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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1933]

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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1932
PRINTED by
authority op the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1933.  REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OP AGRICULTURE.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.
Honourable William Atkinson,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir;—I have the honour to submit herewith the Report of the Department of Agriculture for
the year ended December 31st, 1932.
Agriculture in 1932 took first place over all other basic industries in the value of commodities
produced. Prices, which remained low generally on world markets and which reduced the
returns from products exported, were still further depressed on local markets by merchants who
persisted throughout the year in featuring bacon, eggs, butter, and other farm produce as special
attractions at prices frequently below the wholesale cost. Protests against this practice were
voiced by Farmers' Institutes and otlier agricultural organizations, which pointed out that the
featuring of these staple commodities below production costs was destroying basic values and
seriously affecting the agricultural industry.
Low prices for live stock, coupled with better pastures than usual and plenty of feed for
wintering of animals, inclined many farmers to carry over a large number of cattle and sheep
that would have been slaughtered under normal conditions. Thus the live-stock population of
the Province shows an increase which will be of benefit when commodity prices improve.
Not only were forage-crops and pastures good in 1932, but other crops yielded well. Vegetable production showed a marked increase, and due to early American supplies from the Pacific
States being kept off the Western Canadian market, by an embargo enforced against the introduction of foot-and-mouth disease, our growers not only fed the local market, but shipped to the
Prairies several hundred car-loads of rhubarb and early vegetables.
Disposal of the apple-crop, which was one of the largest on record for the Province, has been
conducted in an orderly manner by means of a " cartel," which has helped to regulate shipments
to domestic and overseas markets. Full details of fruit and vegetable production, as well as
marketing endeavours, are contained in the reports of the Markets Representative and the
Provincial Horticulturist.
The tobacco industry, which for many years has been going through various experimental
stages in British Columbia, is now established by the equipment of processing and manufacturing plants, which are turning out a good-quality product. The Sumas reclaimed area has made
excellent progress as a tobacco-growing centre, while the Okanagan and other Interior sections
continue producing this crop.
A stimulus to farming in the Cariboo and other parts of the Interior has been the increased
interest in gold-mining, which has produced a reasonable demand for foodstuffs grown locally.
Indications at the close of the year are that the interest in gold-mining is increasing, and as a
result an improvement in the agricultural outlook is anticipated in sections where hitherto
transportation costs have been a handicap to settlers whose produce had to go to outside markets.
IMPERIAL ECONOMIC CONFERENCE.
One of the outstanding events of the past year was the Imperial Economic Conference at
Ottawa in July. The preferences granted to agriculture are of importance to British Columbia
farmers and they constitute a real incentive for a sustained interest in agricultural production.
To secure fullest returns from the markets of the United Kingdom, our farmers have been particularly advised of the importance of continuity of supplies in quantity and of such quality as
will interest British importers. As competitive prices must be met, our farmers have been
paying close attention to farming methods that will reduce production costs to the minimum.
AGRICULTURAL CONFERENCES.
Following the Imperial Economic Conference at Ottawa, a conference of agricultural
officials wyas convened in Toronto at the end of August by the Hon. Robert AVeir, Federal Minister of Agriculture. At this conference every Provincial Department of Agriculture and agricultural college in Canada was represented by officials who conferred with the representatives
of the Federal Department of Agriculture on agricultural policies and programmes aimed at
assisting Canadian farmers to take fullest advantage of the preferential British market. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It was arranged at Toronto that each Provincial Minister of Agriculture should forthwith
call together representatives of the official agricultural agencies operating in the Province. The
British Columbia representatives of Federal, Provincial, and University Agricultural Departments met at Victoria on October 25th and 26th, and after thoroughly studying the whole
situation. the following were named as an Agricultural Advisory Committee under the Chairmanship of the Minister of Agriculture:—
Dr. W. Newton, G. M. Stewart, W. H. Hicks, and R. G. L. Clarke, Federal Department of
Agriculture; Dean Clement, Prof. H. M. King, and Dr. G. G. Moe, University of British Columbia ;   W. H. Robertson, Henry Rive, and J. B. Munro, Department of Agriculture.
The initial meeting of the Agricultural Advisory Committee was held in Vancouver on
November 5th, when committees and sub-committees to deal with specific problems or projects
were approved. At both the conference and the initial meeting of the committee emphasis was
placed on the importance of laying out the work of all departments in such a way as to eliminate
avoidable expenditures and maintain efficiency in administration, research, and extension
activities.
Under the Empire Farmers' Union, a group of farmers from South Africa, England, Scotland, and Ireland toured Canada and visited British Columbia in July. These representative
farmers were given an opportunity of inspecting the leading agricultural sections of the Province.
The Provincial Department of Agriculture co-operated with the Canadian Pacific Railway and
local organizations in carrying out a programme which gave our visitors an excellent opportunity
of getting acquainted with agriculture in British Columbia.
STAFF REDUCTIONS.
Due to retirement, superannuation, transfer, or leave of absence, the following officials left
the service during the year and were not replaced :—
W. J. Bonavia, Executive Assistant, Victoria. January 1st.
Dr. W. W. Alton, Veterinary Inspector. Vancouver, March 31st.
W. W. Duncan, Director of Markets, Victoria. March 31st.
M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist, Vernon, March 31st.
J. L. Webster, Assistant Horticulturist, Penticton, March 31st.
Ernest R. Butler, Junior Clerk, Victoria. March 31st.
Mrs. Nora Johnson, Clerk, Markets Branch, Victoria, December 31st.
NEW  LEGISLATION.    .
At the Fourth Session of the Seventeenth Legislature there were two agricultural amendments among the Bills dealt with.
The " Milk Act Amendment Act" dealt with " reconstituted milk," which had not in the
past been included in the commodity covered by the " Milk Act." Besides making the dealers
in this commodity comply with all other regulations governing the handling of milk, those
handling reconstituted milk are required, under the new amendment, to indicate clearly on the
containers and milk-caps that the product contained is reconstituted milk or cream.
Vehicles used in the transportation of reconstituted milk must be marked with a sign showing that such milk is being carried, while restaurants, cafes, and eating-houses using reconstituted milk must display a sign in a conspicuous place indicating that reconstituted milk is served
on the premises.
The "Agricultural Act Amendment Act" was introduced to clearly define the scope of Provincial regulations dealing with the control of destructive insects and pests within the Province.
At Ottawa concurrent legislation was enacted giving authority to the Governor in Council to
make regulations for the general control of insect pests, but provision was made in the Federal
Act that where Provincial legislation is in' force the Federal legislation will not apply unless
special regulations are prescribed to deal with the subjects.
INSTITUTES—FARMERS' AND WOMEN'S.
Farmers' and Women's Institutes showed their value in practically every rural district in
spite of the fact that they did not receive per capita grants. There are now 203 Farmers'
Institutes with a membership of about 7.300 and 160 Women's Institutes with a membership of
5,360. Both Farmers' and Women's Institutes held their regular annual and semi-annual conferences and arrangements were made for  the  Farmers'  Institute  Advisory  Board  to meet '
DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 5 —
U 6
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
together in Victoria in January, 1933, after two years had elapsed since the last Advisory Board
meeting.
In addition to its regular assistance to Farmers' Institutes through the supplying of speakers
and demonstrators, the Department continued its powder-rebate policy, provided stationery and
printed matter, paid registration fees, and absorbed the expenses in connection with incorporation of new institutes.
GENERAL OFFICE—PUBLICATIONS.
The activities of the General Office for the year 1932, summarized by Leonard W. Johnson,
Clerk in Charge, included the mailing of 49,202 circular letters and 49,048 bulletins and circulars.
The publications issued by the Department of Agriculture during the year are shown in the
following summary:—
Name.
Description.
1931..
Farm Cheese	
Clotted Cream	
First List of Dairy Sires..
Milk and Butter-fat Records,
Apple-aphides	
Apple-scab	
Cabbage-root Maggot	
Currant Gall-mite	
Diseases and Pests of Cultivated Plants	
Making Lime Sulphur at Home	
Fruit Spray Calendar ...
Weeds and their Control	
Currant and Gooseberry Culture	
Care and Feeding of Dairy Cattle	
Swine-raising in B.C	
Feeding for Egg Production  	
Natural and Artificial Incubation and Brooding
Poultry-house Construction	
Market Poultry	
Fur-bearing and Market Rabbits	
Care of Poultry Manure	
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands	
Farmers' Institute Rules and Regulations	
Judging Home Economics and Women's Work...
List of Publications	
Preservation of Food	
Twenty-sixth Annual Report	
Agricultural Statistics Report, 1931	
Climate Report, 1931	
Dairy Circ
Dairy Circ
Dairy Circ
Dairy Circ.
Hort. Circ.
Hort. Circ.
Hort. Circ.
Hort. Circ.
Bulletin 68 ..
Hort. Circ. Gl
4...
20..
21..
39...
44....
32...
35...
Bulletin   100  	
Hort. Circ. 56	
Bulletin  67  	
Bulletin  60  	
Poultry Bulletin 93...
Poultry Bulletin 39....
Poultry Bulletin 63....
Poultry Bulletin 49....
Bulletin 80 	
Poultry   Circ.   34	
Agric. Dept. Circ. 33.
Agric, Dept. Circ. 45..
Bulletin 83
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
,000
000
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
.000
,000
000
.000
.000
.500
.000
.000
,000
500
,500
,000
750
,200
.200
52,650
APIARY REGISTRATIONS.
There are now approximately 2,500 registered apiaries in British Columbia, of which 23S
apiaries with a total of 1,090 colonies were registered in 1932. Only fourteen registrations were
cancelled during the year.
DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS.
Our District Agriculturists represent the Department of Agriculture in fourteen districts of
the Province and function as an important part of our extension service. During the past year,
in addition to their regular duties of educating, instructing, organizing, and directing junior
farmers and adults, the Agriculturists were called upon to enforce certain legislative measures
for which the Provincial Department of Agriculture is responsible.
Some of the outstanding activities of the District Agriculturists have been incorporated in
the reports of various Branch heads and appear as part of their reports.
The full reports of the year's activities from all of the. District Agriculturists are on file
with the Department at Victoria.
Respectfully submitted. J. B. MUNRO,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 7
REPORT OP MARKETS REPRESENTATIVE.
J. A. Grant.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Markets Branch for the year ended
December 31st, 1932.
The season of 1932 is the first in many that perishable produce crops have all been good,
and with few exceptions ample markets have been found at fair prices. Several commodities
have been marketed in record volume—namely,- hothouse tomatoes, forced and field rhubarb,
apricots, peaches, prunes, and apples. In many cases prices have equalled the past two years
and only a few are lower than last year. This is in marked contrast with conditions in Washington and Oregon, our chief competitive points, where medium crops have netted record low
prices, far below the cost of production. So desperate were conditions over there that, even
with the application of a fair-market-value tariff, British Columbia shippers had to lower their
prices in Winnipeg below last year's in order to prevent Washington stone-fruits (especially
prunes) from driving them off the market. The Canadian producers are fast overtaking the
market demands which were formerly taken care of by importations from the United States.
It will be seen that the fair-market-value tariff and the British preferences are largely responsible for the extended markets, and while returns have been low on export commodities, they
are now almost equal to domestic prices. It is this condition that has simplified our marketing
problems, as there is no longer the former advantage in catering for the domestic market.
The marketing of vegetables on the Prairies is handicapped by the insistence of the carrying
companies in using larger cars than are necessary for trade requirements, and the excessive
minimums demanded by the carrying companies on these cars reach far beyond the growers'
ability to fill them and the Prairie consumers' power at distributing-points to consume them.
Pew, if any, of the early vegetables can be loaded up to the minimum and much dead-weight
has to be paid for that is not used. The only markets in Canada that can take care of a large
car of early vegetables are Toronto and Montreal, and it takes as much as the vegetables would
sell for. to pay freight to these markets. British Columbia's climate favours on the average the
maturing of early vegetables about ten to twenty days ahead of Ontario. If lower rates were
possible 'to Eastern markets, the vegetables now imported from the United States to Ontario
could be shipped from British Columbia.
ENPRESS.
Express rates to Prairie and Eastern points on the commodities mentioned, up to the beginning of this year, 1932. were also prohibitive. At the last meeting of the British Columbia
Fruit-growers' Association, held in Vernon in January, discussions between the shippers, the
Federal and Provincial Department officials, and the carrying companies took place, culminating
in a reduction to Eastern and Prairie points of forced and field rhubarb, strawberries, and
cherries. These reductions applied to car-lots as far east as Montreal. This extension of
markets is admittedly due to the lower express rates.
HOTHOUSE TOMATOES AND CUCUMBERS.
Prom January 1st to September 30th, 34,683 crates of hothouse tomatoes were sent to
Eastern and Prairie points from Victoria and 8,228 dozen cucumbers. The British Columbia
market took 16,109 crates of tomatoes and 4,361 dozen cucumbers.
FORCED RHUBARB.
Experience in 1931 convinced the forced-rhubarb growers that they would have to reduce
their tonnage about 3,000 crates. This was before the reduction in express rates, and their
estimate was to ship 15,000 crates, as against nearly 18,000 the previous year. Over 25,000
were shipped at fair prices to the grower and this increased volume was due to the lower rates
to the East being granted. Much work was done by the Markets Branch in organizing the
rhubarb and berry growers in an effort to induce them to load in car-lots instead of L.C.L.
Their efforts were successful in forced and field rhubarb, as over ninety cars of field rhubarb
moved to the Prairies, constituting a record, and fair prices were obtained.
In strawberries and raspberries, due to the deflection of shippers who had promised to ship
in car-lots and the entry of a wholesale merchant in Vancouver shipping L.C.L. to the Prairies, U 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the prices for L.C.L. shipments were demoralized by internal competition, although the volume
during the first two weeks of shipping was less than the demand. Favourable weather at
shipping-point enabled L.C.L. shipments to go as far as Winnipeg in good condition. At the
peak of the strawberry season heavy rains ensued, and from then on all markets were loaded
with soft berries and heavy adjustments had to be made. Due to this, shippers and growers
are not on very friendly terms with each other, and if a demoralized market is to be avoided
more co-operation will have to come from the growers in districts responsible for this condition.
STRAWBERRIES.
Sixty-five cars of strawberries were sent to the Prairies and about equal to forty cars more
were sent in L.C.L. shipments, as against fifty-nine the year before and about thirty cars of
L.C.L. Magoon berries arrived in poor condition and rebates averaging 50 cents a crate were
general on them. British Sovereigns were greatly favoured and very little complaint was heard
on their condition. The average price to the associations for all strawberries in cars was
$1.60 per crate.    The returns for L.C.L. shipments were low by comparison.
Shipping strawberries by freight was tried out this year for the first time and proved
entirely satisfactory. Pour cars were shipped by freight to the Prairies; two cars to Calgary,
one to Edmonton, and one to Winnipeg. The Alberta cars showed a saving of 30 cents per
crate over the L.C.L. shipments and all arrived in excellent condition. Raspberry shipments
fell off to 35 cars and about as many more were shipped L.C.L.
VEGETABLE-SHIPPERS.
Four meetings were held in Vancouver of the Chinese vegetable-shippers who are responsible
for the bulk of the vegetables shipped to the Prairies. These meetings were held for the purpose
of drawing these shippers' attention to the poor quality of head-lettuce and early cabbage
shipped, which did not compare favourably with similar vegetables originating in Walla Walla
and King's County, Washington, and Roseberg, Oregon. Your Representative pointed out the
market situation to them, and found that the Chinese shippers were sharply divided without any
semblance of organization amongst them and each packed vegetables on his own premises. We
pointed out to them that their shipments were injuring the Armstrong vegetable-shippers, who
are fully organized and demand inspection of all cars originating from there. We also pointed
out that the five Vancouver shippers should decide on a central packing-house where Federal
inspection could be given and proper grading and packing methods adopted. After the fourth
meeting no solution could be found as the Chinese could not see their way to come together. One
of their number shipped through a house which supplied growers with fertilizers, and to ensure
collections agreed to handle their vegetables without brokerage charges, which are $2 per ton.
This seemed to be a disturbing factor, as his quotations were on this $2 per ton lower than other
brokers quoted.
LOGANBERRIES.
The loganberry situation was complicated by the inability of a majority of wine-manufacturers to take their usual quota, as prices for wine purposes were about double the amount paid
for cannery purposes or evaporating. Very few loganberries were shipped fresh on account of
their poor carrying qualities. As the British preference was only 10 per cent, up to November
15th, the low-priced Oregon canned logans reached the British market in much greater volume
than from British Columbia. One hundred and thirteen thousand four hundred and fifty-seven
cases were exported from Oregon to the' United Kingdom, against 6,735 from Canada and 2,125
from Australia up to November 15th, when the new tariff was applied. It is estimated that
about 20,000 cases are still held in British Columbia for export of the 1932 crop. It is doubtful
if the low prices prevailing will justify growers continuing their loganberry-patches. Prices in
Oregon are very discouraging to growers and there is no doubt but that they will decrease their
acreage, and as the supply of logans for the United Kingdom is confined to the three countries
mentioned we believe it would be good policy for our growers to stay in the game and fight this
thing out in the hope of better prices prevailing.
CHERRIES.
There was a heavy volume of cherries grown in both Okanagan and Kootenay Districts this
year.    For the first time Kootenay entered the car-lot shipping of cherries, over sixteen cars DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 9
being shipped from Nelson this year. Marketing methods which have been practised for several
years under a one-pool system was somewhat changed, due to the entry of a wholesale buyer
from the Prairies into the Oliver District and securing supplies, resulting in internal competition
of a mild form and lower prices. The qualit3- was generally good, especially the Kootenay
cherries. We note that the United Kingdom cherry-supply for cannery and by-product purposes
comes largely from Italy, and we intend to study the possibilities to have a share of these
supplies sent from British Columbia.
PLUMS AND PRUNES.
There was a bumper crop of plums and prunes in the Okanagan Valley this year. -Prunes
averaged about 70 cents per crate, as against an average of less than 30 cents obtained in Oregon
and Washington. Towards the end of the season, when it was found that British Columbia had
not sufficient prunes to meet the Prairie demand, the Winnipeg market was practically abandoned to the Washington shippers, as at that point they have more favourable transportation
rates than at any other point in the three Prairie Provinces.
APRICOTS.
Apricots produced a record crop in the Oliver and Osoyoos Districts, but were slightly off in
Penticton. The production exceeded the estimated crop by a considerable volume and fair prices
were realized.
PEACHES.
The peach-crop was easily the heaviest ever produced in British Columbia and also the
best quality. The Vancouver market took thirty-three cars, against seven the previous year,
and all Prairie markets were supplied in excess of any former time. In addition to these
supplies there was considerable importation from Ontario and Washington. Peaches and all
stone-fruits are being very heavily planted from Penticton to the south, and it will be only a
matter of a few years when British Columbia will have sufficient stone-fruits grown to supply
the domestic market.
An attempt was made during the shipping season by a wholesale dealer at Nelson to open
Nelway as a port for fruit inspection. If this concession had been granted the Nelson Midway
Market would have been supplied with peaches from Yakima instead of from the Southern
Okanagan District. At present there is a fleet of motor-trucks engaged in this business, which
is satisfactory to the peach-growers and the truckman, and so far no complaint has come from
the consumer. The home market is the outlet for ripe peaches that would be unsafe for shipment to distant points.
PEARS.
There is still a greater demand for Bartlett pears than the supply available. This year an
experiment was made in the Chilliwack District to ascertain if it were possible, by spraying and
better cultural conditions, to grow pears to meet the cannery requirements in size and symmetry.
This experiment permitted a neglected pear-orchard to become a revenue-producer to the
owner, and while the pears only graded No. 2, there is hope that another year's attention will
bring the grade up to show a considerable portion of No. 1. The No. 2 pears were sold to the
canners on a contract prepared by this Branch, and netted the grower $30 per ton f.o.b. the
orchard, containers found. In other years the cannery supply was largely drawn from Washington points. In the Okanagan Valley the pear-crop was good, and apart from Bartletts there
seems to be sufficient to supply the domestic market during the entire pear season.
APPLES.
The apple-crop, with the exception of early varieties, was very heavy, and the total output
for this year is expected to be greater than any previous year. Shippers, after much wrangling,
succeeded in forming two cartels for apple-marketing. One cartel dealt with the marketing of
Mcintosh Red and the other cartel took care of all other fall and winter varieties. Mcintosh
apples intended for storage were picked and within a few hours placed in cold storage. They
were taken from storage, packed and returned to the storage immediately. By this means the
Mcintosh apple can be held in storage in firm condition until March and April.
Seventy-three per cent, of the apples consumed on the Prairies were shipped in bulk and all
except 25,000 boxes were shipped loose.    The 25,000 boxes without lids were shipped to the Coast markets and only 26 per cent, of the British Columbia and Prairie needs were wrapped
and packed in boxes. About 400,000 boxes of Mcintosh were exported, mostly to the United
Kingdom. These would make up 31 per cent, of the total crop shipped to December 2nd. The
other cartel shipped 58 per cent, of the total crop, 20 per cent, going to the domestic markets
and 38 per cent, to export. The total estimated crop of Mcintosh Red apples, excluding Kootenay
District, is 1,200,000 boxes, of which 895,000 have been marketed up to December 2nd. The
estimated crop of other late and fall varieties is 2,500,000 boxes, of which 1,457,000 boxes have
been marketed. The domestic-market portion iii boxes of the other varieties was 18 per cent,
and bulk 82 per cent. The cartels publish prices, but do not penalize their members if the set
price is not obtained; the main object being to regulate the volume in a manner that will feed
the markets during the entire season, and for this purpose the members are pledged not to ship
in excess of a given volume until authorized by the cartel manager.
Apples grown at Coast points are not exported or sent out of the Province, and on account
of the heavy volume sent from the Okanagan to the Coast, prices on these markets have been
low. This Branch is looking into the possibility of having the surplus of suitable varieties of
Coast-grown apples put up in gallon form for the purpose of United Kingdom consumption. If
this can be done profitably we will attempt to make contracts with the canneries for the growers.
LARGE-SIZED APPLES.
A campaign to popularize larger sizes in commercial apples on the United Kingdom market
has been launched by our Markets Representative, T. Coventry, in London, with some success.
The Associated Growers intend to ship thirty cars per week over a period of six weeks, the
first to arrive by the Panama about January 15th. These will consist of Mcintosh, Delicious,
Newtowns, Spitzenberg, and Romes. The popular sizes at present are 150 to 210 and the apples
that are being shipped will range from 125 to 138. In addition to this, 2,000 single-tray boxes
(quarter of a regular box), which constitute a really attractive package, have been forwarded
to the fancy trade in London by way of introduction. These large sizes are mostly of the
Delicious variety and have been found very popular in large centres in Canada and the United
States.    They should become popular in the United Kingdom, especially for the holiday trade.
FRUIT IN DEMAND ON DOMESTIC MARKET.
We have been complimented by Prairie experts and buyers on the size and flavour of British
Columbia peaches, cherries, and apricots, and have been advised by our London Representative
that cherries shipped there were the finest on the British market. In this connection we wish
to draw attention to several new varieties of fruits that give more than ordinary promise on the
market in their respective lines. The Agassiz Experimental Station shipped four varieties of
raspberries, including the Latham, Newman, Cuthbert, and Lloyd George; the latter variety was
found to be most in favour for its size, colour, and keeping qualities. The Cuthbert variety was
considered the best flavoured. The raspberry plantations of the Lower Mainland are decreasing
rapidly, and we are informed that the Lloyd George variety grows well on Southern Vancouver
Island. Where suitable land can be found a considerable acreage of this variety should be
planted to replace the shrinkage in volume on the Mainland. The Summerland Experimental
Farm has tried out a new peach which was originated in Vineland, Ontario. Several international experts have given their opinion that this peach, which ripens in the Elberta season,
is far ahead of any known variety in flavour, and as a canning-peach it is less stringy and better
flavoured than any other. Being introduced at this time when peach-planting is receiving a
great deal of attention, we think that this variety will be a valuable contribution to the British
Columbia peach list.
A new cherry, of the Bing class and in the Bing season, was noticed in Chilliwack after the
rains (when the Bing and Lambert varieties were badly split) to have remained firm and
unaffected by the rain. Another cherry named the " Carnival " is being developed at Chilliwack.
It is equal in size to the Bing, having the same colour and flavour, but at least ten days earlier.
In apples there is a surfeit of volume in all late fall and early winter varieties. Marketable
apples of early and late sorts are still short of the demand. One early variety identical with the
Mcintosh Red, introduced in Geneva, New York, and grown at Summerland for the past five
years, gives considerable promise as an early apple. It is a cross between Yellow Transparent
and Mcintosh Red and comes in about three weeks before the Mcintosh.    If this apple comes DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 11
into favour it will displace all early apples after the Yellow Transparent variety up to the time
the Mcintosh Red comes in. This new variety is known by the name of Early Mcintosh in
New York and Rob Roy Mcintosh in British Columbia. There is still a demand on the market
for apples of the Winesap variety.
EARLY VEGETABLES.
With the exception of a few vegetables such as hothouse tomatoes and rhubarb, British
Columbia production is much under the Prairie demand. Our experience during the past
number of years is that informing the farmers as to what the market wants, and getting them to
grow, pack, and grade equal to what their competitors supply, takes up more than two-thirds of
the time. When products are equal to importations the marketing of them is a comparatively
easy job. We also note that Oriental renters of land do not grow crops that take more than one
year to mature. The bulk of the asparagus used by Prairie consumers is still grown in Washington, although within the past three years there has been a considerable acreage planted to
asparagus by the white growers of British Columbia. There is a growing demand for broccoli,
but as severe frosts usually kill the crop one year out of three, very little of this is raised.
Spinach, early carrots, early cabbage, early onions, and peas are supplied from outside the
Province in the season directly overlapping ours, and we have plenty of room for all these
vegetables in rhubarb-cars, which are more attractive when mixed with vegetables. These
vegetables when grown at any point in Southern Vancouver Island and the Mainland could be
assembled from Vancouver to Mission, thus securing car-lot rates for the greater part of the
' journey. Considerable educational work is being done by our Agricultural Department, assisted
by the Federal Fruit Branch, to encourage the growing of early vegetables.
POULTRY.
We note that the situation in regard to poultry and egg production is»uot as satisfactory as
the fruit and vegetable industry. However, there is a hopeful outlook for extending the market
for poultry and storage eggs in Great Britain. In the past we have not made headway there
owing to insufficiency of volume, stability of grade, and continuity of supply. The returns have
not been sufficient to warrant producers giving the British market serious attention. The new
preference tariff has encouraged Prairie poultrymen to send an experimental cargo of seventeen
cars of turkeys to be sold on the British market. If this should prove successful, the volume
formerly shipped to the Coast markets from the Prairie will be diverted to the United Kingdom,
and this will remove the pressure now being felt by our local poultrymen caused by the heavy
shipments of Prairie fowl, which they claim is the principal cause of depressing the home
market. There are many changes necessary to be successful in extending the poultry market,
and the poultrymen are co-ordinating their organizations into one poultry council for the purpose
of dealing with these problems.
Many poultry-farmers are considering the growing of early vegetables as a side-line to
supply the markets on the Prairie. These are intended to be shipped in mixed rhubarb-cars.
We noted this tendency when addressing Farmers' Institute meetings both in A'ancouver Island
and Fraser Valley points. There is also a movement to grow some of the cereals used for feed
until the bnying-power of the public is restored.
