fir.
Sitka
Spruce.
Yellow
Pine.
Others.
Total.
83,000
178,650
85,200
5,000
80,000
37,300
5,200
6,000
26,000
21,350
12,000
201,000
237,300
90,400
1,000
12,000
540,700
The Green Timbers planting covered 249 acres of the logged-off land adjacent to the nursery.
At Thurlow Island the work was done on cut-over Crown land near Knox Bay. This area,
located in the West Thurlow Island Provincial Forest, was selected in 1931 as a desirable site
for some of the first reforestation-work of the Service. Full planting was carried out on 307
acres, and experimental plantings, by means of strips, plots, and irregular groups, covered an
additional 238 acres.
Sixty acres of both standard and group planting were completed at Campbell River in the
new experimental forest at that place. Some fencing-work was later done to protect these
plantings, and the boundaries of the forest were surveyed to facilitate the laying-out of future
work. DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The test, begun in 1931, of impregnating poles and piling with the Lipman-Gordon preservative solution and the cap method of treatment was completed and report submitted.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
The trade-extension work in Eastern Canada was discontinued at the end of September for
economic reasons, and because it was felt that funds available would produce better results in
other markets.
In co-operation with the British Columbia Lumber and Shingle Manufacturers, Limited, the
work in the United Kingdom market was continued. Results began to be shown in increasing
volume and percentage of export to this market.    They were for:—
1930— 96,000 M.B.M., or 32 per cent, of North Pacific trade.
1931— 91,000 M.B.M., or 45 per cent, of North Pacific trade.
1932—108,000 m:b.M., or 72 per cent, of North Pacific trade.
Considerable work was done in preparing and presenting the case of lumber at the British
Empire Economic Conference, and as a result a much firmer foundation for future trade in
Empire timbers was laid.
During November and December the technical officer of the association paid a visit to China,
and reports that prospects for an increasing timber trade there are good if the market opportunities are actively followed up.
The extent of our offshore lumber trade is shown in the following table, our position having
been maintained remarkably well, except in the United States, where the tariff effective from
July practically shut us out of this market:—
Water-borne Lumber Trade (in F.B.M.).
Destination.
Australia	
New Zealand   	
South America	
China	
Japan	
United Kingdom and Continent..
South Africa 	
India and Straits Settlements ....
United States and Atlantic Coast.
Philippine and Hawaiian Islands..
West Indies and Cuba	
South Sea Islands	
Mexico and Central America	
Egypt	
♦Belgium     .-	
♦Denmark	
♦France   	
♦Germany	
♦Holland	
♦Italy	
♦Norway and Sweden	
Spain        	
Foreign, unclassified	
Totals.
36,809,373
16,201,328
1,160,947
4,615,921
177,193,559
41,575,593
17,651,788
1,653,675
400,347,692
221,378
8,792,765
3,791,670
2,573,529
154,038
53,502,046
10,847,545
2,168,973
9,178,973
191,597,552
36,427,449
18,562,680
3,566,713
392,074,628
1,734,314
16,023,319
1,884,632
2,649,559
12,047
1928.
29,843,132
8,531,322
10,304,032
16,902,137
219,361,557
67,075,872
13,625,781
411,577
384,107,908
56,681
8,356,571
5,496,319
333,660
1,149,573
765,556,122
41,493,476
8,559,208
2,449,494
43,323,398
192,411,505
69,903,655
15,889,002
243,807
351,526,590
14,347\3i7
5,508,978
623,766
4,744,180
1930.
33,076,587
6,416,105
1,774,697
55,224,104
150,869,880
98,037,621
17,686,896
241,129
259,093,570
122,744
12,781,209
3,230,759
550,018
73,195,238
712,299,557
50,803,023
2,578,740
1,354,028
53,854,005
138,851,607
81,356,058
13,120,035
369,689
207,586,216
7,520,512
2,527,526
478,794
4,195,326
336,428
62,129
241,865
154,135
419,373
301,661
18,200
1932.
125,551,388
979,148
140,945
53,341,172
60,031,785
108,314,682
5,664,646
544,271
79,682,896
8,239,598
2,009,102
1,746,278
79,474
148,90i
120,519
144,018
128,678
15,955
6,087
446,889,543
♦Previously included with United Kingdom. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 19
FOREST INDUSTRIES.
The forest industries felt the effects of the economic conditions acutely, both in volume and
price of lumber products, and from an industrial point of view the year was the worst experienced since 1914. The following tables give a review of general conditions, compared for several
years:—■
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the Province.
Product.
Lumber	
Pulp and paper	
Shingles	
Boxes	
Piles, poles, and mine-props	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties.
Ties, railway	
Additional value contributed by the
wood-using industry   	
Laths and other miscellaneous products ,	
Logs exported	
Pulp-wood exported	
Totals	
$42,516,000
16,315,000
10,500,000
3,000,000
2,792,000
1,414,000
1,420,000
2,100,000
1,500,000
3,170,000
75,000
$84,802,000
$40,487,000
18,505,000
6,800,000
1,707,000
4,030,000
1,405,000
1,440,000
2,100,000
2,000,000
4,561,000
52,000
$48,346,000
16,755,000
10,000,000
2,501,000
4,684,000
1,633,000
1,873,000
2,200,000
2,100,000
3,580,000
115,000
$83,087,000 $93,787,000 $93,301,000
$50,140,000
14,400,000
8,300,000
2,437,000
5,500,000
1,734,000
2,116,000
2,100,000
2,400,000
4,124,000
50,000
$32,773,000
16,520,000
4,161,000
2,287,000
4,726,000
1,596,000
1,263,000
2,387,000
1,500,000
2,492,000
42,000
$69,737,000
1931.
$16,738,000
13,508,000
2,721,000
1,315,000
2,453,000
1,405,000
1,044,000
1,350,000
1,500,000
2,370,000
43,000
$44,447,000
1932.
