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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1932

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. N. S. LOUGHEED,  Minister
H. Cathcart, Deputy Minister        -        P. Z. Caverhill,  Chief Forester
REPORT
THE FOBEST BEANCH
TEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1931
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield,  Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1932.  Victoria, B.C., February 25th, 1932.
To His Honour J. W. Fordham Johnson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch of the
Department of Lands for the year 1931.
X. S. LOUGHEED,
Minister of Lands.
The Hon. N. S. Lougheed,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Branch during
the calendar year 1931.
P. Z. CAArERHILL,
Chief Forester.    - h
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^"TvuninnDibov REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH.
The world-wide depression experienced throughout the year is reflected in the statistics of
the forest industries and in the revenues of the Forest Branch. This condition is not peculiar to
British Columbia, but a corresponding condition is found in all the major timber-producing
regions of the world.
The cut within the Province shows a decline from 2,663,752 M.B.M. to 1,948,404 M.B.M.
The price obtaining for sawmill products was the lowest since 1915, and the total value of the
industry was less than half what accrued in 1929, being only $44,447,000. The revenue received
by the Branch showed a less drastic reduction, being $2,576,343, as against $3,436,071 in 1929.
Economy of expenditures was the watchword in the Branch and considerable savings are
being made in the moneys voted for the fiscal year. At the same time, an active programme of
constructive work, including forest surveys, research, and reforestation, was undertaken and
carried out.
Trade-extension work was expanded by sending Mr. L. L. Brown to England in an effort to
mitigate the effects of the depression on lumber trade.    That this work has been effective is
shown by the fact that we received from Australia orders for mining timber amounting to
12,000,000 feet.    This was new business and would return to the Province in stumpage and
royalty as much as was spent on the Australian market work.    Moreover, it would return about
$96,000 in wages and remove a hundred men from the ranks of the unemployed for a period
of a year
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
Owing to the taking-over of the Railway Belt lands, a reorganization of the staff was
necessary. At the beginning of the season increases were made in the Kamloops staff in order
that they could take over work formerly done by the Dominion.
The number and rank of the staff employed is shown by the following table:—
Distribution of Force, 1931.
Permanent.
Temporary.
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Later, in order to further economize, the Cariboo District was split between Kamloops and
Prince George and the following positions eliminated : Three Supervising Officials, two Technical
Assistants, nine Rangers, seven Scalers, sixteen Clerks and others.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
A forest survey was commenced of the National Forests in the Railway Belt, which were
transferred to the Province last year, in order to ascertain their comparative economic forest
value and to provide a basis for continuation or reduction of the expense involved in their
administration as Provincial Forests.
Field-work was completed on seven of these Forests—Nicola Forest, Long Lake Forest,
Tranquille Forest, Niskonlith Forest, Monte Hills Forest, Martin Mountain Forest, and Fly
Hill Forest. Maps are being made and estimates of standing timber and yield are being
compiled. V 6
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The policy of making an economic forest survey of areas which are to be devoted to the
perpetual production of timber is of great importance in forest administration. Not only is it
an essential preliminary to any plan designed to provide for the future supply of wood for timber
industries, but also it is the only means of obtaining information on which to base economy in
the expenditure of money on fire-prevention and lire-fighting, which together constitute the
greatest item in forest administration expenditure in British Columbia at the present time.
The Long Lake Forest is situated south-west of Kamloops in the Dry Belt. Although the
following classification shows that a large proportion of it is capable of producing commercial
timber, the quality of the timber produced is low. The forest is partly uneven-aged fir, with
very little yellow pine, and partly lodgepole-pine stands of all ages which have come in as a
result of fire. The fir is rough and pitchy, chiefly suitable for railway-ties or rough lumber
for local use. It supplies fuel-wood for the Kamloops market and could produce large
quantities of turpentine, but at a greater cost than prevailing in the naval stores industry of
the Southern States. The lodgepole pine is of the lowest commercial quality and suitable only
for pulp-wood, for which there is little likelihood of an accessible market for many years to
come. The older stands are badly infested with bark-beetles. The Forest is of doubtful value
at present as a timber-producing area. It was reserved by the Dominion Government chiefly on
account of its value for watershed protection. The Dominion Forest Service spent considerable
sums of money on the protection and improvement of the area and in the development of the
Lake Le Jeune Summer Resort, which is within the boundaries of this Forest.
Area capable of producing Low-grade Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Uneven-aged fir      60,160
Even-aged lodgepole pine      14,420
     74,580
Immature timber—
1-20 years old  .'  1,580
21-40 years old  7,110
41-60 years old   48,770
81-100 years old   4,110
Uneven-aged   1,400
62,970
Burns not yet reforested       1,920
Beetle-killed and non-commercial cover       20,810
  22,730
Total sites of productive, quality   160,280
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Rough sites producing scrub only  i  5,700
Swamp and water   5,300
Total non-productive  sites        11,000
The standing timber was estimated as follows, to minimum diameter breast-high for yellow
pine, 17 inches;  fir, 11 inches;  pulp-wood, all species, 7 inches :—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Saw-timber—
M.B.M.
61,200
200
M.B.M.
29,600
800
M.B.M.
90,800
1,000
61,400
30,400
91,800
Fuel-wood—■
Cords.
396,500
39,300
2,500
Cords.
73,300
Cords.
469,800
39,300
2,500
438,300
73,300
511,600
Pulp-wood—■
Cords.
211,600
38,600
1,200
Cords.
Cords.
211,600
38,600
1,200
Silver fir  (balsam)	
251,400
251,400
	 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 7
There is no utilization at present other than the cutting of fuel; the low quality of timber
and distance from market make any considerable production unlikely for many years. The
Forest could provide a sustained annual yield of 1,000,000 board-feet of saw-timber, 5,700 cords
of fuel-wood, and 10,000 cords of pulp-wood. The low productive value of this Forest makes
reforestation inadvisable, and more than ordinary protection is not deemed advisable.
The Nicola Forest lies to the west of the Long Lake Forest and south-west of kamloops.
Total area, 375,000 acres.    The Forest is divided into two blocks by the meadows and grass
land of Highland Valley.    The north block, total area 157,740 acres, is in general characteristics
similar to Long Lake Forest and is classified as follows:—•
Area capable of producing Low-grade Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Alienated  :       1,680
On vacant Crown land     51,330
     53,010
Immature timber—
1-20 years old        2,140
21-40 years old  :      2,540
41-60 years old      67,810
61-80 years old       4,520
Uneven-aged    70
     77,080
Burns not reforested   530
Beetle-killed and non-commercial cover        9,050
Total sites of productive qualify     139,670
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Scrub-covered and swamp lands       18,070
The timber is estimated as follows:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Saw-timber—
M.B.M.
64,800
1,400
600
M.B.M.
1,500
M.B.M.
66,300
1,400
600
66,800
1,500
68,300
Fuel-wood—
Cords.
210,500
6,200
Cords.
16,300
Cords.
226,800
6,200
Total fuel-wood	
216,700
16,300
233,000
Pulp-wood—
Cords.
73,400
6,100
1,500
Cords.
Cords.
73,400
6,100
1,500
81,000
81,000
At present there is no utilization other than the cutting of fuel. The uneven-aged fir stands
could support a sustained annual yield of 760,000 F.B.M. of saw-timber and 2,500 cords of fuel-
wood. The lodgepole-pine stands are of low quality, being site qualities 45 to 50, almost the
lowest which will produce timber of commercial size even for pulp, with very few trees large
enough for ties. Cutting to a minimum 7-inch D.B.H. a sustained yield of 10,500 cords per
annum could be produced after regulation, but as 85 per cent, of the lodgepole-pine area is of
one age-class, a sustained yield plan could not be applied to this Forest for many years, nor
indeed is there any likelihood of a market for this class of product developing earlier. The preponderance of the 41-60 years old age-class is common to Interior lodgepole pine and is due to
the extensive fires which raged at that period coincident with early settlement.    A conclusion V 8
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
similar to that reached with regard to the Long Lake Forest applies to the north block of the
Nicola Forest—namely, that intensive fire protection is not justified by the forest values, but
general plans for protection of watershed and other interests should be carried out.
The south block of the Nicola Forest has an area of 217,400 acres, classified as follows:—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Yellow-pine and fir types      73,310
Lodgepole-pine type       3,890
     77,200
Immature timber—
1-20 years old  5,220
21-40 years old   24,030
41-60 years old   38,900
61-80 years old   26,110
81-100 years old   2,750
Uneven-aged   370
     97,380
Burns not yet reforested   5,860
Beetle-killed and non-commercial cover   15,710
 21,570
Total sites of productive quality     196,150
Area incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Barren and scrub-covered lands      21,250
The mature timber is estimated as follows, saw-timber to a minimum D.B.H. of 17 inches for
yellow pine;  fir, 11 inches;  pulp-wood, 7 inches :—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Saw-timber—
Douglas fir	
Yellow pine	
Spruce	
Total saw-timber
Fuel-wood—
Douglas fir	
Yellow pine	
Total fuel-wood..
Pulp-wood—
Lodgepole pine	
Spruce :	
Silver fir (balsam)	
Total pulp-wood.
M.B.M.
99,200
66,400
1,400
167,000
Cords.
177,500
26,100
203,000
Cords.
80,400
9,000
300
89,700
M.B.M.
3,000
3,700
6,700
Cords.
200
200
400
Cords.
M.B.M.
102,200
70,100
1,400
173,700
Cords.
177,700
26.300
204,000
Cords.
80,400
9,000
300
89,700
The timber is of better quality than that on the north block of this Forest. With regulated
selective cutting of the fir and yellow pine, the area could produce a sustained annual yield of
2,100,000 board-feet of sawlogs and 2,400 cords of fuel. The timber is accessible and the area
has been and is being logged for sawmills at Merritt, portable mills cutting rough lumber and
ties, and for fuel. The pulp-wood stands, producing 90 per cent, lodgepole pine, have a low site
quality, but would yield 13,000 cords annually after regulation. The uneven distribution of age-
classes reduces this to 11,000 cords for immediate operation. The south block of the Nicola
Forest, unlike the north block, has sufficient commercial forest value to justify its administration for timber production. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 9
The Tranquille Forest is situated north-west of Kamloops and covers 188,800 acres.    It was
classified as follows :—
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Alienated  ■         720
On vacant Crown land     71.220
 71,940
Immature timber—
1-20 years old      12,300
21-40 years old       1,170
41-60 years old      47,890
61-80 years old  1      3,070
Uneven-aged        9,390
     73,820
Burned, not reforested         190
Non-commercial cover  ,     26,400
     26,590
Total sites of productive quality     172,350
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine and scrub-covered land   11,880
Grass  3,380
Water    '.  1,190
Total non-productive sites      16,450
The mature timber is estimated as follows to a minimum D.B.H. of 11 inches:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Douglas fir	
Spruce	
Silver fir (balsam)
Lodgepole pine	
Yellow pine	
Totals	
M.B.M.
225,500
119,800
22,300
13,500
12,600
393,700
M.B.M.
2,100
600
2,700
M.B.M.