PUBLIC MARKETS.
During 1932 an effort was made to establish a public market in Courtenay, but so far
farmers have not seen fit to back this movement sufficiently to make it a success. Another effort
has been made to establish a market in Nanaimo, and we are now informed that arrangements
have been made to open a market there next May. This has the enthusiastic backing of the
farmers, the Social Service Clubs, and the City Council.
VERNON OFFICE.
In order to make it possible to furnish markets information to Interior growers, we arranged
with the Fruit Branch at Ottawa to have their Prairie Inspectors act as our correspondents.
We also arranged with the managers of the Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton, and Nelson
newspapers to publish the bulk of the bulletin every Thursday. For this purpose five advance
copies were made and  sent to  these  papers.    The  bulletin  was  published  from  Vernon   on U 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 13
Wednesday and 1,200 copies distributed, mostly to shipping organizations, who sent them to
their growers.    By this means growers got regular markets information at a minimum of cost.
During the first three months of 1932, 100 bulletins were issued from Victoria, of about 100
copies each, and distributed largely to the press of British Columbia, three times per week.
After March 30th two bulletins of 100 copies each per week were issued until the opening of the
office in Vernon on July 15th, when the Victoria office issued one bulletin weekly of 100 copies
and Vernon issued one bulletin of 1,200 copies weekly each Thursday. The Vernon office opened
on July 15th and closed on October 20th. From the end of October two bulletins were sent ont
from Victoria, one featuring Prairie conditions issued on Tuesday and the other featuring Coast
conditions issued every Friday;  each issue of these was in the vicinity of a hundred copies.
FEATURING PRIMARY PRODUCTS.
General attention was given to matters reported to us having a detrimental effect upon
marketing of dairy and other agricultural produce. The custom of chain stores featuring
primary products of the soil as bargain attractions seemed to be the chief difficulty, and so far
no solution has been found to correct this custom, which has a dominating influence over farm-
produce prices, inasmuch as few of the commodities affected are sufficiently organized to remove
them from the buyers' control.
For the first time in fifteen years Ontario fruit-growers are becoming a factor on the Prairie
market. They supplied car-lots of strawberries and raspberries to Winnipeg, and with a short
crop this year they are supplying more apples than formerly. This has been brought about by
sending representatives of the Ontario Shippers' Council to Prairie points during the shipping-
season to favourably impress buyers on the quality of Ontario fruit and their willingness to ship
them in acceptable packages. Owing to financial inability your Prairie Representative was only
able to visit the Prairies twice during the 1932 season. If we are to hold our advantage on that
market, more attention should be given to informing the trade on British Columbia production
and getting their angle on requirements.
INTERPROVINCIAL TRADE.
The interprovincial trade in agriculture products about balance. British Columbia sells
annually about $12,000,000 worth of fruit and vegetables to Prairie Provinces, almost all of
them commodities that cannot be grown there, while in return the Prairie Provinces sell British
Columbia annually about $11,000,000 worth of agricultural products, all of which can be grown
in the Province. Over $3,000,000 worth of cereals are included in the above figures and include
malt to the value of $401,000.
In conclusion, we beg to acknowledge the valuable assistance and co-operation of the Federal
Fruit Branch in furnishing reliable market reports from Prairie distributing-points and the
valuable services rendered by the Provincial press in publishing the major part of our bulletins
issued for the benefit of the shippers and growers.
Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Grant,
Markets Representative.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL HORTICULTURIST.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith submit the annual report of your Horticultural Branch for the year 1932.
GENERAL HORTICULTURAL CONDITIONS.
The seasonal conditions throughout the horticultural section of the Province have during
the past year been, on the whole, most satisfactory. In the coastal districts there were no
extreme temperatures. The rainfall, however, was considerably above the average, both on
Vancouver Island and throughout the Lower Fraser Valley. In the Interior districts some
sections experienced low temperatures during the winter months, but the ground, particularly
in the northern areas, was well protected by abundant snowfall, which, for the most part, U 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
remained during the winter. This was most beneficial as it not only protected the tree-roots,
but ensured an irrigation supply for the coming summer. The spring was late in all districts
and with abundant rainfall. In the Coast districts a very warm period at the beginning of the
summer materially shortened the strawberry-crop, but, on the whole, there was no extended
period of hot weather in any district. Pall conditions were excellent for harvesting and all
districts have had a rainfall during the late fall and winter months which is much higher than
the average. In the irrigation districts the reservoirs are even at this early date carrying a
much larger quantity of water than is usual at this time of year.
Tree-fruits.—Apples, which constitute the main tonnage of tree-fruit, was one of the largest
crops on record. As is well known, the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts are the largest producers of this fruit. The estimated production this year in these two districts was approximately
4,226,000 boxes, as compared with the 1931 production of 3,550,000 in the same areas. Due to
heavy rainfall in certain sections apple-scab was more prevalent than usual. Pears and crab-
apples were, on the whole, a lighter crop than in 1931, while all stone-fruits such as plums,
prunes, peaches, and cherries were heavier, and apricots about the same as the previous year.
On the whole, peaches, apricots, and prunes brought satisfactory returns on the market. This
unfortunately cannot be said of plums and cherries. Both of the fruits were more than the
market could take under the present depressed conditions, while in the case of cherries unfavourable weather conditions, particularly in the Okanagan and Coast, interfered with harvesting.
During the year the Dominion Experimental Station, Summerland, did some excellent work in
the processing of Royal Anne cherries with a view to ascertaining the possibilities of supplying
the Canadian market with Maraschino cherries. The results look most promising and, if
successful, should help in marketing the Royal Amies, which has always been a problem.
Small Fruits.—The strawberry-crop was not as large as estimated at the beginning of the
season. Earl}- in May it was thought that arrangements would have to be made to take care
of a surplus. The growers therefore approached the Government with a view to securing
assistance in putting up an SO2 pack. The Provincial Department of Agriculture also took up
the matter with the Markets Representative in London, England, in order to secure a market.
While apparently a market was available, the price was unsatisfactory. The final result was
that no berries were put up by this method and due largely to weather conditions the looked-for
surplus did not materialize.
Raspberry shipments from the various districts were about the same as last year. Unfavourable weather conditions interfered materially with the car-lot shipments, and while there was
a long picking season, shipments were for the most part L.C.L.
Loganberries were an exceptionally heavy crop. The excellent growing conditions of 1931
produced fine canes. AVinter and spring conditions were also very satisfactory. All combined
to give one of the largest crops on record. It is estimated that the Vancouver Island crop
would have been approximately 1,000 tons if all the fruit had been picked. In all districts,
however, the story was the same. Markets apparently were not available. The wineries, which
in the past had taken the major portion of the crop, took only a very limited quantity this year.
A larger propertion of the pack than usual, however, was canned with a view to supplying the
British market, while for the first time a dehydrator for drying loganberries on a commercial
scale was established in Victoria. Regardless of all that was done, a large tonnage was left
on the vines.
Graves.—Other small fruits remain about the same from year to year, both from the standpoint of acreage and yield. One exception should be mentioned—namely, grapes. The total
acreage in the Province is not more than 200 acres. Of this acreage there are about 175 acres
lofated in the Okanagan. principally in Kelowna. Regarding this industry, the following extract
from the report of B. Hoy, District Agriculturist, Kelowna, for 1932. should prove of interest
to those interested in grape production:—
" The yield was excellent, but prices were not as high as previous years and there was more
difficulty in marketing the crop.
" Moore's Early is the earliest blue grape produced in this section, but is not proving
satisfactory, due to it being a weak grower and light yielder. Freedonia, from tests made,
appears to be a superior grape for this district. It is an early, vigorous grower, which yields
a heavy crop of large well-filled bunches.
" In the light-coloured early varieties of American grapes, Portland seems outstanding.
It is a heavy yielder and thrifty grower, and the flavour is excellent. DEPARTA1ENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 15
" Sheridan is another variety worthy of mention. It is a late blue grape and keeps in
storage until after Christinas. The vines are vigorous and the bunches well shaped and filled
with large dark berries.
" This was the second year of the planting of European grapes made by Rittisch Bros., and
some of the plants have a few small bunches of grapes. AVhile it is too early to make definite
statements regarding the adaptability of European grapes in this country, it is worthy of
mention that the vines wintered well through sub-zero temperatures in February and gave some
indication of their ripening season.
" The variety Pearl of Casaba, grown on ' Solonis x Riparia 1610' stock, was ripe in August.
When tasted on August 30th they were full flavoured and of excellent quality. If this variety
proves to be hardy and a good yielder it should prove a very welcome addition to other fruits
produced here. The earliest American varieties are Portland and Moore's Early, which were
ripe September 7th."
Vegetables.—There has been little change on Arancouver Island in so far as vegetable
production is concerned. The greenhouse industry has had a year of low prices and little
expansion has taken place. On the Lower Mainland more interest is being taken by the white
grower in the production of vegetables, and while prices have been low, the outlook is for an
increased production in the future. Many districts realize that vegetables are needed to make
up mixed cars for the Prairie markets to replace the straight cars of rhubarb, etc., which have
been shipped in the past. This view-point is being fostered by the officials of your staff, both
through their lectures at growers' meetings and in their daily contacts in the field.
AArith regard to vegetable production in the Lower Mainland, the following extract from the
report of G. E. W. Clarke, District Agriculturist, Abbotsford, gives considerable information,
particularly as to the trend of the vegetable-work in this section:—
" AVhile the greater acreage in truck-crops is grown by Chinese, others are becoming
interested, but there is considerable to be learned as to varieties, packing, and seasonable
growing. The movement is being given careful consideration by many growers who in past
years were doing well in one or two lines of farming and are now finding it necessary to have
supplementary lines of endeavour. The home vegetable-garden is being given more attention,
as many are finding the old saying, ' I can buy cheaper than I can grow,' is not correct.
" This year several growers in Surrey were able to do fairly well in growing and marketing
vegetables, and on account of the good type of grower and the quality of the product attracted
considerable attention. This section could be one of the foremost sections for vegetables in
British Columbia, there being extensive acreages available, suitable soils and weather conditions,
with favourable approaches to market.
" It is, however, not only a case of growing vegetables, but rather growing in order to be
ready for certain markets with the kind, quality, and quantity required.
" British Columbia is practically the earliest vegetable-producing area in Canada, and many
markets, both local and distant, should be ours that are now being supplied from elsewhere.
" Mixed cars of vegetables have been advocated for years, and while many growers realized
the truth of the statement, they were unwilling to attempt growing vegetables. To-day it is a
considerably easier matter to arouse interest and action, and in order to follow along fairly
safe and in all probability remunerative lines, the planting of carrots in late summer and early
fall was started, and present indications are that there will be a supply of early carrots to be
shipped from Mission and Dewdney along with rhubarb-cars in the spring of 1933. Other crops
to be handled in a similar way are being tried, such as broccoli, cabbage, and spinach.
" Vegetables can be brought along so that there is a supply for the market from about the
middle of May until frost, and with good handling storage facilities would take care of a number
of the desirable and in most cases higher-priced crops. The heavy movement of mixed cars of
vegetables is from May until July, and then from about the middle of September until frost.
In between these periods the local market is practically the only outlet and buyers should make
growers aware of the situation.
" In May of this year an embargo was placed on vegetables from parts of the United States,
and this caused buyers to be very keen to obtain local-grown vegetables. Growers, never having
had such an opportunity to supply markets which should be theirs, were not prepared to benefit
to the fullest extent in a large movement. The demand was greater than the supply, but it was
demonstrated that in spite of the backward season it is possible to have supplies of vegetables U 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ready for market by May loth and 20th.    Certain selected and well-handled areas could begin
supplying fresh vegetables a week to two weeks earlier under normal conditions.
" The Fraser Valley is equally well adapted and in many respects has better opportunities
for the production of vegetable-crops than the areas immediately to the south in AVashington,
which during the past twelve years have been making rapid progress.
" It might be mentioned that in the early part of the year there was a heavy demand for
carrots, and as there was a shortage in the United States, buyers were very busy scouting the
country for this crop. So thoroughly was the available tonnage " cleaned up" that it was
necessary to repurchase from across the line our own carrots for our own markets before the
new crop was ready.
" The acreage devoted to contracted acreage of peas for canning has been over 2,700 acres,
but this year approximately the same acreage as in 1931 was seeded—namely, 1,400 acres. The
price per ton was lower this year, but the pack was, on the whole, larger than in 1931, although
some acreages yielded very poorly.
" The acreage of dried peas for culinary purposes showed a big increase, there being approximately 2,000 acres seeded, principally in the Chilliwack and Sumas Districts. While some
growers were growing under contract and had the seed supplied, a large number seeded
acreages, and as good seed was hard to obtain the varieties were mixed and the quality of a
large tonnage of the crop is not up to the standard buyers require for the markets to be supplied."
In the Interior districts the plantings of tomatoes were considerably less than last year,
the 1932 acreage being approximately 2,000 acres, as compared with 2,500 acres in 1931. Onions,
on the other hand, showed an increase from 1,200 acres in 1931 to 1,600 acres in the present year.
Celery and cucumber and corn remained about as in the past, while lettuce showed an increase
this year, plantings being about 130 acres, as against 45 last year. Cantaloupes also showed a
slight increase. The key-note to success in this vegetable-work, no matter in what district it is
undertaken, is earliness, particularly those vegetables which are seasonal and are not suited to
storage.
In the production of rhubarb, the main production of which is on the Lower Mainland, the
situation is about the same as in previous years. The season was ten days later than last year,
but orderly marketing undoubtedly aided materially in bringing a fair price. The production
of forced rhubarb was larger than usual, but on the whole satisfactory returns were received by
the growers.
SMALL-FRUIT SURVEY.
During the past season your Horticultural Branch made a survey of the acreage devoted to
small fruit in the Province, and in this work they had the co-operation of the Statistics Branch
as well as the various District Agriculturists located in small-fruit areas. This survey is a
biennial undertaking and is valuable in that it tends to show the trend of plantings. The
following figures are of interest, covering as they do the plantings for the last twelve years:—
Year. Acreage. Year. Acreage.
1920   3,414 1928  5,756
1922   6,202 1930   4,813
1924   6,310 1932  4,989
1926   5,201
The details of the 1932 acreages, showing districts, kinds of small fruit and acreage of each,
is given in Appendix No. 7.
OKANAGAN STONE-FRUIT SURVEY.
Since a certain measure of protection has been given to the fruit-growers during the past
two years through an increase in tariffs, there has been a marked interest taken in the production of stone-fruits, particularly in the Southern Okanagan. Last year an estimate of stone-
fruit plantings was made by your officials and again undertaken this year. The total of new
plantings in 1931 amounted to 24.731 trees and in 1932 to 24,796 trees. In the two years the
percentage total plantings as compared with our orchard-survey figures of 1930 show the following increase:— Per Cent
Peaches     39.5
Apricots   14.1
Cherries  -.  14.3
Plums and prunes   11.3 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 17
As a matter of record it would seem advisable that the detailed figures be incorporated in
this report.    They are therefore submitted as Appendix No. 8.
ASPARAGUS ACREAGE.
The acreage in the Province devoted to asparagus-growing has always been comparatively
small. During the past two years, however, a greater demand for the home product has become
apparent, due undoubtedly to the increased tariff on importations from the United States. This
has led to extensive plantings. The exact acreage according to districts is given in the following
table, which has been compiled by your Horticultural Branch from a survey made this year:—
British Columbia Asparagus Acreage, 1932.
District.
1932.
1931.
Previous.
Total.
1%
44
1%
6%
85
1
%
30
1
10%
40
1
20
62
6%
16%
10
%
%
%
%
1%
oo
130
9
34
Kelowna..        	
Summerland  	
Penticton	
135
%
%
Grand Forks  	
o
1%
Creston	
2%
Totals  	
140%
83%
1191%4
343%
PRUNING-SCHOOLS AND DEMONSTRATIONS.
As in the past, there has been considerable interest taken by growers in the pruning-schools
and pruning demonstrations which are held in different parts of the Province. During the past
season there were five three-day schools held with an attendance of fifty-one pupils, while there
was a total of twenty-six pruning demonstrations with an attendance of 530. Details of both
schools and demonstrations will be found in Appendix No. 9.
BULLETINS AND CROP ESTIMATES.
Bulletins and circulars dealing with horticultural subjects have been issued and revised as
required. Three new circulars in stencil form have been issued. These are "Asparagus Production in British Columbia " and " Head-lettuce Production in British Columbia," both prepared by
H. H. Evans, District Agriculturist, Arernon, B.C.; also " Rose Culture," by John Noble, of
the Inspection Branch. Another circular that should be mentioned is the revised circular
entitled " Climatic Data of British Columbia." This was prepared by G. L. Foulkes, Secretary of the Horticultural Branch. All of these circulars go a long way towards filling the
demand for information on the part of growers and others interested in horticulture. Your
Horticultural Branch again, with the assistance of the various District Agriculturists, issued the
Horticultural News Letter. In all, nine issues were mailed; the first on May 14th, the last on
September 3rd.
PEST-CONTROL AND INSPECTION AVORK.
Codling-moth (Cydia pomonella).—This year codling-moth sprays were applied under departmental supervision in the Vernon District and the Kamloops District. Collections in payment
for moneys expended were made under authority as given in the " Codling-moth Control Act."
Spray zones for the control of codling-moth as previously constituted were again in effect in
the Kamloops, Oyama, AA'infield, Okanagan Centre, AArestbank, Keremeos, Kaleden, and Robson
Districts. In these districts from one to four sprays for the control of codling-moth were
applied, the number in each district being decided upon by a committee composed of a departmental representative and a number of growers appointed by the producers of each section.
In addition to the previously mentioned control-work that is being carried out, a number of
the municipalities in the fruit sections have instituted certain codling-moth-control measures.
Departmental representatives  stationed  in such districts  give  all assistance  possible  to  the
municipal authorities.
2 U 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA. ■^.■'.■::-,.    ,-,>, •,".:.■-
DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 19
San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus).—The outbreak which has been present in the
Spences Bridge District would appear to be eradicated. C. R. Barlow, District Agriculturist,
reporting on the control-work, makes the following statement: " The orchards at Spences Bridge
in which San Jose scale formerly occurred were inspected periodically during the season, and no
evidence of the scale was found either in the orchards or upon the adjacent wild growth. Continued inspections should, however, be carried out in view of the possible reappearance of the
pest."
There has also been brought to the attention of your Horticulturist the presence of the pest
on the Chopaka Reserve, south of Cawston. In company with R. P. Murray, a survey of
this area was made this summer and plans laid for a thorough spraying of all infested trees
during the coming winter. The Dominion Department of Indian Affairs, through their Inspector,
W. B. Anderson, is co-operating in this work.
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa deccmlineata).—This insect is found only in the East
Kootenays. Since 1927 your Horticultural Branch has been carrying out certain control
measures, and while it has been found impossible to eradicate this pest, the fact that it has not
spread to other areas would seem to justify the expenditures which have been made. F. A.
Marsack, who has been in charge of the work for a number of years, was again in charge this
year. A very complete report on this work has been submitted, and while it is impossible to
incorporate it in this report, it may be stated that it shows a marked lessening in the area in
which the beetle was found in 1931. It is hoped that it will be possible to continue this work
next year.
Fire-blight (Bacillus amylovorus).—This disease, which is found only in the fruit-growing
areas of the Interior, has been well controlled by the annual inspection carried out by the
different District Agriculturists. The system of tree-to-tree inspection as recorded in previous
reports was carried out again this year. The following figures give at a glance the results on
the acreage inspected during the past year in the Okanagan Valley:—
District.
Total Acreage
inspected.
Passed.
Not passed.
5,704
5,110
1,811
290
464
702
1,421
5,130
4,438
1,811
290
464
702
1,234
574
672
Summerland	
187
15,502
14,069
1,433
Nursery Inspection.—Under the "Agricultural Act" it is necessary that all nurserymen and
nursery agents take ont a licence before they can sell nursery stock in the Province. During the
past year eighty-nine licences have been issued. Inspection of all nurseries selling fruit-trees
or bushes has been made. A total of 129,372 trees were inspected, of which only 1,889 or 1.5 per
cent, were condemned.
Car Inspection.—For a number of years fruit-cars coming into the Okanagan Valley from
northern railway centres as well as from the south have been inspected in order to see that they
were clean and free from codling-moth. The findings for the last two years have been small.
In view of this, as well as the general prevalence of codling-moth at most Okanagan shipping-
points, it was decided that this work might be reduced. AArork of this kind, therefore, was not
carried ont at either Kamloops or Revelstoke. This work, however, was done at various northern
Okanagan points as well as at Summerland. In addition to car inspection at loading-points, the
cars bringing fruit to the dehydrator at Vernon were carefully checked. AA7. Baverstock, who
has charge of this work, makes the following report: "A very close check was kept on all
cars arriving with cull apples at the dehydrator plant of Bulmans, Limited, Vernon. Cars were
all carded as per instructions with a yellow card. Very few larva? were found in these cars
this season, although the fruit passing through the plant was very wormy. The bulk of cars
came from the Kelowna District and only an occasional one or two from north of AVinfield.
A total of thirty-two cars passed through the plant during the inspection period and practically
all cars were unloaded within forty-eight hours.    All refuse from the plant passes through a II 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
steam-chamber before it leaves the plant, so reinfestation from that source is reduced  to a
minimum."
DEMONSTRATION-WORK.
It is necessary that various lines of demonstration-work be undertaken in order that growers
may be shown the best varieties of vegetables to be grown and the most satisfactory sprays to
use. This work serves as a concrete demonstration, particularly when carried out in a district
which has possibilities in any particular line.
Codling-moth Spray Experiments.—Demonstration-work in Codling-moth control was undertaken this year at Kelowna by B. Hoy and M. H. Ruhmann. A full report will be found in the
annual report of Mr. Ruhmann.
Apple-scab Control.—AA'ork in the control of apple-scab was undertaken in the Salmon Arm
and Vernon Districts, as well as in the Kootenays. In so far as the Kootenay work is concerned
and which was carried out by E. C. Hunt and J. W. Eastham, this will be reported in Mr. East-
ham's report. In both the Vernon and Salmon Arm demonstrations your officials co-operated
with Dominion Plant Pathologist officers. H. H. Evans, District Agriculturist, makes the following report with regard to the A^ernon work:—
" This co-operative project was conducted on the J. T. Mutrie orchard at Vernon by the
Provincial Department of Agriculture and the Dominion Pathological Branch of the Summerland
Experimental Station, in testing efficiency of various sulphur compounds for control of apple-
scab (Venturia inequalis). The past season constitutes the second-year work. A slight change
was made in construction of the plots from that of 1931, substitutions being made in Plots Nos.
7, 8, and 9, defects having become apparent with the material used in Plots Nos. 7 and 8, and
Plot No. 9 being deemed a duplication. The materials used were standard Liquid Lime Sulphur,
Cal-Mo-Sul, Calcium Mono-Sulphide, and Sulphate of Iron. These materials were used singly or
in combination, as illustrated by the following table :—
" District, Vernon;   Orchard, J. Tm Mutrie;   Variety, Mcintosh ;   Year 19S2.
6
7,
Material.
Dilution.
Application Dates.
Counts.
o
E
Clean.
Infected.
i
Cal-Mo-Sul	
16 lb. to 100 gals, water	
Pre-pink,    May    2nd:
calyx, May 16th ; 21
days later, June 7th
Calyx ; 21 days later..
Pre-pink ;    calyx ;   21
days later 	
Calyx ; 21 days later..
Pre-pink  ]
Calyx     L
Per Cent.
99.30
98.25
99.32
98.54
99.92
99.90
99.50
99.4S
98.92
93.98
Per Cent.
o
Cal-Mo-Sul    ..
0.07
1 75
3
4
Calcium ; Mono-Sulphide-
Calcium ; Mono-Sulphide,
Liquid Lime Sulphur	
Liquid Lime Sulphur
Cal-Mo-Sul	
16 lb. to 100 gals, water	
16 lb. to 100 gals, water	
1-40  	
1-40  	
0.68
1.40
0.08
6
1-40 	
Calyx   1
21 days later  f
Pre-pink ;    calyx ;    21
days later 	
Pre-pink ;    calyx ;   21
days later 	
Pre-pink   ]
1
Calvx                           I
1-40	
0.10
7
20 lb. to 100 gals, water	
20 lb. to 100 gals, water
L.S.  1-50  plus Iron  Sulphate
%  lb -   ...
L.S. 1-100 plus Iron Sulphate
1%   lb	
8
9
Calcium ; Mono-Sulphide.
Lime Sulphur ; Iron Sulphate
Check      	
0.50
0.52
1 08
L.S. 1-100 plus Iron Sulphate
1%   lb -
21 davs later	
10
6 02
" All sprays were applied under 450 lb. pressure. Climatic conditions of 1932 were conducive to development of fungous diseases and apple-scab was very prevalent throughout the
district. It is very noticeable, however, that the situation where these experimental plots are
is much more free from scab-infection than the average orchard.    If this experiment is con- DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 21
tinued, a change of location for the plots to where scab-infection is more prevalent appears
advisable in order to subject the materials to more severe conditions of trial.
" Plots sprayed with Liquid Lime Sulphur again showed effects of toxic action on the foliage
in lighter colour and restricted size when compared with other materials. The Lime Sulphur-
Iron Sulphate combination appears to have promise. The foliage showed a very healthy
appearance throughout the season and its efficiency appears reasonably good. Owing to the
heavy deposit of sulphides which stick very persistently to foliage and fruit, it may be found
inadvisable to use this combination for spraying later than dates indicated in these experiments.
The Calcium Mono-Sulphide Plots Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and S have all shown excellent results from a
control standpoint, but with this material the cost factor is much higher than other materials
used.
" No actual burning of either foliage or fruit occurred on any plots, only Nos. 5 and 6
showed evidence of subnormal growth.
" Spraying was done with Provincial Department of Agriculture men and equipment. Fruit
counts and records were compiled by the Dominion Pathologists."
AVith regard to the Salmon Arm demonstration, this was conducted under the supervision of
C. R. Barlow.    He reports as follows:—
" In collaboration with officials of the Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology at Summerland, B.C., test-plots have again been carried on this year in B. H. Naylor's orchard at
Salmon Arm with a view to determining the relative efficiency of various materials in control of
apple-scab. The materials under test are Lime Sulphur in combination with Ferrous Sulphate,
Calcium Mono-Sulphide, and Cal-Mo-Sul. It is planned that this work be carried on over several
years in order that definite and reliable conclusions may be arrived at. Reference to the table
below will show that, of the materials tested, Lime Sulphur gave the most satisfactory results,
followed by Lime Sulphur plus Ferrous Sulphate, Calcium Mono-Sulphide, and Cal-Mo-Sul in the
order named. It will be seen, however, that while Lime Sulphur sprays gave the best results,
they are by no means satisfactory, and that the measure of control obtained with the other
materials tested was very disappointing.
" Result of Apple-scab Spray Experiment on Mcintosh Red Trees at Salmon Arm, B.C.
Plot No.
Foliage.
Healthy.
Scabby.
Fruit.
Clean.
Scabbed but
Marketable.
Culls from Scab.
1	
2	
3	
4	
Check
Per Cent.
95.39
70.49
70.42
70.17
63.95
Per Cent.
4.61
23.51
29.58
29.83
36.05
Per Cent.
45.44
16.63
3.57
2.52
1.80
Per Cent.
47.47
05.02
40.88
47.21
27.97
Per Cent.