$13,349,000
11,156,000
2,805,000
1,100,000
772,000
1,576,000
502,000
1,014,000
1,125,000
1,730,000
28,000
$35,157,000
Pulp (in Tons).
Pulp
Sulphite	
Sulphate	
Ground wood	
108,381
15,000
136,123
119,005
13,700
163,548
120,413
15,050
170,005
112,925
15,647
151,066
130,462
13,055
172,539
124,521
11,744
170,432
85,419
10,889
161,502
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.
176,924
10,389
214,010
13,745
225,477
15,960
201,009
19,492
224,928
20,446
217,562
17,709
205,060
24,051
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during Tears 1931-32.
(F.B.M.)
Forest District.
1931.
1932.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Gain.
Net Loss.
5,041,570
35,276,624
38,719,803
209,176,263
288,214,260
20,563,841
64,752,039
84,294,505
169,610,385
6,041,570
14,712,783
26,032,236
124,881,758
118,603,876
26,032,236
144,636,111
22,350,616
195,991,321
116,219,490
1,543,970,523
1,660,190,013
93,868,874
1,347,979,202
1,441,848,076
26,032,236
218,341,937
218,341,937
1,948,404,273
1,611,458,461
362,978,048
336,945,812
Now included within Fort George and Kamloops, also part Southern Interior now within Kamloops. 	
T 20
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> FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 23
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
103
229
297
163
332
36
"i
102
470
112
138
494
205
699
445
301
827
487
1,447
1,466
1,464
2,410
Totals, 1932	
1,124
37
1,316
2,477
7,273
Totals, 1931	
1,502
92
. 1,675
3,329
8,969
Totals, 1930	
1,932
100
1,862
3,894
8,859
Totals, 1929   	
1,907
99
2,002
4,008
9,512
Totals, 1928   	
1,623
50
2,023
3,690
9,696
Totals, 1927	
1,684
133
1,873
3,590
8,661
Totals, 1926	
1,475
84
1,921
3,453
7,921
Trespasses.
Forest District.
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
Quantity
CUT.
771 ta
oj °
OJ -
MS
—   01
OcQ
o Stf)
rrS
Amount.
Feet B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
18
27
7
22
21
95
37
138
10
120
63
368
291,921
17,691
7,680
59,016
391,688
1,000
22,915
3,249
7,800
520
132
363
405
166
1,074
2,059
1,955
500
933
3,818
9,266
12,425
i
ii
2
$478 02
893 33
109 23
379 28
1,630 98
Totals, 1932	
767,896
35,484
2.140
14
$3,490 84
Totals, 1931   	
84
397
1,000
370
1,579,465
969,351
118,704
165,729
1,048
1,457
2
$5,633 68
Totals, 1930	
96
99
9,612
4
$7,634 01
Totals, 1929	
984,309
88,997
98,279
569
5,906
9
$5,431 07
Totals, 1928	
105
878
399
5,867,052
4,713
16,699
12
$17,787 10
Totals, 1927	
83
84
2,290,926
1,972,843
47,871
2,862
9,660
9
6
$9,097 53
Totals, 1926	
641
144,357
433
10,233
$9,457 64
Pre-emption Inspections, 1932.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—
Fort George   585
Kamloops  795
Prince Rupert   218
Vancouver     397
Southern Interior  106
Total 2,101 T 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Areas cruised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Fort George	
Kamloops   	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior ..
Vancouver	
Totals, 1932
Totals, 1931
Totals, 1930
Totals, 1929
Totals, 1928
Totals, 1927
Totals, 1926
Number
cruised.
94
164
169
169
279
S76
.    818
943
1,061
1,111
844
Acreage.
15,099
29,284
24,819
32,829
42,738
144,769
145,214
197,065
214,874
225,191
142,515
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.).
9,227
38,353
45,327
10,393
99,121
202,421
297,825
526,261
754,095
974,626
369,717
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
73,210
561,712
484,345
352,753
297,885
1,759,905
2,629,054
10,345,822
13,043,603
9,623,599
7,092,844
4,236,881
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood .
(Cords).
1,665
19,767
1,951
19,157
25,874
68,414
62,680
26,431
17,6
Railway-
ties
(No.).
107,998
218,574
98,376
58,397
5,310
488,656
664,413
731,640
1,305,110
2,056,604
1,747,441
1,299,826
Car
Stakes &
Posts
(No.).
5,000
48,900
69,900
142,400
620,100
185,740
447,(
35,600
20,200
Timber Sales awarded by Districts, 1932.
Forest District.
No. of
Sales.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
No. of
Posts.
No. of Cords.
No. of Ties.
Estimated
Revenue.
Fort George	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert	
168
71
171
183
253
836
24,916
12,436
27,482
27,142
42,892
134,868
148,523
162,043
216,222.28
194,929.37
258,097.26
118,815.23
44,209,000
13,725,000
7,255,000
37,763,000
78,518,000
543,336
16,000
70,660
792,495
324,125
75,500
20,400
65,700
13,698
1,169
11,545
2,310
25,432
64,526
155,053
78,604
123,093
2,500
423,676
606,160
$60,177 13
43,195 08
30,210 86
11-2,524 22
204,420 81
Totals, 1932...
181,470,000
1,746,616
2,272,082
161,600
173,300
54,154
41,032
$450,628 10
Totals, 19S1...
842
866
217,474,000
$624,5(16 27
Totals, 1930. ..
199,485,000
9,963,164
9,356,887
398,160
19,997
494,202
$689,481 29
Totals, 1929...
974
1,033
691,973,000
374,065
880,000
23,197
1,505,951
$1,908,100 70
Totals, 1928...
525,250,760
6,537,002
48,728
22,057
1,996,457
1,380,553
1,044,999
$1,344,273 93
Totals, 1927...
821
687
1,611,612,079
296,486,743
7,332,939
736,100
$2,666,678 32
Totals, 1926...
5,497,707
207,190
13,455
$1,038,636 69
Average Sale Price by Species.
Saw-timber.