227,600
119,800
22,300
13,500
13,200
396,400
Included in the above are fir-trees suitable for the production of 1,400,000 hewn ties and
spruce stands with 450,000 cords of pulp-wood, 70 per cent, spruce. There is no immediate
market for this timber, but it is a valuable reserve for the time when more accessible stands
have been cut. With selective logging in the uneven-aged types, 58,200 acres, and a rotation of
120 years in the even-aged pulp types, 87,500 acres, this Forest could support a sustained annual
yield of 3,210,000 F.B.M. saw-timber and ties and 8,500 cords of pulp-wood, increasing to 9,500
cords as the age-classes become more evenly distributed. The Tranquille Forest has a much
higher productive capacity than the Forests on the south side of the Thompson Valley; its
upland or plateau types, where lodgepole pine has intruded to a considerable extent, have an
average site quality of 60 for that species as compared with 45 in the Long Lake and North
Nicola Forests.
Estimates and reports on the Niskonlith, Monte Hills, Martin Mountain, and Fly Hill
Forests are in course of preparation.
A survey was made of the Morice Forest, which covers the drainage-basin of the Lower
Morice River in the Prince Rupert District. V 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Accessible     66,210
Inaccessible      16,340
      82,550
Immature timber—
1-20 years old          S00
21-40 years old      25,950
41-60 years old  :     26,970
61-80 years old      51,450
81-100 years old      34,990
   140,160
Burned, not yet-reforested       4,420
Non-commercial cover  110,300
   114,720
Total sites of productive quality  337,430
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine and scrub sites  218.650
Swamp and water   20.080
Grass and meadow  3,720
Total non-productive sites     242,450
The timber (over 11 inches D.B.H.) was estimated as follows:—
Species.
Engelmann spruce-
Silver fir (balsam)
Lodgepole pine	
Totals	
Accessible.
M.B.M.
156,320
207,720
322,480
686,520
Inaccessible.
M.B.M.
28,100
67,360
790
96,250
Total.
M.B.M.
184,420
275,080
323,270
782,770
Included in the above is lodgepole-pine timber suitable for making 8,600,000 hewn ties in
addition to 9,500,000 which might be cut by thinning stands not yet mature, making a total of
18,100,000 hewn ties. These ties are considered to be accessible when the better average prices
of the past are again obtainable. If a market -for pulp-wood were to be developed, the entire
stand might be cut for that purpose, with an estimated volume (over 7 inches D.B.H.) of:—
Species.
Engelmann spruce.
Silver fir (balsam)
Lodgepole pine!	
Totals	
Accessible.
Cords.
384,500
568,100
1.133.100
Inaccessible.
Cords.
65,600
164,700
3,200
2,085,700
233,500
Cords.
450,100
732,800
1,136,300
2,319,200
On a sustained-yield basis the Forest could produce 61,000 cords of pulp-wood annually,
which could be increased to 101.000 cords if the productive areas which are not restocked were
to be reforested. Or it could yield annually 300,000 ties and 38,000 cords of pulp, increasing to
490,000 ties and 63,000 cords with reforestation of unstocked areas. The timber could be taken
out by the Morice River, a stream that can be readily driven.
Compilation of estimates and mapping of the survey made last year of the proposed
Flathead Forest were completed. This area covers 391,000 acres of the drainage-basin of the
Flathead River, west of the Rocky Mountains, in the south-east corner of the Province. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 11
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.      Acres.
Accessible  93,920
Inaccessible        1,660
     95.580
Immature timber—
1-20 years old      22,780
21-40 years old        7,850
41-60 years old      11,460
61-80 years old        3,180
81-100 years old       5,270
     50,540
Burns not restocking     22,640
Non-commercial cover       1,870
      24,510
Total sites of productive quality   170,630
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine and barren   132,840
Scrub-sites    83,550
Meadow, swamp, and water   3,980
Total non-productive sites    220,370
The merchantable timber is estimated as follows, with minimum diameters of 11 inches for
saw-timber and 7 inches for pulp-wood:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
579.000
70,600
649,600
133,500
23,100
156,600
47,500
13,300
00,800
47,200
9.600
50,800
16,000
5,800
21,800
823,200
122.400
945,600
Engelmann spruce...
Lodgepole pine	
Douglas fir..	
Silver fir (balsam).
Western larch	
Totals	
As the more probable future utilization of this timber will be for pulp, the stands were also
estimated to a 7-inch minimum diameter in cords of pulp-wood, as follows:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Cords.
Cords.
Cords.
1,516,600
187,700
1,704,300
451,000
75,400
526,400
120,900
34,700
155,600
152,500
30,900
183,400
41,200
14,800
56,000
2,282,200
343,500
2,625,700
Engelmann spruce..
Lodgepole pine	
Douglas fir	
Silver fir (balsam).
Western larch	
Totals	
There is in addition the following volume of pulp-wood in younger stands not merchantable
as saw-timber:—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Engelmann spruce..
Lodgepole pine	
Silver fir (balsam).
Totals	
Cords.
48,000
137,000
12,000
197,000
Cords.
59,000
163,000
13,000
235,000
Cords.
107,000
300,000
25,000
432,000
The utilization of this timber depends chiefly upon construction of transportation facilities
for the product. A railway along the Flathead River could obtain freight from the extensive
coal-measures as well as the timber. The location of oil in commercial quantities is also a
possibility.    The river itself is drivable with some improvement, but construction of water- V 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
storage north of the International Boundary would be necessary. The Forest could produce a
sustained annual yield of 8,400,000 board-feet of saw-timber and 7,550 cords of pulp-wood, or
44,330. cords of pulp-wood if entirely confined to this product. With regulated cutting this pulp
yield could be increased in time to 56,700 cords annually, without including the possible yield
which might be added through reforestation of productive sites now deforested by fire. The
valley-floor is all above 4,000 feet in elevation and not suitable for agricultural development. It
is recommended for permanent timber production. The drainage-basin of the Kishinena Creek
would make a beautiful alpine park of 50,500 acres contiguous to the Waterton Lakes National
Park in Alberta and the Glacier National Park in Montana.
A survey of the proposed Barriers Forest was completed.    This area includes the watershed
of the Barriere River, one of the chief tributaries of the North Thompson River.
Area capable of producing Commercial Timber—
Mature timber— Acres.     Acres.
Accessible     75,900
Inaccessible ...:,       9.500
     85,400
Immature timber—
1-20 years old      11,130
21-40 years old     44,140
41-60 years old     39,450
61-80 years old      23,480
 ■  118,200
Burned or logged, not restocking      32,880
Bush or non-commercial cover        5,940
     38,820
Total sites of productive quality   242,420
Incapable of producing Commercial Timber—
Alpine, barren, and scrub-sites  91,970
Swamp and water  4,420
Grass and meadow  1,560
Total non-productive sites       97,950
The merchantable timber, in board-feet of sawlogs to a minimum D.B.H. of 11 inches,  is
estimated as follows :—
Species.
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Engelmann spruce.
Silver fir (balsam)
Douglas fir	
Red cedar	
Western hemlock...
Yellow pine	
White pine	
Totals	
M.B.M.
302,760
116,910
73,250
54,770
21,550
1,340
6,180
576,760
M.B.M.
11,230
1,350
12,090
16,790
6,770
6,790
1,380
M.B.M.
313,990
118,260
85,340
71,560
28,320
8,130
7,560
56,400
633,160
About 15 per cent, of this timber is considered to be inaccessible,
suitable for special products as follows:—
In addition there is timber
Crown.
Alienated.
Total.
Cedar poles (lineal feet)	
Douglas-fir ties (pieces)	
Lodgepole-pine ties (pieces).
5,126,000
456,600
14,500
1,126,000
121,000
2,600
6,252,000
577,600
17,100
. Utilization has consisted of the production of ties and telegraph-poles with a few sawlogs
cut for small mills not operating at present. If a market were developed this area could produce
a sustained annual yield of 14,200,000 board-feet of sawlogs or 12,100,000 board-feet of saw-
timber and 7,800 cords of pulp from the spruce types. With regulation the annual yield would
increase to 16,400,000 board-feet of sawlogs, or 12,200,000 board-feet with 12,200 cords of pulp-
wood, without reforestation of the productive areas now burned and not restocking.    The area FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 13
covered by this survey is not suitable for agriculture and would make a valuable reserve for
timber production.
PROVINCIAL FOREST INVENTORY.
Estimates and forest atlas of the Prince Rupert Forest District were completed. The
tables on pages 14, 15, and 16 show the character of the surface area and forest-cover and give
estimates of the standing timber of this District. For inventory pufposes the District has been
divided into seven drainage-basins east of the Coast Range and fifteen west of the mountains.
These subdivisions are shown on the accompanying index map.
PROVINCIAL FOREST INVENTORY.
Key to drainage-basins of Prince Rupert Forest District.
Numbers refer to drainage numbers in accompanying schedules. V 14
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C FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 17
A forest atlas lias been made on a scale of 1 inch to the mile, similar to that completed for
the Vancouver Forest District last year. All available information from private owners, forest
engineers, and others, as well as from all Government sources, has been used in the compilation
of this inventory.
It will be noticed that 73 per cent, of this rough mountainous territory is reported to be
incapable of producing timber in commercial stands. Utilization has been comparatively little
so far; merchantable timber still occupies 54 per cent, of the productive forest area, and fully
stocked stands of natural reproduction 15 per cent., an additional 11 per cent, being sparsely
stocked; 20 per cent, is not reproducing, almost entirely as the result of fires east of the
Coast Mountains.
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Lower sections represent timber on the Coast.
Upper sections represent timber in the Interior
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30.9%
24.5%
16.3 %
16.3 %
6.9%
2.8%
6%
STANDING TIMBER of PRINCE RUPERT FOREST DISTRICT
     50,&70,000,000 f.b.m.    	 V 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
The volume of standing merchantable timber by species, irrespective of accessibility, is
shown on the accompanying diagram. The amount of accessible timber by species is given for
each drainage-basin in the table on page 15.
The total volume of saw-timber, 50,870,000 million board-feet, is a reduction of 8,410,000
million from the estimate of the Dominion Commission of Conservation in 1917. Of the total
volume, 43 per cent, is considered to be accessible to forest industries as at present organized.
Only 37 per cent, of the timber has been alienated, but this includes 70 per cent, of the accessible
volume. The most important species are hemlock and spruce, which together account for over
55 per cent, of the total volume; this predominance of species suitable for pulp-making may be
expected to have considerable influence on the nature of future industries using timber from
this region.
Areas examined foe Miscellaneous Pukposes op " Land Act," 1931.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert. .
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Totals...
Applications for
Crown Grants.
No.
1
Acres.
40
318
117
Applications for
Grazing and Hay
Leases.
No.
39
25
2
107
Acres.
4,707
8,166
9,031
435
1,240
23,579
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
54
105
51
16
13
67
Acres.
7,493
16,144
4,559
2,668
1,800
3,124
35,788
Applications to
Purchase.
42
26
22
30
66
71
Acres.
4,344
4,701
7,763
7,199
7,112
6,464
37,583
Miscellaneous.
No.
26
61
62
61
16
Acres.
4,953
12,905
6,972
5,246
2,793
11,132
44,001
Classification of Areas examined in 1931.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimate of
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
21,537
41,916
28,643
15,230
12,140
21,960
Acres.
1,979
23,688
4,425
6,436
3,243
2,945
Acres.
19,558
18,228
24,218
9,794
8,897
19,015
99,710
Acres.
1,059
788
"l03
M.B.M.