7.09
17.75
55.55
50.27
70.23
"Plot No. 1.—Lime Sulphur: Pink (1-35) ; calyx (1-40) ;  3 weeks later (1-40).
" Plot No. 2.—Lime Sulphur and FeSo'4 : Pink (L.S. l-50+FeSo'4 % lb.>; calyx (L.S. 1-100 +
FeSo'4 m, lb.) ;  3 weeks later (L.S. 1-100+FeSo'4 1% lb.).
"Plot No. 3.—Cal-Mo-Sul (13 lb. to 100 gals.) :  Pink, calyx-, and 3 weeks later.
" Plot No. J/.—Calcium Mono-Sulphide (12% lb. to 100 gals.) :  Pink, calyx, and 3 weeks later.
" Check.—No sprays."
Pear-orchard Demonstration-work.—It has been felt for some time that if more attention
were paid to improving the pear-orchards in the Lower Mainland section a grade of fruit would
result that would be well suited to meet the requirements of the canning-factories as well as the
fresh-fruit market. Acting upon this idea, the Department this year secured a portion of a
large pear-orchard located at Sardis. The necessary pruning, spraying, fertilizing, and cultivating was done, with the result that a most satisfactory crop was obtained which sold well.
The work was under the direct supervision of G. E. W. Clarke. He, however, had the co-operation of officials of the Dominion Fruit Branch as well as J. A. Grant, of the Provincial Markets
Branch, and the Chilliwack Board of Trade. The results of this work were most satisfactory,
showing as it did the possibilities of the improvement which could be made in certain old pear- orchards, and also indicating the fact that the canneries were willing to use Coast pears if they
were assured of suitable quality.
Test of Broccoli Varieties.—A report of this test as carried ont on A'ancouver Island is given
in the report of E. AV. AATiite, Assistant Provincial Horticulturist, and is as follows:—
" The test of the six varieties of broccoli, seed of which was sent to you by F. R. Home,
head of the Botanical Department, Seale-Hayne Agricultural College, Newton Abbot, Devon,
England, did not prove very satisfactory.
" As reported last year, plantings were made on August 7th at J. N. AArood's, R.M.D. 1, Royal
Oak, and W. T. Edwards', R.M.D. 4. Arictoria. A second planting was made on August 27th at
J. N. AVood's, AAr. T. Edwards', C. B. McCarthy's, R.M.D. 1, Royal Oak, and W. J. Houlihan's,
R.M.D. 4, Victoria.
" The plantings at Messrs. Edwards' and Houlihan's were the best and proved fairly satisfactory, but the plantings at Messrs. Wood's and McCarthy's were a failure.
" The plantings at the Dominion Experimental Station at Saanichton were also more or less
of a failure, due to the ground becoming covered with water from heavy rains followed by frost.
Part of the plot was destroyed to make room for a new house which was being built.
" The six varieties can be described briefly as follows :—
"Early Cornish.—Ready in early February; poor colour, perhaps due to frost. Tendency to
run to seed.
"Phillips Early.—Ready middle of February;  poor colour, yellow, perhaps due to frost.
" Phillips Med. Season.—Early March;   very good, colour fair, size fair to small.
" Scilly.—Middle March;  excellent colour, size medium.
" Mann's.—Middle of April;   some fair heads, nothing outstanding.
" Late Angus.—Late;  fairly good, fair size, good flavour.
" On the whole, none of the varieties were outstanding and were not superior in any way to
varieties which have been grown locally.    They did not prove any more hardy."
Raspberry and Stratcberry Variety Trials.—This work has been carried on in a small way
in different sections of the Province with a view to ascertaining whether certain varieties were
suitable to varied growing conditions. The results in the past have been to give us new varieties
well suited to local conditions and satisfactory commercially. This is a type of work which will
have to be continued as long as new varieties are introduced, and it is hoped during the coming-
year, with the assistance of the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz, to extend this
raspberry-work.
SEED-PROMOTION WORK.
In October of this year the position of S. S. Phillips was changed from Horticulturist to
that of Provincial Seed Promoter for the Province. At the same time a committee of three—
namely, G. M. Stewart, C. Tice, and AV. H. Robertson—were appointed to assist in this work.
AA7ith regard to this matter, Mr. Phillips in his annual report makes the following statement:—
" It was decided by the committee that work along seed-production lines should be carried
out slowly and carefully, giving close regard to marketing possibilities. Definite work was outlined which consisted as f ollow-s :—
"(1.) Information on production of various vegetable-seed crops for new growers. This to
be compiled by the Seed Promoter and to be checked over by A. McMeans. Stencils to be made
for distribution to new growers and parties interested.
"(2.) Seed-cleaning Machines.—It was decided that the Department would be doing useful
and necessary work by purchasing cleaning-machines and placing them at points in the Province
where they would do the best work.
"(3.) Stock Seed.—A. McMeans and S. S. Phillips were appointed to make up a list showing
the quantity and varieties of different kinds of vegetable-seeds to be placed with growers for
1933. Authority was also given to purchase a small amount of seed from Old Country Arms.
This list has been made out and copies will be forwarded to members of the committee.
"(4.) Marketing.—This is by far the most difficult problem to deal with. Various angles
were discussed. Although it was recognized that there were great possibilities for British
Columbia in seed production, the industry is small at present and the various districts where
seed is being produced at present are not well known in Eastern Canada. It was felt that, if
definite contracts could be secured by growers to produce seed for Eastern seed-houses at a DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 23
definite price, this would solve to some extent the problem of marketing. It was also felt that
for the present growers going into seed production should market seed through the regular trade
channels already established rather than form a marketing organization."
ACKNOWLEDGMENT.
Your Horticulturist wishes to take this, opportunity of expressing his appreciation of the
excellent co-operation which he was received during the past year not only from his own staff,
but also from the various District Agriculturists as well as from numerous Dominion and
University officials.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Robertson,
Provincial Horticulturist.
REPORT OP CHIEF PLANT QUARANTINE OFFICER.
W. H. Lyne.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A..
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith annual report of duties performed by the Plant Quarantine
Branch during the year ended December 31st, 1932.
Complying with regulations under authority of Part II. of the "Agricultural Act," R.S.B.C.
1924, chapter 8, all plant products, including fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, peas, beans, etc., arriving in the Province were inspected at the various ports of importation where officers for that
purpose were stationed. Trees, shrubs, plants, bulbs, etc., referred to as nursery stock, were
inspected at the Arancouver Inspection and Fumigation Station before being released to the
consignee by whom they were imported, with the exception of certain stock inspected at other
points in the Province by special permit.
In connection with special permits granting inspection of certain imported nursery stock at
points in British Columbia other than Vancouver, the District Horticulturist undertook such
inspection if more conveniently situated than the regular Plant Quarantine Inspectors. The
permits were therefore limited accordingly and confined to general nursery stock from the
Prairie Provinces, and bulbs or greenhouse plants from the Eastern Provinces of Canada when
addressed to residents in Eastern or Northern British Columbia. All other imported nursery
stock was inspected at Araneouver, with one other exception—namely, herbaceous or greenhouse
plants and bulbs landed at A'ictoria as first port of call for consignees in that locality. Such
importations were inspected by the Plant Quarantine Inspector stationed at Arictoria.
Ports of importation where Quarantine Officers are stationed in accordance with the regulations are Arancouver, Victoria, Nanaimo, Prince Rupert, AA7hite Rock, Huntingdon, Grand Forks,
Waneta, Nelson, Kingsgate, Cranbrook, Newgate, Fernie, and Revelstoke.
" COMPLIANCE WITH DOMINION REGULATIONS."
By mutual arrangement between the two Governments the Provincial Plant Quarantine
staff, while complying with our Provincial regulations, also enforce the regulations pertaining
to the Dominion " Destructive Insect and Pest Act" as regards plant products and nursery stock
imported into this Province, and by way of this Province into other parts of Canada. The
Dominion regulations also require all consignees to apply to Ottawa for permits to import
nursery stock, without which, and the inspection certificate issued at Vancouver, no such stock
is allowed to clear Customs. Copies of all such permits are sent from the Division of Foreign
Pest Suppression. Ottawa, to the Vancouver Plant Quarantine Office, where they are checked
against the shipments as they arrive.
TABULATED LISTS OF IMPORTATIONS.
Filed with the Department of Agricullure at ATictoria, B.C., are tabulated lists of the various
plant products imported and exported, referring to the quantities that passed inspection and
those condemned.    Products imported during the previous year are also given for comparison. U 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
CERTIFICATES AND FEES.
Certificates were issued releasing all imported plant products and nursery stock found to be
free from destructive insect pests or plant-diseases, and inspection fees collected. Condemnation
certificates were issued for products condemned but no inspection fee charged. Condemned
products were returned to the shipper at his or the consignee's expense or they were destroyed.
OCEAN TRAFFIC.
In addition to plant products from foreign countries arriving in British Columbia by way of
railway freight, express, and mail, a large quantity is conveyed by boats from all parts of the
world landing their cargoes at our Pacific Coast ports. For that reason British Columbia seaports are our first line of defence against the numerous insect pests and plant-diseases that
arrive from other countries with the various plant products imported.
During the year deep-sea and coastwise boats arrived at Vancouver at the rate of about
forty-five per week. The manifest of each boat was carefully examined by a Plant Quarantine
Officer. No products subject to inspection were allowed to leave the dock until released by the
Quarantine Officer on duty. A Plant Quarantine Officer was on hand during the time passengers'
baggage was being examined by Customs officials, who referred to him any plant products found.
The same routine was carried out at Victoria and Prince Rupert.
The number of boats that arrived at Vancouver during the year 1932 are listed as follows:
Deep-sea boats, 1,225 ;   coastwise boats, 1,128;   total, 2,353.
Of the total number of boats that arrived, 79 contained trees, shrubs, plants, or bulbs,
referred to as nursery stock;  and 798 contained plant products, all subject to inspection.
RESIGNATIONS AND APPOINTMENTS.
R. P. Johnson, Inspector of Imported Plant Products at Kingsgate, B.C., resigned on
February 15th, 1932, to take over a business enterprise at Ladysmith, B.C., after five years'
service on the Quarantine staff. Mrs. Evelyn Campbell, a resident of Kingsgate, was appointed
Inspector of Imported Plant Products at that port in place of Mr. Johnson on May 16th, 1932.
Mrs. Campbell is the first woman to fill a position of that kind on the Plant Quarantine staff.
She is proving to be a good official.
PORTS VISITED.
In order to curtail travelling expenses as much as possible, only a few of the boundary ports
were visited by the Chief Plant Quarantine Officer during the year. Visits to those ports were
necessary in order to decide some important details regarding routing policy and appoint the
new officer at Kingsgate.
At Rykert it was necessary to interview Mr. Davis, the Customs Officer, regarding the road
traffic by way of that port, owing to some persistent requests having been made to appoint an
Inspector there to accommodate parties who wished to import fruit and vegetables from the
United States in auto-trucks by way of Rykert. It was finally decided not to appoint an
Inspector there for that purpose. It was not desirable to encourage the importation of products
by that route through the commercial orchard district of Creston, as it might be the means of
bringing in codling-moth. The growers in that district have worked hard to exterminate that
pest.
PORT OF NELAVAY.
At Nelson the request for a Quarantine Officer to be appointed at Nelway was discussed with
the merchants who wished to import fruit and vegetables from Spokane by truck via Nelway.
They were informed that owing to there being no one residing at Nelway who could be appointed
to act as Quarantine Officer at that port, fruit and vegetables would have to be imported by way
of AA'aneta or Kingsgate. On December 15th the Chief Plant Quarantine Officer at Vancouver
was informed that arrangement had been made for a Customs Officer to accompany certain
shipments of imported fruit and vegetables from Nelway to Nelson in bond, where they would
be inspected by the Quarantine Officer stationed at Nelson. That particular arrangement was
granted accordingly.
TRANSFER OF OBSERVATION-LIST.
Prior to Order in Council No. 859, approved July 27th, 1932, a large variety of fruit and
vegetables not usually associated with serious insect pests or plant-diseases were not so closely DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 25
inspected as other products. For that reason the various importations were divided into two
classes—namely, the general inspection-list, involving close inspection, certificates, and inspection
fees, and the observation-list, for which no certificates were issued or fees collected.
Owing to the fact- that we could not take it for granted that products on the observation-
list would always arrive free from pest or disease, it was necessary for the Inspectors to devote
a certain amount of their time to the inspection of such products. It was considered only fail-
that such inspection should be paid for. Products on the observation-list were therefore transferred to the regular inspection-list by Order in Council No. 859.
INSPECTION OP PLANT PRODUCTS EXPORTED.
Export inspection certificates were issued to comply with the regulations of countries to
which the various plant products were exported. Plant products exported to countries having
no regulations demanding inspection were inspected, and certificates issued if requested by
shipper, consignee, or transportation company, with the exception of trees, shrubs, plants, or
bulbs, all of which had to be inspected and certificates issued, in compliance with regulations
under the Canadian " Destructive Insect and Pest Act."
So far the Provincial Department has not charged a fee for inspection of plant products for
export, with the view that careful inspection and certification to freedom from pest or disease
protects the reputation of such products abroad and tends to increase a demand for them. The
products exported were carefully inspected and certificates issued accordingly.
"ADDITIONAL DEMANDS FOR EXPORT CERTIFICATES."
Complying with ruling of Great Britain that all apples exported to that country must be
provided with certificates proclaiming them free from apple-maggot, Dominion " Destructive
Insect and Pest Act" Regulation No. 1 (Export) went into effect October 22nd, 1932. Fortunately, British Columbia being free from apple-maggot, the certificate is a mere formality so far
as apples from this Province are concerned, and authority was given the Dominion Fruit Branch
officials to issue the certificates in connection with apples exported from this Province to all
countries other than the United States. Our Provincial Plant Quarantine Office was requested
by Ottawa to continue issuing pest-free certificates regarding other pests and diseases in connection with all plant products exported to the various countries.
" PRANCE DEMANDS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE."
Principally with a view to guarding against the importation of San Jose scale (Aspidiotus
perniciosus) into Prance, that country now rules that all fruit imported must be accompanied
by a certificate proclaiming it free from that particular pest, and incidentally other pests and
diseases.
IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK.
Owing to depression, dumping duty, and foreign exchange, much less nursery stock was
imported than in former years; bulbs being the nearest to previous quantities. Our nurseries,
however, had already provided themselves fairly well with seedling stock for propagation.
PESTS INTERCEPTED.
Pests for which imported nursery stock was condemned were as follows:—
Scale, San Jose (Aspidiotus perniciosus), on fruit-trees from United States and ornamental
shrubs from Japan.
Scale. European (Aspidiotus ostreceformis), on fruit-trees from United States and ornamental shrubs from Japan.
Scale (Diaspis camellii) on ornamental shrubs from Japan.
Scale (Diaspis carneli) on juniper-trees from Japan.
Scale (Lec.aninm coryli) on ornamental shrubs from United States.
Scale (Lecanium, hesperidium) on seedling shrubs from United States.
Scale (Chionaspis sp.) on ornamental shrubs from Sweden.
Scale (Chionaspis fnrfura) on maple-trees from Japan.
Scale, putnam (Aspidiotus aneylus), on salix-trees from Ontario, Canada.
Scale, white ivy (Aspidiotus hederw), on ornamental shrubs from United States.
Scale, black (Saissetia oleoe), on pepper sprays from United States. ' U 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Eel-worm (large species) on onion sets and roots of shrubs from United States, roots of
shrubs and bulbs from Japan, and on delphinium roots from England.
Woolly aphis (Eriosoma lanigera) on apple seedlings and trees-from United States.
Pear root-aphis (Eriosoma pyri) on roots of pear-trees from United States.
Peach root-borer (Sanninoidea exitiosa) on peach-trees from United States.
Black peach-root aphis (Aphis persicwniger) on peach-tree roots from United States.
Carnation-maggot (Hylemyia brunnescens) on carnations from England.
Strawberry root-weevil (Otiorhynehus sulcatus) on astilbe roots from United States.
AA'illow bark-weevil (Cryptorhynehus lapathi) on willow from Ontario, Canada.
Bulb eel-worm (Tylenchus dipsaci) on forced narcissus bulbs from Calgary, Alberta; on
bulbs (narcissus) from England and Scotland.
Phylloxera vastatrix on grape-vines from United States and Ontario, Canada.
Smaller narcissus-fly larva? (Humerus stigatus) on narcissus from England.
Large narcissus-fly larva? (Merodon equistris) on narcissus bulbs from Holland, England,
and Scotland.
Bulb-mite (Rhisoglyphus eclimopus) on bulbs from. England and Holland.
Giant Saperda borer on fig-tree cutting from Japan.
DISEASES INTERCEPTED.
Diseases for which imported nursery stock was condemned were as follows:—
Fusarium rot on begonia and glovinia tubers from Ontario, Canada, and United States.
Root-gall  (Pseudomonas tumefaciens)  on fruit-trees and berry-bushes from United States
and Canada.
Soft bacterial rot and Penicillinm, mould on tulip bulbs and begonia from Holland, United
States, and England.
Hyacinth yellows (Bacterium hyacinthi) on hyacinth bulbs from Holland and France.
Japan lily disease (Rhizopus neeans) on lily bulbs from Japan.
Anthracnose cankers on shrubs from Holland.
Gladiolus hard-rot (Sepioria gladioli) on gladiolus corms from England and Holland.
Gladiolus-scab   (Bacterium marginatum)   on gladioli from United States, England, and
Holland.
Hairy-root (Bacterium tumefaciem) on fruit-trees from United States.
Bacterial wet-rot on liatris corms from France.
Twig and stem blight (Bacillus cubonianus)  on mulberry from France.
Tulip-fire (Botrytis tulipw)  on tulips from Holland.
Basal and neck rots of narcissus from Holland.
Hard-rot (Septoria sp.)  on crocus from Holland.
NURSERY STOCK REJECTED OAATING TO EMBARGO RELATING TO
OBSCURE PESTS AND DISEASE.
Flowering currant (Ribis) from Holland, Dominion Regulation No. 8 (Foreign).
Pteris plant cuttings from Honolulu, Dominion Regulation No. 4 (Foreign).
Pinus sylvestris from France, under Dominion Regulation No. 6 (Foreign).
Pinus sylvestris from Ontario, under Dominion Regulation No. 3 (Domestic).
Gladiolus flowers, foliage, and corms, from other Canadian Provinces and from the United
States, under Dominion Regulation No. 10 (Domestic) and Dominion Regulation No. 19
(Foreign).
Peach-trees from certain States in the United States, under Dominion Regulation No. 14
(Foreign).
Potatoes from Bohmen, Czechoslovakia, under Dominion Regulation No. 3 (Foreign).
Five-needle pines from Japan, under Dominion Regulation No. 6 (Foreign).
Three-needle pines from United States, under Dominion Regulation No. 6 (Foreign).
LIST OF PESTS AND DISEASES INTERCEPTED IN FRUIT AND
VEGETABLES, ETC.
Cherry fruit-fly (Rhagoletis eingulata) in fresh cherries from United States.
Codling-moth larva? (Carpocapsa pomonella) on apples from United States. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 27
Scale, oleander (Aspidiotus hederw), on lemons from Italy.
Scale, orange-red (Chrysomphales aurantii), on oranges and lemons from United States.
Scale (Mytttaspis citricola)  on lemons and oranges from United States and Jamaica and
lemons from Italy.
Corn ear-worm  (Heliothus obsoleta)  on corn on the cob from United States and on field
tomatoes from Mexico.
PESTS FOR AVHICH PRODUCTS AATERE FUMIGATED.
Scale (Diaspis sp.) and mealy bug (Pseudococcus brevipes) on fresh pineapples and cocoa-
nuts from the Hawaiian Islands.
Plodia interpunctella (Indian-meal moth) infesting shelled almonds and raisins from Spain,
peanuts from China, and in shelled walnuts from China; also in lima beans from
Madagascar.
Cadelle beetle (Teneuroides mauritanicus) and rice-weevil (Sitophilus oryew) on empty
sacks from Japan.
Bean-weevil (Bruchus obtictus) in beans and chick-pea from Rangoon, India.
Peas from Calcutta, India, infested with Tribolium beetles and pea-weevil (Bruchus chen-
nises).
Seed-peas from England infested with pea-weevil (Bruchus pissorum).
Dried bamboo poles (natural colour) from Japan infested with a specie of Tribolium beetle.
ELEVATOR GRAIN SCREENINGS.
Complying with section 17, Part II., of the Provincial " Noxious AA7eeds Act," assented to
April 1st, 1931, and regulations pertaining thereto, grain screenings containing more than 3 per
cent, noxious weed-seeds were not allowed movement to any place within the Province except
by special permit issued from the Plant Quarantine Office, Court-house, A'ancouver.
Permits referred to consisted of two specific forms; i.e., one permitting removal of screenings by a dealer or grain merchant, and one to stock-feeders conditional to prescribed regulations.
Before granting either permit the premises of the applicant were inspected and facilities for
handling the screenings according to regulations examined, and permits were issued or refused
accordingly. Dealers' permits issued during the year numbered 35, granting, in total, movement
of 845 car-loads. Feeders' permits numbered 24, granting, in total, movement of 62 car-loads of
about 30 tons each.
MANAGERS' SCREENINGS REPORTS.
Complying with regulations governing the movement of grain screenings, monthly reports
were received at the Plant Quarantine Office, Court-house, Arancouver, from managers of all
grain-elevators and the principal grain-dealers within the Province. Each report contained the
date of delivery, quantity, grade, number of permit, and whether for home use or export.
According to managers' reports received, 19,601 tons 320 lb. of uncleaned screenings, referred
to as Grade B, were used within the Province, and 4,110 tons 1,250 lb. were exported. Of
recleaned screenings, referred to as Grade A, 635 tons 190 lb. were used in the Province and
1,014 tons 1,570 lb. were exported.
A large quantity of the uncleaned screenings were purchased by dealers who recleaned and
ground them for feeding to live stock within the Province, in which case no feeders' permits
were issued. It is, however, doubtful if all such screenings were recleaned and ground sufficiently to destroy all the seed-germs in spite of the Inspectors keeping as close a check as
possible on the screenings disposed of in that way.
The total amount, of grain screenings, both recleaned and uncleaned, for use within the
Province and exported during the year 1932 amounted to 25,360 tons.
"EGGS MARKS ACT."
Complying with the " Eggs Marks Act," chapter 74. " Revised Statutes of British Columbia,
1924," and amendments thereto, a careful watch was maintained by Inspectors appointed to see
that all foreign eggs imported into the Province were properly marked; also that any business-
place using eggs imported from China displayed a conspicuous notice to that effect. U 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It would be a mere guess to state whether or not the high rate of United States money
exchange or the " Eggs Marks Act" was responsible for so few eggs being imported from that
country; also, if the notice that must be posted regarding the Chinese eggs was the cause of
no frozen egg whites or yolks arriving from China.
The total importations were 50 dozen eggs for hatching, via A7ictoria, B.C.; 8 dozen and 4
eggs for hatching, via AA'aneta, B.C.; 55 cases frozen egg-meat to A'ancouver, B.C., from the
United States. There were from China sixty-seven cases salted or preserved whole eggs in
shell wrapped in mud, for exclusive use of Chinese at A'ictoria, B.C., and 167 cases of the same
kind, for exclusive use of Chinese at A7ancouver, B.C. Also five eases of dried egg-albumen and
five cases of dried egg-yolks for a wholesale firm at A'ancouver.
WESTERN PLANT QUARANTINE BOARD.
Your Chief Plant Quarantine Officer had the honour of representing British Columbia at
the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the AA7estern Plant Quarantine Board at Bozeman, Montana, U.S.A., June 9th. 10th, and 11th.
The Board is composed of Plant Quarantine Officers of the eleven AA7estern States of the
United States, Mexico. Hawaiian Islands, and British Columbia. Each year the conference has
been held in turn at one of the State capitols or agricultural colleges, and in 1921 in the Parliament. Buildings, A7ictoria, B.C.
There are also present at each conference officers representing the Federal Plant Quarantine
Branches, the various transportation companies, nurserymen, and dealers in plant products.
On this occasion the Fourteenth Conference was held at the Montana State Agricultural College.
The numerous problems regarding plant-quarantine administration relating to proper control
of insect pests and plant-diseases received the usual earnest attention with a view to making the
regulations governing the movement of plant products as uniformly consistent and fair as
possible.
OFFICE ROUTINE.
The Plant Quarantine Office, situated in the Court-house at A'ancouver, is headquarters for
all matters dealing with plant-quarantine and inspection work in connection with imported or
exported plant products within the Province of British Columbia. Daily reports are received
from the several transportation companies regarding the arrival of miscellaneous plant products
by boat, train, express, or mail, all of which receives the prompt attention of the staff. All
details of inspection are carefully recorded. Certificates are issued and inspection fees collected.
Inspection reports are issued to consignees, shippers, or transportation companies who request
them in order to settle claims.
All copies of Dominion permits to import nursery stock are on file and are checked upon the
arrival of the stock to which they refer. Emergency permits are also issued to consignees
entitled to them. Dominion export inspection certificates are on hand for use when nursery
stock for export is inspected by the Chief Plant Quarantine Officer or his staff. Record report
sheets of plant products imported into Canada by way of British Columbia are forwarded to
the Division of Foreign Pests Suppression at Ottawa and also those recording exports.
AA7HEAT FROM AUSTRALIA REJECTED.
Two hundred and fifty tons of wheat arrived from Australia on January 28th intended for
pastry-flour. Unfortunately the shipment was not provided with the necessary certificate
required by Dominion Regulation No. 18 (Foreign), to the effect that the wheat was grown in
a district free from flag-smut (TJroeystis tritici). It was refused entry into Canada and shipped
out of the country accordingly.    So far the disease referred to is not known to exist in Canada.
" CRITICS ARE MISTAKEN."
In conclusion, it may not be out of place to point ont that if people who complain that trees,
shrubs, plants, or bulbs imported into the Province are injured at the Government Fumigation
Station during process of inspection or fumigation could be present when such shipments arrive,
they would probably apologize for the offhand remarks they had made. They would realize
that, aside from accidents en route, it was necessary to properly pack such stock to ensure it
arriving at destination in good condition. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 29
Unfortunately some shipments arrive in a hopeless condition, either as the result of bad
packing or the physical condition of the stock when shipped, or owing to insect pests or disease.
Furthermore, no stock is fumigated that would be injured by such process.    Everything is carefully handled by men who are specially trained for that work.
Respectfully submitted.
AA7. H. Lyne,
Chief Plant Quarantine Officer.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
J. AA'. Eastham. B.Sc.
J. B. Munro, U.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for 1932.
APPLE-SCAB IN WEST KOOTENAY.
This work was carried out, as in previous years, in co-operation with Mr. Hunt, the District
Agriculturist. From the beginning of April samples of old Mcintosh apple-leaves were sent in
from orchards at Bonnington, Nelson, Willow Point, and Queens Bay. Leaves sent on April 12th
from near Nelson showed mature asci which discharged their spores on being moistened. At
this date the buds, even of the early varieties, had not begun to break. (It is of interest to note
that ascospores of pear-scab were mature at Chilliwack on March 20th.) Six sprays were
given on the experimental plots at S. G. Blaylock's, as follows: (Variety, Mcintosh)—Delayed
dormant, April 21st; late cluster-bud, May 3rd; pink. May 10th; calyx, May 26th; and later
sprays June 8th and 23rd. Notices and recommendations were made through the Nelson Daily
News, as in previous years.