Douglas fir	
Cedar	
Spruce 	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
White pine	
Western soft pine....
Tamarack ("Larch")
Other species	
Totals 	
Figures for 1932.
Price
per M.
44,105,000
$1 19
28,217,000
1 16
31,151,000
1 63
41,552,000
76
12,493,000
77
2,565,000
1 43
9,807,000
1 25
2,081,000
84
9,494,000
94
181,470,000
$1 12
Figures for 1931.
Price
48,266,000
$1 39
17,509,000
1 50
63,409,000
1 24
41,083,000
84
16,038,000
89
4,006,000
1 78
11,457,000
1 47
5,538,000
1 68
7,839,000
1 00
$1 22
215,144,000
Figurf.8 for 1930.
Board-feet.
Price
Per M.
55,490,000
$1 52
21,558,000
1 46
35,082,000
1 48
37,972,000
91
17,973,000
89
4,709,000
2 39
7,132,000
1 74
5,501,000
1 05
5,075,000
68
190,492,000
$1 32
Figures for 1929.
Board-feet.
100,886,000
59,142,000
306,370,0011
70,737,000
26,622,000
8,229,000
8,949,000
5,547,000
7,277,000
593,759,000
Price
Per M.
$1 65
1 62
1 25
82
80
2 44
1 47
1 01
97
$1 29
Note.—2,330,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1931 totals.
8,993,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1930 totals.
98,214,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1929 totals. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 25
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1932.
Forest District.
Prince Rupert
1932	
1931	
1930	
1929	
1928	
1927	
Totals,
1926.....	
Feet B.M.
14,001,440
11,610,945
9,321,737
33,263,664
97,469,143
165,666,929
177,172,765
227,019,617
266,016,942
203,208,331
214,209,921
242,973,524
Lineal Feet.
310,941
144,462
376,721
676,399
175,432
1,583,955
6,697,152
11,960,055
7,966,223
7,672,294
6,368,269
4,974,6
3,587.38
797.50
4,759.35
917.75
20,584.64
30,646.62
15,499.20
17,176.17
24,663.46
24,889.35
27,508.54
16,676.45
82,864
27,882
57,865
87,430
2,243
258,284
662,120
1,341,426
1,554,870
1,714,709
20,149
10,628
49,108
255,646
388,749
86,109
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province.
Operating.
Shut
Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
6
H,
23
93
16
52
109
*o
-. oi
oi d
aOrt
E tr.-to
■to~-i
421
1,012
431
1,000
4,777
7,641
10,167
11,020
6
rr
rr
to Q,
J « m
#£.!
~tn oO'—
Efi«33
"8
120
6,685
6,813
7,470
7,164
7,881
8,280
. 12,042
d
ir
—  OO
to a.
"SOrt-
to7*"
tn oi    •
BBS
296
85
749
860
2,631
4,621
4,109
3,204
2,200
2,459
2.549
1,675
d
rr
Estimated
Daily Capacity,
Shingles, M.
1
4
40
13
22
25
16
63
i
12
200
1,270
Totals, 1932..   	
293
45
139
13
1,470
Totals, 1931	
334
46
158
19
1,871
Totals, 1930	
301
43
141
17
1,695
Totals, 1929	
354
11,896
11,919
53
95
15
1,726
Totals, 1928	
314
56
120
15
22
2,710
375
12,176
12,962
65
110
102
2,740
391
87
15,614
6
460
Export of Logs.    (In P.B.M.)
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir ?	
4,873,435
13,594,916
103,669
56,291,039
28,139,364
2,485,500
22,528,645
17,950,459
1,780,092
83,693,119
59,684,739
4,369,261
11,546,349
2,754,667
1,236,863
11,546,349
2,754,667
1,236,863
307,211
2,120,970
2,428,181
61,504
51,504
18,572,020
12,886,187
Totals, 1932	
87,223,114
44,380,166
15,589,383
165,764,683
Totals, 1931	
106,331,594
51,909,961
40,147,841
49,048,420
34,696,715
29,978,125
37,305,398
220,176,162
11,571,481
13,015,146
20,563,249
86,502,990
172,919,027
Totals, 1929	
133,997,695
60,002,711
47,994,423
51,584,928
53,113,521
236,993,577
Totals, 1928   	
106,084,161
211,947,231
Totals, 1927   	
36,545,972
32,195,991
144,942,558
105,322,879
48,610,833
33,845,324
251,584,291
Totals, 1926	
224,477,715 T 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Forest District.
Kamloops—
Poles and piling lineal ft.
Mine-props  cords
Fence-posts cords
Fort George-
Poles and piling  lineal ft.
Mine-props - cords
Fence-posts  cords
Railway-ties No.
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling lineal ft.
Railway-ties No.
Vancouver—
Poles and piling lineal ft.
Cordwood   cords
Pulp-wood cords
Southern Interior—
Poles and piling  lineal ft.
Mine-props.        cords
Fence-posts        cords
Railway-ties No.
Total value, 1932    	
Total value, 1931    	
Quantity
exported.
802,675
32
221
142,670
16
154
46,687
1,098,065
76,363
2,678,741
1,423
6,625
996,624
3,649
3,587
262,858
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
$96,925
352
1,878
11,414
128
924
21,968
109,306
35,931
214,299
4,980
27,732
101,161
29,1P2
28,696
131,429
$816,315
$2,543,511
Where marketed.
United States.
707,935
2,486,924
1,423
6,525
767,195
892
12,123
Canada.
94,740
32
221
23,435
16
154
46,687
81,620
76,363
191,817
229,429
3,649
2,695
250,735
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Years 1930, 1931, and 1932.
1930. 1931. 1932.
Old Crown grants      90 94 303
Crown grants, 1887-1906        84 40 66
Crown grants, 1906-1914        97 86 62
Section 53a, " Forest Act"     212 188 163
Stumpage reservations        90 72 40
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land Act "      16 10 18
Dominion lands      26 „'.... 1
Permit berths  38 7
Timber berths        13 21 26
Indian reserves          8 7 11
Timber-sales       866 S42 836
Hand-loggers         11 6 14
Special marks     	
Rights-of-way          1   	
Pulp licences          14 2
Totals  1,515 1,408 1,549
Transfers and changes of marks      242 220 183
Hand-logger Licences.