14,676
8,751
1,547
141,426
41,716
1,950
11,765
The average annual cut of the Prince Rupert Forest District during the last ten years has
been 171,800 M.B.M., of which 35 per cent, has been spruce and 20 per cent, hemlock. The
annual loss by fire is usually very small and is practically confined to the region east of the
Coast Mountains; two bad years, 1922 and 1930, have raised the average, however, for the last
ten years to 46,250 M.B.M. This makes an average total depreciation by logging and fire of
218,050 M.B.M., only one-third of what might be cut on a sustained annual yield basis, which is
roughly estimated to be 667,000 M.B.M. without artificial reforestation. This surplus may be
expected to become of great importance in the future on account of over-cutting in the adjoining
Vancouver Forest District, but the absence of Douglas fir in the stands will affect the nature of
the manufactured product, which is so predominantly fir lumber in the Vancouver District at
present.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
Lands within and adjacent to Provincial Forests were examined for the purpose of defining
permanent boundaries for the Forests so as to exclude areas suitable for agricultural development.
For the Barriere and Niskonlith Forests, which are contiguous areas north-east of Kamloops,
45,300 acres were examined; of this area, 6,537 acres of surveyed Crown lands were found to
be suitable for agricultural development. These lots are chiefly in the Barriere Valley, below
the lakes, and in the Sullivan Valley. Most of them are 160 acres in size and each has 20 acres
or more of tillable soil, the rest being suitable for rough cultivation or grazing. The soil is
sandy loam, sometimes rather shallow, and requires clearing.    The best agricultural land in this vicinity has been settled for many years and most of the undeveloped land is better adapted to
timber production than to farming.
Adjacent to the boundaries of the Martin Mountain Forest 2,280 acres of Crown land were
examined; only one lot of 80 acres was found to be suitable for agricultural development, all
other farm land being already alienated.
An examination was made of 1,015 acres of Crown land, which appeared to have agricultural possibilities, along the boundary of the proposed Douglas Forest between Mission and
Harrison Lake. It was found that all the suitable land has been alienated and the remainder
is for the most part steep side-hill, logged and burned, with young growth already satisfactorily
re-established.
FOREST RESEARCH.
Research-work during the year consisted for the most part of the routine observations
necessary in the various investigations which are under way.
Through co-operation with the Elk River Timber Company an extremely desirable tract of
1,000 acres near Campbell River has been permanently set aside for experimental work in
reforestation. The property is centrally located with respect to the very extensive tracts of
logged-off land in Central Vancouver Island, and will be of great value in developing practical
methods of scientific forestry in this region. As the first step in the experimental work which is
planned for this area, a block of 17 acres was planted with Douglas fir and Sitka spruce; seed
spots we're also sown on a sample plot. The new station will be known as the Campbell River
Experimental Forest.
No major improvements were undertaken at any of the experiment stations and no important
new investigative projects were started. Twenty additional sample plots were established in
connection with our general studies of reforestation and yield, in order to improve the basis of
our observations for these phases of our research-work.
Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station.
Minor improvements to the Station grounds were completed during the year and the system
of trails within the experimental forest was improved and extended. Substantial progress was
made with the construction of the Experiment Station road as part of the Provincial programme
of unemployment relief.
The main investigative project at Cowichan Lake is a study of the pruning and thinning
methods necessary to improve the quality of second-growth stands of Douglas fir. During the
past year three additional plots were established, which will receive annual examinations in the
future as the young forest develops.
It has been observed that fungous diseases cause considerable damage to young stands of
Douglas fir by killing patches of trees and producing openings in the crown-cover. These
openings affect the development of surrounding trees and the proportion of high-grade timber
in the final crop is considerably reduced. Three experimental plots were established at the
Station during the year to study the cause and extent of these losses.
Minor activities included re-examination of various permanent plots established in previous
years, and one new plot was sown in connection with experiments of reforestation by seed
spotting. Observations of annual seed-crops were placed on an organized basis and an area of
55 acres on the North Arm of Cowichan Lake, bearing a very fine thirty-year-old stand of mixed
conifers, was added to the Station.
Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station.
Local industrial conditions prevented any experimental work in logging during the year,
and activities consisted principally of routine observations in studies already under way.
Thirty-five experimental plots received annual examination.
General maintenance-work was done on the Station road and buildings and on the system
of trails within the experimental forest.
Reproduction Studies.
Twenty-six sample plots on logged-off lands are under observation. Twenty-one of these
plots received detailed examination during the year, and four new plots were established, one
to study the survival and mortality of seedlings following forest fires, and three to test seeding
methods for Douglas fir. Certain plantation experiments originated by the Dominion Forest
Service in the Railway Belt a few years ago were brought under our supervision. V 20
DEPARTMENT  OF LANDS.
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M s One hundred and thirteen plots were replaced following a fire on one of the logging operations covered by our history map studies.
Forest Mensuration.
Most of the work in mensuration for the current year consisted of the re-examination of
permanent sample plots for the determination of the rate of growth of various species. Thirty-
seven plots were due for regular five-year examinations, including nineteen plots in Coast stands
and eighteen in the yellow-pine and lodgepole-pine types of the Interior. Of these plots, ten on
the Coast and nine in the Interior were re-examined for the second time, having now been established for ten years. In addition to the re-examinations, nine new plots were established, four
on Vancouver Island and five in the Lower Fraser Valley.
New volume tables have been compiled for western hemlock of the Coast type, based on
diameter breast-high and total height. These tables are presented on pages 20 and 21, and give
the average volumes found in trees of a given diameter and height, in both board-feet by the B.C.
rule and merchantable cubic feet.
Yield and stand tables have also been completed for western hemlock, and will be available
for distribution in the near future.
REFORESTATION.
Forest Nurseries.—Approximately 700,000 seedlings were lifted from the experimental
nursery at Victoria and set out at the Green Timbers Forestry Station. The stock was of
satisfactory quality and no serious losses were found to have occurred in the beds, apart from
slight damage by smothering-disease. No fresh work was undertaken at Victoria during the
season, the nursery being placed in soiling-crops in order to improve the soil and prevent
unfavourable conditions which may arise through repeated growing of seedlings or transplants.
Considerable progress was made with the development of the Green Timbers Nursery, and
approximately 8 acres are now developed for nursery purposes. In addition, 3 acres have been
partially cleared.
Seed Collections.—All the seed collected from the 1931 crop came from Vancouver Island,
with the exception of a small lot of larch from the Southern Interior. There was a bountiful
crop in the Courtenay District, but the production of commercial species in the Fraser Valley
was very poor. Approximately 400 bushels of cones were collected, including four species, with
a yield of 200 lb. of seed.
Plantations.—Seventeen acres were planted at the Campbell River Experimental Forest in
the spring of 1931 and 29 acres were set out at the Green Timbers Forestry Station in the
autumn. It is estimated that about 550,000 seedlings will be available for planting in the
spring of 1932, and a reconnaissance has been made to locate suitable planting-sites for this
stock. Two thousand acres of barren logged-off land have been selected in the Sayward Forest
for planting purposes, and an additional block of 500 acres on West Thurlow Island. It is
proposed to undertake our main planting-work on these areas during the next few years, with
smaller plantations at the Green Timbers, Cowichan Lake and Campbell River experimental areas.
LUMBER TRADE EXTENSION.
The trade-extension work in Eastern Canada was continued from our Toronto office along
the same general lines as previously described. Our woods are gradually finding favour in
Eastern Canada and under normal conditions the requirements will be considerably increased.
In Australia, through a co-operative arrangement with the timber industries, the work was continued throughout the year. The result of this two years' work is to a large measure shown by the
increasing percentage of the trade enjoyed by British Columbia operators.    These figures are:—
1929.
1930.         1931.
1
Per Cent.
15
47
Per Cent.     Per Cent.
29           65
29           91
Under a similar co-operative arrangement, Mr. L. L. Brown was in July sent to England to
carry on work there. He has since been working with engineers, architects, and users of wood,
and already we have indications of a better understanding in the trade, which will lead, we hope,
to more business. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 23
"Water-borne Lumber Trade (in F.B.M.).
Destination.
Australia	
New Zealand    	
South America	
China	
Japan    	
United Kingdom and Continent.
South Africa	
India and Straits Settlements ....
United States and Atlantic Coast.
Philippine and Hawaiian Islands..
West Indies and Cuba	
South Sea Islands	
Mexico and Central America	
Egypt	
•Belgium    	
•Denmark	
•France	
•Germany	
•Holland	
•Italy	
•Norway and Sweden	
Foreign, unclassified	
Totals  577,560
40,228,887
12,619,730
2,168,921
10,783,086
67,671,449
53,845,679
8,875,544
3,369,869
361,016,940
56,863
667,012
2,610,143
12,820,848
1927.
36,809,373
16,201,328
1,160,947
4,615,921
177,193,669
41,575,593
17,651,788
1,653,675
400,347,692
221,378
8,792,765
3,791,670
'27573,529
53,502,046
10,847,645
2,168,973
9,178.973
191,597,652
36,427,449
18,562,680
3,566,713
392,074,528
1,734,314
16,023,319
1,884,632
2,649,559
12,047
1928.
29,843,132
8,531,322
10,304,032
16,902,137
219,361,657
67,076,872
13,625,781
411,577
384,107,908
56,681
8,356,671
5,496,319
333,060
1,149,573
41,493,476
8,559,208
2,449,494
43,323,398
192,411,505
69,903,655
15,889,002
243,807
351,526,590
14,347,317
5,508,978
623,766
4,744,180
50,494,046
801,518,422
83,076,587
6,416,105
1,774,697
55,224,104
160,869,880
98,037,621
17,685,896
241,129
259,093,570
122,744
12,781,209
3,230,759
550,018
73,195,238
712,299,557
50,803,023
2,578,740
1,354,028
53,854,005
138,851,607
81,356,068
13,120,035
369,689
207,686,216
7,520,512
2,527,526
478,794
4,195,326
336,428
62,129
241,865
154,135
419,373
301,561
18,200
566,129,250
•Previously included with United Kingdom.
THE FOREST INDUSTRIES.
The following tables give a review of the general conditions compared for several years:—
Estimated Value op Production, including Loading and Freight within the Province.
Lumber u	
Pulp and paper	
Shingles	
Boxes	
Piles, poles, and mine-props	
Cordwood, fence-posts, and mine-ties.
Ties, railway	
Additional Value contributed by the
wood-using industry   	
Laths and other miscellaneous products	
Logs exported	
Pulp-wood exported	
Totals	
1925.
$41,350,000
14,466,000
10,000,000
2,200,000
2,400,000
1,800,000
1,990,000
2,100,000
1,617,000
3,870,000
148,000
1,941,000
{42,516,000
16,315,000
10,500,000
3,000,000
2,792,000
1,414,000
1,420,000
2,100,000
1,500,000
3,170,000
75,000
884,802,000
§40,487,000
18,605,000
6,800,000
1,707,000
4,030,000
1,405,000
1,440,000
2,100,000
2,000,000
4,561,000
52,000
1,087,000
848,346,000
16,755,000
10,000,000
2,501,000
4,684,000
1,633,000
1,873,000
2,200,000
2,100,000
3,580,000
115,000
893,787,000
$50,140,000
14,400,000
8,300,000
2,437,000
5,500,000
1,734,000
2,116,000
2,100,000
2,400,000
4,124,000
50,000
$93,301,000
832,773,000
16,520,000
4,161,000
2,287,000
4,726,000
1,596,000
1,253,000
2,387,000
1,500,000
2,492,000
42,000
$69,737,000
$16,738,000
13,508,000
2,721,000
1,315,000
2,453,000
1,405,000
1,044,000
1,350,000
1,500,000
2,370,000
43,000
$44,447,000
Pulp (in Tons).