SPRAY-MATERIALS TEST.
In 1931 fairly extensive tests were made with calcium sulphide for control of apple-scab.
This material was used in two forms. The results were not favourable, the material being only
about half as efficient as lime-sulphur in the control of apple-scab on Mcintosh, so that, in spite
of its advantage in being non-caustic and not injuring the foliage, it did not seem likely to have
much future under Kootenay conditions. There is no significant difference in the results
between the two forms of the calcium sulphide.
This year it was decided to test a combination of half-strength lime-sulphur combined with
half the recommended amount of calcium sulphide against lime-sulphur alone. Three orchards
were selected for the tests—namely, at Queens Bay, AVillow Point, and near Nelson. In the last
case the actual spraying was done by E. C. Hunt; in the other two cases, by the orchardist.
For the first spray (delayed dormant) commercial liquid lime-sulphur 1-35 was used throughout.
the calcium sulphide not having arrived. For later sprays lime-sulphur 1-40 and lime-sulphur
1-80 plus 6% lb. calcium sulphide to 80 imperial gallons. Six sprays were given on or about
the dates mentioned above.
At picking-time one tree was selected in each plot and the total apples sorted and counted.
These trees as far as possible were similarly located in each plot. The check in each case consisted of a single unsprayed tree.
Willow Point—Picked September 20th;  Variety, Mcintosh.
Total Apples.
Clean.
Scabby.
Per Cent.
Scabby.
Check    	
1,322
1,478      ■
1,252
2,340
171
S67
667
1,437
1,151
611
585
903
87.1
L.S.  1-40	
L.S.  1-80 and Trail CaS	
L S   1  80 and C.M.S	
41.3
46.7
38.6 U 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Nelson-
—Picked September 25th;
Variety, Mcintosh.
Check	
358
3,030
1,557
1,727
4
2,198
1,267
1,280
354
832
290
447
98.8
L.S.  1-40	
L.S.  1-80 and Trail CaS	
L.S.  1-80 and C.M.S.
27.4
18.6
25.9
Queens Bay—Picked September 30th; Variety, Cox Orange.
Check	
L.S.  1-40	
L.S.  1-80 and Trail CaS..
L.S.  1-80 and C.M.S.	
37.0
4.0
2.9
3.9
Queens Bay—Picked October 30th;  Variety, Rome Beauty.
Check	
L.S.  1-40	
L.S.  1-80 and Trail CaS..
L.S. 1-80 and C.M.S	
90.8
8.0
8.8
8.5
It will be seen that scab was as well controlled by the combination of lime-sulphur and
calcium sulphide as by the lime-sulphur, and that there was nothing to choose between the two
makes of calcium sulphide. The amount of scab on all plots was high, this being due to a late
development of pin-head scab, probably following heavy rains at the end of August. As regards
foliage burning, the season was not favourable for a comparison. The spray dried quickly after
each spraying and even lime-sulphur caused little injury.
LATE SCAB OUTBREAKS.
There was, as already noted, a development of scab late in the season. In some cases there
was a serious development of scab after picking. Storage conditions were partly to blame in
some cases, as part of the same lot of clean fruit developed scab in the packing-house, but not in
the grower's cellar. This problem of late scab, which shows as pin-head spots on the apple
which was clean shortly before, or even at picking-time, is a serious one in certain seasons. In
some cases a hundred or more such spots may develop on an apple. Conditions, however, have
only led to such an outbreak three times in the past eighteen years. If a late spray is applied
and the fall is a dry one, the spray material remains on the fruit, which must then be wiped. An
effort will be made next year to test out certain materials for a late spray which will not
markedly stain the fruit.
ROT AND BREAK-DOAVN OP FIELD TOMATOES.
On August 29th one of the produce brokers brought in for report a case of tomatoes from
Mayne Island. About 70 per cent, of the fruit showed spotting, and in addition another 5 per
cent, had broken down completely. The spotting was in many cases associated with black
growths of a Macrosporium, apparently M. solani, although in some cases no such growth
appeared and cultures from such spots remained sterile. The spots resembled somewhat the
nail-head spot commonly seen on tomatoes imported from the South (Mexico), but were larger.
It was stated by the broker that the shrinkage on this shipment of tomatoes had been very heavy.
A similar shipment sent to Arictoria was reported on by Mr. Randall, the Assistant Dominion
Fruit Inspector. Four crates from four different growers were examined and showed from 20
to 43.7 per cent, black-spot and 3 to 15 per cent, soft-rot. In both the above instances, only four
days were stated to have elapsed between shipment and examination.
The tomato plantings of all growers on Mayne Island were inspected September 1st to 3rd,
when much difference was found in these plantings in respect to Macrosporium blight. In one
case infection was so severe that much of the foliage was destroyed, some plants being completely defoliated. Almost all the fruit was spotted and the crop an almost entire loss. Occasional plants were killed completely by girdling of the stem. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 31
On the other hand, a grower on the other side of the island had only an occasional
Macrosporium spot on the foliage or " nail-head " on the fruit. Other growers had a varying
amount of Macrosporium. In all cases, however, another trouble was found to be present. On
the semi-ripe fruit, when about ready for picking, and particularly on the " shoulder " around
the stem-end, slightly softer spots could be detected in many cases, or, a slight freckling of the
skin. In some cases these had a glassy, water-soaked appearance, but this was not usually
present. This condition was not apparently the result of any infection. Cultures made from
such areas remained sterile. AVhen such fruits were kept in the laboratory for a few days a
shrinkage of the tissue in these areas occurred, depressed spots % to % inch in diameter being
formed. These had irregular margins and the skin took on a brownish tint. However, even at
this stage, cultures yielded no organism, and it seems highly probable that this trouble is of a
physiological nature. The Mayne Island growers have used chicken-manure extensively, but no
artificial fertilizer, and it is possible that an excess of nitrogen has resulted in a fruit liable to
break-down. Recommendations were made for the control of Macrosporium and the use of
potash fertilizer.
RASPBERRY INVESTIGATIONS.
The condition of raspberry plantations in the Fraser A'alley has been given much attention.
Deterioration in plantings is apparently not due to any one cause. Several factors are involved,
the relative importance of each varying with the location and care of the individual plantation.
Among them are the following:—
(1.) Winter-injury.—Injury to the canes was very pronounced this season in the Cuthbert
variety. In many cases the canes were killed, or died back from killing of the buds, half-way
down from the tips. This form of injury was general in the Fraser A'alley, and in a trip taken
into AVashington State as far south as Puyallup it was noticed as being just as prevalent there.
This injury is apparently due to the persistent growth of the Cuthbert variety in late fall. The
canes are thus caught by the winter cold in a green and unripened condition. Cultural methods
for ripening off the canes do not seem to have been successful; e.g., cover-crops of rye had not
given an appreciable protection on the Puyallup Experiment Station. Plantings on the farm of
J. Everett at Port Kells gave an opportunity of contrasting the behaviour of Cuthbert and
Viking varieties in regard to winter-injury to the buds and canes. The latter when examined
in early summer were showing negligible injury, while the Cuthbert showed marked killing-back.
On November 19th the Vikings had lost nearly all their foliage and the buds were all in a
resting condition, while with the Cuthberts, not only was most of the foliage still present, but
many of the buds for next spring had started into growth and produced shoots 2 to. 3 inches long.
All this growth will be killed by winter frost and next year's crop depend on the weaker lateral
buds. How far the Viking will fill the commercial raspberry requirements remains to be seen,
but, so far as resistance to winter-injury is concerned, the results this season are distinctly
encouraging.
Winter-injury to the roots was quite severe in a few cases. These were chiefly on low
ground, and in the most serious case associated with a heavy type of soil and standing water in
winter. It has been amply demonstrated by investigation over a series of years that the Cuthbert raspberry will not stand " wet feet " in winter.
(2.) Diseases.—Leaf-rust (Phragmidium imitans) was quite prevalent and in some cases
severe enough to reduce the yield. Orange-rust (Gymnoconia interstitialis) has not been
reported in the Province since one infected plant was found and destroyed in 1914. Anthracnose
(Plectodiscella veneta) is a negligible factor, only an occasional planting showing it and then
not usually in a severe form. Spur-blight (Mycosphairella rubina) is generally distributed, but
does not seem to be a cause of serious damage. Mosaic, while quite general, is mostly of the
very mild mottling type, plants showing marked dwarfing and leaf-distortion being relatively
few. It is, however, gratifying to find that three nurseries in the Fraser A7alley are growing
certified stock of one or more varieties. Unfortunately, these do not include the Cuthbert.
Exceptional difficulties have been experienced in securing virus disease-free stock of this variety.
The most serious disease in the Fraser A7alley plantings is undoubtedly cane-blight
(Leptosphceria eoniothyrium). It is quite general, although rarely killing more than 5 per
cent, of the canes in a planting, or more than 25 per cent, of the canes on an individual plant.
A complete dying of individual plants scattered through a planting has not yet been explained.
It is not due to Armillaria, and Verticillium wilt has so far not been found in the Province. Powdery mildew was very severe on the Latham variety. In one plot of this variety offered
for certification it was quite impossible to inspect for virus diseases and the owner decided to
take out the planting.
(3.) Mammal-injury.—A feature that has been noticed as almost universal in Fraser Valley
raspberry plantings is the presence of runways of some small animal in the rows. These runways usually go from end to end of each, and often, every row, first on one side and then on
the other. They may completely encircle individual plants or leave nothing but an air-pocket
underneath the crown. The cultivation between the rows apparently restricts the activities of
the animals to the rows, or breaks up the runways so that they are not noticed. The amount of
injury done by these burrows is hard to estimate, but it seems probable that injury must occur
through more rapid drying-out during hot weather, and possibly from increased winter-injury.
It is possible that the presence of such air-pockets may help to explain the death of individual
plants, so far unaccounted for. In one case examined at Fort Langley a plantation near the
house in which the runs had been kept broken up by hoeing, so that no runs could be found, was
in very good condition, whilst another on the same place under similar conditions of soil and
cultivation, but with runs or air-pockets under every plant, was in very bad condition. Direct
injury to canes or roots by gnawing has not been noticed.
An effort has been made to obtain some experimental evidence of injury or otherwise. An
upland planting of Cuthberts at Hatzic was selected, in which runs were general. Three rows
were fenced in early in June with steel lathing mesh. The netting was fixed about 12 inches
below the surface of the soil, with from 3 to 6 inches projecting above the ground. The runs in
the centre row were broken up by hand and those in the two outer ones with a hoe. No new
runs were found in the fenced-in plot during summer and fall. In the spring an examination
will be made of the root systems of individual plants where the runs have been filled in as compared with plants in the rest of the plantation, and comparisons made for winter-injury, etc.
July, 1932, was the wettest July on record at the Coast, so any effects of drought would probably
not be so noticeable as in a normal year. T. H. Scheffer, Mammalogist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Mr. Gumming, a local naturalist, spent a day visiting this planting,
and the latter subsequently spent three or four days trapping there and in the vicinity. He
obtained moles, voles, and white-footed mice. It seems probable that the runways are originally
made by moles (although hills are rarely seen), and then used by voles. In almost all cases
frequent openings to the outside are found, which is said never to be the case in runways still
being used by moles.
The Assistant Plant Pathologist, AV. R. Poster, M.Sc, has again given considerable attention to the investigation of fruit-blight of raspberry and loganberry. This has proved a more
complex problem than anticipated. The incidence of infection was much lower in 1932 than in
1930 and 1931. Inoculation studies have again shown that bacteria can produce the typical
symptoms of the disease. A majority of the isolations this season, however, have given a fungus
the identity of which remains to be determined. Infection also appears to take place through
one or more drupelets and not through the receptacle as was at first supposed. Histological
work shows a fungus in the tissues of the drupelets. Observations this year do not show correlation between the presence of thrips and the incidence of the disease.
A fertilizer test was made, using ammonium sulphate, tri-superphosphate, sulphate of
potash, ammonium phosphate complete fertilizer, and a check with no fertilizer. An experiment
was also made to determine the effect of pruning on fruit-blight.
Results of these experiments indicate that the drying of the berries is not of the nature of a
natural thinning-out. as. for example, the " June drop " of apples, and confirms the result of
isolations that it is primarily due to an organism.
On June .13th immature green loganberries were found with a few brown drupelets among
normal green ones. From.observations it was found there was always at least one diseased
drupelet connected with dead tissue in the receptacle. Berries were also found in which only a
part of the outer portions of a drupelet were diseased, the receptacle being still healthy.
Mycelium was observed in the diseased drupelets and in the adjoining diseased areas of the
receptacle.
An experiment was made to ascertain the critical period for infection. Each week, beginning May 9th. a number of flowers were sprayed with Pyrethrum soap and enclosed in thrip-
proof bags.    Flowers with thrips were introduced into half the bags two days later.    Flowers DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 33
bagged May 9th, 16th, 23rd, and June 1st did not develop disease; those on June 8th, a little;
and those on June 22nd, more. The indication is that the critical period in 1932 was after
June 1st.
The amount of the disease present in 1932 was only about one-third of that in 1930 and
1931. This may be due to variation in climatic conditions. In June, 1932, there was not a trace
of rain from June 1st until June 20th, while in 1930 there were seven, days with a trace to 0.27
inch, and in 1931 there were also seven days with 0.03 to 1.32 inches per day.
For the month of May preceding the critical period in 1932 there were five days of rain,
with not more than 0.07 inch on any one day, while in 1930 there were twelve days with a trace
to 0.1 inch, and in 1931 eleven days with a trace to 0.77 inch.    The mean temperature for June,
1932, was about 2° F. higher than in 1930 and 1931.
AN ANTHER AND STIGMA BLIGHT OF LOGANBERRY.
This disease was noticed in June, 1932. Its occurrence was patchy, but caused 3 to 4 per
cent, damage in the field where first observed. Once a fruit or flower is attacked it will not
develop into a fruit of commercial value. The anthers and stigmas are covered with a whitish
mould. Fertilization does not take place where the stigma is infected and the fruit is defective.
Pathogenicity of the fungus was proved by infection of flowers and young fruits following
dusting with the spores.
The causal fungus is Hapalosphmria deformans Syd. (Pwpalopsis deformans Syd.), which
was originally described from Rubns dumetorum in Europe. This is believed to be the first
record both of its occurrence in North America and on the loganberry as host.
AA7INTER AVHEAT AND BUNT.
In the winter-wheat-growing areas of British Columbia considerable damage is caused by
stinking smut, regardless of whether the seed is treated or not. AVe have determined by
experimental work that this loss is due to soil-borne infection. In order to control this source
of infection we have imported a collection of known resistant winter-wheat varieties to be tested
out under British Columbia conditions and against strains of smuts existing in this country.
The varieties listed below are being tested at Saanichton and at Armstrong respectively. At
Saanichton the soil was inoculated by broadcasting the clamydospores mixed in sand over the
soil and raking in. At Armstrong the seed was inoculated with approximately the same spore-
load.
Object.—To determine the reaction of different varieties of winter wheat to stinking smut.
Saanichton—Seeded October 19th, 1932.
Plot No.                                                                              Variety.
1 21 41 61       Albit.
2 22 42 62       Ridit.
3 23 43 63       Oro.
4 24 44 64       Jenkins x Ridit, Wash., 2807.
5 25 45 65      AVhite Odessa.
6 26 46 66      Hussar.
7 27 47 67       Martin.
8 28 48 68       Dawson's Golden Chaff.
9 29 49 69       Sun.
10 30 50 70   Golden Sun  (D.G. Chaff x Sun).
11 31 51 71   Imperial Amber.
12 32 52 72   Berkeley Rock.
13 33 53 73   O.A.C. 104.
14 34 54 74   Kanred x D. Golden Chaff.
15 35 55 75   Kharkov x D. Golden Chaff.
16 36 56 76   Kharkov.
17 37 57 77   Minhardi.
18 38 58 78   Crail Fife.
19 39 59 79   Yeoman.
20 40 60 80   Hybrid 128.
3 Armstrong—Seeded October 17th.
A'ariety and Origin.
37      Albit, AA'ashington.
38         Ridit, Washington.
39         Oro, Oregon.
40             Jenkins x Ridit. AA'ashington.
41         AA'hite Odessa, Washington.
42         Hussar, Washington.
43         Martin, AA'ashington.
44         O.A.C. 104, Okanagan.
45         Kharkov, Okanagan.
46     Minhardi. Okanagan.
47           Crail Fife, Okanagan.
48           Squarehead. Saanichton.
Rows, 5 feet long and 1 foot apart.
Two scientific papers, "A New Species of Phomopsis," by H. T. Gussow and AV. R. Foster,
and "A New Stem-end Rot of Potatoes," by AA7. R.. Foster and H. S. MacLeod, appeared in the
Canadian Journal of Research for 1932.
Reports and estimates on various diseases were furnished to the Plant Disease Survey at
Ottawa.
Respectfully submitted.
J. AA7. Eastham,
Plant Pathologist.
riot
No.
1
13
25
2
14
26
3
15
27
4
16
28
5
17
29
6
18
30
7
19
31
8
20
32
9
21
33
10
22
34
11
23
35
12
21
36
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST.
Max H. Ruhmann.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1932.
Two projects were undertaken during the year :—
(1.) Spray Tests for the Control of the Codling-moth.—The object of these tests is to
determine the minimum number of sprays necessary to obtain satisfactory control under
conditions of maximum infestation, and to ascertain the most effective spray formula to use.
A commercial block of considerable size is used, so that it may also serve the purpose of a
demonstration block.
The tests in past years have shown that the use of oil sprays are not, as yet, necessary.
A7ery effective control is being obtained by the use of arsenate of lead sprays alone, the essential
factors of satisfactory control being timeliness and thoroughness of application, using a pressure
of not less than 300 lb.
(2.) Tests of Substances which might act as Bee Repellents.—The annual toll of bees
through arsenical poisoning is heavy, and due to the fact that no substance has yet been found
which can be mixed with an arsenical spray and which would act as a bee repellent. No recommendation can at present be given other than the removal of bee-hives from the orchard before
spraying commences. The hives should be removed at least 2 miles from the nearest orchard
and placed in the proximity of such plants as will provide the bees with ample nectar.
Many years have been spent in the study of this problem on the North American Continent,
but no satisfactory repellent has yet been found.
INSECTS OF THE YEAR.
The following insects were particularly noted during the year:—
Codling-moth (Carpocapso pomonella).—The season was particularly favourable for the
increase of this insect; this was noted in the AA7estern States as well as in British Columbia.
AVe are, however, pleased to report a great improvement in the application of sprays by the ■
DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 35
growers, resulting in a considerable reduction of infestation in orchards with high infestation
during 1931.
Woolly Aphis (Eriosoma lanigera).—The spread of this insect is increasing. Thorough
treatment of trees early in the season, followed by one or two applications with nicotine sulphate,
will give good control. Trees subject to perennial canker should be treated with canker-paint
as recommended in the spray calendar to prevent extension of the cankers.
Mealy Bug (Pseudococcus sp.).—Appreciable control is being obtained by keeping trees clean
of loose bark and by the use of coal-oil emulsion.
Cutworms (various spp.).—Cutworms were rather plentiful and considerable damage
occurred where the spring bait was not used.
Cabbage-aphis (Aphis brassicw).—This aphis was quite abundant in the East Kootenays
this year.
Cabbage Root-maggot (Phorbia brassicw).-—This insect took its usual toll where treatment
was neglected.
Clover Root-borer (Hylastinus obscurus).—This beetle has made its appearance at Edge-
wood, attacking sweet clover.
Cicada (Okanagan, sp.).—Nymphs of this insect were received from the Kootenays, where
they were reported as injuring raspberry-roots.
Spotted Blister-beetle (Epicauta maculata).—Considerable swarms of these beetles were
reported from the Kootenays and Boundary Districts.    Some damage to field crops resulted.
Imported Onion-maggot (Phorbia ceparum).—The toll of onions was heavy in untreated
fields.
Wireworms (Elaterida;).—There is no diminution of these pests, and severe losses of onions
and potatoes are reported.
Oyster-shell Scale (Lepidosaplies ulmi).—Some improvement is evident in orchards receiving
a dormant oil spray.    Untreated orchards are showing a considerable increase of scale.
Putnam Scale (Aspidiotus ancylus).—This scale is gradually increasing in Interior fruit
districts.
Elm Leaf-beetle (Galerucella luteola).—This beetle was reported as unusually abundant in
the Kootenays.
Violet Saw fly (Emphytus canadensis).—This insect is becoming widespread in the Interior,
attacking violets and pansies.
Box-elder Bug (Leptocoris trivittatus).—Every fall inquiries are received regarding the
control of this insect, large numbers entering houses at this time to hibernate. Distribution is
general in the Interior.
Cherry Fruit-icorm (Lepidoptera).—A lepidopterous larva was recorded attacking the fruit
of sweet cherries. One adult was secured, but was too badly injured for identification. As there
is a danger of this becoming a serious pest it is important that a study of this insect be undertaken.
CODLING-MOTH SPRAY PROJECT.
The codling-moth spray tests were made in Kelowna, as in past years.
The Staple's Block.—This block consists of 100 trees over 20 years old. The variety is
Salome, with a few Jonathans. AVhen taken over for experimental spray tests in 1930 this
block had recorded about 30 per cent, worms. This infestation was reduced considerably in 1931.
This block was again used in 1932. This year the block was divided into two spray plots, each
receiving five sprays of arsenate of lead.
Plot No. 1 received a further addition of 1 per cent, oil emulsion, applied with the second
and third sprays.
Plot No. 2 received five applications of arsenate of lead, using 3 lb. of arsenate of lead to
80 gallons of water, under spreader.    The results were as follows:—■
Plot No. 1:  Per cent, of worms, 0.9;  per cent, of stings, 2.6.
Plot No. 2:  Per cent, of worms, 1.2;  per cent, of stings, 5.1.
The counts were made from the entire crop of three trees on each plot.
The Pridham Block.—This was a new block which recorded 42 per cent, worms in 1931.
The block consists of 3% acres, of trees over 20 years old.   The variety is Salome, with a few U 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ORCHARD LANDS, MOUNTAINS, AND DISTANT SNOW-CAPPED PEAKS NEAR NELSON, B.C. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 37
Paragon trees.    This block was divided into ten plots, of approximately sixteen trees each;  five
series of sprays were applied in duplicate, as follows:—
Sprays applied.
May IT, IS.
June 7, 8.
June 16, 17.
Aug. 3, 5.
Aug. 25, 26.*
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Plots Nos. 2 and 6     	
Plots Nos. 3 and 10..  	
Plots Nos. 4 and 7	
X
X
* This spray was applied one week later than intended owing to illness of staff,
x = Spray applied.
All sprays consisted of 3 lb. arsenate of lead to 80 gallons of water. A Fluxite spreader was
used with all sprays.
Three average trees were selected in each plot for counting. The thirty trees selected
averaged thirty-eight boxes of picked fruit per tree, with a total of 130,208 apples which were
examined.
The results of the tests were as follows:—
Plot No.
No. of Apples.
Per Cent,
of Stings.
Per Cent,
of Worms.
Plot No.
No. of Apples.
Per Cent,
of Stings.
Per Cent,
of Worms.
1
15,474
7.5
1.1
6
10,154
12.8
2.4
2
14,375
11.6
2.1
7
11,460
12.9
4.4
3
12,691
10.3
2.4
8
13,721
11.5
1.7
4
14,837
13.5
2.8
9
13,365
14.3
2.8
5
11,107
16.1
2.3
10
13,024
14.3
3.8
Averages for Spray Plots
Plot No.
Sprays.
Per Cent, of
Worms.
Per Cent, of
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Stings.
1   and   8                       '     	
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1.40
2,25
9.5
2 and 0	
12.2
3 and 10...
x
x
X
X
3.10
12.3
i and 7	
.   ....
X
X
X
X
3.60
13.2
5 and 9
X
X
X
2.55
15.2
From the above table it will be seen that the reduction of the original infestation of
42 per cent, has been satisfactory with all series of sprays. On Plots Nos. 4 and 7 the calyx
spray was omitted, the object being to ascertain the increase of calyx entries by this omission.
The result was that, although on Plot No. 4 no calyx entries were noted, Plot No. 7 showed
considerable calyx entry, amounting to 12 per cent, of the wormy fruit. Prom the individual
table of plots it will be noted that Plot No. 7 had the highest percentage of wormy fruit, a total
of 4.4 per cent. All other plots had the calyx spray applied, and practically no calyx entries
were observed, except on one tree on Plot No. 5, on which forty-eight calyx entries were counted.
The comparatively high percentage of stings as shown in the tables was due to the large
number of worms present which were destroyed in their effort to enter the fruit. A repetition
of these spray tests on the same blocks in 1933 should materially reduce the amount of stings
and worms, at least on some of the plots, and will better indicate the value of the sprays used.
TESTS OF SUBSTANCES AVHICH MIGHT ACT AS BEE REPELLENTS.
A continuation of tests of substances which might act as bee repellents was undertaken.
The following chemicals were tested: Ethyl N-caprate, N-caproate, N-caprylate, N-valerate,
N-amyl ether, and Ethyl cinnamate. U 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Five per cent, solutions of these substances were used, and applied to blocks of sweet clover
in full bloom. The odour of these chemicals was pronounced on the sweet clover for many
hours, but did not prevent the visits of the bees for more than ten minutes in any test.
Respectfully submitted.
Max H. Ruhmann,
Entomologist.
REPORT OF APIARY INSPECTOR.
A. AV. Finlay.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A..
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Inspector of Apiaries, including the work
of my assistants;  also the estimate of honey-crop by districts for the season of 1932.
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
Bees wintered fairly well in all sections of the Province. Frequent cleansing flights during
mild spells of weather on the Coast districts kept colonies in good condition during the winter of
1931-32 and brood-rearing started early. Early spring examinations showed comparatively few
colonies to be short of stores. Brood-chambers had been well filled the previous season, due to
a slow, late honey-flow. Colonies built up rapidly on nectar from early maple, fruit-bloom, and
dandelion, and prospects for a good crop were very encouraging. Then came the rain, dull skies,
cold winds, and frequent showers, which kept the bees confined to the hives, except during
intermittent short spells of fine weather. These conditions were conducive to continued brood-
rearing, which rapidly depleted stores, and even commercial bee-keepers had difficulty in controlling swarming during May. Cool weather during June allowed the bees to gather nectar
slowly and did not improve much until the first week in July. After a short spell of good
bee-keeping weather, rain again during July and August spoiled any chance of a good honey-crop.
The low-lying lands of the Delta District escaped a number of the unseasonable summer
showers that fell farther inland; and a line honey-crop was obtained in this area, averaging
over 100 lb. surplus per colony. In the Interior the crop was more stable, but below the average
by about 20 per cent. There was no lack of moisture such as often affects the secretion of
nectar in the Dry Belt. The heavy snowfall of the previous winter ensured plenty of water for
irrigated lands, but cloud}' weather during parts of July and August slowed up the honey-flow"
from alfalfa, which secretes nectar best at high temperatures.
HONEY-CROP.
The total estimated honey-crop for the Province amounted to 1,007,080 lb., being about 20
per cent, less than that of last season. Reports from other Provinces show this to compare
favourably with the rest of the Dominion, which experienced a very short crop this season.
PIELD-AVORK.