Number issued      64 38 81
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
Number of Tracings madb.
Blue-prints
from Reference Maps.
Month.
Timber,
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Hand-logger
Licences.
Timber-
berths.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
89
43
25
24
19
18
13
13
18
12
82
40
60
52
108
102
95
86
61
34
38
49
59
51
18
37
22
31
51
24
29
21
18
31
36
28
2
2
4
12
4
23
3
1
51
9
17
10
3
20
15
9
16
4
8
6
3
10
10
13
3
13
12
7
3
14
8
19
15
138
161
182
175
202
178
122
87
93
108
162
137
1,735 ~
March	
6
May	
6
7
October .
3
18
4
December	
1
Totals	
296
793
346
120
127
86 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 27
FOREST FINANCE.
The forest revenue, as might be expected, declined with the curtailment of operations, the
largest drop being in renewal fees on timber licences, which fell $334,000 below 1931 and $467,000
below 1930. This was the result of the relief legislation passed at the last session. The revenue
therefrom will probably be paid before expiration of the time-limit, March 31st, 1934, and is
therefore postponed rather than lost to the Province. So far as timber operations are concerned,
a more satisfactory condition is shown by the amount of billings, these being $1,443,559, as
against $1,672,862, a decline of $229,000, or 13 per cent.
Expenditure was drastically curtailed, the staff reduced, and every measure of economy
taken. The extent of these economies is shown by the following: Revenue declined from 1929
43 per cent.; expenditures cut from 1929 66 per cent; and is the lowest expenditure since the
organization of the Forest Branch, except for years when the staff, depleted by overseas service,
could not undertake the work.
FOREST REVENUE.
Timber-licence rentals...	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Penalty fees and interest	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage	
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)..
Trespass penalties	
Scalers' examination fees	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Timber-berth rentals and bonus .....
Interest on timber-berth rentals and
bonus   	
Transfer fees on timber berths	
Royalty interest	
Grazing fees	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1932.
$478,458 93
930 00
11,687 62
2,000 00
70,025 38
848 88
12,009 29
279,034 76
3,359 20
569 30
1,046,070 65
374 42
20 30
2,535 16
40 00
305 02
1,057 39
4,265 74
33,601 49
597 54
270 00
489 34
$1,948,550 41
13,409 37
368,699 00
$2,330,658 78
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1931.
$721,931 98
1,330 00
20,632 72
950 00
78,202 93
944 24
11,675 17
454,391 36
5,722 83
771 55
1,218,363 02
911 07
24 94
3,686 89
175 00
171 23
1,867 72
4,495 07
33,295 42
688 97
63 84
1,136 04
$2,560,931 99
15,411 46
397,523 73
$2,973,867 18
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1930.
$854,660 87
•2,180 00
27.861 53
1,575 00
72,117 52
607 44
35,035 94
518,309 48
7,5b6 12
1,256 69
1,456,330 42
1,204 07
150 01
5,825 68
105 00
591 70
1,406 64
4,137 56
$2,990,820 67
12,251 88
422,274 04
$3,425,346 59
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1929.
$931,545 72
1,775 00
23,245 73
1,300 00
79,873 89
901 43
30,162 64
634,048 95
12,844 92
1,951 28
1,688,803 67
1,407 92
191 74
9,161 16
320 00
1,711 29
3,152 88.
2,764 36
$3,425,152 58
10,918 49
375,923 32
$3,811,994 39
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1928.
$1,015,705 19
4,285 00
33,036 56
1,400 00
79,396 72
520 70
40,649 01
551,102 88
10,943 97
1,646 65
1,774,417 41
1,147 84
103 74
12,058 89
275 00
271 09
589 71
4,444 25
43,531,993 61
12,541 98
388,860 46
$3,933,396 05
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1927.
$892,914 98
2,000 00
27,639 13
1,275 00
96,236 93
88 93
32,494 57
608,765 14
10,936 58
1,681 85
1,825,909 80
1,778 02
166 75
6,481 S3
235 00
345 16
703 90
3,767 83
$3,602,411 40
16,529 20
424,023 04
$4,042,963 64
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1932.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Penalty.
Seizure
Expenses.
GOVBRNMF.NT SCALB.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest
District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver ....
Prince Rupert.
Southern Int'r.
Fort George ...
Kamloops
$863,145 07
66,692 02
37,703 97
20,127 81
58,920 05
$1,046,588 92
$2,008 18
257 88
381 01
368 43
967 53
$3,983 03
$266 28
26 20
21 90
47 35
7 00
$368 73
$26 91
11 25
12 50
6 00
$170 17
9 36
11 20
35 00
$225 73
$13,125 23
243 21
$66,481 22
5,114 99
$71,596 21
$134,215 71
62,924 25
29,921 00
37,835 43
42,475 43
$1,079,438 77
135,279 16
68,051 68
58,420 02
102,370 01
Totals	
$56 66
$13,368 44
$16,444 18
$21,644 46
$22,127 43
$20,277 64
$17,169 14
$17,279 88
$307,371 82
$1,143,559 64
Totals, 1931
$1,140,282 78
$4,950 65
$6,799 66
$4,191 84
$20,867 17
$994 87
$1,601 76
$42 20
$1,092 07
$1,266 33
$1,215 22
$88,078 03
$106,553 34
$118,481 18
$426,978 06
$1,672,862 74
Totals, 1930
$1,460,367 16
$1,851,535 62
$140 57
$175 83
$156 58
$163 67
$98 34
$638,023 79
$711,213 82
$2,236,396 07
Totals, 1929
$1,555 56
$2,103 57
$789 47
$1,142 38
$2,710,496 50
Totals, 1928
$1,794,819 93
$1,194 89
$2,032 43
$123,169 81
$114,979 79
$635,292 44
$2,597,882 03
Totals, 1927
$1,767,710 60
$1,774,494 75
$7,343 44
$1,689 83
$631,948 72
$2,642,137 16
Totals, 1926
$1,147 41
$119,704 75
$613,365 09
$2,528,822 43 .