Pulp.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
89,839
14,403
112,001
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
Ground wood ....
68,502
6,519
89,725
86,894
9,674
100,759
96,878
9,932
107,266
92,514
16,856
121,363
108,381
15,000
136,123
119,005
13,700
163,548
120,413
15,050
170,005
112,925
15,647
151,066
130,462
13,055
172,539
124,521
11,744
170,482
Paper (in Tons).
Product.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
148,201
9,261
1926.
1927.
214,010
13,745
1928.
225,477
15,960
1929.
201,009
19,492
1930.
1931.
Newsprint	
Other papers ....
110,176
6,934
124,639
7,945
142,928
7,709
136,281
9,653
176,924
10,389
224,928
20,446
217,562
17,709 V 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
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35,045,976
14,631,578
81,093,450
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35,276,624
38,719,803
209,176,263
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70,322,600
53,351,381
290,269,713
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t> FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 27
Logging Inspection.
Operations.
, Forest District.
Timber-sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
75
217
121
622
339
288
'90
2
54
176
216
300
487
442
129
393
337
912
826
732
266
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert	
920
654
1,842
2,831
2,456
Totals, 1931	
1,662
92
100
1,675
3,329
8,969
Totals, 1930	
1,932
1,862
3,894
8,859
Totals, 1929	
1,907
99
2,002
4,008
9,512
Totals, 1928	
1,623
60
2,023
3,690
9,596
Totals, 1927	
1,684
133
1,873
8,590
8,661
Totals, 1926	
1,475
1,262
84
1,921
3,453
7,921
Totals, 1926	
54
1,730
3,046
7,321
Totals, 1924   	
1,245
69
1,863
3,167
7,466
Totals, 1923	
1,010
166
2,140
3,316
6,892
Totals, 1922	
914
169
186
1,579
2,653
4,654
Totals, 1921	
691
1,331
2,208
2,796
4,053
Totals, 1920      	
606
220
1,961
2,703
Trespasses.
Forest District.
No. of
Cases.
Areas
cut
over
(Acres).
Quantity
CUT.
3 S
ai t.
QJ    rH
04 1
HH    Oi
oca
6 trc
fc.S
Amount.
Feet B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
2
11
12
8
35
16
4
55
26
22
237
53
12,521
94,000
35,467
110,862
125,662
1,200,953
5,060
2,866
7,050
100,293
3,435
"82
350
616
100
1,296
1,255
4,185
2,6i0
3,089
i
i
$         7 91
Fort George	
Prince Rupert	
316 31
193 73
636 41
2,751 S8
1,727 44
Totals, 1931	
84
96
99
397
1,579,465
969,351
118,704
1,048
12,425
2
S 5,633 68
Totals, 1930	
1,000
165,729
1,457
9,612
4
* 7,534 01
Totals, 1929	
370
984,309
88,997
669
5,906
9
$ 5,431 07
Totals, 1928	
105
878
5,867,052
98,279
4,713
16,599'
12
$17,787 10
Totals, 1927    	
83
84
399
2,290,926
1,972,843
47,871
2,862
9,660
9
6
$ 9,097 53
Totals, 1926	
541
645
144,357
433
10,233
$ 9,457 64
Totals, 1925	
87
3,486,609
98,456
1,563
16,820
4
$14,534 94
Totals, 1921	
68
570
2,182,808
54,068
767
7,646
20,082
27,022
2
8
$ 8,539 86
Totals, 1923	
105
1,015
1,059
6,712,868
121,202
1,598
2,591
$27,860 08
Totals, 1922    	
98
3,002,881
3,222,673
98,903
16
816,406 30
Totals, 1921	
98
1,938
209,395
1,639
21,605
10
$15,924 22
Totals, 1920	
73
1,788
4,904,079
104,048
1,882
6,716
10
$17,119 85 V 2S
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Pre-emption Inspection Records, 1931.
Pre-emption records examined by districts are:—•
Cariboo      407 Southern Interior     225
Fort George      422 Vancouver        303
Kamloops      128 	
Prince Rupert      332 Total  1,817
Areas cruised for Timber-sales.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-timber
(M.B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
Shingle-bolts
and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Car
Stakes &
Posts
(No.).
Cariboo	
35
68
90
188
195
242
3,609
14,796
12,935
29,898
40,950
43,028
4,704
19,540
10,426
84,249
43,126
135,780
7,000
224,660
483,410
944,115
372,691
597,178
530
1,040
11,439
2,600
17,562
29,509
61,424
85,453
86,458
190,480
245,468
5,150
3,200
6,500
132,700
Totals, 1931	
818
145,214
297,826
2,629,054
10,345,822
62,680
664,413
142,400
Totals, 1930	
943
1,061
197,085
214,874
233,889
225,191
526,261
500,420
26,431
17,629
731,640
1,305,110
2,056,604
620,100
Totals, 1929	
13,043,603
185,740
Totals, 1928	
1,111
844
754,095
974,626
9,623,599
7,092,844
43,266
447,630
Totals, 1927	
21,027
1,747 441
35,600
Totals, 1926	
819
142,515
369,717
353,225
4,236,881
9,113,052
15,248
1,299,826
1,389,604
1,873,954
20,200
Totals, 1925	
819
119,436
57,441
14,477
Totals, 1924	
942
179,609
451,476
8,465,924
41,554
Timber Sales awarded by Districts, 1931.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Southern Interior ....
Prince Rupert	
Vancouver	
Totals, 1931.
Totals, 1930...
Totals, 1929...
Totals, 1928...
Totals, 1927...
Totals, 1926...
Totals, 1925...
Totals, 1924...
Totals, 1923...
Totals, 1922...
Totals, 1921...
Totals, 1920...
Totals, 1919...
Totals, 1918...
Totals, 1917...
Totals, 1916..
No. of
Sales.
45
86
99
237
165
210
842
866
1,033
821
687
613
769
852
671
531
356
227
Acreage.
4,902
13,667
22,037
43,832
24,967
44,914
23,318
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
3,232,000
6,624,000
11,739,000
78,660,000
31,132,000
39,118
86,087,000
148,523
217,474,000
162,043
199,485,000
216,222.28
691,973,000
194,929.37
525,250,760
258,097.26
1,611,612,079
118,815.23
295,486,743
94,015.25
146,652
189,022,314
302,813,267
163,464
516,397,438
108,501
249,572,808
91,614
188,971,774
121,690
440,649,765
61,809
245,209,300
34,257
159,659,000
240,307,057
136,345,000
Poles and
Piling
(Lineal Feet).
546,946
203,900
571,016
773,000
177,220
9,963,164
9,356,837
1,537,002
7,332,939
5,497,707
6,629,449
6,336,071
6,234,342
2,811,095
2,8
1,000
378,080
1,517,450
435,810
No. of
Posts.
72,000
4,200
89,600
7,500
173,300
398,150
374,065
880,000
736,100
207,190
5,000
20,000
40,000
No. of Cords.
2,071
6,857
962
8,205
2,705
20,232
41,032
19,997
23,197
48,728
22,057.
13,455
40,334
47,640
23,150
41,580
6,726
52,557
18,478
43,756
26,666
53,154
71,636
101,704
216,837
167,179
5,650
606,160
494,202
1,505,951
1,996,457
1,380,553
1,044,999
566,142
2,418,633
2,304,161
880,307
993,417
6,415,349
957,804
701,654
381,200
92,000
Estimated
Revenue.
35,
41.
212
94.
231.
918 68
027 32
029 41
786 24
317 41
517 21
1,596 27
1,481 29
$1,908,100 70
$1,344,273 93
$2,666.
$1,038.
678 32
536 69
$ 795,802 20
,460 87
970 84
888 49
487 65
039 03
372 09
$ 380,408 33
$ 483,281 50
$ 259,766 12
$1,226.
$1,513,
$ 862,
$ 646,
$1,799,
$ 654, FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 29
Average Sale Price by Species.
Figures for 1931.
Figures for 1930.
Figures for 1929.
Figures for 1928.
Saw-timber.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
Board-feet.
Price
Per M.
Board-feet.
Price
Per M.
Board-feet.
Price
per M.
48,265,000
17,509,000
63,409,000
41,083,000
16,038,000
4,006,000
11,457,000
5,538,000
7,839,000
•215,144,000
$1 39
1 50
1 24
84
89
1 78
1 47
1 68
1 00
55,490,000
21,558,000
35,082,000
37,972,000
17,973,000
4,709,000
7,132,000
5,501,000
5,075,000
$1 52-
l 46
1 48
91
89
2 39
1 74
1 05
68
$1 32
100,886,000
69,142,000
306,370,000
70,737,000
26,622,000
8,229,000
8,949,000
5,547,000
7,277,000
$1 65
1 62
1 25
82
80
2 44
1 47
1 01
97
$1 29
55,958,000
48,565,266
110,797,541
49,423,655
26,034,838
4,553,000
9,316,780
6,448,800
9,917,880
$1 51
1 61
1 65
85
83
2 98
1 77
1 23
1 09
$1 22
tl90,492,000
{593,759,000
§321,015,760
$1 40
* Notk.—2,330,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1931 totals,
f Note. —8,993,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1930 totals.
X Note.—98,214,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1929 totals.
§ Note.—204,335,000 board-feet pulp saw-timber not included in 1928 totals.
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1931.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Posts.
1,866,074
1,990,194
13,356,806
31,443,216
50,190,588
78,325,888
177,172,765
543.00
586.00
676.00
5,284.01
618.08
7,792.11
60,695
62,510
132,433
171,341
224,233
20,908
662,120
1,779,683
348,746
1,176,954
1,996,919
394,850
7,611
7,500
225,278
13,156
2,000
Totals, 1931	
5,697,152
15,499.20
255,546
Totals, 1930	
227,019,617
11,960,055
17,176.17
24,663.46
24,389.35
27,508.64
16,676.45
20,808.14
17,294.00
1,341,426
388,749
Totals, 1929	
266,016,942
7,966,223
1,554,870
1,714,709
1,359,902
332,038
Totals, 1928	
203,208,331
7,672,294
Totals, 1927	
214,209,921
6,368,269
4,974,620
242,973,524
251,141,398
230,148,575
207,473,848
187,217,151
1,198,922
83,763
4,885,352
4,541,371
2,753,532
1,077,414
Totals, 1924	
1,543,915
856,628
Totals, 1923	
17,666.55
37,345.91
10,483.00
17,703.00
Totals, 1922	
1,623,744
495,672
Totals, 1921	
179,780,056
2,169,550
831,423
654,829
168,783,812
107,701,950
1,638,549
672,699
Totals, 1919	
12,208.00
573,286
Totals, 1918	
113,927,610
99,078,832
499,589
15,539.00
146,807
Totals, 1917	
545,429
225,799
14,862.00
8,425.00
34,937
Totals, 1916	
63,056,102 V 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Forest District.
o"
fr,
>.