•In order to carry on the necessary inspection-work for the purpose of controlling contagious
diseases in as effective a manner as possible, and considering the serious reduction in the
appropriation for this purpose, it was found advisable to enlist the aid and co-operation of a
number of District Agriculturists in carrying out the work, especially in districts where beekeeping is not a major industry and remote from the honey-producing areas covered by the
seasonal Apiary Inspectors, thus effecting a considerable saving in transportation expenses.
A number of the districts mentioned were visited and instruction in the handling of bees
and diagnosis of bee-diseases was given to the District Agriculturists. It was not expected
that effective results would be shown the first season, but the groundwork is laid for further
instruction that will undoubtedly prove valuable and result in an increased area of inspection
without added cost.    Systematic inspection was carried on in the most important honey-produc- —
DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 39
ing districts as far as the appropriation for this work allowed, the summary of this wTork being
as follows:—
District.
Examined.
A.F.B.
Inspector.
Apiaries.
Colonies.
J. P. Roberts	
Okanagan	
Chilliwack.... -	
306
185
310
141
248
2,843
790
1,554
661
2,318
74
16
178
4
129
S5
146
W. J. Sheppard	
A. W. Finlay	
53
Totals
1,280
8,166
401
284
All colonies found to be badly affected with American foul-brood were promptly destroyed.
AVhere infection was slight and of recent origin, instruction was given in saving the bees and
hive-bodies, while all infected material such as combs, brood, and. honey were burned, ten days
being the maximum time-limit allowed in the latter cases for assembling new materials and
reporting to the office that the work was completed. Printed notification forms were provided
for this purpose, the receipt of which, in many cases, obviated the necessity of a return visit.
An International Field Day held at the apiary of your Inspector at Huntingdon in June was
well attended by bee-keepers from the States of AVashington and Oregon, about 150 being present.
OFFICE-WORK.
In addition to routine work, microscopic examination was made of eight samples of comb
and 177 smears sent in for bacterial diagnosis. About 40 per cent, of these were sent in by the
Inspectors for verification. One hundred and thirteen proved to be affected with American foul-
brood, forty-eight with European foul-brood, and twenty-four sterile or sac-brood. Reports on
these examinations were promptly sent out, with instructions for treatment where necessary.
EXHIBITIONS.
At the Vancouver and A7ictoria Fairs the number of competitive entries for honey and apiary
products were less than last season, due, no doubt, to the short crop in several districts. The
original designs of the honey displays were excellent and the quality quite up to its usual high
standard, well deserving of a much better position than that allotted to them in Vancouver.
The opportunity was taken to meet the prize-winners at these fairs and interest them in
exhibiting their product at the Imperial Fruit Show held in Birmingham, England, October 21st
to 27th, where competition with other Dominions practically decides on the best honey in the
British Empire.    All entries for the Imperial were forwarded to the District Office at New
AA'estminster, where they were repacked info overseas shipping-cases and forwarded to England.
British Columbia bee-keepers were awarded nine prizes out of a possible thirteen, with two ties,
exceeding their splendid initial effort of last season, when they received two-thirds of the total
awards.    They won every prize in the most important class—a commercial case of honey—and,
but for an error in labelling, would have won every possible prize, except one, in all classes open
to the Dominions.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
A. AV. Finlay,
Apiary Inspector.
REPORT OP FIELD CROPS COMMISSIONER.
Cecil Tice, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A..
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the 1932 annual report of the Field Crop Branch.
Field crops yielded well in 1932.    However, due to considerable rain, particularly during
harvest, the quality was below average in some districts.
A large proportion of the first cutting of the hay-crop was spoiled, due to wet weather.
Pastures, however, held out for a much longer period than usual and produced an abundance of U 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
feed, due to the extra moisture-supply. Most forage-crops also did well. Root-crops generally
yielded well, but potatoes suffered from late blight in many districts.
In districts where oats are extensively grown average yields were obtained, but difficulty
is being experienced in selling the crop. Some grain companies have adopted the policy of only
buying from old customers or of taking oats in exchange for other feeds. Prices for all field
produce are below the average, sometimes lower than the cost of production. For this reason
farmers are feeding as much of their produce as possible on their farms.
In the Interior of the Province the alfalfa-seed crop turned out much better than in 1931,
and it is estimated that there will be about 20 tons of seed for sale. On the other hand, the
timothy-seed crop in Central British Columbia is below average.
AVEED-AVORK.
All educational work in connection with weed-control is directed by this Branch. This work
is becoming increasingly important. In the Peace River and in other districts the public
generally will need to take a greater interest in the weed problem if the infestation of some of
our best agricultural lands with noxious weeds is to be prevented.
During the year a new weed bulletin and two sets of weed posters illustrating some of the
worst weeds in the Province were published. The costly illustrations which were used were
secured free of charge through the courtesy of the Alberta Department of Agriculture. This
literature has been distributed to schools, Farmers' Institutes, and many other organizations.
The enforcement of the " Noxious Weeds Act" in unorganized territory is under the Provincial Police, but two temporary Inspectors were appointed by the Minister of Agriculture for
weed-inspection work in the Peace River District, under the supervision of the Provincial Police
in that area. The Inspectors appointed were A. R. Hadland, who was put in charge of the
district north of the Peace River, and John Moody, who had charge of the district on the south
side of the Peace River. Sergeant G. H. Greenwood, of Pouce Coupe, under whose immediate
supervision these Inspectors served, reports as follows:—
" Noxious weeds were found in 134 quarter-sections. Some of these locations are east of
Rolla, where french-weed or stinkweed appears to have taken a very strong hold. AVe have had
very good co-operation from most of the farmers in the district, and only on a few occasions
has it been found necessary to serve notices on persons to cut or destroy their weeds.
" AVeed bulletins and posters have been distributed throughout the Peace River Block. Signboards warning all settlers coming into the Province of the regulations concerning the transportation of weeds and weed-seeds have been made. These boards have been permanently placed
near the railway loading-platforms at Dawson Creek and Pouce Coupe, while one of the large
boards was erected at the Alberta and British Columbia boundary. Settlers' effects arriving by
railway numbered eighteen cars, all of which were inspected. Most of the settlers' effects
coming over the highway were also inspected."
A record of all threshing outfits in the district shows there are sixty-three machines in the
Block.
FIELD-CROP SEED PRODUCTION.
Officials of this Branch, in co-operation with the Dominion Seed Branch, have continued to
give attention to seed-production matters in so far as they relate to field-crop seeds. In the
Lytton District the growing of alfalfa-seed is making progress, due in part to the assistance
rendered by the Provincial and Federal Departments of Agriculture in providing a power seed-
cleaner.
Samples of the Lytton seed have been supplied to the Dominion Experimental Farms and
others for test purposes in order to establish the variety name.
Field-root seed production and grass-seed production work is still in its infancy and further
test-plots are necessary before the production of these seeds on a commercial scale will be undertaken.
The timothy-seed industry in Central British Columbia continues to be of importance,
although the crop this year was considerably lighter than that of last year. Clover-seed is also
being grown on a commercial scale by a number of farmers in the Fraser A7alley.
AA7ith the appointment of a Seed Promoter, the activities of this Branch in connection with
seed-production matters will be curtailed, but Mr. Phillips will receive the close co-operation of
this office in his new work.    In future the seed policy of the Province is to be directed by a DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE; 1932. U 41
committee consisting of the following: G. M. Stewart, District Seed Inspector of the Dominion
Seed Branch; AV. H. Robertson, Provincial Horticulturist; C. Tice, Provincial Field Crops
Commissioner; A. McMeans, Inspector of the Dominion Seed Branch; and S. S. Phillips, Provincial Seed Promoter.
The following figures give the quantities of field-crop seeds produced in British Columbia
in 1931:— Lb.
Mangel        9,616
Swede turnip       2,040
Alfalfa       9,500
Clover, alsike        6,000
Clover, red   182,000
Timothy   270,000
CROP COMPETITIONS.
Two combined field-crop and cleaned-seed competitions, seventeen standing-crop competitions, and seven fall-sown forage-crop competitions were held.   .
The fall-sown forage-crop competitions, which have been under the direct supervision of
P. C. Black, have proved very popular.
BRITISH COLUMBIA SEED FAIR.
As the Winter Fair, which had been held ill Vancouver, was discontinued for this year, plans
are being made to hold the annual British Columbia Seed Fair in Victoria in January, 1933.
Every effort is being made to get all those who intend taking part in the AA7orld's Grain
Exhibition to exhibit at the Provincial Seed Fair in January, where exhibitors will have the
opportunity of comparing their samples with the best from all parts of the Province.
DISTRICT AND LOCAL SEED PAIRS.
A successful district seed fair was held in connection with the Interior Provincial Exhibition.
Another district seed fair was held at Smithers on November 24th and a local seed fair was held
at Dawson Creek (Peace River Block) in October. This latter fair was satisfactorily managed
by Dan Barker, Advisory Board Member of the Farmers' Institutes for the Peace River District.
AVORLD'S GRAIN AND SEED EXHIBITION.
In view of the fact that it has been definitely decided to hold the above exhibition at Regina,
Saskatchewan, July 24th to August 5th, 1933, efforts have been made to encourage our farmers
to participate. From present indications this Province should be represented with a number of
creditable exhibits.
PASTRY-FLOUR AVIIEAT AVORK.     .
For several years the Agronomy Department of the University of British Columbia, in
co-operation with this Department, has been conducting tests with varieties of wheat in different
parts of the Province with the object of endeavouring to find out which varieties are the most
suitable and the areas adapted for the production of this kind of wheat. At the present time
much of the pastry-flour wheat is imported into the Province either from Australia or the
United States.
The results of the tests so far have provided much useful information. However, they show
that certain areas are definitely unsuitable for the production of this wheat, due to the great
variation in protein content of the same variety of wheat within short distances. In order,
therefore, to extend the investigations along this line, a pastry-flour wheat committee has
recently been appointed by the Honourable Minister of Agriculture. This committee consists of
Dr. G. G. Moe, head of the Agronomy Department at the University; AA'. H. Hicks, Superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Farm at' Agassiz;   and your Field Crops Commissioner.
As the forage and fertilizer work of the Field Crop Branch was conducted under the direct
supervision of P. C. Black, Assistant Commissioner, I would recommend that his report, which
sums up the work of several seasons, be printed in full.
Respectfully submitted. .,   ■
C. Tice,
Field Crops Commissioner. BRITISH COLUMBIA. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 43
REPORT ON FORAGE AND FERTILIZER TESTS.
Paul C. Black, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith is submitted the annual report for 1932 of your Assistant Field Crops Commissioner.
FORAGE-CROP COMPETITIONS.
The activities of your Assistant have been mainly concerned with the supervision of the
extensive series of field trials with commercial fertilizers conducted throughout the Province by
the Field Crop Branch. In addition to this work, the programme commenced two years ago in
co-operation with various Farmers' Institutes on Vancouver Island, to encourage greater attention to the growing of fall-sown forage-crops for dairy cattle, was again continued this season
on a wider scale.
These competitions have proved very popular, and as a result considerable impetus has been
given to the increased production of succulent feed for dairy herds. The seeding mixtures used
in these competitions (which were conducted on a basis of 1 acre for each contestant) were
generally fall wheat and vetch, though various other mixtures were used, including wheat, peas,
vetch, etc., the choice of mixtures being left to the contestants. In a number of instances some
remarkably heavy yields were obtained.
FERTILIZER FIELD TRIALS.
This season has seen the completion of the three-year programme of field trials with commercial fertilizers which was commenced in 1930. Previous to that year, tests with commercial
fertilizers had been carried on by the Department of Agriculture on a comparatively small scale.
In 1930, however, the Department, realizing the importance of greater attention being given to
the fertilization of farm crops, outlined a comprehensive programme of field tests with various
commercial fertilizers. These trials were conducted on an acreage basis on a great variety of
soils, covering a wTide range of country, including A'ancouver Island, the Fraser Valley, North
and South Okanagan, East and AA'est Kootenays, and certain portions of Central British
Columbia. The following crops were used in these field tests: Alfalfa, barley, cabbage, cannery
peas, cantaloupes, celery, cucumbers, ensilage corn, hops, loganberries, mangels, oats, onions,
orchards, pastures, potatoes, raspberries, sugar-beets, tomatoes, turnips, and wheat.
The programme was commenced with the co-operation of sixty-six farmers. This number
was increased in the second year to ninety-two, and this past season the number was still further
increased, with more than 100 farmers co-operating.
AA1th so many farmers engaged in fertilizer field tests, it was almost inevitable that a
certain number of the trials should prove ineffective. Failures resulted from a number of
causes, most of which were due to conditions over which the farmers had no control. It is,
however, very gratifying that, with few exceptions, the farmers showed great interest in the field
trials, and carried them out in a painstaking and thorough manner.
Fertilisers used.—Tests were conducted with the following fertilizers : Triple superphosphate,
ammonium phosphate (both 10-48 and 16-20), sulphate of ammonia (chiefly on orchards), sulphate and muriate of potash, and various formula? of complete fertilizers.
Rates of Application.—To ascertain, if possible, the most profitable quantities of fertilizer
to apply per acre on various soils and crops, the three-year programme of field trials was commenced in 1930, as follows: On alfalfa, grain, and pastures, various fertilizers at 100, 200, and
300 lb. per acre. On other crops, including vegetables, root-crops, small fruits, orchards, etc.,
fertilizers at 200, 300, and 400 lb. per acre.
From the general results obtained from these various rates during the first two years of the
field trials, it was found that on many soils disappointing results were secured from the 400-lb.-
per-acre rate of both triple superphosphate and ammonium phosphate. In many instances the
extra cost of the heavier rate of application was not justified by correspondingly increased
yields. In fact, in several cases the 400-lb. rate appeared to have a certain adverse effect,
resulting in actually diminished yields, not only as compared with the lesser rates of application,
but in some instances no better yields than those obtained from the unfertilized check-plots. U 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
For this reason the 400-lb. rate was discontinued this past season, except in some instances where
it appeared to be justified by the results obtained.
Methods of Application.—Until quite recently, the general practice of applying commercial
fertilizers was by broadcasting, and afterwards harrowing or disking the fertilizers into the soil.
Broadcasting has now been largely abandoned, and it has been found to be more advantageous
to apply the fertilizer with a regular fertilizer-drill. This method not only places the material
in closer proximity to the feeding roots of plants, but also puts it down more effectively to where
the fertilizer can be dissolved by the soil-moisture below the surface. By drilling in the fertilizer
it is not only better localized, but less material is required per acre than when the fertilizer is
applied broadcast. In the orchard tests applications as near tree-root depth as possible have
been tried as against surface application.
Liming.—In addition to the field trials with commercial fertilizers, a limited number of
experiments were conducted with ground limestone on certain clay loam soils in the Fraser
A'alley. Applications were made of lime alone, lime and barnyard manure, and lime with various
commercial fertilizers. In these tests lime alone, at the rate of 3 tons per acre, applied to three
different fields of 1 acre each on potatoes, gave an average increased yield of 2,577 lb. per acre.
Lime alone on three different acre fields of cannery peas gave an average increased yield of
LS31 lb. per acre.
Fertilizer Results.—It is impossible, within the scope of this brief report, to give an
extended resume of the results obtained in the extensive series of fertilizer trials during the past
three years.
Taking into consideration the differences in soil types, the variation in local climatic conditions affecting soil-moisture, and the great variety of crops grown in this three-year programme
of fertilizer field tests, it would only be natural to expect considerable variance in the results.
In a number of instances these results were disappointing and often unexplainable. In the great
majority of cases, however, these trials gave satisfactory and, in some instances, highly satisfactory results. In the following brief table are given the figures showing the actual cash profit
per acre obtained from various commercial fertilizers on a number of different crops in different
sections of the Province:—
Fertilizer Results.
Crop.
Locality.
Fertilizer
per Acre.
Cost of
Fertilizer.
Increased
1'ield per
Acre.
Value
per Ton.
Net Profit per
Acre after deducting Cost
of Fertilizer.
1930.
Ladner	
Lb.
Amm. Phos., 300
An. Phos., 400
Amm. Phos., 400
Complete,      400
Amm. Phos., 300
Amm. Phos., 300
Amm. Phos., 300
Amm. Phos., 200
Amm. Phos., 300
Amm. Phos., 400
Triple Sup.,  300
Triple Sup., 400
Triple Sup., 400
Amm. Phos., 200
Triple Sup., 200
Triple Sup.,  100
Complete,      300
$10.50
14.00
14.00
14.89
10.50
10.50
10.50
7.96
10.50
14.00
7.65
10.20
10.20
7.00
5.10
2.55
9.95
Lb.
6,400
11,944
8,840
8.000
6,688
5,600
6,600
8,440
5,400
7,000
2,S00
3,400
6,400
3,000
7,600
10,000
28,000
$15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
4.00
4.00
$37.50
75.88
52.30
1931.
Ladner	
45.11
39.66
31.50
1932.
Ladner	
AA'ardner	
22.50
34.24
16.50
1930.
56.00
20.35
1931.
A'ernon _	
Grand Forks	
23.20
1932.
53.80
23.00
1930.
Grand Forks	
70.90
17.45
1931.
46.05 DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 1932.
U 45
Fertilizer Results—Continued.
Crop.
Locality.
1932.
Ensilage corn
1930.
Canning peas.
1931.
Canning peas.
1930.
Mangels	
1931.
Mangels	
1932.
Mangels	
1930.
Oats	
1931.
Oats	
1932.
Oats	
1930.
Tomatoes	
1931.
Tomatoes	
1932.
Tomatoes	
1931.
Apples	
1932.
Apples..	
Chilliwack.	
Barnston Island
Eburne	
Grand Forks	
Chilliwack	
Chilliwack..	
Pitt Meadows....
Eburne .	
Eburne	
Creston	
A'ernon	
Kelowna	
Oliver....	
Creston	
\7ernon	
Kelowna	
Oliver	
Oliver	
Creston	
A'ernon	
Oliver	
Oliver	
"Oliver	
Summerland	
Vernon	
Summerland	
Summerland	
Penticton	
Vernon.	
Fertilizer
per Acre.
Cost of
Fertilizer.
Complete,
Amm. Phos.
Amm. Phos.
Amm. Phos.
Complete,
Complete,
Amm. Phos.
Amm. Phos.
Triple Sup.,
3-10-8,
Amm. Phos..
Amm. Phos.
Triple Sup.,
Triple Sup.,
Amm. Phos.
Amm. Phos.
Amm. Phos.
Amm. Phos.
Triple Sup.,
Amm. Phos.
Triple Sup.,
Amm. Phos..
Amm. Phos.
Triple Sup.,
Amm. Phos.
Triple Sup.,
Triple Sup.,
Amm. Phos..
Amm. Phos.
(10-48),
Lb.
300
,200
,300
,300
300
300
,133
,200
125
700
400
300
300
300
,400
,200
,400
,300
400
400
400
200
200
200
,400
400
400
300
200
$9.95
7.00
10.50
10.50
9.95
9.95
4.65
7.00
3.20
14.00
14.00
7.65
7.65
7.65
14.00
7.96
14.00
10.50
10.20
14.00
10.20
7.00
7.00
5.10
14.00
10.20
10.20
10.50
Increased
Yield per
Acre.
Lb.
24,000
3,657
1,012
20,000
26,000
52,000
2,100
2,322
1,700
6,396
6,072
5.800
9,548
8,304
5,780
11,664
6.720
8,208
9,184
7,000
6,000
1.6,864
10,752
1,575
12,100
2,030
2,800
6,615
Value
per Ton.
7.00     4,900
I I
$4.00
40.00
40.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
Net Profit per
Acre after deducting Cost
of Fertilizer.
$38.05
66.14
9.74
89.50
120.05
250.05
21.60
22.02
18.05
49.96
46.72
50.35
87.83
75.39
43.80
10S.68
53,20
71.58
81.64
56.00
49.80
161.64
100.52
10.65
107.00
10.10
17.80
55.65
42.00
General Results from Fertilizers in, B.C.—The results obtained from the extensive series of
field tests with commercial fertilizers, conducted throughout the Province, indicate that most
British Columbia soils are deficient in phosphates. In many cases an application of phosphates
alone have given good results, but in most instances crops have been most responsive to phosphates combined with nitrates.
On Coast soils and on soils in many parts of Central British Columbia there has been found
to be a deficiency of potash. In the irrigated sections of the Interior (notably in the Grand
Forks section), however, potash has not given any definite results except in the case of potatoes.
This crop has been found to be peculiarly responsive to an application of a complete fertilizer
containing a relatively high percentage of potash. Potash has also given a very definite response
in crop increase when applied to the peat soils of the Province.
Respectfully submitted.
Paul C. Black,
Assistant Field Crops Commissioner. U 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT ON SOIL SURVEYS.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report for the year 1932.
At the beginning of the fiscal year the Dominion Government eliminated a vote provided, for
annual assistance to soil surveys in Canada. Through lack of Dominion Government assistance,
activities had to be restricted. Thus it become necessary to dispense with the services of
R. Thomas, Field Assistant, whose salary had been paid from Dominion Government funds.
R. H. Spilsbury, Draughtsman and General Assistant, was retained on the Provincial
staff for the period between May 1st and October 25th, when he entered the University of British
Columbia, and is now engaged in study leading to a postgraduate degree in soils and chemistry.
FIELD OPERATIONS.
During 1932 field operations were divided into three kinds of work: (1) Miscellaneous soil
problems;  (2)  individual farm surveys;  (3)  general or district survey.
(1.) Miscellaneous Soil Problems.—During the summer, farmers called upon the Survey
staff to visit their farms in connection with soil problems on which they desired explanation and
a method of treatment. Advice and suggestions for treatment were provided in cases where
chemical examination was unnecessary. Problems involving chemical examination have been
left until such time as a service which includes chemical analysis is established.
(2.) Individual Farm Surveys.—Individual farm surveys, or farm unit surveys, made during
1932 were undertaken at the request of the Plant Pathology Branch, Experimental Farm,
Summerland. During its research investigations in the Okanagan Valley, the Pathological
Branch has picked out a series of farms showing evidence of like and unlike pathological
problems. Many of these problems are partly or wholly due to unnatural soil and moisture
conditions.
AVith the object of providing as much useful data as possible, six problem orchards were
examined during the season. Mapping and textural examination only were possible. Chemical
problems were not undertaken.
Descriptive notes on these problem orchards follow :—
(1.) East Kelowna Project covers a 20-acre orchard or experimental sub-station. The
orchard was selected by Federal officials for experimental work because soil conditions are
considered particularly favourable for brown-core, drought-spot, and other diseases affecting-
apples. A careful survey of this orchard was warranted on account of its experimental nature.
A map of the farm on a scale of 50 feet to an inch was provided, so that experimental plots and
future results can be written or drawn in as desired. A copy of the map has been filed at
A'ictoria.
(2.) F. II. Ecane Orchard, Penticton, has been under observation by the Pathological Branch
for some time. It covers only 5 acres, but is probably one of the best orchards in the valley.
The yield averages 1,100 boxes of apples to the acre. One of the problems is to sustain this
high yield and to keep the trees healthy. Another is to devise proper irrigation and drainage,
to prevent collar-rot, etc.
The north section of the Penticton District appears to have a soil deposit of tremendous
depth. The undisturbed sub-strata in the area examined consists of laminated or plated bands
of silt and clay, which are quite clearly defined, and often in alternate layers. This is a water-
laid or transported deposit, and unlike any parent material so far encountered in the Okanagan
A'alley.    Genetically it is probably a Brownerth.
At least some of this laud has a hummocky exposure, with the result that levelling operations have been extensive in the heavy soil types. On one section of the Keane orchard the trees
were planted on parent material and fill. In the clay type carbonates were found to be high
and exceptionally well distributed, leading to a high state of flocculation in an otherwise heavy
soil. While the chemical features were not examined, the most apparent need is better irrigation
and drainage control. This remedy is difficult to apply, due to lack of proper storage reserves
in the main irrigation system and the nature of the soil profile. 	
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 47
A map and profile chart of this orchard was prepared on a scale of 25 feet to an inch, so
that future results may be written in.    A copy of this map has been filed at Victoria.
(3.) E. J. Finch Orchard, Penticton, indicates that during the geological history of the
district the Okanagan Lake existed at a much higher level than it does to-day. Along the
boundary hills there is an ancient shore-line where sands of different texture were deposited.
The E. J. Finch orchard is situated on this ancient shore-line, and hence the soils are light in
texture.
There is also an " island " of silt loam in the orchard, and its influence spreads through the
subsoil with varying thickness and density. Since water had been applied in more or less even
quantity, collar-rot developed where the subsoil silt extended, due to excessive moisture. The
survey of this orchard solved the problem to the satisfaction of the grower, who is now able to
adjust his water application to the uneven requirements of his orchard. This particular survey
is an interesting achievement, showing that direct and quick results will sometimes follow a
proper understanding of soil conditions.
The survey was made at the request of the Plant Pathological Branch. The orchard covers
10 acres. A map and profile chart of the same on a scale of 25 feet to an inch has been filed, at
Arictoria. . •
(4.) A. L. McDougal Orchard, Penticton.—The A. L. McDougal orchard covers 10 acres.
Its primary problems appear to be similar to those of the Finch and Keane orchards. The soil
is heavy and.the topography is hummocky. There is some soil variation, and certain parts are
subject to excessive moisture under present methods of irrigating. The survey was made at the
request of the Plant Pathological Branch, whose observations in this orchard include the control
of collar-rot in apples.
(5.) L. & A. Ranch, Vernon, includes a 10-acre section which was examined at the request
of the ranch foreman. Attempts had been made for some time to grow trees on this section,
but these attempts had ended in failure.    Soil condition leading to root-rot was the problem.
Profile examination showed a very heavy clay to considerable depth. Unhealthy conditions
in flie soil grew from the high clay content and overirrigation from surrounding light-textured
soils. No chemical examination was undertaken, but a satisfactory explanation of causes was
made available.
(6.) D. Kinlock Orchard, Vernon, in the Coldstream-Lavington area, was surveyed at the
request of the Plant Pathological Branch.    The area studied covers 12.7 acres.
The primary trouble appears to be seepage from the main ditch, which lies above the
orchard. Lack of colour in the Mcintosh apples was causing financial loss to the grower. The
orchard lies on a 25-per-cent. northern slope against rock-outcroppings (mica-schist and limestones), and it appears that there is a movement of lime in the profile that is increased by ditch
seepage. (See T. Brayshaw Experiment.) The rank growth of foliage and lack of colour in
the apples are problems left entirely to the Plant Pathology Branch.
One of the results of this survey should be to prove the need of preventing main ditch-
leakage above valuable orchards.
SPECIAL SURVEYS.
In the A7ernon and Kelowna sections special surveys were undertaken.
(1.) T. Brayshaw Experiment, Vernon, was on property in the Coldstream-Lavington area,
lying adjacent to the D. Kinlock Farm Unit Survey. The survey, which covers about 2 acres,
was undertaken to find out the damage of main ditch-leakage to AA'inesap apple-trees under a
particular set of conditions.
Rock-outcroppings (mica-schist and limestones) lie above the orchard, which has a 20-percent, slope. AA7ifh this parent material, carbonates and possibly some alkali (micas are
aluminium silicates in combination with alkali earth metals) eroded from the rocks and accumulated in the talis-slope (now orchard) during antiquity.
AA7hen the main ditch was established the horizon of accumulated carbonates was exposed.
This horizon of accumulation comes to the surface lower down in the orchard.