T 28
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
A comparison between revenue and appropriations for forest-work is illuminating
Fiscal Year.
Forest
Eevenue.
Appropriation.
Appropriation
in Per Cent.
of Forest
Eevenue.
Total
Provincial
Eevenue.
Appropriation
in Per Cent.
of Total
Provincial
Eevenue.
1914-15.,
1915-16-
1916-17-
1930-31..
1932-33-
$2,342,679
1,922,558
2,005,940
2,973,867
2,330,658
$656,166
559,899
544,844
1,150,913
544,399
2S
29
27
39
23
$7,974,496
6,291,693
6,906,783
23,988,199
24,637,766
8.2
8.9
8.0
5.0
2.2
As has been mentioned elsewhere in this report, the activities of the Forest Branch are
largely non-revenue-producing. The forest is a crop and must be planted, tended, and protected
if it is to be maintained. The experience in forest-management in all countries in the world
shows that a minimum of 50 to 75 per cent, of the gross revenue should be returned for maintenance, many countries spending more than the gross in order to build up forest capital. On
this basis and at the minimum figure of 50 per cent, there would have been allotted to forest-
work in British Columbia for the current year double the funds received. Until more adequate
financing is available, we can only consider that we are living off the depletion of capital assets,
as far as the forests are concerned.
FOREST EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1931-32.
Headquarters ....
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George....
Prince Rupert....
Southern Interior.
Vancouver 	
Totals.
Forest District.
$91,932 13
7,639 95
22,917 93
17,416 26
21,879 63
39,392 29
50,759 04
$251,837 23
Temporary
Assistance.
$88 06
Expenses.
$18,456 46
2,790 91
8,358 60
4,758 21
16,843 55
12,451 68
2S.754 78
!,414 19
Lumber-trade extension (includes $17,000, Special Warrant No. 6, for trade extension in United King
dom and Australia)    	
Reconnaissance, etc   	
Grazing range improvements    	
£L10,388 59
10,388 92
31,276 53
22,174 47
38,753 18
51,843 97
79,513 82
$344,339 48
28,413 94
22,641 94
4,000 00
Grand total.
SCALING FUND.
Balance, April 1st, 1931 (deficit)     $26,883.04
Expenditure, fiscal year 1931-32  :     110,417.94
$137,300.98
Charges, fiscal year 1931-32      91,267.44
Balance, March 31st, 1932 (deficit)     $46,033.54
Balance, April 1st, 1932 (deficit)     $46,033.54
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1932      62,254.56
$108,288.10
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1932       68,098.16
Balance, December 31st, 1932 (deficit)     $40,189.94 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 29
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1931   $34,724.27
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1931, under subsection
(2), section 30a   57,023.85
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30a  537.52
$92,285.64
Expenditure, fiscal year 1931-32       69,986.13
Balance (credit), March 31st, 1932    $22,299.51
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1932     $22,299.51
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1932, under subsection
(2), section 30a       46,895.20
$69,194.71
Expenditure, 9 months to December 31st, 1932      33,249.18
Balance (credit), December 31st, 1932      $35,945.53
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1932:—
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1931       $651,962.11
Expenditure, fiscal year 1931-32  '.  $787,366.79
Less refunds      33,805.79
        753,561.00
$1,405,523.11
Collections, fiscal year 1931-32  $199,440.64
Less refunds        4,990.36
$194,450.28
Government contribution      480,000.00
Government (special levy)       360,000.00
1,034,450.28
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1932      $371,072.83
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1932       $371,072.83
By collections, April-December, 1932 (arrears and refunds)  26,376.23
Balance (deficit), December 31st, 1932        $344,696.60
Forest Protection Fund Expenditure.
Fiscal Years.
1924-25.
1925-26.
1926-27.
1927-28.
1928-29.
1929-30.
1930-31.
1931-32.
Patrols and fire pre-
Tools and equipment.
Im p r o ve m e n t s and
maintenance	
$334,532
25,418
258,034
5,690
$377,427
33,976
650,138
11,890
$1,073,431
$356,462
30,663
514,845
14,172
$358,835
30,409
84,600
22,482
$407,790 94
31,258 82
75,221 43
33,428 67
$373,416 71
45,401 56
494,645 42
22,570 79
$422,464 92
41,735 46
466,133 17
40,152 48
$331,667 78
66,785 70
372,002 13
16,911 18
Totals	
$633,674
$916,142
$196,326
$547,699 86
$936,034 48
$970,486 03
$787,366 79 T 30
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS.
Expenditure by Districts for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1932.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Prince George ...
Prince Rupert ..
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Victoria 	
Totals..
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention
$16,767 75
51,838 85
27,432 48
21,911 83
92,648 88
92,457 84
28,612 15
$331,667 78
Tools and
Equipment.
$2,435 06
17,636 86
2,428 38
4,724 31
15,612 28
15,873 45
8,175 36
$66,785 70
$9,714 05
36,760 26
6,084 66
3,785 62
285,770 93
29,886 61
$372,002 13
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
$1,000 58
4,516 65
2,238 90
399 10
5,947 81
2,808 41
$16,911 18
Total.
$29,917 44
110,652 62
38,184 42
30,820 86
399,977 90
141,026 04
36.787 51
$787,3'
! 79
FOREST PROTECTION.
The record of forest-fire control in the Province shows that as early as 1874 the infant
colony was conscious of the damage being wrought by uncontrolled fires, and in that year, in
an attempt to alleviate the destruction, passed the " Bush Fire Act." This Act was amended
from time to time, especially in 1877 and 1878. As the revenues of the day were limited, no
adequate appropriations were made for enforcement, and in 1906 we hear the Hon. R. F. Green,
Commissioner of Lands and Works, stating:—
" The enforcement of the law is difficult in an area as vast as British Columbia. . . .