'o
If
lis
35=305
BBS
90
801
674
403
1,733
6,566
d
-la"
If"
HQa3
"40
7,430
0
'0
rH   «
S s
'•3 = «
75
20
148
777
538
2,551
4,109
3,204
2,200
2,459
2,549
1,675
d
ir.
"3 -H
rH    tf  a
"So*
J-bg1
%3'S
warn
22
35
38
17
83
139
i
45
19
1
14
24
21
79
i
1
17
200
40
1,631
Totals, 1931	
334
10,167
11,020
11,896
11,919
12,176
46
7,470
7,164
7,881
8,280
12,042
158
19
17
1,871
Totals, 1930	
301
43
141
1,695
Totals, 1929	
354
53
95
15
1,726
Totals, 1928	
314
56
120
15
2,710
Totals, 1927	
375
65
110
22
2,740
Totals, 1926	
391
12,962
11,475
11,986
11,273
87
15,614
15,322
15,636
102
6
460
Totals, 1925	
363
82
109
2,121
2,618
9
625
Totals, 1924   	
359
78
103
20
16
1,780
Totals, 1923	
352
107
16,144
15,544
10,885
72
1,493
745
Totals, 1922	
292
9,683
8,912
10,729
108
90
2,054
2,029
909
8
680
Totals, 1921	
289
79
78
6
788
Totals, 1920	
341
109
13,426
37
2
30
Export of Logs.    (In F.B.M.)
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir	
5,595,346
7,278,893
11,948
80,900,923
24,805,315
321,582
33,719,688
17,119,225
334,377
120,215,957
49,203,433
667,907
43,183,743
3,437,718
1,407,873
1,019,086
43,183,743
3,437,718
1,407,873
1,019,086
303,774
736,671
1,040,445
Totals, 1931	
12,886,187
106,331,594
51,909,961
40,147,841
60,002,711
49,048,420
31,696,715
220,176,162
Totals, 1930    .».
11,571,481
86,502,990
172,919,027
Totals, 1929	
13,015,146
20,663,249
36,545,972
32,195,991
34,501,748
23,416,816
133,997,595
106,084,161
29,978,125
37,305,398
236,993,577
Totals, 1928   	
47,994,423
51,584,928
53,113,521
40,312,806
49,549,135
211,947,231
Totals, 1927   	
144,942,558
48,510,833
281,584,291
Totals, 1926	
105,322,879
33,845,324
224,477,715
Totals, 1925	
96,701,737
111,801,016
38,901,670
210,417,961
Totals, 1924	
65,763,860
240,530,827 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931,
V 31
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Forest District.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United States.
Canada.
Japan.
Kamloops—
Poles and piling lineal ft.
Railway-ties No.
Fort George—
1,454,594
45
1,351
485,150
176
238,757
1,137,284
4,921
274,139
5,772,460
303
5,402
4,779,962
4,598
4,819
548,329
$179,365
258
675
63,069
1,056
119,038
151,408
816
138,053
750,419
1,214
43,217
701,804
50,578
40,961
301,580
1,311,920
284,635
1,053,839
5,271,137
183
5,266
3,849,892
1,835
142,674
45
1,351
200,515
176
238,757
83,445
4,921
274,139
501,323
120
137
930,070
4,598
2,984
548,329
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling lineal ft.
Vancouver-
Southern Interior—
Railway-ties No.
Total value, 1931	
$2,543,511
Total value, 1930 	
$4,945,445
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued for the Years 1929, 1930, and 1931.
1929. 1930. 1931.
Old Crown grants     108 90 94
Crown grants, 1887-1906      120 84 40
Crown grants, 1906-1914      121 97 86
Section 53a, " Forest Act"      290 212 188
Stumpage reservations        35 90 72
Pre-emptions under sections 2S and 29, " Land Act "      13 16 10
Dominion lands       30 26
Permit berths  .... 38
Timber berths          9 13 21
Indian reserves         7 8 7
Timber-sales       974 866 842
Hand-loggers         9 11 6
Special marks 	
Rights-of-way          4 1
Pulp licences         9 14
Totals   1,729 1,515
Transfers and changes of marks     238 242
Hand-loggers' Licences.
1929. 1930. 1931.
Number issued       51 64 38 V 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Draughting Office, Forest Branch.
Number of Tracings made.
Blue-prints
Month.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Hand-logger
-Licences.
Timber-
berths.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
from Reference Maps.
31
24
41
25
18
14
17
12
5
13
19
36
133
151
13S
67
52
61
29
35
16
39
36
29
165
76
141
33
39
45
38
39
30
35
42
28
"2
1
15
4
3
"3
"4
3
2
37
7
8
1
10
24
88
48
43
79
103
53
31
4
10
22
7
10
10
6
19
9
14
13
12
340
271
344
157
147
221
138
151
139
208
166
138
6
1
44
May	
June	
1
29
1
August	
October .   	
79
69
13
3
8
Totals
255
786
711
495
136
2,420
254
In addition to the above 44 Index Sheets were prepared of the Railway Belt.
CROWN-GRANT TIMBER LANDS.
Area of Private Average
Timber Lands Value
(Acres). per Acre.
1919 883,491 $9.48
1920 867,921 11.62
1921 845,111 10.33
1922   887,980 11.99
1923  883,344 11.62
1924  654,668 15.22
1925 ,  654,016 40.61
1926  688,372 39.77
1927  690,438 39.01
1928  !  671,131 38.62
1929 644,011 38.41
1930 629,156 44.74
1931 : 602,086 43.77
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Assessment District.
Alberni	
Comox ....'
Cowichan	
Fort Steele	
Galiano Island
Golden	
Kettle River...
Nanaimo	
Nelson  	
Fort George...
Prince Rupert
Revelstoke
Slocan 	
Vancouver
Victoria	
Totals.
Acreage,
1931.
86,480
120,108
69,318
36,610
328
33,368
9,673
79,238
7,449
13,460
19,841
37,201
60,445
1,881
26,686
602,086
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1930.
5,624
10,392
3,275
557
h       60
40
- 1,299
*
240
627
- 1,588
- 27,070
Average Value
per Acre.
$67 73
63 83
78 02
10 02
14 99
9 56
7 46
57 22
9 49
19 64
21 96
15 24
10 82
95 22
42 40
$43 77
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1930.
+$ 0 10
- 0 61
- 1 59
- 3 35
+    0 01
0 03
0 09
0 08
0 19
0 01
0 05
23 50
2 57
! 0 97
No change. FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 33
FOREST REVENUE.
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals	
Penalty fees and interest	
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage :
Timber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising	
Timber royalty and tax	
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)..
Trespass penalties	
Scalers' examination fees	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses	
General miscellaneous	
Timber-berth rentals and bonus 	
Interest on timber-berth rentals and
bonus	
Transfer fees on timber berths	
Royalty interest	
Grazing fees	
Taxation, Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
Dec. 31st, 1931.
Dec. 31st, 1930.
Dec. 31st, 1929.
Dec. 31st, 1928.
Dec. 31st, 1927.
Dec. 31st, 1926.
$721,931 98
$854,660 87
$931,545 72
$1,015,705 19
$892,914 98
$1,063,812 90
1,330 00
2,180 00
1,775 00
4,285 00
2,000 00
2,400 00
20,632 72
27.861 53
23,245 73
33,036 56
27,639 13
32,549 14
950 00
1,575 00
1,300 00
1,400 00
1,275 00
2,250 00
78,202 93
72,117 52
79,873 89
79,396 72
95,236 93
90,010 89
944 24
607 44
901 43
520 70
88 93
254 91
11,675 17
35,035 94
30,162 64
40,649 01
32,494 57
20,537 75
454,391 36
518,309 48
634,048 95
551,102 88
608,765 14
572,324 74
6,722 83
7,566 12
12,844 92
10,943 97
10,936 58
7,173 84
771 55
1,256 69
1,951 28
1,646 65
1,681 85
1,498 82
1,218,363 02
1,456,330 42
1,688,803 67
1,774,417 41
1,825,909 80
1,779,553 60
911 07
1,204 07
1,407 92
1,147 84
1,778 02
1,344 75
24 94
150 01
191 74
103 74
156 75
98 17
3,686 89
5,825 68
9,161 16
12,058 89
6,481 83
11,677 12
175 00
105 00
320 00
275 00
235 00
350 00
171 23
591 70
1,711 29
271 09
345 16
693 04
1,367 72
1,406 64
3,152 88
589 71
703 90
300 60
4,495 07
4,137 56
2,754 36
4,444 25
3,767 83
3,661 95
33,295 42
688 97
63 84
1,136 04
$2,560,931 99
$2,990,820 67
$3,425,152 58
$3,531,993 61
$3,602,411 40
$3,590,482 12
15,411 46
12,251 8S
10,918 49
12,541 98
16,529 20
12,328 54
397,523 73
422,274 04
$3,425,346 59
375,923 32
388,860 46
424,023 04
410,684 46
$2,973,867 18
$3,811,994 39
$3,933,396 05
$4,042,963 64
$4,013,495 12
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1931.
(Amounts charged.)
Royalty and
Tax.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Government Scale.
Scaling Fund.
Stumpage.
Forest District.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Scaling
Expenses.
Scaling
Fees.
Total.
Vancouver ....
Prince Rupert.
Southern Int'r.
Fort George ...
$ 828,748 25
3,429 08
91,870 42
137,598 63
36,837 09
41,799 31
$1,708 02
672 84
1,864 96
517 20
187 53
$   56 10
385 00
24 25
529 52
$ 40 00
2 20
$   694 09
37 77
350 21
10 00
$16,088 23
355 95
$ 77,467 69
5,620 34
$132,170 66
4,807 63
118,833 23
90,545 85
41,761 48
37,859 21
$1,056,963 04
8,236 71
217,777 75
230,383 90
79,655 29
79,846 05
Totals
$1,140,282 78
$ 4,950 65
$ 6,799 66
$ 994 87
$   42 20
$1,092 07
$1,266 33
$1,215 22
$1,194 89
$2,032 43
$1,147 41
$16,444 18
$21,644 46
$22,127 43
$20,277 64
$17,169 14
$17,279 88
$ 83,078 03
$425,978 06
$1,672,862 74
Totals, 1930
$1,460,367 16
$1,601 76
$ 140 57
$ 175 83
$106,553 34
$638,023 79
$2,236,396 07
Totals, 1929
$1,851,535 62
$1,794,819 93
$ 4,191 84
$1,555 56
$2,103 57
$ 789 47
$1,142 38
$118,481 18
$711,213 82
$2,710,496 50
Totals, 1928
$20,867 17
$ 7,343 44
$ 1,589 83
$ 156 58
$ 163 57
$   98 34
$123,169 81
$114,979 79
$635,292 44
$2,597,882 03
Totals, 1927
$1,767,710 60
$1,774,494 76
$631,948 72
$2,542,137 16
Totals, 1926
$119,704 75
$613,365 09
$2,528,822 43
Totals, 1925
$1,754,605 06
$59,804 57
$ 913 29
$ 197 08
$1,254 80
$18,794 39
$116,682 68
$651,486 17
$2,603,738 04
FOREST EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1930-31.
Headquarters ....
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Prince Rupert....
Southern Interior.
Vancouver 	
Totals.
Forest District.