AVhen water is running in the main ditch it leaks into this horizon of accumulation and the
seepage passes through the normal root area of a number of trees, and bogs the surface where
the horizon outcrops in the orchard. A secondary result is that carbonates, which saturate this
horizon, tend to dissolve at the top as follows:  CaCOg + H20 + C02=:Ca(HC03)2 (soluble), and U 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
reprecipitate at the point near which the seepage-water approaches the surface, yielding
Ca(HC03)2=CaC03 + H20 + C02  (insoluble).
AVithout quantitative chemical tests to prove this point, it appears to be borne out by
observation, as lime concentration near the surface seems to the eye to be more dense than
farther down in the profile.
AA7ith this type of parent material it is therefore apparent that both trees and soil suffer
under conditions of uncontrolled seepage.
The value of this experiment lies in its ability to prove that soils are being ruined by seepage
in some kinds of parent material. It is intended to give satisfactory reasons why main ditches
should be repaired and other kinds of seepage stopped under certain conditions.
(2.) Okanagan Loan & Investment Trust Co., Kelowna, has had a general soil survey of
part of the west half of Lot 123, Osoyoos District, situated near Kelowna. The survey covered
80 acres, and was intended to be a general soil examination, from which the company could
evolve the best plan for general development of the area.
CONCLUSIONS ON INDIA'IDUAL FARM SURVEYS.
The afea covered qn individual farm-problem work during the year totals 152.7 acres. In
all surveys undertaken the results will ultimately return financial benefit to the grower. The
knowledge gained was well worth the time spent by the grower, who dug the necessary test-pits,
and with the survey party examined them. Individual farm surveys tend to uncover and focus
attention on abnormal soil conditions. Individual farm surveys should be continued in the
future.    The addition of a service of chemical analysis, where necessary, would be very desirable.
COLDSTREAM-LAA'INGTON SOIL SURVEY.
The general soil survey of the Coldstream-Lavington area was commenced in 1931. During
1932 the whole area was examined as a follow-up on the preliminary work, and the map-sheet,
which covers approximately 14,500 acres, was completed. An important part of the area making
up the total on the map-sheet is classified as range, which did not require intensive examination.
Accurate calcu'ations showing acreage of range and soil types will be given in a separate report,
which will deal with the Coldstream-Lavington area in detail.
IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND THE SOIL SURVEY.
There is a relationship between soil, crop, climate, and the irrigation system. Climate is
uncontrollable, but soil, crop, and the irrigation system are under the guiding hand of man.
There should be a very close harmony between soil, crop, and irrigation, but such is not always
the case.
AA7hen irrigation districts were organized, it would appear that the main engineering
problems involved were the primary matters of study, and the utilization of water in proper
amounts at proper times received insufficient consideration.
AVhen the irrigation system fails to give efficient service, different pathological troubles are
bound to develop. Science can keep the amount of damage within certain limits, but nevertheless it is neither sound nor scientific agriculture to try and make soils and plant-growth conform
to faulty irrigation systems. Irrigation systems should be in harmony with the requirements of
the crops grown under a given set of climatic conditions. The soil survey will play its part in
bringing about a closer relationship between irrigation systems and the requirements of soils and
crops by clearly exhibiting the need of certain adjustments.
The high-water requirements of sands and loamy sands are well known. When these soils
are isolated on the map, due consideration should be given to their future management. AVhen
such lands come into the possession of the municipality through failure of a grower, the expert
opinion of the District Agriculturist should help determine wdiether or not they should be resold.
PROBLEM OF SEEPAGE.
Lateral and main ditch seepage and seepage on lower-lying lands, due to differences in soil
and topography, are types of seepage commonly found.
Ditch seepage is one of the most damaging forms in the Okanagan Valley, and a considerable
annual loss in trees and production arises therefrom. In some cases ditch seepage is distinct
enough to be recognized with ordinary observation, but there are many partly hidden forms about
which there appears to be considerable controversy. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 49 U 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By experience it has been found that the systematic method of profile pits, combined with a
study of soil horizons, generally provides the information required in logical form. Growers
are always willing to co-operate by digging the pits wherever indicated, to help settle seepage
problems in their orchards. This method is economical, and the soil survey is in a position to
study and map seepage problems arising from ditches and other causes.
SOIL GENETICS.
During the latter part of the season your officer in charge of Soil Surveys and Dr. D. G.
Laird, Associate Professor of Agronomy, University of British Columbia, became associated with
a Dominion-wide committee organized for the purpose of preparing a genetic soil map of Canada.
An effort will be made to use all available information for the preparation of a genetic soil map
of British Columbia. AVhile many difficulties are in the way of making any but the broadest
divisions of genetic classification at the present time, this is conceded to be a long-time project,
and ultimate success is expected.
Genetic classification of soils in the Okanagan A'alley is capable of rapidly increasing soil
knowledge. The isolating and naming of soil series in the Okanagan is of primary importance
to soil survey and to future work in plant pathology and fertilizers. This work would consist
of placing boundaries around different types of parent material, regardless of soil-texture. Each
mass of parent material, containing a family of soil types, is of different geological origin, with
resulting differences in physical and chemical character. Such differences are of importance to
soil-management, fertilization, plant-growth, and scientific investigation. The establishment of
soil series would tend to have a stimulating effect on investigational work now being conducted
in the Okanagan by Provincial and Dominion agencies.
In order to establish series a thorough knowledge of the areas in question is necessary.
This knowledge can only be gained as a by-product of general surveys such as those already
undertaken, or by special reconnaissance surveys. Certain chemical investigations are also
necessary.
ALKALI.
Alkali is a local condition found where the soil parent material contains alkali earth metals,
or where the surrounding hills have rock formations which lose alkali compounds as products
of weathering. Source of supply and topographical features tend to concentrate alkali into
localized areas.
No progress was made during the year in any work involving alkali determination. No
information is available concerning the nature or concentration of alkali salts in Okanagan
soils. However, growers are particularly interested in knowing whether harmful quantities of
salts exist where they have soil problems, and a better knowledge of existing salts would be of
great assistance to the soil survey.
Respectfully submitted.
C. C. Kelley,
Officer in Charge of Soil Surveys.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK COMMISSIONER,
Wallace R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.A7.Sc, V.S.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Live Stock Commissioner for the year 1932.
On the whole, production for the year was particularly good. Cattle and sheep wintered
well. An abundance of grass in the spring and early summer brought live stock on well. Good
calf and lamb crops are reported from all parts of the Province. Beef and lamb finished up
early, grass-finished steers going out from the southern part of the range area in goodly numbers
in June and July. With the season a little later getting started in the range area, shed-lambs
were a little slow this year, with the ewes forced to feed on dry roughage. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 51
The market situation for the year has been one of the worst in many years, and under this
situation it was difficult for ranchers or farmers to anticipate markets or to fit their programme
in to suit conditions.
HORSES.
From year to year the scarcity of horses in the Province becomes more evident. In some
sections farmers have to depend on old worn-out animals to do their work. AVith world conditions as they are, it is natural to expect a temporary return to horse-power and as a result
a fair market for good horses. Eight cars of horses went to the Prairie market during the year
at $35 to $40 per head. A few cars went to the A7ancouver market. To date 490 head of horses
have gone out of the Kamloops, Ashcroft, and Nicola Districts in 1932, as compared to 240 head
in 1931.
In light-horse production British Columbia is advancing quite rapidly. About Kamloops,
the North Thompson, Douglas Lake, Merritt, and Quilchena, definite breeding programmes are
being carried out for light-horse improvement. At the Kamloops Exhibition there was an
especially fine display of remounts, hunters, and polo-ponies. Some very good sales were made
for police remounts, polo-work, and riding-horses. Two thoroughbred stallions came into the
Nicola District this year, which will help the light-horse industry greatly. Some interest is
shown in light-horse work in the Armstrong District, supported by the Interior Exhibition. In
the Chilliwack country considerable interest was shown in the last year in riding-horses and a
very good exhibit was brought out to the Chilliwack Summer Show.
BEEF CATTLE.
Beef-cattle prices have not been at all high, but in comparison to some otlier classes of live
stock they might be considered good. Prices remained reasonably good up until about the end
of September, when the market took a drop. In range sections choice steers could be bought
for $2.50 and cows as low as 50 cents per hundredweight. The market in the last week of May
saw good choice steers on the Vancouver market quoted at $5 to $6.25, and in the first week of
June $5 to $6. By the first week in August, when British Columbia grassers began to arrive
on the market, prices of good choice steers dropped to from $4.50 to $5. This price held through
the middle of the summer, but prices for choice heavy steers went down to $4 during the first
and second week of October. The last week of October saw choice heavy steers $3.60 and the
first week of November $3.55. By the middle of November quotations for choice light steers
were at $3.90 and the end of November found them $3.70.
AA'ith British Columbia the first Province in Canada as a market for Red Ribbon Beef,
stockmen will have to produce a high-quality beef and arrange to have it properly finished.
The day has passed when poor-quality underfinished cattle can come to market at a profit to
the producer. In many sections of the Province where cattle are produced in large numbers
ranchers should not attempt to market their entire run of cattle direct for slaughter, but rather
they should aim to place these in feed-lots in farming sections where there is a surplus of grain
and good after-grass. This would materially assist the improvement of the fall range in range
sections which needs every protection possible in order to bring it back.
Where feeders have to be shipped they should go towards the market and as near to the
final market as possible, which would mean shipping into the Fraser Valley. It was with this
idea in mind that it was suggested last year that we should give some financial support to a
cattle-finishing programme. Accordingly, the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association
was approached and the support of the association in this programme was secured. The secretary of the association, G. AV. Challenger, and the manager of the AVestern Canada Ranching
Company, A. W. McMorran, gave excellent co-operation in the way of supplying feeders for
this experiment. An examination of the report of this experiment, appearing in Appendix No. 1,
will show that the programme was quite satisfactory both to the feeder and to the cattle-
producer.
The Live Stock Branch approached the organization this year regarding another feeding
programme, and since we were not in a position to assist financially they decided to go ahead
on their own account, largely following last year's lead. In the Cariboo country, where some
of the range is badly depleted and the cattle underfinished when they reach the market, ranchers
should be delivering a large part of their cattle direct from summer range to feed-lots in the
Fraser A7alley, and such a programme deserves consideration by Provincial agricultural officials
and cattlemen in the Cariboo country. U 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It is quite evident that the Fraser A7alley farmers intend to have feeder cattle, and if they
cannot get them in British Columbia they most assuredly will get them on the Prairie. To-day
we find over 1,000 head of cattle on feed in the Fraser A7alley and more than half of these were
produced on the Prairie. Figures are being secured on the results of the feeding of Prairie
cattle in the Fraser A7alley, and a report, of this will appear at a later date when the work is
completed. If prices are at all fair, it is reasonable to expect that this work will extend
materially in the Fraser A'alley, especially with prices of milk and other agricultural products
so low.
In making a study of cattle-marketing in AVestern Canada, it has been my recommendation
that Fraser A'alley farmers secure their feeders quite early, say during the first half of September, so that they can take advantage of the large quantities of feed that is available which makes
possible cheap gains, and in addition they have cattle in plenty time to get them acclimatized
and before they put on heavy winter coats as required in the range country. Besides, if the
feeding-work is commenced early in the season, cattle-feeders will avoid competition with cattle
out of the feed-lots from the Prairie, and in that way make sure of one of the best markets of
the season.
AA7e are still seeking for information on many of our cattle-production costs on the range.
There are certain poor practices being followed, such as the use of grade sires, lack of sufficient
sires to take care of the cow herd, the practice of retaining dry cows instead of culling closely,
certain disease conditions such as actinomycosis (lumpy jaw), some tuberculosis in a few small
range herds, hsemorrhagic septicaemia, tick losses, poisonous plants, and coccidiosis.
Fortunately, this year in most sections of the range country these diseases were not very
severe on account of the depth of snow. Only a few tick losses were recorded for the year.
This condition seems to appear only in odd years, and when ranchers think that everything is
going fairly well a severe attack of tick paralysis hits the live stock and heavy losses are
suffered. AA7ith ticks appearing over a wider range of country each year, it is evident that this
condition will shortly be a real problem, particularly if tuleremia and Rocky Mountain spotted
fever should break out as it has done south of the International Boundary.
This being a wet season, poisonous plants did not do the usual damage. AVhen grass is
available cattle will not eat these poisonous plants so readily, and with the range good at the
lower levels they were not forced to go up into the timber range at from 2,000 to 4,000 feet, where
Astragalus campestris grows.
G. L. Landon, District Agriculturist at Grand Porks, co-operated closely in live-stock work
by making a cattle survey of the North Forks area of the Kettle River, which showed that
there were 159 head of dairy cattle, 293 head of beef cattle, seven pure-bred bulls, and seven
grade bulls.
Several shipments of pure-bred Ayrshire calves came into the Boundary country and everything points to this district becoming an Ayrshire centre.
During the year over 500 breeding heifers and thirty-five pure-bred bulls came into Northern
and Central British Columbia, partly under the Federal free-freight policy. These cattle were
chiefly Shorthorn, with some Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, and Red Poll. Many came through
from Alberta and some from parts of British Columbia. Representatives of the Canadian
National Railway, the Federal Live Stock Branch, and the Provincial Department of Agriculture
co-operated in this work. AA7ith the establishment of a creamery and grist-mill in the Prince
George District, we should possibly attempt to establish one or two swine-improvement associations in the neighbourhood of this creamery in order to take care of the dairy by-products that
will be available.
G. W. Challenger, District Agriculturist, Kamloops. as secretary of the B.C. Beef Cattle
Growers' Association, reports as follows on the Fourteenth Annual Bull Sale and Fat-stock
Show held at the Exhibition Grounds, Kamloops, on AVednesday and Thursday, March 16th
and 17th:—
" Entries of pure-bred bulls were received from breeders of Shorthorn, Hereford, and
Aberdeen Angus cattle in this district, also from the Okanagan, Lower Mainland, and Vancouver
Island. In addition, fifteen head of Hereford bulls were brought in from Alberta, at the request
of the B.C. Beef-Cattle Growers' Association, by Messrs. Bull, Thomson, and Parslow.
" J. AA7. Durno, Calgary, judged the breeding classes. James Turner, of Cadboro Bay, had
grand champion Shorthorn bull, which was later made grand champion over all breeds.    This DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 53
animal topped the sale at $350, being purchased by P. B. Ward, of Douglas Lake.    The following-
table gives prices received at the sale:—
Breed.
No. of
Head.
High.
1932
Average.
1931
Average.
Angus	
Herefords...
Shorthorns
3
25
28
$145.00
275.00
350.00
$115.00
178.00
152.00
$97.50
218.00
141.00
" The Fat-stock Show and Sale, held in conjunction with the Bull Sale, was the largest event
of its kind that has yet been held. More entries were received at the 1932 show than at any
previous time, and contributors from all parts of the Province, with the greatest number from
this district, competed in the various classes for car-loads of fifteen, groups of five, and single
entries. The boys' and girls' baby-calf competition was practically confined to the Kamloops
District, there being over thirty entries in this class.
James Turner judged the fat-stock classes. The Guichon Ranch, Quilchena, had grand
champion car-load of steers for the fourth consecutive time, winning the AA'estern Canadian
Ranching Company trophy. This car-load later topped the sale of groups at 6.30 cents, being
purchased by Burns & Co.
" Grand champion steer of the show was won by Charles Frolek, one of the club boys of the
Kamloops District, on a Hereford-Shorthorn cross-bred calf, which sold to AVoodward's, Limited,
at 20 cents per pound, topping the sale.
" The following table gives prices received at the Fat-stock Sale:—
Class.
No.
No. of
Head.
High.
1932
Average.
1931
Average.
Car-load of fifteen
Groups of five	
Singles	
Boys and girls	
9
25
50
33
135
125
50
33
$6.30
6.25
20.00
10.00
$5.35
5.38
6.29
6.06
$6.50
6.59
7.62 !
DAIRY-CATTLE PROBLEM.
At the present time there is a strong movement amongst dairy-farmers throughout the
Dominion for a Bang's disease elimination programme. It would be well for cattlemen to
discuss this matter thoroughly with the veterinary profession as a whole before they commence
any extensive programme. AA7ith the burden that the dairy-cattle farmer is carrying just now it
would be well to ascertain whether these farmers are in a position to carry any further load.
A reasonable programme of Bang's disease elimination-work might be encouraged with every
thought given to the welfare of the dairy-cattle men.
SHEEP.
A Sheep Show and Sale was held under the direction of the British Columbia Sheep-breeders'
Association on September 30th, 1932. Considering prices of breeding stock throughout the
country, this sale might be classed as a real success. In all, 387 head of ewes and rams were
sold. An average of $17.58 was paid for fifty-eight rams, making a total of $1,003.50. The
highest price of the sale was paid for a Hampshire ram bred by A. Smythe, of Abbotsford, and
purchased by Heron Bros., Cherry Creek Ranch, Kamloops.
Sheepmen have suffered by lowered prices, but breeders who got on the market very early
made quite reasonable profits. Some producers were able to get 10 cents for their first lambs
during the month of June. Quotations, however, for the second week of June on the A'ancouver
market were $7 to $8 a hundred. By the first week in July prices had fallen to $6 and $7 for
spring lamb. By the middle of August, with the rush of range lamb just beginning, prices had
dropped to $5 and $5.35. During the latter week of October spring lamb was down to $4.70 and
during the first week of November was down to $4.25. U 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The sheep population went up from 145,000 in 1931 to 151,928 in 1932. In some sections of
the range country the sheep population is decreasing, with a number of the larger outfits cutting-
down considerably or going out of business. In early December good full-mouthed breeding ewes
could be secured for as low as $1.50 per head. The farm flocks on the whole throughout the
Province have remained about normal.    The lamb-crop this year was good.
Losses from poisonous plants were not very great this year, due to the excellent condition
of the range and to the fact that the sheep did not have to travel to the higher ranges during
the early part of the season.
In some sections of the range country parasites are getting established to the place where
they are beginning to be a problem. The blowfly is causing considerable difficulty. Bluebag did
not appear this year on the range to the same extent as in 1931. Lunger disease still continues
to be a problem, though slightly less this year. This seems to substantiate the idea that both
these conditions may be linked up with that of poisoning by plants on the range, especially
vetch (Astragalus campcstris).
Sheep-breeders in the Boundary country have been reducing their flocks severely. With the
low price of wool less is being shipped each year. In fact, the wool-crop would scarcely be
handled at all if it was not for having to remove it from the animal.
The suggestions offered by this Branch for the last tyo years is still the best advice that can
be given. A7ery early lambs seem to be the only ones that are at all profitable. Here is where the
Vancouver and Gulf Islands and the Lower Mainland still have an opportunity of producing
lamb at a little profit. Small farm flocks in other parts of the Province could, by arranging for
good roughage and a little home-grown grain for the ewes at lambing-time, have very early lambs
dropped and perhaps make a little profit. Along with this must go cheap land to make up for
any expense of shipping. Of course, local markets very early in the year are as a rule most
profitable. As soon as a surplus occurs, however, local markets are usually the poorest. Lambs
dropped to catch the first grass in the range country as a rule reach the market in June before
the outside lambs.
One of the most serious pests affecting the sheep industry, especially on the south end of
A'ancouver Island, is predatory animals, particularly the cougar. This last season, with no
bounty on cougar, many flocks have been almost entirely wiped out.
Sheep losses from dogs has cost the Department this year $978 for 176 head, as compared
with $913 for 109 head in 1931. Most of the killings occur around towns and adjacent to Indian
reserves. Indians continue to leave the reserve for long periods, allowing their dogs to take care
of themselves, which usually means sheep-killing raids. In the outskirts of towns dogs frequently make raids on flocks, killing and, what is worse, injuring and frightening flocks. The
time has to come when Indians will be required to take care of their dogs and when all dog-
owners will be expected to carry licences for their dogs and take care of them. There seems
little reason why dogs should be permitted to run free during the night. Any one owning a dog
should be prepared to take care of it every night. AA'hile provision is made for compensation for
loss of sheep killed by dogs, on the whole it is safe to say that sheep-owners are seldom compensated completely for their loss. We are only able to pay for actual killings, but many
individuals in the flock may be worried and the breeding efficiency of the entire flock is sure to
be greatly reduced for the year.
Lamb Week.—The Provincial and Federal Departments of Agriculture co-operated in again
staging a Lamb AA'eek in the Province of British Columbia, September 5th to 10th.
Lamb AVeek has been more or less established as a yearly event and is being accepted as such
by the producers, packers, wholesalers, retailers, and consumers. The idea of Lamb AVeek is to
take care of the market at a time when marketing is at its peak and when there is a possibility
of a sharp drop in prices. The idea is not to replace other meats on the consumer's table, but
rather to add to the total meat-consumption of the individual consumer. Lamb Week also tends
to bring lamb into the regular diet of many families that are not accustomed to using this
product.
Approximately 3.700 lambs were killed in A'ancouver during this week and practically
all carcasses available in the coolers were utilized. All towns throughout the Province report
heavy marketing during the week. The Retail Merchants' Association assisted by sending ont
streamers to their various members throughout the Province and an advertising campaign
through the leading newspapers was also conducted.    Lamb stickers were supplied to restaurants, DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 55
hotels, and dining-car systems of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canadian National
Railways. The larger merchants in their weekly advertisements carried items with reference
to Lamb AA'eek and these firms reported large sales during the week. The secretary of the
British Columbia Branch of the Retail Merchants' Association reports that he has gathered
statistics from a number of members who state that this year their business increased from 15 to
75 per cent, over a year ago, and some of the larger dealers in Vancouver City reported an
increase of from 25 to 50 per cent.
Lamb-grading.—Canadian sheepmen are being given the opportunity of having their lambs
sold on a graded basis this year. The system suggested is purely voluntary at first, not coming
into general and compulsory use until the value of the system has been thoroughly demonstrated.
If producers intend to interest themselves in this programme they should breed, feed, and
finish the lambs, having in mind the most desirable weights, and market at these weights rather
than at the limit of the suggested grades. The highest-quality lambs are those which will yield
the most, weighing from 36 to 42 lb.
GOATS.
Goats are being kept in as large numbers as ever, many people realizing that in these times
they are most economical producers. Owing to the scarcity of cash, however, little is being spent
on the purchase of pure-bred stock, and people in outlying districts are using such males as they
have available. The lack of funds to help in paying express charges and to pay subsidies on
pure-bred bucks is having an adverse effect on the improvement of stock. The result is that the
standard of quality may be lowered, which would be regrettable.
There have been many inquiries for goats from the Peace River and other outlying districts,
but as the prospective buyers want the goats for almost nothing, and as express charges are high,
there has been little business resulting. Only one pure-bred goat was imported—a Nubian buck
from the United States.
R.O.P. records during 1931-32 have not maintained the high standard of previous years, the
highest doe being a Saanen with 2,547 lb. One Toggenburg doe not in R.O.P. gave 3,530.9 lb. in
the year, which is believed to be the second highest record in Canada.
SAVINE.
British Columbia still continues to be an importer of pork and pork products. Low prices
for swine for the last two years has made it rather difficult to develop interest in this branch of
the live-stock industry. The Live Stock Branch did not encourage a strong production campaign
last year, as very low prices for the year were anticipated owing to very heavy production on
the Prairies. This year it was felt that British Columbia could very well increase her swine
production within reason, and accordingly a policy has been formulated, known as a junior
swine-improvement policy, which is a programme built around junior organizations and replaces
the old bacon-litter policy. It is a follow-up of our present Boys' and Girls' Club programme.
AVith this policy it is intended to encourage Boys' and Girls' Clubs to develop the type of hog
required in the Dominion. The choicest gilts are selected from these junior clubs, and these are
purchased by boys interested in forming themselves into a junior swine-improvement association.
At the head of these clubs is placed a high-class bacon-boar supplied free to the club by the
Federal Department of Agriculture. These junior swine-improvement associations will be under
the immediate observation of the District Agriculturist, who represents the Live Stock Branch
in carrying out the details of the suggested programme. Every detail of swine production will
be checked and instruction given by the Live Stock Branch.
The aim of this programme is to get away from many of the faulty practices in the production of swine. Special emphasis will be put on disease and parasite prevention and control and
proper feeding methods, in order to prevent conditions such as anaemia and feed reactions. In
other words, every detail will be looked to so as to ensure economical production of choice swine.
Experience has shown that it is easier to carry on programmes with the younger farmers
than with adults. Experience has also shown that when these programmes prove satisfactory
the adults will adopt the suggestions. Swine-improvement associations will be placed in districts where swine production should be a part of the regular farm programme, and it is expected
that these associations will broaden out to contact each other, and it is also expected that each
association will be large enough to make possible car-load shipments to the outside market.
Breeding programmes will take care of this detail. At the present time four really high-class improvement associations have been developed—
one in the Enderby country, one in the Salmon Arm District organized by H. E. Waby, District
Agriculturist, and two in the Chilliwack District organized by R. G. Sutton, District Agriculturist. The Salmon Arm Association is working with pure-bred swine and should furnish a
supply of pure-bred boars for other improvement associations.
The Live Stock Branch does not suggest extensive swine production as a general policy, but
one sow on each farm in selected districts is advisable even during depression years. In sections
of the Province where whole-milk production is part of the programme it is felt that these
associations must be developed carefully so as to not encourage any conflict with regulations
under the " Milk Act."
It is intended that swine-improvement associations shall be headed by sires of the best
possible strains capable of producing swine of the right market type. If we can discourage the
idea of bringing into the Province too many strains, and especially strains that have weaknesses,
we will get away from irregularity in type and encourage uniformity. It is most desirable that
we encourage this uniformity in our market swine, and this can only be done by working with a
limited number of strains of swine.
In some sections of the Province where swine-raising has been carried on for some years
certain disease conditions, such as parasites, swine amemia, and feed reactions, have been greatly
affecting the industry. The Live Stock Branch has attempted to co-operate with swinemen of
these districts in an endeavour to control and eliminate these troubles. Some work has been
done as an area problem. Circulars have been prepared dealing with these conditions and
Bulletin No. 60 has been completely revised, bringing it up to date in these details.
Hog prices in Vancouver for the year saw select bacons selling at $5.50 during the first week
of January, $5.75 in the second week of January, and $5.35 in the last week of January. The
first week in February they dropped to $5, the second week they were up to $5.50, and the end of
the month saw them back to $5 again. In the first week of March prices continued at $5 and at
the end of the month were up to $5.25. All through the month of April select bacons sold for
$4.75, the second week in May $4.25, the first week of June $4.85, and the third week of June
$4.75. The first week of July saw prices at $4.75 and the end of July $5.25. the first week of
August $5.50. and this price continued throughout August and the second week of September.
The last week of September selects were quoted at $6.
JUNIOR LIVE STOCK CLUBS.
There were in the Province this year the following Junior Live Stock Clubs:—
Swine Clubs—Number of clubs, 15:   total membership. 135;   number of pigs exhibited, 270.
Calf Clubs.—Number of clubs, 26;   total membership, 260:  number of calves shown, 260.
Poultry Clubs.—Number of clubs, 45;  total membership, 414.
Considerable saving was made in the conducting of the club-work for the year. Swine Clubs
were cut down from twenty-two in 1931 to fifteen this year. Calf Clubs were cut from forty-six
in 1931 to twenty-six this year. Poultry Clubs were cut from ninety-eight in 1931 to forty-five
this year. Prize-money was reduced considerably to each club. Economies were made by not
permitting clubs to be organized in a district unless that district was suited for that particular
project. A further economy was made by doing away with Provincial contributions to elimination contests and arranging for local support in conducting these events.