Many fires are caused by lightning. . . . The rigid enforcement of the ' Bush Fire Act' is
impossible without the earnest co-operation of the people themselves. The vigilance of an army
of Forest Rangers would prove inadequate to prevent the occurrence of fire without the sympathy and assistance of the community."
Following the licensing of large areas of forest land and the increased revenue therefrom,
definite appropriations were made for fire-control, and in 1909 $219,493 was spent on this work.
The Royal Commission on Timber, in its findings published in 1910, after commending the
Government on the increased appropriations, points out:—
" Protection from fire is the supreme need of our forests." That the final stage of protection
is reached " when both Government and people realize that the protection of merchantable
timber is a part of the work that must be done; that the young growth on cut-over lands needs
equal care, since upon it depends the future of the lumbering industry and much of the future
commerce of the whole country."
I have given these quotations anew because they are as true to-day as they were a quarter
of a century ago.
Since 1912, with the organization of the Forest Service, the records of forest-fire control
have been set out in detail in the annual reports. This record has been one of increasing effort
to combat an increasing hazard, due to the opening-up of the Province, increased industrial
development, tourist travel, and the greater number of people who now flock to forest areas for
business or recreation, each of which is a potential hazard ; also to the increasing areas of
young growth on cut-over and burned-over lands, which, in their early stages at least, are more
difficult to protect than mature stands; and to a succession of dry years which have prevailed
during the past decade.
The people and the field members of the Service are to be congratulated on the fact that
the record of achievement shows that losses and expenditures in British Columbia compare
favourably with any similar organization, whether governmental or privately controlled, in
neighbouring regions.
In the past seventy years since lumber operations began the timber industry has created
more than one and one-half billion dollars in wealth and has returned to the Treasury some
86 million dollars in revenue. Only 20 per cent, of the available stand has been commercialized.
The balance, together with the extensive areas of young growth, is one of the Province's most
valuable assets, an asset on which the Dominion Bureau of Natural Resources has placed a
value of $494,000,000. In addition, there is the added value in crops and buildings of isolated
settlers, mining camps, country schools, highway bridges, etc. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 31
At what rate should we pay for a reasonable degree of protection? In cities such as Vancouver and Victoria the fire departments cost from 3»%oo to 594oo of 1 per cent, of the assessed
values. Ontario has been spending 3%oo of 1 per cent, of its timber value and Quebec 1%oo- In
British Columbia, over the past decade, our expenditures have been !%oo of 1 per cent. From
these figures it will be readily seen that funds in British Columbia have been husbanded and
economically spent.
In the spring of 1932, due to the need of economy, the Forest Protection Pund was suspended
for one year and reliance placed on the energies of the permanent staff of the Branch, with
authority to call, to a limited extent, on unemployment relief for fire-fighting. The patrol staff,
being cut by 260 men, left the area covered by one man at about 1,000,000 acres, which it is
impossible to cover and catch fires in the incipient stage. Fortunately the weather was very
favourable. A heavy snowfall was followed by a summer with well-distributed rains and high
humidity. (Thus at Vancouver from June 19th to the end of the season there were only sixteen
hours out of 2,132 when humidity registered below 40 per cent., which is considered the hazard-
point.) In general, the year was the most favourable encountered since the organization of the
Branch. Moreover, a curtailment occurred in operations and travel factors, which increased
hazard in previous years. The effect of these conditions is reflected in the table given herewith
on number of fires, losses, etc.
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1932.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
41
37
33
23
31
165
13.04
June.
July.
August.
September.
October.
Total.
1
2
11
4
4
102
56
19
30
72
95
24
6
136
26
112
25
9
171
44
29
1
3
66
28
2
4
"a
n
382
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
149
81
438
216
22
1.73
279
287
361
127
25
1,266
22.04
22.67
28.52
10.03
1.97
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1932.
0)
B °
be
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47
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76
23
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382
30.17
88
37
1
16
24
4
1
17
5
6
149
11.77
2
23
9
26
3
16
2
81
6.40
189
16
53
57
87
21
71
47
11
23
2
5
"l6
6
12
19
15
64
5
438
216
34.60
17.06
336
230
156
197
108
18
17
127
13
1,266
26.54
18.17
12.32
15.56
8.63
1.42
1.34
10.03
5.06
1.03
100.CO T 32
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87.96
83.89
83.95
80.36
90.74
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t+rU FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 33
Fires, 1932, classified by Size and Damage.
Forest District.
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Prince Rupert	
Southern Interior ..
Vancouver	
Totals	
Per cent....
Totals, 1931
Per cent	
Totals, 1930
Per cent	
Total Fires.
382
149
81
438
216
1,266
100.0
2,518
100.0
2,271
100.0
U
g.S
o «
30.17
11.77
6.40
34.60
17.06
100.00
100.00
100.00
Under { Acre.
115
54
24
220
93
606
39.97
903
35.86
973
42.85
30.10
36.24
29.63
50.23
43.06
§ 5
22.73
10.67
4.74
43.48
18.38
100.00
100.00
100.00
\ Acre to 10 Acres.
ll
d
H7,
O ti.
ri'8
E.E
D «,
146
27
19
152
92
38.22
18.12
23.46
34.70
42.59
436
34.44
929
36.90
724
31.88
01.07
O to
33.48
6.19
4.36
34.86
21.11
100.00
Over 10 Acres in
Extent.
&£
p-i'C
riQ
01.77
O m
d
5   to
£
PkE
121
31.68
68
45.64
38
46.91
66
15.07
31
14.35
324
25.59
686
27.24
574
25.27
btO
37.34
20.99
11.73
20.37
9.57
100.00
337
113
64
403
206
1,123
88.70
2,203
87.50
20.14
88.68
91
7.19
221
8.77
186
8.19
10
18
11
5
52
4.11
94
3.73
71
3.13
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1932.