$101,178 69
9,213 70
11,430 06
17,342 87
23,173 14
46,462 01
63,675 05
$262,475 52
Temporary
Assistance.
$ 533 55
158 05
120 00
871 50
835 64
1,098 93
544 04
$4,161 71
Expenses.
$ 21,748 24
7,175 82
9,374 31
8,099 89
21,270 32
25,422 11
35,553 07
'$128,343 76
Total.
Lumber-trade extension (includes $8,000, Special Warrant 12, for trade extension campaign in Australia)
Reconnaissance, etc	
Insect-control	
Grazing: range improvement 	
Grazing : inquiry	
Grand total	
* Includes $272.69 from Vote No. 133 Incidentals and Contingencies.
3
$123,460 48
16,547 57
20,924 37
26,314 26
45,279 10
72,983 05
89,472 16
$394,980 99
26,873 40
42,221 21
4,814 90
7,078 64
1,089 40
$477,058 54 V 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
SCALING FUND.
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1930    $25,611.04
Expenditure, fiscal year 1930-31     128,359.26       	
Charges, fiscal year 1930-31      $127,087.26
Balance, March 31st, 1931         26,883.04
$153,970.30    $153,970.30
Balance brought down, April 1st, 1931      $26,883.04
Expenditure, 9 months, April-December, 1931         88,139.35
Charges, 9 months, April-December, 1931     $74,403.75	
Balance, December 31st, 1931       40,618.64        	
$115,022.39    $115,022.39
FOREST RESERVE ACCOUNT.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1930        $36,942.44
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1930  68,030.43
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30 (a)  1,087.55
Expenditure, fiscal year 1930-31     $71,336.15        	
Balance, March 31st, 1931       34,724.27       	
$106,060.42    $106,060.42
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1931         $34,724.27
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1931  57,023.85
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 30 (a)  537.52
Expenditure, 9 months to December 31st, 1931      $60,110.48        	
Balance, December 31st, 1931       32,175.16       	
$92,285.64     $92,285.64
FOREST PROTECTION FUND.
The following statement shows the standing of the Forest Protection Fund as of December
31st, 1931 :—
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1930        $546,045.35
Expenditure, fiscal year 1930-31   947,541.39
Collections, fiscal year 1930-31   $213,270.76
Collections under special levy      148,353.87
Government contribution      480,000.00
$1,493,586.74
841,624.63
Balance (deficit)          $651,962.11
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1931        $651,962.11
Expenditure, 9 months (April-December, 1931)  $592,175.56
Less refunds        30,024.84
 562,150.72
Collections, April-December, 1931   $157,380.06
Collections, special levy, April-December, 1931  8,288.04
Government contribution   360,000.00
Government special levy  360,000.00
$1,214,112.83
885,668.10
Balance  (deficit)          $328,444.73 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 35
There is an amount of approximately $47,000 repayable by Forest Protection Fund to Vote
114 to cover expenses of permanent employees, maintenance of motor-cars and launches, etc., also
$85,500 to cover proportion of salaries of Rangers, etc., payable by the fund.
Forest Protection Fund Expenditure.
FlSCAI
Years.
1923-24.
1924-25.
1925-26.
1926-27.
1927-28.
1928-29.
1929-30.
1930-31.
Patrols and fire pre-
$254,792
81,408
75,503
21,667
$433,370
$334,532
25,418
258,034
5,690
$377,427
33,976
650,138
11,890
$1,073,431
$356,462
30,663
514,845
14,172
$358,835
30,409
84,600
22,482
$407,790 94
31,258 82
75,221 43
33,428 67
$373,416 71
45,401 56
494,645 42
22,570 79
$422,464 92
Tools and equipment.
Improvemen ts and
41,735 46
466,133 17
40,152 48
Totals	
$633,674
$916,142
$496,326
$547,699 86
$936,034 48
$970,486 03
Expenditure by Districts for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1931.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Prince Rupert   ..
Southern Interior
Vancouver 	
Victoria 	
Totals...
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention
$ 25,688 45
37,337 85
35,307 75
28,985 37
122,580 96
129,488 99
43,075 55
$422,464 92
Tools and
Equipment.
$ 2,348 46
2,633 25
4,207 18
1,990 19
16,632 11
11,445 50
2,478 77
$41,735 46
! 26,191 86
8,818 22
39,720 58
74,086 45
246,544 27
70,771 79
$466,133 17
Improvements
and
Maintenance.
$2,532 13
6,263 05
10,735 05
1,054 01
13,375 19
6,193 05
$40,152 48
|   66,760 90
55,052 37
89,970 56
106,116 02
399,132 53
217,899 33
45,554 32
$970,486 03
FOREST PROTECTION.
Each year settlers are encouraged to burn their slash early in the spring so that the fires
will be extinguished before May 1st, when the close season for burning begins. Before this date
there is rarely any hazard, and such exceptions are confined to limited sections of the Province.
The year 1931 witnessed a high hazard over the whole Province, beginning about April 20th.
No one expected such a condition, and clearing fires which in other years give no concern, went
out of control in all districts and the Service was obliged to given attention to 276 fires in April,
nearly all of which were escaped clearing fires.
May and June were normal months.
July and August were about average for most of the Province, but an extremely hazardous
condition developed in an area enveloping East Kootenay in British Columbia and the adjacent
States of Idaho and Montana. At Cranbrook and Fernie spring rains were light and ceased on
June 19th. No rain fell there until July 12th, when very light showers occurred. From that
date until September 3rd there was no precipitation. From July 5th to September 6th, humidity
was less than 35 per cent, for 521 hours, or an average of about eight hours per day. In addition, during the whole period strong south-west winds were prevalent and almost every afternoon
increased to 30 or 40 miles per hour. As a result fires spread to an unprecedented size for that
section of the Province.
Five fires in this district burned over a total of 310,350 acres, or 31 per cent, of the total
burned area for the Province.
One fire spread north-easterly from Elko into Alberta, a distance of 35 miles, where high
parallel mountain ranges run north and south. Fierce fires would develop in the V-shaped
valleys facing south-westerly and, driven by the wind, would throw live embers unprecedented
distances, developing new fires, only to repeat the performance on the following day. This
condition was, of course, reflected in the statistics for cost and damage as well as acreage. In order to conserve funds, instructions were issued at the beginning of the fire season that,
where a fire was not caught and controlled in its incipient stage, field officers must give consideration to the values protected, and that intensive fighting should not be undertaken to protect
stands of low value belonging to the Crown.
The fires caught and controlled under 10 acres totalled 1,832 or 73 per cent, of the total
recorded for the year.
The acquisition of the Railway Belt has affected all statistics to an appreciable extent.
The net area under patrol has been increased by about 18 per cent, and the area involved is
subject to the average hazard of the Province. For some years it has been our custom to obtain
from the Dominion their statistics and publish these as a separate item at the bottom of each
table. They are now included in the statistical table itself, which should be read with this in
mind.
Hazard Reduction.
The hazard from accumulations of logging-slash was abated by the burning of the debris
on 77,193 acres. The logging operators on major operations burned over 13,882 acres in intentional slash fires, and 6,315 acres in small lots were burned under permit during the closed
season. Accidental'fires throughout the season destroyed 56,996 acres, which we were desirous
of having burned.
Permits for destroying road slash were given to the Public Works Department and 1,592
acres were burned over by them under the authority of 210 separate permits.
The railway companies took advantage of favourable burning weather in the fall to clear
up accumulated debris along their tracks.
The construction of the Trans-Canada telephone-line was accompanied by the creation of
considerable slash, which has been for the most part satisfactorily disposed of by the construction crews.
Fire Detection.
Standard lookout buildings were erected on Black Mountain in the Prince Rupert District
and on Sugar and Snow Mountains in the Southern Interior District, and a point in the Vancouver District on Sumas Mountain was partially developed and tested as a lookout-site.
The permanent lookouts now developed total thirty-five, including one steel tower. These
give constant supervision over the more hazardous areas throughout the Province, but they
must be considerably increased before the whole forest area is under observation. In addition,
thirty-five secondary and temporary lookouts were used by Forest Branch patrols. These are
equipped only with a tent or a small cabin and an oriented map and alidade for locating fires.
Patrols use these points to get a view over the country to see if any fires are within range.
Cause of Fire.
It is to be noted that the number of lightning-fires was considerably reduced. This may be
taken as some criterion of the weather hazard. On the other hand, incendiarism was responsible
for more than double the normal number of fires. Several prosecutions were brought in this
connection and gaol sentences totalling twelve years imposed.
Fire-suppression Equipment.
This Service, as well as the logging operators, has felt for some time that there was room
for improvement in forest-fire pumps.
Since pumps were first used in British Columbia there has been a steady progression in
reducing weight and increasing capacities of these pumps, until it is feared that dependability
has been sacrificed to portability. Certainly, in some of the later developments, nothing more
could be desired in the matter of weight when complete units are on the market as light as 40 lb.
Attention has recently been directed to the possibilities of utilizing engines of the small
motor-car type. These engines have been altered for marine or electrical service and are available without starter or generator, but with high-tension magneto and governor added. This
makes an ideal power plant, weighing about 135 lb., and is just as dependable as a car.
Starting with one of these engines, the Forest Service has had designed a four-stage
centrifugal pump and mounted the whole on a cast aluminium base.    The assembly weighs FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 37
about 220 lb. Twenty-five hours of test running seems to justify all expectations for the unit,
which promises to give more reliable service over a much longer running-life than is possible
to secure from the very light outfits.
In recent years light smoke-chasers' outfits have been made standard, and although
developed particularly for the Southern Interior, their value has been established and their
use extended to all parts of the Province.
The standard rations, which were developed especially for smoke-chasers' outfits, have been
found to be very useful for the first crew sent to fires in outlying districts and for reconnaissance
parties, etc.
All districts agree in commending the work done by Honorary Fire Wardens; they stress
the value of these men as an auxiliary to the regular protection staff. About 1,000 of these
appointments are made each year.
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1931.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
September.
October.
Total.
1
"2
16
33
32
64
100
41
40
42
30
32
126
79
30
83
19
28
141
35
30
195
46
17
239
101
60
181
41
29
359
167
' ii
7
11
46
13
2
1
'"s
167
547
Fort George 	
Vancouver	
178
171
1,019
436
3
276
349
13.86
336
628
827
88
11
2,518
0.13
10.96
13.34
24.94
32.84
3.49
0.44
100.00
Number and Causes of Fires in Province, 1931.
Forest District.
bi
.a
bo
01
ti.
s
O
cj
u
01
CH
O
>.