The winners in the preliminary swine competitions at A7ancouver were Clifford Freeman and
Stewart McLaren, of the Langley Swine Club, and in the dairy-cattle competition Margaret and
Phyllis McKee. of the Langley Prairie Calf Club. In the final competition at Armstrong,
H. H. Evans, District Agriculturist, Vernon, in charge, the Langley Prairie Dairy Calf Club
placed first in the dairy-cattle project, and the Armstrong Swine Club team, made up of Mat. S.
Hassen and H. D. (Jimmie) McCallan, placed first in the swine project. In the final elimination
contest in the poultry project James Forshaw and George Roper, of the Grand Forks Poultry
Club, placed first.
As a member of the Canadian Council on Boys' and Girls' Club Work, British Columbia was
entitled to send the three winning teams mentioned above to the Toronto Royal AA7inter Fair to
compete with teams from the other Provinces of the Dominion. The Canadian Council arranged
for all transportation and other expenses for these teams from their homes to the competition
and back again.    The All-Canadian competition at the Royal AVinter Fair was held on Tuesday, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 57
November 15th. Our dairy-cattle team placed sixth and our Swine Club team placed sixth in the
competition. Both these teams were at considerable disadvantage in this competition, otherwise I feel sure they would have placed higher. Your Commissioner, as a member of the
Executive of the Canadian Council, has endeavoured to correct some of the technical differences,
so as to give all teams competing at Toronto an equal opportunity to win.
In the poultry project the British Columbia team placed first at the Toronto Royal competition against particularly keen competition, especially from the Province of Manitoba. They
led the Manitoba team by 770. points to 748. James Porshaw was the high man of the poultry
competition with 424 points. The judging committee commented most favourably on the showing
made by the British Columbia team, especially on the work done by James Forshaw.
Three young men, Jos. Bulman, Charles Proelick, and Tom AVilson, of Kamloops, members
of our Junior Club organization, competed at the Portland Junior Stock-judging competition and,
in competition with forty-four teams, placed fifth, a very nice win for the Province.
BRANDS.
The Brand Recorder, George Pilmer, has prepared the following statement showing shipments of cattle and hides from the various districts of the Province.
The total number of cattle shipped was 22,342, an increase of 466 over 1931, but hides, with
a total shipment of 5,555, show a decrease of 6,732. The hide market was completely disorganized, prices being so low that shipments would not pay for the freight. Only twenty-two
hide-dealers took out licences last year, fourteen less than the previous year.
Range Patrol.—While it has been impossible under present conditions to institute the range
patrol asked for in 1931, a start has been made. Inspector Cahilty at Kamloops has been riding
the range in his district, making eighty trips altogether and covering 1,714 miles. A police constable has also been riding in the Nicola District.
Sergeant P. AV. Gallagher at Williams Lake investigated a complaint of the loss of 125 head
of cattle. Stockmen in the Cariboo were greatly exercised over this business and inclined to
blame the police for not getting results, but after months of work the complaint was proved to be
absolutely unfounded. Sergeant Gallagher deserves praise for his thorough and painstaking
work in spite of many difficulties.
Two prosecutions were undertaken by the police for horse-stealing, one at Princeton and one
at Newgate, but Magistrates refused to convict on Indian evidence. In another case at Princeton, however, two men were convicted. A case of cattle-killing at Merritt was ended when the
unfortunate accused committed suicide. In other instances prosecutions were avoided by the
parties securing licences.
The death of Ernest Clark, Chairman of the Committee, occurred in November. His passing
was deeply regretted, as his wide experience as a lawyer and stockman proved very valuable.
An informal meeting of the Commissioners was held at Canoe Creek in September, chiefly to
discuss the amendments referred to above, which were approved by the Commissioners.
By arrangement with the Department of Agriculture of Alberta, shipments of cattle from
the stockyards at Edmonton and Calgary into British Columbia are notified monthly, and the
Inspectors in the districts to which the cattle are shipped are advised by this office. This enables
the Inspectors to keep closer cheek on certain activities.
Stock and Hide Shipments.—Cariboo: Cattle, 10,928; hides, 377. This district, which ships
practically half of the total for the Province, shows a decrease of 300 head as compared with
1931.
Kamloops-Nicola-Ashcrof t: Cattle, 7,952 ; hides, 2,509; shipments were only 200 head less
than last year, but hide shipments are 1,300 less. The hide market has been practically dead as
shipments would not pay freight.
Okanagan :  Cattle, 598;  hides, 1,322;  450 head less than 193] :  hides show a drop of 2,500.
Similkameen :  Cattle, 927;  hides, 159;  350 head more than 1931:  300 hides less.
South-east B.C.: Cattle, 284; hides, 1,131; 100 head more than 1931; decrease in hide shipments of 2,100.
Central B.C.:  Cattle, 801;  hides, 49;  580 head more than 1931.
Peace River :  Cattle, 852 ;  hides, 8;  410 head more. U 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 59
The number of brands recorded, renewed, etc., during 1932 was as follows:—
Recorded.
Renewed.
Reissued.
Transferred.
Total.
212
95
168
87
87
49
14
7
481
23S
Total	
719
The number of licences issued was :  Hide-dealers, 22 ;  slaughter-house, 44 ; beef-peddler, 10.
Supplement No. 4 to the Brand Book, showing all brands issued in 1931, was printed and
distributed early in the year. Stencilled lists of brands registered were issued each month. As
much advance work as possible was done in preparing for the quadrennial issue of the complete
Brand Book at the end of 1932.
Respectfully submitted.
AA7allace R. Gunn,
Live Stock Commissioner.
REPORT OF POULTRY COMMISSIONER,
J. R, Terry.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith please find annual report of Poultry Division for the year 1932.
At the commencement of the year and early spring the weather at the Coast was favourable
to the poultry flocks, but this condition adversely affected the returns considerably, owing to the
flooding of egg markets at this time.
During the year most feedstuffs, particularly concentrates such as beef-scraps and fish-meal,
dropped in price.    Grains fluctuated a little, but did not reach 1930 prices.
AVith a further decrease of 25 per cent, in poultry flocks, again the quantities of eggs exported
were the lowest for more than a decade. It is doubtful if a larger quantity of eggs could have
been sold unless at ruinous prices, as the demand has been very poor from Eastern sources.
During the year eggs were even dispatched to Coast points from the East, owing to stagnation of
markets there.
AVhen comparing prices of eggs quoted in the following table, it should be noted that the
sizes of eggs produced nowadays are smaller and naturally lighter in weight than eggs laid
twenty years ago.
The following is a comparison of prices received, wholesale, for eggs from 1905 to 1932,
inclusive:
1905 .
1906 .
1907 .
1908 .
1909
1910.
1911 .
1912.
1913
1914.
1915
1916
1917
1918 .
Cents.
- 24%
- 29%
.. 31
.. 3i y2
.. 33%
.. 34%
.. 34%
..41
.. 35
.35
.. 32 y2
.. 34
.. 41
..50
1919 .
1920 .
1921 .
1922 .
1923 .
1924 .
1925 .
1926
1927 .
1928
1929
1930.
1931
Cents.
.. 6oy4
- 57%
.. 39y2
- 32%
.. 28
.. 32
.. 32
.. 30
.. 29
..29
.30
- 24%
..20
1932 15 U 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA:
BREEDING OPERATIONS.
It is pleasing to record a grading-up in quality of breeding flocks utilized during the year.
Most flocks now show the benefits of ruthless culling, partly brought about by economic conditions and by a real desire to pay more attention to the selection of breeders.
A corresponding improvement was noted in hatching results, due in part to the better
selection and care of hatching-eggs.
Commercial hatcheries operating were not so numerous this year and a business of about 70
per cent, of the previous year was done. Prices for chicks and 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-week-old pullets
of the lighter varieties were lower in price than the previous year. During the fall especially a
fair demand was experienced for partly matured pullets of the heavy breeds.
During the past few years an increasing preference for brown- and tinted-shelled eggs has
arisen, this resulting in the demand above mentioned for heavy-weight pullets. The demand for
coloured eggs seems to be continent-wide, as New York and Eastern States advices are to the
effect that a premium is being paid for brown eggs over white.
It is well to warn beginners at this time that, on the average, more skill is demanded if
breeders wish to keep heavy-weight varieties, and also that the Mediterranean varieties can be
produced cheaper.    This also applies to eggs.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' POULTRY CLUBS.
Owing to the heavy reduction in grant available for this work, less than half the clubs of
last year were formed. They numbered forty-five and were spread well over the Southern and
Central District of the Province. Four clubs selected day-old chicks. Number of settings
supplied was 382, or a total of 4,966 eggs. Central British Columbia had ten clubs in its territory and striking evidence is supplied each succeeding year as to the great improvement in class
of poultry flocks in this territory. At the present time many of the children find an excellent
market for their surplus cockerels obtained from the selected eggs forwarded by the Department.
From the Boundary District came the winners of the elimination trials in the competition
for poultry judging by teams of boy and girl club members at Armstrong. This team entered
the Dominion contest at Toronto Royal Show and succeeded in winning the Dominion title.
Masters Forshaw and Roper were coached by District Representative Landon, assisted by a few
members of the Grand Porks Poultry Association. Mr. Landon deserves great credit for the
victory, as he was badly handicapped in not having good exhibition stock in some varieties in
the district for demonstration and training purposes.
AVATER-FOWL.
During the past year many persons forced to take up land have ventured into raising waterfowl, principally laying ducks, such as Indian Runners and Khaki-Campbells. Both these breeds
are small in size, but of wonderful laying capacity.
The marketing of the fairly large quantity of duck-eggs produced has been something of a
problem. Hitherto bakers and confectioners, and, to a less degree, grocers, have been able to
handle production, but towards end of last fall prices dropped alarmingly. The grading was
also lowered. In the past duck-eggs generally commanded a premium of 5 cents per dozen over
hens' eggs.
The meat varieties of ducks, Muscovy, Pekin, and Rouen, have held their own, although
prices per pound dropped slightly. Many breeders with a special trade regularly mate Muscovy
drakes with Pekin or Rouen ducks. A large, quick-growing carcass is produced and a good
price realized. Beginners are urged, however, to get full information re market requirements
before taking up this side-line.
Prices for heavy fat ducks during the year averaged about 20 cents per pound.
Geese-raising during the year recorded a slight increase, mainly due to so many ranchers
taking up this work as a side-line. The most popular varieties, Toulouse, Embden, and African,
again preponderated. The demand for hatching-eggs was very brisk last spring and early
summer. The excessive rainfall in Coast regions provided ample greenstuffs for the geese.
Prices realized were about 20 cents per pound at Coast points and 25 cents in Interior sections. .
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 61
TURKEYS.
The forehanded breeder again marketed the biggest proportion of his surplus stock at
Thanksgiving, thus saving heavy feed costs experienced by those keeping over stock for the
Christmas markets.
AVhilst prices were very low, an average of about 14 cents being paid for Grade A stuff, it
is well to remember that even this price would not have been forthcoming were it not for the
large experimental shipment of Eastern-raised turkeys to the British market. Besides keeping
up Canadian prices, a good price was received for the exported carcasses and a good impression
made for future trade. A total of over fifty cars was imported to the Coast market during the
holidays and these sold for from 18 to 25 cents per pound retail. This class of stock averaged
about 8 to 12 lb. and was much in demand, especially on account of size and price.
Turkey-meat has not been sold for such a low price as prevailed this year for many decades.
As a result of its cheapness, possibly more turkeys were consumed than during holidays of more
prosperous periods.
Provincial breeders are again urged to closely cull all breeding stock and endeavour to hatch
as early as possible. These methods, accompanied by correct feeding procedure, will ensure
better results and even enable breeders to make small profits at present prices, so long as feed-
stuffs do not increase in price.
It becomes evident more each year that a medium- rather than large-sized turkey carcass is
desired for the principal winter holidays, and this means the breeding of the medium-weight
varieties, such as Narragansetts, Bourbon Reds, and AA'hite breeds. A market, however, will
always be available for a reasonably large quantity of heavy-weight turkeys, such as the
Mammoth Bronze. Breeders outside the Province are sending here for male birds of this
variety, and this trade will increase as soon as the R.O.M. system gets into full swing. The
Federal Department is in charge of this work and a fairly large quantity of birds were graded
as a start.
The demand for turkey-eggs and day-old poults was fairly brisk, although prices were lower,
25 cents each for eggs and 65 to 75 cents for poults being paid for the average.
The Cowichan Turkey-breeders' Association held its third annual live-turkey show and
recorded an enlarged entry—over eighty specimens. Amongst the birds shown were some
magnificent imported gobblers of the various breeds. Sums in excess of $75 each were paid for
some of these birds. The British Columbia Turkey Club, of which the writer is secretary, and
the British Columbia Poultry Association assisted by donating medals, silk badges, and entry-
cards. Most of the breeders kill and market their crop in Victoria or A7ancouver. A possible
market for the finer grades of turkey feathers has been found in Great Britain, where feather
boas are becoming the fashion again.
The British Columbia Turkey Club has marked time during the year, but, with its membership intact, hopes are entertained for the old-time activities of the club to be revived.
RABBITS.
During the year increased inquiries for hutch record-cards and bulletins and circulars
dealing with rabbit-culture were received. Although the majority of beginners desired to take
up wool production, quite a few were interested in rabbit-breeding for meat and pelt purposes.
The main crop of Angora wool was again shipped to Great Britain and the highest grade
fetched good prices, although the exchange cut seriously into the profits. Prices asked for
breeding stock of this variety has reached reasonable proportions, although some beginners have
expended too much capital in starting up business.
Much of the activity in this phase of rabbit-culture has been due to the aggressiveness of
several firms utilizing radio advertising to boost the sale of breeding stock. In some instances
the enthusiasm of the advertiser has led to the making of rash statements as to the possible
profits to be made in the industry.
Beginners are again urged to use every care in purchasing breeding stock that is free from
disease, of suitable age. and reasonable price.
The local Rabbit Associations have functioned during the past year and the Department
again published a breeders' directory for the A7aneouver Association.
The Rabbit Bulletin. No. 80, was revised and brought up to date during the year. Several
new circulars were also published, dealing with rabbit recipes, wool prices, etc. U 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PROVINCIAL ASSOCIATION.
The number of local clubs affiliated is eighteen. The annual convention and show were
held in Vancouver during December as usual. Nine delegates from all parts of the Province
attended and a first-class meeting, helpful and instructive, was held.
The Provincial Poultry Show w-as a success and the entries were nearly 400 higher than
previous year. Several of the winners in the most hotly contested classes were former members
of the Boys' and Girls' Poultry Clubs.
The Federal Department co-operated by encouraging the members of the Provincial Registered Breeders' Association to exhibit. Over 100 birds were shown in this class alone. The
largest classes in the show were Rhode Island Reds. Much of the popularity of this breed is
due to the excellent work of the British Columbia Red Club.
The association sent delegates to the meeting of poultry-breeders, at which the British
Columbia Poultry Council was formed. AVhilst several members assisted in the formation of
the Council, a different group of directors was selected at a later meeting.
A delegation attended the Fraser Valley Farmers' Institute Convention and pleaded for
assistance in regard to the practice of groups of merchants unnecessarily depressing prices of
eggs and dairy products by offering bargain combinations at very low prices.
Three local associations held shows during the year, one only being assisted by departmental grant. Shows were held at Vernon, Victoria, and Mission. The latter show was the
largest, with Vernon and A'ictoria next. At the Mission Show the Provincial Association made
a small donation towards expenses of one of the judges.
The association supplied its members with egg record and account books, worm medicine,
mustard-seed for greenstuffs, and egg preservative. A breeders' directory edition of 400 copies
was published during the year.
DISEASE PROBLEMS.
Poultry-disease infestation has reached such proportions that unless a change in methods
of breeding, feeding, and rearing takes place many flocks will soon be wiped out.
Breeders have been warned of conditions such as at present prevailing, for many years.
Numerous letters in local poultry journals tend to show that breeders are at last awakening to
the danger which threatens them. The principal diseases—leg paralysis, coccidiosis, ovarian
troubles, and infectious bronchitis—have been brought on by present-day methods of forcing,
overcrowding, and breeding from unsuitable breeding stock, which in turn produced poor eggs,
oftentimes used in large-scale hatching operations.
Advices from practically every civilized country show that similar diseases are taking
heavy toll in flocks there.
Respectfully submitted.
J. R. Terry,
Poultry Commissioner.
REPORT OF CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR.
Anson Knight, B.V.Sc., V.S.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year ended December 31st, 1932.
During the year your Inspectors in the course of their duties have investigated troubles
reported by stock-owners, involving such diseases as foot-rot in sheep and cattle, hsemorrhagic
septicaemia, plant-poisoning, actinomycosis, blackleg in cattle, tuberculin-testing of cattle, parasites in sheep, swine, and cattle, and the sanitary inspection of dairy-farms.
FOOT-ROT IN SHEEP.
This disease is now listed under the " Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act" and we are now
able to control any movement of sheep that may be affected by this disease. During the year
Dr. D. H. McKay has investigated a number of outbreaks, the most severe of which occurred on
the Hunter Range, where there were about 4,700 sheep. The foot-bath for the purpose of treating this disease was established on the range by the
Lands Department and 2,500 sheep went through the solution,' which was made up of 1 lb. of
bluestone to 1 gallon of water. The feet of the lame sheep were first dressed before entering the
bath. In this connection any suspected cases of foot-rot in sheep should be inspected on their
home premises before being allowed to move along a public highway or on open range where
they would be in contact with other sheep. This disease lends itself to treatment, but still it
may have a serious effect on the health of the sheep. It can be successfully treated when taken
in time.
Several minor outbreaks of this trouble have also occurred in cattle, more especially on some
of our dairy-farms along the Coast. AVith our mild climate on the Coast the disease is not held
in check to the same extent during the winter as it would be in the Interior, where the winters
are more severe. Also in the Interior we have a greater fall of snow, and with the freezing of
the ground the sheep are under more cleanly conditions in the Interior during the winter than
on the Coast, where, owing to our moist climate and milder winter, the disease remains dormant
and only awaits favourable temperature toward early spring to bring on a severe case. Since
this disease has been brought under the "Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act" we are hoping
to be able to control the movements of diseased sheep and prevent its spreading.
Intending purchasers of sheep could protect themselves to a great extent by looking into
the general health of the flocks and condition of premises from which they purchase. If any
number of sheep are found to be lame, it would be advisable to thoroughly inquire into the cause
and take every precaution against purchasing a ram or ewes from such flocks, for if such
animals should be affected with this disease and put in contact with healthy flocks a new centre
of the disease would be established.
ACTINOMYCOSIS.
Only three cases of this disease have been established this year. This is one of our minor
diseases to be dealt with and does not prevail to any extent throughout the Province. Treatment
is advised for such cases if found in the early stages, or if the disease is far advanced the
animal is destroyed. No milk is allowed to be sold from a cow that is affected with this disease.
Meat may be sold if the disease is not too far advanced and the head is destroyed.
BLACKLEG.
There has been only one case of blackleg, reported by Dr. D. II. McKay, which occurred in
the Kamloops District. This disease has also been placed under the " Contagious Diseases
(Animals) Act," providing for the disposition of the carcass resulting from this disease.
A number of our stockmen inoculate their young cattle as a preventive measure, using blackleg
agressin.
The loss of a number of calves was reported from the North Thompson District and upon
investigation it was found due to a mixed infection. As a preventive measure a mixed bacterial
vaccine was used hypodermically. This appeared to prevent further losses. Fifty head of young
cattle had died previous to treatment in above-mentioned district.
There appears to be a tendency among the stockmen of our Interior ranches to make use of
the same corral and feeding-ground winter after winter without any measures being taken to
cleanse and disinfect such yards or feeding-grounds. Animals dying with such diseases as
hemorrhagic septicemia, coccidiosis, and mixed infections naturally contaminate these yards,
and it is only logical that to prevent such losses these yards must be cleaned up at least once a
year and the ground and the corrals, including fences, be thoroughly disinfected.
PINKEYE.
I
A minor outbreak of pinkeye occurred amongst horses  on  the range  in  the vicinity  of
Pritchard.    A few losses occurred.    The horses being wild, very little could be done in the way
of treatment.    This trouble appeared to be confined to a small bunch of horses and did not
spread to the surrounding areas.
PARASITES.
Your Inspectors have paid considerable attention and have given considerable advice to
stock-owners in the control and eradication of parasites principally amongst sheep and swine.
Cattle throughout the Province do not appear to be suffering to the same extent as sheep and U 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
swine. Dr. J. D. Macdonald reports having found liver-fluke amongst sheep and cattle north of
the Comox area. He investigated the source from which the cattle and sheep became infected
and found a small snail which takes part in the life-cycle of this parasite in the streams
adjacent to the Blackwater Creek. Dr. Macdonald has acted in an advisory capacity to the
farmers as to the control of other internal parasites of sheep and cattle.
Stomach and intestinal worms in sheep have been our chief concern, the losses in this class
of farm stock being more severe than amongst other domestic animals. In one flock on A'ancouver Island rather severe losses occurred amongst ewes and lambs. The cause was difficult to
locate, the owner at one time not appearing willing to destroy living animals. However, as his
losses were increasing, he decided to allow two emaciated animals to be slaughtered. These
parasites were located in the fourth stomach and the intestinal tract. These were rather obscure
and perhaps new to this Province. A'ery fine thread-like worms, practically invisible when
attached to the mucous membrane of the intestinal tract, were found to be the cause of the
emaciated condition of the sheep, eventually causing their death. A line of treatment was
advised and when last examined the sheep appeared to be vastly improved and no further losses
occurred. On inquiring into the history of this flock, I understand that a number of the original
or older ewes were brought in from the States.
The larger parasites or worms are more easily detectable. Your Inspectors have shown zeal
in assisting the farmers in the disease problems affecting their domestic stock, especially in
lending advice in the control of parasitic troubles. Dr. M. Sparrow, in making his report, states
that while making dairy inspections throughout the valley several litters of pigs were examine!
which were found to be suffering from parasites. Instructions were left regarding the methods
necessary to adopt if good results were to be obtained.
ABORTION IN CATTLE.
Abortion amongst cattle, especially dairy cattle, is somewhat prevalent throughout the
Province, but it has not been any more noticeable this past year than in former years. In dealing with other diseases and visiting the farms in regular work our attention is drawn to the
abortion question. Your Inspectors have always been willing to lend advice as to sanitation,
the control of animals that have aborted, and other phases of the question. I believe such advice
has been of considerable help to farmers and dairymen in the control of this disease.
TUBERCULOSIS.
Dairy cattle throughout the Province outside of the Fraser A7alley T.B. Restricted Area have
been tested. A7ancouver Island and Gulf Islands have been quite thoroughly covered, together
with Okanagan A7alley, East and AA7est Kootenays, and other Interior points along the C.P.R.
line, also Central British Columbia and parts of the Cariboo. This work has had to do with
the T.B. testing of herds supplying the various cities throughout the Province with milk. The
excellent condition of the dairy herds in the East and AA7est Kootenays, where no reactors were
found, deserves mention.
In the Interior districts five reactors were found in the vicinity of Princeton, all the other
stations being free; also five reactors were found in the Okanagan Valley, but considering the
large number of cattle tested the percentage is very low, working out to about one-third of 1 per
cent, in the districts already mentioned. A list of the premises visited, the number of cattle
tested, and the reactors in connection with the T.B. work is on file in the Branch.
INSPECTION OF DAIRY PREMISES.
The sources of the milk supplied to practically all our cities and towns throughout the
Province have been inspected and the cattle T.B. tested. The testing of the cattle throughout
the Lower Fraser River area is now being carried out by the Dominion Inspectors assisted by
members of the Provincial A7eterinary staff. A great improvement in the sanitary conditions
of the stables and cleanliness of cows and the milk-house where milk and utensils are handled
has been noted. AVe have a fairly steady demand from farmers wishing to bring their premises
up to Grade A so that they will be in a position to retail milk direct from the farm. The number
of this class of milk-distributer is increasing steadily. A number of our cities and towns will
only permit milk to be sold within their boundaries from Grade A dairy-farms. Your Inspectors
are working in harmony with the municipal authorities to guarantee, in so far as inspection of
dairy premises is concerned, a wholesome supply of milk to the consuming public. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 65
Attention has been directed to the delivery methods sometimes practised in the Fraser Valley.
Large trucks are used for the collection of milk-cans from the farms. In certain cases no
protection from the heat or dust has been provided; even other articles such as veal, calves,
fruit, and other farm produce is carried in the same truck on top of the cans. Some simple
means such as spreading a tarpaulin or sheet over the cans to keep off the dust and protect milk
from other articles of farm produce could be adopted. This would not entail any great expense
and would assist in protecting the milk-supply to the factory or consumer. Our Grade A farms
are provided with closed vehicles for the delivery of milk. This is a very marked improvement
over the open-truck method of certain larger milk concerns. Greater care could also be taken
of the cans on returning.
Herewith are lists of dairy premises inspected, giving number of premises visited, number
of cattle physically inspected, and the number of grades in each district:—
Premises
visited.
Cattle
tested.
Reactors
uncovered.
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands
Coast points	
Central British Columhia 	
East Kootenay	
West Kootenay  	
Interior districts	
Okanagan A'alley.. 	
Totals	
797
44
77
58
82
45
123
,709
109
644
740
934
671
976
91
1,226
11,543
109
Premises
inspected.
No. of
Cattle.
Grades.
A.
B.
C.
Ungraded.
A'ancouver Island and Gulf Islands	
783
2,832
56
80
40
100
7 223
461>12
740
934
658
067
207
142
3
2
2
5
281
1,113
25
48
27
36
125
850
1
3
4
14
170
727
27
West Kootenay    	
Interior districts    	
Okanagan Valley...  	
27
7
45
Totals	
3,891
57,434
361
1,530
997
1,003
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
REPORT OF DAIRY COMMISSIONER.
Henry Rive, B.S.A.
J. B. Munro. M.S.A.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Commissioner for the year 1932.
■ Prices for dairy products continue extremely low.    The confusion in fluid-milk marketing,
noted in our last report, in the Cities of A'ictoria and A'ancouver still prevails, the situation on
the Lower Mainland being unsatisfactory.
Rather less butter has been manufactured than during 3931. though the difference is inconsiderable. The season was not particularly good for ice-cream owing to the weather as well as
to the existing depression. Of evaporated milk, a somewhat smaller output has been recorded
owing mainly to the dullness of market. Practically the same amount of cheese as during the
previous year was turned out.    Prices for milk feeds have not changed appreciably.
CREAMERIES.
The milk plants, creameries, and dairy-factories of the Lower Mainland were visited mainly
by F. Overland;  those of the Interior most frequently by F. C. AA'asson;  both of these Inspectors U 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
making calls on the plants of the Islands and for the occasion of one trip exchanging districts.
Supervision of cream-grading and check-testing of supplies with calls on patrons have been
carried out regularly.
The absence, in so far as concerns British Columbia butters, of any grading for possible
export (which exercises a very salutary effect on quality in other Provinces) leads at times to
slackness and carelessness where a local market only has to be considered. The continued low
prices are leading, however, to stricter cream-grading and more careful manufacture of butter
to secure such premiums as are available for quality in a depressed market. It may be fairly
stated that cream-grading and pasteurization are together steadily, if gradually, improving the
quality of butter made in this Province.