Forest District.
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Prince Rupert ...
Southern Interior
Vancouver	
Totals...
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
$6,586
250
359
1,706
24,166
$33,067
Buildings.
$2,085 ■
4,945
2,085
460
60
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
18,279
$8,279
Miscellaneous.
$3,121
1,500
609
1,186
633
$6,049
Total.
$10,792
6,695
3,053
3,352
33,138
$57,030
Per Cent.
of
Total.
18.92
11.74
6.35
5.88
58.11
100.00 T 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
m
a
1
rt
a
K
O
rt
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m
a
a
ft
3 < 55
9 ^ e
e
Q  M  ti O
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1-1  K  Q O
tf   "t   -H £
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lera
2 5 »
g E pq
rg « E
H 2
^ e,
pq o
S D
>q o
a a
fc> Or
pa
- a
w o
2 H
3 «
^ a
=S q!
I
Per
Cent.
5.44
57.52
11.06
19.80
6.19
o
o
o
o
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
$
28,010
296,017
56,856
101,928
31,853
514,664
100.00
1,477,181
100.00
eo ©
CO ©
if
TH  "
rH
Quantity.
Per
Cent.
2.19
50.76
6.61
39.10
1.34
o
o
8
©
©
o
©
©
©
©
©
M. Feet
B.M.
6,901
136,710
17,816
105,309
3,581
269,317
100.00
210,173
100.00
390,978
100.00
Area.
Per
Cent.
21.05
44.97
15.70
12.02
6.26
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
Acres.
88,683
189,483
66,168
60,624
26,339
r- ©
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■aSieurBG '
inasajd I
pa^euiicjs'jj
©   Tf   CO I>   ©
t>© © I*- OS
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i> © © r^ ©
Tf © rH TH ©
co © co Tf cj
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ml
cot- © t- ©
Tf ZD CO © CD
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■aiquApas
A^iiuunf)
CO © CJ CJ ©
eo © io Tf ©
I-H © CO © ©
T£ei'tt?-£rH
■p9II[5t  I
A^u'en^ j
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H2-        Hfc        HrH FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 35
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 1932.
Causes.
Lightning	
Campers	
Railways operating	
Smokers      	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)..
Road, power, telephone, and telegraph
Industrial operations, logging, etc	
Incendiarism 	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals	
336
230
156
197
108
18
17
127
64
13
26.54
18.17
12.32
15.56
8.53
1.42
1.34
10.03
5.06
1.03
100.00
$3,178
1,072
607
799
1,333
2,663
270
1,987
31.82
10.73
6.07
8.00
13.35
0.66
26.66
2.71
Damage.
$96,777
239,516
9,260
82,723
91,494
182
58,600
36,770
2,507
3,868
$571,697
Per Cent.
16.88
41.90
1.62
5.72
16.06
0.03
10.25
6.43
0.44
0.67
100.00
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for Last Ten Years.
Causes.
Lightning	
Campers   	
Railways operating	
Railways under construction    ....
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line construction .
Industrial operations	
Incendiarism	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals    	
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
512
1926.
1925.
1924.
336
475
892
638
322
557
632
307
230
470
344
358
274
182
351
426
382
156
295
149
267
9
387
282
186
376
337
328
197
435
294
294
itS3
238
286
302
108
243
171
167
149
78
157
202
243
18
44
29
22
13
7
14
14
19
17
57
39
65
80
50
104
137
134
127
355
262
139
103
36
68
103
115
64
96
68
100
84
52
126
160
107
13
48
23
36
41
1,642
19
156
2,147
234
237
1,266
2,518
2,271
2,188
1,284
2,521
2,174
180
154
12
170
35
71
173
1,530
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in the Last Ten Years.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929..
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
Total number of fires	
Area burned (acres)	
Standing timber destroyed
or damaged (M. ft. B.M.).
Amount salvable
(M.ft.B.M.)	
D*amage to forests	
Damage to other forms of
1,266
421,297
269,317
15,057
$514,664
$57,030
2,518
994,979
210',173
41,808
$1,477,181
$326,305
2,271
602,675
390,978
25,216
$1,408,18?
$337,909
2,188
909,620
272,024
107,049
$941,738
$226,919
1,642
106,977
24,069
9,060
$103,001
$95,534
1,284
101,944
86,176
44,834
$141,102
$74,606
$215,708
2,147
659,871
398,694
109,385
$930,373
$749,891
2,521
1,023,789
1,024,508
350,770
$2,121,672
$625,518
$2,747,190
2,174
402,214
207,651
102,832
$665,078
$540,291
1,530
157,601
87,371
37,891
$74,238
$617,649
Total damage	
$571,694
$1,803,486
$1,746,092
$1,168,657
$198,535
$1,680,264
$1,205,369
$691,887
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1932.
Forest District.
T3
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c
o
d
s
o
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4
5
5
1
1
16
39
e
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■a ■a
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No.
'INKS.
Amount.
$100 00
50 00
100 00
25 00
25 00
a
o
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0J
o
a
V
-p
p
0)
02
TJ
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a
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ci
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2
2
4
2
4
1
1
12
8300 00
Totals, 1931	
3
6
1
3
18
$475 00
13
4 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS,
IM
CO
01
a
a
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B
o
a
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r""f
■"o
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o
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d
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rH O
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i-h rH               ,-H
"fi
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o o
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Hi*
l^d
<H
t^O
■panssi simiaa^
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r-t  IO
•[oaquoQ padeosa saaij
J      CO Tf      ■ rt  IO
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CD   Tf
rH CO
•j8ao pau.mq uajy
Acres.
657
113
8S
78
1,097
CO rH
CO f>l
o    ■
•M 00
Ol iQ
m    •
th"*
•panssi sjmuaj
■   Cfe i— Oi co m
eo fM
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23
CM     ■
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d
fc    :
rHZD
Ol
•{oajuOQ pad'Bosa saaij
d    . : : . .
fc    : : : :
r-l 00
Tf
•J8AO pauanq isa-iy
Acres.