03
c=  .
rti ti
oi 0
as
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00  O
rs s
s-
9
1
s
bo
c  ,
£ g
n=:2 bi
S«'E
ti HH   3
a So
20
38
31
46
62
46
oi  . 0
to ^'43
■* ti Ti
■O ?■-£
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d 01 0
T-frO
5 TJ  a
Ph ca;3
(3
3
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O
13
I-i
>>
a
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0)
0
48
82
40
29
99
67
ti ti
la
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si
DO
oi
3
d
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a
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6
208
28
18
201
14
58
66
44
45
172
85
1
57
10
5
190
32
22
69
13
16
216
99
6
7
6
2
11
13
44
"3
3
10
41
57
2
14
1
3
49
27
5
3
5
4
9
22
167
547
178
171
1,019
436
6.63
Kamloops	
21.72
7.07
6.79
40.47
17.32
475
470
295
435
243
355
96
48
2,518
100.00
18.87
18.67
11.72
17.28
9.64
1.75
2.26
14.10
3.81
1.90
100.00 V 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
O
go*
<  g
■saun°a
O Ci 00 CO Cl 00
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t-     -
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CM lO 00 00 r-l rH
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.     ■     ■     -CO r-t
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...                                    C'
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d
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rH tO rH     - O O
- -^ ri
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frl
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•OOUIAOJ^ UI S9JI^
1.55
13.23
3.93
2.97
28.52
9.45
59.65
61.12
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CD
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I^oj] jo'^ua'o jaj
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'X'bx "<T '^ Suiiited
^ou spu'Bi uo pa^euiSuo
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UMOJO qU'BO'GA uo pS'r'BUlSTJO
r- r— x i—t Oi co
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3.14
3.82
11.95
7.86
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1-1
H FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
V 39
Fires, 1931, classified by Size and Damage.
Total Fires.
Under J Acre.
i Acre to 10 Acres.
Over
10 Acres in
Extent.
Damage.
Forest District.
II
"a   OT
f 3
frO
"3 ot
frO
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ti
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6
in
° £
S.S
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pT  Hr
li
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t. £
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167
547
178
6.63
21.72
7.07
36
230
70
21.56
42.05
39.32
25.47
3.99
7.75
32
188
53
19.16
34.37
29.78
3.44
20.24
6.70
99
129
55
59.28
23.58
30.90
14.43
18.80
8.02
135
487
156
25
45
16
7
15
6
Prince Rupert.	
171
6.79
53
31.00
6.87
42
54.55
4.52
76
44.45
11.08
14S
20
3
Southern Interior	
1,019
40.47
339
33.27
37.64
444
43.57
47.80
236
23.16
84.40
896
75
48
Vancouver	
436
17.32
100.00
175
40.14
19.38
170
38.99
18.30
91
20.87
13.27
100.00
381
40
15
2,518
100.0
903
35.86
100.00
100.00
929
36.90
100.00
686
27.24
2,203
87.50
221
8.77
94
3.73
Totals, 1930	
2,271
100.00
973
724
100.00
574
100.00
2,014
186
71
100.0
42.85
908
31.88
25.27
88.68
8.19
3.13
Totals, 1929	
2,188
100.00
100.00
753
100.00
527
100.00
1,918
144
126
100.0
41.50
34.41
24.09
87.67
6.68
5.76
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1931.
Forest District.
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Fort George	
Prince Rupert ...
Southern Interior
Vancouver	
Totals...
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
%    945
795
639
49,419
39,863
$91,661
Buildings.
* 444
3,250
1,785
3,316
61,125
4,675
$74,695
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
*
500
.500
23,324
77,297
[,621
Miscellaneous.
$4,065
590
986
485
46,055
3,247
$55,428
$ 4,509
4,785
4,066
7,940
179,923
125,082
$326,305
Per Cent.
of
Total.
1.38
1.47
1.25
2.43
55.14
38.33
100.00 V 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
O   X   ri
S^ 1
<ri      fa
CO
05
00
p
a
«
o
Es
M
H
as
0
-K 15    .
K =2 D  Z
CC   <!   J   O
KI  3 n  Eh
>§ -S
ki
ss2
« 2
3 Q
J o
CU
bo
CS
I
Per
Cent.
1.99
3.79
2.13
0.64
87.58
3.97
o
o
O
O
o
o
o
o
O
o
8
$
29,480
56,015
31,449
7,840
1,293,780
58,617
rH O
00 O
?8
1,408,183
100.00
941,738
100.00
-f "
a
3
<y
oo oi c o t~ os
I.HJ    NSOOSHOi^i
A*  §    HOOWOW
o
o
8
S
s
O
o
Q
O
M. Feet
n.M.
3,733
14,069
2,047
4,421
180,663
5,240
210,173
100.00
390,978
-100.00
272,024
100.00
01
<
Per
Cent.
9.03
4.41
4.51
5.20
70.05
6.80
O
o
o
o
o
8
O
©
o
o
Acres.
89,877
43,954
44,860
51,700
696,923
67,665
cs o
I- ©
Ci     ■
Cl
Is
8-
oo
CM O
CO     •
§1
Ci ^
•paujnq
CO l— l— — ci to
a>
r.
m"^
,n'w
<
•qSvuivq
&■
2,655
77
396
694
2,126
3
rH ca
IO CO
CO    ■
CM CD
Ir- O
Ol     •
O
X X
SI
n<=>
•B9iy
V
53,162
1,850
2,341
15,162
15,660
1,068
eo t-
■■* Ol
CM    ■
or00
X
*nco
jC=o
M
CO iO
m   •
eo
■»*   IO  X ri  tO Ol
Ci O O t- O i-h
tNOOUD IO O tO
io" co" -* -**" -* tjT
O Os
r-~«
H
1-1
COiOXOt-t-    iCOOl
m CM CO O •**! CO    I   Ol CO
aoHiocoKi     co   ■
•aSvuivct
^U8S3icX
pS^UUirjSJI
o&
8,907
28,754
22,910
724
617,873
51,039
S3
CM     •
t-
X CO
CO CM
-*     .
CO lO
•W rH
O     -
-CM
•vaiy
o
2,169
10,037
19,368
615
198,368
8,096
(M X
CM
ri O
S"4
Cl  rH
O CM
XT>a
a»
CM
^J. Oi IO
i—1 i« to
O iO
o   ■
CO     ■
W3    ■
aSudum^g
s&
CM CO CO
rH Cl CM
S=o
0OM
!J9^
tO
»
IO
CM
■aiqBAfes
M
o    •
jfyi^irenf)
grf
eo
•># '"H
CM
s«
r-i
£8
•pai[iil
1-4 tt
co" *# CM ■>* 0 io"
r-t               X
§8
11
eo
•*iOCO
'M  OS O)
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0)
Ei
Ol     •
•i3a.iV
rH CO rH
CM X
CO
tfg
S5'3
<;
1-1  V 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Causes, Cost, and Damage, 3931.
Damage.
Lightning	
Campers	
Eailways operating	
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing).
Road, power, telephone, and telegraph
Industrial operations, logging, etc	
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous known causes	
Unknown causes	
.    Totals	
$76,609
119,202
5,553
40,923
8,458
1,673
11,954
94,329
2,100
6,180
$191,893
915,563
15,637
99,396
43,246
3,805
177,182
339,165
7,844
9,755
$366,981               $1,803,486
     I '
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for Last Ten Years.
Causes.
Lightning   	
Campers	
Railway operation	
Railways under construction	
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line construction .
Industrial operations	
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals..
1931.
475
470
295
435
243
44
57
355
96
48
892
344
149
294
171
29
39
262
68
23
2,271
1929.
358
267
9
387
167
22
65
139
100
36
322
274
282
294
149
13
80
103
84
41
2,188 1,642 1,284
512
182
186
163
78
7
60
36
52
19
557
351
376
238
157
14
104
68
126
156
632
426
337
202
14
137
103
150
234
2,147 2,521
307
382
328
302
243
19
134
115
107
237
180
164
12
170
35
71
173
246
626
332
355
22
202
536
2,591
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in the Last Ten Years.
1931.
1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
Total number of fires	
Area burned (acres)	
Standing timber destroyed
or damaged (M. ft. B.M.).
Amount salvable
(M.ft.B.M.)	
Damage to forests	
Damage to other forms of
2,518
994,979
210,173
41,808
$1,477,181
$   326,305
2,271
602,676
390,978
25,216
$1,408,18?
$   337,909
2,188
909,620
272,024
107,049
$ 941,738
$   226,919
1,642
106,977
24,069
9,060
$103,001
$ 95,534
1,284
101,944
86,176
44,834
$141,102
$ 74,606
2,147
659,871
398,694
109,386
$   930,373
$   749,891
2,521
1,023,789
1,024,508
350,770
$2,121,672
$   625,518
2,174
402,214
207,651
102,832
$    665,078
$   540,291
1,530
157,601
87,371
37,891
$ 74,238
$617,649
2,591
1,668,585
729,941
117,006
$1,531,300
$   693,016
Total damage	
$1,803,486
$1,746,092
$1,168,657
$198,535
$215,708
$1,680,264
$2,747,190
$1,205,369
$691,887
$2,224,316
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass, 1931.
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No.
Amount.
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$ 50 00
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18
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NUMBER
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FIRE-FIGHTS
COSTS
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BURNED  OVE
AREA OF
MERCHANTAB
TIMBER KILL FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931.
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1,748
6,354
2,199
5,301
15,514
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796
2,680
1,085
1,608
4,760
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1,654
5,863
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5,129
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II
D^S-(£wt> EQUIPMENT, IMPROVEMENTS, AND MAINTENANCE.
Equipment— Cariboo.
One fire-fighting pump  $370.00
One 15-foot rowboat  117.00
Three 10-men cooking outfits  102.00
One winch  92.00
Six horse-pack outfits   115.00
One Ford car  745.00
One Chevrolet car  770.00
Tools and equipment  928.00
$3,239.00
Improvements—
Little Prairie, Big Slide, Horsefly Lake Trail  $856.00
Maintenance—
Horsefly River Trail  $239.00
Poquette Pass-Spanish Lake Road   150.00
105-Mile Ranger Station  40.00
Repairs to Launch " Mountain Ash "   53.00
Miscellaneous    41.00
$523.00
Equipment- Kamloops.
Four Chevrolet cars  $3,008.00
Ten Ford cars  7,254.00
One canoe  80.00
Fire-fighting hose  276.00
Smoke-chasers' kits   145.00
Tools and equipment  147.00
Miscellaneous tools and equipment purchased from Dominion Government   13,901.00
$24,811.00
Improvements—
Reoux Lake-Italia Lake Trail   $298.00
Grizzly Lake-Efdeen Lake Trail  1,683.00
Star Lake-Grizzly Lake Trail  52.00
Grizzly Lake Cabin   672.00
Grizzly Mountain Lookout Trail   541.00
$3,246.00
Maintenance—
126 miles of trail  $1,092.00
Big Bend Phone-line   75.00
Tumtum Mountain Lookout  80.00
11-Mile Ferry  33.00
Barnes Creek Phone-line   58.00
Narrows Phone-line   43.00
Criss Creek Phone-line   111.00
Eagle Pass Phone-line  84.00
Granite Mountain Phone-line   77.00
Carried forward   $1,653.00 Kamloops—Continued.
Brought forward   $1,653.00
Maintenance—Continued.