British Columbia Butter Totals.
1929.
1930.
1931.
Lb.
4,299,810
5,840,391
Lb.
3,281,070
7,279,144
Lb.
8,121,204
1,260,726
Total imports	
Home production	
10,140,201
6,532,635
10,560,214
6,503,251
9,381,930
7,848,305
Totals      -                           	
16,672,836
17,063,465
17,230,235
Average total imports, three years, 10,000,000 lb. (approximately) ; average home production, three
years, 7,000,000 lb. (approximately) ; average total production and imports, three years, 16,988,845 lb.
(actual).
The amount of imported butter that passes on for consumption beyond British Columbia is
difficult to ascertain, but home production remains for these years equal to about two-thirds of
total imports, whatever the disposition of these.
Allowing for Orientals and Indians, it would appear that the annual per capita butter consumption of the 620,000 whites is approximately 27 lb. This is a very satisfactory amount,
although less than in the case of the entire Dominion. A lessening of imports may well be
expected as the local production grows. Though steady, the rate of growth is not rapid, yet in
seven years a 50-per-cent. increase in butter produced in British Columbia has occurred.
CHEESE.
As regards the manufacture of cheese in this Province, matters continue in a most unsatisfactory condition. The total consumption of cheese anually is over one and a half million
pounds, or about 2% lb. per capita, which is much below the average for the Dominion. The
amount of cheese made has increased substantially for several years, due almost solely to the
increase of milk-supplies and not to a profitable demand for this product. Manufacturing milk
into cheese offers a convenient outlet additional to the making of butter or evaporated milk, and,
being resorted to intermittently on this account, is responsible for the variations in cheese manufactured for several years and the increases of late. The making of large-sized Cheddar cheese
at this Coast cannot be attended with conspicuous success owing to the competition in this class
from Eastern points. During the last five years the proportion of cheese made in British
Columbia after a corresponding decline since war-time has varied upwards from one-fortieth to
one-half the total cheese handled.
British Columbia Cheese Totals.
1929.
From other Provinces..
From foreign points	
Total imports
Home production	
Totals...	
Lb.
944,202
604,104
L5487306
39,452
1930.
1,587,758
Lb.
934,303
324,602
T258,90ir
564,833
~l7823,73S~
1931.
Lb.
632,242
195,806
~8287)48
750,885
1,578,933
Average total imports, three years,  1,211,753 lb. :    average home production,
average total production and imports, three years, 1,663,479 lb.
years,  657,859 lb. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 67 There is good reason to believe that the manufacture of some other varieties in British
Columbia would meet with success in view of the diversity as well as the amount of cheese
imports. On this point of varieties of cheese suitable for manufacture and sale, very little
evidence is available, and experimental work in merchandising to determine the likes of the
Coast markets is badly needed.
CONDENSED PRODUCTS.
The condenseries at South Sumas (Bordcns, Ltd.) and Delair (Fraser A'alley Milk Producers' Association) were in operation during the year. Evaporated milk constitutes the product
of both institutions. The output of the season has been quite considerable, but markets remain
slow. Exports of evaporated milk grow appreciably, but the total volume of milk so disposed of
is not yet large enough to meet the requirements of the industry.
As reported a year ago, the manufacture of powdered milk, whole and skim, has continued,
but with unfavourable markets. The markets for casein and for semi-liquid buttermilk have
also had a discouraging effect on the output of these products.
The total of dairy-factories operating in British Columbia is as follows: Twenty-eight
creameries, two condenseries, three cheese-factories, ten wholesale ice-cream factories, and one
plant each for milk-powder, casein, and buttermilk.
HERD IMPROVEMENT.
The work of the Cow-testing Associations has been carried on much as usual in so far as
concerns the recording and certifying of dairy cows. Difficulty has been experienced, as might
be anticipated, in keeping associations running to their full capacities, and to some extent in
collections, but the reliability and the usefulness of the project have not been impaired in any
way.
There continue twelve Cow-testing Associations, with fifteen routes, operating in the Province, employing fifteen supervisors. It may reasonably be expected that average records of
production will show decreases for the season. Owing to poor returns for butter-fat much less
grain than usual has been fed for many months, and cows in general are in poorer condition,
with lowered yields. Although experiencing many troubles, there is good reason to believe this
work will survive the hard times without too great damage.
The second list of dairy sires is now in the press. It contains particulars of the performance
of daughters, numbering five or over, of pure-bred dairy bulls of the Province, as nearly to date
as possible. The demand from members of Cow-testing Associations and others for the first list
issued a year ago has been gratifying. This Department has continued its grants to Cow-
testing Associations during the year. (Particulars of these amounts will be found in Appendix
No. 3.)
CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCE COURSE.
The course for 1932 was held January 26th to February 11th at the Ayrshire Dairy, corner
Seventeenth and Ontario Streets. A'ancouver, as in 1931. At the same time a course for intending supervisors of Cow-testing Associations was held.    Fifteen applicants attended.
Ten passed the graders' examinations successfully. Four took testing-work without cream-
grading ;  two of these in the supervisors' course, who secured testers' licences.
The course for 1933 is to be held at 1170 Hornby Street, A'ancouver, commencing January
23rd.
TESTERS' LICENCES.
During the year seventeen applicants were examined.    Sixty-five licences were issued,
list of testers holding licences during 1932 see Appendix No. 4.)
(For
CREAM-GRADERS' LICENCES.
Forty-eight licences to cream-graders were issued. Two were single licences ; forty-six were
combined cream-graders' and milk-testers' licences. (For the list of cream-graders so licensed
see Appendix No. 5.) .
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932. U 69
DAIRY AND CREAMERY LICENCES.
To forty-seven persons, firms, companies, or associations buying cream on the basis of the
butter-fat content, licences were issued. (For the list of creameries and dairies so licensed see
Appendix No. 6.)
PUBLICATIONS.
Dairy Circulars Nos. 21 and 22, " The Annual List of C.T.A. Certified Records " and " The
Second List of Dairy Sires " respectively, constitute the publications of this Branch for the year.
Respectfully submitted.
Henry Rive.
Dairy Commissioner. U  TO
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX No. 1.
Results of Feeding Programme, 1931-32, conducted by the Provincial Department of
Agriculture and the B.C. Beef Cattle Growers' Association.
Lot No.
Averages.
Number of head 	
Length of feeding period, days	
In weight, lb	
Out weight, lb	
Total gain, lb	
Average gain, lb	
Sale price   	
Sale value,.	
Handling  charges,  freight,  inspection, etc	
Total feeder share	
Returns per head	
Feed consumed—
Hay, tons	
Grain, tons    	
Silage, tons	
Returns per ton on feed-
Hay	
Grain	
Silage    	
Total breeder share
Returns per head ..
Returns per lb	
33
17
14
5
5
24
60
55
30
175
150
160
140
150
160
150
160
130
26,170
15,500
9,998
3,350
3,700
16,224
41,100
37,427
21,420
32,993
18,402
12,410
4,360
4,700
21,022
61,936
45,582
25,989
6,823
2,902
2,422
1,030
1,000
4,798
10,836
8,155
4,569
207.0
170.7
173.0
206.0
200.0
199.9
180.6
148.3
152.3
5.64c.
5.39c.
5.21c.
5.25c.
5.00c.
4.50c
4.99c.
4.82c.
5.46c.
$1,860.50
$992.94
$646.83
$229.05
$235.00
■¥945.99
$2,593.08
$2,196.63
$1,419.41
66.75
36.42
46.54
9.60
10.77
69.29
160.12
181.00
118.10
$740.69
22.44
28.16
20.00
$12.00
20.00
$1,049.76
81.81
4.01
$330.25
19.42
21.00
5.00
3.50
$11.00
18.00
4.00
$251.23
17.94
12.50
5.75
$10.00
20.00
$99.02
19.80
5.00
3.50
5.00
$7.00
15.00
3.00
24.57
$347.56
36.74
24.82
4.03
S.48
$120.83
24.16
3.60
$99.62
19.92
6.00
2.50
$10.00
18.00
$422.38
17.58
21.00
7.50
16.80
$10.00
18.00
4.00
$124.11
24.82
3.35
i452.07
18.83
2.78
$1,071.15
17.85
60.00
16.00
36.00
$10.00
20.00
4.00
$761.40
14.84
$1,855.81
$1,245.23
22.59
22.64
3.29
3.32
$511.11
17.03
$792 20
26.40
3.70
$17.64
$10.00
18.43
3.76
$26.15
3.50
APPENDIX No. 2.
Numbers of Farm Live Stock in British Columbia, 1931-32.
1931. 1932.
Horses      56,379 57,261
Cattle-
Milch cows   113,000 115,200
Other cattle   133,000 141,825
Total cattle   246,000 257,025
Sheep   145,000 151,928
Swine      51,977 51,652 DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE,  1932.
U 71
APPENDIX No. 3.
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia, 1932.
Instituted.
Secretary.
Supervisor.
Departmental
Grant.
1931.
1932.
Oct.,       1926
March,  1913
Nov.,      1928
April,     1927
1914
Oct.,       1930
June,     1914
April,     1920
Nov.,      1925
March, 1919
1930
July, 1929
Nov.,      1923
1924
April,     1929
0. Bkman, Telkwa	
W. S. Annis, R.R.I, Chilliwack
W. S. Annis, R.R.I, Chilliwack
W. S. Annis, R.R.I, Chilliwack
W. E. Mantle, Sandwiek	
$930.00
540.00
570.00
630.00
630.00
605.00
630.00
630.00
570.00
630.00
630.00
600.00
630.00
680.00
595.00
$900.00
570.00
Chilliwack, Route 2	
A. H. R. Howell
A.   S.   Dixon . .
600.00
600.00
T. G. M. Clarke
600.00
Dewdney-Deroche
D. W. Strachan, Dewdney	
J. C. Berry, Langley	
G. D. Cameron, Kelowna	
C. S. Pallot, Pitt Meadows
R. J. Smith, R.R. 1, Ladner
R. J. Smith, R.R. 1, Ladner
570.00
600.00
600.00
Pitt Meadows-Maple
W.  E.  Hawthorne..
G. H. Medd...	
570.00
Richmond-Ladner,
000.00
Richmond-Ladner,
Route 2          	
D. S. Heelas	
600.00
630.00
B. Stewart, R.R. 2, Abbotsford.
R. A. Wilson	
600.00
H. C. Clark	
600.00
Vancouver Island
(South)	
R. Rendle, Cadboro Bay	
600.00
APPENDIX No. 4.
Milk-testers' Licences issued durino 1931 and 1932.
Name.
Address.
Tear.
1931
Chilliwack 	
1931,1932
1931. 1932
1931
1931, 1932
R.R. 2, New Westminster	
1931
1932
Blake, C. W	
1931
3147 Eighth Avenue East, New Westminster
1931
1931
1931. 1932
1931
Cameron, W   C   C
1931
Carroll, W   J.                                                    	
1931.1932
Chevalley, F
R.R. 2, Abbotsford           	
1931, 1932
Clark, H   C                                  	
1931,1932
Clarke   T   G   M                                                    ...
1931, 1932
1931, 1932
Coxen, W. G                                    	
1931, 1932
1931
735 Twenty-ninth Avenue East, Vancouver	
1932
1931
1931, 1932
1931
1931, 1932
Griffith, Lloyd	
1931 U 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 4—Continued.
Mj.lk-testers' Licences issued during 1931 and 1932—Continued.
Name.
Gibbs, J	
Gates, H. C -
Green, W. L. Harcourt-
Hall, F. D. B	
Hawthorne, W. E	
Hargreaves, J. A. D	
Address.
930 North Park Street, Victoria 	
2155 Fourteenth Avenue West, Vancouver
3715 Inverness Street, Vancouver	
Sardis	
Pitt Meadows  .-.	
1551 Sixteenth Avenue West, Vancouver ....
Heelas, D. S    \ 2350 Thirty-seventh Avenue West, Vancouver..
Hooson, Wm.
Hoffman, W..
Holm; C.........
E..
Vernon	
1569 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver ....
3121 Clinton Street, New Westminster
Holmes, J  2685 Victoria Drive, Vancouver
li..
Howell, A. H.
Hoy, N. D	
Hurley, M. H	
Johnson, Wm. G	
Jess, Geddes 	
Kendall, Walter G....
Karelis, J. D	
Kilgard, Otto	
Lord, W. C	
Lee, Clarence	
Main, T......	
Metcalfe, J. F 	
Meikle, Wm	
Manning, J. E	
Medd, G. H 	
McLean, Hector	
McLeary, Sam	
Melander, Svend	
Miller, R. C '..	
Mingo, G. T 	
Monteith, J. W	
Moore, J. S 	
Morgan, Basil	
Norton, F. II. A	
Patterson, W. L	
Richards, T. E	
Ridley, Albert A. J..
Robertson, J. H	
Ryan, Welby W	
Redman, R ,...
Rochon, J	
Rose, Wm	
Skelly, E...._	
Seversen, O	
Stobart, Thos. P	
Stewart, J	
Tucker, F. W	
Turnbull, Miss M.~..
Turner, L. H	
Valentin, H. B. M.Washington, F. J	
Watermr.n, Rex H....
Watson, J. B	
Weiss, Harold	
Wells, B	
Wells, J. R	
Wilson, R. A	
Wood, R. K	
Chilliwack	
4426 Hudson Avenue, Vancouver	
1111 Fort Street, Victoria	
Box 975, Nelson	
Dewdney	
425 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
Kelowna	
Penticton 	
Penticton	
Kamloops	
Agassiz   	
3430 Oak Street, Vancouver 	
144 Tenth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
Telkwa	
Fort Langley   	
1132 Hastings Street East, Vancouver 	
Cranbrook    .: 	
6290 Commercial Street, Vancouver 	
2675 Maple Street, Vancouver 	
R.R. 1, Ladner 	
1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver 	
709 Fourteenth Street, New Westminster ..
Sardis     	
1311 Broad Street, Victoria	
Rear 1156 Pender Street West, Vancouver
Lynn Creek P.O., North Vancouver 	
2153 Marine Drive, West Vancouver	
Kamloops  	
Vernon	
5106 Chester Street, Vancouver 	
2408 Granville Street, Vancouver  	
Langley Prairie   	
Enderby	
325 Railway Street, Vancouver 	
1156 Pender Street West, Vancouver 	
4166 Ontario Street, Vancouver 	
612 Pender Street West, Vancouver 	
Kelowna   ...	
371 Kingsway, Vancouver  .'.	
Prince Rupert 	
405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
Abbotsford	
R.R. 1, Sardis ...	
1445 Comox Street, Vancouver 	
Abbotsford 	
Penticton  	
Abbotsford	
1439 Richardson Street, Victoria	
Year.
1931,
1931,
1932
1931
1931,
1931
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1932
1931,
1931,
1931,
1932
1932
1931
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1932
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931
1931,
1931
1932
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931
1932
1931,
1931,
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1931
1931
1931,
1931
1931,
1931,
1931,
1932
1931
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932.
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 73
APPENDIX No. 5.
Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences issued during 1931 and 1932
Name.
Address.  '
Tear.
Arndt, Gus	
Anderson, A. H	
Anderson, Z. K	
Akerman, J. E	
Batey, H. S	
Colk, Albert G	
Colson, E. M	
Dunn, J. S	
Dungate, W	
Dunn, J. S., Jr	
Drake, A. W	
Ellis, Jack	
Grahame, F. A. W	
Griffith, Lloyd	
Higham, C. J	
Hansen, A. B	
Hargreaves, J. A. D..
Harkness, Wm	
Hilborn, S. A	
Jenne, H. H	
James, D. A	
Johnson, Alfred	
Kell, Geo	
Lamb, Ernest	
Morse, A. O	
Moore, John	
Moss, J	
Muraro, W	
McAllister, C. W	
McKerricher, W. R	
Ormison, J. J	
Patten, W. L	
Patchett, Geo	
Pyvis, Roy T	
Quaedvlieg, E. J	
Reid, Sydney E	
Roadhouse, C	
Rodger, J. M	
Rolph, E. N	
Saunderson, F. D	
Saunders, H. T	
Skelton, R. J	
Smith, Robert	
Thomson, F. D	
Trueman, S	
Valentine, Victor	
Wagg, C. H	
Woods, R. H	
Warburton, S.~
Wells, R. E	
White, C. J	
Woodworth, L..
Kelowna  .'	
Kamloops	
405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
Ganges 	
865 Heywood Avenue, Victoria 	
Duncan  	
236 Fifteenth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
Nanaimo 	
Prince Rupert 	
Invermere 	
Ganges 	
7582 Prince Edward Street, Vancouver 	
Vernon 	
Courtenay   	
2342 Frederick Street, Burnaby 	
Golden  	
145 Fifty-third Avenue East, Vancouver 	
Grand Forks 	
Quesnel   	
Nelson   	
1112 Broadway West, Vancouver  ,	
R.R. 1, Salmon Arm 	
New Westminster 	
Vanderhoof  	
1750 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
Box 466, Moose Jaw, Sask	
Box 324, Kelowna 	
Nelson 	
707 View Street, Victoria 	
1710 Cotton Drive, Vancouver 	
Rolla 	
Vernon 	
Duncan  	
Box 152, Chilliwack 	
Keremeos 	
342 Fourteenth Avenue East, Vancouver 	
1608 Fourth Avenue East, Vancouver 	
Courtenay   	
Box 1020, Kamloops 	
Vernon  -	
Box 10, Prince Rupert 	
Salmon Arm 	
738 Russell Street, Victoria 	
Quesnel	
Quesnel 	
c/o   White  Lunch,   Ltd.,   124   Hastings   Street
West, Vancouver 	
Ganges 	
Penticton 	
2473 Gait Street, Vancouver 	
Sardis	
58 Fifty-ninth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
2150 Adanac Street, Vancouver 	
1931
1932
1932
1931
1931
1932
1931
1932
1932
1932
1931
1932
1931
1932
1931
1932
1931
1932
1931
1932
1931
1932
1932
1931
1932
1931
1932
1931
1932
1932
1931
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931
1932
1931,
1932
1931
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931
1932
1931,
1932
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
Cream-graders' (Single)
Licences issued during 1931 and 1932.
Name.
Address.
Year.
Hargreaves, J. A. D	
Anderson, Alfred	
1931
1931
1932
Weiss, Harold	
1932 U 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 6.
Creamery Licences issued during 1931 and 1932.
Name.
Address.
Year.
Associated Dairies, Ltd	
Associated Dairies, Ltd	
Associated Dairies, Ltd	
Associated Dairies, Ltd	
B.C. Dairy, Ltd	
Bell, Wm	
Borden Co., Ltd., The	
Borland Ice Cream Co., Ltd	
Burns & Co., Ltd	
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association	
Central Creameries (B.C.), Ltd	
Columbia Valley Co-operative Creamery Assn...
College Dairies (1928), Ltd	
Comox Creamery Association	
Cowichan Creamery Association	
Crystal Dairy, Ltd	
Crystal Dairy, Ltd	
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association	
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association	
Fraser Valley Milk .Producers' Association	
Hazelwood Creamery Co., Ltd	
Jersey Farms, Ltd	
Kelowna Creamery Co., Ltd	
Keremeos Creamery..	
Model Dairy	
Nanaimo Creamery Association	
National Dairies, Ltd	
Northwestern Creamery, Ltd	
Okanagan Valley Co-operative Creamery Assn..
Okanagan Valley Co-operative Creamery Assn..
Palm Dairies, Ltd	
Palm Dairies, Ltd	
Palm Dairies, Ltd	
Palm Dairies, Ltd	
Palm Dairies, Ltd	
Penticton Purity Products.....	
Port O'Van Ice Cream, Ltd	
Pouce   Coupe   District   Co-operative   Creamery
Association	
Ridley, Albert A. J	
Royal City Creamery	
Royal Dairy, Ltd	
Royal Dairy	
Salmon Arm Co-operative Creamery Association.
Salt Spring Island Creamery Co	
Spencer Dairies, Ltd	
Steves, J. M., Dairy	
Valentin Dairy	
Valley Creamery, Ltd	
Victoria City Dairy Co., Ltd	
AVestern Dairies, Ltd	
White Lunch, Ltd	
405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
1569 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver 	
414 Pender Street East, Vancouver 	
666 Sixteenth Avenue East, Vancouver 	
Central Dairy, Nanaimo 	
Sardis	
1520 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
Creamery Dept., Woodland Drive, Vancouver
Quesnel	
325 Railway Street, Vancouver	
Golden 	
Rear 1156 Pender Street West, Vancouver ....
Courtenay  	
Duncan 	
1S03 Commercial Drive, Vancouver 	
Cranbrook   	
425 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
Sardis 	
Abbotsford 	
351 Keefer Street, Vancouver 	
2256 Broadway West, Vancouver 	
Kelowna  	
Keremeos 	
3342 Kingsway, Vancouver	
Nanaimo 	
1132 Hastings Street East, Vancouver	
1311 Broad Street, Victoria 	
Vernon 	
Enderby 	
Kamloops 	
Grand Forks 	
Nelson 	
Nelson and Cambie Streets, Vancouver	
930 North Park Street, Victoria 	
Penticton 	
1170 Hornby Street, Vancouver	
Kilkerran 	
2153 Marine Drive, West Vancouver 	
309 Sixth Street, New Westminster 	
707 View Street, Victoria 	
Vernon 	
Salmon Arm	
Ganges 	
441 Keefer Street, Vancouver 	
2024 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert 	
Penticton 	
1111 Fort Street, Victoria 	
8860 Hudson Avenue, Vancouver 	
124 Hastings Street West, Vancouver 	
1931,
1931,
1931
1931
1932
1931,
1931,
1931
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1932
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1932
1931,
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1931,
1932
1931,
1931,
1931
1932
1931,
1931,-
1931,
1932
1931,
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932
1932 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1932.
U 75
APPENDIX No. 7.
British Columbia Berry Acreage, 1932.
St
at
o
it
o
Strawberries.
Raspberries.
Blackberries.
Loganberries.
1932.
1931.
Pre.
1932.
1931.
Pre.
1932.
1931.
Pre.
1932.
1931.
Pre.
Vancouver Island	
447
1120
58
20
75
408
2128
1?9J
626
6|
17|
154 9/16
841 13/16
139 7/16
849J
4 13/16
71
m
123i
1.136J
102 5/16
40 15/16
H
101
8
118 7/16
285 11/16
17/16
64 J
2}
4 7/16
32J
4|
21 13/16
764 7/16
23i
!>i
129 7/16
31
7!
1
27J
4
If
452
328J
m
3
3o;
38}
76 15/16
22f
66
■&
i
11
2|
142 11/16
iH
Kootenay-Boundary.
32|
i
Totals.	
101 15/16
897J
9*
53
799|
2,264
1,0761
158 5/16
844i
District.
4)
ss
o
Red Currants.
Black Currants.
Gooseberries.
Rhubarb.
1932.
1931.
Pre.
1932.
1931.
Pre.
1932.
1931.
Pre.
1932.
1931.     Pre.
447
1120
58
20
75
408
15/16
15
11
3*
21
A
s
18 1/16
78i
3t
e
21|
14J
I
21
1
4
t
2|
l.i
51
7 13/16
47|-
31
1
3J
62 1/16
3i
58
5
i
ie|
il
12 3/16
1
U
290J
2f
3
i
H
1711/16
Kootenay-Boundary.
1
2
3
9J
81
2J
69
i
19
n
I
Totals	
2128
i
3
2}
lit
136 3/16
308 1/16
j
20 3/16
158 9/16
71 3/16
396 1/16
Total acreage : Vancouver Island, 938?ia acres ; Fraser Valley, 3,2787/i6 acres ; Salmon Arm, 84%e acres;
Clearwater, 36'^ acres ; North Okanagan, 87% acres ; Kootenay-Boundary, 564% acres; grand total, 4,989%6
acres.
APPENDIX No. 8.
Estimate of Stone-fruit Plantings, 1931 and 1932.
Peaches.
Apricots.
Plum*
and Prunes.
Cherries.
District.
Total,
1930.
New Planting.
Total,
1930.
New Planting.
Total,
1930.
New Planting.
Total,
1930.
New Planting.
1931.
1932.
1931.
1932.
1931.
1932.
1931.
1932.
34
1,193
983
505
4,169
2,944
7,154
30,175
600
800
1,000
665
825
11,082
874
600
126
1,623
1,612
2,365
8,860
45
2,071
1,041
1,271
358
4,191
11,197
23,596
500
500
75
50
176
2,246
10
165
1,000
25
839
626
1,099
3,764
3,615
19,702
8,580
1,861
950
924
5,597
6,489
100
800
800
"is"
25
35
504
75
1,392
1,500
202
215
62
218
133
1,433
2,248
6,896
1,238
1,285
2,642
5,241
9,703
100
200
300
50
646
350
Summerland	
Penticton and South...
150
499
2,775
4,024
50
25
125
29
Totals	
47,157
14,872
15,960
43,770
3,546
47,718
2,289
3,797
30,686
1,275
77,989
51,080
53,804
35,985
Total, new tree plantings—                                                                           1931. 1932.
Peaches     14,872 15,960
Apricots     3,546 3,764
Plums and prunes      2.2S9 3,797
Cherries      4,024 1,275
24,731 24,796
v
Total, all stone-fruits  49,527
Note.—In the orchard survey of 1930, acreage computed on the number of trees per acre as follows :
Peaches, apricots, plums, and prunes, 100 trees ;   cherries, 60 trees.
Percentage total plantings made, 1931-32 : Peaches, 39.5 per cent.; apricots, 14.1 per cent.; cherries,
14.3 per cent.;  plums and prunes, 11.3 per cent. U 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
APPENDIX No. 9.
Pruning-schools, 1932.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
Islands.
E. W. White    	
February 29 to March 2	
10
G. E. W. Clarke	
E. C. Hunt    	
8
March 8 to 10	
17
Lower Mainland.
1. Coqualeetza	
Kootenay.
8
March 21 to 23	
8
Total number of schools, 5 ;   total number of pupils, 51.
Pruning Demonstrations, 1932.
District.
Instructor.
Dates.
No. of
Pupils.
Islands.
1. Shawnigan	
2. Saltair	
3. Ladysmith	
4. Saanich	
5. East Sooke	
6. Victoria	
7. Coombs	
8 Hornby Island	
Lower Mainland.
1. Burquitlam	
2. Willoughby	
3. Strawberry Hill	
4. Coqualeetza	
5. Cloverdale	
6. Atchelitz	
7. Newton	
8. Pitt Meadows	
9. Powell River	
Okanagan.
1. Oliver, Fairview ,
2. Oliver, West Lateral	
3. Ososoos	
4. Cawston	
Kootenay.
1. Grand Forks	
2. Deer Park	
3. Gray Creek	
4. Rossland	
5. Nakusp	
E. W. White..
G. E. W. Clarke..
R. P. Murray..
E. C. Hunt-
February 17..
February 18..
February 19..
February 22..
February 23..
February 27..
March   7	
March 11, 12
February 4....
February 8—
February 10-
February 16..
February 19..
February 20..
February 25-
February 27-
March 2	
January 27....
February 11-
February 23..
March 3	
February 15„
February 23-
March 11	
March 30	
April  6	
20
12
10
18
6
55
16
27
19
35
27
22
29
23
26
37
41
21
6
17
14
9
14
11
7
Total number of demonstrations, 26;   total number of pupils, 530.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1933.
1,075-233-2281

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