50
■  O  00 rH
• Tjl   UTJ
Cl OC
Tf CO
©
CO Ol
CO     -
o
•panssi BJIUUaj
_:    CM WiT io CO
O                              ZQrH
ON
oi r-
6
I-CO
CJ
jiuwaj anoqjiA\ jas saai^
d   : ; ; : ;
fc   : : : : :
rH CO
Ol
•pj^uoQ paduosa 89JIJ
fc   : : :
(M IO
Ol
CM
HCfi
Ol
' o
•jsao pauunq ■eaay
Acres.
339
62
30
142
134,01
13,974
35.80
6,315
18.17
■panss; sjiuuaj
.     00 CO fM CO I~~
O            rH CM rt fM
r-.
CO CM
00 f-
©
Tf rH
C rH
■inujaj jnoqjiM jas saaij
d
r-\
O iTj CM rH CM
O tH
CM CM
ta
Ol
CO CM
"HH rH
Tji
Ol
qoajuoQ padcosa saaj^
o
to
Tf rH Ol 00 rH
CO CO
IQ Cl
Ol CM
COCO
CO
CD
•asAO pauinq 'Gaay
<
5,277
5,061
3,470
2,889
6,177
Tf rH
I-<D
"-CO
CM lO
CM
CO 00
© 0-1
CO I-
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•panssi ejunaaj
6
to
1,599
2,364
1,024
1,824
4,446
Si0*
-co
rH01
COfM
0 Tf
01 00
:g,&5
£ iTfl
a.opcj
r^^g
HtJlSa
^ -O fc- O *
g     HPh
O   OJ
HPh —
FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1932.
T 37
EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
Under the conditions no programme ol extending trails, telephones, and lookouts could be
undertaken and only the most vital maintenance-work could be done. This also particularly
relates to maintenance of cars, boats, and fire-fighting tools.
Equipment- Kamloops.
Two fire-fighting pumps   $1,300.00
Fire-fighting hose and equipment   376.00
Tools and equipment  24.00
$1,700.00
Equipment- FoRT Ge0B6E'
One fire-fighting pump      $650.00
Fire-fighting hose and equipment       188.00
$838.00
Maintenance— 	
Miscellaneous     $189.00
Equipment- Pkince Rupekt-
One fire-fighting pump      $650.00
Fire-fighting hose and equipment        193.00
$843.00
Maintenance— 	
Miscellaneous          $36.00
Equipment- Southern Interior.
Two fire-fighting pumps   $1,300.00
Fire-fighting hose and equipment       376.00
Tools and equipment        127.00
$1,803.00
Maintenance— 	
Miscellaneous          $13.00
Equipment- Vancouver.
Pive fire-fighting pumps   $3,250.00
Fire-fighting hose and equipment     1,088.00
$4,338.00
GRAZING.
A departmental reorganization during the past year to effect economy in operation has
resulted in placing all matters of grazing directly under the Chief Forester, and the centralization of most of the work at Kamloops under the District Forester. This, combined with certain
changes in the Grazing Regulations, has improved, it is felt, the service rendered to the stockmen by the Department.
The live-stock industry has passed through its pioneer stage in this Province, and is now
encountering changed conditions which make necessary greater attention to the fine points of
stock-raising, range-management, and marketing. No longer may live stock be turned out year
after year on the open range and left to rustle for itself. The results of this lack of attention
have already become apparent to the progressive members of the industry, in the form of
impoverished ranges, unsatisfactory calf-crops, and lack of finished product for the market.
To secure for the industry and the Province the maximum benefit from the use of Crown
ranges, a knowledge of the extent and condition of the various ranges is required, and the Forest
Service has during the past year for this purpose made reconnaissances of fourteen ranges. T 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
This work, continued and combined with detailed observations of the effects of various systems
of grazing on range capacity, condition, and plant succession, will lead to improved range control
and management.
The importance of close co-operation between the stockmen and the Department is very
apparent, and every effort is being exerted to encourage the formation and incorporation of
live-stock associations. To assist in the management and control of local range units, departmental officials held numerous meetings with these associations during the year.
Range and Market Conditions.
In general, the ranges were in better condition for grazing than for several years past.
The heavy snowfall of the preceding winter, followed by well-distributed rainfall during the
summer, resulted in good forage-growth and prevented early maturing of the grasses and weeds.
Consequently, live stock entered the winter in good condition. Improvement in the range
watering-places for live stock is also noticeable, although a number of years of heavy precipitation will likely be needed before the water in many lakes and ponds will be brought back
to normal level.
The stockman, in common with every one else, is feeling the effects of the present depression,
and prices for his products have been unsatisfactory. Starting with the low price of 4 cents
per pound in June, the price for top steers slipped to 3 cents and lower by the end of the season.
Lamb prices were much lower than in 1931, running from 4 to 5% cents per pound. The market
for wool has likewise been unsatisfactory.
Live Stock on Crown Ranges.
The number of live stock grazing under permit on Crown ranges in 1932 as compared with
1931 was as follows:—
Cattle and Horses. Sheep.
1931       48,025 38,409
1932       56,674 41,150
Range Improvement and Wild Horses.
Expenditures from the Range Improvement Fund during the present fiscal year to the end
of December, 1932, amounted to approximately $2,000. Of this sum, $500 was spent on the
disposal of wild horses, $1,200 on improvements contracted for during previous years, and $300
on new improvements, which included work on three stock-trails, one water-development, one
drift-fence, two mud-holes, and one disinfecting-trough.
Wild horses have in the past caused severe damage to Crown ranges in several parts of
the Province. Clearing the ranges of these useless animals is still continuing, several live-stock
associations being active in this work this winter. During the year 1932, 347 horses were
destroyed or sold. Every effort is being made to avoid interference with the live stock of local
residents.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chaeles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1933.
1525-133-1713  

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