Green Mountain Phone-line  59.00
Highland Valley Phone-line  52.00
Joss Mountain Lookout  213.00
Lolo Mountain Phone-line   95.00
Mara Mountain Phone-line  126.00
Pass Lake Phone-line  68.00
Salmon River Phone-line   66.00
Sandy Mountain Phone-line  76.00
Sidmouth Phone-line   42.00
Skookum Phone-line   51.00
Trout Lake Phone-line   54.00
Tuktakamin Phone-line  45.00
Miscellaneous  84.00
$2,684.00
Equipment- FoBT Geobge"
Three Ford cars  :  $2,228.00
One Chevrolet car  901.00
Five cooking outfits   168.00
Six hand-tank pumps  78.00
One 28-foot boat   65.00
Fire-fighting hose   117.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment   1,119.00
$4,676.00
Improvements—
24% miles of trail   $3,548.00
Fort Fraser Lookout Phone-line  88.00
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout Phone-line  581.00
McBride Lookout Phone-line  410.00
Longworth Mountain Lookout Phone-line  324.00
Churchill Lookout Phone-line   334.00
Fort St. James Breakwater  280.00
McBride Lookout   40.00
Miscellaneous  49.00
$5,654.00
Maintenance—
197% miles of trail   $1,244.00
Fort St. James Ranger Station  224.00
Moxley Creek Tool-cache  69.00
Red Mountain Tool-cache  58.00
Aleza Lake Tool-cache  20.00
Goat River Tool-cache  39.00
Giscome Tool-cache   40.00
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout   94.00
Longworth Mountain Lookout   63.00
Pilot Mountain Lookout  78.00
Fort Fraser Lookout Phone-line   50.00
Carried forward   $1,979.00 V 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Fort George—Continued.
Brought fonvard   $1,979.00
Maintenance—Continued.
Tsinkut Mountain Lookout Phone-line   79.00
Pilot Mountain Lookout Phone-line  110.00
Longworth Mountain Lookout Phone-line  167.00
McBride Mountain Lookout Phone-line   85.00
Longworth Tool-cache  27.00
Stuart Lake Breakwater   40.00
Red Mountain Ranger Station   45.00
Fort Fraser Ranger Station   64.00
Mount Pope Lookout Phone-line  96.00
Miscellaneous  47.00
$2,739.00
Equipment- Pmnce Rupeet'
Two Chevrolet cars   $1,607.00
Two fire-fighting pumps   736.00
Two outboard motors  493.00
Fifteen hand-tank pumps   180.00
Five cooking outfits  132.00
Fire-fighting hose and equipment  1,107.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment  1,427.00
$5,682.00
Improvements—
Babine Lake Ranger Station  $1,087.00
Black Mountain Lookout   1,270.00
Hazelton hose-drying mast  29.00
Burns Lake hose-drying mast   41.00
Francois Lake hose-drying mast ~ 26.00
Lakelse-Kitimat Trail  741.00
Maxan-Francois Lake Trail  1,029.00
Fulton-Chapman Lake Trail  615.00
Binta-Takysie Trail  692.00
$5,330.00
Maintenance—
Babine Lake Phone-line   $139.00
Skins Lake Lookout  46.00
Francois Lake Garage  151.00
Terrace Garage  89.00
Thornhill Mountain Lookout  61.00
Francois Lake Ranger Station   296.00
Queen Charlotte Ranger Station   91.00
Copper River-Smithers Trail   236.00
Kleanza-Copper River Trail  495.00
Kitsequekla Trail  82.00
Priestly-Francois Lake Trail   221.00
Sutherland River Trail  467.00
Binta-Nithi Trail  261.00
Miscellaneous  70.00
$2,705.00 FOREST BRANCH REPORT, 1931. V 49
Equipment- Vancouver.
Seven Ford cars   $4,984.00
Four Chevrolet cars  3,000.00
One fire-fighting pump  754.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment  1,203.00
9,941.00
Improvements—
Harrison-Chehalis Trail  $989.00
Stave Lake Boat-house  68.00
Sumas Mountain Lookout Trail and Phone-line  168.00
Home Lake-Spider Lake Trail  117.00
Campbell River-Camp 8 Phone-line   466.00
Little Mountain Lookout Trail  78.00
Forest Reserve Trails  978.00
Sonora Lookout Water-tank  175.00
Bucklin Creek Trail  273.00
$3,312.00
Maintenance—
Alexandria Camp-site   $81.00
Chilliwack River Trail and Phone-line  238.00
Squamish Ranger Station   115.00
Rosewall Lookout  51.00
Pocohontas Lookout  133.00
Bainbridge Lookout    230.00
Mount Benson Lookout  31.00
Cowichan Lake-Nitinat Trail  290.00
Sonora Trail  48.00
Silver Creek Trail   989.00
Miscellaneous  29.00
2.235.00
Equipment- Southern Interior.
Four Ford cars  $2,978.00
Two Chevrolet cars   1,451.00
One Dodge car  1,192.00
One outboard motor  205.00
Fire-fighting hose   801.00
Nine horses   270.00
One river-boat  100.00
Fifty-five smoke-chasers' kits   1,124.00
Thirteen 10-men cooking outfits    452.00
Thirteen hand-tank pumps  174.00
Fire-fighting tools and equipment   9,071.00
One electric grindstone   186.00
$18,004.00
Improvements—
Baldy Mountain Phone-line  $702.00
Teepee-Haller Creek Trail  681.00
Main Yahk Phone-line  831.00
Carried forward      $2,214.00
4 Southern Interior—Continued.
Brought forward   $2,214.00
Improvements—Continued.
Sugar Mountain Lookout  1,756.00
Gold Creek Phone-line   238.00
Goat Mountain Lookout  224.00
Snow Mountain Lookout  1,294.00
Little White Mountain Trail  21.00
Howe Creek Trail  40.00
Blue Joint Creek Trail  48.00
St. Annes Creek Trail  670.00
Hope Summit-Granite Creek Trail   643.00
Eagle Creek Trail  285.00
Corn Creek Trail  475.00
Kid Creek Trail   273.00
Kennedy Mountain-Three Brothers Trail  411.00
Indian Prairie-Fording River Trail   350.00
Sheep-lamb Plateau Trail   186.00
Mineral Monument No. 20 Road  454.00
$9,582.00
Maintenance—
827 miles of trail  $8,408.00
Baldy Mountain Lookout   25.00
Goat Mountain Lookout  304.00
Reno Mountain Lookout  22.00
Glory Mountain Lookout  37.00
Beaver Mountain Lookout   58.00
Siwash Mountain Lookout  70.00
Elise Mountain Lookout  64.00
Thompson Mountain Lookout  54.00
Baldy Mountain Phone-line  82.00
Sugar Mountain Phone-line  94.00
B.X. Mountain Phone-line   29.00
Kettle Valley Phone-line  24.00
Little White Mountain Phone-line  1,017.00
Gold Creek Phone-line  94.00
Snow Mountain Phone-line   32.00
Goat Mountain Phone-line   52.00
White Rocks Phone-line   70.00
Elk Valley Phone-line   273.00
Duncan River Phone-line   220.00
Wigwam River Phone-line  46.00
Siwash Mountain Phone-line  88.00
Johnson's Landing-Lardeau Phone-line  45.00
Reno Mountain Phone-line  35.00
Beaver Mountain Phone-line  69.00
Glory Mountain Phone-line   90.00
Saddle Mountain Phone-line   247.00
Wilson Creek Phone-line  109.00
Elise Mountain Phone-line  89.00
Flathead Phone-line  47.00
Casey Mountain Phone-line  63.00
Carried fonvard   $11,957.00 Southern Interior—Continued.
Brought forward   $11,957.00
Maintenance—Con tinned.
Lower Whatshan Phone-line  30.00
Ward Creek Cabin  80.00
Duncan River Crossing  22.00
Gold Creek Pasture  36.00
Duncan River Trail  1,536.00
Frisken-Dardanelles Lake Road   44.00
Missezula Lake Road  133.00
Miscellaneous  267.00
Salmo Ranger Station  200.00
$14,305.00
GRAZING.
Grazing ranges throughout the Province, with the possible exception of the Vernon Grazing
District, suffered severely again this year through lack of moisture, largely the result of meagre
snowfall. Snowfall has been light throughout the Province since the winter of 1926-27, with
the result that the water-shortage has of late become a serious menace. On nearly all the open
and semi-open ranges the catch-basins are either empty or nearly so, and, to aggravate the
situation, many of these natural reservoirs have as a result become dangerous mud-holes. This
critical situation was relieved somewhat in the Cariboo by midsummer rains, and farther south
by early fall rains. As a result of these rains the late grazing was much better than might
have been expected.
It is hoped that the heavy snowfall reported throughout the Province this winter (1931-32)
will go far to correct the water situation in 1932. In the meantime the scarcity has had the
effect of forcing stock on to back ranges previously unused. Following the mild winter of
1930-31, stock went on the ranges rather earlier and in rather better condition than average.
Excellent feed during the latter part of the season following midsummer and late rains put stock
in good condition for the present winter season.
There is a continued and encouraging tendency on the part of stockmen to develop a better
class of stock, with the profitable result that would naturally be expected. The difference is
especially important during poor market years. The stock-breeder who gave careful attention
to breeding this year received an advantage of about % cent per pound, with fewer head rejected
by the buyer. The comparatively large numbers rejected from offerings from scrub or poor
stock is an important factor where herds have to be driven long distances to market.
Several new ranges were examined during the year and most of these were grazed. The
work was done by the field staff, assisted in the case of a sheep-range of about 300 square miles
at the headwaters of Loue Cabin, French Bar, Churn, Watson Bar, Big, Valakom, and Tyaughton
Creeks, by the Royal Canadian Air Force. This area photographed comprises fairly good range
at an altitude of 4,500 to 7,000 feet and this season was grazed by four 1,000-head bands of ewes
with their lambs. This particular sheep-range borders on several cattle-ranges and was mapped
chiefly to define the boundaries in the interest of both sheep and cattle breeders.
Market Conditions.
Generally speaking, the market conditions of 1931 were not good, partly owing to the high
tariff wall established by the United States against both feeders and beef from Canadian ranges
and partly caused by the general depression which is now universal.
Contrary to the usual trend of market conditions which usually show a substantial rise in
price in the early spring and summer, this year prices were seldom above 4% cents for tops in
beef and went as low as 2% cents in some cases, and in no instance throughout the season did
it vary a great deal.
In the early fall during the first beef drives the price was exceptionally low, and later on
in the fall stepped up a slight amount, which was also contrary to the usual trend of prices. V 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Choice steers ranged from 4 to 4% cents; medium good steers, 3% to 3% cents; cows, 2% to a
little better than 2% cents; heifers suitable for breeding brought as high as 3% cents, while
heavy calves went for 4 and 4% cents.
Top lambs brought the high price of 13 cents off cars in Vancouver in June, while the July
price was about 8 cents. Generally speaking, the price ranged between 4% and 5% cents for
lambs and mutton at the stockyards, but in some cases was down to 3% cents.
Authorization.
The numbers of live stock grazing on Crown range were 59,182 cattle, 851 horses, and 45,715
sheep.    The following table shows the comparison with previous years:—
Cattle and Horses.        Sheep.
1929    60,000 26,000
1930   70,000 37,500
1931    60,033 45,715
Range Improvements.
Expenditures from the Range Improvement Fund for the fiscal year 1931-32 amounted to
$4,375.47. Of this sum, $758 was spent on the disposal of wild horses, $600 on improvements
contracted for during the previous year, and $3,017.47 on new improvements, which included
work on seven stock-trails, two water developments, five drift-fences, ten mud-holes, and
two holding-grounds.
Wild Horses.
In the few years immediately prior to 1931 between 6,000 and 7,000 head of wild horses were
removed from Crown ranges. Some of these were destroyed and some of the better ones sold.
In 1931 a total of 559 additional were disposed of. This work of clearing the ranges of wild
horses is being actively prosecuted with beneficial results.
VICTORIA.  B.C. :
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1932.
1,725-332-7926

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